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CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN TELECOM INDUSTRY
(A STUDY OF THREE COMPANIES)
Submitted as a part of the CSR paper in the Fourth Semester of Masters of Business Administration Year 2012
Ms. Shilki Bhatia
Submitted by: Saurav Ner (118) Ankush Bhat (117) Vinod Kumar (114) Dhruv Wadhwa (111) Vikrant
3 4-5 .TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Topics Abstract Introduction Literature review Objectives of the study Research methodology Conclusion Limitations Bibliography Annexure Page No.
Airtel. Aircel and BSNL to find out what and measures these companies have taken in India as a part of CSR initiatives. It involves a study of the CSR initiatives taken up in the telecom sector in India. In the study we would further be describing about the major steps taken by the above mentioned companies to adhere to the corporate social responsibility in the country. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is of high relevance for the telecom industry as this sector has a strong impact and a high dependence on the economy.Chapter 1: ABSTRACT This paper examines the essence of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) which is defined as the ethical behavior of a company towards the society. In this project a study is done on the CSR practices of the top three telecom companies in India . the environment and on the society. .
However. . “Corporate responsibility” describes this very well. These flaws lead some companies to consider CSR as pure corporate philanthropy. We include economic aspects in our definition of CSR simply because the study of economics is a “social” science which also encompasses financial aspects. for peoples both within and outside the corporation. some “the ethical corporation”. The wider aim of social responsibility is to create higher and higher standards of living. including “social” emphasizes the inclusion of other aspects. Stakeholders exist both within a firm and outside. others (such as Shell) as a new corporate strategic framework. the main responsibility of a corporation has been to make profits for its shareholders. but no general agreement of terms. as some companies use the terms “corporate citizenship”. stakeholders other than shareholders and the environment. Alert readers will notice. a fluidity of concepts that really requires more extensive research and consideration than has been undertaken so far. We have always considered the environment to be one of the stakeholders of a company. while preserving the profitability of the corporation. Nevertheless. To date I believe that such dialogue has been highly flawed. Social includes economic responsibility. we do not really know whether our dialogue with companies is being heard and interpreted in a consistent way. Without a common language. however. many prefer the term “corporate responsibility”. To date. such as the wider economy. while others use “good corporate governance” or “corporate responsibility”. there are a wide variety of concepts and definitions associated with the term “corporate social responsibility”. Nevertheless. CSR therefore means the ethical behaviour of business towards its constituencies or stakeholders. which provides a number of definitions. ‘Ethically or responsible’ means treating stakeholders in a manner deemed acceptable in civilized societies.Chapter 2: INTRODUCTION What is CSR? There are a variety of definitions of CSR and no overall agreement but our own definition is: CSR is concerned with treating the stakeholders of the firm ethically or in a responsible manner. The natural environment is a stakeholder. while others dismiss the notion entirely. To provide some guidance to readers in this area I have included a glossary of terms in Annexure.
politics and economics. But since the 1930s. Enterprises have noted that social responsibility is good for business for. and increasingly since the 1960s. CSR is a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis. unemployment and how to promote social development in general. but the benefits are likely to far outweigh the costs. exploitation. Chapter 4: OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY . There will be increased costs to implement CSR. the corporate sector.Why are companies engaged in CSR? Companies that are socially responsible in making profits also contribute to some. Corporate social responsibility is not a new issue. Clearly. increasingly in the future. social responsibility has become an important issue not only for business but in the theory and practice of law. business partners and contractors or suppliers. both within the firm and on the outside. they will continue to have a. employees. therefore making the company more profitable. Today We are now seeing consumers avoiding what they see (rightly or wrongly) as socially irresponsible products or the products of companies that have allegedly not acted in society’s best interest. including the development of new appropriate legislation. poverty. the natural environment. including national governments. will make its products and services more attractive to consumers as a whole. customers. These are: their shareholders and potential investors. Further acceleration has occurred in the past few years. The need to address questions of low living standards. the promotion of social development issues must also be one of partnership between government and private and nongovernmental actors and. aspects of social development. But for a firm to be involved in some aspects. Every company should not be expected to be involved in every aspect of social development. if not the. managers. The social responsibility of business was not widely considered to be a significant problem from Adam Smith’s time to the Great Depression. Such azimuths are now commonly known as an enterprise’s stakeholders. Corporate social responsibility should nevertheless not be seen as a substitute to regulation or legislation concerning social rights or environmental standards. efforts should focus on putting the proper regulatory or legislative framework in place in order to define a level playing field on the basis of which socially responsible practices can be developed. has to date been almost entirely the preserve of governments. That would be ludicrous and unnecessarily restrictive. and the communities within which they operate. In countries where such regulations do not exist. and from. major role to play in this area. But. although obviously not all. in particular. each of the seven main azimuths within which they trade and operate.
.The objectives of the study undertaken by us were as follows: • To study the CSR initiatives taken in the Telecom industry in India. the objective of this research is to find out the CSR practices that are taken up by the telecom companies and also to analyze that whether all the companies practice the similar kind of CSR activities or what extra or different they are doing from the other telecom players. • To examine the CSR activities carried out by the three Telecom companies operating in our country- o Airtel o Aircel o BSNL Thus.
Notably. most of the welfare activities are routed through Bharti Foundation.184 students. with special focus on the girl child. It has set the goal to establish 500 Primary and 50 Senior Secondary Schools reaching out to over 200. stationery. the Satya Bharti School Programme in 2006.000 children through its primary schools alone.Corporate Social Responsibility by Bharti Airtel Bharti Airtel believes that business success is not an end in itself. the senior secondary school programme provides training for a steady vocation. books. ACT-A Caring Touch . Uttar Pradesh. Haryana. Overall aim of the rural education programme is to develop students from rural areas into well rounded personalities and responsible citizens. Education in these schools is completely free and is supported by additional welfare schemes such as free uniforms. Currently it runs 242 Satya Bharti Primary Schools reaching out to approximately 30. to the 16 African countries it operates in. Established in 2000. the Group’s philanthropic arm. the Foundation aims to provide quality education free of cost to underprivileged children in rural India. While the primary school programme works towards inculcating sound fundamentals in the child. The Company is committed to its stakeholders to conduct its business in a responsible manner. Of these. It has reached out to approximately 30. in the last one year. It has already adopted 19 primary schools in the African continent. Bharti Foundation rolled out its flagship initiative.000 children across the states of Punjab. THE SATYA BHARTI SCHOOL PROGRAMME The Satya Bharti School programme delivers free and quality education to underprivileged children across rural India. Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. The Company is adopting at least one primary school in each of these 16 countries in the first stage. etc. 5 schools are currently operational in Punjab covering 1. The programme focuses on developing a replicable and scalable quality-education model in rural India and counts as one of the largest end-to-end education programmes undertaken by a corporate in India today.000 children. the Company undertook several initiatives in 2010-11 in the social welfare space while strengthening existing projects. mid-day meals. Rajasthan. In India. Under the ambit of its Secondary School. Bharti Airtel has extended its initiative of providing quality education to underprivileged children. rather it is a means to achieve higher socio-economic goals. To ensure inclusive growth and impact society in a positive way. 49 schools are adopted government schools in the Neemrana and Amer blocks of Rajasthan.
) and Give Hope (donation through our ACT programme). Give Sight (eye donation). visit the schools and interact with the children. As an initiative under ACT. bus route information availability on mobile phones. COMMUNITY SERVICE AND SUPPORT Several initiatives in the areas of health. Some of these include a virtual blood bank. We harnessed our products and services for various community based activities. understanding and enhancing existing processes and also creating a deeper local connect with the students’ parents and the community at large. traffic awareness campaigns. eye donation and blood donation camps regularly for the employees and general public. Give Joy (drawing books & crayons etc. They also mentored the teachers by helping them teach English and Mathematics. the Joy of Giving week was celebrated in the Company in which employees participated in fi ve campaigns namely Give Dignity (clothes). having received rainfall 70% above the average level. made arrangements for food packets. Bharti Airtel employees together with the support of local village heads collected old and new blankets. PCOs for the visually impaired and differently-abled. It aims to help Satya Bharti School teachers improve their English speaking skills through telephonic sessions with employees over a concerted period of 12 Bharti Airtel Annual Report 2010-11 time. and actively participated in the schools’ operations. our circle offices organized child safety awareness campaigns. Some of the initiatives undertaken to propel this programme forward include: • Mobile Mentoring Programme A Mobile Mentoring Programme was launched for all employees. torches and other basic essentials and got them distributed to 300 affected families. Helpline centres were installed with PCOs for connectivity. environment and disaster management support are also adopted by our local offices in India to improve the living standards of their respective communities. Last year. the . Similar to previous years. Villupuram and Cudaloor districts in the central zone of Tamil Nadu were badly affected. Give Life(plantation). Detailed scripts and evaluation parameters were provided to the volunteers to assess the impact of their support. blood donation alerts through SMS.Employees can contribute to any cause they wish to support within the seven charity options listed under the ACT Programme. their friends and family members. • Young Leaders Programme 36 Young Leaders from Bharti Airtel volunteered for 15 days at the Satya Bharti Schools in Punjab. focussing on academically weaker children. Volunteers shared their knowledge and experience. All monetary contributions are matched equally by the Company. EMPLOYEE VOLUNTEERING Employees at Bharti Airtel are also encouraged to volunteer on-site. This year the employee financial contribution towards this programme penetrated to over 30% of the employee base as against the employee penetration of 21% in the previous year.
we pursued a number of other opportunities such as using bio-diesel in 13 Andhra . Programme GOOD (Get out of Diesel) To reduce diesel consumption at our sites we pursued programme ‘GOOD’ during the year. 500 sites in Bihar have been taken up for Solar PV technology implementation despite a Non-Favourable Financial Model. SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Bharti Airtel follows a comprehensive Health. and DCDG were implemented to reduce the diesel footprint at our network sites. agronomy. We have been running power saving programmes in our offices and network operations for over six years now. mandi prices. All our facilities install fire prevention and fighting equipment as per best practices and standards. through its joint venture with IFFCO . forestry. heart care (CPR). IPMS and variable speed DC Generators (DCDG) has led to an annual reduction of 1. HEALTH. A. The offices also include waste-water treatment and rain water harvesting. thereby minimizing the running of backup systems like diesel generator sets. Periodic trainings in first aid. IPMS (Integrated Power Management Solution). B. Additionally all our facilities are Provided with comfort cooling and ergonomically designed furniture. GREEN INITIATIVES We constantly explore ways and means to reduce our carbon footprint. Apart from this. horticulture. government schemes. and reduce costs. FARMER WELFARE Bharti Airtel takes advantage of its vast presence in India to reach out to farmers. These programmes have helped conserve energy. The solution Reduces the operational cost by as much as 40% as compared to conventional shelters and avoids contributing to global warming by minimizing greenhouse gas emissions. Under this programme. other technological interventions like DG Optimisation.launch of a Cancer Helpline with some NGOs and the launch of an eye donation helpline in collaboration with the Ophthalmology Department of a Medical College. This unique shelter comes with optimal cooling.2 Mn litres in Diesel Consumption across 900 sites. etc.IFFCO Kisan Sanchar Limited (IKSL). It provides them with vital information on weather. reduce green house gas emission. Similarly. work stations and meeting rooms which match international standards. power and thermal management systems. Green Shelter for BTSs We have pioneered the Green Shelter concept for BTS. Safety and Environment Management policy to maintain safe and incidence-free work places. firefighting and emergency management are provided to employees.
E-Waste Management We have expanded the scope of e-waste management by including network/fi eld e-waste. .500 sites have already been implemented in the first year as a part of this 3-year programme. with a signifi cant carbon dioxide reduction of around 1. Green Tower P7 Programme This programme is scoped for 22.000 towers sites. primarily rural areas having low or no Grid power availability.5 Lakh metric tonnes per year. identify and implement energy-saving measures for targeted consumption reduction. During the year we disposed 407K tons of network e-waste through authorised re-cyclers. Under this initiative. Managed Energy Services We commenced ‘Managed Energy Services’ with Wipro Eco Energy covering all our facilities in Karnataka. Additionally we are moving towards Cloud-based services. and Biomass-based electricity generation in Bihar. We comply with the disposal of e-waste as per applicable WEEE norms. Of this nearly 5. Variable Frequency Drives were installed in the Air Handling Unit (AHU) at Airtel Centre Campus to improve the efficiency of the cooling system by 10%. this initiative will reduce diesel consumption by 58 Mn litres per year. A Solar Hot Water Generator was installed at the Airtel Campus to fulfil hot water requirement in the cafeteria. We have started the virtualisation of servers. Once completed. This has reduced our energy consumption by around 10-25%. C. to reduce diesel dependency on a long-term basis. for the Company. D.Pradesh. These measures have resulted in savings of 8. Lighting Energy Savers (LES) have also been installed across our facilities in the National Capital Region. E.5 Lakh units of electricity per year. fuel cells is Haryana and UP. F. Wipro will monitor the energy consumption pattern at the facilities. Kerala. This has helped us release over 500 CPUs. Technologies like Virtual Tape Library. Other Energy Reducing Initiatives A number of initiatives were launched in our offices and in other technical facilities last year to reduce energy consumption in lighting and air conditioning. and the replacement of teradata with DB2 have added to multiple hardware releases. Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.
All 25 certificates were successfully retained without a single instance of non-conformance. Certifications ISO 27001: We have one of the largest ISO 27001 certification scopes in the world. This has significantly contributed towards our “go-green” drive and saved 24. all data centres and the Airtel Centre. in line with the Government’s directives. we ensured that the communication infrastructure performed fl awlessly resisting attempts of antinational cyber activists. 3 ES hubs.G. we received 422 appreciation letters from various Law Enforcement agencies in the last one year alone. Airtel Sri Lanka also achieved ISO 27001 and BS 25999 certifications last year. THE CHANGING NORMS OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Cyber Security During the Commonwealth Games of October 2010. In the Lawful Interception domain. Today over 2 Million e-bills are being sent per month. . 3 Telemedia hubs. covering all 13 mobile services circles. while enhancing customer trust. The ISO 27001 certification has contributed hugely towards improving our security stance. brand image and competitive advantage.an automated queue-management based secure printing solution which has led to an annualised saving of ~ 8 tonnes of paper. We underwent 142 man-days of surveillance audit.000 trees annually. 4 NSG zones. E-Bills Sending e-bills to our post-paid customers has been a huge success. We have also implemented a ‘Secure Print’ solution .
But is all this enough to succeed in the market? Aren’t a good network. better customer services. high revenues. It has moved to the fifth position in terms of number of subscribers (27. It recorded highest growth of 37. Some of their pan – India corporate social responsibility campaigns include – The “Save our Tigers” campaign to save the 1411 remaining tigers in partnership with the WWF The “Aircel Donate Phone Program” which requires one to donate their working / non working old phones to Aircel who would give it to people in old age homes with free talk time for a year.7 million) . It has increased its presence across various telecom circles at breakneck speed. Wadala Bridge among 10 locations. But since 2005 it started looking for a pan–India expansion strategy. Bhandup.2% (2009-10) among all the mobile operators. All these various initiatives make at least one thing clear. For this they have used a large number of initiatives which have captured the public imagination like never before. it had a live scoreboard at the Mahim causeway in Mumbai It had projected its logo on the Gateway of India Aircel branded airport cards had names of celebrities Various directional signages were put up at different places and also a tree – like structure with Aircel branded boxes One of their biggest and most successful initiatives was putting up a rubber dinghy on billboards in various places across Mumbai where there were chances of flooding.Aircel had long been one of the biggest players down South. When the flooding did happen. Some of its initiatives it used in Maharashtra when they launched last year During the IPL matches. It seems to have defied industry predictions and is proving to be a sure – fire dark horse. It includes newer subways and also bus shelters. cheap call rates and things like that important? Aircel though is different. people in Aircel branded shirts were present to help everyone be safe This year the boat campaign “Sail through our network this monsoon” has been expanded to include newer locations such as Andheri. Aircel’s network may not be that good but its various initiatives are making heads turn.
000 at the turn of the last century. It urges people to be informed and create buzz across all forums like blogging.com which will be instrumental in propagating and disseminating information about saving tiger. he has to do things differently which would get others talking. Someone has rightly pointed out that Aircel is literally the 12th man in the market. there are just 1411 tigers left in India. twitter and writing letters to the editors of newspapers. . Aircel “Save Our Tiger” is the latest campaign where it intends to draw attention towards dwindling numbers of tigers across the planet and bring forward the seriousness of losing tigers from our planet. footballer Bhaichung Bhutia and south Indian actor Surya are part of this campaign. Aircel’s CSR: Aircel has had the most popular CSR campaign in 2010 and can be easily recalled by anyone who watches tv. It has also set up an innovations bank for the generation of new ideas. Aircel is leading a revolution in the world of innovation. has been on key target of poachers and in 2009 alone India lost 86 tigers. Apart from TV and print advertising it has launched a website www.It has been conferred with various marketing and branding awards over the last one year People have been so impressed with its boat campaign in Mumbai that it has decided to launch it in Delhi and Kolkata as well this year In an industry which is reaching saturation level with everyone going for low prices. India’s 5th largest GSM mobile service provider initiated the campaign towards a social cause in association with WWF-India to help save our tigers. If the 12th man has to get into the team. the national animal of India. The Save Our Tigers Campaign AIRCEL. writing on facebook.saveourtigers. The national animal is on the verge of extinction and if serious efforts are not undertaken Tigers will only reside in our history books. It has also created a platform where people can donate money to NGOs working relentlessly for the cause. From around 40. listens to radio or surfs the internet. Cricket Player and Aircel’s brand Ambassador Mahendra Singh Dhoni. Tiger.
We emphasize on an inclusive work culture to appreciate differences and believe engagement with our employees is quintessential for an effective CSR plan. We are careful in not partnering with any PR / communication that induces distrust in the sincerity of our efforts. but conduct business in a manner which reinstates respect for people. . We incorporate the CSR policies in our core business to ensure ethical business practices in all the functions to harness a healthy society. Aircel is always proactive in supporting NGOs and NPOs. because it promises healthy operations and subsequently adds to the overall quality of life. customers. This motivates the employees and their family members to contribute to society. we aim at continual involvement with our business partners and the government for economic and social development of the underprivileged. Our stringent belief in delighting customers with good products and services helps build a strong relationship.As per Aircel’s Website: At Aircel. retailers. Aircel engages external audit agencies to guarantee authenticity. We share adequate information on the organization’s vision and CSR initiatives. and maintains and monitors an external profile of the CSR activities which are shared with the stakeholders in the annual reports and websites. Aircel maintains integrity and respect in its interactions with its stakeholders. investors. NGO partners and the government. We extend all possible assistance to their projects for a minimum of 3 to 5 years and thereafter support new projects. Our aim is not to merely discharge social responsibility. communities and the environment. we continually pursue healthy corporate citizenship. Besides.
video calling. (Source : The Hindu.000 square feet of BSNL advertisement creative would be wrapped onto Rajdhani Express with a special quality vinyl approved by RDSO. October 28 . BSNL has done a full train external vinyl wrap for the first time in India including internal media for captive visibility.500 passengers per day. District Rehabilitation Officer Kanagaraj was present. K. What makes the medium unique is its high and impactful reach with long duration consumption in a receptive environment. BSNL will take care for up-gradation. modem and a telephone with incoming facility. online movie streaming. To publicize and create awareness at mass level and to strengthen its brand presence ‘BSNL 3G branded Rajdhani Trains’ are being launched in association with Indian Railways and Peacock Media. contest and activation by in-train promoters which would create a great impact and engaging communication for the brand BSNL and its services. There are approx 350 Panels. since as much as 25. One more educational institution would get a similar facility. live TV and high speed internet services on the move. the BSNL has provided table. with complete exclusivity for the Brand BSNL. Routes being covered by this Rajdhani train are Delhi-Chennai. BSNL’s communication on this Rajdhani train is focused on 3G services and entices the consumer to ‘get ready for a faster life’ by eye catchy visuals on fast gaming. while internal medias are consumed by approx 1. However. 1 lakh for this year. The medium deliveries are 85. Another Rajdhani Train covering Delhi. The CSR imagery of BSNL would also gain strength because of the upgraded services experienced by the travelers.000 per day eyeballs assured through the external vinyl wrap. chair. This is a massive campaign in terms of visual area as well. announcements. Madurai) Quality Service at affordable prices Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) is committed to provide quality Telecom Services at affordable price to the citizens of the remotest part of India. including cleaning and maintenance which are viewed to be bought by the BSNL 3G brand. The computer was presented to the school under the corporate social responsibility activities of the BSNL for which Madurai had been allotted Rs. since it is of utmost importance for achievement of the country’s social and economic goals. 2009. he said. Sanjeevi said. Apart from a personal computer. BSNL is the only telecommunication service provider offering rural telephony as part of its social responsibility.Sealdah is also scheduled for launch shortly. 200 Table Tops and 400 Brochure Holders inside one train.CSR Activities of BSNL BSNL launches ‘BSNL 3G Rajdhani Express’ BSNL (Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited) is rolling out 3G network and related services across India. Delhi-Bangalore & Delhi Trivandrum. BSNL donates computer to a Government school The Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) donated a computer with free unlimited broadband usage for the students of the Government Special School for Physically Challenged at Villapuram in the city. BSNL is the . which will also add on to CSR activity and to establish its BSNL3G brand in the mindset of people. along with audio jingles. its General Manager V. music download. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited does not have any direct subsidy schemes/programmes for public. This 3 month campaign is expected to attract one and half crore eyeballs negotiating 34 locations across eleven States. cleaning and maintenance of Rajdhani trains.
with support from government. secondary and higher secondary schools and public health care centres by end of 2010. BSNL is offering special tariffs for rural subscribers by providing lower rental and higher free calls as compared to urban area subscribers. Employees’ Welfare activity BSNL focuses its CSR activities primarily in the field of employees’ welfare activities. BSNL. assistance during natural calamities and offering rural broadband plans. BSNL implements welfare programs and awards such as Bharat Sanchar Sarathy and Sanchar Seva Padak.only service provider offering rural telephonys part of its social responsibility. plans to provide broadband to all gram panchayats. with government support. It also offers its employees corporate group Life Insurance Policy. in connecting India’s remote areas and adhering to best labor practices. BSNL plans to provide broadband to 20. It received the ‘Golden Peacock National Award 2005’ for its contribution to the field of CSR.000 villages that are already connected through optical fibre. BSNL. The company has an ISO 9000 certified Telecom Training Institute. secondary and higher secondary schools and public health care centers by the end of 2007. BSNL is the only service provider offering rural telephony as part of its social responsibility. . plans to provide broadband to all gram panchayats.
environmental and social value (Price Waterhouse Coopers). The aim is to align as nearly as possible the interests of individuals. Ethics: The science of morals in human conduct. Social includes economic responsibility. values-based relationships with these stakeholders. Stakeholders exist both within a firm and outside – the natural environment is a stakeholder for example. The governance framework is there to encourage the efficient use of resources and equally to require accountability for the stewardship of those resources. London. Industrial Society. 2000). 2000). while preserving the profitability of the corporation. The civil corporation: The new economy of corporate citizenship. • Corporate social responsiveness is the management task of doing what one has decided to do so as to become socially responsible (Ackerman and Bauer. for peoples both within and outside the corporation (Michael Hopkins). to longer term.).Annexure Glossary of Terms • Corporate social responsibility is concerned with treating the stakeholders of the firm ethically or in a responsible manner. 2001). World Bank. 1976. • .. Earthscan. Corporate Nirvana: Is the future socially responsible?. thereby adding economic. in Global Corporate Governance Forum. Zadek et al. op. The wider aim of social responsibility is to create higher and higher standards of living. “Ethically or responsible” means treating stakeholders in a manner deemed acceptable in civilized societies. (Stephanie Draper. • Corporate governance is concerned with holding the balance between economic and social goals and between individual and communal goals. Loyalty will be based on a company’s ability to build a sense of shared values and mission with key stakeholders (S. (Oxford Dictionary ). corporations and society” (Sir Adrian Cadbury. • Corporate sustainability aligns an organization’s products and services with stakeholder expectations. cit. • Corporate citizenship implies a strategy that moves from a focus on short-term transaction • A socially responsible company will seek and identify the concerns of its stakeholders and endeavour to treat those stakeholders fairly. London.
(John Rosthorn. ibid. monitoring and reporting. improvements.• Sustainable Development: Environmental impact measurement.) .
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