Water Mondiaal Egypt Study 3.

5

‫الدراسة المصرية الهولندية للمياة‬

Quick scan and market analysis of the Egyptian water sector Challenges and opportunities for the Dutch private sector

2

Front page Pharaoh Dancing Party. The scene is a dancing party held for the Queen and her guests. Pretty girls dancing whilst playing the musical tambourine, the queen holding a beaker of Nile water; the original scene is in the tomb of Queen Nefertari in the Valley of the Queens, West Bank, Luxor, Egypt.

3

Water Mondiaal Egypt Study 3.5

‫الدراسة المصرية الهولندية للمياة‬

Quick scan and market analysis of the Egyptian water sector Challenges and opportunities for the Dutch private sector

Occidental Oriental Consult www.oo-consult.com Cairo, Den Haag 2011

This Study has been prepared by Occidental Oriental Consult for the exclusive use and disposition of AgentschapNL and the Netherlands Water Partnership, of Den Haag, the Netherlands. Copyright ©2011, is retained by Occidental Oriental Consult. No part of this document may be shared, reproduced, or otherwise commercialized, wholly or partially, in any way, shape, or form without the express and prior written consent of any of the Parties above.

4

5 .

a helicopter view 4.1.2. 5. 3.4 25th January Revolution and the Arab spring 4.2.3. Studies & Services in Water Resource management New water resources studies.4 The uniformed branches 5. 5. development Hydraulic structures in the Nile and distribution canals Canal and drain infrastructure Coastal protection 1 3 5 5 5 5 6 7 12 14 14 19 21 23 27 29 31 31 34 36 38 41 43 47 50 52 54 56 57 58 60 62 63 64 5.8. approach What the Netherlands can.Multilateral and foreign sponsorship Private initiatives and overlooked areas 5. organisation 4. Public Private Partnerships MHUUD W&WW – State funded investments MHUUD W&WW .6 What Holland BV thinks about Den Haag 4.1.3 Water Mondiaal.1.Contents 1.1 Water issues 4. In summary Study objectives.5 Where to: the Egyptian economy 5.3 Desalination 5.1.3 Constraints and concerns 4.2 Urban Water & Wastewater treatment 5.5 Agriculture and horticulture 5.1. segmentation 5. Irrigation Water management Irrigation and farming Water services to the food industry Aquaculture 6 . again another program? 3.2 The Egyptian Public Water Sector.2.1 Sector wide 5. and wants. 5. 5.2.2.1.6. 5.2. 5.4. Egyptian market.4. 5. Water in Egypt.1.5. 2.2.7. 5.5.2.1 Holland BV vs global moral responsibility 3.3.2. in Egypt 3.2.4 A short water history of two countries 3.5 What Water Holland thinks about Egypt 3.2 Egypt on the threshold 3. 5. 5.

4.9. 6. 6.5.3.2.Financierings Maatschappij voor Ontwikkelingslanden NBSO. 6.8. 6. 5. Innovatiebox BMKB. 7.3.8 Water education 5. 7.1. Partners voor Water.1.3 Dutch development collaboration: a new chapter 6.4. 6.Netherlands Senior Experts MMF.3.3.1.Domain International Cooperation DECP Dutch Employers’ Cooperation Programme FMO.6 Industry Supply chain improvements Agricultural product re.selection 66 68 69 73 73 74 75 75 75 77 79 79 79 80 80 81 81 81 82 82 82 83 83 83 83 84 84 84 84 85 85 85 86 86 86 5.10. 6.4. 7.law for the promotion of R&D Groeifaciliteit – growth facility Garantie Ondernemingsfinanciering (GO) Innovatiekrediet Target the right customers Educating the market Join forces Focus on customer needs and improve the embedded added value Enhance the perceived value Working in the Egyptian market place 7 .9.7.1 Cost base Holland: Expensive! 6. 6.4.4. 6.2. 7.4.7 Home Consumer market 5.6. 6.Springboard for international ambitions InnoWATOR Garantiefaciliteit ORIO. 6.the Private Sector Investment programme PUM.1.6. 7. 6.3.9 Getting in touch and finding partners 6.1. 6.4. About money 6.1.3.3.5.5.4.Centre for the Promotion of Imports from Developing countries BOCI.2.5 From Innovation support to Water support 6.2.3. 6. 5.Borgstelling MKB Kredieten WBSO.5. 7.10. 6.4.3.3.3.2 Usual business not as usual 6.Netherlands Business Support Offices 6.Matchmaking Facility CBI.2.1.3.1. 6.11.4 Funding: a line-up of Dutch Government programs 6.3.The Facility for Infrastructure Development PSI.3.

7 11.9.6 11. 7. 8.5 11. Action Make your local presence count Reduce production cost The right partner and local setup Presence means being present Business in Egypt.1. 9. agents Home appliances 8 . Environmental legislation 11. 7.8.1 11.1.6. 7. 7.10. Water related (semi-) government organisations Government – Agriculture. customs and the law Negotiating a price Business etiquette in Egypt: what you won't find on the Internet 87 87 88 89 89 91 91 93 96 98 99 100 101 106 107 109 110 112 116 122 123 126 137 Acronyms & translations 10. 7.4 11.1.9 11.10 11.11.1. Finance International Organisations Financial Institutions and multilateral donors Knowledge Institutes Consultants and consulting engineers Contractors Manufacturers of Equipment Agricultural producers and large farms Egyptian companies in water equipment business.3 11. Names 11.11 11. 7.1.7.12.1.7.1.12 Professional business advisors Egyptian government.2 11.8 11. Environment.

9 .

.

the vast Egyptian market still offers exciting opportunities for Dutch business and knowledge owners. the fight for business will be tougher. seen as “difficult”. As the opportunities are getting bigger. the uncertainty about the direction of the future that has stalled decision making will have made way for the need to catch up and make up. Where earlier contracts for Dutch consultants and contractors often came on the back of Dutch development aid projects. Over the years. PPP sanitation projects and irrigation improvement efforts are big value contracts for local and global contractors. With a newly elected Parliament and President.1. the New Egypt and a Netherlands with a more results based international development collaboration agenda call for a more competitive and inventive approach. However. while there is keen demand for new technologies like low energy and solar desalination. hoarded cash will look for export driven industry investments and Egyptian decision makers will look for partners trusted of old. as Egyptian water engineers with hands-on “Hollandexperience” fade away and move on to retirement. In summary Autumn 2011. the involvement of Dutch consultants becomes harder competitive work. investment cost and operation expenses. will become increasingly important as urban expansion and tourism populate the coastal areas. And. engaging a Dutch firm is no longer an automatism. Mega construction projects. such as Nile hydraulic structures. Dutch consultants have made many in-depth studies to support the Egyptian Ministries of Water and Agriculture in the development and optimisation of resources for a limited amount of water. Ironically. In a nutshell. with strong connections going back to the Delta drainage projects necessitated by the Aswan High Dam. A rising Euro is no help. Interesting niches emerge in the supply of specialised equipment and knowledge as subcontractor or adviser. not just by reverse osmosis. 1 - - - . Piped water supply has arrived at nearly every home and the emphasis is now on mitigating health hazards and returning used water to the system for repeated use. Sanitation solutions are needed in a diverse range from just a few 100 households to mega city answers. but demands hard work and flexibility from those who want to be successful. Egypt’s population has grown with another 1 million. Egypt’s largest water market is undoubtedly in sanitation: sewage and wastewater treatment plants. the terms of engagement have changed since these days. The Netherlands is one of such old partners. meets with hesitation. the introduction of cost reducing hi-tech ultra filtration. when this study has been published. Desalination. As new development collaboration priorities move financing for such studies from the Dutch Government to multilateral agencies like the WorldBank and the EU. Egypt offers opportunities for technologies that can reduce construction time. With critical budgets and an enormous task ahead. pent-up demand for water quality and sanitation has become more urgent than ever. and improve quality. Egypt’s January 25 Revolution will be nearly a year old.

localising production and maintaining a continuum of such presence and the quality he is seen to bring to his clients and improving his competitiveness in price and service are the minimum work he will have to do. With water supplies hitting a ceiling. Traditional engagement models are unlikely to work as well as before and the Dutch seller will have to work harder for his contract. August 2011 1 Long live Egypt. but this is changing. This includes getting water in the most optimal way to the crop: irrigation and getting the crop in the best way to the consumer: the supply chain.- Egyptian Industry has not been a major investor in water treatment technology and equipment. Agriculture is Egypt’s largest consumer of water. particularly on the Mediterranean coast and answers are needed for creeping salinisation of agricultural land and protection of the shores. Non traditional methods and crops suitable for desert reclaimed land and aquaculture show equal promise. - - There is more to do in Egypt. demand for efficiency improvements abound. Developing a visible presence and reputation in the Egyptian market. The closing Chapter of this study suggests several action items to this end. in the transfer and development of know-how. the reduction of energy and water subsidies and export customers demanding clean and responsible products all converge to make manufacturers pay more attention to the water they use and the waste water they dispose of. in localising the production of equipment and in involving the population at large in the realisation that water is a scarce resource and can no longer be taken for granted. Improved post revolution law enforcement. Climate change effects are reaching Egypt. the catchphrase of the 25 January Revolution 2 . Tahia Masr!1 Cairo and Den Haag. both with the public and the private sectors.

shared their experiences and given us the benefit of their real-life experience. webpages and printed catalogues. This is the moment where enormous opportunities emerge for those who come forward with true value. our Dutch tradition of practical and transparent dealing can offer much appreciated alternatives. ngo’s. to supply Dutch products and know-how and to grow competitive advantage at home and abroad with Egyptian outsource partners. have helped us gain such understanding. showing where owners and manufacturers of specialised technology. the approach of the study is to work at a micro level. To achieve a reasonable chance at finding “matches” we started asking the Dutch private sector what they wanted to do in Egypt and where they thought their expertise would be most appreciated. without hesitation. particularly in water. many with firsthand experience in Egypt. Egypt today is in a difficult post-revolution phase of evaluating the past and determining its future. approach Egypt and the Netherlands have a long history of development cooperation. Study objectives. with sustainable technical and economic cooperation and exchange of knowledge. the interdepartmental program of the Dutch national government. As traditional economic and aid relationships are reviewed and often found wanting. We have approached this as a classic market survey. They have. we have surveyed “water in Egypt”. Egypt is one of the 5 focus countries of Water Mondiaal. With their views and wishes in mind. waterboards and other non-profit participants in the Dutch water sector can participate and contribute in conjunction with private sector initiatives. we met and interviewed over 100 individuals and scanned over 2000 pages of reports. In addition. knowledge institutes. ngo’s and the private sector. Over 60 Dutch companies. A classical winwin! In the framework of Water Mondiaal. utilities. The nett result of over 200 relevant and credible Egyptian organisations and their decision makers can be found in Chapter 11 of this study. 3 . While we look at large nation-scale projects like the new PPP wastewater plants. After all. equipment or know-how can find a profitable niche.term and mutually beneficial relationship in the water sector. where the Netherlands aspire to a long. with many projects successfully completed and an intimate ongoing collaboration at many levels of government. being the regular supplier of an indispensable component or process know-how can be much more rewarding than fighting a margin reducing competition for a jumbo contract. we have been asked to show how knowledge institutes. We owe much to those Dutch companies who have built successful operations in Egypt. Agentschap NL has engaged Occidental Oriental Consult to evaluate current and future market opportunities in the Egyptian water sector for Dutch (private) water sector companies. albeit for hundreds of principals. Some 400 public and private organisations were individually assessed in phone surveys.2.

just after the 25 January Revolution. business people and of course the staff at EKN. we continue work at the fascinating junction of true national need and enormous international growth opportunities. Our thanks go to the many people in Egypt and the Netherlands who have given their time to help us compile the information we present in this study. 2 Unlike the Netherlands. civil servants of all ranks. Here in Cairo. makes for a most hesitant decision making process. numerous policy issues have been left on the table. posed its own challenges and advantages. 4 . We want readers to look for the essence of success. but it also opens doors and unexpected confidences as we showed that a Dutch friend is a friend. Business is an exercise in dynamism which makes every day different and every opportunity unique. where Ministries carry on with the tasks at hand. the Egyptian Civil Service works under direct instructions from the President and the Minister. for true competitive advantage and to form their own opinions. also in times of need. particularly in the bureaucracy2.The time of the study. Uncertainty about government and government policy to come. With the current caretaker Cabinet. A study like this is never completed.

bilateral and multilateral. a GDP over US$500 billion. Where the driving force was once the support for the less fortunate in other parts of the world – moral responsibility. including substantial amounts in foreign direct aid. Egypt is expected to quickly reassert itself.1 Holland BV vs global moral responsibility Development collaboration in The Netherlands is changing. The Netherlands has opted to work together first with countries that live in river Delta’s and share the same concerns of protection against floods and the need to provide enough clean water for their population. and wants.3. particularly in Delta countries. when the development of the recipient country was the singular goal.2 Egypt on the threshold Just 6 months after a popular revolt that brought a detested regime to its knees. development cooperation is about economic cooperation. in Egypt 3. However. This is Water Mondiaal. demolishing obstacles. In other words. Exploring and establishing a new way of ruling themselves. The emphasis is on collaboration in business and knowledge. also in the Netherlands. Something where a government must act as catalyst and as facilitator. Once the political direction has been set. This affects many government and business activities where vital decisions are postponed till clarity of direction emerges. What the Netherlands can. 3. the political future of Egypt is still very uncertain and the country holds it breath while parties and interest groups line up to contest for the Presidency and Parliament in September-November this year. 5 . Then. there is the growing conviction. With Water Mondiaal. set to increase substantially post-revolution. that intrinsic causes to problems in developing countries require a greater degree of transparency and accountability. certain basics will not change. Water Mondiaal is all about mutual gains. Egyptians have a large economic base with a population of 87 million. Egypt is the largest country and economy (non-oil) of the Middle East and despite setbacks is still seen by many as the compass for the Arab World. Donors consider beneficiary countries and organisations as partners of equal value and the interests of both donor and beneficiary can now be taken into account.development aid has become development cooperation. 3.3 Water Mondiaal. again another program? The Dutch Government's policy for international cooperation in the water sector is focused on establishing and broadening long term relationships between Dutch public and private sector organisations and their counterparts overseas. Unlike the days of development aid. building marginal enablers and conditions. Those disenchanted with aid say that the only solution for these countries is intrinsic economic growth.

Indonesia. Those who expect even more action to support Dutch business may want to consult the commercial section of NWRP 2017 the Embassy (EKN) or look for a private sector initiative designed to support exclusively and proactively only those Dutch firms who truly want to work in Egypt. supporting the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation (MWRI).aspx covering topics ranging from Long Term Water development. In all. -Economic Affairs.aspx 5 http://www. Consulting firms include Alterra.5 and sometimes incorporated in national policy. Commercial companies such as consultants and technology firms can be invited on incidental basis. 3. Bangladesh. The best example is the National Water Resources Plan 2017 (NWRP).Adapting to Climate Change. Mozambique and Vietnam. Agricultural Drainage. but are no members of APP. the APP has amassed an unrivalled reputation for competency. It is the oldest and first project under the Egyptian–Dutch Bilateral Cooperation Program and has evolved and adapted to a broad-based think tank. -Infrastructure and Environment. 3 4 http://www.support budget is shared between the Dutch state and Egypt.4 A short water history of two countries The Egypt-Dutch water connection started in the 1970’s. Egypt’s current water roadmap to which several Dutch consultants have contributed. In Water Mondiaal. Agriculture and Innovation.app-wm. as the Egyptian-Dutch Advisory Panel on Land Drainage. numerous studies have been commissioned by the APP. The Netherlands Water Partnership3 is supporting this program as the liaison between the government and the broad Dutch water sector. Its –modest. 5 Delta countries have been selected with whom the Netherlands propose to work together for the long term.org/Liberary/filter. Arcadis.nwp. of course. The APP is made up by representatives of the Egyptian and Dutch public and knowledge sector in water and agriculture4 and has a small office in Cairo and a representative office at Wageningen University Research Centre (WUR). when the completion of the Aswan dam necessitated large scale drainage schemes in the Nile Valley and Delta. Aquaculture. Egypt. Over the years. SG Consult and others 6 . Royal Haskoning. The Egyptian-Dutch Advisory Panel on Water Management (APP) was established in 1976. impartiality and unwavering support to the cause of water in Egypt. Water Mondiaal is an interdepartmental program between the Dutch Ministries of -Foreign Affairs. Skills Development in the Water sector. reaching Millennium Goals and optimising economic opportunities are at the core of this initiative.org/public/current.nl/en/ http://www. often executed by Dutch consulting firms. Groundwater and.app-wm. Deltares.

Of all surveyed organisations in the Netherlands. sewage and WWTP7 system and institutional reform and capacity building.Early projects supported the Alexandria Governorate’s Water Authority. which is executed in several phases. Fayoum is a nearly separate hydro-eco system. The Dutch consultants and suppliers that were involved at the time maintain till this day excellent relationships in Alexandria as trusted partners. to . 32 of these were interviewed in personal conversations.60 online surveys and 32 personal interviews survey was offered. In . 6 Not exclusively. we have started our scan with a review of what Dutch Business and Knowledge In the Netherlands: can and want to do in Egypt. To this end. in Beheira governorate and Alexandria. The survey also show that 65% of these companies believe that now is the right time to build relationships that will lead to good opportunities. 75% has done business in Egypt before and only 3% believes that the current post-revolution climate is a reason to shy away from business in Egypt. other projects were executed at the central MWRI level. In Egypt in the NWP newsletter and on LinkedIn. has a struggling economy and a mix of small urban and rural settlement. Of those who have done business in Egypt before. Concentrating projects in Fayoum has allowed a continuum of Dutch presence.5 What Water Holland thinks about Egypt Identifying market opportunities for the broad Dutch water sector in Egypt is a matching of Supply and Demand. the facility to objectively measure outcomes and to grab scale economies where possible. an e.300 telephone surveys addition. advertised by direct email.100 personal interviews which 60 Dutch companies responded. Knowing full well that Egyptian demand outstrips Dutch supply. now an Affiliate Company under the HCWW. By a quirk of nature. 7 Waste Water Treatment Plant 8 http://ikregeer. 60% has good experiences. including improvements and expansion to the potable water system. Several Technical Assistance Projects have been completed like The Fayoum Drinking Water and Sanitation Project (FadWasp). started in 1990 and is scheduled to conclude later this year8. 3.nl/documenten/blg-91537 7 . Many of the practical water projects initiated and supported under the Egyptian– Dutch Bilateral Cooperation Program have been executed in Fayoum governorate6.

soil managemen t 46% Generally. Veolia). Large and multinational organisations tend to think more in terms of investment and their overseas forays often include the acquisition and creation of local assets. with only 14% suffering under the impact of the Middle East turmoil. But our SME respondents are not large or multinational companies which typically suffer more from political uncertainty9. Are consultants. it forms a major handicap when engaging in exports. tend to approach much of their overseas activities on a contract to contract basis. There is a strong belief that the sector it highly fragmented and although this may support flexibility and innovation. drainage. human capital. government 17% Water distributionutility 37% Irrigation. 75% Happy doing business in Egypt. There is a general feeling that countries like France do a much better job in this (Suez. A recent Grant Thornton “International Business Report” indicated that Dutch business interest in the ME region is modest at 12% of those polled. Where the Dutch see their Egyptian Customer Regulator. adapted branding and the acquisition of competitors. 8 . unlike those interviewed in this Grant Thornton survey. Dutch organisations see their product or service end-users in Egypt in several areas of business and government. an 9 Smaller companies. 65% The Dutch companies interviewed The positive reaction of Dutch water companies to the 25 January Revolution and its promise of an Arab Spring is significant. such as production facilities. 10% Believe now is the right time.Have done business before in Egypt. which allows them an immediate volte face if circumstances change. respondents agreed that the Dutch Water sector needs to work harder and together to establish a recognisable face in Egypt. 60% Are manufacturers. 40% 37% Disappointed with their experience in Egypt..

consortia subsidies. export support. the experience is that such programs may lead to a one-time gain with no sustainable long term effect. worldwide. Euroconsult Mott MacDonald.000 staff in a worldwide network of projects and offices. at least in international business. each one tailored to a particular client’s need. Dutch companies. but when it comes to shortlists for big projects. JSF-concept The Netherlands has few big companies with an international presence who can lead and bundle Dutch know-how and skill for a global market. Infram. infra-structure and environment. Mitsubishi) who can handle a large project entirely on their own. Ferendi International Management Consultants. Despite the respect in which Dutch water technology is held. in a tender submission. some well known Dutch companies supply products at a global level. Dutch companies usually do not pass the bar. GE. The Dutch can find their partners in. For the water sector. the skill and the experience. in a Dutch or an EU effort. financing and more.nl 9 .. In close co-operation with the Dutch government. made good business sense. The industry. even though the Dutch have the know-how. on their own or jointly as a consortium. Royal Haskoning. and true commercial success remains elusive. but the network limits itself to these sectors where specific Dutch experience and public and private sector knowhow meet. transport. Of course. may be very complimentary about Dutch know-how. NEDECO can form a wide variety of consortia. Witteveen + Bos) working internationally in the fields of land & water. The firms cover a much wider field of expertise. On the ground. however. And. NEDECO initiates pre-competitive strategies for projects and technical assistance in sustainable development and infrastructure projects in countries around the world. environment and infrastructure. but nearly always as a junior partner to a foreign market leader (Veolia.example to emulate! The surveyed organisations were clear that. this means that competing with global players and going for the big tech-jobs is very hard. Alkyon Hydraulic Consultancy & Research. that is a major advantage! 10 www. Siemens. cannot afford the risks that come with big tenders. working together. The Dutch government has created a number of programs to support Holland BV competing overseas: individual subsidies. Process design / Consulting 16% Teaching organisatio n 15% Regulator policy maker 20% Research Institute 30% Compleme ntary technology 19% Some of the interviewees suggested extrapolating from the Nedeco example or the “JSF” structure to create a joint Dutch Water “Fist”. With over 20. The NEDECO network consists of 9 independent leading Dutch consultancy organizations and technology institutes (Fugro Ingenieursbureau. Nea Transport research and training. DHV Group.nedeco. transport. NEDECO-Model 10 NEDECO is an independent non-profit foundation that promotes Dutch consultancy know-how and skills in the area of land & water. there are simply no Dutch led main contractors.

In other words. pilot projects. product suppliers. but that the commercial parties accept the obligation to share the rewards of success with the Government. Losers on the sidelines are our Dutch SMEs who miss out on a ride on the big bandwagon. distributor or office in Egypt. which encourages cooperation amongst Dutch companies. water companies. How Dutch companies work in Egypt Has own office 9% Relies on major customer 12% Has agent 39% No rep in Egypt 40% The interviews made it clear that Dutch consultants believe that reduced development funding from The Netherlands means less money to engage their expertise. Such a desired domain can be a region. Over half of the respondents are looking for reliable local partners! Of those companies presently doing business in Egypt. These SMEs find it very onerous to apply for the various government programs that are supposed to help them sell overseas. necessary as they are. we do not bid on the tender. promotional efforts and the rest that are to give Holland BV a leg up abroad. Overheads to get an application going are just as high as those of a big company. For water technology this would mean that the Government steps in to mitigate the risks of seed funding and the commercial venture in this desired domain with a “floor”. An entirely new approach towards long term sustainable profitability in overseas markets. Just getting a team or consortium together to bid on a tender seems impossible as the commercial risks tend to land with just one or two parties.Water4All. waterboards and so on. knowledge institutes. And what to do with firms who earn revenue from writing hours vs. 40% has no agent. Expert consultancy services. SMEs. or a specific technology realm. those who sell product? The result is that nothing gets done. This begs the question if these programs indeed achieve what they promote. The co-financing agreement set up for the Joint-Strike-Fighter is an example. our Dutch Water industry is highly fragmented amongst many consulting engineering companies. profitable export business. who suggested this idea 10 . The JSF contract provides plenty of guidance and real life 11 experience to expand the concept. which seems counterproductive. are financially and 11 Our thanks to Eef Lammers . like the Arab Spring countries. It is worthwhile re-evaluating the entire package of subsidies.Conversely. promotes overseas investments and in the end gives the Dutch tax payer a better deal. we are not organised to handle big projects.

This should not be confused with bilateral German aid through KfW 13 We have checked LC procedures with 2 commercial banks in Cairo and find no major differences with similar work in other countries. so “donor money” is often the only way to get the job done. we have met public parties who take this route and. at the suggestion of EKN. We noted that the sector expects Water Mondiaal and NWP to support such business development in Egypt. In smaller deals a prepayment of 50% -at least direct production cost are covered. The high level of interest in funded pilot projects is not surprising. allegedly all caused by the Egyptian side. just what countries like Egypt want!” In short. In our experience. in the process. EIB. 13 (Semi)Public sector parties like universities and other knowledge institutions. this is not something the Dutch seller is involved in.culturally expensive in the Egyptian market. Consultants also noted the increase of work for EU funded projects and the administrative role played by German development Bank KfW in addition to its function in handling German development projects. nor does the request to continue well-known activities like trade missions. When prompted in interviews. only few are in the business of producing and selling hardware. Annemarie de Ruiter/ Nuffic NICHE: “Projects and tenders we quote for. the Dutch Water Sector believes that much money can be made with a better degree of cooperation between consultants.can offer a solution. Nonetheless. Egypt included and are equally concerned that less Dutch government funds will be available. can be made much richer if we include the vocational know-how that business has in abundance. 12 Large development projects co-financed by the World bank. Water Boards and Utilities are busy in developing countries.12 It is significant that among the organisations that reacted to our call to answer the survey. but the Sector also wants to see local seminars with a strong G2G element. which we believe can be an excellent way to both leverage and expand the work done by the APP. such companies explained that they were keen to do more business with Egypt but face serious financial management obstacles. the public sector and commercial entities. there are no serious impediments to opening letters of credit. where oil revenues can pay for quality advisory work. African Development Bank and others often tender out for management services and KfW with its Cairo office in operation is often selected as Fund Administrator. EU. The public sector is divided and uncertain whether they can simply join forces with a Dutch commercial company. While it is true that ordinary short term commercial credit is hard to come by in Post-revolution Egypt. 11 . as letters of credit just require too much paperwork. Some consultants are shifting focus to countries like Kazakhstan. promote Dutch business.

Respondents believe that here is a proactive support role for Water Mondiaal. the Dutch Cabinet has announced its intentions to support the Arab Spring region to help with sustainable transition to: The Dutch have been supporting several programs in water management for Egyptian farmers since the 1980’s.6 What Holland BV thinks about Den Haag In the interviews in the Netherlands. Such support could include the provision and explanation of information about “how to do the business”. the sector sees bureaucracy and local business culture as the main obstacles to good business. religious freedom and protection for minorities.Collective actions expected from Water Mondiaal 78% 56% 44% 41% 38% 34% Pilot projects Seminars in Egypt Outgoing trade missions Collective in conferences Incoming trade missions Holland Water Branding On the Egypt side of doing business. Restoration of the Rule of Law and protection of Human rights.e. During the time of the interviews in April . . i. with particular emphasis on gender equality. the official Dutch reaction to Egypt’s “Arab Spring” was a common topic. Since. 12 . 3. the respondents generally felt that the Den Haag government did not take Egypt seriously enough as they had not seen any Minister or departmental DG take action.May 2011.Democracy: particularly fair and free elections. NWP. mediation between parties ( both Dutch joint actions and Dutch to Egyptian deals) to foster better understanding and help in negotiating sustainable win-win terms of engagement and in matchmaking to strengthen the quality of the Dutch participant(s) offering.

Details for 2012 and beyond are being worked out. we are trusted. Nonetheless. Everybody appreciates the need to economise and that development aid subsidies and grants are on the way out. Selling hardware without the facilitation of a Dutch consultant is going to be harder. Unsurprisingly. Some respondents were quite outspoken: “they cannot expect us (the private sector) to do their work and do so with less funding and support and still show equal commitment to this market” and “ it has taken us years to build a good relationship with the Egyptian Ministries.Economic growth.. including the promotion of employment opportunities. Respondents were particularly vocal in what they perceived as a dearth of transition facilitation and suggested that a phased move towards the private sector taking on more of such tasks was the more prudent move. through (re)building infrastructure.7 million has been reprioritised for the Arab region from within existing programs. the days of free flowing ODA14 moneys are over and the consequences of reduced funding for development cooperation with Egypt are perceived as worrisome by Dutch Consultancy Firms and other knowledge “ownersellers” who will get less to do. In order to enable swift project execution during the remainder of 2011. a new bilateral program shall be created through which the Netherlands can contribute in specific and focused ways to support the development of the region. In addition to the already substantial amounts that the Netherlands provides through existing bilateral and multilateral channels. an amount of €7. GoE15 has a firm policy that “soft” consulting services are never paid out of loans and the cultivated culture of “know-how and consultancy are expected to be paid by the donor nation” is hard to break. Are they (the Dutch Government) going to let it all slip away?” 14 15 Overseas development assistance Government of Egypt 13 . the Dutch private sector was less accepting in the suggestion that its role must become more proactive and come to include market making activities presently performed or financed by the Dutch public sector.

President Mubarak threatened to send the Army to Ethiopia to protect Egypt’s “water rights”. Pressure is mounting on the supply side.1 Water issues Water in Egypt is no longer something that is “just there”. rainfall and groundwater) per annum for 84 million people or an annual 714m3 for each Egyptian.(incl. negated by much higher run-off. Eritrea are united in their demands for more water with Sudan. the Nile riparian countries17 are no longer satisfied with an age old colonial treaty and want more of the river as it runs through their countries. more precipitation.5 billion cubic meter (Bcm) per year19.4. Burundi. Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). a helicopter view 4. on the fence. 19 What bodes well however. After 5. Egypt and Sudan do not want to sign) till Egypt has a new elected government and contracting giant Arab Contractors. Water in Egypt. Climate Change on both ends of Egypt’s water balance threatens with less precipitation in the African Highlands18 and a rising Mediterranean.000m3 water poverty threshold with a gross supply of under 60 Bcm –billion cubic meters. Ethiopia.000 years of unlimited consumption and careless use. Where a year ago.. the post revolution government has restored the dialogue. politically otherwise occupied. has offered they can build the new dam for Ethiopia. 14 . The Nile and its riparian countries 16 Egypt has dropped significantly below the 1. Kenya. along with the public diplomacy mission. is the changed tone of the negotiations. Tanzania. Ethiopia has agreed to delay ratification of a new Nile Treaty (upstream countries only. Whatever happens in negotiations in Addis Abeba. More rain in Ethiopia does not benefit the Nile very much. 17 Rwanda. the Nile is no longer big enough for the world’s oldest civilisation16. Uganda. 18 Strictly speaking. it is unlikely that Egypt will get more water than its current allotment of 55. at least to generate electric power.

fast industrialisation20 and the demanding role – over 80% of all available water..8% p/a has put today’s population at 87 million and counting. Egypt's 329 major factories continue to discharge as much as 2.5 million m3/day of untreated effluent into its water.pdf 15 .of agriculture.eg/Upload/Documents/28/EN/Desalination_technology_Roadmap%5B1%5D.idsc.gov. The Nile Water Balance.” http://www. all make clean water an increasingly scarce commodity. relentless population growth – a dropping. widespread water pollution caused in equal measure by uncontrolled urbanisation. little room for play (NWRP 2017) 20 The Cabinet’s Information and Decision Support Centre stated in 2007: “Around 80% of the whole country's annual industrial effluent is discharged untreated into the Nile and its waterways.On the demand side. but still solid 1.

Presently. 26 23 May 2011 by OOSKAnews Correspondent. a document produced with considerable Dutch22 input. less than 50% of Egyptian households are connected to a sewerage system and WWTP. 24 For example.Egypt’s National Water Resources Plan 201721. simply to have enough for irrigation. requiring treatment to strict quality levels before allowing a license. Curtailing industrial pollution poses issues of enforcement. outlines a future strategy: Water management and use (demand management) Quantity and quality of water supply (supply management) Role of different water institutions (internal co-operation) Level of co-operation between Nile Basin Countries (external cooperation) This translates in a variety of actions. however. While the NWRC27 and EEAA28 report positive results cleaning up the State owned factories along the Nile. UNESCO-IHE and Iwaco (now Royal Haskoning) 23 A simplification. this is the main challenge. this does not cover all government owned production units. Euroconsult (now Euroconsult-Mott MacDonald). MALR and EEAA) action lags behind and sewage is dumped in the nearest waterway. lifting stations and drainage drains is there. While a spirited argument finds its proponents and opponents in the Ministries involved (MWRI. Reuse has scope: the geography and the basic infrastructure of irrigation canals. Egypt Allocates $12 Million USD to Treat Wastewater Dumped in the Nile. Egypt’s National Authority for Drinking Water and Sanitation has allocated $12 million USD for a project to redirect wastewater dumped into the Nile in Aswan governorate to a forest in al Allaqi Valley. Agricultural irrigation uses over 80% of all available water. Improving coverage and quality is a national imperative. and several improvement projects24 are in work.deltares. but it is a fact that potable water plants in the Delta use intake water that did go through farms in Upper Egypt and it is true that agriculture must drastically increase re-use of water. one must remember Egypt’s unique geography. Reducing and preventing water pollution by urban wastewater. that not many WWTP actually reach such quality levels26 and the Nile. cement. 25 Many Egyptian professionals in believe that current regulations are too demanding and make for investments in equipment that are out of reach for both public and private sector. untreated. reducing evaporation and providing a more equitable allocation of available water. MHUDD. the IIIMP project described below. It appears. - - 21 22 http://www. 27 National Water Research Centre 28 Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency 16 . A digest: Using the same water multiple times for irrigation. of course.nl/en/expertise/101129/integrated-water-resources-management/1078289 Delft Hydralics (now Deltares) Arcadis. many of which are serious polluters (steel. Local laws on returning treated effluent to the Nile system are tight25. where nearly each drop of water comes from the Nile and eventually flows back to the Nile23. To appreciate the Plan. Alterra. shows increasing levels of pathogenic contamination. in its flow northwards. but the net effect on the fields will depend as much on the quality of the water. Simple as it sounds. many of them potentially offering opportunities for Dutch providers of know-how and technology. but provides only a little more than 60% of Egypt’s food needs.

To alleviate this and to provide farmland to feed a growing population. 32 Reverse Osmosis. Making people pay for a resource (albeit through the backdoor euphemism of service fees) that used to be provided free of charge will be a lengthy and politically difficult process. Interview at NWRC 31 Low or unreliable water pressure encourages people to hoard water. taste and smell are often not up to par and complaints are common31. a density of 1. Developing new sources of water through seawater and brackish water desalination. while the apparent majority of private sector factories have taken advantage of the corruption so prevalent under the prerevolution regime in avoiding any form of waste treatment. given Egypt's deeply rooted concept of viewing water as a basic human right.03Bm3. MSF. often in open containers which quickly become a breeding ground for all forms of micro organisms. 95% of the population lives on 5% of the available land. many farmers are typically unaware of the water problems the country faces and continue field irrigation practices that waste enormous amounts of water. Multi Effect Distillation. undoubtedly connected to subsidised prices and low levels of application knowledge. With current installed desalination capacity of just 0. Improving the quality and service quality of potable water delivery. Improving water storage from flash floods and seasonal rain using a.fertilisers. In pre-Revolution Egypt. At present. MED and CSP32. the economics of desalination are increasingly attractive33. Egypt has a long way to go but as unit costs from large seawater RO plants are now falling below US$ 0. partially through awareness campaigns. we will assist in circulation to interested parties. 29 Given the choice of being fined for dumping effluent without any treatment or being fined for dumping water treated. 17 . Much depends on future development of technology such as RO. Developing deep groundwater sources.000 people / sqkm in the Nile Valley to over 3. 30 Although evaporation rates are high in flash flood fields.40/m3. there is high hope that law enforcement in water pollution will improve. including those with brackish water. salinisation of the land reaches worrisome levels only in the coastal regions of the Delta. artificial aquifer recharge.29 Agriculture produces its own kind of water pollution with pesticides and fertilisers in surface runoff30. Advocating rational use of water among all users. it was common to pay environmental and industrial inspectors to “go away”. Multi Stage Flash . to expand the existing oasis communities and to unlock the potential of the “New Valley” (Toshka and East Owaynat) and the North Sinai. Once this has been published. water pressure. While Egypt has nominal piped water coverage of 99% of all households and though Egyptian tap water is generally safe to drink. As rampant corruption was one of the main reasons for the fall of the old regime. partially by increasing service fees.000 in the big cities. All these new communities and farms will need water. “horizontal expansion” is scheduled to extend the Delta East and West.o. Expectations that this will result in actual savings that count are not high. industry owners often believe that investment in wastewater treatment is wasted money. but not to the high legal standard. - - - - Closely connected to these planned actions is the horizontal expansion of Egypt’s liveable surface. Undermining the efficiency through re-use at the resource level. tannery). often at the expense of downstream neighbours who receive no water at all. Concentrated Solar Power 33 MWRI and the HCWW are presently working on a desalination technology line-up and development roadmap.

Egypt; horizontal expansion to create more living and growing space (NWRP 2017)

Since the publication of the NWRP in 2005, aggressive implementation has taken place, dynamically reacting to changing circumstances, not least because the population level forecast for 2017 was reached this year. The approach to domestic waste water treatment, outside the mega-cities, now tends to focus on smaller clusters served by a single plant and potable water action has moved from basic supply to delivering quality. Post-revolution, proposals on cost recovery, making users pay, are again on the political agenda, but success is highly speculative. Nonetheless, the essence of the plan stands and provides a detailed and thoughtful action guide.

18

4.2

The Egyptian Public Water Sector; organisation

Water in Egypt is the responsibility of several Ministries, sometimes with overlapping responsibilities and conflicting priorities. Since the revolution, however, collaboration between the Ministries is said to have improved at many levels and a true integrated management approach to water in Egypt has come much closer. MWRI, the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation34 carries responsibility for the Nile, the Delta and the main irrigation canals and drains in addition to the development and conservation of non-traditional sources of water, such as deep groundwater, desalination and the re-use of water. The Ministry operates through a dozen departments, each with a matching research organisation. As the ultimate guardian of the Nile, MWRI makes the rules of what Nile water can be used for35 and the requirements for water returned to the Nile, the latter concurrent with MSEA.

-

MHUUD, the Ministry of Housing, Utilities and Urban Development36 carries the responsibility for potable water treatment and distribution as well as the collection and treatment of urban fluid waste (W&WW). Today, as several improvement and expansion projects have come online, 99% of the population has access to tap water, but only 60% of urban residents and 30% of rural settlements are connected to a sewage system. Continuous development, often with multi-lateral foreign aid makes the public W&WW sector the largest buyer of equipment and services. Traditionally the remit of the Governorates, water supply was drastically reorganised in 2004 with the establishment of the Holding company for

-

34 35

http://www.mwri.gov.eg/En/index.htm For example, fishfarming, a very common secondary income for farmers can only use drain water after it has been for irrigation; first use is prohibited 36 http://www.moh.gov.eg/en/en_design/Default_en.aspx

19

Water and Wastewater37, HCWW, a public owned, private company now holding 24 Affiliate Companies38, each slanted to work more and more as a commercial utility.39 Increasingly, HCWW and the AC’s are to perform all tasks in development, design, building and operating both the distribution and the treatment plants40. A holdover from the pre-2004 is NOPWASD41, effectively the building arm of the ministry for water and sanitation projects which plans investments, procures works and supervises the execution of works. NOPWASD has a reputation for delays and cost overruns, low quality delivery and limited transparency and is nowadays not always involved in new projects42. As the technology and organisation of W&WW services for the megacities43 differ considerably from those deployed in the Governorates, CAPWO44 was created as a similar building arm for the much larger user base of the big cities. Both CAPWO and NOPWASD execute works by planning priority.45 The Egyptian Water Regulatory Authority (EWRA) is as economic regulator responsible for water service pricing and consumer protection.

-

-

-

The Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation46 (MALR). With farmers the largest water users, the Ministry focuses on improving the efficiency of water use, curtailing pollution by pesticides and the development, by irrigation, of new farm land. More on this below.

37 38

http://www.hcww.com.eg/En/Default.aspx All Governorate water departments will be AC’s under HCWW once the new Qaliubeya W&WW Affiliate Company takes over from the Qaliubeya Governorate, later this year. One exception; the Canal Cities, Port Said, Ismailia and Suez, where the Governorates continue to run the W&WW sector, partially, to retain the right to revenue from water sales to ships traversing the Suez Canal. 39 See Chapter 11.1.2 for a list of all AC’s 40 A caveat. With the Revolution, many “privatization” initiatives have stopped or been delayed. It is uncertain at this stage to what extent and when the Affiliate Companies will receive such independence. 41 National Organisation for Potable Water and Sanitary Drainage 42 WorldBank financed ISSIP I is executed by NOPWASD, but the follow-up program IWSP is handled with direct contacts between Fund manager KfW and HCWW 43 Greater Cairo, Alexandria 44 Construction Authority Potable Water & WasteWater 45 For the definition of priorities and the methods used in prioritising, see NWRP Annex B7 46 http://www.agr-egypt.gov.eg/En_Default.aspx

20

See Footnote 26 21 . a condition that requires tertiary treatment and is hard to meet by most WWTP. Substantial amounts of treated waste water are dumped in the desert. often below standard. in a BOT47 model. The Ministry of Health and Population49 (MoHP) sets standards for drinking water and performs quality checks. The Ministry of State of the Environment50 (MSEA) sets standards to control pollution which include effluent norms. for large projects. Some of the more important practical constraints on change in water: Egypt’s population continues to grow with 1. mainly in the “new” towns. forcing infrastructure development into a catch-up race. - - - 4.gov.mohp. experiments with democracy and the popular desire to be heard will undoubtedly make for a difficult and often lengthy decision and implementation process. both as large consumers of water and in the construction and operation of W&WWTP both for their own use and as general contractor to the civilian sector.pppcentralunit. Coupled with an increasing urban migration. pressure concentrates on already overburdened mega-systems. from capacity and quality definition. Transfer.eg/English/main/about.eeaa. Water returned to the Nile must be of good quality51.eg/default.aspx 50 http://www. but limited resources and the current security vacuum make this an uphill task.52 MSEA and its executive agency EEAA are responsible to perform checks on public and private organisation to ensure compliance. but equally large quantities are returned to the Nile. The PPP Central Unit48 (PPPCU) manages the entire life of such projects.gov. Operate.gov. to tender and building supervision to operation with a tenor of up to 20 years. 47 48 Build.eg/pppcusite/content/home/default 49 http://www. http://www.3 Constraints and concerns Changing things in Egypt is no easy task as successive Egyptian governments have experienced and in the new Egypt.mof. where it evaporates. 52 Raw urban and industrial sewage is dumped in the Nile without any treatment.- The Ministry of Finance has become a recent participant in the WWTP construction development with the introduction of Public Private Partnerships (PPP) as a mode to obtain private sector finance.asp 51 See Chapter 10 for chemistry details. The Ministries of Defence and Military Production are active.3 million people/year. A less known government party to the Egyptian Water scene is the Army. both urban and industrial. See the Chapter 9 for an overview of Legislation on water pollution and chemistry details.

let alone depreciation.lands where flood irrigation is the norm. it has also encouraged enormous waste of scarce resources such as water. Smaller also means increasing levels of delegation and the need to empower people at lower levels and locations away from Cairo Centre. cooking gas. several mould breaking constructions are thought up. HCWWW provides the pipes and the heavy equipment. At HCWW. To achieve the same for households will take substantial political will. - - 53 To avoid misunderstandings. with industry gradually paying higher prices. a sewerage system. any form of pollution weakens the overall system with lower agricultural yields the final price to pay. also prevents the Water and Wastewater (W&WW) utilities to cover operational costs. petrol and much more. for example. which in any event amounts to not more than 8% of gross supply. this repeated use does not include potable water. Quantity and Quality issues ( NWRC 2011) - Egypt’s state controlled economy. is going to be very challenging. Soviet inspired from the days of President Nasser. though. particularly the small farmers who till most of the old –Valley and Delta. There are regular calls. however. This represents a major cultural shift and Egypt’s state managers struggle for a modus operandi54. Egypt is a big country and has a tradition of big solutions for big problems. At the consumer level. Making people aware of the need to handle water with care. keeping Nile and Nile canal water at a cleanliness level that enables irrigation of all crops is hard enough 54 There are. 22 . electricity. most encouraging exceptions. the community provides the labour to dig trenches and lay the network. shifting cost patterns and the realisation that the big State apparatus is not the best of managers. This shortens the wait and reduces the cost while growing genuine community ownership of necessary services. Technological development. including an idea for small communities to contribute in kind to the building of. Nevertheless. domestic and international (IMF) to reduce subsidies. While this is essential for the 20-30% of Egypt that must survive on or below the international poverty threshold. bread. but this proves politically extremely unpopular. There is improvement. are all driving towards smaller scale projects with shorter development time and a less vulnerable downside. still provides many basic needs for free or with hefty subsidies. which keeps water tariffs low. The difficulty in reducing subsidies. turns a quantity pursuit into a quality assurance exercise.- The unique hydro-geography of Egypt and the Nile where most water comes from the Nile and flows back to the Nile for repeated use53. this includes water. It matters little who pollutes and how.

Unsurprisingly.replaces much of the original equipment often long before its –objective. a growing conviction among Egyptian senior and middle management that workers are not worth higher wages or the investment in training.economic lifespan has expired. any investment turns inevitably expensive. by any standard. this results in new installations quickly falling to lower and lower operating yields and degradation of all equipment. - 4. Guessing as to what is to come is pointless. Often.- Another legacy is the separation of investment and operation. while qualified and experienced staff continues to look for better jobs in the Arab Gulf and to a smaller extent in the local private sector. Unemployment stands at over 20% with the bulk in the age group 18-28 56 IMD Business school publication 23 . With such short lived returns. this has negatively affected work standards. The price ticket approach also means that many technology decisions in the Egyptian water world are often entirely short term price based. his sons and the ex-Minister of Interior are proceeding. Training expense for state workers needs to be subsidised or externally funded. with. most worrying.4 25th January Revolution and the Arab spring The Egyptian government apparatus that we will do business with in future will be different from those of the past with improved transparency and accountability. Many investment decisions are still determined by the cost to buy and less by the cost to own. Wages for state workers are low. the trials of the deposed President. and hopefully improved efficiency to give the Egyptian taxpayer better value. At the time of publication of this Study. and many of those who have a job55 try hard to moonlight in an effort to make a workable family income. This continues till a major upgrade – another investment. Presidential and parliamentary elections are planned for October and November Building a new Egypt There have been much publicised arrests of ex-Ministers and high profile businessmen and of some members of the security forces who had resorted to extreme violence before or during the Revolution. Operational maintenance budgets in the State sector are typically small as are budgets for training and paying quality staff. but some background and understanding of the functioning of a bureaucracy that provides one third56 of the total population with their primary income will help to understand event as Egypt moves to a new future! Egypt in transition is ruled by the Army and an appointed Cabinet of new Ministers.

The organisation has changed little. State Security Investigation Service (SSIS) alleged to be responsible for many cases of random arrest. While an informal poll last year put support for a sharia58 based. often by veterans from inside the Ministries or the many parallel research organisations. This certainly has a paralysing effect on daily business. when telling us that Egypt is on the brink of bankruptcy? It is true that the Egyptian economy has severely contracted since the 25 January revolution. Are the media correct. the “National Security Sector” appears to employ many of the same individuals. 58 The code of conduct or religious law of Islam 59 http://en. But. The more relevant question for a business opportunity scan is how the economy will perform after what is fast becoming a 6-months hiatus. At heart. it is uncertain if a single dominating power will emerge. permits take long to issue. there are over 70 political parties registered and while not all will be able to present candidates for either election and mergers and coalitions can be expected. shooting to kill protesters during the 25 January Revolution. imprisonment without charge. there is a degree of – arguably exaggerated. A look at the numbers: 57 Officially. like everybody else hard hit in their income over the last months.com/2011/04/26/world/middleeast/26poll.com/poll-egypt-optimistic-worried-jobs. This organisation has been dissolved.Furthermore. many of the top civil servants are new to their position. Muslim state near 40%. although several plans are on the way to introduce transparency and accountability. but Egypt is a big country.html and http://www. the majority of these civil servants. banks do not lend. using the same Laws and Directives. though well experienced in the work they need to do.islamstory. speculative. several heads of government departments have been sent on leaves of absence and have been replaced. torture and lately. Egypt is conservative and despite the promise of the Revolution. with a big economy and has weathered worse in the past. Many civil servants in positions where routine decisions must be made are hesitant to do that part of their job for attracting mob criticism and maybe even arrest. Brotherhood run. yearn for “business as usual”. indeed.html?_r=1&ref=pewresearchcenter 24 . All in all. this should abate.fear of setting a foot wrong. Amongst them.nytimes. but its replacement organisation. For now. The big exception is of course the Investigative arm of the Ministry of Interior where all staff has been sent home57. much of the routine government work has to be done by the same people. Elections in the last quarter of this year will decide the new President and Parliament and speculation in this fast evolving spectrum of new free political life is. recent Gallup and PEW 59 polls put this in the 15% to 18% range. when a newly elected President will show the direction Egypt is going to follow. property is not transferred. Today.

Egypt’s GDP in 2010 was just over US500 billion; source http://www.economist.com/node/16564172

- Government revenue, taxes and fees are down, a lot, and this is widening a current account balance already in the red. As these smaller income numbers reflect collection problems more than anything else, this is not structural. Expect a current budget deficit slightly higher than the 9% of GDP last year. For a country that came back from a 20% deficit in the ‘80’s this is not good but neither dramatic and help is at hand60. 61 - Inflation has been hovering in the 10+% range for the last 5 years, driven mainly by increasing global food and fuel prices, so the current 12% is not out of line and, again, not caused by the Revolution. - Public –mainly international- debt has been a fact of Egyptian treasury life since President Sadat started borrowing at a big scale and the current level of 85% of GDP (some say even more) has little to do with the Revolution. With a good part of the debt denominated in Egyptian Pounds – a good achievement of the previous regime- foreign debt in dollar terms has been fairly constant over the last years and debt service has been manageable. Nothing indicates at this moment that Egypt is going to default on any of these loans and the recent IMF standby facility of $ 3 billion is a good illustration of Egypt’s international investment importance. Moody’s downgrade of Egypt’s

60

A back of the envelope calculation shows substantial budget support and FDI for the next 3 years World bank: $4.5 billion over the next 24 months, 50% in development projects Islamic Development Bank : $2.5 billion in development projects to support the economy Saudi Arabia: $4 billion IMF: $3 billion stand-by facility (refused by Egypt) Qatar: promises to invest as much as @ 10 billion in several projects US: guarantee on $1 billion of Egyptian Eurobonds 61 At the time of finalizing this document, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces which effectively rules Egypt today has objected to loans “with conditions” and ordered the cabinet to refuse IMF and possibly World Bank help. Concurrently, the growing suspicion that US help is meant to perpetuate the cozy relationship of the Mubarak period may cause US help to be refused as well. With all the popular promises made over the last months; minimum wage, pensions, backpay and more, a larger budget deficit seems inevitable.

25

sovereign debt62 is a reflection more of uncertainty than of direction, something that the elections are likely to settle. - Foreign currency reserves have taken a near 25% hit with the Central Bank propping up weakness caused by capital flight and market nerves. Despite these efforts –the Pound has lost surprisingly little against the dollar- a longer term lower exchange rate seems inevitable and will drive up import prices. - On the credit side, some trusted earners have remained stable, the Suez Canal is up, even; overseas workers’ remittances still stand at an estimated LE 8 billion, the Libyan troubles notwithstanding. Tourism is hard hit, but no worse than after the Luxor massacre. So, as hard as the Revolution has hit the economy; the fundamentals (employment -insufficient as it is-, factory production and public utilities) remain intact. We can expect the Egyptian economy to rebound once the political future is less uncertain.

62

Moody's cut Egypt's sovereign debt rating on March 16, 2011 to Ba3 from Ba2, and kept the ratings outlook at negative, saying uncertainty about the country's transition to stable government was having an adverse impact on its fiscal position and broader economic performance.

26

4.5

Where to: the Egyptian economy

Growth, absolute growth enjoined with job massive creation, is the way forward and despite certain weaknesses, the Egyptian economy has the fundamentals to emerge from the current turmoil as a stronger producer and service provider, ready to take on global competition. Such growth will also provide opportunities for the Dutch Water Sector, to help build the domestic infrastructure and as a partner in exports. Such growth will not come from the same old reliable income earners. The Suez Canal will remain vital to the world economy, but crossing rates are closely linked to the opportunity cost of volatile crude oil prices which fuel interest in both the “Cape” route and the new Arctic alternative. Similarly, remittances from overseas workers may well have hit a ceiling as Arab countries, the long time destination of Egyptian skilled workers, begin to take action to reduce their own levels of unemployment. Oil and gas has never been a major export earner for Egypt with imports nearly equalling exports. Even renegotiating the Camp David inspired gas deal with Israel is not going to substantially add to any bottom line. Absolute growth will have to come from advancing up the value chain, adding product quality, supply chain strength, branding and originality to engage global markets.
“Egypt’s textile business is making T-shirts for Wallmart or Zara. We produce them both, but one sells for $3, the other for $30. For us in Egypt, we do not share in the added value of high quality and a strong brand. To grow, we must work to give meaning to the Egypt brand, encouraging our young designers, building brand value supported by a true value chain adding value every step of the way.” CEO of a well known Textile Group

Tourism can be the immediate beneficiary of such thinking. Presently, Egypt sells discounted holiday packages to its Red Sea destinations in low spend markets like Russia. This may boost arrivals, but does little for the bottom-line of an industry that has almost no repeat customers63. Improving the customer experience, commanding higher unit prices and selling to the same customer again and again is textbook Value Chain Improvement and will benefit tourism workers as well as the country. Real growth in the tourism industry feeds back directly in the W&WW business, particularly desalination. Agriculture, already an export stronghold, can equally benefit. While Egyptian fellahin64 are world-class in getting the most from each feddan65 under cultivation, crops do not always reach consumers in good shape. As much as 40% of crop yield is damaged or destroyed post harvest, in domestic transport. In contrast to the high yield per feddan, the Egyptian use of agriculture water per feddan is high, too high. Agriculture uses 80% of all available water in Egypt and even a small reduction in use makes a big difference on the national scale.
63 64

Egypt counts 1-2% repeat arrivals. Compare Spain with 60+% Farmers 65 1 feddan = 0.42 ha or 4200 m²

27

to provide leverage for a stock market with an appetite for risk and of course for the PPP projects. while this leads to considerable enthusiasm for efficiency drives like “LEAN”. Adopting the credo that “good quality is cheaper to produce”. Even the local capital markets will benefit from improved value chain thinking. is in a similar position. in London. including the food processing industry. 5-year maturity denominated in LE. 66 2007. to finance government debt. However. Other than a –fairly small. Unleashing the enormous liquidity of the local banks will put much needed capital in the local investment scenery. input cost and clean-up costs. domestic savings have nowhere to go but abroad. reducing inputs (like water and water pollutants) and tightening processes will reduce production variability. payable in US$ 28 .equity market. but also more acceptable to ecologically critical markets like the EU.Agricultural Crop Efficiency leads to water efficiency. Courtesy Prof Dr Ramzy Stino. on the ground implementation invariably lags. GoE has issued Government Bonds only once66 and never at home. leading to a product quality that is not only constant. Eurobonds @ LE 6 billion. Cairo University Industry.

5. segmentation Water is of vital importance in Egypt and water business is everywhere. we have segmented the Egyptian market based on product needs. Dutch consultants. More to the point. we do not know of any Dutch companies who desire to operate as main contractor in Egypt. 67 Government of Egypt 29 . some were enabled through bilateral funding programs. Contracting work in Egypt is typically awarded to local general contractors. where funds come from and how best to approach each segment as a foreign supplier of consultancy services or physical product. Housing Utilities and Agriculture Irrigation. sources of funding and decision making processes. what risks he incurs in such a deal and how best to direct his marketing and sales efforts. influencers. While the overall political and economical situation matters a great deal to the general business climate. often the importer of foreign components. Our segmentation is therefore always seen from the perspective of the Dutch subcontractor or equipment supplier. champions and decision makers. GoE67 is by far the biggest buyer and our segmentation roughly follows the triad of Water Resources. how to identify gatekeepers. as if to “create demand” and will need to engage in creative financing. Part of such activities were an extension from APP deliberations. We identify each segment by a “product – market” shorthand. waterschappen and knowledge institutes have a long tradition of quality work in Egypt: conducting ground breaking studies. What is expected to change is that consultants and other knowledge providers will have do more pro-active work. each time detailing how demand is formed. the individual Dutch exporter will be more concerned knowing if and how his customer’s project is funded. end-use. often in a consortium or subcon relationship with an electrical mechanical (E&M) specialist. For clarity and to position marketing efforts in distinct and reasonably homogeneous groups of customers. providing an unbiased technical viewpoint or raising operating and quality standards with training and many different forms of joint-work with Egyptian Ministries and water companies. foreign companies venturing out in Egypt will find it hard to be successful on their own. Egyptian market. As set out in detail below. The demand for such know-how based services is there: it may actually have increased as demographic pressure on the water system mounts. such as linking a study to contracting work for physical facilities. Each exporter will thus have his own unique outlook and level of engagement.

the annual market survey published by GWI still provides an authoritative overview: With permission: reproduced from Global Water Market 2011 by the publishers of GWI “Global Water Intelligence”.Although researched and published before the Revolution. 30 .

Dutch consultants provided follow-up to these initiatives with detailed studies. water from the new urban communities in what used to be desert. coastal erosion and flooding risks. such comfortable contracts opportunities may no longer occur that often. SEGMENT FUNDING BUYERS STUDIES & SERVICES IN WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Consulting Services to Government institutions Grant Donors. initially to assist in agricultural drainage necessitated by the Aswan High Dam completion.5. A random selection of stated needs. - - 31 .1. possibly treated. an apparent waste. JICA and several other countries continues and may even be increased as several “Arab Spring” support packages come into force. has contributed substantially to a wide range of technical and policy issues. Funding through multilateral sources such as the World Bank. This covers topics as diverse as aquaculture in the Northern lakes. HCWW WB. beach restoration) for the Mediterranean coast. In parallel. This comes at a time when the need for such international studies is high and diverse in Egypt. Dutch firms will compete exclusively on merit in an international market. Finding better solutions for used. EU. Bi / Multilateral MWRI. Egypt does not borrow funds for payment of “soft” consulting services. In many cases. particularly in the light of changing climate conditions. effectively providing consultants to act the role of Ministry specialist and local think-tank. MHUUD. dikes. The APP (Egyptian Dutch Advisory Panel on Water Management) is arguably the best example of successful collaboration where long time mutual respect and earned trust enable discussions of sensitive issues enable workable recommendations. AAP INFLUENCERS Even since the days of President Nasr. Presently. Egypt receives multilateral and bilateral support for a wide range of studies to support government policy. dredging.1. KfW. AfDB and bilateral support from USAID. Integrated Master plan for the Mediterranean North Coast in the light of expected reduced upstream precipitation and sea level rise in the Mediterranean. disposal is in the desert. NWRC and Institutes. with changes in Dutch Development Collaboration policy leading to reductions of available bilateral funding. MALR. However. Egyptian–Dutch bilateral cooperation. Note that by Law. the impact on the irrigation and drainage system in the Delta.1 Sector wide 5. a review of soft (water management and pollution abatement) and hard protection options (breakwaters. KfW. External funding for studies must always be in the form of a grant. USAID. the EU and EIB. EIB.

presently has 35 barges operating from Cairo to Alex Damietta and Assiut. 4 New barges measure 100 meters length and have a capacity of 1. because we work with the right local partners from well before the tender is issued and of course because we are price competitive. we compete in international tenders and win. The Nile is arguably the only large river in the world that does not carry substantial cargo loads. the ecological impact. 69 http://web. “It’s the old elementary stuff. Comparable efforts in the recent past are evidence that such services can add true and sustainable value and in present day Cairo. merits of raising clearance of some bridges and other issues. With an allowed draft and lowest bridge clearance. there is a deeply felt need for institutional support and capacity building. tonnage for the other barges is limited to 350Mt or a single layer of TEU’s. - Dutch companies can do well in such competitions. because of our reputation. Many of such diverging opinions come from different Ministries and often result in further reaching disagreements and rivalry. particularly deep aquifers to formulate a legal framework before uncontrolled extraction creates precedents and irreversible depletion.500Mt. MWRI. this can go up to 1200Mt. When already planned bridge improvements are realised. Dutch company Dubarco has advised Nile cargo in the past. NWRC and HCWW. there are differences of opinion on the future of the Nile as a traffic artery. VNG International has been shortlisted in an EU tender for a study on urban WWTP sludge and Royal Haskoning has moved to the next phase in bidding for the Master Plan to rehabilitate Nile Hydraulic Structures. Euro-consult Mott McDonald is the current technical consultant and project manager for IIIMP69. Says Euroconsult’s Wicher Boissevain. If you ensure that each of your projects are run well. Renewed and integrated look at groundwater.worldbank. consequences in an already stressed water balance. While a single private company68 struggles to get a barge network operational. thinking flexibly with your client. an investment by Citadel Capital a. tendered a few years ago by MWRI and KfW. hard facts are valuable both in their own right and as a catalyst for goal-oriented government. you do not need any other form of promotion” Throughout the Public water sector. teams from several Western countries are at work reinforcing 68 Nile Cargo.org/external/projects/main?pagePK=64283627&piPK=73230&theSitePK=40941 &menuPK=228424&Projectid=P073977 32 . Chief Technical Consultant to the IIIMP program.- Improved real time quality data collection on water quality along the course of the Nile. the Nile cargo traffic is still a fraction of what it can be. Objective.o.

Much of this. In this model asset investment is minimal and the involvement of the public instills a sense of ownership of water resources 33 . careful use and water savings. of Deltares. In the new Egypt. And. For example. such efforts are primarily paid by foreign donors. which even after the Revolution is a new form of engagement in which GoE has little experience. Kees Bons. Caveat here is that nearly without exception. 70 71 See Chapter 6. we always have local staff on board to help us "kaaskoppen" see what's really going on. will require a broad level of societal cooperation. approach such from a hardware and real estate angle. Nonetheless.3 During interviews at NWRC 72 Volunteers with access to water courses equipped with sensor and recording equipment use a secure VPN on the public Internet to transmit data to base. a simple “social network” supported by basic hardware can provide direly needed hard facts and help inter departmental understanding with “objective” numbers72.local ministries. many senior Egyptian civil servants with personal experience in the Netherlands retire and make way for younger colleagues who have not visited the Deltaplan and the Afsluitdijk: it will be clear that maintaining contacts is a job that is never finished. new charges. they're our own work and thus adaptable to Egyptian local needs. Arcadis wrote an excellent guideline on “Raising Awareness”. such as water quality information along the entire course of the Nile71. As the current relationships with most experienced Dutch consulting firms are mature and cordial." Data collection and monitoring There may be interesting mini niches for a PPS70 or NGO-like approach in areas with long term import. specialist consultancy in water. but without a current budget. multilateral and more often bilateral. looks back at 20 years successful collaboration with Egypt and MWRI. pollution reduction at source. Irrespective. but we have not yet seen any of their recommendations put into action. GoE organisations. and we see collaborating with our local counterparts as the best way to do top quality work. reduction of subsidies. this is a matter of maintaining contacts. Our APP is a case in point. Presently. engulfed in a culture of centralised control. An APP assignment in 2009." We serve science without a hidden agenda. the NWRC. Public awareness As explained above. the need to involve the population in arresting nationwide squandering. soil and the subsurface. Egypt and the Egyptians will have to make many changes in the way water is handled. where a “Facebook” generation has made it clear that both civic duty and nationwide communication are realities. Our tools and models are not only world-class. data collection. which inevitable makes for big budgets. such tenders are rarely won by strangers and Dutch consultants and water companies are well advised to maintain personal connections with those government institutions they like to service with their expertise. is accepted at Ministerial level and we hope that the Government elected end 2011 will find the political strength to confront these realities.

1. Water quality issues in this context are addressed below.org/countries 34 . . additional. which are recharged semi-continuously by canal and drain seepage and to a smaller extent by losses in the urban and industrial W&WW cycles. NWRC.Groundwater is now recognised as a water resource that must be carefully managed and dedicated legislation is in the works. Desalination Donors. HCWW UNDP. Industry MWRI.2. there is an prospect of technology ownership and technology providers are interested to be involved. 73 http://www.5. EU. Solar and water. sources of water in Egypt and the preferred means to harvest these. DEVELOPMENT Studies. EMWIS USAID 73 INFLUENCERS Several public and private organisations in Egypt work on studies for the introduction of new. Not surprisingly. SEGMENT FUNDING BUYERS NEW WATER RESOURCES STUDIES.emwis. Some 7BcM/yr is pumped from the shallow aquifers of the Nile Valley and Delta. Development – Groundwater.

are often found at depths too deep for profitable extraction and are occasionally saline. All this calls for prudent policy. The Ground Water Resources Institute.2 BCM. an APP commissioned study. these are non-renewable. part of NWRC.Deep Groundwater extraction now amounts to some 1. Although deep ground water deposits in several aquifers run into enormous quantities.appwm.74 . the latter also calls for a range of water treatments amongst which desalination of brackish water can be promising for industrial suppliers. The first two are largely inside the purview of MWRI and may offer opportunities for consulting services. enhancing water security and optimising irregular resources 35 .2 BCM per year and is scheduled to increase to 3.Seawater Desalination is high on GoE’s list of priorities and several policy white papers have been produced comparing the merits of different technologies and assessing the chances that desalination will emerge as the panacea to all water ills. has conducted several studies and expects to continue towards more detail and practicality. intent to preserve quality and stretch profitable use over many years. Managed Artificial Recharge76 and the exploitation of Brackish Deep Ground Water. http://www. HCWW looks at desalination as an important future water source 74 See also “Groundwater Management in Egypt.org/News/NewsDocuments. . The HCWW will soon publish a new MasterPlan for desalination in the Drinkwater Resource planning which assigns an important role to reverse osmosis plants in the coastal areas.aspx?newsId=339704 75 Systematic integration of surface water and groundwater 76 Infrastructure and or modifications to an aquifer allowing intentional recharge with excess water in wet periods.Of immediate interest are the relatively new concepts of Conjunctive use75.

. reverse osmosis. Landscaping irrigation may offer a solution.idsc.A most promising.3.Of side interest is a 2008 document by the Cabinet Support Centre77. not to mention the overall scarcity. interesting partnerships in the K2K area can be pursued. 77 http://www. with many not included in the MHUUD planning. a pressure amplifier in an RO system to recover energy from the brine flow enabling the use of a pump with lower pressure rating.1. lifting stations and pipe networks tendered to contractors every month. is building prototypes and pilots. locks MWRI budget. Considering the difficulty of creating Egyptian owned production capability for membranes. which works in CSP79.multi stage flash distillation 79 Concentrated solar power 36 . the study leans strongly towards the development of solar powered and other forms of desalination.000 km of canals and drains is a continuous operation. MSF.eg/Upload/Documents/28/EN/Desalination_technology_Roadmap%5B1%5D. 5. but is hardly satisfactory considering the high cost of initial purification. experimentation and promotion. MSF78 and several solar driven processes in the light of developing technical self-sustainability through a medium term R&D plan. Egyptian knowledge Institutes have only partially caught up with all these new technologies. lifting stations. with a large number of private and public organisations engaging in developments. barrages. The Egyptian private sector. SEGMENT FUNDING BUYERS INFLUENCERS HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES IN THE NILE AND DISTRIBUTION CANALS Dams. . transportation and treatment after use.gov. which reviews available technologies such as RO. energy-recovery device. Many of the new Cities are a considerable distance from the Nile and the drainage canals.pdf 78 RO. locks. Most such jobs are not suitable for direct tendering by Dutch companies. There is ready EU funding for an educational project that brings solar power and desalination to an Egyptian institute of learning.Solar power and desalination hybrid solutions are attracting much attention.000 people based on 100 litres of drinking water/cap/day. If such is adopted by GoE.000 such communities in Egypt. International donors MWRI Donors Maintaining the world’s longest river over its final 1000km plus 55. so even if treated properly. ERD (as a distinct process). typically with their focus on communities ranging from 2. notably some smaller companies like El Raed.000 to 50. but the digest below illustrates the continuum of opportunities for the supply of technological expertise or equipment as a supplier or subcontractor. but also most challenging issue is to re-use urban waste water presently discharged in the desert. not used to the intricacies of dealing with Egyptian government Employers.ERD. There are an estimated 3. the cost of pumping wastewater to its secondary use may exceed the benefits. with work on barrages.

7. Extension of two water lifting stations (Al Watya & Al Mesaada) & construction of a 300 mm.eg/online_services/tas/ 37 . See the Chapter 10.. Implementing of the main brackish water network to serve Al Yasmin Resort in Sheikh Zayed City. such as modernising the Nile barrages. 80 The American Chambre of Commerce in Egypt provides an excellent – free.200 mm. diameter butter fly valves complete with related fittings on two pipelines Study.. either direct or through an E&M subcontract. 8 and 11 for a list of consultants and the larger contractors and specialised E&M subcontractors and suppliers. who often requires imported components. some in values of several million Euros. design & implementation of sanitary drainage water lifting units at the turbines division & underneath the control room at the location of the first Asswan Dam power station .. . office make regular sales. spare parts for submersible pumps. VAR or even their own rep. including MWRI.. are sometimes co-financed by multilateral donors. Tenders issued by several GoE Institutions. insulation materials & fillers.. Nijhuis Pumps and Duivelaar are good examples.. Note however. Becoming a supplier to this market segment is no adhoc exercise. that such information cannot be a substitute for market presence and a good proactive intelligence gathering operation based on continuous contacts with employers.. for the operation & maintenance of water wells in Southern Sinai. Request of offers for the study. are executed by a local contractor.. diameter . design. Supply & erection of two water lifting units complete with electric motors to consolidate Helwan main sanitary drainage station No..amcham. . Supply of eight submersible water lifting units complete with all related accessories.. as published in the national 80 newspapers average over a dozen each week. Foreign suppliers with a presence in Egypt through an agent.. Supply & erection of five electric driven water lifting pumps complete with related accessories at different canal ends at subordinated locations under 5 contracts.org. Supply & erection of two 1.. supply & erection of safety systems to protect from water hammer along discharge pipelines serving booster pumps at . consultants and contractors. Very large upgrades and those that require a very high level of technical expertise. Supply & erection of a centrifugal water pumps for the brackish water treatment plant on Ismailiya Canal.Supply of standby units for the exhaustion of floods water. 1.tender alert service. Most of these contracts. http://www.

Local contractors. flows from South to the Mediterranean in the North. Irrigation Canals have a dendritic layout.000 farmers and 140.4. 38 . The nomenclature of canals is based on the level of separation from the Nile: The Nile through its 2 branches. Farmers. Branch User Associations are formed at this level to achieve participatory management. mainly in NE and NW directions Branch canals constitute the secondary level. multi lateral funding MWRI. Rosetta and Dumyatt. fanning out over Delta (NWRC 2017) Distinguishing between canals and drains that are managed by MWRI and the Mesqa network that is the remit of farmers and MALR is important. MALR Donors.000 km of drainage canals.level. Today 3 Branch User Associations.mesqa. covering 40.Government Own funds. Irrigation canals lead water partway. the private sector.5.000 km of irrigation canals and a mirrored network of 21. Water for farming is not entirely free anymore. through its Irrigation Authority and the Authority for Drainage Projects (EPADP). maintains a dendritic network of some 35. Research Institutes INFLUENCERS MWRI.000 feddan. take over responsibility for water at the tertiary irrigation. SEGMENT FUNDING BUYERS CANAL AND DRAIN INFRASTRUCTURE Irrigation canals and Drainage canals maintenance . have been established and work next to the District Water Boards.1. as farmers increasingly need to pay directly for part of the services they receive from this mesqa network.

Instead of waiting a month or so for water to drain and farmland to see the sun again. Even smaller ditches within the mesqa are called marwa. with traditional “flood” irrigation the standard in the Old lands – the Nile Valley and the Delta. the Nile no longer flooded once a year covering all lands. nearly all farmland in Egypt is irrigated. the important thing is to be in touch with the general contractors who regularly tender for this kind of work. after which complete rehabilitation is required. With the completion of the Aswan High dam. many people see the agricultural drains. smaller open canals and drains are covered. obviously smaller. For the business opportunity from a Dutch perspective. The mesqa is a level around which a Branch Users Association can be formed. logically connecting to the underground irrigation and drainage pipe network that gradually replaces open channels. A mesqa area has no fixed size but can cover a range from 20 to 100 feddan. and to avoid harmful salinisation. as a free dumping ground for urban waste and building rubble. Egypt’s agricultural drains have a special significance as the bilateral cooperation that started in the ‘70’s focused on the design and building of a drain network. within rules set by MALR. For the Dutch. nearer to the fields where canal and drain size is smaller. This causes numerous through-flow and contamination problems. As discussed in more detail below. by underground pipes. - The drain network.- Mesqa (tertiary level) is where private farmers take over from MWRI. concrete lined channels covered by slabs. follows a layout that broadly mirrors the canals. a period where farming simply stopped. Progressively. 39 . even the canals. this now had to be achieved regularly with manmade means. 81 The natural depressions of Toshka and East Owaynat are located some 300 km west of Lake Nasr. Unfortunately. but now provided water on demand all year long.and drip or bubble irrigation prescribed for New lands – the Eastern and Western Desert reclaimed farms and the “New Valley”81 and Sinai projects. where urbanisation encroaches. Dutch consultants provided the answers and the Egyptian agricultural drain network was born. scope of this document. The larger canals and drains are open waterways with a lifetime of 25-30 years.

presently only for (subsidised) sale to contractors who execute upgrading works for the drainage network. This makes it very hard to measure the amount of water that flows through a canal. Activities around canals and drains are: Institutional and organisational. This will require high level permission as the current production is Samples of drainage pipes at the EPAPD HQ entirely geared to support the local drainage upgrade program. Larger plot sizes and advance irrigation planning will enable a more efficient layout. 82 83 Egyptian Public Authority of Drainage Projects.EPADP82 produces its own PVC drainage pipes in 7 factories around the country. Regular maintenance. One of the common problems is the practice by local contractors to remove all vegetation. The IIIMP program is a good example of a joint GoE and Donor funded programme to upgrade the physical infrastructure and its management. usually twice a year. control of weeds83 and reeds. This includes covering hitherto open canals and replacing smaller canals or drains with underground pipes. Improvements and upgrades. the canal and drain network must grow in proportion.6 million in the next 30 years. - - A substantial part of drainpipe laying equipment in service in Egypt was delivered by Steenbergen Hollanddrain BV. New canals and drains. which weakens canal sides and increases canal width at each cleaning operation. handled to a large extent with waterboards and WUA’s (water user association) to increase the level of participation by farmers in the use and allocation of water and in maintenance. repairs to side walls and the removal of solid waste from canal bottoms. a department of MWRI Grass carp are most effective in control of aquatic weeds and MWRI actively propagate the fish through the drain network. This actually started as a Dutch initiative in the early ‘80’s 40 . roots and all. With a scheduled increase of arable land from 6 million feddan to 8. There is an interest in the Authority to bring these factories and their products to a higher level of efficiency and quality in a joint operation with a foreign partner.

CMRI. - - 5.mwri.eg/En/institutions%20%20Egyptian%20Public%20Authority%20for%20Shore%20Protection. fertilizer is often used indiscriminately. the following areas of opportunity were identified: Methods to improve irrigation efficiency and reduce water consumption. Climate Change studies . Egypt’s coastline has started to erode. Rosetta and Damietta. In Egypt. Donors SPA . where substantial amounts of land have been lost over the years. SEGMENT FUNDING BUYERS COASTAL PROTECTION Coastal protection construction. Methods and ideas to facilitate the conversion of open canals to closed systems and pipe networks Mechanical equipment to maintain and clean canals and drains with minimum damage to the canal structure. rising sea levels is not so much about flooding.html 41 . but more the intrusion of salt water which both pushes the Nile fresh water further inland and raises the groundwater table. Fertiliser used in Egypt is mainly local urea which is sold at subsidized prices which encourages. a succession project to the 1980’s Dutch grass carp project. With the Nile no longer in seasonal flood. Canals are narrow (<10m) and wheeled access is not ideal.htm . With skills levels low and little public education for farmers. 84 This is a complex issue.nwrc-egypt. Biological weed control. Coastal Research Institute http://www.Government MWRI budget. CoRI Donors (Climate Change) 85 INFLUENCERS Coast in Egypt means the entire area from the flood line to as much as 40km inland.gov.1. recovering sediment and improving the water quality released. 85 Shore Protection Agency http://www.org/nwrc/instcorien. NWRC. causing salinisation of what is now productive farmland. pushing tons of sediment through the Deltas and out to the sea.In interviews with MWRI. Doing more with the same water is a top priority Anything to reduce / optimise the use of fertiliser and pesticides at the field level to reduce pollution of run-off to the drains84. A construction program which provided breakers and groins in several threatened locations has arrested the worst. although 10% of Alexandria Governorate is at risk. from large >10M to pipe networks Ø30cm. Medium pressure systems have proven to work best in closed systems Solutions to screen or filter water in the closed drain system.5. EPADP and MALR. particularly around the 2 Nile outlets. Solutions to control and remove side-up and floating aquatic weeds Detection equipment to locate blockage in closed or covered canals.

For example. We see an interesting opportunity for a Dutch specialist to establish a joint-venture like relationship with a local partner. 42 . Meanwhile. Also due for tender later this year is construction work at the Rosetta promontory. A ToR will be released for tender later this year. a process enforced by wave movement forming a very stable dike armour layer. Egypt’s pollution hotspot. These problems are not unconnected and the new Master Plan must take an integrated approach. a robust and easy to install breakwater armour system.However. Alexandria. require immediate attention. the existing Master Plan requires revision to ensure that Egypt’s coast has the answers.xbloc. There are a few local contractors with experience working a seashore. Xblocs “feet” interlock. and what’s left of Lake Mariotta. asking around about Interbeton’s Xbloc86. On positioning. senior staff at SPA and CoRi have visited the Dutch DeltaPlan and praised their relationships with the Delta Alliance and Deltares. Xbloc is an innovative Dutch product Considering that Egypt’s contractors do more and more work in neighbouring countries and the Gulf. As in many areas in Water management in Egypt. but not more than the work that has been done over the last years between Port Said and Matruh. Construction work on Egypt’s shores is still fairly basic and innovative solutions may be employed to gain better protection at lower costs. 86 http://www. we received little recognition. it may be worth a concerted effort to bring Dutch shore technology to a larger market.com/about-xbloc/why-use-the-xbloc Xbloc is a kind of 6-legged crowfoot. with a rising Med. executed in concrete. both to preserve local agriculture and to stop the release of damaging effluent in the sea.

it indicates that the present infrastructure may have some inbuilt slack in capacity.150 150 .2 Urban Water & Wastewater treatment As explained above.5. Meanwhile. Code Number (102)/1. Operation is handled by the Affiliate Companies and constructed. nearly the entire potable water and wastewater infrastructure is the responsibility of Ministry of Housing. While bilateral and multilateral contributions are important. The capacity need calculations above deserve further explanation.280 280 . 87 The Egyptian Code for the basis of design and implementation for pipe networks used in Potable water and Sanitation networks. local experts differ strongly over the validity of these norms and voices are heard saying that designing for 150 to 200 lcd is not only a realistic reflection of the available volume of water.1M More than 1M Average Daily Consumption (lcd) 100 . 88 This is nearly twice the North European average 43 . through the Holding Company.320 350 . Part 1 Chapter 1 section 1-3. Egypt funds over 90 % of its investment and maintenance needs from the national budget. MHUDD and its Departments design urban water use around norms set in the “Building code87” Area Type Village Population Up to 50K 50K-500K Small City Big City New Cities Touristic Villages 500K . resp. and while this is a high. probably unsustainable number.200 200 . The emphasis on foreign funding in the previous chapter may have led to the incorrect impression that Egypt relies on the foreign community for its infrastructure needs. it will also drastically reduce short term investment costs.250 250 . May 2010. modernised and rehabilitated by a number of specialised departmental organisations.400 The urban design norm for urban water use is 250 lcd with actual use in the 200 litre range88. Part 1.

nearly US$ 10 billion.05 / m389 . Implementing the National Water Resources Plan by 2017 is expected to cost US$ 26 billion. paid for by MWRI. Sewerage is charged as a 35% surcharge on top of the water consumption. the plan is well on the way to 50% completion. is now targeted for upgrading and expansion. including foreign aid. 2011. Today.29 / m3 or US$ 0. requiring the central government to make up the operation financial shortfalls in the AC’s. 90 Current production costs excluding depreciation 44 . poor operating standards. Else a fixed charge is imposed based on the size of the dwelling. The last mile. Water is charged (home use) at US$ 0. low or non-existent maintenance and over-capacity operation when part of the plant is out of order for lack of spare parts. has been invested in water supply.Over the last 20 years. or municipal distribution networks. However. which is below operating costs90 . 89 Tariffs are set centrally and are generally the same all over Egypt. most in water purification plants and backbone pipe networks. Domestic use is charged at a basic tariff is LE 0. only 1/3 of the population is connected to sanitary sewers with potentially serious public health consequences.05 in those households where a meter has been installed (still quite low). These financial problems are exacerbated by non revenue water at 34%. MALR and a fair amount of foreign aid. Piped water supply now covers 99% of the population in towns and 90% in rural areas despite the explosive growth of the population. MHUUD.

environmental conditions and water quality in selected drainage basins92. such aid has come to include financing of not only infrastructure and technical assistance but also in promoting sector reform targeting higher levels of cost recovery and more efficient services91. mainly in New Cities. The Netherlands is part of the program as a grantor. The project includes components of institutional development and capacity building. Private sector participation in operating water and sanitation systems has so far been limited to PPP financed and BOT operated projects for large wastewater facilities. Sohag. Assiout. The project is 91 92 USAID for example.Multi lateral and foreign aid has been and still is a necessary support to provide the entire nation with water and sanitation. Menyoufia Governorates 45 . Egypt Governorates Current Donor co-funded Projects are: The Integrated Sanitation and Sewerage Infrastructure Project (ISSIP I) is a US$ 200 million (part) World Bank financed initiative to improve sanitation. Over the years. makes institutional cooperation a condition for the building of infrastructure. Sharqeia. where buyers of expensive housing can be relied on to pay regularly for water and sewage.

The resulting problems with low pressure and water quality reduce the return on the very substantial investments made over the years in purification plants.europa. Damietta and Beheira governorates in the Delta region. Germany through KfW provides technical assistance to the Qena and Kafr El Sheikh W&WW companies Italy. ISSIP II will be jointly carried out by NOPWASD. EIB and AFDB. but there is a pressing need to improve and expand both the purification plants and the piped network in all cities to provide for the growing population and to optimise distribution networks that derive more from ad-hoc expansion works than from a planned design. With the project. partially to direct benefit of Suez Lyonnaise des eaux. Gharbia. technical assistance to Sharqeia W&WW Company - - - o o o The potable water infrastructure may be perceived as completed with 99% of all households connected. Bilateral support programs are many with several countries contributing in different ways to W&WW management in Egypt. The Programme has an investment component for improving the water supply and wastewater services in Sharkia. Fayoum and ISSIP as described above. the Holding Company and 4 AC’s. Alexandria. See also in the section Agriculture: the IIIMP project. Improvements are both a technical and political 93 94 http://wprregypt. legal and regulatory framework for the water and wastewater sector in Egypt and improve the quality and geographic coverage of water and wastewater services. Beheira. IWSP Improved Water and Wastewater Services is an €300 million EU Water Initiative supported by KfW.eu/europeaid/where/neighbourhood/regionalcooperation/irc/investment_en. which covers irrigation improvements in the same region of the Delta. Examples: o o Netherlands.htm 46 . USAID’s WPPR93 (water policy and regulatory reform) which supports MHUUD and EWRA to strengthen the policy. a US$ 200 million follow-on program was approved by the WorldBank in August 2011. APP.2 million citizens in the same governorates are expected to get better access to improved sewerage and sanitation systems. Remedial work is a priority also for public health to stop people from using water from canals which often carries pathogenic contamination. and additional 1. Low service quality is most immediate in mature informal (squatter) districts where nearly 20% of the population lives. ISSIP II. where KfW is the lead donor.com/ http://ec. France supports IWSP and has made major contributions to the Gabel El Asfar WWTP. assistance to Cairo Water. The EU is an increasingly important donor as many European countries shift from direct engagement to the European NIF94 and other programs.presently executed under HCWW and NOPWASD supervision. leak detection equipment. training Japan.

a valuable and urgent discussion is emerging on decentralised WW treatment and the merits and degree of wastewater service clustering. The Nile is the major drinking water source and further downstream. the same acronym tends to be used to describe public-private partnerships where Dutch government and Dutch private sector join hands to achieve a goal. See Chapter 6.3 BCM of untreated wastewater is released in the Nile with self purification reaching its natural limit. built largely with French aid is Egypt’s largest WWTP located to the Northeast of Cairo.1. There is obviously a limit to the number of households served and the maximum distance from polluter to treatment plant and clusters on the table range from 5. Present capacity is 1. A major reason is that only 1/3 of the population is connected to the sewage network and nearly 1.000 to 100.water. 47 . In this study we refer to such Dutch initiatives as PPS. 97 Royal Haskoning is providing the final touches 98 In the Netherlands. quality is often below the minimum standard. PPP only got serious in 2009 with the announcement of the first PPP tenders. through MoF and PPPCU Operating companies. local and hopefully international banks GoE. for the New Cairo suburb WWTP and the West Delta Conservation and Irrigation Rehabilitation Project and with a new PPP Law. The World Bank financed ISSIP II program is a good example of an aid driven improvement programme. Donors INFLUENCERS PPP98 has gone through a rough patch since its inception in Egypt a few years ago.com/waterprojects/?mode=type&id=291914 The Gabel El Asfar WWTP.000 households in size.3. 5.95 Water quality has become a serious problem. new wastewater treatment plants in Egypt tend to fall either in the mega category96 or in smaller clusters with the ideal size a much debated topic. often overseas. with pilots such as the Fayoum UASB97 WWTP providing live examples of lower costs in both investment and O&M costs. The plant discharges through several drains in Lake Manzala 170 km North of Cairo.mottmac. With more than 50% of the required sewage network still to be built. Wastewater management has now moved from last to first place on the MHUUD budget and numerous projects are in hand to build additional treatment capacity and matching sewage networks. and serves a good part of Cairo’s (East of the Nile) population of 12 million inhabitants.2.2 million m3/day and expansion to 2 million m3 is in hand. With technology now offering economies of scale at much smaller volume capacity. 95 96 http://www. Dutch companies can contribute much to this issue. However. that neither could achieve on its own. The concept of off-balance sheet financing in exchange for direct periodical payments by consumers for services provided is not entirely new to Egypt with a limited build-operate-transfer contract for wastewater facilities in Gabal el Asfar and a few other tentative efforts by private companies. Consulting Engineers. SEGMENT FUNDING BUYERS PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS Public Private Partnersships (BOT) WWTP Private sector.imperative.

Senior Associate and PPP expert at Shalakany Law Office All this had. and e) due to the government's policy of restricting payments to EGP. but I will summarize the salient points: a) The government did not have a legal framework at the time and. . the bidders and bankers had to price in these additional risks. was not an ideal example of risk-allocation for arguably any of the parties involved. d) considering all of the issues outlined above.The West Delta Project did not find enough bidders and was withdrawn.PPPCU has announced the resumption of bidding for the Abu Rawash and 6th October City WWTP. Aly Shalakany. but schools. This also contributed to distorting the right risk allocation for this project.99 Law 67 was passed in May 2010. relied on a mish-mash of laws that were not designed for PPP.The New Cairo WWTP is under construction for completion in 2012 . little value as legal precedent as the new Law 48 for PPP’s was only passed in May 2010. In all. foreign legal counsel did not retain top quality local counsel. consequently. this rightly or wrongly restricted financing competition to banks with EGP deposits . New Cairo WWTP. however. a shortlist of bidders has been announced.in consequence.A PPP Central Unit (PPPCU) was established under the Ministry of Finance to manage both the tendering and the execution of PPP projects. The first practical test of the new Law would have been the new tenders for WWTP in 6th October City and Abu Rawash. c) The PPP program itself was under constant scrutiny due to its natural sensitivity (you can't really afford corruption when it comes to infrastructure). b) The government retained foreign legal counsel in order to have a 'brand' name. both on the Western fringes of Greater Cairo. . The New Cairo Sewage Treatment Plant PPP tender attracted several bidders and was won by a Consortium of Orascom and Aqualia of Spain. so many of the decisions made by the PPP CU were politically motivated instead of on sound assessment of the financial. and this lead to a weak understanding of the legal underpinning of the risks involved. and this was mainly done via changes to the risk-allocation. followed by Executive regulations just before the 25 January Revolution. unfortunately. 99 Not just WWTP. the only PPP to achieve financial close to date. just a few PPP projects have been started with mixed results. bigger bargaining power with the banks who were more risk averse and less experienced than their foreign counterparts. There are several reasons for this. technical and legal aspects (this is always a problem when the government does not have any legitimacy). there was a reduced amount of competition. hospitals and tollroads 48 .

49 . and comparing that amount with the one time expenditure of building a similar plant using only local inputs. Shortlisted bidders for Abu Rawash WWTP below: Local Orascom Kharafi (Kuwait but has office in EG) Hassan Allam AAW. it is a vital mechanism for Egypt to improve its infrastructure. LLC Samsung C&T. GE. Whether or not you want (or can afford) to stick to the policy of restricting payments to EGP is debatable.but if you really want to get a better deal for the government for these projects. interest in Egypt’s WWTP PPP’s is global and efforts to sell components or participate in a consortium are best made with the lead companies in their respective countries. taking the sum of 20 future years of tariff payments for amortization and operations in non discounted values. PPP is the only solution available. The ones mostly discussed are creating a proper EGP derivatives market and creating infrastructure debt funds. but will the PPP projects be bankable? As for the PPP program as a whole. Today. coming up with a solution to this problem would be my primary objective.Then the 25 January Revolution took place and with it came a popular suspicion100 that all large private contracts with the government had a bad smell. you have to introduce foreign banks. If I were in the PPP CU right now. Egyptian banks are very liquid (many would say too liquid) . the players are usually in place. despite the mistakes that have been made. When a Consortium announces its intention to bid. Cadaqua Degremont. Miahona Accionagua. I am confident that. Macquarie.Egypt needs to build infrastructure and the public sector cannot afford to do so alone. but there are other solutions for introducing foreign competition. 8 months later. with a replaced management. is a typical case of comparing apples and oranges. the PPPCU. PWT Samsung. Aktor 100 We have met senior officials in different government departments adamant in their conviction that PPP’s were “bad for the country and the people” Of course. has announced that Egypt is back in business. In terms of financing. ICAT. K-Water Hochtief. The fundamentals have not changed . Arab Contractors No local partner Metito No local partner Foreign partners Veolia ( both in Egypt and in Europe) Aqualia Gestion and Aqualia Infra EMIT Water Discharge Technology. Aly Shalakany As the table of recently shortlisted consortia shows.

.101 These works cover the full scala of engineering. 50 . 450 & 315 mm.. Rehabilitation/ replacement of different diameter potable water pipelines (of 225. new. City of Sohag.. Overcoming reported performance defects at 3 surface water filtration station at Al Menshat.. of electric switchboards & cables for those valves. diameter) at different subordinated locations under 3 contracts... to modernisation. at Al Menshat surface water filtration station.. MHUUD –CAPWO Expansion Works Project for Geziret el Dahab Potable Water Plant (150.2.5. to capacity expansion. from simple replacement. of 450 litres/ second discharge.000m3/day). its building companies CAPWO and NOPWASD and the 24 AC’s of the Holding Company. solving productivity problems or improving process quality. Supply of a high pressure single phase horizontal Case-Split type water filtration unit . SEGMENT FUNDING BUYERS MHUUD W&WW – STATE FUNDED INVESTMENTS W&WW treatment and distribution.. the majority of investment and maintenance work on water and water treatment plants and distribution networks is executed in the daily routine off MHUUD.2. General Consultant UTILITIES Company .. 101 Investments have averaged LE 15 billion ( US$ 2..5 -3 billion) annually since 2006.. Electromechanical works contractor : United Metito Companies Overcoming defects contained in notifications . often with an E&M subcontractor. executed by: Hassan Allam Nasr Contractors. electric automatic butter fly valves of 8 inch diameter ... modernisation and maintenance MHUUD funds NOPWASD and CAPWO Local consulting engineers.. a third similar type station in Gerga. local contractors INFLUENCERS While for many people the attention may be focused on the large PPP or multilateral funded projects. Rehabilitation & consolidation of the potable water networks serving . Nida & Gerga.. Maintenance & raising efficiency of two sanitary drainage discharge lines in El Lagoon & El Roada. Most of these works are managed by local consulting engineers and executed by a local general contractor. another similar type station in Nida.

. See the lists in Chapter 11. in Beheira Governorate. Supply of a standby chlorine dozing instrument. sanitary drainage water lifting station at Abu Kesheik Village in Markaz Abu Matamir... Rehabilitation/ replacement of potable water networks ... .. and the Prime Minister as you are Egypt’s dedicated servants... Public utilities . also vertical sanitary drainage water lifting sets at Saad Zaghloul sanitary drainage station..... Specialists in E&M are often direct importers of equipment and selection requires careful homework. 102 In all.. City of Fayyoum . on Egypt’s land.. extension of sanitary drainage networks.. at Mostorod potable water treatment . and can’t protect our children!!” June 2011.... A random selection of tenders published in the last few months Dutch consultants and suppliers who like to participate in such works are advised to form collaboration agreements with local general contractors or supply arrangements with E&M specialists. half naked. in Benha including extending of potable water networks. equipment for the maintenance of sanitary drainage stations.Rehabilitation/ replacement of water pumps & chlorine injection instruments for the Chlorine Dozing Divisions at Al Rooda water treatment plant. and ready to give anything in return. drilling of three artesian wells & equipping them with centrifugal pumps at different water treatment plants in the City.102 Not every settlement or slum has been reached with water supply as demonstrators camping outside the Television building in Cairo want to make clear. major contractor and consultants number about 2 dozen....... “To the ruling Military Council.... we are the citizens of Salam City camp [a slum near Maadi]. we only ask that we don’t live like animals in the streets. Supply & erection of three vertical sludge pumping sets complete with . Revamping of four reciprocating type sludge lifting units .1.1. and asking only for a decent life. Supply & erection of the electromechanical equipment .. local consulting engineering firms should be kept well informed about the merits and achievements of the Dutch process technology or equipment that is offered.7 for details 51 . . In addition.

even their preferred tech supplier.MULTILATERAL AND FOREIGN SPONSORSHIP SEGMENT FUNDING BUYERS INFLUENCERS W&WWTP. which acts as a multiplier in attracting much larger sources of funding which allows the project to gain economies of scale. See Chapter 6 for the several Dutch government incentive plans that can help a Dutch company execute a projects and earn a “successful local pilot” reputation. constructed under the FaPWasd program. old WWTP. As such Projects develop. there will be pressure to source or produce more in Egypt. Sanhour WWTP. NOPWASD. Sooner or later. For example. occasionally an AC Donors. Current examples were provided earlier in this Chapter.5. Most are bundles of GoE co-funding. Such meetings are not announced and have no agenda. Locally proven concept and reputation. the Fayoum. Dutch suppliers who want to be counted in this process will heed the following basics: Presence. a brand or even a simple component without a known and published local history. Dutch companies should reflect if they can support and participate. MHUUD W&WW . Egypt rarely buys a process. 103 There is no absolute without exceptions. started as an upgrade of an existing. loans from different banks at different terms and grants for the ‘soft’ elements. This is not a black and white process and the success of companies like Nijhuis Water illustrates that a subtle give and take of local production vs. there is a near continuum of informal information exchanges. sometimes bilateral donors HCWW.Government Co-funded by GoE and multi-lateral. imports can earn years of contracts. - - Below a digest of the larger WWTP tenders that can be expected in the immediate future104. 104 From GWI Project tracker 52 . This is not an unusual process and can be seen all over the world. would-be participants all have ample chance to propose and promote their preferred technology. As such projects are developed. HCWW Multi lateral funded projects are typically larger in size. are more likely to be greenfield103.2. Flexibility. a process that may take some years. It is not uncommon for such funding projects to start with a fairly modest grant from a single country.3. irrespective of size and source of funding. or at least reasonably independent of existing facilities and come increasingly in a bundle of ‘hard’ infrastructure work and ‘soft’ capacity building and or institutional reform. both in its operational economics and in its service to the community.

000m3 Alexandria General Organisation for Sanitary Drainage International bids to be submitted soon Kafr El Zayat WTP Helwan WWTP Nahia WWTP Rural sanitation services contracts 3 Smaller WWTPs tbc 100 100 tbc Concept paper under way Concept paper under way Under client design MHUUD MHUUD MHUUD Not tendered yet – lower priority 105 Source: MEED Projects 53 .000 population 393 MHUUD 113 Alexandria General Organisation for Sanitary Drainage Take over the 1.000 cm/d 12 new pumps at existing 100.5 million cm/d Expand plant to 3 million m3 5 developers pre-qualified. Alexandria expansion 26.Egypt wastewater projects 2010-2011 Project New Cairo WWTP 6 October WWTP booster plants Alexandria wastewater system expansion Planned Abu Rawash WWTP tbc $ mill 464 Scope 105 Status Under construction by Orasqualia Consortium under PPP Under construction by Orascom and Hassan Allam & Sons Under construction by Alexandria Construction Company Client MHUUD 250.2 million cm/d treatment plant and upgrade it under a PPP New 250.000m3/d to 60.000 cm/d Capacity expansion from 2 million cm/d to 2.000 cm/d treatment works in Agami. invitations to bid due end Nov 2010 8 developers pre-qualified Under client design.000m3/d Capacity upgrade to 1 million cm/d New 200.000 cm/d WWTP in 6 October City Upgrade of the existing Alexandria treatment works to improve quality standards and raise capacity to 680.000 cm/d treatment works with expansion to 500. Prequalification expected first quarter 2011 MHUUD 6 October WWTP Alexandria West WWTP upgrade tbc tbc MHUUD MHUUD Gabal Asfar WWTP upgrade stage II Gabal Asfar WWTP upgrade stage III Agami WWTP 374 Prequalification expected first quarter 2011 MHUUD tbc Procurement process to be launched soon On hold MHUUD 220 145.000 cm/d wastewater treatment works System upgrade including new treatment plant with capacity for 300.000 cm/d treatment plant in Giza Upgrade sanitation and wastewater infrastructure in rural locations total capacity 80.

Official payment takes place at the water tower level while the community sorts itself. presently put together by Toon van Kessel in the Netherlands. SEGMENT FUNDING BUYERS PRIVATE INITIATIVES AND OVERLOOKED AREAS PPP styled private W & WWTP initiatives at small scale Creative ideas required NGO’s. Caveat: this is not formal policy but an indication of what can be productively discussed 107 toonvankessel@hotmail. but there is a new and growing interest from a wide range of ngo’s to provide this on a one by one basis. Locally produced from 106 For example.nl/ 54 .000 people in the Delta and Upper Egypt that have not been included in the current plans.5. Combining –modestinternational or bilateral funding with a sound operating model can be a unique opportunity for a Dutch technology supplier with a local manufacturing partner. often supplying water of dubious quality and legality. collected as usual. NGO support for “private” sewerage and sanitation projects tends to be concentrated in Upper Egypt with many organisations all “playing” with the idea. sanitation provisions will not reach these communities any time soon. As things stand. The HCWW open attitude106 towards user contributions in the construction of facilities greatly improves the chances of success.ecosan. a waterless toilet. Toon’s project goal is to provide both community credit for the water tower (and optional treatment equipment) and individual micro-credit to pay for 107 individual home connections . using a kind of mini-PPP model with the population paying a direct contribution. do-it-yourself solutions rapidly emerge.2. Village committees (informal) INFLUENCERS There are thousands of small villages with populations below 25. The Minigrid is an initiative which cleans and legalises both drinking water and sanitation. He suggests that the HCWW Associate Water Company supplies “official” water just to a water tower and leaves the neighbourhood distribution entirely to the local people using PE hoses or other piping.4. HCWW supplies the pipes. a matter of limited resources and priorities. Their fragmentation and limited technical knowledge necessitates the introduction of a professional project manager and technology supplier. with their water rates. When a community has no reliable piped water connections. but received by the private operator or local co-op. the community digs the trenches.com 108 http://www. Complementary is Toon’s sanitation proposal using 108 Ecosan .

Sabeel will also carry out a series of social. To approach the masses in Egyptian rural areas and poor communities. Urine is turned small-scale into fertiliser. Yet. Besides providing potable water. this squatting unit separates and collects urine and faeces. freedom. The Sabeel Foundation is a local charity foundation aimed at providing clean drinking water to people who have no access to such water. democracy and respect for the other: an enlightenment corner in every 109 Egyptian village . pragmatic actions on the ground are needed. cultural and economic services to help in the sustainable development of the areas where it serves. The medieval Sabeel 109 More information from mmghaly@gmail. Sabeel is a basic method for delivering our thoughts which are centered on modernity.com 55 .recycled PE and PET. Faeces are fermented and the remaining sludge is pelletized and pasteurised in compost. again at small scale. the need still remains to this very day. Currently there are thousands of villages without access to clean drinking water. the provision of water has been a preferred charity venue for rulers and people of power. Historically.

Ridgewood was the first to introduce the BOT concept to its water customers and presently produces some 100m3/day in 40 plants serving mainly hotels in the Red Sea tourist area. Consulting engineers. likely SWRO Awaiting advisory tender Awaiting advisory tender Pre-RFP stage Awaiting advisory tender GoE is a relative latecomer in the Red Sea desalination scene.000m3/d.000-20. sand and/or cartridge prefiltration. Matrouh 5. Contractors INFLUENCERS At the current state of technology in Egypt. With the increased interest in brackish UF Membranes. CAPWO. PPPCU. desalination has new gone mainstream and the HCWW is developing a roadmap for Egypt and saltwater as a source of potable water110. Hurghada 25. Total operating and under completion desalination capacity is 42. 110 111 We endeavour to advise readers when this report has been published. with capacities ranging between 500 and 11. now an entirely local private company. PPP. NOPWASD.000m3/d. Initially a US-EG JV.000 M3/day 56 . Private company Ridgewood111 has been building medium size RO plants for over 10 year. saltwater desalination almost always means RO – reverse osmosis. likely SWRO North Sinai 35. desalination is likely to move into more diverse applications. Initially the domain of the private sector and entirely focused on the tourist destinations on the Red Sea. likely SWRO Red Sea. Communities Donors. courtesy Pentair XFlow groundwater. Ridgewood has over 40 desalination plants in the Red Sea and South Sinai Governorates. public and private sector Own funds. Donors HCWW. General Contractors.000m3/d West Gulf of Suez 70. Sinai. A small number of SWRO projects are already in the pipeline. typically with multimedia.000m3/d.5.000 M3 serving more than 100 resorts and projects.3 SEGMENT FUNDING BUYERS Desalination Potable water.

Dutch companies with an interest can contact EKN Cairo or the authors for introductions. the sheer size and versatility of these organisations112 provides for a wide variety of needs in components. these organisations have more than 1.5. the Army does not need respond to tenders like the private sector and can accept direct orders. 57 . The Army organisations are not only customers but can also be valuable local production partners. While a large part of their demand comes from the need to provide drinking water for their own people. The Ministry of Military Production and AOI. but produce treatment plants to dated processes and while often equipped with good and modern machines. but a very substantial part of their output goes to civilian buyers. Between them. The Army has units which work like general contracting companies. from 10% of GDP and more. complete plants in kit-form and more. For the purpose of this study. Some of the factories visited have an enviable order book. The Egyptian Armed Forces and the Police do not advertise and do not publish contact information.3 million people in uniform and a nearly equal number of civilian employees. a very substantial market is presented by the Egyptian Army and the Ministries of Military Production and of the Interior. For Army and border guard have camps all over the country which require desalination and other water purification plants ranging from small truck mounted units to constructed plants with a capacity of 30thou m3d. Projects have included W&WWTP’s for populations as large as 100. often in competition113 with civilian contractors. Contacts by Army personnel with foreigners are subject to national security regulations and are usually arranged by experienced local agents. MMP On request INFLUENCERS Little known to most foreigners. but also for the general population. 113 This is not the best choice of words. not just for its own needs. these are not used in the most efficient way. institutional and consumers. MoI. the Arab Organisation for Industrialisation (several factories) still produce weaponry and other military needs. suffice it to say that the Army presents a most substantial and solid market. - - 112 There are numerous estimates and guesses of the size of the Egyptian military’s role in business. mainly with RO based desalination.4 SEGMENT FUNDING BUYERS The uniformed branches Army. Military Production Own funding MoD. building infrastructure and buildings.000 people.

still highly topical. are worth reproducing here: From Egypt's Agriculture Sector transformation strategy.5. drip. Details are beyond the scope of this study. (see Chapter 5. agriculture is Egypt’s largest water user consuming 80% of available sources. under the Ministry of Industry 116 http://www. Water is supplied through the canal systems to farming areas under the control of MWRI. which manages the actual irrigation flows through each branch canal. IMC115 commissioned consultants Booz Allen & Hamilton (BAH) to produce a number of insightful studies116 on the ways and means to transform the agricultural sector into an agri-business. Old Lands and New Lands have not only different irrigation systems: flood vs.5 Agriculture and horticulture As set out above. but some parts. Much is of course not water related.1. Farmers pay for the service provided at this level: lifting and drainage. but also differ in organisation and the way water services are paid for.4 ) When on private land. 2008 SWOT analysis by BAH 114 115 MALR estimates this today at 20% Industrial Modernisation Centre. In 2008. Often this requires re-using the same amounts of irrigation water twice114.asp 58 .imc-egypt. water is allocated by Water Users’ Associations.org/ListofStudies.

forward looking producers have climbed up the value chain. with onions. Egypt has always exported agricultural products. These are all areas where the Dutch agrowater sector can provide excellent value. This has gone hand in hand with a scientific approach to farming. than they realise. season to season. grapes. 59 . green beans. artichokes and fruits like strawberries and melons all a common sight in European shops. moving into frozen French fries. In basic products. applied technology and or extended supply chain management. spring onions. dried mashed potatoes. snow peas.In this SWOT analysis nearly half the items suggest opportunities to reduce the nett use of water in agriculture through improved management. Dutch shoppers probably buy more Egyptian produce. like potatoes. horticultural products have taken first place with Egyptian citrus fruit. cotton and potatoes traditional and well known exports. Over the last years.

GPS and Internet and scientific knowledge. Irrigation water comes primarily from deep wells. Project Management INFLUENCERS Irrigation management. the how and where to distribute each drop of water from the branch canal to the individual plant. a € 200+ million project by the World bank. In the Old Lands. Most international funded projects incorporate this aspect. Farm Frites has over 30thousand feddan under cultivation.dacom.php?pid=about&tid=history&lid=en . MALR own funds MALR. Farm-Frites and 118 Dacom have teamed up to implement an Agri Yield Management system at the FarmFrites fields. the Integrated Irrigation Improvement and Management Project.html http://www. Donors.eg/Design12linkst. 60 . Under the Dutch PESP (now defunct) and the Partners for Water programs.farmfrites.com. basic and high technology applications and people management. IIIMP. mildly saline. in cooperation with the Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture Egypt.Farm-Frites Egypt is an Egyptian-Dutch potato grower which has successfully moved up the value chain.nl/index_new. combining sensor technology.5. Today. most in the Eastern desert. The project was carried out by a consortium of the Dutch project partners Dacom. The Soil Company and WaterWatch. the Delta and the Nile Valley. SEGMENT FUNDING BUYERS IRRIGATION WATER MANAGEMENT Field Irrigation & Water Management – Government Multi lateral donors.2. where flood irrigation is the norm in a densely exploited jigsaw of small holdings. Farm-Frites can continuously monitor and fine-tune its production process throughout the growing season. this is in the first place a matter of organising supply and users in a collaborative model. IIIMP addresses management of water resources from the Mahmoudia and the Mit 117 118 http://www. The project was financed in the framework of the programme "Partners voor Water" through the executing agency EVD (the Netherlands). is a complex puzzle of farming knowhow. The activities took place between September 2007 and February 2009. now producing frozen French fries for McDonald’s Egypt and many export markets. 117 Dacom precision farming equipment installed on a field in Egypt 5. KfW and the Dutch Government is presently run out of MWRI with Euroconsult MottMcDonald as managing consultants.

With agriculture still one of Egypt’s most important income earners and employers. no elections.Leaders bubble up as community leaders. The company has established a tight work relationships with a few hundred small and medium sized farmers based on an astonishingly simple concept. . .€ 20 million.org/ . .€ 2 million Netherlands Grant. with rampant water inefficiency and the need to feed an ever growing population. no salaries Dutch government provides financial support to carry the overhead under the PSI facility. not just the provision of infrastructure. . . management jobs go those one knows. no contracts. user empowerment at tertiary and secondary levels. Supply chain improvement.€ 38.Yazeed Main Canals in the Nile Delta. Maintaining a close relationship with MALR and the current Funds managers remains the best way to participate in future projects.US$ 120 million KfW Loan. See above. not even at a lower price. Walk away if there is anything you do not like. Makro. provided free of charge. a trading firm in produce and groceries operates in Egypt as a supplier to (associated) Metro Supermarkets.8 million KfW Grant. no appointments. QA.Training in farm technology and methods. pesticides or fertilisers. mainly for technical assistance 61 . .LE 575 million (amounting to 32% of the total) Worldbank Loan. As in potable and wastewater projects. IIIMP is a sister project to ISSIPII which addresses sanitation in the same area. facilitates private investment and drives institutional reform119. IIIMP is co-financed by GoE Own funding. cold chain 119 http://iiimp-eg. involving through the Waterboards and Water User Associations. Next years. IIIMP tackles fragmented service delivery.No direct involvement in the finance / purchase of seeds.Handshake deals. Substandard produce is not accepted.Leader farmers handle the collection / delivery to the Makro collection centre. programs like IIIMP are likely to be repeated. large hotels and many mid sized supermarket chains. but integrated with institutional reform. Makro has decided to differentiate on the quality of its daily supply of fresh produce.Produce that is farmed to published and transparent standards and quality (basically GAP) will be bought at today’s market price.

UPEHC.10 and 11. UPEHC. importers. trading companies Agents. a public-private interest group. distributors. IRRIGATION AND FARMING SEGMENT FUNDING BUYERS INFLUENCERS Field irrigation and farm equipment. The Water Users Associations begin to take on roles beyond water allocation. know-how MALR.2. MALR research Institutes. training provider and 120 The traditional word for the Egyptian farmer.6. still exist but have become increasingly less popular or effective. Large farms concerns typically procure their own needs Farming Cooperatives. combines and other expensive items on day contracts. MALR operates an enormous short term equipment rental operation. tilling less than a feddan to huge modern concerns with thousands of feddan under management. See the contact list in Chapter 11.000m2 62 . a holdover from the Nasser period. cooperatives MALR. Al-Ahram Beverages has barley grown in reclaimed desert lands at East Owaynat using pivot irrigation Farmers at the field level range from small scale fellahin120. private sector. The need for equipment and knowhow is universal throughout the segment with numerous agents and distributors the main link between market and producers.5. Family owned plots can be as small as ½ feddan or just 2. unites most horticultural producers and functions in the market as a bulk buyer of seeds. providing tractors.

gated pipes. see below under Industry. sensors and monitoring.300 people and its annual tax and excise contributions amount to 0.2% of GoE’s annual revenue. Precision farming. Joining forces with a Dutch supplier of industry specific technology and offer the customer a more complete solution – water pre and post treatment included. 125 meter across. barley grows on circular pivot irrigated fields. This concept holds true for all application industries. regulators.o. this comes to some 2. WATER SERVICES TO THE FOOD INDUSTRY As Egyptian farmers go up the value chain.2. GoE plans to establish many new slaughterhouses during the next three years.000m3 per day for companies like FarmFrites which re-uses water 3 to 4 times and deploys a treatment plant before it releases any effluent. The company employs 2. There are numerous slaughterhouses. 63 . Dutch water tech companies can benefit from Dutch leadership in this business – most slaughterhouses are imported from the Netherlands. For the more general considerations. In East Owaynat. This sub segment of water treatment equipment runs primarily through local agents and VAR’s. Two specific examples: Potato processing requires 6m3 of water per ton product.7. valves. food processing has become a true industry with a large appetite for water. complete drip and bubble irrigation systems Precision farming equipment and services. pumps Pivot irrigation equipment. The company operates 6 plants where it pre-treats its own product water. Beer is a water intensive product. Demand for equipment and knowledge encompasses a wide range of products. but first to grow barley. Further optimising of water use is an important target for all vegetable processing firms in Egypt.is a classic example of a win-win model through synergy. 5. With all other functions. many still very primitive with little in water management or treatment. brewer Al-Ahram has also become a farmer. Egypt’s single brewer and distiller. - Egypt produces 2 million Mt of poultry and smaller quantities of beef and mutton per year. by EPADP. Laser field levelling equipment and training Irrigation equipment. low pressure and perforated drainage pvc and pe pipes121. To encourage the private sector to invest in this industry. 121 122 Local production of plastic pipes a. To eradicate bird flu.more recently as owner-manager of a modest collection centre with (planned) cool room and packaging facility. where each m2 is continuously monitored is the norm. does not provide a full range. some 400 km East of Lake Nasser. training Dutch brewer Heineken and a local investor co-own Al-Ahram Beverages.by teaming up with a Dutch company in the slaughterhouse business122. To optimise this process. GoE has signed a joint agreement with a Kuwaiti fund to provide $90 million in credit facilities. in a Dutch hi-tech environment where Heineken contract farmers thrive to shorten growth cycles and irrigation days and increase yield per drop. not just in the brewery.

This will require a change in Egypt’s Water Law. 124 The proscription to farm in used water runs counter to an EU quality and public health rule.with unpleasant confrontations between police and fishermen. The growth has to come from fish farming which in Egypt is still exclusively in ponds on land. the true centre of fish farming is in Kafr el Sheikh governorate.5. The lakes are increasingly polluted and cage fishing in the river is now officially forbidden –a shipping hazard. Agriculture wants fish to be farmed in –better quality.first use water where their excrement is excellent fertilizer for the next use: irrigating crops. the first use prohibition is often ignored and many ponds use a mix of fresh surface water. drainwater123 which depresses yields and has totally stopped exports. . higher than can be justified for high quality water.2. .Brackish water fish farming using Harvesting tilapia in Kafr Sheikh groundwater from.First use of irrigation water and acknowledging that fish excrement in the water serves well as natural fertiliser for the fields irrigated from the fishpond. There are experimental ponds at work which show promising results.Free catch in the Nile. smoked salmon and the like. In addition. the area just south of Lake Burulus. 125 On the desert road from Cairo. This is a heavily farmed and populated area and there is not much space for expansion of ponds. There seems to be no simple answer. MWRI does not allow the first use of fresh water by fish farms and ponds are forced to take their water from agricultural run-off. Other important areas are Fayoum and of course the Nile Valley. 1 million Mt annually. 123 The disagreement about first use has been around for a long time with Ministries taking opposing sides.124 Unsurprisingly. AQUACULTURE More Egyptians eat fish. Opportunities lie in several apparently unconnected ideas and initiatives. While many farmers maintain a small pond at the end of the farm. nearly 14kg/c/yr and growing. the Western Desert aquifer in the Wadi Natrun125 area.8. will be very useful. 30% is free catch from lakes and the sea which have reached their upper limits. . Necessity is the mother of invention and nowhere more than in hard pressed fishfarms. Water Resources disagrees. Canals and the coastal lakes has reached its limits. Ismal Radwan of the Egyptian Aquaculture Centre in Kafr El Sheikh Governorate treats his water for re-use using a bio-film system constructed in an old shed using Coke bottle crates and spiral rolled plastic mesh. Dr. on-shore as in this example or off-shore in floating cages 64 . shallow groundwater and drainwater. 10% is imported: canned tuna and sardines. Water Respources maintains that evaporation from fish ponds is high. for example. about 100km south of Alexandria 126 Aquaculture with (mare) seafish. However. Pumps financed under a Dutch assistance program keep the circulation going. stating that fish pollution poses a health hazard on the land and also as absorbed by crops.On-shore mariculture126 in the coastal lakes. Two initiatives are worth mentioning. maatjes haring. something where objective data gathering such as surface evaporation rates. . continuing the present practice using polluted or illegal water limits growth for fish farming.

While Saudi Arabia has a thriving industry on its side of the Red Sea. . there is considerable experimentation going on and fresh ideas emerge constantly. Regrettably.org/evaluationadmin/downloaddocument.131 127 Some 10 years ago.1.irri.A.5%20Proposal%20for%20Egypt. such a large project requires large upfront investments.html?docid=1734 128 http://adaptation-fund. Nevertheless. seafish.Off-shore mariculture.com/ 131 http://beta.newnileco. despite successful result of the pilot projects. biofuel and afforestation projects like the one proposed by NewNile Co130. At a pilot scale of 10 feddan. the project can treat 25thousand m3/day of part treated sewage effluent http://erc.PPRC_. in Egypt it seems that both Ministries of Defence and Tourism are less keen on a coast line full of cages. sea cage pilot farms. o A new UNDP proposal to dig artificial salt water ponds in the immediate coastal region to act as a water buffer against further saltwater intrusion in the Nile Delta. or seacages.org/news/bulletin/2007.undp. such as the desert aqua culture concept shown in the sketch on the right. particularly shrimp.org/sites/default/files/AFB. These lakes would lend themselves very well to mariculture.129 setting.2.127 Regrettably. .Integrated shrimp.17/PDFs/CDPDF2007.pdf 65 . funding for large scale implementation has not yet been found. artificial wetlands were created near Lake Manzala and very effectively filtered the WWTP effluent that came through the drains from Cairo. It is Kelongs.o A UNDP sponsored successful trial to create artificial wetlands as a filter between urban (part treated) effluent and the coastal lake Manzala to provide better lake water for fish farming. are a common sight along all South East Asian shores and cultivate a rich array of hoped that the legislature will fish and seafood. many with support from EKN.Finally. An opportunity to “share know-how” in an even broader sense? 130 http://www. are coming on stream. A true Water Mondiaal challenge follow with a framework to to enable Indonesian know-how in an Egyptian further enable this industry.Suloma.pdf 129 Water Mondiaal countries Indonesia and Vietnam have been growing fish in sea cages for generations and “kelongs” are a common sight along SE Asian shorelines.128 .

handling and storage. SUPPLY CHAIN IMPROVEMENTS Agricultural yield per feddan may be high in Egypt. concur. reaching export goals and working EU regulations (Egypt’s main export market for agri-products. but as much as 40% of Egypt’s horticultural crops perish in post harvest losses. Sourcing Manager at Bakker Barendrecht (a major Dutch importer and distributor of fresh produce) The BAH study. mentioned above. transportation. ideally adding value along the way. mentioned earlier. it takes private initiative and investment to buy trucks. build cool rooms and deliver the consistent quality in product and delivery that solidifies export into a sustainable branch of business. The weakness of the local supply chain: transport. private entrepreneurs are taking the lead: “The Egyptians. The BAH reports. Arguably the biggest impact on water efficiency can be made with loss reduction improvements in the supply chain ensuring that more of the harvest reaches paying end-users. 66 . as shown in the table on the next page. Tomatoes and grapes are the most vulnerable. And indeed. have proven during many years of collaboration that they are serious and reliable suppliers open to change and innovation. is so little of these recommendations made 4 years part of today’s reality? We venture that while the high level approach of the report sets a good framework. negates much of the effort made on the field." Frank Brinkman. Substantial improvements can be made in the areas of cleaning and washing.2.5. comes up with specific suggestions for supply chain improvement. Belco in particular. storage. Why. however. Even during the difficult period during and just after the 25 January Revolution. packaging. cool chain management. did our Egyptian suppliers manage to satisfy demand without interruption.9.

Egypt's Agriculture Sector transformation strategy. humidity. 67 .) not just for large operations. this requires some IT literacy training among smaller farmers. 2008 (Booz Allen & Hamilton) The 4 focal directions shown above provide a good big picture starting point. In addition to the collection and publication of data. weather forecast etc. GAP.Precision farming (real time soil data.Product quality improvements in horticulture. . .Real time weather. but also in cooperative form for groups of small holdings. and several opportunities can emerge in the public and private sectors.Crop specific irrigation methods and growing know-how . market and other online data provision. Euronorms .

- Cool chain; from concept to execution; cleaning and prepping, retail packaging, precooling units, coolrooms, data logging, certification, export markets exploration - Transportation chain; cooltrucks, temperature management, reefers, just in time supply management Most of the large farm operations such as FarmFrites, Belco, Ragab, Keram, Maba already use different forms of technology to improve outputs. At the smallholder level, UPEHC, a public-private interest group, manages supply chain efforts with limited funds. An interesting example; later this year, with support under the Dutch CBI program132, a website will provide real time market information.

5.2.10. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT RE- SELECTION

Different crops use different amounts of water with different levels of efficiency. A dialogue is taking place in Egypt today, to determine which crops to drop. Thirsty crops like rice, cotton and sugar cane are meant to be replaced by more water efficient alternatives. This topic is outside the scope of this study.

132

Chapter 6

68

5.6
SEGMENT FUNDING BUYERS

Industry
Private and public sector industrial factories Own funds, EPAP Factories Local agents, VAR

INFLUENCERS

Further and better industrialisation is the cornerstone of Egypt’s economic future but cannot follow this path without major adjustments to the environmental degradation that has followed it in the past. This must include better use of resources (water) in all productions processes, increased qualitative and quantitative treatment of industrial wastes, reduction and control of health hazards posed and restoring the quality of the Egyptian natural environment. Egypt’s industrialisation started in the 50’s with State controlled heavy industry; chemicals, food, metal products and textiles, predominantly in the Nile Valley and in Cairo and Alexandria. For years, these factories produced with little regard for the environment: a patient river Nile flushed everything to the Northern lakes and the Mediterranean. When President Sadat’s “Open Door Policy” in 1980 encouraged a nascent private sector, factories mushroomed both in the traditional industrial areas and in new industrial centres such as Sadat City and 10th Ramadan City. Over the last decade, with the revelation that untreated industrial wastes of more than 350 factories were discharged directly into the Nile and the Mediterranean, came the realisation that the natural system was at a breaking point and that urgent action was necessary. From a 2002 local research report133: “Some groups of chemicals, such as carcinogenics,
mutagenics and neurotoxins, are unaffected by the usual methods of water treatment. The threats imposed by chemical discharges comprise contamination of drinking water supplies, phyto- and aquatic toxicity, destruction of agriculture as well as fisheries, bioaccumulation, and biotransformation. Some spectacular threats to water resources and land are now quite obvious, e.g., in Helwan (south of Cairo): air pollution with cement dust, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, and other airborne pollutants resulted in the death of almost all the trees. The industrial wastewater discharged from 3 Helwan area amounts to some 45 million m /yr. In Shoubra El Khaima (north of Cairo) huge volumes of 134 untreated industrial wastewater are daily discharged into agricultural drains . The textile industries which represents (in 2002) 48% of the total number of industrial plants are the main contributors (almost 52%) to organic load.
Type of load Misc. Oil, soap Starch, yeast, glucose 3239.4 1148 Pulp, paper Metals Plastic, rubber Textile, dyeing Total load

COD (kg /day) BOD5(kg /day)

1366.9 244.9

7006 4568

2322.3 661.7

11676.3 1257.7

236.7 77.9

26372.3 8533.9

52219.9 16492.1

Organic load contributed by the various industrial sectors in Shoubra El-Khaima. Based on El-Gohary (1994)

133

Water Issue in Egypt: Resources, Pollution and Protection Endeavors, by Hussein I. Abdel-Shafy (National Research Center) and Raouf O. Aly (National Center for Radiation Research and Technology) CEJOEM 2002, Vol.8. No.1.:3.21. 134 Author’s note: In the intervening years, the Gabel El Asfar WWTP has been built. With a present capacity of 1.5 million m3/day, soon to be 2 million, the plant treats most of Cairo’s urban liquid waste at the primary level and releases effluent in the Bahr el Baqar drain which ultimately discharges 3 million m3/day in Lake Manzala. See Chapter 5.2.8 on the experiments with artificial wetlands to further filter this waste stream.

69

The metropolitan area of Alexandria accommodates a multitude of industries close to surface waters, e.g., in Amiria at Lake Marriotta, near the Mahmoudia Canal. Out of 1243 industrial plants 57 were identified as major sources of marine pollution. Paper, textile and food industries contribute 79% of the total organic load. As might be expected, the mid-stream conditions of the Nile are still, on an average, at a fairly clean level owing to dilution and degradation of the pollutants discharged. The riverbanks, however, are much more polluted. Inefficient production in some industries (e.g., oil and soap) generates waste that contains raw material as well as products, a costly burden to the national economy and the consumer. Obviously, cleaner production is the unique answer for the industrial pollution in Egypt.”

In the last 10 years, enormous progress has been made and while far from solved, environmental pollution of surface and ground water is now a problem that is proactively managed. - All-encompassing legislation now covers environmental protection from standards to prevention to correction. The guiding principles are to make the polluter clean up his own mess and prevent the return to the Nile of any water that is acceptable. - Many of the worst polluters (the examples in Helwan and Alexandria above) have been made to reduce emissions. As the majority of these factories were State or Army owned, the process has been internal and did not get much publicity. Nonetheless, while far from perfect, these polluters have been reigned in. Much remains to be done, however, and as industry struggles with the cost of business interruptions in the wake of Revolution, environmental improvements sink lower and lower on agendas. - There is much criticism of the environmental legislation as unrealistic. The requirement that water discharged to the system must have BOD135 not higher than 6 and COD not higher than 10 means that in most cases water treatment plants must add a tertiary or polishing phase, which is disproportionately expensive. For many factory owners, the difference between being fined for dumping untreated effluent and being fined for dumping treated effluent that does not reach the legal standard, boils down to the question: “why invest if they make you pay anyway?” - Environmental protection enforcement has never been strong or consistent under the previous regime, where a phonecall to a friend in high places usually got rid of a bothersome inspector. Today, while the Revolutionary ethos definitely values Egypt’s natural habitat and the imperative to provide clean water for future generations, law enforcement is not yet strong and there is little practical incentive to spend money that will not show an immediate return. - Industrial water is more expensive to buy than heavily subsidised water at home, but it does not cost enough to be significant in the overall production cost. At first glance, treating and re-using water makes no financial sense. As with so many other important shifts in attitude in Egypt, the real change may again come from individuals on the ground. - On a very practical level; export consumers demand that their purchases are grown and produced in a sustainable manner136. Initially just agricultural
135 136

Biological oxygen demand, Chemical oxygen demand; see Chapter 10 See Good Agricultural Practices as much used standards. http://www.fao.org/prods/gap/

70

Nett use139 for industry.org/?page=files/home Interview http://www. Protagonists of sustainable production and respect for the environment find an unexpected ally in modern Islam. It also teaches of maintaining balance in life. is the Water Footprint concept developed at Unesco IHE and the University of Twente137. and the environment is no exception. Reducing water use through re-use looks more and more like good business. The message in the mosques is meant to convey the essence of the Quran in a way 138 that serves humanity with all its concerns. but wasting water is proving to cost more. .com/en/node/475482 139 Industries and common pollutants (NWRP 2017) Water drawn from the potable network + surface/ groundwater – seepage and treated / untreated returns 71 . younger generation of owners and managers is taking over. Preacher Sheikh Abdallah al-Khouly: “The Quran teaches that the environment is God’s creation.” “It is every sheikh’s duty to urge people to protect the environment through Friday preaching and weekly lessons/meetings. 137 138 http://www.600 liters of water . Better educated.500 liters of water Beer 1 glass 75 liters of water Cotton 1 T-shirt 2.A new. and that what is taken must be replaced and that by spending time in nature. A supply that faces uncertainty as demand outstrips supply on all fronts. Buying water may not cost much. but increasingly more products sell better in foreign and local markets if the producer can show that water and other environmental inputs and outputs have been responsibly used. . excluding cooling water for power plants. Of this.Less widespread. but gaining currency.700 liters of water Rice 1kg 3.export product. human awareness and our understanding of God can be developed.waterfootprint.400 liters of water Leather 1kg 16. Some global averages as an illustration: Beef 1kg 15. amounts to some 3Bcm/year. usually the shallow Nile aquifer.” Industrial water use in Egypt is not completely documented. Roughly one half is water abstracted directly from the Nile and the Canals. and disrespecting it is like disrespecting God. about 6% of the total supply and is likely to increase steadily. The Footprint helps consumers understand how much water was used to produce their choice of food or drink en accordingly make considered purchasing decisions. 30% comes from the potable water network and rest from groundwater.almasryalyoum.Many industries are located in the new industrial zones in what once was the desert and rely on piped Nile water. they realise that tighter production processes which rely on smaller inputs produce better quality at a lower cost.

Valuable financial support is now available for Egyptian factories that plan to invest to move from environmental non-compliance to compliance. Accepted wisdom in industrial waste water treatment is to deal with pollution as close to the source as possible in order to apply the optimum solution to just a single problem. 140 http://industry. A small overflowing treatment plant and multicoloured sludge flowing in most streets. The programs (one for Cairo and Alexandria. A recent fact finding visit to Quesna. Applications must be made by the Egyptian factory through selected local banks.eg/ 72 . most of which have been “too little. reduced quality variability and no dumping fees or fines make compelling reading for any Egyptian CFO. Dutch companies are recommended to build strong relationships with several value added importers. aiming for a zero-liquid discharge end result. In our experience. the seller still has a hard job in a culture where the cost-to-own is traditionally overshadowed by the price ticket. See the Chapter 11. many multinationals and a bewildering array of large and small private owners all pursuing individual strategies. EIB.eeaa. Nearly all purchase industrial equipment through medium sized specialised consultants. Different centralised WWTP solutions have been implemented. The EPAP II program of the EEAA140 provides loans with a 20-30% grant component to help finance industry make improvements to improve performance and comply with environmental regulations. KfW and others. will often be hard and expensive to realise.nearly one half is cooling water. While this is much more work and requires expertise not always in the toolkit of the average Dutch WWTP engineer.11 for a list of such companies. North of Cairo and home of the country’s tannery industry illustrated this well. One size fits all WWTPs simply cannot handle the wide variety of pollutants.gov. if one wants to comply with the current legal standard. A more successful approach is to extend consultancy to cover the entire manufacturing process. less equipment damage (treated re-used water can be soft and free of contaminants present in piped water such as chlorine). The problems derive partially from the fast growth of many industrial areas. too late”. invest in capacity building with such partners and extend their process know-how to cover what happens between purifying process water and cleaning waste water. another for the Governorates) are financed by the WorldBank. often value added importers. a very small component product water and one half process water. Egyptian industry is fragmented with the State and the Army as the two largest owners. Whatever the buyer’s rational to purchase a solution to make better use of water in production. many such requests for a quotation begin as an attempt to mitigate the direct pollution from waste effluent and tend to focus exclusively on a cleanup job. but the foreign supplier has an obvious role in supporting the technical side of such an application. which. but mainly from the erroneous concept to have a single WWTP handle a wide variety of industrial pollution. the economics of reduced water input.

One of the objectives is to jointly establish an education program in Cairo for Egyptians and other nationals from Nile riparian countries with both short Courses and a Masters Course.org/ 73 . The new program must be accredited by both the University of Cairo and by IHE-UNESCO. are available141. There is no price differentiation.5. which provides water from the natural wells at Siwa oasis. The exception is Siwa. find a ready market.Home filtration units. undergrad to PhD level.Bottled water sells in ½ liter and 1½ liter bottles and is available nearly everywhere. though not easy to obtain. Most of the equipment is American. . Bursaries from Nuffic.Most bottled water companies also sell the 20 liter bottles for dispenser units. just a brief overview. has become an export product and water education is no exception. Egyptian Wageningen graduates make a growing presence. 5. priced from €80 to €350. . Students will still 141 Selection criteria and details are too diverse for this general publication. CocaCola and many others supply tapwater that has been extensively filtered and taste enhanced. . Regrettably. Egyptian students can also follow a double-degree program in Hydro-informatics at Ayn Shams University (Civil Engineering). located in Delft. the university is considered worldclass. for a very long time a purely national affair. often with a small RO membrane and carbon filter.unesco-ihe. Interested parties are advised to contact EKN for more details (Chapter 11. the cost of the Course and the stay in the Netherlands are beyond the means of most Egyptian water specialists and without further bursaries or fellowships the number of students from Egypt will remain limited. Although modest in number. Most brands (Nestle.1) 142 http://www. The Institute. selected UN organisations and possibly the EU. A recent development is a new EU Water Sector Loan for Egypt which is based around a capacity building component. partially in the Netherlands. and the only institution in the UN system authorised to confer accredited MSc degrees. Taiwanese or Chinese. Dutch Universities accept a steady stream of foreign students in water related subjects. social and commercial problems in the field of life sciences and natural resources. MSc and PhD) in life sciences and focuses its research on scientific. As we have received no inquiries or expressions of interest for such markets from any Dutch firms. Wageningen UR trains specialists (BSc. who engage in what is no more than a battle of price attrition. water.7 Home Consumer market Egypt has a substantial market for consumer water products. In the field of agricultural science. At the tertiary level . which is taught partially in Cairo. Specialised in Water is the IHE-UNESCO142 Institute for Water Education. Wageningen University and Research Centre (WUR) is the Netherlands’ traditional source of knowledge in matters agricultural and of course. is the largest water education facility in the world.8 Water education Education in the Netherlands. In addition to following one of the many Degree courses.

Then. companies come and go. This is not a simple process. Nuffic will be interested to work with Dutch private and semi-public sector companies to add more practical experience in the course. but are reluctant to recommend individual players in preference over others. 143 http://www. Considering the cost and the fact that the new loan pays for course development. certainly not when one comes from a different country. product focus changes and personal bonds and relationships on which many of these companies rely can vanish overnight. we list a large number of different organisations and contacts to help the Dutch companies start finding and selecting such a partner. research and professional education in the Netherlands and abroad under the NICHE program of the Dutch government.Regional Institute for River Transport . Nuffic finances education projects and awards the work through tender.Capacity Building Programme for HCWW. not for students. Invest the time in getting to know the people you are going to work with. we have listed over 300 organisations with. Some examples of current Nuffic tenders for Egypt: . their specialisations. Improve the quality of the educational offer of 3 technical schools and 3 training centres to provide relevant and practical teaching in a sustainable way. In Chapter 11. where relevant. The Egyptian business world is dynamic. As Egypt requires substantial support in vocational training. non-profit organization and supports internationalization in higher education. Nuffic143 is a Dutch. there is the sheer size of the country: few if any agent can reliably cover an entire market segment. 5. distributor or business partner is arguably the most important part of making a deal in Egypt. Finding a long term partner for good business in Egypt is more than matchmaking.9 Getting in touch and finding partners Business in Egypt is rarely done between just the buyer and the seller.nl/home/about-nuffic 74 .have to follow part of the curriculum in the Netherlands.nuffic. finding the right agent. the future uptake is uncertain. As explained in more detail below. In Chapter 11.

I take everything that comes from Holland and check it carefully against local supply alternatives.nijhuis-water. We mentioned earlier that Dutch SMEs 145 like to negotiate at least 50% pre-payment. such becomes difficult and the international banking system needs to provide the tools to do business. something that is workable in small. we were agents. as partners.2 Usual business not as usual In the world of international business. open credit is the exception. The counter argument that Dutch quality and efficiency are superior is both true and irrelevant to a buyer of a simple solution. risk shy after the crises of the last years. Most water solutions in Egypt are solid installations using tried and tested technologies with IT employed only to improve process quality. A pump from another foreign source but with a local service network.aspx MKB 146 One of our interviewees recounted how a 100% cash covered LC. It appears that Dutch banks. There is little point in trying to export Dutch labour hours to a country that can do the same thing at 10% of the cost. Says Naglaa Haidar. though. revolving LC’s and of course confirmation of LC’s by a prime bank in beneficiary’s country were all created a long time ago to facilitate business over great distances. are confident that with the right local partner and a joint focus on getting more business. issued by a prime Turkish bank proved impossible to confirm by a Dutch bank. incidental jobs. 75 . sometimes to keep the in-house factories going. “giving the farm away”. We are solid with a continuous order book.146 Dutch survey respondents felt that if the established finance system is shy of doing its core job. Now. a very good weekly wage in Egypt. “For the first years.1 Cost base Holland: Expensive! The Netherlands is a country where things get done well. 144 145 http://www. This converts to LE630. but at a price. more on site and double this if the site is overseas. then a government keen to promote exports to developing countries should step in to help. passing on our principal’s work without changing a word. the MENA and African markets can be well served from such a base.6. 6. Many larger and older firms. Average manufacturing labour cost now amounts to €75 / hour in the workshop. something we can manufacture in our own workshop or over-engineered quality that is just not needed. About money 6. everybody’s advantage can be served in a production structure that takes account of and optimises comparative advantages. never to reduce the payroll. joint-venture partner of Nijhuis Water Technology Egypt 144 Ltd . Considering Egypt’s regional position. are sometimes reluctant to “oil” trade. not the norm and sales to Egypt must be secured in some form. very well.” In our interviews with Dutch companies. However.com/home. Many others. we found a stalemate when it came to joint operations and part manufacturing in Egypt. in larger and more structured projects. Traditional methods like LC’s allowing partial deliveries. were highly sceptical of what was called an erosion of competitive value.

5) and HongKong and Shanghai Banking Corporation 76 . Specific funding to support water came up several times in the Dutch interviews. complicated and just too much work for an SME. is still hard to come by for Egyptian businesses. One suggestion was to support bank credit for eligible transactions with a (partial) State guarantee similar to the existing BBMKB facility and to create a credit facility like the Innovatiebox for companies that engage in market and product development for Water Mondiaal countries.Dacom: “A simple credit insurance facility would be a blessing and open many doors now closed to Dacom” There is presently no Dutch bank with a branch or rep office in Egypt. For example. but. Janneke Hadders . 147 http://www. Consulting firms and other larger firms work with export credit insurance as a rule. Most Egyptian banks have international correspondents but such relationships can be affected by the postrevolution uncertainty.atradiuscollections. but these have since been lifted. Shortly after the Revolution. the Ministry of Finance imposed limits to foreign outbound transfers. NSGB and HSBC148 have excellent personal and commercial banking services. A detailed review is outside the scope of this “scan”. Services offered by insurers like Atradius147 are perceived as expensive. as has been shown in innovation. much needed collaboration in the sector can be rewarded when companies form consortia and joint-ventures to drive water exports. told us that they are less interested in fancy programs and more in expanding “ordinary” banking facilities. Similarly. Again. The Dutch tax. supported by large branch networks. Commercial credit.html?language=en-UK&gclid=CMbVudWlg6sCFQdO3godhCU00w 148 Nationale Societe General Bank (see Chapter 11.com/uk/debt-collections-products/debtcollections.One of the suggestions heard in the Dutch survey was to simplify entry and expand existing export credit insurance options. Most Dutch businesses operating in Egypt may prefer to work with a branch of an international bank. Egyptian buyers with ready funds to purchase can arrange all normal payments and guarantees. Egyptian private companies will typically have accounts with both local banks and a local branch of an international bank. Generally speaking.1. the thinking is to expand existing stimuli to cover water exports to countries like Egypt. but both Egyptian and foreign banks offer a full range of services. subsidy and business support system already offers a myriad of initiatives to drive various goals like “Innovation” and can be expanded with little trouble to cover “water”. Dutch companies interviewed. the tax system can be turned into a positive driver for companies by encouraging “more controlled risk for higher returns” More on this below. though. Dutch sellers are advised to contact the Dutch correspondent bank of the buyer’s Egyptian bank and check very specific on details such as l/c confirmation.

A good 1/3 goes to bilateral support for projects in 36. soon to be 15 “partner” countries. The 2012 National Budget intends to reduce this to 0. This is called a “publiek-privaat samenwerkingsverband” 151 or PPS152 of which some 50 have been established today. ISSIP I and IIIMP are a case in point.rijksoverheid. Donors consider beneficiary countries and organisations as partners of equal value and the interests of both donor and beneficiary can now be taken into account. Dutch water technology is one of the priority areas.nl/bestanden/documenten-enpublicaties/brochures/2010/01/01/handreiking-publiek-private-partnerschappen/handreikingpubliek-private-partnerschappen. International investment subsidies for Dutch private sector companies amounted to about € 350 million in 2009. Collaboration only if no PP partner can attain the set goal on its own Collaboration with private business and open to join by knowledge institutes.The remainder flows through the “private sector funding channel” which includes commercial companies.rijksoverheid.2. In principle. The prime goal of Dutch development collaboration is to combat poverty by providing structured and sustainable support in the beneficiary country. the Netherlands has spent 0.Another 1/3 as contributions to multilateral project support such as the World Bank or EIB. In stimulating business in developing countries. The Government of the recipient country is involved Risks and responsibilities are shared by all partners 149 This puts the Netherlands at the top of the global list and well above the European and UN recommended norms. NWP is a good example of a PPS 151 http://www. such funding often comes in the form of grants which provide a degree of discretionary influence on detailed spending allocation. we’ll refer to the Dutch Publiek Private Samenwerking as PPS 77 .nl/onderwerpen/ondernemen-in-ontwikkelingslanden/sterkbedrijfsleven-in-ontwikkelingslanden. (with Norway. To avoid confusion with the internationally understood concept of PPP’s described in Chapter 5. amounting to some € 5 billion in 2010. Denmark. Sweden and Luxemburg) . Where the original driving force was once the support for the less fortunate in other parts of the world – moral responsibilitydevelopment aid has become development cooperation. the Dutch Government can work in partnership with Dutch companies and ngo’s.7% 150 http://www. . Entrepreneurs and business create jobs and help grow prosperity in developing countries and Dutch programs increasingly aim to stimulate and support private sector involvement in the expectation that a strengthened economy will lessen 150 reliance on foreign support . only countries with a sound social economic policy are eligible.8% of GDP on development collaboration worldwide.3 Dutch development collaboration: a new chapter 149 Over the last decade. .1. In the case of Egypt.6. Such programs may include directs subsidies to developing countries or participation in EU and other multilateral funds. ngo’s and knowledge institutes. Disbursement goes through different channels.pdf 152 Commonly described in the Netherlands as a Public Private Partnership or PPP. Current policy in the Netherlands towards international development collaboration has changed in recent years. ngo’s and private organisations for international development assistance.

com/company/Sponsorship/fres. 153 154 http://www. detailed on the following pages163 provide funds to strengthen skills and knowledge. co-investment. water education 163 PSI.com/en/about-idh http://www.159 Advise and reform in missing or limiting legislation160 Co-investment in physical infrastructure such as transport or telecommunication. Several programs. coffee planting in Colombia. MMF. the “Doing Business” reports from the world Bank 161 In this context. says the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs. labour unions and or knowledge institutes) where the partners agree to collaborate towards a common goal or to execute a specific task. Ease access to export markets.ifhafund. vaccine development and immunisation155. means and competencies.- Long term sustainable objectives Focus on “Partner” countries A PPP (PPS as we call it here). Access to credit and financial services.com/ 158 Under an EEPA.nuon.o. renewable and affordable electricity154 in Africa. is a partnership between government and business ( in many cases with ngo’s. 159 See FMO. developing countries gain access to European markets without the counter obligation to open their domestic markets. safe. Support for local producer organisations. typically in multilateral funding projects161.nuon.org/ 156 http://www. CBI 78 .jsp 157 http://www.duurzamehandel. as a member of WTO and through European 158 Economic Partnership Accords . Existing Dutch PPS’ with international scope are working on objectives as wide apart as the sustainability of international supply chains153.jsp 155 http://www.8 below. also see ORIO.com/company/Sponsorship/fres. 162 See 5. All projects to support the private sector business in developing countries aim to ease the business climate by removing or lowering barriers to business entry and improving knowledge and skill sets. later in this Chapter 160 Ref. solar energy156 and healthcare insurance157 in Africa.gavialliance. remains available for projects that make economic sense to both the Dutch and the Egyptian parties. partly by strengthening local financial service providers with capital and technical assistance. Extending the concept to Egypt’s need in water management and sanitation is a challenge that can be realised by some good “out of the box thinking” by a Dutch water player. More traditional support from the Dutch government: subsidies. PUM. later in this chapter. responsibilities. tax breaks a. 162 Support for technical and vocational education . while sharing risk.

cfm/site/Partners%20voor%20Water/pageid/B3AA2C64-B62906DA-F113DAF21808AAFE/index. or those with innovative projects overseas.net/index. In doing so. not effective in execution. We provide a brief line-up. The program aims to shorten time to (export) market for new technologies in W&WW. with a brand new product.166 As an example. Jakarta Resilient167 aims to develop a strategy to for the Coastal defence of North Java. 166 http://www. NWP informs us that the call is out for “business case” proposals in Egypt. 164 http://partnersvoorwater. many expressed the opinion that such would not make a big difference with subsidies and other government support for export oriented Dutch businesses.cfm/partners%20voor%20water%20in%202011 165 http://www.3.cfm/site/Partners%20voor%20Water/pageid/8295B6F8-EE66558F-45EB7A94B3976E54/index.cfm/site/Partners%20voor%20Water/pageid/B399E45D-FA99ED9E-81B9CE7146415AC7/index.4 Funding: a line-up of Dutch Government programs Even though most Dutch survey respondents were understanding about the need to reduce government spending in these days of economic crisis. PARTNERS VOOR WATER. INNOWATOR GARANTIEFACILITEIT168 The Innovation program Water technology offers private companies.cfm/subsidieregeling%20wereldwijd%20werken%20met%20water.waterland. Partners for Water has a focus on the five Delta Countries. early customers want the product to operate according to their specifications.nl/index. they create international opportunities that have potential both for themselves and for the Dutch water sector as a whole165.2.agentschapnl. Partners for Water acts as a springboard for organisations that have the courage to venture into a new region. Several respondents in The Netherlands indicated that some of these facilities were virtually unknown in the industry and that P4W or the NWP could do a good job “advertising” what is already on offer. We suggest that NWP engages Agentschap NL to ensure that this facility can apply to the building and operation of pilot or proof of concept projects. 6.cfm/site/Partners%20voor%20Water/pageid/B399E45D-FA99-ED9E81B9CE7146415AC7/index. too complicated in application. In other words. Note that most of these facilities are not cumulative.000.3. The Dutch broad water sector will.1. Most plans. they said did not “hit the spot”. SME and large and knowledge Institutes support to innovate.cfm 168 http://www. Often. for example. through public tenders. The programme enables companies to quickly prove their innovative product in the Dutch domestic market.waterland.SPRINGBOARD FOR INTERNATIONAL AMBITIONS 164 The Partners for Water programme provides support to Dutch commercial and nonprofit organisations that work together to realise their international objectives in the field of water.net/index. In order to support the realisation of the Dutch “National Water Plan”.6.nl/programmas-regelingen/innowator-garantiefaciliteit 79 . by applying a new technology or approach. The innoWATOR guarantee facility is meant to accelerate the first rollout of a water innovation. which can be the first step towards development of eligible projects. something that requires costly modifications. the same event provides for a tax advantage only once. 6. The guarantee facility provides the innovator with part-restitution (to 35%) of the cost of such a modification to a limit of € 500. propose specific identified projects in these countries.nl/index.cfm/partners%20voor%20water%20in%202011 167 http://partnersvoorwater.

nl/en/programmas-regelingen/facility-infrastructure-development-orio 170 171 http://www. ORIO. The central government can. at least 25 PSI projects have been successfully completed in Egypt.Farm-Frites – Dacom precision farming as described above . the Pharos project is an ORIO Project with Alexandria University. but the story of the water meters in South Africa is inspiring.Sinai integrated chain project for freezing and drying of herbs .agentschapnl.Winter-capsicums from Egypt . Over the years.3.High quality piping production in Egypt 169 http://www.3. The PSI program is open to any sector in the economy.There are presently no Egyptian examples. ORIO encourages the involvement of Egyptian and Dutch businesses in the development and realization of infrastructural projects. with the aim to strengthen economic growth.3. We venture that a Project worth ORIO financing involves probably more than a single SME can handle. A professional joint-venture or consortium can muster the qualified manpower to manage and steer an application.169 6.Makro farming collaboration.nl/programmas-regelingen/slim-watersysteem-voor-zuid-afrika http://www.4.Development of a high quality.Growing radishes in the Egyptian desert for the EU and CEE markets . implementation (construction and/or expansion). in order to make optimum use of the expertise of the private sector.MABA Retail: J-V for retail-packing and distribution of ware potatoes in Egypt . In Egypt. The project partners are to provide the other 50% themselves. The PSI project in Egypt is an investment project.THE FACILITY FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT 170 ORIO is funded by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs to encourage public infrastructure development in developing countries. The PSI grant can amount to 50% of the investment to a maximum of € 1. In Egypt.nl/en/programmas-regelingen/private-sector-investment-programme- psi 80 . organic export chain for Egyptian herbs . Medical Faculty. submit the project proposal together with the private initiator. The official application must come from the Egyptian government. Quality controlled logistics & distribution of high quality fresh vegetables & fruits for the domestic urban market in Egypt . ORIO contributes to the development.Pilot production of grafted vegetable seedlings . PSI.THE PRIVATE SECTOR INVESTMENT PROGRAMME171 PSI is a subsidy programme of the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs / Development Cooperation that supports innovative investment projects in emerging markets. Orio is not very popular in the Dutch SME world due to its complex procedures. implemented by a Dutch company and a local partner. 6.5 million. an indicative list: . lengthy approval period and the requirement that the actual execution job (the preliminary study contract can be directly contracted to the Dutch project driver) must go out to international tender. with whom a sustainable relationship will be established. in this case. Larger companies like Damen and IHC have done well by ORIO. employment and income generation. operation and maintenance of public infrastructure in developing countries. accepting an ORIO grant requires parliamentary approval.agentschapnl.agentschapnl.

modern .Port Authority. trade. conducts Training Programmes on exporting to the European Union for exporters and maintains a database of Egyptian companies.CENTRE FOR THE PROMOTION OF IMPORTS FROM DEVELOPING COUNTRIES174 Undertakes Export Coaching Programmes. They are independent and receive no financial reward for their services. 6.3.cbi. assistance in the launch of new operations.agentschapnl.eu/ 81 . 172 173 www. MMF. including a stevedoring business. CBI.NETHERLANDS SENIOR EXPERTS172 PUM provides Technical Assistance in various fields to Egyptian SMEs.nl http://www. PUM advisers are volunteers and are selected on the basis of their many years of experience and superior knowledge. 6.7.The preponderance of agricultural projects in this list is not a bias built in PSI.6.3.Port Said production of Gouda and Edam cheeses and butter.techniques for container processing.MATCHMAKING FACILITY173 Egyptian companies looking for reliable business partners in The Netherlands. and inland transport . The goal is to stimulate joint business relations (investment.3. 6.New JV for Egypt-based plant to produce protein and egg yolk used by bakeries and the food industry. MMF puts those companies in touch with Dutch businesses. The MMF is used regularly by Egyptian companies and has often resulted in a PSI project.nl/en/programmas-regelingen/matchmaking-facility-mmf 174 http://www. for enterprises wishing to export to the European Union. Some recent examples: . In a current project with UPEHC. CBI has coached several Egyptian companies to become competent exporters to the European Union.Production improvement for manufacturer of wrapping paper and cardboard from recycled paper . .5.pum. market prices and other vital information for horticultural farmers will be available online from November this year. knowledge transfer) that will strengthen the private sector in developing countries and upcoming markets. PUM pays for international travelling expenses and the other costs of missions while Egyptian companies requesting assistance pay for local travel and accommodation costs. PUM.Furniture production: machine routing in the new larger production area . but the direct result of the enthusiasm and perseverance of individuals on the spot.

Administered through WUR and EKN. Integrated fish farming Brackish fish farming Lake Burulus Recycling of rice straw GAP for small farmers. fostering sustainable socio-economic development. Transboundary animal diseases. FMO. but is part of the Infrastructure Development Fund178. BOCI.9. generating wealth and growth.nl/smartsite. by cooperating with national and international organisations and through financial contributions to programme activities. savings and payment services.3.nl/web/show/id=122524 177 http://www. The programme implements a demand-driven approach in which the research agenda is determined jointly with governments. FMO co-invests in ventures in developing countries.fmo. current BOCI projects in Egypt include research work in: 6. they also face great challenges in accessing capital.nl/ 178 http://www. research partners. 6.nl/smartsite. providing services to members and attracting members. DECP wants to strengthen the capacity of business organisations in developing countries by transferring knowledge and experience. we list the FMO here in response to questions from Dutch companies. not always with Dutch investors and never as a majority holder and only if the commercial prospects of the venture are promising. Water infrastructure is not an area of specific focus.nl/UK/ http://www.fmo. FMO is a public-private development bank with the Dutch State and large Dutch banks as major shareholders.10.dws?id=394 82 . While they underpin the local economy by creating employment.boci. DECP DUTCH EMPLOYERS’ COOPERATION PROGRAMME176 A public-private partnership of Dutch employers and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs with the aim of strengthening the position of employer organisations in developing countries.DOMAIN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION175 Domain International Cooperation is an agriculture focused programme that aims to contribute to economic development and poverty reduction in developing countries.6.FINANCIERINGS MAATSCHAPPIJ VOOR ONTWIKKELINGSLANDEN177 Although not a provider of subsidies and with no specific objective to assist Dutch companies grow export business.3.wur. NGOs and the private sector in the South. training personnel.fmo. The FMO MASSIF179 program: “Financial Services for All”.8. Massif contributes to the development of financial services for small businesses and micro175 176 http://www. and nature management.dws?id=396 179 http://www. formulating and influencing policy (national and international). with special attention to the strengthening of sustainable agriculture and production chains. defending the interests of members.3. targets small companies and micro-entrepreneurs who deliver financial products and services to clients in their direct vicinity.decp.

belastingdienst.4. with particular emphasis on gender equality.4. trade promotion. .nl/zakelijk/vennootschapsbelasting/vennootschapsbelasting51. The Netherlands has a complex tax and subsidy system. In addition to the already substantial amounts that the Netherlands provides through multilateral channels.nl/programmas-regelingen/borgstelling-mkb-kredieten-bmkb 83 .NETHERLANDS BUSINESS SUPPORT OFFICES180 NBSOs support Dutch businesses in their international activities and are particularly effective in supporting SMEs. Profits from water-exports and or export collaboration projects could be taxed at a similar concessionary rate. identification of market opportunities and more are free of charge. but EKN has a large and extremely active trade and development section. religious freedom and protection for minorities.BORGSTELLING MKB KREDIETEN182 Innovative SMEs that need to borrow more from a commercial bank that they can mortgage their assets for.Democracy: particularly fair and free elections. 6.5 From Innovation support to Water support Early this July. 6. BMKB.11. a bilateral program shall be created through which the Netherlands can contribute in specific and focused ways to support the development of the region. 6. . there is no NBSO in Cairo.3.html#P537_40546 182 http://www.2. INNOVATIEBOX181 The InnovationBox is a tax reduction facility for profits derived from patented innovations. can ask the Dutch Government to help with a 180 181 http://www. are dedicated exclusively to the promotion of Dutch trade and investment and their activities are coordinated by the local embassies. the Dutch Cabinet announced its intentions to support the Arab Spring region to help with sustainable transition to: .agentschapnl. which is an equally important national objective. NBSO. through (re)building infrastructure.Restoration of the Rule of Law and protection of Human rights.Economic growth. 6. missions. with numerous special facilities.entrepreneurs (SMEs) by increasing financial resources available to them and by strengthening the financial intermediaries.1. created initially to promote innovation in industry which can be applied to the promotion of water technology exports. Such a bilateral program does not need to be created from scratch. At the moment. The services provided by the NBSOs. trade requests. developed in-house. NBSOs have no diplomatic status. including the promotion of employment opportunities. market scans.com/matchmaking/dutch-representatives/nbso/ http://www.hollandtrade.

technical research or a technical feasibility study. but feels uncertain about the degree of risk.4.nl/programmas-regelingen/innovatiekrediet 84 .nl/programmas-regelingen/wbso http://www.LoanGuarantee to a maximum of €1.4.nl/programmas-regelingen/groeifaciliteit 185 http://www. 6. 6.Eligible for such guarantees are SMEs that start a new venture.4. The certification is equally important for those looking to benefit from the facilities under the InnovatieBox or the BMKB. It takes little effort to enable the same facilities for “water” objectives. This lowers the downside risk threshold for the financier. The focus on innovation in all these facilities is a focus of choice.5. 6.4.agentschapnl. GROEIFACILITEIT – GROWTH FACILITY184 When a financier is ready to provide venture capital to a firm to support fast growth. the political desire to promote and drive technological innovation in industry. 6.3.agentschapnl. Given the will. above. The Dutch Government provides such a guarantee to help enterprising companies with international ambitions obtain the required bank financing. a take-over or overseas expansion. The focus is on promising innovative projects that can quickly lead to new products. the InnovationCredit can be made available to SMEs and Startups.4. The facility is not available for projects in agriculture or aquaculture. the business opportunity must make commercial sense and should not be constructed to replace another form of credit. like technical R&D or clinical trials for a new drug: projects with substantial technical risk but of great importance to the firm. The certification applies to firms involved the development of new products or processes. GARANTIE ONDERNEMINGSFINANCIERING (GO)185 The guarantee for enterprise financing is a similar arrangement for commercial banks which lend to business. setup abroad or work on technological innovation.agentschapnl.6. INNOVATIEKREDIET186 When innovative ideas with good potential for market traction find commercial finance hard to come by.5 million. Obviously. WBSO.LAW FOR THE PROMOTION OF R&D183 Innovative companies can ask to be awarded an R&D-certification which entitles them to tax advantages on the salary costs of R&D. The facility is not available for projects in agriculture or aquaculture. 183 184 http://www. The GO is the government’s answer to the difficulties commercial firms experience when trying to obtain a bank loan or bank guarantee. the same thing can be achieved for water and Water Mondiaal exports. the Dutch government can issue a state-guarantee to 50% of the investment value.nl/programmas-regelingen/garantie-ondernemingsfinanciering-go 186 http://www.agentschapnl. Expansion abroad is hard to finance for SMEs as the assets that form security for the loan are often in a different country subject to a different legal system.

1. The time-value of money is a highly theoretical concept in a country where time is flexible.7. - - - Hence. In this context a word on GoE as a customer. Many Egyptian private sector contractors can be heard to say that they will not work with a public sector customer. From a different angle: if your product or expertise is a component. 7. Good local intelligence can save the Dutch seller enormous amounts of time in avoiding window-shoppers and enabling quick technical pre-assessments. as too difficult. TARGET THE RIGHT CUSTOMERS This refers in the first place to the complex jig-saw of consultants and contractors. Egyptians are very good in the last two. but only if the price is right. Working in the Egyptian market place The preceding pages will have illustrated that Egypt is a market where Dutch products and know-how are welcomed. but in the absence of a continuous learning culture. While there may be some truth in these statements.1. prevalent both in the W&WW and the industrial sectors. so opportunities are only pursued where the seller’s value-add is actually wanted. Approaching this from a cost to buy. consultancy and other “soft” items. By our estimate. That requires a local voice with a broad background in technological development. specific competitive advantages come to those who apply new technology at the right local spots. a predilection for “out of the box” thinking and a jump from technology to money and backwards. too cheap and taking too much time. NOPWASD. such are supposed to be embedded in the hardware product or are to come in the form of people actually seen to do work on site. ROI is often measured in a near monopolistic environment and where the presence of the equipment often counts more than its output.2. MALR and many others account for more than 80% of the water market and their business gets done. Maintenance is usually not preventative but reactive and is done with a strong belief in the local capacity to “fix” things. organisations like MWRI. There is enormous reluctance to pay for services. new technical hard facts come from 85 . This in contrast to the Dutch approach of replacing parts before they break. Ensure that you have become a trusted source to the local contractors who regularly bid (and win) these tenders. but is still a hard sell in Egypt for several reasons: Egypt’ s manufacturing capacity is getting better by the day and local companies increasing feel that many imported products might as well be produced at home at much lower input costs. do not waste time looking at the big tenders.1.cost to own concept makes rational sense. year in year out. we suggest accepting such only with big reservations. short of trying to force an entirely “made-in-Holland” expensive product on a reluctant customer. a number of potential strategies come to the fore: 7. EDUCATING THE MARKET Water is a technology market and while the basics are no rocket science.

Egypt does not buy anything that has not been proven to work in a real-life environment in Egypt.3. 7. early on and be part of project creation process. As a rule. Understanding what the customer truly needs and re-engineering the product-service bundle to respond to this. answering to customer needs can be a true winner. FOCUS ON CUSTOMER NEEDS AND IMPROVE THE EMBEDDED ADDED VALUE This is the story of the RFQ (request for quotation) for a Mercedes at a Volkswagen budget. It simply takes time to truly understand a new market and between them. 187 Not everybody flies C-Class and stays in 5-star hotels. Identifying where true customer value lies. This provides unique opportunities to help set direction and standards.1. product utility. “Why do they not understand that this is the much better solution?” In Egypt everybody can read the notes.000. often a government organisation. Dutch companies can build a demo installation. but why he wants it.5. JOIN FORCES Export business is expensive business with a lot of costs up-front.visiting international specialists. to let one salesman handle several complementary product lines or to share local services. Turning an impediment into an advantage. the opportunity cost of alternatives and very personal like. Taking advantage of the many forms of Government support outlined in the previous chapter. 7. mais c’est le ton qui fait la musique. most Dutch companies. It makes sense for non competing Dutch companies to share market info. With a structure like the JSF and supported by the Dutch Government with programs like GO and BMKB. a pilot project is understood to prove that a proven concept works in Egypt. creates an answer to the question that is really on the table. Just countering a written inquiry with a written quote is a seemingly futile exercise. but a typical 1-week trip to Egypt easily costs €3. Beware however. ENHANCE THE PERCEIVED VALUE Value is a tricky thing with competing elements like brand perception. experienced water operator and knowledge institution can forge a true Dutch Joint Strike force. and which buttons to push. as we saw in the survey. Engineers who speak “engineer language” are often non-plussed. irrespective of outcome and not counting opportunity costs. is learning not what the customer wants. 7. This is where a join-up of equipment supplier. Still. or €500 per customer meeting. Instead. like-not sentiments all confusing the hard value-for-money equation. all these travelling Dutch salesmen create a lot of redundancy. Even better is to engage the end customer. pilot projects are proving a very effective way to get started with a new technology or process. believe that sending their own people to Egypt is the best way to start overseas business187. meeting with the customer (contractor or end-user) provides the deeper insight and unearths which market pain the project aims to solve.1. 86 . it is not a trial and error ground. maybe even at commercial scale at a fraction of the cost.4.1.

Outsourcing production was no option as NEM wanted to keep its hand in production details and maintain the asset value of practical experience.7. Selecting the right local business partners is only the beginning.al-hashemiah. Schneider. 189 ABB. Do not expect tailor-made service on-demand. NEM does not deploy a large Dutch crew in Egypt. Director of Manufacturing: “The young welding foreman showed an innate sense of organisation and quality awareness. Cost items in the product or service that can be right in a European market but which cannot justify the price premium in Egypt. the overhead loading. must serve all Dutch companies with designs on Egypt. as a growing realisation of win-win over a zero-sum game gains ground. Its successful Egyptian joint-venture. Taking together. minus the requisite overhead. deepening understanding and developing mutual trust is all part of the equation for success. One of the most valuable contributions a local partner can make is to identify overquality. The company had been twice around the world.6. 188 For those who nonetheless prefer to go it alone. tank welding. 7. NEM is a Dutch manufacturer of custom made solutions in the field of Heat Recovery. during construction and during operations (in Egypt.nl/EN/welcome/859/ 191 http://www. a true two-street of commercial advantages must be created. Collaboration with a local man can be highly productive if properly enabled. REDUCE PRODUCTION COST Local production and sourcing in Egypt is considerably cheaper and quite do-able. Grundfoss and many more 190 http://www. Then. Merlin Gerin. Al-Hashemiah came from a chance site meeting. the first thing built is usually a brick perimeter wall) different climate and weather damage risks. EKN Cairo has a large and well informed Trade information section which. And.com/ NEM owns 80% and has invested some €5 million 87 .1. Says Arie Dorrepaal. drop a brochure and continue by email. This should be followed by product and value-added sales training. 191 190 188 The list is long and covers restrictions and obligations derived from European Health and Safety Acts. a single engineer fulfils liaison and QC functions. Activities that help turn the hired help in a true partner. however. The country has numerous private workshops that do an excellent job in steel construction. GE.7. fibreglass. local material costs ( a tank in enameled steel or polyester) land conditions (excavation in rock or sand). slurry disposal rules and so forth. Commission-only deals tend to be short lived and highly mercenary. MAKE YOUR LOCAL PRESENCE COUNT Egypt is no country where a seller can walk in. searching for a location without the high labour costs of homebase Leiden. shipping. international household names189 in electro-mechanical equipment all have local branches and purchasing a pump or a switch is just as easy as it is back home. Industrial and Utility Steam Generators and related equipment serving a global market. He has proved to be a valuable factory manager and trusted partner”.1. a different take on site access.nem. import duties and the inevitable double work make made-in-Holland hardware expensive to be unsellable. Building relationships. the high cost of European labour. joint project development (focusing on these customer value buttons) and objective market research. assembly and of course civil works. while Al-Hashemiah develops its own style of management and strong competitive advantages.

193 For nearly 20 years. €2K. "We had a great start supplying under Dutch bilaterally funded programs.194 What is not that easy is to justify the high cost of a permanent payroll195. setting up a local rep office is not complicated or expensive. agents cost nothing up front. but that is a one-off. Hubert Stavoren. Nijhuis Pumps has been building hi-quality. an agent must be a local company registered as a foreign agent with the Ministry of Economy and Foreign Trade. Duivelaar Pumps. who's total involvement and support is proving crucial till this day. there are numerous examples of Dutch companies192 with brilliant agent relationships.For those who desire a heavier presence. Landustrie. Foreign companies that want to do business in Egypt must have a local buddy. a registered local agent must represent the foreign (Dutch) exporter. And that is hard.8.500. inventory will be held by local rep. this is the most common but mercenary relationship. general office staff €500. but you will not hear of the failures. we have built our reputation. perks) 88 . 7. http://www. many product details are out in the open and traditional manufacturers are worried about the risk of losing trade secrets. are not very common in Egypt. Raymond Kamp. The options: . jointly with our local agent. Aerzen and many others 193 Legally. hi-reliability pumps for many Nile hydraulic applications and water treatment plants in Egypt. THE RIGHT PARTNER AND LOCAL SETUP There are no two ways about it. certainly if an expat Dutch manager is to be part of the team. On the flip side." . the opportunity to demonstrate that we make the best pumps in a real-life environment. van Leeuwen Pipes. Agents are driven by commission and their priorities may not always align with those of the Dutch principal.Agents.com/ 195 Like anywhere else. 192 Nijhuis Pumps.Starting local production begins with a fair degree of upfront trust.Distributors and VAR (value-added resellers). Construction drawings on the table. Surely.1. And forget about on-line business unless you’re in the consumer market. Of course. good local manager (incl. commission gets paid only on paid sales. 194 Chartered accountant Mahmoud Adlan can help Dutch companies get established with a local representative office at a budget of US$2. a brand and continuity. More often. or branch offices or by a joint-venture local installer. Monthly budget for a small local office: Rent and overheads. Over the years. No business is entirely without risk and the clever Dutch partner can dose the information he provides upfront in small parts which do not have to include the “black box magic” of his core technology. you get what you pay for. Wavin. Amafilter. Typically non-exclusive either way. Norit. To build business.abdallaadlan. a foreign company must put its name plate on a building somewhere. .000. Commercial director. an Egyptian buyer can place his order directly in the Netherlands after the hard work of the visiting Dutch salesman. This is a good reason to hire professional help in drafting an agency contract. good sales engineer €1. Note that in nearly all jobs where the buyer is the government.

7. 196 J’V’s that work in real life have a clear majority partner.com/ 89 . Agents. Mauritius Wijffels. 197 http://www. €4K. signing an order or contract does not lead automatically to an opened Letter of Credit. That is problem for short term visitors with a return ticket and their mind set on the coming weekend. for example. it will work only if all parties see a benefit in the collaboration. even when they are also established industry consultants.A joint venture196 is just as easy in formalities but the wise Dutch businessman gets serious professional legal assistance to draft a truly sensible “marriage contract”. companies that matter are present. That may seem obvious.”. when decisions are made. Whichever engagement model suits the business at hand. Annual budget typically € 150K minimum. Dutch Advocaat and Business Adviser. but many Dutch businessmen experience disappointments when a little forethought and preparation could have made all the difference. the essence of the meeting will have to be discussed higher up before a decision can be made.9.10. APP. So. production and sales where only a the production layer is included in the JV. as always. PRESENCE MEANS BEING PRESENT In a country where personal relationships matter more than a long international reference list or a cool corporate website. BUSINESS IN EGYPT. It is not unusual. Dutch (young) expat representative / manager €6K. In this context. Walking in with an order form is very optimistic and a little naive. unless you are dealing with the true “boss”. helps to weight each component appropriately. Some of this has to do with the strict hierarchical structure of Egyptian public and private organisations which has little room for delegation of authority. it is worthwhile to consider working with EKN. there is no guarantee an agenda will be followed or that firm decisions and action items will follow.1. if a meeting concludes with an invitation to meet again. cannot sit at the table as an equal when decisions are made that require the participation by a Dutch company. Similarly. It is also not unusual to discover at the start of a meeting that the senior executive supposed to be there passed on the burden to a subordinate. “Separate the hospitality from the negotiation: your counterpart does so too and is a master 197 at both. a few days later. cost of living allowance for same €2K. practicing in Cairo. Egypt is a complex country with a business culture and environment very different from the Netherlands. CUSTOMS AND THE LAW The decision to go to Egypt and do business is easily made. 7.. All this comes wrapped in a warm cloak of hospitality and bonhomie.melba-legal.1. NWP and other Dutch (semi)public or private organisations to engage Egyptian senior policy and project makers at an early stage. Constructing the Egyptian venture in layers. Time is a different commodity and meetings may not only start beyond the scheduled time. but the devil is. in the detail. through a senior executive.

If a joint venture of sorts is in the plans. 50-50 arrangements do not work anywhere in the world and it is good to decide from the onset who will be boss. Mind what you promise. Egyptian companies and their CEO’s pride themselves on the number of people they employ and have no experience with the Dutch patchwork of collaboration networks between small companies and individual specialists. on the outside. the Egyptian buyer has the comfort of seeing an organisation with a number of people. Don’t fall for the myth that business in Egypt is a matter of good relationships. it pays to agree on a single organizational presentation before leaving the Netherlands. - - - - - 90 . physical assets. investing with somebody you met just weeks ago without a rock solid contract is foolhardy. of course. Different people will have different takes on the same facts. a manufacturing facility and the like. Nowhere is this more foolhardy than in Egypt where. a decision making framework is vital. This is a hard act for the visiting foreigner and is best left to local business advisors. In the absence of formal credit rating agencies working in Egypt. This study is no substitute for good legal advice. Scrabbling backwards in a belated uncertainty whether intellectual property may not be jeopardized is a deal killer. It’s true. It is true that the legal protection of intellectual property in Egypt is weak and that Egyptians see little harm in appropriating ideas and technologies. Discussing and firming joint plans and writing a contract that covers the good and the bad times is just common sense. so the promise to provide technical information to assess local manufacturability must be just that.Early negotiations are a subtle game of building and managing expectations. Whatever the nature of the deal you make. As long as all goes well. build in sureties for obligations that fall due when things go wrong. checking around in the industry and finance network to unearth the entire history of your friendly host and future business partner is often the most effective way. Legally. Joint venture investors must make a choice between what to reveal in detail and what must remain a “black box”. Here are a few key issues that should be worked out in advance. just between the Dutch parties. there is even more reason to write it all down. if things go bad. If a future partner counters rhetorically: “don’t you trust me?”. but it does not stop there. this can be backed up in a simple Letter of Intent. but a contract should at the very minimum contain clauses about payment terms. but as and when “it happens” the investment in time and money pays off. - There is always a tendency among business people to “get on with the job” and leave the details for later. flying under a single brand name. In all such collaborative cases. a foreigner without a written contract finds himself in a most unenviable position. Budget for this expense from day one. if at all. Selling on open credit to a new buyer is foolish. as we all hope. nobody looks at the contract document. limitation of liability and conflict resolution. Statements will be taken at face value. Do a due diligence search. which we strongly recommend for anybody who wants to do more in Egypt than a one-off LC deal.

com/access/pdf/library/culture/doing-businessin/Doing%20Business%20in%20Egypt.communicaid.. There is a corporate tax double tax treaty between the Netherlands and Egypt. Wrong! Keep it nice and praise the product and politely ask the seller to reduce his price.- Fighting a legal battle in Egypt is not recommended.becomes the instant minimum. but because you cannot afford to pay it. NEGOTIATING A PRICE No price is fixed in Egypt and haggling is a way of life with its own rules. He is grateful for the business. expensive flight ticket . a bit familiar. you praise the product. the foreigner. Remove the inequality between buyer and seller and you both maintain your dignity.. 198 A realistic budget is €5.. but application requires preparation. we’ll focus here on the faux pas most Dutch businessmen have been observed to make with regularity.. which cannot justify the high price. when asked how much you can afford to pay. 1998 Uitgeverij Het Podium 200 http://www. No money. Of course. you for the lower price. the product isn’t really all that attractive and not really worth having. more complex deals require more advisory work. they criticise the low quality. we share with you the hilarious and insightful experience of journalist Joris Luyendijk199. the khawaga. Khawaga is not insulting and to be addressed with “ya khawaga” is more a term of endearment. tax advice is also worth the money charged by a professional consultant. Mauritius Wijffels 7. 199 Een goede man slaat soms zijn vrouw.000 for due diligence on your new partner and legal advice on the new venture. Rather than repeating what is ubiquitously available200. BUSINESS ETIQUETTE IN EGYPT: WHAT YOU WON'T FIND ON THE INTERNET Much has been written about local mores and the do’s and don’ts a Westerner should mind when doing business in Egypt and the Arab world. Egyptian hospitality is beyond praise! By the way.” “Your homework will prove your best investment”. one for you. Meanwhile. Accept that behaviour is measured with two yardsticks. Most Western tourists do it the other way. one for the Egyptian.12. - It is all too easy to get caught up in the enthusiasm of the new venture and forget that it’s still business198. For Dutch investors and joint-venture actors. A prior agreement to resort to arbitration in a third country does not solve the problem.1.11.pdf 91 . problems at home.1. With a “you can’t fool me” face. how much did the previous tenant pay? Cultivate pity and sympathy. by Joris Luyendijk. you won’t get lower! So. but a sign of relaxing the formalities. It is very important to find partners that “click” in the professional and personal sense. not because that price is too high. remember that the “best laid plans . 7. you reply: Such excellent tea and pastry. Rather than theorising. but makes finding a settlement less painful. negotiating the rent for his apartment: “Haggling in Egypt goes like this: whatever price you mention -as a buyer.

with his host. Never fall in trap of behaving familiarly with your counterpart’s employees. It is best not to initiate handshakes with women and leave the first step to them. Similarly. Spend 5 pounds and look presentable. as the scruffy look does not become your image. fishing for a job. sneakers and a sports jacket is a no-no. but a 3-day shadow is common and socially acceptable. you will meet few plain Misters. but frustrated in not moving forward fast enough. In Egypt business people wear suits. do business with the top man or woman and stick to that level. it’s business. Besh mohandes or Doktor followed by the given name or the surname is the common and correct form of address201. in a black and white version. do not show the sole of your shoe. they’re great people to be with. fun and suave. Egyptians can be late and usually are: “the traffic. Abdel is almost never used in isolation. They’re also very clever traders and business people and they’re on their own home ground. - - - - - - 201 Besh Mohandes Tarek is Senior Engineer Tarek. The Dutch concept of sexism is totally alien to Egypt. Not so long ago a foreign visitor was accompanied to the pyramids by a nice young English speaking engineer. Do not get taken in. of course. It is really very insulting but many Dutch men seem to find this the only way they can sit on a chair. though. There are shoeshine boys on every street corner. you know”. The Dutch uniform of jeans. The company driver who kindly takes a guest back to the hotel understands enough when you summarise meeting his boss on your mobile to your boss. he was all understanding and commiseration. If ever possible. and never. 92 . never point your sole at anybody. You as a Westerner will have to shave. Dr Mohamed Mahmoud Abdel Kader will be called Doktor Mohamed or Doktor Abdel Kader. particularly not with junior employees. Swapping jokes with the junior engineer means that he will be your contact from there on. nd Remember that in 9 out of 10 cases the word Abdel comes with a 2 word following. T-shirts are underwear. Not shaking hands is ok. Similarly. Mohandes. some women do not. who used the occasion to complain about his work and salary. This ended up. do not assume that an Egyptian who is not vocal in English does not understand a word. Egyptians love titles and in the world of water. Do not cross it. You will have to be on time. All men shake hands. Not many Egyptian businessmen have beards. The foreign guest had no job to give away. If you must cross your legs sitting down. Haj is an honorary title often used for older men who have made the pilgrimage to Mecca. depending on the social setting and the age difference. realise there is a thin line between friendliness and familiarity.- Egyptians are hospitable.

putting pressure on available resources and that there must be limits to the extent to which EKN can promote individual interests on either the Dutch or the Egyptian side. in no particular order. an. some practical ideas that can be realised quickly without a call for big budget.8. Flying the flag in Cairo is important and it will be worthwhile to compare the merits of the current presence against a PPS. It is not clear at this day to what extent the substantial services and goodwill provided by EKN (with a team of 9 people) and APP can be continued in the years to come. 93 . Action June 2011 saw a very successful Egyptian-Dutch Water Week in Cairo. need all the help they can give themselves. we list. Unity makes strength and Dutch companies. is that an Embassy must serve all Dutch companies that ask for help. Marketing is a tough job which requires constant presence. NWP or by a private dedicated organisation. be it in execution or in the way the Egyptian customer perceives the Dutch offering. after 90 pages of analysis and opinion. action must come from those who have most to gain from a strong market position in Egypt: the Dutch private sector. The thinking here is to provide a continuity of Dutch presence in Egypt. A straw poll conducted during the Water week in Cairo indicated that Egyptian attendance to this overseas event may be limited. Here. What must be clear though. Companies can choose to make an effort on an ad-hoc basis. Most action ideas below are based on providing a continuum after the Dutch Egyptian Water Week and should be seen against that background. the technologies. NBSO or a pure private initiative. to ensure that the Water Week was no “flash in the pan” and that information continues to flow in both directions. is a losing proposition. 202 NWP lists IWW Amsterdam in November as the next follow-up event. In the long run. the hurdles. to join hands with other Dutch companies for a campaign or joint marketing or may decide that a permanent private sector presence is required in Egypt: a Cairo based organisation that works exclusively for those Dutch companies that wish this and pay for the service. like being present at the next Water Week . but it will be obvious that joint action will yield better results. Fragmentation. a clear focus on markets and segments and a realistic budget. Larger companies and institutions may choose to go it alone. The challenge now is to keep the momentum going202 and to turn all the good intentions in real business. Nearly 300 participants discussed the future of water in Egypt. Several can be put in effect by EKN. the policies. Important was the strong presence of the Egyptian private sector. often small by global standards.

205 Assist smaller Dutch companies in complementary. Providing Embassy staff with short focused briefs on what the company wants to offer Egypt. slaughterhouses. a rewarding guest lecture or workshop is easy to organise. Presence of the Dutch Water Sector at shows and events of industries that use large amounts of water (agriculture.Events and networking Make the Dutch Egyptian Water Week in the format of last June an annual event. but the process in not structured.is a classic example of a win-win model through synergy Consider and act on the cost advantages of local manufacturing and assembly. Such a presence can be modest en aims to reinforces market understanding that the Dutch have “water answers” Establish a Dutch University alumni204 organisation and build a network of business ambassadors. Donate old equipment to universities and schools as “learning models”. Such classes are meant to be highly technical and focus exclusively on “local experts”. Maastricht B-school and many other schools. in Egypt for business. Help Dutch companies assess the risks and gains towards real action. Admittedly. Take these events to the Governorates and New Towns. Egyptian alumni must number over 1000 205 Old does not mean junk. Delft. 94 . but a “cut-open” unit is a great help in education and displays the brand name continuously 206 Mentioned above.203 Masterclass on a single technical topic that cuts across industries and GoE organisations. Encourage Dutch water companies to join forces with other exporters of industry specific technology206 and offer the end customer a more complete solution – water pre and post treatment included. share efforts. presenting just 2 or 3 Dutch companies. An obsolete pump or valve will not sell anymore. A “join” button on the EKN website. Promote and organise internships with Dutch companies and student exchanges. industry. this usually takes place when a Dutch company rep visits the Embassy. etc. information. Guest lectures at the local universities by visiting (sales) technical specialists from Dutch companies / knowledge institutes. natural stone. particularly if industry is the target. non competing product and service ranges to coordinate their sales efforts. food processing. Lodging with EKN of target specific company and product brochures. production - - - 203 Dutch company staff with good tech knowledge . Organise monthly half-day events focused around a single technology or branch of the water sector. With just a few weeks notice. industrial plants etc. Broaden the current connections with MWRI and MALR to include the younger generation of Egyptian civil servants. can donate an evening. WUR. glasshouses. 204 Between IHE-Unesco. - - - Sales and marketing.

207 - At Dutch government. Pro-actively continue to “twin” waterschappen and water companies with the ACs in each Governorate. EKN and Water Mondiaal are government organisations and can be asked to support Dutch business in Egypt. ensuring objective and continuous information. These include both past successes and new “it would be nice if” scenarios where a Dutch organisation offers conceptual thinking and invites Egyptian parties to join at the execution level. showing the Egyptian markets through action that the Dutch are here to stay. The Infrastructure Hackathon organised by the WorldBank for action in Q4-2011 and a concept to organise a Business plan competition for small scale sanitation projects based on the technology of different Dutch companies as part of the events under Global Entrepreneurship Week .- Extend the EKN website with shortcut links to websites of companies that want to do business in Egypt. Dutch companies will have to work on their own intelligence and promotional efforts. APP. Water Mondiaal and industry level Enable and fund a transition solution where the private sector gradually establishes (and funds) a Cairo based organisation that can provide a de facto rep. Tahia Masr 207 Presently. two initiatives are reviewed. Review the potential of extending the “Innovatie” tax breaks described above to water exports. some basic realities hold true. also in Q4 95 . set aside rivalry and optimise “bang for the euro” by working together. Collecting and publishing business cases. Join in some of the many Entrepreneurship Promotion events and offer Dutch technology as the basis of a Business plan. office for participating Dutch companies. non biased priority identification and high level mediation in cases where local agents fail to entirely serve the Dutch company’s interests. competition or new business. This can function well with the current NWP call for business cases. - Whichever the initiative. What they cannot be asked is to do the business in Egypt. This will adequately answer wishes expressed in the Dutch survey to help in negotiating sustainable win-win terms of engagement and in matchmaking to strengthen the quality of the Dutch participant(s) offering.

AC Acronyms & translations Affiliate company (under HCWW) African Development Bank Advisory Project Panel Business to business Billion cubic meters Built.9.42 ha or 4200 m² farmer (plur. transfer Cairo and Alexandria Potable water organisation Centre for the Promotion of Imports from Developing countries Channel Maintenance Research Institute Coastal Research Institute Concentrated Solar Power Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency European Investment Bank Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands European Mediterranean water Information system Egyptian Public Authority for Drainage Projects European Union Egyptian Water Regulatory Authority 0. operate. fellahin) Financierings Maatschappij voor Ontwikkelingslanden Government to Government Gross Domestic Product Government of Egypt Holding company for Water and Wastewater Integrated Irrigation Improvement and Management Project Industrial Modernisation Centre International Monetary Fund Sanitation and Sewerage Infrastructure Project Improved Water and Wastewater Services Project Japan International Cooperation Agency Joint Strike Fighter Kredit Anstalt fur WiederAufbau Letter of Credit Liter per capita per day Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation AfDB APP B2B BcM BOT CAPWO CBI CMRI CoRI CSP EEAA EIB EKN EMWIS EPADP EU EWRA Feddan Fellah FMO G2G GDP GoE HCWW IIIMP IMC IMF ISSIP IWSP JICA JSF KfW Lc Lcd MALR 96 .

ME MED Mesqa MHUUD MoHP MSEA MSF MWRI NGO NWP NWRC NWRP ODA OOC PESP PPP PPPCU PPS PSI RO SME SPA SWRO UNDP UPEHC VAR W&WW WMES WPRR WUA WWTP Middle East Multi Effect Distillation tertiary irrigation level. managed by individual farmers Ministry of Housing. Utilities and Urban Development Ministry of Health and Population Ministry of State of the Environment Multi Stage Flash Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation Non Government Organisation Netherlands Water Partnership National Water Research Centre National Water Resource Plan Overseas development assistance Occidental Oriental Consult Programma Economische Samenwerking Projecten (defunct) Public Private Partnership Public Private Partnership Central Unit Publiek Private Samenwerking ( PPP in Dutch) Private Sector Investment programme Reverse osmosis Small Medium Enterprise Shore Protection Authority Salt Water Reverse Osmosis United Nations Development Programme Union of Producers and Exporters of Horticultural Crops Value added reseller Water and wastewater Water Mondiaal Egypt Study Water Policy and Regulatory Reform Water User Association Waste water treatment plant NOPWASD National Organization For Potable Water and Sewage 97 .

Environmental legislation Maximum effluent concentrations set by law (all subject to a valid license) Law 48’82 Decree 8’83 Allowable discharge to fresh water Allowable discharge to brackish surface water Law 93 ’62 Decree 9’89 Allowable discharge to public sewer Ph TDS Temp BOD COD Oil grease 7-8.1 ≥ 6-9 2000 35°C 60ppm 80ppm (dichromate) 40ppm (permanganate) 10ppm 6-10 2000 mg/l 40°C 400 ppm 700ppm (dichromate) 400ppm (permanganate) 100ppm 98 .10.5 500 5°C above normal 6≥ 10 ≥ 0.

but in Egypt such details can change quickly. contractors or businesses. Some websites and documents still display the old 7-digit numbers.11. number Telephone numbers are always 7-digit. However. Usually. 18. 17. 18 and 150. in view of the sheer volume of names and the dynamic nature of business. adding a pre-fix (2. 11. The organisation has Dutch connections The organisation is involved in general contracting work The organisation has a specialisation in W&WW The organisation has a specialisation in coastal protection The organisation has a specialisation in Agriculture & irrigation The organisation has a specialisation in aquaculture The organisation has a specialisation in pumps and valves The organisation serves the home-appliances market Numbers and email addresses are correct at the time of print. 14. 3 or 4) makes a working number. 152 99 . yahoo) next or instead of their employer’s domain address. Many professionals use web-mail addresses (hotmail. The icons below serve to help find specialised consultants. 16. space. Area code = (0)**. as these tend to be reliable. Mobile phones use codes +2010. Phone numbers are displayed as follows: + Country code =20. Names NB. the absence of an icon does not indicate that the company does not do this kind of work. except Cairo (+202) which has now 8-digits. 12. 151.

Ir. Cairo +2016 835 4646 www.com/ Mr. Advocaat mauritius@melba-legal.com Occidental Oriental Consult Downtown. Cairo +202 2728 8888 www. Cairo +202 2735 5903 http://www.Aly Khaled EL Shalakany Senior Associate Aly.Mahmoud Adlan Public Accountant armon_00@hotmail.com Eric Zoetmulder MA MBA Consultant eric@oo-consult.eg/ Dr.com Mr.Tarek Morad Dty Head Economic & Development Coop kai@minbuza. Agriculture and Innovation kai-lnv@minbuza.abdallaadlan.com Zaki Hashem Partners Downtown.com/ Mr. Cairo +202 2393 3766 www.oo-consult. Cairo +202 2739 5500 http://www.Loay El Shawarby Attorney at Law loay.com 100 . Hans van der Beek Counsellor Office of the Ministry of Economic Affairs.11. Cairo +2010 7818 593 Den Haag +316 5321 9965 www.Mauritius Wijffels Chairman.elshawarby@hasemlaq.org.com Shalakany Law Office Zamalek. Consultant egbert@oo-consult.nl Dr.melba-legal Mr.com Egbert Ottevanger MSc.hollandembassy.nl Abdalla Adlan Public Accountants Zamalek.Shalakany@shalakany.1 Professional business advisors EKN Embassy Kingdom of the Netherlands Zamalek.com Melba Group Legal Advisors Mohandeseen.hashemlaw.shalakany.

nwrc@nwrc-eg.Tarek ELSamman Director cmri-director@hotmail. Giza Dr.org +202 4444 3533 NWRC CMRI Channel Maintenance Research Institute Elqanatir El Khairiya. Fahmy Chairman hussam.Ibrahim Elshennawy Head coriegypt@gmail.Tarek Kotb Project Director IIIMP thskotb@yahoo.eg +202 3544 9456 Dr.Ibrahim Farrag Abd El Khalek Head of RGBS RGBS-abp@mwri.11.eg +202 3544 9552 MWRI SPA Shore Protection Authority Shubra.gov. Cairo Eng. Alexandria Dr.Shaden Abdel Gawad Chairperson. Water related (semi-) government organisations MWRI Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation Imbaba.com +202 4444 3406 NWRC National Water Research Center Shubra.fahmy@yahoo. Qalyubia Dr.mwri.gov.com +202 3544 9489 MWRI EPADP Egyptian Public Auth. Dr.Drainage Projects Giza.Alaa AbdelMotaleb Head drins@idsc.Hussam El‐Din S. Cairo http://www.com +202 3573 8039 MWRI RGBS Reservoirs and Grand Barages Sector Imbaba.nwrc-egypt.Mohamed Abdel-Motaleb Head of the Planning Sector motaleb@mwri.Hussein El Atfy Minister Dr.com +202 42189596 NWRC CORI Coastal Research Institute El-shalalat.htm HE Dr.com +203 484 4615 NWRC DRI Drainage Research Institute Elqanatir El Khairiya.Amaal Mohmed Ali Chairman amalmohamed_ali@yahoo. Qalyubia Dr.eg +202 4218 9841 101 .org/nwrc/ Prof.eg/En/contactus.2 Egyptian government.gov. Giza Dr.net. Giza +202 3544 9447 http://www.

Dr.org +202 4218 8268 NWRC NRI Nile Research Institute Elqanatir El Khairiya. Qalyubia Dr.eg CAPWO Cairo & Alexandria Potable Water Org.gov.hasan@ewra. Downtown.eg/en/en_design/Default_en.Nahed el Arabi Director elarabinahed@yahoo.gov.Mahmoud Mokhtar Potable Water Projects Head Eng.Mohamed A.com +202 4218 2070 NWRC HRI Hydraulics Research Institute Elqanatir El Khairiya.eg MHUUD EWRA Egyptian Water & Wastewater Regulatory Agency Down Town. Giza +202 3345 3507 proj_sect@yahoo.ewra.a spx Eng.com +202 4218 2117 NWRC WRRI Water Resources Research Institute Elqanatir El Khairiya.Asmaa Medhat Yousif Kamel Research Engineer eng_semsem1001@hotmail. Abdelghany Environmental IT Engineer mohamed.Samia Saleh Vice President for Planning and Projects Eng. Elqanatir El Khairiya.Mohamed Hasan Mostafa Head of Technical Regulations mohamed.abdelghany@ewra.moh.Medhat Aziz Head nri@starnet.Mohamed el Alfy Deputy Minister of Housing for International Cooperation and Head of the Egyptian Water Regulatory Authority malfy@mhousing.eg Mr.eg +202 4218 4229 NWRC RIGW Research Institute Groundwater Elqanatir El Khairiya. Zeinab Mounir Projects Sector Head capwegypt@yahoo.NWRC ECRI Environment and Climate Research Inst.gov.com Eng. Qalyubia Ms. Cairo +202 2579 9481 Eng. Qalyubia Dr. Qalyubia Prof. Cairo +202 27934499 www.com.eg Dr.Fathy EL Gammal Head info@hri-egypt.Ezzat Saleh Design Manager 102 .gov. Qalyubia Prof. Cairo +202 2920 1748 www.com +202 4218 9437 MHUUD Ministry of Housing Utilities and Urban Devpt Down Town.gov.com NOPWASD Nat’l Authority Potable Water & Sewage Mohandeseen.Ahmed Fahmy Head ah_fahmi@ecri-eg.

HCWW Holding Company for Water and Wastewater Rod-elfarag. Beni Suef.aspx?ID=14 Eng. Beni Suef http://www.Mamdouh Raslan Deputy Chairman mraslan@hcww.com +2050 221 9531 Fayoum Drinking water & sewage water co.eg Dr.hcww. Baghos. Mansoura.eg/ar/Companies/Sub sidiaries.bwadc.eg +2045 333 2672 Beni Suef water & waste water Co.com.hcww. Damietta.com +2084 630 3312 Gharbya Potable water and waste water Co. Cairo +202 2458 3590 http://www.aspx?ID=6 Eng.eg Eng.com.hcww.Ahmed Moawad Head Technical Planning Sector ahkamal_moawad@yahoo.eg/En/Default.com.aspx?ID=23 Mr.hcww. Gharbeya http://www.Mohamed Osman Chairman ghwsc@yahoo. Fayoum http://www.com.aspx?ID=13 Eng.aspx Eng.com Assiout Water & Waste Water Co.hcww.Mahmoud Abu Zeid Chairman fdwasc@fdwasc.Adel Ashour El Mahdi Chairman ascww_2@yahoo. Assiout http://www.com.eg/ar/Companies/Sub sidiaries.com +2018 800 0070 Aswan Potable water and waste water Co. Aswan http://www.hcww.com +2082 232 7239 Damietta Potable water and waste water Co. Beheira www.com.eg/ar/Companies/Sub sidiaries.eg/ar/Companies/Sub sidiaries.com. Tanta.Safwat Rageh CEO info@bwadc.com.eg/ar/Companies/Sub sidiaries.Ahmed Amin Hassan Abdein Chairman dkwasc@dkwasc.El Sayed Mahmoud Abdallah Rabee Chairman +2057 223 4572 Daqahlia Water & waste water Co. Damietta http://www.com.hcww. Aswan.com.com.Mohamed Mohamed Abou El Khair Chairman info@bswas.aspx?ID=11 Eng.com +2040 341 8616 103 . Dakhlia http://www.aspx?ID=9 Eng.eg/ar/Companies/Sub sidiaries. Assiout.eg/ar/Companies/Sub sidiaries.Ezzat El Sayad Chairman +2097 230 6246 Beheira water & Drainage company Beheira.hcww.aspx?ID=7 Eng.

gcwc. Kafr El Shaikh http://www.com +202 2574 3025 Kafr El Shaikh water & waste water Co.hcww.Mohamed Fouad Abd El Rahman Chairman Info@kwsc.Radwan Fathy Ibrahim Khalifa Chairman mona@mdwsc. El Miniya. Menofeya.aspx?ID=18 Eng.Mohamed Ahmed Abd El Rahman Abdelati Chairman tech.hcww.hcww.Ahmed AbdEl Rahman Abdelati Chairman moabdelrahman@hotmail.hcww.com.eg/ar/Companies/Sub sidiaries.js p Eng.com.cwc@hotmail.com.gcwc.eg/ar/Companies/Sub sidiaries. Giza http://www.com +202 3542 4761 Greater Cairo for water Company Cairo.eg/main/Index_lg_en.js p Eng.eg/ar/Companies/Sub sidiaries. Matrouh.Khaled Hussein Nasr Hussein Chairman lcww@lcww.com.com.eg/ar/Companies/Sub sidiaries.com.com +2010 180 3687 Greater Cairo Sanitary Drainage Company Down Town. Cairo http://www.com. Giza.eg +2086 237 9862 Menoufya Potable water and waste water Co. Luxor http://www.eg/ar/Companies/Sub sidiaries.aspx?ID=5 Mr.eg/ar/Companies/Sub sidiaries.hcww. Luxor.Giza water & waste water Co.Amro Ahmed Wahsh Chairman Amro_wahsh@yahoo. Matrouh http://www.eg +2047 321 1084 Luxor water & waste water Co.cwc@ hotmail.eg/main/Index_lg_en.eg +2095 228 4141 Matrouh Potable water and waste water Co.eg +2048 226 9385 104 .aspx?ID=21 GeneralYousry Henry Azer Chairman +2046 494 2227 Menia water & waste water Co. Kafr el Sheikh.com.com.com.hcww.Moh.projects. Cairo http://www. Miniya http://www.com.aspx?ID=12 Eng.aspx?ID=17 Eng.com.com.aspx?ID=19 GeneralAyman Abd El-Kader Chairman mcww@mcww. Menofeya http://www.

Ismailia http://www.hcww. Zagazig.aspx?ID=20 Dr.chairman. Ismailia. Qena http://www.eg +2055 230 2532 Sohag water & waste water Co.Ibrahim Khaled Gabr Chairman +2064 375 1317 Qena Potable water and waste water company Qena.aspx?ID=22 Mr.aspx?ID=24 Eng.aspx?ID=16 Eng.hcww.com.Mahmoud Zaki Mahmoud Assaad Chairman +2096 522 6410 Red Sea Potable water and waste water company RedSea.North and South Sinai Potable water and waste water Co.com +2093 230 1290 105 .com. Sharkeya http://www.Mohamed Moustafa Soultan Chairman info@shapwasco.eg/ar/Companies/Sub sidiaries.Nageh Ibrahim Chairman +2065 355 8798 Sharqia water & waste water Co.hcww.com.aspx?ID=10 Eng.office@gmail.com.com.eg/ar/Companies/Sub sidiaries. Sohag.com.hcww. Sohaq http://www.Ezzat Ibrahim El Sayyad Chairman sohag.eg/ar/Companies/Sub sidiaries.eg/ar/Companies/Sub sidiaries.eg/ar/Companies/Sub sidiaries.hcww. Red Sea http://www.

gov. Finance HE Dr.Mohamed Samir M.sg +202 23421283 106 .as px?OrgId=1&lang=en&ResID=70980 Dr.agr-egypt.gov.eg +202 2525 6452 MoF PPP Central unit Nasr City. Dr.eg/InstsLabs/ResDetails. Environment.com MALR EALIP Exec Auth.eg Prof.mof.eeaa.agr-egypt.Hamdy Khalifa hekhalifa@yahoo.arc.gov.eg/pppcu site/content/home/default Eng.agr-egypt.11.gov.eg A. Council Dokki. asp Prof.gov.pppcentralunit. Cairo http://www.Atter Hannoura Director atter@mof. Dokki. Giza www.com +202 3761 3993 SWERI Soil Water & Environment Research Inst.com +202 3572 0608 EEAA Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency Maadi.gov. Giza www.Moustafa M Fouda Director Nature Conservation Sector.sci. Giza http://www. Cairo www.eg/English/main/about.Mohsen Elbatran Head of Economic Affairs Sector KarimElbatran@gmail.gov.3 Government – Agriculture. Abo Soliman Chairman m_abosoliman@yahoo. Aboul Naga Senior Advisor ARDC abdelmaboulnaga@hotmail. Cairo http://www.eg Prof.com ARDC Agricultural Research and Dvpt. Land Improvement Projects Dokki.Ayman Farid Abou Hadid Minister MALR Ministry of Agriculture Dokki. Dty Minister eeaa@eeaa.

org/Default.org/ Dr.eg +202 3544 9480 FAO Dokki.org Mr.weber@gtz. Qalyubia http://www.net +202 4218 3326 APP Egyptian Dutch Advisory Project Panel Water Management Delta Barrage.com +202 2735 1045 107 .fao.Hesham Mostafa Coordinator NFP for EMWIS minister@mwri. Dr.elansary@fao.org +202 4024 3079 CEDARE Center for Environment and Development for the Arab Region and Europe Heliopolis. Weber Irrigation Agronomist gpaul.org +202 2451 3921 EU Delegation of the European Union to Egypt Mohandeseen.aspx AWC Arab Water Council Nasr City.Mohamed el Ansary Asst.eu/delegations/egypt Ms.nsce-inter.Khaled Abu Zeid Regional Water Resources Program Manager kabuzeid@cedare.emwis.org.farouk@eeas. FAO Representative mohamed.4 International Organisations Dr.com/En/index. Cairo http://www. Giza www.europa.app-wm.Ahlam Farouk Program Manager Tech & Voc Education ahlam.gtz.org +202 3331 6000 GTZ German Technical Cooperation Imbaba.eu +202 3749 4680 EU EMWIS European Mediterranean Water Information system Cairo.de +202 3545 6794 Mr. El Qanatir.de +202 3335 3349 North South Consultants Exchange Zamalek.org/ Mr. Giza www.cedare.aspx Dr.int/ Prof.Joachim Lehmann Programme Director Water Resources Mgt Reform joachim.arabwatercouncil.Samia El Guindy Director app@link. Cairo http://www3. Giza http://eeas. Cairo http://www.Mahmoud Abu Zeid President president@arabwatercouncil.11.Magda Ghonem Program Manager mghonem@nsce-inter.de Dr.lehmann@gtz.europa.Paul G. Cairo http://www.

org +202 2578 4840 WHO World Health Organization Nasr City. Cairo www. Cairo www.com +202 2735 1045 UNDP Cairo. New Cairo. Cairo Dr.USAID 5th District.org Eng. New Cairo.who.bright@wprregypt.int +202 2276 5560 CH2MHILL (Chemonics int.osgood@wprregypt.Susan Watts Social Scientist wattss@emro.Mohamed Bayoumi Environment Specialist Mohamed.undp. Cairo http://www.com Mr.Silvia Ramses Business Development Manager sramses@nsce-inter.wprregypt.com Mr.North South Consultants Exchange Zamalek.com +202 2929 7868 WPRR Water Policy and Regulatory Reform project .wprregypt.aspx Ms.Alan Bright USAID Water & Wastewater Sector Support Program alan.nsce-inter. Cairo +202 2929 7868 www.com +202 2929 7868 108 . USAID Egypt) 5th District.com/En/index.Bayoumi@undp.David Osgood Country Manager david.

org 109 .nsf/Content/E gypt Mrs. Cairo +202 3336 6583 www.Elwan@afdb. Hany El Saadani Water Resources Engineer helsadanisalem@worldbank. Mina Maged Supervisor – Corporate Finance mina.org Citadel Capital Garden City.de NSGB Downtown and Mohandesseen.eib.Mr.org IFC International Finance Corporation Cairo.Ahmed El Sharkawy Principal asharkmail@yahoo.de Mr.worldbank.Nada Shousha Principal Country Officer nshousha@ifc. Detlef Gielow Programme Manager Water and Waste Water Sector detlef.org/ifcext/mena.com World Bank Boulak. Cairo +202 27707084 www. Cairo +202 2526 1419 http://industry. Environmental Affairs Agency EPAP Maadi. Cairo +202 2736 9525 http://www. Cairo +202 2791 4440 http://www.com EEAA Eg. Cairo +202 2574 1670 http://data.maged@socgen.ammar@afdb.gov.gov.gielow@kfw. Egypt Heliopolis.kfw.citadelcapital.eeaa.ifc.afdb.org/country/egyptarab-republic Mr.5 Financial Institutions and multilateral donors Mr.11.eg EIB European Investment Bank Dokki.com Ms.org DrYasser Elwan Senior Water Engineer Y.com/ Mr. Cairo +202 2461 9140 http://www.eg/ Mr. Cairo +202 2256 3790 www.org Mrs.Jane Macpherson Head Cairo regional office macphers@eib.Tarek Ammar Private Sector Specialist t.org AfDB African Development Bank.org KfW Zamalek. socgen.Philip Jago Team leader ind_unit@eeaa.

http://www.Florentine Visser MED-ENEC Key Expert Low Energy Building & Urban Planning florentine.o rg +202 2451 3921 GIZ International Services Heliopolis.11.Khaled Abu Zeid Managing Director kabuzeid@egyptianwaterpartnership. Cairo http://eng.shams.org/ind ex. Arafa Associate Prof.Hassan M.com Ain Shams University.eu Ms.asu.uk Mr. Dr.eg Ain Shams University Abbasia.Amr Mossad Abdel Maksoud Ass.Peter Riad Associate Lecturer.Ahmed Refaat Sanitary Engineering refat_a31@yahoo. of Agriculture Eng.org/ Mr. Faculty of Engineering Abbasia.edu +2012 733 5294 Desert Research Center Cairo.Tina Jaskolski Research Coordinator tinajas@aucegypt.aspx Prof.edu +202 2613 9929 Ms. Cairo +202 2418 1578 www.com +2012 733 5294 ETRACE Agriculture & Agro-Industries Technology Ctr Mohandessin.6 Knowledge Institutes Mr.edu/research/ddc/Page s/ddchome.Yasser E.edu.de +202 2418 1578 110 .eg/ Prof Dr.Mohamed Nabil info@etrace-eg.co.edu.egyptianwaterpartnership. Husseiny Irrigation Manager hhuseiny@aucegypt.com AUC Desert Development Center New Cairo.visser@giz.Irrigation & Hydraulics Dept ph4318@yahoo.med-enec.aucegypt.edu. Lecturer amr_abdelbari@agr. Cairo http://agr.org +202 3748 4142 EWP Egyptian Water Partnership Heliopolis.eg/ Dr. Cairo. arafayeh@yahoo. Cairo http://www.Ibrahim Nasr President imnasr@yahoo.shams.aspx Mr.aspxn Prof.aucegypt.etrace-eg. Cairo http://www.edu/research/ddc/Page s/ddchome. Cairo http://www.

Dr.com/Index. Giza http://publicwebsite.org.ca/EN/Regions/Midd le_East_and_North_Africa/Pages/default. Cairo +202 2792 1341 http://www. Giza Prof. Mid East & North Africa Office (WADImena) Giza. Giza Prof.Egypt Helwan. Dr.org NRC National Research Center.Maha Moustafa El Shafei Director of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Iinst m_elshafai@yahoo. Housing and Building Dokki.org/ MrEssam Nada National Programme Coordinator Egypt Egypt@NileBasindiscourse.niof.eg +202 3336 7051 111 . 6th October City http://www.com Prof. Dr.Maha Mohsen Tawfik Chairperson info-r@rctws.com Nil Basin Discourse .html Dr.com +202 3335 1573 RCTWS Regional Centre for Training and Water Studies 6th October City.Fatma El Gohary Professor of Water Pollution Research fgohary@hotmail. Cairo http://www.aspx Hammou Laamrani Project Coordinator.National Institut of Oceanography and Fisheries Garden City.Mohamed Attia Shreadah President m_shreadah@yahoo.rctws.Fekry Ashour Mourad Researcher mourad_niof@yahoo.com +202 3833 2691 Regional Water Demand Initiative.sci.com +202 3762 9204 NRC National Research Centre Dokki. hlaamrani@idrc.idrc.eg/ Mr.nilebasindiscourse.

elsaieengineering.alamargroup.com/ Dr.net Al Amar Consulting Group New Maadi.com.aaw.com/fixed.com CEC El Saie Engineering Consultants Mansheit El Bakry.Yehia El Saie General Manager elsaie@tedata.eg/ ACE Engineering Consultants Moharram Bakhoum Dokki.Gamal Taher Director gamaltaher1@hotmail.php Ms.Ghassan F.net Dr.Bahaa Afif Project Manager gabal@ace-consultants.Yehia Gamal M Moussa Vice President Techical Affairs ygamal@aaw.baki@activebrains.com +202 3336 0918 Consulting Office for Environmental & Civil Engineering Nasr City.com 112 .Shaimaa A.Ahmed Gaber. Cairo http://www. Cairo +202 2260 5401 Eng. Ahmed Abdel Warith Consulting Engineers Dokki.11.Mostafa Hedayah General Manager m_hedayah@yahoo. Giza +202 3749 2778 www.com Aqua Egypt Chemical Engineering Zamalek.eg AAW Dr.com Active Brains Consulting Group (ABCG) Dokki. Cairo +202 3337 7120 http://www.chemonicsegypt.activebrains. Cairo +202 2517 7670 http://www.net.php?id=9 Dr. Cairo +202 2736 3319 Eng.com/ Eng. Al Zayat Business Development Manager shaimaaelzayat@gmail. Chairman chemegy@chemonicsegypt. Cairo +202 2257 9533 http://www.com.7 Consultants and consulting engineers Eng.com/index. Cairo +202 3761 7737 https://www.Sherif Abd El-Baki Managing Director sherif.eg Chemonics Egypt-Ahmed Gaber & Partners Dokki.ace-consultants. Nakad Teamleader USAID W&WW Program GNakad@Chemonics.com +202 3760 0764 Eng.

nl Mr.com Mr.gamgoum@ecgsa.Environmental Solutions (ECS) Zamalek.com/En/services.ecbmb.Wassef Naguib Wassef President wwassef@ctbegypt. Cairo http://www.com Dar Al-Handasah Mohandessin.ecgsa.com Euroconsult Mott MacDonald Imbaba.com/cms/index.ecord1.Ahmed Mohamed Gamgoum Proposal Manager.php Eng. Cairo +2010 7333 465 http://www.dargroup.delft-environment. Cairo +202 2736 4121 Eng.ctbegypt.shassaballah@dargroup.html Dr.Tarek Genena President genena@ecoconserv.ecoconserv.CTB Consulting Trading Bureau Heliopolis.com/ Eng.moussa@delft-environment.com ECORD El Asafra Kebly.Radwan Mostafa Kamal General Manager radwan@ecord1.com Dr. Cairo +202 2735 9078 www.Ahmed Said Hassaballah Senior Infrastructure Engineer ahmad.dce-ltd. Cairo +202 3543 3945 www.com/ Mr. Alexandria +203 324 0587 http://www.com Darwish Consulting Engineers Heliopolis.Moustafa Samir Moussa Environmental Consultant m.net EWW Egyptian Water Works Zamalek. Bus Dev.Mohamed Raouf Darwish CEO info@dce-ltd. Cairo +202 2638 2209 http://www.com. Division ahmed.com +202 2274 4740 Dr.html Dr.Wicher Boissevain IIIMP boissevain@link.net +202 2670 1041 EcoConServ . Giza +202 3344 9680 http://www.Tarek Ismail Sabry Consultant tarek_sabry@unitedconsultants-eg.eg 113 .com Delft Environment Cairo.net ECG Engineering Consulting Group Nasr City.net/index. cairo +202 2291 1330 http://www.Ahmed Fahmy Sales Manager afahmy@ewwoilandgas.

Cairo +202 3302 1487 www.Herrie Heckman Team Leader h.Mustafa Ibrahim Afify Owner mustafa.heckman@royalhaskoning. Cairo. Fayoum +2084 6302 064 www.info Eng.afify@gig-consult.gpwatertreatment.eg. Direc.royalhaskoning.Medhat Saleh Managing Director mabdelmsaleh@yahoo.mce.com Misr Consulting Haram.& D.abdelmottaleb@sabrycorp.green-group.badr@green-group. Cairo +202 2414 6493 Dr.M info@futureconsult-eg. Cairo +202 2417 8360 www. Cairo +202 2261 2596 Dr.com Eng.com SEECO Mohandessin.info Kamel Consultants & Research Downtown. Giza +202 3385 1462 http://www. Alexandria +203 574 1281 Mr.Mohamed Abdel Mottaleb Chairman mohamed.com 114 .com Rehab for Projects & Trade Nasr City.Mohamed Refaat Projects Head oasis@tedata.com Royal Haskoning Group/Egypt Fayoum. Cairo +202 3830 4081 www.com GIG Consultancy.Ossama Abdel Ghaffar President o.com Green Group Giza.futureconsult-eg.net.Basel Ahmed Kamel Principal consultant basilkamel@gmail.com/ Eng. Cairo +202 3336 5013 http://www. Giza +202 3304 2082 Dr.eg Ossama Abdel Ghaffar & Associates Alexandria.Moustapha El Shazli Project Manager moustapha_elshazli@live.gig-consult.com Sabry Corp.Mahmoud Badr Technical Director m.Ahmad Abu-Deif Exec.Hatem Hussein PM info@gpwatertreatment.ghaffar@gmail.nano technology consultants Heliopolis.Future Consulting Cairo.com GP General Process 6th October City.com Mr. Cairo +202 2393 1969 Dr.com/ Eng. Green Industrial Gateway.com Eng.

com Talaat-Imam Mohandessin. Cairo +202 3303 6935 www.System Technique Mohandessin.com 115 .Mostafa Ashmawy General Manager mashmawy95@yahoo.Ahmed Saleh Cairo & Alex Branch Manager office@systemtechnique.Hane'a Ismail Ibrahim Head of Design tice@talaat-imam.com/en/Default.systemtechnique.aspx Eng.com Eng.a2zdecor.com Utilities Consulting engineers Mohandeseen. Giza +202 3344 2272 Eng. Giza +202 3346 1888 http://talaatimam.

Alexandria +2012 164 3866 Eng. Mansoura +2010 280 8466 www.D.Ibrahim Mahlab.Mohamed Gamal Hano Vice Chairman hano205@yahoo. Dep.Morsi AbdelHamid Advisor to the Manager Electromechanical Div. samh. Cairo +202 2620 0048 http://www.net/introduction.Ahmed Ismail Partner ahmed. Cairo www. eng_morsi2010@yahoo.C.co.) Heliopolis.com Eng. +202 2263 7732 Mr.omegaeg.Nabil Sharaf Owner nobel1953@yahoo.Ayman Nassem Owner aymanneseim@yahoo.com Amy Land Modern Irrigation Systems & Agriculture Systems 6th October. +202 2403 6784 Mr. Electromechanical Affairs Div.Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed Hussein Director General.htm Eng.com +202 3817 5959 116 .8 Contractors Eng.Samir Mohamed Mahmoud Head Sector and Dty Manager Mech & Elec.Ibrahim Ali Owner aqua.ismail@al-emanco.com.com Eng.com.hussein@arabcont.Mohamed Akram Accountant aquamaint_1@hotmail.com Aqua Misa Trading & Water Treatment Sidi Beshr Kebly. 6th Of October City +2010 231 7789 Eng.arabcont. Chairman info@arabcont. Alexandria +203 522 3889 Mr.com Mr.al-emanco.com Arab Contracting Drilling (A. Cairo +202 2487 1056 Al Eman Engineering Co Mansoura.uk Agritech Egypt for Engineering & Trading Hadayek El Qobba.misa@yahoo.11.com Aqua Maint Water Technology & Environment Cleopatra Al Soghra. ahmed.com Arab Contractors Cairo.emprojects@gmail.C.

cometegy. Cairo +202 2417 5042 www. Cairo +202 2520 3077 Eng.com Eng.office_eac@yahoo.eg.drilling@hotmail. Mabrouk.com Eng.Said Abd El Mohsen sharcogroup@link.mabroukegypt.com Eng.com El Talkhawy Star Water Treatment & Boiler 10th of Ramadan.chp-eg.com Eng.Arab German Company for Waste and Environmental Technology (AGET) Gharbia.Salah Khalil Accountant project@access.com Egyptian Wells Drilling Services Mohandessin. Cairo +202 3347 6664 MajorHamdy Hassan CEO el.com.Reda El-Fransawy Owner ecom@ecom. Cairo +202 3583 6211 Eng. Cairo +203 338 5647 Eng.Hesham El Zayat Civil Engineer t. Tanta +2040 329 8690 www. Chairman info@mabroukegypt.Hamed Abouel Fottoh Chairman chairman@chp-eg. Sharkeya +2015 354 477 www.masrien.Mohamed M.com 117 .eltalkhawygroup.eg Egyptian for Operation & Management Maadi.Ashraf Kamel CEO Deputy sales@cometegy.com Egyptian Basic Structure Mohandessin.com Canal Harbour & Great Projects Ismailia. Cairo +202 3345 2002 Mr.Soliman Abu Basha Chairman hyz14@yahoo.com Eng.net Egyptian Arab Contracting Haram.Ashraf El Talkhawy Owner info@eltalkhawygroup.com Eastern Engineering & Trading Dokki.com Comet for Trade & Engineering Works Almaza. Ismailia +2064 3396525 www.

Nahed Hasanein Office Manager trydon@trydon.A.Engineering Contracting & Mechanic Constr. Cairo +202 2320 3430 http://www.Maged Morcos General Manager eurodrip@link. Cairo +202 2550 0870 www.a sp Eng.html Eng. Menoufeya +2048 260 1202 http://www.Gamal Abd El-Nasr Owner gew@engineer.trydon. Dokki.org.trydon@trydon.com.info@finepea k.eg/EN/Contact/default.Ahmed Mostafa Office Manager emoco@emocoegypt.com Eng.c om.com. Land Reclamation and Reconstruction Dar El Salam.com Future Water Treatment Kafr Abdou.eg Mr.aspx Eng.Islam Mohamed Abo Salama Owner future_watertreatment@yahoo.com GEAK Gemka Engineering & Contracting Helwan. Cairo +202 2270 2315 http://www.com Grl.eurodrip.eg General Electric Company Heliopolis.Mohamed Heikal General Manager mheikal2000@hotmail.eg Engineering Modern Operations Nasr City. Alexandria +203 542 5699 Eng.com/contacts.com.Mokhtar Morgan Chairman info@gclr.gemkagroup.com Eng.Mohamed Abdullah Abdelrahman General Manager chairman@finepeak.E Sadat City.com.eg Mrs.net Fine Peak Nasr City.finepeak.gr/Default.Ossama Abdallah General Manager osamaa@osman. Cairo +202 2261 2118 www.com 118 .com.emocoegypt. Cairo +202 2414 2204 Dr. Giza +202 3760 2034 www.gclr. Co.com Eurodrip Egypt S.

com Int'l Agricultural Trade & Development Haram.Montaser Zahran Head of Project Sector Eng sfcegypt@yahoo.hawwarydrill.com/contact.allamsons. Cairo +202 2290 8856 Eng.hidco@yahoo. Giza +202 3762 2170 Eng.ngcc-allam.Mohamed Raffat Technical Engineer info@horsealex.elharam@gmail.Mofeed Hazmy Owner mofeed_f@yahoo. Cairo +202 2267 6166 www. Cairo +202 2266 6917 http://www.General for Engineering & Contracting Nasr City.Mahmoud Wagieh Sales Manager itc.com Hassan Allam Nasr Abbasya.net Hydrogeen Land Scape & Irrigation Networks Heliopolis.Wael Abo El Wafaa Financial Manager waelaboalwafa@yahoomail.Fakhry Younan Owner fyounan@hydrogrp.eg/ Eng.com Eng. Cairo +202 2262 5996 Eng.Ahmed Kafory Head of Business Development ahmedkafouri@allamsons.com Inter Group Dokki.com Hawary Investment & Development Haram.com 119 .com Hassan Allam & Sons Heliopolis.htm Eng.Abdel Ghany El Baz Head of Projects Sector Mr.com ING Kreis Nasr City. Giza +202 3779 5831 www.com. Cairo +202 3749 7891 Eng. Cairo +202 2685 8063 http://www. Giza +202 3382 0088 Eng.Mahmoud Salah Project Manager ingkreis@yahoo.com Eng.Mohmed El-Hawary Owner eg.hydrogrp.Shehab Ryad Construction Manager shiried@hotmail.com Horse Engineering Works Alex (AMA) Mohandessin. Cairo +202 2287 4971 Dr.com Int'l Contracting & Trading Heliopolis.

Hussein Marei General Counsel Hussein.iteneg.Marei@orascomci.com Newtco Water Treatment Kafr el Sheikh. Giza +202 3303 4501 www.com Mr.com.Sherif Accountant maher@motwaset.eg Orascom Construction Industries Shubra. Cairo +202 2261 0890 www.com Mr.SEC Mohandessin.Ramy Mohamed Accountant ronney2010@yahoo.com Modern Tech Water & Sewage Treatment Agouza.Mona Abo El Magd Sales Manager info@iteneg.com Pure Tech For Water Treatment Technology Heliopolis. Kafr el Sheikh +2047 251 2824 Eng.sharobeem@orascomci.Iten for Electrostatic Water & Soil Conditioning Obour.motwaset.prodecegypt.Ali Hassan Hassouna CEO alihassouna@yahoo.com Noor Trading & Contracting Nasr City.elnoor.com. Cairo www.Khaled El Degwy Concession Director khaled.com Orasqualia Orascom Construction Industries New Cairo.Shehata abu Senna Head of Project Sector mktr1000@moukhtar.orascomci.moukhtar.latef@elnoor.Ehab Shalaby General Manager ihab2sh@yahoo. Cairo +202 2266 8291 Eng.com Mr.com Moukhtar Ibrahim .Abd El Lateef Abd El Hameed Technical Office Engineer a.eldegwy@orascomci.com Eng.orascomci.com/index.com +202 2461 1036 Projects Dvpt Agriculture & Land Reclamation Maadi.com Eng.com/ Eng.eg Eng. Giza +202 33471529 http://www.php?id=con tact Eng.Sherif Sharobeem Deputy Manager of Business Development sherif. Cairo +202 4610 1050 www. Cairo +202 2461 1111 http://www.com 120 . Cairo +202 2525 6692 www.

Cairo +202 2378 6532 www.com Wazzan Engineering & Trading Hadayek el Kobba.Khaled Morsy Owner khaledmorsy4@yahoo. Cairo +202 2268 0026 www. Giza +202 3761 6230 Eng.Amir Aniees Commercial Director sales. Giza +202 3742 9945 Mr.Girgis Chairman zgirges@ridgewoodegypt.com Techno Land Haram.com Water Works Technology & Contractors Haram.net SAC for Industrial System S.Zaki Y.f@shsco.sac-systems.veoliawaterst. Cairo +202 2588 1082 www.net Samcrete Haram.samcrete.Ahmed Sobhy Financial Manager Deputy a.com Saad Hanna Sons Trade & Contracting Heliopolis.Hany Said Accountant univag1@link.com Ms.Gihan Philip Office Manager wazzan@wazzan.com 121 .com/ Eng. Giza +202 3384 8484 http://www.net Eng.com Eng.net Eng.Yasser Zohny Study Sector Head yzohny@samcrete.shsco.E Down Town.com Eng.samy@veoliawater. Cairo +202 2453 4502 Ms.com Wataneya Modern Irrigation System Wadi El Natroun.ridgewoodegypt.sobhy@watcoegypt.A.net Veolia Water Maadi.Ridgewood Heliopolis. Cairo +202 3586 5962 Mr. Cairo +202 2633 5109 www. Beheira +2045 3550 530 Eng.Hussain Samy Commercial Director hussain.com Water Services Manial.Wael Samy Amin Technical Director sales@sac-systems.Youmna Hossam Management Assistant youmna@idandwt.wetco.Wagieh Fawzy General Manager technoland@link.net Universal Agencies Mohandessin.idandwt. Cairo +202 2362 4253 www.

com Eng.Yasser Taha Owner yaser652003@yahoo.com +202 25285880 Foundation Agriculture Technology Sadat City.grundfos.aoi.arabcont.com Mr.com +2011 2711 020 Grundfos Egypt Sheraton. Dakhlia www.eg Mr.A.hyma-plastic.com/default/index.eg/aoiarab/aoi/aircraft_ web/index.com Eng. Cairo www.11.Abd Alhalim Abd Alkader Managing Director hcc@al-hashemiah. Cairo www. Cairo http://www.al-hashemiah. Mansoura.com AOI .com +202 2401 3949 Waterman Industries of Egypt (WIE) Giza.php Eng.futurepipe.com +202 2548 0130 Arab Contractors .E.com +202 4475 8025 Future Pipe Industries (S. Cairo http://www. Cairo www.Mohamed Ashmawy Executive Manager sales@waterman-industries. General Manager eeshak@grundfos. Workshop Shubra.net +202 2556 0114 Ms.Ali Abdel Ghany Baheeg Chairman acfaoi@link.Ehab Eshak Dty.com Eng.Mohamed Allam Mohamed Vice President for Shubra Mechanical Workshop acsshobra@hotmail.waterman-industries.com.elkhadem@futurepipe.Design Sector AbeirKamel2000@yahoo.com +202 2696 5676 Hyma Plastic Nasr City.Aircraft Factory Helwan.com +2050 223 3618 Al Hashemiah Int'l Co.html Major Eng.com.com +202 3386 6163 122 .Arab Organization for Industrialization.Samy Fahmy samy-fahmy@hyma-plastic.Saad Elkhadem Managing Director s.9 Manufacturers of Equipment Eng. Menoufeya http://tag2day.) MaaDI.Abeer Kamel Abdel Rahman Manager of Research Divison . Cairo www.

htm Mr. com AL-HAMZA GROUP OF COMPANIES Mohandesseen.Henk van Klompenburg Supply Chain Director hvanklompenburg@alahrambeverages.Mohamed Gad QA .net/ Mr.com/main.Magdy Hamza Managing Director magdy.egygerman.Mohamed Gouda Elsayed Chairman mgouda1956@yahoo.net BELCO Zamalek.com Egyptian German Company for Agricultural Production Sharkia.Aly Muhamed El Rafie Toba Planning Manager info@egygerman.com BioEgypt Sadat City.zaki@gmail. Cairo +202 2574 8627 http://www.ci-agri.alhamzagroup.com 123 . Cairo +202 4614 1206 www.10 Agricultural producers and large farms Al Ahram Beverages Company Heineken El Obour City. Giza +202 3761 1730 http://www.hamza@hamzagroup.Habib George Agriculture Manager hgeorge@alahrambeverages. Fayoum +2084 633 8383 Mr.com/ MsShahira Fouad shahira@ci-agri.abbas. Cairo +2012 316 5425 http://www.bioegypt. Menoufeya +2048 260 1521 http://www.de CI-Agri Pick Fresh Manshiet Elbakrey.asp Dr.com. Sharkia +2055 914 4006 http://www.egycfi.elbeltagy@belcofarms.alahrambeverages.com/eng_docs/front_eng.11.com Mr.gad@belco.Mahmoud Abbas Zaki Chairman mahmoud.net/newFCIEN/ Mr. R&D Manager mohamed.CFI Cairo.belco.Yasser Mansour Technical Officer yasser@egycfi.Mohsen El Beltagy General Manager mohsen.com Mr.com Mr.eg/ Mr. Cairo +202 2735 7213 http://www.com Dar Elgouda for Development & Projects Fayoum.com Chamber of Food Industries .

Tamer Nassar Managing Director tnassar@newnileco.com Mr.eg New Nile Co Maadi.com 124 . 6th Of October +202 3835 5544 http://www.Mostafa Allam Engineering Department Director mostafa. Fayoum +2010 5384 215 Mr.farmfrites.newnileco.eg MABA Potato farms & Agricultural Consultants 6th Of October.com Fish Farming Training and Research Centre Kafr el Sheikh.com Mr.com/product_potatos.sekem. Cairo +202 2768 8240 www.Mokhtar Abou Basha Chairman mokhtar@maba-eg. Cairo +203 480 0655 www.com Mr.Stephane Maurin Purchasing and Merchandising Food Director stephane.Ismail Radwan Director somaa_97@hotmail.abouleish@sekem..Sherif El Naggary Managing Director ffruit@infinity.Walid El Hennawy Managing Director Whennawy@farmfrites.Egypt 10th of Ramadan City.eg Fish Basket .Farm Frites .allam@multitradegrp.Helmy Abou Eleish helmy.com Sekem (Isis brand) El-Horreya.eg Mr.com The Fish Producers and Exporter Association Fayoum. Cairo +2015 411 431 www.html Mr.com.mabaeg.Salah Taher Board member salahtaher@gmail.com. Giza +202 3761 9995 Mr.com Makro Egypt Noubareya farms Maadi.com Fresh Fruit Farms Dokki. Kafr el Sheikh +2047 913 5636 Eng.Multi Trade Group Kafr ElSheikh.makro.maurin@makro. Cairo +202 26564140 www. Kafr ElSheikh +202 2690 4263 Eng.com.com.

UPEHC Dokki.Assam Shaltout Chairman mail@upehc. & Intl Linkage afaf_saghir@hotmail.com 125 .upehc. Export Service Dept.org/ Dr.Afaf El-Saghir Director.org Mrs. Giza +202 3337 2402 http://www.

com/ Eng.acgegypt.11 Egyptian companies in water equipment business. Commercial Manager h.ahmeddaoud.Said Mohamed Sales Manager awt@tedata. Cairo +202 2402 0395 Mr. Cairo www.Hazem Shawky Board Member.Ahmed Fathi Ahmed Head of Pump Department ahmed.com +2015 361 834 Advanced Water Treatment Nasr City.com +202 2392 1550 Al Farid Pump Co.com +202 2205 6267 Mr.Mohamed Ahmed Daoud Chairman mohameddaoud@ahmeddaoud.net.com +202 2575 1544 Al Raed Jet Masters El Haram.com +202 3583 3940 Ahmed Daoud & Co.shawky@alraed.11.com +202 2392 1550 Mr. Cairo http://www.com +202 3586 9758 ACG Egypt Air Compressors Group 10th of Ramadan.al-farid.Adel Ibrahim Elias Managing Director adelelias@ahmeddaoud.com/modernaegypt Eng.com/index2. Cairo +202 3583 3940 Eng.eg +202 3976 7005 126 . Giza http://www. Boulak.com.com.eg +202 2402 0395 Agrico Trade & Import Haram.com Akmal Taha Owner acgegypt@yahoo.alraed. Moderna Industrial & Export Modern Irrigation System & Agricultural Haram. Engineering & Trade Agencies Down Town.Magdy Ramzy Souwiha President agrico_co@yahoo.com/ Mr.Ehab Karam General Manager ash_eha@intouch. Sharkeya www.fathi@al-farid.web.eg/ Eng. Cairo http://www.H.html http://www.nijhuis. agents A.freewebs.Mohamed Soliman Gowailly Pumps Dept Manager m-gowaily@sonfarid.

com +202 2486 3594 Aqua Nile Dokki.Ayman Yacout Marketing Director ayman.Haithem Saber Sales Manager haithem@allweiler.Ahmed Tawfik Vice Chairman .com +202 2439 1817 Ament.com +202 2687 0811 Aqua Fine Water Treatment Systems Abbasseya. Cairo Eng.com +2015 360 425 Mr.alphabetagroup.Samer El Beshouty .Refaat Abu Elela Owner & Chairman Refaat.Aya Ahmed Office Manager alfaplus_com@yahoo.Environment.Shady Mohamed Teamleader info@alfabetagroup. Cairo Ms.Ammar Ismail General Manager aqua_cairo@yahoo.Alfa Beta Nasr City.Hamed ElDesouky General Manager aquafine@gmail.us +202 2275 8514 Alfa Plus Nasr City.tawfik@ament-egypt. Cairo Eng.us Mr.com/ Eng.com/ Eng.MBA Marketing Manager samer@allweilerfarid. Dokki. Water & Wastewater Treatment Projects ahmed.allweilerfarid.com +202 3762 5617 127 . Cairo 10th Ramadan City http://www. Cairo www.com +202 2671 7530 Allweiler-Farid Pumps Cairo.yacout@ament-egypt.ament-egypt. Giza www. Emad El Din Taymour & Co.com +202 2590 1981 Aqua Cairo Water Treatment Tech Shorouk City.Wael Anwar Keddis Owner anwarkeddis@yahoo. Giza http://www.abuelela@aquanileg.com Eng.com +202 3760 2904 Anwar Keddis Babawy Sons Down Town.aquanileg.com Eng. Cairo Eng.

com MrHaitham Diab CEO Hd@Aydonegypt.homburg-holland. Cairo http://www.com +202 2792 0100 128 .com Eng.Atef Hosny Tadros Managing Director at.aquatrust.com Eng. Giza www. Cairo Mr. Cairo www.nl Mr.com +202 2291 2972 Baramos Engineering & Trading Nasr City.com +202-2275 4871 Baron Trading Co.com +202 2290 3896 Aqua Trust For Water Treatment Nasr City.Mohamed Metwally Purchasing Manager aquasana@intouch.Ahmed Shalabi Owner akram.com +202 3304 8870 Arabia Dripping Irrigation Technology Haram.adritec. Cairo www.Moaemen Kamel Owner gm@waterarab. Garden City.waterarab.com Eng.asetegypt.nl/ www. Cairo www. Aqua Tap Heliopolis. Cairo www.com +202 2415 5388 Arab Water Treatment & Bottling.Mohamed Zakaria Owner adriegy@yahoo.Aqua Sana for Water Treatment Technology Heliopolis.com Mr.aquatap. Cairo http://www.arabcoeg.com +202 2392 9744 Aydon Consultants Ltd Heliopolis.com +202 3387 9311 Arabian Solar Energy & Technology Co (ASET) Cairo.landustrie.Youssef Said Soliman Director develop@internetegypt.Helmy Technical and Adminstative Manager aquatap@link.com.Edward Shawky Owner baramostrading@yahoo.com +202 2270 2341 Arab Contractors Mechanical & Electrical Engineering Heliopolis.Faiza Abu Zeid General Manager aquatrust@yahoo. Cairo www.com/ Eng. Cairo http://www.tadros@arabcoeg.shalabi@asetegypt.netfirms.com/ Eng.eg +202 2414 4004 Arab Trade Mohandessin.com Eng.aerzen.aydon-consultants.

Ayman EL-Banna Sales Manager ayman.delta-egypt.dp-pumps.com.com +202. Cairo www.Ekrami El Khamry MBA Pumps and Boilers Div Manager ekrami@eea-egypt.chemix. Cairo www. Cairo http://www.saad@eea-egypt.vanleeuwen.dig-world.com +202 2591 0903 Delta Egypt Trade & Contractings El Qalaa.com Eng.com/ Eng.i.2593 0001 Eng.com.consukorra.com Dr.com.Adel Lateef Sector Executive Manager csk@consukorra.chemastar.eg Eng. Cairo www.Osama Samir Owner's Son chemix@chemix.com +202 2403 9396 EEA Egyptian Engineering Agencies Down Town.Mohamed Ayman Korra President CSK@consukorra.com www.egypt.net Eng.eg +203 484 7802 Consukorra for Trade Agencies & Technical Consultation Down Town.com +202 2591 3277 Eng.com +202 3850 2820 Chemix Scientific & Industrial Services Amriya.nl Mr.com www.com +202 25072980 DIG Development International Group Ltd Cairo.CEG Commercial Engineering Group Ltd. Alexandria www.com +202 2272 9769 Chema-Star for trading & Distribution El Sheikh Zayed.elbanna@ceg-egypt.net +202 2591 6282 129 .Medhat Hamed Head of Pump Systems m. Nasr City.eea-egypt.Tarek Hegazy Managing Director d. Cairo +202 2272 9769 Eng.g@ie-eg. 6th Of October www.nl www.eea@eeaegypt.ameron-fpg.Mohamed Abd El Moaty CEO info@delta.Ali Abu-Hussien Director info@chemastar.

Ahlam Yousry Office Manager ch.com +202 2205 6267 Egyptian Engineering Co.EEIS Engineering Establishment For Industrial Services Maadi.adelgroup.net +202 25757636 EGY-Holland Import & Export Heliopolis.Ahmed Gad Owner osetco@gmail.egstco. Giza Eng. Cairo http://www.com/cu.Yasser Awad General Manager iesco2008@yahoo. Down Town. Cairo Eng. Giza http://www.aspx Eng.com +202 2417 7494 El Amana Co.net +202 2274 2437 Egyptian Trading Enterprise Nasr City.ghali@link.com +202.Mohamed El-Rokh Sales Director mohamed.i.com/ Eng. Cairo Mr.Tarek Ibrahim General Manager info@i.Eman Office Manager magdiyoussef@gmail. Manial. Al Farid Pumps (member Ahmed Daoud Group ) El Sahel.Ahmed Soliman Hamza Head of Technical Dept info@elamanco.Saleh Abul Saud Managing Director info@egyco-egypt.adelgroup.elamanaco.com/home.Hanna El Maqdes General Manager hanna@egstco. Cairo Ms.2294 9160 Egyptian Arab Pumps Co. Cairo http://www.com +202 2362 0285 Egyptian Engineering Services Mohandessin. Chlorination & Dosing Systems Mohandessin.net +202 2592 1199 Egyptian Supplies & Trade Co. Cairo Ms.Osama Tawfeek Sales Manager eetco@link.htm Eng.com +202 3749 2960 Egyptian for Agencies & Industry Down Town. Nasr City. Cairo Eng.al-farid.com +202 2702 8578 EETCO Egyptian Engineering & Trading-Mohamed El Deghidi & Co.elrokh@al-farid.net/ Eng.com +202 3304 1762 130 . Cairo http://www.

Mohamed Fathy Sales Manager egyptetco@yahoo. Cairo Eng.Assem Fahim Ragab Vice Chairman info@fahimragab.Mohamed Mostafa El Rookh Sales Manager info@al.farid.Tricom Roushdy. Alexandria Mr.com +202 4444 1460 Farouk Kamel Boulos .net +203 543 8779 Fouad Mahmoud Younes & Associates Consulting Zamalek.com.Romacon .com +202 2526 9880 Etco Trading.Akerboom Marine .Soliman Aly Emara Chairman ensol-ensol@yahoo.Nader Mohamed Youssef Executive Manager eximco_group@yahoo.Fouad Younes Managing Director younesco@soficom. Engineering Solutions Group Maadi. Shubra.Kemper en van Twist .fahimragabsons. Cairo Eng..com +202 2590 0915 Eximco for Int'l Trading Mohandessin. Engineering & Commercial Agencies Daher. Cairo www.com +202 3338 3570 Fahim Ragab Sons Pumps Industry Shoubra El Khaymah.com +202 2205 6269 Ensol .El Farid for Manufacturing & Marketing Engineering Equipment. Cairo Mr.Polva . Cairo www.Aerzen .com Eng.ITS .Hubert Stavoren .Farouk Kamel Boulos Chairman faroukk@link. Giza Eng.com Eng.eg +202 2736 6097 131 .ensol.eg.Asselberg Nachenius .Jongia .

php Mr.Sheren Gad Sales Manager info@goldentradeco.hydrotech-egypt. Cairo www.com Ms.Globe Well water Treatment & environmental Technology Nasr City.hydrotekegypt. +202 2359 7233 Hydrotech Engineering & Technical Services Heliopolis.c om +203 505 1600 Houseman Egypt For Water Treatment Maadi. Cairo http://housemanegypt.Sherif Al-Madani General Manager Sales@globewellegypt.com +202 3836 1379 Hayat Manufacturing & Development Ramleh.com +202 3836 9320 Handaseya Water Services 6th October.com +202 2272 4979 Green for Modern Agriculture 6th October. 6th Of October City Eng.com +202 2268 6200 Hydrotek For Trade & Supplies Heliopolis.net Ms.com/ Eng.goldentradeco.waterstone@hotmail.net +202 2273 2714 132 . Cairo http://www.hytechaquade.net +202 2268 6250 Hy-Tech Aqua Design Nasr City. Alexandria www.Nadira Anwar Head of Follow up Dept. 6th Of October City Eng.com Mr.globewellegypt.com Ms. Cairo www.mansourgroup.com.Abd El Rahman Abd El Tawab Sales Manager green_scape@yahoo.com +202 24051290 Golden Trade Nasr City. Cairo www.Ahmed Mostafa Sales Representative info@hydrotech-egypt.com Mr.Mena Executive Secretary hy_tech@link.Elkhawaga@mansourgroup. Nevein. Cairo www.Ahmed Amin General Manager techadmin@housemanegypt.com Ms.Ossama Salah ElDin Deputy Chairman osama@wateregypt.Ahmed Abd El-Gaeed Owner raed.Nermeen Executive Secretary info@hydrotekegypt.com/site/products.

com +202 3383 3795 Int'l Consultants for Agency & Trade Dokki. Giza http://www.net +202 2270 9106 Int’l Desalination & Water Treatment L.com +2012 174 4183 Int'l Co. Cairo Mr.eg Ms.Shaimaa Mohamed Office Manager icwatert@icwatert.com Ms.com Eng. Giza www.Noha Essam Customer Service Dept.icat.Hagar Executive Secretary m. Nasr City.Fawzi Mostafa Owner fawzi@itiwater. info@itsgroup-co. For Contracting & Water Treatment Haram.com +202 3337 8374 IWTE Int'l for Water Technology & Environment 6th October.itiwater.Int'l Trade & Investment & Water Treatment Nasr City. Cairo www.imagetrvgroup.com Ms. Cairo Eng.com Ms. Cairo www.hosny@flowserve.com/Home.Yousry Moussa General Manager integral@link.L.C. Cairo http://www. Heliopolis.flowserve.idandwt.R.net +202 2418 3813 Integral Engineering & Trade Nasr City.Yasser El-Ady Owner imagegro@intouch.com/products.html Omar El Maraghy Managing Director oem@environ-egypt.Hazem Kamal Chairman intech@gega.com. 6th Of October City www. Cairo www.com +202 2262 5659 ITS Integrated Technical Services Group Dokki. Cairo www.V Group Heliopolis.eg +202 3749 5533 ITI Water .com +202 2620 1258 Ingersoll Dresser Pump Services Heliopolis.itsgroup-co.com Eng.com.Image T.html Mrs.icwatert.com +202 3832 3787 133 .aqualifechimie.Noha Ameen Executive Secretary icat@icat.Rabaa Basiouny Office Manager info@aqualifechimie.com +202 2291 9238 Intech International Environmental Technologies Co.

E.com +202 2405 4990 METITO Water Treatment SAE Haram.mastenbroek.com Mrs. Beheira Eng.Mohamed Hesham Marketing Manager marketing@nesco-egypt.com Eng.com +203 425 1820 M. Cairo www.nesco-egypt.gobba@metito.com Eng.Khaled Hendawy Owner khaled_elfar@yahoo.com Eng.Middle East Water & Wastewater Technology Cairo.aspx Ms.Alaa Gobba Business Devpt Manager alaa.Mahmoud Saad Sales Engineer mahmoud.CO.com Eng.com sales@herder.com. Giza www.Kheir Group.Yasser Salman Senior Executive Plant Sales Engineer yasser.hanafy@midwatertech.com +202 2704 8740 134 .Hossna Said Office Manager mymsa@mymsa-com.saad@ewmcairo.ellabbad.com +2016 6264 433 Nesco National engineering Services New Maadi. Cairo http://www.html Mr.com +202 3536 8278 MidWater .shakaintco.salman@metito.eg +202 25261888 Naqaa For Water Treatment Systems Damanhour. 6th Of October City www.mymsaeg.I. Alexandria www.kheirgroup.Zeina Hamza Office Manager ellabbad@ellabbad.com +202 2517 1566 Mymsa Lab equipment Maadi.Samir Hanafy Sales & Proposals Mgr samir. Cairo.Ali Fikry Mohamed info@mastenbroek. Cairo http://www.midwatertech.nl +202 2575 8851 Masria For Electrical & Mechanical Workings 6th October.eg Mr.com/ http://en. Cairo http://www.Hatem Kheir General Manager kheir@link.T.net +202 2405 0618 Labbad for Marine Equipment & Supplies Smouha. Nasr City.com/herder-en. Ezzat Kheir & co.com/PL/StaticPages/Home. Middle East Int’l Trading Co.ewmcairo. Cairo www.metito.com Eng.

Mai Magdy Office Manager mai@scisegypt.Essam Abd El Raheem Sales Manager assem_mossalem@yahoo.Sprankelen Group Sharm El Sheikh.com/ Mr. Hakiem El Wagieh Managing Director hakiem1@link.lifecheme.net +2010 1516 628 Plant Systems Development Cooperation Nasr City.com Mr.Martin van Voorthuizen martin@sprankelen-group.Naglaa Haidar General Manager nijhuis_egypt@link.nijhuis-water. South Sinai http://www.net +202 3336 7235 Nozzle Water Treatment Heliopolis.com.com/pages/NozzleWater-TreatmentCo/191715670876340?sk=photos#!/pages/No zzle-Water-TreatmentCo/191715670876340?sk=info Mr.com +202 2418 5541 135 . Cairo http://www.Ahmed Sharawy ahshaarawy@pacificwater. El Haram. Cairo Mr. Giza http://www.com +203 5853 934 SFCegypt Nasr City.com/ Mr.com Ms. Giza +202 3336 7235 www. 6th Of October City Eng.Maged Chairman maged@lifecheme. Cairo Eng.Montaser Zahran sfcegypt@yahoo.nl Mrs.com +2010 1753 341 SAW For Trade Dokki.net +202 2267 9260 Pure-Pro Water Corp .Abdallah Ahmed Maher Chemical Engineer nozzletreatment@hotmail.Ahmed Amin General Manager saw@soficom.com +2011 0898 089 Red Sea Pipes Industry & Its Fitting 6th October.facebook.com +202 3771 5862 SCIS Scientific Center for Industrial Services Ramleh.A. Cairo Eng.scisegypt.dacom.eg +202 3760 4995 Scientific International Co. Cairo www.com +202 2241 3225 Pacific Water Technologies Mokattam. Alexandria www..Nijhuis Water Technology Egypt – ltd Giza.sprankelen-group.

com +202 2452 4099 Shark Engineering & Agencies Down Town.Hossam Mosaed Sales Representative info@targetwater.net Eng.com Eng.com.Mostafa Khedr Sales manager info@tibaeng.com +202 2575 1544 Systems & Technology Dokki.html Ms. Cairo +202 2261 6347 Eng.net +202 2405 0973 136 .com +202 2270 7067 World Engineering Trading Nasr City.com +202 3335 3664 TAM For Desalination (Tam company for water desalination) Zamalek .tamoilfield.Khaled Marei Sales Manager sonfarid@sanfarid.Alaa ElDin Shafeeq Projects Manager shamaa33@hotmail.Mohamed El Ogeil Executive Manager wetcoegypt@hotmail.Mostafa Fadlalla General Manager info@wwbt.tibaeng.sonfarid.com/contact.com Eng.Randa Mohamed Office Manager mahmoud.Hany Kamal General Manager technoinstall@yahoo. Cairo Eng.com +203 4249 688 Techno Install Nasr City. Cairo www.sat-eng. Alexandria www.Mohamed El Sharkawy General Manager sales@sat-eng. Cairo http://www.net +202 2589 1736 Sons of Farid Hassanen & Co.com +202 2261 6347 TEG Tiba Engineering Nasr City.net Eng.com Eng.Shamaa For Contracts & Water Treatment Saray El Koba.com Eng.es. Boulak. Cairo www.com +202 2736 4529 Target Water Treatment Specialists Smouha. +202 2402 0251 WWWS Egypt Nasr City.elshark. Cairo www.wwbt.Ashraf Mansour Sales Hall Manager info@elshark. Cairo Eng.shaaban@tam. Cairo www. Cairo www.targetwater.

com Ms.norit-ac. Cairo www.12 Home appliances Aqua Chiara Egypt for Water & Environmental Treatment Technology Nasr City.Sherif Mabrouk Sales Manager aqua.Mohamed Abd El Salam Sales Manager info@purewater-egypt.gabtic. Qaliubeya +2013 322 1971 Eng.com/english/ Dr.com +2040 9115 351 Future Int'l Mohamed Tohamy Heliopolis.Mohamed Abdel Gelil Chairman zymag@link.com +202 2260 7413 Aqua Loui Benha..com +202 2794 8270 Nile Int'l (Entenile) Heliopolis.Nada Abd El Reheem Office Manager info@gabtic. Red Sea http://www.nile-water.net +203 426 0240 11.com/ Mr.com Mr. Cairo +202 2620 5230http://entenile.com Eng.com +2013 322 1971 Aqua Pure Alfa Trading & Agencies Tanta.aquachiaraegypt.ZYMAG Co Azarita.com +202 2620 5230 Nile Water Systems El gouna.com +2065 358 0280 137 .com/ Eng.Mohamed Nagah IT Manager mohamed@aquachiara.Niels Hojfeldt Managing Director info@nile-water. Gharbeya Ms.Ahmed Hossam Technical Engineer info@entenile.loui@yahoo. Cairo http://www.com +202 2415 8667 Gabtic Engineering & Supplies Garden City.purewater-egypt. Alexandria http://www.Mai Khalil Office Manager botamore@yahoo. Cairo www.

com Ms. Cairo www.com +202 3570 2477 Watermust Co Mustafa Kamel Side.watercity-eg.Soteer Group Garden City.soteer-group.com Eng.watermust.com +202 26637400 Water City Technology Haram.Mustafa El saied Technical Manager watermust@gmail. Cairo http://www.Saber Tawfik Owner info@watercity-eg.com Eng.Kresteen Wagieh CEO Secretary soteergroupfortrading@yahoo.com +203 5228 552 138 . Alexandria www.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful