HRD MANAGEMENT IN IT INDUSTRY

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.0.1 Success of every business enterprise depends on its human resource. Money, material and machines are inert factors; but man with his ability to feel, think, conscience and plan is the most valuable resource. At the same time human elements are most difficult to be inspired, controlled and motivated. The upcoming competition in India, will demand high motivational level of its employees. 1.0.2 Growth of an enterprise is vital for the economic development of the country. This is possible only by maintaining the enthusiasm and motivation of the employees, which is vital for carrying out the operations in most efficient manner. The most successful companies, all over the world have designed their business policies to achieve higher productivity by using potentiality and strength of people. 1.0.3 The basic aim of human policies is the genuine concern for the people. Proper design of human policies is based on the higher responsibilities, personal and positive approach in the total perspective of organisational interest. The world's best companies have established their strength with their people. The employees identify themselves with the company they are working for. This also help in building up their spirit, morale and espirit-de-cops which becomes strength of the company. The culture of excellence thus nurtured contribute to growth with stability and continuous improvement in productivity. 1.0.4 Finding the right man for the job and developing him into a valuable resource is an indispensable requirement of every organisation. Human resources are capable of enlargement i.e. capable of providing an output that is greater than the sum of the inputs. Proper recruitment helps the line managers to work most effectively in accomplishing the primary objective of the enterprise. In order to harness the human energies in the service or organisational goals, every manager is expected to pay proper attention to recruitment, selection, training, development activities in an organisation. Proper promotional avenues must also be created so as to motivate employees to peak performance. Thus, personnel functions such as manpower planning recruitment, selection and training, when carried out properly, would enable the organisation to hire and retain the services of the best brains in the market. 1.0.5 The human resource management is very crucial in respect of information technology services than other manufacturing or marketing enterprises. The IT

services are technical in nature and at every stage the human touch is involved. Hence it is well motivated and devoted manpower which is very much essential for the success of IT industry. 1.1 ROLE OF HR MANAGERS 1.1.1. And Some industry commentators call the Human Resources function the last bastion of bureaucracy. Traditionally, the role of the Human Resource professional in many organizations has been to serve as the systematizing, policing arm of executive management. In this role, the HR professional served executive agendas well, but was frequently viewed as a road block by much of the rest of the organization. While some need for this role occasionally remains you would no want every manager putting his own spin on a sexual harassment policy, as an example—much of the HR role is transforming itself. The role of the HR manager must parallel the needs of his changing organization. Successful organizations are becoming more adaptable, resilient, quick to change direction, and customer-centered. Within this environment, the HR professional, who is considered necessary by line managers, is a strategic partner, an employee sponsor or advocate, and a change mentor. 1.1.2 Strategic Partner:-In today’s organizations, to guarantee their viability and ability to contribute, HR managers need to think of themselves as strategic partners. In this role, the HR person contributes to the development of and the accomplishment of the organization-wide business plan and objectives. The HR business objectives are established to support the attainment of the overall plan and objectives. The tactical HR representative is deeply knowledgeable about the design of work systems in which people succeed and contribute. This strategic partnership impacts HR services such as the design of work positions, hiring; reward, recognition, and strategic pay; performance development and appraisal systems; career and succession planning; and employee development. 1.1.3 Employee Advocate:-As an employee sponsor or advocate, the HR manager plays an integral role in organizational success via his knowledge about and advocacy of people. This advocacy includes expertise in how to create a work environment in which people will choose to be motivated, contributing, and happy. Fostering effective methods of goal setting, communication, and empowerment through responsibility build employee ownership of the enterprise. The HR professional helps establish the organizational culture and climate in which people have the competency, concern, and commitment to serve customers well. In this role, the HR manager provides employee development opportunities, employee assistance programs, gain sharing and profit-sharing strategies, organization development interventions, due process approaches to problem solving, and regularly scheduled communication opportunities.

1.1.5 Change Champion:-The constant evaluation of the effectiveness of the organization results in the need for the HR professional to frequently champion change. Both knowledge about and the ability to execute successful change strategies make the HR professional exceptionally valued. Knowing how to link change to the strategic needs of the organization will minimize employee dissatisfaction and resistance to change. The HR professional contributes to the organization by constantly assessing the effectiveness of the HR function. He also sponsors change in other departments and in work practices. To promote the overall success of his organization, he champions the identification of the organizational mission, vision, values, goals, and action plans. Finally, he helps determine the measures that will tell his organization how well it is succeeding in all of this. 1.2 LEADERSHIP AND EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT. 1.2.1 The main role of leadership was seen as creating a participatory process for employee involvement, to build collective wisdom. Control has given way to collaboration and the old paradigm of promoting competition and motivating through incentives shifted to creating co-operation and oneness amongst people. This is a marked shift to build effective teams. Research shows that six out of every 10 employees like to work in teams. 87 per cent of all Fortune 500 companies use parallel teams and about 100 per cent of all companies use project teams. 1.2.2 Story telling and appreciative enquiry are emerging as a new dimension in positive motivation. Finding out what's wrong seems to be the trend. In Walt Disney, telling success stories is one of the important methods used to remind people of greatness and goodness of the organisation. Leaders in Disney concentrate on quality, values and involvement. Speaking in the plenary sessions, Tom Peters said, " We have transitioned from an asset-based economy to a talent-based economy. The new definition of lay-off is untalented go talented stay. Leaders must realise that talent is equal to brand". His new theory is EVP which means "Employee Value Proposition". 1.2.3 Rosabeth Moss Kanter said, " Human beings are good raw material, they become assets when you train them to increase their knowledge and skills". She added that only a few organisations really train people to make them a success. Seconding this, Mr Peters pointed out how most organisations are not serious about developing people. They spend on an average 26.3 hours per person per year on training. A surgeon, a pilot or an athlete on the other hand spends 10-15 times more on training. 1.2.4 He also stated that the HRD department should be renamed TDFD (Talent Development Fanatic Department) and wealth for this new regime will flow from innovation, not organisation. Quoting Gary Hamel he said, only those employees will succeed who are "certified radical". Only those companies will succeed who create a

chats. The advantages of e-learning are many: It is self-paced.2. deeper and longer lasting relationships. only 39 companies were found to survive. have started emphasizing elearning to attract a worldwide audience. MIT. 1. presentations to communicate new concepts. Stanford. This is changing the way people behave and work. It appears out of every 100 Fortune companies in the last decade. It was found that most change processes go through four fundamental stages. William Taylor. whom people can smell.2. The overriding concern seems to be to downsize. Management of Change:-Research proves that many change models don't consider the human experience during change. said. Their passion for work must be infectious.Organisations like Ford Motor. less expensive. Forgetting tradition must can devalue existing strengths. 1. 69 are dead and only 31 are alive. feel and touch.     People try to resist or deny change They adapt.9 Universities like Cornell. He was of the opinion that there is a merger taking place between computers and human beings.5 Another aspect of leadership if the decision to introduce fun in the work place. Hewlett Packard. product details. flexible. Leaders according to him are living individuals. etc. Intel and IBM are using e-learning to increase the knowledge of their people. not a business. In a Forbes Magazine study of around 100 companies from '17 to '87. Companies like Fordstar even manage time differences between countries while conducting virtual class rooms. "There is no going back from back from dotcoms".6 A number of presentations revealed that leaders who initiate change must do so with one foot in the future and the other planted in past values. Web-centric universities are becoming the order of the day. core values. modular and has a huge reach. 1. Research shows that this reduces absenteeism and builds stronger.3 INNOVATIVE PRACTICES IN HR . The success of a change process depends on the skill of the facilitator to create a participatory process to enlist the support of people and address the issue of grief. 1.8 CEO's are talking to their people about new ideas and enlisting their support through forums and message boards. 1. demos.2.2. participate in the change They attempt to add value The culmination or formation of a new status-quo 1. issues of governance and corporate communities.7 E-Learning :.cause.2. editor and managing partner of the Fast Pace magazine.

1. Motivation for superior performance is the goal.1 Most Human Resource professionals are familiar with the concept of strategy. .4 LINKING PAY TO PERFORMANCE 1.1.4. and enable their departments to advance from transactional organizations to strategic partners in the business. most organizations will profess to a "pay-for-performance" philosophy as a keystone of their compensation system.3. Key findings from this research included the need for HR managers to streamline processes."merit" pay is a hollow concept in this regard. There is far more interest in more closely linking the reward mechanisms to the achievement of corporate objectives. the link between individual performance and pay is frequently nonexistent . 1.1 The Innovative Practices in Human Resources study uncovered 12 practices that are reducing HR costs and improving service quality to employees.4. There is much more concentration and focus today on the strategic outcomes of human resource activity than ever before.3.4.2 Practices and technologies include:              Internet and intranet employee services Strategic human resources Centralized HR departments and call centers 360-degree performance appraisals HRIS systems Employee self-service Voice response systems (VRUs) Resume scanning and Internet recruitment Kiosks Automated time and attendance systems Team policies and development Outsourcing Business process reengineering (BPR) 1. lower overhead costs. Such a system requires solid grounding in a clear and documented link between performance and salary increases. The area of compensation is no exception. 1.3 In experience.2 Pay for performance systems are becoming more and more popular as senior managers reach beyond the use of compensation systems to deliver pay. Unfortunately.

Similarly giving the poor performers 2% less than the cost of living increase is not that much of a penalty. capturing it in a non-threatening way. are turning away from the merit system and toward an annual incentive system.4. 1. It means sitting down and trying to reconstruct what each staff member did. 1. The areas are corporate revenues and gains. 1. First.4. at appraisal time.4.8 They are adopting a system of annual incentive bonuses linked directly to the achievement of corporate and individual objectives in three specific areas. making a merit increase recommendation. communicating the evaluation without a fuss and finally.5 Second.4. particularly for middle and upper management positions but increasingly for teams and individuals lower down in the organization as well. So many managers don't make that distinction it is too much hassle. Giving the better performer 2% more than the cost of living has little motivation or recognition attached to it. 1. there are many challenges facing businesses today and these challenges are driving them to find better ways of linking pay and performance to the achievement of corporate results. So everybody gets the same increase..4.6 The end result is usually a lot of avoidance behavior. However. "What is my rating and how much do I get?" is a constant theme in merit systems where salary decisions are tied so closely with the appraisal process.7 You might well ask is there any way out of this mess? The answer is fortunately yes. In other words. 1.9 Why Is This Transition Occurring? :-Well. Besides. they wait until the penny literally "drops". Managers avoid the appraisal process like the plague. several factors get in the way of this happening. Organizations that are the best and want to separate themselves from the rest. which is gaining in importance. cost containment and behavioral changes. they don't listen to the evaluation. and has a great deal to do with building managerial and individual competence. 1. managers are required to evaluate the performance of their staff. is qualitative in nature.4 A merit system demands that managers be willing to make distinctions in merit increases based on performance.5 CHANGING JOB DESIGN IN IT COMMUNITY . which is usually toward the end of the year. The first two areas are quantitative and the third area.4. Although employees profess to want to "know where they stand" they often take issue with the appraisal. most performance appraisal systems are after-the-fact appraisals. Sound like a familiar pattern? It is a process that repeats itself year after year.1. the annual salary change is usually a small percentage.

and the CSU anticipates entering into negotiations with its employee representatives in the near future. Increasingly." Secondly. and changing work place demands and priorities. however. Networking and desktop computing have removed . then describes the overall project within the context of an organizational effectiveness equation. as data are shared across multiple platforms on a network "highway" that is linked to external information sources. The goal of improved organizational effectiveness and an orientation towards reengineering and skills guided the development of the proposed job design approach. The study focused on the information technology community and how work processes and activities could be better organized to remove artificial barriers and improve organizational effectiveness.5.5.2 In 1991. 1.1 The California State University (CSU) system is being challenged to meet increasing demands for educational and administrative services through the innovative use of technology and human resource systems. Even though funding levels for higher education have been cut in recent years.5. service.1. public/taxpayer expectations and the demands for quality education. A new job design approach that was proposed as a result of the study is presented. campus systems are becoming more integrated. other supporting systems are described for an integrated human resources approach. This has resulted in widely diverse systems and technology within and across the CSU's twenty campuses. including a new classification structure and competency dimensions and measures for defining and evaluating positions. Human resource and organizational systems are also needed to capitalize on and thrive in this rapidly changing work environment. 1. Technology initiatives within the CSU have resulted in significant advances and improved technical capabilities and efficiency.3 This article begins by identifying several trends that led to the study.5. the CSU began a study to look at alternative work and job design approaches to meet these challenges.5 The technology demands within higher education lead to a complex and dynamic computing environment. a process often associated with the term "reengineering. Academic and administrative computing strategies tend to be at cross-purposes in terms of defining systems requirements. access. increased demand for educational access and (b) changes in instructional delivery methods. the study focused on developing a job design approach that could adapt to changing skill requirements and that would promote the continuous acquisition of skills for knowledge-based employees in information technology. 1. 1.5. Finally.4 Three trends have had a direct impact on the development of a strategic job design approach for the information technology community at the CSU: (a) diversification and convergence of technology. The development phase of the project has been completed. and accountability have grown.

maintaining skills to keep pace with changing technology was identified as a critical goal. 1. There is increasing pressure to constrain administrative costs within the "labor intensive cost structure" that exists in higher education. workers must possess a skill that they continually upgrade just to keep pace in the professions they choose. Two key issues are identified: (1) Economics." (4) The influx of new technology and applications has created a demand for continual learning and adaptation. Department of Labor in its Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) report.6 In terms of educational trends. More to the point.[2] Workplace trends. one job" to the reality of a range of skills that have to apply to a number of different kinds of professions. Data. Secretary of the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry:"We've changed from the idea of "one skill.[1] Library and computing functions are becoming increasingly interdependent in "an infrastructure of scholarly communication" within higher education. and . work design. as well as including process-oriented capabilities such as communication and negotiation skills.5. 1. and video technologies continue to be combined in more interactive and user-friendly formats. Knowledge requirements are expanding to encompass a greater breadth of technologies and subject expertise. well represent the outlook for the CSU. and this access has become an issue of social responsibility. Reductions in staff are occurring at the same time as transaction volume and service expectations are growing. With fewer people and greater access to information.traditional boundaries for information access.7 The implications of these technological . (2) Decentralization of responsibility. as presented in Sustaining Excellence in the 21st Century: A Vision and Strategies for College and University Administration. voice. and decision-support purposes. Work organization is shifting away from job specialization and a task/procedure orientation. to more generalized job responsibilities focused on outcome and greater participation on cross-functional teams (3) Another central workplace trend is the "earning and learning" environment described by the U. Due to the CSU's relatively stable workforce.5. Students expect guaranteed access to technology and to research databases. research. To quote Thomas P. organizations are moving responsibility for decision-making downward to the point of service. and workplace trends point directly to the need to reengineer organizational structures. Foley. many institutions offer distance learning using various transmission media and are incorporating instructional technology into curriculum development.S. educational.

1. The questionnaire was mainly based on objective type closeended question.3 Firstly. the survey was undertaken. Then the questionnaire was modified accordingly. Primary and secondary data available with these organisations was also used for this project study. 5. To suggest the measures to fill the gaps and improve motivation level of employees and HR management in IT industry. 3. two key objectives were established for a new job design approach for the CSU: flexibility and skill development.2 In order to measure the employees perceptions of emerging HR trends in different IT organisation. each campus needs the flexibility to achieve its goals by distributing work assignments in a way that optimizes its available skill mix and promotes individual skill development and initiative. The HRD functions/ activities being undertaken in different IT organisations were also studied. Interview and discussions were held with the various executive/ Managers/ staff employed in IT sector.7. To measure the perceptions of IT sector employees in respect of application of HRD in their organisation. but few open ended questions were also included.7.7. To find out lacking areas regarding the HRD in IT sector. Fundamentally. 4. . if desired.6 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY 1.6.1 Following were the objectives of the study:1. 1. To enlist emerging HR trends in Indian IT Industry 2. 1.7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1. All published and unpublished available on the subject matter was consulted. Based on these trends and overall organizational goals. To review literature and research done in this area. 1. the pilot survey on ten randomly selected respondents was undertaken. The survey was based on structured questionnaire.1 The study was exploratory in nature.processes.

.1.7. analyzed and interpreted to meet the required needs of this project study and presented in Report form. 1.4 The final questionnaire was administered in person to the extent possible and through mail if needed.5 Finally. The 100 respondents were selected among the executives and staff working in various IT organizations.7. The convenient random sampling technique was used for the selection of the respondents. the results of the survey has been presented in Tabular form.

In a short span of time. ICICI Prudential Life insurance is one of India's leading financial institutions offering complete financial solutions that encompass every sphere of life. as the Company evolves and changes.ICICI has set an example by having a steady and confident journey to growth and success. The Recruitment & Selection procedure ensures that these criteria are addressed In this project I have studied Recruitment and Selection process of ICICI Prudential Life Insurance and attempted to provide some ways so as to make recruitment more effective and to reduce the cost of hiring an employee. They can make or break the fortunes of a business. It is also becoming increasingly important. adaptability and ability to work as part of a team. This project however is an attempt to share as best as possible my experience in corporate world with all my colleagues and my faculty. that new recruits show a willingness to learn. I would be delighted to receive reader’s comments which maybe valuable lessons for my future projects. My involvement in the project has been very challenging and hasprovided me a platform to leverage my potential in the most constructive way. During the training period I have studied deeply the process of hiring in ICICI Prudential Life insurance and did a SWOT analysis of ICICI Prudential Life Insurance to find out the existing shortcomings and potential threats and thereby recommended suggestions. The recruitment and selection decision is of prime importance as it is the vehicle for obtaining the best possible person-to-job fit that will. contribute significantly towards the Company's effectiveness. In today’s highly competitive business environment placing the right people in the right position is very critical for the success of any organization. .Recruitment and selection of Insurance Companies PREFACE People are a company’s most important assets. I am privileged to be one of the students who got an opportunity to do my training with ICICI Prudential Life Insurance.

Its business is growing at 15-20% annually and presently is of the order of Rs. Human Resource in this regard has become an important function in any organization. Together with banking sector it adds about 7% to the GDP. The Financial market has been witnessing growth which is manifold for last few years. Selecting the wrong candidate or rejecting the right candidate could turn out to be costly mistakes for the organization. Many private players have entered the economy thereby increasing the level of competition. The competitiveness of a company of an organization is measured through the quality of products and services offered to customers that are unique from others. which can be executed effectively to get the best fits for the vacant positions. 450m. In the competitive scenario it has become a challenge for each company to adopt practices that would help the organization stand out in the market. The project is based on the study of recruitment process. The idea is to generate ways of dealing with high attrition and making hiring process manageable and efficient. Thus. Insurance sector too faces the problem of attrition. Hence. The various recommendations suggested have been the result of the study.recruitment is an ongoing process carried through out the year. Data Used There were mainly two sources of data collection Ø Primary data: . insurance happens to be a mega opportunity in India. the skills and talent of a person cannot be emulated. Therefore a recruitmentpractice in an organization must be effective and efficient in attracting the best manpower.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In today’s rapidly changing business environment. Thus the best services offered to the consumers are result of the genius brains working behind them. All practices of marketing and finances can be easily emulated but the capability. it is important to have a welldefined recruitment policy in place. Coverage –The extent and limitation With largest number of life insurance policies in force in the world. Like in the case of BPO’s. organizations have to respond quickly to requirements for people.

By active participation in the recruitment process. Huge recruitment cost. Web sites Journals Magazines Books Findings v v v Recruitment is done throughout the year more during the months of May-June and Oct-Nov. . I would be going through the recruitment policies of the company. To pursue these. Huge investment of time. the areas where improvement can be bought about can be identified.Ø Ø Ø v Ø Ø Ø Survey method Personal interview with candidates In depth conversation with the placement agency Secondary data: Study of recruitment policy Websites Published articles Research methodology used v v v v v Study of recruitment and selection at ICICI Prudential Life Insurance by the manual providedby the HR department.

Some of the important milestones in the life insurance business in India are: 1818: Oriental Life Insurance Company. the first life insurance company on Indian soil started functioning. The first two decades of the twentieth century saw lot of growth in insurance business. 1928: The Indian Insurance Companies Act enacted to enable the government to collect statistical information about both life and non-life insurance businesses. viz. Though the concept of insurance is largely a development of the recent past.22. information from the new employees. 1870: Bombay Mutual Life Assurance Society. LIC Act. From 44 companies with total business-in-force as Rs. 1956.44 crore. 1956: 245 Indian and foreign insurers and provident societies are taken over by the central government and nationalized.298 crore in 1938. The Insurance Act 1938 was the first legislation governing not only life insurance but also non-life insurance to provide strict state control over insurance business. It will also involverecruitment and selection processes. The same instinct that prompts modern businessmen today to secure themselves against loss and disaster existed in primitive men also.Thus the whole research would be done under the guidance of external guide. 5 crore from the Government of India. . with a capital contribution of Rs. reading the material provide internally by the organization. the first Indian life insurance company started its business. it rose to 176 companies with total business-in-force as Rs. They too sought to avert the evil consequences of fire and flood and loss of life and were willing to make some sort of sacrifice in order to achieve security. particularly after the industrial era – past few centuries – yet its beginnings date back almost 6000 years. 1938: Earlier legislation consolidated and amended to by the Insurance Act with the objective of protecting the interests of the insuring public. Introduction 1.1 Introduction Of The Insurance Industry Overview The story of insurance is probably as old as the story of mankind. LIC formed by an Act of Parliament. 1912: The Indian Life Assurance Companies Act enacted as the first statute to regulate the life insurance business.

1972: The General Insurance Business (Nationalisation) Act. A well-developed and evolved insurance sector is needed for economic development as it provides long term funds for infrastructure development and at the same time strengthens the risk taking ability.The General insurance business in India. Together with banking services. It’s a business growing at the rate of 15-20 per cent annually and presently is of the order of Rs 450 billion. And this part of the population is also subject to weak social security and pension systems with hardly any old age income security. 1968: The Insurance Act amended to regulate investments and set minimum solvency margins and the Tariff Advisory Committee set up. nearly 80 per cent of Indian population is without life insurance cover while health insurance and non-life insurance continues to be below international standards. it adds about 7 per cent to the country’s GDP. the first general insurance company established in the year 1850 in Calcutta by the British. to some extent. India has come a full circle from being an open competitive market to nationalization and back to a liberalized market again. frames a code of conduct for ensuring fair conduct and sound business practices. It is estimated that over the next ten years India would require investments of the order of one trillion US dollar. the first company to transact all classes of general insurance business. 1972 nationalised the general insurance business in India with effect from 1st January 1973. 1957: General Insurance Council. The Insurance sector. can enable investments in infrastructure development to sustain economic growth of the country. This itself is an indicator that growth potential for the insurance sector is immense. Yet. Present Scenario The Government of India liberalized the insurance sector in March 2000 with the passage of the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) Bill. lifting all entry restrictions for . With largest number of life insurance policies in force in the world.. Tracing the developments in the Indian insurance sector reveals the 360 degree turn witnessed over a period of almost two centuries. a wing of the Insurance Association of India. set up. Some of the important milestones in the general insurance business in India are: 1907: The Indian Mercantile Insurance Ltd. Gross premium collection is nearly 2 per cent of GDP and funds available with LIC for investments are 8 per cent of GDP. on the other hand. Insurance happens to be a mega opportunity in India. can trace its roots to the Triton Insurance Company Ltd.

The opening up of the sector is likely to lead to greater spread and deepening of insurance in India and this may also include restructuring and revitalizing of the public sector companies. The state owned LIC sold insurance as a tax instrument. With the entry of the private insurers the rules of the game have changed. are now suddenly turning to the private sector and snapping up the new innovative products on offer. Major Insurance Players Licenses have been issued for the following companies Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø ICICI Prudential Life Insurance Limited ICICI Prudential Life Insurance Company Limited HDFC Standard Life Insurance Company Limited Birla Sun Life Insurance Company Limited TATA AIG Life Insurance Company Limited .. The penetration of life insurance products was 19 percent of the total 400 million of the insurable population.03 over last year. Life Insurance Market The Life Insurance market in India is an underdeveloped market that was only tapped by the state owned LIC till the entry of private insurers. The new business premiums of the 12 private players has tripled to Rs 1000 crore in 2002. not as a product giving protection. who have always seen life insurance as a tax saving device.forwarding the second phase of their expansion plans. That's the triple whammy combination that has enabled fledgling private insurance companies to sign up Indian customers faster than anyone ever expected.private players and allowing foreign players to enter the market with some limits on direct foreign ownership. Most customers were underinsured with no flexibility or transparency in the products. Innovative products. smart marketing and aggressive distribution. The 12 private insurers in the life insurance market have already grabbed nearly 9 percent of the market in terms of premium income. Buoyed by their quicker than expected success. Indians. A host of private Insurance companies operating in both life and non-life segments have started selling their insurance policies. The private insurers also seem to be scoring big in other ways. In the private sector 14 life insurance and 8 general insurance companies have been registered.they are persuading people to take out bigger policies. nearly all private insurers are fast.

claims procedure in both life and non-life. . Towards achieving this objective. speedy settlement of claims. setting up of grievance redressal machinery.Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Max New York Life Insurance Company Limited SBI – Cardiff Life Insurance Company Limited ING Vysya Life Insurance Company Limited Bajaj Allianz Life Insurance Company Limited MetLife Life Insurance Company Limited Aviva Life Insurance Company Limited AMP Sanmar Life Insurance Company Limited Sahara India Life Insurance Limited Sri Ram Life Insurance Limited Protection of the interests of policyholders: IRDA has the responsibility of protecting the interest of insurance policyholders. The Regulation also provides for payment of interest by insurers for the delay in settlement of claim. v The insurers are required to maintain solvency margins so that they are in a position to meet their obligations towards policyholders with regard to payment of claims. and policyholders' servicing. the Authority has taken the following steps: v IRDA has notified Protection of Policyholders Interest Regulations 2001 to provide for: policy proposal documents in easily understandable language.

v All insurers are required to set up proper grievance redress machinery in their head office and at their other offices. ICICI was established in 1955 to lend money for industrial development.780 crore and wrote nearly 615. The Company recognizes that the driving force for gaining sustainable competitive advantage in this business is superior customer experience and investment behind the brand. 1 private life insurer in the country. The Company aims to achieve this by striving to provide world class service levels through constant innovation in products. Prudential plc was established in 1848 and is presently the largest life insurance company in UK.v It is obligatory on the part of the insurance companies to disclose clearly the benefits. it has diversified into retail banking and is the largest private bank in the country. For the financial year ended March 31. . The Authority takes up with the insurers any complaint received from the policyholders in connection with services provided by them under the insurance contract. distribution channels and technology based delivery. 1. the company garnered Rs 1584 crore of new business premium for a total sum assured of Rs 13.000 policies. The Company has already taken significant steps to achieve this goal. terms and conditions under the policy. Today. The advertisements issued by the insurers should not mislead the insuring public. a leading international financial services group headquartered in the United Kingdom. ICICI Prudential is currently the No. a premier financial powerhouse and Prudential plc. 2005.2 COMPANY PROFILE ICICI Prudential Life Insurance ICICI Prudential Life Insurance Company is a joint venture between ICICI Bank.

ICICI Prudential's capital stands at Rs. As we grow our distribution. For the first quarter ended June 30. ICICI Prudential Life Insurance Company is a joint venture between ICICI Bank-one of India's foremost financial services companies-and Prudential plc. 1 private life insurer in the country.72 billion with ICICI Bank and Prudential plc holding 74% and 26% stake respectively. and is a clear assurance of ICICI Prudential's ability to meet its obligations to customers at the time of maturity or claims. For three years in a row. with ICICI Bank holding a stake of 74% and Prudential plc holding 26%. ICICI Prudential has retained its position as the No. 2007. a premier financial powerhouse.India's Number One private life insurer. product range and customer base. 23. the company garnered Rs. 18. The AAA (Ind) rating is the highest rating.000 retail policies in the period. FACT SHEET THE COMPANY ICICI Prudential Life Insurance Company is a joint venture between ICICI Bank. and Prudential plc. ICICI Prudential was amongst the first private sector insurance companies to begin operations in December 2000 after receiving approval from Insurance Regulatory Development Authority (IRDA).a leading international financial services group headquartered in the United Kingdom. The company has assets held to the tune of over Rs. by The Economic Times . a leading international financial services group headquartered in the United Kingdom.72 billion. For the past six years. ICICI Prudential was the first life insurer in India to receive a National Insurer Financial Strength rating of AAA (Ind) from Fitch ratings.AC Nielsen ORG Marg survey of 'Most Trusted Brands'.400 crore. Total capital infusion stands at Rs. Distribution . ICICI Prudential has been voted as India's Most Trusted Private Life Insurer. 23. with a wide range of flexible products that meet the needs of the Indian customer at every step in life. we continue to tirelessly uphold our commitment to deliver world-class financial solutions to customers all over India. 987 crore of weighted retail + group new business premiums and wrote over 450. ICICI Prudential is also the only private life insurer in India to receive a National Insurer Financial Strength rating of AAA (Ind) from Fitch ratings.

customer-centric products that meet the needs of customers at every life stage.ICICI Prudential has one of the largest distribution networks amongst private life insurers in India.        The Insurance Provided The health insurance Placement Agency Canon camera reviews Locate a person Life insurance company Products Insurance Solutions For Individuals ICICI Prudential Life Insurance offers a range of innovative.000 advisors. having tie-ups with ICICI Bank. Baramati Co-operative Bank. Each offer 4 fund options — Preserver. Premier Life Gold is a limited premium paying plan that offers customers life insurance cover till the age of 75. Shamrao Vithal Co-op Bank. Sangli Urban Co-operative Bank. Protector. expenses for a child’s higher education or purchase of an asset. . Ernakulam Bank. LifeLink Super is a single premium Unit Linked Insurance Plan which combines life insurance cover with the opportunity to stay invested in the stock market. It has a strong presence across India with over 680 branches and over 235. 9 Bank of India sponsored Regional Rural Banks (RRBs). Federal Bank. The company has over 23 bancassurnace partners. CashBak is an anticipated endowment policy ideal for meeting milestone expenses like a child’s marriage. Bank of India. South Indian Bank. Balancer and Maximiser. Jalgaon Peoples Co-operative Bank. to create a customized solution for each policy holder. Savings Solutions      Save’n’Protect is a traditional endowment savings plan that offers life protection along with adequate returns. Ballia Kshetriya Gramin Bank. Its products can be enhanced with up to 4 riders. Lord Krishna Bank. The Haryana State Co-operative Bank and Imphal Urban Cooperative Bank Limited. LifeTimeSuper offer customers the flexibility and control to customize the policy to meet the changing needs at different life stages. Idukki District Cooperative Bank.

Market-linked retirement products LifeTime Super Pension is a regular premium market-linked pension plan. level term assurance with return of premium and single premium. which offers life cover at very low cost. HomeAssure is a mortgage reducing term assurance plan designed specifically to help customers cover their home loans in a simple and cost-effective manner. The policy is designed to provide money at important milestones in the child's life.both single premium and regular premium Retirement Solutions     ForeverLife is a retirement product targeted at individuals in their thirties. with flexibility in both the accumulation and payout stages. Child Plans · SmartKid education plans provide guaranteed educational benefits to a child along with life insurance cover for the parent who purchases the policy. InvestShield Cashbak is a unit linked plan that provides premium guarantee on the invested premiums along with flexible liquidity options. The policy is designed to provide money at important milestones in the child’s life. SmartKid plans are also available in unit-linked form – both single premium and regular premium. Golden Years: is a limited premium paying retirement solution that offers tax benefits up to Rs 100. . Education Insurance Plans · Education insurance under the SmartKid brand provides guaranteed educational benefits to a child along with life insurance cover for the parent who purchases the policy. · Protection Solutions   LifeGuard is a protection plan.000 u/s 80C. It is available in 3 options – level term assurance. SmartKid plans are also available in unit-linked form . InvestShield Life New is a unit linked plan that provides premium guarantee on the invested premiums and ensures that the customer receives only the benefits of fund appreciation without any of the risks of depreciation.

The benefit under the policy is paid to the beneficiary nominated by the member on his/her death. The plan can also be customized to structure schemes that can provide benefits beyond the statutory obligations. total and permanent disability. Hospital Care*: Hospital Care offers a Cashless hospitalization facility in more then 3000 network hospitals Crisis Cover : is a 360-degree product that will provide long-term coverage against 35 critical illnesses. Diabetes Care and Diabetes Care Plus*: 1st ever critical illness insurance cover for diabetics. . ICICI Pru Group Gratuity Plan: ICICI Pru’s group gratuity plan helps employers fund their statutory gratuity obligation in a scientific manner. ICICI Pru Group Superannuation Plan: ICICI Pru offers a flexible defined contribution superannuation scheme to provide a retirement kitty for each member of the group. Health Assure Plus offers the added advantage of an equivalent life insurance cover Cancer Care: is a regular premium plan that pays cash benefit on the diagnosis as well as at different stages in the treatment of various cancer conditions.Health Solution  Health Assure and Health Assure Plus: Health Assure is a regular premium plan which provides long term cover against 6 critical illnesses by providing policyholder with financial assistance. ICICI Pru Group Term Plan: ICICI Pru’s flexible group term solution helps provide affordable cover to members of a group. irrespective of the actual medical expenses. and death · · · · Note (*) products Re-launched on 1st July 2006 Group Insurance Solutions ICICI Prudential also offers Group Insurance Solutions for companies seeking to enhance benefits to their employees. Employees have the option of choosing from various annuity options or opting for a partial commutation of the annuity at the time of retirement. The cover could be uniform or based on designation/rank or a multiple of salary.

the beneficiary will be entitled to twice the sum assured as additional benefit. 3. the beneficiary receives an additional amount equal to the rider sum assured under the policy. Critical Illness Benefit: protects the insured against financial loss in the event of 9 specified critical illnesses. Accident & Disability Benefit: This rider option pays 10% the sum assured under the rider every year till next 10 years on Accidental Permanent Disability of 2 Organs. Benefits are payable to the insured for medical expenses prior to death. Accident Benefit: If death occurs as the result of an accident during the term of the policy. 2. the premiums are waived till maturity. SecurePlus and CashPlus Waiver of Premium: In case of total and permanent disability due to an accident. till maturity. . An Investment Option with investment indebt and money market instruments. 2) Maximiser :- An investment option with investment in equity and equity related instruments. 1. 4. 1) Protector:- 5. Income Benefit: This rider pays the 10% of the sum assured to the nominee every year. Choice of Six Investment Options :ICICI prudential offers you the opportunity of selecting between investment options to match your investment priorities. If the death occurs while traveling in an authorized mass transport vehicle. in the event of the death of the life assured. It is available on SmarKid. which can be added to the basic policy at a marginal cost. This rider is available with SecurePlus and CashPlus.Flexible Rider Options ICICI Pru Life offers flexible riders. depending on the specific needs of the customer.

3) Balancer :An investment option with investment in a mix of equity and debt oriented instruments. 4) call Preserver :An investment option with investment in low-risk instruments like cash and money markets. Long term returns from an equity portfolio lare. 6) Flexi balanced:Balance of capital appreciation and stable returns from an equity (large. 5) Flexi Growth:New Fund (NFO) launched in March 2007. and leveraging our technological expertise. . Vision and Mission Their vision is to make ICICI Prudential Life Insurance Company the dominant new insurer in the life insurance industry. speed and innovation. The success of the organisation will be founded on its strong focus on values and clarity of purpose. These include: · Understanding the needs of customers and offering them superior products and service · Building long lasting relationships with their partners · Providing an enabling environment to foster growth and learning for their employees And above all building transparency in all our dealings.mid & small cap companies) & debt portfolio.mid and small cap companies. This they hope to achieve through their commitment to excellence. focus on service.

400 051. Tel: 494 3232 Regional Office : 8th floor EROS Coorporate Tower. Tel: 601 3232 ICICI Prudential Life Insurance opens office in Dubai . Bandra-Kurla Complex Mumbai . having agreements with ICICI Bank.They believe that they can play a significant role in redefining and reshaping the sector. Bank of India. stretching from Bhuj in the west to Guwahati in the east.Nehru place.110055. ICICI Prudential has recruited and trained more than 1. they feel that tere will be no limits to their growth. MFIs and corporates for the distribution of rural policies.000 insurance advisors to interface with and advise customers. Given the quality of their parentage and the commitment of their team. Federal Bank. Further. it leverages its state-of-the-art IT infrastructure to provide superior quality of service to customers RegisteredOffice : ICICI Towers 9thfloor. DISTRIBUTION ICICI Prudential has one of the largest distribution networks amongst private life insurers in India. Rani Jhansi Road New Delhi . 90. as well as over 300 corporate agents and brokers. South Indian Bank. having commenced operations in 150 cities and towns in India. and some co-operative banks.Tel:46554405 Delhi office : 3rd floor Videocon Towers E-1. The company has 9 bank partnerships for distribution. It has also tied up with NGOs. and Jammu in the north to Trivandrum in the south. Lord Krishna Bank. New Delhi-110011.

Solutions that take care of your four basic financial needs .Earning. becoming the first private life insurer from India to open an office in the Emirate. India's No. At ICICI Prudential we offer pragmatic. today opened its representative office in Dubai. solutions with a lot of common sense. Put simply. world-class solutions. 1 private life insurance company.In a move to consolidate its position in the Gulf region. ICICI Prudential Life Insurance (ICICI Prudential). . Investing and Spending. sans worries. Saving. So you live your life to the fullest.

a mere reporting of an individual performance once a year but also should serve as an instrument of motivation. Confidently in appraisals. 2. . Some practical issues for improving the effectiveness of appraisal practices would be as under :1. an individual assets in human resource management. Steps for ensuring objectivity. A sound appraisal system is. Project Report on HR Implications in Banking This aspect has given a new Industry dimension to performance appraisal system. Project Report on Training & Development of given the proper environment and Employees motivation. however. 3. 4. at the same time capable of extremely high performance levels.Workman's Performance Appraisal in HP India Sales Pvt. therefore.. Despite the increasing research done by behaviour scientists. New Delhi Performance Appraisal System in HRM : The performance appraisal system is one of the most critical areas in the field of human resource management. Shift from personality trait to job performance. These are not merely. man still remains a very complex person. at least should not be. Purpose of performance appraisal. Ltd.

Ltd. New Delhi Category : Project Report for MBA Pages : 72 . Objective of Study Scope of Study Research Methodology Analysis and Interpretation of Data Conclusions Suggestions Limitations Observations Annexures o o Questionnaire Bibliography Project Description : Title : Workman's Performance Appraisal in HP India Sales Pvt.5. Ltd. Influence of organizational environment in employee appraisal. CONTENTS             Company Profile Introduction to Project Performance Appraisal in HP India Sales Pvt..

only with synopsis. If you need this project. . its cost is Rs.This project is our paid category. 2499/. 2999/.only without Synopsis and Rs.com We will send you a hardcopy with hard binding and a softcopy in CD from courier. mail us at this id : bkm@allprojectreports.

Conformance to requirements. Quality is what the customer says 6. 3. Quality means productivity.PROJECT REPORT ON TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT CONCEPTUALIZATION This is Total Quality Management Project Report. So this study is helpful to measure the level of commitment toward work and to know the factor affecting the commitment level . Quality means conformance to specification and standard.If human resource of organization is not happy with the organization. It will adversely affect the organization. 5. 2. TOTAL QUALITY :- . total customer satisfaction. QUALITY:1. and timely delivery. Quality means fit ness for use. So to make the people happy is the responsibility of the organization. The higher degree of commitment toward work will improve productivity and will decrease rejection cause due to human factor. Human resource is the most important factor for any organization and success of any Organization is depending upon its resource . 4. competitive cost. Quality means getting every one to do what they have agreed to do and to do it right the first time and every time.

every time by employing organization resource to provide value to customer. To maintain existing lever of quality. at all level.It means all the people of the organization are committed to product quality by doing right things right. .commitment to quality in the workforce and promoting to open decision making. in all functional area. Effective utilization of resource. MANAGEMENT: Executive are fully committed Decision in a planned way. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT: It is the process designed to focus external/internal customer expectation preventing problems building . To improve existing lever of quality. QUALITY: Customer express and implied requirement is met fully. TOTAL: Every one associated with the company is involved in continuous improvement. first time.

Comptence 4. .PRINCIPLES OF TQM:1. Quality system measure& record 7. Team work. Continuous improvement FACTOR AFFECTED THE COMMITMENT OF THE EMPLOYEES:General worker attitude toward the company. The lever of consideration the supervisor shows to his subordination. The workload & work pressure level.Delight the customer 2. Management by fact 3. Communication 2. People based management 4. Team accountable. Commitment 3. General worker attitude toward the supervisor. Lever of satisfaction toward job standard. Continuous improvement 5. Strong leadership 6. FOUR C’S OF TQM 1. correct problem 8. People oriented technology. speed.

I have explained earlier. Worker attitude toward the fellow worker.The treatment of individual by the management The lever of worker’s satisfaction with the salaries The level of worker pride in the company and its activity Worker reaction to the formal communication network in the organization. OPERATIONALISATION OF THE CONCEPT:I have studied on impact of employee’s commitment toward. . I measured the degree of implementation in the organization and what are the factor that are affected the commitment lever and to check how much they are satisfaction with the TQM implement. I have collected the data from them and after that I have tabulated them and interpreted them and give the recommendation. They found that apply TQM has directly increased their morale. Focus of the problem: The main emphasis will be on to find out quality employee’s commitment toward their work as a result total quality implementation. I have made the questionnaire which consisting of multiple-choice questions. These are the finding of various researchers. In the company. They sum up various finding. increase the satisfaction lever and commitment toward their work. they already have implemented TQM so through this study. Intrinsic job satisfaction level of the worker. For this purpose. Review of Existing literature: Many people have work on this topic.

To study the level of commitment of employees toward their work.To find the degree of TQM implemented in the organization. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is a way to solve the research problem in a systematic manner. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:The objectives of this study are: 1. yet the basic approach towards the research remains the same. 3.THE ECONOMIC TIMES. This project has been done first time in the company. ~The management did not agree to disclose all the confidential data. To find out factor influencing the commitment.Several articles have been published in different journals .VIKALPA etc. It may understand as a science of studying how the research is done significantly. LIMITATION ~Employees of the organization may hide the fact. The methodology may differ from problem to problem. The sequence or steps followed have been explained as under: . so clear conclusion can’t be drawn. magazines and newspaper such as HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW. ~Number of respondents are very less. But the effect of TQM on employees commitment in the company has so far not undertaken. 2.

I have selected 100 employee 40 FROM THE STAFF. . ANALYSIS PATTERN Data collection: This data is primary data. But some of employees feel that there is no proper communication. RESEARCH DESIGN This research is of EXPLORATARY RESEARCH DESIGN . I have prepared a questionnaire on the basis of the factors responsible for employee’s commitment in the organization. practices followed in the organization.60 FROM THE WORKER for the survey. Some of the employee’s feel that thy have proper information about the policies. Most of the facts related with the organization are hided by the management from the employees. which I have been collected with the help of questionnaire. This also increases their commitment toward the work and toward the organization. MACRO ANALYSIS (Inferences &Interpretation) The detailed analyses of the results are explained below: MOST OF EMPLOYEES FEELS THAT: Most of the staff member and worker feel that organization is quality conscious toward the employees.UNIVERSE AND SURVAY POPULATION The universe is the employee working at mill.I have used the questionnaire method for collecting the data.

 Self-potential system should be encouraged.  Management should involve the workers representatives in managerial activities so that the transparency could be maintained and through this they can win the confidence of the employees. NOTE: THIS QUESTIONNAIRE IS PURELY FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES.  Management should give due importance to mental relaxation &social cultural development of an employees who strives hard for the company.  Management should clear their vision mission and goals towards the employees in the organization.  There are regular review and comparison of current & past performance to detect gradual deterioration in the strategy. . RECCOMENDATIONS The suggestions I have given for the betterment are explained below:  It is very important to provide the opportunity to the employees of the organization to express their ideas or whatever they want to express.  Reward or Praise/appreciation works as magic for an individual and motivates them for work. ALL THE INFORMATION PROVIDED WOULD BE KEPT CONFIDENTIAL. Most of the staffs member feel that their performance is properly measured in the organization.  Proper cooperation should be necessary in the company.  Role clarity of each position should be defined and based on that individuals can plan their work accordingly.Most of the employees feel that they don’t get rewarded for their good performance.

Do you think the organization is quality conscious toward employees? YES NO Does the organization have the certification of ISO 9000? YES NO Is the organization providing quality assurance system & operation? YES NO Does the organization have quality circle? YES NO How many people are involved in quality circle? Below 10 above 10 above 15 can’t say How frequently the organizations have the meeting of quality circle? Weekly biweekly monthly yearly Do you about the agenda of information or any other information? YES NO Are the organization is going for the quality audit? YES NO can’t say Does your organization have quality information system? YES NO can’t say Are the information system is regularly updated? YES NO can’t say .

a. if any. then Org. please tell me the name of the benchmark organization? YES If yes. Area NO can’t say Does the organization is going for the brain storming session? YES NO don’tknow Are you practicing the 5’s Japanese philosophy ? YES NO Does the organization have the certification of ISO 14000 or any other. if any please mention? YES NO don’tknow Are you practicing the six sigma for the error control? YES NO don’tknow A formal career planning process exist in the organization Strongly Agree Don’t know Agree Strongly disagree Disagree There is a shared vision of where your business is growing? Strongly Agree Strongly disagree . b.Do you think the organization used bench marking.

peers and subordinates? Good If bad then why it is so?  They are not cooperating.Don’t know Agree Disagree Employees are kept updated with changes in job skills & job designs? Strongly Agree Don’t know Agree Strongly disagree Disagree Formal or informal method is followed for employees feedback and acting on that feedback? Strongly Agree Don’t know Agree Strongly disagree Disagree Does the organization provide right environment to apply your knowledge from new programs to the job? Very much Not at all Do you feel that the organization is a good place to work? Yes No Sometimes Some whatLittle Do you feel comfortable with rules and policy of the organization? Yes No Sometimes What types of relations are you having with your superior.  Their behavior is not good Average Poor .

. There is no proper communication. if you make an effort? Yes No Sometimes Do you get any reward on your good performance? Yes No Sometimes Do you find that your performance is properly measured in the organization? Yes No Sometimes Do you find that your job makes the best use of your abilities? Yes No Some Times Thank you for your kind co-operation.  All above Do you feel that you can get ahead in the org.

(BSNLK)”. this section also contains my findings. The second section deals with performance appraisal.. job security. Yet. PREFACE Managing human resources in today’s dynamic environment is becoming more and more complex as well as important. contributions and potentials of employees. The first section of my report deals with a detailed company profile. “People are our most valuable asset” is a cliché. organizational structure. The forth and final section of this report consists of extra information that I related to the main contents of the report. It includes the company’s history: its activities and operations. In the third section of my report. which no member of any senior management team would disagree with. These annexure include some graphs and . etc My research project deals with “Performance Appraisal as carried out at Bhart Sanchar Nigam Ltd. Performance Appraisal is the process of assessing the performance and progress of an employee or a group of employees on a given job and his / their potential for future development. Recognition of people as a valuable resource in the organization has led to increases trends in employee maintenance. but many organizations find it advantageous to establish a specialist division to provide an expert service dedicated to ensuring that the human resource function is performed efficiently. process and significance of performance appraisal. conclusions. It contains the definition. in the sense of getting things done through people. the reality for many organizations are that their people remain under valued. I have conducted a research study to evaluate the process of performance appraisal at Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. this section attempts to give detailed information about the company and the nature of it’s functioning. under trained and under utilized. I have given a brief conceptual explanation to performance appraisal. It consists of all formal procedures used in the working organizations to evaluate personalities. is an essential part of every manager’s responsibility. etc.PROJECT REPORT ON PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM AT BSNL INTRODUCTION TOWARDS PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM Human Resource (or personnel) management. In this report. suggestions and feedback. In this section. I have studied &evaluated the performance appraisal process as it is carried out in the company.

RATIONALE OF THE STUDY Performance Appraisal is the important aspect in the organization to evaluate the employees performance. skilled people is competitive and expensive. Induction 4. graphs relating to the research study and important documents upon which the project is based. Selection . Also. is an essential part of every manager’s responsibility. product / process / organization knowledge and experience for new staff members. It helps the organization in deciding employees promotion. Training & Development Recruitment The process of recruitment begins after manpower requirements are determined in terms of quality through job analysis and quantity through forecasting and planning. but many organizations find it advantageous to establish a specialist division to provide an expert service dedicated to ensuring that the human resource function is performed efficiently. INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Human Resource (or personnel) management. FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Following are the various functions of Human Resource Management that are essential for the effective functioning of the organization: 1. transfer. pay increase. Yet. Performance Appraisal 5. It helps in understanding the employees work culture. Taking on new staff can be disruptive to existing employees. under trained and under utilized. in the sense of getting things done through people. The market place for talented.diagrams relating to the company. which no member of any senior management team would disagree with. incentives. and satisfaction. Selection 3. it takes time to develop ‘cultural awareness’. involvement. “People are our most valuable asset” is a cliché. Recruitment 2. the reality for many organizations are that their people remain under valued.

The selection is the process of ascertaining whether or not candidates possess the requisite qualifications. WHAT IS “PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL”? Performance Appraisal is defined as the process of assessing the performance and progress of an employee or a group of employees on a given job and his / their potential for future development. The main purpose of Performance Appraisal is to secure information necessary for making objective and correct decision an employee. Induction a) Induction is the technique by which a new employee is rehabilitated into the changed surroundings and introduced to the practices. periodic and an important rating of an employee’s excellence in matters pertaining to his present job and his potential for a better job. Discussing the appraisal 6. policies and purposes of the organization. Lack of knowledge . Communicating the Standards 3. Comparing the actual with the standards 5. Negative approach 4. Measuring Performance 4. Multiple objectives 5. Lack of reliability 3. Performance Appraisal is a process. It is scientific and objective study.Taking Corrective Action LIMITATIONS 1. Formal procedures are used in the study. Establishing performance standards 2. It is the systematic examination of the strengths and weakness of an employee in terms of his job. training and experience required. “Performance Appraisal is the systematic. It is an ongoing and continuous process wherein the evaluations are arranged periodically according to a definite plan. According to Flippo. PROCESS The process of performance appraisal: 1. 3. 4. Errors in Rating 2. 5.” CHARACTERISTICS 1. It consists of all formal procedures used in working organizations and potential of employees. 2.

even considering the available battery of appraisal techniques. above average. MBO has become something of a fad and is so familiar to most managers that I will not dwell on it here. teachers. this technique asks the rater to write a paragraph or more covering an individual's strengths. the feeling that they are being judged by unfairly high standards. or unsatisfactory?) and on a variety of other factors that vary with the job but usually include personal traits like reliability and cooperation. In most selection situations. average. . or managerial positions. or associates carry significant weight. (b) help the group arrive at a consensus. It may also include specific performance items like oral and written communication. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES To avoid. employees in some organizations are being asked to set .METHODS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL The foregoing list of major program pitfalls represents a formidable challenge. ESSAY APPRAISAL In its simplest form.their own performance goals. GRAPHIC RATING SCALE This technique may not yield the depth of an essay appraisal. But attempting to avoid these pitfalls by doing away with appraisals themselves is like trying to solve the problems of life by committing suicide. Before relating the specific techniques to the goals of performance appraisal stated at the outset of the article. I shall briefly review each. A member of the personnel or central administrative staff meets with small groups of raters from each supervisory unit and goes over each employee's rating with them to (a) identify areas of inter-rater disagreement. The best-known techniques will be treated most briefly. particularly those involving professional. this technique was developed to reduce bias and establish objective standards of comparison between individuals. a graphic scale assesses a person on the quality and quantity of his work (is he outstanding. and (c) determine that each rater conceives the standards similarly. . essay appraisals from former employers. The more logical task is to identify those appraisal practices that are (a) most likely to achieve a particular objective and (b) least vulnerable to the obstacles already discussed. but it is more consistent and reliable. FIELD REVIEW The field review is one of several techniques for doing this. sales. FORCED-CHOICE RATING Like the field review. but it does not involve the intervention of a third party. weaknesses. Typically. . and so on.or help set . potential. Within the past five or six years. taking them more or less in an order of increasing complexity. or to deal with.

Then on a form as shown below. Appropriates customer ratings are also included. whereby ratings are not given just by the next manager up in the organizational hierarchy. ASSESSMENT CENTERS So far. ratings.e.RANKING METHODS For comparative purposes. 2. the employee who is highest on the characteristic being measured and the one who is the lowest are indicated. alternating between highest and lowest until all the employees to be rated have been ranked. 360 degree feedback is also known as the multi-rater feedback. rather than for pay increases. supervisors. it is necessary to recognize that comparisons involve an overall subjective judgment to which a host of additional facts and impressions must somehow be added. The two most effective methods are alternation ranking and paired comparison ranking. an alternation ranking method is most popular. How can this kind of prediction be made most validly and most fairly? 360 DEGREE FEEDBACK Many firms have expanded the idea of upward feedback into what the call 360degree feedback. subordinates and customers. individual statements. Here subordinates to be rated are listed and the names of those not well enough to rank are crossed. particularly when combined with multiple rankings (i. “Paired-comparison ranking”: This technique is probably just as accurate as alternation ranking and might be more so. “Alternation ranking”: Ranking of employees from best to worst on a trait or traits is another method for evaluating employees.. or appraisal forms are not particularly useful. along with the element of self appraisal. particularly when it is necessary to compare people who work for different supervisors. Since it is usually easier to distinguish between the worst and the best employees than to rank them. but also by peers and subordinates. But with large numbers of employees it becomes extremely time consuming and cumbersome. questionnaires on an individual. 1. are among the best available for generating valid order-of-merit rankings for salary administration purposes. Appropriate parties – peers. Then chose the next highest and the next lowest. when two or more people are asked to make independent rankings of the same work group and their lists are averaged). Instead. The best approach appears to be a ranking technique involving pooled judgment. Both ranking techniques. There is no single form or way to do this. The feedback is generally used for training and development. for instance – complete survey. some prediction of future performance is necessary. What about the assessment of future performance or potential? In any placement decision and even more so in promotion decisions. we have been talking about assessing past performance. Most 360 Degree Feedback system contains several common features. Once .

gathered in, the assessment from the various quarters are compared with one another and the results communicated to the manager concerned.
Another technique that is useful for coaching purposes is, of course, MBO. Like the critical incident method, it focuses on actual behavior and actual results, which can be discussed objectively and constructively, with little or no need for a supervisor to "play God."

Advantages
Instead of assuming traits, the MBO method concentrates on actual outcomes. If the employee meets or exceeds the set objectives, then he or she has demonstrated an acceptable level of job performance. Employees are judged according to real outcomes, and not on their potential for success, or on someone's subjective opinion of their abilities.
The guiding principle of the MBO approach is that direct results can be observed easily. The MBO method recognizes the fact that it is difficult to neatly dissect all the complex and varied elements that go to make up employee performance.

MBO advocates claim that the performance of employees cannot be broken up into so many constituent parts, but to put all the parts together and the performance may be directly observed and measured. Disadvantages This approach can lead to unrealistic expectations about what can and cannot be reasonably accomplished. Supervisors and subordinates must have very good "reality checking" skills to use MBO appraisal methods. They will need these skills during the initial stage of objective setting, and for the purposes of self-auditing and selfmonitoring. Variable objectives may cause employee confusion. It is also possible that fluid objectives may be distorted to disguise or justify failures in performance.

Benefits of Performance Appraisals
       

Measures an employee’s performance. Helps in clarifying, defining, redefining priorities and objectives. Motivates the employee through achievement and feedback. Facilitates assessment and agreement of training needs. Helps in identification of personal strengths and weaknesses. Plays an important role in Personal career and succession planning. Clarifies team roles and facilitates team building. Plays major role in organizational training needs assessment and analysis.

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Improves understanding and relationship between the employee and the reporting manager and also helps in resolving confusions and misunderstandings. Plays an important tool for communicating the organization’s philosophies, values, aims, strategies, priorities, etc among its employees. Helps in counseling and feedback.

Rating Errors in Performance Appraisals
Performance appraisals are subject to a wide variety of inaccuracies and biases referred to as 'rating errors'. These errors can seriously affect assessment results. Some of the most common rating errors are: Leniency or severity: - Leniency or severity on the part of the rater makes the assessment subjective. Subjective assessment defeats the very purpose of performance appraisal. Ratings are lenient for the following reasons: a) The rater may feel that anyone under his or her jurisdiction who is rated unfavorably will reflect poorly on his or her own worthiness. b) He/She may feel that a derogatory rating will be revealed to the rate to detriment the relations between the rater and the ratee. c) He/She may rate leniently in order to win promotions for the subordinates and therefore, indirectly increase his/her hold over him. Central tendency: - This occurs when employees are incorrectly rated near the average or middle of the scale. The attitude of the rater is to play safe. This safe playing attitude stems from certain doubts and anxieties, which the raters have been assessing the rates. Halo error: - A halo error takes place when one aspect of an individual's performance influences the evaluation of the entire performance of the individual. The halo error occurs when an employee who works late constantly might be rated high on productivity and quality of output as well ax on motivation. Similarly, an attractive or popular personality might be given a high overall rating. Rating employees separately on each of the performance measures and encouraging raters to guard against the halo effect are the two ways to reduce the halo effect. Rater effect: -This includes favoritism, stereotyping, and hostility. Extensively high or low score are given only to certain individuals or groups based on the rater's attitude towards them and not on actual outcomes or behaviors; sex, age, race and friendship biases are examples of this type of error.

Primacy and Regency effects: - The rater's rating is heavily influenced either by behavior exhibited by the ratee during his early stage of the review period (primacy) or by the outcomes, or behavior exhibited by the ratee near the end of the review period (regency). For example, if a salesperson captures an important contract/sale just before the completion of the appraisal, the timing of the incident may inflate his or her standing, even though the overall performance of the sales person may not have been encouraging. One way of guarding against such an error is to ask the rater to consider the composite performance of the rate and not to be influenced by one incident or an achievement. Performance dimension order: - Two or more dimensions on a performance instrument follow each other and both describe or rotate to a similar quality. The rater rates the first dimensions accurately and then rates the second dimension to the first because of the proximity. If the dimensions had been arranged in a significantly different order, the ratings might have been different. Spillover effect: - This refers lo allowing past performance appraisal rating lo unjustifiably influence current ratings. Past ratings, good or bad, result in similar rating for current period although the demonstrated behavior docs not deserve the rating, good or bad.

ROLES IN THE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL PROCESS
a) Reporting Manager Ø Provide feedback to the reviewer / HOD on the employees’ behavioral traits indicated in the PMS Policy Manual Ø Ensures that employee is aware of the normalization / performance appraisal process Ø Address employee concerns / queries on performance rating, in consultation with the reviewer b) Reviewer (Reporting Manager’s Reporting Manager) Ø Discuss with the reporting managers on the behavioral traits of all the employees for whom he / she is the reviewer Ø Where required, independently assess employees for the said behavioral traits; such assessments might require collecting data directly from other relevant employees

to ensure an unbiased relative ranking of employees on overall performance. specifically on the upward / downward shift in ratings. How is the KRA score calculated for an employee on the basis of the targets sets and targets achieved? BEHAVIORAL TRAITS: Some of the qualitative aspects of an employees’ performance combined with the general behavioral traits displayed by the employee during a year constitutes his behavior traits. They play a very important role in the deciding the final performance rating for an employee as is even capable of shifting the rating one level upwards/downwards.e. and thus finalize the performance rating of each employee KEY CONCEPTS IN PMS In order to understand the Performance Management System at BHARTI.c) HOD (In some cases. it is necessary to answer a few basic questions i. They are: Ø KRA’S (KEY RESULT AREAS): The performance of an employee is largely dependent on the KRA score achieved by the employee during that particular year. An employee is assigned the rating on the basis of the intensity of the behavior displayed by him. . Ø HOD also plays the role of a normalization committee member Ø Owns the performance rating of every employee in the department d) HR Head Ø Secretary to the normalization committee Ø Assists HOD’s / Reporting Managers in communicating the performance rating of all the employees e) Normalization Committee Ø Decides on the final bell curve for each function in the respective Business Unit / Circle Ø Reviews the performance ratings proposed by the HOD’s. some concepts need to be explained which play a very important role in using the PMS successfully. This framework also tries to assess the performance of an employee objectively. Ø BHARTI 2010 LEADERSHIP COMPETENCY FRAMEWORK: This competency framework is a simple and structured way to describe the elements of behaviors required to perform a role effectively. a reviewer may not be a HOD) Ø Presents the proposed Performance Rating for every employee of his / her function to the Normalization committee. Thus. o o o o Ø What are the guidelines for setting the KRA’s for an employee? How does an employee write down his KRA’s for a particular financial year? KRA’s: The Four Perspectives.

e. These guidelines also help in deciding upon the promotion cases in a year. PERFORMANCE RATING PROCESS EXCEPTIONAL CONTRIBUTOR (EC) SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTOR (SC) · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Performs consistently and substantially above expectations in all areas Achieves a final score greater than or equal to 115% Consistently delivers on stretch targets Is proactive Spots and anticipates problems. C and PC. implements solutions Sees and exploits opportunities Delivers ahead of time Sees the business wider picture-impacts across · ·           · Performs above expectations in all areas Achieves final score between 100-114% Versatile in his/ her area of operation Develops creative solutions and require little / minimal supervision Sets examples for others Take ownership of own development Coaches others Demonstrates business initiative Is self motivated Supportive team player Leads own team very effectively Demonstrate functional initiative Focuses on what’s good for the business Seen as role model by others Recognized as exceptional by other functions as well Motivates others to solve problems Develops others Provides open and honest feedback Able to establish and lead cross-functional teams . EC. It also explains the criteria. SC.Ø THE PERFORMANCE RATING PROCESS: The rating process tries to explain the four different types of rating that an employee can achieve i. Ø PROMOTION AND RATING DISRTRIBUTION GUIDELINES: The promotion and normal distribution guidelines provide the framework within which the performance appraisal process has to work. which is considered for awarding any of these ratings to the employee. It is very important that the HR department pays due attention to these guidelines while preparing the bell curves for various functions and the consolidated bell curve for all the functions.

He reviewed 32 studies on job satisfaction conducted prior to 1933 & observed that job satisfaction is a combination of psychological. But with the passage of time Taylor's solely monetary approach has been changed to a more humanistic approach. the job will be satisfying. This can be better understood by taking example of a foreman in an engineering industry. These activities may be minute or large. It gives him a special status & feeling that he has been trusted and given a special task. But in all cases.Job Satisfaction . That the workers are essentially 'stupid & phlegmatic' & that they would be satisfied with work if they get higher economic benefit from it. Locke defines job satisfaction as a "pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences". The feeling could be positive or negative depending upon whether need is satisfied or not & could be a function of the effort of the individual on one hand & on the other the situational opportunities available to him. The same could be the sources of his dissatisfaction if he does not like rush . To the extent that a person's job fulfils his dominant need & is consistent with his expectations & values. New dimensions of knowledge are added every day & with increasing understanding of new variables & their inter play. It has come a long way from a simple explanation based on money to a more realistic but complex approach to job satisfaction.Introduction The father of scientific management Taylor's (1911) approach to job satisfaction was based on a most pragmatic & essentially pessimistic philosophy that man is motivation by money alone. The word 'end' emphasises the fact that the feeling is experienced after a task is accomplished or an activity has taken place whether it is highly individualistic effort of writing a book or a collective endeavour of constructing a building. Person may experience positive job satisfaction because he has been chosen to complete the task. 'I am satisfied with my job'.Theory One way to define satisfaction may be to say that it is the end state of feeling. the field of job satisfaction has become difficult to comprehend. deadline. they satisfy a certain need. He has been assigned the task to complete a special order by a certain. The term job satisfaction was brought to limelight by Hoppock (1935). physiological & environmental circumstances that cause a person to say. he likes such kind of rush job and it may get him extra wages. Job Satisfaction .

workers feel motivated but its absence does not dissatisfy them. called satisfaction. when another set of conditions (called hygiene factors) is absent in the organisation.Hygiene Theory : This theory was proposed by Herzberg & his assistants in 1969. When one set of conditions (called 'motivator') is present in the organisation. their effect can be seen in one direction only. Sinha (1974) defines job satisfaction an 'a reintegration of affect produced by individual's perception of fulfillment of his needs in relation to his work & the situations surrounding it'.work. Each one of these variables lead to an end state of feeling. According to Herzberg following factors acts as motivators: • Achievement. has no need for extra wages.group theory. Herzberg's Motivation . . the workers feel dissatisfied but its presence does not motivate them. • Possibility of growth. Similarly. • Recognition. (ii) Need fulfilment theory. that is. The two sets are unidirectional. & • Responsibility.Hygiene theory. (iii) Social reference . Theories of Job . (i) Herzberg's Motivation . • Work itself. he established that there are two separate sets of conditions (and not one) which are responsible for the motivation & dissatisfaction of workers.Satisfaction : There are 3 major theories of job satisfaction. On the basis of his study of 200 engineers and accountants of the Pittsburgh area in the USA. • Advancement.

• Personal life. Hence. In pleasant situations motivators appear more frequently than hygiene factors while their predominance is reversed in unpleasant situations.Hygiene factors are : • Company policy & administration. .content factors.environment or job . In this technique subjects were asked to describe those events on the job which had made them extremely satisfied or dissatisfied. • Job security.centered. The theory postulated that motivators and hygiene factors are independent & absence of one does not mean presence of the other. • Inter-personal relations with supervisors. Hygiene factors are those factors which remove pain from the environment. they are also known as job .context factors. social achievement & for influence. They are mostly job . • Technical supervision. the more satisfied he is when he gets it & the more dissatisfied he is when he does not get it. • Working Conditions. Hence they are also known as job . Herzberg found that events which led people to extreme satisfaction were generally characterised by 'motivators' & those which led people to extreme dissatisfaction were generally characterized by a totally different set of factors which were called 'hygiene factors'. Need Fulfillment Theory : Under the need-fulfillment theory it is believed that a person is satisfied if he gets what he wants & the more he wants something or the more important it is to him. • Salary. & • Status. peers & Subordinates. Motivators are factors which result in psychological growth. Needs may be need for personal achievement. Herzberg used semi-structured interviews (the method is called critical incident method).

he will not like it. better life community & safety for everyone. better education & prospects for children & desire for improving one's own work performance. A good example of this theory has been given by C. c) Need for influence : A desire to influence other people & surroundings environment. It is indexed in terms of desires to increase overall productivity. Hulin. To sum up.a) Need for personal achievement : Desires for personal career development. we can say. Such groups are defined as the 'referencegroup' for the individual in that they define the way in which he should look at the world and evaluate various phenomena in the environment (including himself). He measures the effects of community characteristics on job satisfaction of female clerical workers employed in 300 different catalogue order offices. In summary. It would be predicted. according to this theory that if a job meets the interest. Hulin. b) Need for social achievement : A drive for some kind of collective success is relation to some standards of excellence. desires and requirements of a person's reference group. this theory tell us that job satisfaction is a function of. he will like it & if it does not. thus provides strong evidence that such frames of reference for evaluation may be provided by one's social groups and general social environment. Social References . He found that with job conditions held constant job satisfaction was less among persons living in a wellto-do neighborhood than among those whose neighborhood was poor.L. increased national prosperity. In the works situation. or is positively related to the degree to which one's personal & social needs are fulfilled in the job situation. Job satisfaction is a function of or is positively related to the degree to which the characteristics of the job meet with approved & the .Group Theory : It takes into account the point of view & opinions of the group to whom the individual looks for the guidance. improvement in one's own life standards. it means to have power status & being important as reflected in initiative taking and participation in decision making.

However a closer analysis may reveal that perhaps.desires of the group to which the individual looks for guidance in evaluating the world & defining social reality. implies a positive emotional state which may be totally unrelated to productivity. But if we freeze behaviour. e) actually promote the interest of the organization and f) are satisfied with their job. d) accept necessary changes without resentment or resistance. on the other hand is an end state of feeling which may influence subsequent behaviour. they measure two different anchor points. Attitudes are predispositions that make the individual behave in a characteristic way across the situations. According to this description of morale. c) act effectively in crisis. job satisfaction is an important dimension of morale itself. Relationship among motivation. Job satisfaction. They are precursors to behaviour & determine its intensity and direction. Satisfaction. job attitude and job satisfaction may have something in common. attitude would initiate it which job satisfaction would result from it. A person may be talented and equipped with all kinds of abilities & skills but may have no will to work. attitude and job satisfaction : Motivation implies the willingness to work or produce. Morale is a general attitude of the worker and relates to group while job satisfaction is an individual feeling which could be caused by a variety of factors including group. morale is a condition which exists in a context where people are : a) motivated towards high productivity. on the other hand. In this respect. This point has been summarized by Sinha (1974) when he . Relationship Between Morale & Job Satisfaction : According to Seashore (1959). Similarly in the literature the terms job attitude and job satisfaction are used interchangeably. b) want to remain with organization.

incorrect or uncontrolled event in which either his action or the reaction of an object or person may result in personal injury. Organizations that provide liberal sick leave benefits . This means that instead of maximizing satisfaction generally an organisation should be more concerned about maximizing the positive relationship between performance and reward. and he performs effectively in his job to the extent that effective performance leads to the attainment of what he desires. whether work behaviour make him more positively inclined to his job and there would be a lesser probability of getting to an unexpected. job satisfaction refers to a general attitude towards work by an individual works. It should be ensured that the poor performers do not get more rewards than the good performers. when a better performer gets more rewards he will naturally feel more satisfied. it is not quite clear whether these relationships are correlative or casual. On the other hand. other factors have an impact on the relationship and reduce the correlation coefficient. Job Satisfaction and absenteeism : One can find a consistent negative relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism. Job satisfaction is closely affected by the amount of rewards that an individual derives from his job. This is because the two are caused by quite different factors.g. adjustments. Thus.suggests that industrial morale is a collective phenomenon and job satisfaction is a distributed one. the level of job satisfaction seems to have some relation with various aspects of work behaviour like absenteeism. While it certainly makes sense that dissatisfied Sales Persons are more likely to miss work. An individual is satisfied with his job to the extent that his job provides him with what he desires. In other words.40. Job satisfaction and productivity : Experiments have shown that there is very little positive relationship between the job satisfaction & job performance of an individual. Relationship Between job satisfaction and work behaviour : Generally. productivity and union recognition. e. In other words. morale is group phenomenon which emerges as a result of adherence to group goals and confidence in the desirability of these goals. accidents. while his level of performance is closely affected by the basis for attainment of rewards. Although several studies have shown varying degrees of relationship between them and job satisfaction. but the correlation is moderate-usually less than 0.

the fact is that some anxiety is almost necessary for an individual to be effective because it provides the necessary push for efforts to achieve excellence. Just the opposite tends to apply to poor performers. It is generally seen as a mental state of vague fear and apprehension which influences the mode of thinking. that job satisfaction is more important in influencing poor performers to stay than superior performers. Although it is difficult to define adjustment. emotional stress. expectations about alternative job opportunities. anxiety or any such sources could be a source of neuroticism. on the other hand. it is likely to affect his work life. Generally deviation from socially expected behaviour has come to be identified as neurotic behaviour. Few attempts are made by the organization to retain them. including those who are highly satisfied. Job Satisfaction and Adjustment : It the Sales Person is facing problems in general adjustment. Anxiety usually shows itself in such mental state as depression. therefore. Job Satisfaction and Turnover : Satisfaction is also negatively related to turnover. again. So. and length of tenure with the organization are important constraints on the actual decision to leave one's current job. So one could expect. other factors such as labour market conditions. to take days off. it is very difficult to know what causes. most psychologists and organisational behaviourists have been able to narrow it down to what they call neuroticism and anxiety. level of satisfaction is less important in predicting turnover for superior performers because the organization typically makes considerable efforts to keep these people. social isolation. job tensions. impulsiveness. Evidence indicates that an important moderator of the satisfaction-turnover relationship is the Sales Person's level of performance. fear. Specifically. excessive worry and nervousness. Though it may be easy to identify symptoms of neuroticism. has a little more clearer base.are encouraging all their Sales Persons. While everyone aspires for a perfect state of peace and tranquility. Anxiety. Yet. but the correlation is stronger than what we found for absenteeism. Family tensions. . outside factors can act to reduce the correlation.

People with lower level of anxiety and low neuroticism have been found to be more satisfied with their jobs. in this area. the greater is the satisfaction of the individual. For long. Korman. Most literature. Determinants of Job Satisfaction : According to Abrahan A. the greater is the satisfaction of the individual involved. both theorists and practitioners have been concerned with Sales Persons' adjustment and have provided vocational guidance and training to them to minimise it's impact on work behaviour. 2) Job Content : Greater the variation in job content and the less repetitiveness with which the tasks must be performed. Organisational Variable : 1) Occupational Level : The higher the level of the job. there are two types of variables which determine the job satisfaction of an individual. generally suggests a positive relationship between adjustment and job satisfaction. Hence considerate leadership results in higher job satisfaction than inconsiderate leadership. 5) Interaction in the work group : . This is because higher level jobs carry greater prestige and self control. 3) Considerate Leadership : People like to be treated with consideration. 4) Pay and Promotional Opportunities : All other things being equal these two variables are positively related to job satisfaction. and 2) Personal Variables. These are : 1) Organisational variables .Adjustment problems usually show themselves in the level of job satisfaction.

The higher the education. the kind of activities and behaviours they should engage in to perform there job successfully. Finding his channels for advancement blocked. The more accurate the role perception of an individual. Personal variables like age. (b) It results in being accepted by others . it appears most jobs will be dissatisfying irrespective of the organisational condition involved. the higher the reference group which the individual looks to for guidance to evaluate his job rewards. i. holding such factors as occupational level constant. Job satisfaction is determined by this factor also. Personal Variables : For some people. (4) Sex : . educational level. the greater his satisfaction. etc. (2) Educational Level : With occupational level held constant there is a negative relationship between the educational level and job satisfaction. (3) Role Perception : Different individuals hold different perceptions about their role. most jobs will be satisfying. sex. whereas for others. (1) Age : Most of the evidence on the relation between age and job satisfaction. are responsible for this difference. An individual aspires for better and more prestigious jobs in later years of his life. Since this permits the ready calculability of the others behaviour and constitutes a validation of one's self .Here the question is : When is interaction in the work group a source of job satisfaction and when it is not ? Interaction is most satisfying when (a) It results in the cognition that other person's attitudes are similar to one's own. seems to indicate that there is generally a positive relationship between the two variales up to the preretirement years and then there is a sharp decrease in satisfaction. and (c) It facilitates the achievements of goals.e. his satisfaction declines.

Sales Persons can complain. or shirk a part of their work responsibilities. discussing problems with superiors. (vi) Working hours etc. considering the generally low occupational aspiration of women. These are defined as follow : Exit : Behaviour directed towards leaving the organisation. be insubordinate. How Sales Persons Can Express Dissatisfaction Sales Person dissatisfaction can be expressed in a number of ways. holding such factors as job and occupational level constant. (iii) Fair evaluation of work done. Voice Constructive . four responses are given along to dimensions : Constructiveness / Destructiveness and Activity / Passivity. steal organisational property. For example. (ii) Grievance handling procedure.There is as yet no consistent evidence as to whether women are more satisfied with their jobs than men. In the following figure. (v) Company prestige. (iv) Job security. rather than quit. One might predict this to be the case. Some other determines of job satisfaction are as follows: (i) General Working Conditions. Includes looking for a new position as well as resigning. and some forms of union activity. Active Exit Destructive neglect loyalty Passive Voice : Actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions includes suggesting improvements.

this means that even if satisfaction did not lead to less voluntary turn over and absence. Includes chronic absenteeism or lateness. Neglect : Passively allowing the conditions to worsen. and (3) Satisfaction on the job carries over to the Sales Person's life outside the job. and increased error rate. For managers.Loyalty : Passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve. Several studies have shown that Sales Persons who are dissatisfied with their jobs are prone to health setbacks ranging from headaches to heart disease. Job satisfaction's importance is its spin off effect that job satisfaction has for society as a whole. (2) It has been demonstrated that satisfied Sales Persons have better health and live longer . The importance of high job satisfaction : The importance of job satisfaction is obvious. Includes speaking up for the organisation in the face of external criticism and trusting the organisation and its management to 'do the right thing'. conclusions regarding the relationship should be more guarded. it improves . An often overlooked dimension of job satisfaction is its relationship to Sales Person health. reduced effort. But this model expands Sales Person response to include voice and loyalty. Satisfied Sales Persons have lower rate of both turnover and absenteeism. Specifically. Managers should be concerned with the level of job satisfaction in their organisations for at least three reasons: (1) There is clear evidence that dissatisfied Sales Persons skip work more often and are more likely to resign . Exit and neglect behaviours encompass our performances variables-productivity. constructive behaviours that allow individuals to tolerate unpleasant situations or to revive satisfactory working conditions. Although satisfaction and absence are also negatively related. When Sales Persons are happy with their jobs. satisfaction is strongly and consistently negatively related to an Sales Person's decision to leave the organisation. absenteeism and turnover. the goal of a satisfied work force might be jutificable because it would reduced medical costs and the premature loss of valued Sales Persons by way of heart disease or strokes.

In contrast. Turnover.only with synopsis. 2999/. So the goal of high job satisfaction for Sales Persons can be defended in terms of both money and social responsibility. Project Description : Title : Project Report on Job Satisfaction of Employees Project Description : MBA Project Report on Job Satisfaction of Employees Theory of Job Satisfaction. Relationship Between job satisfaction and work behaviour. its cost is Rs.their lives off the job. a satisfied work force translates into higher productivity due to fewer disruptions caused by absenteeism or good Sales Persons quitting. 2499/. If you need this project. there are benefits for society in general. Satisfaction on the job carries over to the Sales Person's off the job hours.only without Synopsis and Rs. the dissatisfied Sales Person carries that negative attitude home. Satisfied Sales Persons are more likely to be satisfied citizens. These people will hold a more positive attitude towards life in general and make for a society of more psychologically healthy people. absenteeism. Adjustment & How Sales Persons Can Express Dissatisfaction Pages : 73 Category : Project Report for MBA This project is our paid category. So job satisfaction is very important. Additionally. as well as into lower medical and life insurance costs. productivity. mail us at this id : qweryallprojectreports@gmail. For management. .com or Phone/SMS at 9468269340 We will send you a hardcopy with hard binding and a softcopy in CD from courier. Some benefits of job satisfaction accure to every citizen in society.

They were founded in the preindependence era to cater to the banking needs of the people. The banking system of India should not only be Project Report on Job Satisfaction of Employees hassle free but it should be able to Project Report on Training & Development of meet new challenges posed by the Employees technology and any other external and internal factors.INTRODUCTION TO INDIAN BANKING INDUSTRY Without a sound and effective banking system in India. In fact. India's Banking System : For the past three decades India’s banking system has several outstanding achievements to its credit. But after nationalization of banks in 1969 public sector banks came to occupy dominant role in the banking structure. The Government’s regular policy for Indian bank since 1969 has paid rich dividends with the nationalization of many private banks of India. it cannot have a healthy economy. Indian banking system has even reached to the remote corners of the country. Private Banks in India All the banks in India were earlier private banks. It is no longer confined to only metropolitans or cosmopolitans in India. The most striking is its extensive reach. Private sector banking in India received a filip in 1994 when Reserve Bank of India encouraged setting up of private banks as part of its policy of liberalization of . This is one of the main reasons of India’s progress.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Primary Objective: · To know the various HR implications in private banks. Secondary Objective: · · · · · To know whether employees are satisfied with their jobs or not. Their Health Problem Dissatisfaction TABLE OF CONTENTS · · · · · · INTRODUCTION TO BANKING SECTOR OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION FINDINGS RECOMMENDATIONS . Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited (HDFC) was amongst the first to receive an 'in principle' approval from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to set up a bank in the private sector.the Indian Banking Industry. To know the various retention practices used in banks? To know the motivational factors used by the banks? To know whether training and development programs are conducted b the banks or not To know the cause of their problems related with : 1. 2.

only with synopsis. mail us at this id : qweryallprojectreports@gmail.· · · · LIMITATIONS CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY ANNEXURE Project Description : Title : TO STUDY THE HR IMPLICATIONS IN PRIVATE BANKING SECTOR Category : Project Report for MBA Important Issues : Project report on HR Implications in Banking. Project Report on Banking.only without Synopsis and Rs. What is Banking Pages : 55 This project is our paid category.com or phone/sms at +91-9468269340 We will send you a hardcopy with hard binding and a softcopy in CD from courier. If you need this project. Public Banking. Private Banking. HR MBA. its cost is Rs. 2999/. 2499/. . Banking System.

Quality Circle has Several Defining Characteristics : Project Report on HR Implications in Banking Industry Project Report Performance Appraisal System in HR India Sales Pvt. Quality circle operate on the principle that employee participation in decisionmaking and problem solving improves the quality of work. Ltd.Project Report on Quality Circle. Through the circle members of the quality circle generates mutual respect and trust as they work on the solution to common on-the job problems. This group meet voluntarily on regular basis to discuss problems. . New Delhi. seek solutions and co-operate with management in the implementation of those solutions..Introduction to the Topic Quality Circle : Quality circle consist of a small group of the people who perform same job or task. "Quality Circle of Grasim Industries" Quality Circle .

Open communication is encouraged and negative criticism is discouraged. Research Methodology. Textile. Aims of BMC Group Value 6. 4. 10. Objectives of Study 8. Members of the circle set their own rules and priorities and select the problems that are to be discussed. Contents 1. Participation in a quality circle is strictly voluntary. .     Grasim Industries-an introduction. 3. Limitations of the Study 11. Introduction to Topic. Aditya Birla Group-An Overview. Decisions are made by consensus. 5. Preface 3. 2. Grasim Industries Ltd. Main Units of Grasim Industries. Suggestions. Quality circle utilize organized approaches to problem solving including brain storming and cause & effect diagram. Acknowledgement 2. 7. Scope of the Study 9. Industry at a Glance. Data Analysis and Interpretations 12. 4.1.

2999/. Findings ANNEXURE Questionnaire. its cost is Rs.only with synopsis. mail us at this id : qweryallprojectreports@gmail. . 2499/.only without Synopsis and Rs.13. Category : Project Report for MBA Pages : 65 This project is our paid category.com or phone/sms at +91-9468269340 We will send you a hardcopy with hard binding and a softcopy in CD from courier. If you need this project. Project Description : Title : Quality Circle of Grasim Industries Ltd.

To survive and flourish in the present day corporate-jungle. training them for the specific tasks to which they have been assigned assumes great importance. variety. Companies that pay lip-service to the need for training. it bridges the gap between job needs and employee skills. A trainee learns new habits. knowledge and behaviors .5p/Training The game of economic competition has new rules. It is true in many organizations that before an employee is fitted into a harmonious working relationship with other employees. sophisticated designs and improved ways of selling. Training enables an employee to do his present job more efficiently and prepare himself for a higher-level job. and methods of training currently in use in the corporate circles. any company that stops injecting itself with intelligence is going to die. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for performing a particular job. he is given adequate training. The purpose of this chapter is make the student understand the basic principles. by lazily setting aside a few hours a year. refined skills and useful knowledge during the training that helps him improve performance. Need for Training After employees have been selected for various positions in an organization. Firms should be fast and responsive. working cooperatively in teams and 'changing hats' and shifting from job to job as well. For. areas. The major outcome of training is learning. Training has increased in importance in today's environment where jobs are complex and change. customization. convenience and timeliness. Rapidly. This requires responding to customers' needs for quality. The essential features of training may be stated thus: Increases knowledge and skills for doing a particular job. companies should invest time and money in upgrading the knowledge and skills of their employees constantly. Meeting these new standards requires a workforce that is technically trained in all respects.TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS . will soon find themselves at the receiving end when talented employees leave in frustration and other employees find it difficult to beat rivals with new products. It requires people who are capable of analyzing and solving job related problems.

Importance . improve his performance levels and achieve career goals comfortably Training is necessary to make employees mobile and versatile. Training is needed for employees to gain acceptance from peers (learning a job quickly and being able to pull their own weight is one of the best ways for them to gain acceptance). coaching help them to handle jobs competently. guidance. without any wastage. Training is necessary to prepare existing employees for higher-level jobs (promotion). Training is needed to serve the following purposes:  Newly recruited employees require training so as to perform their tasks effectively. They can be placed on various jobs depending on organizational needs. it is job specific and addresses particular performance deficits or problems  Concentrates on individual employees. the' employee can change jobs quickly. Training is necessary when a person moves from one job to another (transfer). Existing employees require refresher training so as to keep abreast of the latest developments in job operations. Instruction. In the face of rapid technological changes. Training is needed to bridge the gap between what the employee has and what the job demands. Focuses attention on the current job. this is an absolute necessity. how they work.      Training is needed to make employees more productive and useful in the long-run. their attitudes toward their work or their interactions with their co-workers or supervisors  Tends to be more narrowly focused and oriented toward short-term performance concerns. After training. changing what employees know.

Wastage is thus eliminated to a large extent. he will find employment more easily. Hence. Trained workers can show superior performance. as they know how to handle operations properly. Hence. Their morale would be high. and materials in a proper way. tools and equipment in a right way.Training offers innumerable benefits to both employees and employers. He can be more mobile and pursue career goals actively. it can enable employees to cope with organizational. They can turn out better quality goods by putting the materials. They will be less inclined to leave the unit where there are growth opportunities Benefits to the employees: Training makes an employee more useful to a firm. Training helps an employee to move from one organization to another easily. They can turn out better performance. social and technological change. they can produce more with minimum effort. It makes the employee more productive and more useful to an organization. accidents on the job. tools. Also. fewer mistakes. They can realise their career goals comfortably. They can handle jobs with confidence. There will be fewer accidents. Thus. By combining materials. Learning Principles: The Philosophy of Training . training can contribute to higher production. Training makes employees more loyal to an organization. The importance of training can be studied under the following heads: Benefits to the business: Trained workers can work more efficiently. Training makes employees more efficient and effective. trained workers need not be put under close supervision. Training improves the knowledge of employees regarding the use of machines and equipment. They will be more satisfied on their jobs. tools and equipment to good use. Effective training is an invaluable investment in the human resources of an organization. Training enables employees to secure promotions easily. greater job satisfaction and lower labour turnover. They use machines. Employees can avoid mistakes.

for example. intention to learn is important. Reinforcement If a behavior is rewarded. and productivity may suffer. Modelling Modeling is simply copying someone else's behavior. Both the external rewards (investments. If . The selected model should provide the right kind of behavior to be copied by others. fewer mistakes. training efforts must invariably follow certain learning-oriented guidelines. It can lead to higher production.Training is essential for job success. it would be a good idea to have videotapes of people showing the desired behavior. When administered. People avoid certain behaviors that invite criticism and punishment. Passive classroom learning does not leave any room for modeling. Motivation to learn is influenced by the answers to questions such as: How important is my job to me? How important is the information? Will learning help me progress in the company? etc. accidents may go up. Punishment is a pointer to undesirable behaviors. greater job satisfaction and lower turnover. it causes pain to the employee. Most people. The reinforcement principle is also based on the premise that punishment is less effective in learning than reward. "managers tend to manage as they were managed" Motivation For learning to take place. Positive reinforcement consists of rewarding desired behaviors. To this end. A great deal of human behaviour is learned by modelling others. done and presented. If we want to change people. praise) and the internal rewards (a feeling of pride and achievement) associated with desired behaviors compel subjects to learn properly. Action taken to repeal a person from undesirable action is punishment. A bank officer would want to do a postgraduate course in finance. As experts put it. People learn more quickly when the material is important and relevant to them. the trainer must reward desired behaviors only. Children learn by modelling parents and older children. He mayor may not repeat the mistakes. never forget how to ride a bicycle because they took an active part in the learning process. These benefits accrue to both the trainee and the organization. Learning is usually quicker and long-lasting when the learner participates actively. it probably will be repeated. When the employee is motivated. The reactions may be mild or wild. if it earns him increments and makes him eligible for further promotions. they are quite comfortable with the process by the time they grow up. if managers understand the principles behind the training process. To be effective. he pays attention to what is being said. If he rewards poor performance. the results may be disastrous: good performers may quit in frustration.

Spaced Practice Learning takes place easily if the practice sessions are spread over a period of time. The trainee after learning the right behaviour is motivated to do things in a 'right' way and earn the associated rewards. if learning has to take place quickly. New employees learn better if the orientation programme is spread over a two or three day period. practice sessions should be distributed over time. Active Practice 'Practice makes a man perfect': so said Bacon. Positive feedback (showing the trainee the right way of doing things) is to be preferred to negative feedback (telling the trainee that he is not correct) when we want to change behaviour. This incremental approach to skill acquisition minimises the physical fatigue that deters learning. punishment may force the trainee to modify the undesired or incorrect behaviors. For 'acquiring' skills as stated by Mathis and Jackson. spaced practice is usually the best. you should plunge into water instead of simply reading about swimming or looking at films of the worlds' best swimmers. Whole Learning The concept of whole learning suggests that employees learn better if the job information is explained as an entire logical process. Imagine the way schools ask the kids to say the Lord's prayer aloud. To be a swimmer.administered properly. Feedback People learn best if reinforcement is given as soon as possible after training. Every employee wants to know what is expected of him and how well he is doing. A broad overview of what the trainee would be doing on the job should be given top priority. Research studies have also indicated that it is more efficient to practice a whole task all at once rather than trying to master the various components of the task at different intervals. For maximum benefit. instead of covering it all in one day. . Can you memorise a long poem by learning only one line per day? You tend to forget the beginning of the poem by the time you reach the last stanza. so that they can see how the various actions fit together into the 'big picture'. Learning is enhanced when trainees are provided ample opportunities to repeat the task. 'massed' practice is usually more effective. If he is off the track. For memorizing tasks. somebody must put him back on the rails. The errors in such cases must be rectified immediately.

Environment Finally. Generally speaking. the pace of learning slows down as opportunities for improvement taper off. The training situations should be set up so that trainees can visualise . The principal focus is on teaching the employee how to be a team member and get ahead. Thereafter. operating a machine.Applicability of Training Training should be as real as possible so that trainees can successfully transfer the new knowledge to their jobs.g. Areas of Training The Areas of Training in which training is offered may be classified into the following categories. the staff and the products or services offered by the company.. Social Skills The employee is made to learn about himself and others. well spaced rest periods are more likely to learn than employees whose training conditions are less than ideal.the types of situations they can come across on the job. . handling computer etc. Techniques This involves the application of knowledge and skill to various on-the-job situations. colleagues and the company. Technical Skills The employee is taught a specific skill (e.and identify with . learning is very fast at the beginning. It is natural that workers who are exposed to training in comfortable environments with adequate. and to develop a right mental attitude towards the job. environment plays a major role in training.) so that he can acquire that skill and contribute meaningfully. Knowledge Here the trainee learns about a set of rules and regulations about the job. The aim is to make the new employee fully aware of what goes on inside and outside the company.

Specific training objectives are set and training content is developed to meet those objectives. leading others) is identified through assessment. computing. working as part of a team. knowing how to learn. speaking. The need for training in basic skills (such as reading. training aims at moulding employee attitudes: When administered properly. Cross-functional Training: Cross-functional Training involves training employees to perform operations in areas other than their assigned job. on-the-job. Departments can exchange personnel for a certain period so that each employee understands how other departments are functioning. managers should:       explain how the training will help the trainees in their jobs. Types of Training There are many approaches to training. Refresher training: Rapid changes in technology may force companies to go in for this kind of training. The process here is fairly simple. Skills training: This type of training is most common in organisations. a training programme will go a long way in obt8ining employee loyalty.). By organising short-term courses which incorporate the latest developments in a particular field. Job rotation can be used to provide a manager in one functional area with a broader perspective than he would otherwise have. High   . relate the training to the trainees' goals. There are many approaches to cross functional training. Several methods are available for imparting these basic skills in modern organisations (such as lectures. problem solving.In addition to improving the skills and knowledge of employees. respect and consider participant responses and use these as a resource. Before employing these methods. support and commitment to company activities. managing oneself. We focus here on the types of training that are commonly employed in present-day organisations. listening. apprenticeship. coaching etc. give feedback on progress toward meeting learning objectives. writing. encourage trainees to learn by doing. the company may keep its employees up-to-date and ready to take on emerging challenges. It is conducted at regular intervals by taking the help of outside consultants who specialise in a particular descriptive.

they become more adaptable and versatile (2) they can better engineer their own career paths (3) they not only know their job well but also understand how others are able to perform under a different set of constraints (4) A broader perspective increases workers' understanding of the business and reduces the need for supervision (5) when workers can fill in for other workers who are absent. sailing through uncharted waters. Wipro encourage their employees to think unconventionally. Group processes reflect the way members function as a team for example how they interact with each other. Cross functional training provides the following benefits to an organisation (and the workers as well) (1) Workers gain rich experience in handling diverse jobs. Content tasks specify the team's goals such as cost control and problem solving. using collective wisdom and experience to good advantage. for example. encourages crossfunctional movements to make the organisation equally attractive to both specialists and generalists. go out of the box and devise unexpected solutions. break the rules. nowadays.  Postpone judgment: Don't reject any idea Create alternative frames of reference Break the boundary of thinking . The training basically throws light on (i) how members should communicate with each other (ii) how they have to cooperate and get ahead (iii) how they should deal with conflict-full situations (iv) how they should find their way.). Creativity training: Companies like Mudra Communications. Companies are investing heavy amounts. take risks. how they sort out differences. Titan Industries. it is easier to use flexible scheduling.performing workers can act as peer trainers and help employees develop skills in another area of operation. Eli Lilly and Company (India). content tasks and group processes.  Team Training: Team training generally covers two areas. in training new employees to listen to each other and to cooperate. crossing a jungle etc. preparing recipes for colleagues at a restaurant. which is increasingly in demand as more employees want to spend more time with their families. They are using outdoor experiential training techniques to develop teamwork and team spirit among their employees (such as scaling a mountain. how they participate etc.

cross fertilising ideas and getting away from patterned thinking. lifestyles.Examine a different aspect of the problem Make a wish list of solutions Borrow ideas from other fields Look for processes to change or eliminate Think up alternative methods Adopt another person's perspective Question all Assumptions. -arrange cross fertilization of ideas with other people and use analogies to spark off ideas. (c) Delaying judgement: To promote creative thinking. education. It helps in releasing ideas. articles. gender. books. the trainee should not try to kill off ideas too quickly. look at the problem from all possible angles and list as many alternative approaches as possible. situations). It . Expose himself to new influences (people. age. the trainee should open up his mind. The trainee should allow his mind to wander over alternatives freely. culture. Brainstorming (getting a large number of ideas from a group of people in a short time) often helps in generating as many ideas as possible without pausing to evaluate them.  Diversity Training: Diversity training considers all of the diverse dimensions in the workplace race. trainers often focus on three things: (a) Breaking away: In order to break away from restrictions. they should be held back until he is able to generate as many ideas as possible. ideas and backgrounds . switch over from one perspective to another. overcoming inhibitions. In creativity training.while designing a training programme. the trainee is expected to (i) identify the dominant ideas influencing his own thinking (ii) define the boundaries within which he is working (iii) bring the assumptions out into the open and challenge everything (b) Generate new ideas: To generate new ideas. disabilities. He should allow ideas to grow a little.

On the job training is provided when the workers are taught relevant knowledge. and (ii) skill building. It is used primarily to teach workers how to do their current jobs. Workers. are generally used in all company in-house programmes meant to improve the literacy levels of employees with weak reading. home assignments. A trainer. writing or arithmetic skills. its purpose and its desired outcomes. off-the-job training. skills and abilities at the actual workplace. which offers the knowledge.aims to create better cross-cultural sensitivity with the aim of fostering more harmonious and fruitful working relationships among a firm's employees. Literacy Training: Inability to write. requires that trainees learn at a location other than the real work spot. in such situations. 1. The four steps followed in the JIT methods are: 1. especially at the lower levels. . reading and writing exercises. etc. presentation. The trainee receives an overview of the job. with a clear focus on the relevance of training. on the other hand. speak and work well with others could often come in the way of discharging duties.  The programme covers two things: (i) awareness building. Job Instruction Training (JlT) The JIT method (developed during World War II) is a four-step instructional process involving preparation. skills and abilities required for working with people having varied backgrounds. supervisor or coworker acts as the coach. Tutorial programmes.. Functional illiteracy (low skill level in a particular content area) may be a serious impediment to a firm's productivity and competitiveness.  Training Methods Training methods are usually classified by the location of instruction. which helps employees appreciate the key benefits of diversity. simple mathematical tests. Some of the widely used training methods are listed below. performance try out and follow up. and commit avoidable mistakes. may fail to understand safety messages. appreciate the importance of sticking to rules. Functional literacy programmes focus on the basic skills required to perform a job adequately and capitalise on most workers' motivation to get help in a particular area.

waste materials. Demerits: • The trainee should be as good as the trainer if the trainer is not good. Coaching: Coaching is a kind of daily training and feedback given to employees by immediate supervisors. The trainer shows a right way to handle the job. Next. conducts lot of decision making meetings with trainees. It may be defined as an informal. Demonstrations by the trainer and practice by the trainee are repeated until the trainee masters the right way to handle the job. the supervisor explains things and answers questions. • The trainee gains confidence quickly as he does the work himself in actual setting with help from supervisor. • It is economical as it does not require any special settings. unplanned training and development activity provided by supervisors and peers. In coaching. mistakes can be corrected immediately. the employee is permitted to copy the trainer's way. procedures are agreed upon and the trainee is given enough authority to make divisions and even commit . he throws light on why things are done the way they are. 2. 4. transference of knowledge and skills will be poor. • Experienced workers cannot use the machinery while it is being used for training. easy to explain and demonstrate within a short span of time. It involves a continuous process of learning by doing. The trainer demonstrates the job in order to give the employee a model to copy. • While learning. Also. Finally. he offers a model for trainees to copy.2. • It is most suitable for unskilled and semi-skilled jobs where the job operations are simple. trainee may damage equipment. cause accidents frequently. 3. the employee does the job independently without supervision. Merits: • Trainee learns fast through practice and observation.

mistakes. exemplar. and most importantly. obviously. such mentoring can take place at both formal and informal levels. doing a full day's work may be more important than putting the learner on track. When to use coaching usefully? Coaching could be put to good use when:      an employee demonstrates a new competency an employee expresses interest in a different job within the organisation an employee seeks feedback an employee is expressing low morale. Technical. A mentor is a teacher. It involves:      explaining appropriate ways of doing things making clear why actions were taken stating observations accurately offering possible alternatives / suggestions following up 3. violating company policies or practices or having performance problems an employee needs help with a new skill following a formal training programme. spouse. Mentoring : Mentoring is a relationship in which a senior manager in an organisation assumes the responsibility for grooming a junior person. supporter and facilitator in the realisation of the vision the young person (protege) has about the kind of 1ife he wants as an adult. interpersonal and political skills are generally conveyed in such a relationship from the more experienced person. Sometimes. Effective working. coaching can be a taxing job in that the coach may not possess requisite skills to guide the learner in a systematic way. developerr of skills and intellect. Of course. guide. depending on the . The main objective is to he1p an employee attain psychological maturity and effectiveness and get integrated with the organisation. requires patience and communication skills. host. counsellor. In a work situation.

Career functions: Career functions are those aspects of the relationship that enhance career advancement. Coaching: Mentors help mentees to analyse how they are doing their work and to define their aspirations. These include: Sponsorship: Where mentors actively nominate a junior person (called 'mentee') for promotions or desirable positions. Here mentors offer practical advice on how to accomplish objectives and gain recognition from others.  1. guidance and encouragement to mentees so that they can solve the problems independently and gain confidence in course of time. Exposure and visibility: Where mentors offer opportunities for mentees to interact with senior executives. shield the junior person from harmful 3. Challenging assignments: Mentors help mentees develop necessary competencies through challenging job assignments and appropriate feedback. Mentors create opportunities clients to prove their worth to demonstrate clearly what they have to offer. Counseling: Mentors help mentees work out their personal problems. Mentors also help people to learn about the organisation's culture and understand why things are done in certain ways. 8. Protection: Mentors situations/seniors. 4. learn about what to do and what not to do. offer advice on what  6. demonstrate their abilities and exploit their potential. Formal mentoring can be very fruitful. and identify effectiveness in a professional role. if management invests time and money in such relationship building exercises.prevailing work culture and the commitment from the top management. 2. These include: Role modeling: Mentors offer mentees a pattern of values and behaviours to imitate Acceptance and confirmation: mentors offer support. Psychological functions: Psychological functions are those aspects that enhance the mentee’s sense of competence. . 7. 5.

Proctor & Gamble have given a lot of importance to mentoring programmes. Job Rotation : This kind of training involves the movement of trainee from one job to another. Apart from relieving boredom. trainees do not usually stay long enough in any single phase of the operation to develop a high degree of expertise.about how things should go . Not all mentors are well prepared to transfer their skills and wisdom to their junior colleagues. 9. with contrasting styles of . they may find it difficult to get ahead with confidence. Neyveli Lignite Corporation. Trainees can become confused when they are exposed to rotating managers. mentoring is not without its problems. Mentoring can succeed if (i) there is genuine support and commitment from top management (ii) mentors take up their job seriously and transfer ideas. Companies like TISCO. The cross-trained personnel offer a great amount of flexibility for organisations when transfers. In such a case. For slow learners. Organisations like General Electric. Mentors who are dissatisfied with their jobs and though who teach or narrow or distorted view of events may not help a protege's development..works and what doesn't. offering emotional support. especially when the trainees are rolled on various jobs at frequent intervals. skills and experiences in a systematic way and (iii) mentees believe in the whole process and carry out things in an appropriate manner. When young people are bombarded with conflicting viewpoints . The purpose of job rotation is to provide trainees with a larger organisational perspective and a greater understanding of different functional areas as well as a better sense of their own career objectives and interests. Intel. going even gone to the extent of penalising senior managers if they fail to develop leadership skills among subordinates. subordinates. facilitating future cooperation among departments. bosses and customers) Mentoring in India is based on the time-honoured guru-shishya relationship where the guru would do everything to develop the personality of the shishya. there is little room to integrate resources properly. Polaris. 25 Oct. Friendship: Mentors offer practical help and support to mentees so that they can indulge in mutually satisfying social interactions (with peers. promotions or replacements become inevitable. Job rotation may pose several problems. Of course. and guidance. Coca-Cola India have used mentoring systems to good effect in recent times (Economic Times. and do everything to demonstrate improved performance and prepare themselves for greater responsibility. 4. This helps him to have a general understanding of how the organisation functions.from a series of advisors. 2002). job rotation allows trainees to build rapport with a wide range of individuals within the organisation.

on the offer hand. Apprentices are trainees who spend a prescribed amount of time working with an experienced guide. coach or trainer. Trainees who spend years learning specific skills may find. interests and capabilities of the individual trainee. Workers actually produce while they learn. 5 Apprenticeship Training Most craft workers such as plumbers and carpenters are trained through formal apprenticeship programmes. pull and challenge. job rotation can be quite expensive. The trainees have to work together and offer solution to the problem.operation. Assistantships and internships are similar to apprenticeships because they also demand high levels of participation from the trainee. managers should very well understand that committee assignments could become notorious time wasting activities. 6 Committee Assignments In this method. One important disadvantage ofthe apprenticeship methods is the uniform period of training offered to trainees. Today's manager's commands may be replaced by another set from another manager! Further. To get the best results out of the system. A substantial amount of managerial time is lost when trainees change positions. and not be a standard sequence that all trainees undergo. they motivate trainees to observe and learn . it should be tailored to the needs. upon completion of their programmes. The above on-the-job methods are cost effective. Coaching. colleges or universities. Inexperienced trainees may fail to handle new tasks in an efficient way. Since immediat. trainees are asked to solve an actual organisational problem. because they must be acquainted with different people and techniques in each department. is similar to apprenticeship because the coach attempts to provide a model for the trainee to copy. Development costs can go up and productivity is reduced by moving a trainee into a new position when his efficiency levels begin to improve at the prior job. Intelligent and aggressive trainees. old skills may get outdated quickly. It helps them to develop team spirit and work unitedly toward common goals. may find the system to be thoroughly boring as they continue to perform more or less similar jobs without any stretch. Assigning talented employees to important committees can give these employees a broadening experience and can help them to understand the personalities. People have different abilities and learn at varied rates. as explained above. An internship is a kind of on-the-job training that usually combines job training with classroom instruction in trade schools.e feedback is available. that the job skills they acquired are no longer appropriate. Those who learn fast may quit the programme in frustration. It is also likely that in these days of rapid changes in technology. However. Slow learners may need additional training time. issues and processes governing the organisation.

the lecture must motivate and create interest among the trainees. d. Material. The major limitation of the lecture method is that it does not provide for transfer of training effectively. Lecture method: The lecture is a traditional and direct method of instruction. mockups and slides. Very few problems arise in the· case of transfer of training because the employees learn in the actual work environment where the skills that are learnt are actually used. maintenance engineers. On-the-job methods may cause disruptions in production schedules. The instructor organizes the material and gives it to a group of trainees in the form of a talk. files and equipment . Vestibule training: In this method. workers and the like. There is an opportunity for freedom of expression for the trainees. the trainer uses audio-visual aids such as black boards. This type of training is commonly used for training personnel for clerical and semiskilled jobs. Experienced workers cannot use the facilities that are used in training. Since the trainee is not distracted by job requirements. the trainee is separated from the job situation and his attention is focused upon learning the material related to his future job performance. superintendents. Thus. To be effective. if the trainer does not possess teaching skills. foreman. there is very little benefit to the trainee. costs and time involved are reduced. quality control inspectors. the trainer delivers a lecture and involves the trainee in a discussion so that his doubts about the job get clarified. he can focus his entire concentration on learning the job rather than spending his time in performing it. Theory can be related to practice in this method. When big organisations use this method. Off-the-job training methods are as follows: a. c. doing and practice. actual work conditions are simulated in a classroom. An advantage of lecture method is that it is direct and can be used for a large group of trainees. The participants play the role of certain characters.the right way of doing things. This method of training involves action. in some cases the lectures are . Conference/discussion approach: In this method. Role playing: It is defined as a method of human interaction that involves realistic behaviour in imaginary situations. such as the production manager. Poor learners may damage machinery and equipment. Finally. Off-the-Job Methods Under this method of training.those that are used in actual job performance are also used in the training. The duration of this training ranges from a few days to a few weeks. b. This method is mostly used for developing interpersonal interactions and relations. mechanical engineer.

may be provided with specific instructions to handle their respective jobs. e. reactions. This method is. . Behaviourally Experienced Training Some training programmes focus on emotional and behavioural learning. Evaluation of a Training Programme The specification of values forms a basis for evaluation. Those individuals who have a general educational background and whatever specific skills are required such as typing. cases. communication of procedures and standards to the trainees. through group processes. The basis of evaluation and the mode of collection of information necessary for evaluation should be determined at the planning stage. filing. These are discussed elaborately in the section covering Executive Development Programmes. Business games. Sensitivity training or laboratory training is an example of a method used for emotional learning. thus. thus. etc.. learning. Even the trainee's presentation can be taped for self confrontation and self-assessment. the techniques . shorthand. 1. The subject matter to be learned is presented in a series of carefully planned sequential units. group discussions and short assignments are also used in behaviourally-experienced learning methods. recording. Programmed instruction: This method has become popular in recent years. office equipment operation. Here employees can learn about behaviour by role-playing in which the role players attempt to act their part in respect of a case. organisation and ultimate value. Evaluation helps in controlling and correcting the training programme. Hamblin suggested five levels at which evaluation of training can take place. The focus of experiential methods is on achieving. The trainee goes through these units by answering questions or filling the blanks. The conference is. job behaviour. The process of training evaluation has been defined as any attempt to obtain information on the effects of training performance and to assess the value of training in the light of that information. a better understanding of oneself and others. indexing.videotaped or audio taped. These units are arranged from simple to more complex levels of instruction. expensive and time-consuming. incidents. as they would behave in a real-life situation. viz. the method of presentation. a group-centered approach where there is a clarification of ideas. Reactions: Trainee's reactions to the overall usefulness of the training including the coverage of the topics.

Potential questions to trainees might include: (i) What were your learning goals for the programme? (ii) Did you achieve them? (iii) Did you like this programme? (iv) Would you recommend it to others who have similar learning goals? ( v) what suggestions do you have for improving the programme? (vi) Should the organisation continue to offer it? 2. sales turnover and the like. Learning: Training programme. Ultimate value: It. Interviews: Interviews could be conducted to find the usefulness of training offered to operatives. Tests: Standard tests could be used to find out whether trainees have learnt anything during and after the training. Human resource factors: Training can also be evaluated on the basis of employee satisfaction. and to the individual goals like development of personality and social goals like maximising social benefit. etc. quality. often throw light on the effectiveness of the programme. learning and change in the job behaviour of the department/organisation in the form of increased productivity. is the measurement of ultimate result of the contributions of the training programme to the company goals like survival.used to clarify things. profitability. 3. 4. superiors and peer groups about the training. Studies: Comprehensive studies could be carried out eliciting the opinions and judgements of trainers. morale. trainer's ability and trainee's ability are evaluated on the basis of quantity of content learned and time in which it is learned and learner's ability to use or apply the content learned. Methods of Evaluation Various methods can be used to collect data on the outcomes of training. views of trainees. which in turn can be examined on the basis of decrease in . reactions. Some of these are:      Questionnaires: Comprehensive questionnaires could be used to obtain opinions. Job behaviour: This evaluation includes the manner and extent to which the trainee has applied his learning to his job. growth. 5. Organisation: This evaluation measures the use of training.

trainees and other parties concerned for control. time spent. Training is conducted either through “Planned Training Programme” “Emergent Training Programme” which is organized by the HRD Department Planned TrainingThe planned training programme is drawn on annual basis both for individual and group of persons for collective training at the beginning of Calendar Year by Manager HRD and HRD Executive of factory. Company's personnel involved in quality system. absenteeism.) should be provided to the instructors. ScopeThis procedure is applicable to all employees. The departmental Heads drawn out the training . Feedback: After the evaluation. production stoppage. superior performance) in order to evaluate a training programme. opportunity cost of trainers and trainees) could be compared with its value (in terms of reduced learning time. correction and improvement of trainees' activities. Training Process Training is provided both “In House” and through “Outside Agencies” Which could be for an individual or for group of persons as a collective training. wastage. the situation should be examined to identify the probable causes for gaps in performance.employee turnover. etc. improved learning. accidents. tools to learn.  Cost benefit analysis: The costs of training (cost of hiring trainers. outcomes. The training evaluator should follow it up sincerely so as to ensure effective implementation of the feedback report at every stage. etc. discharges. training centre. Training Programme of Company PurposeTo establish and maintain a documented procedure for identifying and providing training to all the employees of the organization with essential skill and knowledge so as to achieve desired quality and productivity goals. dismissals. The training evaluation information (about costs. grievances.

The procedure as in case of planned training is followed there after. Annual training Prog. at Head office is approved by from Chairman cum Managing Director. venue etc. necessary resource/infrastructure is also provided for effective training. Emergent Training – The Emergent training programme is a supplementary training programme both for individual and collective persons which is imparted during the course of work to take care for unforeseen or uncatered training requirements arisen due to installation of new machine. External Trainers for the Company are: Father Son & Company Skill & Thoughts Logic Consultant . The annual Training Prog. procedure etc. Identification of such training need is done by the concerned HOD at Head Office and HOD/Supervisor at factory and accordingly forwards their request.requirements on the training requisition slip and sent it to HID Dept. Training of the senior personnel at Factory Is also catered for at Head Office on receipt of requirement from HRD Executive. system. Conduct of Training HRD Head at HO & HRD (Executive) at factory ensures that identified training in their respective areas is conducted as scheduled. Besides. If required in case of additional training needs. is fixed up and concerned person is intimated through Heads of Department. liaison with the agency is done and dates. In case of External training. date/Venue is fixed up with identified faculty and concerned individual is informed through Heads of Department. is prepared on format and circulated to all heads of department and is updated. For In-House training.

Topics covered under Training Programme EFT Act & Scheme Provisions Rigid and Semi Rigid Packaging Principles of Contract Labour Act Self-motivational & Attitudinal Seminar Organic farming Training about operations in the company. To know whether training programme is conducted successfully or not. To know whether employees are aware about their responsibilities and authorities or not. To improve Organizational Climate and increase the morale of employees. . Processing of Rice (value addition In Rice) Knowledge about rice trade Operational and maintenance of dryer & Cleaning Plant Silo storage Techniques Scientific Instrumentation Finished goods quality control Trouble shooting PURPOSE OF PROJECT To know the effectiveness of the training programme conducted by the company.

Second. • The job characteristics are important factors for providing satisfaction. they will probably have a negative attitude toward the work. Locke gives a comprehensive definition of job satisfaction as involving cognitive. the boss or the coworkers. quality of physical environment in which they work.: quality of one's relationships with there supervisor. degree of fulfillment in there work etc. For example if organizational participants feel that they are working more harder than others in the department but are receiving fewer rewards. but many employees also enjoy simple and routine jobs. Job satisfaction Job satisfaction is in regard to one's feeling or state of mind regarding the nature of their work. reward systems. Factors determining job satisfaction • Factors affecting jobs are the main factors of job satisfaction. equitable rewards.g. they are likely to have a positive attitude toward the job. effective and evaluative reactions or attitudes and states it is "a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experience. etc are satisfaction factors. Reward systems. colleagues. . They will be job . First.To know about the work culture of the organization. learning and personality. They will be dissatisfied. which provide maximum satisfaction to employees. It can be influenced by a variety of factors e. job satisfaction represents several related attitudes. which may be challenging work. Third.e. they require more award and recognition. promotion avenues. if they feel they are being treated very well and are being paid equitably. Many people feel bored if a job is too simple and routine. it can only be inferred. i. job satisfaction is an emotional response to a job situation. There are three generally accepted dimensions to job satisfaction. Skill variety autonomy and significance are challenging tasks." Job satisfaction is a result of employees' perception of how well their job provides those things that are viewed as important. equal pay for equal work. On the other hand. as such it cannot be seen.satisfied. Money is important to employees having unfulfilled basic needs. job satisfaction is often determined by how well outcomes meet or exceed expectations. working conditions.

providing advice and assistance to the individual. comfort. The physical conditions. One is employee centeredness. especially a "tight" team. which is measured by the degree to which a supervisor takes a personal interest and cares about the employee.conditioned atmosphere with computer facilities. unbiased attitude of management. A recent found that career development was most important to both younger and older employees. Under conducive working condition. • Working conditions influence employee's level of satisfaction. serves as a source of support. It increases the working capacity of the employee. this approach leads higher job satisfaction. are the light. friendly and willing to help the employees. as illustrated by managers who allow their people to participate in decisions that affect their own jobs. Working condition not only include physicals of the work but also the working relationships in the organization. etc. willingness.   The relationships between the employees and the managers have an important bearing on job satisfaction. and assistance to the individual member. Job satisfaction is greater in case the higher authority is sympathetic. and communicating with the associate on a personal as well as an official level . . In most case.    It commonly is manifested in ways such as checking to see how well the employee is doing. The group. A clerk working under routine conditions likes to work hard in an air . which should be taken into consideration while motivating people to arrive at job satisfaction Feedback from the job itself and autonomy are two of the major job-related motivational factors. people prefer to work hard while in an adverse atmosphere people avoid work.• Fairness in promotion.  Friendly. Supervision is another moderately important of job satisfaction. for example. advice. Employees feel satisfied when their views are listened to and regarded by their higher authorities Personal attitude and perceptions are the employees' angles of satisfaction. responsibilities and social status are the factors that are said to be providing satisfaction to employees. cooperative coworkers or team members are a modest source of job satisfaction to individual employees. The other dimension is participation or influence. temperature. There seem to be two dimensions of supervisory style that affect job satisfaction.

in and of itself. will there be performance problems and ineffectiveness? The following sections examine the most important of these. typically there will be an increase in turnover because will being looking for better opportunities with other organization. there are moderating variables such as the degree to which people that there job are important. and is likely to result in greater performance effort. Satisfaction and turnover: Unlike that between satisfaction and performance. many variables enter into the decision to stay home besides satisfaction with the job. but it does seem to help. Satisfaction and absenteeism: Research has only demonstrated a weak negative relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism. the most important of which is reward. keep turnover low. Employees has found those who believed that there was important had . High job satisfaction will not. On the other hand. there seem to be many possible-moderating variables. may playa role. research has uncovered a moderately negatively relationship between satisfaction and turnover. there is likely to be high turnover. For example. definitely a relationship. For example. For example. The best conclusion about satisfaction and performance is that there is. As with turnover. It is important to know. so they remain regardless of how dissatisfied they feel.Outcomes of job satisfaction To society as a whole as well as from an individual employee's standpoint. will the employee perform better and the organization be more effective? I f job satisfaction is low. Conceptual. methodological. if job satisfaction is high. Some people cannot see them selves working anywhere else. Another factor is the general economy. job satisfaction in and of itself is a desirable outcome. research among state govt. age tenure in the organization. satisfaction relates to outcomes variable. other variables enter into an Employees decision to quit besides job satisfaction. they will be satisfied. For example. The relationship may even be more complex than others in organization behavior. if there is considerable job dissatisfaction. the research to date indicates that there is no strong linkage between satisfaction and performance. and empirical analyses have questioned and argued against these results. If people receive reward they feel are equitable. Obviously. if at all. For example. and commitments to the organization. Satisfaction and performance: Most assume a positive relationship.

But all the employees may not have the desired skills.lower absenteeism than did who did not feel this way. These must be related to employees and their jobs. This also helps the employees of the organization to know about his job and organization very well. So the top management must concentrate on the training programs and organize them in such a way that maximum number of employees wants to attend these programs. Their skills can be improved with the help of training programs. . This also helps in better communication and relation among the organization wants to grow rapidly. Significance of Study Every organization desires that it will grow continuously and make and retain its position in the competitive and continuously changing market environment. so that may be able to understand the terms required for the completion of his job. It is an important activity for the origination to conduct appropriate and related programme for its employees. Additionally. For this purpose the employees of the organization must be skilled and talented. low job satisfaction more likely to bring about absenteeism. it is important to remember that although job satisfaction will not necessarily result in absenteeism. then it is essential for it to conduct periodically training programmes for its employees to improve the skills and knowledge.

INTRODUCTIONS OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ABSENTEEISM The study of absenteeism is very important for any industry. The word absenteeism means the absence of an employee from work when he is scheduled to be present at in work place. An employer has available of work and employee is well aware of it, and when employer has no information in advance, that the employee will not reputed for duty for work if he has taken leave to which he is entitled or on ground of sickness or in case of accident. Thus absence may authorized or unauthorized willful or caused by circumstance beyond employee's control. Absenteeism without genuine reason reflects of belonging and strictly speaking ought not be regarded as a disease, but more a symptom either of shoddy manpower planning which does not take into consideration working conditions and socio-cultural compulsion prevalent in society, or the presence of monotonous schedules at the work site leading to lowering of morale and motivation in the organization. It is therefore imperative that organization undertaken detailed analysis of the causes for absenteeism. There are so many definitions of absenteeism as there are organizations but for our purpose we choose the definition given in the factories Act. Absence is the failure of a worker to report for work when he is scheduled to work. A worker is considered as scheduled to work, when the employer has work available for him and worker is aware of it. A worker is to be treated as absent for purpose of these absenteeism statistics, even when he does not turn for work after obtaining prior permission. Absence of a worker on account of strike or lay-off that is voluntary.

Project Description : Title : Project Report on Employees Absenteeism Category : Project Report for MBA

Description : Project Report - Employees Absenteeism, Importance of Absenteeism, Causes of Absenteeism, Factors of Absenteeism, Definition of Absenteeism Pages : 64 This project is our paid category, its cost is Rs. 2499/- only. If you need this project, mail us at this id : bkm@allprojectreports.com We will send you a hardcopy with hard binding and a softcopy in CD from courier.

Project Report on Training & Development of Employees TRAINING & SIGNIFICANCE OF JOB ANALYSIS IN L.T.OVERSEAS LTD., BAHALGARH (SONEPAT) INTRODUCTION L.T.Overseas Ltd. a Star Trading House recognized by Government of India is a fast growing company with a coveted position in the rice industry. The LTO Group installed a state –of –the art rice milling plant in the year 1988 at Kakroi Road, Sonipat. Recently, LTO commissioned an ultra modern, fully automatic rice milling plant at Bahalgarh, Sonipat (Haryana). This is one of the very few integrated rice plants in India capable of producing finished rice, untouched by hands and of internationally acceptable standards. L.T. OVERSEAS LTD., the present flag ship of the business operations started in a humble way as a rice miller in the rustic border areas of Amritsar in Punjab. Today, company is one of the leading Basmati producers in India, with satisfied customers all over the world. The company’s brand “DAAWAT” has almost become synonymous with gourmet’s delight. The secret behind this transformation has been the company’s guiding philosophy that the “Customer comes first. Always, Every Time”. This focused approach has provided the right impetus for continuous improvement and results are there for all to see.

Introduction towards Topic : Training
The game of economic competition has new rules. Firms should be fast and responsive. This requires responding to customers' needs for quality, variety, customization, convenience and timeliness. Meeting these new standards requires a workforce that is technically trained in all respects. It requires people who are capable of analyzing and solving job related problems, working cooperatively in teams and 'changing hats' and shifting from job to job as well. Training has increased in

sophisticated designs and improved ways of selling. and methods of training currently in use in the corporate circles. The purpose of this chapter is make the student understand the basic principles. To survive and flourish in the present day corporate-jungle. For. areas. Companies that pay lip-service to the need for training. by lazily setting aside a few hours a year. Contents Title Page Certification Table of Contents Declaration Acknowledgement Preface Introduction of Company Introduction to topic Research methodology Data analysis & findings Recommendation Limitation Conclusion Bibliography 6 8 46 89 93 110 112 114 116 1 2 3 4 5 . will soon find themselves at the receiving end when talented employees leave in frustration and other employees find it difficult to beat rivals with new products. Rapidly.importance in today's environment where jobs are complex and change. any company that stops injecting itself with intelligence is going to die. companies should invest time and money in upgrading the knowledge and skills of their employees constantly.

OVERSEAS LTD. 2499/. mail us at this id : qweryallprojectreports@gmail..com or phone/sms at +919468269340 We will send you a hardcopy with hard binding and a softcopy in CD from courier. If you need this project.only with synopsis.only without Synopsis and Rs. 2999/. its cost is Rs. BAHALGARH (SONEPAT) Category : Project Report for MBA Topic Covered : [Training & Development Report | Project Report Training and Development Employees | Principles of Training | Areas of Training | Why Training is necessary] Pages : 122 This project is our paid category.T.Annexure 118 Project Description : Title : TRAINING & SIGNIFICANCE OF JOB ANALYSIS IN L. .

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