Video compression

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For the physical (horizontal and vertical) compression of displayed film and video, see anamorphic. Video compression refers to reducing the quantity of data used to represent digital video images, and is a combination of spatial image compression and temporal motion compensation. Video compression is an example of the concept of source coding in Information theory. This article deals with its applications: compressed video can effectively reduce the bandwidth required to transmit video via terrestrial broadcast, via cable TV, or via satellite TV services.

Contents
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1 Video quality 2 Theory 3 Lossless compression 4 Intraframe versus interframe compression 5 Current forms 6 Timeline 7 See also 8 External links 9 References

Video quality
Most video compression is lossy — it operates on the premise that much of the data present before compression is not necessary for achieving good perceptual quality. For example, DVDs use a video coding standard called MPEG-2 that can compress video data by 15 to 30 times, while still producing a picture quality that is generally considered high-quality for standard-definition video. Video compression is a tradeoff between disk space, video quality, and the cost of hardware required to decompress the video in a reasonable time. However, if the video is overcompressed in a lossy manner, visible (and sometimes distracting) artifacts can appear. Video compression typically operates on square-shaped groups of neighboring pixels, often called macroblocks. These pixel groups or blocks of pixels are compared from one frame to the next and the video compression codec (encode/decode scheme) sends only the differences within those blocks. This works extremely well if the video has no motion. A still frame of text, for example, can be repeated with very little transmitted data. In areas of video with

part 1/2). more pixels change from one frame to the next. a flock of thousands of birds. The programming provider has control over the amount of video compression applied to their video programming before it is sent to their distribution system. With temporal compression only the changes from one frame to the next are encoded as often a large number of the pixels will be the same on a series of frames. as lossy compression results in far higher compression ratios at an acceptable level of quality. it is impossible to restore the image to its original quality. or any other image with a great deal of high-frequency detail. High-bitrate video codecs with little or no compression exist for video post-production work. Video data contains spatial and temporal redundancy. A data frame is a set of all pixels that correspond to a single time moment. a frame is the same as a still picture. and/or between frames (temporal). Interframe compression uses one or more earlier or later frames in a sequence to compress . Blu-ray discs. and HD DVDs have video compression applied during their mastering process. the result is a bit-for-bit perfect match with the original. the quality will decrease. While lossless compression of video is possible. Intraframe versus interframe compression One of the most powerful techniques for compressing video is interframe compression. it is rarely used. Two dimensions serve as spatial (horizontal and vertical) directions of the moving pictures. Basically. or taken on a cellphone. Lossless compression Some forms of data compression are lossless. If the video content includes an explosion. and one dimension represents the time domain. Theory Video is basically a three-dimensional array of color pixels. the video compression scheme must send more data to keep up with the larger number of pixels that are changing. so that very similar areas of color can be "averaged out" in a similar way to jpeg images (JPEG image compression FAQ. flames. but create very large files and are thus almost never used for the distribution of finished videos. Spatial encoding is performed by taking advantage of the fact that the human eye is unable to distinguish small differences in color as easily as it can perceive changes in brightness. Similarities can thus be encoded by merely registering differences within a frame (spatial). When more pixels change. Once excessive lossy video compression compromises image quality. Software used for storing video on hard drives or various optical disc formats will often have a lower image quality. when compared to such examples as most video streamed on the internet. DVDs. or the variable bitrate must be increased to render this added information with the same level of detail. though Blu-ray and HD DVD have enough disc capacity that most compression applied in these formats is light. This means that when the data is decompressed.more motion. although not in all cases.

and discards the frames one doesn't want. Some video formats. nearly all commonly used video compression methods (e. such as DV. Another difference between intraframe and interframe compression is that with intraframe systems. However. but still much shorter than intraframe compression. This has allowed newer formats like HDV to be used for editing.the current frame. or darken the copy — a longer command. Interframe compression works well for programs that will simply be played back by the viewer.. It is possible to build a computer-based video editor that spots problems caused when I frames are edited out while other frames need them. and so require much more data than other frames nearby. due to recent theoretical analysis showing a comparative lack of effectiveness to such methods.g. matching pursuit and the use of a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) have been the subject of some research. If sections of the frame move in a simple manner. each frame uses a similar amount of data. certain frames (such as "I frames" in MPEG-2) aren't allowed to copy data from other frames. If the frame contains areas where nothing has moved. Current forms Today. bit-for-bit. Making 'cuts' in intraframe-compressed video is almost as easy as editing uncompressed video — one finds the beginning and ending of each frame. if the original frame is simply cut out (or lost in transmission). but can cause problems if the video sequence needs to be edited. the compressor emits a (slightly longer) command that tells the decompresser to shift. History of Video Compression Standards . into the next one. The most commonly used method works by comparing each frame in the video with the previous one. the system simply issues a short command that copies that part of the previous frame. Interest in fractal compression seems to be waning. compress each frame independently using intraframe compression. while intraframe compression uses only the current frame. those in standards approved by the ITU-T or ISO) apply a discrete cosine transform (DCT) for spatial redundancy reduction. Other methods. but are typically not used in practical products (except for the use of wavelet coding as still-image coders without motion compensation). lighten. the following frames cannot be reconstructed properly. Since interframe compression copies data from one frame to another. and simply copies bit-for-bit each frame that one wants to keep. this process demands a lot more computing power than editing intraframe compressed video with the same picture quality.[citation needed] Timeline The following table is a partial history of international video compression standards. which is effectively image compression. rotate. In most interframe systems. such as fractal compression.

IEC Video-CD 1995 H. SVCD 1996 H. Videotelephony 1993 MPEG-1 Part 2 ISO. Blu-ray. HD DVD See also        D-frame Subjective video quality Transcoding Video coding Video compression picture types Video quality VC-1 External links       Videsignline . Videotelephony.1080p Uncompressed source material for compression testing and research Wiley .120 ITU-T 1990 H. IEC.262/MPEG-2 Part 2 ISO.Introduction to Compression Theory . Xvid . Video on Mobile Phones (3GP) 1999 MPEG-4 Part 2 ISO..Intro to Video Compression TestVid .264/MPEG-4 AVC ISO.2.261 ITU-T Videoconferencing. Digital Video Broadcasting. iPod Video..Year Standard Publisher Popular Implementations 1984 H.000+ HD and other uncompressed source video clips for compression testing Data Compression Basics (Video) MPEG 1&2 video compression intro (pdf format) HD Greetings . IEC. ITU-T Blu-ray. ITU-T DVD Video. IEC Video on Internet (DivX.263 ITU-T Videoconferencing. Digital Video Broadcasting.) 2003 H.

   Video compression 4:2:2 10-bit and its benefits Why does 10-bit save bandwidth (even when content is 8-bit)? Which compression technology should be used References [show]Data compression methods Theory Entropy ·Complexity ·Redundancy ·Lossy Shannon–Fano ·Shannon– Fano–Elias ·Huffman ·Adaptive Huffman Entropy encoding ·Arithmetic ·Range ·Golomb ·Universal (Gamma ·ExpGolomb ·Fibonacci ·Levenshtein) RLE · Byte pair encoding · DEFLATE · Lempel–Ziv (LZ77/78 ·LZSS ·LZW Dictionary ·LZWL ·LZO ·LZMA ·LZX ·LZRW ·LZJB · LZS · LZT · ROLZ) · Statistical Lempel Ziv CTW ·BWT ·PPM ·DMC ·Delta Companding ·Convolution ·Dynamic range ·Latency Theory ·Sampling ·Nyquist–Shannon theorem ·Sound quality Others LPC (LAR ·LSP) ·WLPC ·CELP ·ACELP ·A-law ·μ-law Audio codec parts ·ADPCM ·DPCM ·MDCT ·Fourier transform ·Psychoacoustic model Bit rate (CBR ·ABR ·VBR) Others ·Speech compression ·Sub-band coding Color space ·Pixel ·Chroma Terms subsampling ·Compression artifact ·Image resolution RLE ·Fractal ·Wavelet ·EZW Methods ·SPIHT ·LP ·DCT ·Chain code ·KLT Others Test images ·PSNR quality .

722.2 ·G.1 ·G.263 · H.1 ·G.711 ·G.264 · HEVC AVS ·Bink ·CineForm ·Cinepak ·Dirac ·DV ·Indeo ·Microsoft Video 1 ·OMS Video ·Pixlet ·RealVideo Others ·RTVideo ·SheerVideo ·Smacker ·Sorenson Video & Sorenson Spark ·Theora ·VC-1 ·VC-2 ·VC-3 ·VP3 ·VP6 ·VP7 ·VP8 ·WMV MPEG-1 Layer III (MP3) ·MPEG1 Layer II (Multichannel) ·MPEG1 Layer I ·AAC ·HE-AAC ·MPEG ISO/IEC Surround ·MPEG-4 ALS ·MPEG4 SLS ·MPEG-4 DST ·MPEG-4 HVXC ·MPEG-4 CELP G.262 ·H.1 AC-3 ·AMR ·AMR-WB ·AMRWB+ ·Apple Lossless ·ATRAC ·CELT ·DRA ·DTS ·EVRC ·EVRC-B ·FLAC ·GSM-HR ·GSM-FR ·GSM-EFR ·iLBC Others ·iSAC ·Monkey's Audio ·TTA (True Audio) ·MT9 ·A-law ·μ-law ·Musepack ·Nellymoser ·OptimFROG ·OSQ ·QCELP ·RealAudio ·RTAudio ·SD2 ·SHN .719 ·G.261 ·H.728 ·G.722 ITU-T ·G.723.729.718 ·G.726 ·G.120 ·H.723 ·G.729 ·G.722.measure ·Quantization Video characteristics ·Frame ·Frame rate ·Interlace ·Frame Terms types ·Video quality ·Video resolution Video codec parts Motion compensation ·DCT ·Quantization Video codecs ·Rate distortion Others theory ·Bit rate (CBR ·ABR ·VBR) [show]Multimedia compression and container formats MJPEG ·Motion JPEG 2000 ·MPEG-1 ·MPEG-2 (Part 2) ISO/IEC ·MPEG-4 (Part 2/ASP ·Part 10/AVC) ·HEVC ITU-T H.

0 ·T.·SILK ·Siren ·SMV ·Speex ·SVOPC ·TwinVQ ·VMR-WB ·Vorbis ·WavPack ·WMA JPEG ·JPEG 2000 ·JPEG XR ·lossless JPEG ·JBIG ISO/IEC/ITU-T ·JBIG2 ·PNG ·TIFF/EP ·TIFF/IT APNG ·BMP ·DjVu ·EXR ·GIF ·ICER ·ILBM Others ·MNG ·PCX ·PGF ·TGA ·QTVR ·TIFF ·WBMP ·WebP MPEG-PS ·MPEG-TS ·ISO base media file format ·MPEGISO/IEC 4 Part 14 ·Motion JPEG 2000 ·MPEG-21 Part 9 ITU-T H.wikipedia.222.802 3GP and 3G2 ·AMV ·ASF ·AIFF ·AVI ·AU ·Bink ·DivX Media Format ·DPX ·EVO ·Flash Video ·GXF ·M2TS Others ·Matroska ·MXF ·Ogg ·QuickTime File Format ·RealMedia ·REDCODE RAW ·RIFF ·Smacker ·MOD and TOD ·VOB ·WAV ·WebM Retrieved from "http://en.org/wiki/Video_compression" Categories: Film and video technology | Digital television | Data compression | Video compression | Videotelephony                Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Create a book Download as PDF Deutsch Français 한국어 Bahasa Indonesia Italiano ‫עברית‬ Magyar .

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