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Joint Tactical

Joint Tactical

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Tactical ops
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Airborne Electronics Forecast

Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) (URC-107(V)/URC138/GSQ-239)
Outlook
• • • U.K. upgrading approximately 80 GR.7 Harriers to the GR.9/9A standard. Upgrade to include JTIDS JTIDS losing market share to MIDS Production of JTIDS is expected to end circa 2008
10 Year Unit Production Forecast
2004 - 2013
Units
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 52 22 12 10 10 0 0 0 0 0

Years

Orientation
Description. The Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) is a high-capacity communications system that provides secure jam-resistant transfer of digital voice or data information, position determination, and unit identification to suitably equipped terminals. Sponsor U.S. Air Force Electronic Systems Center (ESC) 9 Eglin Street Hanscom AFB Bedford, Massachusetts (MA) 01731-5000 USA Tel: +1 781 377 4441 Web site: http://www.af.mil (Program leader for the various services) Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Washington, DC USA Web site: http://www.defenselink.mil (Sponsor NATO participation) Status. Class 1 production is complete. Class 2 and Class 2H are in production, though major procurement is believed to be complete. Class 2M entered full-rate production in 1997. MIDS production began in 1999 (please refer to MIDS report). Total Produced. Through 2003, an estimated total of 581 units (all variants) were produced. Application. Voice/data communications link for Link 16/TADIL-J used on a variety of airborne, ship, and ground platforms. Price Range. Based on contracts and U.S. budget documents, the unit price of the JTIDS Class 2/2H is at least US$850,000, and for the Class 2M, about US$700,000.

Contractors
BAE Systems North America - Information & Electronic Systems, Communication, Navigation, Identification and Reconnaissance, http://www.cni.na.baesystems.com, 164 Totowa Rd, Wayne, NJ 07474-0975 United States, Tel: 1 (973) 633-6000, Fax: 1 (973) 633-6167, Prime

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Airborne Electronics Forecast
52498 United States,

Rockwell Collins Inc, http://www.rockwellcollins.com, 400 Collins Rd NE, Cedar Rapids, IA Tel: 1 (319) 295-1000, Fax: 1 (319) 295-5429, Email: collins@rockwellcollins.com, Second Prime

Technical Data
Characteristics Terminal Type Size (ft3) Weight (lb) Power requirements No. of LRUs Class 2 1.56 125 200 W 2 Class 2H 3.25 220 1,000 W 3 Class 2M 1.25 90 200 W 1

Design Features. The JTIDS Class 2 terminal consists of a receiver/transmitter; a digital data processor group, which comprises a processor and interface unit; a notch filter assembly; an SDU (Secure Data Unit) load control unit; and a battery with mount. It was designed to provide anti-jam features such as fast frequency hopping (51 frequencies spaced 3 MHz apart), direct sequence spreading (cyclic code key shifting), and error detection and correction. The system weighs 125 pounds (56.7 kg) and has a transmit power of 200 watts. (Note: The Class 2 is the basic configuration; for details about the Class 2H, Class 2M, and other variants, see the Variants/Upgrades section below.) Operational Characteristics. JTIDS structuring allows the system to operate as an information distribution network into which tactical users transmit command and control, surveillance, position, and status, or other significant combat data, at specific time intervals. This information is immediately available to each net participant, who may display or store that portion of the available data needed. JTIDS can interconnect Boeing E-3A Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) aircraft with ground and shipboard command, control, and surveillance centers, and combat and support aircraft. The JTIDS family of terminals employs the U.S. Tactical Digital Information Link J (TADIL-J) message format to create the NATO Link 16 secured voice/data communications system. A Distributed Time Division Multiple Access (DTDMA) system is coupled with a spread spectrum modulation waveform to provide an anti-jam capability. The time division principle assigns each JTIDS network user several time slots, the exact number of which is a function of the particular mission. Each system user feeds information into a communications data stream, represented by a TDMA ring which is accessible by all system users. All JTIDS network members are able to

continuously monitor and sample the information base, picking out the specific data needed at the time. The JTIDS assigned frequency is the L-band, which operates in the range of 960 MHz to 1,215 MHz. This is the same range used by Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) and Tactical Aid to Navigation (TACAN) systems, with which JTIDS has operating compatibility. Frequency hopping and spread spectrum techniques, along with encryption and time division, can be used to optimize use of the frequency range. The basic TDMA setup involves slots that are divided into 12.8-minute epochs, which are in turn further divided into 12-second cycles (64 altogether), and the cycles are then divided into 1,536 slots. There are 128 slots per second (7.8125 milliseconds each), with each slot consisting of message and synchronization data and the guard time. Every member of a JTIDS network is assigned to a common channel, and transmission is through one or more of the available time slots. Slots can be allocated for special applications, and IFF guard bands are available at 1,030 MHz and 1,090 MHz. A JTIDS-equipped aircraft transmits its location and identification over the network at least every 12 seconds. A large group of JTIDS terminals can establish any number of subnets up to 128. Target tracks established by various radar sensors are fed into the JTIDS network without any coding to show which platform has acquired the information. In addition to exchanging track data, JTIDS can allow an airborne console operator, such as on the E-3 AWACS, to determine the location and remaining fuel on board nearby friendly aircraft. Class 2 terminals execute the TADIL-J (Link 16) message standard while retaining the ability to interface with the older ARC-181 Class 1 terminals and with TADIL-A (Link 11), TADIL-C (Link 4), and Link 14. Each JTIDS terminal can transmit, receive, or relay data, as well as establish a datalink network or a subnet for net participation groups. Upwards of 20 such groups can be accommodated.

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Airborne Electronics Forecast

Rockwell Collins Advanced URC-138 Link 16/JTIDS Information Distribution System
Source: Rockwell Collins

Variants/Upgrades
JTIDS Terminals. There have been two series of JTIDS terminals, Class 1 and Class 2. Class 1 terminals, designated ARC-181, were the first airborne units produced to provide a basic capability to transmit voice and data. Developed by the Hughes Aircraft Ground Systems Group, they were installed in U.S. Air Force and NATO E-3 AWACS aircraft. The ARC-181 consisted of three electronics units that fill about five ATR (air-transportable rack) spaces and a controller. Deliveries began in the late 1970s. URC-107(V) is the nomenclature for the Class 2 and Class 2H terminals currently in production. There are several variants for aircraft and ship applications. The Class 2 is the basic configuration designed for F-15, F-14, Tornado F3, and E-8 JSTARS battlefield surveillance aircraft as well as submarine applications. Class 2H adds a high-power amplifier group incorporating an antenna interface unit that can be configured for specific applications, a power interface unit, and a control monitor set that includes a plasma panel display, keyboard, and secure-load control unit. The Class 2H can be fitted to the U.S. Navy E-2C Hawkeye surveillance aircraft, as well as to the E-3 AWACS, the EC-130 ABCCC (Airborne Battlefield Command and Control Center), and ground-based TYQ-23(V) systems. It was also to be fitted to U.K. Royal Air Force and French AWACS aircraft, as well as aircraft carriers and AEGIS class cruisers (CG-47) and destroyers (DDG-51). The Class 2M, dubbed the GSQ-239, is the U.S. Army version intended to be used as a subcomponent of the Army Data Distribution System (ADDS). The 2M terminal is smaller and has Army-unique capabilities, such as the international X.25 local area network (LAN) interface instead of the MIL-STD-1553B databus interface, 28 V DC vehicle operation, an integral blower replacing forced air cooling, improved portability, and a soldier interface. The 2M terminal does not incorporate integral voice channels or TACAN operation, but has COMSEC keying control, better re-promulgation relay facilities, increased over-the-air initialization and re-key functions, and the capability for slot-by-slot switching from the normal 200 W transmit power down to 42 W. The Class 2M is installed within an electronic shelter carrier on an M1035 series HMMWV 5/4-ton truck. It entered full-rate production in July 1997, and has also been integrated into the Patriot missile system.

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In addition to the basic 2M terminal, the Army JTIDS program includes the dedicated JTIDS relay units (DJRUs) and Net Control Station-JTIDS (NCS-J). A typical division area may have upwards of 16 Class 2M terminals, of which three would serve as DJRUs/NCS-Js and five would serve as DJRUs. The Class 2R terminal was to be a lighter, more compact, and less expensive version, the development of which was initiated by the Air Force for its fighters. Many fighter jets already had several of the JTIDS capabilities; the Air Force sought to obtain a less comprehensive terminal and thereby avoid paying for capabilities it already possessed. Air Force Undersecretary of Defense Paul Kaminski canceled the Class 2R in June 1996 to uphold total commitment to the Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS) program. The contractor developing this JTIDS version was Rockwell. Individual Class 2 variants are as follows: URC-107(V)1 – F-15 (Class 2) URC-107(V)4 – E-3A/B/C AWACS, and EC-130 ABCCC (Class 2H) URC-107(V)5 – E-2C (Class 2H) URC-107(V)6 – F-14, E-8A JSTARS(?) (Class 2) URC-107(V)7 – CG-47 AEGIS cruisers and DDG-51 AEGIS destroyers (Class 2H) URC-107(V)9 – TYQ-23 Modular Control Equipment/ Tactical Air Operations Modules; TYQ-82 shelter (Class 2H) URC-107(V)10 – TYQ-82 shelter (Class 2) GSQ-239 – Class 2M terminal for Army ground applications Common Central Processing Unit Upgrade. According to the JTIDS Program Office, JTIDS terminals were originally configured using the SKC-3132 customized military processor chip developed by former program prime contractor Singer Kearfott. However, as JTIDS requirements grew, so did the need for increased computing capacity within the terminal. This led the Air Force to select a commercially available processor, the Motorola 68030 general-purpose processor, as a replacement for the SKC-3132. The 68030 delivers between 3.1 million and 3.3 million instructions per second of processing capability and provides 16 megabits of static read-only memory. Insertion of the

Airborne Electronics Forecast 68030 required rewriting of some JTIDS software so that it could run on the new processor. Class 2 Receiver/Synthesizer P3I. In 1991, the Air Force contracted Rockwell Collins to develop P3I for the JTIDS Class 2 terminal receiver/synthesizer. The effort was to update the R/S design using available technologies to reduce production costs, improve reliability, and maintain form-fit-function compatibility with existing interfaces. Tanker Application. During Red Flag exercises in 1993 at Nellis AFB, Nevada, the Air Force demonstrated the use of a tactical datalink to improve the situational awareness of an aerial tanker during air refueling operations. A KC-135 was equipped with a JTIDS Class 2 terminal integrated with a personal computer and an off-the-shelf commercial GPS receiver. The PC displayed the more than 50 tracks of hostile and friendly aircraft, including those in formation for refueling, plus missile site locations received over the JTIDS datalink. Satellite Demonstration. In 1992, GEC-Marconi (now BAE Systems) successfully demonstrated the connectivity of JTIDS waveforms via a satellite transponder, the result of a three-year, company-funded effort. The demonstration used both the TADIL-J/ Link 16 message standard and the Joint Photographic Expert Group image compression standard. The demonstration included two JTIDS terminals, and the communication link was established on a commercial Ku-band satellite transponder. Air-Platform Network Management System. In late 1997, the U.K. Ministry of Defence issued Invitations to Tender for the supply of a transportable JTIDS airplatform network management facility, which will consist of a JTIDS terminal and GPS terminal with their adaptive antennas, two UHF/VHF radios, communications and control facilities, two workstations with displays, an operations cabin, and ancillaries. New Core Computer for U.K. JTIDS. In February 1998, Smiths Industries plc of the U.K. announced that it had been selected by British Aerospace to supply a new core computer for the JTIDS installed on the Royal Navy Sea Harrier F/A-2. The program outline called for Smiths Industries Aerospace to design and manufacture the new unit to replace the existing bus control and interface unit and to provide JTIDS processing capability for the aircraft. The core computer is based on an open architecture concept, which utilizes commercial off-the-shelf modules and components.

Program Review
Background. JTIDS evolved from several programs that the U.S. services were developing separately. The Air Force was working on the latest manifestation of its jam-resistant, secure digital information distribution

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Airborne Electronics Forecast system, called SEEK BUS. The Navy was working on several related systems such as ITNS and ITACS. ITNS (Integrated Tactical Navigation System) was focused on developing a Time Division Multiple Access System to supply relative position determination. The two services joined efforts in 1974, with actual work beginning in 1976. However, at one point, the Navy – which wanted to incorporate a television display in the cockpit to show the locations of enemy and friendly aircraft – pursued its own version before Congress cut funding in the mid-1980s. U.S.-U.K. MoU. In 1983, the U.S. and the U.K. signed a formal Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) confirming British participation in the JTIDS acquisition program. This was the culmination of negotiations initiated in 1976 between the DoD and the MoD, and is considered an important step toward achieving NATO interoperability in the advanced communications and data transfer fields. The MoD began testing U.S. Air Force Class I and II terminals in 1980, the latter intended for operation aboard the RAF Panavia Tornado F. In January 1987, the first flight of JTIDS aboard a U.K. airborne platform occurred on a Tornado F Mk 3 air defense variant. The Royal Navy selected JTIDS for various aircraft, including its Sea Harrier F/A-2s and Sea King AEW Mk 7 helicopters. LRIP Approval. The Defense Acquisition Board approved low-rate production in January 1990. GECMarconi was awarded a series of contracts for production and related activities in March 1990, valued at US$205 million. Rockwell/Collins was then awarded a US$42 million contract for low-rate production the following April. The initial production run was for 223 terminals, plus 55 spares. Joint-Service JTIDS Successful Test. In November 1991, a joint-service JTIDS network demonstration linked terminal users at airborne, naval, and ground platforms. The multi-service development testing included U.S. Air Force E-3 AWACS and F-15E aircraft; Navy E-2C and F-14D aircraft; the Navy cruiser USS Wainwright (CG-28); Navy simulators at Dam Neck and Wallops Island, Virginia; and Army terminals installed at Tobyhanna Army Depot, Pennsylvania. According to the Air Force ESC, test results were positive, with target tracks and weapons coordination messages being passed by JTIDS between Air Force and Navy platforms for engagement of simulated hostile targets. The Army was able to originate and transmit target track data from Tobyhanna to an E-3 AWACS several hundred miles away. The Wainwright, operating off the coast of Virginia, transmitted digital data via its Class 2 terminal to a JTIDS terminal at the Fleet Combat Direction Systems Support Activity at Dam Neck. The joint tests were conducted under simulated wartime electronic countermeasures (ECM) conditions. Two days of developmental tests were conducted, with each session lasting approximately six hours. All types of messages were passed to check receipt of different track symbol formats. In addition to the datalinks, two digitized voice channels were also evaluated. Persian Gulf War. JTIDS Class 2 terminals received a workout during Operation Desert Storm as the U.S. Air Force scrambled to outfit several of its airborne C3I assets with the system. The E-3 AWACS, the E-8 JSTARS, and the EC-130 ABCCC III and their groundbased support units were all equipped with JTIDS. The first batch of 20 Class 2 terminals, originally intended for U.S. Air Force F-15s, was diverted to the C3I assets for this effort. All told, JTIDS Class 2 accumulated 350 flight hours during Gulf War service. GAO Report on JTIDS Issues. In November 1992, the General Accounting Office (GAO) issued a report titled Military Communications: Joint Tactical Information Distribution System Issues (GAO/NSIAD-93-16). The report highlighted GAO concerns over the fluctuation in the number of terminals required by the services and inadequate testing of JTIDS prior to commitment to low-rate initial production. According to the GAO, all three services had revised their JTIDS terminal requirements over the preceding few years. In 1991, the Air Force reversed its plans to equip F-15 aircraft with JTIDS Class 2 terminals, citing excessive cost, demonstrated reliability problems, and, importantly, lack of requirement. According to the DoD, however, Air Force frontline fighters without JTIDS could be forced into a secondary support role in future multinational conflicts because the aircraft would lack datalink interoperability with other service and allied aircraft. Within the Army, JTIDS did not have high enough priority to ensure funding at efficient production rates. In 1991, the Army virtually eliminated its involvement in JTIDS by reducing planned procurement from about 700 terminals to 23. Although the number was subsequently restored, funding was programmed for a minimum production sustaining rate of 48 terminals per year. At that rate, it would take the Army over 14 years to procure its 700 terminals. The GAO also detailed concerns over the operational testing of JTIDS. After three operational tests, JTIDS operational effectiveness and suitability, the two criteria essential for justifying system production, had yet to be satisfactorily demonstrated. In addition, JTIDS’ costeffectiveness was questionable because of the

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uncertainty associated with the DoD’s joint system needs and priorities and unsatisfactory test results. Doubts were compounded by plans for the smaller, lighter weight, and less costly Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS) terminal. To support the Lot III award for 51 terminals, the Navy commander for the operational test force completed JTIDS tests in March 1992. According to the GAO, “the test report concluded that JTIDS has the potential to be operationally effective and suitable,” and it recommended that the system development and integration into several JTIDS platforms be continued. The GAO added, however, that the Navy’s test report said that “the number of significant deficiencies identified was alarming.” The GAO noted that of 40 deficiencies and recommended improvements in 1990 operational tests, only nine had been corrected by the time of the 1992 tests. However, the report added that “despite these deficiencies, the Navy JTIDS program manager informed us that the Lot III contract was awarded in late September 1992.” Lot IV low-rate initial production followed in August 1993 with the award of a US$33 million contract to Rockwell Collins. It covered the procurement of three E-3 AWACS terminals, six JSTARS terminals, 15 Navy shipboard terminals, three Navy trainer sets, and special test equipment; installation; and engineering services. and. The completion date was September 1996. Lot V, awarded to GEC-Marconi Hazeltine, called for 12 Class 2 terminals for E-8 and JSTARS, nine Class 2H terminals for E-3 AWACS, and one Class 2 terminal for the Marine Corps Tactical Air Operations Module (TAOM). U.S. Air Force JTIDS Program. While the Air Force uses JTIDS on C2 aircraft such as the E-8 JSTARS, E-3 AWACS, and EC-130 ABCCC, the branch had historically considered JTIDS to be too expensive and cumbersome for fighter use – particularly the F-15 Eagle. In the mid-1990s, it moved to simplify the system to shrink both its size and price tag; the proposed unit was called the Class 2R.

Airborne Electronics Forecast The Joint Requirements Oversight Council approved key elements of the Air Force’s JTIDS modification plan, but the Office of the Secretary of Defense squashed the program in 1996 on the grounds that it would violate the MIDS program’s MoU. The Council stipulated that each nation involved in MIDS production (France, Spain, Italy, Germany, and the U.S.) must cooperate without simultaneously developing competing systems. However, MIDS was not expected to be ready to field until early in the next decade; the Air Force insisted that its F-15s had a critical requirement for the datalink by FY98. The Air Force’s Class 2R would have been ready in time; furthermore, aircraft already had been wired to accept the proposed system. Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition Paul Kaminski, upon canceling the 2R, had originally told the Air Force it must buy MIDS for its F-15s. The MIDS Fighter Data Link version would cost under US$200,000. But he relented somewhat and told the service it could, instead of waiting for MIDS, buy a number of the more expensive JTIDS Class 2s in the interim. The Air Force had hoped to bring the price of its 2R JTIDS down to US$100,000 each. For a time, the service maintained that it would not buy JTIDS Class 2 because of its price. This decision caused the Senate Appropriations Committee to question the validity of the Air Force’s claimed urgent requirement for a datalink. According to Inside the Air Force (September 15, 1995), with the “SASC...threatening to enjoin US$15.8 million in the F-15E budget unless [the Air Force buys the JTIDS]…Air Combat Command commander Gen. Joseph Ralston [was] expected to reverse his stance and authorize the purchase of anywhere between 20 and 200 of the systems.” The JTIDS-equipped F-15s would be based at the Air Combat Command Mountain Home AFB, Idaho, as the aircraft would be part of a composite wing that would also include JTIDS-equipped E-3 AWACS aircraft. A small number of the F-15s were also so equipped. Air Force procurement of JTIDS appeared complete until a deal was struck with Rockwell for Link 16 JTIDS Class 2 and 2H terminals in February 2000. Although the quantity and value of the deal have not been specified, Rockwell suggests that delivery figures could reach 100 terminals valued at over US$75 million. U.S. Army JTIDS Program. JTIDS composes half the Army Data Distribution System (ADDS) program, the other half of which is the Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS). The Army has also planned for JTIDS to serve along with the Theater High-Altitude Area Defense System (THAADS) as its main datalink to other battlefield command and control systems. However, it was reported in 1996 (Defense Daily, January 4) that the Army was considering

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Airborne Electronics Forecast replacing the JTIDS in THAAD ground stations. Service leaders said JTIDS did not meet THAAD requirements: it could not transmit one megabit of information in half a second or less. “However,” Army and industry officials stressed, “the determination that JTIDS is unfit for the current THAAD ground station mission does not mean its applicability to THAAD and theater missile defense in general is in jeopardy. The JTIDS interoperability issue still exists. The Army must still get the joint picture from the Navy and the Air Force.” The U.S. Air Force stated in its FY97 annual report that the Army is equipping the air defense artillery and Theater Missile Defense (TMD) command and control elements and selected weapons platforms (Patriot) with JTIDS. Weapons platforms still under development – namely THAAD – will be equipped with MIDS. As of 1996, battalion-level integration of JTIDS with the Patriot PAC-3 had been achieved, with battery-level integration planned but encountering problems. While the service’s Program Executive Office for Air and Missile Defense (PEO-AMD) stated its commitment to funding this integration, it did not specify the funding source for the entire plan. The PEO-AMD’s two-phase plan was described in the monthly program assessment of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) for August 1996. Phase I would cost US$900,000, for which the Army had programmed funding. However, Phase II would require US$5 million; for this the Army could identify no source, and so had committed only to Phase I. The BMDO stated, in turn, that it would not proceed with the JTIDS procurement until the Army could commit to the entire integration cost. In late 1997, Defense Information and Electronics Report (November 28) revealed that the Pentagon had cut US$20 million that would have provided 11 extra JTIDS terminals for the Army through the BMDO. The Pentagon comptroller felt that the 89 terminals delivered to the Army (20 of which are developmental but sufficient for operational requirements) were already nine more than it needed. U.S. Navy JTIDS Program. The Navy’s JTIDS program achieved Initial Operational Capability in 1994, and continued to be a pivotal link in joint testing due to its roles on land, in the air, and at sea. The first JTIDSequipped battle group began pre-deployment workups in 1995 with the USS Carl Vinson (CVN-70). JTIDS would be installed on all Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) class ships bought from FY92 onward, and thus became a prime candidate for a backfit overhaul on all AEGIS cruisers. The Navy operates JTIDS in its F-14s, E-2s, surface combatants, and submarines. The service’s RDT&E work has been funded under Program Element #0205604N, Tactical Data Links; however, Project P1977, which is specifically focused on JTIDS, received its last funding in FY97 as preparations were under way for transition to MIDS. JTIDS’ ability to boost situational awareness was demonstrated by the All Services Combat Identification Evaluation Team (ASCIET) exercise held in late 1996. ASCIET conducted a series of joint war games that simulated actual combat. The actions of the participating shooters were evaluated in relation to the situational awareness data available to them. Officials said that “the performance of JTIDS in passing positional and identification data among various platforms appears to promise greater situational awareness, which…[is] key to reducing fratricide and improving joint combat effectiveness” (Defense Information and Electronics Report, December 13, 1996). However, a May 1997 operational test (OT) and evaluation report on the Army’s JTIDS Class 2M system called it “operationally effective but not operationally suitable. During the OT, the JTIDS Class 2M provided required messages to the Army units and demonstrated a satisfactory level of interoperability with other service JTIDS systems except AWACS. [AWACS-to-Patriot performance would require followon testing.] Interoperability between FAAD units and AWACS was demonstrated.” JTIDS’ operational unsuitability was primarily due to the large number of operational mission failures experienced during the OT. Software interrupts and problems with the Built-in-Test (BIT) indications contributed to failure in many categories. One important shortcoming was in the area of reliability: the system demonstrated a mean time between operational mission failures (MTBOMF) of 26.4 hours, whereas the requirement is 323 hours. Among other OT problems, soldiers had difficulty achieving the required equipment setup and network entry times, and training manuals were found to be poorly designed. A Corrective Action Plan was initiated by the Army to smooth out these snags. Even in view of these problems with the Class 2M JTIDS, as well as the previously discussed funding dispute between the Army and the BMDO, a full-rate production contract was awarded to GEC-Marconi (now BAE Systems) on June 3, 1997. The contract, worth US$24.7 million, called for production of 34 JTIDS systems. Production of JTIDS has been split between BAE Systems and Rockwell Collins Avionics. In February 1997, (then) GEC protested the US$196 million contract awarded to Rockwell for final production of the Air Force’s JTIDS Class 2/2H (covering FY97-FY99). The

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claim was mainly based on the fact that GEC’s prices were lower than Rockwell’s. While the protest resulted in a stop-work order, it was denied in May 1997 by the U.S. GAO, which responded by stating that GEC’s prices were so low that the company would have taken a substantial loss, jeopardizing prompt, quality deliveries. Ten U.K. Sea King AEW.7 AEW&C and three Sea King HAS.5 helicopters were fitted with JTIDS (Rockwell Collins URC-138(V)1(C)) during a conversion and upgrade program initiated in 1996. The U.K. was also to equip its Sea Harrier FA.2 fighter with the URC-138, but these fighters are now designated to be retired in 2005/06. However, the U.K. is upgrading an estimated 80 GR.7 Harriers to the GR.9/9A standard. Although it has not been confirmed, it is believed that

Airborne Electronics Forecast JTIDS will be included in this modification program. The upgraded Harrier aircraft are expected to be returned to service around 2006. Both U.S. and NATO Block 30/35 E-3 Sentry AWACS aircraft began a US$950 million upgrade program in 1987. As a major component of this modernization, JTIDS terminals were installed in these E-3 aircraft. This program was reported to have been completed in January 2002. The U.S. Navy has also been upgrading its E-2C Hawkeye aircraft with JTIDS. U.S. Navy budget documents show US$17 million has been allocated for JTIDS modifications on the E-2C. This upgrade of an estimated 15 to 17 aircraft is scheduled to be completed by FY05.

Funding
U.S. FUNDING FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04 QTY AMT QTY AMT QTY AMT QTY AMT Patriot Mods BCP (Link 16/JTIDS) - 2.6 - 6.0 - 13.8 - 19.1 FY05 FY06 FY07 QTY AMT QTY AMT QTY - 7.3 - 0.0 - 0.0 FY03 FY04 FY05 QTY AMT QTY AMT QTY F-22 JTIDS XMIT 0.0 0.0 0.0 AMT

Source: U.S. Army FY2005 missile procurement FY06 AMT QTY AMT 26.4 AMT

FY07 FY08 FY09 QTY AMT QTY AMT QTY - 27.5 - 32.0 - 32.6

Source: U.S. Air Force FY2005 Budget Estimates, Aircraft Procurement, Air Force Volume II FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04 QTY AMT QTY AMT QTY AMT QTY E-2C Hawkeye Advanced Procurement JTIDS - 1.9 - 1.9 - 0.8 - 0.2 FY05 FY06 FY07 QTY AMT QTY AMT QTY - 0.8 - 0.0 - 0.0 AMT AMT

Source: U.S. Navy FY2005 aircraft procurement programs

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Airborne Electronics Forecast

Recent Contracts
Contractor Data Link Solutions Award (US$ millions) 6.1 Date/Description Mar 2002 – A firm fixed-price contract to provide for 33 spare receiver assemblies applicable to the URC-107 JTIDS. The work is to be completed April 2004. Warner Robins Air Logistics Center, Warner Robins Air Force Base, GA, is the contracting agency. (F09603-02/C-0229) Mar 2002 – A firm fixed-price contract to provide for eight spare antenna interface and 14 spare digital data processors applicable to the URC-107 JTIDS. The work is to be completed December 2003. Warner Robins Air Logistics Center, Warner Robins Air Force Base, GA, is the contracting agency. (F09603-02/C-0223)

Data Link Solutions

5.1

Timetable
Month Year 1990 1990 1991 Nov Oct Oct 1Q Mar Jun 1Q Jul Late Sep 1991 1992 1993 FY95 1995 1996 FY97 1997 1997 2001 2008 Major Development Production decision for development of modified Class 2 terminal for U.S. Navy F-14D; Class 2H terminal (modified for higher power) completed Procurement reduced to fewer than 1,300 terminals U.S. Air Force installs JTIDS Class 2H into E-3, E-8, and EC-130 ABCCC aircraft for Gulf War operations; Initial Operational Capability for Class 2 terminals Major joint service field test conducted U.S. Air Force expresses interest in low-cost JTIDS-compatible terminal for F-15 Lot IV LRIP awarded; JTIDS OT2 Delta and OT2 Charlie tests begun Limited User Test of JTIDS Class 2M; low-rate production (35 terminals) JTIDS Class 2 and Class 2H receive Milestone III approval; full-rate production JTIDS Class 2R development program canceled Initial Operational Test and Evaluation of JTIDS Class 2M conducted JTIDS Class 2M receives Milestone III approval; full-rate production begun for June 1997 contract Funding cut for 11 additional JTIDS Class 2Ms for U.S. Army End of U.S. Air Force performance procurement period for JTIDS Anticipated end of JTIDS production

Worldwide Distribution
U.S. Air Force. Class 2H on E-3 AWACS and EC-130 ABCCC aircraft; Class 2 on F-15 aircraft and E-8 JSTARS; Class 2H integrated with ground-based TYQ-23(V)2 modular control equipment. U.S. Navy. Class 2 on F-14D; Class 2H on E-2C Hawkeye AEW aircraft; Class 2H on surface combatants such as aircraft carriers, guided-missile cruisers, and destroyers; and Class 2 on submarines. U.S. Marine Corps. Class 2H integrated with TYQ-23(V)1 Tactical Air Operations Modules. U.S. Army. Class 2M integrated with the Advanced Data Distribution System and Patriot missile system. French Air Force. Class 2H on E-3 AWACS aircraft. U.K. Royal Air Force. Class 2 on Tornado F3 aircraft; Class 2H on E-3 AWACS aircraft, as well as UKADGE air defense command centers. U.K. Royal Navy. Various aircraft, including Sea King AEW Mk 7s. JTIDS is also installed on the U.K.’s three Invincible class aircraft carriers, four Manchester Type 42C guided-missile destroyers, and seven Sheffield Type 42A and 42B guided-missile destroyers.

September 2004

JTIDS, Page 10

Airborne Electronics Forecast

Forecast Rationale
Although waning, interest in JTIDS still exists. Japan’s request for the AEGIS weapon system included the procurement of one JTIDS terminal. The U.S. Congress was notified of this possible sale on April 10, 2003. A similar notification was made a year earlier in April 2002. It is not clear whether the 2003 request is a repeat of an unfulfilled 2002 request or if the systems were actually procured in 2002. The U.K. is one of the largest consumers of JTIDS. In May 2002, Thales delivered the first two of 13 upgraded Westland Sea King helicopters to the U.K. Included in the Sea King upgrade package is the Rockwell Collins URC-138 JTIDS. The remaining 11 Sea Kings are to be delivered by the end of 2004. The U.K. also took delivery of the JTIDS-supported Rockwell Collins Ground Recognized Air Picture (G-RAP) system in June 2002. The G-RAP system provides a recognized air picture to both fire control centers and SHORAD command posts. How many JTIDS datalinks were provided with the G-RAP system was not specified. The U.K. is currently in the process of upgrading its GR.7 Harrier aircraft to the GR.9/9A standard. Included in this modernization program is JTIDS. It is estimated that 80 U.K. GR.7 Harriers are to be upgraded. In January 2003, BAE Systems was awarded a contract worth over GBP150 million by the U.K. Defence Logistics Organization for the continuation of the GR.9 Harrier upgrade program. According to BAE, the total value of the program is expected to exceed GBP500 million through a series of incremental contracts anticipated over the following two years. Operational Release of the first newly upgraded GR.9/9A aircraft to service is anticipated in 2006. Although Britain favors JTIDS, it seems that JTIDS is rapidly losing its market share. Evidence of this is Taiwan’s shift from JTIDS to MIDS. In July 2001 Taiwan requested to procure 50 JTIDS terminals. No contracts for these terminals were ever detected, however, and a year later Taiwan put in a request for 102 MIDS LVT and 20 MIDS-on-Ships terminals. Compared with JTIDS, MIDS offers a smaller, lighter, and cheaper datalink terminal with a better mean time between failures rate. These objectives were achieved with an open architecture COTS design. As a result, the consumer is able to gain a more reliable system and save approximately US$600,000 per unit. Since it entered production, demand for MIDS has been high. Sales of MIDS continued at a strong rate over the past year. Two of the more notable contracts were issued to Data Link Solutions and ViaSat. Data Link Solutions received an award worth US$56.6 million for the delivery of 216 MIDS terminals and ViaSat was awarded a US$30 million contract from the Royal Netherlands Air Force for approximately 120 MIDS terminals. Another benefit of MIDS, which will eventually marginalize JTIDS even more, is the plan to develop a MIDS unit compatible with the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS). One MIDS JTRS unit will replace multiple legacy systems, such as the ARC-210, EPLRS and GPS, in airborne platforms. The prototypes of MIDS JTRS are expected to be delivered by the fourth quarter of 2006. Production is anticipated to begin the following year. With so many MIDS systems being ordered, it appears there is a significant move away from JTIDS to MIDS. With the incorporation of JTRS into MIDS, MIDS will have a greater marketability in the U.S. and with its NATO allies. Current JTIDS orders should keep production vibrant for a few more years. Toward the end of the forecast period, production is expected to drop off sharply or come to an end. Please refer the report entitled “USQ-140 Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS)” for a complete report on the MIDS program.

Ten-Year Outlook
ESTIMATED CALENDAR YEAR PRODUCTION
High Confidence Level Designation JTIDS JTIDS JTIDS CLASS 1 JTIDS CLASS 2 JTIDS CLASS 2 JTIDS CLASS 2H JTIDS CLASS 2H JTIDS CLASS 2M Total Production Application VARIOUS (VARIOUS) Prior Prod’n: Prior Prod’n: E-2C (U.S. NAVY) Prior Prod’n: SURFACE SHIPS (U.S. NAVY) Prior Prod’n: ADDS/PATRIOT (U.S. ARMY) Thru 03 79 4 52 21 180 64 95 86 581 04 15 0 0 1 0 2 0 34 52 05 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 22 06 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 07 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 Good Confidence Level 08 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 09 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Speculative 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total 04-13 59 0 0 1 0 2 0 44 106

September 2004

Airborne Electronics Forecast

September 2004

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