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DYNAMICS OF MACHINE
GYROSCOPIC EFFECT ON THE MILLING MACHINE
RAVINDER SINGH AHUJA RB4803B55 10806064
Thanks . This is an original work and neither is it copied but takes help and some ideas from net nor is any of its part taken from any other work of such kind.Acknowledgement:- I am thankful to my teachers and colleagues for their support in making this project assigned by lovely professional university. I have tried my level best for this project.
the gyroscope became the prime component for aircraft and antiaircraft gun sights . In the first several decades of the 20th century. other inventors attempted (unsuccessfully) to use gyroscopes as the basis for early black box navigational systems by creating a stable platform from which accurate acceleration measurements could be performed (in order to bypass the need for star sightings to calculate position). which was visible in the 8 to 10 minutes before friction slowed the spinning rotor. electric motors made the concept feasible. The French mathematician Pierre-Simon Laplace. Johnson developed a similar device that was based on a rotating disk.. Foucault used it in an experiment involving the rotation of the Earth. and thus it came to the attention of Léon Foucault. Gyroscope history: The earliest known gyroscope instrument was made by German Johann Bohnen berger. American Walter R. It was Foucault who gave the device its modern name. circle or rotation). must be taken into consideration. its play very vital role in imparting right amount of force in right direction. manufacturing industry and robots etc. During World War Two. recommended the machine for use as a teaching aid. to see) the Earth's rotation (Greek gyros. Its uses approx everywhere but some very specific fields are aerospace. automobile. dimension. Similar principles were later employed in the development of inertial guidance systems for ballistic missiles. such as power consumption. In 1852. who first wrote about it in 1817. so in mechanical industry it`s gain ample respect and application. To choose the right rate gyro sensor. the first functional marine gyrocompass was patented in 1908 by German inventor Hermann Anschütz-Kaempfe. leading to the first prototype gyrocompasses. some features. In the 1860s.Introduction: Gyroscope is very useful in many applications. in an experiment to see (Greek skope in. In 1832. In case of milling machine its play role in reduce chattering sound and make it more precise. etc. weight.
. solid state ring lasers. fibre optic gyroscopes and the extremely sensitive quantum gyroscope. based on the principles of conservation of angular momentum. its orientation remains nearly fixed. Since external torque is minimized by mounting the device in gimbals. such as the electronic.What is Gyroscope? A gyroscope is a device for measuring or maintaining orientation. microchip-packaged MEMS gyroscope devices found in consumer electronic devices. This orientation changes much less in response to a given external torque than it would without the large angular momentum associated with the gyroscope's high rate of spin. Gyroscopes based on other operating principles also exist. A mechanical gyroscope is essentially a spinning wheel or disk whose axle is free to take any orientation. regardless of any motion of the platform on which it is mounted.
FIG 1. The bottom axis is held stationary but can pivot in all directions. and point C will be . Since this gyro is rotating in a clockwise direction. Point A is still traveling in the upward direction when it is at the 90 degrees position in FIG 2. When a tilting force is applied to the top axis.How gyroscopic couple work Instead of a complete rim. D. point A will be where point B was when the gyro has rotated 90 degrees. B. C. represent the areas of the rim that are most important in visualizing how a gyro works. four point masses. point A is sent in an upward direction and C goes in a downward direction. A. The same goes for point C and D.
The axis will rotate because some of the energy in the upward and downward motion of A and C is used up in causing the axis to rotate in the precession plane. the tilting force ( being constant) is more than the upward and downward counter acting forces. curved. the precession would be to the left. Sometimes precession is unwanted so two counter rotating gyros on the same axis are used. A hydraulic cylinder pushes or pulls. The more the tilting force pushes the axis. The combined motion of A and C cause the axis to rotate in the "precession plane" to the right FIG 2. which has several cutting teeth. When the gyro has rotated another 90 degrees FIG 3. Milling is a process where material is removed by a spinning tool. the axis would move in the precession plane to the left. If the gyro were rotating counterclockwise. on one axis of a heavy gyro. The property of precession of a gyroscope is used to keep monorail trains straight up and down as it turns corners. MILLING PROCESS Milling is the process of machining flat. A gyro's axis will move at a right angle to a rotating motion (In this case to the right). The main . Then when points A and C finally make it around to the opposite sides. point C is where point A was when the tilting force was first applied. Actually. If in the clockwise example the tilting force was a pull instead of a push. the axis will rotate in the tilting force plane in this example. The downward motion of point C is now countered by the tilting force and the axis does not rotate in the "tilting force" plane. the more the rim on the other side pushes the axis back when the rim revolves around 180 degrees. This is called precession.traveling in the downward direction. or irregular surfaces by feeding the work piece against a rotating cutter containing a number of cutting edges. as needed.
difference between modeling the milling and the turning process is that the chip thickness in milling is not constant. where the entry angle is nonzero and the exit angle is zero. where the entry angle is zero and the exit angle is 180'. MILLING CUTTERS . where the entry angle PHI. of the milling cutter relative to the workpiece are nonzero. Slotting.. Face milling. Several types of milling exist:• Upmilling. and exit angle PHI’. Some process parameters are shown: • Feed per tooth f. where the entry angle is zero and the exit angle is non-zero.. but periodic. • Axial depth-of-cut up • Spindle speed w A schematic representation of the milling process.. • • • Down-milling.
Based on mounting o Arbour mounted o Shank mounted o Nose mounted Base on rotation o Right hand rotation (Counter clockwise) o Left hand rotation (Clockwise) Based on helix o Right hand helix o Left hand helix .
In addition the machine and cutting tool wear out rapidly. With the help of these diagrams it is possible to find the point with a combination of spindle speed and depth-of-cut which has the largest metal removal rate while avoiding chatter. This results in a Stability Lobe Diagram (SLD). The milling of large structures is done in e. Several studies have been done to understand and model the phenomenon chatter. Both linear and nonlinear models have been developed. During the milling process chatter can arise at certain combinations of spindle speed and depth-of-cut. This behavior is usually undesired.GYROSCOPIC EFFECT ON MILLING MACHINE The process of milling is used widely in many sectors of industry. where nonlinearities are modeled in several different ways. Early studies have shown that the border between stable and unstable cuts in terms of the depth-of-cut can be visualized as a function of spindle speed. To make the process the most efficient.g. . because in such a case a nonsmooth surface of the workpiece is caused by heavy vibrations of the cutter. the airplane building industry. the speed of the process should be as high as possible while maintaining a high quality level. where large amounts of material are removed.
Note that on the vertical axis.5 mm and an axial depth of cut of 6.4 mm. increases if the number of flutes decreases. The model is validated by experiments. • Number of flutes. three parameters are varied at a spindle speed of 135 rpm: • Radial depth of cut. . this increases the stability of milling machine spindle. the chip thickness is above the stability border. the average chip thickness is shown. The federate per minute is held constant. Figure shows the limit of stability decreases with an increasing feed. so the feed per tooth f. whereas chip thicknesses below the line result in a chatter-free cut. • Federate per minute. where the mean chip thickness is measured. Experiments and simulations done are down milling of 30' helix angle end mill set at an radial depth-of-cut of 1. If the federate decreases then chip thickness also decreases. If the federate is 70 mm/min.GYROSCOPIC EFFECT AS A FUNSTION OF SPINDLE SPEED For low spindle speeds (100-400 rpm) a stability analysis is applied. In the experiments. Chip thicknesses above the line result in an unstable cut.
It’s pure application of gyroscopic effect. there are certain force which directly work on spindle. The results show that although the gyroscopic effect of the rotating spindle does not change the instability regions in milling.Gyroscopic couple in case of milling machine spindle: A new dynamic milling model of a rotating spindle is developed and the gyroscopic effect of the spindle on the stability characteristics of the milling system is investigated for the first time. so for avoiding that . it makes the stability prediction less conservative. and avoiding such important disturbance which enhance productivity gyroscopic effect is very important. which bound it to some short of motion. because when the cutting done with help of tool. it increases the real parts of the Eigen values of the system or reduces the critical axial depth of cut. . In other words.
In order to counterbalance the cutting force and regulate the spindle position deviation. Therefore. against the corresponding exerted force. Similarly. Experiments are performed to study chatter and to validate the models. feed rate. i. d. its device which used in balance the specimen like milling machine spindle and lots more. Ω. 6b represents the spindle position deviation. the axial cut depth. Several researchers conclude that nonlinearities should be modeled for a more accurate prediction of chatter. are to be constructed by experiments at first. 6. shown in Fig. d. the key factor to determine the pattern of cutting dynamics. is mainly determined by the axial cut depth.. shown in Fig. can be estimated for a given axial cut depth and the available measurement of spindle position. the magnetic force. Conclusion Several researchers have studied and modeled the phenomenon chatter. the spindle speed and feed rate are generally retained constants. Secondary chatter is caused by regeneration of waviness of the surface of the workpiece. the cutting force. By comparison of the two dynamic models in Fig. the resulted cutting force. is constructed in order to explore the link of the shaft position deviation. 6a. mode coupling or thermodynamics of the cutting process. a. 6. is. f. a. Chatter is the result of several causes. Fm. and spindle speed. 6. in fact. the lateral force to the spindle. Fm. Primary chatter is the consequence of friction effects between the tool and the chip. The spindle model at idle operation mode. against the axial cut depth. They show that the milling process contains phenomena which cannot be modeled using linear models. due to milling process. Partial tool jump-out can be modeled. represents the magnetic force exerting on the spindle by the AMB while the cutting process is not engaged at all. Also the gyroscopic effect of the spindle speed has been modeled. Both linear and nonlinear models have been developed in different ways. . at normal operation mode. However. a. the models of the subsystems. shown in Fig. 6a. Fc. In Fig. d. Gyroscope is very important and powerful arrangement for removing directional alignment and for maintain balancing.e.For the milling process aided by AMB. The friction force can be modeled as a nonlinear function of the cutting parameters. the dynamic model shown in Fig.
org www.com/Gyroscopes/ www.com . Research work on Non-contact measurements and modeling of milling machine tool vibrations by Matti Rantatalo.scribd. Faassen.H.References Research papers • • Research work on Investigation of the phenomenon "chatter" in the milling process by R. Internet websites • • • www.gyroscope.wikipedia.P.
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