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TQM book

TQM book

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Published by Ashish Gupta
My purpose in downloading this text is to give a concise, targeted document describing Total Quality Management (TQM) and its foundations. Many students/professionals must have wished a single source which gave them enough material to understand TQM but did not require reading several thousand pages. The reader must understand that this text is but a brief overview of the subject matter.
My purpose in downloading this text is to give a concise, targeted document describing Total Quality Management (TQM) and its foundations. Many students/professionals must have wished a single source which gave them enough material to understand TQM but did not require reading several thousand pages. The reader must understand that this text is but a brief overview of the subject matter.

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Published by: Ashish Gupta on Dec 13, 2008
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10/29/2012

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Kaizen is a Japanese word implying continual and gradual improvement. It has
become a synonym for the total management approach introduced in this course. A
book by the title Kaizen, written by Masaaki Imai, is an excellent reference to see how
this philosophy is pulled together into general management.

In Kaizen, top management should:

• Adopt and support the concept of Kaizen

• Establish policies for cross functional goals

• Build the systems which support continual improvement

In Kaizen, middle management should:

•Implement the concept of Kaizen as directed by top
management

•Establish controls to insure the policies for cross functional
goals are realized and improved

•Establish training programs to insure that all employees are
trained in the tools and understanding of Kaizen including
problem solving

In Kaizen, supervisors should:

•Employ Kaizen concepts in all activities

•Establish and improve constantly the communication among
all employees, cross functional supervisors and upper
management

•Encourage and sustain the concept of suggestions

Total Quality Management

212

In Kaizen, workers should:

•Participate in small group improvement teams

•Demonstrate discipline in their daily duties and functions

•Improve problem skills in practice and simulation

•Engage in continual training and retraining

•Provide suggestions for improvement to upper management

Kaizen refers to three Japanese words: Muda (waste), Muri (strain), and Mura
(discrepancy). These three words represent areas of poor management that drain a
system of its strength.

Kaizen looks at problem solving in the four traditional areas: Man, Machine, Material
and Method. The following is a list of questions posed by Masaaki Imai in Kaizen.

Man:

•Does he follow all instructions and procedures?

•Is he qualified?

•Is he quality-conscious?

•Is he teachable?

•Is he physically and mentally well?

•Is he relocatable to another task?

Machine:

•Does it meet production needs and requirements?

•Can it maintain an acceptable Cpk?

•Is maintenance adequate?

•Have inspections been made as scheduled and recorded?

•Is it stopped because of mechanical error or quality level?

•Is this machine part of a bottleneck?

Material:

•Is volume and grade correct?

•Is incoming quality at or above specified limit?

•Is incoming quality variation within tolerance?

•Is handling equipment satisfactory?

•Is arrival timing adequate?

•Is positioning of material at the work site correct?

Method (Operations):

•Are work standards posted, accessible and adequate?

Lesson Eleven - Continual Improvement: a Strategic Decision

213

•Are working conditions safe, clean and improvement
oriented?

•Are waste, strain and discrepancy removed?

•Has setup been reduced to lowest perceived level?

•Can setup be reduced further and are efforts under way?

•Is communication between departments adequate?

Total Quality Management

214

Problem Solving -- the five W's and one H

Who

What

Where

When

Why

How

Who is doing
it?

What is being
done?

Where is it
done?

When is it
done?

Why do it?

How is it
done?

Who should
be doing it?

What should
be done?

Where should
it happen?

When should
it happen?

Why should it
happen there?

How should it
be done?

Who else can
do it?

What else can
be done?

Where else
can it be
done?

When is
another time
it could be
done?

Why do it
then?

How else
could it be
done?

Kaizen offers four principles (each starting with "S" in Japanese). Seiri, meaning to
straighten up. This includes work in process, tools, machines, documentation, and
scrap. Seiton, meaning to put things in order. The adage of "everything has a place
and everything in its place" fits here. Hours are wasted in Western plants because
tools and records are not in the place where they should be for rapid retrieval. Seiso,
meaning to clean up, applies to workplace, tools, machines, and charts. Seiketsu,
meaning personal cleanliness, refers to being neat and tidy, removing spills and not
wearing loose clothing. Shitsuke, meaning discipline, is necessary in following
procedures and instructions so each step is identical to the part ahead of it. If variation
in process occurs, process problems cannot be solved. Suggestions and improvements
should be decided upon and agreed to by the group. Individualism is reduced.

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