A History and Dictionary
Of the Northwest Coast Trade Jargon

THE CENTURIES-OLD TRADE LANGUAGE OF THE INDIANS OF THE PACIFIC. A HISTORY OF ITS ORIGIN AND ITS ADOPTION AND USE BY THE TRADERS, TRAPPERS, PIONEERS AND EARLY SETTLERS OF THE NORTHWEST COAST.

By
EDWARD HARPER THOMAS

BINFORDS & MORT, Publishers Portland . Oregon . 97242

Chinook: A History and Dictionary
COPYRIGHT UNDER INTERNATIONAL PAN-AMERICAN COPYRIGHT CONVENTIONS COPYRIGHT 1935, 1954, 1970 BY BINFORDS & M O R T , PUBLISHERS A L L RIGHTS RESERVED INCLUDING T H E RIGHT TO REPRODUCE THIS BOOK, OR A N Y PORTIONS THEREOF, I N A N Y FORM EXCEPT FOR T H E I N CLUSION OF BRIEF QUOTATIONS IN A REVIEW. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG N U M B E R : 79-116971

ISBN: 0-8323-0217-1 Printed in the United States of America
SECOND EDITION

CHINOOK TEXTS OF F R A N Z BOAS vii 1 3 7 10 12 14 16 18 20 23 26 29 31 34 11. F I X E D L I N G U A L SIMILARITIES 3.. M U L T N O M A H S AND T H E I R NEIGHBORS 8... TRADE LANGUAGES 4. CHINOOKS. EXPLORERS U N A W A R E OF JARGON'S EXISTENCE 9. T H E JARGON BEFORE T H E TRADING POST 5.... 53 57 104 Appendix 167 v . CLATSOPS. JARGON WORDS IN JEWITT'S VOCABULARY 10. 13.CONTENTS Part One: A History Introduction 1. SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION OF CHINOOK 14. A PREHISTORIC SLAVE TRADE 6. JARGON WORDS T H A T C O M E F R O M PURE CHINOOK 12. AND COAST TRIBES 7 . CHINOOK JARGON AS A LITERARY LANGUAGE Part Two: A G R A M M A R OF THE JARGON CHINOOK-ENGLISH DICTIONARY ENGLISH-CHINOOK DICTIONARY DICTIONARY .. N A T I V E CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE JARGON. L O N G EXISTENCE OF T H E NORTHWEST TRIBES 2.

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INTRODUCTION
IT IS NOW MORE THAN A HUNDRED

years since the first attempt was made to compile a dictionary of the Chinook Jargon, the early trade language of the Pacific Northwest. This Jargon was in use among the natives of the region when the first explorers and maritime traders arrived. Captain John Meares used a Jargon word when he related in his Journal, in 1788, that the exclamation of Nootkan Chief Callicum, on tasting blood, was cloosh. Cloosh is equivalent to the Jargon word kloshe meaning "good." John Rodgers Jewitt, in his account of his captivity among the Nootkans, 1803-05, as the personal slave of Chief Maquinna, gave what purported to be a Nootkan vocabulary of some eighty words. In it are ten which are found in the Chinook Jargon. Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were spoken to in the Jargon by Chinook Chief Concomly, when they were camped on the north side of the Columbia in the fall of 1805. At the time the words were recorded they were thought to be from the tribal dialect of the Nootkans on the west coast of Vancouver Island and from that of the Chinooks at the mouth of the Columbia. These three widely separated circumstances furnish the first records of the existence of the as-yet-unsuspected Jargon. Neither Meares nor Lewis and Clark had any inkling that there were two languages in use among these tribes. Jewitt arrived at this conclusion in trying to render a Nootkan war song into English, but he had had no intercourse with any but the Nootkans and could not know that the words he learned and wrote in 1804 or 1805 were being written at the same time into the records of Lewis and Clark at the mouth of the Columbia. Jewitt believed the Nootkans had vii

CHINOOK: A HISTORY AND DICTIONARY

two languages, one for poetical expression and the other for everyday use. By 1811 John Jacob Astor had founded Astoria, and ten years later the Hudson's Bay Company had established itself on the Columbia. In the meantime the explorers and traders had been coming by land. Somewhere and sometime during this period the existence of the Jargon became known. All the Indians talked it to each other and resorted to it in their conversations with the whites. Knowledge of this trade language became a necessary part of the trader's equipment. The first serious attempt to reduce it to writing was probably that of Blanchet, an early missionary in Oregon. He and his companion, Father Demers, had to instruct numerous tribes of Indians as well as the wives and children of the whites, all of whom spoke the Chinook Jargon. These two missionaries mastered the language quickly and began to preach, using it as their medium of communication. Father Demers composed a vocabulary, used the Jargon for the words of the canticles his people were taught to sing, translated into it all the Christian prayers and used it exclusively in all their services and work of instruction. Since that time something more than fifty dictionaries and vocabularies have been compiled, printed and used, some of them quite primitive, restricted and crude. George C. Shaw's Dictionary, The Chinook Jargon and How To Use It (1909), stands out from all others in its completeness. In compiling his work Mr. Shaw went exhaustively into all the standard authorities, examining every previously published volume pertaining to the Jargon, and every document and unpublished manuscript available as well. His research was careful and painstaking and his dictionary is in all respects authoritative. The present volume embodies Shaw, and for the first time since his dictionary appeared, attempts to go farther, in that it searches out the origin of the Jargon, goes into the history of this strange tongue from the first recorded words found in the logs and journals of the earliest explorers, and by comparing them finds that the Jarviii

INTRODUCTION

gon was in such common use among tribes spread over a wide area as to preclude any but the theory that for centuries it must have been the one great vehicle of communication in prehistoric tribal trading intercourse. This book, therefore, is a narrative history and complete lexicon of the Chinook Jargon. Knowing the value of Mr. Shaw's work, and the labor it would save in re-examining all the authorities he scrutinized so closely, the author of this book purchased from him his interest in The Chinook Jargon and How To Use It, taking from him an assignment of his copyright and recording it with the Register of Copyrights at Washington. Among other notable compilations, the most authoritative is that of George Gibbs, who spent twelve years on the Northwest Coast in the first half of the past century. After Gibbs, the most important work was done by Horatio Hale. The Jargon was also studied by many authorities including Henry Schoolcraft, Franz Boas, Myron Eells, Charles Tate, Tertius Hibben, James Swan, John Gill, and others. Around 1875, fully one hundred thousand persons spoke the Jargon. Among all the generations since 1811, or thereabouts, it has been used by upwards of a quarter million persons, to many of whom it was an everyday necessity. The Jargon was so widely used because—though short on beauty and refinement of detail—it was able to communicate successfully between persons of different tribes, nationalities, and races. It was practical and unpretentious. It absorbed what was useful and discarded the useless. When the Nootkans paddled down the coast *to makuk, or trade, the Clatsops and Chinooks added that word to their own vocabulary; and it little mattered how it should be spelled—makuk or the later mahkook. Theirs was not a written jargon but an oral one—a communal language that was democratic in its make-up. It had to be based on sounds pronounceable by a wide variety of linguistic groups.
IX

and leseezo. wife. In the Jargon. we find the word mother written lamai. French Jargon words often bore little likeness to the original French spelling. However. The Chinook-English Dictionary contains a number of words starting with la and le. la mere lost the r sound because of the difficulty they had pronouncing it. lesak. which they attempted to imitate. with hyphens showing the close relationship: le-pan. and le-seezo. Generally. so. For example." They had their Nootkan word klootchman (from the Nootkan klootsma) for the words woman. which required names.CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY As the French-Canadian and English and American traders invaded Indian country. in the Jargon. lamai came to mean "old woman. the natives were introduced to an impressive number of new objects. their imitation often fell far short of the original—which bothered the users of the Jargon not at all. in the Jargon. though. "man" is simply man and "old man" is oleman. when recorded by later compilers of Jargon dictionaries. only slightly changed from the English. Because the Indian male did the trading and the more important "communicating. when taken over by the Indians. le sak (sack or bag). If you look up the word "grog" in the EnglishChinook Dictionary. Further. Some of the most involved adaptations were from the French. or female. the la became an integral part of the later recorded form. le-sak. lumnei. and new sounds. An occasional word in the Jargon developed from more than one language. An interesting example is the French word for mother—mere—which like other French words clung to its article la (the). lummieh." presumably in early times he needed no particular designation. the same being true of the masculine form le (the). a matron. In the English-Chinook Dictionary these forms are further tightened to: lepan. Note. it was le pan (bread). when it was necessary to combine several words to achieve the total meaning. when the French word was feminine gender. or sometimes just plain sezo. you will find an awkward but intriguing comx . and a mother was definitely an older woman. as la mere. and so forth. It was an oral language and he was the speaker. that in the Jargon. or le seezo (scissors).

it has seemed to the publishers that both the Chinook Jargon and its history are worthy of preservation in a form that w i l l make for permanency. Thus. In good use in the English language today are tyee. and the fascinating insight this medley of languages gives to a vanished time and culture. lum came from rum. From the Nootkans came tyee (chief). and siwash. as in la mere." Another example of how the face of a word often changed when absorbed into the Jargon is the word for "helm. skookum. but "and" in the Jargon). and chuck (water) from the Nootkan chauk. and from the French siwash (a native rendition of the French sauvage. The Chinook Jargon has given. from the Salish came skookum (strong).INTRODUCTION bination of letters forming the Chinook word lumpechuck (rum and water. Again the native had trouble with his r's. "rudder" became ludda and referred to the entire steering apparatus. So. that famous concoction of rum and water. A part of this apparatus is the rudder—a new word brought by invaders of the Northwest. or grog). and pioneer settlers. meaning savage or aborigine). Indians. In view of the service the Jargon rendered to traders. and here also you will find an odd combination of letters—ludda. with the same meanings. as well as taken. XI . better known in the Queen's Navy as "grog" or "diluted spirits. who came by sea as well as by land. and "rudder" began and ended with the troublesome sound. The Indian had difficulty with his r's. lumpechuck becomes quite reasonable. though. Look up "helm" in the English-Chinook Dictionary. This has been the purpose of the present book. Such is the derivation of lumpechuck." or steering apparatus of a ship. trappers. Broken down into its origin. pe (and) from puis ("then" in French.

CHIEF MAQUINNA OF THE NOOTKANS From 1803-1805. John Rodgers Jewitt recorded what purported to be a Nootkan vocabulary of some eighty words.interchange of a very few words capable of conveying the simpler ideas of barter and exchange became the nucleus of the Jargon. . The Nootkans learned some of the simpler and easier words of the Chinook Dialect. and the Chinooks picked up a bit of Nootkan. a number of which found their way into the Chinook Jargon. Commerce between the Nootkans and Chinooks required some vehicle of communication. This . while a personal slave of Chief Maquinna.

living on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Eliza and other early explorers were among them. characteristics and tribal distinctions were given so much as trifling notice. Their first contact with whites may date back to Drake and Juan de Fuca. There were two chieftains mentioned in those early books whose names. the region that lay between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Ocean as far south as the Klamath country in Oregon and as far north as the long panhandle of southeastern Alaska.Part One: A HISTORY 1. with 1 . Tyee of the Nootkans. but. A l l that lies back of them is Mystery. Jewitt that these races and their customs. Among their records are remains of picture writing. Barclay. We know that Cook. In speculating on the origin of the American aboriginal races we may weigh probability and possibility and reach approximate conclusions but we will never be able to prove these conclusions to our own satisfaction. Meares. Aboriginal history begins with their names. Some of the notations in use evidently had many arbitrary characters. from that tim6. But it was not until the publication of the Journal of Lewis and Clark and the Narrative of John R. Vancouver. became interwoven with the history of the region—Concomly of the Chinooks at the mouth of the Columbia River and Maquinna. L O N G EXISTENCE OF T H E N O R T H W E S T TRIBES A M O N G T H E NATIVE RACES OF NORTH A M E R I C A the most interesting in many ways were those who originally occupied the so-called Northwest Coast. Fidalgo.

" Lacking a key. It seems equally true that the Mound Builders and the Indians of La Salle's day were far from contemporaneous. and possible tribal relations of the native American races. seem certain: they were here for a very long time and theirs was a sparse population. Alaska and the Eskimo fringe of the Arctic shores included. As only a comparatively few of all the tribes are extinct. these signs. these remains and relics have become "mute epitaphs of a vanishing race. symbols and mysterious fragments of a crude and barbaric record offer little help as a means of studying the origin. to follow other than these few surviving relics and crudely drawn picture characters that have been mentioned. James Mooney. Apparently there was a long period between the Cliff Dwellers and the savages known to the first explorers of the Southwest. The 1910 census shows 400. this bears out the sparsely populated theory. particularly—which can be nothing less than accumulations or slow accretions of a more or less stable population over a long period of time.2 CHINOOK: A HISTORY AND DICTIONARY no known key and no way provided to mark the distinction between a figure and a symbol.000 people of native Indian and mixed Indian blood—Indian descent—on all the American continent north of Mexico. Nor is there any charted course. These. because of their unrelatedness. in the absence of a record. An adequate game supply could co-exist. a . Two theories about these aboriginal tribes. apparently traceable from the Asiatic continent to the American. migrations. There are shell deposits on the Maine coast and shell dikes on Puget Sound—one at Birch Bay. The hunters and fishers were the providers of the family and tribal larders. These races subsisted mainly upon the chase. and broad similarities in myths and traditions held in common. bewilder rather than aid in the pursuit of any scientifically conclusive research. however. aside from generic racial likenesses. social structure. century after century. only with a sparse population. There is no starting point. history.

though varying endlessly in words. exclusive of Mexico. the earth mounds of the Ohio valley. physical or mental. These evidences in the aggregate preclude any but the theory of longtime occupation. The theory is also supported by the narrative style in the literal translations of myths and texts.000. Scarcely any other trait. the cliff dwellings and other relics. and nowhere else with such persistence. the native dialects. F I X E D L I N G U A L SIMILARITIES T H E THEORY OF C O M M O N ORIGIN IS SUPPORTED by certain fixed similarities found in the languages spoken by all the native tribes. the copper implements. the most pronounced of which is that of idiom and the order of words in sentence building. Here the red race offers a notable phenomenon. So foreign are these traits to the grammar of the Aryan . at 1. A sparse population. certain morphological features. estimated the 1492 population of the continent. 2. Daniel G. and to a certain degree its unavoidable mode of thought. could not have left the shell mounds and dikes.115. the flint and stone arms and tools. with few exceptions. rarely found elsewhere on the globe. Brinton comments on this theory in his Myths of the New World (1868): The spoken and written language of a nation reveals to us its prevailing. From the Frozen Ocean to the Land of Fire.FIXED L I N G U A L SIMILARITIES 3 United States government expert. here for a relatively short time. are alike in certain peculiarities of construction. distributed as they were over the wide and unrelated areas on which they have been found. binds together its scattered clans so unmistakably as that of language.

Very different from all these in the spirit of an incorporative language. They depend on a peculiarly complex method of presenting the relations of the idea in the word. indicating their relations by terminations meaningless in themselves. but it regards everything in the concrete. This construction has been called by some philologists polysynthesis. his father. Every grammatical sentence conveys one idea with its modifications and relations. each modifying the main idea. their variable forms. the precise bearing of which could only be guessed by their position. It is unfriendly to the nobler labors of the mind.4 CHINOOK: A HISTORY AND DICTIONARY tongues that it is not easy to explain them in a few sentences. and to banish any conception except as it arises in relation to others. It is nothing uncommon for the two sexes to use different names . What it is will best appear by comparison. mother. in fact. an Englishman would gain the same end chiefly by the use of particles and by position. no word for father. to express the whole in one word. a Finn would add syllable after syllable to the end of the principal word. brother. This has advantages and defects. but it is better to retain for its chief characteristic the term originally applied to it by Wilhelm von Humboldt. and to resemble the vague and tumultuous history of the tribes who employ them. your. In the numberless changes of these languages. to merge one in the other by altering the forms of the words themselves and welding them together. etc. They exhibit at times a strange laxity. It seeks to unite in the most intimate manner all relations and modifications with the leading idea. but only for my. their bewildering flexibility. and their rapid alterations. a Greek or a German would use independent words. Thus in many American tongues there is. Now a Chinese would express these latter by unconnected syllables. It offers marvelous facilities for defining the perceptions of the senses with accuracy. they seem to betray a lack of individuality. to abstraction and generalization. incorporation.

formerly known as Shoalwater Bay. widely separated territorially. and for nobles and vulgar. who had lived each in its own locality always and whose linguistic differences had centuries since become fixed forms of language. in "The Historical Position of the Lower Chinook in the Native Culture of the Northwest" (Pacific Northwest Quarterly. Adjoining the Chinook and Clatsop in the river valley on the east were the Cath- . on both the Washington and Oregon sides. Those residing on the Oregon side were known as the Clatsop. to observe what seems to the European ear quite different modes of expression. No. He observes. Vocabularies collected by the earliest navigators are easily recognized from existing tongues and the widest wanderings of vagrant bands can be traced by the continued relationship of their dialects to the parent stem. the Chinook. The latter extended up the Washington coast as far as the northern shore of Willapa Bay. priests and people. even the married and single. Verne F. Vol.F I X E D L I N G U A L SIMILARITIES 5 for the same object. the consonantal sounds often alternating between several which in our tongue are clearly defined. Ray is another who supports the theory that—contrary to popular belief—the Chinook Jargon is of pre-white origin. nay. like the Chinooks and the Tsimshians. the old and the young. mastered their dialects and collected their myths and traditions. though it is everywhere true that the basic radicals of each stock and the main outlines of its grammatical forms reveal a surprising tenacity in the midst of these surface changes. 4 ) : "Aboriginally the mouth of the Columbia River. Much of the work of Boas was done among tribes remote from each other. 28. was occupied by natives of the Chinookan linguistic stock. those on the Washington side. Their phonetics are fluctuating. Families and whole villages suddenly drop words and manufacture others in their places out of mere caprice and superstition. The validity of these conclusions is shown by the ease with which such ethnologists as Boas have gone from tribe to tribe. and a few years' separation suffices to produce a marked dialectic difference.

whether Chinook or Haida. also Chinookan in speech.6 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY lamet. for most of the time they were at war because of long-standing. The development of the well-known lingua franca. Indians of the woods did not understand the ways of Indians of the prairies. centered here. when rendered into parallel English. hereditary enmity. least important. nor did Indians of the mountains understand the ways of the Indians of the sea shores who lived on fish and traveled by canoe. contrary to popular belief. These three groups occupied a signally important position in the cultural setting of the Northwest. It is perhaps true that knowledge of the sign language and at one time of the picture symbols. while cruder dugouts carrying traders from the Plateau east of the Cascades reached this great commercial center via the Columbia waterway. The fourth route. by means of which Indians freely communicated with each other though belonging to tribes whose dialects had not one word in common. which run through all their dialects and languages. mentioned by Brinton. Chinook jargon. How striking this is may be seen by even a casual study of the literal interpretations of their tribal myths.. as . in the order of words. and particularly in the imagery and idiom so recognizably Indian. Another was the sign language. for within their territory four great streams of travel fused. led overland through the Cascade passes from the interior of southern Washington. peculiarities of construction. "Sea-going canoes from British Columbia and even Alaska met vessels from the southern Oregon coast. in the construction of their sentences. It seems almost inevitable that there should have existed among them some common ways of intercommunication. was part of every Indian's education. This jargon is demonstrably of pre-white origin." Conditions in primitive days preclude the possibility of any social intercourse except occasional trading. It was presumably a response to the demands of native commerce in which speakers of highly divergent languages participated. and the morphological features. Their picture symbols was one. Yet there is the persistence of their particular mode of thought.. There is an actual monotony in the similarity..

Mobilian was the trade language of the great curve of the Gulf Coast around which Louisiana. the Northwest corner of the United States. as his acquired knowledge of the habits of the animals. and fortune hunters who came among them in the early European invasion of the region. This Jargon was used first by the aboriginal Americans in their own commerce with each other and then by the Indians and the freebooters. though it no longer exists) was in use for centuries. came into existence and was in use for . the ornaments of one region for the ornaments of another. No one thought of preserving it. was some flexible. But there was still another common medium of communication— the trade language. Mississippi. when there were only Indians to trade with other Indians. roots for fish. then it fell into disuse and after a time was entirely lost. baskets for wool. at the opposite. 3. One of the necessities of such prehistoric activities. They traded skins for meat. It gave its last expiring gasp more than three-quarters of a century ago. stone implements for pottery.TRADE LANGUAGES 7 much so. even as a philological curiosity. easily acquired language which all could learn and use. Alabama and Florida are grouped. it is called. By a strange coincidence. grass or tanned-skin clothes or slaves for shell money. Over many wide areas the Indians held commerce with each other in the days before civilization found this continent. arrowheads for canoes. born of the necessities of the native traders. T R A D E LANGUAGES T H E R E WERE SEVERAL SUCH JARGONS. One of these (the Mobilian. another language or Jargon. through the centuries before Columbus. birds and fishes upon which he subsisted. copper for blankets. no doubt.

These were followed by Astor. so the settler was kept out of the country. but it was lucrative trade.8 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY unknown centuries. They were the producers of the vast wealth gathered by these great concerns and their independent competitors. Settlement would have spoiled all this. The fur traders and companies guarded the region jealously against all invasion. This was primitive trade. the autocratic and powerful Hudson's Bay Company and hundreds of lesser traders. It was inevitable that these unfortunate native races and their dialects. Ships from all countries came to trade in the world's greatest fur marts. for it was the rule to pile the furs to be exchanged until their height equaled the length of the coveted gun. England. the great North West Company. of the original states and colonies and of the French provinces of Canada. streams and tidal waters of this then uncharted region. It has survived as an interesting relic of the vanishing race and has. including this trade Jargon. should have found a common grave. On the other. cared little for their trade—as there was neither gold nor furs to be had—cared less for the Indians and nothing at all for their languages. A different situation existed in the far Northwest. The Indians held the key to all this fur wealth. The longer the barrel of the musket. Exploration discovered a wealth of furs. The Indians were needed. romance and literature of the Northwest. the more the canny trader got for it. On the one hand were thousands of native hunters skilled in the pursuit of the millions of fur-bearing creatures of the woods. A l l the white settlers wanted of the Gulf natives was their lands. Everything else was consigned to oblivion. These they got. Here the first contact between the natives and the whites was with explorers and traders. Pioneers were not wanted. to some extent. The whites brought the gewgaws. The early whites in the Mobile region coveted the territory of the native inhabitants. been incorporated in the history. Russia. baubles and implements of civilization to tempt and delight them. It is still occasionally spoken. were men of Scotland. just as long as the traders and . though no longer for purely trading purposes. held back from occupancy of the land.

Astor founded Astoria. Furs were the one resource of the country. They supplied all the furs that went either to the freebooters of the sea or the traders who came overland from the already depleted regions of Canada and our own northern tier of states—territories. but their journals do not record that they were interested in the native either as a type or as a race. The Company removed to Nisqually but the restless tide of pioneering immigration came over the Cowlitz trail to Puget Sound and in a few years more crowded the great fur company too close for comfort. The Russians were already in possession of an immensely profitable trade in the region now known as Alaska. A l l of these explorers were looking for a certain fabled strait which was to lead them by some easy northern way from the Pacific to the Atlantic. The Indians were necessary aids and allies to both sea and land traders. perhaps. But some of them brought back furs and all of them. In a few years the invasion of Oregon began. Meares. in his languages or his customs. of cannibalism. Then gold was discovered on the Fraser. Traders followed . except that. Drake. told their friends and kindred of the fur wealth of the Pacific Northwest. The autocratic rule of the Hudson's Bay Company was broken forever. then. Juan de Fuca. no doubt. At first the only trappers were Indians. Several make mention of this practice. The fur companies ruled the region and held it intact for half a century. Vancouver and all their tribe were explorers and not traders. but none of them was aware that the cannibalism referred to was more of a rite than the indulgence of a depraved appetite. It moved again and established the city of Victoria on Vancouver Island. The North West Company took it away from him. The Hudson's Bay Company absorbed the North West Company—and later established its principal factory at Fort Vancouver. and then shared it grudgingly with the ever-encroaching pioneer for another third of a century after that. They came and they went away. Cook. Barclay.TRADE LANGUAGES 9 Hudson's Bay factors could maintain their supremacy.

Almost the first recorded words of this common language are found in the Journal of the Lewis and Clark expedition. It was even . the Cathlamets or Chehalis. and which bore no resemblance whatever to the dialects of such remoter tribes as the Nootkans. Because it is purely a trade language. it was spelled at first.10 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY in the wake of explorers and came into direct and immediate contact with the native races. 4. Makahs and Quillayutes—but all spoke this Jargon. These explorers were in the territory of the Lower Chinooks at the time—the mouth of the Columbia—so this trade language or Jargon got the name of Chinook —Tschinuk. as far as the Jargon was concerned—before the Hudson's Bay Company. Astor. while many differing dialects were spoken. One of the first things the traders learned regarding these tribes was that. the origin of which is unknown. There is evidence. THE JARGON BEFORE THE TRADING POST I T MUST BE REMEMBERED THAT all this was taking place—including the voluminous record of Jewett and the meager one of Lewis and Clark. or the North West Fur Company had established posts on the Pacific. that it was in use long before the Hudson's Bay Company appeared on the scene. which differed materially from the dialects of even the nearest neighboring Indians. however. there was a second language they all talked. The Chinook or Tschinuk tribe—we will from now on use only the later spelling for the tribe and the word w i l l be Chinook—had its own dialect. just as Tschehalis became Chehalis—and Chinook it is today. The word degenerated into Chinook. a language of limited vocabulary but quite capable of furnishing an adequate vehicle for trading purposes. some have advanced the theory that it was an invention of the Hudson's Bay Company.

coming out at the mouth of the Bellacoola in British Columbia. Up to Astor's time the fur trade was entirely one of maritime activity. six years after Lewis and Clark's visit and Jewitt's release from captivity. The North West Company established its headquarters at Fort William. but reaching the Pacific at points much farther south. the Hudson's Bay people ruled the entire region. This seems to establish as a fact that the Jargon was in use among the natives as a trading language long before the trader and trapper arrived on the scene. and sent an expedition to the new post at Astoria. It was in this same year that Astor bought out the Mackinaw Company. Between 1811 and 1821 it was taken over and absorbed by men who would dwell among the Indians. Astoria passed into the possession of the North West Company. that Astor planted his American Fur Company near the mouth of the Columbia and founded the present city of Astoria.JARGON BEFORE T H E TRADING POST 11 before they had sent their scouts. raise halfbreed families and live with the natives on intimate enough relations to affect their customs. Hearing of possible rivalry. It was not until April 12. marry their women. 1811. the Northwesters prepared to contest occupancy of this territory. 1793. had crossed the Rocky Mountains and had reached the Pacific as early as July. in 1805. a partner of the North West Company. In October. and that contact with the whites enlarged and . and merged it with his own American Fur Company. traveling in part the trail of Mackenzie. John Stuart and David Thompson all came later. Though Mackenzie. Oregon. no posts were established by any company for some years thereafter. which prior to that time had no post on the western ocean. rival of the North West Fur Company. The men of the North West Company had come as far west and south as Fort Okanogan by the time Astor's expedition reached the mouth of the Columbia. and had not as yet penetrated west of the headwaters of the Mississippi. on Lake Superior. languages and habits of thought. 1813. In 1821 they sold out to the Hudson's Bay Company. traders or factors into the territory. Simon Fraser. but from that date until driven away by encroaching settlement. Not until then did this concern reach the sea.

The Chinooks dignified it by making it the one great business in which they engaged. They made raids upon their neighbors. He could not say "carbine" or "fire" so the words became "calipeen" and "piah. . That was because they had a monopoly on the shell money supply. making known to the Indian the weapons. conquered tribes and villages and sold the victims to other warlike masters living in the wildernesses to the north and northwest. In certain comparatively shallow waters of their tribal territory. Chehalis and numerous others extending far up the river to the Klickitats. Cathlamets. the luxuries and the vices of civilization. Nez Perces and Walla Wallas." The Canadians called the hand "la main. came the need of extending the Chinook to cover new conditions. on submerged shelves and banks known to them and controlled by them. Taking and selling slaves was a commercial pursuit. Thus English and French words were grafted upon the Chinook Jargon. The Nootkans were among the Chinooks' best customers.12 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY enriched it by the addition of many words of French and English derivation. They were surrounded by such immediate and lesser tribes as the Clatsops. A PREHISTORIC SLAVE T R A D E T H E CHINOOKS OF T H E LOWER C O L U M B I A were one of the most powerful tribes on the Pacific Northwest Coast and by virtue of numbers and warlike qualities held sway over much of the region. Wahkiakums. 5." and the Indian came at last to use nearly the same sound. Among the tribes along all this coast and far into the interior. With the coming of the white man. slavery was an established and time-honored institution. They were the profiteers in this particular trade.

Consequently there are words of all these tribal dialects and family stock tongues to be found in the Jargon. since the Bellabellas are an important tribe of the Kwakiutl family. The Nootkans live on the west coast of Vancouver Island and the Kwakiutl on the east coast and the contiguous mainland of British Columbia. They were the money of all the tribes. Both these tribes grew rich exchanging shell money and slaves. The Makahs are entirely surrounded by Salish stock. The Nootkans learned some of the simpler and easier words of the Chinook dialect. A Bellabella word is Kwakiutl. The supply was limited. The Chinooks could furnish an unfailing supply of slaves. The method of fishing for them was one known in those early times only to the Nootkans and favored related tribes. separated from the parent tribe by the straits of Juan de Fuca. as are the Heiltsuq and Nimpkish. fisheries and camps. The Nootkans coveted slaves and used them for all the labor of the villages. centuries-old slave and shell money commerce carried on primarily between the Lower Chinooks and the equally powerful. Any Chehalis word is Salish. using this trade language for the purposes of their commerce. It was gradually added to by the acquisition of easy Salish and Kwakiutl expressions. intelligent and enterprising Nootkans. This interchange of a very few words capable of conveying the simpler ideas of barter and exchange became the nucleus of the Jargon. as the Cathlamets are a Lower Columbia people and rather closely related tribally to the Chinooks. which added to their value. A Cathlamet word is broadly Chinook. but are an isolated group of Nootkans.PEEHISTOKIC SLAVE TBADE 13 certain small but beautiful shells were found. This business required some vehicle of communication. that . It is said that often a slave lost his identity completely and finally had no recollection of his former home or people. The wealth of the Nootkans lay in these shells. The Nootkans resold the men and women bought from the Chinooks. The theory of this work is that the Jargon had its beginning in the trade necessities of the prehistoric. and the Chinooks picked up a bit of Nootkan. A l l of these tribes traded among themselves. as the Chehalis belong to that family.

tone of voice and gesture. miners. and still is. At one time the Chinook Jargon was spoken by approximately a hundred thousand persons. The Jargon probably reached its maximum popularity and usefulness in the seventies and then began to go into decline. W i t h the advent of the transcontinental railroads and the consequent inrush of an immigration that wholly submerged the native population. They were not as . The following material on the Chinooks. depending for that upon emphasis. Clatsops. but the words were flexible and capable of conveying many meanings. Nearly all of the early settlers of Oregon. 6. comprehensive enough for all purposes of intercourse between all the tribes and all the whites within the territory extending from what is now southern Oregon to southeastern Alaska and from the shores of the Pacific east to the Rocky Mountains. and Multnomahs was adapted from John Kaye Gill (1851-1929). stress. too. spoke it as fluentiy and as constantly as the Indians. it fell into disuse. in the early years of the last century. After the traders came. an authority on the Jargon. finding it indispensable because of their intimate and close relations with the natives. Washington and British Columbia. taking a word here and a word there from the dialects of other tribes. The vocabulary was very limited then. also a little under the size of the plains people. Indians and whites and mixed bloods. and that it was finally used by all of the Indians of the Northwest Coast in their commercial relations. CLATSOPS A N D COAST TRIBES T H E INDIANS OF T H E C O L U M B I A WEST OF C E L I L O were lighter in color than those of the Missouri and Upper Columbia. CHINOOKS. It finally developed into its present-day form.14 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY it slowly developed by accretion in their increasing contact with other Indian nations. words of French and English origin were added and the Jargon grew into a trade language. loggers and traders.

horn and hardwood. the beaver and the priceless sea otter among them. so that they made their smoky houses serve in curing their food. heads were flattened in infancy. Camas bread. along the sides of their houses.CHINOOKS. and in this the fire was made. and sometimes a cape or robe of skins. but over-tempted by the strange treasures of the white man and inclined to steal from them. . The women rather inclined to corpulence. apparently with no harmful effects for the child later on. especially those of the lower Columbia. The dress of the men was a single robe of skins. Finer skins were also worn. in bunk fashion. and sometimes by women. The houses usually contained several families. a beautiful. Their houses were built from planks. silky. but they usually had fish hanging from poles overhead. The men were well made. and above all wappatoes. dried huckleberries. They sometimes built beds of saplings. The central part of the house was lower than the sides. and spread for guests to sit or sleep upon. They were rather peaceably disposed and fairly honest in their dealings with each other. and both sexes were bow-legged from sitting in canoes. In rainy weather both sexes wore hats or caps woven of grass and fine root-threads. Among some bands. strong fibre—and sometimes a cape of the same. separated by partitions of woven mats of rushes. Neither men nor women wore leggings or moccasins. which were brought out when "company" came. which they split with wedges and axes of stone. The women wore skirts of long fringe twisted or braided from the inner bark of the cedar. were made from the skins of the big ground squirrel. Most of the robes thus worn by men. fern and flag roots. fastened about their necks. and cooking and other indoor work performed. CLATSOPS A N D COAST TRIBES 15 active nor so robust as the eastern tribes. which were also hung along the walls and spread on the bank of earth which was left along the sides of the house and upon which they sat and slept. A hole in the roof let out some of the smoke. not covering more than half the body from neck to knee. broad and heavy shouldered from the constant use of the paddle. The women made many mats of rushes and grass. brick-like cakes of pressed and dried salal berries. nor so able to endure hard labor and exposure.

The Claxtars. Smelt and herring were dried or smoked for winter food. The latter were a tribe of the Chinooks. baskets and household stuff. and an important item of the coast tribes' diet was whale and seal oil. They made wide shelves along their house walls from floor to roof. camas bread. near where the modern village of Chinook now is. was a large village of the Multnomah . The Chinooks of the north shore of the Columbia. whose habits. of the Clatskanie Valley. They had also an "upper village" at Point Ellice and another farther up the Chinook River. all speaking the Tillamook tongue. were six tribes of a different nation. the Cowlitz and the Klickitats were intruders in the lower river country." and were therefore a vast distance from their home people. from Cape Disappointment to Gray's Bay. 7.16 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONAEY were stored in their houses. The Tillamooks reported that eighteen tribes lived beyond them to the southeast. The Clatsops were Chinooks. appearance. Farther away in the same direction. on which were stored the furs. dress and language were like those of the Chinooks and Clatsops. on the northeast shore of Sauvies (Wappato) Island. A little below the mouth of the Willamette. Lewis and Clark speak of the tribes along the river from the W i l lamette to the sea. M U L T N O M A H S A N D T H E I R NEIGHBORS The Multnomahs were of the Chinook family. and once numerous from Tillamook Head (which separated them from the "Killamux") to the Columbia. Doctor Coues says the Claxtars were "a vagrant Athapascan tribe. mats. they said. Jerked venison in strips and dried and smoked salmon were hung from rafters. had their principal village in the days of the Astor enterprise on the west side of Scarborough Hill. These dwindled to a handful many years ago.

This plant looks like the calla lily. squawfish and sculpin were caught in great numbers by baits tied to the end of a line. bow and arrows. The Multnomahs were of Chinook stock. The Multnomahs were especially fortunate in their surroundings. The fisherman used a pronged spear. who knew the lower river and its people from 1800 onward. Great flocks of waterfowl fed in these lakes. and when he raised his head to look for the roots he had sent up. now Multnomah Channel. The large white swan was the wappato digger. They worked the roots loose from the mud with their toes. the best food of the western tribes. or paddling out in it and going overboard when they reached the wappato patch. They wove nets of all kinds—for taking anything from smelt to salmon—from strong fibrous roots. and caught large seafish with curious hooks of bone or ivory. the greater part of fertile Sauvies Island. and grows in rich. They had no horses. The Multnomahs occupied the southern and western parts of this large island. the Multnomah.MULTNOMAHS AND THEIR NEIGHBORS 17 tribe. muddy soil. Horses were used scarcely anywhere on the Columbia shores from The Dalles west. usually under two feet of water or even more. Old Charley Mackay. and when a fisherman felt . the lovely slopes and prairies of the Scappoose country—with the broad bays and inlets reaching inland from the Columbia —and their own river. or a long lance with a detachable point of horn such as may still be seen in use among Indians spearing salmon on the Columbia. The squaws gathered the roots by wading out into die lakes. the wappato being also dieir favorite food. Trout. said the Multnomahs had a large town on the Scappoose Bay near Warren and another near Woodland on the lowlands of Lewis River. The weapons of hunters and warriors were the flint-tipped lance. These Klickitats had driven the Multnomahs from that part of the island in a barde. The roots then rose to the surface and were thrown into the canoe when the woman was ready to go back to her home. and a mace. but plenty of canoes. In the lakes of Sauvies Island grew wappatoes. die ducks had often devoured them. occupying the lowlands of the Willamette. pushing a small canoe. and also the Scappoose plain and lowlands. A little above this village on the Willamette was a Klickitat town. long-necked and powerful.

several hundred miles south and east of Nootka Sound. and then it was not identified as such. was a Nootkan. one of two survivors of a crew this tribe had massacred in revenge for indignities put upon the chief by the captain of the ship. entered the Columbia. of the brig Lydia. A l l of these tribes were familiar w i t h the Chinook Jargon. 1806. "Waket commatux"— . The Lydia sailed on a trading voyage along the coast north of Nootka for several months. meaning "great chief. EXPLORERS U N A W A R E OF JARGON'S E X I S T E N C E PRIOR TO 1800 THERE WAS HARDLY A N Y REFER- ence to the Jargon. and their shells were used as spoons or saucers for broth. About ten miles up the river—probably at Knappton. Wik was given by Jewitt as a supposed Nootkan word meaning "no. 1805. Jewitt saw medals among these Indians which had been given by Lewis and Clark in the Spring of 1806. "Cloosh!" Kloshe in the Jargon means "good. Jewitt was among the Nootkans as the personal slave of the Tyee or chief. Meares gives an account of a chief who hurt his leg and sucking the blood from the wound said." The word is Nootkan. Samuel Hill.18 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY a bite he snatched the fish so quickly that he had it in the canoe before it could let go. the Tyee of all the Nootkans. Tyee is Nootkan. the Indian who used it. near the site of the Point Ellice village of the Chinooks— the vessel traded for furs. of Boston in July. and Callicum. 1803. Maquinna." "not. to July. 8." while Lewis and Clark recorded in their Journal that Concomly said to them. Jewitt was rescued by Capt. and in November. from March. The clams of the seashore were a constant supply of food. 1806." Jewitt frequendy uses the word in his narrative. Lewis and Clark spent the winter of 1805 and 1806 among the Chinooks at the mouth of the Columbia. a chief but little inferior in rank and authority to Maquinna.

The Nootkans. at least of the use of two separate tongues among these people. and the wake of the Jargon as it is spoken today. each had its own dialect. of course. neighbors of the Nootkans. but reached a wrong conclusion. did have two languages. Neither the story of Jewitt nor the Journal of Lewis and Clark gives any evidence that the writers of these two contemporaneous accounts of experiences among the Nootkans and Chinooks regarded the words they quoted as other than words of the dialects of these two widely separated and dissimilar tribes. The Chinooks. Jewitt almost discovered the truth. "This appears to be a poetical mode of expression." mika meaning you. and all the other northwest tribes.EXPLORERS U N A W A R E OF JARGON 19 do not understand—when they tried to converse with him. Concomly's commatux (kumtux in the Jargon) was kummetak in Nootkan and kemitak among the Clayoquots. Jewitt. "From this it would seem that they have two languages. one for their songs and one for common use. . three degrees of latitude and two degrees of longitude apart. Jewitt had an inkling of it." In this song occurs the expression "Ie-yee ma hi-chill. and unknown to each other. "You do not know. a remote foreigner. The Nootkan tribal songs were in Nootkan. from long habit. used the same method when they tried to hold conversation with the men of the Lewis and Clark expedition. was an outsider. is "Mika wake kumtux. but communication with outsiders was carried on through the polyglot tongue built up by their commerce with each other." in the Jargon as it was spoken from 1820 or 1830 on and as it is spoken today." which he says means "Ye do not know. and all had the common trade Jargon." Then he observes. and these Indians undoubtedly talked to him in mixed Jargon and Nootkan. This is found in a footnote and an appendix to his narrative (Ithaca edition) in which he prints a "War Song of the Nootkan Tribe. The wik of Nootka thus was the waket of Concomly." But he adds. the common one for 'you do not know' being wik-kuma-tush.

" In it are 87 words. were taken from those dialects and converted into accepted and standard Jargon. but so is mesachie. JARGON WORDS IN J E W I T T S VOCABULARY THERE ARE TWO JARGON WORDS USED BY Jewitt in the Narrative which are not found in his vocabulary. 9. and pechak. which came from the Nootkan into the Jargon and which means "chief" in each instance. and is more commonly used on Puget Sound and the Columbia than the Nittinat word but the latter appears to have been in common use among the Nootkan related tribes. with slight and easily recognizable modifications. As these words were used by both the Nootkans and the Chinooks in their attempts to converse with the very first whites that came . Maquinna used the word when he returned the broken musket to Captain Salter of the Boston. and the Nittinats are Nootkan Indians. referred to before. These are tyee. and then we shall take up Chinook dialect words contained in the book Chinook Texts by Dr. peshak is the Jargon for bad. either just as used by the Chinooks and the Nootkans in their own languages. We will find i n both of these tribal dialects words which are also in the Jargon. Pechak means bad. In addition to these ten he makes frequent use of the word tyee. The latter is from the Chinook dialect.20 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY Jewitt left a very limited vocabulary which he calls "a list of words in the Nootkan language the most in use. and among these are ten easily recognizable as either belonging to the Jargon or as words in the Nootkan tongue from which the Jargon grew in part. Both peshak and mesachie are acceptable and proper Jargon. Pechak is a Nittinat word. For the purpose of this argument we shall examine the ten words referred to in Jewitt's vocabulary. or which. Franz Boas.

pronounced six. Tillikum means people. It was tillikum. Boston man is American. What the Hudson's Bay Company did to the language—after it came into sole and supreme control of trading in this region—and all it did was to enlarge and enrich the Jargon and extend its use over the whole of its great Pacific Coast domain from Alaska to southern Oregon and from the ocean to the Rocky Mountains. (We have followed Jewitt's not very uniform spelling literally. An illustration of the flexibility of Chinook—the Jargon—and of the manner in which sikhs may be em- . and terms man is son. Man is man in the Jargon. The early Jargon and many of the dialects recognized but two groups—tyee and tillikum. Jewitt's Nootkan vocabulary gives the word klootzmah for woman. but was not so used originally. It is far-fetched to try to make the word mean some deep. Jewitt in 1803 and Lewis and Clark in 1804 and 1805—long before the advent of the Hudson's Bay or any other fur company.JARGON WORDS IN JEWITT 21 among them—notably Meares in 1788. Every authority from Gibbs to Shaw agrees on that. who have heard the word. little. Tillikum is used in that sense now. erroneously think it means friend or partner and would restrict it to indicate some very similar close personal friendship—a sort of super friendship. There are no subtleties of meaning either in the Jargon or in the dialects. Nesika tillikums is our people. Some writers of Alaska and northwest stories. this circumstance would seem to fairly disprove the Hudson's Bay Company invention theory. due to the fact that the early ships trading on the coast came largely from Boston. Tenas khotchman is little woman or daughter.) In the Jargon klootchman is woman and terms (short e) is lesser. younger. klootz-chem-up for sister. Then. whether man or woman. There was another word that was a near equivalent then for person. Chautsh being the nearest approach to George the Indian was capable of. tenassis-kloots-mah for daughter and tenassis-check-up for son. The proper word for friend is sikhs. Check-up is man. subde inner relationship. and King Chautsh man became Jargon for Englishman. with the Hudson's Bay Company came the British influence.

If very far. and accepted only silver and lesser coins. Mamook kumtux means to teach." Iron. is wik." If the author had had her hero say: Klahowya opitsah sikhs she would have used proper Jargon." "No. so "opitsah sikhs" is made to do duty for sweetheart or lover. far off. Mamook is Jargon for work or for any other performance—anything one does. it is indicated by prolonging the last syllable. says Jewitt. Wake kumtux is "don't understand. The Indians knew nothing of paper as money. "Every knife has its fork. prepare it. the chief above. and to go and fish was work to the Indian." according to Jewitt." friend of the knife. evil deeds. No special word for sweetheart or lover exists in the Jargon. but usually means money. about the only work he knew. literally to make known or to understand.22 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY ployed is found in the concluding phrase of Told in the Hills (1891) by Marah Ellis Ryan. In the Jargon as it has been spoken for over a hundred years the word is wake. In the Jargon siah is away. In the Nootkan only the highest chief seems to have been a Tyee. and if the speaker desires to indicate a very great distance indeed." says Gill. Tyee is chief or ruler. doing the wrong thing or doing it in the wrong way." So Klahowya opitsah really was "goodbye knife. Chee-alt-see-klattur-wah is used in Jewitt's account as the . Mamook-su-mah in Jewitt's vocabulary is an expression which means to go and fish. remote. Mamook muckamuck is to get the food ready. Opitsah is literally "knife. It is meant to be an equivalent for "goodbye sweetheart" but is a wrong expression. That entertaining romance ends with the expression: Klahowya opitsah. The word is commonly pronounced as if it were spelled Sockalee. In the Jargon Saghalie Tyee is God. he prolongs the word and separates the syllables to give almost the identical sound of Jewitt's spelling—s-i-e—yah! It is quite likely that sky to the Nootkans was the "very-far-off. Concomly said waket to Lewis and Clark. Ikta mika mamook is "what are you doing?" Cultus mamook is bad work. Opitsah sikhs is literally "fork. is sick-a-miny. Chikamin is Jargon for metal. Jewitt says the Nootkan for sky is sie-yah. literally the ruler of heaven.

living then at Bay Center. who could speak Chinook (the original language)." Go in the Chinook Jargon is just klatawa. In 1891 Doctor Boas found only two people. Boas says: The following texts were collected in the summers of 1890 and 1891. While studying the Salishan languages of Washington and Oregon I learned that the dialects of the Lower Chinook were on the verge of disappearing. or was when there were any pure stock native Chinooks alive. From Cultee Dr. In his introduction to his book. This is kummatux when spoken by a native Chinook. trade or exchange. C H I N O O K TEXTS OF FRANZ BOAS BEFORE THIS INTERESTING NATIVE RACE—THE Lower Chinooks—lost their last identity some valuable work was done by Franz Boas in collecting and recording their myths and stories. but are now out of print and copies are rare and difficult to obtain. and go away would be klatawa siah. The proper Jargon for "I understand" is Nika kumtux." For "I understand" he uses the one word kom-me-tak. and that only a . These were published by the Bureau of Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institution under the tide Chinook Texts. It is one of the most used of Jargon expressions. or go yonder. on Shoalwater Bay. sell. Boas learned and wrote a number of the original tribal tales or myths of the Indians of the Columbia. Mahkook is to buy. It is probable that the string of suffixes Jewitt uses qualifies or enlarges the meaning of his klattur-wah.CHINOOK TEXTS OF BOAS 23 equivalent of "go away. Dr. Charles Cultee and Catherine. among Chehalis Indians. 10. Jewitt spells it ma-kook and limits the meaning to "to sell.

that a few of their relatives. The few remaining Clatsops had totally forgotten the history of their tribe. who at one time occupied the greater part of Shoalwater Bay and the northern bank of the Columbia River as far as Grays Harbor. I found one middle-aged man and two old women who still remembered the Clatsop language. Washington. Clatsop County. who had been married to a Mr. was too sick to be seen. The only individuals who spoke Chinook were Charles Cultee and Catherine. however. who still continued to speak Clatsop. a dialect of the Salishan Tillamook. they claimed to have forgotten their myths and traditions. Cultee proved to be a veritable storehouse of informa- . The man had forgotten a great part of the language. They assured me that the whole country was occupied by the Chehalis. One old Clatsop woman.24 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY few individuals survived who remembered the languages of the once powerful tribes of the Clatsop and Chinook. They proved to be the last survivors of the Chinook. and could not or would not give me any connected texts. lived on Shoalwater Bay among the Chehalis. While I was unable to obtain anything from the latter. and even maintained that no allied dialect was spoken north of the Columbia River and on Shoalwater Bay (now Willapa Harbor). where a small band of Indians are located near Seaside. they had all adopted the Nehalim language. The tribe has adopted the Chehalis language in the same way in which the Clatsop have adopted the Nehalim. I first went to Clatsop. They told me. Although a number of them belonged to the Clatsop tribe. I went to search for this remnant of the Clatsop and Chinook peoples. while the women were not able to grasp what I wanted. This fact determined me to make an effort to collect what little remained of these languages. Smith. This change of language was brought about by frequent intermarriages with the Nehalim. Oregon. and died soon after my visit. Pacific County. and found them located at Bay Center. but it was impossible to obtain more than a vocabulary and a few sentences. another Salishan tribe.

but from a close study of the material I conclude that it is on the whole pure and trustworthy. all by means of the Jargon. a Katlamat Indian. but nevertheless give a good insight into the differences of the two dialects. Boas's texts are written first in the pure Chinook dialect. with an accompanying literal translation. and at present he speaks Chehalis almost exclusively. These texts. as spoken by Cultee. After he had once grasped what I wanted. He uses the former dialect in conversing with Samson. His mother's mother was a Katlamat (Cathlamet) and his mother's father a Quilapax. were told to him by Cultee. . transcribed into the difficult and complex dialect of the original Chinook. his mother's town. while he uses it now only rarely when conversing with Catherine. I have obtained from Cultee a series of Katlamat texts also. and for this reason speaks the Katlamet dialect as well as the Chinook dialect. This work was more difficult as we conversed only by means of the Chinook Jargon. beneath the original. which appear to me not quite so good as the Chinook texts. Possibly this Chinook is to a certain extent mixed with Katlamat expressions.C H I N O O K TEXTS OF BOAS 25 tion. on the southern bank of the Columbia River. translated literally and again in free form. his father's mother was a Clatsop. and his father's father a Tinneh of the interior. who is also located at Bay Center. He has lived for a long time in Katlamat. Until a few years ago he spoke Chinook with one of his relatives. Each of the stories is followed by a free translation entirely in English. and elucidated the sense of difficult periods. My work of translating and explaining the texts was greatly facilitated by Cultee's remarkable intelligence. It may be possible to obtain material in this dialect from other sources. line for line. who lives a few miles from Bay Center. His wife is a Chehalis. as he relates. he explained to me the grammatical structure of the sentences by means of examples. this being also the language of his children.

It means "now. The most guttural of the Jargon words are those which came from the dialects of the Chinookan tribes. These facts do seem to show beyond any possibility of doubt that the Jargon came into existence during some long-past prehistoric period. The dominance of Chinook words also seems to indicate that the Chinook were. and words picked up from the French voyageurs and the English and American traders. and that it was later enlarged to fit the requirements of trade when the fur companies established posts in the region. Boas to so faithfully record these texts. Wasco. the equivalent of the numeral "two. It is pronounced "ahlta. Kwanisum O N T H E VERY FIRST PAGE OF BOAS'S . and Calapooian. Bellabella. Klickitat. This dominance of Chinook words in the Jargon doubtless made it easier for Dr." both in the Jargon and in the original Chinook. 1 . Though well over half of the words were derived from the Chinook. other tribal dialects represented include the Chehalis. Clallam. alta." It is mokst in the Jargon. the dominant tribe of the Pacific between the 42nd and the 57th degrees of latitude.26 CHINOOK: A HISTOKY A N D DICTIONARY which shows its marvelous flexibility. The next one is not so easily recognized because of Boas's attempt to give it the exact sound of Cultee's pronunciation — smokst. JARGON WORDS THAT COME FROM PURE CHINOOK 1 Chinook Texts we find an old friend. Cree. Added to these were words that imitated natural sounds. Clackamas. Study of them will show the marked present-day similarity of many Jargon words to the Lower Chinook dialect from which they came." the present. with contributions from the Nootkans. as the early explorers and traders repeatedly said. as a polyglot of native words for use in intertribal commercial and trading intercourse.

is a word he strangely spells aiaq. wherever he uses it. he-he. The Jargon uses konaway. In the Jargon." Half in the Jargon is sitkum. Likewise it is used for me and my. Boas gives enatai as the equivalent of across or on the other side. the first personal pronoun " I " in Chinook. but is maika in the original and mika in the Jargon. half breed. as of Chinook origin. or literally half savage. the Jargon for laugh. according to Boas. We find in the same text the strangely spelled word ncitkum. long ago. is merely a corruption of the French word sauvage. Cultee probably pronounced it with a partial elision of the n sound and an explosive s sound for the c. Jargon for the same expression. which is Jargon for quick. He cites kanauwe as Chinook for all. According to Shaw. It is used for the expression. in Chinook. The Jargon for night is simply polaklie—which also means darkness. . "I am half. in the Jargon it is canim. rather uncouth in appearance. hurry. or gloom like night. O-pol-e-ka. kwonesum with "o" pronounced "ah" is Jargon. He gives ikanim for canoe. Then we encounter naika. long "a" and accent on the last syllable. which in the Jargon is nika. therefore. ikta is what. or the Indians' rude attempt to imitate sound. is onomatopoeia. means night. is the equivalent of always. Another old friend. Now we come to ikta and find it used for both what and things. as siwash. but this time Boas spells it kua-nEsum. Kwanisum. we have no difficulty in recognizing ahnkuttie. a generic term applied to all the Indians of the Northwest. giving a "q" sound to the ku. The meaning in Boas's translation is quick. and mika is you and yours. In Boas's. anqate. a long "a" and uses the capital "E" to denote a partial elision of the sound of that vowel. or Cultee's. In Jargon sitkum dolla is half a dollar. so we readily recognize hyak. becoming iktas for things. In the Jargon it loses a letter to become simply enati. fast. Farther along we find kwanisum again.WORDS FROM PURE CHINOOK 27 (always) with a long "a" is pure Chinook. Sitkum siwash is half Indian. We must accept the word. but Boas uses he-he as Chinook for laugh.

One word in Meares's account of his experiences on the Northwest Coast in 1788. two others in the body of his Narrative—Twee and pechak—and his discovery that the tribe had two languages (one he thought for purely poetical expression in their war songs and lyrics and the other for common use) show beyond doubt that the Jargon existed and was used by widely separated tribes. once-numerous trading tribe of intelligent Indians.28 CHINOOK: A HISTORY AND DICTIONARY There are many others but these will be sufficient. chief of the Lower Chinooks. He was talking to a stranger. Their pronunciations have undergone some transformations. Boas. The Jargon was the common means of communication under such circumstances among all the hundreds of tribes and families of the whole vast region. at least—going all the way back to Meares's quotation of the word cloosh spoken by Callicum—twenty-three years before the Astor party arrived at the mouth of the Columbia. warlike. a man from another tribe. Callicum's use of the word was natural. These words are found alike in their dialects and in the Jargon. Concomly. Cultee was talking the language of the ancient Chinooks to Dr. "Waket commatux" for "I do not understand" to Lewis and Clark in 1805. a foreigner. a phrase or two in the Journal of Lewis and Clark. and sixteen years before there was a Hudson's Bay post anywhere on the shores of the Pacific. even though the tribe was white. powerful. but there is not much doubt that more than half of the present Jargon vocabulary was in use as a primitive. prehistoric trading language long before these Indians knew that a white man or white race existed. The Nootkans used it in their . a tongue that had been in use for untold centuries by an active. spoke words taken from the original Nootkan when he said. modified by long use among the many differing tribes and the half century or more of later contact with white traders. That was six years before there had been other than maritime traders on this coast. for kloshe is original Chinook as well as Jargon and it was spoken by a Nootkan in 1788 off the west coast of Vancouver Island. ten words of the Nootkan vocabulary given by Jewitt.

or. The ship masters cared only for furs. They cruised off shore during the summer. and in time taught them the Jargon. 12. At that point they all finally found a common ground. When all the trading was done the laden vessels sailed for the ports of China. for they could communicate with each other. and the Indians came out to them in canoes. divided into many tribes with somewhat differing dialects. This accounts for the meagerness of the records. Though there were many ships in the maritime trade prior to 1800 there was litde contact before that with the natives. the Chinook chief. lived in the valley of the Columbia River from the Pacific Ocean up to the country of the . cared nothing for them. N A T I V E CONTRIBUTIONS TO T H E JARGON FOUR FAMILIES OF TRIBES ACCOUNT FOR MOST of the dialect words in the Jargon. the Wakashan and the Kwakiutl. wintered in the Sandwich Islands. The Chinook family. had no interest in such squalid people except the trade they could carry on with them in the most primitive methods of exchange and barter. but they respected the force of ships and firearms and the wealth of goods the ships and traders brought with them. in his attempt to talk to Lewis and Clark. the Salish. They may have felt that the whites lacked education. That the whites could not respond in kind may have given the natives a poor opinion of the visitors' attainments.N A T I V E CONTRIBUTIONS 29 relations with Jewitt for the same reason. It is for this reason that study of their logs and records offers so litde evidence either for or against die prehistoric origin of the trade Jargon now known as Chinook. These ship traders knew nothing of native customs. if out for several years. and from the Indian standpoint they did. and so did Concomly. or Tyee. notably the Chinookan. tribes or languages.

These tribes contributed the largest number of words to the Jargon. Salish.30 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY Klickitats. among the former to a much later day. possessed the trading instinct. Wakashan and Kwakiutl. The Salish family lived on Grays Harbor. so far as the formation of the Jargon is concerned. Tokwhats. . Salish words are third and Kwakiutl are fourth in number. but the practice was more general among the Kwakiutl than among the Nootkans. and the Klickitats—seems to have built the foundation of this coast trade language. The Chinook family—including the important tribes of the Cathlamet. words from the Nootkans are second in number. the Clatsop. Makahs and many minor tribes. Clayoquots. and after them the Nisqually and Lummi tribes. that was indented. The Jargon sprang directly from the necessities of this practice. on the inside passage to Alaska. by some excellent harbors to which the early explorers learned to come for shelter and in time used as a general rendezvous. the Wasco. were warlike in character. Willapa Harbor and on Puget Sound. but which in reality were the Heiltsuqs. They were numerically strong. They lived on a stormy coast of the wildest nature. Slavery was practiced among all these natives—Chinook. which is to say on the inside of Vancouver Island. however. as slaves were the basis of their trade relations. were the Chehalis. while the Ahts—the Nootkans and their allies—lived on the outside. and persisted. The most important of these. too. The second in importance is the contribution of the Nootkan branch of the Wakashan group. with whom they exchanged slaves for shell money. The Nootkans occupied the west coast of Vancouver Island and comprised the Nittinat. Both the Ahts and the Kwakiutl were cannibals. and because of their intimate trade relations in prehistoric tribal days with the Nootkans. They lived on and around Millbank Sound. The important Kwakiutl contributions came from the tribe now known as Bellabellas. and were daring seamen and skilled hunters.

Following are two statements in regard to the spelling. pronunciation and arrangement of Chinook words. We have tried to follow it. went among the Indians and acquired the Jargon from them.. if it is found in several dictionaries. The early dictionaries were written by men who.. kulakula. It is widely believed that the best examples of the literature written in the Chinook Jargon may be found in the works of Eells. where it was so widely used not so long ago. spelled in the same way. Other ways of spelling kalakala: culacula.31 13. cullerculler. The words were written as they sounded. we feel that the spelling adopted by this work w i l l prove acceptable to all who know the Jargon. As there are but few copies of older works on Chinook to be found. while some of them are spelled in very many different ways . The first is by Myron Eells. missionaries." The different ways in which some words are spelled is a curiosity and simply shows what educated men w i l l do in this line when they have no standard authority. author of Hymns in the Chinook Jargon (1878) and the Manuscript Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon (1893). cullaculla. two selections from which appear in Chapter 12 of this book. We feel that our spelling is rational. SPELLING A N D P R O N U N C I A T I O N OF C H I N O O K I N COMPILING THIS DICTIONARY T H E AUTHOR has aimed at a better uniformity of spelling. kallakala. even in the Northwest. But in later years there has been an effort at some sort of standardization. kilakila. As many of the early dictionaries were the work of teachers. . that it represents the words as they are now pronounced and that usage has given us a form to follow. kullukala. even the simplest and easy one. "Chinook Jargon as a Literary Language. like Gibbs. kalahkalah. writers and students of ethnological research the result was as described by Eells. In different localities the natives had different pronunciations. Very seldom is any word.

and ooahut in fourteen. klootchman and Kliminawhit. spelled in ten different ways: ahnkuttie and keekwulee. St. ooahut and deaub. kullakullie. and kunsih in nineteen different ways. and oyhut. Even words which are derived from the English generally have different spellings as soon as the standard English authority is left. and memaloose. pepa. so that glease from grease becomes gleese. klatawa. moon is also mun. Shot. etc. and peppah. warn. each in eighteen. and killapi. but they show a wide variety of sound. nose is also nos. and so on. and to a considerable degree Durieu have done this. when any writer adopts a regular schedule of sounds for each vowel. deaub being also dahblo. kloshe. and ooahut being hooihut. each in sixteen. Boas. and also a large number beginning with. pepah. as .CHINOOK: A HISTORY AND DICTIONARY cullacullah. tahtlum. There are three reasons for this difference in spelling—which may occur even though the same sound of the letters is preserved. Again. Still farther. Onge. and klis. leiom. kulakulla. Sunday is also sante. deaub is in twelve ways. kl begin with tl in another place. different modes of pronunciation in different localities. each in fifteen. An examination of many dictionaries w i l l show among other words— konas. stocking is also stocken. so kloshe becomes tlush or tloos. skin. thus warn may be waum or wawm and still preserve the same sound of a. each in twelve. paypa. he will surely differ in spelling from those who attempt to follow as near as possible the English mode of spelling. and wawm. derb. wehkut. poolie. and stoken. are the cause of different ways of spelling. and warm also is spelled waum. kullukulli. puli. wahm. glis. papah. stone is also ston. and a few others have for almost a wonder found no other way of being spelled. pepah (paper) is also papeh. diaub. wayhut. bed is also spelled pet. hence tea becomes ti. seeowist. staken. gleece. and so on. Sometimes indeed it is very difficult to discover the true sound. tea is also ti. tahlkie becomes tahnlkie. This is especially seen in the words already referred to. paper. and sometimes in the same locality. man. and yaub.

—halo nika kumtuks. An Indian who has learned somewhat the English order. so the tendency is toward the English order of the words. The additional two paragraphs below.— not I understand. will arrange the words in much the same way. As the tendency. The mode of pronunciation. the first dealing with the orthography and the second with the pronunciation of Chinook. They are generally placed in much the same order as they are in the language which the speaker has been accustomed to use.SPELLING A N D PRONUNCIATION 33 for instance. especially of vowel sounds adopted by each writer. without regard to uni- . is far more common than nika halo kumtuks.. and the system of pronunciation. and so on. is not for the whites to learn the native Indian languages. An English speaking person w i l l place them in much the same order that he would in English. if he be not well acquainted with the language. the order of which must be acquired by practice: for instance. however. . but for the Indians to learn the English. the date when. are by Horatio Hale. and hence the mode of spelling. whether the first syllable of kalakala should be spelled with an a or u. which is usually very different from the English. but there are many phrases where this is not true. has undoubtedly changed somewhat since Parker in 1835-6 wrote the first vocabulary. or the last one of tukamonuk with an a or u. Hence in comparing the ways of spelling the reader ought to remember the place where. the orthography of the Jargon is unsettled and capricious. There is no setded authority in regard to the order of the words in this language." but use the ordinary English spelling for the English words comprised in the language. but if the speaker is an old Indian who knows but litde about English he w i l l arrange them much as he is accustomed to do in his native tongue. Most writers spell Indian and French words "by the ear. Hale was the philologist with the Charles Wilkes scientific expedition that visited the Columbia and the Willamette Valley during the year 1841: As will be seen..

having suffered Procrustean docking or elongation. The English j. . As the Jargon is to be spoken by Englishmen and Frenchmen. civilized and savage. He had spent a lifetime mingling with them. Some writers. to express. The numerous harsh Indian gutturals either disappear entirely. g.. the basic sounds generally come through. r. Kallapooga. BUCHANAN " A GROTESQUE J A R G O N C A L L E D C H I N O O K I S T H E L I N G U A . the d. On the other hand. (dzh). Chinook. most of these variations are superficial.. is changed to ch. p. It is an attempt on a small scale to nullify Babel by combining a confusion of tongues into a confounding of tongues—a witches' caldron in which the vocable that bobs up may be some old familiar Saxon verb. so as to be alike easy and intelligible to all. . however. z. t. v. retain in the Jargon the "digraph" gh.. hence the extreme elasticity of the Chinook jargon." W i t h Eells it was far different. k.34 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY formity. Haida. French. in some words of Chinook origin. the sound of the German guttural ch in Buch.F R A N C A O F the whites and Indians of the Northwest. The French nasal n is dropped or is retained without its nasal sound. "It is a jargon of English. The writers expressed how the words sounded to them. and other tongues... it must admit no sound which cannot be readily pronounced by all. V a r i a tions here in Jargon spelling are typical. and s. w. 14. of the English and French become in the mouth of a Chinook. I. or are softened to h and k . C H I N O O K JARGON AS A L I T E R A R Y L A N G U A G E * A Chinook w o r d is elastic and expresses a broad and general idea rather than one altogether specific. and by Indians of at least a dozen tribes. (tsh). Spanish. However." wrote Theodore Winthrop in 1853. Eells respected the work done by Hale on the Chinook Jargon but felt the latter 'labored under the disadvantage of not having mingled much with those who have used the language for about fifty years. f. .. and now doing ' F r o m History of Oregon Literature (Metropolitan Press 1935) by Alfred Powers.

evidently nurtured within the range of tomahawks and calumets. The last words of a Yakima chief were uttered in this tongue. when kept beautiful in its simplicity. W i t h more sincerity. Altogether in a literary way it is an impressive language. sung in it. as it came from tribal throats. considering that. hymns and prayers went up to God in the blue heaven above in the Chinook Jargon. with its beautiful refrain of Tamala. prayed and preached in it. and very beautiful. it has had its poets. as at the 1839 camp meeting at The Dalles.. From its initial utilization as the parlance of barter to such uses as these. To the lips of the Indian it came spontaneously to express . The Chinook jargon still expects its poet. Vast and magnificent it must have been. as several selections w i l l show. an Indian girl used it for a death wail—a song of hope and immortality. So when Chief Qualchien in a quarter of an hour's time faced dark extinction. how far had the language advanced! It was such a language that Myron Eells could say of it that for eighteen years he had "talked in it. From wilderness camps. or some strange monster. the Indians sometimes naively proposed that they ought to be paid for their excellent demonstrations of worship. . Perhaps no other composite and manufactured tongue has served such noble and poetic purposes of expression. he cried out in Chinook Jargon a plea that reverberated in the recollection of an American soldier all his life as having the profoundest pathos of any sounds he ever heard. translated considerable into it and thought in it. which had a sufficient richness and flexibility for this exaltation and praise. The missionaries used it as the successful medium for the communion of the spirits of two different peoples. When we read the dying expression of Stonewall Jackson—"Let us cross over the river and rest under the shade of the trees"—we realize what a beautiful language English is." Thought in it! For a white man it had become a vehicle of thought. A greater triumph it was for the Chinook Jargon than for Christian doctrine.As A LITERARY LANGUAGE 35 substantive duty." To a surprisingly extensive and varied degree it is not lost to literature. There is some danger that the beauties of this dialect will be lost to literature.. And. tamala—tomorrow and tomorrow.

This accounts for the child-like freshness and charm of the word combinations. in short. "resemble in sounds the objects they represent. " . since the source of the meaning is right there with all its original atmosphere. The Jargon gets a poetic quality from another child-like characteristic—that of onomatopoeia. a laugh." And before that it was serving as a linguistic clearing house for the savages of many dialects themselves. that most words are of this nature. waum—warm.36 CHINOOK: A HISTORY AND DICTIONARY his deepest feelings. a wagon in Chinook is chick-chick. . Interest in the Chinook Jargon is indicated by the fact that there have been more than fifty editions of vocabularies during the past hundred years. a clock is dingding. klootchman—woman. This kept it simple. an adjective meaning small. a small cow or a calf. quack-quack. the heart is tum-tum. How much more charming these synthetic phrases are than separate terms. tee-hee. Much of the poetry of the Chinook Jargon comes from the application of a single adjective to an assortment of nouns to form by this combination new nouns instead of having separate substantives. Then take this list of nouns: snass—rain. a crow is kaw-kaw. Then tenas snass would be a shower—little rain. This. cole—cold. but the list given by Butterworth could be greatly extended from any Chinook Jargon dictionary. His was the governing philology. . a small woman or a girl. moos-moos—cow. For instance. It is a language that "has served as an inter-communicating medium between civilization and the mystery of the savage mind for more years than most people know. tenas waum would be spring and tenas cole would be autumn—the season when it was getting a little warm or a little cold. emotionless and artificial esperanto. m o s t of the words. a duck. is what made it a literary language instead of a harsh. wah-wah. . and a talk or a speech or sermon. For example." It is not true. Though the vocabulary was derived from many sources. as in a richer language. the Indian's mind and spirit were the sieve through which it was strained." said Hezekiah Butterworth. take terms. tenas moosmoos. of course. and tenas klootchman.

Jesus get-up. klaska hah nanitch Jesus. Yahwa mesika nanitch moxt klootchmen. kah Jesus mitlite. . kopa okoke illahee kah mesika nanitch klaska. Kahkwa yaka lolo yaka tillikums klahanie kopa town. a letter. kopa delate tenas sun. yaka mitlite kopa illahee lakit tahtlum sun. sermons.As A LITERARY LANGUAGE 37 The statement was made in Oregon Native Son in 1900 that "in pioneer days there were but few but what understood this language." C H I N O O K S E R M O N T O T H E I N D I A N S I N 1888 By M Y R O N EELLS About a fourth of the sermon. consisting of the first four paragraphs. Spose klaska klap okoke mimaloose-illahee. The speaker used large pictures to which he referred in his discourse. and the children frequently could speak it as well as they could English. Klaska chaco kopa mimaloose-Ulahee. poetry. Yahwa yaka tillikums. Moxt Sunday ahnkuttie nika memook kumtux mesika kopa okoke papeh. Yahwa mesika nanitch Jesus. dialogues. harangues. and the sad death plea of Qualchien. Okoke sun nika tikegh wawa kopa mesika kopa okoke papeh. translations. Kahkwa nika wawa kopa mesika talkie Sunday. prayers. Jesus yaka tikegh klatawa kopa Saghalie. Spose kopet lakit tahtlum sun." The following examples of literature in the Chinook Jargon have been selected to represent most of the forms that could be f o u n d hymns. kopa Sunday. Jesus yaka tikegh potlatch kloshe wawa kopa yaka tillikums. is given here. yaka klatawa. elip yaka killapi kopa Saghalie. songs. As Myron Eells noted. Kimtah Jesus yaka get-up. "The different ways in which some words are spelled is a curiosity and simply shows what educated men w i l l do in this line when they have no standard authority.

konoway kah. They knew nothing of the happy home in heaven. Jesus had risen. So I told you in that sermon. Jesus wished to give good instructions to the people before He returned to heaven. illahee. He desired to ascend to heaven." Thus spoke Jesus to them. pe lolo Bible wawa kopa konoway tillikums. pe Map Jesus yaka owakut. Jesus was aware that all the nations of the world had no knowledge of the Gospel. that it is more precious than all the money and everything else in the world. Here you see Jesus. They knew nothing of the Devil's home in the great fire. just at sunrise. Today I wish to explain to you about this picture. hah kumtux kopa kloshe home kopa Saghalie. . and to find the way of Jesus. So he led the people out of the city to that place where you behold them. Jesus knew that the soul of a man is truly precious. on Sunday. He said to them: "It is good that you should go to every country in all the world. There are those people. Kahkwa yaka tikegh yaka tillikums. konoway kah. After Jesus had risen. yaka elip hias mahkook kopa konoway dolla pe konoway iktas kopa konoway illahee. Now I will explain to you the teaching of Jesus to those people. When the forty days were ended. He continued on the earth forty days. Yaka wawa kopa klaska: "Kloshe mesika klatawa kopa konoway. His missionaries." Kahkwa Jesus yaka wawa kopa khska. pe help konoway tillikums mash Lejaub yaka owakut. yaka leplet. klatawa konoway kah. He was gone. Lejaub yaka home kopa hias piah. Khska hah kumtux kopa. Jesus yaka kumtux konoway tillikums. TRANSLATION Two Sundays ago I spoke to you concerning that picture. and carry the Gospel to all nations. and to help all the people to leave the Devil's way. There you saw two women coming to the sepulchre where Jesus lay. Jesus yaka kumtux ikt man yaka tumtum dehte hias mahkook. to go everywhere. So He wished His people.38 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY Alta nika mamook kumtux mesika kopa Jesus yaka wawa kope yaka tillikums.

Kloshe spose to us this food. . Help our minds become good. D O W N E Y BARTLETT Laura Bell Downey Bartlett. kahkwa muckamuck kopa words to us. nesika O God our Father.As A LITERARY LANGUAGE 39 A BLESSING BEFORE M E A L S B Y M Y K O N EELLS O Saghalie Tyee. who came across the plains as a baby in 1853. is author of two books on the Chinook jargon— Chinook-English Songs. mind. Kopa Jesus nesika tikegh konoway okoke. Help nesika tumtum chaco kloshe. published in Tacoma in 1924. published in Portland in 1914. thou hast given kopa nesika okoke muckamuck. Good if thou will give thy wawa kopa nesika. nesilca Papa. Kloshe kahkwa. Good if mika kwanesum potlach muckamuck kopa thou always w i l l give food to nesika. and Dictionary of the Intertribal Language Commonly Called Chinook. Through Jesus we wish all this. as food to the tumtum. we wawa mahsie kopa mika. mika potlach say thanks to thee. Good so. Kloshe spose mika potlatch mika us. T H E T E N COMMANDMENTS B Y L A U R A B .

Nika Sah-ah-lie Tyee kopa mica. Honor thy Father and thy Mother. H . Wake mamook ikta shem kopa mika itlwillie. 9. HYMN B Y D A N I E L L E E A N D J . Thou shalt not steal. Thou shalt not lie. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house. Thou shalt not covet that which is not thine.40 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY 1. Thou shalt not kill. Wake mamook mamaloose klaxta. Kopit ikt mika kumtux Sah-ah-lie Tyee. Wake Kleminawhit. FROST 1. Sah-ah-lie Tyee nem. Thou shalt not commit adultery. 4. 3. pee kopa klaxta. 10. Thou shalt have no other Gods before me. Ak-ah eg-lah-lam en-si-kah Mi-kah Ish-tam-ah em-e-hol-ew Kup-et mi-kam toke-ta mi-mah Mi-kah ek-ah-tlah gum-ohah Mi-kah dow-ah gum-e oh . 7. Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy. Wake cultus wau-wau. 6. Kloash kumtux mika Papa pee mika Mama. Wake tikegh klaxta mika tikegh ikta. his wife or servants. Wake kapswalla. Kloash nanitch kwanisum sacra kopa Sunday. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain. Wake kumtux. pee wake tikegh ict shem kopa holoima klootchman. 2. I am the Lord thy God. 5. 8.

O Lord.As A LITERARY LANGUAGE 41 Kon-a-wa e-toke-ta ten-mah Mi-kah an-kut-e gum-toh. "WHISKEY" 1. . Thou are good and thou wilt save. we now are happy. A l l things good. every creature. Tune—"Bounding Billows" Ahnkuttie nika tikegh whiskey. the same. Only good and worthy praising. are all thy children. And the light was made by thee. He to us instruction gave. Knowing this. Lord. Lord. Thou art always. Pe alta nika mash. Of the sun thou art Creator. Mi-kah minch-ah koke en-si-kah An-kut-e yuk-um-a-lah Kon-a-wa e-dinch ah-gu-it-quah Quon-sim po-nan-a-kow Mi-kah gum-inch-e-lute e-me-han Yok-ah wa-wot gach-o-weet Uk-ah en-si-kah quot-lanch-ke-hah Mi-kam toke-ta can-neo-eeb We. Thou didst thy Son our Savior. Alta nika mash. unto thy name. In the past we wicked were. Here we now unite in singing Glory. We were all most deeply wretched. yea. 2. At the first thou madest to be. Always blind and in despair.

3. 2. but devoted himself almost entirely to literary work. Binfords & Mort. Pe alta nika mash— Alta nika mash— Whiskey is good for nothing. They that drink it. visiting Puget Sound. spent the summer of 1853 in the Pacific Northwest. Oregon City. And now I throw it away— Now I throw it away. Pe alta nika mash— Alta nika mash. drink what is worthless. F R O M " C A N O E A N D SADDLE" By THEODORE W I N T H H O P Theodore Winthrop. 4. But now I throw it away— Now I throw it away. Portland. a 25-year-old Yale graduate. The Dalles. Returning to New York. Pe alta nika mash— Alta nika mash. And now I throw it away— Now I throw it away. Cultus klaska muckamuck.42 C H I N O O K : A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY Formerly I loved whiskey. Marysville. completing the five books which were published after his death in the Civil War in 1861. The best known of these is Canoe and Saddle (Nisqually edition. Scottsburg and St. Whiskey kills people. Salem. A n d now I throw it away— Now I throw it away. Publishers) from which the following two selections were taken: . Whiskey mimoluse tillikums. Yoncalla. Whiskey hias cultus. Helens. he studied law and was admitted to the bar.

Indian man no like nohow. H i m say kill bird. and at last. Too much make popgun. "Halo she collocks nika tenas. in Chinook. broke silence. ( i n an Indianesque tone of some surprise. Owhhigh. Given in broken English. "At last . because of the shabby cast-off Christian coat he wore and little else. but great indifference) "Ah hagh!" Owhhigh. and no shoes hath he. Small-pox there. No good Loolowcan go Dalles. and is silent. kill bear—sometime him kill Indian. Too much soldier man go all around everywhere. Indian country plenty nothing. S'pose go away. in the most jerky and broken Chinook. (assenting with equal indifference) "Ah hagh!" Owhhigh smokes. Bad Indians there. raising his arms. no breeches hath my son. plenty gun.. . Me no like white man no-how. delivered at me a harangue. " O W H H I G H ." (the guide) I. Owhhigh. and. THE TRADER" Theodore Winthrop was at the Hudson's Bay Post at Nisqually in need of a guide through Indian country. The ancient horse-thief sat like a Pacha. Very much all bad. . Owhhigh. Soldier man too much shut eye. . open eye at squaw. s'pose squaw like. "Pe wake yaka shoes." . We had before agreed upon the terms of payment for my guide. no ask you come here. plenty blanket. It was arranged that the son of the famed and crafty Indian trader. Squaw no like. smoking an inglorious dhudeen. and Spokane Adonis fugues in. Me no understand white man. thus familiarly. one sleeveless. Winthrop wrote: Now. plenty horse. however. me like." I.As A LITERARY LANGUAGE 43 " M E N O L I K E W H I T E M A N NOHOW" The speaker was a root-digging Klickitat. laid aside his sham dignity with a purpose. plenty powder. one fringed with rags at the shoulder. glancing at certain articles of raiment of mine. be that guide. its purport was as follows—in a nasoguttural choke:" What you white man want get 'em here? Why him no stay Boston country? Me stay my country. No good Weenas give you horse. Plenty good thing him country.. called Shabbiest. dropping in unceremoniously. and no shirt. "Pe halo shirt. he turned to me.

Westernheiser. Co. Nesika hyas mesahche. Among those enquiring about the delay was one of our agents.—with thee plenty traps abide.. and wrote asking as to the reason why they did not receive it. H. . great chief thou. "Hyas tyee mika.—all kinds of property are his. with this explanatory statement: "Several of our subscribers became somewhat alarmed over the non-appearance of the last issue of the Native Son at its usual date of delivery. if his son were faithful.44 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY Another aide-de-camp takes up the strain." Profound silence followed these mutual hints. 1900. Mrs. At last. August 8th.—thou wilt give him abundance. What the letter says will be left for the reader to decipher for himself—it might furnish an hour of pleasant occupation. Her message was as follows:" Yoncalla. and requite him for the entertainment of his oratory." I. Yoncalla." I. Pe hyas tyee Owhhigh. Oregon. . Native Son Pub. and a great chief is Owhhigh.--not good for Indian. They had done their best that their comrade might be arrayed at my expense." Owhhigh.. there are shoes (pointing to a pair of mine) good for the son of Owhhigh.—no traps hath my son. 1900. Susan Smith. clos he copa Owhhigh tenas. Klose Tenas Man:—Klone moon o'koke mika papah wake chaco copa conomox o'coke kloochman. "Stick shoes ocock... It was printed in the Oregon Native Son in September. I promised that.—hin mitltte ikta.—wake Closhe copa siwash. NESIKA W A .W A A Chinook Letter from Yoncalla Here we find the jargon used for business correspondence. The choir bore their failure stoically. .—mika tikky him potlatch. . to please Owhhigh.—conoway ikta mitlite-pe hin yaka potlatch copa liticum. . hard shoes (not moccasins) those.—halo ikta mitltte copa nika tenas. pee ole man C. copa nesika . I would give him a generous premium. and many presents does he make to his people. possibly the very shirt and other articles they had admired.. "Yahwah mitltte shoes.

. Chorus: O Lilly. with swift paddles. L I L L Y D A L E I N CHINOOK (1852) This is from the Oregon Native Son for July. TAMALA By HEZEKIAH BUTTERWORTH " I t was sunset on the bluffs and the valleys of the Columbia. lost Lilly Dale. . pee klonas mesika kokshut klose tumtum. but only the first stanza and the chorus will be given here: Hyas klose polikely kliminilimin tocope. and a young warrior. klose Lilly. It contained an old Umatilla Indian.As A LITERARY LANGUAGE 45 spose mika wake copa yaka. Among the craft of the fishermen glided a long airy canoe. Mitlite klose konawa kah. Thompson and contains five stanzas and the chorus. copa skookum chickamin kuitan. S. When friends mute with grief. Alta tipso mitlite kopa kacka tenas memaluse house. The . Klose mika hyas mamook chaco o'kdke papah. Sue Burt. Now the wild rose blossoms o'er her little green grave 'Neath the trees in the flow'ry vale. hyas klose Lilly Dale. stood around the death bed Of my poor. TAMALA. "Lilly Dale. was written by H. The whole song was rendered into Jargon. Kekwilla stick pe tipso klose illahee. Nika kilihium. 1899. Mike Klose Tilixmm. 'Twas a calm still night and the moon's pale light Shone soft o'er hill and vale. Chorus: O Lilly. Agent." the sad favorite of the mid-nineteenth century. dear Lilly Dale. Pe yacka tillicum mitlite memaluse bed. sweet Lilly. Lilly Dale.. his daughter.

sing as we go. tamala. but the light is tomorrow— Tamala. Ever and ever.. like the heart-beats of sorrow. sing as we row.. and of spiritual horizons beyond the visible life. The crags of the sunset the smiles of light borrow. The Chinook word tamala means 'tomorrow'. tomorrow— Tamala. and the rivulets flow. The waves ripple past. The morrows w i l l come and the morrows w i l l go— Tamala! Tamala! Aha! the night comes.46 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY party were going to the young chief's funeral. to the Indian mind. . The morrows w i l l come and the morrows w i l l go— Tamala! Tamala! Happy boat. the Indian maiden began to sing. and tomorrow. tamala. to the wave give thy sorrow. And the boat beats the wave to our song as we row. As the canoe glided on amid the still fishermen of other tribes. As soft from the ocean the Chinook winds blow: Tamala. of immortality.. sing as we row. The river is bright. tamala. The thought of the song was something as follows:" Aha! it is ever tomorrow. Ever and ever.. She sang in Chinook. It was a strange song. whisper the waves as they flow. Lift thine eye to the mount. and the burden of her song was that horizons w i l l lift forever in the unknown future. tomorrow— Tamala. tamala. Tamala. The morrows will come and the morrows will go— Tamala! Tamala! For ever and ever horizons are lifting— Tamala. was eternal life. tamala. Ever and ever. The Umatillas have poetic minds. Through death w i l l the morrow all endlessly glow— . Tamala. . And life toward the stars of the ocean is drifting. tamala. it is ever tomorrow.

and within fifteen minutes of his appearance in camp he was dead. kloshe sacred kopa in .AS A LlTERARY LANGUAGE Tamala! tamala! Ever and ever. He was made captive and sentenced to be hanged. is the idea we get from the words. Then came the swift and abject change. even in our English. F. He was completely overcome by the unexpected and sudden sentence. "Thy kingdom come!" This version of the "Lord's Prayer" is nearly the same as that prepared by a priest for McCormick's Chinook Dictionary (1852). is attributed the declaration that no more mournful sounds were ever heard than those made by Qualchien in begging for his life. all the while "imploring them most piteously not to hang him. daughter of the Spokane chief. sikhs! Kopet. He was accompanied by a brave and followed by a hunchback. How incomplete. striking in her beauty and richly attired. He was decked out in scarlet and at his belt hung an ornamented tomahawk and pistol. He prostrated himself upon the ground and then struggled as he was dragged forward. Manring's Conquest of the Coeur d' Alenes. hiyu kuitan. friends! Stop. Tamala! Tamala! 47 DEATH PLEA OF CHIEF QUALCHIEN This pathetic and futile plea is given in B. The morrows will come and the morrows will go. Qualchien was a chief of the Yakimas. friends! Don't kill me! I will give you a lot of money and many horses i f you will not kill me! Many Indians w i l l be angry! T H E LORD'S PRAYER The following version of the Lord's Prayer shows the lack of adaptation of the Jargon to any but the simplest use. He rode voluntarily into the camp of Colonel George Wright. spose mika wake memaloose nika! Hiyu siwash solleks! Stop. Nesika Our Papa Father klaksta who mitlite kopa dwellest in the Saghalie. Over and over he repeated:" Kopet. To General Lyon in later years. W i t h him was his squaw. He presented in general a dashing air. above. Spokanes and Palouses. sikhs! Wake memaloose nika! Nika potlatch hiyu chikamin. yet it also has a pathos in its rudeness and poverty.

illustrate the use of the Jargon as completely as possible in limited space and with such a condensed idiom. 15. together with the phrases following words in the Chinook-English vocabulary. muckamuck. Nesika We mika Thy hiyu ticky greatly long for kloshe good tumtum will Potlatch Give (us) chako mika illahee. bread. as also nesika our mesachie. Chako yukwa. spose if they nesika us konoway all mamook do kopa into mesachie. evil. danger. How do you do? Good morning. Klahowya. the coming of Thy kingdom. sikhs. kahkwa world.48 nesika our CHINOOK: A HISTORY AND DICTIONARY tumtum hearts (be) mika Thy nem. CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES The brief examples here. How are you? Are you sick? Are you hungry? Are you thirsty? How did you come? What's the matter? Chinook Klahowya. mahsh siah put far away Kloshe kahkwa. wickedness. kopa Saghalie. Come here. kopa with okoke this Mamook Do illahee. The absence of the minor parts of speech and inflected forms makes the combination of words in sentences either circuitous or bluntly direct. kahkwa even as mesachie evil peshak. Good-by. Good evening. friend. English Good morning. unto ourselves. So may it be. name. in the heavens. pe but konaway sun day by day konaway all kopa with Wake Not kopa from nesika our klaska others lolo bring nesika us pe mahlie and remember not nesika we mamook do also kopa nesika. Kahta mika? Sick na mika? Olo na mika? Olo na chuck mika? Kahta mika chako? Ikta mamook? . Good day.

Nowitka.As A L I T E R A R Y L A N G U A G E 49 English Would you like something to eat? Do you want work? What do you want to do? Cut some wood. Nika potlatch sitkum dolla. Come here. Give me a saw. spose chikamin piah. Alta klatawa iskum chuck. Certainly. Yahkwa mitlite piah sapolil. Chako elip sun. Kah lahash? Yahwa. Mamook piah. also. Take this bag. iskum lahash. sikhs. Here is some bread. get to work. Mamook piah okoke itlwillie. mamook alta. Yukwa mitlite mika muckamuck. Chinook Mika ticky muckamuck? Mika ticky mamook? Ikta mika mamook? Mamook stick. Mamook wash okoke leplah. Now bring some water. use the ax. Kah nika iskum? Kopa cooley chuck yahwa. Kopa kahta? Kopa okoke ketling. Chako yukwa taghum tintin. Nowitka. Very well. I will give half a dollar. Wake! Potlatch klone kwata. Oh! here you are! What do you want me to do? Carry this box to the steamer. That is too much. All right. Lolo yaka kopa house. Boil the water. What will you pay? A quarter. Ikta mika ticky? Nika ticky mika mamook tenas mamook tenas sun. Here is something to eat. No! Give three quarters. I have no saw. Where shall I get it? In the river there. Mamook tenas. . Where is the ax? There it is. Make a fire. In what? In that pan. Cook the meat. Wash the dishes. Come very early. Kunsih dolla spose mika mamook konaway okoke stick? Ikt dolla. Come again tomorrow. Potlatch lasee. Hyas mahkook. Ikta mika potlatch dolla? Ikt kwata. Mamook liplip chuck. How much do you want for cutting that lot of wood? One dollar. Where shall I put it? There. Nika halo lasee. Bring it inside. Come here at six o'clock. Kloshe kahkwa. Kah nika mahsh okoke? Yahwa. What do you want? I want you to do a little job in the morning. friend. Chako yukwa. Cut it small for the stove. Lolo weght lesac. Alah! Mika chako! Ikta mika ticky nika mamook? Lolo okoke lacaset kopa piah ship. Chako weght tomolla.

Do you understand English? No. Are you tired? How far is it. Yaka na mika kaupho okoke man? Na yaka mamook elan mika lolo lecaset? Nika potlatch weght tenas yaka. too much logging. Mika chako till? Kunsih siah. Kunsih tenas mika? English Very well. Kopet. I ' l l give you half a dollar. Na mika iskum mika klootchman yaka? Wake. Na. Kunsih chikamin ticky? Nika potlatch mokst bit. Na hiyu pish yahwa? Wake. no! We shall do it. Can you carry it? Is it very heavy? Oh. Chee tenas nika kopa Skipanon. it is worse when it snows and freezes How long have you lived here? (how many years) Many years. I was born at Skipanon. mamook alta hiyu stick. I forget how many. Chako kimtah kloshe spose cole snass pe shelipo. Kumtux mika Boston wawa? Wake hiyu. Nika potlatch sitkum dolla. Wake. Nika mallie yaka kopa Nehalem. Not always. D i d you get your wife here? No. Tillamook klootchman. Well. kopet kumtux kunsih. Are there many fish there? Not many. okoke ship? Wake siah alta. and something to eat? It is pretty heavy. I won't buy it today. Ikta mika tumtum okoke illahee? Hyas kloshe hyas spose wake snass. Kah mika iskum okoke tzum sammon? Kopa Skamokaway cooley chuck. That is all. Where did you catch that trout? In Skamokaway river. Is that man your brother? Can't he help you carry the box? I w i l l give him something.50 CHINOOK: A HISTORY AND DICTIONARY Chinook Kloshe kahkwa. Abba. skookum kopa mika lolo okoke? Hyas till okoke? Wake! Nesika mamook. W i l l you sell that fish? Which of them? That large one. What do you think of this country? It is very pleasant when it does not rain. I married her at Nehalem. okoke wake hiyu. nika wake ticky mahkook okoke sun. she is a Tillamook woman. pe tenas muckamuck? Hyas till okoke. What is the price of it? I ' l l give you two bits. No. not very much. Mika ticky mahsh okoke pish? Klaksta? Okoke hyas. too. Kunsih cole mitlite yahkwa mika? Hiyu cole. How many children have you? . that is not enough. Wake kwonesum. this ship? Not much farther.

As A LITERARY LANGUAGE English We have three boys and one little girl. . 51 Chinook Nesika klone tenas man nesika pe ikt tenas klootchman. I will send you some things for them when I get home. Nika mahsh mika iktas kopa kaska kimta ko nika illahee.

Material was gathered by Dr. They communicated with each other entirely in the Chinook Jargon. in 1894. Bureau of Ethnology. Franz Boas the material for his Chinook Texts. Boas in the summers of 1890 and 1891. . published by the Smithsonian Institution. Note Cultee's flattened head.CHARLES C U L T E E (Kwelte) Last known survivor of the ancient Chinook stock It was Cultee who gave Dr.

tense. if the time is omitted or not specified. . To a great extent. after a little practice. There are no hard and fast rules for the spelling of words in the Chinook Jargon. The same form is used generally for both singular and plural. The Chinook Jargon is essentially a spoken and not a written tongue . For example: 53 . past. effective communication through the Jargon depends upon the ingenuity and imagination of the speaker. The idea of time is conveyed by adding a word to indicate it. and everyone. The unique faculty of the Jargon for combining and compounding simple words and sounds makes it capable of almost unlimited expression. which are at best only approximations. Ordinarily. follows the dictates of his own judgment in the fabrication of phonetic equivalents. alta. Thus. and alta. to carry on actual conversations. or anything else. it is very much alive! The Chinook Jargon is absolutely inflexible.Part Two: A DICTIONARY G R A M M A R O F T H E JARGON IT M A Y NOT. . However. in writing Chinook. BE EASY TO UNDERSTAND how a language composed of so few words could have been used so widely as the sole medium of communication among many thousands of individuals. a thorough knowledge of a few dozen basic words of the Jargon will give one sufficient material with which. present and future are usually indicated by these three words: ahnkuttie. so does the speaker of the Jargon build sentences by skillful combining of words and sounds. It never changes its form for mood. though occasionally an "s" is added to indicate the plural. Just as a child builds houses from blocks. AT FIRST. it is understood to be present time.

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HISTORY AND DICTIONARY

"Nika kumtux ahnkuttie"—I understood, I understood some time ago. "Nika kumtux alta"—I understand now (or just "nika kumtux" —I understand). "Nika kumtux alki— I will understand, I w i l l understand by and by, I w i l l understand after while. Intensity of meaning or duration of time may also be indicated by prolongation of die sounding of the word, thus: Laly (time) would be pronounced la-a-a-aly to suggest a long time. This is based upon an instinctive principle common to all tongues, just as we in English phonetically indicate prolongation of time or extension in space or intensity of feeling by means of prolonging "a long time" into "a lo-o-o-o-ng time." The days of the week and the number of weeks, months and years are also used to designate tenses. For example: "Tahtlum sun ahnkuttie"—ten days (suns) ago. The comparative degree of adjectives is usually formed by prefixing the word elip (first or foremost) to the adjective: "Kloshe"—good (positive degree). "Elip kloshe"—better (comparative degree). The superlative degree is properly formed by adding the words "kopa konaway" (the total, the whole): "Elip kloshe kopa konaway"—better than all ... and better than all, of course, is the best. Building up a superlative carries us a long way around, but we finally arrive. There is no such thing, as stated earlier, as comparison by inflection . . . but there is still another way to convey the superlative. Adding "delate" (straight, direct) to the comparative gives us the superlative also, because delate itself is superlative: "Kloshe"— good. "Elip kloshe"—better. "Delate elip Hoshe"— best; literally, the very better. In building a superlative, going from good to less good and least good, you would use the word, kimtah (last, afterward): "Kloshe"— good. "Kimtah kloshe"— not so good, worse.

G R A M M A R OF T H E JARGON

55

"Delate kimtah kloshe"— very worse or worst. The personal pronouns become possessive by prefixing them to nouns, like "nika nem," my name; "mika kuitan," your horse; "nesika illahee," our land. Sometimes "s" is added to the personal pronouns in the possessive case; thus, nikas, mine; mikas, yours; nesikas, ours; mesikas, yours; yakas, his or hers; klaskas, theirs. Eells says this mode is used only when the pronoun is the last word in the sentence, thus: "Okoke kuitan nesikas," that horse is ours. "Nika nanitch yaka"— I see him. "Yaka kokshut nika"— he hit me. "Nika klootchman"— my wife or woman. "Nika tenas man"—my son, little man, boy, or if used by a young woman, may mean my sweetheart. "Nika tenas klootchman"—my little woman, daughter, girl, sweetheart. "Nika tumtum"—I think; my thought, guess or opinion. "Nika tumtum kahkwa"— I agree, I think so, I think like that, I approve. Among the interrogatives are "Ikta," what? What's up now? etc. "Kah"—where? whence? whither? "Kahta"—how? why? "Kunsih"— how many? how much? "Klaksta"— who? "Na" is a general interrogation, and used in many different forms of question. Numerals are given in their alphabetical order in this dictionary, but we will give them here again i n their numerical order and illustrate the manner in which they are used: "Ikt" —one. "Mokst"— two. "Klone" —three. "Lakit"— four. "Kwinnum"— five. "Taghum"— six. "Sinamokst"— seven. "Stotekin"— eight. "Kwaist"— nine. "Tahdum"— ten. "Tukamonuk"— one hundred.

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CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY

The Jargon words for eight and nine are but little used, being replaced by the English words or used in combination as: "kwinnum pe klone," five and three for eight, and "kwinnum pe lakit," five and four for nine. Thousands is either represented by the combination "tahtlum tukamonuk," ten hundred, or the English word thousand. The regularly used combinations of the numerals are quite simple. "Tahtlum pe ikt," eleven, is ten and one; "mokst tahtlum pe kwinnum," twenty-five is literally two tens and five. "Taghum tahtlum" is six tens. "Klone tukamonuk" is three hundred. The year 1926 would be expressed as follows: "Tahtlum tukamonuk (one thousand), kwaist tukamonuk (nine hundred), pe mokst tahtlum pe taghum (and two tens and six)." The origins of words in the following Chinook-English vocabulary are indicated as follows: Chinook (C); Chehalis (Ch); Clackamas ( C I ) ; Calapooia (Cal); Clallam (Clal); BellabeUa (BB); Nootka ( N ) ; Klickitat ( K ) ; Wasco ( W ) ; general Salishan tongues (S); English (E); and Canadian-French ( F ) . Invented words and words of doubtful origin which have been incorporated into the Chinook Jargon are marked (J). Pronunciation is shown as follows: Accented syllables are indicated by an accent mark ( ' ). This is not invariable in all words, but is occasionally movable. For example, sapolil (bread) is generally accented on the first syllable but occasionally on the last. A general discussion of pronunciation and spelling can be found in Chapter 13, Part One, "Spelling and Pronunciation of Chinook."

The longer the first syllable is held. "Alta yaka chako"— now he comes. ancient. A'-KIK or more commonly ik'kik (J): A fishhook.T A or al-tah ( C ) : Now.CHINOOK-ENGLISH A AB'-BA (J): Well. before now. far ago. "Ahnkuttie papa"— grandfather. "Ahnkuttie laly"— long ago. directly. "Ahnkuttie mama"— grandmother. soon. "Alah. sorrow. after a while.D E . tales spoken by the ancient people. ago. hold on. A L . very well. much long ago). months and years are also used to designate tenses. (This is the sign of the future tense. literally. "Waka alta"— not now. literally. AH'-HA ( C ) : Yes. I will understand by and by. here you are! A L ' K I ( C ) : In the future. presently. "Tenas alki"— in a little while. forefather. ( W i t h the accent prolonged on the first syllable. shall or will. in a little while. "Alki nika klatawa"— I w i l l go presently. "Ahnkuttie tillikums"— ancestors. "Kunsih laly ahnkuttie?"— how long ago? "Siah ahnkuttie"— very ancient. " A l k i nesika klatawa kopa nika boat"— soon we w i l l go in my boat. A D . anciently. ancestor. 57 . This is the small shell also worn as an ornament for the ear (see coop-coop. "Tenas ahnkuttie"— little while ago.A H ' ( J ) : Expression of surprise.) A L ' . the longer the time expressed. "Ahnkuttie tillikums yiem wawa"— traditions. mika chako!"— Oh. AHN'-KUT-TIE or ahnkutte ( C ) : Formerly. hykwa.) "Hyas ahnkuttie"— very long time ago (literally.D A H ' (S): Exclamation of pain. in the past. long ago. ancient people.) "Nika kumtux alki"— I w i l l understand. ACK ( J ) : Nephew. pay later). "Nika skookum alta"— I am strong now. progenitor. "Iskum dolla. at the present time. a very long time ago. The days of the week. and the number of weeks. surprise. not so fast. alki pay"— to borrow (get money. AL-LE-KA-CHEEK' ( J ) : Small shell money. by and by.

(half Indian.D I . It is eaten .) c CAL'-I-PEEN ( F ) : A rifle.A H ! ( J ) : ah! oh! fie!— an exclamation of pain or displeasure. See snass (cole). mika halo shem!"— Ah. carbine. volume. BOOK ( E ) : A book. indeed. "Saghalie Tyee yaka book"— a bible (literally. after a while. "Sitkum-siwash-sitkum-Boston"—a half-breed. "Mama yaka ats"— aunt. (A name derived from the hailing place of the first trading ships to the Pacific. W i t h the accent on the first syllable prolonged. BY-BY ( E ) : By-and-by. B BE'-BE ( F ) : A kiss. are you not ashamed! A N .58 CHINOOK: A HISTORY AND DICTIONARY A-MO'-TEH ( C ) : Strawberry (plant or fruit).M I N ' ( J ) : Dead (see memaloose). to kiss or fondle. B I T ( E ) : A dime or shilling. "Anah.I . it means a very long time hence. yaka mamook kumtux nesika kopa illahee"— a geography. "Mika kumtux Boston wawa?"— do you understand English? BUR-DASH ( F ) : A hermaphrodite. "Mamook bloom"— to sweep. sometime hence. but like that word is used for shall or w i l l as a sign of future time. BED ( E ) : A bed. "Kopa boat"— aboard.) "Boston plie"— protestantism. "Tenas book"— a pamphlet. "Ats yaka man"— brother-in-law. which was and still is a principal food of the Indians. half American. as distinguished from a canoe.) "Boston Illahee"— the United States. ATS (J): A sister. ( I t means a longer time in the future than alki. lakamas. nowitka. BLOOM ( E ) : A broom. younger than the person speaking of her. A-SHUK' (C): Snow. "Book yaka mamook kumtux nesika kopa lalang"— a grammar. — God. Occasionally corrupted into almota. BOAT ( E ) : A boat. A T . pocket-book. "Book yaka mamook kumtux nesika kopa stone"— a geology. BOS'-TON ( E ) : An American. "Elip ats"— older sister. skiff. "Book. "Book yaka mamook kumtux nesika kopa nesika"— a physiology. camass ( N ) : An edible bulb. A N . (See kahpho). American.A L H ' ( J ) : A wasp. "Klahanie kopa boat"— overboard. CAM'-AS or kamass. his book). a species of hyacinth.

assemble. CHA'-KO or chah'-ko. John Rodgers Jewitt gives chamass for fruit. to become rotten. to vanish. "Kloshe mika hyak chako"— good you come quick. to become friendly. to become good.N I M ' ( C ) : A canoe. "Chako kunamokst nika"— come with me. (literally. "Chako Boston"— to become an American (often said of Indians who are becoming civilized like white people). "Halo chako"— to linger. convene. ( I n the latter sense it forms the passive voice in connection with many other words. "Yaka chako stone"— it is petrified. and is also beaten into a pulp. "Chako kunamokst"— to congregate. dried in cakes and eaten in lieu of bread. to disappear. to become different. to get a good heart. also for sweet. Often it is joined with adjectives and nouns. "Canim stick"— the cedar or wood from which canoes are usually made. In his Nootka Sound Journal (1803-5). It was sometimes called the Siwash onion. "Nika chako kopa Poteland"— I come from Portland. to be all gone. "Chako elip hiyu"— to exceed. and forms other verbs. "Chako pahtlum"— to become drunk. "Chako kah nika nanitch"— to appear. to be or become. chahco ( N ) : To come. meet. to go in a canoe. the preferred spelling has come to be camas. to reform. Occasionally the passive voice is shown by placing the word iskum before the main word: "Yaka iskum kow"— he is arrested. "Chako kloshe tum-tum"— to love.CHINOOK-ENGLISH 59 raw. to become decayed (as potatoes or vegetables). It is abundant from the Coast Range to the Bitter Root Mountains and was found in abundance in Indian days on the Columbia River flats. "Yaka chako pahtlum"— he is drunk. "Chako memaloose"— to die.) "Nika chako keekwulee"— I am degraded. CHAK'-CHAK ( C ) : The bald eagle. "Chako hyas tumtum"— to become proud. However. "Chako huloima"— to vary. is coming). The flower is blue. "Klatawa kopa canim"— to embark. never w i l l be gone). C A . to approach. "Chako kloshe"— to get well. join. "Chako halo"— to be destroyed. CA'-PO' ( F ) : A coat. the plant and blossom resembling a hyacinth. "Wake kunsih yaka chako halo"— indelible. CAP'-A-LA (J): The cheeks. unite. "Chuck chako"— the tide is rising (literally. "Chako delate till"— to become exhausted. "Chuck chako pe klatawa"— the tides. .

"Nika hyas ticky chikamin"— I very much wish money. cash. "Delate chee"— entirely new. C H I L ' . cart. new. to be cheated. "Chikamin lope"— wire. very new. recent. "Hyas chee"— entirely new. "Chee chako"— a newcomer.L O (S): An oyster. "Chinook wind"—a warm. CHIK'-A-MIN ( N ) : Iron. "Nika chako kopa chikchik"— I come in a wagon. CHIK'-CHIK or tsik-tsik or tchik-tchik ( J ) : A wagon. "Chako yotl tumtum"— to become glad. "Chee nika ko"— I have just arrived. "Chako solleks"— to become angry. C H E T . any wheeled vehicle. "Chikamin piah"— stove. the stars.C H I L or tsil-tsil ( C ) : Buttons. their name for the Chinook tribe. to quarrel. originally so-called by the white settlers at Astoria because it came from the direction of the Chinook camp. (seele-coo). CHET'-WOOT ( S ) : A black bear. "Chinook canim"— large canoe.60 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY "Chako polaklie"—to become dark. come warm heart. "Chinook tillikums"— the Chinook Indians or people. "Chako waum rumtum"— to be earnest. metal. metallic. just now. CHOPE (S): A grandfather. especially after a sickness. fresh. The word probably originates from the Chehalis word Tsinuk. CHESP (J): The neck. wheel. CHI-NOOK': A Chinook Indian or the Jargon. CHITSH (S): A grandmother. "Mika kumtux Chinook wawa?"~ Do you understand the Chinook language? "Chinook sammon (salmon)"—the quinnat salmon. "Chako pelton"— to become foolish. to be glad. "Pil chikamin"— gold or copper (yellow metal). "Illahee kah chikamin mitlite"— mines. just arrived. CHEE ( C ) : Lately. to show complete recovery. (see chitsh). to become excited. steel. "T'kope chikamin"— silver (white metal). "Piah chikchik"— railroad cars. literally. CHEE'-CHEE ( C ) : A small bird. "Chinook illahee"— the land of the Chinook Indians. a chain. "Chinook wawa"— the Chinook language. "Chako tenas"— to decrease. moist. mineral. "Chako skookum"—to become strong. "Lolo kopa chikchik"— to haul in a wagon. . night is coming. oysters. southwest wind of the coastal states of Oregon and Washington. "Chik-chik wayhut"— a wagonroad. "Klootchman yaka chee mallie"— a bride. money. original.

a century. "Olo kopa chuck"— thirsty. also a year. "Cooley chuck"— river. "Yahka hyas kumtux cooley"— he knows very well how to run. CO'-SHO ( F ) : A pig. "Cole illahee"— winter. Probably from the French word courir. the Arctic. to repent. he can run. (Also signifies a narrow valley. the place or abiding place of cold. COOLEY ( F ) : To run. ham. Skookum chuck—a powerful or rapid stream. freezing. "Cly tumtum"— to cry in the heart. one winter. lament.CHINOOK-ENGLISH 61 CHO'-TUB (S): A flea. "Cole sick waum sick"— fever and chills. to be literal). play. ague. Solleks chuck — a rough sea. ramble or stroll. or shell money (see hykwa). usually dry. "Hyas chuck"— deluge. "Siwash cosho"— a seal (literally. travel. pork. "Mamook comb illahee"— to harrow. through which spring floods run during the melting of the snow. moan. to feel sorry. to be full of grief or emotion (deeper in feeling than sick tumtum). "Klootchman cosho"—a sow (a pig's woman. COMB ( E ) : A comb. "Hyak cooley"— to run rapidly or go fast. to mourn. cease moving. weeping (either noun or verb). frozen rain. "Tahtlum cole"— ten years or winters. "Cole chuck"— ice. COLE ( E ) : Cold. "Cooley kuitan"— a race horse. go about. CO'-LEE-CO'-LEE ( J ) : A rat. Saghalie (keekwullee) chuck —high (low) tide. or stream. . "Kah mitlite chuck?"— where is the water? "Muckamuck chuck"— to drink water. "Kopet cooley"— to stop.) COOP-COOP ( C ) : Small dentalium. "Chuck lapome"— cider. "Cultus cooley"— to saunter. Chuck chako (killapi) —the tide comes. halt. "Cole sick"— a cold. mourning. rises and falls. "Cole snass"— hail or snow. ice water. "Ikt cole"— a year. "Ikt tukamonuk cole"— a hundred winters or years. "Kah cole chako"— the north. Salt chuck —the sea. bacon. Indian pig). a river. walk. to run. CLY or kely (E): To cry. "Hyas cole"— very cold. to wander about aimlessly. also very cold water. or in the other order. "Kah delate cole mitlite"— the place where the coldest cold abides. where the cold comes from. chills and fever. CHUCK ( N ) : Water. CHUK'-KIN (S): To kick.

"Cultus kopa mika"— none of your business. "Cultus nanitch"— to look idly about. literally. and also a degree of worthlessness which cannot be expressed in ordinary English. tell the truth. "Delate kloshe"— very good. "Delate wawa"— the truth. "Deaub yaka illahee"—hell. straight—which seems more likely than the derivation from the French. sincerely.") DE-AUB' (F): The devil. very good. "Cosho glease"— lard. of the same meaning). I do not care. Satan. pork. correctly. "Wake delate"— not right. foul. bad. filthy. "Cultus he-he"— a joke or jest.) "Cultus man"— a worthless fellow. of no manner of use whatever. also an equivalent of majestic. definite. literally. (From the French. (A few words are very expressive. "Delate kwinnum cole ahnkuttie"— exactly five years ago. a big or superlative very good. without purpose. A cultus siwash is the last word in no-accountness. or stay where you are. the way you are going. sure. authentic. enormous. magnificent. immense. D DA'GO (J): Gnats. very I sorry. exact.) "Klatawa delate"— to go straight ahead. cochon. Cultus is among these words. droite — cited by other authorities. . true talk. worn out. to prove. awe-inspiring. damaged beyond repair. "Wawa delate (reversing the phrase delate wawa)"—to speak the truth or speak correctly. a promise." (This might have derived from the Indian pronunciation of "they go.62 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY "Tenas cosho"— a suckhng or small pig. literally. "Cultus mitlite"— to sit idly. accurate. true. direct. a demon. definitely.L A T E ' or daite ( E ) : Straight. imperfect. his place. deaub iskum mika"— if you do wrong the devil will get you. "Spose mika mamook mesachie. CUL'-TUS or kultus ( C ) : Worthless. "Delate nika sick tumtum"— I am very sorry. good for nothing. "Okoke delate"— that is right or it is correct. very. "No-see'-ums. (According to James Gilchrist Swan (1857). a fact. useless. sure. truly. sincere. "Delate kumtux"— to know for a certainty. "Cosho itlwillie"— hog meat. "Delate cultus"— absolute worthlessness. "Delate hyas"— very big indeed. this word is a corruption of the English word. meaning so much and expressing that meaning in so much better way than our English words do that they have often been adopted into the English in regions where the Chinook Jargon is used. doing nothing. D E . "Cultus potlatch"— a present or free gift. "Cultus kopa nika"— makes no difference to me. the devil. dissolute. "Delate hyas kloshe"— very.

E K . "Tahtlum dolla"— ten dollars. If an Indian doctor was meant the term became Siwash doctin. original. EK'-KEH ( C ) : A brother-in-law. sad at heart. E'-LIP (S): First. "Ikt dolla"— one dollar. "Delate yaka illahee"— a native of the country. "Nika ticky doctin"— I want the doctor. ahead.) "Sitkum dolla"— half a dollar. "Dockin kopa letah"— doctor of the teeth. surgeon. money. arid. "Doctin kopa seeowist or seahost"— doctor of the eyes or face. E EE'-NA ( C ) : A beaver. perfectly he knows. literally. his very home. alms. "Chickamin dolla"— a silver dollar. a Frenchman or an Englishman.CHINOOK-ENGLISH 63 "Delate pahtl"— full to the brim.T I N ( E ) : Doctor.K O . chockfull. to give alms or assistance. "Eena stick"— willow (beaverwood). the very beginning of the morning. "Delate tenas"— just a little. (An Indian attempt to pronounce the English word dry. assistance. wooden. comparative and . prior. "Delate tenas sun"— dawn. sometimes pronounced tollah). "Dolla seeowist"— spectacles (eyes one pays for). literally. "Delate yaka kumtux"— an expert. D U T C H M A N : Any white man other than an American. D O C . elder. "D'ly tupso"— hay. ( A n Indian attempt to use the English word dollar. literally. grief. "Delate sick tumtum"— very sad. beginning. senior. very sorry. healer.L I ( C ) : A whale. without water. daybreak. E-KONE' (J): The Good Spirit. before. EK-SKAUN ( C ) : Wood. dryness. or E-lan (S): Aid. "Delate nika wawa"— I am speaking the truth. E-LAK'-HA (J): The sea otter. physician. truth I say. E-KU'-TOCH (J): The Bad Spirit. The word as used referred to a white doctor. Pil chickamin is copper money or coins. EK-KAH'-NAM (C): A tale or story. "Mamook elan"— to help. (Pil refers to the color. (For the use of elip in the formation of the positive. "Pil dolla"— gold coin. D'LY ( E ) : Dry. D O L L A ( E ) : A dollar. E-LA-HAN. dry grass.) "Chako d'ly"— to become dry. literally. to make dry. "Mamook d'ly"— to dry up.

E ' . risen. H H A H ' . "Nika ticky klatawa enati kopa chuck"— I want to go across the water. . This was another attempt to pronounce English. milk.H A H T ( S ) : The mallard duck. opposite to. udder. or literally. HAK'-AT-SHUM ( E ) : Handkerchief ( A n Indian imitation of the English word handkerchief)." "Mamook hahlakl"— to open or to make open. E-TAM'-A-NA (S): A prophet. on the other side of. Indians converted the r into 1. It could be translated literally as "coming open.W I L L (S): The ribs. ETH'-LAN or it-lan ( C ) : A fathom. E-QUAN'-NAT ( C ) : Salmon. GOOM STICK: Pine. E-MEETS' ( J ) : The nose. fir or spruce.L A K L ( C ) : Wide.) CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY superlative degrees of adjectives. ET'-SHUM ( C ) : The heart. a specific name for the Chinook or king salmon. maize. "Yaka mitlite enati kopa city"— he lives opposite to the city. "Chako hahlakl"— expression used when applied to thin spaces in the forest. so they often pronounce this word as if it were spelled ket-op. This word is the original of Quinnat. resin. rise. "Mamook hahlakl la pote"— open the door. ( I t is difficult for Indians to get exact English sounds. and grease became glease. E-SALT'-H or ye-salt'-h ( W ) : Indian corn. ES'-SAL ( C ) : To come. see the introduction to this section of the E-LI'-TEE ( J ) : A slave.64 book. "Glease piah"— a candle. EN'-A-TI ( C ) : Across. G GET-UP' or ket-op' ( E ) : To get up. across from the city.) GLEASE ( E ) : Grease. GOOM or la-goom ( F ) : Pitch. "Hiyu glease"— very fat. H A H T . open.) "Glease mitlite kopa bone"— marrow. HA-LET' (S): To tremble. E-MIN'-TE-PU ( J ) : The muskrat. "Tatoosh glease"—butter. ET-SIT-SA (S): Sick. (see Sammon).M I ' . the chest. (Tatoosh means breasts.H ( J ) : The breast. beyond. E-MEEK' ( J ) : The back. E .T I N .

or get to work briskly.K W U T L ( J ) : Expresses inability.H O H ( J ) : To cough. "Huloima tillikum"—a different tribe of people. a dance house. "Siwash house"— Indian house. another.M E L H (S): To gather. "How-kwutl klap yahka?"— how could I find her? H U L . "Mahkook house"— a store or trading house.) H I . HOW ( J ) : Listen.K U . destitute. lean. "Hiyu muckamuck"— plenty of food. "Kloshe hehe"— a good game. "Hehe tumtum"— a jolly spirit. Used as a verb it is usually preceded by mamook and sometimes by potlatch — makes help in the one case. glee. "Tenas hiyu"— a small number. difference.L E L ' ( C ) : To shake or tremble. "Wake hehe"— serious. or adjective. sport. strange. abundance. queer. restaurant or any eating place. "Mamook haul"— must haul. HELP ( E ) : Help. odd. not to laugh. "Halo pish chako"— no fish come. separate. H A U L ( E ) : Haul. " H i y u tillikums kopa house"— an audience.CHINOOK-ENGLISH 65 H A L O ( J ) : No. glean. "Yaka wind halo chako"— literally. H O W H ( J ) : Turn to. different. "Hiyu wawa"— much talk. it becomes active. He-he may be used as noun. his breath does not come. "Cultus hehe"— a joke. "Hehe house"— an amusement place. ridicule. "Kopet hiyu"— enough. hurry. HE-HE (C):Laugh. gives help in the other. (This may be used as noun or verb. to laugh. plenty. "Halo glease"— without fat. dead. a shop. a play house. good natured. verb. "Mamook hehe"— to laugh. none. (Used with the verb mamook. H O H . without. "Halo iktas"—no goods. not. diverse. How could? Cannot. (see wake) "Halo chickamin nika"— I have no money. (Used with reference to quantity and numbers rather than size or degree. "Skookum house"— a jail. many people in house. very few. HOOL-HOOL ( C ) : Mouse. laughter. mirth. averse. foreign. to pull or draw. . HOUSE ( E ) : House.Y U ' ( N ) : Much. literally a strong house. all gone.) "Hiyu tillikum"— a crowd. "Wake hiyu"— not many. H O W . H O . assist. unusual.) HUL-O'-I-MA ( C ) : Other. aid. HAS'-LITCH (J): Liver. a game. fun. attend. Mamook hullel means to make shake or tremble. a clamor. "Muckamuck house"— hotel. assistance.

as barter was the first order of prehistoric trade. stink. "Nika hyas ticky klatawa"— I very much want to go. "Humm itlwillie"— carrion. crooked. HY-AK' ( C ) : Quick. can be used for very. indeed! Exclamation of surprise. fast. "Okoke house yaka hyas"— that house. it is large. "Huloima tumtum"— to dissent or disagree. "Hyak yaka chako"— quickly he comes. stench. putrid. "Huyhuy la sell"— to change the saddle. selling and exchanging required more definite terms. "Mamook humm"— to smell. to trade. "Hyas humm"— a very bad smell. very. that being the Nootkan for buy. "Kloshe humm"— a pleasant smell. HY-AS' ( N ) : Large. not fast.K I H (C): Curled. great. "Hyas kloshe"— very good. "Hyas huloima"— a big difference. celebrated. knotted. This was originally mahkook. to emigrate. rapidity of motion. there being no distinction. yes — oui. when applied to size. wide. H U N L ' . "Huyhuy tumtum"—to change One's mind. sudden. "Mika ticky huyhuy kuitan kopa canim?"— do you want to trade horse for canoe? H W A H ! (J): Ah. "Mamook huyhuy"— to change. "Mamook hyak"— to make haste. and huyhuy to exchange. to barter or trade. marchand) was introduced by the French. "Hyas ahnkuttie"— a very long time ago. curly.66 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY "Klatawa kopa huloima illahee"— to go to another place or country or abiding place. "Hyas tyee"— a great chief. quickly. big. HUY-HUY (J): A bargain or exchange. hurry. to be prompt. sell or trade. mahkook came to apply to buying. oui. H U M M (J): To smell. mahsh to selling. a difference of opinion. "Yaka humm"— it smells. an odor. - . "Hyas tenas"— very small. "Nika ticky huyhuy kuitan kopa canim"— I want to trade horse for canoe. hence used to denote skunk. Then mahsh (F. and that it got its origin in the French for yes. "Humm opoots"— stinking tail. swift. "Hyas Sunday"— a holiday like Christmas or Fourth of July. "Huloima wawa"— a different language. rapidly. "Huloima mamook"— miracle. arduous. a foreign tongue. "Wake hyak"— slow. etc. It is said to mean a hasty exchange in some cases. also to mispronounce or say the word wrong. but as the distinction between buying. vast. suddenly.

I K ( C ) : Fishhook. solitary. once. who? Ikta or kahta. I K T ( C ) : The numeral one. slightly curved white tube with fine rings and striatums on the surface. also the indefinite articles. one man. "Ikt-ikt-man"— some one or other. when? How much time or how many days? "Ikta okoke?"— what is that? "Ikta mika ticky?"— what do you want? "Ikta mamook?"— what's the matter? what's doing? "Ikta mika mamook?"— what are you doing? . " I k t time kopa klone moon"— the time of three moons. I I K . IK-POO'-IE ( C ) : To shut. This formerly was used as money among Northwestern Indians. only one. The tooth shell is extremely long and slender. stop by closing. I K ' . what? Kunsih. large dentalium — one of the tooth shells. a unit or single thing. white. a closed ear. " I k t cole"— one year. "Ikt time ikt moon"— the time one month. The kind prized most highly was the dentalium pretiosum. hiagua. There are three of these: Klaksta. There is a hole at each end through which the sinew is run and the shell is of slightly greater diameter at one end than at the other. which grew point up on the rocks. It is shaped like an elephant's tusk.CHINOOK-ENGLISH 67 "Hyas tick-tick"— clock. procured in deep water from the coasts of the straits and inland seas by thrusting a mass of blubber attached to a long pole down upon the shells. " I k t man"— a man. "Kopet ikt"— to stop alone. is two to three inches in length and one-sixteenth to one-eighth inch in diameter. stream (see cooley). " I k t nika klatawa kopa yaka house"— once I go to his house. "Hyas house"— mansion. A smaller kind of the same shell was also used as money and called coop-coop or allekacheek. The shell is a hollow. singly. " I k t dolla"— one dollar. to cork. "Mamook ikpooie"— to surround. how many or how much? Also. These shells were sometimes worn as ornaments in pierced ears and noses. HY'-KWA (hiaqua. It was strung upon thin deer sinew about a fathom in length.T A ( C ) : What? (interrogative pronoun). three months.H O L ' ( C ) : River. haiqua. to shut. ioqua) ( N ) : Shell money or wampum. and thus detaching them. quarterly. quill-like shell. close. a and an. a long. "Ikpooie la pote"— shut the door. " I k t tahlkie"— day before yesterday. "Ikpooie kwolan"— deaf. I K ' .

an oar. ash (literally. "Ipsoot wawa"— to whisper. "Iskum okoke lope"— hold on to that rope. goods. recover. to hide anything. all this country.T I or enati (C): Across. land. The use of the same word for what (ikta) and for things (iktas) is found in other Coast Indian dialects. to keep secret. "Mamook isick"— to paddle. "Delate yaka illahee"— one's native land. obtain. everywhere. field. "Siwash illahee"— Indian country and later an Indian reservation. "Passaiooks Illahee"— France. "Inati chuck"— over the river. "Konaway okoke illahee"— the world. hidden. dress. amass. "Konaway illahee konaway kah"— all places all where — the universe.A . sly. to row. home. "Saghalie Illahee"— heaven. His Country. seize. "Kah mika illahee?"— where is your country? where do you come from? "Kloshe illahee"— garden. a flea. "Sopena inapoo"— a louse that jumps. "Ipsoot klatawa"— to slip away secretly. garments. concealed. district. secure. "Mika na iskum?"— did you get it? "Mika iskum?"— you get? "Iskum piah stick"— get some firewood. accept. "Saghalie Tyee yaka Illahee"— God. IS'-ICK ( C ) : A paddle. . Iktas is a very expressive word and was long ago adopted into the English spoken by the early settlers. as they commonly expressed it. earth. clothes.H E E ( C ) : Country. "Boston Illahee"— United States. "Kah mika iktas?"— where are your things? "Halo iktas mitlite"— there is nothing here. merchandise. literally. "Nika hiyu iktas"— I have many things or goods. soil. region. "King George (Chauch) Illahee"—England. nab.L A . everything. (Saghalie means above and keekwullie below. catch. IS'-KUM ( C ) : Get. the place where one resides. Heaven. IN'-A-POO ( C ) : A b u s e . farm. to take hold of. hold. "Isick stick"— any wood from which an oar or paddle is made—alder. to hide one's self. paddlewood). "Keekwullie Illahee"—hell. A l l other whites came from Dutchman Illahee. receive.) "Okoke illahee yaka hyas kloshe"— this land is very good. I L ' . utensils — almost any personal possession. I N ' . IP'-SOOT ( C ) : To hide.68 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY IK'-TAS ( C ) : Things. ranch. to conceal. or Dutchman yaka illahee.

"Kahkwa nika tumtum"— like as my heart. get married. "Clatsop tillikum kadeena Chehalis"— the Clatsops fight with the Che- halis. as also. thus. a dark blanket. "Kah mika mitlite?"— where do you live or stay? "Kah mika illahee?"— where is your land or where is your country? "Kah mika chaco?"— where do you come from? "Kah yaka sick?"— where is he sick? what is the matter? "Kah cole chaco"— where the cold comes from — north. sheep. equal with. I T ' . "Lemooto itlwillie. "Iskum kopa tumtum"— to believe. "Konaway kah"~ everywhere. "Iskum sapolil"— harvest. "Tenas moosmoos yaka itlwillie"— veal. as I think. "Moosmoos yaka itlwillie"— beef. to learn. "Iskum kumtux"— get understanding. all where.K U M ( C ) : A gambling game. cow. "Mowitch yaka itlwillie"— deer. I T ' . its meat.L A N or eth'-lan (C): A fathom. so I think. "Konaway nika itlwillie sick"— all my muscles are sore. KAH'-KWA ( N ) : Like. mostly used for like and alike. "Potlatch nika?"— give me? 'Iskum"— take it.W I L . "Itswoot pasese"— a dark. his meat. as so. even as. KAH-DE'-NA ( C ) : To fight. K KAH? ( C ) : Where? whence? whither? "Kah mika klatawa?"— where are you going? "Halo kah"— nowhere.L O . or lemooto yaka itlwillie"— mutton. "Kah sun chaco"— where the sun rises or comes from — east. I T L ' . literally. "Kahkwa tyee"— like a chief. "Kah sun mitlite kopa sitkum sun"— where the sun is at half sun — midday — south. flesh. inasmuch." a common amusement among all the tribes. . thick cloth. the length of the arms extended. similar to. little cow. the game of "hand. Probably originally used by Indians who saw a resemblance between the heavy dark blankets of the Hudson's Bay Company and the fur of a black bear. aristocratic.CHINOOK-ENGLISH 69 "Iskum klootchman"— get a woman. a black bear. ITS'-WOOT ( C ) : A bear. its flesh. its flesh. "Mamook itlokum"— to gamble. "Kah sun klatawa"— where the sun goes — west. KAH'-KAH (J): A crow. kingly.L I E ( C ) : Meat. venison. literally. "Kah mika iskum?"— where did you get it? "Nika iskum kopa stick?"— I got it in the woods. alike. muscle of a person or animal. because. hence. such.

good so. was worn by Chinook and other Indian women of the lower country for skirts and capes. KAH'-NA-WAY ( C ) : Acorn or acorns. especially nouns. "Kahnaway stick"— the oak. Comox. KAL-A-KWAH'-TEE ( J ) : The silky inner bark of the cedar. it like. KA-LI'-TAN ( C ) : An arrow. but when guns were introduced the expression also meant a shotpouch. This bark." According to Myron Eells (1843-1907). "Kalitan le sac"— a quiver for arrows. a wing. a shot. "Kahkwa tillikum"— friendly. a bullet. "Halo kahkwa"— not like. as big I. . like metal. "Kahmooks house"— dog house. who lived among the Puget Sound Indians practically all his life. a winged insect. (Pronounced differently in different localities. KAH-LO'-KEN ( C ) : Aswan. a fowl. (The Lord's Prayer in the Chinook jargon ends with the expression: "kloshe kahkwa. "Kahkwa spose"— as if. stripped in long filaments and made fast to a cord or sinew in a long fringe. The following phrases illustrate what he means: "Kahkwa chikamin"— metallic.) "Kahkwa kahmooks"— like a dog. ( I t is said to be an imitation of the notes of a wild goose when flying — hence flying bird. unlike. takes its name from the word. Chinese and Japanese make similar garments of long grass. liquid. "Kahkwa chuck"— fluid. "Kahmooks wawa"— bark of a dog. The word also means petticoat. "Delate kahkwa'— exactly the same. KAH'-MOOKS or Komooks ( C ) : A dog. "Yaka kahkwa"— alike. and also was used for bullets and lead. KAH'-TA ( C ) : How? why? "Kahta mika mamook okoke?"— why (do) you do that? "Kahta mika chaco?"—how (did) you come? "Kahta mika?"—how (are) you? "Pe kahta?"— and why? what for? "Kahta kopa yaka?"— how is he? KA-LAK'-A-LA or Kulakula (C): A bird. like supposed. changing them into adverbs and sometimes into adjectives. Among the Kwakiutl it is comox. originally. amen. so be it. a coal mining town on Vancouver Island in the original Kwakiutl country.70 CHINOOK: A HISTORY AND DICTIONARY "Kahkwa hyas nika"— as large as I am. beastly. like the country of the cold. "Kopet kahkwa"— that is all.) "Kalakala house"— a nest. "kahkwa" is often used with other words. like water. "Kahkwa cole illahee"— wintry. "Kloshe kahkwa"—that is right.

— Commandment. "Kuitan kapswolla"— horse thief. "Mahsh keekwullie kopa illahee"— to bury.CHINOOK-ENGLISH 71 KAMAS: See Camas. "Elip keekwullie kopa konaway"— lower than all or lowest. beneath. K E E ' . "Yaka kapswolla canim"— he stole the canoe. below. KEEL'-AL-LY ( C ) : A medicine man." (Used to mean adultery." but "kimtah ow. down. KAUP'-HO ( C ) : An elder brother or cousin. KA'MO'-SUK ( C ) : Beads.K W U L . "Wake kloshe mika kapswolla"— (not good you steal). "Mitlite keekwuUie"— to set down. a thief. rape. "Elip keekwullie"—lower. thorn. KAW'-KA-WAK ( C ) : YeUow or pale green. Also "elip ow. sting of an insect. KEEP'-WOT ( C ) : Needle. although. Used with other words "kapswolla" acquires a larger significance than in any of the examples given above: "Kapswolla klatawa"— to go secretly. "Keekwullie"— low. literally. KAT'-SUK ( C ) : The middle or center. can. rob. pin. KET'-LING ( E ) : Kettle. basin. KAP-SWOL'-LA ( J ) : To steal. "Keschi yaka wawa wake mamook"— although he said not to do it. "Mamook keekwullie"— to lower. illicit sexual intercourse. "Kehwa yaka memaloose"— because she (or he." younger brother. Thou shalt not steal.) "Kapswolla kopa klootchman"— to elope. "Yaka kapswolla man"— he is a thief. "Yaka kumtux kapswolla"— he knows how to steal. or steal away. KEH-LO'-KE or kaloke ( C ) : A swan. larceny. a theft. put under. "Kapswolla moosum"—literally "steal sleep. . place beneath. to put under the ground. KEH'-SU or kisu ( C ) : An apron.) KA-WAK' (S): To fly. inward. "Klatawa keekwullie kopa chuck"— to dive.L I E ( C ) : Low. under. KE'-LOK ( C ) : Crane. "Tyee kamosuk"— the large blue beads so highly prized in the fur-trading days. KAU'-PY ( J ) : Coffee ( A n Indian attempt to pronounce the word in English. to go beneath the water. KEH'-WA ( J ) : Because (see kahkwa). "Mika kapswolla okoke?"—• did you steal that? "Kapswolla klootchman"— steal a woman. "Kapswolla wawa"— to speak ill. or i t ) is dead. "Kapswolla mamook"— to do secretly. KES'-CHI ( C ) : Notwithstanding.

"Mika killapi alta?"~ have you returned now? "Mamook killapi"— to bring back or to send back. to follow.P I or keellapi ( C ) : To turn. The fruit is a bright red berry which was eaten by both Indians and bears. "Yaka klatawa klah"— he escaped. K I L L ' . (Originally a prepared mixture but later referred to certain plants. KT-YA (S): Entrails. "Killapi kopa house"— go back to the house. smoking. bottle. "Kimtah sitkum sun"— afternoon. younger. "Klatawa kimtah"— to go behind. after. K I M ' .) K I N ' . "Killapi tumtum"— to change your mind. "Nika elip. retreat. exterior. glass.A . "Killapi teahwit"— crooked legs or arms. "Kimtah nika nanitch mika"— since I saw you. in sight. "Killapi seeowist"— crossed or crooked eyes. K I L . to clear up. "Mamook klah"— to uncover. without. "Mamook kishkish"— to drive or impel. "Mamook klahanie okoke"— put that out. reverse. capsize. subsequent. return. back. KI'-NOOTL ( C ) : Tobacco. "Hyak killapi"— to return quickly.N I . "Killapi canim"— to upset a canoe. "Kimtah kloshe"— worse. "Chako klah"— to come up. trailing shrub with reddish bark and evergreen leaves.) Coastal Indians smoked the leaves of the Kinnikinnik or bear-berry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi)—a pretty. since. "Klataka klah"— to escape and get away.N I K ( C ) : Smoking weed. to hurry back. "Alta yaka klah"— now he is in sight. "Mamook kishkish okoke moosmoos"— drive away that ox or cow. upset. overturn. outside. and often to denote crooked or twisted deformities.K I N . "Okoke kimtah"— the one behind. pit. K L A H ( C ) : Free or clear from.T A H ( C ) : Behind. KIS'-SU or kehsu ( C ) : An apron. "Yaka kishkish nika"— he drove me away. . to open out. KISH'-KISH ( C ) : To drive as to drive horses or cattle. reverse your opinion. meaning open spaces in the woods. out. KI'-WA ( W ) : Crooked. as a prisoner escaping. pe yaka kimtah"— I first and he afterwards.72 CHINOOK: A HISTORY AND DICTIONARY KET'-WIL-LA ( C ) : Cellar.i r . (Another Indian attempt to pronounce an English word. KLA'-HA-NIE ( C ) : Out of doors. if used in speaking of the weather. as seed. rear.S U T ( C ) : Flint. last. to escape. make drive. "Delate kimtah"— last. afterwards. bowels. K I N G CHAUTSH ( E ) : A King George man.

how are you. KLAK'-STA ( C ) : Who? whose? which? which one? any. to take pity.CHINOOK-ENGLISH 73 "Chako klahanie"— to emerge or come out from. plural number). "Klahanie kopa house"— out of doors. "Klak kopa ooahut"— get out of the road. them. friend. compassion. "Klakwun la-tahb"— wipe off the table. friend? KLA-HOW'-YUM ( C ) : Poor. "Klale nika tumtum"— ignorant is my mind. theirs. twine. others (anything pertaining to the third person. "Nika klap kopa polaklie"— I arrived at night. thine. "Nika nanitch klaska"— I see them. "Klahowya sikhs"— good day. . K L A K ( C ) : Off. always standing for child when used in that manner. klonas klaksta"— a man. KLA-POO'-CHUS ( C ) : Beard (seetupso). arrive. out. ignorant. "Klatawa klahanie"— to go out. "Klaksta mamook okoke?"— who did that? " I k t man. to be delivered. KLAS'-KA ( C ) : They. KLAK'-WUN (S): To wipe or lick. "Klaska klatawa kopa Clallam illahee"— they go (or went) to the Clallam country. "Konaway klaksta"— everyone." little. half black. miserable. "Klaksta okoke Boston man?"— who is that American? "Klaksta yahwa?"— who is there? "Halo klaksta"— no one. friend. "Klatawa nesika klahanie kopa town"— let us go away from the city. away. wretched. good-bye. "Klap wawa"— to learn a language. "Okoke pasese yaka klale"— that blanket it is black. "Klap tumtum"—to decide or arrive at an opinion. or good-by (the ordinary salutation whether meeting or parting). "Mamook klak capo"— take off the coat. "tenas. in distress. their. good evening. out of the house. KLA-HOW-YA? ( C ) : How do you do? good day. therefore somebody. good morning. KLA'-PITE (C): Thread. K L A L E ( C ) : Black or dark blue. KLAP ( C ) : To find. also green. not any. "Hyas klahowyum nesika"— we are very poor. "Mamook klahowyum"— to give alms. I don't know whom. "Sitkum-klale"—brown. needy. "Klak kwolan"— to clip off the ears. "Okoke klaska illahee"— this is their land. to take off. "Mika klap mika canim?"— did you find your canoe? "Tenas klap"— to be with child. "Mahsh klahanie"— to throw out or eject.

"Klonas yaka chako tomollo"— perhaps he will come tomorrow. get out. to walk. K L I M . . or he went. as dressing a deerskin until it is pliable as cloth. "Yaka klatawa kopa Seattle"— he goes. lazy. "Kah mika kahpho?"— where is your brother? "Klonas"— I do not know. "Klimmin sapolil"— flour. move away. "Klone sun"— three days. "Wawa klawah"— speak slowly. KLIP or klep ( C ) : Deep. to lie. sunken. migrate. brass armlet. the Jargon equivalent for the Spanish term. "Mika tumtum hiyu snass okoke sun?"— do you think i t will rain much today? "Klonas"— I don't know. leave. K L I L E ( C ) : Sour. KLONE ( C ) : Three (the numeral).W H I T ( C ) : A he. not hard. mud. start. I go. KLIK'-A-MUKS ( C ) : Blackberries.H U N (S): To stab. K L I M ' . "Yaka kwonesum kliminawhit"— he always lies. "Klone tillikum"— three people. doubtful.A . who knows? ( A n expression of uncertainty or doubt. K L A ' . travel. I do not know. literally. "Klimmin illahee"— soft or marshy ground. "Klatawa teahwhit"— to go on foot. tardily. pit. KLIS'-KWISS ( C ) : A mat made of cattail rushes. may. KLO'-NAS ( C ) : Perhaps.W A H ( C ) : Slow. "Chako klimmin"— to become soft. K L E M ' . "Mamook klatawa"— to make go or send. falsehood. to sink. untrue. might. or maybe. brass wire. melt. "Hyas kumtux kliminawhit"— he is a big liar. fine in substance. "Mamook klimmin"— to make become soft or to soften by working. depart. bitter.) "Klonas?"— who knows? "Klonas nika klatawa"— perhaps. K L O H . "Klip chuck"— deep water. slowly. quien sabe. dewberries. to Seattle.K L O H ( C ) : Oyster or oysters (see chetlo). KLA'-WHOP ( C ) : A hole. cellar. "Klatawa klawah"— go slowly. sinks sun. "Wake klimmin or halo klimmin"— not soft. grain ground fine. wound. maybe so.I N ' . "Kliskwiss yaka kloshe kopa bed"— the mat is good for a bed. fine. hard.W A L . "Yahka chaco klawah"— he comes slowly.L I E ( C ) : Brass. K L I K ' . begone. "Klip sun"— sunset.74 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY KLAT'-A-WA ( N ) : To go. "Klone canim"— three canoes. spear.M I N ( C ) : Soft.A . flee.

unfavorable. nurse. auspicious. guard. well enough. elegant. a wife. amiable. "Kloshe kopa cultus potlatch"— liberal. beloved. unkind. unsalable. "Kloshe kopa nika"— I am satisfied. daughter of daughter. affable. enough. very well. "Kah mika klootchman?"— where is your wife? "Klootchman kuitan"— a mare. good enough for me. "Mamook kloshe"— make good or pleasing. fortune. favorable. secure. amen. "Tenas yaka tenas klootchman"— a granddaughter. graceful. but seems to come from the similarity of several tribal words and is evidently early Jargon. arrange. delight. It has no definite origin. please. look out. woman. "Klook teahwit"— lame. "Klootchman yaka ats"— sister-in-law. smooth. practical. apt. prepare. "Kloshe kopa mahkook"— good to sell. "Kloshe mitlite"— remain. take care. come good. even. literally better than all. "Wake kloshe kopa mahkook"— not good to sell. the word is "klob. an isolated Nootkan tribe. well. friendly. John Meares was first to record the word. 'Kloshe kahkwa"— well. cure. in Makah. reliable. which he spelled "cloosh. respectable. good about giving.CHINOOK-ENGLISH 75 KLOOK ( E ) : Crooked (see killapi). beautiful. fair. meek. The Nootkan is 'klohtl" and so is the Tokwhat. upright. literally. look sharp. KLO-SHE ( N ) : Good. come on. her mother. "Kloshe tumtum mika chako"— this is a form of invitation signifying welcome. pretty. perfectly very good. "Delate hyas kloshe"— magnificent. happy. "Elip kloshe"—better. right. fragrant. as may be seen in some of the examples given. moral. nice. modest. wrong. virtuous. "Tenas klootchman"— a little woman. well meaning. her sister. "Kloshe kopet"— be still. pleasant. good. plain." Callicum used it on Meares' ship in 1788. convenient. adorn. fix. efficient." Shaw gives forty-five meanings such as good. merchantable. it is "klotelo" and in Nisqually. good intention. woman. a girl or maiden. not well. "Kloshe tumtum"—love. Its most general use is as the equivalent of the adjective. a female of any animal. Their exact meanings can be determined only by the words used with and the sense used in. provide. behave. generous. for even the forty-five may be extended. gay. beneficial. hospitable. crooked legs or arms. repair. intimate. "Kloshe nanitch"— look good. neat. kind. watch. "Wake kloshe"— not good. hold on. look well. salable. still. literally. so be it. decorate. KLOOTCH'-MAN ( N ) : A woman. good intentions you come. "Kloshe chako"— all right. untarnished. useful. . splendid. fine. safe. "Elip kloshe kopa konaway"— best. defend. mild. "Klootchman yaka mama"— mother-in-law.

than for."— yesterday I arrived at Olympia. "Hiya kokshut"— many broken. Some of these are exact opposites. (Mamook is often used with it to make it passive. during. entire. "Kloshe-spose nika klatawa?"— shall I or may I go? "Kloshe-spose nika mamook pia okoke?"— shall I cook that? K L U H or Hugh ( C ) : To tear. burst. or nika mamook kokshut yaka"—I hit him (both would be proper). also broken. "Nika kokshut or ehako kokshut"— I am hurt (both would be proper). KO'-KO-STICK ( J ) : Woodpecker (knock-tree).76 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY KLOSHE-SPOSE (N & E ) : a combination of good and suppose. "Mamook kokshut"— to break." "Yaka chako kopa saghalie"— he came from heaven (above). (Another way of showing the active and passive. shatter. split. KOO'-SAH ( C ) : Sky. "Chee klaska ko"— now they arrive. concerning. a break. all the people everywhere. There are nine words and three phrases which are used as prepositions. or wide. to. universal.U L H ' ( C ) : Broad. "Kunsih nesika ko kopa Nisqually?"— when shall we arrive at Nisqually? "Tahlkie sun nika ko kopa Olympia. "Konaway ikta"— everything. KO'-KO: To knock. K L U K . "Konaway tillikum"— everybody. "Yaka mitlite kopa chuck"— he is on the water. "Konaway sun"— every day. beat. from. but "kopa" is used more than all the others. Shall or may I. aggregate. "Kunamokst" is sometimes used for "with.) KON'-A-WAY ( C ) : A l l . to plow. KO ( C ) : To reach. . the act of doing things. heaven. hurt. bruised. demolished. hit. let me. good if—or their equivalent. the sum. knock. in that place. on. bruise. (Mamook is work.) "Nika kokshut yaka. unto. "Alta nika potlatch wawa kopa mika kopa okoke pepah"— now I give talk to you about this picture (or paper). Kopa is the principal preposition in the Jargon. KOK'-SHUT ( N ) : To break. slap. total. every." Kopa has such a variety of meanings that its significance in each case can be known only by the connection in which it is used. like "from" and "to. about.) "Chako kokshut"— broken. "Yaka klatawa kopa saghalie"— he went to heaven. as of a plank. towards. or they have just come. rap. through. the whole. many pieces. torn. of. "Klaska konaway klatawa"— they have all gone. around. all broken to pieces. into. to arrive at. in. there. KO'-PA ( C ) : According to." "kopa saghalie" (pronounced like sockalee) for "over" and "keekwullie" for "under. with. tear. "Konaway kah"— everywhere. instead of. "Hyas kokshut"— much broken. cleave.

that's all. meaning literally. that is all. alone. yaka kow"— yes. to fasten. "Konaway klatawa kopet yaka"— all went except him.) "Wawa kloshe kopet"— to forbid. "Kloshe kopet"— be still. "Lolo okoke kopa mika"— take that with you. go out. except. quench. Kopa is often prefixed to a noun to show the possessive case: "Okoke kuitan kopa John"— this horse is John's (belongs to). to be fastened. "Kopa ikt moon yaka mitlite yukwa"— during one month he w i l l stay here. "Cultus kopa nika"— it is nothing to me. each. "Kopet tomollo"— day after tomorrow. "Yaka klatawa kopa stick"— he has gone into the woods. leave off.) . "Kopet okoke"— enough of that. ("Wake yaka kopet" is used also for incomplete or unfinished. "Mamook kopet"— make stop or to finish. conclude. a pack. or am in this place. or instead of us. to stop walking. ( I k t is one and the pack. submit. or in my house. "Wake siah kopet"— nearly finished. "Halo kopet"— incomplete. fulfill. a parcel. lonely. not far from enough. "Kopet ikt"— only one. he is tied. quit. "Kopet cooley"— to halt. As an adverb: "Yaka kamooks kopa"—his dogs are there. "Saghalie kopa mountain"— on top of the mountain. enough. "Kopa nika house"— at my house. "Jesus yaka memaloose kopa nesika"— Jesus he died for us. strings or rope. parcel or bundle was tied around with straps. "Kopa yaka wawa John yaka memaloose"— according to his talk John (he) is dead. quench it. put out the fire. KO'-PET ( C ) : Stop. a package. The commonly used word for "there" is "yahwa": "Nika kuitan elip kloshe kopa yaka kuitan"— my horse is better than his horse. "Mika mamook kow mika kuitan?"— have you tied your horse? "Nowitka. alone. "Kopet alta"—finished now. "Kopet ikt time"— once. not it is stop. complete.CHINOOK-ENGLISH 77 "Yaka mitlite kopa canim"— he is in the canoe. Used thus the last syllable is accented and prolonged — ko-pa-a. "Kopet wawa"— stop talking. "Ikt kow"— a bundle. "Kopet hiyu"— enough. enough. "Kopet nika mitlite"— only I remain. only. moving or running. "Kopet kumtux"— to stop knowing. KOW ( C ) : To tie. "Mamook pia kopet"— make the fire quit. to forget. "Kow mika kuitan"— tie your horse. plenty.

be acquainted with. to learn. uncertain. soft. "Kumtux mamook"— to understand how it is done. understand. solid. "Nika kumtux okoke"— I understand it. Those stockades surrounding Siwash villages were a familiar sight long after they no longer served their original use. not to know. "Delate kumtux"— to know perfectly well. "Yaka hyas kloshe kuitan?"— is that a good horse? "Cooley kuitan"— a race horse. a corral. sense. a rail. The Salish were flatheads. or I know that. difficult. and the longheads of the far north were from time immemorial the ancient and hereditary enemies of the flatheads or Salish tribes. to prove. "Kull tatoosh"— cheese. I desire to learn. with. . "all two. to misunderstand." "Kunamokst kahkwa"— both alike. recognize. "Mika kumtux Chinook?"— do you understand Chinook? "Nika kumtux yaka"— I know him. an enclosure. K U L ' . usually oak. KUN'-A-MOKST ( C ) : Both. don't know how to do it (mamook meaning work. meaning release). "Nika mitlite kunamokst yaka"— I live with him. "Halo kull" or "wake kull"— not hard. "Chako kull"— to become hard. "Stone kuitan"— a stallion. "Klatawa kopa kuitan"— to ride. Kullah is said originally to have meant the stockade within which the Indian houses were built for protection. "Kullah stick"— fence rails. "Halo kumtux mamook"— unskilled. thorough knowledge. tough.78 CHINOOK: A HISTORY AND DICTIONARY "Mamook kow"— to tie. "Mamook kull"— to make become hard. beside. incompetent. easy. "Mahsh kow"— to untie (mahsh. "Halo delate kumtux"— to be in doubt. "Halo kumtux" and "wake kumtux"— do not understand. K U L L ( C ) : Hard in substance. go on a horse. As it is Salish this is probably true. "Nika ticky kumtux"— I want to know. KU'-I-TAN ( C ) : Horse. together. learn. "Kull snass"— hard rain. wisdom. the act of doing anything). to cause to harden. knowledge. as it is the only hardwood of the Northwest. hitch or shackle. "Kull stick"— any hard wood. believe. here. among. to be skillfull or competent. amid. "Nesika klatawa kunamokst"— we w i l l go together. to make it tied up. ice. besides. tender. KUM'-TUX or kumtucks ( N ) : Know. to be sure. "Iskum kumtux"— to get knowledge. therefore snow. hail. "Kuitan lepee"— hoofs. a pen.L A H (S): A fence.

KWA'-TA ( E ) : A quarter of a dollar. "Wawa kunamokst"— talk together. KUN'-SIH or konsee ( C ) : How many? how much? when. "Kunamokst mika"— to agree with you. "Halo kwass"— fearless. "Tahtlum pe kwaist"— ten and nine. KUSH'-IS ( S ) : Stockings. not pleased. K W I S H ( C ) : Refusal (exclamation of). to come with each other. gather together. merry. is nineteen. the act of ascertaining how many. K W A N ( C ) : Glad. socks. shy. KWE'-O KWE'-O ( C ) : A ring. is ninety. tame. (Indian attempt to pronounce the word quarter. meet. "Tumtum kunamokst"— to agree in opinion." small half. tame. never. K W I N ' . KWEK'-WE-ENS (S): A pin. "Kunsih mika chako?"— when did you come? "Kunsih chaco Chautsh?"— when will George come? "Wake kunsih"— never. to be afraid.H (S): An aunt.) "Tenas sitkum. to fear. to tame. a circle.CHINOOK-ENGLISH 79 "Chako kunamokst"— to come together.N U M ( C ) : Five (the numeral). KWI-SE-O ( C ) : The porpoise. "Kwaist tukamonuk"— nine hundred.L A L ' ( C ) : To gallop. . meek. "Kwinnum tahtlum"— fifty. KWAIST or kweest (C): Nine. not afraid. "Kunsih hiyu?"— how much. ever. K W E H . K W A . K W A L ' . timid. consult.L A L ' K W A . "Mamook kunsih"— to count. K W E L T H (S): Proud. quiet. "Yaka kwan"— he is glad. KWATES (S): Sour. "Kunsih hyas?"— how big? "Kunsih laly?"— how long? "Kunsih dolla?"— how many dollars? what price or cost? "Kunsih siah?"— how far? distance. fifteen. to join or unite. assemble. KWIS'-KWIS ( C ) : A squirrel (the red or pine squirrel). "Tahtlum pe kwinnum"— ten and five. congregate.K W E H (J): A mallard duck. KWASS ( C ) : fear. "Kwaist tahtlum"— nine tens. bitter. is another expression for the quarter or less than half of anything. KWAD'-DIS ( K ) : Whale (see Ekkoli). "Kunsih tillikum mitlite?"— how many people are there? "Kunsih mika klatawa?"— when do you go? "Wake kunsih"— not ever. "Nika kwass"— I am afraid.

forever. LA-HASH' ( F ) : An ax or hatchet. it was the universal native pastime. or wound (without cutting). as usual.N U M ' (S): To count. "Mamook lahal" is to gamble and lahal is the name of the game. Among Puget Sound Indians and those farther north the word is commonly lahal. L A . glue. to lean. secure. L A K ' . "La-gome stick"— pitch-pine. money-box. LA-BOOS' ( F ) : Mouth (see la-push). LA-BOO-TAI' ( F ) : A bottle. both devices being used among the tribes. LA-CA'-LAT ( F ) : A carrot.I T ( C ) : Four (the numeral).L A N G ' ( F ) : The tongue. "Kahkwa kwonesum"— like always. KWO'-LAN (S): The ear. "Halo kwolan"— deaf. rabbit. unceasing. "Mamook kwutl chik-chik"— push the wagon hard. The game was played by all Indians in the Northwest from immemorial times. K W U L T ( C ) : To hit. to squeeze. etc. to use the oar. eternal. L A .L A H M ' ( F ) : An oar. to tip. strike.H A L ' ( C ) : A game played with ten small disks. a language. numbers (see Kunsih).L E E M ' ( F ) : A file. to remain permanently. "Nika lalang huloima kopa yaka lalang"— my language is different from his language. LA-LIM'(F):Basp. everlasting. "Kwonesum nika nanitch okoke"— always I see that. LA-GOME' (F): Pitch. a casket. a trunk or chest. "Kwonesum mitlite"— to keep. L A . LA-CLO'-A: ( F ) : A cross. continual. It is primitive enough. to bend over.file. KWON'-E-SUM ( C ) : Always. to stoop. L LA-BLEED' ( F ) : A bridle. "Mamook lalahm"— to row. trick. perpetual. "Kumtux kopa kwolan"— to hear. fasten. L A . one of which is marked.L A H ' ( C ) : To cheat. "Kwonesum yaka klatawa"— always he goes. as a boat. "Yahka lagh kahkwa oleman"— he stoops like an aged man. K W U T L (C): To push. joke with. K W U N . consisting in successfully guessing the hand that holds the marked disk. L A . but in earlier times it was slahal for the bones and lahal for the disks. L A G H ( C ) : To tip.80 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY KWIT'-SHAD-IE (S): Hare. . LA-CA-SET' ( F ) : A box. gum. "Wake nika lagh canim"— I did not tip the canoe.

LA-PEHSH' ( F ) : A pole." which means former time. talk — is probably that the ceremony is an act. a worker in wood. "Mamook lapoel"— to fry. ointments. LA-POME' ( F ) : An apple. thumb.L A H ( J ) : A roast. LA-MESSE' ( F ) : The ceremony of the mass.) LA-MET'-SIN ( F ) : Medicine —but not in the sense of magic. "Tenas laly elip"— a little while before. the priest at work. pills. "Kloshe lamah"— the right (good) hand. L A . "La-metsin" is Jargon and is an Indian attempt to pronounce the French for medicine. limb or knot of a tree. or mediicine man. the act of roasting. L A . "Chuck lapome"— cider. physics. The same distinction between time and long time in the pronunciation of "laly" is found in using the word "siah" for far. "Kunsih laly"— how long? "Tenas laly kimta"— a little while after.) "Tenas laly"— a short time. "Mamook la-messe"— to say mass. Prolonging the sound of " i " in "siah" means very far.P E L L ' ( F ) : A shovel or spade. ago. "Kunsih laly mika mitlite yukwa?"— How long have you lived here? L A . handle of anything. but do not confuse this with "ahnkuttie. the medicine of the Indian conjurer. "Mamook lapellah"— to roast before a fire.CHINOOK-ENGLISH 81 LA'-LY ( C ) : Time.M A I ' ( F ) : An old woman.) "La-metsin tupso"— an herb. "Kah mika iskum okoke laplash?"— where did you get that lumber? LA-PO-EL' ( F ) : A frying pan. LA-PLASH' ( F ) : A plank. "Mika ticky la-metsin?"— do you want medicine? LA-MON'-TAY ( F ) : A mountain.P E L ' . lumber.M A H ' (F): The hand. "Kimtah lamah"— elbow. "Klatawa kopa saghalie la-montay"—to ascend to the summit of the mountain. fingers. ("Tahmahnawis" is the term for magic. powders. a builder of houses. sleeve. "Laplash man"— a carpenter. salves. . arm. formerly. a stove. It means drugs. to hug. (Prolonging the "a" sound in pronouncing 'laly" means a long time. a board. "Potlatch lamah"— shake (give) hands. "Cultus laplash"— refuse or waste lumber. or for any act. and mamook is the proper word for work. "Iskum kopa yaka lamah"— get in his arm. (The reason why it is not "wawa la-messe" — wawa. LA-PE-OSH' ( F ) : A mattock or hoe. L A . LA-PEEP' ( F ) : A tobacco pipe.

"Wake kloshe kopa law"— illegal or illegitimate. LA-SHEM'-I-NAY ( F ) : The chimney. LAW'-SUK ( C ) : To dance. command. mental. "Kopa latate"— with the head. belt. sash. "Delate kopa law" or "kloshe kopa law"— legal. "Wake skookum latate"— imbecile.T L A H ' ( F ) : Noise. poultry. "Tupso kopa latate"— hair. L A . LE-BAL' ( F ) : Ball. decree. delirious. (The Indians had tribal law exercised by themselves or through the commands and degrees of chieftains. LA-SI-ET' ( F ) : A plate. mouth of a river. LA-SHAN'-DEL ( F ) : A candle. shingles. LA-SHAL-LOO' (F): Plough. LA-SAN-SHEL' ( F ) : Girth. L A . LA-PUSH'-ET ( F ) : Hayfork. LA-SEE' ( F ) : A saw. Also there was Boston or American law. intellect. "Siwash lapool"— the grouse. sense. a bullet. "Tenas lebal"— little bullets or shot. strap.W E N ' ( F ) : Oats. hence to relish. LA-SELL' ( F ) : A saddle. literally. easy. "Halo latate"— no head. LA-TATE' ( F ) : The head. "Pil latate"— red head. LA-SHEY' ( J ) : Barley. LA-SWAY' ( F ) : Silk.) LA-WEST' ( F ) : A vest or waistcoat. LA-TAHB' ( F ) : Table. two mouths. LA-SHASE' ( F ) : Chair.82 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY LA-POOL' ( F ) : A hen. "Skookum latlah"— loud. LA-PUSH' or la-boos' ( F ) : The mouth. stupid. LA'-ZY ( E ) : Lazy (seeklawah). "Nika sick kopa nika latate"— I am sick in my head.T A H ' ( F ) : The teeth. dance. . L A .) "Yaka kumtux Boston law"— he understands American law. LA-POTE' ( F ) : A door. "Kloshe kopa lapush"— good to the mouth. (This grain was one of the earliest and most prolific crops produced in the Northwest when Indians were still numerous. "Mokst laboos or lapush"— the forks of a river. law. the grass on the head. L A W ( E ) : Law. They found the short English word. literally. LA-SHEN' ( F ) : A chain. brains. "Huloima latate"— different head. silken. LE-BAH'-DO ( F ) : A shingle. and it was adaptable into the Jargon.

L E . "Tzum kah lepee mitlite"— mark where foot was. make not locked. minister. "Klootchman lemooto"— ewe. "Yaka lepee yaka kokshut"— his leg is broken. One authority. a foot. "Lemooto house"— fold. untamed." The "Sesu K l i " of St. where foot is or was. the only Indian pronunciation the present writer ever heard for Jesus was "Chesus. "Lesapot"— apostle. walk. track. Onge sounds more like a Chinese attempt to say those words. LE-PISH'-E-MO (J): The saddle blanket and trappings of a horse. However. "Mamook halo lekleh"— unlocked. . Onge (1873) cites a number of church terms used in the Jargon including: "Lesepek"— bishop. shears. lock the door. LE-KYE' (F): Spotted. LE-PLET' ( F ) : A priest. leg. LE-DOO' ( F ) : Finger. and used it in preference to attempting to talk English. lepee mitlite"— footstep. a pocket.M E L ' or le-mool' (F): A mule. LE-PEE' ( F ) : The feet. Louis St. a sack. mottled.K L E H ' ( F ) : A key. "Kah. foot prints. LE-SAI' ( F ) : Saint. sheepfold. barbarous. LE-PAN" ( F ) : Bread. a loaf of bread. literally. "Katolik"— Catholic. preacher. "Mamook lekleh"— make locked. LE-MO'-LO (F): Wild. "Olo time"— Lent. dappled. LE-COO' ( F ) : The neck.P W A H ' ( F ) : Peas. also.) L E . a paw. LE-LOO' ( F ) : The big gray wolf. L E .T O ( F ) : Sheep. LE-PI-EGE' ( F ) : A trap or snare. formerly pronounced luh-pe-ay. LE-MOSH' ( F ) : Flies. "Klatawa kopa lepee"— go on foot. LE-PLAH' (F): Plate or dishes. "Sesu Kli"— Jesus Christ. "Yahwa klatawa nesika leplet"— there goes our minister. L E . tracks. The early Chinese placer miners and camp cooks all used the Jargon as easily as the whites or Indians.CHINOOK-ENGLISH 83 LE-BISK'-WEE (F): Biscuit. LE-SEE'-ZO ( F ) : Scissors. LE-MAH'-TO ( F ) : A hammer. "Mahsh lekleh"— unlocked. "Paska"— Easter. LE-LO'-BA ( F ) : Ribbon. thigh. "Eklis"— church. (Not much used after the natives learned the world wild. LE-SAK' ( F ) : A bag. skittish.M O O ' .

lay down. get rid of. send. LOK'-IT or lakit ( C ) : Four (the numeral). Originally. hurl. to part with. LO'-LO ( C ) : To carry. thrust. "Cultus mahsh"— to waste. renew. throw away. sling. L O . turn out. "Halo mahsh"— to hold. whole. . pack. "Tenas mahsh"— to move.) "Mahsh chuck kopa boat"— bail out the boat. M A H ' .) "Hyas mahkook"— dear. LUK'-UT-CHEE ( F ) : Clams. remove. toss. "Kloshe mika lolo okoke iktas"— load those things good or well. (Originally.W U L . fetch. forsake. round clam of Puget Sound is called "smetock" on the northern coasts. lolo meant to carry a child on the back). detach. lug. fling. "Tenas lope"— a cord. (The Indian rendition of "r". release. trading post. spill. LOPE ( E ) : Rope. M MAH'-KOOK ( N ) : To buy or sell. relinquish. bear. convey. drop. apply. heave. remit. a bargain. banish. sow. spend. and the largest of all "go-duck. all of anything. "Skin lope"— rawhide. remove. put. spirits. "Mamook liplip"— to make boil or cause to boil. "Mamook le-whet"— to whip. acquit. LICE ( E ) : (Indian attempt to say rice. transmit — and probably others. "Tenas mahkook"— cheap. pour. (see "huyhuy" for a discussion of the use of this word. MAHSH ( F ) : Leave. "Mahkook house"— a store. remove the water from the boat. "Mahsh!"— get out.84 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY LE-WHET' ( F ) : A whip.) "Lumpechuck"— grog (rum and water). transfer. cast. exterminate. reject. dash. not waste or throw away or leave. see huyhuy. (Also to sell. "Nika mahsh nika kuitan"— I have sold my horse. desert. "Kah mika mahkook okoke iktas?"— where did you buy those things? "Nika ticky mahkook iktas"— I want to buy some things. properly. bring. The quahang or large. whiskey. expel.") L U M ( E ) : Rum. dismiss. (This word is applied only to the hardshell or little-neck clam. "Okoke lice yaka liplip alta"— that rice it boils now. load.L O ( C ) : Round. a purchase. distribute. insert. LE-YAUB' (F): The devil (see deaub). omit. to trade or exchange. extinguish.L I E ( N ) : To forget.) LIP'-LIP (J): To boil. dispatch. "Mamook lolo kopa canim"— make load into canoe.

"Kokshut mallie"— a divorce. on land. throw down.L A H ' ( C ) : Tinware.L I E ( C ) : In shore. This is the one word in the Jargon that denotes action or which distinguishes the act. work. action. It is the most useful word in the Jargon as it is prefixed to many nouns. thankful. also to pray. toil. "Mahsh tenas"— to give birth to a child. MAH'-SIE ( F ) : Thank you. "Mamook alki"— to delay. make like. deed. "Mamook kahkwa"— to imitate or mimic. MAM-OOK ( N ) : To make. or put below. to fetch. "Elip kopa mallie"— before the wedding. to inject. "Mamook liplip"— make to boil.) M A H ' . Among the Indians on Puget Sound it was the most common Chinook (Jargon) word in use. the act of doing anything. sink. "Kloshe nesika mahsie kopa Saghalie Tyee"— let us pray to God. M A H T ' . thanks. M A . "Klootchman yaka chee mallie"— a bride. put into the ground. exertion. (Used two ways: if in a boat it is then to keep off. get married. (The opposite of mahtlinnie. put all together. to make by and by. "Mahsh kopa illahee"— bury.T W I L . wedding. if on land it is to go toward the water.L I N . MA-MA ( E ) : Mamma. enclose. dishes. literally a broken marriage. "Mahsh okoke pish"— throw that fish away. "Mamook cultus"— to make bad or no good. "Mahsh puss-puss klahanie house"—put the cat out.L I E ( E ) : To marry. task. "Man yaka chee mallie"— bridegroom. "Mamook kloshe"— to make good. to praise. "Mamook delate"— to make right or correct. "Alta nika klatawa kopa mallie"— now I am going to the wedding. to do.) MA'-KE-SON (J): The chin. "Mamook tzum"— to write.N I E ( C ) : Off shore. shoreward. marriage. matrimony. "Mamook tumtum"— to think. act. to reason. "Mamook chako"— make to come or bring. MAL-TEE'-NY (J): Near at hand. "good we pray to God". "Wawa mahsie"— to give thanks. ( A n Indian attempt to say marry. earthenware. to work. or man newly married. "Mahsie kopa Saghalie Tyee"— praise to God — the Doxology. put inside.CHINOOK-ENGLISH 85 "Mahsh keekwullie"— to lower. verbs and adjectives and makes them active verbs. literally. job. M A L ' .) "Yaka mallie alta"— he is married now. out at sea. . labor. towards the interior. "Mahsh kunamokst"— mix. ante nuptial. "Ikta mika mamook?"— what are you doing? "Mamook elip"— to begin.

ME-LASS' (E): Molasses (Less common than silup or syrup. decay.) "Elip mesachie"— worse. "Cultus mamook"— poor work. yours. evil.) M I ' . "Elip mesachie kopa konaway"— worse than all. ME-SA'-CHIE ( C ) : Bad. vice. "Mamook kunsih"— to count. "Memaloose kopa chuck"— to drown. illustrate. "Tenas man moolack"—a little buck elk.K A ( C ) : You.) "Tenas man"— lad. murder. "Kumtux mamook"— skill. MIT-ASS' ( C R ) : Leggings. (Anything pertaining to the second person singular. "Potlatch mamook"— to give work. "Mamook sick tumtum"— to i l l treat and hurt one's feelings. conclude. yours. to withdraw. to die.86 CHINOOK: A HISTOEY A N D DICTIONARY "Mamook killapi"— to twist or make twisted or crooked. your. "Mesachie mitlite"— danger. striving. "Memaloose illahee"— a grave or a graveyard. to invigorate. "Mamook skookum"— to strengthen.M I E ( C ) : Downstream. to make how many. die in the water. knowing the work. M A N ( E ) : Man. "Mamook kopet"—to stop check. sin. MEM'-A-LOOSE ( C ) : Dead. employment. "Ticky mamook"— desire or want work. thine. expire. "Mamook kow"— to tie or wrap. which is worthless. vile. MIST-CHI'-MAS ( J ) : Slave. all cases.) "Okoke mika kuitan?"— is this your horse? "Kah mika klatawa?"— where are you going? M I ' . (however. execute. plural number. ME-SI'-KA ( C ) : You. confine. "Mamook haul"— must. to make strong. hitch. bad work. to hire. extinguish. capture or fasten. become rotten. "Kwonesum mamook"— always working. "Man eena" —a male beaver. persevering. thee. extinguish. wicked. iniquity. strap. beginning something. to turn over. "Mamook skookum tumtum"— to make brave or courageous. (Not in the sense of cultus. all cases. finish. the place where bad is. decay. Both are Indian attempts to pronounce the English words). inform. stallion is "stone kuitan") MEL'-A-KWA ( F ) : A mosquito. worst. your. "Mamook kumtux"— to teach. (Second person. "Chee mamook"— new work. explain. "Halo delate mamook"— not right work. a tomb. (Also the male of any animal. "Mamook memaloose"— to kill. literally. "Delate kumtux mamook"—knowing how to work. make understand. "Chako memaloose"— become rotten. .

dwell. the tribes imitated the Cree as closely as possible. twice. pair.) "Kah mika mitlite?"— where do you live? "Mitlite kopa house"— is in the house. "Sapolil moola"— a flour mill. keep. slumber. musmus (Klickitat). "Mokst klootchman"— two women.L A C K ( C ) : An elk. "Yaka mitlite taghum moosmoos"— he has six cattle. MOOS'-MOOS (J): Cattle.W H I T ( C ) : To stand. literally. asleep. to sleep. "Mokst tahtlum"— twenty. "Mokst tumtum"— of two minds. abide. "Mitwhit stick"— a standing tree. "Sick moon"— the waning or old moon. consequently in doubt. is. a month. to have. There were neither buffalo nor cattle in the Pacific Northwest country. be present. "Mitlite kopa chuck"— to be wet. a mast. beef. I want to sleep. M I T ' . "Nika ticky moosum"— I am sleepy. arise. be erect. "Cultus mitlite"— to stop or stay anywhere without any particular purpose. "Kopa mokst moon nika killapi"— in two months I w i l l return. "Chee moon"— new moon. "Yaka moosum alta"— he sleeps now. "Ikt moon"— one month. It occurs in almost that form in the Cree. ( I t is also used for the impersonal verb to be. inhabit. good you stand up. double.L I T E ( C ) : To stay at. possess. the plural mesika showing that it is addressed to an audience or assemblage. a man who knows how to k i l l cattle. stand up. "Man yaka kumtux mamook memaloose moosmoos"— a butcher. which is moostoos. MOO'-LA ( F ) : A mill or factory. wait. Hence we "have moostoos (Cree). The word is of doubtful origin. "Kloshe mesika mitwhit"— please arise. musmus (Yakima). couple. to reside. sit. and when cattle were introduced. "Kunsih mitlite?"— how many remain? "Mitlite tenas"— to be with child. MOO'-SUM (S): Sleep. "Nika hyas moosum"—I slept soundly. MOKST or moxt ( C ) : Two. recline. MOON ( E ) : The moon. second. "Yaka mitlite kopa yaka house"— he is in his house.CHINOOK-ENGLISH 87 M I T ' . and is their word for buffalo. "Laplash moola"— a saw mill. Undoubtedly the word came with them. musmus (Chinook) and moosmoos (Jargon). "Halo mitlite"— to be absent. M O O ' . sit down. but buffalo and buffalo skins were brought over from the Yakima country in old Indian days. buffalo. twice ten. . exist. remain.

"Muckamuck chuck"— to drink water. behold. "Mamook nem"— to name. hark. devour. observe.) "Klootchman mowitch"— a doe. NAU'-ITS (S): Off shore. An interjection. chew. "Muckamuck kopa polaklie"— supper. glance. MUS'-KET ( E ) : A gun or musket. (The word is frequently used to mean any animal. An original Indian word common to several of the native languages. from curiosity.) "Muckamuck sapohT— to eat bread. to eat. N NA? (J): An interrogative interjection. "Cultus nanitch"— to look around idly. "Muckamuck kopa tenas sun"— the meal when the sun is young. to look for. plural. "Kloshe nem"— a good name. (First person. the sea-beach. on the stream. nutriment. "Alta nesika klatawa"— now we w i l l go. "Muckamuck kopa sitkum sun"— the midday meal. M O W . "Potlatch muckamuck"— to give food or feed. look there. NE-NAM'-OOKS ( C ) : The land otter. food at night. venison. to make seen. breakfast. look.88 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY "Mamook tenas moosum"— to go to bed together. MY-EE'-NA ( C ) : To sing. make little sleep. to call by name. "Hyas kloshe nem"— a very great name. "Sick na mika?"— are you sick? N A H ! (S): Look. ours. look here. but not to sleep. ha. to see. "Kloshe nanitch"— look out. the English mamma having superseded it. (rarely used. view. all cases. our. NES'-I-KA ( C ) : We. meal. literally. us. "Huloima mowitch"— an animal that is strange or different. listen. a song. hey. look well. "Mamook nanitch"— to show.I T C H ( N ) : A deer. MUCK'-A-MUCK ( J ) : Food. seek. eat. browse. feast. "Mamook piah muckamuck"— to cook food. "Halo muckamuck"— famine. NA-WAM'-OOKS (C): Sea otter. "Nesika kuitan delate till"— our horses are very tired. "Nah sikhs!"— hey friend! "Nah tillikums!"— hark people! NA-HA' ( C ) : Mother. food at half of the day.) "Chako kopa nesika"— come to (or with) us. good look. (Muckamuck is to take anything into the mouth. be careful. to honor. the early morning meal. . NEM(E):Name. bite.) NAN'-ITCH ( N ) : See.

hither. perhaps so. "Pil olallie"— any red berry. "Okoke polaklie"— tonight. O . wake nika kumtux"— indeed. "Nowitka. may mean my sweetheart.H A H ( C ) : Here. little man. the bow of a boat or canoe. "Nesika illahee"— our land. a spit. NI'-KA ( C ) : I. indeed. originally. I think so. "Nika tenas man"—my son. all cases. "Wawa nowitka"— say yes. fruit. O'-KOKE ( C ) : This. "Yaka kokshut nika"— he hit me. . my. "Seahpo olallie"— raspberries. "Mikas"— yours. assent.CHINOOK-ENGLISH 89 N E W ' . "Okoke mitlite"— that remaining. I w i l l go. assuredly. to this place (see yukwa). "Nesikas"— ours. daughter. I do not know. me. this night. "Mika kuitan"— your horse. these. that. the salmon berry. maybe. aye. O OK'-CHOCK ( J ) : Shoulders. "Ikta okoke?"— what is that? "Okoke klaksta"— he.L A L ' . "Okoke klaska"— they. who or that or these who. girl. Also used for a promontory. "Nika tumtum kahkwa"— I agree. "Yakas"— his or hers. "Nika nanitch yaka"— I see him. Sometimes "s" is added to the personal pronouns in the possessive case: "Nikas"— mine. (First person singular. my daughter. This mode is used generally only when the pronoun is the last word in the sentence. "Klonas nowitka"— probably so. guess or opinion. my thought. "Nanitch. the remainder. NOSE ( E ) : Nose. or if used by a young woman. "Olallie chuck"— berry juice. "Klale olallie"— blackberry.) The personal pronouns become possessive by prefixing them to nouns: "Nika nem"— my name. "Shot olallie"— huckleberries. I approve. "Okoke sun"— today. sweetheart. "Mesikas"— yours. those. thus: "Okoke kuitan nikas"— that horse is ours. I think like that. "Nika tenas klootchman"—my little woman. "Klaskas"— theirs. "Nika tumtum"— I think. "Nowitka. mine. that which is left. O-KUS'-TEE ( C ) : A daughter. boy. nika okustee"— look. point of land. nika klatawa"— yes. "Nika house"— my home. NOW'-IT-KA or naw-it-ka ( C ) : Yes. "Nika klootchman"— my wife or woman. this day. yes. acquiesce.L I E ( B B ) : Berries.

a stinking tail. herrings. "Nika hyas olo alta"— I am very hungry now. thirsty. They originate with the Indian and are the arrangements of words that are characteristic of most of the native tongues. OOS'-KAN: ( C ) : A cup. O'-NA ( C ) : Clam. "Ow yaka tenas klootchman"— brother his daughter. clams. "Kah ooahut kopa Nisqually?"— where is the road to Nisqually? "Ooahut kopa chuck"— a channel. OW ( C ) : A brother (younger than the speaker). "Humm opoots"— a skunk. a niece.) OO'-A-HUT or wayhut ( C ) : A road. worn out. meaning want sleep. O'-LO ( C ) : Hungry.) O-PIT'-SAH ( C ) : A knife. OLE'-MAN ( E ) : An old man. "Olo moosum"— sleepy. Sometimes called candlefish. way. "Ow yaka tenas man"— brother his son. O-POOTS' or opootsh ( C ) : The rear end. "Boat opoots"— the boat's rudder. "Chuck ooahut"— to ford. (The table fork is sometimes called "opitsah sikhs. O'-LUK (S): A snake. "Olo chuck"— hungry for water. "Opoots sill"— a breech clout. can. dagger. OU-WUCH'-EH ( C ) : A swan. (This word especially applied to "razor" clams. fraternal. "Kah mika ow?"— where is your (younger) brother? "Elip ow"— an elder brother. a nephew. (kalitan-arrow.90 CHINOOK: A HISTORY AND DICTIONARY O'-LA-PITS-KI(C):Fire. anus. "Ooahut kopa town"— a street. Such expressions fairly illustrate the order of words and the combinations of words used to express definite things and relationships. the backside. They are essentially Indian and not at all English. tin kettle. anything that is old. "Ow yaka klootchman"— brother his wife. the back." the "friend of the knife. OL'-HI-YU (C): A seal. the tail of an animal. old. hungry for. path. "Okoke canim yaka hyas oleman"— that canoe it is worn out. OTE'-LAGH ( C ) : The sun. OOL'-CHUS ( J ) : Herring. O-QUAN'-AX ( C ) : The neck. trail. . O'-PE-KWAN ( C ) : Basket. "Kahkwa ow"— like a brother. "Okoke kuitan yaka hyas oleman"— that horse he is very old. O'-PITL-KEGH ( C ) : Bow. a sister-in-law. though "ticky moosum" is more often used. the posterior. OO'-LA-CHAN ( C L ) : A type of smelt. a bowl. the rudder of a boat." Opitsah sikhs is sometimes used to denote a lover—a fork to every knife).

"Pe kahta"— and why. writing. Americans first came in ships from Boston. PAPA ( E ) : Papa or father. The Indians called the early whites clothmen. "Nika nanitch yaka papa"— I see his father. and the early English came during the reign of George I I I . "Mamook pahtl"— to fill or make full. P'-CHIH or pitchih ( J ) : Thin. (Note the arrangement of words. PA-SE'-SE ( C ) : A blanket. stripes. "Kumtux pepah"— to read. The French. "Pahtlum"— drink. his paper or book. full of rum. "Mamook le pan"— knead. "Saghalie tyee yaka pepah"— literally. This was before Hudson's Bay days. PEL'-TON ( J ) : A fool. one Archibald Pelton or Felton. pictures. PE ( F ) : And or but (occasionally means then. crazy." was given to the French and became Jargon. This Jargon word is derived from "pasese" and "uks. and it is still "Dutchman" in the Jargon. PEP'-AH ( E ) : Paper. . insane. an insane person. A l l white men other than Americans. a letter. a book — anything written or printed. "Tzum pasese"— a quilt. "Pahtl chuck"— wet." The latter. Wilson Price Hunt was said to have found this man in his travels and to have taken him to Astoria. besides).) "Yaka rnitlite kwinnum pasese"— he has five blankets. "Kwonesum yaka pahtlum"— he is always drunk. "Pahtl illahee".) PAINT or pent ( E ) : Paint. who were with the Hudson's Bay Company. as of a board. foolish. people. always he full of rum. They were known as Boston men and King Chautsh (George) men respectively. English and French were called Dutchmen by the natives." is a plural applied to living beings. PA-SI'-OOKS ( C ) : A Frenchman. "pasiooks. PAN ( F ) : Bread. "Pe weght"— and also. "Mamook pepah"— to write.CHINOOK-ENGLISH 91 P PAHT'L (C): Full. when whites were still new to the natives. the Bible. "Kloshe mika mamook pepah kopa nika"— please you write a letter for me. It is supposed that the Indians adopted this term from the name of a deranged person.dirty. literally. while the original Chinook word for men who wore cloth clothes. "uks. (Tzum means colors. woolen cloth. came to have the term applied to them only. full of water. and again. "Yaka pe nika klatawa"— he and I will go. God. PE-CHUGH' ( C ) : Green.

also to menstruate. "Mamook poo"— to shoot.) PE-WHAT'-TIE ( C ) : Thin (like paper). ochre. "Sitkum polaklie"— midnight. PIL ( C ) : Red. "Piah chuck"— fire water. and piah for fire. His nearest approach was p. (Probable imitation of sound of disgust made over a bad smell. "Pil chikamin"— gold money. to blow. PO'-LAL-LIE ( J ) : Powder. "Mokst poo"— a double barrelled gun. or of a reddish color.92 CHINOOK: A HISTOBY A N D DICTIONARY PE-SHAK' ( N ) : Bad. "Piah sapolil"— baked bread. Hence pish for fish. "Tenas polaklie"— evening. dust. stink. "Pil kuitan"— a bay horse. "mesachie" in the sense of wicked or evil and "cultus" in the sense of no good or worthless. darkness. PO'-LAK-LIE ( C ) : Night. whisky. half a night. POO (J): Imitation of the sound of a gun.) "Tenas pish"— minnow.) POH ( C ) : A puff of breath. (Both "mesachie" and "cultus" are used for bad. "Piah olallie"— ripe berries. "Alta polaklie chako"— now night has come. "Mamook piah"— make or build fire. POT'-LATCH ( N ) : A gift and to give. mellow.) The potlatch was a native festival common to all the tribes of the North- . PISH ( E ) : Fish. "Hyas polaklie"— very late at night. "Poolie lapome" —a rotten apple. "Pishhook"— fishhook. brass. (When it denotes giving. it is a verb and when it is used for the gift itself or for the celebration. dark. or mature. or literally fire above. cook. "Polallie illahee"— sandy ground. flame. burn. blaze. burned. (The Indian could not pronounce f. PIL'-PIL ( J ) : Blood. sand. PIU-PIU or pu-pu ( E ) : Stench. copper. "Pil okchok"— (red shoulders) — the blackbird. or to fire a salute. "Saghalie piah"— lightning.L I L L ' (J): Thick (like molasses). "Kimta sitkum polaklie"— after midnight. cooked. as a candle. gonorrhea. also occasionally danger. it is a noun. "Mamook poh"— to blow out or extinguish. POO'-LIE ( F ) : Rotten. PI'-AH ( E ) : Fire. Humm is used in sentences. Piu-piu is an interjection. gloom like night. ripe. P I T . "Pil illahee"— red earth. also the metals gold. "Mahsh pilpil"— to bleed. "Hiyu pilpil chako"— much blood came. gunpowder. "Piah sick"— venereal disease.

S SAG'-HA-LIE ( C ) : Up. top. His talk. consecrate. "Potlatch kopa saghalie tyee"— give to God. is a term invented by the early missionaries as none of the tribes had a word for God. the ruler over all. celestial. "Saghalie Tyee Yaka tenas"— God. PUK'-PUK ( J ) : A blow from the fist or a fist fight. to congratulate. "Tzum sail"— printed cloth like calico (as is "tzum pasese. God. Its feature was the distribution of gifts. His Son. (This word is usually pronounced as if it were spelled sockalie by the whites. Christ is called in Jargon. . literally. to give good advice. (Saghalie Tyee. literally. "Potlatch muckamuck"— to give food. dedicate." which really means quilt. and sag-ha-lie by the Indians. with the g sound deep in the throat and a guttural rather than an aspirate h. Their first ideas of God came from the teachings of these missionaries. "Potlatch wawa"— give talk or make a speech. heaven.) "Mamook pukpuk"— to box.) "Mamook saghalie"—to lift (raise). "Saghalie Tyee Yaka book"— the bible. SAIL ( E ) : Sail. "Cultus potlatch"— a gift without prospect of recompense — a "bad gift" in an Indian's view. to pay. (Another of the invented words which are pure Jargon. good you give me talk for him. POW'-ITSH ( C ) : The native thornapple or crabapple. POT'-SUK(C): Between. "Saghalie Tyee"— God. "Mamook keekwullie sail"— to take in sail.) "Snass sail"— oil cloth. God. the Chief above. literally. "Mamook sail"— to make sail. POW'-IL (J): To swell. PUSS'-PUSS ( E ) : A cat. "Potlatch dolla"— pay. for the Deity or Jehovah. His book. POWS ( J ) : Halibut. over. upwards. (This is sometimes and in some localities pronounced pishpish. rain cloth. "Pukpuk solleks"— to fight when angry. They had their personal spirits but no universal Deity.CHINOOK-ENGLISH 93 west. "Potlatch kloshe wawa"— give good talk. "Kloshe mika potlatch nika wawa kopa yaka"— a long roundabout way of saying to intercede.) "Hyas pusspuss"— a cougar or big cat. above. any cotton or linen cloth. "Saghalie Tyee Yaka wawa"— a sermon or religious talk. uppermost. The most noted chief was he who held the largest potlatch and gave away the most valuable and largest number of presents. sky.

underpants. "Halo shem mika?"— no shame you? aren't you ashamed? "Mamook shem"— to deride or ridicule and make ashamed. SALT ( E ) : Salt or salty in taste. "Cultus sammon"— the kelts or spent salmon of the rivers in autumn and winter. spectacles. the face. greatly feared by the Coast Indians.94 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY SAK'-O-LEKS ( C ) : Trousers. "Lakit seeowist"— four eyes. "Dolla seeowist"— spectacles also. "Keekwullie sakoleks"— drawers. sweetening. SAP'-O-LIL ( C ) : Bread. "Salt chuck"— salt water. "Hiyu sapolil"— much bread or flour. "Piah sapolil"— baked bread. "Tyee sammon"— (specifically) the King salmon of northern sounds and straits. SHU'-GAH ( E ) : Sugar. because the lenses are dollar shaped. From it they made a sort of syrup. it was one of the most valued native fruits. the rear-end rattles. water of the eyes. SE-AT'-CO (Ch): A goblin or nocturnal demon. SE-LOKE'-MIL ( J ) : A window. the sea. shameless. literally. SHUGH-O'-POOTS ( C ) : A rattlesnake. and was gathered in large quantities by the coastal tribes. grain. The salal is a beautiful evergreen shrub. "Klahanie sakoleks"— overalls. . "Ikt seeowist"— one-eyed. flour or meal. honey. SE'-AH-PO ( F ) : A hat or cap. forehead. SHEM ( E ) : Shame. SEE'-O-WIST ( C ) : The eyes. "Halo seeowist"— blind. "Klootchman seahpo"— a woman's hat or bonnet. "Salt chuck tupso"— sea weed. SAN'-DE-LIE (F): Ash-colored. growing abundantly along the Pacific Coast. SHE-LOK'-UM ( C ) : Lookingglass. "Chuck kopa seeowist"— tears. "Halo shem"— without shame. "Nika nanitch yaka kopa nika seeowist"— I saw him with my eyes. glass. or dried and stored it in the form of thick cakes. wheat. pants. SAL'-AL ( C ) : The salal shrub or its berries. Before the coming of the white man. Tzum sammon"— steelhead and other trouts. ( A n Indian attempt to say shame). frozen. SHAN'-TIE ( F ) : To sing. S H U G H ( C ) : A rattle. SHE'-LIP-O ( C ) : Freeze. with edible dark-purple berries about the size of the common grape. SAM'-MON ( E ) : Salmon (but usually written sammon in the Jargon). SEED ( E ) : Seed.

. "Wake siah"— not far. "Nika klatawa siah"— I w i l l go far off. "Tenas sitkum"— less than half. "Klahowya sikhs"— how are you." "Okoke siwash klootchman"— that is an Indian woman. friend? "Opitsah sikhs"— fork or friend of the knife. for which term there is no single word in Jargon. Sikhs is also used as an equivalent for sweetheart. SHWAH'-KUK (S): A frog. a half-breed. John Jewitt recorded that the Nootkans also used siah for sky. a savage." For "very far off" the word is sometimes repeated—siah-siah — but the usual method is to express very great distance by prolonging the last syllable and saying si-a-h. distant. "Elip siah kopa konaway"— farther than all. "Elip sitkum"— more than half. "Sick kopa kwolan"— earache. "Sitkum dolla"— half a dollar. away. "Wake siah kopa"— almost or not far from.L A Y ( F ) : Stirrup. "Waum sick. SIT'-KUM ( C ) : Half. the middle. "Hiyu siwash mitlite yukwa"— many Indians are here. "Nika tenas klootchman" is used for sweetheart as well as for daughter. To the Nootkan the sky might have been just "the far off. "Delate siah"— a very great distance. SI'-WASH ( F ) : An Indian or aborigine. afar. This is not a tribal name as some uninformed writers have the impression when they erroneously speak of "Siwash Indians. SI'-PAH ( W ) : Straight. farthest. "Siah"— far. SIKHS or six ( C ) : A friend or companion and used only toward men. SI-AH' ( N ) : Far. cole sick"— fever and ague. SIT'-SHUM (S): To swim. "Sitkum siwash"— half Indian. remote. SKAD ( J ) : A mole. S I T ' . "Elip siah"— farther. SIS'-KI-YOU ( C r ) : A bob-tailed horse. "Sitkum sun"— moon. SIL'-UP (E): Syrup. grieved.CHINOOK-ENGLISH 95 SHUT ( E ) : A shirt. "Elip sitkum sun"— forenoon. "Sick tumtum"— sad. far off. like a ramrod. The grizzly is also called siam itswoot . SI-AM' (C): The grizzly bear. S I C K ( E ) : Sick. SIN'-A-MOKST or sinamoxt ( C ) : Seven (the numeral). "Mamook sick tumtum"— to hurt one's feelings.

supposing. "Kull snass"— ice. "Solleks wawa"— a quarrel with words. SPOSE (E): Suppose. SOL'-LEKS (J): Anger. sulky. "Skookum tumtum"— a brave spirit. "Nika kwass nika klootchman klonas memaloose"— I fear my wife perhaps will die. leather. . a ghost. "Skookum house"— a jail. There are many Skookum brands of Northwest-made goods. Its adoption by people of the Northwest has made of it a regional English word. SNASS ( J ) : Rain. hop. "Stick skin"— the bark of a tree. evil spirit or demon. offend. which are sometimes confused by the novice. resent. hide. sullen. SOAP ( E ) : Soap. "Cole snass"— snow. "Spose nika klootchman memaloose"— if my wife dies. powerful. "Halo solleks"— not angry. "Skookum chuck"— rapids. hatred. steam. SLA-HAL' ( C ) : An Indian game (see la-hal). meek. SMOKE ( E ) : Smoke. to provoke anger. SKIN ( E ) : Skin. "Skookum town"— city. skip. SO-LE'-MIE ( C ) : The cranberry. "Skin shoes"— moccasins. that. potent. SKWISS-KWIS ( J ) : The chipmunk or striped squirrel. (See klonas to note the distinction between klonas and spose. In fact. pelt. This name was indicative of the "lower" river. SPO'-OH ( C ) : Faded. Originally. "Hiyu solleks" or "Hyas solleks"— very angry. SO'-PE-NA ( C ) : To jump. malice. "Solleks wawa"— grumble. in order that. "Kahkwa spose"— as if. most widely used and significant words in the Jargon. "Yaka solleks kopa mika"— he is mad at you. any fight color. quarrelsome or fighting talk. or any meaning that relates to anger. A made word. spring. it is so common on the Pacific Coast as to have almost lost its Indian significance. hate. fur. for. fog.96 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY SKET-SOT'-WA ( J ) : The Columbia river. SPOON ( E ) : A spoon. if. hostile. This is one of the best known. SKWAK'-WAL (S): A lamprey eel. pleasant. SKOOKUM (S): Strong. clouds. SMET-OCKS (S): The large clam. "Solleks tillikum"— a mob. "Mamook solleks"— to make mad. mild.) "Kloshe spose"— good if.« .

sock. SUN ( E ) : Sun. "Tahlkie cole illahee"— last winter. or anything supernatural. "Isick stick"— paddle or oar wood (ash). to loosen or untie. "Tahlkie waum illahee"— last summer. Tahmahnawis also means magic. Monday. a tree. " I k t Sunday"— a week. "Sitkum sun"— noon. wood. It was . the sun. TAGH'-UM ( C ) : Six (the numeral). "Mamook stoh"— to make loose. T A H L ' . SUNDAY ( E ) : Sunday. Also signifies bone or horn. STOCK'-EN ( E ) : Stocking. STONE ( E ) : Stone or rock. a half day.K I E ( C ) : Yesterday. "Hyas Sunday"— a holiday. "Elip sitkum sun"— before noon.) SUK-WAL'-WAL ( C ) : A gun. "Sun yaka waum alta"— the sun is warm now. "Yaka chako tahlkie"— he came yesterday. and is used as the equivalent of luck. STUTCH'-IN ( E ) : Sturgeon. absolve. ghost. STOTE'-KIN ( C ) : Eight (the numeral). "Tahlkie moon"— last month. "Ship stick"— a mast. pole. spirit. "Mitwhit stick"— a standing tree. "Moos-moos stick"— goad. ( A n Indian attempt to pronounce the English word. "Kimta sitkum sun"— after noon. "Tahlkie sun"— yesterday. "Sun chako"— daybreak. "Mamook stoh kahmooks"— let loose the dogs. "Stone kuitan"— a stallion. Every Indian had his tahmahnawis. "Okoke sun"— today. "Mokst sun"— Tuesday. "Kull stick"—hardwood (oak). "Stick skin"— hark. T A H ( C ) : A spirit or supernatural thing or person. "Tenas sun"— early in the day.CHINOOK-ENGLISH 97 STICK ( E ) : A stick. a day. " I k t tahlkie sun"— day before yesterday. 'Tkt stick"— a yard measure. TAH-MAH'-NA-WIS ( C ) : A guardian or familiar spirit in its personal application. fortune and kindred words. "Ikt sun"— first day. S T O H ( C ) : Loose. rod.

little. small time ago. to decrease.L U M ( C ) : Ten (the numeral). the devil. diminish. "Hyas tenas"— very small. for grease. literally. TA-MO'-LITSH ( C ) : A tub. teats. (The words glease and lakles are from the English and French respectively. as a horse.98 CHINOOK: A HISTORY AND DICTIONARY applied to anything the Indians could not readily understand.) "Kull tatoosh"— cheese. the young of an animal. "Ikt tamolitsh"— a bushel. go on foot. TA-NF-NO ( C ) : Crevasse. T A H ' . "Klale tahmahnawis"— black magic. beloved. milk. T A H T ' . bucket. "Klook teahwit"— lame. "Tenas snow chako"— little snow has come. barrel. "Tenas hiyu"— little much. TAH'-NESS ( C ) : Knee. "Chako tenas"— to grow less. or is ascribing magic powers either to men or to some object used as a charm. TEH-TEH ( C ) : To trot. the vulva. TEN'-AS ( N ) : Small. "Chuck mitlite kopa tamolitsh"— water is in the barrel or keg. TE-AH'-WIT ( C ) : The leg or foot. TANSE ( E ) : Dance. a little. .N I M (S): To measure. Tatoosh is the name of a range of mountains near Mount Rainier and it is also the name of an island off Cape Flattery. crooked leg (Klook was the Indian attempt to say the English word crooked). cask. dark or black spirit. fat or oil. TEA ( E ) : Tea. is more commonly used than lakles. "Chik-chik kopa tenas"— a baby carriage or wagon for a child. TAL'-A-PUS ( C ) : The coyote or prairie wolf. "Tenas polaklie"— evening. literally. few. a child. TEL'-E-MIN (J): Ribs. TAL'-IS ( C ) : Dear. which regards the creature as being of supernatural powers. literally. (The coyote is prominent in Indian mythology. come small. make magic. "Klatawa teahwit"— to walk. udder. "Masachie tahmahnawis"— evil spirits. not very long ago. However. or keg.) "Hyas opoots talapus"— the fox. bosom. "Tenas ahnkuttie"— recently. TA-TOOSH' ( C ) : The breasts of a female. "Mamook tenas" is another way of expressing the same idea. The word is used as a noun. canyon. several. literally. some. "Tatoosh glease or Iakles"— butter. big-tail coyote. glease. a verb or as an adjective according to whether it means a spirit is invoking the supernatural. slight. witchcraft. a few. pretty. "Kloshe tatoosh"— cream. "Mamook tahmahnawis"— conjure.

CHINOOK-ENGLISH 99 "Tenas yaka tenas"— a grandchild. love. "Nika hyas till"— I am very tired. TE-PEH' ( C ) : Quill. to make sounds on a musical instrument.) "Yaka klatawa kopa yaka tillikums"— he has gone to his people.fatigue. kin. Also to make tired or heavy with fatigue.) "Mamook tintin"— to ring a bell. "Huloima tillikums"— strangers. "Ahnkuttie tillikums"— former people. T I K ' . forefathers. it is used to express what one should want to do. "Tenas house"— hut. folks. "Toketie tenas"— a good child. nation. ( I t usually means those who are not chiefs—the people. nerves. population. Also. like. many people. the strike of an hour. to inquire.) * T L A K ' .L I . T O H ( J ) : To spit. T I L L (J): Tired. "Delate halo ticky"— very much not like. heavy. . any people. ( I t is also used with a final s for the plural. to detest or dislike. TEN'-TOME ( C h ) : Navel. "Ticky kumtux"— want to know. any musical instrument. TL-KOPE' ( C ) : To cut. weight. The latter is used as well as T'kope. tribe. different people from our people. T-KOPE' ( C ) : White or light colored. "Hyas toketie kulla kulla"— a very pretty bird. wish. associates. (Also T'kopet.T L A K ( J ) : Grasshopper.T I K ( J ) : A watch (imitation of the sound). T I L ' . "Wake till"— not heavy. "Kunsih till okoke?"— how much does that weigh? "Mamook till"— to weigh. friends.) TOKE-TIE (Gal): Pretty. music (imitation of the sound. be eager for. although it was not originally so. persons. "Okoke pishpish yaka t'kope"— that cat is white. pick.) "Nika tillikum"— my people. "Kunsih tintin alta?"— what time is it now? "Ikt tintin"— one hour. "T'kope tillikums"— white people. therefore.weigh. "Hiyu tillikums"— a crowd. hew or chop.K U M ( C ) : People. TLE-PAIT' ( C ) : Nerve. (A manufactured word. a musical instrument. "Ikta mika ticky?"— what do you want? "Hyas ticky"— to long for 01 desire deeply. ancestors. "Mika ticky muckamuck mika lametsin"— you should or must take your medicine. T I N ' . wing.T I N (J): A bell. light. "Yaka tillikum"— his people. relations. choose. "Nesika tillikums"— our people. TICK'-Y ( C ) : To want or desire.

illusive. TO'-LUKS (Clal): The mussel. "Mamook tseepe"— to do deceitfully. succeed. deceitful. light. triumph. convince. T S A ' . conquer. etc. control. TSIK'-TSIK ( J ) : A wagon or cart. (fingernails and toenails). dayhght. done deceitfully. "Tseepe ooahut"— to take a wrong road. (A widely used and variously employed word. TSO'-LO (Cal): To wander. shining. TSEE'-PE (Cal): To miss a mark. plan. soon. purpose. T . "Mamook tsak"— to stanch a wound. T-SEE' ( C ) : Sweet. overcome. to err. TOT (S): Uncle. to lose the way. delude. "Chako tsugh"— to become split or cracked. TO'-WAH ( C ) : The nails. blunder. sift. TSI-AT'-KO (S): A night-roving demon much feared by all the still superstitious Indians. mind. to make a mistake in speaking. TPISH'-KUKS ( C ) : Flounder (fish). thought. "Nika tolo yaka"— I prevailed over him. "Tseepe wawa"— to mispronounce.L A (Cal): Nuts. subdue. light of a lamp or fire. to patch. to win. T U K ' . "Kunsih dolla nika tolo spose nika mamook?"— how many dollars will I earn if I work? "Wawa pe tolo"— to persuade. the will. TO'-TO ( C ) : To shake. TUM'-TUM (J): The heart. "Mamook tsugh"— split. defeat. manage.) T-SISH' ( J ) : Imitation of the sound of a grindstone. TSHI'-KE ( C ) : Directly. belief. the hazel nut. one of the most expressive . intention. TUK-A-MO'-NUK ( C ) : A hundred. to gain. TSOLE'-PAT ( K ) : A shotpouch. prevail. winnow.100 CHINOOK: A HISTORY AND DICTIONARY TO'-LO (Cal): To earn. subject.S A K ' ( C ) : To stanch. to fool or delude. or deceive. "Ikt tomolla" or "Kopet tomolla"— day after tomorrow. (see chik-chik. TO-MOL'-LA ( E ) : Tomorrow. memory. "Hiyu tshish okoke sun"— it is very cold today. "Tseepe mamook"— a trick. TSI-'A-LITS ( C ) : A branch. T-SUGH' ( C ) : A crack or split.L I L ( C ) : A lake. to mistake one's road.W I L . won over him. opinion. TO-WAGH' or te-wagh ( C ) : Bright. I beat him. T-SHISH' ( C ) : Cold. "Mamook tsugh illahee"— to plow the ground. TOPE'-CHIN ( J ) : A patch. false.

anything superior. "Kahkwa tyee"— kingly. to think. T . . fringe. plan or decide. onion.W A H ' (J): Shining. brave. now a chief. "Kloshe tupso"— flowers. "Tzum seeowist"— photograph. pictures. spots. "Tyee sammon"— the largest variety of salmon in any given locality. two minds have I. almost wholly used subjectively. an officer. colors. "Mamook wagh chuck"— pour some water. ornamental (gay colors). beard. "Tyee kopa Washington"— the president of the United States. stripes. "Kahkwa nika tumtum"— as I think. "Tzum sammon"— trout. strong heart. "Saghalie Tyee". "Halo tumtum"— without a w i l l or an opinion. a superior. draw. mark. "Sick tumtum"— grief. UL'-CHEY ( C ) : The moose. painted. indomitable. "Mamook tzum"— to write. a foreman. TY-EE' ( N ) : A chief. "Tupso kopa latet"— hair. figures. W W A G H ( C ) : To spill. leaf or leaves. fur. see tumtum). UL'-KEN or oo'-la-chan ( C I ) : A type of smelt. "Tzum illahee"— surveyed land.CHINOOK-ENGLISH 101 in the Jargon. UL-A-LACH' ( K ) : Wild onion. "Ikta mika tumtum?"— what do you think? "Mika tumtum"— as you please. bright (towagh). Supposed to be a manufactured word made to imitate the sound of the heart beat. or like I think. "Tzum stick"— a pencil or brush for marking. gladness. a master. literally. hair. to pour. "Skookum tumtum"— bold. a manager. only. TUP'-SHIN (S): A needle. to vomit. U U-AL'-TEE ( C ) : Joy. in the old days. "Klootchman tyee or tyee klootchman"— the matron of an Indian school. "Mamook tumtum"— to make up one's mind. paint. paint. marks. printing. a gentleman. "He-he tumtum"— jolly.) "Mahsh tumtum"— to give orders.God. dye. "Mokst tumtum nika"— undecided. TUM'-WA-TA (J&E): A waterfall (part imitation and part English. T Z U M ( C ) : Mixed colors. TUP'-SO ( C ) : Grass. black water to make marks. "Tupso illahee"— prairie or grassy country. "Klale chuck kopa mamook tzum"— ink. feathers. like a king. a boss.

declaim. or today is warm. cole sick"— fever and ague. fact. boast. and apparently without distinction. not good. feeble. converse. "Okoke sun yaka waum"— that sun it is warm. After the introduction of the potato the latter was called wappato and the former was known as siwash wappato. "Wake skookum"— not strong.what did you say? "Delate wawa"— truth. voice. infirm. WE-CO'-MA ( C ) : The sea. "Wawa halo"— to deny. (See halo—these terms are both used for the same meanings and purpose. "Kloshe wawa"— good talk. "Mamook wash"— to wash.102 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY WAKE ( N ) : No. untruthful statements. not. "Wake siah"— not far.) "Ikta mika w a w a f . "Wake kloshe kopa mahkook"— not good to sell. argument. a few. WAY'-HUT ( C ) : A road or trail (see ooahut). unsalable. more. "Waum sick. story. "Skookum wawa"— harangue. ( I n earlier times the root of the Sagittaria latifolia. "Wake hiyu"— not many. conversation. "Weght nika klatawa"— again I go. shout. call." "Hyas waum" —hot. "Mahsh wawa"— to command or give orders. WASH ( E ) : Wash. "Wawa kopa Saghalie Tyee"— to pray or talk to God. "Hiyu wawa"— much talk. "Killapi wawa"— to answer or reply. speak. WAP'-PA-TO (J): The potato. "Wake kloshe"— no good. or Indian potato. to talk. "Hyas wawa"— loud talk. articulate. sermon. ( I t is anything that has to do with speech. "Tenas weght"— a little more. to be baptized. WA'-WA ( C ) : Speech.) "Nika wake kumtux"— I do not understand. "Iskum wash"— to get washed. . "Cultus wawa"— idle talk. WEGHT or wekt ( C ) : Again. "Wawa kloshe"— to bless. printed or articulated. a native plant much esteemed by the natives and one of their regular sources of food supply. none. wake being without doubt the older form. whether written. "Pe nika weght"— and I also. though for the latter the expression is usually inverted as: "Yaka waum okoke sun.) W A U M ( E ) : Warm (Indian attempt to say warm). weak. to promise. a proverb. also. clamor. "Wawa kliminawhit"— to lie. tale. jabber.

W I T ' .CHINOOK-ENGLISH 103 W H I M ( N ) : Fallen. length. proud. to fell. separated. bosom. it. YAK'-SO(C):Hair. YA'-KA ( C ) : He. Rooster Rock was a notable wootlat. stomach. cutting. has the stomachache. spirited. "Mamook whim okoke stick"— fell this tree. YAK'-KIS-ILTH ( C ) : Sharp." and venerated. "Keekwullie yakwahtin"— the entrails. "Wake siah yahwa"— not far from there or thereabouts.H U L ( C ) : A name. all cases). her. "Yaka klatawa"— he has gone. to relate a tale.) Y Y A H ' . WOOT'-LAT ( C ) : A phallus. (see wawa. this way. pleased. his. "Hyas yotl tumtum" or "Yaka tumtum delate kloshe"— his heart is very glad. one there.) W I N D ( E ) : Wind. breath. "Ikt yahwa. "Halo wind"— out of breath. "Yotskut capo"— jacket. beyond. WIN'-A-PEE ( N ) : By-and-by. "Whim stick"— a fallen tree. "Yukwa kopa okoke house"— this side of that house. she. apart. presently. at present time. in that direction. (Often represented in carved pestles. (Alki is more commonly in use. hers.L A ( C ) : Eagle. this side. "Chako yukwa"— come here. "Yaka mitlite yahwa"— he is there. "Okoke stick hyas yotlkut"— this stick is very long. "Yaka sick kopa yaka yakwahtin"—he is sick in the stomach. YOTL ( C h ) : Glad. Y A K ' . "Okoke kuitan yaka tkope"— the horse it is white.) YOOTS ( C ) : To sit. YOTL'-KUT ( C ) : Long (in dimension). YUK'-WA ( C ) : Here. within the belly. "Kuitan yakso"— mane. Natural pillars and towers of basalt were sometimes called "Wootlat. in that place. its (anything pertaining to the third person. YI'-EM (S): A tale or story. . YOT'-SKUT ( C ) : Short. YA-KWAH'-TIN ( C ) : The belly. "Skookum wind"— gale. yonder. singular.A . to confess to a priest. "Nika klook yaka teahwit"— my foot it is lame. dead. ikt yahwa"— one there. YAH'-WA ( C ) : There. "Nanitch yaka"— see him. him. which was more commonly used.K A ( C ) : Now.

kopa.ENGLISH-CHINOOK A ABASE — mamook keekwullie. ACCURATE . ABSENT . ACT. ACCIDENT — nika tumtum halo yaka chako kahkwa. klatawa. ABED . ACCOMPLISH . ACQUIRE . ABOARD — kopa boat (or ship or canim). ABOUND .mamook.mamook.wawa nowitka. ABOVE . ABORIGINE . ABOLISH . chako kunamokst. ABSCOND .delate. ABOUT — wake siah kopa.mitlite.saghalie. ACTION .kahnaway. mamook mahsh.cultus.mamook. ACKNOWLEDGE . ADORE — mitlite delate kloshe tumtum kopa.iskum.delate halo lazy.enati.kopa bed. ADMIRE — mitlite kloshe tumtum kopa.mamook kumtux.iskum hiyu. ABDOMEN — yakwahtin.iskum.kapswolla. ACORNS . ACQUAINT . ABJECT . ADMONISH . ACCOMPANY — klatawa kunamokst.siwash. ADORN — mamook kloshe. 104 .hiyu mitlite. inati. ACCORDING TO . ACORN. A C T I V E . ADJOIN — wake siah kopa.potlatch kloshe wawa. A D D — mahsh kunamokst. ACHIEVE . ACCUMULATE .halo mitlite. ACCEPT . atole. ADRIFT — cultus mitlite kopa chuck.mamook halo. ACROSS . ABIDE . ABSOLVE — mamook stoh. kwahtin. ABLE — skookum.

AFTERNOON .weght.Hoston man.mitlite wind. A M I D . ADULTERER — man yaka kumtux kapswolla klootchman. AGUE . AMOUNT .solleks.elan. ALOFT — kopa saghalie.kopet ikt.kahkwa.kopa illahee. A F F I R M . or elahan. Literally "paddlewood. TO — mamook elan. AND . ANGER. AMUSEMENT . ADVISE . A L T H O U G H . .hehe. ALTER — mamook huloima. A L A R M — mamook kwass. T H E .kimtah sitkum sun.kunamokst.wah! hah! AH! ( I N P A I N ) . AFTER. AGROUND . AMUSE — mamook hehe. podatch dolla. A H ! (ADMIRATION) . ANGRY . AFTERWARDS . AFRAID .wawa delate. katsuk. ALWAYS — kwonesum. AGREE — tumtum kunamokst.wake siah. ALSO . ALMS.cultus potlatch tumtum. AFOOT . AMONG . ADULTERESS — klootchman yaka kumtux kapswolla man. AFAR . A I D .cole sick.pe. A I D . AGED — oleman.ENGLISH-CHINOOK 105 ADULTERATE — mamook mesachie. mahsh mesachie kunamokst.Saghalie Tyee.keschi.hyas ahnkuttie.a n a h ! AHEAD . AMERICAN . ADVICE. TO GIVE — mamook klahowyum. A L I V E . or klahowya.kwass.kopa lepee. ALMOST .siah.kimtah. elahan. ALMIGHTY. AGAIN . ALDER — isick stick. ALONE . ALMS — elan. sometimes no word is used. AM — midite is sometimes used. ANCIENT .weght. A F F L I C T — mamook trouble." A L I K E .konaway.elip. mamook sick tumtum. A M E N — kloshe kahkwa. A L L — konaway. HELP .

kissu. A N N U A L . ARRIVE AT . ARRIVE.ko. A T T A C K . A T T E N D . papa or mama yaka ats.ikt cole ikt cole. ANY-klaksta. ASCEND .pish man.kalitan. ANXIOUS . apple. mamook hyas. AROUSE — mamook get up. (if of things) mahsh. chako. tant. ANSWER . APPEAL — wawa kopa elip hyas court.klatawa.106 CHINOOK: A HISTOBY A N D DICTIONABY ANGLER . help. stick kalitan. ATTIRE . AROUND — wake siah kopa. ASK — wawa.p i g h t elip. APPEAR — chako kah (nika) nanitch. ANTICIPATE . kehsu. ARROW . APPROACH . ASSEMBLE . ARGUMENT — mamook hiyu. ARITHMETIC — book yaka mamook kumtux nesika kopa kwunnum. klap.iktas. APART — ikt yahwa. AT — kopa.elahan. ASSENT — wawa nowitka.mamook tumtum elip.chako kunamokst. ASLEEP — moosum. AUNT — kwalh. ASH — isick stick. APPROVE . A U T U M N .huloima.chako wake siah. TO — iskum musket. ARCTIC — kah delate hiyu cole mitlite. mamook tzum. ARM — lamah. ikt yahwa. APRON . ARREST — mamook haul. AUDIENCE — hiyu tillikums kopa house. . ASSESS — mamook tzum iktas. ARISE . ANOTHER .tenas cole illahee. ASSISTANCE . APPLY — (if in words) wawa. mamook kow.hyas ticky.mitwhit. ARM.opoots. ARGUE — hiyu wawa. ANUS . ARDENT — waum tumtum.(nika) tumtum kahkwa.klatawa saghalie. APPLE — lapome. AS — kahkwa.killapi wawa. AS IF — kahkwa spose.

tenas. BARGAIN — mahkook. AWAKE — halo moosum. BE STILL . or kipuet.kloshe. BAD SPIRIT — mesachie tumtum (if in person). larch. cultus.stickskin. BEACH — nauits. .ENGLISH-CHINOOK 107 AVERSE .kamosuk.halo ticky. AXE .tupso. huyhuy. BEAR. BAT — polaklie kalakala. BECAUSE . TO . BARK . BAG .huyhuy. A W L (shoemaker's) — shoes keepwot. B BABY .siah. kehwa.lahash.lolo.kahkwa. BED .tamolitsh. BEADS . BECOME. polallie illahee. chetwoot. itswoot. BARLEY . BEARD . BEARER — man yaka kumtux lolo. B A D — mesachie. BACK .halo wind. BEAR (grizzly) — siam. BATTLE .chako.lesak. TO .kopet wawa. sometimes no word is used.kokshut. BARK (dog's) — kahmooks wawa. B E A U T I F U L .ketling. BEAVER .opekwan. siamitchwoot.bed. BECALM .pight.lashey. TO . BEAT. B A L L . BECOME HARD .eena.lebal. BE — sometimes mitlite is used. peshak. A V I D I T Y -hyastieky. mesachie tahmahnawis (if another spirit). BARTER . AYE — nowitka. AVOID — klatawa kopa huloima ooahut. BATH — mamook wash. mamook kokshut.emeek. BASKET . BEAR (black) — itchwoot. AWE — kwass. BASIN . AWAY . halo sleep.chako kull. BARREL .

BLUE ( D A R K ) . TO .wawa kloshe. katsuk.pasese. BLUE ( L I G H T ) .olallie. BEYOND . B E L L — tintin. BESIDE. klikamuks. dingding. BIRD . BIBLE — saghalie tyee yaka book. BELOVED — kloshe.keekwullie. TO — wind chako. olillie. BEHAVE .kimtah.kalakala.klale olallie.mamook kloshe. kloshe kopa tumtum. BESIDES .yakwahtin.kloshe wawa. BLACKBERRIES . .klatawa. BEG — skookum wawa. B E L T . mamook tintin.tseepe.itlwillie. BEFORE .hyas. BLEED — mamook pilpil. klile.k l a l e .klale pish. halo nanitch. B E N E F I T . ring the bell. iskum kopa tumtum. nanitch.(v. kulakula. BLESS.spooh. BEST — elip kloshe kopa konoway. mamook elip.k l a l e .lasanshel.tzum pasese. BELLY . TO .nah. BEGONE .mamook poh. BIG . BLOOD .kunamokst. BLACKBIRD . BELIEVE — iskum wawa. or labisquee. BITE — muckamuck.108 CHINOOK: A HISTORY AND DICTIONARY BED Q U I L T . hiyu wind. B E L L E — kloshe tenas klootchman. BEHOLD . BLOW OUT . BELOW .pilpil. BERRIES . BIT or D I M E . BITTER . B L I N D — halo seeowist.k l i k l . BLACK .pil okchok.keekwullie. BLANKET . BETWEEN . BLOW. BLACKFISH . BEEF . B E H I N D . BLUNDER. BENEATH .bit.elip kloshe.kunamokst.yahwa. BEGIN — chee mamook. BLESSING .elip. BISCUIT — lebiskwee. potsuk.) mamook kloshe. BETTER .

labootai. BREAKFAST — muckamuck kopa tenas sun.stone. BOIL. mamook kokshut. BORROW. uskan.(a bob-tailed horse) siskiyou.lacaset. BRIDLE .skookum tumtum. tenas cooley chuck.opoots sail. TO . B O W .tsialits. BROOK — tenas chuck.tyee. stick musket. BREAD — lepan. BRASS — pil chikamin.mamook pukpuk. tewagh. BRANCH . BREECH CLOUT .wind.boat. alki pay.towagh.ENGLISH-CHINOOK 109 BLUSH — chako pil kopa yaka seeowist. BRING. BREATH . BRITISH . BOLDNESS . BREAK. BOY — tenas man. BOW — opitlkegh. T H E CHEST . mamook klimmin. newah.King Chautsh (George) (kinchautsh). sapolil. BORE.laplash. mokst. BROOM .klikwallie. BOX.bloom. BRIGHT . BOARD . piah sapolil (baked bread).(of boat) nose. BOTH — kunamokst.tatoosh. mamook hole.book. BRACELET . . skookum wawa. BREAST.emih. BOLD.stick shoes. TO — mamook thalwhop. BREASTS . BOTTLE . yahwahtin. BRIDEGROOM .kokshut Iepee. BOSOM — (female) tatoosh. kweokweo. BONE . BOOTS .American.klukulh. BOSTON . BRIDE — klootchman yaka chee mallie. klikwallie. BOOK . TO — kokshut.kiyah. BOAST — hyas wawa. BOAT . TO (fight) . TO — lolo. BOBTAILED . mamook chako. BOWL — ooskan. BOX . BROAD .man yaka chee mallie. halo kwass. TO — liplip.iskum dolla. BOSS . BRAVE — skookum tumtum. BOWELS .lableed. BROKEN LEGGED . mamook hplip.

CAR (railroad) — piah chikchik.lacalat. BURST . CAP — seahpo. BROTHER-IN-LAW — ats yaka man.chilchil. CAREFUL . CAPTURE . skookum tumtum. CAPABLE — skookum kopa.canim. klale. tatoosh lakles.kloshe nanitch. CARRION . wild moosmoos.humm itlwillie.tatoosh glease.laplash man. iktas. BUSHEL (bushel basket) . CALICO — tzum sail. BUTCHER — man yaka kumtux mamook memaloose moosmoos.killapi. klootchman yaka ow. CARELESS .cultus.kokshut. BURN — mamook piah.winapee. BY-AND-BY . BUY. CANYON .tanino. BURY — mahsh kopa illahee.mamook kow. CANNOT — halo skookum kopa. BUTTER . CAMAS — camas. CAN — skookum kopa.sitkum klale. B U L L — man moosmoos. keellapie. kimtah ow ( i f younger). sail. C A L M — halo wind. TO . B U I L D — mamook house. elip ow (if older than the speaker). BUFFALO — moosmoos. BUT-pe. BROWN .laplash man. B U L L E T — lebal. CAPSIZE .elitee. kopa. BY — wake siah kopa. alki. B U N D L E .tamolitsh. BUILDER . Male cousins the same. tenas klale. CARPENTER . musket yaka ball.mahkook. kamass. CAPTIVE . howkwutl. . CANOE . C CALF — tenas moosmoos. tsiltsil. TO . CARROT . glease piah.ikt tamolitsh. halo kloshe nanitch. CANDLE — lashandel. ekkeh.wawa.kow. BUCK — man mowitch. kalitan.110 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY BROTHER — kahpho. BUTTONS . BUCKET . CALL.

C H A I N — lashen.tumwata. TO—mamook ona (razor clams). CEDAR BARK (inside) . kalakwahtee. CHANGE — huyhuy. CATCH — iskum.kweokweo. CASCADE . capala. CELLAR .ketwilla. CHAIR .lapool. klismes. CHOP.lashase. CHOOSE .lolo. CHEATED. CENTER .tumwata. mamook huyhuy. round clams of Puget Sound and the northern coasts).kopa saghalie. or tukutchee. CHANCE — nika tumtum halo yaka chako kahkwa.ENGLISH-CHINOOK 111 CARRY. .tyee. C L A M . TO .tamolitsh. CHEESE . C H A N N E L . CELESTIAL . mamook smetocks (the large.kalakwahtee.katsuk. CEASE . mamook pelton. CASH — dolla. CHEAT. C H I N — makeson.delate.kloshe nanitch. CERTAIN . TO . (I am) . CHRISTMAS . lametsin stick.tenas. TO RE . CHEEKS — seeowist.nika chako pelton.moosmoos.ooahut. CARVE — mamook cut. CART .kopet. CEMETERY . CHICKEN . CERTAINLY . CHEAP — wake hyas mahkook.lalah. or tukwitchee (little neck clams).tlkope.hyas Sunday. CIRCLE .lasheminay. CHIMNEY .memaloose illahee. CHIEF . CATTLE . C H I L L Y . CEDAR — canim stick. TO . mamook kwutl. mamook lukutchee. CITY — skookum town. chikamin.tenas cole. CHEER — hiyu kloshe wawa. C H I L D .elip ticky. chikamin lope.nowitka.kull tatoosh. CIDER — chuck lapome. CAUTIOUS. CATARACT . CAT — pusspuss. CASK .chikchik.

TO .chako klahanie kopa chuck. COMPLETE . smoke kopa saghalie. CONCEIVE (in mind) — mamook tumtum. wawa. TO . cultus smoke. COME OUT OF T H E WATER .tumtum. klatawa kunamokst.comb. COPPER .mamook cole. CONJURER .mahsh wawa. CLOTHES . CLOSE — mamook ikpooie. CONJURING — tahmahnawis. (woolen) pasese. tukwitchee. clams (smetocks the large kind). mamook clean. TO . COMB . COMB. COMMUNION — Jesus yaka muckamuck. COMMAND. kapo.ipsoot. CLEAR UP.klah. COME.CONVERSE . COMMON — kloshe kopa konaway. COMMANDMENTS . CLOTH— (cotton or linen) sail or sill. cultus. CONCUR . COMMENCE — mamook begin.pil chikamin. CONTENTED . TO . chym. COLD — cole. CLEAN — halo illahee. TO . CONFESS. COMMAND . COAT — capo. CONCEAL . tukutchee.chako.wawa. CLEAR .siwash doctin.chako piah.klap tenas. CONVERSATION . mamook piah muckamuck. CLOUDS — smoke.tolo.112 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY CLAMS — ona. COFFEE . CONGREGATE .hyas tiktik. CONSECRATE .mamook comb.iktas. CLIMB — klatawa saghalie. TO .potlatch kopa saghalie tyee. CLERK — tzum man.mitlite kloshe tumtum. chis. mamook tahmahnawis. TO — mamook clean. CONJURE. CONQUER. COOKED . CLOCK . CLEAN. CONSCIENCE . CONCEIVE . COAST — illahee wake siah kopa chuck.chako.law.kaupy. COOL.tumtum kahkwa. COOK — mamook piah. chee mamook. CLAY — klimmin illahee. TO .saghalie tyee law. .mamook kopet.yiem. COLOR — tzum.chako klah. tahmahnawis man. newhah.

illahee. lope. CREAM-COLORED . CRACK .kahkah. COWARD — halo skookum tumtum. CURRENCY . CROW .ENGLISH-CHINOOK 113 COPY — mamook tzum. CURSE. CRANBERRY . A .solemie. mamook tahnim. CREEK — tenas cooley.tlkope. TO . wake delate. pil olallie. cup. CURED .hunlkih. CROWD . CRY. TO .sail. TO . tseepe. CROSS. COYOTE . CROOKED — kiwa. CORRECT .pil olallie.delate. CRABAPPLE — powitsh. CORD — tenas lope. COURAGE — skookum tumtum.ticky kapswolla.lacloa.pelton. TO .cly. COUNT — mamook kwunnum. CREEK . COUNTRY . kullaghan. CRANE . CREATOR . GOODS .talapus. CREAM . CREAM. klooked.kahpho. TO COUGH . CUT. kwass man.kloshe tatoosh. CUP — ooskan.leclem. CURSE — mesachie wawa. COUPLE .hiyu tillikums. COST (how much) — kunsih dolla? COTTON. COUGAR — hyas pusspuss.esalth.ikpooie.mokst. culant. CORK.pepah dolla. CORRAL . CRAZY . COVET . COUNSEL — cultus potlatch tumtum.tenas chuck.kelok. COUGH. siwash apple.tsugh. COW — klootchman moosmoos.hohhoh. mamook kunsih. . mamook cut. COVER — mahsh ikta kopa saghalie. swamp olallie.chako kloshe. COUSIN . CORN . lepot.wawa mesachie.kullah. CURLY . CURRANT . CURE — mamook kloshe.saghalie tyee.

D E C L I N E . . kahkwa clazy.mesachie mitlite. DECEIVE — wawa kliminawhit mamook lalah. mesachie tahmahnawis. DEFEAT. DAYBREAK .wawa halo. DELUGE . DEFER — mamook alki.tanse. DELIRIOUS .pight wawa. DEAFEN — mamook halo kwolan.polaklie. DANGER . DENTIST . DAY .mahsh. okustee.chako tenas. DAYLIGHT-towagh.halo kwolan halo wawa.opitsah.mowitch. TO . DEFEND . D A W N — delate tenas sun. attain. DARKEN — mamook polaklie. DEFORMED .wake delate. DEITY . DEEP — klip. yaka wind chako halo. klap tumtum. mamook byby. DEER . DEAF MUTE .tumtum. D E M O N — deaub. DANCE. DEBATE . D E L I G H T E D . TO .klatawa. DAUGHTER . chako kloshe tumtum.doctin kopa latah. DEED — mamook. DENY. D E L U D E — mamook tseepe.hyas chuck. TO . DESCENT .mitlite. ehee chako light. skookum wawa. DECIDE — mamook tumtum.kloshe nanitch. D E L I G H T .klatawa keekwullie.kloshe tumtum. DASH.sun chako.mamook kumtux.114 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY D DAGGER . DEAF — ikpooie kwolan.tenas klootchman. DARK.tolo. hyas keekwullie. DARKNESS . D E N I A L . mahsh konaway yaka wind.sun. D E M A N D — wawa.huloima latate. DECEIT — kliminawhit wawa.saghalie tyee. halo kwolan. DECREASE . D E A D — memaloose. DEAR (expensive) — hyas mahkook.wawa halo. DECISION . DEPART . DESCRIBE . DEAR (loved) -kloshe.

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DESERT - illahee kah halo ikta mitlite. DESERT, TO - kapswolla klatawa; mahsh. DESIRE - ticky. DESTROY - mamook halo. D E V I L - deaub. D I A B O L I C A L - kahkwa deaub. D I D — mamook. D I E — memaloose; mahsh konoway yaka wind. DIFFERENT, DIFFERENCE - huloima. DIFFICULT - k u l l . D I G — mamook illahee; mamook kokshut illahee. D I G A H O L E - mamook hole. D I L U T E — mahsh chuck kunamokst. D I M E - bit; ikt bit. D I N E , DINNER — muckamuck kopa sitkum sun. DIRECT - delate. DIRECTLY - alki; winapee; tshike. DIRTY — illahee mitlite; hyas humm. DISAGREE - halo tumtum kahkwa. DISAPPEAR - chako halo. DISAPPOINT - mamook pelton. DISBELIEVE - halo tumtum kahkwa. DISCARD, DISCHARGE - mahsh. DISCOVER - elip nanitch. DISHES - lasiet, leplah. DISHONEST - kumtux kapswolla. D I S L I K E - halo ticky. DISOBEY — halo iskum wawa; mahsh wawa. DISPLEASURE (expression of) - a n a h . DISSENT - huloima tumtum. DISTANCE (what?) - kunsih siah? DISTANCE - siah. DISTRESS — klahowyum tumtum; klahowyum. DISTRUST - kwass. D I V E — klatawa keekwullie kopa chuck. DO, TO - mamook. DOCTOR-doctin. DOCTRESS - klootchman doctin. DODGE — hyak klatawa; klatawa yahwa yahwa. DOE — klootchman mowitch. DOG — kahmooks. DOLLAR — dolla; tahla; chikamin. D O N A T I O N - cultus potlatch. DOOR - lapote. DOUBLE - mokst. D O U B L E (minded) — mokst tumtum.

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DOUBT - halo delate kumtux. DOWN — keekwullie; whim. D O W N (of a bird) - kalakala tupso. DOWNCAST - sick tumtum. D O W N H I L L - keekwullie. DOWNSTREAM - mimie; cooley chuck. DOXOLOGY — mahsie kopa saghalie tyee. DOZEN - tahtlum pe mokst. DRAWERS (underpants) — keekwullie sakoleks. DREAD - kwass. DREAM — dleam; nanitch kopa moosum; moosum nanitch. DRENCH - mahsh kopa chuck. DRESS - klootchman coat. DRINK, TO — muckamuck; muckamuck chuck, kaupy; whiskey, etc. DRINKABLE — kloshe kopa muckamuck. DRIP — chuck klatawa. DRIVE — mamook kishkish. DRIZZLE — tenas snass. DROWN — memaloose kopa chuck. DROWSY - t i c k y sleep. DRUG - lametsin. DRUM (Indian) —pompon. DRUNK - pahtlum. DRUNKARD — pahtlum man; man kwonesum pahtlum. DRY, DRYNESS - dly; dely. DUCK (mallard) -hahthaht. DUCKING — mahsh kopa chuck; klatawa kopa chuck. D U G — mamook dig. D U L L — halo tumtum; siah latate. D U M B — wake wawa; halo wawa. D U R I N G - kopa. DUST — polallie; tenas illahee; klimmin klimmin illahee. D W E L L - mitlite. DYE, TO - mamook tzum. DYING — wake siah memaloose. E EACH - ikt ikt. EAGER - ticky. EAGER, TO BE - hyas ticky. EAGLE - chakchak. EAR — kwolan. EARLY — tenas sun. EARN, TO - tolo. EARNEST - skookum tumtum. EARTH - illahee.

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EAST — kah sun yaka chako. EASTER - Paska. EASY-halo kull. EAT, TO - muckamuck. EATABLE — kloshe kopa muckamuck. EBB T I D E - chuck yaka klatawa. EDUCATE - mamook kumtux. E E L (lamprey) — skwakwal. EFFECTS - iktas. EFFEMINATE - kahkwa klootchman. EFFICIENT - skookum; kloshe. EGG, EGGS - hen olallie. E I G H T — stotekin; kwinnum pe klone; eight. EIGHTEEN - tahtlum pe stotekin. EIGHT HUNDRED - stotekin tukomonuk. EIGHTY - stotekin tahtlum. EITHER - OR - klonas klonas. EJECT - mahsh klahanie. ELBOW - kimta Iamah. ELDER - elip. ELDER BROTHER - kaupho. ELEGANT - hyas kloshe. ELEVATE — mamook saghalie. E L K — moolack; mooluk. ELOPE — kapswolla kopa klootchman. ELOQUENT - kumtux wawa. ELSE — huloima. E L U D E — ipsoot, klatawa. EMBARK — klatawa kopa canim; boat; ship. E M B L E M — kahkwa picture. EMBRACE — iskum kopa lamah. EMIGRATE - klatawa kopa huloima illahee. E M O T I O N - cly tumtum; kahkwa cly. EMPLOYER - tyee; boss. EMPTY - halo ikta mitlite. ENACT - mamook. ENCIRCLE — ikt yahwa, ikt yahwa, ikt yahwa, pe mamook kow. ENCLOSE — mamook keekwullie. ENCLOSURE - kullah. E N D — opoots. ENDEAVOR - ticky mamook. ENDLESS - kwonesum. ENDURE — kwonesum mamook; kwonesum mitlite. ENEMY — solleks tillikum; mesachie tillikum. ENERGY — skookum mamook. ENGLAND - King Chautsh Illahee.

EVER. EXCESS .sick. kahkwa clazy. ENTERTAIN (as a guest) . EXCHANGE . ESCORT. EXACT . ENTRAP . klatawa.konaway. E X C L A I M . ENTRAILS . E N G U S H M A N . ENTER — klatawa keekwullie.chako elip hiyu.mamook tzum.mamook tumtum. wawa.mahsh klahanie. ENOUGH — kopet hiyu.konaway kah. E V E N I N G . ENTIRE . ENRAGED . E V I L — mesachie. TO . E X A L T — mamook saghalie.kloshe nanitch.delate.hyas kloshe. ESTIMATE. EXAGGERATE .huyhuy.iskum kopa trap.kahkwa. EXCITE — mamook hyas yaka tumtum.skookum wawa. kopet. hiyu. ETERNAL . EVERLASTING . konaway klatawa klahanie. E X A L T E D — chako saghalie.kopet. klatawa saghalie. ENGLISH (language) —Boston wawa. EVERYWHERE . ENUMERATE — mamook kunsih. ENLARGE — mamook hyas. delate. ENSLAVE . E X A M I N E . EQUAL . EPILEPSY .King Chautsh man.tenas polaklie. ESTIMATE .kwonesum. ERECT . EVERY-konaway. EXCELLENT .solleks. . E V E N — konoway kahkwa. ESCAPE — chako klahanie (for first or second persons). E W E — klootchman lemooto. King Chautsh Hllikum. klatawa inside. ENJOY . ENGRAVE . EVACUATE — mamook halo. mamook tzum.wake siah kliminawhit.mamook elitee. mamook hyas.mitlite kloshe tumtum. EULOGIZE — wawa kloshe wawa.elip kloshe. klah. TO — klatawa kunamokst pe kloshe nanitch.delate nanitch. kloshe.mitwhit. EXCEL . EXCLAMATION .kwonesum. EVICT .118 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY ENGLISH. klatawa klahanie (for third person). EXCEPT . chako hyas.elip hiyu.tumtum.Idya. EXCEED .

delate wawa.mahsh klahanie. E X H A L E .mahsh. EXERT . EXHAUST . FACT .pay. FALSEHOOD .hiyu mamook. EXTERMINATE. EYELASH — skin kopa seeowist. EXHORT — skookum wawa. FAME — hyas nem. EXHAUSTED — chako delate till. EXPLAIN — mamook kumtux. EXTERIOR . EXIST . EXTEND . EXTINGUISH . TO . EYEWITNESS . potlatch. FAGGED . EXPERT .halo kull. EYEBALL . EXCOMMUNICATE .kliminawhit. mamook whim. mahsh. EXERCISE. EXPEND .whim.klatawa pe nanitch.mamook. E X T E N D E D .mahsh klahanie kopa yaka illahee. EXQUISITE .seeowist.ENGLISH-CHINOOK 119 EXCLUDE. F A C I L I T Y . EXPIRE — memaloose.chako till. wake siah memaloose kopa till. EXERT . EYES.cultus mahkook iktas. EXPATRIATE . EYE.mamook halo.delate yaka kumtux. FADED . FABRIC . EXPLORE . EXPEL .hyas.man yaka delate nanitch. FAIR-kloshe. F A L L E N . EXTRAORDINARY . mahsh konaway yaka wind.mamook tiU.hyas huloima. . wawa skookum.mamook hyak. tseepe. EXPEDITE . FADE — chako spooh. F A L L — fall down.klahanie. EXCUSE — mamook klahowya. EXTRAVAGANT . FALSE. F FABLE — wake delate wawa.delate kloshe.mitlite. EYEWATER — Iametsin kopa seeowist.iktas. E X I L E .spooh.mahsh.mahsh wind. EXTENSIVE .mamook hyas.chako hyas. FACE — seeowist. EXECUTE — mamook memaloose.

FARTHEST . FATTEN — mamook glease. FIB — klirninawhit. FETCH — lolo. F I E N D — mesachie tahmahnawis.till.k w u t l .lepee. halo skookum.kwass.siah. FATIGUE . pence.elip siah kopa konaway. F I E L D . FAR . F A U L T — wake delate mamook.itlan. FELLOW . chako waum.h y a k . FEVER A N D AGUE .120 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY FAMILY .papa. FATHER .tillikums.elip siah.klootchman. kullahan. FEROCIOUS . tenas. FERMENT — kahkwa liplip. cole sick. FARTHER .illahee. FESTIVAL — hyas kloshe time.waum tumtum.tahtlum pe kwinnum. mamook chako.waum sick. FERVOR . hiyu muckamuck. FEEL (with heart) — sick tumtum. FATHOM . FAMISH — wake siah memaloose kopa olo. delate kumtux pight. FEVER . FASTEN . FEATHER . F A M I N E — halo muckamuck. hyas kull. TO (as a tree) — mamook whim. FERVENT. F I C T I O N . hiyu muckamuck.waum sick. FARM .tillikum. FAST (tight) . FEAR. FEET . F E L L . F E W — wake hiyu. FEED — potlatch muckamuck. FEARLESS . FAT . FEEBLE — wake skookum. FEEL (with hand) — kumtux kopa lamah. . FEMALE .hyas ticky pight.wake delate wawa. FIFTEEN .hyas ticky pight. FESTER .chako sick pe chako hyas. FEARFUL . FAVOR — kloshe tumtum. mowitch yaka tenas. FENCE — kullah.glease.halo kwass.illahee.kalakala tupso. FIERCE . F A W N — tenas mowitch. FAST (quick) . FEAST — muckamuck.mamook kow.

pishman.piah. F L I N T . chotub. F I N D . kah iskum pish. FLOOD . FLOCK — hiyu sheep.pish lope. kahdena. FISHERMAN .tzum. F L I N G . FINGER .k a h k w a pish. cultus.klap. F I L E . FISTS . FIRST . FLOUR — sapolil. .mahsh. FIRE .kwinnum tukamonuk. FIR — moola stick. FINE.mamook fine.ENGLISH-CHINOOK 121 FIFTY . FINISH — mamook kopet. FLOUNDER (fish) . FLIES — tenas kalakala. klimmin sapolil. FLESH .kah piah mitlite. F I S H Y . FISHROD .elip tenas. TO . F I X — mamook kloshe.klatawa. meat. lemosh.kilitsut.ledoo. hyas Sunday sail. FLEA — sopena inapoo. F I G H T (with fists) . F I T — kahkwa clazy. FISHLINE . FIVE HUNDRED . F L A G — sail.hiyu chuck.tpishkuks.itlwillie.mamook pukpuk. TO . TO .laleem.pish stick. ikik. wake skookum.pish.kweokweo. FIRST BORN . FISH . FISHERY — kah pish mitlite. FLOAT — mitlite saghalie kopa chuck. F I N E . F I L L . TO . FISHHOOK -pishhook. humm. FIGHT. FIREPLACE .lamah kahkwa. F L O W . kalakala. FIGURED (as calico) .kloshe. FLIMSY — pewhattie.klatawa. F I N — pish yaka lamah. FIVE — kwinnum. flag.mamook pahtl.kwinnum tahtlum. FLEE . pight. F I L T H Y — mesachie. FINGER RING . olapitski. F I R M — skookum.elip.mamook solleks.

FOUND . . FORBEAR . FOUR HUNDRED .ahnkuttie papa. FOREIGNER .lakit tukamonuk.elip sitkum sun. FOLLOW . FOOT . FOAL (to be with) — klootchman kuitan yaka mitlite tenas. FRAIL — wake skookum. FORTNIGHT . FORBID — wawa kloshe kopet. kawak.tillikums. FOOTPRINT .kopa. TO . FOLLY .kahkwa pelton.klap. FOR W H A T . FOLKS . cultus smoke. FOR .klatawa kimtah.kloshe.tahtlum pe lakit.kloshe tupso.lapushet.kahkwa chuck.elip.wawa elip.122 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY FLOWER.lakit. FOOLHARDY . FOREST .lepee. FORGIVE — mamook klahowya. FOX — talapus. FORETELL . lokit. kopet kumtux. FOOD — muckamuck. FORENOON .kah hiyu stick mitlite.ahnkuttie. FOAL.huloima.lapool. TO — mamook fly.pelton.mokst Sunday. FORTY . FOLD. A — tenas kuitan. FOREVER . F O W L .huloima tillikum. F L U I D . FORTUNATE . FOG — smoke. FORD — kah kloshe nesika klatawa enati kopa chuck. FOREFATHER . FORSAKE . FOOTSTEPS. FOURTEEN .kah lepee mitlite. FORGET.lakit tahtlum. SHEEPFOLD . FOOLISH.lemooto house.pe kahta. mahsh tumtum. FOUR . FORAGE.kahkwa pelton. FORKS (of a river or road) — lapush mox.mahlie. FORMERLY .kwonesum.mahsh.tapso illahee. FLOWERS . hyas opoots talapus. FOOL . F O W L .lapool. GRASS L A N D . FOREIGN . FORMER . FORK (hayfork) .kopet. FLY.

TO . kahkwa tillikum. .halo elitee.chee. hyak klatawa. F U T I L E . TO — mamook piah.kloshe illahee.alki.hehe.elip siah kopa konaway. G GAB. mahsh memaloose tillikum kopa memaloose illahee. FRY.kahkwa solleks. GALE — skookum wind. hehe lamah (with disks). TO — mamook cut. FRET .halo tillikum.hehe. F U E L . FURTHERMOST. FRIGHTEN . GAIN . FRYING PAN . winapee. shelipo. FROWN . FROLIC . FURTHEST .Pasiooks illahee. GASH.iktas. FURNITURE . F U L L . FRENCHMAN . FUNERAL — lolo. FROM-kopa.ENGLISH-CHINOOK 123 FRANCE . by-by. F U N D — chikamin: dolla. FREEZING .hiyu times. mamook cook. wakik. FROG . FRIENDLY . FRIDAY — kwinnum sun.hyas cole.mamook kloshe illahee. FUTURE . GALLOP.tolo. FRIGHTENED . GARDEN.shwahkuk.mamook kwass. mamook lapoel.piah stick. mamook kokshut. FREQUENTLY .chako kwass. GAMBLE — gamble. GABBLE . F U N .Pasiooks.pahtl kopa hehe.kwalalkwalal.kahkwa ow. FRENCH. GARMENTS . FRINGE .cultus. mamook gamble. TO .iktas. FRIENDLESS . FRATERNAL . GAS — kahkwa wind. mamook itlokum. GAME-hehe. FREEZE. FROLICSOME . FUR — eena tupso.pahtl.wawa.lapoel.tupso. FRESH . GARDEN . six. FRIEND . FREE .tenas solleks.kloshe tumtum.sikhs.

hokumelh. GIVE. GET UP — mamook getup. GIRLISH — kahkwa tenas klootchman. . GOD . GLOOM .polaklie. GHOST — tahmahnawis.kloshe tahmahnawis. GOLDEN — kahkwa p i l chikamin. GOODS . GET OUT . GLEE . GLORY — hyas kloshe nem.iskum.iskum. TO . GLAD — kwan. GODLESS . GIANT — delate hyas man. GOLD — pil chikamin.klahowya. GIGGLE . GAY . GENUINE .ualtee. mahsh. GAZE — skookum nanitch. GOOD-kloshe. GOBLIN — tahmahnawis.shelokum. GOOSE .hyas kloshe. TO . and klootchman for female.halo wind. GATHER . GOOD SPIRIT . GET.dago.kloshe.klatawa.halo ticky Saghalie Tyee.klatawa. G L E A M .hyas tyee. GENDER — (is distinguished by prefixing the word man for male.tenas light.kalakala. TO . GIFT — cultus potlatch. GLADNESS . GNATS . GLORIOUS .hehe. GENTLE .hehe. hehe. tsiatko.delate. wake siah lost yaka wind. skookum. getup. GLASS . GODLY . GODLIKE.kahkwa Saghalie Tyee. GOOD-BYE .iktas. GLARE — skookum light. GLOOMY . GO.kahkwa polaklie (like night).potlatch.) GENERAL .Saghalie Tyee. GNAW — muckamuck. yotl tumtum.kloshe kopa cultus potlatch. muckamuck kahkwa eena.124 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY GASP — hyas kull spose yaka iskum yaka wind. GOAD — moosmoos stick. GILT — kahkwa pil chikamin. GENEROUS . GIRL — tenas klootchman.

GUARD HOUSE .sollex wawa. (as ax) mamook sharp. GREASY . guess. GRANDMOTHER .illahee. GROW .glease. GRASSHOPPER . GRASS — tupso.ENGLISH-CHINOOK 125 GORE . tupso kopa illahee. GRANT . mamook kloshe. GRATEFUL. TO — mamook kokshut pe pilpil yaka chako. GROUND . GOSPEL — Saghalie Tyee yaka wawa. GRIEF . (palegreen) kawkawak. GREAT . GRAVESTONE — stone kopa memaloose illahee. siwash chicken. GUARDIAN — man yaka kloshe nanitch tenas.solleks wawa. GRUMBLE . J GRAVE — memaloose illahee. GREET . GROG — lumpechuck. kahkwa stone. GREASE .cly tumtum. GUARD . hyas ticky. GREY .hyas kloshe.kahkwa glease. GRANDDAUGHTER .mahsie tumtum.kloshe nanitch. TO . siam itswoot.gley. GREEDY — ticky konaway. His word.pilpil.kopet kopa school.skookum house. .tlaktlak. GRANDCHILD . GREEN — pechugh. GUESS — mika tumtum. GRAIN . GRACEFUL . mamook klimmin-klimmin.mama yaka mama. chitsh.kloshe.hyas.chako hyas. GRAZE — muckamuck tupso. GRANDSON — tenas yaka tenas man (son of his son). GORE.wawa mahsie.tenas yaka tenas. TO BE . GRIND (as flour) — mamook sapolil. GRAND . siwash lapool. (God. GOVERNOR-tyee. G U I L T — mesachie. GRUMBLE . GRATEFUL . GROUSE — glouse. GRIT — tenas stone.potlatch. chope. GRADUATE.sapolil. GRIZZLY (bear) — siam.) GOVERN — mamook tyee. GRUNT — wawa kahkwa cosho.tenas yaka tenas klootchman. GRANDFATHER — papa yaka papa (papa of his papa).wawa. GROWL.

lolo kopa chikchik.polallie.hyas kloshe. yakso.hakatshum. HAVE .iskum sapolil. H A N D (right) . HAZEL NUTS . HARVEST .mitlite. HALF-BREED — sitkum siwash. dly cosho. . H A U L . H A L F — sitkum. H A T C H — chicken chako kopa eggs. HARD . dly tupso. HARE . W I T H WAGON .) HAPPY — kloshe tamtam. H A N D . H A N D (game of) — itlokum. shakshak. HAIR BRUSH . H A L T — kopet klatawa.nah. HALIBUT-pows. (Died with rope around his neck. TO . H HA . yotl tumtum. HALLOO .seahpo. H A I L — cole snass. H A T .kloshelamah.lemahto. HANDCUFF — chickamin kopa mamook kow lamah. HARDEN . HANG — memaloose kopa lope kopa yaka neck. HARROW. nanitch.haul. HARLOT — mesachie klootchman. tenas lapool chee chako. kopet cooley. HASTEN .mamook kull. sitkum Boston.kwitshadie. HARM — mesachie. sukwalwal.lamah. TO — mamook mesachie. tupso kopa latate. HAIR — tupso.mamook comb illahee. H A M — cosho. HARK — nah.tupso bloom. GYPSY . H A U L . HARANGUE — skookum wawa. HAMMER . HANDKERCHIEF . HANDSOME . HARM. GUN — musket.tukwilla.tenas lahash.hyak.126 CHINOOK: A HISTORY AND DICTIONARY GUM — lagome.kull. HAY — hay.nah.huloima tillikum. GUNPOWDER . HATCHET . H A W K — hawk.

till. HER .sick tumtum.skin. how nah.ENGLISH-CHINOOK 127 HE.yaka self. HELP.tumtum. H E A L — mamook kloshe. HEY .Burdash.sick kopa latate. HIRE — potlatch mamook. H I T . HIGHWAY . HERB — lametsin. HERMAPHRODITE .tenas pish. tupso. . keekwullie illahee. H E A D W I N D .kahkwa. H I L L — tenas saghalie illahee. deaub yaka illahee. HIRED — iskum mamook. HELM-ludda. oolchus.chako kokshut.hiyu hehe.latate. HEARSAY — cultus kumtux kopa kwolan. HEAVY .nah.halo sick. HEAVEN — Saghalie Tyee yaka illahee. TO — mamook elan. H I D E OR PELT . HERSELF . H E L L — hyas piah. HEADACHE . TO . HEARTACHE .yaka self. H I G H — saghalie. H E N — klootchman chicken.ooahut. H I N D E R — wake siah mamook stop. TO . H I L A R I T Y . H I D E .Tlkope. kwult. HEAP . HEART .yaka. H E A L T H Y .chako kloshe. HERD — hiyu moosmoos.cultus wind. TO BE . HEIRS — yaka tenas pe yaka klootchman. H E A D . HEAR — kumtux kopa kwolan. H E W (to cut or chop) . H I M — yaka.ipsoot. HIMSELF . mamook help.mamook kokshut. saghalie illahee.yaka. koosah. HIS .yaka. HERRING . H I T .waum. H E A L E D . long.yaka. high. HEAT .hiyu. HEED (take) — kloshe nanitch. HERE — yukwa. HERS . HENCE . HIS .

HOPEFUL .cosho. HORSEBACK .128 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY H I T C H — mamook kow. HOP — sopena.kloshe nem.stocken. bone. HORSESHOES — kuitan shoes. H U M B L E .kahta? H O W ARE YOU? .cooley kuitan. H O L D — iskum. HOLE-klawhop. Sunday. HOPE .hyas kwass. HOME — nika house. HOARSE — cole sick wawa. HORSE RACE .halo ikta mitlite. HORRID . as klone tintin. HORRIBLE. HONOR .kahkwa cosho. .kuitan tupso.kuitan.kloshe mitlite.solleks.hyas mesachie.t'kope.shot olallie. HOUSE .nah. HOW LARGE? .kunsih hyas? H O W MANY? . HOSE . HONEY — honey. chikamin shoes. etc. newhah. HOOF — kuitan lepee. HOSTILE . HOT — hyas waum. kahkwa shugah.kloshe.kahkwa man. HOSPITABLE . HOARY . HOUR — tintin — adding the number. HOGGISH . HITHER . HOW .kopa kuitan.yukwa.halo kwass.klahowya? H O W L — kahmooks yaka wawa. HOPS — tlanemas.halo ploud. HO . HOLIDAY . HUMOROUS . HORN — stone. HOE — lapeosh. H O L L O W . HORROR . HORSE .hehe.kunsih? HUCKLEBERRIES . H O L D ON .hyas Sunday. halo mahsh. halo kumtux kapswolla.ticky kahkwa. illahee. HOLY — kahkwa Saghalie Tyee. three o'clock.house. HONEST — wake kapswolla. HOG . HORSEHAIR . H U M A N . kloshe wait.

INASMUCH . HURT .wake kloshe. HUT — tenas house.mamook piah. I M M I G R A T E .cultus.ENGLISH-CHINOOK 129 H U N D R E D . I L L . HUSBAND ( M Y ) .mahsh. I M M A T E R I A L .tumtum yaka halo kahkwa.olo. I M M O R A L . IMMENSE .kopa. I D E N T I C A L . HUSH — kopet wawa. IF — spose.mamook sick tumtum. ICE — cole chuck. HURT. I D L E .nika man. mamook kahta.tukamonuk.halo kumtux. I L L T R E A T — mamook mesachie. blind kopa tumtum.halo ticky mitlite. IMPROVE — chako tenas kloshe.kokshut.wake yaka kopet. howkwutl.delate hyas.delate kahkwa. HUNGRY . kopet noise.chako kopa ikt illahee. INDEPENDENT (he is) -cultus kopa (yaka) kopa huloima tillikums.cultus mitlite.chako kokshut. H U N T . IMPROPER . I N D I A N . IGNITE .mesachie. IMPROBABLE . I M I T A T E . I N D E E D .nowitka. INCOMPLETE .kahkwa mamook. IMPERFECT . IGNORANT .wake delate. I M B I B E — muckamuck.siwash. TO .mamook hunt. I N A B I L I T Y — wake skookum kopa. IMMODEST. I M B E C I L E — wake skookum latate.mamook kahkwa. IMPATIENCE .kahkwa. IN . IMMEASURABLE — halo kumtux kunsih hyas. I D I O T — pelton man. HURT ONE'S FEELINGS . ILLNESS . IDEA — tumtum. I N C I T E — mamook waum yaka tumtum. HURRY-hyak. H U R L . I M I T A T I O N .howh. I I — nika. .sick. IMPOSSIBLE — wake skookum kopa.

ISLAND .keekwullie. JERKED BEEF .mahtwillie.wake hiyu. ticky kumtux. INDUSTRIOUS . JEST — cultus wawa. I N F I R M . JACKET .kloshe. JERK — hyas mamook haul.130 CHINOOK: A HISTORY AND DICTIONARY INDIFFERENT (I am) .yotskut capo. I N T E R V A L . IRRIGATE — mamook cooley chuck. chee tenas. INSPIRE — mamook waum yaka tumtum. man yaka kwonesum muckamuck whiskey. I T C H . INSUFFICIENT .yaka self.solleks wawa. INQUIRE — wawa.skookum tumtum.tlihtlih.wake skookum tumtum. INTERCEDE (you for me) — kloshe mika potlatch nika wawa kopa yaka.iskum.yaka.sick tumtum.tenas illahee.chikamin. I N D U C E (him) — mamook haul yaka tumtum. . I V Y — stick kahkwa lope. J JABBER — cultus wawa. I N D O M I T A B L E . I N T E N D ( I ) . I N K — klale chuck kopa mamook tzum. ITSELF . INSULT .kwonesum mamook. IT . I N T E N T I O N . IRRESOLUTE .yaka. INTERPRET — mamook kumtux huloima wawa. INVISIBLE (to you) . ask. INWARD .moosmoos itlwillie chako dly. ITS . SICK . IS — "mitlite" is sometimes used and sometimes no word is used.wake skookum.cultus kopa nika.tumtum. (Quick make haul). JESUS — Saghalie Tyee yaka tenas (son of God). IRON . INSTANTLY . INEBRIATE — man yaka kwonesum pahtlum.Saghalie Tyee.tenas laly. I N F A N T — tenas.wake kahta nanitch. INSHORE .hyak. I N D U L G E .n i k a tumtum. JOB — mamook. JEHOVAH . I N T I M A T E . JEALOUS . INSIDE -keekwullie.

LAKE .mamook hehe. L A M E — klook teahwit. K I L L — mamook memaloose. K KAMASS ROOT-See camas. JUICE . TO — mamook kokshut. JUDGE — tyee kopa court. delate tenas. K N E E L — mamook kahkwa (showing how). TO — koko.ENGLISH-CHINOOK 131 JOIN — chako kunamokst. KNOT (of tree) — lamah. KISS-bebe.yotl tumtum. JOKE — cultus wawa. L A D — tenas man. L A M B — tenas sheep. JOLLY — hehe tumtum.cooley.sopena.opitsah. JOURNEY . KINDRED . K I N D .cly tumtum.kloshe. LACK — wake hiyu. KNOWLEDGE . KICK. K I N .tillikum. K N E E . Just a little. TO . L A M E N T . mamook kokshut. JUST — delate. JUMP. KETTLE-ketling.illahee. JUG — stone labootai. . sheep yaka tenas. KNEAD — mamook lepan. K N I T — mamook stocken. JOY. KNUCKLE — yukwa kopa lamah (point to it).lekleh.tillikum. chukkin.tahness. K I T T E N — tenas pusspuss. tenas lemooto. JOYFUL . KNOTTED (curled)-hunlkih.tsalil. L A N D . JOKE. sick kopa lepee. LAMP — lalamp. mamook kahkwa (showing how). KEY . KNOW. LADY — klootchman. lamah kopa stick. KNOCK.kumtux. TO . TO. L LABOR — mamook. KNIFE .olallie chuck. K E N N E L — kahmooks house.

L A R D — cosho glease. LECTURE . kliminawhit. TO . LEARNED .hyas. TO . LEAP.kumtux hiyu.tupso.klakwun. TO . mamook hehe. LETTER .hehe. L E A D (bullet) -. LEAST — elip tenas kopa konaway.skin.lalang. lepee. LIBERAL — kloshe kopa cultus potlatch.tenas. TO .mahsh. wake delate wawa. LEGISLATURE — tyee man klaska mamook law. LIAR — yaka kumtux wawa khminawhit.ayahwhul. LEGGINGS .wawa.kalitan. tenas ahnkuttie. LAUGHTER .kopet. L A W N — kloshe tupso illahee. LEAF. LATELY — chee. L E A D . LEARN — iskum kumtux. kimtah kopa konaway. LEGEND — wawa.132 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY L A N D L O R D . LICK. L E G A L — kloshe kopa law. LEAN. klatawa. LEATHER . L I E .kapswolla. L E G — teahwit. L A N E .ooahut. flat. L E A N — halo glease. TO .nenamooks. LEADER .lagh. LEAVES . TO .tyee. kumtux. TO — mamook cooley. ship kopa chuck. LENGTH -yotikut. L I E — kliminawhit wawa.pepah. dly skin. LEAVE. LAZY-lazy.mitass. L A N D OTTER . L A U N C H — mahsh boat. L E N D .tyee. kliminawhit. LAST — delate kimtah. LARGE . L E V E L — konaway kahkwa. L I C E — inapoo. L E A V E OFF. LARK — tenas kalakala. .sopena. LANGUAGE . LAY — mahsh. LARCENY . L A U G H — hehe. TO — wawa kliminawhit. LESS . ticky owe.

twah. LOOK AROUND . LIPS — lapush (point to them). L I N I M E N T — lametsin kopa skin. LONG AGO . LOSE T H E WAY . LONELY . L I M B — (of person) lamah. L U G . LINGER . LODGE — tenas house. L I G H T N I N G . L U N C H — muckamuck.halo till. LIVER .stick house. LIGHT. L I G H T (not dark) .laplash. halo chako. L I K E (want) . LOWER. tseepe ooahut. TO .hah.halo polaklie. mahsh kow.tsolo. TO . TO . LOWER . nah. M A D A M — klootchman. (of tree) stick yaka lamah.ticky.ahnkuttie. .yaka kumtux hiyu lalang.ticky.yotlkut. (tepid) tenas waum. TO . siwash house. LUMBER . LISP — wake delate wawa. M M A D — solleks.haslitch.elip keekwullie.shelokum. L O U D .saghalie.inapoo.mitlite.mamook keekwullie. LOOSE — stoh. L I K E (similar) — kahkwa. L I V E — halo memaloose. LOOK HERE! . nanitch.kloshe nanitch! LOOKING GLASS .mitlite. DAYLIGHT .mitlite. LOVE.lolo. LOOK.cultus nanitch. LONG .tenas.nanitch.ENGLISH-CHINOOK 133 L I E D O W N . LINGUIST .kopet ikt.nah! LOOK OUT! . L U K E W A R M (indifferent) — tenas lazy. L O W — keekwullie. LOUSE . LISTEN . wake till. L I T T L E . LOFTY . LOGGING CAMP . LOWLY — halo ploud tumtum.skookum latlah. L I G H T (not heavy) .saghalie piah. L I V E .

MANGLE — hiyu mamook cut. ME — nika. MAKE. MARK .tzum. MASK — stick seeowist.mallie. M E A N — delate cultus. MATRON .hahthaht. MAGISTRATE .tupso.hyas house. MAGNIFICENT . MARE — klootchman kuitan.134 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY MAGIC — tahmahnawis. M E A L (flour) — sapolil.tyee klootchman. MASTER . illahee. M A L L A R D DUCK . M A X I M U M — elip hiyu kopa konaway. MARRIAGE.kloshe stone. MAYOR — tyee kopa town. TO — cultus mamook memaloose. MANE — kuitan yakso. MASS (ceremony of) — lamesse. M E A L — muckamuck. MANAGE — tolo.t y e e . MARKET .tyee.dip hiyu. mamook measure. MAST . M A M M A — mama. MATURE . wake kloshe. TO-mamook.kahkwa mama. MATERNAL . MARK. MANLY — kahkwa man. MANNER — kahkwa kwonesum yaka mamook. TO — tahnim.delate hyas kloshe. M A N — man. mamook. MEADOW . MATRIMONY .lapeosh. esalth. MARRY . MAIZE — corn. MEASURE.mahkook house.mallie.ship stick. MATTOCK . MALICE — mesachie tumtum. MAJORITY . MALE — man. MANY-hiyu. MASSACRE. MAT — kliskwiss. TO — mamook tzum. MANSION . solleks. .piah. MARROW — glease mitlite kopa bone. MARBLE . M A N K I N D — konaway tillikums. MAPLE — isick stick.

MERCHANT .tumtum. MENSTRUATE . M E T A L L I C . mamook kunamokst. M E L T — chako chuck. M I L K . M I N E — illahee kah chikamin mitlite.shelokum. M E L L O W .hehe. MIDST . M E D I T A T E .iktas.pepah.klatawa. sitkum.chikamin.kunamokst.ENGLISH-CHINOOK 135 MEAT — itlwillie.tenas pish. T H E . chako kahkwa chuck. M I R T H . METAL. mahsh kunamokst. MELANCHOLY .kwan. M I L D .kopa tumtum. T H E . MENTION -wawa.tyee town. kahkwa chikamin.kloshe. MERCIFUL.leplet.lametsin. M I M I C — mamook kahkwa.mahkook man. MINISTER . MIDSUMMER — sitkum kopa waum illahee. MERRY . halo solleks. M E E T — chako kunamokst. MIRACLE — huloima mamook.mahsh pilpil. chako klimmin. MERCHANDISE .tatoosh. M I L L E R — moola man. MEMORY . MIRROR . MERCHANTABLE . M E D I C I N E M A N (Indian) -keelally. TO BE .katsuk. kwan. M I L L — moola. M I N D . M E N T A L . . MIGRATE . M E D I C I N E . M E N D . M I G H T (strength) -skookum. M I N G L E — klatawa kunamokst. meat.piah.mamook tumtum. METROPOLIS . elip tenas. MIDDAY — sitkum sun. M I D N I G H T . M I D D L E . M I N N O W . M I L K M A N — tatoosh man.kloshe kopa mahkook.mamook klahowya.tumtum. MINOR — tenas.sick tumtum. TO — mamook tupshin. MESSAGE (verbal) —wawa. MEEK — kloshe.sitkum polaklie. M I L K Y — kahkwa tatoosh. MESSAGE (written) .

. MOONLIGHT. MOTHERLESS . mamook tlkope. MOSQUITO .ikt moon .mamook tseepe. tseepe wawa. MODERATE .chikamin. MOAN .halo kumtux. lamontay.skad. mamook move.ikt sun.halo mama. silup.wake hyak. MORE — weght.tenas chuck. MISPRONOUNCE — halo delate wawa.cly tumtum. MOLE . MOON — moon. MISTAKE. M I T E (a little) . M O U N T A I N — stone illahee. MOTHERLY . MOURN .l e k y e . M O U T H . MOONSHINE . MISTAKE — tseepe mamook. MOCCASINS . M I X — mamook kunamokst. MONTH-moon. huloima wawa. MOB — sollex tillikum. MOISTURE . TO .moon yaka light.tseepe. MOLASSES — melass. dago. MONTHLY . MOCK — mamook shem.ikt moon.mesachie mamook. MISUNDERSTAND . MOW — mamook cut.kahkwa mama.mama. dolla. MOWER — machine kopa mamook cut hay.melakwa. MOOSE — ulchey. MISS. cultus hoolhool.cly. klimmin illahee. MORAL (upright) -kloshe. molassis.tenas. hyas mowitch.lapush. MOSS . elip hiyu. MONDAY . M O T T L E D (dappled) . naha. MUCH . MONEY . MISTY — tenas snass.kloshe. M U D — mud.136 CHINOOK: A HISTORY AND DICTIONARY MISCHIEF — cultus mamook. M O V E — tenas mahsh. mamook klimmin. MOUSE — hoolhool. MOST — elip hiyu kopa konaway.leplet. MODEST . MISSIONARY .tenas sun. MISCONDUCT . mamook hehe.tupso. MORNING . TO .hiyu. laboos.skin-shoes. MOTHER .

MUSKRAT . M U T T O N — sheep yaka meat.tintin. MURMUR — tenas pight wawa. NEAT-kloshe.halo kloshe nanitch. tupshin. MY. MUSICAL INSTRUMENT .wawa. M U M — halo wawa.toluks. MURDER — mamook memaloose.tillikum. N NAB — iskum. NARROW . yahhul. NAMELESS . N A I L .halo wide.mamook tumtum.klatawa kopa chuck. MYSELF . NEED . lemool. tenas moosum. N A T I V E .lekloo. NASTY — wake kloshe. MUSIC . M U L I S H .kahkwa lemool. . MYSTERY . MUSKET . MUSTARD . NEAR — wake siah. MUSSELS .halo ikta mitlite. NAP — tenas sleep.delate yaka illahee. M U L E — lemel.emintepu. NAY — wake. NEGATIVE .halo. mesachie. NEGLECT . NAVIGATE . NEEDY .ENGLISH-CHINOOK 137 MUDDY (muddy water) — illahee mitlite kopa chuck (land is with water).halo nem.piah tupso. lemooto yaka itlwillie.hyas ticky.klahowyum. MUDDY (muddy ground) — chuck mitlite kopa illahee (water is with land).tintin. NAME — nem.halo wawa. NAVEL . NATION . wake.tentome. NAILS (finger nails and toenails) — towah. MUSE.hyas huloima. NECK .musket. TO — potlatch tenas pight wawa. MUSICIAN — man yaka kumtux tmtin.nika self. NEEDLE — keepwot.nika. MUTE . NAKED . MURMUR. halo. MUTTER .lecoo. M I N E . TO .

halo kah. NICE . icht. NOTWITHSTANDING . NUMBER . NOT . kwinnum. NOW . Hone. NOD — kahkwa sleep. N I G H . latlah.kah cole chako. NOISELESS . 6. NOTHING . NIECE — kaupho (or ow or ats) yaka tenas klootchman. kweest. lakit. tahtlum pe ikt. stotekin.klonas kunsih. NOT .halo. NORTH . NEWS — chee wawa. NOURISH — potlatch muckamuck.cultus wawa. emeets.nose.tahtlum pe kweest.wake siah.halo noise. NEST . moosum. NOISE . 11. wake. N O N E . NOISY — hiyu noise. kwaist. NO. taghum. 5.halo. 10.kweest tahtlum. moxt.tlepait. ikt.noise. 9. 7.wake kunsih. NOSE — nose.138 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY NEIGHBORHOOD . 4. wake.halo ikta. moosum. 3. NUMB — kahkwa memaloose. tughum. N I N E — kwaist. NOON — sitkum sun.wake tillikum.kloshe.h a l o . kweest. NUMERALS1. lokit.kalakala house. 8. NOZZLE . . kaupho (or ow or ats) yaka tenas man. NEW-chee. 2. NINETY .tillikum mitlite wake siah. N I N E T E E N . tahtlum.keschi. NERVE OR NERVES . NONSENSE . NEPHEW — ack. NIGHT-polaklie. wake. sinamokst. NOBODY . sinamoxt. NEVER .witka. mokst. NOWHERE . wake siah sleep.

ODD — huloima.mesachie. O I L .kopet ikt time. ONLY . O L D M A N . laween.hahlakl. OFFER .halo delate kumtux. ODOR . OATS — lawen.ENGLISH-CHINOOK 139 20. NURSE — klootchman. O I N T M E N T — lametsin. lametsin kopa skin.ulalach. ONE . ONE-EYED .oleman.iskum wawa. NUTS .iskum. OCEAN . mamook kahkwa yaka wawa. OBEY .lamai. TO — mamook glease. OBSERVE .klak. OBLIGE (a favor) — mamook help. OCHRE — kawkawak illahee. NURSE. . OBSCURE .ticky potlatch. mokst tahtlum. OBTAIN . O I L C L O T H . tahtlum-tahtlum—ten tens.ikt. ONE OR ANOTHER . mamook kahta. icht tukamonuk.hyas salt chuck.snass sail.ikt seeowist. ikt tukamonuk.tyee. OPEN . OBEDIENT. OFF .kull stick. O OAK . OFFICER . ONION . TO . O L D W O M A N .nanitch. OFFEND — mamook solleks.kopet ikt.mahtlinnie. OFTEN .mamook.tukwilla. O M I T . O I L — glease.humm.mahsh. 100. OILY — kahkwa glease. OPERATE . OAR .kloshe nanitch. man yaka kloshe nanitch. OBSCENE .lalahm. OBJECT . OBEDIENCE. ON — kopa.wawa halo. OFF SHORE . NUTRIMENT . ONCE .hiyu times.ikt-ikt.muckamuck.

ORPHAN — halo papa halo mama. ORATION . OUGHT . OR .klahanie kopa boat. TO . OVERALLS .klahanie sakoleks. tolo.lolo. PAINT-pent.hyas kapo. OVAL — kahkwa egg. anah. OTTER (sea) — nawamooks.tzum. kwel kwel. moosmoos.enati.huloima. OVERCOAT . TO . OVERTHROW . OVERCOME .mamook pent. ORE — chikamin stone. PACK . PADDLE.wawa.mokst. PALACE — hyas kloshe house. potlatch wawa.140 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY OPINION .ikt kow. OVEN — oven. TO — mahsh wawa. O W L — waugh waugh. PADDLE . PAIR . kopa nesika. addedah. OUR. OVER (other side) .tolo. OPPOSITE . PAINT. OVERSHOES — klahanie shoes. PACK. kloh-kloh. ORDER.ikt kow. P PACIFY — mamook kloshe. OVERBOARD . OUTLAW — hyas mesachie tillikum.pe. OYSTER . OUTSIDE .nesika self. dolla. PACKAGE . PAID — iskum pay. OTHER . ORNAMENTAL (gay colors) . ORCHARD — kah hiyu apple stick mitlite. pain. ORIGINAL .nenamooks. OUTDOORS. . TO . OUT.tumtum. PAIN — sick. OURSELVES .mamook halo. saghalie shoes.chetlo.isick.delate kloshe.klahanie. OVER (above) — saghalie. OURS — nesika.mamook isick.chee. ORATOR — man yaka delate kumtux potlatch wawa.enati. kah mamook piah sapolil. OTTER (land) . OX — man moosmoos.

PENCIL — pencil.delate kloshe.hyas skookum house. PERSPIRATION . PENITENTIARY . PAW — lepee.iskum.lepwah. TO — mamook show.sitkum. potlatch dolla.klonas. . PELT .chuck kopa skin.kwonesum mitlite. itswoot yaka lepee (bear.kahkwa papa.ENGLISH-CHINOOK 141 PALE . PATERNAL .kloshe tupso.tkope. PAPER . PERMIT — wawa nowitka. his foot).leplet. PAPOOSE — tenas. TO — klatawa. PERMANENT .k u l l a h . PAN .leplet.hyas pusspuss. PENMAN — tzum man. PATH . PEN (for writing) — pen.tillikum. PANT — skookum mamook wind.leplet yaka house. tzum stick. PERSEVERE. PEAS .sick tumtum. PERFECT . PERHAPS . PARK .sakoleks.mamook kwonesum. PERSIST .pepah. PEOPLE . PANTS . PARTAKE . PERFUME — lametsin kopa nose. PARDON — mamook klahowya. PERPETUAL . PARADE .lapatkot. PANTHER . papoos (seldom used). PEN (fence) . PART . PANSY . PAY — pay. PASS. tzum stick.ketling. kloshe klatawa. PEEP — tenas nanitch. klatawa enati. PENTECOST . PASTOR .chuck mitlite kopa skin. tillikums.tenas book. PAMPHLET . PARADE.kloshe illahee. PARENTS — papa pe mama.show. PARSONAGE . PENITENT .kwonesum. PAPA — papa. PERIL — mesachie mitlite. PERSPIRE . PARSON .ooahut.skin.

PITCH . PLAN. PLAN — tumtum. PERSON . POOL — tenas chuck. PLAY . PIN — kwekweens. PLOW . PITY.mamook tuletule. PICNIC — muckamuck hehe.lagome.yotl.mamook kokshut illahee. PETRIFIED .lapehsh.hiyu. PLAYHOUSE . PHYSICIAN . PLURAL .sitkum.mamook hehe.lashalloo.tillikum. PICK (select) .kloshe. PIGEON . PERUSE . PLANK . PLAY W I T H STRINGED INSTRUMENT .hehe. P L A I N (prairie) —kloshe illahee. PETTICOAT (or skirt) .mamook klahowya.kwass kalakala. PIPE .hehe house. PHYSIC -lametsin. PERSUADE . PLEASED .tzum pepah.wawa pe toto.mamook read. PHOTOGRAPH . PIETY . PILOT — man yaka mamook cooley. TO — mamook tumtum.tillikum. POLE .chako stone. PLATE .lagome mitlite. . PINE — lagome stick. PLAY. PLAIN .lasiet.doctin.hiyu. PICTURE . tenas cosho.kloshe tumtum kopa Saghalie Tyee. PLOW.kalakwahtee. TO . P I L L — lametsin. PLACE (his) — kah yaka mitlite.142 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY PERSON . TO . PONDER — mamook tumtum.laplash. PLEASANT-kloshe.t i c k y . PLENTIFUL . TO . delate.lapeep. PLEAD — skookum wawa. PITCHY .tzum seeowist. PIECE . PIG — cosho. POND — memaloose chuck.

kopet ikt. PRESIDENT . literally. PREVAIL .yotl tumtum." POTATO . PRAIRIE W O L F — talapus. PRECIOUS .mamook.wappato.lepapa. PRINT — mamook tzum. PREFER . POSSESS . till.) PRESS .elip.cultus potlatch. wawa. big-tail wolf. P R E S E N T L Y . PRISONER — tillikum kopa skookum house. PRESERVE .kloshe nanitch.mamook kwutl. PRECISE . PREPARE .wawa "alki mamook. PRAISE — wawa mahsie. POTENT . POPULATION . POUND . POPE . POWER . PRETTY .mitlite.leplet. PRACTICE .hyas kloshe. PRESENT . PRAYER — wawa kopa Saghalie Tyee. wagh.leplet. hyas opoots talapus. PRETEND — halo delate mamook.a l k i .klahowyum. laplie.tillikums. PRIOR . PREACHER .skookum kopa. tupso illahee.ENGLISH-CHINOOK 143 POOR — halo ikta.mitlite tenas kopa yaka belly. PRICK — mamook kahkwa tupshin. POSTPONE .skookum. PREGNANT .polallie.delate. PRAIRIE — kloshe illahee. toketie. PRAY — wawa kopa Saghalie Tyee. POPULAR . hyas mahkook. POUR — mahsh.elip. . PRICE (what)-kunsih dolla.skookum. POSSIBLE . PRIME .pound. PORK — cosho.elip ticky. plie. winapee. PRIEST .kloshe kopa hiyu tillikums. POVERTY .kloshe. PRIVATE .mamook kloshe. cosho itlwillie. klahowyum. POWDER . PROUD . POSTMASTER — tyee kopa pepah house. (Chief at Washington. PRISON — skookum house.tolo.tyee kopa Washington.

mamook pight.wake siah klale.yotl.tumtum. PROMPT . QUAIL. PUSH — mamook push. PUKE — muckamuck yaka killapi. PROUD .delate kumtux.kloshe nanitch.144 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY PROBABLY . kloshe nanitch. PROTECT . PUTRID .delate wawa. PURPLE .spose. PUTRIFY . PUGNACIOUS .chako humm. PUGILIST — man yaka ticky pight. PUPPY . PURSUE . PUT . PROVIDED T H A T . lesak kopa dolla.tenas kahmooks. PROW — nose kopa boat. . PROMISE . PURCHASE .klatawa kimtah (go after). PROPHET — leplet yaka wawa elip.klonas. PROFANE . ship. PURE .halo klap tumtum. PROSPER . kwutl.tolo. PROVE . PROVIDE .hyak. PULL-haul. PROBABLY NOT .delate kloshe.mamook solleks.chako solleks.mahsh. tenas pight. PUP.klonas halo. PROWL .cultus klatawa. PURPOSE .wake kloshe kopa Saghalie Tyee. PROFIT . PUBLISH — mamook kumtux.wawa. TO — chako solleks.chako kwass. mahsh yaka muckamuck klahanie kopa yaka lapush. PURSE — dolla yaka lesak. Q QUAIL — illahee kalakala. kwelth. TO . PUZZLE. PROVOKED (be) . QUARTER . QUARREL — solleks wawa. QUARREL. mamook kopet. plopet. killapi muckamuck.tolo.ticky pight. PROGENITOR . PROCLAIM.humm.ahnkuttie papa. PUBLIC — kloshe kopa konaway tillikums. PROHIBIT — mamook stop.iskum iktas. TO . PROVOKE .tenas sitkum. PROCLAMATION .mahkook.

. RATHER . RAZOR CLAMS . kuitan yaka kumtux cooley. KNIFE . RAPIDS — skookum chuck.illahee. RABBIT .kwan. QUENCH . Q U I L T — tzum pasese.hyak. QUORUM .ikt time kopa klone moon.ENGLISH-CHINOOK 145 QUARTER (of a dollar) .mamook kopet. RAP — mamook kokshut. RAPID-hyak.ko. RATTLE (shake) . RAZOR.elip sitkum. R A V E N — kahkah (caw caw).kwata. hyas laleem. QUICKLY . RAVE — chako clazy. QUILLS — tepeh. RACE — hyak cooley. coleecolee. RAPE — kapswolla klootchman. QUARTZ . RASPBERRIES . RAIN — snass.seahpo olallie. QUIT-kopet. RABBLE . QUIET . QUEEN .cultus tillikums.huloima. RASCAL — mesachie tillikum. QUARTERLY . RAKE — comb kopa illahee. kalakala yaka tupso. RAINY — hiyu snass.tkope stone.hyas solleks. RASP (file) — hyas pile.opitsah. koko. Q U E L L .shugh. RARE — wake hiyu.elip ticky. RAMBLE — cultus cooley.ona.kwitshadie. cooley chuck. RACE HORSE — cooley kuitan. halo piah. QUIVER (for arrows) — stick kalitan lesak. QUEER . ranch.wawa.shugh opoots. RAISE — mamook saghalie. R RARID . RAGGED . RANCH . REACH (to arrive) . QUICK. QUESTIONS .iktas yaka kokshut. RAW — wake yaka piah.tyee klootchman. RATTLESNAKE . RAT — hyas hoolhool.

.weght klatawa.yotl tumtum. REDUCE — mamook keekwullie. RED . RELATION. halo nika kwass kopa yaka. REASSEMBLE . REASSERT . REAR . REDDISH — wake siah pil.tillikum. REFUSAL. TO — wawa halo. RELIABLE — kloshe. REFINE — mamook delate kloshe. ( i f unobligingly) mamook kwish. RECUMBENT . REDDEN .yiem. RED HOT — hyas waum pe chako pil. TO . RECREATION .chako kloshe. RE-EMBARK . mahsh kow. REBUILD — weght mamook house. REALLY .chako chee. RECOUNT . REFUSE.kwish. RECKON — mamook tumtum.weght wawa.weght wawa.pil.weght klatawa kopa house. REFRESH . RECOLLECT . REFUND . REJECT . wawa. TO — kumtux pepah. RECENT . REGRET . kumtux book. RECEIVE .weght tolo. RELEASE — mahsh. RECOMMEND . RE-ENTER . REJOICE .iskum. RECONSIDER .wawa kloshe. RECLINE . RELATE. RECEDE .chee. RELATIVE . REAL.p i l p i l .delate. EXPRESSION OF . REFORM .mitlite. RECALL — weght wawa.mamook tumtum. RECOVER .pight kopa tyee.weght klatawa kopa boat.kloshe time. REBUKE — skookum wawa.iskum. TO .weght mamook tumtum. REGULAR — kwonesum kahkwa. RECONQUER . REBELLION . kahkwa pil.klap tumtum. RECOGNIZE-kumtux.146 CHINOOK: A HISTOKY A N D DICTIONARY READ.killapi dolla.m i t l i t e .sick tumtum.kimtah. REBEL. REAP — mamook cut.mahsh. REASON.killapi.

REPAIR — mamook kloshe. RIDICULE . REND — mamook kokshut. hehe.mitlite. RETREAT.sick tumtum. RELIGION — saghalie tyee yaka wawa. REMAIN . RELIEVE — mamook help. RENEW — mamook chee.killapi.leloba. RIGHT (good)-kloshe.mamook kloshe. REMORSE . RIBS . RIFLE .piah. REVERSE . RELISH — kloshe kopa lapush.shem. REVIVE .kloshe lametsin. RIGHT (at the) . REMOTE . REMEMBER (not to forget) — mitlite kopa tumtum. RICE .hyas kloshe nem.help. RIDE — klatawa kopa kuitan or chikchik. mamook hehe. R E M I T . REMARRY . mitlite hiyu iktas pe dolla. REMOVE .mahsh lolo. RIDICULE. REPEAL — mamook halo. RING (forhand) — kweokweo. REMEDY . RESTAURANT . TO — mamook shem. RENOWN . REPEAT . REVIEW — mamook tumtum.ENGLISH-CHINOOK 147 RELIEF . REMEMBER (to remember after being forgotten) — klip tumtum.kenkiam. RESOLVE — mamook tumtum. REMOUNT — weght klatawa saghalie.kloshe lamah. REPLY — killapi wawa. RIBBON . REST . TO .mahsh.cultus mitlite.mamook tintin. R I D (get rid of) — mahsh. . RESOLUTE — skookum tumtum.rmickamuek house. RING T H E BELL .siah.weght wawa. REMEDY.weght mallie. wake kopet kumtux. REPROVE — potlatch skookum wawa.lice. RIGHT H A N D .telemin.calipeen. RETURN.wind killapi. potlatch help. RIPE . RICH — halo klahowyum.mitlite. RESIDE .

RISK — cultus kopa nika. SAD — sick tumtum. ROUND (circular) . mamook piah. cooley chuck. mamook cook.lope. whiskey.lesak. SUNDAY . ROBIN . SABLE . wayhut. ROW.hiyu stone mitlite. kull lagome. RUBBER COAT . cultus cooley.cultus.poolie. ROAD — ooahut. RUST — pil ikta kopa chikamin. ROT .mamook lalahm.kloshe tupso. ROCK. (I will risk it) halo nika kwass. SADDLE BLANKET . ROUND (like a sphere) — lowullo.kloshe kopa Saghalie Tyee. RUDE .148 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY RIPEN-chakopiah.mitwhit. ROAM — klatawa kah.kapswolla klatawa. ROOT — stick keekwullie kopa illahee. ROTTEN . TO . ROE (of fish) — pish eggs. ROAST — pellah. ROPE . SAFE .lepishemo.kloshe. RUMOR — cultus wawa. ROWER — man yaka kumtux mamook lalahm. STONE . ROSE . pish lesep. ROVE — cultus klatawa.killapi. RIVER — chuck.tsole.pil koaten.mink.snass coat. SACK . RUPTURE . saklema. SACRED . RUN AWAY . SADDLE . ROLL .ludda. RISE. RUN — hyak cooley.chako lotten. ROSIN — lagome. . lotten.kokshut. ROB — kapswolla.Sante. RUM — lum.lasell. SACRAMENT — Jesus yaka muckamuck.stone. RUIN — mamook halo. RUDDER . S SABBATH. GET UP . livah. ROCKY .

taghum sun. pepah. SCREAM — hyas skookum cly. SEIZE . SEEK — mamook hunt. SCANTY .ipsoot. SAND — polallie. SCALES — ikta kopa mamook till.mokst stick ship. SALMON — sammon. SCOLD — skookum wawa. SCANT. SALESMAN — mahkook man. SAY. siwash cosho. SECURE . yotikut opitsah. SCATTER — mahsh konaway kah. SCARE — mamook kwass. sezo. school tenas.wake hiyu. SEE.wawa. klatawa pe ticky klap. SCHOLAR — tenas kopa school.wake hiyu. SEDUCE . TO . SATAN . SAILOR — shipman.iskum.mamook humm. SCARF — hyas sail kopa neck. sea.salt.siwash. SANGUINE — skookum tumtum. SATANIC .ENGLISH-CHINOOK 149 SAIL .lasee.kapswolla. SAINT .lesai.kloshe. SCRIPTURE.iskum. SAVE . TO .deaub.Sai Sha. SAME . SASH — lasanshel. SAW .kahkwa. SCISSORS . SCHOONER . SCARCE . SCENT (unpleasant) — humm. belt. polallie illahee. SATURDAY . SELDOM . SAVAGE . SECOND . SCENT.sail. .Saghalie Tyee yaka book. SCYTHE — hyas knife kopa hay.salal olallie.wake hiyu.nanitch. wecoma. SALAL BERRIES . SAP — chuck kopa stick. SECRET .leseezo. SEAL — olhiyu. tenas stone kahkwa polallie. SEA — salt chuck. SALT . BIBLE . SAINT JOHN . TO .kloshe kopa nika. SATISFIED (I am) .kahkwa deaub.mokst.

SEND . halo long. SEPARATE (to be) . mahsh chikamin kopa yaka Iamah. SHORE (toward) -mahtwillie. TO — mamook tupshin. SEVENTEEN . SEVERAL . SEVENTY . TO . mamook sew. hykwa. byby. TO . SHIP . SHOAL — wake keekwullie. SHEET-sail. SHAMELESS — halo shem. SHARE (it is my) — okoke nikas. SHORE (away from) — mahtlinnie.shut. H E R .Saghalie Tyee yaka wawa.mamook.mamook tsish. SHAME . SHATTER .mamook cut. . SEW.mamook poh. allekacheek. SHIRT . halo kumtux shem. SHALL — alki. SERVANT .yotskut. SHORTLY .oluk. SERMON .tenas lebal. SERVE . SHARP . okoke kopa nika. hiagua. SHOT .wake hehe. SEPARATE. SHACKLE — mamook kow. SEVEN .y a k a .huloima. TO . latate.kumtux. SHOOT.towagh.yakkisilth.tahtlum pe sinamokst.illahee.toto.150 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY SELECT — iskum ikta mika ticky. TO . SELL. SERIOUS . SHARPEN.ship.wake keekwullie. shush.mahsh. SHE. SHEEP .mamook kloshe.kahkwa elitee. SHORT . SHINGLE-lebahdo. snake.sinamokst. winapee. SHINING . SENIOR-elip.shem. winapee. SERPENT .alki. SHALLOW .sinamokst tahtlum.lemooto. TO . SHELL MONEY — coopcoop. TO — mahsh mahkook. SHORE . SHAKE.mamook kokshut. SENSE . hullel.tenas hiyu. SHINE. SHARK — hyas kahmooks pish. kalitan. SHOES — shoes.

okchok.elip ats.ENGLISH-CHINOOK 151 SHOT POUCH . (thatside) yahwa. SHUDDER . SHUT. blind.hyas wawa.halo noise. TO .kahkwa ats.tenas snass.mamook sick. SINFUL .tenas sick. SINCERE . SINNER — mesachie tillikum.kopet ikt. tkope dolla. SING.kahkwa. SKUNK — humm opoots.mitlite. TO . SIT. TO . SINCE . SHOULDERS . TO . SKILL — kumtux mamook.tenas cly.mesachie. TO . SILVER — tkope chikamin.kalitan lesac. SKULL — bone kopa seeowist (point to i t ) . SICKLY . SILENCE. SKEPTIC — man yaka halo iskum Saghalie Tyee yaka wawa. slik cloth.toto. SHOWER . SIX . SKIN . SISTER ( i f older than speaker) . SIN. SILLY — kahkwa pelton. SINGLE . SIFT.tenas liplip. SIGH .tahtlum pe taghum. . SIMMER . silup. SIP — muckamuck chuck. SIGN — kahkwa picture. SHY .kopet noise.shantie. SIRUP — melass.halo nanitch.kimtah.taghum. SILK — lasway. TO .lapell. SISTERLY .delate. SICK — etsitsa. SIDE— (this side) yukwa. SHRIEK — skookum wawa. SIXTEEN . SINK. TO — ikpooie. SIGHTLESS .skin.kwass. skookum sail.kwass pe shake. SIMILAR . SISTER ( i f younger than the speaker) — ats. SIZE (what) — kunsih hyas. mamook ikpooie. SHOUT.taghum tahtlum pe ikt. SIXTY-ONE . SICKEN .mahsh keekwullie. tsolepat. SILENCE . SHOVEL .

SON . SOIL . SMELL (a) .sick. sitkum. ask. SLAY — mamook memaloose. kliminawhit wawa. klonas klaksta.tahmahnawis.mamook smoke.smoke.kloshe.wawa. SMALL — tenas. SOON . SLING. SNAKE . SORCERER . halo sleep. SLAP — mamook kokshut.klawah. SLEEPY — ticky moosum. SLOWLY . TO . SLAVE — elitee. SLAB — cultus laplash. SLIP — wake siah fall down.tenas. SMOKE. SLEEP — moosum. SMITE — mamook kokshut. SOMEBODY . SOFT-klimmin. loholoh. TO . SOLICIT . SLOW. cole snass. SO — kahkwa. SORRY. SLY — ipsoot. wakehyak. SMOKY (very) —hiyu smoke.kopet.cultus. mistchimas. SOLELY . SLIGHT (small) -tenas.152 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY SKY — koosah. SOAK — mitlite kopa chuck. sleep.oluk. SNOW — snow. SMOOTH . SLEIGHT OF H A N D . TRAP . SMILE — tenas hehe. SLEEPLESS — halo moosum. SORROW . SNARE.ikt man. SLUT — klootchman kahmooks. SLIPPERY . SOMETIMES . SOLITARY .kopet ikt.tenas hiyu times. SLANDER — mesachie wawa.sick tumtum. ticky sleep.illahee.tahmahnawis man.h u m m .lepiege. SMOKE . SLING — tenas lope kopa mahsh stone. SOAP — soap. .mahsh. saghalie. SOME — tenas hiyu. SORE .alki. SOLDIER — sogah (army—hiyu sogahs).

STAB. SPLIT — kokshut. SPIDER — skookum (when spoken of as a tahmahnawis). SPOTTED . SQUALL — skookum wind pe snass. SPURS .tenas piah. SQUEAL — wawa kahkwa cosho. lekye. SPOIL. TO — mamook spoil.tumtum.tumtum. SPIT — mahsh lapush chuck. SOUND .kuitan house. STAG — man mowitch. SOUTH — kah sun mitlite kopa sitkum sun. . TO . whiskey. TO .lum. TO .hyas kloshe. lakit seeowist. SPIT.wawa.noise. SPEAK. SPADE .leseeblo. SPIRIT (guardian) — tahmahnawis. mamook cultus. liplip muckamuck. TO — klemahun. SPEEDY . STABLE . chako spoil. SPIRIT . SPEAKER — wawa man. TO . SPIRITS .lapell.tzum. SPARK . mamook cut. SQUEEZE . SPLENDID .mahsh. SOW — klootchman cosho. STALE . SPRING. chako kokshut. SQUAW — Siwash klootchman. SPINE — bone kopa back. man yaka kumtux wawa.wagh. SPRING — tenas waum illahee. chako tsugh. SQUIRREL .toh.kwiskwis. SPORT .ENGLISH-CHINOOK 153 SOUL . mamook kokshut. SOUR . SPILL.tenas kalakala. SPEND . SPLIT. SPARROW . STAGE . SPEED. mamook mesachie. mamook kokshut kopa knife.oieman. STAGGER — klatawa kahkwa pahtlum man. SOUP — lasup. SPY — nanitch skookum. latlah. mamook toll. SPECTACLES — glass seeowist. TO — mamook tsugh.chikchik.sopena. SPOON . life.kwutl. SPOIL — spoil. mahsh.spoon. SOW.hyak.mahsh.kwates. dolla seeowist.hehe. TO .

STEW — mamook liplip. sipah.mamook kow. STEER (animal) — tenas man moosmoos. STOOPED .TO-mitlite. STEEL — chikamin. STEADY (be) -kloshe nanitch. STRAY — cultus klatawa. STIR — tenas klatawa. STOMACH . START . TO . TO — mamook cut.skin lope. ikpooie. piupiu. STRIKE — mamook kokshut. STORY — ekkahnam. STEAL. STING — opoots klemahun.delate. TO — mamook kopet. wawa. STRAP. STONE . STRAIGHTEN . lakanim. TO . STIRRUP . STARE — skookum nanitch. kushis. STOREKEEPER .mitwhit. chikamin piah.lagh. (rain) hiyu snass. humm. STREET .hyas illahee. STILL (be) — kloshekopet. piah chikamin. STATE .belly.sitlay. STORM — (wind) hiyu wind. STRANGE . STILL (quiet) -kloshe. STORE — mahkook house.kapswolla. stone mitlite. TO .amoteh. STICK . STOP.tsiltsil. STOP (command) —kopet. STREAM — chuck. steamboat. delet.mamook delate. STOCKINGS . STEAM . STAND. STAY.154 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY STAMPS (postage) — tzum seeowist. STERN (rear)-opoots. STOVE .stocken. klatawa kah. STRAWBERRIES . yiem. STONY — kahkwa stone. yakwahtin.huloima tillikum. STARS . mamook kwutl.stick. chee klatawa. chilchil. STICK.klatawa.smoke. STRAIGHT . STINK (a) —piupiu.piah ship.ooahut kopa town. STENCH . . cooley chuck. STRAP .stob.stone. STEAMER .mahkook man.humm.

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STRING - tenas lope. STRIPES - tzum. STRIVE — mamook skookum. STROLL — cultus klatawa; cultus cooley. STRONG-skookum. STRONGLY - kahkwa skookum. STUDENT — school tenas; tenas kopa school. STUDY — mamook tumtum kopa pepah (or book). STUPENDOUS - delate hyas. STUPID - halo latate; kahkwa pelton. STUPOR — kahkwa memaloose. STURGEON - stutchin. SUBMERGE — mahsh keekwullie kopa chuck. SUBMIT - kopet. SUBSCRIBE - mamook tzum. SUBSEQUENT - kimtah. SUBTRACT - mamook haul. SUCCEED - tolo. SUCH - kahkwa. SUCK — muckamuck. SUDDEN, SUDDENLY - hyak. SUGAR — shugah; lesook. SUGARY - kahkwa shugah. SUICIDE, TO COMMIT - mamook memaloose yaka self. SUITABLE - kloshe. SULKY, SULLEN - solleks. SUM — konaway. SUMMER - waum illahee. SUMMON — wawa kloshe yaka chako. SUN — sun, otelagh. SUNDAY - Sunday; Sante. SUNLIGHT - sun yaka light. SUNRISE — tenas sun; get up sun. SUNSET — tenas polaklie; klip sun. SUP, SUPPER — muckamuck kopa tenas polaklie. SUPPORT — kloshe nanitch; potlatch muckamuck pe konaway iktas. SUPPOSE - spose. SUPREME — elip hyas kopa konaway. SURE — delate; delate kumtux. SURGEON - doctin. SURMISE — mamook tumtum; tumtum. SURPRISE — mamook tumtum; ikta okoke. SURRENDER - kopet. SURVEY — mamook tzum illahee. SURVIVOR — man halo memaloose. SWALLOW - tenas kalakala.

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SWALLOW, TO - muckamuck. SWAN — kehloke; kahloken; cocumb; ouwucheh; keluk; kaloke. SWAP - huyhuy. SWEAR — wawa mesachie; mamook swear. SWEAT - chuck kopa skin. SWEEP, TO - mamook bloom. SWEET - tsee. SWELL — chako hyas; powil. SWIFT - hyak. SWIFT WATER - skookum chuck. SWIM — sitshum; mamook swim. SWINE - cosho. SWING - hang. T TABLE - latahb. TACKS — tenas nails; tenas lekloo. T A I L - opoots. TAKE, TO - iskum. TAKE CARE - kloshe nanitch. TAKE OFF, OR TAKE OUT - mamook haul; mamook klah; mamook klak; mahsh. T A L E , OR STORY - wawa; yiem; ekkahnam. T A L K — wawa. TALKATIVE - hiyu wawa. T A L L - hyas tall. T A L L O W — moosmoos glease. TAMBOURINE OR I N D I A N DRUM - pompon. TAME — halo wind; halo lemolo; kwan. TAME, TO - mamook kwan. TAP — tenas kokshut. TART — tenas sour; tenas kwates. TASK — mamook. TASTE — tenas muckamuck. T A T T L E — cultus wawa; yiem. TAVERN — muckamuck house. TEA - tea. TEACH, TO — mamook kumtux; mamook teach. TEAR — chuck kopa seeowist; kluh. TEAT - tatoosh. TEDIOUS - till; long. T E E T H - latah. T E L L , TO — wawa; yiem. TEMPLE — hyas church house. TEMPT — haul kopa mesachie. T E N - tahtlum.

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157

TEND - kloshe nanitch. TENDER — wake kull; wake skookum. TENT - s a i l house. TERM (of school) - kwata. TERRIBLE, TERROR - delate hyas mesachie. TERRITORY - hyas illahee, TESTICLE - stone. TESTIMONY - wawa kopa court. TESTIFY — wawa kopa court; delate yiem. T H A N - kopa. THANKS, T H A N K F U L - mahsie. T H A T - okoke. T H A T WAY - yahwa. T H A W — (water) chako chuck; (land) chako klimmin. T H E — sometimes okoke is used—a very definite "the" almost equal to "that." THEE - mika. T H E F T - kapswolla. THEIR, THEIRS - klaska. T H E M - klaska. THEMSELVES - klaska self. THERE - yahwa; kopa. THEREABOUT - wake siah yahwa. THEY - klaska. THICK (like molasses) - pitlill. T H I E F — kapswolla man; tillikum, yaka kumtux kapswolla. T H I G H — lepee yahwa (pointing to it). T H I N (like paper) — pewhattie. T H I N E - mika. T H I N G - ikta. THINGS - iktas. T H I N K — tumtum; mamook tumtum. T H I R D - klone. THIRSTY - olo kopa chuck. T H I R T E E N - tahtlum pe klone. THIRTY - klone tahtlum. THIRTY-ONE - klone tahtlum pe ikt. THIS - okoke. THIS WAY - yukwa. THITHER - yahwa. THORN - needle kopa stick. THOROUGH - delate. THOSE - okoke. THOU, THY, THINE - mika. THOUGHT - tumtum. THOUGHTLESS - halo tumtum. THOUSAND - thousand; tahtlum tukamonuk.

stick. kinoos. TIMBER .kokshut. TRADESMAN . T I D E — chuck chako pe klatawa.kopa.158 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY THRASH . TRADITION .sick kopa tooth. seeowist pe lamah. matah. THREAT . THROW AWAY . kinootl. TORN . TIP. THROW.) THUNDER — skookum noise kopa saghalie. TOO — kunamokst.kahkwa.klapite.tomolla. TOWARD .lagh.konaway. tenas ooahut.skookum. TRACK . TRADE . T H U M B . TIGER — hyas pusspuss.mika self. TOSS — mahsh. TOOTHACHE . TORPID — kahkwa memaloose. T I M I D . kull. tin. kimoolth. THUS . T I M E . TOWEL — sail yaka mamook dly. TIRED-till. THYSELF .mamook pat.kwass.mahkook man. TOUGH . TODAY . TINWARE .mamook kwass. TONIGHT . TO . T O T A L . THURSDAY .tzum kah. THRUST. THRONG . . chikamin. THREAD . TOGETHER . TONGUE . THREE .laly. TOP . T R A I L — ooahut.malah. TOMB — memaloose illahee. TOBACCO — bacca.okoke polaklie. TOMORROW .klone. TIRE (of a wagon) — chikchik.lalang.hiyu tillikums. mahkook. T I N T .kopa.lakit sun.mahsh. T I E .huyhuy.saghalie.tzum. TOW — mamook haul.kunamokst.okoke sun. T I N . TOWARDS . TO — mamook kow. TO.lamah (pointing to it.ahnkuttie tillikums klaska wawa.

T R I M . TWO. UNACQUAINTED .halo kumtux.killapi. U UDDER .tatoosh. tenas fish. TO — mamook cut.mesachie man.delate wawa.tillikum yaka kloshe nanitch dolla. TWENTY-ONE . TROT. TREMBLE. .kimtah. lenawo. TROUT — trout. mamook kloshe. mesachie.mokst tahtlum pe ikt. mamook till tumtum. TURNIP .halo kumtux. TROUBLE . TREE . send.mahsh. UMBRELLA — tenas sail house kopa snass. T W I C E .klatawa. TRUTH .cultus iktas.turnip. TRAVELER — man yaka hiyu cooley. UNAWARE . TREASURER . TO . halo kliminawhit. TROUSERS .tenas polaklie. TURN . TRAVEL .lalang. TRANSMIT . TUB . howh. TO .sakoleks.mokst tahtlum. TRIBE . UNABLE — wake skookum. TREACHEROUS . TRUE .hyas tseepe. T W I L I G H T . TRUNK . TRAP-lepiege. TRANSGRESSOR . TWENTY .tenas lope. F A L L E N . TRANSFER . T W E L V E .hullel.tehteh. TYRO . U L T I M A T E . wake toketie. TREE. TRICK — tseepe mamook.lacaset. SHAKE .stick. halo huloima. klapite. UGLY — cultus. TWIST — mamook killapi (showing how).mokst. TUESDAY-mokst sun. TRASH . T W I N E . TRANSLATE — mamook cooley kopa huloima lalang.lolo.trouble.ENGLISH-CHINOOK 159 TRAMP — klatawa kopa lepee.mamook trouble.tahtlum pe mokst.tamolitsh. cooley. UNACCUSTOMED.delate.halo kumtux.whim stick. TROUBLE. tenas sammon. tzum sammon.

keekwullie.halo wawa.halo nanitch.sick tumtum. UNDRESS . UNGODLY . UNEQUAL . UNIVERSE — konaway illahee konaway kah. UNTRUE .lemolo. chako kunamokst. TO — mahsh kow. UNDYING . UNJUST .mahsh kow. UNDER . wild. UNCLE — tot.ikt. UNIVERSAL . UNSALABLE — wake kloshe kopa mahkook. mamook kunamokst. UNFAVORABLE . UNUSUAL .konaway.mesachie. uncle. UNCIVILIZED . UNFASTEN .halo memaloose. U N I N T E L L I G I B L E . UNTURNED . UNDERSTAND . UNHAPPY .wake kloshe. pelton.wake delate.wild.wake kahkwa.halo klaksta nanitch. UNCONSCIOUS . U N L A W F U L — wake kloshe kopa law. UNFINISHED . UNCHRISTIAN . U N B I N D .halo kopet. UNDOUBTED . UNTIE.halo killapi. U N I T E — mamook join. UNTO . U N K I N D .kumtux.kliminawhit. U N W I L L I N G . UNTAMED .halo ticky. U N L O A D . UNLOCK — mamook halo lekleh.delate. chee. .mahsh iktas. UNPOPULAR — konaway tillikums halo ticky kahkwa. UNCORK — mamook open.halo kahkwa Jesus. U N W I N D — mamook killapi. UNTOLD .halo kloshe.huloima.mahsh iktas.halo kumtux.cultus.halo kumtux. UNCLEAN — hiyu mesachie mitlite.kahkwa memaloose. UNEXPECTED (to me) — nika tumtum halo yaka chako kahkwa. papa or mama yaka ow. U N I T . UNNOTICED .mahsh kow. mamook stoh. UNMEANING .kwonesum. UNEXPLORED .160 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY UNBELIEF — halo iskum kopa tumtum.kopa. UNCEASING . UNKNOWN .

ikta. UPSET. USELESS .inapoo. V A I N .cultus.skookum. V E H E M E N T . UPPER.saghalie. VALISE — tenas lacaset.mowitch itlwillie.wake kloshe.hyas tenas. V E A L — tenas moosmoos yaka itlwillie. VARY — mamook huloima. kloshe. cooley. mitwhit. USEFUL .cultus tillikum. UTENSIL .killapi.cultus wawa. VANISH . V VACANT . ploud. UPWARD . USE — mamook use.yotl.chikchik. mamook skookum. UPBRAID .elip saghalie. VERY SMALL . UPON — saghalie kopa. VENISON .halo. UNWHOLESOME . UPRIGHT . UPPERMOST . UP — saghalie. USUAL — kahkwa kwonesum.ENGLISH-CHINOOK 161 UNWISE . V E I N — kah pilpil mitlite (pointing to i t ) .kloshe.mahsh chuck. UPHEAVE — mahsh kopa saghalie. V A L I A N T — skookum tumtum.hyas.chako halo. UNWORTHY . VENGEANCE .delate. UPLAND — saghalie iUahee.hyas solleks. V E R M I N . wake kloshe. UPSIDE D O W N . V E I L — sail kopa seeowist. VEHICLE . V A L L E Y — kloshe illahee. VAGABOND . VAST . VERY .hyas.halo kloshe. VERILY . mesachie. L . VARIED (be) .chako huloima. VACCINATE — mahsh lametsin kopa lamah yaka kloshe kopa smallpox. URGE — skookum wawa.pelton. VEGETABLES — konaway muckamuck chako kopa illahee. US — nesika. UPHOLD — mamook help.delate. URINATE .

TO — wagh. VIRTUOUS -kloshe. VIRGIN — wake kumtux man. tsolo. V I O L I N . W A L L — skookum kullah.cultus klatawa. sogah. VISIT — klatawa pe nanitch. allekacheek. V I L L A I N — mesachie tillikum. yotlkut tupso. VOTE — mamook vote. W W A D E — klatawa kopa lepee kopa chuck. WASH. WASTE — cultus lost. V I N E — stick. WAKE — halo sleep.nanitch. VISION . WARBLE — sing kahkwa kalakala. W A G — hehe man.nanitch. WANT. WARRIOR . VOMIT. W A L K — klatawa kopa lepee. W A I L — hiyu cly. VOYAGE — klatawa kopa boat or ship.TO-ticky. VOLCANO — piah mountain. W A K E N — mamook get up. WASP .wawa. V I G I L — wake moosum.tenas town. VICE — mesachie.162 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY VESSEL . VICTORY . V I E W . VICINITY . WARM — waum. coopcoop.muckamuck.tanse. . WANDER. VICTUALS . W A I T — mitlite winapee. WAGON . WAR . W A L T Z . VICTOR .tolo. stick kahkwa lope. TO .pight.tillikum yaka tolo. cultus mahsh. VEST . TO — mamook wash.tintin. W A M P U M (shell money) — hykwa. halo moosum. VIOLENT -skookum. mahsh muckamuck.pight tillikum.wake siah.ship. VOICE .andialh. muckamuck killapi. V I L E — mesachie. V I L L A G E . tsiktsik.lawest.chikchik.

chuck mitlite. WEDNESDAY .kunsih. WELL-kloshe.lewhet. halo skookum. WEAK — wake skookum.k m . WHOSE-klaksta.klaksta. W E L C O M E (to you) — kloshe tumtum mika chako. W A T C H M A N — man yaka kwonesum kloshe nanitch.klatawa. lewhet. W H I S T L E — mamook wind kopa lapush. W H I C H . WAVER — wake skookum.klaksta.klone sun.abba. WHISPER — tenas wawa (showing how). WEEP .kahta. tsiktsik. WEEK . W H A L E . W H I T E W A S H . whiskey. W H O .cly. chuck chako solleks.mitlite. W E L L . W H O L E — konaway.mamook till. W A T E R F A L L . WHISKEY .tiktik. W A T C H .kah. W H I T E . . TO . T H E N . W H I T E N . WE — nesika.sapolil. WEARY .Sunday. W E N T .chikchik. WAVES — hiyu sea. W H E N . week. W H A T .ikta. W H I N E — wawa kahkwa cly.mamook tkope.t i l l .kah sun klatawa. W E I G H . WEAR . WEDDING -mallie. W H E E L . WATER . WAY — ooahut. W H E T — mamook sharp.tkope.chuck ooahut.tumwata. TO . WHERE-kah.ekkoli. W H E A T . W H Y . W E E D — cultus tupso. wayhut. W E T — pahtl chuck. ipsoot wawa.ENGLISH-CHINOOK 163 W A T C H . WHENCE . W H I P .kloshe nanitch.mamook pent tkope. WATERSPOUT . WEST .chuck.

W O M A N — klootchman.kahkwa cole illahee.stick. WORN OUT .wind. peshak. WOMAN (old)-lamai.leloo. W I L D CAT — hyas pusspuss. W I F E . W I D E .tepeh. TO .t u m t u m . belly. W I T H D R A W . WOOD. WOO — hyas ticky. W I N D INSTRUMENT .hiyu wind. WOMB — lesak kopa klootchman kah tenas mitlite. WORLD — konaway okoke illahee.halo.cole illahee. WORD .mamook. W I T H — kunamokst. WISDOM . W I N D O W .mamook dly. WISE-kumtux. WORRY . W I N N O W . WIRE — chikamin lope. WOMANLY . W I N G . WINDY . W I L L O W . W I D O W — klootchman yaka man memaloose.mamook toto. W O L F . W I T C H — tahmahnawis. TO . WOODPECKER . W I L D . kopa. W I N . W I N K — mamook seeowist. WORK.eena stick. WINTER . WONDER — mamook tumtum. TO .ticky.tolo. WINTRY . cultus. WOODEN .klahanie.164 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY W I C K E D — mesachie. WIPE.ulalach.kumtux.lemolo. W I L L (the) .sick tumtum.koko stick.mamook killapi. WISH.wine.klootchman.tuletule.oleman. W I L D ONION . TO . WOOL — sheep yaka tupso lemooto yakso. W O L F (prairie) — talapus.wawa. W I N D .klukulh.kahkwa klootchman. siwash pusspuss. . W I T H O U T (not any) .selokemil. W I T H O U T (not in) . W I N E .

W R I T I N G .elip tenas. YOUR (if singular) .ENGLISH-CHINOOK 165 WORSHIP . YESTERNIGHT .yahwa. YELP — kahmooks wawa.mika self.lamah yahwa (point to it).kloshe. WRESTLE .mamook pight.wake kloshe.cultus. . Y A W N — ticky moosum. YARD . W O U N D .Boston man. YOURSELF .hyas sick tumtum. WRITER .tzum. Y YANKEE .tahlkie sun.mesika. WRIST .kawkawak. TO — mamook tzum. YOUNGEST . WORST — elip mesachie kopa konaway. YOUNG . klemahun. ahha.tahlkie polaklie.mika.ikt stick. Y I E L D .ikt cole. Y E L L O W .tzum man. YES — nowitka. YES. YOUR ( i f plural) . WRETCHED . YONDER . kimtah kloshe.tenas. YOU. WORTHLESS . WRAP — mamook kow. YESTERDAY . YEAR .wawa kopa Saghalie Tyee.nowitka. YEARN . YOUNGER . YOU. I N D E E D . mamook pepah. WRONG .elip tenas kopa konaway. YELL — hyas skookum wawa. WRITE.hyas ticky. WORTHY . WORSE — elip mesachie.kopet. TO — kwult mamook cut.

Mack. In Journal of American Folk Lore. Charles Milton. Portland. and missionaries to gather Chinook Jargon into more or less complete vocabularies. Elijah White. 1888. containing also a brief history of the missions and settlement of the country. Jean Baptiste.. Correct Pronouncing Dictionary and Jargon Vocabulary. A. and there have also been many attempts by early travelers. Washington. 167 .. pioneers. 1845. A. 1859. Bancroft Co. Tulalip. N. Compiler. McCormick. Ithaca. description of the soil. travel. 1853.. Vol. Mission de la Colombie. J. New York. and explorations of Dr. Mss. travels and adventures of Doctor E. which the present compiler used in preparing this dictionary and history: Allen. etc. Quebec.. 1900. incidents witnessed in the territory. New York. Following is a list of reference books. among the Rocky Mountains and in the far West. Y. Oregon. Bolduc. the Indian tribes of the Pacific slope.. A Comprehensive. Armstrong. comprising a brief history and full description of the territories of Oregon and Washington. Franz. Frechette. Chinook Jargon Songs. Yale. Ten Years in Oregon. N. Hubert Howe. Francis Norbert. interspersed with incidents of travel and adventure.APPENDIX During the past century there have been many Chinook dictionaries compiled and printed. Oregon Territory. including several articles.. Elementary Lessons in the Chinook Jargon as Used by the Indians of Puget Sound. Boas. Scott. Native Races of the Pacific states of North America.. production and climate of the country. 1. Chicago. 1882. Thrilling adventures. J. Bancroft. 1848. to which is added numerous conversations enabling any person to speak the Chinook jargon. number and customs of the Indians. White and lady west of the Rocky Mountains . Explanatory. Buchanan. Blanchet. origin of the Provisional Government. S. The task of examining these has required painstaking and patient effort on the part of the present writer. their manners. 1857.

with original Indian names for prominent places and localities with their meanings. Washington. Modeste. Coombs. Eells. Victoria. and is yet in many respects. Hale's Trade Language of Oregon or Chinook Jargon is recent and is excellent. London. Colburn. Four hundred and thirty-one Chinook Jargon words. London. Following is a note from Eells' Introduction to his dictionary: "A number of dictionaries have been published in the Chinook Jargon language. Tsimpsean. C. Samuel F. . with an account of the habits and customs of the principal native tribes on the northern continent. Lowman & Hanford. folio. N. including the narrative of a residence of six years on the western side of the Rocky Mountains. and Chinook Jargon. Hydah. . . Montreal. Demers. 1862. but that excellent man and scholar has labored under the disadvantage of not having mingled much with those who have used the language for about fifty years. C. Dictionary of Indian Tongues . and it may seem superfluous to write another. Paul. Manuscript Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon. but it was written nearly forty years ago. undertaken by the command of His Majesty for making discoveries in the Northern Hemisphere. corrected and completed in 1867 by F. 1893. Stockdale. still thus far all of them are small and are based on the language as it was forty or fifty years ago. 1893. No English-Chinook part. especially in its Introductory part. far better than any which preceded it. or. Colburn. . Translated into the Chinook Jargon. 1891. 1871. Catechism. Ross. James. 1832. Chinook Dictionary. History of the Oregon Territory and British North-American Fur Trade.168 CHINOOK: A HISTORY A N D DICTIONARY Cook. Blanchet. Dunn. John. Edwards. Durieu. Kamloops. The Columbia River. 5 vols. Bible History . I have used it very much in preparing this work. Gibbs' Dictionary was for many years by far the best. 1831. with modifications and additions by L. revised. Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon. 1784. N. as spoken on Puget Sound and the Northwest. and so has been unable to note . Myron. Contains thirty Chinook Jargon words and expressions. prayers and hymns composed in 1838 and 1839. Benziger. Scenes and adventures during a residence of six years on the western side of the Rocky Mountains. London. Seattle. B. Cox. as it gives the origin of nearly all the words and much other valuable information. Adventures on the Columbia River. B. St. London. 1846. Onge. A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean. It follows Gill very closely in its Chinook-English part and has no English-Chinook part.

and Idaho. Hymns in the Chinook Jargon Language. only have the Chinook English part. Himes. Gibbs. together with a phonetic Chinook dictionary adapted for use in the province of British Columbia. having talked in it. Cache Creek and 'Nicola Lake). Paul's Mission Press. Lillooet. 1882. "Having used it (Jargon) for eighteen years." History of Indian Missions on the Pacific Coast. Portland. The dictionary of Durieu is very meager. prayed and preached in it. compris- . Oregon. Whittaker. British Columbia and Vancouver Island. . Hazlitt. A Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon. Philadelphia. or. or Chinook Jargon. Gill. while that of Demers and St. Four hundred and seventy-three Chinook Jargon words. and in the English-Chinook. Good. The two latter. Hibben. Cramoisy. and in the English-Chinook. being intended for pocket use for travellers. Congregational SundaySchool. Hale. circa 1886. In the EnglishChinook he gives 825 words. are in as condensed form as possible. Tate. Washington Territory. traders and learners. George. and in this way have done good work for what they were intended. . 1890. Boston. New York. London. 1881. Trade Language of Oregon. C. I thought I knew a little about the language. St.. Ten Years of Missionary Work among the Indians at Skokomish. 792. The dictionaries of Gill. but when I began to write this dictionary I found that there was very much which I did not know about it. a Manual of the Oregon Trade Language. and both are intended rather more for use by the Catholics than by the public. In the Chinook-English part are 560 words. GilTs Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon. John K. Washington. however. B. 1880. but which I wished to know in order to make this dictionary as perfect as it should be. Portland.APPENDIX 169 a great share of the changes which have taken place. This was by far the best dictionary at that time and will ever remain a standard authority on the language of that time. An International Idiom. and thought in it. William C.378. 1863.. sung in it. John Booth.. Victoria. Lowman and Hanford and Good are all small. American Sunday-School Union. translated considerable into it. In the Chinook-English part are 490 words. Oregon. 1. It has no Chinook-English part. Onge is out of print. 634 in the English-Chinook part.. Horatio E. A Vocabulary and Outlines of Grammar of the Nitlakapamuk or Thompson Tongue (the Indian language spoken between Yale. circa 1882. Oregon.

James C. Journal of an Exploring Tour beyond the Rocky Mountains. 1862. under the direction of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. also a glossary of Indian names. manners. Vancouver Island and British Columbia. London. Ten Years in Oregon. Loomis & Richards. The Calumet of the Coteau and Other Poetical legends of the Border. Collord. 1838. with which the Chinook Jargon and the Wawa Shorthand can be mastered without a teacher in a few hours. in the years 1835. 1815.. Norris. 1883. John M. B. including about 300 words of the Chinook Jargon. productions of the country. 1845 and 1846 . London. Duncan G. also an account of the manners and customs of the native Indians.. John Rodgers. Journal of Travels over the Rocky Mountains to the Mouth of the Columbia River. Palmer. Including the Chinook Jargon. 1865. Longman. Conn. with an account of the manners. Chinook Primer. containing a description of the geography. New York. their history. words and western provincialisms. B. Daniel. Louis Mission. customs and history of the Indians. Joel. 1886. and religious opinions of the natives. Macfie.. Middleton. New York. J. St. C. D. Only Survivor of the Crew of the Ship Boston. 1898. B. being a narrative of the expedition fitted out . Philadelphia. Longman. 1858. Chicago. Comprising a Description of These Dependencies. 1847. Ross. Parker. Lejeune. D. British Columbia and Vancouver's Island. Walter S. Indian stories Indians told. Lee. A Narrative of the Adventures and Sufferings of John R. Cincinnati. Washington. Jewitt. resources and prospects. Matthew. C. Jewitt. Kamloops. Pilling. Samuel. Practical Chinook Jargon Vocabulary. 1893. and the number. and 1837. and customs of the natives. James. 1844. Macdonald. climate. circa 1896. (Written by Richard Alsop). during a captivity of nearly three years among the savages of Nootka Sound. Philetus W. Washington. Ithaca. C. gathered in the Pacific Northwest. London. Star. Louis Mission. Routledge. with a glossary of words. geology. C. Alexander. Kamloops. Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon or Columbia River.170 CHINOOK: A HISTOBY A N D DICTIONARY ing a historical sketch of the British settlements in the Northwest coast of America. 1892. mode of living. H. Lippincott. and Frost. Totem Tales. Chinook and Shorthand Rudiments. by the editor of the "Kamloops Wawa. St. Bibliography of the Chinookan Languages. 1836. Bibliography of the Wakashan Languages. Phillips. C. 1893." Kamloops.

is impure. Waitt. John. Vol. G. Three Years' Residence in Washington Territory. 1932. 41." His Chinook. Winthrop. Schoolcraft. Scenes and Studies of Savage Life. a complete and exhaustive lexicon of the oldest trade language of the American continent. 1857. and Isthmiana. tourists and others who have business intercourse with the Indians.APPENDIX 171 by John Jacob Astor to establish the "Pacific Fur Company'. In the appendix is a rather full vocabulary—327 words." New Philosophical JournaT. London. Seattle. 11. which he says are of Chehalis origin. Henry R. "Observations on the Indigenous Tribes of the Northwest Coast of America. 1889. English-Chinook. Sampson Low. Shaw. The Northwest Coast. Rainier Printing Co. B. for the use of traders.Vol. British Columbia. 1849. Smith & Elder. . Chinook as Spoken by the Indians of Washington Territory. Indian Tribes of the United States. or. Philadelphia. adventures among the northwestern rivers and forests. London." Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London. 1846. Edited by Nika Tikegh Chikamin (George Coombs Shaw). Boston. Theodore. Scouler. Sproat.. The Chinook Jargon and How to Use It. and Alaska. Ross gives a "Chinook Vocabulary" and words of the "mixed dialect. Judge Swan lived on Shoalwater Bay. near the Chehalis and Chinook Indians. 1863. Gilbert M. with an account of some Indian tribes on the coast of the Pacific. Victoria. 1909. James G. London. Seattle. Two hundred and sixty-one Chinook words. 1868. Tate. Charles M. Swan. by one of the adventurers. 240 Chinook Jargon Words Used by the Siwash on Puget Sound and by Indians and whites of the great Pacific Northwest for nearly 150 years. however. London. Smith & Elder. Washington. Ticknor. 1851. The Canoe and the Saddle. Johnson. George. "On the Indian Tribes Inhabiting the Northwest Coast of America. Edinburgh. Chinook-English. There is no English-Chinook part. 1841. and he includes a number of words which are given by no other writer.

The author-compiler. Chinook Jargon is rapidly finding a new k i n d of reader. gathered and verified his massive amount of fact over many years. So thorough was this research that now after over three decades his dictionary and history are here reprinted in unchallenged accuracy. Y e t it is a language of permanence. Many of the explanations are r i c h in shades of meaning and illustrations from Indian lore w h i c h point up their proper use. and traders talked it as easily and constantly as the natives. and mixed bloods of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Edward Harper Thomas. W i t h the coming of the w h i t e man and his addition of French and English words. It was his theory that the Jargon began in the trade necessities of prehistoric slaves and in shell money commerce between the Lower Chinooks and the Nootkans. Since both the English and Chinook vocabularies have alphabetical listings. and B r i t i s h Columbia. the language gradually was spoken by all the Indians of the Northwest Coast. Forms of spellings and pronunciations are clear. translations are simplified. miners. . At one time this Jargon must have been spoken by a hundred thousand Indians. sometimes poetic syllables. Nearly all of the early settlers of Oregon. loggers. Adding a word from one tribe then another. whites.CHINOOK: A History and Dictionary BY EDWARD HARPER THOMAS Long of interest to students of Northwest history. the Jargon grew adequate for all necessary communication between h i m and the natives in the region extending from what is now southern Oregon to southeastern Alaska and from the shores of the Pacific east to the Rocky Mountains. It fell into disuse as these settlers increased. In the dictionary sections of the book many of the definitions are fascinating reading. It became a clearing house for t r i b a l dialects. Even the random reader w i l l discover here much fascinating fact but he w i l l also surely find a new depth of insight into the minds of the once-mighty Indian tribes of the Northwest Coast. Washington. The place names of the Northwest and the history of the trappers and traders are storehouses for its pungent. one casually but humanly curious about the ancient red man's language of trade and diplomacy. But its blunt force and charm linger. In current speech it appears only rarely in a nostalgic w o r d or phrase.

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