HOW TO SOUND INTELLIGENT IN JAPANESE

A VOCABULARY BUILDER

A Vocabulary Builder
Charles De Wolf

HOW TO SOUND INTELLIGENT IN JAPANESE

KODANSHA INTERNATIONAL
Tokyo
«

New York. London

Contents

Preface
j:

*-;6,~

7
10 11

Introduction

Chapter 1: Ideas and Theories Chapter 2: Philosophy and Religion Chapter 3: Politics and Government Chapter 4: The Fine Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences Chapter 5: Science and Technology Chapter 6: Law and Justice Chapter 7: Business and Economics

15 25 39 53 75 91 109

Distributed in the United States by Kodansha America, Inc., 114 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. lOOll, and in the United Kingdom and continental Europe by Kodansha Europe Ltd., Gillingham House, 38-44 Gillingham Street, London SWIV lHU. Published by Kodansha International Ltd., 17-14 Otowa l-chome, Bunkyoku, Tokyo 112, and Kodansha America, Inc. Copyright © 1993 by Kodansha International Ltd. All rights reserved. Printed in Japan. First edition, 1993 97989900 6543

ISBN 4-7700-1747-2

of th eve~eless. so long as he is not thought to be a permanent immigrant. The notion that it is somehow extraordiarily diffiCUlt and even "unnatural" for non-Japanese (or at east Occ·d tal '." (Basil Hall Chamberlain. he is praised for this remarkable accomplishment. so d 1 en s) to speak Nihongo IS one that many a seao~ Teader will have already encountered. the implicit premise of this book-and indeed e entlTe Power Japanese series-is that the linguistic status J 0. as though we were an idiot child who suddenly showed a streak of intelligence. comes in many varieties." (Edwin O. qui disait: c'est bien dommage que l'aventure de la tour de Babel ait produit Laconfusion des Langues. like other human failings. If he speaks Japanese at all. 7 . and admit to each other that you are really quite intelligent-much as we would do in the presence of a pig or an ape of somewhat unusual attainments. 1904) "Tbe foreigner in Japan. EOd~y she might just as well stand for the stereotypical nglisb-speaker Who believes that the entire world speaks-or ought to speak-his mother tongue. 1767) ".. Voltaire's apocryphal court lady assumes that ~e pre-Babelic language of mankind must have been French. sans ceLa tout Ie monde aurait toujours parte francais. 1977) Linguistic chauvinism.. no matter how badly.Preface "Je ne suis pas comme une dame de La cour de Versailles. they will wag their heads and smile condescendingly. but always as an outsider. In sharp Contrast to such naive universalism is traditional ap~ese eXclusivity. " (Voltaire. Reischauer. is treated very politely.Seeing that you speak Japanese.

The author trusts that his intelligent readers are also astute listeners. on the other hand.words in which [0:] is written as .. These refer to the two major sets of Sino-Japanese readings. Each chapter typically begins with single Sino-Japanese lexical elements.kapuseru ni tojikomotta papa. long-sufferIDgteacher.. a few key concepts remain. go "karma" in Chapter 2 vs. Note. I used 0 rather than ou. both written ~. iBcJt "political party" he(:oolelli. my star pupil.g. The Sino-Japanese term for Sino-Japanese. likewise of Kodansha International. This. and wise counsellor. are rendered phonetically. combined to form words and compounds. ' . I am greatly indebted. seitii rather than seitou. for example. these are intended not for memorization but simply for reinforcement-and sometimes even for diversion: J:: < ¥ U'. i§ '1 "say. the second both more recent and generally more common. Unlike textbook dialogue drills.." written . is likewise romanized a la japonaise as iu.. * As the subtitle suggests. -) in hiragana. yoku asobe. Thus... a elt angato to my WIfe Keiko Suda and our four children. who ~t proposed the idea and patiently nurtured it with sound and IDtelli~entad~ice. The day is past when extravagant praise can be expected for the mere ability to use Japanese in ordering tonkatsu or filling out forms. Sounding Intelligent in Japanese is a vocabulary-building book.. is i~~~kango. The desire for absolute consistency thus yields to the requirement of readability. Except where minimal pairs are already in the text or come immediately to mind. for ~any hours of astute and careful scrutiny of entries and illustra~ve sen~ences that were either structurally awkward or socially ~plausIble. some of which are then repeated in the illustrative sentences that follow. To Masako Nakamura. svo ''business'' in Chapter 7. e. as the saying goes. I can only expr~ss enormous gratitude.for putting u~ with. Though technical linguistic terminology has been kept to a minimum. means ever more demanding standards. < *Loyal partisans of rival romanizations may frown at eclectic conventions followed in this book. Sino-Japanese. but here spelling reflects Japanese conventions: eiga. Chemical names that appear in Chapter 5.~-? in hiragana but pronounced [yuu]. hea:nallY. of course. for example. who generously checked each and every chapter and offered invaluable advice. For Sino-J"noln"".. pitch accent distinctions have been ignored. just mentioned. . The principle of consistency seem to dictate that I write ~ li'll "movie" as ega. Acknowledgements Last-minute revisions of outdated examples remind me how long this book has been in the making. refers to words of Chinese origin that have been thoroughly assimilated into Japanese. Hyphenation in the romanization is based on both morphological principles and the more practical consideration of appearance." Less obvious are the subcategories go (~) and kan (~). Responsibility for such errors that remam despite the heroic efforts of these three are of course my OWn. on the other hand.yoku manabi. lit.8 Preface Preface 9 of the foreigner in Japan has changed and continues to change. Special thanks also go to Shigeyoshi Suzuki. J: itt"". baryiimu and maguneshumu. More and more intelligent aliens will be expected to prove themselves with well-informed and articulate comments on a broad range of subjects: from ideas and theories to business and economics. To Michael Brase.. "Han language.

J: _. 1jt~~1U~::t 5.ftf!OOR\-C:~!J1. ~5~?.~ 17)ttc v' ? c.) (Baruch Spinoza. -!> """~_ c .17)*li.'-7 /'j}-li··· . *~O)A~~~li. -glffi"1iY-J~c-l}I7)l!1.c~05~ .!j.I!MJJ: Ij ~at!JJ~~Ttq)tt J ~tlVj!~~n 0 Daigaku no nYiigaku-shiken wa. ~~~M lffll.J: 5 I':::.?ic. 17)~'*T?i c C.nli. f.c.l.tm~T=Ct-. For foreigners in modern Japan. sed intellegere. 1812-70) < -Clitt ~ttv'.~-CL-"£5C.A. I::"lvL-te.'"t'b~<8*. c t-lffl L-fH:oFl. ·::(:]i!fJ .I.A. non lugere.''*T.'"t'b~~~ ••• ~~~~=_XK *It~ J: ? l.A. ~ ¥l7)mt-* I? 11!x.j}-I7)!I!iIHiml:f:ll. l'$ttC.kC..A. ctl. c. (Here I am a barbarian.ftf!. perspicacious") is still more recent." richi-teki na.tt~l&li.c'"t'JI>~. -)c1tl7)w?'l:4'i1fF'"t'littlt' L-. ~j]Tnli§5tI7)~x.I.. c.. "rational and knowledgeable." and rikii na lit "of agile mouth. H~'bTitJcll'JI> ~ ." kashikoi "wis~.k. fkli.~A.:::tt?i.\l!.." somei na "sagacious.. itJc~'"t'~i/>n?i 8 *)c!l)/{ -7-/'-.I':::b rJt'I':::~I?~Tlt'J b!l) t-lBA.-c~ 5.A. lit." < ~ H~ X.1.:::li.C.c~llifkJl>?i~n~b.' L-n'~~*. "gather and choose from among.~J:5kb.*. (I have endeavored not to ridicule.lU'~ .l~~ Barbarus hie ego sum..is the present participial stem of the verb intellegere "understand.k~ tt$71Ii." Here is an example of rikai-ryoku "intelligence" by itself.f\j'~./''7 'Fr-f . "good at understanding things.A. bewail.t-&:i?il-?-C c.J~ttl7)'"t'JI>?i. itJc1fI7). clever.~ 5 ? J c v' 5 J: 5 I':::.. lit.:::. ro ~7 -7 /. L--c.nH!fv't::.'~I. '"Cl.:::c -o -C1b:P-C Mil'? -Clt'?iR\~i/:.t.-C:7.:::l!Il L-I:f:l L-teJ: 5 tt c C. "A remarkable boy! Do you know whether they've sold the prize turkey that was hanging up there?" (Charles Dickens.A. literally. As students of Latin will remember." mono-wakari no ii.cbi/>'?-Cv'-C' '\1f)jI7). ctttl" 13711.?iJ:?k~?i.t-~iiil.X. become aware of' or. the key to escaping the poet's linguistic fate is greater intelligence.tt~ J: < ~~T ~ c.t. "having the power to discern.~*I7). neque detestari. !J.~ IlifCCbk~~ ~~~~nb~eJ:?k~x.x.t~I7)~'"t'Rx.I':::b~5'"t'ttv'." ki no kiita lit. -gR\. intelligent.0 t---rlii/> I? ffjl L-Itlf.-AD ?17) Sedulo curavi. gR\~)c~I7)~~~~illlt~n?ic.?ic.a-c:~.?iC.:::3't-c~nn'~.'!IH. c li~~j.!jJijjI7) c. C.) (Ovid. 'nimble of wit." The adjective comes into English relatively late.>lfflJ itJc*t-~~ L-tc b 17)'"t'~ttv'.6QJ.cl.Introduction . humanas actiones non ridere.. ····.?iL-~C.17)f. 43 B.17) ".c~#~L-kbl7)'"t'~ ?i. ~l~ver. JI>?iIlifF. and its modem meaning ("bright.lf:ttillltiY-JI. ~" ~ I? ilh-c~ X.-!>i/iJl>?iCg-:>"C J: v'.tt -o b I? '"t'JI>?i. c tt ~i$! L-Htx.1bv' C..It~T~15tf.A. tt ttl? 17)~j]t-l'!.:::.t.:::JI> I? tI. '"t'~?i c.:::..tl.-.-c. r!J1.l!1. (having) a good head. but to understand it.A. 8 *. Ovid died in exile on the Black Sea.ftk. quia non intelligor ulli.v'"£TiI'J CIt' 5ftb I? I.IilI7). 131 ~t-+71iW-ttttH'1.:::JlP L-t::. ro ~7. _. Clt'? 17). The various translations found in Kenkyusha's New EnglishJapanese Dictionary include: rikai-ryoku no aru.~11!X.t1tm'tpA. c· ?. b~ citJc.~C.J: 5 c~j] L-t::. 1.It)jI':::~~n~ 17)li.~. risei-teki na "rational. lit. 1632-77) "An intelligent boy!" said Scrooge.I7)*~ OO.:::.t-1b:P-c tgiltl7)§'"t' ~~M[ti]tI.'~~~~n?i~. rikai-ryoku yori kioku-ryoku 11 tame- .l.::: 'iJ' 71i/> Ii.OO.:fl.A. or disdain human behavior." kenmei na "wise. 8*R\t-~l!1.-?-f v"~-7-/'I'::: L--C~1!fI':::JlIH:t 5.:::~n~ c V'? §1lt '"t'JI>~.1:"£n?i. for no one understands me.:::-::>v.\l!.~~ ~. §1E~t-131b I.t.l7)mlt''"t'JI>-:>tc.::: ligbn-cv.::: -o -c b ~ ? I.

3 . R.. the form is often atama ga ii. 8. ~f:JiJ!~~ -ttt::.\~ ~~~i ~I. written with the Chinese character for "wise" (cf..\Walifri 2~~~~~~rn~~ttti~J .\At. the expression can also have a decided~T ~!~~ b 5n:~flJI. Sometimes.1..~1._...~T~)lI±i'~~{I. the term originally means "awesome. <~ iah~~~t~~ft. It cannot be said that all of Britain's monarchs were wise rulers.-f ~. to dame do.onsented when she told him of her intention to marry a NorwegIan. ken. crooge III Keijiro Okamoto s translation of the Dickchildre~sslc.o Iv I± 'b ~ b~' IJ ~ 1.~AI±~W89~Mi V(I. lIltelIigentboy.~ IJ i I.\I.I )v'/ Yukiko-san no otosan wa mono-wakari no ii hila da kara. appearances can deceive. Yiibe kanto no "junsui-risei-hihan" a yomihajimeta tokoro kOfun shite nemurenaku narimashita.:f 1) A ~1!EH{i'~ -C1l!1Y3 ~~3:. :t: I.. to hihan sa rete imasu. as the English gloss implies. ! eXClaimsS .\ t t!.~. wisdom embraces prudence.\-C. particularly in Japan. 1 think Shizue is smart enough that handling her lecherous section chief should be a piece of cake. Mono-wakari no ii can suggest a worldly-wise understanding but is not recessarily related to intellectual or verbal dexterity. jissai ni wa baka da: He may have the look of an intellectual.. it suggests less bookish brilliance than practical awareness. Being an understanding man. 6. Mtt ~ IvI±NIt\~\ "t"LJ:-?o 1?.. i' <.\. S*T .o .1.t!i~i'.. As a predicate.\lt t'MJ~m I. august" Wa 0 l.-t::. and though intellectuals are reputedly intelligent.kenmei (lit. Last night I started reading Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and got so excited that I couldn't sleep.I. yo. .h. kano}O ga noruwe-jin to kekkon suru tsumori da to kiite. 4.ao '.. t I±It \ X. ~ Iv "(fIJO~:!7i ~ r: ante riko na b .of mei "wise").~I. - ~ 1v~13 t -? ~ A t .l.. having been effective). -1 .I. somei na more ly evokes the fruit of long experience (or innate wisdom) the power of raw intellect. is related to early Japanese animism and the imperial cult.\t::'JL~i ~ iu Ivlilt\-:) -? ml-san itsumo ki no kiitaJ·odo.kiishin sasetai nara tanki If varana.. University entrance examinations are being c:ritici~ for measuring the ability to memorize rather than true intelligence.\I. but in fact he's a fool.do..~o An' ova aa. Richi-teki smacks of intellectualism. -: et though typically heard in the praise of small (onkO-san ne).n . The native Japanese expression atama no yoi is commonly heard in conversation." 5. Note that the more or less meaning is "with ears and eyes wide open.to 13 ~ ~ ~ 1. risei is used as a philosophical term to translate Greek nous.t!i~I-!iiI . no kiita (lit. Ki no kiita consists of Sino-Japanese ki "spirit" and native apanese ".. German Vernunft.:~' ~. okosanai de motto kenmei ni you Wantyour contract extended. but they don't study.. ens' cl .-~l Shizue-san wa kashikoi kara ano etchi na kacho a ashirau kurai asameshi-mae desha. Wl~~( -:) 'b IJ t!. t P61.\"(''b 0 '? t NIY3I::~ ~ Keiyaku 0.Mtt" ~1~H::I±.12 Introduction Introduction 13 su mono do. i -tt: Ivo lgirisu no kokuo ga subete sdmei na kunshu da to wa temasen._. Yuriko's father immediately c. sugu so/lO kekkon ni doi shita.t!. JfSA._.. Similarly. As a noun.\o Ani no kodomo-tachi wa mina atama ga ii kedo benkyo shinai.I'U':o Ana hito wa richi-teki na kao a shite iru kedo.1. you'd better guard your temper and act more prudently.. Risei-teki na is less likely to suggest a keen mind than the general power of reason.- ~ -? < ~ I. My elder brother's children are all clever. '" _ . sagacity + brightness) might seem to suggest the Ideal combination of wisdom and acumen and indeed kenmei na hito may be understood to be both wise and intelligent.. nu IS always telling witty jokes. 7. I. In some contexts. .. The meaning ranges from "sensible" to "witty" and "chic": 0 ] Kashikoi is one of only two expressions here that are purely Japanese as opposed to Sino-Japanese origin.~t!...tz.. ~..L::t T ~WI!~ i.

CHAPTER I Ideas and Theories It is often suggested that the Japanese are a more practical than philosophical people. if students have intJ~llectw. gakusei ni cnuea-eoa-snu sae areba. so: Argument. statement." and m setsu "theory.j:5]iJt l-C ~~I. as 'Nihon-go de riM ni kikoeru ni would suggest sarcasm quite unintended. To translate How to Sound Intelligent Japanese. ism.!I[m ronri-setsu for example is "theory of 10gi . " ~ ~.p~osophies and ideologies. the student must generally learn the varilexiccaI°~blDatlons s distinct." is chiteki: 11. -ron corresponds to sm. Theory. Regardless of how "clever" they are. curiosity. aren't they. e.j: I) ~ llt'-c. view. With this ing lexical analysis as an appetizer. IDli~~It'It'7J' t' -? ~'I.These are: ~ ron "argument. ~:g. jugyo wa yahari tanoshii desu ne.. classes really are enjoyable." J. between -ron and oussu. Yet a further word for "intelligent.." though it is glossed as "intellectual.:r. developing the ability to "cross swords" in a discussion (~~-C::k7J:JTt:. we may now move on the main course. theory. giron de tachi-uchi dekiru) is ~ ce~y one way to sound intelligent in Japanese. reason. e egree of lDterchangeability. and theory. as ~~ below." all of whic~ are used in both isolated and compound form. at least hypothetically. -c. a Items.j:-?I.The key to understanding the meaning of the words is in a~tual usag~. for example."-rtlo ~~I:~I¥JM-~'c. Ism IDfB RON .!I[llifB rzron-setsu "a theory about theories.t~hl. Atama ga ii ka dO ka wa betsu toshite.. though not entirely idiosyncratic. The last example suggests Chiteki-nihongo-kaiwa as own preferred Japanese rendition of the title.g. ~J. and. While there is -set. the language certainly abounds in Chinese borrowings for argument. truth.. disinclined to both abstractness and contentiousness. ~ .f It' rikutsuppoi). While one must avoid the appearance of being disputatious (U -::> l. English "-i or . As can be ~n In the illustrative sentences. This ~hapter f~uses on just three short words that appear Withparticularly high frequency in discourse of a more abstract na.14 Introduction ly derisive sense.!I[ ri "reason. Pl1I_lclple. Be that as it may.tur~. not in the English glosses. -ronsha to English "<ist": As a label f 15 ." th . they can also be combined Witheach other. mental." J. . one can even speak of J.

Instead of arguments.e. it( As George Berkeley denied the existence of matter.-li~'l (7)fftE L i: (7)-zo." Uneasiness about too much speculative ~ifB ron and not enough empirical ~ gaku may be reflected in the following proverb. and ~l!i~~ uchiiron the "study of the universe.. ffi L v'~~J!!~IH:'llJl:""::_"(v'. ")"ue ni"th d ete no ningen wa shinu beki mono da.. Shinka-ron ga kakujitsu no shako ni motozuite iru to wa masen.\(ronten) the point at issue (arguing point) 7.-z~""t'<l1.j"ii#-ZOT Ikura anata ga dotoku ni wa fuhen-sei ga aru to shucho shite 1. . It' 0 watashi wa kyiikyoku-teki ni wa sotai-ronsha desu.. Socrates is morIS a famous syllogism. (I)li.~J!!M-c:'~ QAli&-t. lit. Y 7 7TAliArJl""t'<l1. '" kyiikyoku-Ieki: in the end. I don't think evolutionism (the theory of evolution) is based on ~< (7)8*)"i. YUe ni kare wa shinu beki de aru" to iu no wa.\!I. ~ffu. Ron yori shako.::::f. • )'(- "S~b{}t1. Likewise.Jt±~L-C~h fl.1:.t.>-3.6>·:>tc-c:' _"It YO~~~:h6_h{j-tekiyuibutsu-ron deshO.0 -:. ete i . but I am ultimately a relativist.I. You can insist on the universality of morality as much as you .y )VA . such as would be the case with ~ffi A~~uchii-jin-ron. 4.fl~~ (yilshin-ron) theism (exist-goo-ism) :!!I!~~ (rishin-ron) deism (reason-goo-ism) ~~liii (mushin-ron) atheism (no-goo-ism) -~~ (isshin-ron) monotheism (one-goo-ism) ~~liii (tashin-ron) polytheism (many-goo-ism) m~liii (hanshin-ron) pantheism (everything-goo-ism) nlI:~~b. It' . ultimately ~1$ii#tlt'-'j J: I)~. I: lifflj.t -tt Ivo 2. mushin-ronsha to iu yori mo.. . 3 . for example. 7 z: ~ A .I. therefore. B A~1fa ihon-jin-ron is not a theory about whether the Japanese n 'exist. ataras hii ronri-setsu II 0 no bete tmasu.t~ IDE~.!:?E~.-. Ron can also refer to the discussion or study of something whose existence is not in question. consequently (literary usage) < ~a~*9t.l. in which the former appears by itself: 6. ~~t.. I tend to regard them animists. taJ~~n are mortal.16 Ideas and Theories Ideas and Theories 17 . ere. ""'<")V 7 A .-zo Ii 7d: It' ii' U~.. j!1tii7Jffii~Id:IDE~I:~?It'-CIt' 7.!:.\t~~-c:'-t.-{(7)5f..j.Jt li... ore. evidence . Sokuratesu wa ningen s: ~u. Rather than call most Japanese atheists.j"liii (zettai-ron) absolutism (sever-opposite-ism) * < 1?1{1JiI')1!1tH:littiittilf." i. 'L'liii# t § 7.e. without a definite religion as such. semantics. means the "study of meaning. " namoto-sense' I wa." i.7.liii (yuishin-ron) spiritualism (only-heart-ism) fflMrI (sotai-ron) relativism (mutual-opposite-ism) tf:il~ (juhen-ron) universalism (common-everywhere-ism) ~j.!!<ii:OO-ZO ) ~.i$ (ronpa) line of argument (argument law) ~3:~~$ (sandan-ronpo) law) a syllogism (three-step argument ~~~ (ronri) logic (discourse principle) '''1lIl> (ronsen) verbal dispute (discourse fight) AIIII'M ~~~ (ronsa) controversy (discourse war) (+ suru) ~~t. Jf'OJ~liii(fukachi-rony agnosticism (not-can-know-ism) Il!UJtliiiyuiga-ron) solipsism (only-self-ism) ( Pi~liii (yuibutsu-ron) materialism (only-thing-ism) Pi'L.z ~:a~ 0 • "AU ." but rather "study of I theorizing about the Japanese. 3 -:.J-zo L J: -'j Joji biikure wa busshitsu no sonzai 0 hitei shita no de.t-t._. ~~""((l)Ar"'~~'i?E~""::_~ convincing evidence. one might he was a kind of monistic spiritualist. "space-people-ism. kimatta no noi animisuto de wa nai ka to omoimasu. yianei no nuan-ronpii desu b(l)ti. ~~~~ imi-ron.It'. cosmology.>-3J b'? 7 t. isshs yuishin-ronsha to ieru desha. we find ron used initially as well as finally: . there must have been few people who could understand the dialectic materialism of Marx and Engels. P: no moto-kyosan-koku L J: ? de mo. Socrates is a man. :.t. In compounds. marukusu-engerusu no 0 rikai dekiru hito wa sukunakatta Even in the former Communist countries of Europe.t To Oku no nihon-jin wa. S. 3.

Presenting counterargurnents in the face of such convincing evicen . cit' -? ~~.:t~Q)~*B9~14Q)--:J-C-T ~~!0'kdal 0 mochidasu to sugu kanjii-teki ni natte shimaiu.z~IHll. texture."(~ t. The teachers are discussing the Japanese educational system." lit.t1iI:*~ ~J3I!~ NH L i Lt:. Principle.j-:JIt'"( I: Ii." Unlike logos (or. There is ongoing debate concerning the cause of the dinosaurs' tinction. 1J'~It'o Atorantisu-densetsu ni tsuite no shinsetsu ga taterareta ga. . 15. W-JJ genri literally means nOnini~ntal/original p~ciple. hanron wa muzukashii.~ect1Valformant B9 teki to il-3. Your argument is not without reason."( It." :It!!.sPe.:itJJ1Jr~< ~It'blt-C-li<f. 9=IOOAQ)~ ." 17.Ud:It'o . ~~ kiiron "empty theory..JJ hiri "geography. ron appears in such compounds as giron "argument.:~. Freedom of speech is a basic condition for democracy. "the fiber passes through. ruth- and .: ~~~int:.. is difficult. minshu-shugi no kihon-teki-joken no desu. de shikanai.. vein. 12. it means "thread. liei-tai 0 wangan-sensii ni haken subeki datta ka dO ka to iu ni wa makikomaretaku nai. 10. ~~Q) Reason.ilJtQ)m:jZ. texture. setsu and ron). t.r~ ~ i-ttlvo Lilt' i To 'b? t Wb 13 Ef:J Ii. <f. 14.. as in St. whereas ~JJB9 ronri-teki means gJcal. but I remain unpersuaded." c " son "rationality " Adding d" ." Thus. 9.&~ hanron "counterargument"[+ surn]. iTo ft1iQ)~. gHw~~~J¥~4fr':VfH1T. is sometimes called the East Asian equivalent of Greek logos "primeval principle" or.. I don't want to get involved in the controversy of whether the Defense Forces should have been sent to the Gulf War. ~~1Jf~It. enever I bring th hali .: -:J1t. ou must think more logically. plot": suji ga torn "logical.." In'yo no ri wa. otto ronri-tek. fiber.o 11. for that matter. debate" [+ suru]. you always become emo. sion"[+ 0 dasu]. &~li~LIt'o ~JJ ronri "logic" literally means "discourse principle. Truth ~RI Ri. 16. fJ. ~~Q)JJli." though the word can d m the somewhat negative sense of "coldly. R.H. Ron is also combined with the bound form of the verb (-jiru) "do. speculation." A similar image-physical and spatial as opposed to verbal-is seen in native Japanese !$ suji "muscle. J'G1:t:. Genron no jiyu wa.. logical. John's Gospel.. "the Word.-( ~ t!.. "(It' zr . B91." If ~e elements are turned around JJ~ riron. ri is not derived from a metaphorical extension of a word for "speaking": in its original sense. ":d:'1J'C' ~ tJ.18 Ideas and Theories Ideas and Theories 19 Professor Yamarnoto is expounding a new theory of logic." Other words in which ri is the pie" ~l1l! ekylement ~l1l! gakuri "scholarly. reasonable.. watashi wa doshue mo nattoku dekimasen.:t. WOrdfor" a . ~~Q)k:@." ~ i -tt Ivo ~ i-ttlvtJf."( 'b~~\.. Anna kakujitsu na shako ni wa." meaning "to discuss": Sensei-tachi wa nihon no kyoiku-seido ni tsuite ronjite imasu.l±c·~ Anata no r?nten ~i ~jjri ga mattaku nai wake de wa arimasen ga. ni kangaenakereba narimasen.¢..ulati?n. 0 OK "fun~ if ri were not basic enough. A new theory has been proposed concerning the legend of /1. tional Y up e w ng Issue.lll gori yields the also be usera~onal. chiigoku-jin no kangae-kata ni iikina eikyo 0 oyoboshimashita. more generally known in the West by its original Chinese form (/i)." genron "speech.1v~~i1f~~WEt~IH:li. the meaning shifts to "~e?ry. Ii B*Q)ft1fllJU!tI.U<U'W"'_ but it's only empty speculation. l1l!~B9 riron-teki merely means "theoretical. As a final element. The Yin-Yang principle had an enormous influence on Chinese thinking." Kyoryu no zetsumetsu no gen'in ni tsuite wa.giron ga tsuzuite imasu. discussion. t'i~ ketsuron ··conCllJ-.. scientific princiare Al1l! _?ri "(religious) doctrine. L. No ::rQ'~~~t.lliT t T <-~ffiB9I:~?"( . M~ toron "debate" l+ .

{t. the meaning of is "speak. musume-san wa. rikai opposite cognitive process. . Sato is a rather well-known painter.:." !!I!$ riji. ~ 1. I am completely unable to comprehend Professor Sasaki's Kanai wa danchi no riji ni natta toki irai. . In ~ino-Japanese." especially of a company or university.tt~#~b'?~J:~~~o Theory.:k*9Gj::O)!!I!~lfllfJ:c'? L-ct!!l!M"t'~ ~itlv. bijutsu yori kagaku ni kyomi 0 motte. 0 ):!J!. tro no tanpen-shosetsu no naka de. but' his daughter took a greater interest in chemistry than art and entered the University of Tokyo's Faculty of Science. hir 0 T amizaki short stones that have lC . View. Compounds with ri as the initial element include: !!I!EI:J (ri + "cause") "reason. Keijirii-san wa ichiryii-daigaku 0 sotsugyii shinakatta shi.::'uren-anzen-hoshO-rijikoku "member nation of the UN Security Council.1::? -c ~IJ: '? !!I!~(t-JtJ:::tA "t'T.>: Jun . sense of "expound" that we find setsu as an inint In Such Sino-Japanese words as ~19'1 setsumei ho' m SETSU lb Iib-Cv . comprehend.j. liiJ'." ~!!I!11::giiri-ka "rationalization" is typically in the context of rationalizing or streamlining business prises. Compounds with less transparent meanings are which refers not to the "study of reason" but rather to the cal sciences.t.:9t~ ~ n -c 1t\.\ J ~+ ~ Tan'? ki i ~ 0 I"Q jun 'ich: SQrete i . mada eiyaku There nal mono ga oi yo desu. on the other hand. Rodii-kumiai wa." !!I!~ rihatsu does not mean "reasoning rather "barbering. !!I!1i risei (ri + "nature.1 L. !!I!." and though the pronuncianon of the word has changed from /siuet/ in the Tang Dynasty to lshuol in Modern Mandarin. ri + "matter.~AA! Iv Ii.. *nt*:rO)..*.m risii (ri + idea) "ideal"._. "reason. Keijiro didn't graduate from a top-ranking university.fl:.I{. (The term for the common practice of inventing excuses or false justifications to hide a guilty conscience is {I::-t G seitii-ka suru. Sasaki-sensei no riron wa doshite mo rikai dekimasen." refers to a tor" or "trustee.tJ: v' It c'. {tJi ~ A.J: It' 'b c7)t. 21..~ .?~~~*. passed-on tale).~L-~~?kL-.:r~kA:r ~ :fl~t.J: 1:~~t-ff'? -C. cf. After all." Note whereas English "apprehend" and "comprehend" mean "catch" and "absorb" respectively. Introduction. 0 gen ru tsuite wa. . anslated into English.OO . cause". cf.J:O)~!!I!{I::II:*'&:M"t'-t." The same point can be made with regard to above. §. there are all sorts of theories.: !*-Z-!t. Statement In Chinese.. ncenung th '.~ 3 B*~(7)~iW. it usually has the more speCific meaning of "explanation" or "theory. in English as well. 95'1tJ*1I.~~ffi.~*. and he n't work for a famous company either." lessly logical. reasoning power". watashi ni totte risii-teki na shujin desu. seikaku ga kawatta yo desu.t::-::>It\-Cli N2 In-go n ki . m. tiikyo-daigaku no rigaku-bu ni nyiigaku shimashita. ' 1t\~It'~~mt.. rikai (ri + "analysis") "apprehend. my wife seems to have undergone a change of personality.§!.:o Salo-san wa kanari yiimei na gaka desu ga.20 Ideas and Theories Ideas and Theories 21 b ifi-kai "board of directors. tanpen-shosetsu "short story" and fi~ ensetsa "legend" (lit. fJ." though a broad~~sense ~s~uggested in /Nit shosetsu "novel" (not "small ~ry ). eem tr . cf.. It IS in th tiaJ eleme e. na kaisha ni mo tsutomete inai kedo.IH:il/N~. suggesting reason bined with knowledge. kore ijo no gi5ri-ka ni dai-hantai desu. The negative nuances of gori-teki might suggest that the nese prize irrationality. ~~ J: ~ ft~ ~t. iroiro no setsu ga arimasu. 19. yet to be to be man. but for me he IS S till ideal husband.) 18.iHiil/l'mO) J:jl ~ ' 1 t. trustees" and OOil'tC~i~"~. affair. Ever since she began serving on our condominium complex's board of directors.• m L. loosening.~.~lvti-.:. n.' Co . rel. 24 " e ongms of Japanese.~1J:. untying. or U">~V"'''' One word for "intellect" is !!I!m richi. the colloquial meaning "argument" is not "line of reasoning" but rather "dispute.lr:Y -sL .lr. that is still its primary sense. Mr. " ~~J:~-flB(7).§!. The union is strongly opposed to any further rationalization. but the question boils down to one usage.l.nJ.

fro~ the Chinese Embassy to Tuesday s New York Tunes editonal regarding Tibet.t ~ (7)fa." ~~ ronsetsu "discourse.. All of these can be verbalized with suru. editorial. daigaku-sei yori shakaijin no hOga 01 tu chigai-arimasen. 32. Compounds in which setsu appears as a noninitial include 1&~ kasetsu "hypothesis" (lit. iI':t3 ~ t.. 25. *. shinka-setsu for shinka-ron "theory of tion. teisetsu to iu wa nai yo desu. N H K(7)'::'. 0 30.j{ -17 v:/ 1-'(7)': t -e t t. Setsu overlaps somewhat ron in meaning and usage.¥:~." The difference may roughly correspond to the between theory and discussion/question in English.> (7)Ii. cf. editorial.: t"t"T Tantii-i no setsumei ni yoru to. and gain). 27. 26. No doubt more adults watch NHK news analysis and commentary than do university students. chiigoku-taishikan kara tsuyoi hanpatsu ga arimashita.:z. ~fX sekkyii "sennon" clarify and teach). 5(:(7)=F~I:liiJ't. and ~~ settoku "persuasion" (lit. Motto teki ni matomete kudasai. leading cle. m~~(7)~IYH:.J: ~ U~A(7)1J n{~ It' I:. chichi no shujutsu ni wa kiken-sei ga tomonau to iu koto desu According to the attending physician." < t: ~ v'o li~~1Jilril? ~ t -tt Ivo b"? t ~~B9I: t !::." illustrated above. speak and clarify).:o Ano kala wa. can say teiron. There ~as a strong r~action.~I±V) 7:> v) 7:> il? ~ t Tilf.iilt) il? ~ t -tt Ivo NHK no nyUsu-Ja:!s~tsu.J: 1. Your thesis isn't persuasive.>1±~I: Ii.*"8(7)'::'.A1W~~ J? -rv) 1.-3-7· 71AX(7)T~'Y ~1:~T1. There are all sorts of theories regarding the origin of the language. but there does not appear to be any generally ed one. 31. .:z. Nihon-go no kigen-setsu wa iroiro arimasu ga. Instead of teisetsu. -? Ivtl::t35(: ~ 1v~~1~ L -r. ~1!I*~jgiJ' I? ~.>t.J:? -e+. iru no wa. 28. "1J(7)~JtI: Anata no ronbun ni wa settoku-ryoku ga arimasen. ~~ tv'? t (7)Ii ." setsu is found in kaisetsu "commentary. For twenty years he was an editorialist for the Asahi Shimbun. temporary view). Please organize it more logically. nijii-nenkan asahi shinbun no ronsetsu-i'in deshita.::t3~fX~ ~iI'~ it t L Haha kara boifurendo no koto de mata osekkyo 0 I had to listen to another lecture from my mother today about boyfriend. tabako 0 yamesasemasnm Kaori persuaded her father to give up smoking.mv) oc3fiiJril? ~ t L t. In the sense of "speak" or "elucidate." and 1±~ shasetsu "leading article.22 Ideas and Theories Ideas and Theories 23 "explanation" (lit. 7' /'\::1 ~ ·N') ~-ttt Kaori-chan wa otiisan 0 settoku shite. for example.~ttil{# v'? . 2o~rdl~8*'f~(7)~~~~"t" Lt. 8 *~(7)~iW. il?(7)1ili. 29. iB:iI' I?. there is a high degree of in my father's operation.o~ite. gakusetsu "(learned) theory." and ~~ teisetsu "(widely) cepted theory.:o Kayo-bi no nyuyoku-taimuzu no chibetto ni kansuru shasetsu ni wa.

shugi "-ism" is indispensable. We begin with three compound-formants: :E~ shugi "prin~iple.:E~ SHUor *- ~T~~ ~~ Jt1l. :E#.." Suchphilosophical relativism seems to offer a certain universal appeal." The literal meaning of the compound might p atned as "guiding cause." it may be wise to walk armed with an adequate vocabulary.. ran~g from.-'E~ (riso-shugi) idealism (principle-idea-ism) 25 ." and i* ha "faction. Ism ." :ttb~ Principle." ~ kyo "teaching.~ (mathOmu-shugz) "family-flrst-1sm.-isrn. to both pre-Socratic sophists (WB1f-* kiben-kay and modern multiculturalists (~5f. sect.. We then move on to more tradiIlonal.".O)* Ko no kusuri wa otsu no doku "What is medicine to A may be poison for B.*OO:E~ (t~ikoku-~hugi) "~pe_ Th' rn t~" l' 1. a coinage of the Meiji-era glish "lS~ F~Chi Gen'ichir6 as a translation for (Latinate) Enbe ex f?-ncIPle.l ~~ (r~kuten-shugi) optimism (pleasant-heaven-ism) (hzkan-shugi) pessimism (sad-view-ism) .3:. mOde~ language.Jt1t~~ tagen-bunka-ronsha).CHAPTER II Philosophy and Religion The English proverb "One man's meat is another man's poison" is served up in Japanese as Ej3O)!tlil. Thus.. whether you believe in the "marketplace of ideas" or the "battlefield of ideologies. if riali! ~pervaslve.is relatively new." with IllUstrationslargely from the "international" world that Japan has known since the Meiji era." jou~~asl-suffix .speCifically "Japanese" terms..

teikoku-shugi wa shihon-shugi no saigo na kai da s6 desu.:E~ is more common than ron: tw:~3::~ ~jt3::~ ism) (hakuai-shugi) altruism (broad-love-ism) (saishoku-shugi) vegetarianism (vegetable-eating(kairaku-shugi) hedonism (delight-pleasure-ism) (kojin-shugi) individualism (single-person-ism) (riko-shugiy 5.r. Professor Becker may make a lot of cynical remarks. t "edit. but Pro :ntly he edited a book about German metaphysics." to prepare a completed manuscript for publication) ~":::::'ii: II.f'. /' I: J: 1. musukashii desu ne. kariforunia ni ryugaku shite. isn't it? ". S' of .)v~ff:IiE (arukiiru-izon-sho). ~ ron (see Chapter 1) may also be used: idealism (viewing-thought-ism.:E~~ Bekkd-sensei wa hiniku na koto 0 yoku osshaimasu ga. Originally a Buddhist .ane as an approximation of the Greek term.~'± -( of I) Like sh . -go~~).:E~J tlR~UT7. Distinguishing"individualism" and "egoism" is difficult. O)ft~~~/~~~O).o "Kojin-shugt" to "riko-shugt' 0 kubetsu suru koto wa. a stubborn idealist. in fact. baptism (?$ttL senrei). saikin doitsu no keiji-jo-gaku ni tsuite no hon san shimashita.J.-." Worship and Teachings capitalism. ~Wf.gaku' metaphysics (beyond-form-study). is an example of compound given a new meaning.r'*\:TiJ{. The word an old gIon" (*~ shiiky6). the neighborhood butcher's daughter. "language law": '7 7' /'~~g.n to' use "metaphysical" in the sense of "abstruse.99 chUshO-teki "abstract.~mO)~~~~~~. dokomade mo risii-shugisha da to omoimasu..fl}. coined by l!!jJj!ij for" li ..~L-C. ht. plagiarism (~f'F tosaku. ism) martinetism (strict-punishment- c' ." the Japanese are more ~~ to say 1JlI:3I.26 Philosophy and Religion Philosophy and Religion 27 7&il3::~ ism) (ro( 0 )man-shugi) romanticism (wander-ramble_ f or Watanabe is an authority on the English empiricists.:E~O). "' Despite the clever jeu de mots seen in the choice of ters here for "romanticism." are treated in more in Chapter 3.> WOO3::~'j:jt_*.:. -ism is translated as ~IH! ( ..!Wi3::~ (keiken-shugi) empiricism (experience-ism) ~ff3::~ (jitsuum-shugis existentialism (actual-existenceism) ..:o A 0 'j'g'~ tetsugaku "philosophy" ("study Nis~l~m") is a Meiji-era loan translation. stealmgw~rks): Used in a linguistic sense. igirisu no keiken-shugisha/ironsha no ka desu ga.t \: 'b ~!!!J~ t: c . j:~ shugi is commonly used to derive new expressions. 2.t To . e. c. MXi1l=E~(genbatsu-shugi) 1*.. e. went off to California to study and wound up a vegetarian.sm (iI~* saimin-jutsu). jt3::~~'': ~? -c L i v' i L tc.( A romanchishizumu..>':'C. lit. on the other hand. hyp~otJ." the more common term today ~ /' T ~ .3::~ (kanri-shugi) managerialism 1i:~~-3::~ tanzen-dai'ichi-shugiv safety-first-ism iR:~3::~ MA3::~ fU~3::~ egoism (profit-self-ism) Compounds of a more specifically political nature.~MO)." ~mt~$ eigo-goho "Anglicism.:E~ r1lA:E~J c rfIjC:.f&O)~~t':'. imperialism is supposed to be the last stage To 7.. . i. Note that for the three. 7J~7*~=7~.I: Renin ni yoru to. Yumiko. -{ 'JO)%ffij_t~*':-::>It'-CO)*HIiil~h_ i Lt.. It' . Where theory shades into ideology or life style. Note that whereas In English It IS • keIJl-J. jissai n.w. saishoku-shugisha ni natte shimaimashita.::.~'±&:~7'd:':' c t J: < J3? L -? It'.Lv'\:T:tJ." h Ysuru: to edit in the sense of arrange and annotate an author's works (cf.g. Nor is it used in the. . i!NI$'f.j:. I) r 3::~ (erito-shugi) elitism ~l1... Kinjo no seiniku-ten no yumiko-san wa. as [German] school of philosophy) ~.t TiJ{. 3. According to Lenin.g. .sense of action or activity.$ raten-go-gohii 'Latmlsm. rno-Japanese fjc KYO Watanabe-sensei wa.:E~ zentai-shugi "totalitarianism. 3::~ maihomu-shugi above: . Ugl. Note that shugi is not used to describe physical or psycholog~cal ailments such as astigmatism (\!iLm ranshi) or alcoholism 7)v:J . but I think is. ~ '/ 7J -$'f. (kannen-shugi) 4 1a~. such as "'< -( *.

--\' lE~ tgirisha-seikyo) Greek Orthodoxy *'f~ ishinkyo) Protestantism ~ .~ (bukkyo) Buddhism ff1<i¥t (hailw-kyo) Zoroastrianism ./~ (morumon-kyih Mormonism To substitute -ist for -ism.:o < Ii. (uyoku) "right wing" 'Pi1!." "infidel.:: ~ . people-eating practice). 8. sadism. sadizumu (sadisuto). later it was used as the equivalent of English gion.28 Philosophy and Religion Philosophy and Religion 29 term. with their noted tendency toward philosophical religious eclecticism [:tJT~±~ setchii-shugi "submi middle-ism"].: tf.It1C1t though again typically in an Occidental context.:AAt.t -) ~'o Chiigoku no dokyo to nihon no zenshii wa dO iu kankei ga aru no desha ka What is the relationship between Chinese Taoism and Japanese Zen? 9. (shfa-ha) Shiisrn (Shiites) (u-ha) the Right.:t. (sayoku) "left wing" im.) 6. and J!l~i* (koten-ha) classicism o? /(7Jltit)iIR(roman-ha) romanticism *~(shiiha) (religious) sect..fi. ~Ii t) 77- I) :IJ "t"~ tt -to "follower. ft.iE-Cli~ t) i-tt/vo Misshon-sukiiru 0 sotsugyo shita musume-tachi wa senrei 0 mashita ga./ A -~ (hinzii-kyO) Hinduism -1 A 7 A~ (isuramu-kyih Islam or [!j]~ kaikyo :. ~ ':J:"-3 Factions and Sects YmHA sc oots. 0) Ill.1lt..f I) :. appears in the names of most though the word for the native religion of Japan is an exception: Shinto f$~ "the way of the gods. watashi jishin wa kirisuto-kyiito de wa My daughters were graduated from a mission school and were t.~ (kirisuto-kyO) Christianity 1J I.. in America.Ei!4'li=\. generally suggests a or Islamic perspective.ifOO~~~c 8 *~:tlii*'i c"-) Ii' -) mJi*~r~ ~ ~-c L .. cf. in turn. factions. kins_uto-kyo ya bukkyo no yo m shukyo to yobu beki ka dO ka wakarimasen." on the other hand.feminizumu (jeminisuto). one adds .::L rized." ~~(1.tL~~Wi L. Note that such terms as nudism..-l) A 1-~1. Christianity was described as $~ "evil (perverse) religion./ A -~tt I.t." on the other hand." . yahari amerika de tanjo shimashita.r{ ~ iJ'~' -) ~'~~~ t) ~ -It Iv.f I) A I. _ Rinri ya shalwi no m?nd. English "pagan.~rP. =\'-0~1-~~a~~: Kirisuto-kyii kara bunri shita shin-shukyo no oku. "alien (-ist). to be a religion in the sameway that Christianity and Buddhism are. and feminism tend to appear as loanwords: niidizumu (nUdisuto).-. ~ .!l o_chushm nz s~rnJu!5Y0 0.: ~ (sunni-ha) Sunnism (Sunnis) £' 7im. the fine distinction between pagans and is easily lost." religious dissenters are described as ~tjjij~ itan-sha "h. wa.(sa-ha) the Left.f I) A 7. lit. which focuses on ethical and social questions. Kanibarizumu "cannibalism. cf..:*'f*~O)~ !t L. but I myself am not a Christian.y -\' ~ (yudaya-kyo) Judaism :ii~ (dokyo) Taoism f1I~ (jukyo) Confucianism ~ -\' -1 T~ (jaina-kyoi Jainism 1.7' ~ (shlku-kyO) Sikhism -t IV-t. (chiid6-ha) moderate faction .as one might expect.iE) ikyo( -to). ~ I:*~ C iJ!f<~.! _ . cf. •• ~tl*~~m~~~~~~~~~. . so that for Japanese. 1 -t I) A I-~~' G5Hl Lt. ." ~ kyo. scb (im) is used to describe a variety of sects. I don't know whether one should consider Confucianism.lii$l.WI hitokui no fUshu (lit.. may be more familiar in its Japanese form: Art 1. it first meant "worship and teachings" or "the lealCtlUll!lj worship".~tt tkirisuto-kyoto) (hinzii-kyoto) Christian Hindu In the Edo period. Many of the new religions that are offshoots of Christianity originated.l.I) "I 7' ~ (katorikku-kyoy Catholicism . denomination ~~i* (insh6-ha) impressionism /A7-lv~$~Lt.

(J) ~.ashl tet~ugaku "(my) philosophy. fL. 17/'CJi?-C 1771:liA/.'f -I? *~W"l?tt. but se my hil . ' S/u)kka .. iran de mo iraku de mo tasii 0 imasu ga... iraku ni wa sunni-ha no shinja -t -J "('T 0 oi so desu.rC:t 17 7"t't~~!('bs It'iTiI~.Cartesians )v 'f1 . 11. More natural is IJZ .~i* (kyushin-ha) radical reformists ~ilti* (kageki-ha) extremists ~a '. . one ear~ personal views of life being referred to as (f.0 C i' Walashi 110 ~ '. club pr?prietor may speak of his "body-building philosophy." ~t c el na kokoro "calm spint. Shiites are the majority in both Iran and Iraq. bunch (often derogatory) ~ (ha) is combined with $ (gaku) "study.. * renchii: set." (from the Analects of ConW ' .~ght r~fer to such in Japanese by the less loftysoundmg .:·t 0 ~i* 13. I::i!tm ~ ri. A~ ." Whereas a Southern California fitnes~." but if you want to say "My phiSOttP has always been to avoid between-meal snacks" it is y be er to s . lit.:o Daigaku-in ni hairu mae wa.LJ. you should say '~~i* kaigi-ha "hold-in-doubt faction. way of thinking.~ I: 7j:0 "t' L J: -) OYObaza. insho-ha ga arimasen deshita. a. one.~B9~:J! -0'0 kaigi-teki ni mite iru "[I] take a skepticalview. so that while you may think you are being wittily ironic.:.(7) A1:. the Japanese may judge you as merely~:I&~ ijiwaru "mean and perverse. fle h-tearing).=-~(7)1§~b lsuramu-kyii no shw-ha wa." but if youmerely wish to say that you are "skeptical" about a particular idea or proposal.t::: n. at least colloquially..oti~e~bly fond of ironyis Sl~~ hiniku-ya skin-flesh-person. IJZlWtt. *i5fiij r~~·t.~nset-kan o"iim. -logy" for names of schools or sects of philosophy: general term for.(7)~-VA'7J-71N"('To Kanto-gakuha no kannen-ron-shugi 0 igirisu de hirometa sukottorando-umare no tiimasu kiirairu desu. .!su to. ~ekkyoku "sugitaru wa nao I suppo ga sotoshi to IU koto nI naru desho. no The (political) extremists who punched and kicked an old ~an front of the railway station have been arrested by the police." which.*iI~~ ~ i .l.-~~itt.:o'i~~lHt'~'oil".:(7)I±." N~ tetsugaku is not used in quite the same broad sense as English "p!ill0sophy. 1 A7 A~(7)~-7~li.. 7J. it might be mentioned that the Japanese in general seem less inclined than Westerners to appreciate sarcasm. no It was the Scotsman Thomas Carlyle who disseminated idealism in Britian.J .:f .30 Philosophy and Religion Philosopby and Religion 31 1:liI:"i'i*hoshu-ha) conservatives ( i!!c1t.'-~$~(7)~~~::Ut"i'1. ~ ~(7)'f:iI{l." along with 10 h Iuuei-kan life view. Hiniku has come to be used in the general sense of "irony.(" t.~ (kanto-gakuha) Kantians 14.:i* (kaikaku-ha) reformists ~. heis ~anese smacks of translationese. I wasn't particularly interested the impressionist painters.:~~~(7)J~UP"I±. i L tz.0)]1[ bodibiru no michi ("way") Recentl h . ." b may speak of "th~ years that bring the philoIeishl1l in Ja ut to speak of Tff~B97j:tr'ff$ tetsugaku-teki na .. The word "cynic. n m mono 0 tabenai no ga watashi no hoshin (= policy) ~. no gaka ni wa amari Before I entered graduate school.(wat. "'n~~(7)OO*I:li~ i ~lJl. Eki no mae de rojin 0 naguttari kettari shita kageki-ha wa. 17 .") In referring to the Skeptics as a Greek school of philosophy.olltrli. ay Simply: jtra~ I: >b 0) i' jtX::7j: It' 0) ilftJ"O):Jjjt"t'T desu.:k:$II3H:).' ~EjIt'iTt." (On a cross-cultural note. sarcasm (from Greek. is kenju-gakuha "Cynics" (lit.i* (torotsukl-ha) Trotskyists 10.i1J < tt? -c t. but unlike Iran. iran to chigatte.. the golden mean) ordsworth ~hi~ mind..~/~It' i'*? '(p i T gimon/utagai 0 motte imasu "[I] have questions/ doubts" than .. it is more common to say ~r. cynic~l ~erson or one ~.-~i* (puraton-gakuha) Platonists T 7J ~ ~i* (dekaruto-gakuha).:fl) A"('Jt~t.j'< T -(. has many Sunnis as welL 12.~{.111 i'= LJb.. ~(7)lltr"('~Ai'~? t: ~l'£t?t: ~ Lt. keisatsu ni taiho saremashita. can mean "(personal)policy. 7." when used as an historical tenn to the "dog-like" school of Greek philosophy.(.O! "17 1. dog Confucian school). the arne P oso~hy of life comes down to "Going too far is lucius' cr ~ not g?mg far enough. orace s aurea mediocritas.

novitiate." Literally "other-power-original vow. 6jo to go to be reborn) . to die standing. It' iTo g warut to IU yori yahari zense no go darii to omoimasu.1tHt. isha ni narimashita. secular world.tnl± it. WheneverKazuko gets into a jam. In a modern sense. In popular usage. life of prostitution 1IiI. (chlkushi5) bestial (form of) life. The dictionary will tell you that sezoku-ka means zation. B * Traditional Japanese Philosophical and Religious Terminology 0){i. passing through the appears to be more common.11~dJ{<fJ t) i -It Ivo ImO~o oya kara issen mo morawazu wa. ways).sezoku was a Buddhist term.ense) .nm' g. (<. renn w~se vow it is to save all. 1311 jiriki "self-power" is the logical opposite of the tariki concept. ~'R ( . . Japan may be a largely (this-worldly) society. last stand (lit.6~ Sore wa u~ a ~.pls:]j{ tariki-hongan "reliance on help.I'm not going to help her. lit.J tsiizoku-teki (lit."(bWJlt~It'-::>bt)'t"To ~Jtlilt'< t:>ttx. though lmftl-I¥.. prevlOUS existence .:~IiIt'-::>b1t!!1J*»Ji't"To . the mundane. .32 Philosophy and Religion Philosophy and Religion 33 Ii III t) i -It Ivo Toshi 0 tori kami no ke ga usuku natte mo. My. heisei na kokom . Even more than the West. i.e." include: 1t!!:t. referring division between the monastic and the mundane. of this world). 't1f~ffl~! NIHON NO DENTOSHUKYO • TETSUGAKU YOGO Kawko-san wa komatta toki wa itsumo tariki-hongan desu.J~':' t I:~ < Jl!. moke ya shusse to itta sezoku-teki na koto ni mattaku arimasen. erection of a temple/shrine/tombstone (ta hi _.J~Vt 't".:o jl.*'A:B9*ft . the tends to have a negative connotatIon.~ t ~'-? J:: ~ ~ Ii IJ iWilt(7)~t. however. Originally. as with English "mundane" (lit. sentient be~gs. . Advancing age and thinning hair will not necessarily give during serenity. ._) . damn! 19 I l!!. iltftl. 17 ~~~lvli~·:d.w.sezoku (lit. 0 naIl to the concept of salvation by faith in the Amida Buddha. It. This time no matter how much she babies up to me.. Nomura is an extremely spiritually minded person who interest in mundane matters such as material wealth or climbing.. ~ tj'_ nature.. J:.... mentality. but more commonly the term refers to the tion of an institution or custom once limited to other elite circles. apprenticesh'ip ."&I. and the contrast with ~!tl1J dokuryoku. Other Buddhist expressions.~ (gokuraku) Buddhist paradise I (go) karma. which is typical of suchBuddhist terms. ~er go readings are: examples of words originating in Buddhism with full It!!\\t (jigoku) hell t@. "lonepower.: 0 -? t. C I-OjO stalling. Furthermore. We begin with iltftl. tenacity [ko njo] rr (shugyo) tr~. many of them similarly larized. 16. . AJ '_ n:tt~ _ l1: ku~al) world of suffering. iltftl-1¥1 teki is also used in a cultural sense. it refers to the general many societies today toward de sacralization.youngersister became a doctor quite on her own. as illustrated in the following of words and idioms. deeds committed in a previous existence 1ln: (konryu) founding. ~b -? It-? It'? t.. Mr. Note the go reading of 1J as riki. ~ (konjo) this (fleeting) world [kornjo] 1: (goshO) afterlife m11 (konjO' diSPOSitlOn.tp G -j:l b b t:> bi' I: i31J 't" (~!tl1J't") ~:1rI: ~ ~ i ni jiriki de (dokuryoku de) Nomura-san wa kiwamete seishin(-shugi)-teki na hito de. lff#~ Iv Ii ~ b<l6-C*'fl$(:t~)I¥." 18. she always expects others to bail her out.:iltftl-I¥. tsuzukerareru to wa kagirimasen. "unrefined. without tak109 a penny from our parents. Everyday Japanese conversation is theless replete with expressions reflecting Japan's '_~"'OV'_ philosophical traditions..?tL. Kondo wa ikura amaeyo to shite mo tasukenai tsumori desu." this refers or parua.

" An unhappy rel~tJonship that somehow cannot be broken is vividly described as a. It has long been Miyamoto's fervent hope to be reunited girl he first fell in love with while a student at universrry- < t. You will hear older women say ~~~ as in the following: t. One can by no means say that "insularity" is limited to J ~11.) nenbutsu (suru) refers (literally) to prayer to Buddha." and :P}~ saien "remarriage. trains are now snowbound. 24. . he may say ~~ilf~v' engi ga warui. $J1( jama erenc" d U' IIlagicbot e ~ IJllLi:t~ mahii-bin "large thermos bottle" lit. :Km:~~~ L. as in ~Q)1lf yukan no mono "a relative. 1..) nengan (suru) has the vaguer ing of "earnestly pray.1h t. -len oJll11ut. however.:Q) 1. which. t~ t~~·l." J. t.1:.. T ~.) the more scientific equivalent of mushi Iv Iv r~oomttJ 23. '8+.._ . 22.r~~~~ danna "master. >b~n . -r. *~~ftQ):fJJ~Q)A'::::P}~T If poor Miyamoto should break a leg on his way to meeting.::e oh~nna-san wa. As fate would have it. dOkyu-sei no imoto to kekkon shimashita.z". the Sino-Japanese reading IS used: *~tJJ~ en-kin' ." ~e natrve Japanese reading of ~ is yukari. lit..1:§"H::: < v'ilf. (!fl.1~~t': ii' I?. but the factthathe tried to seduce my wife is not irrelevant.: L 1: L "'. . fIilX&~Q)1l*t *EMr L 1: L tz. nani ka no innen kamo shiremasen: Ibelieveit was fate that Miyamoto met up again with Yukari the first love of his life. 1: [iiJlli) daruma "Bodhidharma. 8 hus _B~ ~o.mcn~ kusare-en "rancid relationship." I*J~ naien "common-law marriage.~ v' 't' Gosho da kara. osake 0 nomisuginai de kudasai.111=B Q)~~'t'.(T J. at last year's entomology society mee~g. t I. . For the love of mercy.." cf.: J. that unlucky or that the undertaking was ill-omened from the ning. 21. (as either a polite way ~r lion) .1:. YllnJiko._ Kare to en 0 kitta riyii wa iinikui go. ~ en is used by itself in the sense of "(karmic) ship. densha ga tachi-ojo shite imasu. as can be seen in such combinations as ~~ endan "marriage proposal. 26.: ii' I? It's hard for me to say why I ended my friendship with him. while ~1i(T J. allure. os husband b IlliddJe age.EI3I." When such ties are cut.:. I!I~ innen.e.¢{M~Q)~ftJE"f':.. fate. wish. excuse me Ii . entice. hope for." I~ .. 25. donna-san "(your. "IP1ft~. her) reli~~ "IS ongmalIy fro~ Sanskrit danapati "(rich) patron of J~ .I:~ i ~ "Shimaguni-konjo" wa. En ga atte.iI{JL. chiinen ni natte kara daruma no yo n s smatia.:JJ. (Other Sanskrit elements which have entered se "m' terf Via Chinese include J1( ma "demon" [cf. seduce goshii cia 2o.'divorce.ff. Because of yesterday's blizzard. I married the younger sister of a of mine in school. a person with whom one has some SOrt?f~es.:~ v'o ~ t *:4=-Q). we find an "extra" n at ginning of the second element.t. daruma """-":t an.~~'t':P}~ LJ.. fiiJ.'::' t ilf8*~Q)*$ To Daigaku-jidai no hatsukoi no hito ni saikai suru koto go moto-kun no naganen no nengan desu.tE~L -r v' 1: To Kino no fubuki de.¢'Q)~~iI' • konchii (swarm + insect): an insect/insects.rien '. kesshite nihon-jin ni kagirarete iru ienai.Ht o Miyanwto ga hatsukoi no yukari-chan to kyonen no konchii-gakkai de saikai shita no wa.ye or an apology for an interruption or disrup- \' 1IInik' .l.g. i::l7lll~~.s ? t. J: "} . as op~~o~~~~ n~~t:~Q)~e~Iv~. I~ 0 JIIease ltashimashita.1:Q)J:1~~ 0 nilUt:. please don't drink too much. • yiiMIob<: to tempt. "cause and . free society [e." cf. t t~-l*~v':blT't'I.I:~v'o . ecame fat as a daruma doll when he reached 28'~~~lll7 Ttl. *Ufif) '? Not surprisingly. ~ en is commonly used in association with marriage.$. for phonological reason~. ~~~~?-r~1?~J.::. ~f saYinggOOd having disturbed you. ~~ shaba "this world. ttt L -r B *A':~ll? n -rv' J. 'II!. nyobo 0 yawaku* shcyo koto to kankei nai wake de wa nai. (doll]" ~e). i.34 Philosophy and Religion Philosophy and Religion 35 I believe it's not so much a matter of bad luck as the result deeds from a previous existence..

the historical Buddha. and rebirth-is ~~ nehan. cf.1L.!W-"t"T ° Shaba wa dose kugai desu. Combinations with butsu include the following: 1M~ (butsuzo) Buddhist statue *'IL." (ct..36 Philosophy and Religion 29.t c·-)1t.~*2d.g.7. WOrd for "h ".Jl. Altaic language.R_ ame/ama-.!FiIliiJ5*~t1L Namu Amida Butsu Hail Amida Buddha! thatfotsu.1L~tl. ho_toke(-sama) often refers to anyone who has recently died.l{1Lo (A Japanese proverb) Shiranu ga hotoke. an older form of which is the for nghsh "bo " B ddhi referred to as ' n:e. but he IJ OfJ r. or ObVious th resSIons of Shintoist origin are far less pervaliere are an those deriving from Japan's Buddhist traold provided a few examples.se is.... may be heard to say: ' 36.p I? 6l1.:* ° I: Sengo no konran no naka de.X "1' fotsu-bungaku "French literature. perceptive. lit.ltt. litlGf& O)litiSLO) q:t "t"..J Words and exp' . -biizu da wa.>C1PJ[!jJ'b~*Lt. pnest who will preside at the Buddhist funeral of the sour~ IS . lit. 33. . the world is nothing but a vale of 30. specifically to the remains. O):!ij 'b 1M: t. tum into an 35." Kenkyusha's New JaJ'Jar!eSt~-l!I'I& Dictionary offers the following example: Butsuda wa bodai-ju no shita ni suwatte satori 0 hirakaretaGautama sat under a banyan tree and experienced spiritual ening.C1t LJ. A policeman at least of the TV variety. Until my grandfather died. death.ud~.:E mikka-':ozu. i:> t:.. uchi ni wa butsudan ga arimasen deshita.'" ~ A. Another word for "B. So he s finally met his maker? The Sino-Japanese term for nirvana-the state of only from kugai but also from :ttMm rinne (Sanskrit SUI1Ll'UTULI endless cycle of birth.i' Kore ~e toto ano otoko rna hotoke ni natta to iu wake°ka. of course.:o Butsuda. I: 1.t'i5' W.) In a profaner ~ense. O)iitl. Ignorance is bliss. we didn't have a Buddhist altar in our house. tAli 7 I~:J r.t!b ~ 37. three-day bonze.. refers now exclusiveTheanc~.t1Lt..t! derived from the verb 't! 1. as T'f' Ama-terasu-o-mikanu "heaven-illumi- ..:.. e Icicle and weak-wIlled. i ~ .> (jt 1.~~I." vieti . Combmatlons WIth bozu invery 'hort) 'J bo~-atan:a. V . Buddhahood t. 11. hair cropped (erring to z: 8 ~.00 (butsuga) Buddhist painting 'IL.t~O) 1-9> ~oJ (IJZ*~mD "Shaba no eiga wa yume no yume.~ (butsugu-ya) Buddhist (altar) article shop ii!t.:til{ ~. -) b 1t1. masa ni kono yo wa kugai to The chaotic aftermath of the war turned the normal misery world into genuine hell. =..:t bozu.o ~ A. 32..t -s t: CIt. I) i -tt A. (daibutsu) greatstatue of the Buddha :01L. more commonly understood Japanese word in this popularized in English through interest in Ze~." (From The Tale of the "The glory of this world is but a dream of a dream.: n 1" c -)c -)if.>i "t". to Gautama.ofEcouc:>e. with their easily broken Iy I~~ tb ~ ·<!:"~~1. eaven in Ja~ane.l'nt. llaJne of :R. "t" L tz.ronused to quit smoking many times.kanreading of 11.. the known Latin dictum Sic transit gloria mundi!) 1:11.f0)~mmO)rl:11jh -Cot! I) ~1m1. bonze head (i.t. r~~O)$IHi'H. itsu:/o y~ t<_! nankai rna yakusoku shita koto ga Y hUsband h m. (Lit.liJfif. reresolUtions. adjective satoi "clever. e." parently an older borrowing VIa also written 11.ijobutsu) Nirvana. ap- * 31. i~ . is hotoke. L. u I~t p~ests ~re usually elude' tJi.·':'C"'f-l:.(butsugu) Buddhist (altar) articles 1L.Jl. Ojiisanga nakunaru made. the"".e. a :tJj.t !Jill Wa tabako ° Qrukedo.. (butsuji) Buddhist memorial service 'IMI (butsudan) Buddhist family altar 'IL.' SItu"~:::8+-r'~J 3:. c.(nenbutsu) prayer to the Buddha 34. (sekibutsu) stone Buddha 'IL. '" ka-suru: to be transformed into.>) satoru. another Indic word borrowed through refers.. When you come down to it.. j. jfjP... Ilever lasts I~~. obo-san. Not to know is to be a Buddha.iJfC < t.t 1.

a mark of an intelligentcosmopolite (tit~A sekai-jin or OO~A kokusai-jin) is the ability to understand and discuss the workings of the bodypolitic (OO~ kokusei).Zitl* (seiji-ka) politician iI. ~4 tj:3€)ji~.g.~ ama-kudari.RT. Visitors to a Shinto shrine. then moves on to vocabulary used more specifically to describe the Japanese system of government.Z~ (seiken) political power 39 . nng to high-level government bureaucrats retiring to high-paying positions in private industry. Co ch ~ITS~ meant "make straight". Ningen wa honrai seiji-teki-dobutsu de aru "Human bemgs are by nature political creatures. both nationally and internationally.<h 7. If Aristotle had been Japanese." The idea itself has an echo in sayings in many cultures languages." Thus. "no constancy.1." the sun deity whose Ninigi no Mikoto descends to earth to found Japan." referring to the transitory of all things.:. the Grand Shrines of ~*1$8 Ise Dai-Jingii). " "The sound of the Gion temple bell echoes the i'j jJ1~nrlan~~1lIlI n all things. lit. This chapter begins with basic political concepts. also used in a secularized is i:>B Jl t lil'. CHAPTER III Politics and Government t*¥)'Z' 8*~H'T7.38 Philosophy and Religion nating-great-revered-goddess.0 ga keizai-enjo 0 motomete Anthropos Various developing countries make their way to Japan in economic aid. lit. while the sagacious foreigner should be prudent (Jll'L'~\t) yojin-bukai) in expressing his or her personal political views (~ji!. but the specific term is perhaps best known familiar words that begin -'¥*~~! Heike monogatari or Tale of the Heike. widely known in Japanese more or less literal translation: 7J~V1EijIi Banbutsu-rutt'' things flow and tum. Government i& SEI Theold native Japanese term for "government" is matsuri-goto ~~). Those who find themselves making repeated such help may be described as doing i:>BJl~ ~ mairi "going back and forth one hundred times to worship pray). along with the new language.. he would have said: Aim 1±*:5IH!!:mB9J1J~-C. seiken).00i1{gmm:WJ Samazama na hatten-tojo-koku mode 0 suru.500 years ago. Finally. nothing is more representative of at least one nant theme in traditional Japanese religion and philosophy 1Wi1i\' mujii. as in the pre-Socratic philosopher famous dictum: panta rhei." has an extended." A similiar expression. The native word for such pilgrimages is ~~ W~~ hatsu-mode "first (New Year's) shrine visit. r*~~~O)~(7:rfE'.Zitl (seijz) politics il.:." w~o-Japanese ~ sei comes from Anci~nt Chinese c~i~ng. are called ~~~1!f sankei-sha in Japanese. A ously irreverent allusion to the myth is implied in the s~on . :me 1.zoon. an. ~tT1Wi1i\'O)tJl<h ~ J "Gion-shoja no kane no koe. secularized use: 38. shogyo-mujii no hibiki 0 physei politikon. e. Which Originally referred to the "worship of the gods. We conclude with terms useful to readers Wishing to know how to talk about the political system in their home countries. The concept is suggested in some of the above. a rernmder of the spirit of nfuClantsmthat entered Japan. coming down from heaven. the early thirteenth-century war also cited in example 30: 39.Hr ohyakudo 0 fumu "tread one hundred used metaphorically to describe repeated requests for favors. In the following are illustrated some of Compounds using the word." il.

=t.."".(~. Note that seiken can refer both to political and to individual governments in particular. Sort kindai igirisu de mottomo nagaku tsuzuita seiken desu.:¥ 1) A -z'}ji ~ ~ < *7t'" t. It is only to be expected that the opposition parties will oppose the finance bill ." * senkyo (choose + raise): election 2.("'o t hiion: a bill (before the legislature) An earlier pronunciation of i& is sho. I think there is very little chance Conservative Party will lose power.va desu.t.. (dokusai-shugi) despotism. ~O) B :<$:-z'I±. is::t~ shugi "-ism.:i!&*l-z't" 0 Satcha moto-shusho wa.{..v:"(. politicians think not of the distant future rather of the next election./ j..5Gtif.«*O)~~·O).J: 10 Yato ga sono zaisei-hOan ni hantai suru no wa. 6iff1t·nti'I1)MiB($~t~:1UtT~0)1±. sen-kyiihyaku-nanajiikyii-nen kara kyiihyaku-kyiijidchi-nen made seiken 0 nigitte imashita. however.va yUsei-shO tu tsutomete imashita.~ ~~ anotherw :It: :z:. t.:~1ltr-z'I.. Fonner Prime Minister Thatcher was in power from 1979 to It was the longest government in modem British history.40 Politics and Government Politics and Government 41 i&Jt (seitiJ) political party i&~ (seisaku) policy U (seifu) government OOi& (kokusei) government."'i I.r}.sessho no miya "Prince Regent. )!"'**-z'I±t.l(0)g. 4. . ~@) O)~~-z'. 1979iF.=tft (gunkoku-shugi) militarism ~::EftilJ d or -cum-suffix .i!&(gaisei) foreign (diplomatic) policy ~i!&~ (isei-sha) statesman (lit.:o i' nl±.'*iB(jffl~ Iv ~ ~01t ~ 0)1±:k~L't" 0 lma no nihon de wa." so 1 ustrated in the previous chapter." as in f!{i!. atarimae desha. ~t. yoi kasei-fu-san 0 mitsukeru no . • yato: opposition party/parties lppan-teki ni seiji-ka wa.:o . . ili:ft.. 1*«r1t*n~i!&*tH:'~ oJ ilJ~~ttIHl c Iv c't. S X:I. toi mirai de wa naku tsugi no senkyo koto shika kangaenai. dictatorship ~U:~~ (zentai-shugi) totalitarianism :~l'. -IT '. .i& (minsei) civilian government 1Ili& (gunsei) military government *flJi&1* (kyowa-seitai) republicanism ul:i&1* (rikken-seitai) constitutionalism .=ti&1* (rikken-kunshu-seitai) constitutional monarchy al ~re common.n' t. hoshu-to ga seiken 0 ushinau kano-sei hotondo nai to omoimasu.J. iB( sei is also used in the sense of "management": *i!& (kasei) housekeeping *i!&jffl( ~ Iv) (kasei-fu[-san)) tli!& (yusei) postal system Mi!& (zaisez) (public) finance housekeeper.ffl Ii. whose use is Ii'.l:tll. but it is now confmed exclusively to f!{iB( sessho "regency. In the upcoming election..... is IIJ1J(It) sei( do) "system": sys- !em) (k unshu-sel) monarchial system (prince-master . statecraft fTi& (gyosei) administration 1*Ji!& (naisei) domestic politics . In contemporary Japan.::E::E~ (minshu-shugi) democracy (people-master-ism) ~j:. it is very hard to find good domestic help.. Generally speaking. "'iTo Konkai no senkyo de.::c t. -~I¥J~:i!&m~W:. cleaning lady power in Ii'.=t~(shakai-shugi) (jiYii-shugi) (classical) liberalism socialism (kyosan-shugi) communism (common-property- Stiu-I!l. Chichi .I: . hoshu-ui (preserve-protect party): Conservative Party Forms of Government i&1* SEITAI Both if!{ sei and i!&1* seitai function scribing "forms of government": as suffixes for terms de- 3. 1991iF-i -z'i!&*l ~ ~ '? '(~ I.*~I:!IJJ. My father worked for the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications. doing-politics-person) 1.u:l:tt.

and Fisheries ilffi1!i (un 'yu-shO) Ministry of Transport tIi~1!i (yiisei-shO) Ministry of Posts and TelecommunicatIOns -:::>It' -c*w. . ?I: r~'1*±'!lOOJ cllf-~A(~il'c'?il'li. _f<tlJJl (gikai-seido) parliamentary it1lliIJIJJl (renpo-seidoy federalism 7. 19671j::ipG 19741j:: '* to omotmasen . rikken-kunshu-koku desu.JllIl'§!'H~:'§ tnaikaku-kanbii-chokan) retary tt. the birthplace of democracy..lil1t: (sangi'in) House of Councilors . nachisu-doitsu ya sutiirin no sobieto ni "zentai-shugi-koku" to yobu beki ka do ka wa.li.f (sori-fu) Prime Minister's Office 1O..<tDtUJl(kyowa-seido) system) 13.:o Nagata-sensei wa.' . Forestry.f 1:.. a one-party dictatorship 1beY OIl find that view too extreme? . kyowa-seitai to onaji de aru to wa The democratic form of government does not necessarily republican form of government.Ift~~~'§ (sori-fu-somu-chokan) the Prime Minister's Office 00~ (kokkai) the Diet Chief Cabinet SecDirector General of 12B*0)_~. wa.<fDi5c'1*cllilJ.' r1'J~7. say that Japan has.~"f1I-nlllh\Jn".J.yJ..Jwtawa. ~±'±'!l0)3E1¥ojfu*0).yIJ i Lt.:* _. """.. . '. in fact.'~"t"T 0 ~~* Sensii-chii no nihon 0. that kind of. and judicial: fTij:Jf.::"t". legisla- Eikoku ya nihon wa. Meiji-jidai ~~~ft~~lJiT~ ni sakanoborimasu- ~f. Britain and Japan are constitutional monarchies.J:.. Last week Professor Nagata gave a most informative Japan's feudal system.. -t"f7. ". i T ilf. -t-? ka ga.: ~ It' i Lt.t}ttUJlI: Nihon na gikai-seido §JtlJ1!i (rodo-shO) Ministry of Labor 1l~1!i (kensetsu-shO) Ministry of Construction §W1!i(jichi-shO) Ministry of Home Affairs fl. 71<EB$t1:.:o I) ~ l' system onlo"" m .f (gyosei-fu) the Administration 9.ti~T~·J. Greece. Wshira: that. clillNlJ i-ttlvo i*lM (naikaku) the Cabinet Minshu-seitai wa.litlt*I:j:IO)B*~.~!Il~ilf..7'-1)/0)/.t'. feudal system constitutionalism republicanism tcomIllon-haJl11Ifti . c B b.J3t~. liS wa kyokutan-suglru 8* ._ jiinana-nen kara sen-kyiihyaku-nanajiiyo-nen arimashita. Ii. }L:1l~±'OO"t"T 0 tive. birthplace of the most important terms you need to know when discussing the workings of the three major branches of Japan's governing body-executive.J. it~1!i (Mmu-shol Ministry of Justice ~~1!i (gaimu-shO) Ministry of Foreign Affairs .42 Politics and Government Politics and Government 43 .kil1!i (okura-sho) Ministry of Finance )c$1!i (monbu-shO) Ministry of Education IJ~1!i (kOsei-shO) Ministry of Health and Welfare !U**~1!i (norin-suisan-shO) Ministry of Agriculture. *OO~ B *Ii. nl ~~I: _:R. such a .lJ. ilti t!~* L -Cit' J. lay under military 1967 to 1974. c.yJ. II. ups~'~' to go back in time.~ru:Wg parl r aroentary 0 system goes back to the Meiji era. ftl!\Jf.: ~ t..h.r. u_ ... soshita Lt.n.%"It'i-ttlvil'o. ya seiji-gakusha ga mada ronso shite iru mandai desu.. cradle. senshii nihon no hoken-seido ni tsuite benkyii ni naru kogi 0 nasaimashita.RjUIIU (tenno-seiy (Japan's) Emperor system ~ltjllUJ3t (hOken-seido) ing system) feudalism. :P. Whether wartime Japan should be characterized as "totalltaIlilll!i the same sense as Nazi Germany or the Soviet Stalin is an issue still being debated by historians and scientists. but don t Minshu-shugi no hassho-chi no girisha wa. $t~ B *O)f.~±'i5c'1*li..J. 8.. to trace to the past ~~tlJJl (kenpii-seidoi :P. Tbe Major Organs of Japan's B*(7)i8cffi~~ The following is a summary Governing Body NIHON NO SEUI-KEITAI * hassho-chi: will place wbere something first occurs. sai ni itto-dokusai ga aru to rwaremasu .:MJ5~1:t.

does not speak any foreign language. who was a member of the House of Representatives from Gunma Prefecture. automatically becomes prime minister.. C •• • .iE~'. Article 81) m t. In the House of Councilors. s~ikei-ha"keISIl: death sentence t )0.I:. residence. The president of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party.J f# '? -c It. ni sori ni narimasu.>!3~:}t Cl)Jt*in:'~fin 1:7j: IJ iTo 7.IM!f. and those who do have the inside probably limited to a handful of politicians. • Ihll ss hur: provenance.' I? It' It' 7. chosen party convention.: L "CIt' 1l' B *Cl)"i\iIi~ Amerjka 110 s ':-<::: 1l_:t. kisoku mata wa ~Il ~a kenpo_ni !ekig~ suru ka shinai ka 0 kettei suru kendai-h Ylhl . lfll'%..*~ Kanbo-chokan ga totsuzen jinin shita riyii wa mada natte imasen shi.il1li~*lr. * yolo: ruling party ~1t[. sore hodo . :J.JDJi.!}:}t*"'C'<h 7. kyonen no senkyo de rakusen shite shimaishlta. permanent (principal) occupauon. former 18.l\IJIUXli~?t-n~)i1:tf:~ o T J.. authority. tutianallek'go * uchimaku: "behind-the-scenes story" 17. ». '1b ae IJlILChz-jo) eSUpreme C .> . I onzed limits of) power. 0 'I$~}lI~Cl)~mfU'i. meirei. ~it~~ tlJ~'j:T~1 ~~t8 ~1~~*~*t.~~~~~~<. My cousin.>Cl)Ii. Kanagawa-ken no goto-satsujin-jiken kato masahiko wa. -f Cl)I*J. gaikoku-go gO semasen.t±l :!ltCl)~Jit n~1iiJ. insistmg on his innocence.. alma mater. (Nihonkoku-kenpo. Sum' be .J: ?o L.. influence governmeel Masahiko Kato.El1?i' I: 7j:'? "CI. issai no hiiritsu.in.:1t£li.A. ~)\+-~) ten 16. 7 .t~fiJPJTli.> n' L 7j:v'-n' ~ #:::iE l' 7. !3 j}J!'l9 cide c~se.A. sono uchimaku 0 shitte iru no wa.f L. authority be consti- liaku. formal bead of a parliamentary power.*~l.. t kenryoku: 15.tJJi:t L. **i±l:!lt·Cl)~t. * 21. the constitution.p/j· . Japan's prime minister does not wield power to the same do US presidents.. -tJ]Cl)itf.!-sho wa.'0: appeal appealed to the Supreme Yoto de aru jimin-to no to-taikai de erabareru sosai wa...f(i:~Ii. etc. I'iJ it (shiM) the Judiciary • il1li~*ljffl saiki5-saiban-sho) Supreme Court ( . 7~ I) 'jJ Cl)*~~*I3: c'fl:t. Mhon no saikii-saiban-sho wa. 10 conrorrruty With.. (saiko-sai-hanjii 14.:~E8li i t'::!J.J.s~:u shushin-saiban-sha de aru . ~ * daitoryo: de shikei-hanketsa 0 uketa shuchii shite saiko-saiban-sho ni president (of a republic. The newly appointed foreign minister. wazuka na seiji-ka ni kagirarete iru desho. geino-kai-shusshin no gi'in ga nannin gurai iru desho ka.44 Politics and Government Politics and Government 45 ~~~Ml~ (sangi'in-gichiij President of the House Councilors ~f£~MlJit tsangi'in-gi'ini Member of the House of Councilors ~Ml~ (shiigi'in) House of Representatives ~Ml~Ml~ (shugi'in-gicho) House Speaker ~f£~MlJit (shiigi'in-gi'in) Representative uate.:o t: '? t.> *~~~*iJm"'C' <h . The reason for the sudden resignation of the Chief Cabinet tary is still not clear..J. I?n"CIt'7.Jt~~'?'t -tt-Ivo Nihon no sori-daijin 19 ~I'&AA: I: Ii. Illine the c o~ ~s the.tutJo~ali~ of any law.il1li~(*ljffl)~.f.:ffi" 7.tc.~J ~D*OO)i1:t.>"'C'L. gf. regulation or offi• ker.it. amerika no daitiiryo hodo motte imasen. Kanagawa Prefecture.d i ~I]-:::> "CIt' 7. court of last resort with power to detercia! act" (ThstJ. _e Constitution of Japan.i L. ken po no kaishaku dake de wa hatashite'o m kans':llte mo kanari sekkyoku-teki na yakuwari 0 tmasu.i-tt-Ivo Todai-shusshin. order. place of birth.::I. ~~ j:JR L "Clli?i1li1llt*iJmf:.$14"'C'9EJfiJ*IJiR:*~1tltt.e.> L J: ? ( "'C' Stmgi'in ni wa. i.§ (saiko-sailban-shol-chokan) Chief of the Supreme Court . 13: 1vCl)i'iI' b Id: iI:5!. wa.Cl)~~~Jit l'i l. *~Cl)~*"'C'~~* L -c L i * rakusen: electoml defeat Justice B*Cl). kerrgell: (auth· '.f(i:JJ..$~.. '8m*'8-n~~~1i*t.t.. ~~MIf!. was defeated in the last election . a University of Tokyo ) 'jJ Cl) L~t~~IJ~ 'II'Er 1lltfnr B~.> fl~jt ~.'~*~'i. sentenced to death in an armed robbery and homi- . rippa~ o:--salba.'OO~iI{~-tt.#I~ shobsQlban-sho wa.. no shinnin-gaimu-daijin wa. . mujitsu j6so shimashua.t. how many members do you suppose originally were from the entertainment world? 20. agree with. 1 -tt-Iv ~ 0 0 22. Supreme Court Justice Gunma-ken no shiiin-gi'in dana itoko wa. Court.

t'" )v 7:J..Ii. iljl*"1l1m3fiff (hokk1:zido-okinawa-kaihatsu-chO) Hok. o .i. sen-kyiihyaku-gojugo-nen ni jiyii-to to minshu-tii ga awasatte kessei sareta hoshu-tii de. ~£(:mlt' J.yii-minshu-to wa. l.. ~1l.:{." which include: ~t7fij:ii .§!.'§ chOkan) are cabinet ters. ~h~*B*~4Jt~t'0 23..:.i-to has changed its English name from the "Japan Soci:llstparty" to the "Social Democratic Party of Japan.. (Note that the B*U~Jt this sh/Jkl1. sore irai nihon no yoto desu.~ It'o PI mel-to to ~Oka-gakkai to no kankei 0 setsumei shite kudasai. 0 marukusu-renin-shugi hitei . 9551f(:§Ei3Jtt B*.46 Politics and Government Politics and Government 47 kenryoku 0 motte imasen. Japan's Supreme Court does not wield such power. ~U~ur~1f.tt~to ~a. m TheLiberalDemocratic Party is a conservative party.:Ilff (k1:znkyo-chO)Environment Agency The heads of these agencies C.*mm.lf t·~l!EJ.g.b~ ":)"(**6 1 ~~h~*~Jt~.¥~HE!~ Kunai-chii wa.R:(yoto) party in power 1tR:(yatO) opposition party J. * sekkyoku-teki no yakuwari: activist role to the great majority of Japanese-and to be still in exisknOWUwhen book is published..JtJ t~~hit'o tanto shite imasu.lH~R: (nihon-kyosan-toy Japan Communist Party !j. ~e eXpl. ~B*li~Jt~.:l:5tli. kaido and Okinawa Development Agencies gi~l£Wiff (keizai-kikaku-choy Economic Planning Agency llJ.:l:~>d:'N~L "(It' J.~~ t off from the Japan Socialist Party in 1959. 24.~tl~*~t' 0 ni nihon-shakai-to 0 tk. The following is a list of those which are likely '''-IeYosa"-to ~7. but those of the following are not. kankyo-cho shite imasu. palaceinterior agency) 25. The US Supreme Court plays a rather activist role. The Social Democratic Party of Japan is often called the "permanent oppositionparty. born of the amalgamationof the Liberal Party and the Democratic Party in 1955and.a.~1T (:J/. 0lEJUt51~Ji~ (kOsei-torihiki-i'ink1:zi) Fair Trade CommiSsion ~H~~0'ti:~Ji~ (kokka-koan-i'inkaii National Public safety Commission ~~~~t~J1Iffi~~t (l)~1*i'm~ L"( < t!. :~~!. koshitsu ni kansuru jimu L "(It' it'o 0 Nilwn-shakai_to wa. ha: moderate faction Political parties in Japan are more numerous-and lesS lived-than in many of the other advanced industrial cies. Japanese Political Parties B*O)l&:R: NIHONNOSEITO 29 :m~cratic Socialist Party originated in a moderate faction .UR: minsha-toy B*. . 19591f(: B*U~Jt i'JmJt L t: f.§!.-n relationship between the Clean Government the arty (KomeHo) and Soka-gakkai. ga i teido tt.::. L"( It' it'o Kokuritsu-minamata-by6--kenkyu-sentii wa. not interpretation of the Constitution but also in the laws.:~~Jt7." The Imperial Household Agency is in charge of matters the Imperial Household. 8'F9ff1i. !3!il.. since then.") r.. combine t kessei: form The National Institute for the Minamata Disease is part of the vironment Agency.. ~.i.:l:Jt]}{~. • awasaru: to come together. Japan's ruling party.JiJf?E _. . 13 i1I~±'R: jiyu-minshu-to) Liberal Democratic Party ( B*f±~R: (nihon=shakai-tiiy Social Democratic Party of Japan ~1jIjR:kOmei-to) Clean Government Party ( ~±'1±~R: (minshu-shakai-toy Democratic Socialist Party (oftenabbreviated as .i1Wff (boei-cho) Defense Agency .: Under the authority of the ~:§[Ift sori-fu "Prime Office" are 1T chii "agencies" and ~~~ i'in-kai ' sions. sen-kyuhyaku-gojukyu-nen The 0 shita onken-ha desu. -e /' 7' ./-. / . lH~ff (keisatsu-chO) National Police Agency '8F9ff (kunai-choy Imperial Household Agency (lit.1\ ~dono-tl: Iv ~. tabitabi "mannen-yato'' to yobaremasu.

(pftJit) (son-gikai[-gi'in)) villageassembly(l"P. so I'm now going to the • fiurs nusu suru: mislay." cipalities are also grouped into W gun "districts" or fectures.r.(~l¥l) tchd-gikaii-gi'inj) town assembly tive) 1R~f.li~iAUII~!v1: lJ. ~~A1H!J<IDE~. ji.e. Tokyo). MurakaJ?i.e. wards.. and two Iff fu "municipal pretect1. Some terms.tJ~m.r_. we conclude with a selected It gikai h po tical instituti?ns ~d offices...iTo -r* Li -o t: Q) I: .. to local government. ~'1 '/fil~ doitsu-gikai to the German . suzuki-san ni narimashita. 11H!i:~(machi-yakuba) town office ff~~ (mura-yakuba) village office Q){kl. toky6-to-chiji wa minobeg san deshita. I: L tc. 30. consisting of forty-three J$_.. .. so that _the 7 ~ I) 7J ~~ _.f1. WhenI first came to Japan.e." one ~ do "province" (i.* ~!v I: ~ ~ i L tz.ltwr (yakusha) or ~!i (yakuba).I. tx: Local Japanese Administrative Bodies B*O)§ia1* NIHONNOnCffi-TAI ili~m (shi-yakusho) rl~m (ku-yakusho) ward office municipal office Jichi-tai literally means "self-governing body.1J~##* (yamazaki-mura-sonchoy Chief Yamazaki V Cities. Minobe was the governor of 31.(~l¥l) (ku-gikai[-gi'in)) ward assembly tative) Hmf." within which are lIlT cho "municipal districts.. (ken-chiji) governor (of any of the forty-three prefectures called ken) jg~$ (do-chiji) governor (of Hokkaido) (to-chiji) governor (of Tokyo) Iff~. Administrative offices for such purposes as the notification f deaths. misplace. No one knows to what extent the Japan Communist Party avowed Marxism-Leninism.48 Politics and Government Politics and Government 49 shite iru ka wa dare mo wakarimasen.J:.enuLU'''1 PlJmf.. there are administrative units.:II~\ *J?:tfI~. en registrauon cipal office certificate.:o -t 5t. shire shimatta no de. and 1A 7 . iJr - Mr." mmf. ml1IU· . uchi no kodomo-tachi ga kayotte ita shOgakkO no kiicho-sensei deshita. Y:fre. ken tures. ~ !vIi. ~IRIR* (minato-ku-kuchO) Minato Ward Chief J¥iPlJPlJ:llt (minami-machi-chochih Head of Minami ve lost my ali . Mr. Sengets~ no shi-gikai no senkyo de tiisen shita murakami-san wa." an administrative unit used in the smaller cities.. Suzuki. -J -t. one til tropolis" (i." a misleading term in Japan's highly centralized system.llIlm . Later came Mr. Kyoto and Osaka). ~.reseDllI"· OO~i&ia KOKUSAI-SEIJI non-Japan SYstem of th ~se ar~ often called upon to describe the political list of those elfli· Dative countries.l. )v~~ isuraeru-gikai to the Israeli As International Politics . Sano ato wa. e. was the principal of the primary school our childrenattended.) large cities are divided into IR ku "wards. (i.:tt . towns. lose .(~l¥l) (shi-gikai[-gi'in) city assembly (re[)res." but these have no local government functions..: :tL il' ~ "±1~jjC Gal:ku-jin-tor?ku-shOmeisho 0 funshitsu I' re kara Sh. and villages all have their rAfI "assemblies" and ~jt gi'in "assembly representatives. pal District i.-yakusho ni ikimasu..:t. Q)-=f-fitt. and divorces are either 1.f6}~ L bly election. . who was elected in last month's municipal assem32. marriages. i8h -r V> t':/J'~txQ)tx:lltJt1:. (ju-chiji) governor (of either Kyoto or Osaka) iit)j\nfmrtL~ (musashino-shi-shichoy Mayor of Musashino ~~. die otherfor towns and Villages. =!R::OOfil~ eikoku-gikai arhament.g. the British ~ref~rs to the US Congress. W~.-r B:'1q:~U. WaJaShi a hajimete nihon ni kita toki. the one ing used for municipalities and wards." and tt mural-san "villages. Below these are m shi machi/schii "towns.n (J)m~~Q)~~"t"~~ Tokyo. L t. Hokkaido). OIrrerjka_gi~~e general applicability. At the highest level.

50

Politics

and Government

Politics

and Government

51

il*3:00

rengii-iikoku

the United Kingdom

TAA: (ka'in) House of Commons _tAA: (join) House of Lords

tiff! (shusha) Prime Minister f*'1'R: (hoshu-t6) Conservative ~~R: (rada-ta) Labour Party U~~.:ER: (shakai-minshu-toy
JiJ; (to) isle (of), e.g., 1J T
7 ;,JiJ;

Party Social-Democratic

(gyasei-chakan) chief executive = **X~ (daitaryO) president TItit (ka'in) House of Representatives .t1!Jl: (join) Senate MIl:R: (kyawa-t6) Republican Party ~i::R: (minshu-t6) Democratic Party

fiJ5(~-g

Party

iii (shu) county, e.g., 7" ;,- l- m (kento-shiq Kent
(man-to) Isle of Man of Canada

ttl (shu) state, e.g.,

'::'.:I. -

:3 - 7 +Ii (nyuyoku-shu)

New

m (gun) county,
riirensu-gun)

York State

:YilU

e.g., -c > l- . 0 - v;'- 7..f!i (sentoSt. Lawrence County

kanada-renpii

the Dominion

_t AA:(join) Senate T~ (ka'in) House of Commons kltfi- (satoku) Governor Cieneral

niA·*ry1r~7~~.'1'2~ft.tL~~~~.~ili.~
Q'!::v'1~t ~v'~It'i~ilf,

kllvc1l:LJ.1i1'o

tiff! (shush6) Prime Minister i1t*f*'1'R: (shinpo-hoshu-uiy
Party § EBR: jiyu-ta) Liberal Party (

Progressive Conservative

Misu-howaitoheddo ga hoshu-to no daihyo to shite gikai-senkyo ni shutsuba suru to iu uwasa 0 kiite imasu ga, hontii desha ka. rye been hearing a rumor that Miss Whitehead is going to stand as a Conservative candidate in the parliamentary elections. Is it true?
• slwrsuba suru: stand for election

iii (shU) province, e.g., :t ;,-7 I) :Hli (ontario-shu) Ontario i:\!!rli (junshu) territory, e.g,. ;;1..-::z ;,-i:\!!rli (yukon-junshU)
Yukon Territory

IOtM-tii

ni yoru sayoku-teki-eikyo wa, kinnen yowatta so desu. Left-wing influence emanating from the Labour Party is said to have weakened in recent years.
• oi yo",: by (through the agency or action of)

34; 9!t1!.:!t I: J: J., 'tc..B9!31! Ii, i1I1f.~ i

-:J

t: -t-1 l:~

0

:t -

7..

r '7 I) 7 il'f~ osutoraria-renpo

the

of Australia _tAA; (join) Senate

35. "fJ +« (7)7"« 7 7 it! ~ 1fiffihl:, B :<$:(7)2f1liil'3f1li c § It' i ~ilf, ~li700Jj AI: ~ ~ IJ i -It Ivo t" ~~u

TAA: (ka'in) House of Representatives kltfi- (satoku) Governor General

no kebekku-shu

tiff! (shushO) Prime Minister § EBR: jiyu-ta) Liberal Party ( OO~R:(kokumin-tos National Party ~tlJR: (rada-ta) Labour Party ~.:E~~R: (minshu-rada-ta) Democratic
iii (shu) province (state), e.g.,
7
A 7'::'

in ~e~ Provinc.e is two or three times larger than Japan 36. t _ a, ~t Its populatIon does not reach seven million.

ar!

no menseki wa, nihon no nibai ka sanbai ga, jinkiJ wa nanahyaku-man-nin ni mo narimasen.

Os... ~ ~ '7 h -ku I) 70)*-7JCtlff!li )¥"f.fiI.~l:~iI' ...orana ' 711!IIU/u Is AUStraJj ,no 0 =moto-shusho wa rodO-to desu ka.
Labour

0

PartY

7ffl (tasumtJ/lia'

shu) Tasmania i:l!!1Ii tjunshii) territory, e.g., ~t$(7)i:\!!rli (hokubu no junshiiy Northern Territory 7 .f.
I)

0llUoraria n'7 I) ., O)!itilli, JRwHiIH: <Ii.> J., ;f- "" /"« '7 ml:~ A....~ "a' 0 ~huto wa, tonan-bu ni aru kyanbera-shi desu . .--r.tb S cap tal . 31 7 ;I. I) _ 1 IS Canberra, located in the Southeast.
n! ~ ~~~ J.,

37. t- ~r

Party? a s former -

Prime Minister Hawke a member of the Labour
0

t~*:~:a~~~<~Iv<li.>1J1~~, .~~U~~2c~
tit' 1=*i&R:$Ij'I:~
-:J

1J ~OO America

amerika-gasshiikoku the United StateS

ga ~akusan arimasu ga; jissai ni wa kyowa-to lltute ilnas u.to ga seiken 0 kotai suru to iu ni-dai-seito-sei ni

to llainSh:_ s:lto

~It'

iTo

52 Politics and Government

There are many political parties in the United States, bu~ cal reality is that there is a two-party system, ill which publicans and Democrats alternately hold power.
OIl

CHAPTER

ni-dai-seito-sei:

two-party system

Sumisu-jiiin-gi'in wa, naisei yori gaisei ni kyomi 0 motte desu. Senator Smith seems to be more interested in foreign policy domestic policy.
t gaikO: foreign policy

39. A ~ A1JJt~jHt, To

!*JiB(. J: IJ ~3c:t~:~'*i'~-:>

n,~

IV
The Fine Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences

* naisei: domestic politics

II is often said that for the Greeks, arts, sciences, crafts, and IIades were one, all contained in the single concept of techne. NOI coincidentally, again thanks in part to Meiji-era wordsmiths, Sino-Japanese jutsu has a similarly broad meaning, appearing compounds ranging from in bijutsu "(fine) art" IDdttfi gijutsu "technology" (lit. skill-art) to 1l111Hftj saimin}t.usu "hypnotism," Jrt* majutsu "witchcraft," and ~11H;tij zoen}fIISu "landscapegardening." ltasu; like techne, refers more to practice than to theory, in to ~ gaku "study, knowledge, (branch of) learning." ~ biJut_su, ~orexample, refers to the beaux -arts, ~~ bigaku to =~c , i.e., "the study of the beautiful." Gaku is in this recta" ~e Greek mathema, so that the Sino-Japanese equivalent in Y~a.th"-from Greek polymatheus "knowing much"byle~t.:°~grnal meaning, a dai-gakusha (now replaced In th· hakugaku na hito "person of broad knowledge"). "-n!b ISand the following chapter, we shall look at words ~i~ Worldof learning, divided between the fine arts, the !bees,and the. Social sciences (Jt* bunkei) on the one natUral SCiences (:J1L,* rikei) on the other. We begin ":-~JaIPanef'X.,arn",Ples of jutsu and gaku, adding to them a third Word, ~ sei. which refers somewhat more to "craft" . ex In the sense of "trade. " We then turn to the t;:Ples of terms from six representative fields hist~ eral arts: the beaux-arts, music, literature, linling ~, ~d sociology. Though some of these, partieUIStics,may be of greater interest to specialists,

*

~*

;a~1
k

*~~

53

54 Arts, Humanities, Social Sciences

Arts, Humanities, Social Sciences 55

the great majority sation as well.

are likely to turn up in "intelligent"

Art, Knowledge, and Crafts

WI . l!f: . ~
~~

JUTSU, GAKU, GEl

~iiiJl:il1it": c ~wr~ tL -C~~~§:I:Tt.:~, ~i!!tLt..: c 12S:if 1~~3~iL~~ •• ~~@GL-C~~1~~~0 I.:~~a sanne~ mile ni gan da ~o shindan. sarete ~hu.i.uts,,: ~ OUChi t ki te okure da to isha ni iwaremashita ga, kiseki-teki m "uta kIliJuku shite kita yo-d esu. .

° , -.

~fN
~~ ~~

(gakujutsu) learning, arts and sciences (geijutsu) the arts (bijutsu) fine arts (wajutsu) (art of) storytelling/conversation medicine (but see below)

WbeII m~ on, we were told by the doctor that it was too late to
::Shim, but miraculously he seems to have recovered. '/')'~11[1;!:, i1!i?~ . Q).t1f~t.dfI$J.!I!~*~~\t'l;!:iitlG~~*~~o Stn-happyaku-sanjuichi-~e_n ni shikyo shit'!: pu_roisen n~ k~rauzewittSu-sh6gun wa, setyo no mottomo yumet na gunji-rinronka aruiwa senjutsu-ka desu. General (Karl von) Clausewitz of Prussia, who died in 1831, is the West's best known military theoretician or strategist.

father was diagnosed

three years ago WIth cancer and

4 1831~1::fE~Lt':701-l!:/0):77,/~,/1

!AlG~ (senjutsu) (military) tactics

Ji\':fN (bujutsu) martial arts l2S*i (ijutsu) the practice of ~.R.~(jujutsu)

(lit. the soft art; but see below) incantation, sorcery ~~ (shinjutsu) acupuncture ~~~ (biyo-jutsu) cosmetology

*~(jujutsu) jujitsu

.'f.~ (shujutsu) (surgical) operation

HIl$~A..I;!:,

~U~~16-C~~a-'il1I\t',

Ktw.tyuJcj-san a, kaisha 0 yamete shinjutsu 0 narai, supein-jin no w okusan to issho ni baruserona ni sunde, hari-isha to shite daiseikD shimashita.

-.I:/\)v-l!OTI:ttA..~,

~12S:ifc 1..--c*JiltJiJl..-i I..-t.:o

A~1 :/AO)J!:~A..c

Jll~*i

ifukuwa-jutsu)

ventriloquism

Quitting his company, Kazuyuki

When English-speakers use "technique" as a "trick," they come close to expressing the Japanese-speakers have toward jutsu. Modem doctors when they hear their profession referred to as I2SfN adepts of the "soft art" prefer *ji jUdif "judo," the which it was first called by J!*Plm1i~~ Kano Jigoro 1938). 1. 7IFfI!ol{tl': 'i>, lii~*~:im L -C~i$O)I2i-wrI:-?",-c~jl t: B :<fi::Ab{\t'i I..- tz; Edo-jidai ni mo, rangaku 0 tiishite seiyo no ijutsu ni tsuue o ete ita nihon-jin ga imashita. Even in the Edo period, there were Japanese, who, via studies," had knowledge of Western medicine.

studied acupuncture, settled in Barcelona with his Spanish wife, and became quite successful as an acupuncturist. number of

Iiasu appears as the initial element in a limited compounds and may also be used by itself.
6 ~ A.."h!L:: .•

2iljlj~~t;, hi I..-t.:o O~~ g.a nakunatta ato, kaneda-san wa josei-sagi-shi no jus__, m ochiitte nioku-en 0 toraremashita. After.his wife died, Mr. Kaneda fell for the scheme of a female con
artist, who took him for ¥200 million.
• J"saJcu: anifice, ruse (lit. craft-sbeme)

< t.t ·:d.:f~,

1fi83 ~ 1v1;!:"P:ttllt~~jjio)~.*I:~'B-?-C

* rangaku:

Dutch studies

2. r~~j'O)~~I:'j:A~b{mT~' ~o J "Ijutsu no shiitoku ni wa jinsei ga mijika-sugiru." Life is too short for the task of mastering the art of medicjne.. This is the original meaning of a comment by whose Latin form is Seneca's well-known ars [technel brevis "Art is long, life is short."

7. ~t.: t.:O) J: -) 1:~it!:*(O)~a-~lb -c 1,,' ~ AI;!:, 4-O)r,,~~a- c'-) ~'L \~#?;"(' ~ ~ 1;!:-r~T d4i nc:J0 ~i shosei (no)jutsu 0 shitte iru hito wa, ima no mon~ a m kL1 shite kaiketsu dekiru hazic desu. -ueone as . able t wise as you are to the ways of the world ought to be
0

'1Ito~~ ::.orne up with some way of solving the current problem. make one's way in society

Ga/cU rna 1ik
turns

y. .e~.ise appear up in mitial position

by itself and, more often than as well.

~Ij::$r.($111) 7 T::t. do mite mo ningen-mi ga tarinai yo na shimasu.o L -ct*f1. 0 *$ (daigaku) university *$~ (daigaku-in) graduate school $~ (gakubu) (university) college. *j(Ij::*Jj(~**~""t'".. 12.. .q* Ifi!!'¥: * setsuritsu epoch to found. gain 14.C. SCientIficname for the [oceanic] bonito is katsuwonus pelamis.~B9 I: 'j::ff~Jj: A~n' 'b L tL . inri-gaku) psychology !* fi.r .1. 1t±~ hakase-g6) (gakuhi) school expenses (gakureki) school career (gakumei) scientific name (gakugei) arts and sciences 0 .: c n'c:'Mii l. . W stetO here refenng to the e (j:n":i-~aku) anthropology ( ekishl_gaku) history .:·~5f. early years t kokorozasu: aspire to '¥:M (gakumon) learning. iJl:i1I$t. In ~e colleg~ of humanities at Japanese universities. one must hold a doctoral degree in order to become a professor at an American university.. bureaucrat passes through I . in which the way to a career as a high-level the gates of a famous university.::>1.t. *17)~j(Ij::JfO?:$~*~""t'"OOJt~~. amerika no daigaku de kyoju ni naru ni wa Iulkose-go 0 shutoku shite inakereba narimasen./(7)~. is said to have located in a grove not far from Athens.: J: IJ ~~.>.ku no jinbun-gakubu de wa. I: l[j: vvJ' ~ Jj:~I:.gakumei (tetsugaku) philosophy ~bungaku) literature (gengO-gaku) linguistics . Professor Watanabe had his mind set on learning from the time was small and became a renowned French literature scholar. Professor Taniguchi may be an outstanding person ~ a he seems somehow lacking in a sense of humanity. tit' -) *fffU~""t'"T I EI:. ~D$t.> * yOshii: childhood.tJj:It'i i~ 0 NI~ n. faculty $±~ (gakushi-go) bachelor's degree $fil. IlI.. kyoin ga hakushitel 0 oenai mama saiyo-sareru no gafutsii desu.. suru: t kigen: an or the first year in . 0 9.aWn wa imoda ni kOkyu-kanri e no michi wa yionei-daigaku 0 I deru koto kara hajimaru to iu gakureki-shakai desu.:g. 7.t 7. Social Sciences Arts. academy $~ (gakuin) academy $1i( (gakko) school /J'$1i( (shOgakkO) primary school 1ft$1i( (chugakko) middle school $i(~$)1i( (kO[to-gaklkol (senior) high school Uchino chOjo wa tokyo-gakugei-daigaku de kokubun-gaku 0. .Ii.UI] t i. jijo wa tokyo-geijutsu-daigaku de ongaku 0 senkii shite imasu.56 Arts. Gensoku to shite... Humanities. • shuroku: acquire. As a rule. 'b Ar.. 10.n: Lt. (gakui) (higher) academic degree *± ishiishi) MA -r'~'~ IttLliJj: 1) IJ t 1t Ivo ~ l. 7J (7)*$""t'"~~I: *~~~"(It' i 1" t. Japan even today is a "name-school"-conscious society. atene ni chikai chiisana mori ni atta so Plato's Academy of the fourth century B.(7)~Ij::~~*~~ 0 tel.~Ij::XtJ9-'·(7).Jt~~I: ~~ Watanabe-sensei wa yoshO no koro yori gaku 0 kokorozashite futsu-bungaku-sha ni narimashita.o daiga. Our eldest daughter is specializing in Japanese literature at Tokyo Gakugei [Arts and Sciences] University. scholarship '¥:~ (gakuen) educational institution. Humanities.*nf)E IJ Jj:It' J: -) ~~n{ LiT Taniguchi-sensei wa gakumon-teki ni wa yushu na j~nb~tsu shiremasen ga.77 1.li!'¥: ~. B*I7)*~<7)AJt~$""t'"Ij::.. t::. Social Sciences 57 8.. our second daughter is specializing in music at Tokyo University of Fine Arts.. establish any epoch.Ht Ivnf.:Ij::5Id!l:iIili~'§~". Gaku c discipl' ornmonly appears as a suffix for names of academic IDes: The u~ no . it is normal or teaChing personnel to be hired without completion of the dOCtoraIcourse. .. ..: -to) ""t'"T Puraton no setsuritsu shita kigen-zen yon-seiki n~ (gakuen) wa. 1t± $W $fff $~ $~ (hakushi) PhD (cf. ronrz-gaku) logic 'L'll!'¥: ( h )..ll..> I: 1j::1w:±ij-~lIJ(:-m t.Ill ~ ttJ. (7)~{1t'Jm""t'"T ~~nt1w:±~f!H~.tliu4i!t~(7)7 7J T ~ . 0 ~~~ (i)'":)J3) (7)~~ Ij::katsuwonus pelamis ""t'"1" wa katsuwonus pelamis desu. If!'¥: ( .

logician. go 1010 exile ...:wag~-sh~ wa.:iI_\ ~nil'. show business 19.. .-J: -?iI'o r:'::.l:t. m~A~I§M~~~~~""(~~i~o 16. Social Sciences 59 )f.t·-?~J.-t.U! ~. performer ~:f (geisha) geisba ~fm~ (geitui-kai) entertainment world. economist. happened came t~ Japan some years ago as a rrussionary...~:'Ifffi. ~~~. Social Sciences Arts.6~.-Z:-I.-ki:zntokuo eiga ga zen'ei-geijutsu ka.r$:'I:t:~·L J: -? t l.t. etc.J ii' t Ii' -? r. nan desuka.I:~M-z:-~ 0 Ono.J:~~~~ /citeg.f-)v.-""(v. linguist.. .R:lt"¥' (tenmon-gaku) astronomy ~1{. bO~1 shiy6 to shite ita pekin no kyokugei-shi wa. is yielding the equivalents of English philosopher... ~$:'If~. 71 )vJ'~-7'". r::Jc. td!. •• *•• ~*.:o "Bungei-shunju" wa hiroi dokusha-sii 0 motte kimashita. My husband works for a polytechnic institute. Humanities.~. ~lf1il!l!$~'. siinen-mae ni senkyii-shi to shite nihon ni 1Iari".Il). kore kara do naru desha ka.*~$$~Wk-:Jl:".73(-1"C0!.ff16~ ~ ].~~eh~ gemo-kai to kankei 0 tsukuri. anthropologist.Ji: another country. Bungei-Shunju [lit.:~t*G')JtIF~ailil. (seiji-gaku) political science (kOgaku) engineering (seibutsu-gaku) biology (shokubutsu-gaku) botany (dobutsu-gaku) zoology . tada no poruno ka to n IU mondai 0. ~~~~- 23 • born.Bd. Literary Spring and Autumn] bas acquired broad readership.-t. torian..:o .Q)I Ototo wa keiii-daigaku no kiigaku-bu-daigaku-in 0 konpyiita-gaisha ni hairimashita.. My younger brother graduated from Keio University's School of Engineering and entered a computer company· A~ * 1.i:<..t.. len tI: vanguaro. ..go along with the view that we should leave it up to cinema critics to decide whether Director One's films are of the avant~ar~eor are merely pornography.ma. ~o_ti.¥. and somewhat remote-gei.l:.*jil'. psychologist. :'If -sha. eiga-hyoron-ka dake ni makaseyii to iu iken ni wa hantai desu. Idon'. to get himself involved in the world of Japanese r~if.Hiho L:.take refuge . ~1'Q)"logistjke"I.-I:".. 22. Tilberg . Logistike in Ancient Greece did not signify the art of rather arithmetic. ronri-gaku de wa naku imi 0 motte imashita. Is it true what I hear. akilbe c .l:. (chishitsu-gaku) geology ~JlI!$ (chiri-gaku) geography ~"¥' (igaku) medicine ~~$ M:~$ !l'J~$ ~~ (bungei) literary arts I~ (kOgei) industrial arts Fij~ (togel) ceramic arts &~ (mingei) folk art .i: 1::1JE~ Kodai-girisha no "logistike" wa. /' 1-1: ~ IJ i Lt.58 Arts.-t. su ru. a To all of these words..l:t. I wonder what will become of him! _ 10 la. ~~""(:IfflOO I.¥. even more than jutsu.l:.-""(8*1:* If gaku suggests theoretical knowledge-staid.f~ (shugei) handicrafts ill!~ (engei) performing arts !I!J~ (kyokugei) acrobatics ~A (geinin) artist. that Sumiko' s fiance is a graduate of the Faculty of Tokyo University? Sumiko-san no kon 'yaku-sha ga t6dai-hogaku-bu T.1. ~~~Q).~*. te kikoku shimashita ga.Ii5l:"¥'(rekishi-gaku) history ~"¥' (hOgaku) law *I71i"¥' (keizai-gaku) economics *±~f4"¥' (shakai-kagaku) social I"¥' sciences ilJei'&.l:. ~~-ru-I:1f~8ilit 1.~fkJ 1. Humanities. avant-game l~ •• 0 deta Itt.. "Mathetes" wa. Shujinwa kiigei-kenkyu-jo ni tsutomete orimasu. her~ uphin~e acrobat who tried to seek asylum in Japan has given returned to China.t1clau rather a pupil. "Mathetes"'.:.. a mathetes was not a mathe.~ -:Jl:"lt''* 1....tf'F~..*!f~I'(7)llJ!:iOOilr-ru-m·§.1!l~~!J < 21. yiimei na tarento ni nz . literary (or writer). a further suffix.~iOO~lIifD~U!ftl:1f-lt J: -? t Ii' -? j[~I:I. Ita.l:J1:Ii'~:'If~ ~ b"?""( ~ i I.:. siigaku-sha de wa seito deshita.

~. (barokku-shiki) Baroque style ::f. '77 j:\." (poppu-iitoy pop art JUl~.m (toyo-bijutsu) East Asian art ggi$~m (seiyo-bijutsuy Western art classical art medieval art modern/contemporary art .. influence on European irnpres- Il&@* 25. Social Sciences 61 show business. ~. ceramist *7$~. pictorial art (gahO) (art of) painting 1-.60 Arts. Humanities.i* rittai-ha Surrealism art *@ (nihon-ga) (a) Japanese-style painting Il\*~(sumi-e) (an) India (East Asian) ink painting 7k1l\@ (suiboku-ga) (same as above) *~@ (shukyo-ga) religious painting r¥t!u~ (ukiyo-e) ukiyo-e.. 26.fbli5tiJ'oJ U no koto wa nani mo wakaranai ga. 1) :X A (riarizumu) realism ~ f::":X A (modanizumu) modernism 0" '/ . ~:X A (kyubizumu) Cubism.y.. and became quite a celebrity. yoroppa no insho-ha ni okina eikyo 0 atae- 24.oll& (sekiban/sekihan) lithography :Oll&@ (sekiban-galsekihan-ga) lithograph ~~U (chOkoku) sculpture.!gaku) traditional Japanese music (ongaku-riron) musicology (senritsu) lod 4Ojil(~) . 7' " ~~if (ejiputo-bijutsu) Egyptian art )V. jibun no suki na saku- Wa wakaru" .l.0 'Y /~O)!On~i*I:*~ ~J3fH.ff~~36§-eTo m~ (jiki) porcelain ~I (toM) potter.i* (inshO-ha) impressionism (cf. *~~*? I:. Ch.\tl~. shin-koten-ha no anguru wa.t.'lj. il\tl (yog k: ) 1I\tl a u traditional Western music .fit~0).)':: t li1iiJ~5tiJ'~ •.±.(@) (shOzo[-ga]) (a) portrait (painting) !t@ (hekiga) (a) mural.. The Neo-cl~siCal painter [Jean Auguste Dominique] Ingres painted POrtraits for eighteen years in order to support his family.. Humanities.A ::r@ lfuresuko-ga) (a) fresco painting 1'Il. color print ll.m (chushO-bijutsu) abstract art 3 . '1"17 . engraving ~it. carving.m(koten-bijutsu) q:.) 7') drawing ilU~ (abura-e) (an) oil painting (suisai-ga) (a) watercolor painting 7 t. r~~q.:!.:¥) L-t. Il&@ (hanga) woodblock printing.m (runessansu-bijutsu) Renaissance art r« 0 'J 7 j:\.m (gushO-bijutsu) representational tIlI.:. (romanesuku-shiki) Romanesque style fJfi5 ~:t~ tshin-koten-shugiv Neo-classicism i'!I:!I4-~. 0 T 1 .o Nihonno ukiyo-e wa. (goshikku-shiki) Gothic style 07 . t. jiihachinenkan shOzo-ga 0 kaite imashita..J7k@ (sansui-ga) (a) landscape painting ~ it. 'J -IT /' A~.t!t~._~ SV: 7J:\"iJf. but I know what I like" are the Own words of US President Harry Truman.t Lt:. toriiman bei-daitoryo no yiimei na 'lUISugen desu . Chapter I) ItJlJl~~i* (kOki-inshO-ha) Post-impressionism :\.m bijutsu fine arts ~@ @~ *~(e) (a) painting.. ")v-7/'**.merom) :J _ I< (wasel[-h6]) harmony __ (kodo) chord ~ (onkai) scale (onpu) note -it .f.me y (cf.t. don't len '.~. 18~rdH'Ht.I. El5to)*~ 7J:f'F. well-len ow anything about art. mashita..:X A (romanchishizumu) Romanticism (cf. (a) woodblock print (hanga-ka) woodblock printer .(purimitibu-iitoy primitive art . . (sozo) modeling ~~ (togei) ceramic arts (see above) ~~ (toki) pottery J~~ ukiyo-e had considerable siorusm.l. mural/fresco painting "1') ~ 71 7'7 .m (chusei-bijutsui :fJHt~. also 1) -)1.)r¥iit~Ii. it Ongaku Music I. Social Sciences Arts. 7k~@ B (kaiga) painting.m (gendai-bijutsu) to wa. v7 :X A (shiou-reartzumui s: f.l. ~.:o ~\'(\"i ~J!:i:!l4-i*O) 7 /' ~)v Ii.f. A 7 j:\.@ ~1IIi lDzoku 0 yashinau tame ni. 8*q.

_fi . 28 • "Fantasy in C# mmor " IS oft en performed in Japan.!I:.. Humanities. .62 Arts.( (jazu) I) (* .f. -1Hf~ 7J:(7).!'zen-/han-Ishibu-kyushi-ju) ( half/quarter rest tempo f$tlJ (ritsudo) rhythm (cf. Japanese zither (shamisen) sharnisen. plucked lute IV\ (shakuhachi) shakuhachi. ~ ~~/~Xl!iIIl(7)I:j:l't'.ka 't~~t 9M*~IN*~·~-~7I~r~~.no senmon-~ v_e~n~ru-bfreferuto-~hi ~a. B. Humanities. bamboo flute I:(tsuzumi) hand-drum :tl: (taiko) drum .7 (okesutora) -:r (hayashi) percussion • (sh6) (Chinese) gong and flute ensemble ~Iff~n (kinkan-gakki) f1~n (gen-gakki) string instruments Western Music yiigaku i$~ ~~.<$:~ _no ong'. concert 3(1il iIIl (kOkyo-kyoku) symphony 1ff~~iIIl (kangen-gakkyoku) orchestral music iIIl tkyiiso-kyokuv concerto (also :J".+ ~~iE"'l1t(7)1§-~I:-:::>It' .ku ' 0 a~ avonte "t'Q)~~~(7).C 13 ~ L~-f oJ 7J:. Social Sciences Arts. :J :/-lj-- ~ konsiito) dore 19 )v r I)ito.r.]~iIIl (shitsunai-gakkyoku) chamber music ~'IJ (kageki) lyric drama. Ch~hl . nihon de yoku enso sareChopm's ' is 0 .!' (shibu-onpu) quarter note ~fi1ljir (soshoku-oni grace note 1*ll:. et ha-tanchO-genso-kyoku wa. rizumu) o 'J jazz po (rokku) rock *"" (major/minor) key l.(i-ro-ha-ni-ho-he-to) ABC D E F G JapaneseMusic hiigaku 1B~ ~ (ei) sharp ~ (hen) flat ~J\m:W13 (ei-ha-tanchO) C# minor ~ir~* (to-on-fuhyo) treble clef 15. A (basu) bass ill (suzu) bell orchestra woodwind instruments brass wind instruments .* 1* ~* (kagura) Shinto music and dancing (gagaku) court music (bugaku) court music and dance 77 )v r J (sopurano) (aruto) alto soprano tenor ='*- . Japanese lute fj! (Ieoto) koto./0~J\~~_X1~iIIl!. re d a spec'ali ' what' 1 st ill the history of Japanese music. opera tIrtto&hiroS6 8ielet' Ina n 0 kakimashita. ":ohm to suru taisho-jidai no ongaku m tsuite.)v/':.ir$~* (tei-onbu-fuhyoi bass clef 'J 7 If! (biwa) biwa.t c'n 't'TiPo fksu ka: kyo-kyoku no naka de.< i9i*~ niT 0 lllasu.. Beethoven symphony? n~iIIl (kigaku-kyoku) instrumental music ~p. Social Sciences 63 ~irr.f *~~n (mokkan-gakki) tr~n (da-gakki) -7" A l.r.J~ T- (tenoru/tenii.-:/... ~)W13 ([chO-ltan-JchO) 1 0 J\::' X 1>.(tenpo) tr:..-J . 7 (opera) opera '}+ ~ (sonata) sonata 'J po if~ (barokku-ongaku) Baroque music t~i*if~ (koten-ha-ongaku) Classical music 0'7 /i*if~ (roman-ha-ongaku) Romantic music JJl1tif~ (gendai-ongaku) modern music J{[] ') 'I' .<$:'t' J: . ichiban suki na no wa tibich is yoUr f ' percussion instruments m~ jlil:~ (enso) performance l+ s_uru] jlil:~~ (ensii-kai) a recital.!' (zen-onpu) whole note ~irr..:.!' (han-onpu) half note lZ!l5tifr.*. lZ!l7t1*.t.f (kyushi-fu) rest ~ .~ t Lt. ./ 'f :L ruto) ir~~ (ongakkai) concert (cf. .:. ~ . has Cente~erns to be an interesting book about Taisho-era g on popular songs.

.:: i? J tltWX~ b B *Jt~ b lff. p. r) iii (bion) nasal (e. g) Japanese I!IJt~ ~~ /j..lltlt*2.g.. liif DlIi.g. Humanities.e.f1X (kabuki) Kabuki ~~ (kyogen) interact.Jt~ Literature tt'tb~-?l\t'J.ilatlOn (e... t. b. k. rhyme writing) (jojo-shi) lyric poetry (lit.: (on" also if'8Ji=-ga~) phonology (the study of sound syterns. (zuihitsu) essay Milif(heisa-on) stop retsu-on) plosive (same as above) fIl*. m.g. Murasaki Shikibu completed The Tale of Genji at the the eleventh century.:q:Hi. s. o~e (. natsume siiseki no "borchan"ya "kokoro" gurai nara dare de mo shitte iru desho. description-thing poetry) (ijf)flJ ([enJgeki) drama lff"lj (higeki) tragedy (lit. [ng] . /J'~ (shosetsu) novel (cf.g.. z) (hasatsu-on) affricate (e. n. sh.. oribie no "richddo-sansei" no enshutsu 0 mitara donna hanna 0 shimesu desho ka. Chapter 1) ~ 1iiHi/J'~(tanpen-shosetsuy short story J ~ 7 .g. a.Q)~ Murasaki shikibu ga "Genji monogatari" 0 kansel jidsseiki no hajime-goro deshita. Iv tnt. seka~-bungaku mo nihon-bungaku mo omari yomanai kamo shiremasen ga.!~ I § itI::o Q)r w -. joyful drama) ~~"f: (eigo-gaku) English language and linguistics OO~ft~ (kokugo-gaku) (traditional) Japanese linguistics (onsei-gaku) phonetics (the study of the production and perception of speech sounds) fail (boin) vowel (lit. HUmanities.O) dele~on (e. t.( -. i IJ WE . ~ I11III on m-ron) orBJI (on'i ) h fi'BJI~ n ~. d. child sound) ~~-»:'(ha iii (lit.L . [n]. Social Sciences 65 7lii~~ engei-gaku Performing Arts General x~ bungaku tltW.I: 10 (sekai-bungaku) world literature IlXJt (sanbun) prose (lit. puppet theater 30.g. sann~ochu-on-s6nyu) epenthesis .. ts. Howwould Shakespeare react if he saw Olivier's RichardIll? interpretation of ~M~ jlJm~(gengo-gaku)Linguistics m~ (gogaku)language fi'jI!~ study ~'tl (kigeki) comedy (lit. h.. (on m-soshiki) sound system S (Ion) allo h 1iiJ1t (doka p.I: ? iI'o ~ Shikusupia wa. tJr_ ) ~Sslln.f. follow-the-pen) m*. ~*'(kyoka) comic tanka 'fjF-liJ ril!~!!m~J (masatsu-on) fricative (e. ble) SlmilatIon (e.W~~ t: ~ c' A. dz) (ryuon) liquid (e. *~~~Q) r~~~-~~tltJ Q). Japanese poem) (haiku) haiku (17-syllable Japanese poem" [5-7-5]) JII... sad drama) ~~%-?~~7ti.g.. shmgkon "newly-wed") (lka) dis' .~3 (non-fikushon) nonfiction mlJt (inbun) verse (lit. [m]. Social Sciences Arts. Noh farce (lit.t l~Ji) lFi'-Z... the syllabic nasal) _"""..g .~ (joji-shi) epic poetry (lit. (waka) same as tanka (lit. scattered writing) ~H'F (sosaku) fiction Nilwnno wakamon? wa..g.r san + is .::. 31.g. Latin marmor > English mar- :! :li\if . oneme (e. know> [no:]) (e..1. mad Jt~ (bunraku) Bunraku... ch.jgp (senryu) satirical haiku ~~(no) Noh (drama) *. J ~ r.. short poem) J!Jfi. Japanese you~g people may ~ead very little w?rld literature or Japanese literature.lNt -. but VIrtually anyone will know Soseki Natsume's Botchan or Kokoro. iJ!. (tanka) 3 l-syllable Japanese poem (lit. comedy. ~J:\$iI~ ~5tJilt Lt.) vs.64 Arts.>-Z-L.g. mother sound) (e.• f.. (sa/cu' B *Q):t~li.~ (kokubun-gaku) Japanese literature (as an subject) (monogatari) tale (shiisetsu) novel Til (shi'in) consonant (lit. ng) tic. description-feeling ~. lll. 1-ttA. fJi'PfJ shimbun "newspaper" -it. ~ A. I.

1':1T / 7 :7 /:.. nee. e.g.g.A - T't'I:~. c llil~~ *. kuitai "wants to eat") ~l!:. ni. bunpo-kOzo kara mite mo..DGtL"Clt) . kuu "eats") (rentai-kei) attributive (e. also tt~!fnU togo-ron) 3:." 4'-~lifEJ t. kuu hito "eating person") A ~~ (katei-kei) hypothetical (e." 33.~~'t'To sos iki to Chinaru g engo desu.. (e.~...1t' atarashii new ) %~"f: (keitai-gaku) ~'*~(imi-ron) .l\'\'1J'7£\:li. kueba..g. direct figure of speech) (in 'yu) metaphor (lit. for example.g.~ (shugo) subject :im~ (jutsugo) predicate ~~liJ (meishi) noun ft~~liJ (dai-meishi) pronoun ~~liJ (doshi) verb 1!iJ~~ (jo-diishi) auxiliary verb ~~~ (keiyo-shi) (zenchi-shi) euphony..is treatetf. ifruHil'l.g.. a difference 'Lt.g.. Social Sciences Arts. etc.~ (shiishi-kei) predicative (e. *~~! (setto-go) prefix *~~! (setsubi-go) suffix ~~fnU (goi-ron) lexicology *. (also known as -c I:~ te ni 0 ha. s~.. kikite > kiite "listening".~i::)c$ C/uj 0 .. also ~~fnU keitai-ron) ~~liJffiffl (doshi-katsuyO) verb conjugation ~1IIJ~lHl! (enkyoku ~~1t ~7'-~ (tabU-go) taboo word 2'UIj~!(sabetsu-go) discriminatory language Traditional Japanese linguistic terminology (kaku-henka) 1li'!:fJT§~ ~. ga. sumite > sunde "living".fI! (onbin) national language study IDI. metaphor (chokuyu) simile (lit.ft (kirei na e) beautiful picture (katsuyo) conjugation (of verbs and adjectives) ~fI.g. e. kue "eat!") ~~Ib~ mm adjective lilU~liJ (jukushi) adverb :!~ "baas.~?d p.g.~ (mizen-ke!) imperfective (e.. no.*rnu-:1rc :J tliJt 1J V ':I :. Social Sciences 67 *.g.I.t§~ tt~$ (kussetsu-gengo) case inflection inflecting language (kOchaku-gengo) agglutinating language isolating language syntax (the study of phrase and sentence !!1m!!¥: (kokugo-gaku) :g. wa..: arata vs.6'G~-C>b..Jt§~! (koritsu-gengo) (togo-gaku) structure...?sition switch.Jif (jo'on) excrescent sound (e.~!~I:~ L "Cit) (tit' L. Humanities. four representative Ii examples) (keiyo-doshz) nominal adjective (lit. ~ fLlt'(tf. "nuclear family") ~*~ .. coat -+ kOto) ~!~ifi~1JD (goto'on-tenka) prothesis (addi~on of an initial sound..i. nemurite > nemutte "sleeping" WJ~ (joshi) (postpositional) particle.\~ izen-kei "perfective". hidden figure of speech) (kochO) hyperbole hyogen) euphemism ii~ ~~ ~~ morphology (the study of word and phrase structure.g. ed In classical Japanese. e.66 Arts.-~o ~S. .. ~~so Strikingly different in regard to sound system and • 'Oi: usually non-Chinese) G~fIf ffl (hon 'yaku-shakuyo) word kaku-kazoku.. e.g. 0. Humanities..g. meaning theory) (hiyu) simile. ichijirushiku sai no est! and J and are apan~~ do not belong to the same language family. loan-translatJon e translated from th 1. eats") . (7)?¥:~ L"C9. kueba "if .::!t~ft(7) : 19691J:.. the form represented by kue. adjectival verb). kuwanai "does not eat") itffl~ (ren 'yo-kei) conjunctive (e.m~ (setsuzoku-shi) (zogo-ho) preposition conjunction ~~~liJ (kantan-shi) interjection word formation ~~#. tpl!l~li B"'" . Latin scutum "shield" > Sparush escudo) ifUi~~ (on'in-tenkan) metathesis (lit. contraction.g.~itJf~ (meirei-kei) imperative (e. means V10g eaten.tt~ semantics (lit. ~t. ~L<~~*(7)~J.fD§~ (yamato-kotoba) native Japanese ~~ (kango) Sino-Japanese (Chinese loanwords written in kanji) 9i-*~! (gairai-go) foreign words (in reference to !/::r~gO~~ difrere r:ihon-go wa onaji gozoku ni zoku-shite inai shi. ~ L. e.

the predicative and til attributive are sometimes different m form. artisans. III forms corresponding to Modem Ja~~ese. For ~~ample.t . (shiryo-hensani historiography iff5l:'. l) *~(7) *~... to.f1t (kamakura-jidai) Kamakura period (1185-1333) ~ilfJl!.f1t(ashikaga-jidai) Ashikaga period (same as above) *±tJtUJ Il. already known as a semanticist.000 B. historical 5I:'. n~J tli.. In the verb conjugations of Old lapane~e.>·tit ~nti1i-uJt(hOken-seido) feudalism J:~ (kizoku) aristocracy ~. Hayakawa became president of San Francisco Stall! College at the time of the . 1. When S. (kOshaku)marquess 1SJl. $Jf:O~ll. he . Kodai-nihon-go no doshi-katsuyo nt wa.. count ·rAl (shishaku) viscount ~.iEllij\ft (taishO-jidai) Taisho period (1912-26) ::fDllij\ft (showa-jidai) Showa period (1926-89) ~1Iij\f\:: heisei-jidai) Heisei period (1989-present) ( :R~ (tenno) Japanese emperor q:. (hakushaku) earl. *iE tm eljl-Ishin) Meiji Restoration -to 7 "7 :/ .f1"t (asuka-jidai) Asuka period (550-710) ~H!I!.fft (jomon-jidai) Jornon period (10. ..>J t fit. momin CIlIa to "otsuru momiji" ni narimasu.1¥l1I!E!Im~ifU (shiteki-yuibutsu-ron) historical (Marxist) . re1atlVlS~ . Tato~t:... shi wa."Itt l:ill (shOgun)shogun :: (bakufu) shogunate (lit.c~pus upheavals of 1969. rn~li-::>J t !~-::>J. (koshaku) duke (feudal system) ga kotonaru baai ga arima~u.ff\::(meiji-jidai) Meiji period (1868-1912) *. mft B 1 rn~iJ~li -t.68 Arts. matenallsm :r:*1!.C. gendQl-::nzho~. Japanese (danshaku) lord. era IB:O~~f\:: (kyu-sekki-jidai) Age) .ft (gendai) contemporary (times) lIpl!.C. 7. ~.?. farmers.lI::% t il1*%iJ~~f.. sude ni imi-ronsha to shite shirarete imashita. one palaeolithic age (Old SI .I: 7. "momiji ga ochiru" to "ochiru momijt to wa.j:~ (rekishi-shugi) historicism.-A.~go .1Iii n 7' :t~ (bunmei) civilization :tft (bunka) culture *00 (teikoku) empire iti*ltfi'" . J:Wl (ochO)dynasty (roma-ho'o) Roman Pontiff. pope (also ~~ kyokO) (I~!)J: ([kokuJO) "monarch" / j(£ (jo'o) queen 0-"'*£ iTo -!YU.(taishO-demokurashf) Taisho Democracy .D. baron * koronaru: to be different ~:tl!.t1!. Social Sciences Arts.moml)l ga [autumn leaves fall] and ochiru ~ml)! [falling autumn 11:11"".n~.fft (edo-jidai) Edo period (1600-1868) l~llll.fft (tokugawa-jidai) Tokugawa period (same as above) lYlitil!. Humanities.C. shush'-ke~ re~ 35.f{t(nara-jidai) Nara period (710-794) ~~~ General rekishi-gaku History 5I:'. Social Sciences 69 Daigaku-funso-jidai no sen-kyuhyaku-co""!jilkyii-nen ni shisuko-shiiritsu-karejji no gakucho m natta S. 1.fft (muromachi-jidai) Muromachi period (l333-1568) JEfIJ1l. 300) :kf[]l!.. tent government) (shi-no-ko-shO) warriors.fft (yayoi-jidai) Yayoi period (300 B.fft (yamato-jidai) Yamato period (300-550) ilU~1!.fft (shin-sekki-jidai) neolithic age (New Age) slone 1fJJiJ~~ft tseidoki-jidai) Bronze Age j~~~ft (tekki-jidai) Iron Age tift (kodai) ancient (times) ichiisei) mediaeval (times) ili:1t (kindai) modem (times) :ijl.. Humanities.l) iTo.. nm'ntr.".*-Jj'~J ~:f.f1t (heian-jidai) Heian period (794-1185) il.1:'..) ~!tl!.-3oo B. tift if> B *~(7)j'}J~mfIH: Ii.I:.. tradessbo (the four hierarchical classes under the Tokugawa 19)' gun ate) tn.. are momiji otsu and otsuru momqt.fft (azuchi-momoyama-jidai) Azuchi-Momoyama period (155'8-1600) ~ft (jidai) age.

Humanities. people a.t.>lff5l:~1iJIJel. gokai shitari.ilQ)TIIJlf£li (chiiryii no kaso-kaikyiiy class lower middle 38.r. mada marukusu-shugilWl dokudan-teki na kettei-ron.R:3 0 upper middle q:.t (kaikyii-ishikO class consciousness ~£ilMliJr (kaikyil-toso) class warfare (Marxist) * kondo another sum: to treat two separate things as one and the same. B*O)~~. misunderstand feudal period or confuse the Japan of long ago with the of today. r~3'/:7"~J 0 "Shogun" to iu shosetsu to eiga no sei ka. 0 /' I~O)~~'*ftl.ffl (shakai-jijo) social conditions :t±~~ffi (shakai-seikatsu) social life .tt(I'I9)~jJIJ(j' 1I1l~'nt>~±A(h' 1lII~(1'I9 ~ 2< irakareta shakai) 'H±~ (heisa[-tekij-shakai) . Social Sciences 71 . mshu(-tekl)-sabetsu) racial discrimination (Sogai[-kanj) (sense of) alienation (shakai-teki-rentai) social solidarity Jt. ~0)J31l~~ '? "(·It' iTo i t!. because of the novel and film Shogun.IJ*T J. There seem to be many Europeans and Americans who. the influence of 37.oo±~ (gunkoku-shugiy :t:-.II Jlf£li (chilryil no joso-kaikyil) class _* ~~ *~(shUkyo) religion (nenrei) age A8 (jinshu) race ~~8':J.ilt7) J:. or come under. (shilnyil) income I!lf~ (kaikyii) social classes _lillli£li (joryil-kaikyil) upper class q:..nen hodo mae no koto desu. !t~*ftt7)8* 1r~4-0) B *~mliil Lt:. nihon no tekki-jidai yori mo.n£li (r6do-kaikyii) working classes ~£i:f.*f-tJ: IJ >b l~J ~'1fu'0)': ~ 't'T Chilo-yoroppa no tekki-fidai wa. underclass ~r.'X )v7 A3::~O)~9!ijJj-tI9t.) '7 1-'~~~ identity (shOsii-minzoku) ethnic minority homo- 5:_a-minzoku-kokka) multiethnic state (tan'itsu-minzoku-kokka) ethnically geneous state open society closed society A.:~ ~1f (kyoiku) education JIX).& (musan-kaikyil) propertyless classes.~~ . Central Europe's Iron Age predates Japan's by a millennium.BI (minzoku-teki-shildan) (shokugyo) occupation * eikyo 0 kiimuru: be subject to.Q{J~ TIlIIi£li (kaso-kaikyii) lower class.lJ.BI. hoken-jUilli n~ .~~mt (minzoku-ishiki) ethnic t±~ML~ (shakai-soshiki) social organization t±~~* (shakai-chitsujo) social order t±~.. Historical research in Japan is still suffering from the dogDllliC determinism of Marxism.~ (minzoku) ethnos. mukashi to ima no nihon 0 kondii shitan obei-jin ga oi yo desu. HUmanities.(.70 Arts.<@ (shildan-shinri) group psychology :t±~jJtlJ(shakai-undoy social movement ** (taishil) mass(es) **jJtlJ (taishU-undO) mass movement :t±~8':J*'il:~ (shaka-teki-siisu) social aggregates :~~I®* ~~I®~ It~(~ ~~.>W\*A.illli£li (chilryil-kaikyii) middle class q:.llli£li (chishiki-kaikyii) the educated classes *#flli*& (tokken-kaikyil) the privileged classes 1i~n*& (yiisan-kaikyii) property-owning classes ~~IIiK. B*I:j:HtJ. ~m Lt:.BI~ffi (shildan-seikatsu) life in a group 'iI. 1'j:l.¥~~fjittaiheiyo-sensii) militarism the Pacific War AQ (jinkol population ethnic group 6{iJi*ft (senryii-jidai) the Occupation (sengo-jidai) postwar period ~f~*ft Nihon ni okeru rekishi-gaku-kenkyii wa. 36.t..-itt:fj: _ 1. -)'t'T ~"'-)/Hlt~~TIIDO)1:tIt'iI'. no eikyo 0 komutte imasu. Social Sciences Arts. mistake one U~~ shakai-gaku Sociology a. proletariat ~.A~ffi (kojin-seikatsu) life as an individual .iE (~:uki5ru-izon-shi5) alcoholism (maYaku-joshii) drug addiction i!~ It-:J - '.

mada giron no ketc el. rElfiJ ~J1)( ~ r&-::>-Cit' iTo Jiikyii-seiki ni shakai-gaku no hatten 0 shudii shita em. divide. 19i!t*CI. reflectedin the native Japanese word 7J-n'.an end. who led the be apparent until we remember that acquiring knowledge or ment of sociology in the nineteenth century. nihon no shakai de kaku-kazoku ga natta no wa saikin no koto desu. striking." The appropriateness of the choice may not In the best known work of Emile Durkbeim. We begin with 41. in part.." Not coincidentally.:Jti ~Iated as "know.zrU··QVIITIf'. some of 0):: t -C>T tiith eare also found in the previous chapter.72 Arts.'cut. ethnically homogeneous society" is a reality.i±lM (shisei-ji-shussan) illegitimate birth *utO)£j: (mikon no haha) unwed mother !l\.)V7-M) Nevertheless. Social Sciences In WesternEuropean languages. ~*ti&-::>-c.~d even the vulgar English word for excrement. words for "science. as is cide is treated. lit. his conhis AD~ (jinkD-gaku)demography cern was the "theory (study) of knowledge.. "Chiiryii-shakai" ya "tan'itsu-minzoku" to shite no nihon ~ !C~n!i~ scire "know") itself derives from Indo-European « ga dore hodo genjitsu de aru ka wa.o wakeru "divide. when Meiji-era Japanese scholars looked for j:1f~tjf'l=tfiJ-C>'J:.ti. The debate continues on how much the image of Japan as a ~1 . (d~.we continue to look at the world of learning. ht. We then continue Obei to chigatte. tsuite imasen.~ -)V' T.Hf·I:t. 39.o n"J:. as e focusmg on the realm of *l-~ kagaku. G. understand. for example.~les * kencho: conspicuous. B*(J)t±~-c>~*~n{l!. Fichte A DfJJ~mt (jinko-dotai-tokei) vital statistics published Wissenschaftslehre in 1794. time-breakup) and schism. it is only recently that e Can expect to encounter. a process of dividing and sorting.tQt-=O) libi~ of the major fields in the natural sciences.1~*tL lfiizoku-binran) offense against public morals tL5( (rankiJ)promiscuous sexual relations l1~ffiJlrI (seiyoku-tosakui sexual perversion i!i:. remarkable 73 . Humanities.o wakaru.j~J t L -c 0) B *0) l' 7. "section study. dle-class.j~~-I* (naien-kankei) common-law marriage ~ut (rikon) divorce :j'I}ut (saikon) remarriage fMtYr. and illustrations of terms which specialist and In contrast to Europe and America. (transitive) 7J-lt. separate.:J." which yields schedule (cf.:t±~~(J)9EJil~:t$Lt-=. i!t~W!l1t (yoron-chosai public opinion poll cf. * ketchaku ga tsuku: come to a conclusion." including the English term. rI'jJVlEt±~J ~ r. When J.:r. the subject of understandingis. nuclear family p. "jisatsu" 0 ~issenschaft has in Our own day.. s~~se IIlrelj~Jjikan-wari. i t':~~(J)ijbinf01t'-C·It' i -It i. German Wissenschaft « wissen "know")." it literally means "(be) divide t'm~-c> ~." and his work is thus literally translated into Japanese as W~~ chishiki-gaku. they settled on *l-~ kagaku. a term to represent the more specific meaning the word kemu no ichiban yiimei na sakuhin de wa. atsukatte imasu. originally referred to knowledge in general. be settled this ~this cha(~ter. shed.ffl~ ikinshin-sokani incest 1lil11f:(dosei-aiv homosexuality ~*1m (kaku-kazokus M:**1m (kakudai-kazokuy extended family CHAPTER v Science and Technology J: 0 .!j!. cf. clear family has become prominent in Japan. Though 40.

rittaikika-gaku wa doshite mo dekimasen. 3L. Hachijii-san hiku jiinana wa rokujiiWa u m naru. is the entire field of -=J(.y:'~ "astronomy.A.:o Hanburuku-daigaku de keiei-keizai-gaku 0 benkyo shite ita toki. ichioan kurushikatta no wa yahari tokei-(sii)gaku deshita. hikizan "subtraction") . are ~-fr wariai and .. Keojiis good at solving algebraic equations...~ (tentai-butsuri-gaku) 1-' (7) 7" a T 7J I- 7 -rg*~: ~t .(sugakka) mathematics department f-t~~ (daisu-gaku) algebra I\tfI'iJ~ (kika-gaku) geometry tf!IPJ~ (shokubutsu-gaku) botany tb!IPJ~ (dobutsu-gaku) zoology i5"g:4m~ (koseibutsu-gaku) paleontology E1~. A ~ :. statistics.~f4 (butsuri-gakka) physics department l!'. for example.4mJJ.""C t"t' ~ i -It Ivo < (7)I.lWtei·shiki: equation t rittai: cubic. warizan "division") 51 < L.lt$ hiritsu.lEt (tasu) add **X~ (keito-gaku) ~~~ (seitai-gaku) ecology systematics :l&~n (chigakka) earth sciences department :l&'Di~ (chishitsu-gaku) geology $t!!m~ (kObutsu-gaku) mineralogy Needless to say.51:t:t J. Even if quadratic equations (=*1.~~ (keitai-gaku) morphology (also a term in linguistics) ~l!'. but he cannot for the life of him do solid geometry." one native Japanese. the list is hardly exhaustive..>0 83-17Ii66~.>0 12X91±108~.ft~ (butsuri-kagaku) physical chemistry ?!!Ii~ft~ (muki-kagaku) inorganic chemistry .t.~ (seiri-gaku) physiology Kenji-kunwa.~ (bussei-butsuri-gaku) solid state physics ~~~l!'.+ (seibutsu-gakka) biology department %1t.22 -. 3.> (waru) divide (~J...~~ (shizen-jinrui-gakui physical ~l~ (kisM-gaku) meteorology iii'f~ (kaiyo-gaku) oceanography I.three dimensions. 10+5 _ -15.yourcup of tea.5. Jiini kakeru kyil wa hyakuhachi ni naru. the greatest ordeal was. Nijii-ni Yon Wa go-ten-go [the vowel of the first go elongated] ni 0 naZ. isankaku-hii) trigonometry ~7HI5t~ calculus Words for "ratio.ff~ft~ (yuki-kagaku) organic chemistry ~ft~ (sei-kagaku) biochemistry ~!!m~f.> (kakeru) multiply (.~ (bishi-but~uri-gaku) microphysics (also ~ 7 o!!m KAGAKU jJ~ mikuro-butsun-gaku) The l. the other SinoI) "J (bibun-sekibun-gaku) differential astrophysics and 4 ~t? ese.l one institution.83 -17:: 66. "::u g? Wa jiigo ni naru."7 :.~ (jikken-butsuri-gaku) experimental physics ft~fl.--I.(kagakka) chemistry department !!ml!'.:t:tl.I:. after all.-- . kakezan "multiplication") tlJJ.5.lE tashizan "addition") (hiku) subtract (51 ~.I: *X~t~~ (tokei-sugaku) statistics !!ml!'.u. When I was studying business economics at the University of Hamburg. -1 )].. anthropology r.~~:5Ii151:t:tl.~ (genshi-butsuri-gaku) atomic physics !!mtt~l!'.:t:tl.t=F"t'i"il{.>0 22-:1.~ (riron-butsuri-gaku) theoretical physics mt T!!ml!'. you will need to know the basic terms for Ortbnary arithmetic (~~ sansiiy: .-rg* Ii.74 Science and Technology Science and Technology 75 Science #~ . solid 2.. J~WO :='flJ tt.Hi~li I) *X~ (~) ~-c Lt.. daisii-hotei-shiki 0 toku no wa jozu desu ga. " / 7')v 7 *~"t'*I-g*I~~ ~~~91 L "( It.!I!~$ rigaku-bu "faculty (college) of science" in a university includes both the "hard sciences" and mathelmatiica.It J.i~~·~m (:'-) l.~~l!'.R1*!!ml!'. .It.4:: 5.ifi~ niji-hotei-shikii are DOt. 1t~1. we find the following departments and sections: ~~fl." Of other subjects that readily come to might mention the following ten: (.tfl. t.:II~\ -ii'5 L il'"? t~". missing.Efj~~ (oyo-sugaku) applied mathematics **ttli.:t~{iiJ~I.12 x 9:: 108.

.71!! ~ tans .7. I) 7J I::i3lt 7.> 19901f'.'::1t. sono shitsuryo to sokudo no seki d.I:~~t \. mote na gensoku The ratio of Protestants to Catholics in Northern Ireland is two 10 one. !lWirJ .":) -c "..piisento (e. mattaku ~e. one-third of Baltimore's are functional illiterates. -1Ji!l.> 8:. mada go-bu ni mo natte inai so desu. jl*":l"t.R$(7)~~~~. Kyo no shinbun ni yoru to. ."To san-- ~: *(7) 3 7t(7) 2 I. ri=f:1ttrJ .heL.t. (Jt$) \." one says (7) 2 sanbun no ni. ':k~n ZO koto 0 zenzen kangaete inai 0 ans 0 u suru hoho 0 shitte iru no " IJdeQ (li a devoted .. velocity"is a central principle 0: Ne!.~ / l." cf. i.lI:jItIJ~x~ L -c".~~'C."T no san-bun no '*Hn ~t!. buttai: physical object man P YSICS." The word cent" is borrowed from English as I ~. (Sino-Japanese) $ ritsu: 5. r~rJ (7).j:.ltl!f~(7)11C ~ c>(7)~!fW .> kun wa ne h .. anodelISwtrhat learnt when I ec onsI 5t bu 1%. ~ < . 7. ~J wari is used by itself in the sense of "share. t.j<)v7--tTm~17) 35t(7) 1 Ii.(7)fl. -t-(7)'iii::li:. " 10 IU no wa.~ / l. 13.. 7." -1*Ar.l~~utrons .. t undO-ryi5: momentum • shitsuryo: mass velocity + seki: product o sokuda: Suzuko-san wa.. rate. ~.(7) k'il11? Genshi-butsuri-gaku to iimasu to wat h ~ t: It -z: To.~\. no go un no yon hodo 0 0 tayori ni ikite imasu ga shimete iru no wa chis~ OSt life forms on arth ChlSso: nitrogen !tmosPherecons1sts 01~nd on oxygen. r!IW (7)~J)J:iit I. but four-fifths of the t lalSeki: volume ogen. . 7.6f~ ~ -c "..> ±:!l&:1lt t iJ! 1t. -C"'~"'-t.lj!mJl?L·89~A a \.. to gettj 1. "of three parts.. c ..:_ ~ _ .l:r~ 1I.'"j3Y:~ Iv(7):itjlH:~$~~"( That"the momentum of an object .. 7.T~ ~I.j-' *5 *.j:lIlIc 1..:)d.OOOa week. t SIJ!ISO: oxygen The number of Japanese supporting the movement to abolish. ' c usei-s I. single-celled) ~cro 1010glSt.LlI Eat'.:j."cfJ 1."T . 5t-fiJ: bunshi-bunbo).. in contrast10 10.3 {<f.f1:.$I. ratio.." "denshi" no If you mention atomic physi all 11m' w was small about protons . in Japanese. tal punishment reportedly still stands at less than 35%. katorikku-shinja taishite ni tai ichi no wariai (hiritsu) desu. 0 12.j:. In 1990 the rate of illegitimate births in America rose to . an apparently doesn't give a thought .> (7)iJ' t..''''''1n:(7)55t I ~~~ljj~I:~~-C"'1TiJf Chikyano hotOnd~ 4 11 ~.g..a hs~ltte tru no wa koto dake desu. ~~-r/.l:26% I:_t.. 11 According to today's newspaper.. l1... IZU no sanbun no ni wa suiso nb '. bi . As a unit of measurement.suiso: hydrogen P s ydrogen and one part oxygen.. fJ. c i!Jl:0 (7)fl+ \.> (7)I. order is reversed. ucthof ~tsmass and its ."T 0 iii "Butt~i no undO-ry? wa. two. 6. -c 2 M 1 (7)~J.sa un no ichi wa sanso desu. i'f. kodomo no toki ni naratta "yoshi " }JSh! g.. lIlgsrepf(XIU wonder whether he even knows how huL ""bo: ai gl ceo .: -t-1 \. nyiiton-butsuri-gaku no chiishi ki e aru desu. boruchimoa-shimin wa. wari means 10%. isshukan goju-man-en zenbu tsukatte shimaimashita.sanjii-ni piisenio 32%).: C i'L'~~~!IW$:l"t':lt e. a:RPRiIt*l: J: 7. 0 Water onsistsof two art h .iJt IJ i k4sZ~" [ltai na bi-seibutsu-gakushn da kedo..f.{_-C"'~"'Gl'" YIlIrrada. I~.76 Science and Technology Science and Technology 77 Kita-airurando no purotesutanto-shinja wa. 7.j:. so that instead of "two-thirds. IIIan be~g IIlarried I "u.lInadalra.:o no wari de otiisan no isano Suzuko squandered all the money she inherited from her fatherIt the rate of¥500.but he's totally one- lllay be Amerika ni okeru sen-kyuhyaku-kyuju-nen no nijuroku-piisento ni agarimashita.t.j:~~t \.> (7). 3 5t(7) 1 1. fEJf1J(7)~. Goo 'as ~!bo-teki n:~i:~ ningen . 7 j.g.: .-1 \. bIn e ceu feeding 9. ~ 6" ~ -c ".I:*~*. Fractions (7t~ bunsu) are expressed in English as tor/denominator (5tr .'1 Lt..s th od .e. kino-teki-hi-shikiji-sha da so desu."To 1.> c. IHit ' ~U).> IJ i it ~iJt."T 1*fl* 0 ' M taiseki de kiiki no S~butsu wa sanso so desu.mt-f4WJ}J$ C i§ '" 1 T c. 1 t':3~J57tl:Ht Shikei no haishi-undii 0 shiji-shite iru nihon-jin wa.O(7)--.1 if. 8. 4-8 (7)~~':J: 7.ra'50JJp:J(7)~J\.

1becanine family [Canidae] includes dogs. ~. group c'O)iJJ~'i~ig_-z"~ ~.. has become a geololfwelOOkbe fliJ'Lt)}iJ' ~ i -tt Ivo Uchi no neko ga neko-ka neko-zoku.-Cit' i To b1u-kD ni wa.~.Zli. jt. slate of aqueous rock.~~~O)~. . * tennen-shigen: t h6fu: rich natural resources Much of the task of science. karuishi wa kasei-gan. In fact. tennen-shigen no na roshia-kyowa-koku ni fukai kyomi 0 motte imasu.fi... ~Ji1IJ. 'tl k ~ -?t: (7)Ii.. :.:1tim. Some" word elements to be mentioned in that regard are: of 'f# (kai) r~(man) phylum realm 1<JiX:. ng gist. and foxes. nenbangan wa suisei-gan.q (7'1-\'-1:/ ~..ond earth and its resources w:Y~-kel) and interstellar space S all need at least a rudimentary (£r.:. nani-shu lea wa wakarimasen. t!i~. '-l.g.ljft-z" ~ Ii 1Iai. B /uJkkin-zoku "platinum group. l v'.fi.~JiX:..-c {91J. ft inu-ka "Canidae.R.'i..\!I.!iH:1Iti. 0 ~ (zoku) family. listS for the Latin names 15. birds and are warmblooded. wolves. ta: _ y.1 )t#~:'. wh 0 was interest ed in pumice an d lSS. Professor Hashimoto. om the time she was a child. We divi~e rocks into three categories: igneous (volcanic). kitsune nado mo Jukumarete imasu.l:.Q'::' c li:m -?-c v. among English-speaking sciengiven to families and genera.'~rd] seikanlexical knowledge to the solar system . honyii-rui wa teion-dobutsu desu. ~~~Jf~_9:l_~~ Coldblooded animals include fish and reptiles. okami. Pumice is an example of igDeOhiUS rock. one oUght expect the Japanese names to use Sino-Japanese terminology.t ~risingly .U1.fili*JiX:. consists of sorting and categorizing. 7J<JiX:.no toki ka~a karuishi ya kokuyii-seki ni kyom! 0 motte ita ni natta no wa. 16. kasei-gan. as can be seen here.) 'i~JiX:. cf.!:.\!I.*~~-? lOde. group.v' i T -::> Seiiai-gakusha de wa arimasen ga.p. a minerologist. Tatoeba. true to the etymology name..78 Science v'r"t~lU:~ lV'. hensei-gan to iu mittsu no shuw rui ni wakete imasu. kongo-seki (daiyamondo) wa hensei-gan desu. bas a deep interest ill Russian Republic with its wealth of natural resources.*O)~Mt ~ 0 ~ 7 v.. suisei-gan. Even ~oug~ I'm not an ecologist.fi. ::Jft.~:OI.fi-z"To Gonseki a. and metamorphic. *O)~miJq. I should like to know *~ and Technology Science and Technology 79 Note that ~ ~oku.Q S (7)iJfJIEL 1t'1:.q~JlllfUil:~. fIJ.'0 . .Rr!. 'butsu-kal ka dObutsu-kai lea bunrui suru no ga murukashii el utsu mo aru." 18. roten-saiko ni yoru 0 shoku ga mada iikii mondai ni natte iru lea do ka omoimasu. ~~ c·~ -?.ficv'-? 3-?O)fl~I:5tiJ'tl. and diamonds of metarnorP crock.:~"!n't. . ordinary native words pedominate. :. . 17.:::a.." ~ Knowing the preference * roten-saikii: strip-mining t d6j6-shinshoku: soil erosion caused by strip-mining soil erosion is still a big problem. inu.*~ t -?lV' i To Kiibutsu-gakusha no hashimoto-sensei wa.f-::J J. ni zoku-shite iru shitte imasu ga.1jI::Jt1:. U""'ishi: pumice (lit light stone) (zoku) genus ~ (shu) species ~ (rui) a cover term for class and order (cf.q·'i1<JiX:.fi. jushigi de wa L. I know that our cat belongs to the cat genus (felis catllS) Felidae family.Q 7. 1JI. ~-z"To Gyorui ya hachii-rui nado no dobutsu wa hen 'on de ari.n'j}J~W-iJ':$}~T. ~or3anisms do not fall neatly into the categories of vegetable 21 g om and animal kingdom. though they are written in katakana. san ga chishitsu-gakusha -c v' t: 71 ~~ lviJf:li!! 1. ~~ shLirui variety") ~w. obSidian fr' M· W' h t. but I don't know its species.1' c'-) iJ':m ~ t:»» c . PiTo ~ (rna) class § (moku) order H (ka) family ji (sedimentary). e." which l~ used to refer to chemical groups. "genus" should not ~ confused with ~ "tribe. aqueous 19.~ ~ ~.

_tQ)/N~." but moons of other planets are called 1$.:: 0) Ii.l." Earth's moon is. of . lit. I:.6~." they are called mE£ ryiisei or V1E. • mtimei suru: to name t 1rUW: orbit Ant amerikano koseibutsu-gakusha ni yoru to. fire star) *£ (mokusei) Jupiter (lit. salki.000 of which have been identified and named. . and Pluto reflect mythology. Venus. "floating star When these enter the earth's atmosphere as meteors.. and Friday correspond to "Mars-day. WI 'hbe':& we When was a child. ~il·. logically fj it gesshoku. of course.f1. . ~ J -c. kyoryu ga yaku ~okusen-man-nenmae ni zetsumetsu shita no wa... water star) ~£ (kinsei) Venus (lit.: ~ "? tc.!fm~~':. and water __ ". ~~'c~iaIJ ~.. are based on East Asia's five elements-wood.iltr': ~iltt It. I) 7J Q)E1:. Sun")." and 8 it nisshoku "solar "sun eating. §:k~~Jl:fi .:f:> IJ iTo r--c It' ~ ·30001lJ. sen-kyuhyaku-gajilshichi-nen ni ga uchiageta "supiitoniku'' deshita.n! ikimono ga Bob! node wa nai ka to suisoku-sarete ua go.") The names for Neptune..:t . "UJIU•• '.. The asteroids.6' r:lt!!." "Jupiter-day.:E£ (meio-seiy Pluto (lit. Still. "\0 • jigoku: hell. lit.more than 3. :r~0)~' ~1:lIb.RJ:£ (ten'o-sei) Uranus (lit.:E£ (kaio-sei) Neptune (lit. i>~ 7 . launched by the Viet Union in 1957.. recourse to technical dictionaries is. -CIt'~~£I:~~!fm." L t.£ 23. terrible dragon) l<t~umeISu: extinction • shorotsu: coUision 24. ACcording certain American paleontologists.:t~ Meimei sarete iru sanzen-ko ijo no shii-wakusei wa.. kyodai na lIISe/ciga jimen ni shiitotsu shita kekka da so desu.J: ~ z . as in 8~lt "sunburn.~·J Ii t't~. are called mE£1* ryiisei-tai..:fjf~. the ~~ry": dinosaur (lit.£li. . 1ft. Their Sino-Japanese names are re~ember. correspond to names of the days of the week. sC. the dinosaurs to ~ame extinct as the result of a gigantic meteorite crashing IOto earth's surface. heavenly king star) ~. earth star) ." English Saturday wise originally referred to "Saturn's Day.6!It' ~ Q)"t"i~ 22.lllllfJJ Q)AIwr£ ~ero wa." :im-Fa~£ "telecommunications satellite. commonly referred affectionately as 13 fj ~ otsuki-sama "Mr." day. Jupiter. earth (soil). fj tsuki.j£ eisei "satellites." The word for "lunar eclipse" is.e.:E t L -c}(£ t *£ lasei to mokusei no kidii na aida ni arimasu. i.I.ientists interested in learning Japanese for work in specIalized fields.6{n-l? . and Saturn. the following representative list of terms III a Widely used middle school science textbook should =» Ii. shu to shite (J)fJLl! Q)ra. kumo ni owaret~ tru kins~1 . €t.::o Illrulb~aiSho no jinko-eisei 25. Romance languages will know that Tuesday..are found mainly between the orbits of Mars and Saturn. Mercury. .::~*t. there was speculation that there mig t oncloud-enshrouded Venus. the hot part of . So d's first artificial satellite was the Sputnik.f1. 1957$1: 'J l:::." and "Venus-day.A.6\. or ing stars. sea-king star) ~." There are three words for "sun" or "solar": native 8 hi (or 13 8~ ohi-sama "Mr. gold star) )(£ (leasei)Mars (lit. Those of the inner five. ~£ jinko-eisei "artificial satellite. Buddhist hell 7k£ (suisei) Mercury (lit.. essential.:L r . ter appears in such compounds as 8 iii 8 nichiyo-bi B i)t nichibotsu "sunset.- ~ ~n d any part of them strike earth. fire. "small planets. fluctuating star)." Meteoroids. small pieces of matter i1l space. Moon.wakuhyomenga "jigoku" hodo atsui koto ga akiraka ru natta.:: r. Uranus.::.f1. wood star) ±£ (dosei) Saturn (lit. L t. here referring to *~lt!!li\t ennetsu-jigoku.A-.n sono .. lit.J. Identical in pronunciation to 7k£ suisei "Venus" is .6'fY'j." d.J60007JiJ:. sei "comet. t .6~:I&1iii .: -f -j "t'-t 0 *~ J: -. Hades-king star) The Japanese term for asteroids or planetoids is simply £ shiiwaku-sei.6{f. they become Iljl:fi inseki 'tes" . hades. Thursday.ili:-fQ)~£Q)*1iii." and Sino-Japanese taiyo and 8 nichi-. nokodomono toki. beginning with the planets sei. but recently it has become clear that thesurface of the planet is a virtual inferno.-c v\t.80 Science and Technology Science and Technology 81 of the heavenly bodies.I ~or . gold.

t (tanso) . The viewthat nuclear power plants should not be increased until the questionof their safety is resolved has been gaining ground.j({.iundo-enerugiy kinetic energy ~tE(7).~ ft"¥: (kagaku) chemistry MI#: kot~i) solid ( il#> (ekitai) liquid ~ #> (kilai) gas :It!!~ (jinetsu) terrestrial Jf.){~~1?-C~ 1 Lt.i:i. A few have already tive sentences above.. stink stuff) . ~~~ tbutsuri-gakuy physics appeared in the ~1* (buttai) physical body./ (neon) neon '\ I) ? 1>. (den'atsuy voltage ~M (denkai) electrolysis (denji-ryoku) electromagnetic force 'lltVIE (denryu) electrical currentC'llt)m:o ([den-Jjishaku) (electro)magnet . 28. t. 1Jj(.. ~1J (denryoku) electrical power ~Ff.I:.¢.::r1J96'i1PJT*I.:o 7j: HI A/lzen·sei mandai 0 kaiketsu sura made.(enerugl) energy ~ (gensht) atom f If-tt (genshi-kaku) atomic 5i-f (bunshl) molecule it). Whena bus comes to a sudden stop. (genso) elements nucleus 'IIm1J fiLflt.(dansei no enerugii elasticity ~fifiI.t.*~1.)ff!f\t'o Slliomizu wa mamizu yon gyoko-ten ga hikui. ~~tt(7)r~'~~ 1ltECm (kansei[-ryokuJ) inertia 1ltEtl£tJL tkansei-teikov inertial resistance ii'L.t. JL? -c v' J.(ichi-enerugl) potential energy lIth.1J ikyiishin-ryokui centripetal force 1<.¢.l:~~ ~ H{v'v'cV'?~~i..~ _ (heryumu) helium (ri + u -+ ryu) . )v '¥ . genshi-ryoku-hatsudenno silowafuyasanai h6 ga ii to iu iken ga tsuyomatte kimashita. • hatsuden-sho: power plant Jjj(..mitl3( (kasoku-do) acceleration ~itl3( (gensoku-do) deceleration 1J (chikara) power.¢.1J (fiiryoku) wind force ilt1J (haryoku) wave force ~¥91J (chOseki-ryoku) tidal force.i: (yuten) melting point (suiso) hydrogen (lit. caloric force m1J (jiryoku) magnetic force M#(T J. sour stuff) :~ (chisso) nitrogen (lit..i: (gyoko-ten) freezing point iI!. tatte iru jokyaku wa kansei ni yotte mae nt taoreru. (hoso) boron • (Tin) Phosphorus ~ :~ Ill:.I.1J (enshin-ryoku) centrifugal force . water stuff) carbon (lit. _ . suffocating stuff) ~Shaso) brOmide (lit..)v '¥ .f. object ~X (busshitsu) matter itl3( (sokudo) velocity :t.! ~ (Y6so) iOdine . coal stuff) ~ (sanso) oxygen (lit.1J (atsuryoku) pressure r¥1J (juryoku) buoyancy 27.tl:: J.I. geotherm (also prCIDOI~J1OIIIl:. 1 't'. Salt waterhas a lower freezing point than fresh water.l:'l:ltE(7)1J I: J: ? -Ciifjl: no chikara are passengers lfi:1J (juryoku) gravity Ff. )v '¥ . .::r1J (genshi-ryoku) chinetsu) nuclear power heat..f.I.82 Science and Technology Science and Technology 83 be of general use. )v '¥ .Uli$l)j(J: t) ~mI. standing thrownforward by the force of inertia.. 1 ~ttoo /loSuga kyu ni to'!l'lru to.1J (karyoku) thermal power. force (read pounds) -ryoku in Sino-Japanese c0m- iIlll(ondo) temperature jll (shitsudo) humidity III (nOdo) concentration Ifll (mitsudo) density 26. '\A iI!~.I.

~. bacteria (more colloquial is l. staining body) *lllIl?!.I:.f../J 'n. (saibO) cell J. J:ii[11::-r I) ? A (Nael).: t.5t~ isaibo-bunretsuy cell division f. ferns 1t~:5t:tJi' (kagaku-bunseki) -{* /' chemical analysis (ion) ion 29.I) '71. ft~~-C-T tg* to 0 (NaCl).1I tansan-gasui (san to enki) acids and bases I) (arukari) tlt§ (seishoku) reproduction fft1~~ (yusei-seishoku) sexual reproduction ~ . (Ita) leaf . ibaryiimu) barium (ri + u -+ ryu) '77". -C-To i7'J.Y:~. :1111:. I£.>.1)4 ocrence ana Technology T I. sanso ga hoka no busshitsu to kag6 sum Tatoeba. (io) sulfur :£.:i::. enka-natoryiimu 10 no kagii-butsu desu.1* (keiso) manganese 7 }v::f /' (arugon) argon silicon *'~~ deoxyribonucle- 1til-~ (kago-butsu) chemical compound WfC1t~ (ryuka-tetsu) iron sulfide ~1t~ (sanka-tetsu) iron oxide W~ 7J I) tseisan-kariy potassium cyanide WfC~ (ryusan) sulfuric acid :I. (aruminyiimui aluminum(ni + u --+ nyu) 7J I) '71. breeding acid carbon monoxide carbon dioxide (also -~1t~* =~1t~* ~ t :1.kari combination (7)-C-. )1. a compound and chlorine.u "bell") ~ (tetsu) iron jJiJ (do) copper /~ I) '71. ~ '7 1.I) '7 At T t (7) wa mOdoku na no de.l:~t. Rust. i. (maguneshiimuy magnesium (shi '7 /' jf /' (mangan) *i!l (suigin) silver ni harimasen. forexample. aka-sabi wa omo ni sanka-tetsu to 1(kuki) stem }\1. futsii wa te ~ ~If. (natoryiimui Science and Technology 85 tli* (enso) ~~ sodium tri + u --+ ryu) chlorine (aen) zinc to kilro narimasu.e.l:.'[~ (ensan) hydrochloric nucleotide "heredity") ~l!. (karyumu) potassium (ri + u --+ ryu) 7J }v ~ '7 1. it is not easily available . Sanka ~1tl.f.>.~ (saibO-maku) cell membrane mll?!. I-? i ~ I.g-*T ~.I? ~ ~ iTo t :m -f--hli:!/m ~ (kinrui) fungi (saikin) bacilli. fttjl. ~*~{ttl!(7)~~ t11::. tsumari natoryiimu enso Tablesalt is sodium chloride (NaCl). consists mainly of ferric oxide and ferric hydrox- 7 }v ~ z: '7 1.$: (senshoku-tai) chromosome (lit.>. (karushumu) ~ (kin) gold calcium (shi + u --+ shU) ~%go:chemical StistJII.iden mll?!. su(.7'j: ttiml.l:.l.:t1~~ (musei-seishoku) asexual reproduction alkali -It (shokubutsu) plants rp~ (chuwa) neutralization [+ suru] 1t~OCID tkagaku-hannii) che~ical reaction 1t~~1t(kagaku-henka)chetnicalchange iJi (sorui) algae t'i~ (kokerui) lichen r:t!i~ (shida-rui) Pteridophyta. iii! (gin) mercury jj (suzu) tin (not to be confused with j'.'[£ 7 Iv 7J (issan-ka-tansoy (nisan-ka-tanso) ~1(Izassei) development.I:~11::i!k *~11::~ t.m (soibO-heki) cell wall mll?!.>. Nt.A ~ i -It Ivo Shokuenwo.l::f. 7 t- iftl~i- *T I-' (nukureochido) (iden-shi) gene (cf. As potaSsiumcyanide is a deadly poison.l:. (genkei-shitsu) protoplasm generation.W-¥:(seibutsu-gaku) biology 7':t ~ ~ I) (deokishiribo-kakusan) ic acid (DNA) of sodium + u -+ shil) WIt.i U·I..fv' (shuslzi-shokubutsu) ii baikin) seed-bearing plants ~ (ne) root wa.>. ()lidationis the combining of oxygen and another substance.>.

the dolphin and the whale are not fish but mam- II (ai) indigo plant ~ (tade) polygonum.hi ~a.!Il.I:tfH.. n~~ married an arachnologist. skin) #D:*"ilii!!l?o(kaimen-dobutsui Porifera (lit.U1J!IWJ (kyokuhi-dobutsui Echinodermata (lit. I was unaware that spiders do not oog to the insect family. scratching vermin) itJ. kumogaku-sha to kekkon suru made kumo ga U . iruka to kujira wa gyorui de wa naku honyuUnlike utsu desu.!Il. yoshi) reed.~m(chorui) Aves (birds) ~ (matsu) pine ~ (sugi) cedar ~/lm (kusu[nokiJ) camphor :tmJ (yanagi) willow ~~ (icho) gingko ~ (kin) paulownia 1lt. ) (nantai-diibutsu) Mollusca (lit.jU'))!ft"Z'To diJ~o chigatte. ~ C~m~i-ltIv"Z'Lt.1l!ftn{*~. :m%~!l?o lfJzf*tb!l?o iliUEii!!l?o ikankei-dobutsu) Annelida .li. The microorganism most familiar to students is probably the amoe0 ba. 71':~:t" t *fi$T ¢ i"Z' 7 1':n~.g. arbores .'M. smartweed ~!l?o (dobutsu) animals ~wffU1J!l?o (mu-sekitsui-diibutsui invertebrates Jjj(1:~!l?o (gensei-dobutsuy Protozoa ~!IU'h!l?o (kocho-dobuts~) Coelenterata (lit.. holloW testine) ~J.ft (kusabana.li.-:>-c.ft (hana) flower. joint .m (gyorui) Pisces .!Jl (hacba-rui) Reptilia (lit.!:ltJjH:~ 1. bulrush 34.x. nchu-ru.~ )v-'¥ . using solarenergy.l < ~ I? n"""( ~\ ¢tl'It1:..:r. blossom chlorophyl J'tfl-JiX: (ko-gosei) photosynthesis ~~~ (yoroku-soy ~.:J3.86 Science and Technology Science and Technology 87 .l (hasu) lotus IJJ (ran) orchid iii (fuji) wisteria illi~!Jl (honyu-ruz) Mammalia 32. j\:. . 33."Z'T GDkusei mottomo yoku shirarete iru bi-seibutsu wa. e Illalth shark.I. -{ )V7J U5Hi~JJi"Z'li7J: IlfIj. shokubutsu ga taiyii-enerugi 0 mochiite denpun 0 0 tsukurukatei desu.J-.:o G':.ltJ (kashiwa) oak lf~fh#J til (kaede) maple *i (tsubaki) camellia ff( (sakura) cherry (sekitsui-dobutsu) vertebrates (fish) jiIij~!Jl (ryosei-rui) Amphibia ~.i'. osoraku ni amibadesu.!ft li. ** (hagi) bush clover ltlilf (shObu) iris 'It (ashi.of I? < 7 . soft bOdY (sessoku-dobutsui Arthropoda (lit. hollyhock :...!Jl (konchu-rui) Insecta tII1rJ(!Jl (kumo-rui) Arachnida 1fIll'i!Jl (kOkaku-rui) Crustacea W* (jumoku) trees.~ ffl ~\ """(iJ&:~ ~f'F¢~f!"Z'T Kb-g6sei wa. ~cii. """( ~\ 7J:~\-:.p. soka) flowering plants ~ (kiku) chrysanthemum ~ (aoi) mallow. ni zoku-shite inai koto 0 shirimasen deshita. Photosynthesisis the process whereby plants produce starch.Ef.. sea cotto~) m3f~~!l?o (henkei-dobutsu) Plathelminthes (ht shape) < s.

the more numerous its laws. ~J!OC~ L. we moderns certainly live in evil times! As ~ put it.Ir~ < ~ J..(/)i*~:I. if turned around. and Regulations rt HO. Translated into Japanese.Chapter VI Law and Justice Corruptissimaepublica plurimae leges. confinement. it should proVide basics for making one's way (in Japanese) through the ~ legally complex world. Buddhist are ~ Examples more relevant to our immediate concerns e follOwing: 89 be . Ordinances." exY~?d the ann of the law to include "method. so the Japanese have taken theirs from Chi- Laws. Once again. 11 C' i. this becomes i*-% itk~ipl: L -c. Hiirei masumasu akiraka ni shite. wrote the Roman hisr torian Tacitus: 00* :I.I{~fi"t nlf"t J." To Lao Tze. these are predomibo Yof Smo-Japanese origin.O)1l'l?! J: ! Kono fida. is attributed a sayingwhich. Orders. to sono kanshii yo! "Oh these times and their manners!" ~le this chapter will make of no one a lawyer. for much as the English have ~owed their legal vocabulary from' Romance sources fIese~Ch and Latin)." If all this is true.: (/)~ft C i. 0 tempora. 0 mores! or . we begin with a few ~~al buil~ing blocks. As in other chapters. ~ RlTSU· % REI· ~Ij SOKU ~mant!c range of i* hii. Ihzoku oshi "To specify the laws is to multiply the bandits. Tacitus' senpai by some seven centuries. sounds somewhat similar: i* ti!~~~~1'f.. whose meaning in Ancient 1'be (*Ptap) was originally "constraint. Kokka daraku sureba suru hodo sono horitsu ga oku naru ga 'The more corrupt the state.

$ 'Ii h6ji does not refer to legal affairs but rather to a Buddhist memorial service. My impression is that the regional police turn a blind eye to ly parked cars.J: firitl!i! (shakuchi-hO) the Land Lease Act itl! ~~~~~i! A:~$ -j . . ifj:li.90 Law and Justice Law and Justice 91 ttcW:) (hO[ritsuj) law tt% (hOm) legislation." In the following. Kono chihi5 no keisatsu wa.'" chances of their passage are virtually nil." but my mother is a zealous supporter movement to protect and preserve it. f)c. '" oshitsukeru: to force upon ~rS~lI::tt tdokusen-kinshi-ho) the Anti-Monopoly Act ~~~~:&lfj}OO_~~~~$ (gaikoku-kawase-oyobi-gaikokuC ekl-kanrz-ho) the Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade ontrol Act ct It~A~~1t (tatemono-hogo-ho) the Building Preservation 5.!l!)~ (hO[ri. haha wa. the Corrupt Practices Prevention Act Sofu wa. Thus. ttm (hochi) tt}f. 1lJi:R:'" ~ -It Ivo n~1lJ1i~tt Ii Ii t Iv 1:''-' ~ JfIKJ·)i! (kei{ji-]hO) criminal law fi!.tIlJi:li. along with statutes and legislative acts. kaketsu sareru kana-set II hotondo arimasen. laws tt~ (hOan) legislative proposal $CJ. In the case of ~ it s/Wh6. tttf~ hOtetsu-gaka ttl1fCW-) (hOso{-kai]) (the world of) the legal profession tt~lIl (homu-shO) the Ministry of Justice The multiple uses of #:. #:. ~1~0)~$~ f*I!H:¥jllftlt I? nt.ii$lt:f. kOso-leai de yiimei na jinbutsu desu. !l!fR:n~$~~ Wtl:l L -r >b." which.fi: ~ lvii.~x*. kenpo-yogo-undii no nesshin na shadesu. One of these is as the Chinese ~n tation of Sanskrit dharma "cosmic law.:. not to laws regarding contraception.~Hi .1.(iJ)i! (min{ji-hO]po) civil law lIti! (gunpo) military law ~Ui! (kaisha-hO) corporation/company iHlJi! (horei-hO) case law -fi:HT~tt (juhO-koi-hO) tort law l!li! (kokuhO) nationallaw(s) I!llmi! (kokusai-hO) international law law Yato ga hiian 0 teishutsu shite mo.. 4. context alone will determine whether the meaning is "commercial law" or "way of doing business." to shite imasu ga.. (hOtei) constitutional government court of law -%$ (gohO) legality )i$ (ihO) illegality rrtt (rippO) lawmaking. Grandfather denounces Japan's postwar Constitution as by the Americans.~W-'Z"."-t 0 Akimoto-san wa.t-"t'-t 0 jflj~IDf:ID:tt ikeiji-sosho-hiis Criminal Procedure Act ilf~ffiMJ~:/jll::l* thakai-katsudo-boshi-ho) the Anti-Subversive Activities Act 1HH1ill::1t tbaishun-biishi-ho) the Anti-Prostitution Act f!5l!i1:ll1i:r-tt tosnoku-boshi-ho'. ~'iHi~JltJJO)AA'l. Hm~ L -c. Another problem is the difference between "law" and "method." 1 i'n{. ~~~:Il1iJ!~~ (chih6-komuin-hO) Local Officials Act (mayaku-torishimari-hO) the Narcotics Control (hanmisha-yobo-kosei-hoy the Corrective eformauve Treatment of Criminals Act . -ho is used to designate categories of the law.oj: ~iI{ f.) ~ . . ho make for some unpredictability 'n the meaning of compounds. i:!. legislation i5]$ (shihO) administration of justice ~tt (kenpo) constitution 1. principle.]gaku) jurisprudence.:"'J t~." referring to Buddhism or Buddhist teachings. Mr. 2. which pertains to birth control methods. is crucial in such terms as ~izf$ hinin-ho. ihii-chiisha 0 mokunin shIre ki ga shimasu.(J):il!rIJ 0).. cf. for example.. '" kaketsu: approval. Akimoto is a well-known person in Japanese legal circles. i:!.(f15~ Nlwn. though seemingly minor. adoption 3. Even if the opposition parties submit legislative proposals. sengo no kenpo 0 "beikoku ni oshitsukerareta. All are equal before the law.(J)litr"t'Ii)JAnEJL~"t'-t 0 Ho no mae de wa bannin ga byodi5 desu.

ft (dotoku-ritsu) moral code &ft*±~ (hanrippii-shugi) antinornianism « Greek anti + norrws"law") ritsu extends beyond the social or politi- -UVUIo . ridicule JUWaku suru: tempt.. ~TiB!: . Shlho no sanken-bunritsu no mokuteki wa kokumin no hosho suru koto desu.:~.92 Law and Justice Law and Justice 93 I±l AOO'm'J!L& U' • .. .j:tcJi)lH~~~~$I:fil~ll. {f~ onritsu "tune.. "C"T .g.1L$ .0) § B~Hi. Lt.:c--l:fO)~$O)£*-C:T "Jik/caj" wa moie no rippo no kihon desu..$~fJil(.. discipline J:l[f. "order.:d.I.1L. established law if:tftt (jubun-ritsu) unwritten law Jt~{'f (ogon-ritsu) the Golden Rule ~ :kJiJfl~~~~tE 6. U~. okusan ga wakai koshi ni yiiwaku sare tede shita toki." re.1) jJ . . 0 ~ senntsu "melody" (cf..lin c. OO~O)EI EI3 :a-1:l~'dlfT. Shariah (Islam) atlf. =. < -It J:J c. 0 m6. ill=ft L tz. 7. he denounced her as a slut. '" sanlren-bunritsu: separation of powers c. My philosophy professor was wont to quote Nietzsche and ridicule moral codes. An historical significance is ~% ritsuryo/ritsurei. young lady" and %.:'':: Amer!"'!. is to ensure the liberty of the people. command" which as Ancient Chinese *lieng . Torah (Judaism). . a product of a top American law b specialist ill tort law. Words "All things whatsoever ye would that men should do to ~ou.p. My Y01:1n¥er." Ancient Chinese vliuet.~ Straren an'-goto rna hito ni seraren to omou koto wa hito ni mo sono to iu kotoba wa. PJ~(7) lv~f.:'. . If'tEfr~~v. ' The p~~s~ of the separation of powers=-Iegislative.:~:a-It'-:> b ~ ~'t 12. meter.:t(7)-C: Jtt." 10. also the Ten Buddhist Precepts 9.. kiibun da to iu iken ga arimasu.:_no barshun-boshi-ho gojiiroku-nen deshita.:o ga seiritsu shita no wa.~~rity .!l: (gunritsu) martial law. Bo~ no tetsugaku no kyoju wa. deta ototo wa.. e. ~ oo:soku: penal regulations mokeru: establish. u. but when his wife was seduced by a young lecturer and ran away from home.::"' c. liAI: iTo b -f0).lf.. kanojo 0 fushidara na onna da to hinan shita. senl-kyiiIrYI_ cal sense of law to include musical and poetical form.$~f!f!.t.. 8*0)7G~j!jj!l::. discipline. 1956~-C: Lt.. prominent in Japanese no later than the beginning of the century. r+~J Ii.1L Nlho." and Ml~ inritsu "rhythm. ffiiJ. : a::akeru: sneer (jeer) at. 7 .:a-~'t~~. thereby predating by several hundred years the duction into English of Old Norse lagu l> law]. . Like Greek nomos. "iigon-ritsu" to yobaremasu. niche 0 in 'yo shite dotoku-ritsu 0 ':)T." is used as a prefix in such polite expressions as reljo "your daughter.lO)tf$o)~~Ii. :a-51Jfl L -r).: tv'? ~j!~f~ IJ iTo Kokkai ga danjo-koyo-kikai-kinto-ho ni bassoku no de.iI25EtEshutsunyu-koku-kan nanmin-nintei-hO) ognition Law Immigration Control and It fu e gee $"ift (seibun-ritsu) statute.-gasshu-koku no kenpo ga tokucho to s~ru rippO.·'v. _ _ no O)~ 1) - "tE$~:a-lli 0 t':5(W:. do ye even so to them" are known as the "Golden Rule. OO~~fJ.:~{. r1i~~J 1hegoto/cuseyo" ~ 1IIa.g-*OO O)*. Japan's Anti-Prostitution religious precepts (Buddhist) Ilt#.!l: (kiritsu) order..:tc 't ~ L t: G ~:tct': c.fl'i'U:: T.e:HfoJMiI:~~ ~ nt*1:l1 L t. Ch. ~~ ttsumn azakette ita ga. (rippo) = kairitsu (Buddhist).:O) Ii. := saretai ~t" .I. the term laws and ordinances of the Nara and Heian periods. juhii-kiji-/aij Amerika no erito-hogaku-bu mon-ka desu..' .: 1) jJ (danjo-koy6-kikai-kinto-h6) the Employment Opportunity Law (men and women) J&ft(kairitsu) . Wi. reisoku "your c. . and judicial=-a characteristic of the Constitution of the States../cemd'alli As the D!et did not put any teeth into the Equal Employment porturuty Law.t AI:-It G nlv'" U~t..@.. 1tE~ Law was passed in 1956. rother. martial discipline "N'\Y~l~Ii.IX.-1-:r.:: ~ ritsu "law. seduce Il. lay down • ji/ckai: the Ten Commandments.. 4). 8. The Ten Commandments are the foundation of Mosaic Law.. some are of the opinion that it is a mere paper." This helps to explain why a ~~ffili clWritsu-shi is not an "investigative legalist" but rather a "piano bIDer.

~T Joseiga kurabu no kai'in ni natte wa ikenai to iu kisoku wa kangaenaosu beki da to kaicho ni iken 0 iimashita.:Q)EJj:l1!!""(. fourteenth century) ~f eft ." but in %tJC reijo.R*f.: ""('~ ""( v' J.l. tiJf. wa !fensoku.~h""("'i .~t-=c~~I.:1:I:1v""('1t' i U':o Marukosu firipin daitiiryo ga sen-kyuhyaku-nanajuni-nen ni W gen-rei 0 shiita toki.If!:." read as either ritsuryii or ritsurr(. The first derives from E J... ningen no horitsu yori zutto seimyi5 ni dekite no iru to omoimasu. nottoru "follow. Itoldtheclub president that in my opinion the rule barring women as membersshould be reconsidered.::.fjhl:.:o 7J --iT-1fWJ~OOJl]p:-~11iiR]%-gl±.:~. c . no ""chi: l ike nori the~he gate that leadeth into the Way to the Law may vary. inu y~. 13. * cl±I. 16... noru "utter.19'11. 7 -( 1) 1:::':/ *~'Ui:.II1J. especially Buddhist. 14. ." occurs.'. Supreme Commander of the United NatioIII Forces in Korea. regulation. but in fact the number of such pet owners has recentlyincreased.:r )v-<'~ Ito (Douglas) MacArthur. .j(:. pertinence. law.:o Makkiisii zai-chosen-kokuren-gun saiko-shirei-kan wa. essage of enlightenment remains the same." cf. Keeping ogs or cats in this apartment complex is.*% Hitlt' t.~nnto (a rule). the meaning is not "fine condition" "your letter" but rather "warrant." tShingoshid-wakashii New Later Collec'!bough eanmgs.:e':>.." Above we also saw the historical example ct tI!:%. sen-kytlhyaku-gojidchi-nen ni toriiman-daitoryo no meirei ni somuitrJ tame.lJ(JlUc l""(. (sokuten-kyoshi) selfless devotion (lit. live up to. declare ~Ofa god or emperor). JlIj J. tue") >l~ so /:z.l+ TW. E~~n more than Sino-Japanese ho. kainin sareta.I:. ~~~~M~ .: my elder brother and his Filipina wife were living in Manila- JlIj soku "rule. i3?!.O)itJlIH±. k en.~~.. exhortations to good behav18 r<J.*4'1' (kaigen-rei) martial law *~~J{(7)1fn%I.) Nori." as in j!~%tJC J"''''IlJ-l_ "arrest warrant.IIi] (ki5soku) school regulations 1:t. Ardl 0)1*~ J: i) l' -? dU'y I.:tr:1~W7'7 "/(7)~jH.:~Je. 17. The ered by Kenkyusha suggest a broad range of mean- ... ne~ ? kau koto. submission to heaven." The second is a nominalized form of okitsu ~forth and build up.~. \\'jib . A.1.law [lay] and okite [oku "lay"].h~~ ~V~~~~ ~~fHf'i:il~~~) ffii)c~ / s~~ "!.7c(7) 7 -1 1) 1:::':/ A(7)~ ~ Ivl±7':: '71. abandoning self) LUi] (gensoku) principle ~!lJli] (kisoku) rule iil.IIi] (gokusoku) prison regulations :f." (Note the etymological resemblance een. 'flo.94 Law and Justice Law and Justice 95 son. 19511f. . con. particularly as it ~ ill personal names. cabinet order ~II%(kunrei) directive WJ%~'§ (shirei-chokani Commander-in-Chief i't~% (chOhei-rei) conscription/draft JIlt. toshite kinshi sarete tmasu ga. v' Shizen hosoku wa.:1j:-? ""(1±""H:v' c v' -j mJlljl±~X. religIOUS. an d even 1Z.1. Twonative Japanese words that should be included here are nori and okite.I':*..".lli] (hi5soku) (scientific) law No~ < J .* When Philippine President Marcos declared martial law in . it is closely associated ior.6{A'i6[i:~ < 1j:-o ""( v' i To Kono danchi de ~a.lllJ (bassoku) penal regulations ~..6q9721f. m1f~ ht. to ku (" VIr-* u s: 1..7'J t5 . Other compounds include: $% (meirei) command ~% (chokurei) Imperial edict i&% (seirei) government ordinance. ~~I': I±fii] -?""( v' J. -'t'fIB~fii]-). with one nent exception. is written with a variety of charac"'I~. okite tE has a somewhat archaic ring to it. ani to sono firipin-jin no okusan wa ra ni sunde imashita. d prohibited. i1 !::.lSI. the Way to the Law = Buddhist teachings off ri.:t. in principle. . InclUding 8j1 ku . 7 )v:J A .chi I iru-beki kado wa / kaware-domo I tsui ni wa onaji lion zoo kiku.~i§v'i It. was dismissed in 1951 for defying Presidall Truman's orders." derived from Ancient nese *tsak "conformity. .¥. The laws of nature are vastly more subtle and intricate than the lawsof men. "laws and ordinances.I.:W"'t. jtssat nz wa katte tru hito ga saikin 6ku natte tmasu. in noninitial position.

. In the end.. \i>Olicemay suspect that Mayumi was murdered by her lover. amerika-jin mindesu.:tiJ' r+». d0'9u-sei ~a kage!d-ha. kensatsugawa ni totte kettei-teki na shoko ni natta rashii." we now turn to the legal "order" (M chitsujo) itself.96 Law and Justice Law and Justice OJ7 ing: "rule.:: t 1J!<:f) I') '1 T iJ~. A unive~~ty classmate of my s~mwas once implicated in tem.·':llh' 1. "jakuniku-ky6Shoku" r~~~5.1jI. ness as) a single night's lodging and a meal should be "warded. Implicated (cf. "'(~tlH: Musukono ~~IH @=rQ)ji'i)K&~Iii§~iIR·O) O mfb I:Jl~ L.> ~~"'o Keisatsuwa. "guilt_by_association system" • kado: grounds. We begin III the courtroom. 1) Nihon-jinkara mireba.JI.J 1j IDE~ I: 1j '? t: I? L. (hOtei) court of law (also ~*ljm saiban-sho) ~*Ij (saiban) trial IDF~ (sosho) lawsuit ~*Ij-g (saiban-kan) judge (also *IJ$ hanji) ~.. defendant ruE~(shoko)evidence From the Japanese point of view.' Y6gi-shano shimon ga hoch6 ni nokotte ita koto ga. #:... p t 'ga"sha: victim "'okugeki_sha: eyewitness ~iEA(shiinin) witness ruEg (shOgen) testimony (+ suru) )j(:JflJ (kyiikei) prosecution's penalty recommendation *1ji'Jc(hanketsu) verdict . t li-r: 1. t. :.". a debt of gratitude no okite actiVItieS brought to tnal..' t: . t t. Americans are a terribly litigious people..HliJ' I?~ ~ ~ t L..::. ~'71J{1:A':~ ~ nt..~. to Sit together.l: lIikol!A. hikoku-nin to shite saiban m kakerareta koto ga arimasu ga.I~Hl:.> t 0)1J!A. mandment. :7J Ali~F1t':Wf~~~ 1joo~-e-T 0 wa hijo ni soshii-zuki na koku- Law and Order $ t ~Ff HC>TO CHITSUJO Having looked at various rather abstract words for "law. 0) m*-lc t 1J~?l. law. itl!l!. t mukuiru: to requite. to be Involved. . i T ~ .'"'(v'-i trenza suru: lit.: t '? "'( t i!t~rt. regulation.*. repay 21.UtJ t 1.:ff. 0 • yogi-slul: suspect t shinwn: fingerprints • h6chO: kitchen knife 24. iJ{. " ki mn ga higai-sha 0 hashi kara tsukiotoshita to shiigen deTber ru mokugeki-sha wa ju-su-nin imasu.as long as they have no hard evidence.' 1.:o . they can't arrest 25.. ~.::. kekkyoku muzai-hanketsu 0 ukemashita. institution.B*AiJ' G~nlj\ 7. (kenji) prosecutor ~~ (kensatsu) prosecution gIDF (kiso) indictment (+ suru) #iilA (bengo-nin) defense attorney #iil± (bengo-shi) lawyer fit'S" A (hikoku-nin) the accused.:O)-r:Ii 1j l. ~~1l!IJ . 23. statute.. The prosecutionseems to regard the fact that the suspect's fingerprintswere left on the knife as decisive evidence. charge o saiban ni kakeru: take to court.'iJ\ ~~O)IDE~1J{1j I.: t ruEg-r: ~ Q §JI!'*tl. T+': ~ '? -c 1. he was found mnoand cent.$Ij renza-sei The law of the jungle is based on the principle that the strongdevour the weak. 1. ~ are more than ten eyewitnesses who can testify that the • hCused ushed the victim off the bridge. no ter~-katsud6 ni renza shita kado de. suspicion./. mayumi ga aijin ni korosareta no de wa nai ka to utagatte iru kamo shirenai ga.'~ I') -f0)~ ~i!HmT . put on trial /ulgeki-Iul: (l~ft~~in&) extremis!~ .' -J mJlljl:£-. Janguru iru.ff~tlJi:R:(yiizai-hanketsu) verdict of guilty 1!lIi~HIji'Jc (muzai-hanketsu) verdict of innocent 1['S" (senkoku) sentence ~IDF (kOso) appeal .>rists * ongi: a favor."-7" )vO)~Ii.> < ~O)~t':o lsshuku-ippan no ongi ni mukuiru no ga yakuza no okiie da: A precept of Japanese gangsterdom is that (so small an act ofkiad..'iJ't~? -c 1. :§~*. 22. chokusetsu no shiiko ga nai kagiri 1b sono otoko 0 taiho suru koto wa dekinai.t. -fij-~O). decree..> iJ'~ Ltt. wa.:o.i." 19. t!iJjjJ1!lIi~~J#C Lt.~1!fAiJt~'j§:. to iu gensoku ni motUIJIbr .. ill 20. '" . fit'S" T 1J'lt I? nt..

: T ~ 0) A iJtiliili: II~\ Jtl. .ikoku ni taishite. tz." Still.1. under indictment for bank robbery. America's upreme Court justices are nominated by the president S andconfumed by the Senate...t0)l1!EI3I: J: ~ ~UiE!O)if~IU:~1JaT 7. fl rw The hierarchical structure of the Japanese court syfrom the highest to the lowest. armed robbery t choeki: imprisonment at forced labor Rikon suru toki.IRI1T 7. The students who were expelled from the university for re~ participate in Japanese fencing classes because of th~ gious faith have lost their lawsuit. suru no wa. hikoku.uru ~ 0 ~ watta tame taigaku-shobun 0 uketa daigaku-sei wa. nihon de wa naikaku de ninmei saremasu. The prosecution proposed fifteen years at forced labor for Tsutca Yamada. mugger . angurosakuson-hii no kiso desu.. '1 L. ~)tt~ *fflJ . -~"t"l&WF L..J:**1C~JH:m15 .J:i*JM"t'1f:1fn~n'1To ~ n. cf. t.:WEBM21li1!rI:M L.1:. '1 L. . the media typically refrr kI the accused as .. mugging ~Mi~I!A(goto-hannin) armed robber. tss/till. but in Japan they are appointed by the Cabinet. * yiiiku-ken-soshi5: child custody suit Shinkii-jo no riyu ni yori kendo no jugyo n~ sanka s. L." see "Crime and Punishment" below.98 Law and Justice 26.> 0)1. ~ wa jiigo-neti no choeki 0 kyukez shimashita. Law and Justice 99 Yiizai to hanketsu sareru made hikoku-nin' 0 muzai da to ".t. the second the "net" radi:~ reminders of the nature and destiny of ~~W* hanzaicnrrunals" in traditional East Asian society.> ~ Wj''? t: t. nusumi A1i~~~JPJf kan'i-saiban-sho 7551 (manbiki) shoplifting ~ "t ~ (sun') pickpocket(ing) ~ 'J t::. join de shOninsaremasu ga.t"t"*~ ~ tt..:Z '( ~ t: -f -:. native Japanese . ~~!11' 7..>"t"L. T '!J 7 j.:*~4=. 1li1!r . the usual word for the formeris Sino-Japanese ~~W banzai.1. < I) (hittakuri) purse-snatchinglpurse-snatcher :AA (sagi) fraud. katei-saiban-sho ni yoiku-ken-sosho 0 okosu otoko no hito ga saikinfuete kita so desu. 27. the Japanese translation of the title ?fDostoevski's famous novel..:iJ~.fi1i larceny. '1.>'1 "t"1li11rJd:1!\I. There has apparently been a recent increase in the number of men filingchild custody suits with the family courts at the time of divorce..t -:'0 ~(~~W) C OfiJ)fii Crime and Punishment TSUMI (HANZAI) TO (KEI)BATSU * shobun: disposal..t. * gala: mugging. For more on ~~~ chiiBi "forced labor.(ke~:ai) minor offense (not to be confused with Jf..itiJ:l. 28. iIHT~jl~·"t'~WF~ tt."t"T 0 As in the preceding example. lit." The charactershemselves have an ominous air about them: the first t contai~s the "beast" or "dog" radical.:1')1 0) ~51-·~~lt t.ya~ ~sut?mu h..(. O)iliil1li~~J$I.J:. punishment As suggested by c iilJ. jj>fjlUli sagi-shi "swindler" ~ (kobai) dealing in stolen goods ::~ ~ (kinko-yaburi) safecracking (gotO) armed robbery. is as follows: Supreme Court iliil1li~~JjiJf saiko-saiban-sho ~~n (setto-zai) theft" In k eizai economics") (juwi) grave offense n . 1) 7J Ginki5-goto de kiso sareta. 30. but they are sure to aw-- ~1qJ. "doing wrong. tozen koso suru desha.tilr.ff~IU:: ~Jik:~ tt..-t*O)£~"t"T 0 7. the semantic range of W tsumi IIICludes "crime" as well as "sin.. B*"t'I... cf.7. haiso shimashita ga. ~.Wt! C:Jt~T o -lT7 'J :.1:1S~I)' Amerika no saikii-sai-hanji wa daiuiryo ni shimei sare. .> *}}!~~JPJf I: ~'If:mIDf~* ~ ~. The presumption that a defendant is innocent until proven ~ lies at the foundation of Anglo-Saxon Law.

1it:k. waiial If you are looking for an insecticide or a germicide. 08 ~U~J:~*3&9E~ (gyomu-jo kashitsu-chishizat) derelicn * -A of duty resulting in death _~ i. indecent exposure ~mfllU~~~ (kyosei-waisetsu-zaiv indecent assault fJJ9[\~~~ (yoji-waisetsu-zaty child molestation ~m~(gokan) rape Like English "assault. lUg¥200 million in ransom. however. '" oerai-san: bigwig.I. highly placed" 33. sh. -v '7 7 (haijakku) hijacking. grave offense. jisatsu 0 hakatta so desu. variety ~m~~(kyoyo-zai) Aijin no satsujin-mlsui de taiho sareta yoshida tetsuji wa.J (yukai) kidnapping.ro-kin: ransom .J~(l. it is nothing other than a form of rape.T""("MIlfIt'1-tt-lvo 1". 7 ~ Ht. ~~11i gizo-sha "forger." :lofT boko (lit. Fonner. yiikai-han "kidnapper" 1b.Qi' wa.M~h~~m. Hit-and-run drivingis. 40aQ)*AiI{-tcT~~1:. ~~~-ft ~~:m L t:. arrested for operating a train in ~ IntOlClcated condition.100 Law and Justice Law and Justice 101 31.~ tbiiryoku-hanzais crime of violence tlJ(l.M~. o t: t L "( ~. n 1E~~~IDF ~ n.:f) c 32. ~ operator Yuji Ueda.i5i0 sureba. "admirable.~. • sh6daku: agreement. great. Recently.l:. IJ'j: B Q)1i:.: / \:. cf.l: ~-~tQ)~m~""("LiI'~It't.~ (sei-hanzaii sex crime ~~W (waisetsu-zai) lascivious behavior.*jt (satsujin-misui) attempted murder ~9. '~U9i_t~~3& wa. suffix is used only in reference to the termination of chichi-goroshi £*'~ l'he kid a nz-oku-en • "'lI!o ~t:.t:.*il5"'ilf.:3&9E (kashitsu-chishi) involuntary manslaughter .~[l. kino no yoru opera kara kaette 1cwu tochii de hittakuri ni handobaggu 0 torarete shimaimashita. ~ Japanese t.AiI{~* 0 yukai L "( It. tz.=~. Professor Amato's mother had her handbag taken by a ponesnatcher on her way home from the opera last night.-? bo Sh6dnku ga alta to shite mo. 35. counterfeiting. you must ask for ~~~J satchii-zai or ~m~Jsakkin-zai.* (hoka) arson. -goroshi "killing" corresponds to English :cide: "patricide.1:. consent t "shu: a kind. violent action) is sliD used as a slightly less stark term for rape. Tetsuji oshida. ~ffi~(l. Meanwhile. has been indicted for dereliction of utyresulting in death.-1 "1 reipu has also become "fashionable.:h:u:ho 36. cf. J3~GIt'~Iv·Q)." Note.iI~±I. pyromaniac" J\ -( :. extortion ~:t. cf.t Hikinige-unten Oerai-san no musuko de mo kamaimasen. has Y allegedlyattempted suicide. I think that when a forty-year-old adult has if sexual relations with a high school girl. A (terorizumu) terrorism :~(Q))Ill(. ~ :!tft1fl""i 2 ttF9 t':-f shita hannin ga yokyil shire iru minoshiroda so desu.-. ~i! (gizo) forgery. arrested for the attempted murder of his lover. cf." L kyodai-goroshl and ~)I'I. dem~'!fpers of Company President Kaneda are said to be .):0 V'~~lfil~l._tmmmj[. the lamentable catalog of human crime ues: ~A~ ~~ *.~. desuyo.1 t. Even it is consensual. ttlT~ a-ttLli. /nshu-~nten de taiho sareta ueda yilji moto-densha-untenshi gyomu-jo kashitsu-chishizai de kiso saremashita.!I. yonjussai no otona ga joshi-kiiko-sei to sei-k. hoka-ma "arsonist./ '\ '/ 7' a-~ Gn. to 8~a-~-?~~-?""(" M:ij!!jil~""("J!1!.~ L eiji-goroshi "infanticide."( L 1 It' 1 L i: 0 '{} Amato-sensei no okiisan wa.t~ '7 i» G~-?"t ""(" -? t: < ~ . from the adjective era." ~ lady in the media.51 ~ (mayaku {no} torihiki) drug trafficking (mztsu-yunyu) smuggling 00- (satsujin-zais homicide (bosatsu) premeditated murder 1IjiJJ~A (shodo-satsujin) muider on impulse RA.11t.~. yahari isshu no gokan de shika nai to omou I don't care if he's the son of a big shot. ~I.Q) J3£J:~ Iv Ii. -::> Ill( ~ nottori same mearung 'T n I) X.counterfeiter" ~f. sort. KIA~~A*~~.

no prisons?" asks Dickens' Scrooge of his portly ntlemen visitors.filTkochi-sho "detention center. * 41.~ALJ:-?tL~.W~~B shisii-han "though! offense" under Japanese militarism nor to violations of political correctness on today's American university campuses butrarber to what the American criminologist Edwin H.!i ~re~hia de mayaku 0 musu-yunyu shiyo to t tsukamari. U-Unten shite kashitsu-chishi-zai ni towareta naiti5 nanae 0 Ch wa. the term refers neither to .Il::ti os. IlIsh~jfljH:~i:tt:>tL* L-tcto 2~q)~ 0." of which '7 -1 l.flJ~f. Yet though the term for p~son law._.<!fJ The g~neral teJ?1 for corruption in the public s~tor i~~ oshoku.liW. . 37.i~ ~g"i5'~nt. Examples include ~.I.t. fu~ii.O. !l. Nihon no kiimuin wa hyoban ga yoku. Sutherland baI:t in 1949 called "white collar crime.however.A Sannen mae . c!::5fli~(7)JtE1t\~#Il* ·::>fc~I. v''3.:·*-. seiji-ka ni wa so wa lena!. .. ::.@. IS stillknown as '*Ifltl:Y! kangoku-ho. (Suite oshoku-jiken na do suru _.fT4ft't* Ni 1~~~!1fIT~~~~:. . with due consideration for the ~ttiDg.~~.1'. imprisonment (~fltl: tiigokui. Of the second form..'h :7-1 (7)~B~ howaito-karii-zoku no hanzai is a more literal but less common translation.ty!~*~. . ' The Australian who was caught trying to smuggle narcotics . tsuite wa so wa ienai._c.tEfiUtlf.~ ryiichi-jo. _ .}.& i»1~I:::JIfi~~~ltt. shikei-shii 0 shokei suru tame m wa homu-daijin ga In shikei-shikko-reijo ni in 0 osu hitsuyo ga arimasu. In Japanese. lit.. it is necessary for the justice minister to affix his seal to the death warrant before a condemned convict can be executed.-C~~$:?EmHaJlbtLtc*I*I§~km.*~~JflJ~n~t7i't' ni makikomarenai ga. are called fflJ~filT keimu-sho "penitentiary" and fiUtlf.Dfj~~B chino-han in Kenkyusha's New Japanese-English Dictionary.reij6: death warrant *To . aoae Naito was sentenced to two years in prison. c 40.t.Jili~t~*V57j£~To Olotoshi fuho-nyukoku to goto no utagai de tsukamatta otoko wa.~fflJf. Malaysia and sentenced to death is scheduled to be execuled next week."The lockup for persons being held in police custody for interrogationis called a \¥itlf.this is rendered as riii~l.J'JTf(:. is a COunterfeitlllWll. of the actual incarceration facilitiesthemselves.~ lif' ~ t.iBl:m*l::: -:::>It.: <. but next month he IS to be deported to his country of origin.nYiikoku: illegal immigration t k)'ose"Siikon: deportation *~§OO"%l*." cf. The :~me. iIj~lI1i.l~~ffljT I) Q tcbf)Ir:I. ~ged with involuntary manslaughter while driving drunk.~t' -?IH!fit 42.fU~.O'::~J Kang?~u wanai n' desu ka ne. you may be perplexed or atleut amused to fmd it glossed as "intellectual [mental] offense.JT-1 :$'" -lC{51 ~ (insaida-torihiki) insider trading ~1f (hainin) breach of trust J1IH~1. metta ni wairo nado suru oshoku-jiken ni makikomarenai ga.. * If you look up 9. gizo and ff:ftl: SIll' (above) as well as the following: * "Are there." III fact.t. This.tt~1t\1v ~T.3~M~?~-~7-r:. nli~A -r:. ese civil servants ~ave a good reputation and are se:1dom 10Japan [ved in bribe taking and other forms of corruption.1'<.6'. as even a layman will immediately realize. -:::J < J:-?~~:ii~'Wf-r:1' t ~. ~~lt~~ L.-!tF~l'Y!AOO* (oryo) embezzlement -1 /'. ~$#I:::~ ~)61 n~It'iJ{. ~ffljQ. at least in official usage. hende wa. The man Who was caught illegally entering Japan and committing ~ed robbery is still in the detention center. Japanese law provides for three primary classes of punishment:death (?EfflJ shikei). raigetsu jikoku e kyiisei-siikan sareruyotei desu.tdatsuzeiy tax evasion ftlJ!XJIfi (zoshu-wai) giving and accepting bribes ftlJlfi (zowai) offering bribes J!XJIfi(shuwai) accepting bribes :If'iE1t~~1t tfusei-shikin-jokay money laundering ~~ genzaikochi-sho ni imasu ga. shikei-shikJcij. ninen no kinko-kei ni shoseraremashita.1n. B*(7)%.. shikei 0 senkoku sareta i5sutoraria-jin wa . shikei 0 senkoku sareru: to be sentenced to death t shokei sareru: to be executed r'7 I) 7 Ali...:::: shokei sareru yotei desu.102 Law and Justice Law and Justice 0 103 Kore wa shiroto de mo sugu kizuku yi5 na gizo-shihei desu. B*-("I. boshi-hii "Corrupt Practices Prevention Act" (above). Japan. and tines(Ill~ bakkin). two subcategories are distinguished: confinement (~l\1il kinko) without forced labor and imprisonment at forced labor (j~19: hdeki). cannot be said of politicians.. . 39. "sullymg (one's) office.

." at least by some of the shadier characten. a second year primary schoolboY. A junsa's superiors..1!lt~J ~ 1t It to counsel the right to a speedy trial 7. "Kentaro-kun no papa wa.:~fT j':t!f.H[tm~ -o "( 15JJPl(1)ftt To end on a more positive note. "Mr.. former deputy secretary general of the New Freedota Party. . X. '!be police are reportedly conducting an investigation concerning Mitsuko Hayase.>7.zankoku na banzai de uttaerareta hito de mo.I: ~ '? t..:ffl}J1I\ (ichiji-fu-sairi) protection against repeated prosecution ~it~ tjunsa-chiiy senior policeman ~it$~ (junsa-buchdy police sergeant W$~ inspector (keishi) superintendant WmJE tkeishi-seiy senior superintendant (keishi-chiiy chief superintendant Wmllifi (keishi-kan) superintendant supervisor Wm~llifi (keishi-sokan) superintendant general . t rosa: mvestJgatlon * shikkO-yii). :ijI'1:'mf)l£160~ n -a:ili GtdVi.:t:R~~(J)/{/'~i. tfr!3 EBJt7Gj~~$*fti:Bi*~Hi. '~Hl:.. but in reality.6. Detective. honto wa ano ko no keishi-chii nan desu yo. lit. has been sentenced to three months imprisonment fir election violations." In the fictional world of Japan's many policedllmas. everyone has the right to counsel. Our second son. 'H. senkyo-ihan de Ii6 san-ka-getsu. we might consider offenses: 0 the rights (~flj kenri) secured by the postwar constitution personscharged with criminal some of to all iBif t.J ~'J' (J):to ~ Iv Ii.OOO. ~*~oc'1:'~~3 71.f1FmJl:~t#iJ~BHT~I:fT1JIfI¥l·.~~~~A-c.~T7. employee who disappeared on a trip to 0 Hokkaido a half year ago.>~~ Do nrcf. bengo-nin Vi II'al suru kenri ga aru koto 0 wasurete wa narimasen. sentence Law and Justice 105 * 43. . the term is closer in spirit to the American raIbIr than the Japanese system.i!Ii 46. 7Gf'~/vI: -:>~\·C ~ltt ~h"? "(~\7.>~fJj (bengo-nin 01l1l1!lt~J (/)~fIJ trial irai suru kenri) the right (kokai-saiban no kenri) the right to a public ~*lm(mokuhi-ken) the right to remain silent -. My elder brother was caught driving at 160 kilometers per hour by the police and fined ¥150. '1:'1' J:. -t T. with a one-year suspension.6. says r.$ (keibu) police (keibu-ho) assistant police inspector The difference between -$Iffl}}I ichiji-fu-sairi and the AnglO-Saxon concept of double jeopardy is that in Japan the PI'Osecution allowed to retry a defendant in the higher courts is onthe basis of judicial error.> ~fJj (jinsoku na saiban 0 ukeru kenri) 4HfAa-~f{T 7. ~.Jumei: become a missing person sentence suspension 44.m~ ~tlvt. :<$: ~lHiiI'> (J)=f - :to-tblJ t3lvti. the dashing investigator may be called JflJ$ ~ Iv keijj-. in ascendiDJ order. Shin-jiyu-to moto-fuku-kanjicho sato toshiki wa.104 Law and Justice tsumi ni /owareru: to be accused of (charged with) a crime t shosuru: condemn. tsukamatte jiigo-man-en no bakkin 0 torareta.l:~~ i-ttlvo .'.RM~mp-c. Kuruma de jisoku hyaku-rokujukkiro 0 dashita ani wa.>::i::~$~"(I.o: • yukue.>t) -c. keisa/III. . 0 e must not forget that no matter how heinous the crime with Which one is charged.ij.. wm . a bank.-g-o -c "..'~.'T JtisOISuwa hantoshi-mae ni hokkaido-ryokii-chii ni yukue-fumei ni natta ginkii-in hayase mitsuko-san ni tsuite sosa 0 okonatte iru SO desu.yoichi-nen no hanketsu 0 ukemashita. omawari-san da" to sei no jinan ga itte imasu ga.#~A~. shikki5-yii. T*l4'-Q)-'f'IJiH:~lt~ Gte.. The policeman who clocks you or your elder brother fir speeding is most likely to be an ordinary 3CJm~it kotsii-jIm» "traffic cop.fiI Toshiki Sato. 45. are as follows: ::a-I&~:ntc.

endowment Mil (zaigen) financial resources Mllil (zaibatsu) financial combine/clique. wealth. we find the following: 9GMii'iHHL~UR. When (the ruler) places wealth above virtue. raild) or Record of Rituals. there is clearly no doubt about the importance of M zai "money. 3) M}] (zairyoku) financial resources M~ (zaimu) financial affairs M ~ (zaikai) business/financial world M~ (zaisan) property. estate Mit (zaika) money and property. finance" as one of several word eleDlents crucial to the world of Japanese business and economics. economy (cf. Ch.:.C. Rendered into Japanese and English. commodities Mf. Mi3((zaisei) public finance. assets.tLH~~:T. this becomes: Zai 0 said ni shi rei 0 nochi ni sureba tami musaboru.o Japan.lJ (zaidan) foundation. zaibatsu Whether this admonition has any relevance to contemporary :lIt :lIt ~lIt lJ!M lit (rizai) economy. 1tt-9t~: L.~Ij.Chapter VII Business and Economics In theLi Chi (1UC.).. his subjects will likewise grow greedy. J.~IJJ. the last of the Chinese Five Classics (second Century B. fmance (ka~zai) administration (shz?ai) private funds (kazai) household belongings (shihon-zai) of assets capital goods 107 .j'tliR.

m(:n~:~ internment camps during the Pacific War.~:Mil:(7)5tltlW*~ t!. real estate Ibi (dosan) movable property 1iilllfk& (yiisan-kaikyii) Ch. cast. portion * kaitai suru: dismantle.. yaJtO gen no medo ga tachimashita.." though in other contexts i~ means "production.1J:%'f* (sangun-fukugii-taii military-industrial complex ig-1J:%'f* (sankan-fukugo-taii government-industrial complex i~ (sanbutsu) product '. dissolve 1 t L ~ v' 1.> 1t!jWJ~Ij:. It cannot be said that the financial combines of the prewar period * wakemae: share.ni yoru to. disintegrate * iii (isan) inheritance .EJ.t. goal. 5.!£~:J: 1. have been entirely liquidated.:Ch~. it is a common element In words re~ted to busmess.Ji- ~It'b'nt.~LJ: 10 •• fi(7)~. -anifureddo-nagatam shizai 0 tojite tateyo to shite iru hakubuisu-kan wa.~en~ei ." II 1.>~1~ bourgeosie. The Prodigal Son) 4. is on the realizing his dream. medo ga tatsu = goal comes into sight * shiiyO-jo: a concentration (internment) camp *l (beisan) rice production iil (chikusan) animal husbandry ~l (kokusan) Japanese-made I!!l (gaikoku-san) foreign-made .: Taih~iyo-sensi'J." (Luke 15:12.~~~1. wallet.~ v'o J "Otiisan.>C. mada kanzen ni kaitai sareta to wa iemostfll. . ~il!ik& (musan-kaikyii) proletariat :JI.i (kyosan) common property.(7)!6 c·ob{t. 7 •• j I) :tJ (7)~'b*~ 7j:r"'~I. which containshe "life/birth" radical (!£). money) sugts the meaning of the first character in Mil: zaisan may be ~e~tood as "financial assets. may be glossed as "propert ty.ti (shisan) property. . ~X~PJT·~:J!n A (7)t: Iit)~:. t t!.7t1lt~:m¢ ~ n t.z t -It s.:. 7}v 7 v"/ t: .::. assets Acco~g to Professor O'Neill. r :J3X:~ fl.f. the by far the more common. watashi ni zaisan no wakemae 0 kudasai. ~~7j:<~..lllt tno-sanbutsuy agricultural products *lllt (sui-sanbutsu) aquatic products ~lllt (kai-sanbutsu) marine products ~lllt (rin-sanbutsu) forest products ~lllt (ko-sanbutsu) mineral products ll±l (sanshutsu) output lti( (sangaku) amount of production li$(I!!) (san'yu[-kokuj) oil producing (countries) "Father. -j-:tJ' ~? 7 j I) 7J@iIJ~Q)a l 7' .:. invest +jitsugen: materialization. Communist The more active sense of the word is illustrated in the following: It would seem only natural that the Japanese Finance Ministeraod the American Secretary of the Treasury would have differell views regarding the appreciation of the yen. " s: < !!:i (seisan) production i~ !Ei:1J(tE) (seisan-ryokul-sei) productivity (sangyo) industry ilfi. As the semantic element in M (Jt shellfish. In fact.M~:JX t:.!. No less 1baD)If.i..~ ~~# •• L~tLt?~~c~~~~~ Onfru-. Nihon no iikura-daijin to amerika no zaimu-chokan no endo/rQlII kansuru iken ga itchi shite inai koto wa tozen desho. i? t .ll . litIGlW(7)MIf.3) ~B*(7)*. the only major exception' It . propertied classes (cf. amerika no n:wttomo okina mo1ldtJ IPa akaji-zaisei de wa nakute..:*c l.(p saifu "purse.108 Business and Economics Business and Economics 109 Of the two readings for the character.- }vJt.t Semen no zaibatsu wa. realization o medo: aim.ftbi (judosan) immovable property. kazoku-seido ga hokai shite shimalt" koto da so desu.t~?J.::. t tiijiru: throw." The second character. 3..j:*.*~c7j0:tJ(7)M 'l&L~It'7j:It'~cl. who has invested his own money ~ an build a museum for West Coast Ja[)anesf:-A.t1§. America's biggest problem is nothlr deficit finances but rather the breakdown of the family system akaji: deficit t hokai suru: to collapse. l. ::t~7$litIG~~. zai and sai.".shiiyii-jo ni t~urete ikareta amen~-sIIi kaigan no nikkei-jin no tame ru.bW. >. Alfred Nagatani. -c • t ~lJI. give me the portion of the property that is to be mine.

:: c ~T~ L -C. eralized. kan 'yo go. 12.I\. 10. sm:ran··kn.. OO~JIlt' li~*t ii'*. were. anta wa itsu datte nukeme no nai jigyo-ka datta. rod6-seisan-sei ga taka' yahari doitsu desu ne.. she does not seem to know very much about wine.~t_:?t. business business. J\ ~ )v " '/'fi#:±li ~~~~I:jJ~ ktL7. B:ljs:c "·1/'~. "Jigyo datte .'/ Nihon to. line of work jllj~ (shOgyo) commerce. rGNPJ t:iit:tt Nihongo de wa "kokumin-so-seisan" to iimasu ga.*~f. daigaku de roshia-bungaku o KYo to shita. J: -J 1"1' 0 to: Tsuruko-san. mercy.110 Business and Economics Business and Economics 111 Ifi Lt.r. Sensing the end of the Cold War. "GNP" mo tsiIf I1UJSU.t¥-~iI\ . B:Ijs:~*1"li rOO~¥t~ifJ C§. tt~ * kokusai-shushi: t kckuji: surplus *~(kagyo) (shokugyo) occupation.. corporation .. all. for example. A(7)~iI'b t: L(7).fl) A(7)if~~tifJJ." These.fi~~.'f. hito no michi ga watashi no jigyo datta no da.. kokusai-shUshi wa kuroji ga tsuzuku dard.. J£:l include: tw.li1 .:o 0~(7)mfIJ ll(f/. s_ K6ky6 nofukuri ga watashi no jigyo datta. Naomi f1.f1. are the first four words entered under "business" in Kenkyusha's New English-Japanese Dictionary: :j.ir L. Hamilton has been t. do~tsu 0 hikaku-sureba. 6.~* t':? t: .. property values have fallen enormous #tIJ~~1iiJ'~It'(7)I. business Even if imports of American agricultural products were totally.:o Ba~u:u ga hajiketa ato. that -c .."'':! The second element in ~~ sangyii also has a wide range of ¢Ding: "business. hotondo no fudiisan oklku sagemashita: 7. 1 In 8. wa.I: It'":) t./\: < t_: 7:J -J 0 Amerika kara no no-sanbutsu no yunyii 0 kanzen ni jiyii-Ial s/IiIt mo.> .'. ga. l'%'~ilt~7. " r L.J. in Japanese translation." Since the bubble burst. 7.>':: c ~1:~ L -Cv'i To Reisen ga_ owaru koto 0 yoso shite. up OtherCompounds with the character dustrial revolution.1. The Japanese term ki?ku"!in-so-seisan used [when speaking 10 Japanese]. doremo watashi no jigyo datta .~ (jitsugyo) industry.J:""I~~ /' 1"1' P. family business balance of payment l can also appear by itself: 0 senkii shita ato hon 'yaku at her university.~t': -? t: (7)t. work (gyoseki) business results (kigyo) enterprise. I have deep interest in English family life as it was before tile .. [gross national product] is but "GNP" is also UDder "But you were always a good man of business. Jacob .I.(1). are well-known CharlesDickens' Christmas Carol: words from Although Tsuruko has lived in the wine-producing region of SCJUIh. II c 1vC'(7)lftJJjllUi'tt~fiHj{ji~_-Iwa 1!!·4:'. haminuon-hakas/ wa sangyo kara kiikii-ki-sangyii ni chikara 0 ireru kotO 0 shite imasu. ~~lvli.o v .. enterprise.. 9.t¥-. my business. stood. it is Germany still higher in labor productivity." I) tJ i» i? (7)Jl~~c7)fulA ~ft~I:!3 Ef3ft L -c t. forbearance.tttRT.. W]77 '/A(7)'71 '/~~:!t!!I:f1lvt_:'::Uf~U Tip.: -? -ct1U3 (7)to: It'. Dr. Afterspecializing in Russian literature tOOk translating as a profession.{E.) -:1'10 jeilwbu .cL~0 OOml~a. . ern France. jihi ga. " "Business!" cried the Ghost.mrc7)*~~ml:i*It'~. 11..~t': -? tz. the Japan-US trade surplus would probably continue. I 110 WeI . '71 '/ I:":)It' -c Ii J: < ~[p? It.:1~..'. (gyokai) t~ (gyomu) the business world business (matters)..iI~. Here. ~l~~'*~1"O~7~~~.(J).It'iTilf. minami~fu~ansl! no wain-seisan-chi ni koto ga anl1UJSU wam nt tsuite wa yoku shiranai yo desu. 'fi#:'lilt. J~7")viJ'li tltt.. "Mankind was my business.:L. charity..~L~. Jizen ga. hakuai ga. trade..l fora shift in emphasis from the defense to the aircraft industry.J!:§iI~.l. ligyo is but one of several business-related words containing l.. and benevolence. . :.:o J "Shikashi. the commonwelfare was my business. trade. c'tt t bt.• a ~orrwaris?n between Japan and Germany. <b Iv t: .f?"C iTo Watashi wa igirisu no sangyo-kakumei-izen no katei-seikatSll fukai kyomi 0 motte imasu.

~ A ~ (sabisu-gy6) service industry Read as native Japanese waza. ~ also means "act.i: Imoto wa. but I think such attacks are based more on ideology than on facts. amerika no seiyaku-gyokai 0 kiigeki shite imasu ga.. L -c v i T iJ{. deed.~ (nogyo) agricultural industry if. 1B~ shukugii refers to one's fate.bt.-cit ~."contains two more important word elements.:*'i..na kigyo- (sogyo) starting a business -g~($) (eigyol-bui) running a business / sales department -f*~ (kyugyo) suspension of business operations. yet another word for "trade. 7. business.i~ 0) . h IJ'''f:~ L HI:\ ~ iJ' -::> 83. silk industry ~}ITj~ (tekkogyo) steel industry l~i'Ii:~ (shuzo-gyo) brewing/distilling industry cf. 'J I) . operation *~(hongyo) illJ~ main occupation osaka as long been known as a commerCIal CIty. sono y6 na hinan wa jijitsu yori ideorogf ni moto- i"t 0 ~i'Ii:~ (seizo-gyo) manufacturing industry ~~~ (seitetsu-gy6) iron industry ~~~ (seishi-gyo) paper-making industry ~ll~ (seiyaku-gy6) pharmaceutical industry -tj-. ~I. A . r... I': ~ 1.ill ~ lviJ{':'1v ~ 1. tl. {'F~ (sagyo) work. Tanabe.)vO)~±~fl -CiJ'G.'" Kurinton-seiken wa.iJ.l. 18.1. W!6-c~~~~. if!j as Well as the following: zuite iru to omoimasu. 14. Thus. mukashi kara shogyo-toshi c L -c~ G tL -c ". /\ -{ x -ft~iJ{ 8 *O)~!kjlj~O)~iJJ.d'-::>t:"t"LJ: -)0 . whereas 18~~ yadoya-gyo refers to the IJOI"i" business.li:tl Ii. :e oete kara.\ -) '" ~ $-~ 0) . ni muite inai koto m \ My younger sister got an MA from a famous business America and realized only then that the business world for her.ShObai-j6 no torihiki nanzo wa.1-I) 7J 0) ~.:*iJ{-::>~i l.:3ti*~1E~* t: 16.1( I': T !Jf ~ iJ>-::> 0) t!.• ~I jozo-gyo brewing industry Who wouldhave thought that Mr. "The ~gs of my trade were but a drop of water in the comprehensve ocean of my business!" says Marley's ghost to Scrooge. iflili (shosha) trading company i!rif1j (shOmu) commercial affairs i!ri~(shohin) merchandise i!ri16shoten) shop.Business and Economics 112 Business and Economics 113 -g~ (kangyo) government enterprise.~ (k6gyo) mining industry ~'£~ (yosan-gyo) sericulture. works.> -) -z"T -t" 0 Qdenhaima-ky6ju ga nihon no tekko-gyo no kigen ya hatten ni (suitekaita hon wa. iTo to s~ite ~hirarete imasu. fO)J:? ~~Fllli$-~J: ~ -{f'. ~ :-.L 1fiJ' Gif!i~t~m wa. . store ( i!ri16tij (shOten-gai) shopping area . A 7 . 8 *~I': t> aR ~ tL -c ". amerika no yianei na bijinesu-sukiau no .fI~ (gyogyo) fishing industry (ringyo) forestry industry • *l~ (sen'i-gyo) textile industry $1.iI': 011.:if.t.t*~ " U):*: i!D: t b . li t* The Clinton administration is blasting the American pharmaceutical industry.. " Compounds With shi5 include if!i~ shi5gyi5 "commerce.w. ninon-go ni mo yakusarete iru s6 desu.-?36. ould wind up such a captain of industry? w 17..fa=¥-.~:-:r~..> U~. ShOg shika denakatta tanabe-san ga konna m nppa akko ka ni naru to wa dare mo omowanakatta deshii. monopoly ~~ j(~I." The older Sino-Japanese (go-on) reading go baS~ ~uddhl~~ meaning quite . as influenced by tbI consequences of a previous existence. holiday iM." illustrated above. 0 J t: . ki5dai-muhen no taikai to rno 'ubeki jigyi5 no itteki no mizu ni suginakatta no 00.:[il]II\-CII\~II\':' c 1._emoved from ordinary co~~ k~a. t-f'.~ (shugy6) employment I~ (kogy6) manufacturing industry :iiI~ (ju-k6gyo) heavy industry flI~ (kei-k6gyo) light industry . il'!i7'E shobai (lit commerce-sale). hajimete jitsugyo-kai tsukimashita.trick.I) 7J O)~~ ~ ~:. 7. II seemsthat Professor Odenheirner's book on the origins and de- *~ velopmentof Japan's steel industry has even been translated intoJapanese. a mere primary school graduate.l:\iU!il!.Hl~. 1.:~-:1"'-C"\1. Ja~anese translation reads: rif!i%_tO)mt~ I~ Ivi'Ii.> .t.

-:7 A l:! 7 0) r -«. hlko. .. entered a trading company whenhe graduated from university and was posted to Moscow two years later. fj. but such should not be with twentieth century anti-Semitism.~~o . ~ J:.Jf-«A~ft(/)..:i*ji ~:11.f*!1R:kOOB. many Japanese must feel that their own standard of liv26 lllg IS not very high.t.1Ij Ii 1j: v' c~ t:. o ~tte~ how often they may hear the cliche "Japan. -c.=.. furansu-sei no shitagi no maruchi-s1tMli ni makikomarete. ~7~!f~*:r& L.san deshita. Shekusupia no "Benisu no shiinin" wa. M'EB 1v0)~ ~ lvIi.:. erizabesu-lidai no y SIJI' jin-girai 0 tashika ni han 'ei shite iru kamo s~iremasen ~ wa nijusseiki no han-yudaya-shiso to machigaete wa sen.f.. no otiisan wa ' Nihon no keizai-kai no yuryoku-sha .jliJIU$~.f. L. My wife is an art dealer dealing in East Asian art. deal in": (tsushi5-sangyi5-shi5) Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI = tsusan-shO) iElJifij (oroshishi5) wholesaler /J'7'Gifij (kouri-shi5) retailer ~*i'ifij (bijutsu-shi5) art dealer ~~tashiwa koko de jii-nen ij6 akinai 0 yatte lmasu.:A~{~v' t.~~1f~ ~ tc. 0 Roshia-go 0 senkii shita yamada-san wa.:o The (somewhat archaic) native word corresponding to l!'Ii_A luinin "merchant" is likewise written lfli A. 0 N kanjite iru nihon-jin ga 6i dar6.. *p.t. kanada no shoho no senmon-ka desu. 2~~~': li-'C A:7 '7 ..~JJ~::.. I) .... a Russian major.IS -J 0 "teizai-~koku Il10. go-shujin.wTH&-? ~*ifij~~ . It' i L. -c v'. no kaisha ni iroiro meiwaJcu0 kakete shimaimashita.tkeizai-kai) economic world/circles iitiA (keizai-jin) homo oeconomicus ffiti*OO (keizai-taikokui economic giant iiti~~Jj (keizai-hOsoku) economic law/principle iiti{.. econon:nc ~l~t.ftt.JHl lvIi.iIUttl:A ~ -? -c. 22. ~~VO)..li c'i'. daigaku 0 sotsugyo shilt kara shiisha ni haitte. ~e~er anakindo of yore or a modem .6) (shOhi5) way of doing business / commercial law (cf.AJ ~. i -It Iv~r.oc~ ffitiW.~ 1v00S)( Kanai wa ti5y6-bijutsu 0 atsukaa bijutsu-sho desu. ~ Iv Ii.: < .$O)*M.c It'. '::-±AO)~U': 7'7 /' A It' ~O)T::iO)"? )v"fifij~':~$i! 01t'0~~~iplt-c L. 20. *~~$~ L..t. a contraction of akibito (aldnau hito). Professor Kaneda is an expert on Canadian commercial law..go ni wa mosukuwa ni haken SCI1Imashita.li::::~lO~W.:Li. 19.~) i:eizai(-ji5tai). Btizt: Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice may very well refl~~ bethan antipathy toward Jews. i Mr. Tomita-san no okusan wa. i L." those engaged in the world of commerce areever dependent on (the state of) the economy or K:£t1f(:jj. B .QEB~~~..o~' 'b~:I1. A O).:Jcv'-?1!I!~)(/pJ~v'< GIli'J~'~:I1. .. Yamada. Ihave been doing business here for over ten years.t2D i:!t~ 0) K~ V l'A.l-f l' A~' G It' ~1it~. ~ i:l1. is aldna(u) "trade.-C'b.J:ifijv'~-t:'-?-cv'i~o . ifijA (shi5nin) jffiifij (tsushi5) jffiifij~~~ merchant commerce. ni-nen.114 Business and Economics ifij~ Business and Economics 115 Ch. Here are only some of the many compounds III which key term appears: this Mr.I.c~'t.U"? /' shiisha-man trading company employee.$:l!lIJ(keizai-taiseii economic system iitiJit~ (keizai-seich6) economic growth il1!i1J tkeizai-ryokus economic strength il1!ii&* tkeizai-seisakuy economic policy kiIl1!iilm (keizai-kik6) economic structure i'itii*illE (keizai-hoshi5) economic security i'itifQ:iI tkeizai-kiki) economic crisis i'iti~tit (keizai-kyi5k6) economic panic kiIl1!ili\l!(*) tkeizai-sen] si5J) economic warfare 25. El5t O)1=_m*!!~Lt-:I1. but the pronuncia~onis akindo.. Tomita's wife got involved in a pyramid scheme to sell Freocb underwear and wound up causing her husband's companya lot of trouble.. Kaneda-sensei wa. Nippon" to iu kimari-monku 0 ikura kikasa~ete libun no seikatsu-suijun ga sore hodo takaku wa nat to 23.f.:O)*I1iH~·O).\lHIU: rdlit~-c Ii 1j: ~ i -it Ivo uda'JII" 21.o B . trade ']'henative reading of.

quotations in gold iJtl±l ikin-yushutsuy gold export ~~ (kinsen) money. "E7R*(7)9E*£J.L J. no .. iTo .. ..:f.*.i.. author of The Wealth of Nations (r•• 1 fukoku-ron) and founder of classical economics (i:!lJUfM koten-keizai-gaku).. K garubureisu-shi wa.. . One can only wonder what he might have thought of the following: Mi5-taku-ti5 no shikyo irai. shakai-shugisha de aru ka do '!JJ masen ga.1 .-.> iTo 1. In responseto American demands. ~·bokumetsu no kyanpen de wa kanari no kingaku ga atsumatta to omoimasu.i.(~~.. t (kin 'yii-kikan) financial institution (kin 'yii-soshiki) banking system ~1ii&Jfi (kin 'yii-seisakuy financial policy ~~j(* (kin 'yii-shihon) financial capital ~~*lto (kin 'yii-kanwa) easy money ~iit51~bt) (kin 'yii-hikishime) tight money ~~m. In fact. cash ~tIi (kingaku) amount of money ~tlJ (kinri) interest ~tl (kinken) power of money ~tli&m(kinken-seiji) money politics ~~ (kinsaku) raising money ~~ (kin 'yii) circulation of money." As an advocate of laissez-faire (r3 El3:btff:. ~Frj~H. Ever since the death of Mao Zedong. . .1j!.{ A~I±. "govem the world [nation].~ L -(1.:EmlfliJ (yushutsu no jishu-kiseiy voluntaryexportquocas § . China has been puttingec0nomic growth ahead of political ideology. ~\iTo :/ -C-li iJ' ~ ~ (J)~tEi iJf~ i '? t: C . "gold melting / liquida- 28. 1. Those who remember learning from introductory courses..i. ~~w..K. 7)0~(J)~*~~t-c.1n:~~rD' inki na gakumon) that "economy" derives from Greek oikonomia "household IlIaJI8&ement" may well wonder how the combination of *I "longitude. ~~ tion"). Adam Smith..:Eft (hogo-bi5eki-shugz) protectionism -1fj~Jij}j~ (yushutsu-shi5rei-kin) export subsidy ~~~lI' (kanzei-shi5heki) tariff barrier ilF~~~lI' (hi-kanzei-sht5heki) non-tariff barrier _A fFJ ~ ftJU (yunyii-wariate-sei) import quota system (J) . 1li.s itself a phrase-formant: i ~~~~ (lit. the Japanese automobile industry bas accepted voluntary export quotas.ft(J)*~~~. 8*(J)r3~ •• ~~~W(J)r3. money.OOI±i13citJ. The last example here.iilllm ~N') ~ To -C~-C (J)ti£*~. chiigoku seicho 0 kyocho shite imasu: wa seiji-shisi5 yori We Sbould eliminate trade protection in all Its forms. ~etal.If}v '/ v. ~*fiL (kin-hon'i) gold standard (kindate) the gold basis.(J)!\=-":/A:: ' £.ll::t 31. save the people. lit. -PiiJ> 1:i3t@*IfR(7)16'~11 ~..! 7 *!r1f (burokku-keizai) bloc economy gi~'§1Jlf (keizai-kanryi5) economic bureaucrat *~'j'( £. including • non-tariffbamers.~ jiyii-hOnbtshugi).~~J: ~*IfRJiI(. might have thought that the idea smacksci "controlled economy" (~l!iIJgfR tosei-keizaiy.i.J J 6 Business and Economics Business and Economics IJ7 Machiko's father was a powerful figure in Japanese economic 27.. U~. pass through. warp.I.I.(kin 'yii-kai) the financial world I don't know whether John Kenneth Galbraith is a socialist but he certainly insists on the necessity of a planned 29.. the "dismal science" (lit.o g.:*. 1. money market ~}t"( _I±l 1'ft®*!r1f (keikaku-keizai) planned economy '/ 0 '. govern" and fR "end..~ JJ. *IfR keizai is nally a contracted form of gt!tfR~ keisei-saimin... . f L. subete no hog~oeki-shugi . settle" can yield abc Sino-Japanese term for the same.. No discussion of matters related to mammon would be complete without mention of ~ "gold.i. tashika ni keikaku-keizai no hitsuyo-ses 0 shite imasu.~1't-C-.5jt.iH:.kIl1Ize~shOheki mo fukumete shudan 0 haishi subeki desu. "(It' i To Arnerika no yo_kyq ni i5jite: nihon no jidii-sha-sangyo wa yushutsu nojishu-kiset 0 shite tmasu." w?ose many compounds relevant to our subject include the followmg: on..t.> ip C'? ipvil' t} lviJf.

but I wonder where he gets his own political funding~ "" ." read~ oJ tamau "give.t.-r !35i-O)i8cm'itiil. 34. noninitial position: capital" is one of many examples of :kft (taikin) an enormous sum of money :ijift (genkin) cash Rift (yokin) bank deposit . It> 1.< G B . 1D 'it~ ~~ikin "~~ds.~~'bt:tl'JiTo _~ Saitei-chingin 0 hikiageru koto wa.A·Ij:~< IH:It't'=)':>1o.~'b J: 0 #it Watashi-tachi ga son shita no wa taikin de wa nai kedo.t.$~. 36· 'Cfl:AtLt.= t~. -1 /' 7 vt. 8arashi-kun no kyiiryo wa kanari hikui kamo shirenai ga. pension jtft (chingin) wages (note the shift from k to g) 33.:O) I:. l. .1'G :t3ii~ 51e.t~fJ. okusan .!i~un.:: 0) J:.ft (nenkin) annuity.1{:tf{ i: 0) l.. aign to '" bokumetsu: destruction. nihon no "kinken-seiji" 0 itsumo hi no n~. -7 v:. t'-j L. it hurts juSl the same.t. . . t. Il J'l5J'0) r1-LiiJ ~:fL -j t:t Iv-r. -r It' ~1-Lr ~ Ivt:.1f. 32. Y~~ouldn't find either my cash card or my deposit book.t -Jdi'i<: l. f.1i:-t-!. t: i? 1. Go..118 Business and Economics Business and Economics 119 I think a lot of money was collected in the camp . I think theidea of paying six months "courtesy money" to the landlord forsuch a rabbit hutch is outrageous. -j t:t ~/h~O) t:. grant" in native Japanese.).Aft (nyukin) payment. Raising minimum wage not only causes inflation but also raises the the rate of unemployment among minorities.bO~: 6 37. . 35. stamping out I wanted to go to the bank and withdraw s?me money.t L.t To /bIranihon no shiikan da to i~e '!"!.t I'J L.t . ~n shite iru rei. ~O)i8cm*I.':: t l.It' .li_~ 0)*fi#1:t1.1{iiii!i:!IH.~1~-) B *A1.n«ml-mo yokin-tsiicho mo mitsukaranakute kmnfll-imaslillta.. The words for compensation with which most readers of this book will be familiar are likely to end in kyu "supply. nsideringthe debts that Reiko and her family have. harau nanie...f~t.t c''::' -n' 0)1. J. doshzte mo .. L. as moving-in money to a landlord 1f.. Nomatter how much they say that it's a Japanese custom.~0 Kino gtnko kara okane 0 hikidaso to omotta no ni. futo da to omoimasu.. wages Even though the money we lost was no great fortune. . i? 1..\!. -r 'b_:.1' ~n fd: It'-n{.Jtft (shikikin) deposit (e.t t:t It' It L.~ ~~. no seiji-shikin wa doko kara kuru no £?*~ ~'" ::::h.~ ~ Iv ~ tb It'-C b I v'~1. B*O) r1fitli8emH:·It'""?'biJPllEL. 39. 38.~~ (onkyu) (civil service) pension ~~ (kokyu) high salary ~~ (mukyu) unpaid 1f~ (yukyu) paid 1f~-f*~ (yukyu-kyuka) paid holiday The number of Japanese using credit cards has increased ~ but the usual means of payment is still cash. deposit llTft (chokin) savings fli'ft (shakkin) debt lIlkft (kenkin) contribution imft (atama-kin) down payment .t. :f "o.~ t. *~ c'. fI'F B~lHT1. ga..lI ~~Riiia.g. fuJS111III ~ (kyuryo) pay (nikkyu) daily wages (shukyu) weekly pay (gekkyu) monthly salary (nenkyu) annual salary . .t t'=:ijiii<:T 0 Kurejitto-kddo 0 tsukau nihon-jin ga saikin fuemashita shiharai de wa rnada genkin desu. . injure dakede ~a nakushiisiiminzoku no shitsugyo-ritsu 0 takameru gen 'zn m mo nartmasu. for rent) 1-Lft (reikin) honorarium.r.~~""?~Gt:t<~mI'J1L. yohoti kuyashii wa yo. I wonder Co boWthey got hold of the money for the down payment on such a splendid house. tl:l-f -j c .ii~i]1 e..:i!{. G Ano seiji-ka wa.jI:O)Wltlt': c § ~-r 'b.. ~ ~-9~*'1 El ~ i!l~ fl ~ lF~ (kyuyo) allowance.Dno yo na usagz~go~a no tameni rokka-getsu-bun no reikin 0 =t ~ Iv t:t }.. 7 J-. AIDS..I.=~t't"IHt < 9~fc\!.:O)-n' L. 7J . esp.?~san-tachz ga: anna nppa na ze no atamotin 0 do yatte te nI ireta no kashira.bO~.. ~. That politician IS constantly denouncing Japanese "mone ~. -tjQ)t iL It><: l..1'G-*O)~JIX. .'..:a_hitt .t15:./:J.1' t:t I'J15.[i*t:t*O)~ii ~ c'-j ~ .

kiJsegu and '$Ih' Q mukuiru.l::." The Greek .$ b ~ < tt Q cit'? fljIJ1tI.~A:IJ~~~tnl:. like are as inevitable in Japan as anywhere else. ill the aID" above. My monthly salary is calculated on a day-to-day basis. o * s6·shiinyii: ?~To gross income 40. f.:i!itfjt4:l.OOO a month.*ftfoT~~~x_ fJ k307JP1(l).$ value-added tax (V AT) taxation at the source.fJl.Mr Ell? i*AfJI.(kotei-shisan-zei) real estate tax §j)jJl!fJi. withamount of tax withheld. tsuki ni sanji. ijiimin-rei) resident taxes ~tI!.lJi (muzei) tax-exempt ~lJi(£) (menzei[-hinJ) duty-free (goods) JlIllJi (kanzei) customs duty I!*JlJi(nozei) payment of taxes iIlm (genzei) tax reduction II!I.1 ~tlJ5f(.:fI'f. (jidosha-zei) automobile tax :fll*itfJi inheritance tax corporate tax ~6l.m tdatsuzei) tax evasion PJi'~fJl. respectively.~: be: ~i!' (l)¥ltlt'littil:tt ~ kasegi no mukui wa zeikin nan . mindd The character tt zei contains the "grain" radical. 0 * shLinyii: income. but as his wife is also w .'i* (ruishin-reihii) progressive tax system :iEtlifJI. .todaY.t.fn." As we neglected t? menu: this further example of a compound containing il:.A *li~Q (l)-c'T Watashi wa nikkyii-gekkyii na no de yasumeba sore dake shUnyU wa heru no desu. (juka-kachi-zei) holding taxes iW. dtiuc. ~*'1Ji.:nfJI. rate of tax withheld ~*~~)(_~ (gensen-choshii-gaku) 42. albeit mor~ secular." . in classical or literary form. (shimin-zei) city taxes rm5E:~ilHJi.t.wo!'! ~ uses (opsonia) refers originally to soldiers' Ilic*fi halkyU 'ra tions. (chihii-zei) local taxes t±tI!. so the more time I take off.'el. "'C1t'Qo (gensen-ch6shil-zeiritsu) t'lJi. I±l~ ~-T Q de-kas~gi suru refers to the act of leaving one's home in the CountrySIde to work in a metropolis. I? J '- C I'::~?t. ttomin-zei) metropolitan taxes lRtI!.. we hasten to remedy the omission with detail. (sh6hi-zei) consumer tax isozoku-zei) (h6jin-zei) Nijiigo-nenkan tiidai de marukusu-shugi-keizai-gaku 0 oshiete ita takakura-sensei wa.tt? t.16 Ii of nt! It~J/. 41.(gensen-shotoku-zei) ~*~J()(_fJi. earnings Native Japanese verbs for "earn" and "reward" are ff<.'i* tteigaku-teiho) flat tax system ft1JOfiHif@:lJi. a re otdS that the first form of taxation was agricultural.J 20 Business and Economics Business and Economics l21 daro. kyonen teinen ni natta toki. *i!tfJI.*'ll 'b ~ -C1t'~. A~.e .ed ~ ples.li B *~ Jl *fi tt (l)~ft.'fJl.!]~jct'"7}V 7 ~~~I. the Japanese counterpart of "Virtue is its own reward. When Professor Takakura retired last year after teaching Marxist economics at the University of Tokyo for twenty-five years.be reportedly received a (civil service) pension of ¥300. recompense for earnings is taxes. 25!r. A s~arly grim. mo hataraite iru kara ikka no si5-shunyii wa waruku MIG Igarashi's pay may be rather low.t ~ * fJi$ll (zeisei) tax system fJi$ (zeiho) method of taxation / tax law fJiJt'l (zeishii) tax revenue ~$ (zeiritsu) tax rate ~ffi (zeimu) tax affairs lJiffi~ (zeimu-sho) tax office fJirJII (zeikan) customs M!lJi tkazei) liable for taxes M.!:'j!iljH. man-en no onkyii 0 nwrau koto ni natta so desu." r~(7)¥ltIt' IHEtt ~ J "Tsumi no mukui wa shi nari" says Sl Paul: 'The recompense of sin is death. ikumin-tei) ward taxes rlitl!. ~essag. for unless you are a god-like politician. The many VI it helps to form include the following: rr. Ii ¥It ~ J "tokkii wa mizuk/Jrtl mukuyu" is. the less money I get.m ibuppin-rei) excise tax ii!liifJi.fJl.*wr1~fJi. tshotoku-tei) income tax oom (kokuzei) national taxes JI\I. taxes. their combined gross income is probably not all that bad.fJI.

!!!fIE~ ~Ii:m~m~tb? tr.withheld in Japan is generally lower than in Europe and Amenca.t~b~~~') £ISllko~sanno kechi na go-shujin wa.k6 no menzei-ten de hataraku Rumiko-s~n w~. ima no zeisei yori tashika ni kantan teki ni wa kiihei de mo aru to omoimasu.M')"C*k~~~~-~K~~affi~~. kumin-zei ya shimin-zei 0 haratta koto no nai gaikoku-jin ga oi yo desu.~~mm~~<~. *~~. s!. sono okane 0 sugu jibun no teiki-yokin ni shite kanojo ni Issen mo tsukawasenakatta. ranging from savings accounts to the stock tnlIfket./I)I1:.~ Cjido-shiharai-ki) automatic teller machine ~:~~~~~. 0 Mr.:}f{. ga . 46.m~$I~J#. I don't .n\9j."'o ~ wa.j~H~$_'j:. sais/rj.~. itsu no "" ka kiete shimaimashita.i.~v\~ ? ~To There appear to be many foreigners who pay national taxes as ~ should but who have never paid ward taxes or metropolitan taxes. • Q . time deposit t~fJi1ti: (futsii-yokin) ordinary account l1l~fJi1ti: (toza-yakin) checking account tJ(1ti:1ti:f1j (yakin-kinri) interest rate on savings account tJ(1fi:~j'.~~~~~~~~~A~. send-money) remittance (+ suru) !iIHU. 48. c. ~.1::. he promptly put the money in his own time deposit account andwouldn't let her touch a penny of it.o Kyonen amerika kara motte kita konpyiaa ni wa kanzei ga kakaranakatta. Here first are a few essential terms for getting around at one's neighborhood bank or post office: jJlffffl1ti:D~ (ginko-yokin-koza) bank account ~l\IlfJi1ti: (teiki-yakin) fixed deposit. ~ ~~Q~T(g~~~MmQ~L~~~~-.1::1P¥~. '" S S ~tj~i.takfLkere. e p!'Oglea.S~n-:ch6shu-ritsu '(be i3. A. obei no shokoku to hikaku sure- ...•• ' ~~~~.!i)~ •• ~*l~U&~*~:Ie"''C Noda-san wa sozoku-zei o utte shimaimashita. L.:. S Ipay the sports club membership fee by bank transfer. Noda wound up selling that straw-thatched roof house in ordIIr to pay inheritance taxes. rai?etsu koto m narimashita._ ~*~~~!::tt<TtUf-~ll:'7{5.7f9~~. ikura na no ka seikaku ni wa abaete imasen.~tb') tr.122 Business and Economics Business and Economics 123 r! . The strong opposition with which the consumer tax was met When Etsuko's tight-fisted husband won first prize in the lottery. ~"'i~lvo IIpOtsu-kurabu na kai'in-hi wa ginko-furikomi de shiharatte 7·~~~. 47.~.': t.fnCv\Qo " Shiinyii. e.~~m~~~~m~~~. sareta toki no tsuyoi hantai wa.1:: tk ') "Cv\"C gJ3.i. to IU ~. A. wa.~ iJ> . ~-C'. i't L I±\ L kashidashi.'. we tum finally to various means to let one'sassets grow. ~.OO~~ (gaikoku-kawase) foreign exchange i!1fi: (sokin) (lit. ruishin-zei-hii to yobarete iru.. ~ harau tame ni ana warabuki-yane - no Ie * warabuki: thatched 't1r\'t L.!J_A nk*!fi¥~%iH:lt:mi. 0-/ "loan" jtl±\i:flJ (kashidashi-kinri) loan rate {!~ 0. ~'.f4 (tesii-ryif) handling fee t:t L1ti: (kashikin) Joan. ~ "tl't. R~o is going to be working in the airport duty-free shop beginrung next month. d On that happy note. OOmli~ 'l?~. The ~ystem ". t.o>7rl*--(1" Shohi-zei ga d6nyii.holl no ge'1.'t v\ 't L. no de. takara-kuji de itto ga atatta toki. A flat-~ s~s~emis ce~ain1y simpler than the present system and I believe It ISalso ultimately fairer. ~O) Kokuzei wa kichinto haratte ite mo.~K ba ippan ni hikui.f-.:Jtr.:i:(yiibin-chokin) postal savings i3 OCIJxj.~3[1L') ~'" J. cf. ron I didn't have to pay any customs duty on the computer I brought from America last year. 71HtmiJ.l'iE1it~:'j:ttx.OOAiJ. iru it was first introduced faded away all too soon./ Cjiitaku-ron) housing loan jj.o tz.\~n\'tTo Teigaku-zeihii wa •• ~ .1Ij (yokin-zandaka) bank balance lJR:ibJt.o with straw fij!fi¥~rJlI[. (juri komi) bank transfer .tr.tr. rate at which taxes are .~<t~-~#~~')~~.ba!akai hodo zeiritsu mo takaku naru .1::K~~tL kara kii.:hereby tax rates rise as income rises is call d sive taxation.'J 7 '7 'HIHT1Jlb6Ji.i'Q)im:jjl.

fl.:~"':) .124 Business and Economics Business and Economics 125 remember the exact amount. l'J. he always used the words of Shakespeare's Polonius: "Neither a borrower nor a lender be.:L ..*fJ~. 7\:. sofu wa kenmei na jigyo-ka i1' t.j:!!ii:~t! It 0 * kawase-reto: exchange rate Iido-shiharai-ki 0 tsukau hito ga oi kara.4H± (kabushiki-gaisha) joint stock company fi':iHl** (futsii-kabuy ordinary stock J:.-m7Ji'.J'n J. t.I.'~. the rise of the yen that has continued since last week is by no means good news for share holders. The following are only a few basic terms: l*3'. BlH' rj. -) 0 Nikkei-dau-heikin kara mireba. Whenever grandfather was asked why he bought neither commy pany shares nor government bonds.:- t: l¥fc (shaken) securities j@~ (kokusai) government bond ~'i!t (t6shi) investment (+ suru) 54. root). (J)tIl:X:l. I decided to send him a check instead. '? fII .~I±lT kabu ni te 0 dasu) will need to know far more than is provided here. 55.: . amerika no toza-yokin 0 tsukattekogi" o okuru koto ni shimashita. Itn -s t: t.A "t"1. The stock that Mr...l:fiiJil'!f '~I-~A~7(J)~o-'='7At~t~ti~-?~0 'H:ti(L=f.':t~~~o J ~O-'='7AI. Senshii no en-doru kawase-reto ga yokatta kara.I) 7J 0)~~ffl1ir:~1i1! -? -c +W=f.:. t f: Lilt. 52.l:f±1j"7~{~~ r.:l*7. 7\:. To judge from the Nikkei Dow Jones average. Since the automatic teller machines are used by so many people. F)v ~ ~ t .t Ln~ ~'7.. 5fH:400}: }t." I suppose Polonius was a fool. What British English speakers call "shares" and American English speakers "stocks" goes by the name of l* kabu (lit stump. Nazekabu mo kokusai mo kawanai no ka to kikareru tabi ni. shiy6 to omotta keredo.~I1'E:ltfJ. tesu-ryo ga koto ga wakatta no de.ttJf4il'l"J v' .t.tlitl< (j6j6-kabu) listed stock iJFJ:.. Morita bought fifteen years ago has gone up so muchthat he now lives off the dividends.J't liD 7.l:. It I:. (kabunushi) shareholder tl<j\-mtli (kabushiki-shij6) stock market :f*lf~ 51~ (kabu-torihiki) dealing in stock tl<fIffi(kabuka) stock prices Wc~ (hait6) dividend Ji:!Ji\IDE~~5IpJT (t6ky6-sh6ken-torihiki-jo) Tokyo Stock Exchange B *'fY '/ 3f:l$] (nikkei-dau-heikin) Nikkei Dow Jones average tl<j\..=.l:'iIjij~$~iifU':? tz. watashi no sofu wa itsumo shekusupia no poroniasu to onaji koto 0 itta.Jf. e Since last week's yen-dollar exchange rate was favorable. (kabushiki-shiky6) stock market situation tl<j\. but Grandfather was a wise manof business.l:~v'-C: L J:.~ I.fJf ~ L -c 4--c: I.Jf~.l:l*:E I: t -:> -c#C L -C~li Lv'.:~iJ'G '. senshii kara tsuzuite iru endaka wa kabunushi ni totte kesshite yorokobashii nyusu de wa nai deshO..J: t.nli.~iI' G ~It' -c It' ~ fIllili I. I wanted to wire $400 to my younger brother.3f:MjfJ' ~ Jil.):. Those brave or shrewd enough to dabble in the market (l*':=f.i r:J Morita-san jiigo-nen mae ni katta kabu ga ne-agari shite ima wa. but when I realizedhow high the commission was..~~~. ~8:l ~ Iv!.~ datta. tIl:X:I.tlitl< (hi-j6j6-kabu) unlisted stock Ji5mftittl< (tent6-baibai-kabu) over-the-counter stock 53. "Kari-te ni mo kashi-te ni mo naru na.t iI~5tfJ -? t:J')~ . tokidoki kosho suruno wa shikata ga arimasen.I suppose it is only to be expected that they will break down once in a while. 56. dewa haito dake de tabete imasu. il'!f-"d&~T ~ 0). =f.j! L J: J c.:-t!:f* t !!Ill t ~b ~ v' (J) 7..1. using my American checking account. 016(0 hyaku-doru siikin. .-CIt' 15~ffij.." Poroniasu wa bakamono kamo shirenai ga. I3ltJ~jL~~1i1!~ i -It Ivo AiI{~v'i)' G.

84 buoyancy. r ~. 82. 74. 64 bungei j'(~. 84 acrobatics.86 animal husbandry.63 .:. 94 chihii-komuin-ho chihii-zei JII!:J1m. 113 chemistry department. 79 Arachnida.."". 84 Cartesians. atsukau t& ~. 114 atsuryoku I. 59. LOI Arthropoda. 36 butsuji 1L. 123 1 banking system. 53 ceramic arts. 109 aqueous. 80. 29. 36 bugaku . 91 JII!:J11):'I!I§l'l 74 ciJiji. ? }. 85 cell wall. 48 assets. 86 business school.38 amerika-gasshukoku 7 /. 84 Court.. 74 astrophysics. 97 acidic. 36 Buddhism. 62 bunraku 64 check (bank). 86 appeal. 123 bank deposit.69 . 56 bacteria.. 118 anthropology. 76 chemical analysis. 110 Buddhahood.:JJ$. 76 capitalism. 43 cabinet order.~. 45 Altaic.48 chikara . 26 aluminum. 15 argument (line of). 62 altruism. 33 chikyii It!!~. 79 animists. 22 accused (the). 109 assets (administration of). 44 butsudan iL. I()() assembly. 85 algebra.~t. 36 Buddhi t family altar. 26 carbon. 36 Buddhist paradise. 57. 86 cell. 36 Buddhist (altar) articles.. Chief Cabinet Secretary. 16 abstract. 102 British Parliament. 84 calm spirit. 37 chief superintendant. 91 cash. 20. 65 agencies.¥X.50 amerika-gikai 7/. 56 acceleration. 44 III chief executive (president). 60 academic degree. 49 aen !lj:lJf}.E}). 94 arson. 85 ashi 4. 96. 66 administration of assets.'. 121 avant-garde.Index 127 ~EX--------------------~A absolutism. 56 academy. 58 applied mathematics. 36 buttai ltJ{4. 76 bubble (economic).'I 11i'.27 aoi~. 101 attributive. 62 asexual reproduction. 27 abstract art. 82 centripetal force. 86 article (leading). 45. 83 carbon dioxide.84 arukoru-izon-shii '7 )v::I -)10 iMHE. 16 atmosphere. 82 chemical change. 36 Buddhist memorial service. 49 alienation.74 Chief Justice of the Supreme busshitsu ltJ ft. 85 burokku-keizai 70 'J '" chemical compound. 36 butsuri-gaku ltJllI!'+.l~. 28 barium.h<fliV'.. 74 butsuga {l. 82 camellia.13 atheism. 8l arts and sciences. 33 Buddhist statue. 108 aka-sabi . The. 84 alcoholism. 91 antinomianisrn. 74 asuka-jidai JIVIJt¥. bamboO flute. The. 28.85 cell division. 1·19 annuity. 61 abstruse. 60 bunraku. 83 atomic nucleus. mllJ~.86 bungaku ·YJ'j:. 104 Butsuda jL. 57 Anti-Monopoly Act. 28 cause. bussei-butsurt-gaku ltJ~ltJllIl 5l '+. 117. 27. 107. 77 atom. 84 ama-kudari . 30 case law. 44. I2l fE. 29 bulrush. 27 astronomy.51 capital punishment. 96 applied knowledge. 71 algae. 69 arithmetic. 54. 110 bachelor's degree. 36 Buddhist painting. 69 B bahuru I<"'! IV. 59 Aves. 69 alamo-kin ~~.'. 91 bujutsu ii\:jjj. 36 x~.fJli 91 bakkin 1i>l1l'. 43.1t. l7 aristocracy.. 59 acupuncture.64 chamber music. 86 cannibalism.36 chigakka JII!~#... ~rn. 28. 86 annual salary. 32 Buddhist (altar) article shop. 62 Cabinet. 87 Analects of Confucius.27. 58. ur. 112. 48 assembly representative. 49 bromide. 80 I astigmatism. barokku-shlkl calcium. 118 atama no yoi ~<I)Jh'.0 ba rokku-Ongaku ' :lIi. 65 alma mater. 29 capital. 55 addition. 67 authority. 54 bukkyo 11. 16 agricultural industry. 84 affricate. 82 chikusan ffilE. 69 Ashikaga period. 71 alkali. 27 abura-e iilJ~.124 automobile tax. 112 agricultural products. 90 administrative office. 46 agnosticism. 54. 86 chemistry. I()() childhood.71 aruminyiimu 7 )v ~ . 20 cause and effect. 83 bu ~l'.~..84 arukari 7 )1011 ').J. 69 assault.. 91 Anti-Prostitution Act. 59 arugon 7110:(/. 82 accepted theory. 82 bUlsuri-kagakllltJllI!jt~.l1!l1. 86 camphor. 22 artificial satellite. The. 74 apprenticeship. 84 buppin-zei ltJ. 107 admini tration of justice. 109 ai 11. 119 Catholicism. 109 chikushii tit£. 84 aruto 7)10 r.il:2. 123. 84 argument. 77 child custody suit. 56 'J'" 126 . 83 atomic physics. 86 ashikaga-jidai JEfIIWHt. 33 Amphibia. 75 adjective. 63 bank accounL 123 bank balance.84 allophone. 65 assistant police illSJlectlJr asteroid. II baptism. 118 cash card.li. 99 arrest warrant.::. 83 business. 87 awakening (spiritual). 69 Asuka period. 27 animal. 85 baishun-boshi-hO .$. 75 alien registration certificate. 45 automatic teller machine.86 Anglicism. 36. III cherry. 112 business/financial world. The. 1'l-J1<1KI. Azuchi-Momoyarna period... 74 algebraic equations.I) iJ azuchi-momoyama-jidtU'Ii. 34 cedar. 85 cell membrane. 9l Anti-Subversive Activities Act. 74 business results. 85 centrifugal force. 118 bank transfer. 123 bunsii~~. 103 baku!u Ji}J{f. 69 110 balance of payment. 84 .82 C C# minor. 16 Annelida. 93 anzen-dai'ichi-shugi 'k~~±'i&.37 alto. 82 bunkeij'(1i:.. 83 checking account. 59 akaji iffi"f:. 109 animal kingdom. 75 armed robbery.. 56. 84 bush clover. 33 aquatic products. 49 Amida Buddha. 27. 87 argon. 121 chemical combination. 31 analysis. 107 I assimilation. 84. 31 caloric force. 82 attempted murder. 63 Building Preservation Act. 23 butsugu 11. 99 child molestation. 85 116 chemical reaction. 124 bunshi 'J'Ff-. 36 n bribes. 100. bwsuzo il.

23 cho flIT. 58 collapse. 83 diishi ilJil'l. 71 dokuryoku !ll7J. 60 commodities. 61 conscription. 46 chokoku ~ItTJ.61 communism. 64 chisso ~. 96 chlorophyl.I' no joso-kaikyii 'Piit1:Q) condemned convict. 33 educational institution. 124 economic bureaucrat. 22. 87 Communist. 79 economy. 28.48 economic strength. 47 convict (condemned). 56 dokusai-shugi ~it:t~. 62 chrysanthemum. 86 commentary.!!Il'l:.'f:. 56 economy (controlled). 28. 94 commercial law. 122 engi ga warui ~il<!!.Ml!. 103 commercial city. 86 dispute. 29 controversy. 69 doka 1iil1t. 71 empiricists. 13. 85 concert.128 Index Index 129 chingin lt~. 94 common-law marriage. 62 chiido-ha 'P@~. 65 circulation of money 117 constitution. 103 l:I8J11iili.94 chlorine. 120 constitutional monarchy. 77 doubts. 112 dosan ibill1. 20 Christianity. 67 eanh. 26 drug addiction. 64 chiteki-kOki-shill !311l'. 42 class warfare. 114 chokin IIT~. 29 concentration. 36 chino-han llJjjM~. 85 educated classes. 115 do It 84 economic warfare. 120 discriminatory language. 94 embezzlement.!it.J 02 closed SOCiety.:X!fi. 27 Conservati ve Party. J 09 (eh6-ltal1-)ehO (lI . 71 consumer tax. 116 doitsu-gikai I' 17:l1l~. 72 endowment. 67 classical economics. 120 chishitsLl-gaku :It!!ff'l:.97 Commonwealth of Australia. 40 doshi katsuyo j}]jjjiJmlll. 58 . 74 comedy. 115 dobutsu-gaku iIJ~!f:. 4 I chorui . 30 cinema critics. 113 choeki i!J\i'i. 60 conjunction. 107 Dutch studies. 58. 107 chokurei :«!J%. 65 Edo period. 67 50 chord. 121 constitutional. 102 drama. 34 engineering. 22. 105 electrons. 122 classical an. 78 edo-jidai iIp~ft. 22 earnings.:.I20 discourse. 80 district. 58. 68 electoral defeat. 63 empty theory. 85 Christian. 94 chiiryii no kass-kaikya 'PillQ) Confucianism. 60 contraction.72 ekitai iIl1*.62 compound (chemical). 49 doseitM. chokuyu iIJ:~. 109 eikoku-gikai 'l€OOa~. divorce. 103 directive. 27 dorii1'!JlIl. 64 emperor system. 110 dividend. I03 chiir). 28 comprehend. 26. 63 controlled economy. 43 earl. 92 earn. 83 down payment. 67 chusM-bijutsu !llit<.ffilH" command (legal). 121. 94 E Director General of the Prime e~. t9 eigy6(-bu) 'SJi(m). 33 Echinodermata. I I I. 18 earth sciences department. 71 chiri It!!l!Il.lO. 118 elitism. 71 con titutionalism.80 eisei l*J. 91 constitutional govemment. ll6 division. 84.t. 65 eclipses. 98 economic bubble. 86 concerto. 108 easy money. 62 dokyo i1'!f*:. 35. 65 Dominion of Canada. 19 economy (bloc). 118 commisSions.6O Minister's Office. 50 eigo-goho 'l€~~li~. 75 economics. I 12 drum. 40.91 ei-ha-tancho !J!!"millt. 90 cit). 69 doku $. 94 14 Commander-in-Chief. chiigakko 'jJ']:il(. 20 eclecticism. 73 college. 86 cbiri-gaku It!!. 72. 48 ecologist. 74 disintegrate. 52 59 domestic politics. 60 empiricism... 28. 90 civil service pension. 77 conjunctive. 82 double jeopardy. 45 dotoku-ritsu i1'!elU!. 107 doctrine. 72 chokusetsu 110 shoko 1~:t~Q)iliE common property. 94 chiisM-teki !llit<Il'J. comic tanka. 83 chromosome. 71 condemn. 108 chishiki-gaku llifit'i'. 56 18 chiiryii-kaikyii 'Piit1:il!fili. 41 egoism. 66 election. 101 employment. 58 dobutsu-kai iIJ~~. ili)W/l. 50 chiiwa 'P. 64 duty-free shop. 114 eM fT. 116 doctorate (PbD). 62 ~. 80 dosei-ai I'JttlTl'. I 16 contribution.. 98.77 discuss. 109 ~. 66 chiisei-shi '4'tt+. 29 -r-lllll'ili. 35. 121 engei-gaku iJii~')t. 77 83 comet. 23 dojii-shinshoku ±!fl~:tt.71 combined gross income. 31 elements. 17 Clean Government Party. 41. 29 conclusion (to an argument). 118 clas ical music. 54 engei i~'lli.71 conformity. 45 civil law. 67 chiisei-bijutsu 'P Ift~lfi. 40 eigo-gaku 'l€r. 80 chiteki !311l'" 14 .48 Con titution of Japan. 48 commerce. 27 drug trafficking.71 conjugation. 46 commercial affairs. 28 dissimilation. 49 editorial (newspaper). 29 eiga-hyoron-ka I!!I!l!!ilW~*. 59 consonant. 118 clever. 84 conservatives. 18 duke. 85 commandment. 42 drawing. 113 cMhei-rei !lt~%. 84. 75 Economic Planning Agency. 35 Durkheim (Emile). 19. 27 draft (conscription). 99 46 doi1'!. 27 dokusen-kinshi-hb ~r5 tJ:Jl: ei 1&. 117 disposition. 93 electrical power. 56 chishiki-kaikyu jj(iiilJl!H&.69 discipline. 59 duty-free (goods). 69 en~. 41.~'. 116 classicism. 78 42 class consciousnes . 78 District Courts. 45 city taxes. 19 Coelenterata. domestic policy. class.

56 gakui '~'(:r. 92 erection of a temple.:t. 56 half note. 99 family-first-ism. 56. 96. 101 haika-kyo H:kf.t':1i'C" 34 gothic style. 56 gakureki-shokai gakuri 'N'.lo-shugi . 86 flowering plant. 125 government enterprise.. I 10 grounds (suspicion).~lFl:? 65 golr6 • . 60 fricative (e. 64 Hai I Amida Buddha. 62 hanrippo-shugi lllW:it±4i. 43 gy6seki .~ 'I:~'t7 2 essay. 103 fuji Ai..). 62 enterprise. 91 foreign policy. 117 gold standard.i1i. I 12 federalism. 30 ha~. 64 Equal Employment Opponunity Law. (NaCI). 26 heian-jidai '¥~~ft.. 17. 124 hakui-kalsud6-b6shi-1I6li1t~ r. 60 hanketsu 1'IWc.91 hard evidence.. 91 fuhO-ny. 21 expulsion (from school). 27 goi-ron t. 78.'l'ff:l'. 56 gakuen 'ji:[QI. 85 . 102 existentialism.If!tlt. 33 fraud. 65 epic poetry.. 46 family. 56 -gakuha . 85 ferric oxide. 124 excise tax. 101 former prime minister. 65 engraving. 59 Environment Agency. 62 flat tax system. 94 governor. 37 heavenly bodies. 60 g616 ~jtiili:. 9 9 hanzai-sha j~~~. 78 family courts.86 hatsuden-sho ~l«iJT.f-. 100 gyorui :I!\J!. 69 Heian period. 8 gy6kai 1lW. 56 grave offense. 67 euphony. 53. 107 ethical. geisha. 26 experimental physics. III gy6mu-j6 kashitsu-chishizai 1l:NiJ::iA!ki!:JE~I!."t.. 71 ethnically homogeneous state. 116 expound.r-xit.tt. 83 Gautama.33 g6116 ?il. 50 grace note.x. 84 enso :!li:l. 48 heaven. 60 gosh6 ~lE. 94 gold. 84. 123 flat (in music). 65 hassei .<i. 70 gunp6l1Li1i.I.29 ethnic identity. 59 follower. 70 gun llII.t. III gy6ko-len ilifllill. 121. 25. 28 force (of energy). 56 gakugei 'J: t..' y. 98. 41 government bonds. 21 Fair Trade Commission. gogaku . 91 hakuai-shugi I$f:t. 112 fixed deposit. f.66 Jukllwa·julSu JJlillIiWi. 123 feminism. 86 folk an. 61 gyo J.53. 107 founding of a temple. 122 flower. I 12 forgery.30.fit. < z: A ~. 40. G i!ltJil~Jft iIllJit ilf. 65 fuF{f. 99 gravity.t 56 gaku'l:. 93 hanrolllll~.'1'. 123 Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade COntrol Act. 82 great statue of the Buddha. 62 IlO1Ia:{E. 84 enkyoku hy6gen ieillJ3lClJ!. 16 exchange rate. 84 gold basis. 63 head of a municipal district. 42 fee (handling). 117 fine arts. 40 government (forms 01). 119 genbalsu-shu6' gelldai-bljulSIA gendai-ongabJ gene.• 59 gekkyu IIt:. 71 ethnic minority.99 government. 60 enka-naroryumu :!lI:ltT ~ I) ? 1.(:i!\. 59 handling fee. II I fate. 29. 53 hakushaku lJ'J~.. 86 Juka-kaehi-zei HbUlilJifii&.. 98 extended famil y. 83 hayashi a'T-. 85 hachii-rul ff(!!taIT.hl~i1i.79 gas. 71 ethnos. 29 feminizumu » »: < =-. 35 freedom of speech. 51 foundation (institution). 54 gakumei '. 87 hagi 41<.67 ensan :!lI:M..25 family-run busine s. 74 haretsu-on liIt~ iT.ikoku 'FrliAI!l. 65 harmony. 56 Faculty of Science. 22 gakushi-gd I' •• 56 ganseki 1. 87 gy6sei 'iTlJ(. 19 foreign-made. 63 -goroshi -fX L.36 gei . 98 foreign eXChange. 55 gunkoku-shugi lIiOO:1:. 30 gakuhi "ji:1f.<.i~·*.gaku geinin ~A~ 59 59 gein6. 69 Helke. 51 gy6sei-fu FrlJ(Iff. 18 hanshin-ron iR. 40 gakk6 '].iji!flrf!1 JY. 33 gokusoku UlIIJ.r~JII\ 91 gaikoku-san ~~ •• JI8 gaimu-shii ~1II1. 69 hakushi ~. 93 fudiisan .HbR1. 36. 85 feudalism. 69 fiction. 36 gross national product.t. 97 evolutionism. 82 forced labor. 66 gokuraku ~i$. 121 Fukoku-ron r1JI!il~J..ilifii.~ geijutsu. I 12 government-industrial complex. 85 enki ti:. 85 ens6ijf~. 39. 100 gong..*11.i etC.130 Index Index t3t English language and linguistics. 36 hainin 102 IIOil61£ .E!f . 56 gakujutsu 'lWi.'j!. 54 fishing indus!Jy. 86 hand-drum.1i~WiJl:i'. 77 hanzai ~B'Il. 54 49 'n~. gakusetsu 'r'JI. 33 er. 18 freezing point. 57 gakumon 56 gakureki . 92 gunsei lIifil:. 48 Governor General. I) . 61 hasatsu-on liItj$tf. 16 hanshoku "HI. 4 I.. The Tale of the. 16 fuh6-k6i-h6 'f'i1. 41 gushii-bljutsu JHR~l!T. 18.109 government ordinance. 72 extortion. 86 haijakku r 1 '/1""J 7.J. 56 gakuin lji:F. 97 hard sciences. 83 gy6mu 1l:Ni.53 54 66 gakubu 't:l6. 123 hanga 1l!1~. l21 execution. 62 graduate school.48 gunji-rironka 'IPIJJ!I!. 42. 38 :m. 100 extremists. 21. iru:..kOl ". 52 foreign words (loanwords). I 16 Jukushi IolIJ"J. 97 group psychology.g.91 gunritsu . z). 97 F factions.99 free SOCiety. III entertainment world. 109 forest products. s.. 29 faculty. 93 g6:f. 109 fuhen-ron tf. 74 explanation. 31 Golden Rule. 117 gold export. 40 gy6sei·ehokan Frfil:JH1. sh.tit.. 107 financial combineJclique. 117 golden mean."3 gairai-go ~f*. 28 haiku fj~11).48 [ubun-ritsu .'I$~.. 26 hakugaku '10 hito I$~:~ A. 83 fresco. 64 estate. 109 forestry indus!Jy. 63 handicrafts.:o. 67 evidence.7l euphemism.lIi. 85 ferric hydroxide. 80 heavy industry.( 1. 100 goshikku-shiki :f'i'J Po:>\::.t.'1. 29 feminisuto 7. 29 ferns. 34. 112 hedonism.iII!-IlI. 107 financial resources. 90 g6kan !Mi~. 35. 46 epenthesis.~.. 22 export subsidy. 30 eyewitness. 99 hanzaisha-yobo-kiisei-hii j~W -itfll1i!t!_4. III H -ha iH\. h. . 33 gosho do kara ft'F.96 han-onpu . 6 6 gaisei ~fiI:. 64 finance.108 " 'I"frlifA. 107 financial world. 85 hasu..

90.(. 108 hoken-seido :i'tilli1llJ!l!'. 63 kagyii ~iI't.. I II kai W. 29. 45. 169 j6ryii-kaikyii J:iilElllU&.50. 80 higai-sha !lii!f~. 29.fUltt!ll1..-. 75 history. 63 Japanese-made. 83 2 inertial resistance. 124 kabushiki-shijo l*>\:m~. 96 junsa-buchii i!S\1'f. 56 (higher) academic degree. 79 ignorance is bliss.lll.94 hotei i*l!. 45 House of Lords. 54 jiid6~jfi. t.R 28 O'? V. 34. 84.1t'l'ij~~ltQti ~tj. 46 ijutsu r~lIi. « ~nnm. 71 heisei na kokoro 'f'~>i. 8 inflation.74 jinko AD. 50 jobutsu l. 90 hongy6 *1$.36 indict. 90 i'in-kai ~U~.i. 22 hypothetical. 69 42.87 1116. 53 hypothesis. law of the.81 . 101 hOkai suru iii¥Ji-t Q.tj.lIt. 64 Japanese-style painting. 48 jidosha-zei gJJ.flJ. 58 hOgaku 'IlI~. 91 hinzii-kyora l: " . 121 hoka 1i!I::k. 36 hell 'i?:.71 jinsoku na saiban 0 ukeru kenri iB.g. 72 jinrui-gaku A1i'l"f:. 121 indecent exposure. 112 hollyhock./Ni-ha r. 119 influence: 44 jIIOC"nt proven guilty. 58 igneous. 101 indictment. 66 j6in J-. I 19 high school. • inertia. 116 impreSSionism. 104 Jupiter.1. 26 hiniku-ya Hii1:J~. 84 hydrogen. 80. 96 hotoke fL.f-. 100 hitokui no fiishu AJh'Il)il\'lI. 84 kagura '/IlI~.46 Imperial Household Agency.*. 2 industrial arts. 92 immovable property. 60 kaigen-rei )I£~.j'iJi\. 47 jiyii-shugi J'J III 1"J!!.. 96. 26 jiyii-honin-shugi llJhXff±. 28 hiniku Hii1:J. 67 hypnotism. 65 Japanese lute. 90 illegitimate birth. 123 humanities.Ij'ilI!ijij. 97 hi-shikiji-sha ~I'il*~.ltlllii.( 119 -(A71.. 53. I II jiki~~. 72 hOmu-sh6 i-HJ'i~. hogo-boeki-shugi f~.. 103 Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Law.54 jujutsu I!lI. 80 jurisprudence.lIi. 98 high salary. 74 c l14idii-rorihiki ""T -( 5'a!I~. . 90 jiiryoku Jl!ll. 67 imperfective. 121 jumoku 86 jungle.t~U ~. 67 imperial edict. 124 kabuki. 30. 20 jiitaku-ron tt~ 0 -".35 hydrochloric acid. 94 Imperial Household. 17.. 86 kagakka ft"ltH. 109 imperative. 41.. 65 illegal immigration. 110 jiyii-minshu-tii ~lllJr"J:.. 62 kageki-ha i!illltiJi\. 101 jirstlgy6lk. 109.45 Judaism.75 hikoku-nin 1IIi1!i A. 90 hosoku ~lUtJ. 46 holiday. 72 homosexuality.116 jiyu-ka illlJlt.51 House Speaker. 51 joint stock company.67 immigration (illegal).C·.." t: < ~. 124 jojo-shi ~ml!if..132 Index Heike monogatari iJZ".iI:.)til.i"'1. 50. 64 incest. 65 heisa/-tekiJ-shakai f:/Ult«(t. 72.t. Iii. 54 juky6 fIIIf. 50 House of Councilors. 83 hell.97 kaede liIl. 30 hoshu-tii t:il"'f'i't. 97 higeki ~. until OIlianic hemistry. 124 hikan-shugi . 44 'idertrading. 121 jido-shiharai-ks g~3t1L.l<3'.. 28 heryiimu ". 73 kagaku-haIl1l6it''f:!itli::.:#j~. 53 humidity.j!fm j:.It>. 26 iden-shi ill!". 15 igaku YJo(?.. 64 kabunushi t. 62 20 I 12. 37 House of Commons. 62 henkei-diibutsu li\iJF. 71 jinshui-tekit-sabetsu AflIl(tr. 120 income tax.}I.71 Joshi JlIJiiil. 33.71 hiritsu . 69 hekiga !I[@l. 83 husband. 40.112 honorari um. 86 homicide.lllHil:.~l11llll "1:.. 100 Indic. 54 hirakareta shakai rm77'j1. 63 Japanese poetry. 71 jink6-d6rai-t6kei ADfbli!l>lil: 1ft. 36 jo-doshi WJtbtoJ. 63 jazu"".91 h6jill-zei i*Am.i.f. 60 helium.72 jinko-eisei AI1II'i IF. 36.I11. 64 jojo-kabu J:4}l*. 67 joso J:1l1f..U. 86 ideal. 35 illnen t!l~. 101 hi-jiijii-kabu ~~J:~i*. 61. 54 jutsugo i>l!illi. 31 hinin-hii illtti*.63 jichi-sho § iti:t!i. 83 h6s6(-kai) i'H!r(W). 76 illiterate. 124 Index 133 98 . 86 hensei-gan 'i?:1ilt!ti. 85 ideology.20 idealism. 63 joji-shi ~Wl!if. 44 judo. 44 household belongings. 26 import quota system. 91 hO(ri-)gaku i*(:\IJ!)Cf:.. 90 hochi $il.'Ht. 93 jikken-butsuri-galcu . 105 K -ka ¥l-.. I ichiji-fu-sairi -'lJ:>f'flfl1R. 87 hiirei ~li1>.gtJ. !Ifi:.4 5 ika lJoHt.t. 31 Heisei period. 124 kado 77'<::. 96 hotel business.l.!lnili.6O jikkai -h. 72 income.96 Japan Communist Pony. 72. 56 hijacking. 109 Japanese music. 33 jig)'6lJH~. 30.'IiI.41 jiyii-ro l'lrli}l.. 46 Hokkaidii-Okinawa-kaihatsuchii ~trnill . 86 7 individualism.64 kabuki .) ? L" 83 hi B. 116 hikinige-unten 1J' ~ i!!.f. 90 hiigaku $"lt. 125 kabuka l*ftlfi. mlfllm~en'.38 heisa-on pml'!1'f. 78 kaiga ~t!lli.J) il\. J.It. 77. 79 Heraclitus. 76 Hindu. 109 122 inheritance lax. 84 kageki :fI.124 jiei-tai g1Oi~.14 I . 81 jinko-gaku AUQ'. the. 100 homogeneity (ethnic). 47 Japanese (native).. 69 Jomon period. 90 justify (justification).. 78 kabu i*.iJi\. 112 h6 to chitsujo i* I: 19<If. n infure .99 hiyu . 30 kagii-butsu ft. 28 Hinduism.~I11. 28 judge.14 janguru 110 okite "'" "-7' )vll) llf. 82 jussaku liII~. 69 jo'61. 60 12 innate wi dom. 38 heretics. 59 110 industrial revoIUUo~'I? indusrry. 100 hikizan i) I~». 123 jutsu li!Ii. 28 Hippocrates. 85 kag6 surll ft fl'-t "-'. 105 jiriki Ei )). 33 jisatsu J:l~. 44. 25 hi-kanzei-shiiheki ~~llQml\'. 57. 50 hiiso lfJI:fi. III jitsuzon-shugi ~fVt. 121 • ink painting.. 31 jinshu AfHl. 67 icho $Il~l.31 hoshu-ha t:il'.61 imprisonment. 124. 28 jiimin-zei ttf'!. 29 hittakuri 1J'. 66 jiizai 1lt!lll.J!!. 55 justice (administration 01). 43. 76 imi-ron :r!. 103 inbun ~nJt. 57 jinsei-kan A!EIiI1. 96 indigo plant. 83 hyperbole.E. 66 Japanese educational system. 0 9 hO(ri/su) ~~(~It). I 18 hon'yaku-shakuy61lli'J. manslaughter. inheritance. 64 j6mon-jidai *'1Jt~ft. 104 junsa-cho i!S\1t:l[.(~. 107 housing loan.(. 123. 66 honyii-rui 78.lIL'IiI. 25.f)t. 69 heisei-jidai 'l'IiltIl. 27. Hokkaido and Okinawa Developrnent Agencies. 43. 18 jigoku :It!!l.til'!fl. 50 House of Representatives. 25. 67 hii $.89 hoan $.102 OI"ta.. 47. 74 kagaku it"" 83 kagaku "'~. 46 imperialism. 99 m*.90 horei-hii i*l§Ij$. I02 !iIlUmental music. 68 hit-and-run accident. 48 Japan Socialist Party. 69 Japanese linguistics.jI.ll:.116 h6jiili'lJ. 4 6 High Courts.t. 37 iho ilisiL. 96 judiciary. 61 ~ story. 90hoshin )j n. 103 illegality.f. 60 Japanese zither. 18 Japanese emperor. 54 jiijutsu jf<jl:i. 26. 94 . 82. 43 jichi-tai 111 itiU>.)lt ~.

78 kindate ~lll"(. 91 keikaku-keizai r '1l!1~i1i. 119 koseibutsu-galcusha ..i'i A. 112 karuishi g'[j.:1:~1l'/~~. 39.!~~I. 122 • 'o-Icyoku 1<:WIII1..'). kdsoku !Xliii. 69 59 koshitsu J. %. 96 leading article. 100 kashiwa . 42 kenryoku iii)). 90 legality. 7 kin'yii-kikan ~1<ll1!llill:. I II linguistics.'. III kihon-teki-joken )). 67 kawase-reto ~-Il' v .. 87 koten-ha -. 104 keishi-siikan VIJHtli/i. 46 keizai-kyoko ttii'f~fi. 99 lascivious behavior. 122 kanzei-shoheki IlIJlJI.61 kosei-torihiki-i' inkai 1~IEJf~ I I) wgaku I::.Jt.85 Iitkllil6l'li. 94.t. =-J~ "m. Index 135 ka'in f"IIll:.t'.(F. 80 kairaku-shugi 1'J<~t4t.)'. 7 6 Jjjc!Jij·doblIIsun-. L labor productivity.110 lokumin-IOt<ll. 33 ~)ol!{1.'. 57.!t~'{:.g.t 125 . 75 kyoyo-zai ~~!J1l.'t.f..-sosltrkr 1JZlliill • kiri i)oJ. 121 kechi na It t. 86 kussetsu-gengo Iilllrrfil!li.:. 41 kydwa-to :JHn}i. 61 63 IokkniW~. koshaku i:Jl1}. 30 kyiiyo *ii. I.58 keizai-jin ~i.. 91 '"Icusai-jin~~A.".27 launch a business. 117. kirisuto-kyii 29 "" ) kirisuto-kyolO "" } 28 kiritsu JJlfit. 90 legislative proposal. 33. 112 law. 84 kasegu fi/. 50 IoicIlJiiU'I)£.tt 119 i-roi:lJlJi: 47 hii-rui Ii\!UJt 87 ~~suru iJi.g. 71 kenselsu-sh6ltitt'li.q. 90 law of nature.il!iif<. 86 (kei)balsu (lfIl)foJ.134 Index kashikoi fi"'. 65 liquid.. 117 . 118 kinko 1. 70 light industry.119 kyiibizumu "".62 kigeki rtlfll. 27 kansei no chikara lttt-tIl):J).46 wgei J:. E~. 109 koseibutsu-gaku .81 .~ kill'YL.Hil.. 41 kyosei-sokarr ~$lI~iI. 62 kyowa-setdo . 104 keiso It*. 66 kakujitsu na shiiko !iil~ttiiiE ~.U~... 103 kyosei-waisetsu-eai .!i$llm~ lI1l. 29 kanjo-teki ~-m(j'1.:.. 22.99 kinri {tlll.% kenju-gakuha <-.l:jJI *1'.IIf1. 9 7 ~o"t't.. lolcurell-anzen-hosho-rijikoku l~it't<'I':1¥J:. 116 lolumill-so-seisan i'iI!~~!E. 18 kiku *i. 1 16 karma.85 learning. 96 ID-goseiJ\:.. 58 tWf1. 107 kanzei 1lIl1JI. 92.. II. 83 kantan-shi 66 Kanto-gakuha no kannenron-shugi j] " ~ Of'i*Il)lJ!!.(h mi. 104 keiUi-)hO JflI(~J)i'!. 30 kanzai Wilt.-kanll'a ~. 91 keiji-jo-gaku lf~ffijJ:Of'. 115 kin~. 96 kyuryo 119 kyuslri-fu i. 67 katei-saiban-sho Ji:!iHI1Jllm. IOkai·saiballno kenri i:IJIII/I: 121 ~1q)i1lH11. 66 kusu f>l. ken V~. 115 keizai-taikoku tti. 104 keisatsu-chii V~~Ii" 46 keishi 104 keishi-sei 1'11lJE. 67 keiyo-shi ~:a:~. 17 line of work.:j:Jlt 26 keiken-shugi-sha/sron-sha ~ .lJlll')II~l. 123 ki no kiita 1i\1l)lf11"'tc. 124 kazai Ji:1It. 49 'oI. 86 kaiii-sei ifi':El€. 116 keiken-shugi ~. 96 lawmaking.'I.. 64 kigen-setsu l'EiW.91 litkuji!.{J]i Ii:) j'8rt. 115 keimi-kikaku-cho *Ji1i1f::ldijlr. 121 Liberal Democratic Party. I 15 keizai-ryoku tliii'fJJ. 71 kaimen-diibutsu iltl!li1J~.27 keiji-sosho-hii lfII'JHUf~i'!. 107 katei l!l1Jl. 56 ku 1><:.'jJil}i*.11Il " 117 117 kin 'YL. 69 Kamakura period. 70 ~~·seki ~1!I1'[j. 21 tnkuritsu-minamata_ ~lliW: ~~. 103 kinko-yaburi ~WII/I: 1). 50. 85 koten-ha-ongaku 8J11li*'a'~.45 kenpo ~i1.101 kisoku lIIJIIJ.:L j] r. % law (scientific). 27. 28 kin 'yii-Itikishime 1:1<ll. 100 kyii*ii. 22 kigyo1l':lf<. 85 life forms. 78 Jjjchaku-gengo J.1'1.!:. 86.'161:. 99 58 bY6-kenkyu-selllii i'<!.)<:1111. 41 liberalization (of markets). 51 Land Lease Act.j. 26 kairitsu (Buddhist) lIll:fl!. 80 kinsen {tili. 46 Iogilld'~Jr..~OMIIll:. 62 kyiishin-ha .t'.I!IHiJ~.. 22 kashidashi-kinri n/H~t'l. 29 legal profession. 43 koten-keizai-gaku I'iliIfttil'!~~. 75 kakezan Itlt.l/l). 121.ll:f. 45 kill'YL. }(f.. 117 117 kin'yii-kai 84 lPdo::r-r. 117 kinsei ~!il. 69 knowledge.ll'f:i*. 85 kinsaku ~lfi. 66 Jjjchi-sho jf<}jrUrr. 86 ku-yakusho l3l:ill:ifr.:L-".usai-Irofil~i-t. 94 Iojiu-seikalsu1I\IA'UIi. 43 ketsuron Ui~. 41 kiiron ~~.::lI.21 legislation. 123 kido~il!. 117 kinken-seiji ~~l&m. 77 kumin-zei I!U~IJI. EJi!. 66 keizai ft/fl. r). 65 larceny. 63 liikn l6!X. 110 Labour Party. 77 life in a group. 84 keitai-gaku ~1i1lOf'. 86 kaso-kaikyu f" Jllf*&. 54 kanri-shugi 'o!flll!.. IOki-inslrO-lta/&Jl1Jr:IIUti*.fA.I. 6 6 keiyo-doshi ~#tIJ~~. 101 tObursll-gaku ~~. 18 kaku-kazoku t!Oi<Mii. 70 key (major/minor). 87 kosei-slrO 1'/. 56 kO/lo-gakujk6 .94 kirai ~H4>.. 23 kaisha-ho ~HI'.46 kunrei IJtI~.83 liquid (e. 112 line of argument. 29 lokerllifi'fii. 42 kyowa-seitai JtlIlJ!l:f<t. 120 kasei :khl.'j:.t ~:t~.65. 104 keibu-ho llIIM. 122 kumo-rui _*l:!Ii'l.:. 112 kyiikei . 44 kensatsu ~f. kobai l'tJ.i:*1Ji li!1'f'A. Iokka-ki5an-i'inkai W*i:'tc~ 116 lIfi. 54 lecture. 96 lawyer. 117 kingaku ~tIi. 103 keisatsu . 5~ knowledge (applied). tt. 109 kyosan-shugi JtSl.){ .118 kyo fX.69 kunai-ch612..E.l'r.33 '~'YuIll>!:.(.46 "'lcusai[1iJf. 7 kin'yii ~I<ll. 12 kengen ~J!}!. 92 _ IA~ft kenji ~11>.fIiI. 84 karyiimu j] I) ? J". 110 ~iusan I'llill1. 87 . 25 kidnapping. 12. 62 kaikyu-Ioso I!Iffll:ll 1-. 117 kind. 9 7 '~zeilIjll1..i'iXI!I. 19 kangen-gakkyoku W~~IIti. 75 kakudai-kazoku l1t:k*~../1. 91 kaiyii-gaku ilti'F~(:.\'f'.. 22 leaf. 44.( J". 100 Latinism. 124 koso l'iillF. 117 ".' ? J".0. 83 . 47 Liberal Party (England). 27 kotei-shisan-zei Jt.o. 123 kaikaku-ha i!t1(ii*.n:. 109 kaisetsu MlllI.. 28 katsuyo i'1ifll.~ 75 kizoku llW. 9 6 wgei-ke"kyu-jo L~liJf'l'l:llr. 18 kettei-ron ii<5Eii. 19 kankei-dobutsu ~~i1J~. 79 kasetsu ilZlllI.g.~1:. 93 kai-sanbutsu ifi'ik~.. 90. 61 kyugyo f. 117 kin-yushutsu ~fii:U..tt~fI:.'l:f. 74 tObursu-gakuslta ~~. 19 kyosan Mfi. 33 kyogen ~I r. 39 "'A4sai-seiji l"I~&if. 117 kinkan-gakki {t'l!\'~:'. 58.. £(<1"117 . -j It. 86 _ I:A f fl.loo kyoso-kyoku III §f IItl. 91 landscape painting. 72 kaku-henka m:e:ft. 51 kai'in-hi ~n'l'l.( A.". 112 kanibarizumu 7J 1). 66 kan8YO '1I1f.Ui. 28.>f. 64 kyoikuif!(ff. 67 kuki!/. 86 kyori if!(1Jl!. 26 keimu-sho lfIJ1iilfr. 46 kannen-shugi lJ!~±. 62 kango ~RIi... 43 *-'In. 86 koritsu-gengo. 30 kaikyu 1!If*&.~~.. 105 koten-bijutsu I~ JIll JHlr. 103 toclrb ItJ1f~.2 kinshm-siikan ifrlllltll!i.! \ 17 kin'yii-seisakv ~lli. 22 left wing. 86 kankyo-chii ~:ljtJT. 60 language study... 96 lawsuit. 94 law of the jungle.fj·. 36 lokugo-gaku l"IWlf!jt.46 kOIO~. 110 lichen.)~. 48 ken 'It. 109 iusei .. 26 Kana Jigoro i&lIIliS1in~. 66 liable for taxes. 94 kunshu-sei .. 13 kiben-ka AIl1fli<. II..II.}i.'?- 99 katorikku-kyii j] ~ I) 'J :7 if!(.. 117 kinrui iMi~. 12 kashitsu-chishi iliI9<llcJE. i. 123 kashikin U l-~.1'.oj(t.48 litillblln-gaku ~'I 64 5l:. 96 kishi5-gaku ~\ Ct. 90 1exicology.~. kenkilllfi{~.j.81 kigaku-kyoku ilii~ 1Iti. 80 kasei-gan :kiilt:6. kugai 'i'i'#.ri. 66 ko-sanbutsu ~111~. 50.!>.j1i:!:tt~~fJI.99 keibu "llII. 18 kusabana "-.1'\'I&.>f. 59 kiishaku y'<:Jl1}. 110 kiiki ~~\. 121. 40 '4iuYo-seki !!.l-. 72 kamakura-jidai . 99 keizai-gaku ~il'i"'. 121.. 59 kyokuhi-dobutsu 1i!iltfJJlt.1lf. 62 4tyu . 32 kangae-kata :It ~ 15.$lI. 62 kinken ~11i. 90 kenpo-seido ilt'iiHlllit. 90 legend. 49 kyasshu-kiido 4' -I' 'J 'l. 53.-shilton (J<".t.rIiJT.*fI'J~ft.. 51 laissez-faire. 56 litkorozasu . 95 law and order.t.lj'l.70 kotai t~H4>.lilJ1". 71 kasoku-do iJlli!!!lJf.. 13 kenp» ni rekigo suru ilii'l..· kiso elJf. 82 katei-kei i&lE~. 44 kanemoke ~i. 50 liberalism.. 79 karushiimu 11 )v:. 65 . 33. .'.71 kyoka~~. 69 kanbo-chokan 't(JiiJR'jjf. 83 Iojiu-shugi lWA Lit 26.. 30 118 kenmei 'jfIJj. kin-hon'i ~*flL.64 kyokugei III1~. 60 wkakll-rui IJI')!..usdi-shrishi1'ii1~I/1Jt.

49 magnesium.\l.lll. 84 nisshoku EI ft.. 29 nukureochido s. minsiw-shugi 47 l~ L Lit. minshu-s ha k01-/0.57 logos.76 =. 91 minor offense.~. 81 meteorology. I II Occupation. 35 Mars. 60 medo 1101::'. the. 86 nara-jidai li'i Jilllfft.lJ]j.T -(:J. 69 oak. 43 Ministry of Construction.(. 122 native Japanese tyamato-kotoba). 29 Newtonian physics. 80 Iyrie poetry. 58 medicine (the practice of).. 10 mitsudo .J J. 66 melody. 69 marriage (common-law). 7 I lunar eclipse. 92. mizen-kei *tt. 67 meishi t.J. 54 martial law. 43 Ministry of Education. 85 Natsume Soseki ]. 80 meirei ~'%. 122 microbiology. 82 7 '/ ~ :. 72 militarism.b}{·n·. 82 nuclear power plant.l EIifk:fi. 69 meio-sei . 97 loan.. 84.*· 67 mollil. ~'O nihon-shakai-tii B *it4l11i:. 60 nihon-jin-ron D*A~.'" . 118 nenkyu if. 35 machi-yakuba lIfJ1ltt+\. 77 mass movement. 83 niido illlt. 35 naien-kankei P'l*i!Il!lif.. 72 marriage (re-).43 Narnu Arnida Butsu Wi~J!iil5. "gjJ}!\l:"g. 90 Ministry of Labor. 99 mangan 7 '/71'/./6. 17. 70 mil itary-industrial compl 109 «.t. 62 majutsu 1f41i1i. 36 nantai-diibutsu iftj. 67 metaphysics.. 75 och6±.. 53 nature. 41. 69 Narcotics Control Act. 83 nucleotide.~'h~l"I."...12l nuclear family. 33 rze fIl. (I~EE). 52 40. 83 101. 84 manganese. 82 mayaku-joshii Jii. 84 metamorphic. IDO *- J.j. 64 Nob farce. 71 lower middle class.iliil. 78 managerial ism. 57 (major/minor) key. 48 metropolitan taxes. 85 nenban-gan tti'l!i15.x. 9 I local taxes. 55 mineral products.-.. 80 mercury.78 minerology. BRY"J'Jl !!J.fT 1-'. 47 JlI7 merchandise.lI:.. ~ modem music. 109 note. 79 Occidental. 56 material wealth. 114 Mercury. 66 Local Officials Act.ll:. 119..tl.91 mayor. 75 minzoku-lsh.t. 109 minerologist. 99 minoshiro-kin J(jt¢.. ~~{1..j<nJij. 80 naien P'l*i!. 46 National Public Safety Commission.::it:. .. 43 Ministry of Home Affairs.. 43 Ministry of Health and Welfare. 9 I nasal (linguistics)..66 natoryianu T l. 2 I Member of the House of Councilors. 123 loan rate. ll6 43 J '/ 7 -( '7 " 3 50 .61 modonizumu ~ ~ modeling. 59 literature.78 .. 60 litigious. 71 middle school. 125 =*n:@l.. 101 minsei [<!. • v-=.. 57. 17 mathematician. 51 nihon-ga I I :. 27 maruchi-shohO 7 )~1-i!lifj.. 123 loan-translation. 91 National Party.~ 1f4. 27 meteor.a.(i)].11:." modernlcon1emporaIY modernism. 35 marriage proposal. 78 natural sciences. I 13 merchant. 121 N nagareboshi iiIl.i:!. 124.47 minshu-rodo-to J~ t . 7 ~ • .kJ ~Ilil!: !Ii(J'J minzoku-teki-s/tUdan K JI.~.M J-. 60 . 80 neutralization.0)j[j. 72 . 69 o (kokuo) X. " maguneshiimu 84 maihomu-shugi 71 ~. 112 Ministry of Agriculture.). 83 /IeO/l ~'. 46 national taxes.I~. 64 nattoku 1!'J1<). 56 mikka-b6:u :IIJji l. 36 nisan-ka-tanso =l'Iift!Jt~. 96 nihon-kyosan-tii mUlei !!!Iifll.' IH1ZI'I:· .. 69 meiji-jidai lfIitillHt.*fi. 41 millsha-tolHt1l:. 74 mathematics (applied). 83 Noh drama.. 64 nominal adjective. 101 mayaku-torishimari-ho Jii. 112 major (at university). 2l. 121 menzei-ten ~f!l. 82 obsidian. 95 norin-suisan-sho J:'!*. 54 medieval art. r. 84 neutrons.65 137 mass. 7 114 marukusu-renin-shugi :J.. 61 mimoku fl'. 87 microphysics.118 no-sanbutsu nyiaon-butsuri-gaku '/!l7JJlI!. 74 matsu m. 43 naikaku-kanbo-chokan P'lllll 47 EI*3lil6'i:1i:. 37 m~koll haha -I: 1iIl<1l 1:1. military law. 70 oceanography. 43 Ministry of Finance.66 novel.. 4 niji-hiitei-shiki 75 nikkei-dau-heikin. 80 nitrogen. 64 M ma Index Marxism-Leninism. 65 National Institute for the Minamata Disease. 71 r" . '9 moderate faction. 60 neon. 27 main occupation.86 object. 39 matter. 77 new religion. 74 mathematics department. 86 lower class. 28 occupation.: .. 17 nihonkoku-kenpii H ¥ftJ:l!!it. 75 metropolis. 84 magnetic force..lI:.IE. 77.. 59 mining industry..125 nikkyii-gekkyu B lII'I illll'l. 86 marine products. 85 numerator. 33 menzeii-hin) ~f!I. 77 nidai-seito-sei _::kiffl:1i:iliil. 108 meiji-ishin IllJit.. 19 natural resources. 43. 121.*lUIf. 46 national law.*Bt1!l. 43 minUi-hO)po K('lili1:. 85 nudism. I 19 nenrei il'liIlI. ±.102 musu-yunv« \f. '7 L. 43 Ministry of Transport.f .:Jb!I7J. 77 microorganism. 18. 48 masatsu-oll!f.l::. muzai-hanketsu ~OJ1'1'1J#<. 41. and Fisheries. 14 mentality.lil.42 minshu-td manufacturing industry. 43 Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications. 121 lockup. 103 logic. 61 noun. 32 materialism. 122 middle class. 80 meteorite.64 non-tariff barrier. 63 ". 33 lloleil!'Jf!I.. 51 1ltl6'i:!fjIJ.b}i.. 76 nyiidisuto z: a: ..f4.136 Index listed stock. 34. 64 lithography. 16. 48 medicine. 121."it. 109 marquess. 83 Neptune.'J "J J. 79 metaphor. 64 novitiate. 43 Ministry of Foreign Affair. 19 lotus.. 124. Forestry. 27 manbiki J)iJ 1 ~ .. 35. 67 non-fikushon nori no michi fj.. 72 naikaku P'lflll. 79 nenbutsu :tiL. 87 mammals.. 91 military theoretician. 112 maple. 94 martinetism.69 o fXftrulJiJI'. 45 nihon no kyoiku-seido [J naisei P'l1E.'/1:. 120 nirvana. 7 I mayaku (no) torihiki IN(~(O)) 1&>.43 Ministry of Justice.74 mingei 1\!.#. 123 mental.. 58 mathematics. 69 Meiji Restoration. 44 membership fee.::. 86 matsuri-goto 1E. 61 member nation of the UN Security Council. 50 National Police Agency. 69 Nara period. 53 Mammalia. 37 nengall :tllll. 1&l\h. 72 nuclear power. 84 manslaughter (involuntary).25. 34 nenkin if-Jit.. 124 literary arts. 29 llyukillAJit.. 70 master of arts (MA). 80 martial arts. 71 neo-classicism.. 94 meirei-kei frr~*~. 18 *0) offense against public morals.(J.~ .71 5 missing persons. Nikkei Dow Jones average.

92 ordinary account. 107 71 privileged classes. 61 rice production. 39 politician.itsurei fJt'f. 92 rilsuryHllfl. 112 g~" IIIJ/].11:1: rnenance. 82 physics department. 3 primary school. 87 Republican Party. 94.61 porcelain. 34 onbin fd~. 62 ongaku-riron Tr-'. 100 rate at which taxes are withheld. 107 robbery (armed). 70 pagans. 20 richi-teki na ~J:u(f. 41 rik6 na lllOit. 82 physical chemistry. 16 pop art. 30 1!J&llloney. 40. 20 leal estate. 33 parliamentary system. 53 riki h. 39 1 ychology. 19 oriko-san j. 15. 105 right to a speedy trial. 65 open society. 61 post office.86 ~xta.\. 104 police inspector. 38 oil producing (countries). 119 pension (civil service). 43 rOdo-lo 'H1IIJ:ii:. 29 rin-sanbutsu :!*i!l'i!lt.Ii!JJi!IlIii. 67 party in power. 20. 65 phonetics.y. 27 planet. 94 penitentiary. 0 5 renpii-seido i!f!JIIMiJ/.63 roma-ho'ii 0-7#. 104 policy. 75 riyii J!l\[U. 102 oshoku-boshi-hii i'j_~}jJl:it. 116 plants. 114 rhythm. 67 ondo ilil. 86 portrait (painting). 61 principle.lJt. 44 president (of a repub"d. 42 resident taxes.'tH. H1t. 22 oshoku i'j_. I I I a1IVC Progressive con.'l-. 16 paper-making industry. 60 power.j.. 109 richi '\'I!J:u. 31 philosophical. 13 pine. 19. 69 poppu-iuo . 9-19-1 prison regulatJOns. 39 polytechnic institute. 25 pharmaceutical industry.45 xince. past life. 26 risii-teki JlJ!:1!'. 13 oryo~m.. 54 011. 51 republicanism.A ~ '7 I) 7i!f!f~. 62 retailer. 28. 123 postal savings.20 rizai JlJ!Ilf. productivity. 83 rinri f. 25 orbit. 21 139 sgon-rusu j't~fIt. 75 physical body. 91 osutoraria-renpo . 9 9 1.79 >nishment. 64 persuasion. 79 original principle. 60 paleontology. 42 rentai-kei i!f!f4>*. 89 reijo f. 75. 109 rippo Wit. 62 reed. 19.ijJlJ!..25. 109 profession. 20 rebirth. 85 Plathelminthes.. 30 regulation. 40 political power. 58 political views. 20 riron-butsuri-gaku JlJ!IiIi!ltJlJ! !:f'. 65 plucked lute. 96 predicate. ~formists.47 optimism. 96 rei'i~. 124 oxidation. 119.86 reformists.lt.76 l-. 12 philosophy. 92 ritsudo fltJ!J. 36 percussion instruments.. 13 prayers to the Buddha. 99 rock. 19 rationalization.tP. 61 onsei-gaku cg-jti'it. 87 plagiarism. 99 piece of cake.-. right to counsel.> ~. 62 okite tE. 75. 65 on 'in-soshiki {fl1ll*R~.92 rittai-ha :lLf4>iJf<. 21 rikaiJlJ!ff+.57 phoneme. 41. 71 opera . 76 rationality.67 representational art. 56 prime mini ter.J. 12. 112 philosophic mind.74 riron-setsu ~IiIi!ll. 112 opposition parties. 95 okura-shii *il!li. 3.1:. private fund. 63. 27. 71 rOd6-seisan-sei'ij·IJ!I'. 74 organism. 33 rikken-kunshu-koku ~L7". 0 5 output.57 liefinance. 83 practical awareness. 83 ongakkai f'j-'. 65 on'in-gaku iTmItT':. 62. 123 raten-go-goho "7 T /fi1fafr~. 67 ren 'yo-kei i!f!lIllf~. 82 3 previou eXistence. 61 pope. 121 rest (in music). 109 okesutora . 60 poruno . 80 point at is ue.Q" 93 rekishi-gaku 1J£1I2'f:. President of the House of Councilors. 74 pickpocket. 78 Reptilia. 71 . 68 5 relativism. 119 payment. 60 remarriage.72 lieopinion poll. 105 right wing. 117 power plant. 78 physical anthropology.48 rudenee. 67 onkai {fJli.69 roman-ha 07 / iJf<. 81 orchestral music. 54 operation (work). 66 premeditated murder. 59 post-impressionism. 65. 25. ~.. 121.26 political party. 50 43 Prime Minister'S OffiL-e. 39 political science. 86 pay. 33 paulownia. 26. 120 onpu {f~. 12 rien 'lUi.)~ J . 44 reproduction. 89. 77.%lI. ~ '7. 63 performing arts.20 ritsu flt. 27 ratio. 29 riji-kai JlJ!$~. 15 riron-teki JlJ!~(j().20 rikai-ryoku no aru JlJ!ff+)JQ)'*. 19 riarizumu I) 7 I) x u.:>I.42 rikken-kunshu-seitai "):\1. 3 I pessimism.79 rodo-kaikyii 9JIliJlii\. 39 politics. 36 reliance on others. 118 reisoku ~ . 71 percent. . 35 rigaku JlJ!'it. 45 tn-'hugi 25 . 101 rape. 28 paid.f. 20 physics. 109 real estate tax. 32 religion. 81 pantheism.22 perverse. 77 physical sciences.':(k. 66 '. 20 risii-shugi ~'l!l:E.27.erv Party. 83 photosynthesis..{: . 78. II. 114 ~ diSCrimination.J>:i:. 50. 87 phylum. 19 risei JlJ!tt. 80 planned economy. 74 physical object. 85 reptiles. 65 phonology. 27 rikon *1$. 40 political. 29 religious painting.31.I'I'1. police. 102 osekkyo j. 99 rikutsuppoi JlJ!/iH .Ut-t 1'<1. 43 omen.28 itibu-iilo 7' I) ~ T f 7' 7 '. 94 reikin.61 ·snatching. 37 precept. 61 representative (governmental}. 42. 107 lAllic morals (offense 'gainst). 67 prefecture..~Ml. 19 reasoning power. 12 ris"ill-rollJlJ!~ii. 7. 121 penal regulations. 103 pension. 90 riron '\'I!IiIi.l7. 123 postwar period. 27 ransom. 85 pottery. 93 reijo f. 99 midscheme. 105 right to remain silent. 109 over-the-counter stock..j-. 44 pressure. 86 Pisces. 80 planetoid.tli'itt.62.. 76 percepti ve. 63 Pluto. 72.93 rippo :lLit. 82 power of money. 121. 41. 119 paid holiday.ollJn ~ A-. 86. 61 on 'ill 'lll1Jl. 60 Porifera. 84. 100 prepo ition. 50 ssive tax system.Ii!ft. 46 primitive art. II. 62 orchid. 43 particle (postpositional). 61 onkyii . 20 risei-teki na JlJ!tt(J<) >:i:. 9 2 . 15. 16 riso ~. 30 plosive (phonetic).86 order.. 118 payment (balance of). 13 riko-shugi fiJ~ i:JI!.63 operation (surgical). 104 pol ice sergeant. 17 ranshi 1iltJi.36 recital. 72 renpo i!f!f1I.!!l--f-. 93 ohyakudo-mairi j.~.j-~'7.138 Index Index paradise (Buddhist). 59 polytheism. 65 phosphorus. 66 predicative. 35. 70 potassium cyanide. 47 pdsento /l. 124 organic chemistry.:::.-7.y.I!!. 110 rodo-sho 'H1Ii'il. 48 prefix. 121 realism. 105 right to a public trial. 119 painting.. 51 rokkuo'l(l. 40. 118. 34. 15 rin~. 61 rittai-kika-gaku :lL{"'~fiiJ"J':. 59.II rikei l. 16 release (from the cycle of birth and death). 72 1II11ce.41 rikken-seitai :U:"i&f4>.72 lXf4>.rp.117 en i'tiill. 120 peoples. 85 P Pacific War. 123 ordinary stock. 110 payment of taxes. 61 reason. 83. olJtif ~. 62 . 31. 25. 62 ri JlJ!. 85 oxygen. 86 Platonists.

99 sagyo ft~. 23 ronso ~"'f"l 17 ronten .48 -ha :"-7iff<.oj·f1. 50. 71 shaky6-ga *¥!t:~. 94 science. 78 shu ffl. 84 ryiion iilf. 25. 29 shinto 'ilIIi1'i. 65 ryiisan lilli. 75 sansui-ga W*jlII1..oj'lt CO. 107 shizen-jinrui-gaku ~ r. 69 shiiwaku-sei 'Hlli£. 74 scientific name. 60 sekihan-ga . 8S selsan-ryoku '1'.29 shiiin-gi'in *F.lIr.. 56 school. 103 shoten illiJ. 53 saishoku-shugi ~ft.Jv v 7 ')Xh.84. 76. 120 shuruiO.90 ·tt4" 10£.if1.:. 60 rornanization.t.fME~~$.45 saik6-saifban-sho}-chOkan !it iWiit('I'IIWrH'<1J.29.. 86 salary (monthly).. 102. 57 ronri-setsu ~~ill<.llil.109 seisan-sei 109 seishini-shugii-teki Mlf( tit) 1'1'. 54 shukugo 111111<.11t.(jll!t. 33 san !'It 84 sanbun w. 27. 37 shirei-chokan i:l]~jHl.78 shiiru-rearizumu ~::z. :i!I~.32 seishoku 'tM.~. 54 seiyoku-tosakul1W..75 shiten no hosoku Rr. 85 seitai i&f<i.t.tF. 32 secularized. 104 shiku-kyo :/ . 99 safety-first-ism. 18. 15.t... 70 shiidan-shinri lI! [ijj'L·~.'. 100 shOgakko 'J"7-~. 122 shinjutsu . 50 a .ft.<fi:M. 60 shillkyo ~¥!t:.'.tIlil11. 96 senkyo iIH~. 64 sanbutsu ii'i!l1!l. 100 Saturn. 33 shugyo nit. 85 shushOo:l!I.U.1li <'{:. 71. 17 ronri-gaku ~~t-J':. 119. 75 shokubutsu-kai . 20 seiyo 110 ijutsu Llljir. .114 shokei lJ!!.. 59 shugi ±:~.i*. 29 safecracking.86 shodo-satsujin lfifb:tltA. 84 ryiisei iiIf.fll~ft. 27.. 15. 103 shikikin . 18. 9-l semantics. 36 satsujin-misui ~A*it.7 a.l:i.}. 112 shaha*iff<.flI. 19 sect. 124 ah (Islam). 50 shinri-gaku . 49 shizai .27 sag i .~"i-:.67 Senate.1~]. 120 sales department.flI. 28.61 Romanesque style.61 shiish! IJ _t. 77 rui 1li.77 shi-yakusho rlilltWr. 79 seibulsll-gaku 'I'~' 58.Hr ~:l*. 69 shogyo JIlj~.. 118 scale. 51 Seneca. 69 shogunate. 60 shiikyi. ] 09 shisei-ji-ritsu . 44 sangi 'in-gi'in ~f.i:4S!. 56 senjutsu Ii&lIi. 71 shosuru 'I&-t '-'. 09 1 Sanskrit.32 securities. 63 Shinto music and dancing. 87 ryiichi-jo ffllIUiiI.r. 78 ruishin-zeiho ~:i1§.6O shu fil. 80 savings. 94 seisaku i&1Ii.85 saibo-heki . 29 sadisuto -!)-7' { A l-. 57 shin-shiikyo ~*a. 26.)m. 121 shiiwa-jidai HiJ. 91 '<luhachi R J\ 63 "'isen ::1*1ii!: 63 ..£. 69 show business. 60 san 'yu(-koku) J!i\'ill!(liJ). 60 sekiban-ga -6Il!t. 29 shikei JEJIII. 104 104 senior supenntendanl. 63 shobai ifli1c. 8S sel(do) liil(l!l.if.9. 70 shugei 'f-~.85 44.J.115 shiisii-minzoku j.93 seibutsu 'I'. 125 sedimentary.t. 61 scheme. 83 shitsunai-gakkyoku 1!f1*l~JIII. 56.1I:'fI1I: . 56 shiishi-kei ¥f JI-_~.. ~.i'~. 17 root. 83. 84 sanken-bunriisu :-:fIi~:iL. 45 sangi'in-gicho ~~F. 29 ""~-onp"1!Y5H'i·r. 44 shiigi'in-gi'in ~!llF. 67 sadism. 74 seikan-kiikan J. 56 school regulations. 64 sekai-jin tl!:WA. 113 shiinin lliEA.A.tilH~. 81 satirical haiku. 39 sekiban {iJ:/i.tiF. 109 sangyo-kakumei ii'i1ll<1fi-fr.t. 113 shiihin illiM. 45 shikei-shikko-reijo JEJlUt.lj·. 1*. 79 seed-bearing plants. 55 shinka-ron ijHt~. 40 r. 71. 96 shokubutsu m~. 72 saiko-saiban-sho litillililt'l'lllfr. 16. 60 sekibutsu :Oi1.97 saib6l!1BMl.40.t..140 Index Index 07 /' iff<if soiko-sai-hanji 44 141 roman-ha-ongaku 'fR. 19 ronsen 17 ronsetsu ~ill<. 122 sh6h6lllii). 44. 74 sankan-fukugo-tai il11tflll{lf<i. 79 seiken f'J. 25.-. 54.. 19 ryiisei-rui liIlll11li.~f.~(7)tHI]. 41 seitai-gakusha '1'. 55 scholarly. 85 ruthlessly logical. 47 rust. 56 shogen iiiE H. 64 shosetsu II. 118 shikk6-yuyo tIlfT!iff.. 54 senkoI9J'.. 41 seifu Jf!J. 56 school career.{i~. 93 "'P (in music). 144 shosha-man illiU7 /'.26 shihon-zai lif.dlj!. 28 shimin-zei Jti 1J!. 109 seisan-kari . 36 sekihan {iJ:/i.l~Ii'Nr. 39 sei-kagaku 'tit·'t. 113 shobu 1Xillf. 40. 54 .26 ronbun ilk.{:!c.65 '-kkin 1Iri'. .~.q.5!l1. 85 shokugyo . 44 shiigi 'in-gichii ~illlF.109 sallgyo iii.:. 22 ronsetsu-i' in ~m~ fl. 48 selfless devotion. 72 shishaku 1-~. 27.. 69 shogun n111. 44.57 senkoku .y. 64 shosha illiU. 80 ltl~)jJiI:fJPII. J 13 short story. 56 school expenses.~ 1.speare. 103 shikei-hanketsu JEJIII'\!IW~.. I II shogyo-toshi i!li:t:'tII.Q)r. 77.. 29 sadizumu -!)-7'{ Xh.jHJ1I1!~. x ~*".27 sakujo n1lf#i. 103 ryiika-tetsu liftfR.121 rule. 94 shisan itil11..t~W. 21 sciences (hard). 113. 10 . 65 sakura~. 91. 29.Ui:. 26 saislroku-shugi-sha ~ft t:41i . 39 seiji-gaku iJcifr'? 58 seiji-ka i&ifi'~.. 21 . 39 seiken i&}i.' 8 rotonnan-shugi i9. 44 shugo ±:~.~.JiI!i. 40 sei-hanmi ""'!e)I'. 45 shujutsu 'F~. 29 saiban lilt'l'l].~IIHt. 17 ronri ~~. 62 shitsuryo ~ '. 22 ronpo ~i!.. 17 sangaku il11\11'i. 80 shop.77.c. 38.~.M:t1 '1. 110 sankaku-ha ::='#Ii. 94 ruling party. III shiimu ifIi-Hi.t. 121.t. 121.L-7 A 1:07. 119 shiinyu Jjj(_A. 58. 39 seirei i&~i'. 84 sansii nfj:. 8 2 shi-nii-kii-sho ±RIiIfi..iJr(.IIII'1'UIi. 109 sarcasm. 57 scientific principle.. 80.62 ·f:iOll'i. 100. 64 satori tH ~ . 95 sho Il. 96 shooting stars.~... 99 shopping area. "S~ liZll. 76 shisei-ji-shussan . 112 sa-ha ti. 19 scholarship. 22 shin-koten-shugi ~tiJllf±:.63 romanchishizumu [J 7 /' j.tI!lUl.li.69 shitsudo iilllllt. 100 seiji f'J.. 113 shoten-gai JIljJ. 62 . 101 satsujin-zai :!!l:A~P. 125 shako lliEll!.5.'l&f\'. 31 satellite (artificial).107 shi'in 65 Shiites.76 eholder. 118 chi-hO fIl'l1!!ii. 112 salvation by faith. 113 shOhi-zei il'il"Clit.fL1!t. 26 rOIl~. 85 saien 35 saikin l!IBlIi. 29... 85 se. 35 sanso 1Ii~. senior poJic~man.ilt±:iI!!.Jt!l1!l~. 40 seisall'tW. 69 shinpo-hoshu-tii :i1§~I.bllll-rilslll&:. 85 saikon jI}~. 109 sandan-ronpo _:f. 79 shokuen JtJ. 77 seito i&:ii:.26. 43. 22 i~S"Pia :/.109 sangi'in ~~F.m.44 JI}"" sairnin-jutsu R*U1HFi. 46 seitii-ka suru JE "\ltT ¢. 50 shiidan-seikatsu lfOfl]!tffi.tt{l. 17. 85 rotell-saikolJl7i:r.i(il'.lfUII. S sabetsu-go ~JJII mf. 80 Showa period.lJ. 18 self-governing body.r:ii:. J 7 ronri-teki ~~(t. 60 setdtsui-dobutsu ftfjlJl"" Self-Defense Forces.~. 44 sangun-fukugo-tni 1ll1'lifll?:. (senior) high school. 102 'Hr. 66 shugyo IjfT. 113 shotoku-zei Wrl'. 41 shiigi'in *~F. 92 sanshutsu ili'11H. 29 secular..fL!t!R. 67 shushi-shokubutsu f-liI!!I1!I.. 96 shogun. 1 12 shakyo 'ilif*. 59 shOzo/-ga]I'jjg:(ii!ii). 104 ''''~rL 'oJ:ai-leki-sosu Uftl'l'.96 saiban IIi kakeru 1. 63 shiranu go hotoke c. 85 shokubutsu-gaku M~!!J:. 70 sengo-jidai *. m shaken lliE~.72 sekai-bungaku IltW iC f.I09 sanka-tetsu Iilfti1<. 113 shoplifting.

99 tsumi 110 mukui ~~(7)*II~" 120 tsiishin-eisei iilHiltjtliL 80 tsiizoku-teki :ii!H1Hl'. 77 thermal power.-.s. 87 solar system.25 ra. 112 theism.jig~lt. 37 smuggle. 42 totalitarian. 29 ukiyo-e ~j!. 60 r~J.\:11'. 124 tomin-zei f. 31. 85 sogai( -kan) i'JI(~H~). I I I.ho-reijo )lfHif. -ll':!m.':JlI*.OO'ff shiiwai ~J(JtIj. I J. 123 'O-Sf.f{j.r. 53 .. 96 soshoku-on ~lil-g. 7I -yokin. j 12 silver.31 V value-added tax (VAT). 89.j\N. 47 social life. 104 supply.r. 11~baibQi-kabll1i5lii1?. loki ~!. 33 treble clef. 80 verb. 12 tiEl!f1f ¥€. 54 rade~.83 three dimensions. 84 suzu ill. "0 '/ ~- underclass. 26 10M ~I. 18 ~ BuddhistPrecepts. 80 US Congress.il\U) fg'1\. 62 ity. 85 sodium chloride (NaCI). 65 store. 43 upper class. 21 statesman. 84 tetsugaku i'i''i''. 121 variety. 65. 54 string instruments.-sllUgi'f1. 64 soshii. torotsuki-ha i*. 41 T *~l)}.. 78 speculation. 121. 28 silicon.6O 2 ~nb"-1uhyo f!l:·rr·'M~:R. 54 Venus. 96 verdict of guilty. 41 society (free). 85 taboo word. 66 nique.29 superintendant.!. 98 sur. 50 universalism. 54 sori-fu tiEl!f1f. 97 sii-shiinyi. 93 sonara -. 70 Social-Democratic Party. 102. 86 trial.:J)l. 75 -10 lit. 74 Trotskyists.21. 60 species. 85 sosa J\I!'i!f.64 tptn-shoselsu 1ll&l/H1!t. 26. 84 simile. 64 ori"'mu7'o')Xt. 82 Sm. 75 sm. 112 stem. 80 trade. 30 trust (breach of). 74. togei (lliJ~.30 Sunnis. 71 upper middle class. 113. 27 tiisei-keizai ltilill*lil'i. 66 verb conjugations. the. 123. 18. 69 6 Tokugawa period.54 togoku ~~. 41 -'"/lena T / -11//7'7-town office.43 sorui ~Jj'j. 123 traditional Japanese music.l. 72 unwritten law.iIIF~.98 taiheiyo-sensii . 77. 93 toron Iltllfii. tree. 78 rokyo-shOken-rorihiki-jo JIlm 11$" >i!:l!I. 70 social movement. 70 social classes.)'t. 99 stops (linguistics).).. 60 suicide.i_gaku :R i4i:!ltl!![ trades. 78 ~:I. 44 Index son (your). 114 T:-. 70 social questions. the. 78 vegetable kingdom.l. 93 un 'yu-sho ~"'~.91 ro 50 "and taxation.rti-£l:-g.33 Torah (Judaism). 53. 5 I statecraft. 86 mgen-bunka-ronsho ~ Jt: tit taigaku-shobun . 91 "non-gaku 7<1::. 70 taishii-undo kl1t~f1J· . 122 sound system. 27 vegetarianism.69 toshi ~'rt. 84 silk industry. 20 " study. I 18 taiko :kilt. 23 strongly opposed. 86 tsuki fl. 35 sodium. 101 social aggregate. 82 ". 70 social order. 61 traditional Western music. 56 unlisted stock. 17 u-ha fii*. 93 tort law."-minloku ~j. 77 United Kingdom. tetsu W<. 123 . 18 spiritual awakening. 121.62 sorcery. 80 sunni-ha A :. 66 hings. 70 :IIliil'. 64 Tale ofGenji. 71 social climbing.(tl-.1lo1~1*. 75 solid state physics. 31 slate.. 121. 34 unpaid. 80 Isum. 5. 74 tiisaku lti1'\i. 33 suffix. 29 social sciences. 32 unwed mother. 75 suffering (world of)."'I. 17 verdict. 28 ollo-ltogo-h6 l:ll!ll!Jf!tl. 119 unrefined. 79 smartweed.. 2 rokugawa-jidai !l\\JIIWHt./.!:!ilt.'~. 84 hiulIi)E L n:.'IJt. 86 smoking. 102 trading company.69 taishii-jidai j( i£IL'f/L69 Taisho period.1ii.60 122 tokken-kaikyii lWfiiJll1>i1l. 114.=.'*. 60 Summary Courts. 87 raiyo-kei A. 60 122. 75 ~ak"-zeiho'ii. 105 sosaku ll1Wf. 99 surrealism.I: '1"1'" 'J'.83 solid geometry. 19 tsubaki ~. 93. 102 truth.-sanko-tetsu *tilftlc 84 suisei *lll . 113. 79 solid.29 tidal force. 19 speech. 19 theoretical physics. 66 siigaku-sha ~". 16 theoretical..62 totalitarianism. 58 sugi #.53 rokei-(sii}gaku ltilt(~)*.. 63 syllogism. 84. 44.=.84 suisai-ga *i¥§@i..% 'Yo T·t'. 113 storytelling. 17. 71 ~J. 77. Sikhism. 82 e~108 tight money. 84 sum. 110 """i-bulsll. 96 trick. 'I' taiyo-enerugl . 66 subtraction.qE. 74 solipsism.iJ.22 theorizing about the Japanese. 101 suigin *111. 69 n-dobutsu )EilliW!itJ. 49 utagai li~'. -r ~. 51 92 shutsunyii-koku-kanri-oyobinanmin-nlntei-ho /:I:l).123 togo-gaku *liillt"f:. 16 sotoku tiE1!\'. 101 ' trialheat. 25 soprano.t.11. 71 sogyo flil<t.48 ~.124 Ier machine (automatic).j. 86 suiboku-ga *~lJ!ii. 69 taishii ki'/t~ 70 . 32 social conditions. 63 two-party system.. 62 soshii-zuki illFiiI:!fI. 74 theories.? • 63 sophists.tri'lJt~}. 82 sokuten-kyoshi ~II':R.. 52 U uchimaku ti'!._millzoku-kokka I~.Jf_ ~ 77:/-. 70 social organization. 54 trigonometry. 102 l!&rf. 6-1 taiseki f.~ to 7011. &I 17 Jaibo'r.T.142 Index shiiso ~lK. 28 togo-ron Mtiff·t:'.116 tight-fisted. 72. 79 suiso **.l<t'.hollg(tIl11!!JJ*~!i. IS.f. 94 sokudo ilI!1iI'. 67 sozo rlHt. 78 soka1. 29 sunni-ha na shinja A :. 16 spiritually minded. 64 training. 32 time deposit. 79 vegetarian.. 84 sulfuric acid. 69 . 16 university.EIUJ'fj'i~. 117 Jlifbarrier.i!t*it. 47 sokin ~1i'. 58 social solidarity. 77. 80 solar energy.-e m~.:.. 36 spiritualism. 123 soku ~II.. 68 verbal dispute. 50 United States of America. 124 stolen goods (dealing in). 119 siita i-ron ID~11ili. -I~. 19. 63 Taisho Democracy.jl 62 trade surplus. 123 ~in·rol!~~II~. 45. 40 statement.. 60 sori-fu-somu-chokan su~-sanbutsll 109 sll. 123 iok. 98 sun. 'R3'_~. 71 Uranus. 2 I. 83 sulfur.t. 119 Supreme Court. 66 system. n:okll-kokka ~ l"b:<I·llii. 16 tin. 17 symphony. 121 Ionperature.. 67 single cell.-~. 67 tachi-iijo . 42 . 62 sopurano '/ 77.tE. 50 Social Democratic Party of Japan. 77 Sino-Japanese. 26 velocity..• <: raisho-demokllrashf j. 40 statistics.28.• 80 • suisei tj'!iL 80 suisei-gnn *r£!6. 94 taikin . 57 table salt. 103 hnology. 59. 46 143 shlltoDt~. 33 tactics. 125 -sei J:ll\. 71 socialism. 16 somei flO JI\Wlt. 27. The.74 trading (inside). 18.'.i*. 83 shusshin IH~.27. 71 undo-ryii. 62 strip-mining.. tiE~j(). 17 subject. 78 strong reaction. 43.124 Tokyo Stock Exchange. 31 Skeptics. 97 suzu~. 72 ·iIJl. 32 stand for election. 7. 83 "'Po..IilO~y. 96 verdict of innocent. 61 tragedy. 49 61 • toza-yokin ~'~ffi~. 97 tale. 96 verse. 62 us . 44 uchii-ron *'iiif~.*. 50 siizoku-zei ID*Ii'l!i. 62 to-on-fuhyo "'lJijf~.86 soka-gakkai jj1lfilliQ. 102 smuggling. 124 unlucky.~1tilll.:r:ll.. 112 soil erosion. 32 tsutumi .i!!·~!:JI!1lf. 6 I suspect. 75 statute..82 ventriloquism. 58. 101 .uw~. 96 steel industry. 22 :iiE~)1ll~1i1r. 67 tabu-go 5' /'-Mt.I!-#" 79 take to court. 94 solar eclipse.. 85 stocks.N.r-l· . I 16 """n-shigell ':Rr. 62 syntax.:It. 77 textile industry. 30 study of the urnverse.4i1.riI. 30 ~ Commandments. 66 skeptical.·..

112 yakuba ilt~. 100 wajutsu iililFi.66 yoroku-so :lUl:l<.y.. 28 rettai-ron ~H~.#i!ll. 48 village chief. 62 word formation. 28 yunyii-wariare_sei ~jJ..JSi!~) < t:: ~ L-.:J-'.78 yiikai ~m. 69 zairyoku M J.!. 107 Yayoi period. 48 village office.rL. 69 zaimu 11f#l. 29 yokin-zandaka B'i~gJ!il'Ii. 86 witchcraft. . 97 zedlt. 47 tentai-shugi {E:j:f> 1:. fli.a:~:tt :i¥jRJI~tl ~1!i:i: liT:. 66 yuishin-ronl!ft{.l1rr. 69 taigen Mi!7. :iEiillil. -c.I22 wari \!lJ. 56 tense . 107 yogaku i$Wi. 81 yudaya-kyo. 121 witness.iBO). 107 Yamato period. 39 village. 86 zaika Ilflt 107 yato ifl':il:. 76 warizan !11m:.I)J. 119 Western medicine. 62 yoshi IllH'. 16 vashuts» no jisJIII-kisei .$. 107 Yin-Yang principle. 26. I19 zuihitsu JIifi"ll'. 116 yiiwaku ~:tl\.. 84 yuibutsu-ron 1!ft~1r.$.'. I 16 vowel. i!*4 IJqtftml::-C. 62 zaisei Ilftfl. 43 yiishin-ron ~i~~. 13. ~io(liTlil 71 y yadoya-gyo fiJr¥'~.J~m . 87 victim. 116 weekJ y pay. 107 yogi-sha :fl:tt.f.#l.jl$0)01J~Hf~~.::z. 102 yiikyii-kyuka fl~1*Ifi1.. 78 yukari no mono ~G')~. n \*'9.!. 54 waka 'lUlfI. . 120 yoiku-ken-soshO I'ff W<ii1iill:. 121 yokin B'i~. 69 vital statistics. III.I21... . 72 volcanic.64 wakusei ~g_. . 58. 12 I yokin-kinri B'i~~. :. 121 100 zeiritsu i!I.17 zinc.t. I 14 wield power.j. 123 zetsumetsu ~i). 82 Way to the Law. 79 voltage. ~3't. 94 warriors.·.l:. 16 zoku. 16 logo-hii jlUhE. 107 yanagi~. 121 99 teikan i!l. 61 wave force. 35 zoology. 44. 54 Western music.ju!lt. ftLlO-=f ~ruJ1:tt1':"-?z ~~ 3 + JL-l*. 41. '7 JL-7 --}~ T".*.g'r.a:~:tt T112 **tfl:SC*1R%3f:l1-17-14 : 03-3944-6493 l*.:.-JL-X' f1 r". 16 yueni/t{I:. 96 8.119 wages of sin.i'H~.31 Woodblock. 78 warrant. 77 zen-onpu ~. 49 yakusho ~/fr. 4' .a:~:tt l*. 33 yoso iX:I<. I18 Zen. 46 willow.f. J!Q5t 1*Jl:r. 95 weak-willed.f1. 75. 47 zaikai IlfW. 35 world literature.&.37 Wealth of Nations.= J~N = 1. 33 world. 62 wholelhalf/quarter rest. 66 taidon MM.£.11'17) J'J f'nWJ. 112 working classes.11~fF. tit t. 97 views (personal/political).. 75 warmblooded animals. your SOD.69 zaibatsu U1llij. 76 wariai \ftIJfr.j'~. 77 voluntary export quotas.!F. 116 yiisan-kaikyii 109 ItA. 61. 9 3 zeimu i!I. 72 zen-rhan-Zshibu-kyiishi-fu yoshi:ili. 82 volume. 86 wi nd force. 29 yoto !f:il:.'''7'tN HOW TO SOUND INTELLIGENT IN JAPANESE 1993~ 8 .fIjlJ. 93 42 yubin-chokin !fl-fit!JIT:11i:.i'E.~)(. artisans. 12 worship.Il£l~iI1l. 36 world. I 18 teisei i!l..lJitt~ (:::J ~-). 74 Zoroastrianism. 123 zeisht: i!I. 53 vuiga-ron I!ftf. 107 yayoi-jidai i). 80 ward office. IH. 62 wholesaler. 105 zoshu-wai J@iIJ(JIIi. zeihii i!l. zeimu-sho i!I.. T*11. H5 I. 107 yamato-kotoba *~J.. 119 zowai /Jl'lJIIi. The.JSlIlt~~ L..I~ft. 120 waisetsu-rai £l~!II!. the glory of this. 69 wasett-hs] 'lUJlr(I*). 121 yoji-waisetsu-zai i.. 102 whole note.'l.!l!.86 {E: . 49 wardtaxes. 121 yokin-tsuchO ffl~:ii!i. 4 I your daughter. 116 yushutsu-shOrei_kin . 64 y~sei-seishokl/ htH-. yusel-sM !fltfl1'. tradesmen. 34 yiizai-hanketsu ~iJl' fiM.. 100 viscount. 83 zenshii jljI."I'!1ib ~. 49 violent crime. 55 wisteria. 93 zentai-shugi-koku 1':u:t. 62 yosho i. 28 yukue-fumei trT. this. 96 winy. 123 zenchi-shi 1i~t!1'.. y -I'. 86 zen'ei-geijutsu 'ii1J~ ~lIi. 13 wise to the ways of the world.F:l158 19971jO4 f3 1 8 ~ 1 ~IJ~IT ~ 3 ~IJ~IT t:<j. 40.. 102 y"kyii H~.($:~O)mrr. 53 withholding taxes. 16 zoen-jutsu J:'f(. 60 woodwind instruments. 62 white collar crime. 82 wise. farmers.65 W wages. this fleeting. i'iI.*'9. 66 work.IJ!l.fJJ. 27. 101 zoku Mi. 118. 64 world of suffering.IbIJ. 59 yoron-chosa ilt. 'J ©~~-tt-{/?-T~3T)~ 1993 Printed in Japan ISBN4-7700-1747-2 *1'. 19 zaisan Ilf IIR.!il.I). 7 I world.i) I(-I::~. 44. 33 worldly-wise.. 75 yiiki-kagaku 1Hll1t~.g~HlIl:mI::.144 Index vertebrate. <~(. 121 yojin-bukai Ill·L'iiIi~'.l(1r. .fX. the. 49 Z yamato-jidai *~Jlk'Ht.

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