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Encoder Operation An encoder is a rotational transducer that converts angular movement into digital impulses. It usually consists of cylindrical body, flange, shaft and output connector. An internal transparent disk with photographically printed radial markings is rotated and interrupts an infra red light source produced by an LED. An optical receiver (phototransistor) on the other side of the disk converts the light beam switching into electrical pulses. The pulses are then amplified and squared before sending out to another piece of equipment. The output pulses can be used to determine angular displacement, direction of rotation, speed of rotation or angular acceleration.
Encoder Types There are two main types of optical encoders. Incremental encoders can measure speed and direction of rotation but can only measure shaft movement relative to the last position, by counting the number of pulses. Absolute encoders can measure position at any point in a full rotation, regardless of the previous position. Construction Incremental encoders have a disk with two radial bands of markings. These are called Channel A and B. The two bands are printed 90 degrees out of phase. This method enables the user to determine the direction of rotation and is known as quadrature. There is also an optional band called Z for zero output. This only has one marking per rotation and is used to reference a zero position or starting point. Absolute encoders also have multiple bands, each band representing one bit of the position reading. There are more of them compared to incremental encoders and the markings are arranged in a binary code. Incremental encoders are lower in price, however, they will not know their absolute position after power supply has been removed.
Basic absolute encoders with binary or gray code output can only read position within one rotation. Size The most critical factor is physical size. however. . higher pulse/rev counts and higher output frequency. This determines if you can mount it onto your machine or in a confined space. The functions are the same although the EL series have slightly better specifications and are marginally more expensive. The EL series often have a wider power supply range. Incremental encoders are suitable for most applications. The main problem is the receiving instrument being able to count and store a very large number. usually determined by the body diameter or flange size. Incremental/Absolute Incremental encoders are lower in price. better sealing. they will not know their absolute position after power supply has been disconnected and reapplied. These are the main points that must be considered. Series Most of the Eltra incremental encoders are available in two styles. the EL and the EH series. Incremental encoders are well suited to speed sensing or applications where position data loss during power down is not important. Number of turns Incremental encoders can rotate and produce pulses for as many turns as necessary.INCREMENTAL ENCODER DISK ABSOLUTE ENCODER DISK CHOOSING AN ENCODER The choice of an encoder depends on many factors. These are not suitable for multiturn applications.
Hollow shaft encoders may make mounting easier. 200 or 1000 factors and binary values. If your shaft speed is very high. One channel leads the other by 90 degrees phase shift. The higher the pulses/rev count means the resolution and accuracy are greater. choosing the highest pulse/rev count is not always the best solution. This list is constantly being updated so check with our office for updates. the output frequency may be too high for the encoder or receiving instrument to handle. Higher pulse/rev counts are usually only available with large body diameters. Typical pulse/rev values for ELTRA incremental encoders are as follows. availability depends on model and body diameter. Most ELTRA encoders are limited to 100kHz output frequency. Values include 360 degree fractions. Small compact encoders have limited pulse/rev counts.Mounting Style Most encoders have a simple flange and a shaft. This is the lowest cost option but may involve making brackets and shaft couplings. This allows the angular position of the encoder flange to be adjusted to align the zero index or absolute zero position to the machine. Quadrature ELTRA incremental encoders have two output channels. Vibration in the machine may be transmitted to the shaft which may produce output pulses when no motion is occurring. the maximum resolution available is 8192 positions in one rev (13 bit). Some models are available with servo mounting flanges. although. A and B. Higher pulse/rev count means higher cost and a higher output frequency for a given speed. This allows you to . decimal numbers. FLANGE MOUNTING HOLLOW SHAFT MOUNTING Pulses per rev Some ELTRA incremental encoders are available with upto 10000 pulses/rev or down to 2 pulses per rev. By looking at both rising and falling edges of the outputs of both channels and ANDing the two signals. Also. Another problem that can occur with high pulse/rev encoders is vibration. However. an encoder with servo mounting flange may be useful where the encoder must be easily adjusted to a precise position to align a zero index or an absolute encoder zero position. it is possible to get 4 times the encoder resolution. 2-3-4-5-6-8-9-10-11-12-14-15-16-20-22-24-25-30-32-33-35-40-45-50-60-64-7075-80-90-100 113-120-125-130-140-150-160-175-178-180-190-200-222-225-240-250-254256-290-300 314-350-356-360-392-400-500-512-534-540-600-650-754-800900-1000-10241068-1100 1256-1440-1500-1599-1600-1800-1920-2000-2048-2500-3000-3600-4000-50009000-10000 For absolute encoders.
Output Style Depending on model. All ELTRA incremental encoders have dual channel outputs. For position measurement using a PLC for example. These can only be used for speed sensing or position sensing where motion occurs in one direction. A pulse train is produced by checking for falling edges on A or B pulses when alternative pulses are high. Direction sensing is achieved by generating separate pulse trains for CW and CCW direction. This cannot be done with single channel encoders. This can be done by computer or PLC software or by commercially available dedicated ICs. incremental encoders are available with several different electrical output styles. one pulse train adds to a count register and the other subtracts from a count register. .obtain very high resolution from a low cost encoder (eg. Line driver outputs with complimentary outputs can be used with longer cables as noise spikes can be cancelled. Choice of signal depends on receiving instrument and cable distance. Direction Another useful advantage of two output channels is the ability to sense direction of rotation. a 1000 pulse/rev encoder can provide 400 pulse/rev resolution).
PNP Open Collector Uses a PNP type transistor but without an internal pull down resistor to zero volts. The receiver can process the signal. . The output is an active voltage. PNP Uses a PNP type transistor and an internal resistor pulling down to zero volts. This can be solved by a complementary output allowing better switching to zero and positive supply rails. The output is passive so a separate power supply can be used. NPN Open Collector Uses an NPN type transistor but without an internal pull up resistor to the supply rail.NPN Uses an NPN type transistor and an internal resistor pulling up to the power supply rail. eliminating noise spikes. Push Pull A problem with NPN and PNP type outputs is the high output impedance. Line Driver This output style has two complimentary outputs per channel allowing better transmission in noisy environments and long cable lengths.
The basic is flying lead which is usually 1. These are 'J' type or MS3102 Mil Spec connectors. Signal Connection Three main types of output connection are available although this depends on encoder model. Connectors are available on larger encoders. Extra cable length can be ordered. Larger encoders have a connector mounted on a 45 degree block so connector or cable outlet can be radial or axial.PTC protection A positive temperature coefficient resistor can be added to the output of a NPN or PNP encoder. AXIAL OR RADIAL CONNECTOR . This should be decided at time of ordering and may be critical when an encoder is installed in tight spaces. Connectors add to the price of an encoder but can make installation easier.5 metres long. particularly when long cables are involved. protecting it from output short circuits. Connector Direction ELTRA encoders allow the cable or connector to exit the encoder body in the radial or axial position. If using line driver output. The mating plug is supplied with the encoder. a connector will require more pins (10 instead of the usual 7). MIL SPEC CONNECTOR Smaller encoders do not have sufficient space for connectors which are often supplied with flying lead only.
Sealing Depending on model. ELTRA supply encoders specially for linear motion measurement. High loads will limit bearing life. Any misalignment between the two shafts will put the encoder bearings under stress and cause damage over time. Shaft loading Small encoders have limited axial and radial shaft loadings before damage is done to the bearings. Do not apply excessive shaft loads when installing. encoder environmental protection ranges from IP54 to IP67. Also. Alternatively. These are the shaft and output connection. This sometimes increases friction on the shaft. Shaft Loads Check that axial and radial shaft loads do not exceed the specifications. There are two areas where water or dirt can penetrate the encoder. resulting in heat generation at high shaft speeds. Never connect AC mains voltage to an encoder! They are all low voltage DC powered. Shafts are sealed using a synthetic rubber seal on the shaft. the encoder contains precision aligned optical components and any adjustment of these components may cause the encoder to fail. The EL series will operate on between 5 and 28V or 5V only if a Line Driver output is required. Power supply ELTRA encoders run on a DC supply and have internal voltage regulators. not a rigid one. Coupling The coupling between the encoder shaft and the machine should be made using a flexible coupling. Motion Type Most encoders are designed to measure angular movement. Larger encoders can withstand higher shaft loads. The EH series will operate on between 8 and 24V or 5V if a line driver output is required. a cable. If linear motion must be measured. INSTALLATION Disassembly An attempt at disassembly of an encoder breaks the seal and voids warranty. belt or rack and pinion system can be used to measure linear motion. .
BINARY OUTPUT . such as dropping. APPLICATIONS Encoders can be used to measure position. Binary is often used on the smaller lower cost models. Check that the DC supply is within the range of the encoder supply. Do not coil unused portions of encoder cable. Insulate any unused output wires. Servomotor position feedback Speed sensing on a belt weigher for conveyor belt Backstop position display CNC tool position feedback Reverse direction sensing on large pumps Position feedback on rotary hydraulic actuator Position sensing for telescope or satelite tracking Portable measuring instruments Precision vehicle speed measurement ABSOLUTE ENCODERS Gray Code Absolute encoders usually have Binary output or Gray Code output. Environmental Check that the encoder is not going to be exposed to water. Check that the encoder will not be exposed to corrosive chemicals that will corrode the aluminium flange. Do not short any output wires to power supply or other output wires. Cable Use screened cable for all encoder signals. Excess cable should be cut off or stored without coiling which increases inductance. displacement. Power Supply Encoders run on low voltage DC supply. Here are some typical examples. speed and direction of rotation. Small differences in electronic gain between channels could result in errors in when reading position at this point.Shock Avoid mechanical shock to an encoder. Internal precision optical components will be dislodged and the encoder will fail. Never connect to mains AC supply. oil or dust unless it has adequate sealing. The problem with binary output is than several channels may change state at a given time.
This does not have more than output bit switching at a time. It is achieved by shifting the binary number right by one bit and exclusiveOR the result with the original binary value. It is not difficult to convert Gray Code back to Binary by using software in a look up table or exclusive OR gates. .GRAY CODE OUTPUT For this reason. Gray Code is often the preferred output. For large numbers of encoder channels. a lookup table approach may be simpler and not have long calculation and bit shifting times.
. The ELTRA EAM multiturn absolute encoders allow position measurement with upto 8192 (13 bit) position per turn resolution and 4096 (12 bit) revolutions. Multiple rotations cannot be detected.Binary Value Shifted Value Gray Code Value A 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 B 0000 0000 0001 0001 0010 0010 0011 0011 0100 0100 0101 0101 0110 0110 0111 0111 A xor B 0000 0001 0011 0010 0110 0111 0101 0100 1100 1101 1111 1110 1010 1011 1001 1000 Multiturn Absolute encoders A problem with absolute encoders is the ability to read positions only within one rotation. This has been solved by incorporating precision gear reduction stages on multiple optical disks in the encoder.
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