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73036444 Al Jalalain Eng

73036444 Al Jalalain Eng

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Tafsīr al-Jalālayn

  By: Jalāl al-Dīn al-Maḥallī Jalāl al-Dīn al-Suyūṭī


Feras Hamza
Edited and with an Introduction by Ghazi bin Muhammad bin Talal



The Complete Text

    © 2007 Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought Amman, Jordan  

General Editor’s Introduction and Foreword Introduction to Tafsīr al-Jalālayn
The fifteenth-century Qur’anic commentary or Tafsīr of ‘the two Jalāls’ (al-Jalālayn) — the Egyptian Shafi‘i-madhhab scholar Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Maḥallī (d. 864 AH / 1459 CE), and his (also Egyptian) student the famous ‘ālim and polymath, Jalāl al-Dīn 'Abd al-Raḥmān b. Abī Bakr al-Suyūṭī (d. 911 AH / 1505 CE) — is one of the most popular Tafsīrs in the Islamic world, perhaps even the most popular Tafsīr. Copies of it are available in almost every bookshop and library in the Arab and Islamic world, in

dozens of different editions, and it sits, well-loved and respected, in countless homes, schools and mosques all over the world. Moreover, of the great Sunni Orthodox Classical Tafsīrs — what might be called the ‘unofficial Sunni Canon’ of Tafsīr — namely, the Tafsīrs of Ṭabarī, Rāzī, Qurṭubī, Bayḍāwī, Ibn Kathīr and Jalālayn, it is by far the shortest and easiest to read and understand. Consequently, it is invariably read as an introduction to Classical Tafsīrs — or even to Tafsīr as such — such that for millions of students and adults who never go further into the subject, it is the only Tafsīr they ever come to know extensively. Finally, because it is so accessible and ubiquitous, and because in Arabic it is always printed in a single volume, in the margins of the Qur’an itself (where it fits quite easily and legibly), it is habitually used as an instant reference work for words in the Qur’an whose meaning is not immediately clear to the modern reader, and this arguably is its real forte. It is thus an immensely successful and influential work not just as the classic introduction to Tafsīr, but also as the standard reference work for the language of the Qur’an. The Method and Strategy of Tafsīr al-Jalālayn

The Tafsīr al-Jalālayn is usually categorized as a Tafsīr bil-Ma'thūr — that is, a ‘commentary based upon transmitted knowledge’ (from the Ḥadīth, the first Tafsīrs and the early Islamic history books, usually) — this being the primary category of perhaps six or seven traditional categories of Tafsīr.[1] This, however, is deceptive. In fact, in addition to the material handed down from the time of the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.), the Tafsīr al-Jalālayn uses a number of different approaches to explaining the Qur’anic text, not all of which can be attributed only to transmitted Tradition or tafsīr bil-ma'thūr. These include precisely ‘linguistic commentary’, ‘legal or Shari‘ah commentary’ and tafsīr bil-tafsīr as mentioned below (as different categories of commentaries). They also include, however, a few other elements, perhaps no less important. Thus, in addition to: (1) giving transmitted explanations and quoting ḥadīths about Qur’anic verses, (2) providing Arabic synonyms for difficult Qur’anic words, (3) elaborating on legal explanations of verses according (mostly) to the Shafi‘i school of jurisprudence, and (4) putting into context, perspective and mutual definition verses from the Qur’an using other verses about related matters (i.e. practicing tafsīr biltafsīr), the Tafsīr al-Jalālayn uses the following Commentary strategies: (5) It gives the Asbāb al-Nuzūl (the ‘occasions for Revelation’, that is, what was happening to and around the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) when a verse or verses were Revealed (ostensibly in answer to these circumstances) for selected verses when they are known (this of course is a purely Ma'thūr element of Commentary). (6) It indicates which verses are abrogated (mansūkh) and which verses abrogate (nāsikh), (this should be a purely ma'thūr element, but is arguably not always so). (7) It notes the seven (or ten) different ‘readings’ (qirā’āt) of the Holy Qur’an and briefly discusses their divergent emphases. (8) It discusses the grammar of the Qur’an according to that of the Arabic language, and explains the arcane grammatical forms occasionally to be found in the Qur’an. (9) It clarifies many Arabic and Qur’anic linguistic tropes by filling in deliberate omissions and ellipses strategically employed in the Qur’an, and by suggesting meanings for synecdoche, metonymy, metaphor and allusion used in Arabic. (10) Finally, it fills in, based largely on the Bible and its Rabbinical and Patristic Commentaries gleaned mostly from early Christian and Jewish converts to Islam (and therefore containing some confused, polemical and apocryphal material), the historical order, details and context of many of the stories in the


Qur’an concerning the Biblical Prophets and Jesus (p.b.u.h.) and his family and disciples. This element is known in Arabic as Isrā’īliyyāt (‘Tales of the Children of Israel’) and is generally thought of as not only the most controversial part of Tafsīr al-Jalālayn, but of Tafsīr in general, because of the tenuousness of some of the material involved. However, it is extremely useful for understanding the background — and therefore also the meaning (symbolic or otherwise) — of many of the tales of the Qur’an, such that few if any Classical Commentaries have ever able been able to ignore it. Reading the Tafsīr al-Jalālayn, one immediately understands that, despite the number of elements and strategies that its authors employ (as just listed), its primary and overriding goal — one might say its ‘categorical imperative’ — is only to clarify the immediate sense of the Qur’anic text, thereby facilitating the reading of the Qur’an. There are no digressions, no distractions, no embellishments, nothing superfluous, and nothing whose sole purpose is not to elucidate an ambiguity in the text of the Qur’an or to explain something that is not self-evident.[2] Moreover, the commentary itself is made to fit in between the verses or phrases or words of the Qur’an without interrupting its sense as read, thereby generally forming one continuous, uninterrupted flow of holy text and commentary. It is thus as if the two Jalāls wanted to remove any obstacles to understanding any word or sense in the holy text so that even the simplest reader might recite the Qur’an and immediately understand at least its literal meaning. In this sense the Tafsīr al-Jalālayn is what the word ‘Tafsīr’ literally means — an ‘explanation’ — and not what the word has come to mean by extension (namely: ‘commentary’ or ‘interpretation’). This is doubtless what makes the Tafsīr al-Jalālayn invaluable as an introductory classical tafsīr, and is the secret of its timeless popularity. The Interpretation of the Holy Qur’an (Tafsīr) according to Personal Opinion (Ra'y) Some of the partisans of Tafsīr bil-Ma'thūr (and today their ranks are swollen by the literalist Fundamentalists) hold that any Tafsīr of the Qur’an based on personal opinion (ra'y), and not handed down by tradition is forbidden. In this context, Ibn Kathir (who in this respect echoes the views of his teacher, Ibn Taymiyyah), in the introduction to his Tafsīr al-Qur'ān al-'Aẓīm, quotes this the following ḥadīth:

Whoever speaks of the Qur’an according to his own opinion or according to that of which he [or she] has no knowledge, then let him assume his place in the Fire.[3]
Other Islamic scholars, however, and amongst them Sunni scholars like Fakhr al-Din al-Rāzī and alGhazālī, argue that this hadith must be understood in the wider context of the Qur’an’s own injunctions about its own interpretation as well the injunctions of other ḥadīth. The Holy Qur’an says:

He it is Who hath revealed unto thee [Muhammad] the Scripture wherein are verses which are clear prescripts — they are the substance of the Book — and others [which are] allegorical. But those in whose hearts is deviation follow that which is allegorical seeking [to cause] dissension and seeking its interpretation. And none know its interpretation except God and those firmly grounded in knowledge [who][4] say: “We believe therein. It is all from our Lord”. And none remember except those [people] of kernels. (Āl 'Imrān, 3:7)

Will they not then meditate upon the Qur’an? If it had been from other than God they would have found therein much discrepancy. / And if any tidings, whether of safety or fear, come unto them, they proclaim it about, whereas had they referred it to the Messenger and such of them as are in authority, those among them who can interpret it among them would have known it. And were it not for the bounty of God upon you and His Mercy, you would have surely followed Satan, save a few [of you]. (Al-Nisā', 4: 82-83)
Thus there are, according to scholars, two types of verses in the Qur’an: (1) clear, legislative verses (called ‘al-aḥkām’ by some scholars; see Hūd 11:1) that are not ‘open’ to interpretation, and (2) allegorical verses (called ‘al-akhbār’ by some scholars; see Al-Zumar 39:23) that are ‘open’ to interpretation. Following the first verses quoted above, Ghazālī maintains that the allegorical verses can licitly be interpreted by individual readers based on their own opinions and understanding, but only upon the following specific, strict conditions: (A) that the interpreter be completely familiar with all interpretations of the Holy Qur’an attributed to the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) and his Companions, and that the individual


interpretation (ra’y) not contradict these; (B) that the individual interpretations (ra’y) not be used to contradict any legislative verse (and presumably a fortiori anything that contradicts orthodox doctrine or ‘aqīdah); and (C) that the interpreter have mastered the Arabic language and not contradict the literal meaning of any verse itself with his or her individual interpretation (ra'y). Ghazālī says: It is false that hearing [from an authority] is a stipulation for Qur’anic interpretation. It is lawful for everyone to elicit meaning from the Qur’an commensurate with his understanding and the limit of the intelligence.[5] One who, without being prudent at outward exegesis, hastens to elicit deep meanings by mere understanding of the Arabic language makes many mistakes and is included in the group of those who explain the Qur’an by personal opinion (ra'y). Then transmission [from an authority] and hearing [from him] are necessary for outward exegesis first, so that the exegete may, by them, be safe in places where mistakes are likely to be made. After this, understanding will be wide and the eliciting of deep meanings will be possible.[6] In this and similar [questions] only knowledge which has been transmitted and heard (al-naql walsamā‘) is of any use. The Qur’an, from its beginning to its end, is not lacking in [rhetorical figures of] this kind, and, because it was revealed in the language of the Arabs, it includes such figures of their speech such as conciseness (ījāz), prolixity (taṭwīl), ellipsis (iḍmār), omission (ḥadhf), substitution (ibdāl), and preposition and postposition (taqdīm wa ta'khīr), all of which served to dumbfound the Arabs and render them unable to imitate it. Anyone who is satisfied with an understanding of the outward aspect alone of the Arabic language, and who then hastens to explain the Qur’an without having recourse to that knowledge which has been transmitted and heard (alnaql wal-samā‘) in these matters, is to be counted among those who explains the Qur’an by their personal opinions (ra'y). For example, a person may understand the term umma in its most widely known meaning, and in his nature and opinion he may incline towards that meaning. However, if he then encounters the term in another place, he may still incline in his opinion towards that widelyknown meaning which he has previously heard, and he will neglect to pursue what has been transmitted with respect to that term’s many other meanings. It is possible that this is what is prohibited [in the hadith that: Whoever speaks of the Qur’an according to his own opinion or according to that of which he [or she] has no knowledge, then let him assume his place in the Fire] and not the understanding of the secret meanings [of the Qur’an].[7] As evidence for the permissibility of individual interpretation, Al-Ghazālī points to the saying of the Caliph ‘Alī explaining how he had an understanding of the Qur’an in addition to that which was related by the Prophet (p.b.u.h.): The Messenger of God (may God’s blessings and peace be upon him) did not hide from me anything which he concealed from people, except that God (Great and Mighty is He) bestows upon a man understanding of His Book.[8] ‘Understanding’ of the Qur’an is thus undeniable and perfectly legitimate, whereas ra'y (personal opinion) is then reprehensible only when it is a deliberate wilful disobedience to the (aforementioned) rules of Tafsīr. Other scholars, Ibn ‘Arabi for instance, set ‘the bar’ even lower: they maintain that because God’s knowledge in infinite and He foresaw all possible meanings of His text, all interpretations that are (A) literally true according to the Arabic language and (B) do not contradict the Shari‘ah (in accordance with the Qur’anic verse — 3:7 — as quoted earlier) are legitimate. Reprehensible ra’y is then only what contradicts the literal Arabic text and the Shari‘ah: Every sense (wajh) which is supported (iḥtimāl) by any verse in God’s Speech (kalām)—whether it is the Qur’an, the Torah, the Psalms, the Gospel or the Scripture—in the view of anyone who knows that language (lisān) is intended (maqṣūd) by God in the case of that interpreter (muta’awwil). For His knowledge encompasses all senses…. We say concerning the senses of a verse that all are intended by God. No one forces anything upon God. On the contrary, it is an affair verified by God…. Hence when someone understands a sense from the verse, that sense is intended by God in this verse in the case of the person who finds it.


This situation is not found outside God’s Speech. Even though the words might support a sense, it may be that it was not intended by the speaker; for we know that he is incapable of encompassing all the senses of the words…. Hence, everyone who comments (tafsīr) on the Qur’an and does not go outside of what the words support is a true commentator. However, “He who comments according to his opinion (ra’y) becomes an unbeliever”—so it has been recorded in the hadith of Tirmidhī. But the commentary will not be “according to his own opinion” until the speakers of that language do not recognize that sense in that word.[9] * * *

This possibility of this kind of interpretation perhaps explains why the Qur’an calls for people (and not merely qualified classical scholars) to reflect upon it for wisdom’s sake (and not for any social or legislative reason) in verses such as:

Do they not reflect upon the Word, or has there come unto them anything that did come to their fathers of old. (Al-Mu’minūn, 23:68) [Here is] a Book which We have sent down unto thee, full of blessing, that they may reflect upon its verses, and that those of cores may remember. (Ṣād, 38: 29)

Do they not meditate upon the Qur’an or do hearts have their locks upon them? (Muḥammad,

Equally, this also perhaps explains why the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) said: Every verse [in the Qur’an] has an outer aspect and inner aspect and each [of these two aspects] has a limit and a place of ascent.[10] For why would the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) provide us with these invaluable keys to interpretation if he had meant for all interpretation apart from his own to be absolutely forbidden? Finally, we note that God promised the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) the following in the Holy Qur’an:

Stir not thy tongue herewith to hasten it. / Lo! upon Us [resteth] the putting together thereof and the reading thereof. / And when We read it, follow thou the reading; / Then lo! upon Us [resteth] the explanation thereof. (Al-Qiyamah, 75:16-19)
Now Al-Ṭabarī quotes Ibn 'Abbās saying that ‘the putting together thereof’ of the Qur’an occurred in the breast of the Prophet (p.b.u.h.). This meaning is affirmed in other Tafsirs including those of Fakhr al-Dīn Al-Rāzī and Ibn Kathīr. However, whereas Al-Ṭabarī quotes a hadith relating the Divine Promise as regards ‘the explanation thereof’ of the Qur’an (after its ‘reading’) as being made to the Prophet himself, Fakhr AlDīn Al-Rāzī for one, does not limit the Divine Promise exclusively to the Prophet’s (p.b.u.h.) (inspired) explanation and ‘commentary’, especially since this commentary is not extant for the whole Qur’an and since what is extant often requires correct understanding and elaboration. In other words, some authoritative and orthodox commentators take the Divine Promise in the Qur’an to explain the Qur’an to be an ongoing process (within of course certain parameters, such as the Prophet’s own commentary where it exists, the limits of the Arabic language, the legislative verses, the ‘aqīdah and so on, as mentioned earlier). Wa Allāhu A'lam: And God knows best. * * *

There are, moreover, many interpretations of verses of the Qur’an going back to the Prophet himself (p.b.u.h.) that indicate not only symbolical resonances[11] in the sacred verses of the Holy Qur’an, but also distinct levels of both micro-macrocosmic[12] mirror-play and anagogical meanings in these verses (as perhaps maybe indicated in the ḥadīth quoted above). For example, the Holy Qur’an says:

He sendeth down water from the sky, so that valleys are in flood with it, each according to its capacity, and the flood beareth [on its surface] swelling foam—from that which they smelt into the fire in order to make ornaments and tools riseth a foam like unto it—thus Allah coineth [the similitude of] the Truth and falsehood. Then, as for the foam, it passeth away as scum upon the banks, while as for that which profiteth mankind, it remaineth in the earth. Thus Allah coineth the similitudes. (Al-Ra'd, 13:17)
Al-Ṭabarī reports[13] that according to Ibn 'Abbās (the Prophet’s—p.b.u.h.— cousin and student) the valleys are a simile for people’s hearts (qulūb), the scum which passeth away is a simile for doubt (shakk), and that which is of use to mankind and remaineth in the earth is a simile for certainty (yaqīn). This clearly establishes a parallel between the earth or the world and human beings (and the worlds within them) and between the sky and heaven. It also establishes (via the symbol of water) a parallel between the life of the body and that of the heart and the soul. It thus implies micro-macrocosmic mirror-play and anagogical levels of meaning in the Qur’an in general. In other words, it implies that the akhbar (or at least the similitudes or amthāl within the akhbār) of the Holy Qur’an can be understood in a ‘inner’ sense in addition and parallel to their literal outward meanings. Wa Allāhu A'lam: And God knows best. * * *

One last point must be mentioned here on this subject: many mystics (such as Ibn 'Arabī and Ruzbihān Baqlī) who wrote Commentaries on the Qur’an or on parts of it — and even a few ‘inspired philosophers’, like Ibn Sīnā — claimed that their Commentaries, or parts of them, were not based on ‘individual opinion’ at all, but rather on ‘spiritual intuition’ or even ‘mystical inspiration’. Thus, they argued that there was nothing individualistic or subjective about what they wrote because it did not come through ordinary, rational thought. In other words, they claimed the censure against rational or subjective speculation did not apply to them, since they wrote only what they ‘received’ passively from the uncreated Intellect, ultimately through Divine inspiration. In this they claimed to be like the mysterious figure (known as al-Khiḍr in the Commentaries) in the Sūrat al-Kahf, who was not a prophet as such and yet whom God had given him mercy from [that which is] with Us and taught him knowledge from Our Presence (18:65) such that he told Moses (p.b.u.h.), with reference to certain acts that he been inspired to commit: I will claimed was precisely what was meant by the Caliph 'Alī’s (k.w.) saying that (as quoted earlier[14]): ‘God (Great and Mighty is He) bestows upon a man understanding of His Book’. Now evidently, claiming this state is a major claim for anyone to make, but the Commentators who made them (or some of them at least) were precisely not just ‘anyone’, and what cannot be denied is that the Holy Qur’an itself seems to allow for the possibility of exactly such a claim. Wa Allāhu A'lam: And God knows best. * * *

announce to thee the interpretation of that which that couldst not bear with patience …. I did it not upon my own command. Such is the interpretation of that wherewith thou couldst not bear (18:78-82). This they

Strategies and Methods not employed in the Tafsīr al-Jalālayn, but used in other Commentaries In order to better understand and situate the Tafsīr al-Jalālayn — and, indeed, tafsīr in general — mention must be now made of all the Commentary strategies and methods the Tafsīr al-Jalālayn does not use. These are: (1) There is no Tafsīr bil-Ra’y of the kind just mentioned: the two authors never give their personal opinions, never speculate, never give their thoughts and reactions, never cite poetry, adages or popular sayings to illustrate a point, and always stick to what they understand of transmitted tradition. (2) There are no mystical inspirations or spiritual insights about passages in the Qur’an of the kind also just mentioned (notwithstanding a vision by Maḥallī’s brother, related at the end of the Sūrat al-Isrā', wherein the two authors discuss their work after Maḥallī’s death).


(3) There are no theological discussions of God’s Names, Qualities, Attributes, Words or Sunan (such as those great discussions to be found in Rāzī’s Mafātīḥ al-Ghayb), and in fact there is no Theology as such at all to be found in the Tafsīr al-Jalālayn. (4) There are no philosophical discussions based on the laws of logic, on syllogisms, induction, deduction, and dialectic; equally there are no didactic and rhetorical questions and answers sessions of the kind even Ṭabarī uses. (5) There are no discussions of symbolism in the Qur’an of the kind described above: neither microcosmic, nor anagogical nor even allegorical or moral. In fact, the very issue of symbolism is not even broached, despite the ḥadīth and the Qur’anic verses mentioned earlier. (6) There are no semantic investigations of Arabic words, and no citations of Jāhiliyya poetry as semantic references and guarantees of the connotations, implications and nuances of the words in the Qur’an. (7) There is no etymological study of the roots of Arabic words and letters and their basic meanings: every Arabic word can be traced to a tri-letteral or quadri-letteral root, and these roots have a basic meaning which is usually connected to some natural (and hence desert) phenomenon; from these ‘root words’ dozens of forms and hundreds of derivatives are produced, such that once the root word is known the form and the meaning of any derivative word can be deduced. Thus etymology in Arabic, more than in modern languages, is extremely useful in understanding the exact meaning and behaviour of any indigenous word. The Tafsīr al-Jalālayn, however, does not delve into this. (8) Anterior to even the meaning of root words in Arabic is the archetypal meaning of the 28 Arabic letters themselves which make up every word in the Arabic language (and ultimately their root meanings), and each one of which has a form, a sound, a behaviour, and even a corresponding number that exactly reflects its archetypal meaning. These archetypal meanings in turn translate into universal principles and thus into lunar house (there are 28 or 29 traditional lunar houses), so that all existent things can ultimately be associated with one of them. This idea — the idea that there is a perfect symbolism and exact meaning to every aspect of the Arabic letters — is evidently a difficult and esoteric idea, but it is precisely the foundation of a number of arcane but sacred sciences in Islam. Moreover, more importantly for Tafsīr, 29 of the Qur’an’s 114 Sūras or Chapters start with Arabic letters enunciated on their own without forming words (e.g. Alif, Lām, Mīm; Nūn; Qāf; Ṣād, and so on). The Tafsīr al-Jalālayn, however, completely ignores this issue, and when it comes to these letters at the beginning of Sūras merely remarks: “God knows better what is meant by this”. (9) The Tafsīr al-Jalālayn does not explore the traditional Gharā'ib al-Qur’ān (‘the wondrous-strange features of the Qur’an’), and does not address or explain the more complex linguistic tropes to be found in it: it does not explain possible meanings clothed by rhetoric, hyperbole and tautology; it does not delve into puzzling juxtapositions and zeugmas; and does not resolve apparent antinomies and dialectics. It passes over these mines of secret wisdom with very little gloss. (10) More unusually for a tafsīr bil-ma'thūr, the Tafsīr al-Jalālayn gives no isnāds (chains of transmission) for any of the hadiths it quotes, and mentions earlier Tafsīrs to which it is heavily indebted (primarily Ṭabarī) only rarely. This is evidently, as mentioned earlier, in order to keep the Tafsīr as simple as possible, since in Suyūṭī’s al-Durr al-Manthūr, all isnāds are given. (11) With the occasional exception (e.g. the last verses of Sūrat al-Isrā' and Sūrat al-Sajda) the Tafsīr al-Jalālayn — and this too is unusual for a tafsīr bil-ma'thūr — does not relate the Faḍā'il al-Qur'ān: in many of the traditional collections of hadith there are specific sections devoted to what Prophet (p.b.u.h.)

related about the merits of certain verses of the Qur’an and about effects of reciting them at certain times. These are known as ‘Faḍā'il al-Qur'ān’ — literally, ‘the bounties or excellences of the Qur’an’ — and constitute the basis of Islamic supererogatory prayer litanies. They are thus extremely important to practising Muslims, and thus constitute perhaps the strangest omission in the Tafsīr al-Jalālayn, since they are relatively brief and few, and would have been easy to relate. (12) There is, in the Tafsīr al-Jalālayn, no calling attention to the ‘inner architecture’ of the Qur’an, showing exactly why certain words and near-synonyms are used in given contexts and not others, in the fashion made so famous by the late popular Azharī Sheikh and Commentator Muḥammad Mitwallī AlSha'rāwī (but which has existed since the first centuries of Islam — witness for example al-Ḥākim alTirmidhī’s third-century AH Bayān al-Farq bayn al-Ṣadr wal-Qalb wal-Fu'ād wal-Lubb[15]).


(13-14) There are obviously no modern political musings on Qur’anic verses, of the kind to be found in Seyyed Quṭb’s Fī Ẓilāl al-Qur'ān. Nor are there any modern scientific interpretations of Qur’anic verses about cosmological, biological or even historical principles or facts — in order to show that the Qur’an miraculously anticipated/agrees with modern science and research despite being over 1,000 years older than them — of the kind to be found for example in the writings of the late Maurice Bucaille, Dr Zaghlul Najjar, or in the Tafsīr of Tanṭāwī Jawharī. (15) Finally, the Tafsīr al-Jalālayn usually (that is, over 95% of the time) only gives one meaning for the Qur’anic text (and at most, three alternate meanings) unlike, for example, Al-Ṭabarī who so often gives many possible different meanings and then sometimes gives preponderance to one or two of these. This it does despite the existence of different hadiths and reports from the Companions confirming more than one meaning of many verses, and despite (as discussed earlier) verses of the Qur’an enjoining meditation upon the Qur’an, and hadiths indicating many possible meanings of at least the Qur’an’s ‘allegorical’ verses. This is the Tafsīr al-Jalālayn greatest weakness, but perhaps also its greatest strength for it is precisely what makes the work so accessible. In summary then, it can be said that despite the great erudition and wide range of Commentary strategies employed in the Tafsīr al-Jalālayn, there are even more strategies which the Tafsīr has in general deliberately not employed. Living as they did, more or less after the end of the Classical Tradition of Commentary, its two authors had the advantage of having easy access to the great works of Classical Tafsīrs and to their methods, but they deliberately summarized, streamlined or simplified these in order to stay focused on their one overriding aim: to make the literal meaning of the Holy Qur’an completely intelligible in the simplest possible way! The Science and Art of Translation Translation — and a fortiori translation of sacred texts which are all-important for man — should, above all, convey ‘the meaning, the whole meaning and nothing but the meaning’ of the original text. This means that in general the translation should be as literal as possible. It should try to keep the word order as close to that of the Arabic as possible and, more important perhaps, try to consistently use the same translation for the same word in different places in order to convey something of the system of inner architecture and allusions of the Arabic text. However, when the literal meaning in the translated language does not convey the exact sense of the original, it should depart from the literal words and give as precise a translation of the meaning as possible. Indeed, this is perhaps the most common mistake of translation, as most people do not realize that the meaning of words, when used in idiom, is often slightly different from their literal meaning, and conversely that an idiom may be used to translate something whose literal meaning does not suggest it. Obviously, however, literal translations should also beware of not quite making sense in the language into which the text is translated, and of being grammatically incorrect. On the other hand, even worse are translations which, in the attempt to use ‘good English’ (or whatever the translated language is) or ‘poetic language’ take license with the literal text or its meaning. Thus translation must, as it were, steer a ‘middle course’ between meaning and language — between, in a sense, ‘science’ and ‘art’— but leaning always on the side of meaning when the two diverge. This requires three major qualities in a translator: that (1) he or she knows the language of the original text perfectly; that (2) he or she knows the language into which the text is being translated perfectly, and (3) that he or she fully understands at least the literal meaning of the text they are translating. With the Holy Qur’an, which is the Word of God who is Omniscient, fully understanding the sacred text — and consequently understanding all its meanings — is humanly impossible. Translation is thus with the Holy Qur’an itself always only a question of interpretation of the Qur’an’s immediate, ‘surface’ meaning with little if any of its linguistic beauty, mystery, holiness, miraculous nature, depth, symbolic resonances and layers of meaning. Nevertheless this interpretation is a vital endeavour since the majority of Muslims in the world do not know Arabic. Moreover, Tafsīr itself — having human authors who are not omniscient and who therefore mean a finite amount of things with their words — is much easier to translate (when it is not actually quoting the Holy Qur’an) than the sacred text itself and therefore can be accurately if not rendered into another language.


The Present Translation
The present text was translated by the Iraqi-English scholar Dr Feras Hamza and edited by Dr Reza Shah-Kazemi, Dr Yousef Meri and myself. I believe it to be particularly commendable for its commitment to the meaning of the original, and even, where possible, to its word order. It will easily stand-up to academic scrutiny, and at the same time it is accessible to the simplest of readers, for whom in fact it was meant. It is also bound in shā' Allāh to attract academic attention for the simple reason that it is the first classical Tafsīr to appear in toto in English ever![16] Its publication should thus be an event of some significance not only for Islamic studies in English, but for English-speaking Muslims interested in further study of the Holy Qur’an. The Aal al-Bayt Institute’s Great Tafsīr Project This translation and publication of Jalālayn’s Tafsīr was commissioned by the Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought, for its Great Tafsīr Project (see: www.altafsir.com). The Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic

Thought is an international Islamic charitable institute based in Jordan whose mission is to ‘preserve, protect and propagate traditional Islamic thought, spirituality, culture, heritage and unity’. It is unique in the modern world because its charter specifically the seven madhhabs (the four Sunni madhhabs — Shafi‘i, Hanafi, Maliki, Hanbali — the Shi‘i Ja‘fari and Zaydi madhhabs, and the Ibadi madhhab), and Islamic Theology, Philosophy and Mysticism. It consists of a centre in Amman, Jordan that undertakes charitable intellectual projects for the Islamic Nation or Umma, and an international fellowship comprising up to one hundred senior fellows and fifty fellows selected from the top scholars, sheikhs, imams, jurists, qadis, religious affairs ministers, philanthropists and religious activists of the entire Islamic world from over forty countries, who meet every other year in Jordan to explore and discuss a given theme, and publish the result of their symposium. One of the many projects undertaken by the Aal al-Bayt Institute’s centre in Jordan is the aforementioned Great Tafsīr Project . This project consists mainly of a unique free website (currently visited by an average of over a million visitors a year but built to handle 100x that number) of over a hundred of Islam’s greatest Tafsīr s (from all madhhab s, and from every epoch and country, some of which have never been properly edited or published in book form) and essential resources for the study of the Holy Qur’an and Tafsīr (such as a word-for-word concordance etc.), in addition to around twenty translations of the Qur’an into the world’s major languages; to a number of specially commissioned translations of various Classical Tafsīr s into English and to on-line tilāwa and tajwīd (oral recitation) of the Qur’an in all different readings ( qirā’āt ) and tones ( maqāmāt ). The whole project thus consists of around a million pages, (hundreds of volumes, worth thousands of dollars in book-form) typed-in (and not scanned — this is unique, but necessary in order to have search engines within the Tafsīr s themselves) to the altafsir.com website. Essentially, it is an effort to make the Word of God and the sum total of what men have understood and written about it throughout history available, for free, to the whole of humanity, at the click of a button. [17] This translation of Jalālayn is the first to be completed of the series of translations of Tafsīr commissioned especially for the Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought’s Great Tafsīr Project (the others, to date, include Ibn 'Abbās, Wāḥidī, Tusṭarī, Bayḍāwī, Kāshānī, Qushayrī, Ṭabarī, Nasafī, Suyūṭī’s Itqān , and in sha Allah Fakhr Al-Din Al-Rāzī). In addition merely posting it on the internet, it is a great honour and blessing for us to be able to publish in book form. We pray that God forgive us any mistakes and inadequacies in it.


HRH Prince Dr. Ghazi bin Muhammad bin Talal Professor of Islamic Philosophy, Jordan University; Founder and Director of the Great Tafsir Project ; Chairman of the Board of Trustees,

Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought
Amman, Jordan 2007 CE/1428 AH

Translator’s Introduction
The Tafsīr al-Jalālayn (‘The Commentary of the Two Jalāls’) is one of the most well-known and popular commentaries that have come down to us from the medieval Islamic period. It is the work of a teacher, Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Maḥallī (d. 864/1459), and his student, Jalāl al-Dīn 'Abd alRaḥmān al-Suyūṭī (d. 911/1505). Al-Suyūṭī himself informs us (see his comments at the end of Q. 17) that his teacher, al-Maḥallī, had composed a commentary (on the Fātiḥa, and from sūrat al-Kahf, Q. 18, to sūrat al-Nās, Q. 114), which he then completed with a commentary on the remainder (the more substantial section from sūrat al-Baqara, Q. 2 to the end of sūrat al-Isrā', Q. 17). In its formal structure, this Sunni commentary is of the type known as musalsal (‘chained’) commentary, a step-by-step explanation of key aspects of the Qur'ānic narrative, allowing for quicker reference and digestion of the text.[18] The method of exegesis used is known as tafsīr bi’l-ma'thūr (‘exegesis according to reports’), which means that it draws principally upon the ḥadīth narrations that go back to the Prophet, the Companions (ṣaḥāba) and prominent figures from among the Successor (tābi'ūn) generation. Jalāl al-Dīn al-Maḥallī was an Egyptian Shāfi'ī scholar and jurist who wrote treatises on law and legal theory. He wrote a number of ‘commentaries’ (sharḥ) on works of other authors, the most prominent of which are a sharḥ on Jam' al-jawāmi' (‘The Collected collections’) of Tāj al-Dīn al-Subkī (d. 771/1370), entitled al-Badr al-ṭāli' fī ḥall jam' al-jawāhir (‘The Rising Full Moon Concerning the Resolution of the Collection of Jewels’), another on the Minhāj al-ṭālibīn (‘The Path of the Knowledge-seekers’) by al-Nawawī (d. 675/1277), which is actually mentioned by al-Suyūṭī in this commentary at the point where he takes over from al-Maḥallī,[19] and one on al-Juwaynī’s (d. 478/1085) al-Waraqāt fī uṣūl al-dīn (‘Notes Concerning Jurisprudence’). Of the ‘two Jalāls’, however, by far the more prolific and better known is al-Suyūṭī, who also lived most of his life in Cairo. At a very young age, he was already teaching Shāfi'ī law, even giving some fatwas, and, as the famous Ibn Ḥajar al-'Asqalānī had once done, al-Suyūṭī dictated ḥadīth in the mosque of Ibn Ṭulūn, where al-Suyūṭī’s father had been a preacher. Al-Suyūṭī had a prodigious memory (as he himself was sometimes wont to note), and it is said that he knew by heart all the ḥadīths that had come to his knowledge (some 200,000). His rapid development and rise to fame earned him the envy of fellow scholars, something to which his numerous ‘response’ works (al-radd 'alā) attest; the most famous of his rivals was Muḥammad al-Sakhāwī (d. 902/1497). Such rivalry was further fuelled by al-Suyūṭī’s claims, sometime before the end of the 9th Muslim century, to have reached the rank of mujtahid in Shāfi'ī law and to be the ‘renewer’ of Islam (mujaddid) for that era. Al-Suyūṭī, however, gradually became disenchanted by public life, particulary, by what he saw as the corrupt and ignorant scholarly milieu of his time.

Lecture’). He was also interested in the sciences related to the Arabic language, as can be seen in the Jalālayn commentary. Other well-known works are al-Durr al-manthūr fī'l-tafsīr bi'l-ma'thūr (‘The Scattered Pearls Of Traditional Exegesis’), focusing exclusively on ḥadīth, and his Lubāb al-nuqūl fī asbāb al-nuzūl (‘The Prime Entries Concerning the Occasions of Revelation’), dealing with the circumstances of Qur'ānic verse revelation, which one frequently finds appended in the margins of modern editions of the Tafsīr alJalālayn;[20] in addition to these one might also mention his al-Itqān fī 'ulūm al-Qur'ān (‘Mastery of the Sciences of the Qur'ān’). On a personal level, al-Suyūṭī was a devoted Sufi and in a number of works he sought to explain the harmony that must exist between commitment to the Sufi ṭarīqa and the individual’s obligation to the Divine sharī'a.[21]

Ta'rīkh al-khulafā' (‘History of the Caliphs’), and his Egyptian history, Ḥusn al-muḥāḍara (‘The Excellent

As well as being a legal expert, al-Suyūṭī wrote on history: his best-known works in this field are the


Glossary of Grammatical Terms There is no hard and fast way to translate the technical terms used in Arabic grammar. Of course, there are some which may be rendered by obvious English equivalents; but for the most part it is difficult to reflect, in translation, the malleability of the grammatical terminology when used in Arabic. Indeed, one might ask whether it serves any purpose translating the grammatical discussions at all. But as these discussions may be of value to those interested in grammar, and particularly, in the grammar employed in the text of the Qur’ān, it has been decided to assist the non-Arabic reader by translating as much of these discussions as is possible. The list below summarises the way, not ideal by any means, in which the ubiquitous grammatical terminology, has been translated. The reader should note that the translations given below relate to how they seem to be used by the authors of al-Jalālayn; certain terms may be translated differently in the context of other authors or works.

'ā'id, referential pronoun. 'alamiyya, proper noun. amr, imperative or command. 'āmil (fī), operator of. aṣl, original form (of conjugated verb). 'aṭf, supplement (to); 'aṭf bayān, explicative supplement. badal, substitution, substitutes for (yubaddal minhu etc.); badal ishtimāl, an inclusive substitution; badal bayān, explication; li’l-bayān, explicative. binā' li’l-fā'il, active (voice of the) verb. binā' li’l-maf'ūl, passive (voice of the) verb. ḍamīr, pronoun, person of the verb; ḍ. al-sha'n, pronoun of the matter; ḍ. munfaṣil, free pronoun; ḍ. muttaṣil, suffixed pronoun; ḍ li’l-faṣl, separating pronoun. du'ā', invocation (vocative). fā'il, subject of the verb. fāṣila, fawāṣil, end-rhyme of Qur'ānic verses (in a particular sequence). bi’l-fawqāniyya, to read a verbal form in the 2nd person (with an initial tā'). ghāya, ghā'iyya, to denote a purpose or an end. ḥadhf, omission (maḥdhūf, omitted). ḥāl, a circumstantial qualifier. hamzat al-waṣl, conjunctive hamza. hamzat al-istifhām, interrogative hamza. ḥaqīqī, literal. ibtidā', equational (sentence); li’l-ibtidā', for inceptiveness. iḍāfa, (genitive) annexation; muḍāf, the element annexed (kitābu, in kitābu’Llāhi, ‘the Book of God’); muḍāf ilayhi, the object of the annexation (Allāh, in kitābu’Llāhi). idghām, assimilation of a letter that appears in the original (conjugated) form of verb. iḍrāb, (used mostly with words like bal, ‘nay’) to turn away from, in refutation (of a previous statement etc.). iltifāt, shift in (grammatical) person ('an al-ghayba, from the third to the second person; 'an al-khiṭāb, from
the second to the third person).

inkār, for denial, rejection, rebuttal. intiqāl, to effect a transition (to a new topic or clause; cf. iḍrāb), in effect, metastasis.


i'rāb, syntax. ishbā', lengthening the vowel, or writing it out in full. ishāra, demonstrative noun. ism fā'il, active participle. ism fi'l, noun of action. ism inna, the subject of inna. ism maf'ūl, passive noun. istifhām, interrogative; istifhām inkārī, or li’l-istinkār, [rhetorical] interrogative meant as disavowal; istifhām li’l-tawbīkh, [rhetorical] interrogative meant as a rebuke. isti'nāf, musta'nafa, new (independent) sentence. istithnā', exception: munqaṭi', discontinuous (exception), muttaṣil, continuous (exception). li’l-ittisā', (in iḍāfa constructions), to allow for a range [of alternatives] or scope. jār, preposition or particle rendering following noun in genitive case; majrūr, noun in genitive case because of preceding jār. jawāb, response (to conditional, oath etc.). jazm, apocopation; majzūm, apocopated; jāzim, apocopating (particle). jins (ism al-jins), generic (collective) noun.
('alā) al-jiwār, (on account of) adjacency.

khabar, predicate. khabariyya (of particles), relating to, or functioning as, the predicate. khafḍ, placing noun in the genitive case (by preceding particle or preposition, al-khāfiḍ). lafẓ, (morphological) form. mabnī, invariable (indeclinable). maf'ūl lahu, (direct) object denoting reason (for the verbal action). maf'ūl ma'ahu, object of ‘accompaniment’. maḥall, status, locus, functions as. majāz, figurative or metaphorical (also kināya). ma'nā, import or sense. ma'rifa, definite noun. maṣdar, a verbal noun. maṣdariyya (of particles), relating to the verbal action. ma'mūl, ma'mūla (li-), operated by. manṣūb, or nuṣiba, 'alā al-madḥ, is in the accusative because it is a laudative. mubtada', subject (of a nominal sentence). muhmala, undotted ('ayn). mu'jama, a dotted letter. muta'alliq, (semantically) connected to (also, ta'allaq bi-). muthallatha, three-dot letter (thā'). muwaḥḥada, single dot letter (nūn or bā'). nafī, negation. nakira, indefinite noun.


na't, description. naz', omission (usually of jār preposition or particle). nidā', vocative. nūn al-raf', the nūn of independence (marker of the indicative mood). rad', prevention, rebuttal, thwarting. sababiyya, causative (expressing cause). ṣarf, declinable; muni'a li’l-ṣarf, indeclinable. sharṭ, conditional clause; ṣharṭiyya, conditional (particle). ṣifa, adjectival qualification (waṣf). ṣīgha, form. ṣila, relative clause; mawṣūl (-a), relative noun or pronoun. li’l-tab'īḍ, partitive. tabkīt, rebuke, reproof. tafsīr, explanation; yufassiruhu, explained by (sc. governed by). taghlīb, predominance (of one element over others, all subsumed by the same expression or noun). bi’l-taḥtāniyya, to read a verb form in the 3rd person (with an initial yā'). taḥqīq, full pronounciation (of a hamza). ta'jīb, to provoke amazement; ta'ajjub (istifhām), meant to indicate amazement. takhfīf, softened form, without shadda (opposite of tashdīd). ta'kīd, emphasis. ta'līl, to justify or provide reason for. ta'allaqa bi, (semantically) connected to (usually to a preceding verb). tamannī, optative (‘wish’) particle or clause. tanbīh, (of vocative particles, yā) for exclamation or calling attention to. tankīr, to make noun indefinite. taqdīr, understand a word or clause as implied or implicit (muqaddar, quddir, yuqaddar). taqrīr, affirmation; istifhām li'l-taqrīr, interrogative meant as affirmative. taṣghīr, diminutive (muṣaghghar). tashdīd, doubling (usually of second consonant of root). tashīl, non pronounciation (of hamza). tathlīth, to read the second consonant of the verbal root with all three inflections (ḍamma, fatḥa and kasra). tawbīkh, rebuke. thaqīla, (usually of particles) doubled, with shadda. waḍ' (or iqāmat) al-ẓāhir mawḍi' (or maqām) al-muḍmar, to replace a pronominalisation with an overt noun (and vice versa).
Conventions The honorific for the Prophet ṣallā Llāhu 'alayhi wa-sallam (‘may God bless him and grant him peace’) is given as ṣ in parentheses (ṣ), for the sake of brevity. The term ḥanīf has not been translated, but it should generally be understood to describe those who had, prior to the advent of Islam, a monotheistic tendency, thought by Muslim tradition to be the remaining followers of the faith of Abraham. The term tawḥīd appears


in almost every other verse; it is difficult to translate succinctly in English, since it denotes the concept of ‘God being One’, the affirmation of God’s Oneness as well as belief in, or profession of, the statement, ‘there is no god but God’. The term īmān is generally translated ‘belief’, occasionally, ‘faith’, depending on which of the two nuances the Arabic favours in a given context. The term islām has been translated as ‘submission’. The reader should also note that kufr (kuffār, kafarū, yakfurūn) has different nuances according to context, and they are: to ‘deny’ or to ‘disbelieve in’, to ‘be an disbeliever’ (a kāfir) or to ‘be ungrateful’ (for God’s blessings). Biblical names that should be familiar are given in their standard form (Noah, Jonah, Zachariah, John etc.); less well-known ones and non-Biblical names are transliterated. The biographical appendix at the end of the commentary identifies and gives a brief biography of the principal traditionists and compilers that are mentioned repeatedly in the commentary. As regards the sundry figures that appear in verses bearing on the Prophet’s immediate experiences, the best reference would be the Sīra itself, to which the reader is directed. A distinctive aspect of the Jalālayn commentary, more so perhaps than any other popular commentary, is the density of the grammatical material interfused with the narrative elements of the commentary. While this is reasonably easy to digest in Arabic, the same concision cannot be reproduced in English without losing the reader totally. Therefore, in order to distinguish between the grammatical discussions and the paraphrased commentary to the verse, I use parentheses (…). The Qur'ānic text is indicated in bold and italics; but only in italics when it is a reference to some other verse in the Qur'ān not forming the basis of the commentary at that given point. Brackets […] constitute my own insertions or repetitions, and these are used to maintain the flow of the original commentary and to clarify the nature of the paraphrased comments of the authors. The commentary is full of variant readings, most of which can be found in the well-known ‘seven readings’ text of Ibn Mujāhid (see bibliography below). The authors of the commentary, naturally, guide the reader to these variants by commenting on which single letter is changed or inflected differently. Where such instances appear, together with variant inflections of a particular clause, I always write these out in transliteration, sometimes giving the original in brackets, in order that the reader might see how the changes relate to one another (for example I write out the active and the passive of variants, as opposed to merely translating the terms mabnī li’l-fā'il wa’l-maf'ūl). Needless to say, reproducing the Arabic verbatim in such instances would be impractical, if not impossible. Given the idiosyncracies of every language, on occasion the reader not consulting the Arabic original will be unaware of instances where the authors use the root of a particular word to explain its derivative, thus creating a play on words of sorts, not for the purposes of humour, but because the Arabic allows for it as an effective way of providing a quick explanation (see Q. 36:2 and Q. 52:27 for examples of this). I indicate such instances of paronomasia by providing the original term as well as its explanation in parentheses so that the reader will see the affinity between the two, where in the English there will be two unrelated roots. Where the gloss makes a difference only in Arabic, the gloss is ignored, as it will be reflected in the English translation of the Qur'ān itself (so for instance, alīm is frequently glossed as mu'lim; a'dadnā for a'tadnā [Q. 17:10] is another example). Somewhat similarly, there are numerous cases where the only way to translate the commentary is to incorporate its rendition into the Qur'ānic text (for example ẓillin min yaḥmūm, of Q. 56:43 et passim). For the English translation of the Qur'ān, I have drawn principally on, M. M. Pickthall’s The Meaning of the Glorious Koran (New York: A. A. Knopf, 1930) and the recently published, commendable translation by 'Alī Qulī Qarā'ī, The Qur'ān: with a phrase-by-phrase English translation (London: ICAS Press, 2004). Occasionally I have consulted Y. 'Alī, The Holy Qur’an, and less frequently, A. J. Arberry’s, The Koran Interpreted (Oxford: OUP, 1955). There are numerous editions of the Tafsīr al-Jalālayn. This work is based

on a recent and good edition by 'Abd al-Qādir al-Arnā'ūṭ and Aḥmad Khālid Shukrī (Damascus and Beirut: Dār Ibn Kathīr, 1998), which I collate with the much older Cairo version (Būlāq, 1280/1863).


I hope that his earnest enthusiasm for and deep appreciation of the subject of Muslim tafsīr will have been. all of which kindnesses were offered with characteristic generosity. vindicated by the translation offered here. Dr Reza Shah-Kazemi deserves special mention. for assisting me in very practical. Finally. but ultimately crucial. whose meticulous reading of the final draft and professionalism ensured that the final version was that much better. ways from the start. not least for his unfailing support throughout the duration of this work. Jordan. I owe a debt of gratitude to my wife. His comments and suggestions on an earlier draft spotted certain infelicities and greatly enhanced the overall form of the translation. xvi  . that the responsibility for any shortcomings in the work is entirely mine. I should also like to thank my colleague Dr Yousef Meri. however. even if in some small measure.Acknowledgements It was by a propitious twist of fate that I came to be associated with the Great Tafsīr Project undertaken by the Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought in Amman. I am honoured to have been invited to participate in such a ground-breaking undertaking. and for this I should like to thank HRH Prince Ghazi bin Muhammad. It goes without saying. and for her encouragement and devoted patience throughout this project. Rula.

30:25-27) xvii  .) And of His portents is this: The heavens and the earth stand fast by His command…. In this sense. the Tafsīr of Tanṭāwī Jawharī). 269.… Fundamentally. So the [1] outer is the recitation. 115. every expression. Ṭahāwī. and Sunan al-Nasā'ī. [6] Ibid. the world was also created in God’s image: Then He fashioned him [man] and breathed into him of His spirit. 32:9) Verily God created Adam in His own image. and appointed for you hearing and sight and hearts. 244). the limit is the injunctions of what is permitted and proscribed. Kitab al-Isti'dhān. London: Kegan Paul International. Albany.The other categories of Tafsīr can be thought of as follows: (b) tafsīr bil-ra'y — ‘Commentary based upon personal opinion (e. (f) tafsīr ishārī or tafsīr ṣūfī or ta'wīl — ‘esoteric’ or ‘mystic commentary’. Bāb al-Khuṣūma fil-Qur’ān. p. 79. the inner is understanding. Alvin Moore. 1989. Iḥyā' 'Ulūm al-Dīn. Volume 8. according to the universally agreed upon cardinal principle attributed to Imām 'Alī (Nahj al-Balāgha. His is the Sublime Exemplar in the heavens and in the earth. The ḥadīth itself is to be found in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī. 1. 323 etc.60).g. et al. (e) tafsīr bil-tafsīr — ‘Commentary wherein Qur’anic verses are juxtaposed and used to explain each other’. p. trans. He is the Mighty.g. the issue is resolved definitively (in favour of ‘those firmly grounded in knowledge’ knowing interpretation) by the next verses quoted above. Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī’s great Mafātīḥ al-Ghayb). # 74. [11] Symbolism seems to us to be quite specially adapted to the needs of human nature. Saḥīḥ al-Bukhārī. p. The Sufi Path of Knowledge. [2] Jalāl al-Dīn Suyūṭī’s later Tafsīr. Bazzār. 24. 13. We have thus added the word ‘who’ in brackets to convey this sense. p. [4] The meaning of this part of the verse is ambiguous in Arabic: depending on where the reading pauses.e.): Every verse in the Qur’an has four senses: an outer. also to be found in: Saḥiḥ Abū Ḥayyān. but also that he was quite capable of writing a longer. the Wise. al-Sajda.94. Part III (trans. and a place of ascent. [8] Muḥammad Abū Ḥāmid al-Ghazālī. (Musnad Ibn Ḥanbal. Part IV (trans. Iḥyā' 'Ulūm al-Dīn. its branches reaching into heaven.g. Musnad Ibn Ḥanbal (I. / He it is who produceth creation. [3] This Ḥadīth is found in Sunan al-Tirmidhī (# 2950 and 2951). an inner. is a symbol of the thought which it expresses outwardly.101. proves not only that he intended precisely to write a short. 152:7. every formulation. Qurṭubī’s al-Jāmi' li-Aḥkām al-Qur'ān). [7] Ibid. and (g) (in modern times only) tafsīr 'ilmī— ‘scientific commentary’. (The Holy Qur’an. discourse #133) that ‘the parts of the Qur’an explain each other’ (Inna al-Qur’ān yufassir ba'ḍuhu ba'ḍan) and quoted by Ibn Kathīr in his Tafsīr (of Sūrat al-Mu'minūn 23:50). ‘introductory’ Tafsīr. 172:4. Muhammad Abul Quasem as The Recitation and Interpretation of the Qur’an: Al-Ghazālī’s Theory. Ibn Ḥajar al-Haythamī. more complex one. [is] as a goodly tree.g. 315. It is even found in Ṭabarī’s seminal Jāmi' al-Bayān fī Tafsīr al-Qur'ān. / Unto Him belongeth whosoever is in the heavens and the earth…. Sharḥ Mushkil al-Athar. Kitāb Adab Tilāwat al-Qur'ān. p. Muhammad Abul Quasem as The Recitation and Interpretation of the Qur’an: Al-Ghazālī’s Theory.. Small thanks give ye! (The Holy Qur’an. Majma' al-Zawā'id. 327) and many other collections of Ḥadīth (including the Sunan of Abū Dāwūd) and is traced to Abū Sufyān al-Thawrī. the voluminous al-Durr al-Manthūr fil-Tafsīr al-Ma'thūr. Ibrāhīm. Sharḥ al-Sunna.31. and the place of ascent is what God desires from his servant by means of that verse. [9] From Muḥyī al-Dīn Ibn al-'Arabī’s al-Futūḥāt al-Makkiyya (quoted from William C. Fundamental Symbols: The Universal Language of Sacred Science. (d) tafsīr fiqhī — ‘commentary focusing on Shari‘ah law’ (e. / Giving its fruit at every season by permission of its Lord? God coineth the similitudes for mankind in order that they may reflect. which is not exclusively intellectual but which needs a sensory basis from which to rise to higher levels. 251. then reproduceth it…. Musnad Ibn Ḥanbal. (c) tafsīr lughawī — ‘Linguistic Commentary’ (e. (Cambridge: Quinta Essentia. Zamakhsharī’s Kashshāf or Bayḍāwī’s Anwār al-Tanzīl wa Asrār al-Ta'wīl).w. Musnad Abū Ya'lā. 1984. al-Rūm. al-Diyāt. Kitāb Adab Tilāwat al-Qur'ān. Kitāb al-Birr. 14:24-25) Man was created from God’s Spirit and in His image: Likewise. 13. Kashf al-Astār. 2: 244. ‘those firmly grounded in knowledge’ may or may not be included in the exception to ‘none knows its interpretation’. p. whatever it may be. a limit. et al. 1995). State University of New York Press. Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim. (The Holy Qur’an. [5] Muḥammad Abū Ḥāmid al-Ghazālī. wherein the author uses modern science to explain verses in the Qur’an (especially the ones relating cosmological and biological themes) and vice versa (e. I. (René Guénon. Volume 8. language itself is nothing other than symbolism. 90:3.92). i. [10] Baghawī. its roots set firm. Kitāb al-‘Ilm. However. A different reading of this Hadith with a slightly different interpretation is given by the Caliph 'Alī (k. Thus the Holy Qur’an says: [12] Seest thou not how God coineth a similitude: A goodly word. Qasama. # 5403. 233. Chittick.

Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs XX. Sharaf. “Notes on the Importance of Variant Readings and Grammar in the Tafsīr al-Ğalālayn”. and Sunan Al-Nasā'ī. 1949. Saleh. but ask readers to pray that God reward this generous benefactor. the money was all provided by a single nonJordanian. We have kept the second condition with pleasure and the first with regret. 39:27) Thus stories in the Qur’an about events occurring in the world can be taken in an inward or ‘microcosmic’ sense. 17:111 below. M. F. Schuon. 'A. Jalāl al-Dīn al-Suyūṭī: manhajuhu wa-ārā'uhu al-kalāmiyya. trans. Jāmi' al-Bayān fī Tafsīr al-Qur'ān. 1975. Cf. The Commentary on the Qur'ān by Abū Ja'far Muḥammad b. Eric Geoffroy. As'ad Homid’s Aysar al-Tafāsīr) and in the West (e. Musnad Ibn Ḥanbal. Fuṣṣilat. (The Holy Qur’an. M. 41:53) And verily We have coined for mankind in this Qur’an of every kind of similitude. Mahmoud Ayoub’s The Qur’an and its Interpreters. 2003). Cambridge: University of Cambridge Oriental Publications no. Yūsuf ‘Alī’s Translation and Commentary on The Holy Qur’an. M. Bloomington: World Wisdom Books. in the image of the ‘Metacosm’): The Holy Qur’an too. Jarīr al-Ṭabarī: being an abridged translation of Jāmi' al-Bayān 'an ta'wīl āy al-Qur'ān. being the Word of God. 83. EI2. E. that all the tales in the Qur’an are enacted almost daily in our souls. are also images of each other (a ‘microcosm’ and ‘macrocosm’. Barry. Cambridge: CUP. Beirut: American University of Beirut Press. 1992) Volume VII. since the disbelievers (the kāfirūn). The Muslim World LXVII. with intro. that perhaps they may reflect. [17] This project obviously required a very large sum of money to realize. e. Jones (Oxford: Oxford University Press. who requested in return two things: that he remain anonymous. Qasama. 17:105) …. see Charles Pellat. p. Cairo: Būlāq. Sartain. (The Holy Qur’an. (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-'Ilmiyya. IV.) [13] Abū Ja'far Muḥammad b. “The Influence of Tafsīr al-Jalālayn on Some Notable Nigerian Mufassirūn in Twentieth-Century Nigeria”. and that the text of the Tafsīrs be presented as they are with no editing or interference on our behalf. specifically on the Tafsīr al-Jalālayn. 23. Jalāl al-Dīn al-Suyūṭī. and so on). 1975. The Nawawi Foundation’s The Majestic Qur’an. Zeitschrift für Arabische Linguistik XV (1985). on Maḥallī in general. some still incomplete — produced in English in various parts of the Islamic world (mainly in the Indian Subcontinent and in the various parts of Arabia. [14] Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī. 24. I. I. the principal ones may be gleaned from the following list: Ḥusn al-Muḥāḍara. # 20310. “Ignaz Goldziher on al-Suyūṭī: a translation of his article of 1871. 1896. see Sulaiman Musa.ii (1978). IX. likewise that the Prophets represent our Intellect and our consciousness. Tafsīr on Sūrat al-Ra‘d. 1987). because they inherently reflect humans in themselves: [T]he content [of the Holy Qur’an] concerns ourselves in a concrete and direct way. translated by Aisha Bewley was published. necessarily reflects not only the Truth. p. Understanding Islam. with additional notes”. Najm al-Dīn al-Ghazzī. the late Yahya Cooper started an excellent translation of Ṭabarī’s Jāmi' al-Bayān before his untimely death. the pilgrimage and the holy war are so many contemplative attitudes. Mamlūk Studies Review V (2001). [21] The standard reference work to al-Suyūṭī is E. Abu Ḥāmid al-Ghazālī’s Classical Commentary of the (single) Verse of Light Mishkāt al-Anwār has appeared in several English translations. 6:38) We shall show them Our Portents on the horizons and within themselves until it will be manifest unto them that it is the Truth. We have neglected nothing in the Book …. v. 73-89. Hartmut Bobzin. M. [15] This treatise has in fact been translated into English under the title Three Early Sufi Texts (Louisville: Fons Vitae. xxv-xxvii. 913-16.g. to date (2007) no complete translation of a Classical Tafsīr has ever been published in the English language. J.31. the fast. Madelung and A.ii (2000). two abridged translations of Ibn Kathīr’s Tafsīr (one by Saifur-Rahman Al-Mubarakpuri [2000]. [18] Cf. 79-99. in 2003 the first volume (up to the end of Sūrat al-Baqara) of Qurṭubī’s al-Jāmi' li-Aḥkām al-Qur'ān. al-Diyāt. al-An‘ām. Jalāl al-Dīn al-Suyūṭī: Biography and Background. where al-Suyūṭī concludes his section of the commentary. general editors W. Jarīr al-Ṭabarī. 323-328. see also M. 79.Thus it necessarily follows that man and the world being both made in the image of God. 370. V.17. 1994. [19] See end of section Q. Muslim patron. Ibn Iyās. However. Cooper. EI2. al-Isrā'. al-Kawākib al-sā'ira fī a'yān al-mi'a al'āshira. al-Zumar. Beirut: Dār al-Nahḍa al-'Arabiyya. Badā'i' al-Zuhūr. (The Holy Qur’an. Syed Quṭb and Muḥammad Ghazālī have appeared in English. xviii  . but the Whole Truth: With truth We have revealed it and with truth it hath descended. [16] The modern Tafsīrs of the likes of Mawdūdī. [20] Hundreds of works are attributed by biographers to al-Suyūṭī. 13. 252. Muhammad Asad’s The Message of the Qur’an. ‘al-Suyūṭī’. 1981.g. Cairo: Būlāq. and the associaters of false divinities with God (the mushrikūn) and the hypocrites (the munāfiqūn) are within ourselves.… (The Holy Qur’an. only one-third complete to date) have been published with the excellent feature of containing the Arabic text Holy Qur’an for comparison. 33-44. “Al-Suyūṭī and His works: Their Place in Islamic Scholarship from Mamluk Times to the Present”. the other by Muḥammad Naṣīb Ar-Rifā'ī [1996] (the first complete. Sartain. 226. and the second. ‘al-Maḥallī’. 1223. (F. and notes by J. 1299 AH. and there have been many excellent selections or amalgamations of Tafsīr with or without translations of the Qur’an itself — some completed.51. I. that Mecca is the Heart and that the tithe.

[1:5] You [alone] we worship. namely. or that He [alone] deserves their praise. [1:6] Guide us to the straight path: that is. the One who possesses ‘mercy’. and we ask for [Your] assistance in worship and in other things. namely. [the day of] requite. ‘show us the way to it’. [1:3] The Compassionate. that is. and nor of those who are astray. Lord of all Worlds. each of which may be referred to as a ‘world’. May God bless our lord Muhammad (s). cognizant beings (ūlū ‘ilm). the Merciful: that is to say. we reserve worship for You [alone] by way of acknowledging Your Oneness (tawhīd) and so on. or else that He is ever described by this [expression].(Al-Fâtihah) [1:1] In the Name of God. and You [alone] we ask for help: that is to say. the High. [1:4] Master of the Day of Judgement: that is. with guidance (from alladhīna together with its relative clause is substituted by [ghayri l-maghdūbi ‘alayhim]) not [the path] of those against whom there is wrath. predominantly. Medinese: [consisting of] 286 or 287 verses. Thus. an excellent Guardian is He. the Jews. since it is an indication of the One that created it. The expression [‘ālamīn] relates to [the term] ‘sign’ (‘alāma). and to Him is the Return and the [final] Resort. the Day of Resurrection. jinn. animals and others as well. the Merciful: [1:2] Praise be to God. The reason for the specific mention [of the Day of Judgement] is that the mastery of none shall appear on that Day except that of God. may He be exalted. God is a proper noun for the One truly worthy of worship. one says ‘the world of men’. Sufficient is God for us. the content of which is intended to extol God [by stating that]: He possesses the praise of all creatures. his Family and Companions and grant them everlasting peace. the Christians. one can validly take it as an adjective of a definite noun). [He is] the One Who owns all of creation: humans. ‘ālamīn] is used to denote. There is no power and no strength save in God. the Compassionate. The subtle meaning implied by this substitution is that the guided ones are neither the Jews nor the Christians. which means to want what is good for those who deserve it. is a predicate of a nominal clause. 1  . in the same way as [He is described as] ‘Forgiver of sin’ (ghāfir al-dhanb). the Tremendous. then this signifies that He has possession of the entire affair on the Day of Resurrection. 40:16] (if one reads it mālik [as opposed to malik]. or ‘world of the jinn’ etc. But God knows best what is right. angels. as is indicated by [God’s words] ‘Whose is the Kingdom today?’ ‘God’s’ [Q. This plural form with the yā’ and the nūn [sc. This is substituted by: [1:7] the path of those whom You have favoured.

which Muhammad (s) recites. impressing on them and making certain that no good enters them. and on their hearing. ‘who says’] is taken into account here. in it there is no doubt. and for them there will be a mighty chastisement. expend. and inserting an alif between the one not pronounced and the other one. [2:4] and who believe in what has been revealed to you. and of what We have provided them. who will succeed in entering Paradise and be saved from the Fire. of what we have bestowed upon them. Book. in the Day of Resurrection because it is the very last day. or leaving [this insertion]. [2:3] who believe in. Paradise and the Fire. as expressed by a pronoun [hum] that expresses this [plural] meaning). that is to say. as God knows very well. [2:2] That. the likes of Abū Jahl. and of the Hereafter. the Gospel and other [scriptures]. that is. and simultaneously instil an element of fear). [in which He has] deposited something so that they cannot profit from the truth they hear. intense and everlasting. who perform it giving it its proper due. 2  . meaning. for the God-fearing. al-indhār [‘warning’] is to give knowledge of something. [2:7] God has set a seal on their hearts. that is. who accept the truth of. this. A guidance (hudĀ is a second predicate. [2:8] The following was revealed concerning the hypocrites: and some people there are who say. Abū Lahab and such. namely. are upon guidance from their Lord. or by not pronouncing the second. that is. that it is from God (the negation [lĀ rayba fĪhi] is the predicate of dhĀlika. those are the ones that will prosper. the Unseen. the use of the demonstrative here is intended to glorify [the Book]). making it an alif instead. they do not believe. alike it is for them whether you have warned them or have not warned them. and on their eyes is a covering.(Al-Baqarah) [2:1] Alif lām mīm: God knows best what He means by these [letters]. those that tend towards piety by adhering to commands and avoiding things prohibited. they are certain. [2:6] As for the disbelievers. in obedience to God. that is. and what was revealed before you. but they are not believers (the [plural] import of man [in man yaqūl. that is. that is. [2:5] Those. thereby guarding themselves from the Fire. they know [it is real]. as described in the way mentioned. no uncertainty. that is. the Torah. ‘We believe in God and the Last Day’. what is hidden from them of the Resurrection. so do not hope that they will believe (read a-andhartahum pronouncing both hamzas. meaning that it [the Book] ‘guides’). a veil so that they do not see the truth. that is. namely. the Qur’ān. and maintain the prayer.

for the evil consequences of their deception will rebound upon them. [2:10] In their hearts is a sickness: doubt and hypocrisy. saying: [2:12] Truly (a-lā. They say.[2:9] They would deceive God and the believers. as the Companions of the Prophet (s). as they are disgraced in this world when God makes known to His Prophet what they are hiding. likewise the yā’ [is omitted]. but they know. ‘Believe as the people believe’. nor are they guided. that is. indeed. so that they can avoid His rulings in this world. [2:16] Those are they who have bought error for guidance. a variant reading [for wa-mā yukhādi‘ūna] has wa-mā yakhda‘ūna). in perplexity (ya‘mahūn is a circumstantial qualifier). requiting them for their mockery. [2:11] When it is said to them. but they perceive. and they are not aware. in what they did. bewildered. ‘We believe’. ‘I punished the thief’ [using the third verbal form ‘āqaba]. and they do not know that they are actually deceiving themselves (mukhāda‘a [although a third verbal form. since they disbelieve it. to their devils. this. through unbelief and hindering [people from] faith. away from them and return. but when they go apart. that is. and only themselves they deceive (yukhādi‘ūn). [2:17] 3  . because their destination is the Fire. these latter. ‘We are with you. such as [when one says] ‘āqabtu al-lissa. The exalted One refutes them. ‘Shall we believe as fools believe?’. they say. made everlasting for them. ‘We are only putting things right’. their leaders. [2:14] When they meet (laqū is actually laquyū. but the damma has been omitted. wavering. they have gained nothing from it. from khāda‘a] actually denotes a one-way action. intended emphatically. because it is unvocalised and is followed by a wāw). they have exchanged the latter for the former. so their commerce has not profited them. being too cumbersome for pronunciation. as the ignorant do? No we do not follow their way. that is to say. not. that is. that is. that is. [2:15] God [Himself] mocks them. that is. by manifesting the opposite of the unbelief they hide. ‘we are not engaging in corruption’. giving them respite. they have lost. they are the foolish ones. is for alerting). saying: Truly. in religion. exalted be He. God. they say. we were only mocking. in their transgressing the limits of unbelief. in their insolence. and they will be punished in the Hereafter. which ails their hearts. and God has increased their sickness with what He has revealed in the Qur’ān. not. ‘truly’. ‘Do not spread corruption in the land’. those who believe. debilitating them. the mention of ‘God’ in [this statement] is for [rhetorical] effect. refutes them. that is. or yakdhibūn to imply their [mendacity when] saying ‘we believe’). they are the agents of corruption. leaving them. and there awaits them a painful chastisement because they used to lie (read yukadhdhibūn to imply [that they used to call] the Prophet of God [a liar]. this. them [the believers] by feigning belief. [2:13] When it is said to them. They say.

that is. from error. [2:23] 4  . unable to speak of it. takes it away swiftly. if they were to hear it. and when the darkness is over them. the way they are in their hypocrisy. [one who] lit a fire in darkness. the thunderclaps. like a carpet that is laid out. the people under the rain. of His punishment by worshipping Him (la‘alla. whensoever it gives them light. they stop. so set not up compeers to God. what is around them. extinguishing it (the plural pronoun [in nūrihim] takes into account the [plural] import of alladhī). and. and the clear arguments that are like the clear lightning. like a roof. and left them in darkness. wherewith He brought forth. but when spoken by God it denotes an affirmative). and to feel warm and secure from those he feared. the clouds]. blind. put their fingers. [2:19] Or. confused as to the way. the violent sound of thunder. of Mecca. is essentially an optative. which for them would be death. the likeness of them is as a cloudburst. meaning ‘it came down’). and when it illumined all about him. and heaven for an edifice. that is. they shut their ears in order not to hear it and thereby incline towards [true] faith and abandon their religion. so that you may be fearful. Similar is the case with these: when the Qur’ān is revealed. is as the likeness of one who kindled. and lightning. so that they cannot perceive it. neither extremely hard. His taking away of the above-mentioned. fruits for your provision. so that they cannot hear it and accept it. in order not to hear it. they walk in it. and thunder. and created those that were before you. in which there is mention of the unbelief that is like darkness. yasūbu. almost. in the same way that He took away their inner one. that is partners in worship. that is. in their ears against. the angel in charge of them [sc. that is. He would have taken away their hearing and their sight. they stand still: a simile of the perturbation that the Qur’ānic arguments cause in their hearts. profess the oneness of. that is. to the truth. from [the verb] sāba. worship. snatches away their sight. mute as regards goodness. made you when you were nothing. [2:21] O people. in fear. and sent down from the heaven water. the threat of punishment that is like the sound of thunder.Their likeness. as for example. [2:20] The lightning well-nigh. it is also said that this [thunder] is actually the sound of his voice. so they cannot escape Him. God took away their light. they shall not return. that is. the flash caused by his voice which he uses to drive them — they. their fingertips. [that] He wills. cautious of. layer upon layer. Truly. your Lord Who created you. all types of. out of the heaven. because of. these [last] are: [2:18] deaf. God has power over all things. unable to see. but who will meet with terror and punishment upon death. and of their acknowledging the truths of what they love to hear and recoiling from what they detest. [2:22] He Who assigned to you. dumb. created [for you]. death. the earth for a couch. while you know that He is the Creator. nor extremely soft so as to make it impossible to stand firm upon it. [the likeness of them is] as people are during rain (kasayyib: the term is originally sayyūb. the exterior faculty. and God encompasses the disbelievers in both knowledge and power. had God willed. fearful of. that you create not and that only One that creates can be God. ‘so that’. in its light. to the path of guidance. in which clouds is darkness. so that he is able to see. likewise are those who have found [temporary] security by professing faith. out of the clouds.

after it has been confirmed with them. besides God. but as for disbelievers. inform. then fear. and you will not (a parenthetical statement). from their Lord. they shall say. and perform righteous deeds. those who believe. such as the obligatory and supererogatory [rituals]. So do this. established and given in this instance. never [will you be able to]. fine arrangement and its bestowal of knowledge of the Unseen. as for the believers. or anything above it. so that this explanation is not affected [by the size of the creature] with regard to the judgement [God is making]. ‘what use is there in it?’). of the Qur’ān. that is. those other gods that you worship. so that what follows constitutes the second direct object). that is. of trees. or it [the mā] is extra to emphasise the vileness [involved]. rivers run (tajrī min tahtihā’l-anhāru). even of a gnat. u‘iddat li’l-kāfirīna. [2:27] Those such as. 22:73] and about a spider.And if you are in doubt. ‘by this similitude’. that is. in Paradise. and thereby He guides many. God then responds to them saying: Thereby. and habitations. for disbelievers. concerning what We have revealed to Our servant. and thereby He leads none astray except the wicked. so that it can be seen. who have faith in God. the provision. and made ready. in uncertainty. through belief in God and [belief] that this is not the words of a human. there are waters in it (al-nahr is the place in which water flows [and is so called] because the water carves [yanhar] its way through it. mā is an interrogative of rejection and is the subject. and call your witnesses. whose fuel is men. where He says. meaning. a sūra is a passage with a beginning and end made up of a minimum of three verses). small flies. that it is from God. that is. [2:25] And give good tidings to. the like of what we were provided with before’. whose relative clause contains its predicate. purified. that is. the Fire. of houris and others. 29:41]: what does God want with these vile creatures? God then revealed the following: [2:26] God is not ashamed to strike. in perfect semblance. that is. And when the Jews said. they say. from the truth on account of their disbelieving in it. other than Him. before this. a sūra like it in its eloquence. ‘Why does God strike a similitude about flies. those that reject obedience to Him. like their very idols. since it burns with the [stones] mentioned. ‘prepared for disbelievers’] is either a new sentence or a sustained circumstantial qualifier). if you are truthful. mā either represents an indefinite noun described by what comes after it and constitutes a second direct object. indicating that its heat is extreme. resembling one another in colour. after its solemn binding. that is also revealed (min mithlihi: min is explicative. neither perishing nor departing therefrom. they know it. then bring a sūra like it. is the truth. and there for them shall be spouses. dhā means alladhī. He has described. underneath these trees and palaces. the contract He made with them in the [revealed] Books to belief in Muhammad (s). that is. whenever they are given to eat from these gardens. from menstruation and impurities. And if a fly should rob them of anything [Q. because of its inimitability. the reference to it as ‘running’ is figurative). of belief in the Prophet. and stones. a similitude (mathal: is the first direct object. When they could not do this. ‘This is what. He leads many astray. the similitude. that is. by this similitude. of kinship and other 5  . that theirs shall be Gardens. in [your claim] that Muhammad (s) speaks it from himself. As the likeness of the spider [Q. that is. God said: [2:24] And if you do not. unlike the fires of this world that burn with wood and similar materials. disbelievers. that is. ‘What did God desire by this for a similitude?’ (mathalan is a specification. so that they are punished in it (this [phrase. but different in taste. meaning ‘whatever that similitude may be’. to make. believers on account of their belief in it. therein they shall abide: dwelling therein forever. (ba‘ūda is the singular of ba‘ūd). Muhammad (s). underneath which. that is. and such as cut what God has commanded should be joined. for you are also fluent speakers of Arabic like him. in other words. break the covenant of God. where He says. larger than it. prepared. do what was mentioned because you are incapable. since its fruits are similar (and this is evidenced by [the following statement]): they shall be given it. that is. whensoever they are provided with fruits therefrom.

41:12]) seven heavens and He has knowledge of all things. which is much greater than what you are. and He gave you life. and He states. the lām [of laka. just as the progeny of the jinn did. through disobedience. then He shall give you life. ‘God will never create anything more noble in His eyes than us nor more knowledgeable. or that you are more deserving of this vicegerency. the names of things named. the response to the conditional sentence is intimated by what precedes it. ‘that which God has commanded’]). ‘We sanctify You’] is a circumstantial qualifier. after your terms of life are completed. that is. God then created Adam from the surface of the earth (adīm al-ard [adīm literally means ‘skin’]). they. it [heaven] is implicit in the import of the sentence attributed to it [the pronoun]). the earth and all that is in it. in their totality and in their individual detail. as proof of the Resurrection. We know not except what 6  . will You appoint therein one who will do corruption therein. that is. when your Lord said to the angels. disbelieve in God. semen inside loins. these names. “We say Glory and Praise be to You”. and shed blood. that is. the names of these. to them in reproach. as [He says] in another verse. O Muhammad (s). then. [2:31] And He taught Adam the names. and such as do corruption in the land. and sanctify You?’. also has the power to bring you back [after death]? [2:30] And. and the sentence [wa-nuqaddisu laka. we are more entitled to be Your vicegerents’). He made His object. or intended as a rebuke). in your claim that I would not create anything more knowledgeable than you. by implementing My rulings therein — and this [vicegerent] was Adam. when they denied it: [2:29] He it is Who created for you all that is in the earth. He. ‘You’] is extra. inform Me. if you speak truly’. that is. He turned to. made everlasting for them. I know what you know not’. since we have been created before it and have seen what it has not seen. whereupon He shall requite you according to your deeds. the majority of which concerned intellectual beings. ‘that it be joined’] substitutes for the pronoun [suffixed] in bihi [of the preceding words mā amara Llāhu bihi. They said. ‘What. people of Mecca. They said. for they used to inhabit it. so do you not then think that the One who has the power to create this to begin with. ‘I am appointing on earth a vicegerent’. ‘We exalt You as transcendent above what does not befit You?. exalting You above that any should object to You. after having been inanimate. continuously. said. the ones thus described. then made him upright and breathed into him the Spirit and he thus became a living being with senses. at the Resurrection. taking a handful of all its colours and mixing it with different waters. who shall act as My deputy. ‘thus. and justice will prevail between them. by way of their transgressing and impeding faith. the import being. by placing knowledge of them into his heart. since. things named. heaven and levelled them (fa-sawwāhunna: the pronoun [-hunna] refers to ‘heaven’. exalted be He. [2:32] They said. then He shall make you dead. but when they became corrupted God sent down the angels against them and they were driven away to islands and into the mountains. after resurrection. after creating the earth. [fa-qadāhunna] so He determined them [Q. to the angels and said. shall be the losers. that is to say. while we glorify. ‘Assuredly. ‘Now tell Me. spilling it through killing. He made them thus. so that you may benefit from and learn lessons from it. when you were dead. [2:28] How do you. then He presented them. since. of the benefits of making Adam a vicegerent and of the fact that among his progeny will be the obedient and the transgressor. all of them. then to Him you shall be returned!. mention. they shall end up in the Fire.matters (an [in the phrase an yūsala. in the womb and in this world by breathing Spirit into you (the interrogative here is either intended to provoke amazement at their [persistent] unbelief despite the evidence established. that is. ‘Glory be to You!. You with praise.

no fear shall befall them. 7:12]. when We said to the angels. Q. and swore to them by God that he was only giving good advice to them. ‘Prostrate yourselves to Adam’. tell them. the father of the jinn. he caused them to be removed (fa-azallahumā: a variant reading has fa-azālahumā: he caused them to be away from it) therefrom. to His servants. yet (fa-immā: the nūn of the conditional particle in [‘if’] has been assimilated with the extra mā) there shall come to you from Me guidance. ‘Adam. so they prostrated themselves. said. both of you and all those comprised by your seed. of bliss. what you manifested when you said. that is. and disdained. and eat thereof. easefully. Iblīs. [2:39] 7  . but do not come near this tree. [2:35] And We said. and your wife. except Iblīs. And I know what you reveal. when he said to them. and We said. and brought them out of what they were in. truly He is the Relenting. [2:34] And. ‘Adam. so that it [wa-zawjuk] may be made a supplement to it). a place of settlement. And when he had told them their names He. Wise’. in rebuke. Eve (Hawwā’) — who was created from his left rib — in the Garden. from the Garden.You have taught us. dwell (anta. that is. where you desire. from the Garden. became proud and said. with which he supplicated. and so they ate of it. exalted. all of the things named. and so he became one of the disbelievers. and what you were hiding. what is unseen in them. so. with which He inspired him (a variant reading [of Ādamu] has accusative Ādama and nominative kalimātu). since they will be admitted into Paradise. and this was wheat or a vine or something else. and whoever follows My guidance. an enemy to the other. meaning they [the words] came to him. he refused. ‘Did I not tell you that I know the Unseen in the heavens and the earth?. of anything without restrictions. from whose knowledge and wisdom nothing escapes. [2:33] He. of your progeny. for a while’. 20:120]. the Merciful. become. according to God’s knowledge. and He relented to him. said. ‘Shall I point you to the tree of eternity’ [cf. a prostration that is a bow of salutation. some of you. through your wronging one another. all together (He has repeated this [phrase qulnā ihbitū] in order to supplement it with). lest you be. in the Hereafter. 7:23]. to them. [2:38] We said. their names’. neither shall they grieve. he named each thing by its appellation and mentioned the wisdom behind its creation. evildoers’. the angels. shall be yours. mention. what you were keeping secret when you were saying that God would not create anything more knowledgeable or more noble in His eyes than us. ‘Go down from it. of its food. to eat from it. ‘you’ [of ‘dwell you’] here reiterates the concealed pronoun [of the person of the verb uskun]. [until] the time your terms [of life] are concluded. who was among the angels. exalted be He. caused them to slip. [2:37] Thereafter Adam received certain words from his Lord. we have wronged ourselves [Q. and enjoyment. He accepted his repentance. will You appoint therein …’. transgressors. believing in me and performing deeds in obedience of Me. and these were [those of] the verse Lord. ‘Go down. that is. ‘What. to earth. of whatever of its vegetation you may enjoy. [2:36] Then Satan. a Book and a prophet. Surely You are (innaka anta emphasises the [preceding suffixed pronoun] kāf) the Knower. I am better than he [Q. to prostrate. and in the earth a dwelling.

exchange. and fear Me. he would immediately resort to prayer’. the description of Muhammad (s). My signs. abiding therein’. burdensome. [2:45] Seek help. for it is the truth’. and none other in this matter. that which I took from you. from among the People of the Scripture. do not suppress this for fear of losing what you hope to earn from lowly individuals among you. ‘Stay firm upon the religion of Muhammad (s). to belief in Muhammad (s). ‘When something bothered the Prophet (s). Our Books. for which you should show gratitude by being obedient to Me. for a trivial and temporary affair of this world. it is said that the address here is to the Jews: when greed and desire for leadership became impediments to their faith. those shall be the inhabitants of the Fire. saving them from Pharaoh. that you believe in Muhammad (s). and be in awe of Me. that you fabricate. And do not sell. that I have revealed to you. knowing it to be the truth. [it is stated]. [2:46] who reckon. in which there is the threat of chastisement. remember My favour wherewith I favoured you. while you recite the Book?. by restraining the soul in the face of that which it dislikes. they were enjoined to forbearance.As for the disbelievers who deny Our signs. Muhammad (s) and his Companions: this was revealed concerning their religious scholars. the former stems from lust and the latter yields humility and negates pride. that is. your forefathers. for those who will come after you will depend on you and so you will bear their sins. [2:44] Will you bid others to piety. and be not the first to disbelieve in it. of the Qur’ān. that is to say. and I shall fulfil your covenant. if what you do contradicts what you say. confuse. neither perishing nor exiting therefrom. neglecting yourselves and not bidding them to the same. [2:40] O Children of Israel. where He will reward them. pray with those who pray. enduring perpetually. that is. and pay the alms. 8  . who are certain. sending clouds as shelter and other instances. [2:41] And believe in what I have revealed. sons of Jacob. in one hadīth. in the Hereafter. that is. with falsehood. the truth. who used to say to their kin from among the Muslims. and fulfil My covenant. parting the sea. and bow with those that bow. [2:42] And do not obscure. except to the humble. that you shall be rewarded for this with Paradise. and do not conceal the truth. since. ask for assistance in your affairs. [2:43] And establish prayer. those that are at peace in obedience. that which I gave to you. For it. and forget yourselves. for a small price. in respect to [affirmation of] God’s Oneness and prophethood. is grievous. by its agreement with it. of the Torah. at the Resurrection. in patience. The singling out of this for mention is a way of emphasising its great importance. wittingly. and that to Him they are returning. Do you not understand? the evil nature of your actions. those that relate to the description of Muhammad (s) in your Book. that they shall meet their Lord. which constituted fasting and prayer. prayer. that you might then repent? (the sentence about ‘forgetting’ constitutes the [syntactical] locus of the interrogative of disavowal). fear Me and not anyone else when you have abandoned belief in him [the Prophet]. and prayer. confirming that which is with you.

by it away from error. So now we have no intercessors [Q. as God says]. let the innocent of you slay the guilty. now turn to your Creator. slaughter. That. be scared of. after he departed for Our appointment. [2:51] And when We appointed for (wā‘adnā or wa‘adnā) Moses forty nights. for you. after that. at the end of which We shall give him the Torah for you to implement. be taken. your forefathers. will be better for you in your Creator’s sight’. after him. nor any compensation. [2:50] And. neither shall they be helped. to avoid God’s chastisement. you have done wrong against yourselves by your taking the [golden] calf. [2:52] Then We pardoned you. for Our favour upon you. remember. a test or a grace. and no intercession shall be accepted (read either tuqbal or yuqbal) from it. and sparing. and you were evildoers. from drowning. that is. ‘My people. when We divided. the one that discriminates (faraqa) between truth and falsehood and between what is licit and illicit. your forefathers: the address here and henceforth directed to those living at the time of the our Prophet. sons: this is explaining what has just been said. the day when no soul for another shall give satisfaction. for taking it [in worship]. split in two. ‘We delivered you’). and drowned Pharaoh’s folk. such that you were able to cross it and escape from your enemy. retaining. who made it easier for you to accomplish this and sent down a dark cloud over you. that is. [2:48] and fear. when We delivered you. on account of you. making you taste. is about how God blessed their forefathers. that is.[2:47] O Children of Israel. so that you might be guided. while you were beholding the sea crashing down on top of them. from the folk of Pharaoh who were visiting you with. remember My favour wherewith I favoured you. chastisement or deliverance. so that you might be thankful. [doing so] because of the saying of some of their priests that a child born among the Israelites shall bring about the end of your rule [Pharaoh]. then you took to yourselves the calf. the one which the Samaritan fashioned for you as a god. his people with him. that is. was a tremendous trial. erasing your sins. so that none of you was able to see the other and show him mercy. away from that worship [of the calf] and slay one another. act of worship. it is not the case that it has power to intercede. evil chastisement. those who worshipped the calf. ransom. slaughtering your. [2:54] And when Moses said to his people. which is the Day of Resurrection. from your Lord. your women. newly-born. 26:100]. of the worst kind (the sentence here is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the person of the pronoun [suffixed] in najjaynākum. above all the worlds. because you directed your worship to the wrong place. remember. and We delivered you. such that almost 9  . the sea. for it then to be accepted from it [or rejected. that is. and for you therein. [2:49] And. the Torah. [2:53] And when We gave to Moses the Scripture. and that I have preferred you. of their time. and the Criterion (wa’l-furqān is an explicative supplement [of Torah]). for a god. by giving thanks through obedience to Me. and is intended to remind them of God’s grace so that they might believe.

among them. ‘Enter this city. but they were not grateful for this favour and stored the food. (the one that ran off with his robe. and say. and eat freely therein wherever you will. to them. and there exploded. ‘[they] will be forgiven’) you your transgressions and We shall give more to those who are virtuous’ — through obedience — in terms of reward. and so they were deprived of it. in them [the clouds]. and you died. We said. seeking corruption’ (mufsidīn is a circumstantial qualifier emphasising its operator. [2:56] Then We raised you up. before your [turning in] repentance.seventy thousand of you were killed. ‘Eat and drink of that which God has provided. we will not believe you till we see God openly’. from it twelve fountains. each people. while you were beholding. prostrating. either the Holy House [of Jerusalem] (Bayt al-Maqdis) or Jericho (Arīhā). so We sent down upon the evildoers (the replacement of the second person [of the previous verse] with the overt identification in the third person alladhīna zalamū. but themselves they wronged. and do not be degenerate in the earth. and said instead. upon you manna and quails — which are [respectively. [2:60] And. is intended to emphasise the depravity of their action) wrath. [2:58] And when We said. and do not store any of it away. after you were dead. which they did not share with any of the others. having gone out with Moses to apologise before God for your worship of the calf. took you. the Merciful. the shout. and within a very short period of time just under seventy thousand of them were dead. ‘do not be degenerate’] derived from ‘athiya. [2:59] Then the evildoers. truly He is the Relenting. when Moses sought water for his people. ‘our request is for [an] exoneration’. and He will turn to you [relenting]. [2:55] And when you said. plentifully and without any restrictions. [2:57] And We made the cloud overshadow you. after they came out of the wilderness. that is. from the heaven for their wickedness. and We shall forgive (naghfir: a variant reading has one of the two passive forms yughfar or tughfar. a punishment of plague. for this favour of Ours. [each] tribe among them. substituted a saying other than that which had been said to them. that is. for they suffered thirst in the wilderness. ‘O Moses. We sheltered you with fine clouds from the heat of the sun while you were in the wilderness. there burst and gushed forth. And We said to them. ‘A grain inside a hair’ and entered [the town] dragging themselves on their rears. bowing. the subject of the verb [lā ta‘thaw. in this. with our own eyes. ‘the evildoers’. a type of citrus known as] turunjabīn and the quail — and We said: ‘Eat of the good things We have provided for you’. for deviating from obedience. mention. and We sent down. and the thunderbolt. and having heard what he had said [to you]. brought you back to life. what was happening to you. since the evil consequences [of this] befell them. And they did not wrong Us. equal to the number of tribes. and enter it at the gate. made of marble) and he struck it. meaning afsada. ‘Strike with your staff the rock. ‘That we be exonerated from our transgressions’. came to know their drinking-place. ‘to corrupt’). so that you might be thankful. a light cube-like [rock] about the size of a man’s head. [2:61] 10  . its gate.

from the Fire or acts of disobedience. they thus refused to change their mind and he [Moses] supplicated to God. [2:64] Then you turned away thereafter. you would have been among the losers [there is no commentary on this verse]. and they were transgressors. and they incurred. what We have given you. and We said. and an admonition to such as who fear. with what is lowlier?’ (the hamza of a-tastabdilūna is for rebuke). without right. ‘God commands you to sacrifice a cow’. that is to say. and they became so: they died three days later. when one among them was killed and the killer was not known. and those of Jewry. we will not endure one sort of food. mention. in contrast to others. such as Zachariah and John. and He. garlic. that affliction and wrath. for all the former times and for the latter. acting in accordance with it. God lest I should be one of the ignorant’. that is. had. I seek defence with. to them. for the people of that time or those that came later. and so they asked Moses to pray to God to reveal the killer. God: these are singled out for mention here because they. more noble. believes in God and the Last Day. ‘believes’. that was because they disobeyed. is with their Lord. violated. said. ‘Do you take us in mockery?’. onions’. exalted be He. he. ‘Be apes. when We made a covenant with you. [2:66] And We made it. are the ones who benefit thereby. and wretchedness. a Christian or Jewish sect. and ‘amila. unjustly. the reward for their deeds. ‘Would you exchange what is better. [2:67] And. making fun of us when you answer us like this? He said. which he did. and performs righteous deeds. that is. do you substitute this. so that you might preserve yourselves’. lentils. by fishing. the Torah]. the Sabbath. that is. whichever city it may be. manna and quails. from among them. there. your pledge to act according to what is in the Torah. ended up with God’s wrath. takes account of the [singular] form of man. ‘Go down to a city. in the same way that a coin never changes its mint. which We uprooted from the earth [and placed] above you when you refused to accept it [sc. and the Sabaeans. and but for God’s bounty and His mercy towards you. [2:62] Surely those who believe. was because they used to disbelieve the signs of God and slay prophets. Moses. submissiveness. were cast upon them. when We had forbidden you to do so — these were the inhabitants of Eilat — and We said to them. that is. despised!’. an exemplary punishment. when Moses said to his people. and We. cucumbers. even if they be rich. neither shall they grieve (the [singular] person of the verbs āmana. whoever. And abasement. that. that is. ‘I take refuge with. ‘performs’. overstepping the bounds in disobedience (here the repetition [dhālik bi-mā ‘asaw wa-kānū ya‘tadūn] is for emphasis). [2:65] And verily (wa-la-qad: the lām is for oaths) you know that there were those among you who transgressed. one of 11  . a lesson to dissuade others from doing what they did. that He may bring forth for us. but in what comes afterwards [of the plural pronouns] its [plural] meaning [is taken into account]). [2:63] And. said. of (min here is explicative) what the earth produces — green herbs. something. They said. the Jews. and remember what is in it. raised above you the Mount. you shall have. the signs of poverty on account of their submissiveness and debasement that always accompany them. pray to your Lord for us. this punishment. mention. according to the Law given to him — their wage. seriously and with effort. in the prophets. ‘Take forcefully. and no fear shall befall them. in the time of our Prophet. rejected. [who believed] before. what you demanded’ of vegetable produce. and the Christians. that is. ‘Moses. that is. ‘whoever’.And when you said.

and so they sacrificed her. of a colour other than her own. he came back to life and said. that is. said. [2:71] He said. that is. ‘He. than these. ‘So-and-so killed me’. ‘He says she shall be a cow not broken. the cows (that is. that is. ‘Pray to your Lord for us. middling between the two. for. ‘Had they sacrificed any cow. for there 12  . O you Jews. In a hadīth [it is stated that]. ‘Now you have brought the truth’. to plough the earth. that He may make clear to us what she may be’. and disputed thereon (iddāra’tum: the tā’ [of the root-form itdāra’tum] has been assimilated with the dāl) — and God disclosed what you were hiding (this is a parenthetical statement. Moses. nor virgin. that He make clear to us what her colour may be’ He said. ‘Smite him. and He shows you His signs. God brings to life the dead. [2:70] They said. and they are like stones.those who indulge in mockery. that is. the story begins here [with wa-idh qataltum nafsan. in their hardness. God says: even so. it would have sufficed them. that is. [that you might] reflect and realise that the One capable of reviving a single soul is also capable of reviving a multitude of souls. and constitutes part of the negation). are all alike to us. and then believe. They said. [2:74] Then your hearts became hardened. young. and they eventually purchased it for the equivalent of its weight in gold. they [your hearts] became stiffened against acceptance of the truth. that is. on account of its excessive cost. ‘He says she shall be a golden cow. not subdued for labour. he died. with no blemish. after what is mentioned of the bringing back to life of the slain man and the other signs before this. ‘and when you killed a soul’… and continues in the following]): [2:73] so We said. with part of it’. so do what you have been commanded’. He. one safe. They said. that He make clear to us what she may be: does it graze freely or is it used in labour?. or even yet harder. even though they very nearly did not. it would never have been made clear to them’. ‘Pray to your Lord for us. [2:68] But when they realised that he was being serious. but they made it difficult for themselves and so God made it difficult for them’. the slain man. they thus sought it out and found it with a boy very dutiful towards his mother. bright in colour. [2:69] They said. we shall then be guided’ to it. is the revival. its true nature. the species described in the way mentioned). because there are many of them and we have not been able to find the one sought after. by way of sacrificing it. In one hadīth [it is reported]: ‘Had they not uttered the proviso [inshā’a Llāh]. the proofs of His power. from faults and the effects of toil. gladdening to beholders: its beauty will please those that look at it. and after pointing out two of his cousins. [now] you have explained it clearly. churning its soil for sowing (tuthīr al-ard: the clause describes the word dhalūl. God. ‘Pray to your Lord for us. [2:72] And when you killed a living soul. the land prepared for sowing. and if God wills. and so when he was struck with its tongue or its tail. of a very intense yellow. in terms of age. so that you might understand. thereafter. on her’. or to water the tillage. says she is a cow neither old. the two [killers] were denied the inheritance and were later killed.

but instead. in other words. and woe to them for their earnings. [after] they had understood it. they have. that is. so that they may desist from these things. only a short time of forty days: the same length of time their forefathers worshipped the calf. of this world: these are the Jews. that is. that are illiterate. mere conjectures.are stones from which rivers come gushing. indicating a shift to the third person address). and others come down. meet those who believe. ‘This is from God’ that they may sell it for a small price. in this matter. that they. but when they go in private one to another. a group of their rabbis. the ones that altered the description of the Prophet in the Torah. of what God has disclosed to you. the hypocrites from among the Jews. that is. O believers. after which time it [the Fire] will cease. to them Muhammad (s): ‘Have you taken with God a covenant?. [knowing full well] that they were indulging in mendacity (the hamza [at the beginning of the verb a-fa-tatma‘ūn] is [an interrogative] for rejection. and others split (yashshaqqaq: the initial tā’ [of the root-form yatashaqqaq] has been assimilated with the shīn). [2:80] And they say. the inserted wāw [of a-wa-lā] is to indicate the supplement) that God knows what they keep secret and what they proclaim?. so that water issues from them. and other details. that heard God’s word. and. what they hide and what they reveal in this matter and all other matters. plural of rishwa). when the Prophet promised them the Fire. not knowing the Scripture. then say. fabricating it themselves. save a number of days’. of fabrications. or — nay — say you against God what you do not know? (a’ttakhadhtum: the conjunctive hamza has been omitted on account of the interrogative hamza sufficing). as well as the ‘stoning’ verse. to those hypocrites: ‘Do you speak to them. in the Torah. is the lām of ‘becoming’) with you before your Lord?. their leaders the ones not involved in the hypocrisy. [2:75] Are you then so eager. they. Say. [2:77] God says: Know they not (the interrogative is affirmative. and no firm knowledge. in fear of God. seeing there is a party of them. And God is not heedless of what you do. the Jews. from on high. to those who write the Scripture with their hands. and rewrote them in a way different from that in which they were revealed. unlettered. should believe you. the Jews. afflict us. a severe chastisement. ‘Do not be so eager. 13  . in the Hereafter and hold the proof against you for not following him [Muhammad (s)]. but only desires. the believers. [2:79] So woe. while your hearts are unmoved. in their rejection of the prophethood of the Prophet and fabrications of other matters. a pledge from Him to this? God will not fail in His covenant. ‘the Fire shall not touch us. what He has made known to you of Muhammad’s (s) description in the Torah. that is. by way of bribery (rishan. so that they may thereby dispute (the lām of li-yuhājjūkum. after they had comprehended it. [2:76] And when they. say. knowingly?. for they have disbelieved before’). lies which were handed down to them by their leaders and which they relied upon. ‘they do’. ‘We believe’. they say. and that. He gives you respite until your time comes (ta‘malūna. ‘that they may dispute with you’. that Muhammad (s) is a prophet and that he is the one of whom we have been given good tidings in our Book. the Torah. and then tampered with it. ‘you do’: a variant reading has ya‘malūna. unstirred and not humbled. So woe to them for what their hands have written. [2:78] And there are some of them. despite your knowledge of his sincerity? Have you no understanding?’ of the fact that they will contend with you if you speak to them in this way? So beware. changing it.

in disobedience. do you believe in part of the Book. and the statement that comes in between is parenthetical. that is to say. the verbal noun. ‘Because we have been commanded to ransom’. expulsion and assistance [against one another]. commanding good and forbidding evil. or read ya‘malūna.[2:81] Not so. yet their expulsion was forbidden you (muharramun ‘alaykum ikhrājuhum is semantically connected to wa-tukhrijūna. ‘they do’). like your forefathers. the part about renouncing fighting. upon your own souls. and to be good. and is encompassed by his transgression. then you confirmed it. where We said: ‘You shall not worship (a variant reading [for lā ta‘budūna] has [third person plural] lā ya‘budūn [‘they shall not worship’]) any other than God (lā ta‘budūna illā Llāha is a predicate denoting a prohibition. in the singular and the plural. that is. that is. 14  . rejecting it. one may also read lā ta‘budū [Worship you not]). disgrace and ignominy. When they were asked: ‘Why do you fight them and then pay their ransom?’. taking prisoners and then ransoming them. [2:83] And. and the Nadīr with the Khazraj. and to the needy. and disbelieve in part?. and this [ransoming] was one of the things to which they were pledged. and expelling a party of you from their habitations. in the Torah. a variant reading has it without [the assimilation. which you actually accepted. exalted. therein abiding (khālidūn: this [plural noun] takes account of the [plural] import of man. [expulsion was forbidden you] in the same way that non-ransoming was forbidden you). but every member of an alliance would fight against a fellow ally. and enmity. all but a few of you. thus destroying each other’s homes and expelling one another. and We said: ‘You shall not shed your own blood. God. in the life of this world: they were disgraced when Qurayza were slewn and the Nadīr were expelled to Syria. to which they would say. through associating another with God. they would reply. for. ‘whoever’).. to parents. says: What. neither expel your own from your habitations’: let no one of you expel the other from his house. namely. [2:84] And when We made a covenant with you. injustice. refusing to fulfil these [obligations] (here the second person address is used. used as a hyperbolic description). spilling it by slaying one another. [2:82] And those who believe and perform righteous deeds — those are the inhabitants of Paradise. but degradation. ‘For fear that our allies be humiliated’. and observe prayer and pay the alms’. ‘So. to men. then you turned away. therein abiding. Qurayza had allied themselves with the Aws. why do you fight them then?’. it overcomes him and encircles him totally. and you bore witness. ‘and expelling’. [good] words. and righteous. you ransom them (a variant reading [for tafdūhum] has tufādūhum). [2:85] Then there you are killing one another. you accepted this covenant. and speak well. you deliver them from captivity with money etc. and on the Day of Resurrection to be returned to the most terrible of chastisement? And God is not heedless of what you do (ta‘malūna. and the near of kin: here kinship is adjoined to parents. that is. mention. he has died an idolater — those are the inhabitants of the Fire. and they would be asked. being truthful with regard to the status of Muhammad (s). and if they come to you as captives (a variant reading [for usārā] has asrā). against them in sin. the part about ransom. and to orphans. and being kind to them [sc. and ordered to pay the jizya. whoever earns evil. What shall be the requital of those of you who do that. but their forefathers are [still] meant). tazāharūna]). but. that is to say. it will touch you and you will abide therein. assisting one another. that is. when We made a covenant with the Children of Israel. conspiring (tazzāharūna: the original ta’ has been assimilated with the zā’. orphans and the needy] (a variant reading [for hasanan] has husnan.

that they disbelieve in that. is the response to the particle kullamā. that is. that is the Qur’ān — and they formerly. and constitutes the interrogative. ‘you became arrogant’. prayed for victory. by preferring the former to the latter — for them the punishment shall not be lightened. and little will they believe (fa-qalīlan mā yu’minūn: the mā here is extra. confirming what was with them. and (wā. emphasising the ‘littleness’ involved): that is. but when there came to them what they recognised. is used to emphasise the awesomeness [of the ‘anger’]). in the way of truth. the very thing being singled out for criticism). in other words. ‘whenever’. representing ‘a thing’. as the truth. they returned. God. [2:87] And We gave Moses the Scripture. he would accompany him [Jesus] wherever he went. removed them far from His mercy and degraded them when they rejected [the messengers]. which God has revealed. out of envy and for fear of losing leadership (the response to the first lammā particle is indicated by the response to the second one). the mission of the Prophet. and some you slay?. that is. with anger. ‘[and some] you slew’). and they were laden. from God for their disbelief in what He has revealed (the indefinite form. and for the disbelievers there shall be a humiliating chastisement. to whomever He will of His servants. the Qur’ān and other [Books]. they said. [2:90] Evil is that for which they sell their souls. that is to say. their share of the reward [in the Hereafter] (bi’samā. such as Zachariah and John (the present tenses [of these verbs] are used to narrate the past events [as though they were events in the present]. to deliver the Message. but God has cursed them. with what your souls did not desire. out of envy. Qur’ān. saying: ‘God. and We confirmed him. still you refuse to be upright. [2:89] When there came to them a Book from God. that is. here indicates a circumstantial 15  . [did not] like. the Torah. and constitutes a specification qualifying the subject of [the verb] bi’s.[2:86] Those are the ones who have purchased the life of this world at the price of the Hereafter. that is. ‘Believe in what God has revealed. says: Nay (bal introduces the rebuttal). We sent them one after another. and is meant as a rebuke). and after him We sent successive messengers. ‘We believe in what was revealed to us’. and the curse of God is on the disbelievers. you called liars. Gabriel. give us assistance against them through the Prophet that shall be sent at the end of time’. upon anger. ‘they disbelieve’). al-rūh al-muqaddasa). you became arrogant. they disbelieved in it. grudging (baghyan here is an object denoting reason for yakfurū. and some. you disdained to follow him (istakbartum. exalted be He. neither shall they be helped. in other words. that is. for their unbelief. [2:88] And they say. before it came. that is. for assistance. ‘evil is that [for] which’: mā here is an indefinite particle. wrapped up in covers and cannot comprehend what you say. such as Jesus. [neither shall they be] protected against it. [2:91] And when it was said to them. the Torah. ‘with anger’. that is. that God should reveal (read either yunzil or yunazzil) of His bounty. bighadabin. the Inspiration. over the disbelievers. their belief is minimal. [so described] on account of his [Jesus’s] sanctity. and whenever there came to you a messenger. which they deserved formerly. that is. with the Holy Spirit (the expression rūh al-qudus is an example of annexing [in a genitive construction] the noun described to the adjective [qualifying it]. and We gave Jesus son of Mary the clear proofs. to the Prophet mockingly: ‘Our hearts are encased’ (ghulf is the plural of aghlaf). We strengthened him. when they neglected the Torah and disbelieved in Jesus. the miracles of bringing the dead back to life and healing the blind and the leper. in the Torah. of them. ‘evil is’. which is not the result of anything defective in their hearts.

yet it is the truth (wa-huwa’l-haqqu is a circumstantial qualifier) confirming (musaddiqan. such as the staff. in it. or ‘Umar [b. because you have denied [the prophethood of] Muhammad (s). Say. you do not believe in the Torah. enjoins on you. ‘long for’. that he might be given life for a thousand years (law yu‘ammar. to act according to what is in the Torah. after he had gone to the appointment. as you allege. your command. because he brings chastisement with him. They said. what is other than that or what came afterwards. yet. and. wishes. to what you have been commanded. then you took to yourselves the calf. Paradise. in the Torah. and be prepared to accept it. constitutes the subject of the verb muzahzihihi. [2:93] And when We made a covenant with you. more covetous of it than. because of that which their own hands have sent before them. had it been Michael. the love of it [the golden calf] intoxicated their hearts in the way that wine does. of the Fire. is directed towards those present at the time of our Prophet. so that the first is dependent upon the second. that is to say. with God is purely yours. ‘you do’). if you are believers’. the following was revealed: 16  . as you claim. his hand. we would have believed in him. to drop it on you. for faith does not command that you worship the calf — their forefathers are meant here. ‘that’. then long for death — if you speak truly’ (here both conditionals are connected to the verb tamannū. you are not believers. ‘that he should be given life’. when you had refused to accept it. as a god. about which angel brings down the revelation. and since the path to it is death. [2:92] And Moses came to you with clear proofs. who reject the [idea of the] Resurrection. meaning. God sees what they do (ya‘malūna may be alternatively read ta‘malūna. the idolaters. he [Ibn Sūryā] then said. and the parting of the sea. ‘Take forcefully. that is. thing. that is. [2:96] And you shall find them (the lām of la-tajidannahum is for oaths) the people most covetous of life. to them: ‘If the Abode of the Hereafter. as though it were ta‘mīruhu. [2:95] But they will never long for it. ‘that it should budge him’ [this verb comes later]. what We have given you. for taking it [in worship]. ‘if only’. if you were believers?’ in the Torah and in it you were forbidden to kill them: this address. your words. ‘[if only] he might be given life’: the particle law. and disobey’. to them: ‘Evil is that. seriously and with effort. Say. which your belief. and together with its relative clause explains the [implicit] verbal noun in the object of the verb yawaddu. Likewise. and he replied that it was Gabriel. because he brings fertility and security. ‘If you speak truly when you claim that it is yours. and raised over you the Mount. as a result of their rejection of the Prophet (s). remove. and you were evildoers. to them: ‘Why then were you slaying the prophets of God formerly. then you will naturally incline to what is yours. We said. miracles. and they were made to drink the calf in their hearts. and will requite them. on account of their unbelief. exclusively. and listen’. relates to the verbal noun and functions with the sense of an. al-Khattāb]. the consequence of their mendacity. on account of their approval of it [that is. for the former know that their journey’s end will be the Fire. him from the chastisement. [2:94] Say. whereas faith in it does not command you to reject him. the disbelievers and He will requite them. ‘He is our enemy. God knows the evildoers. ‘We hear. while the idolaters do not believe even in this. [in the way of] the worship of the [golden] calf. ‘the giving of life to him’) shall not budge. any one of them. of what the forefathers had done]. ‘he would love’). his being given life (an yu‘ammara. such as the Qur’ān. long for it [death]’). and not for other people. in other words. [‘Abd Allāh] Ibn Sūryā asked the Prophet (s).qualifier) they disbelieve in what is beyond that. after him.’ Then. a second circumstantial qualifier for emphasis) what is with them. any one of them would love. concerning what their forefathers did.

let him die in exasperation — he it was that brought it. Muhammad (s). ‘the two angels’: a variant reading has al-malikayn. and good tidings. or an explication of the latter). ‘His angels’. lucid [ones] (bayyinātin. ‘You have not brought us anything’). Solomon’s kingdom. this was in response to Ibn Sūryā saying to the Prophet (s). to them: ‘Whoever is an enemy to Gabriel. it is also said that they were two angels that had been sent to teach [sorcery] to people as a trial from God. In order to demonstrate Solomon’s innocence and in repudiation of the Jews when they said. ‘Look at this Muhammad. ‘We are but a temptation. Jibra’īl or Jabra’īl). by the command. and Gabriel (read Jibrīl or Jabrīl. during the time of. does a party of them reject it?. exalted. says: Solomon disbelieved not. the Qur’ān. and Michael (Mīkāl. Jibra’il or Jabra’il. a party of them who were given the Scripture have cast away the Scripture of God. he mentions Solomon as one of the prophets. and then pass it on to the priests. [2:101] When there came to them a messenger from God. an example of the specific being supplemented to the collective) — then surely God is an enemy to the disbelievers’ (He says ‘to the disbelievers’ instead of ‘to them’ in order to point out their status). that is. this would be disseminated and rumours spread that the jinn had knowledge of the Unseen. ‘[it] cast away’) what the devils used to relate. so that He may test them when 17  . [2:98] Whoever is an enemy to God and His angels and His messengers. that is to say. by way of counsel. the interrogative of rebuke). whenever they make a covenant. that which was revealed to the two angels. as though they did not know. teaching them. Solomon gathered these books and buried them. for the believers. with God that they will believe in the Prophet (s) when he appears. ‘clear proofs’. and. or that it is the Book of God. and none disbelieves in them except the wicked. confirming what was with them. it is also said that they used to listen stealthily and add fabrications to what they heard. They taught not any man. a trial from God for people. confirming what was before it. teaching the people sorcery (this sentence is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the person governing the verb kafarū). these have disbelieved in them. ‘Your kingdom was only thanks to what is in here’. without them saying. what is contained in it. or that they will not give assistance to the idolaters against the Prophet (s). in the way of sorcery: it is said that they [the devils] buried these [books of sorcery] underneath his throne when his kingdom was taken from him. a guidance. Ibn ‘Abbās said. when he was only a sorcerer’. from error. cast it away repudiating it (this is the response to the clause beginning with kullamā. the Torah. God. behind their backs. O Muhammad (s). but the devils disbelieved. of God. ‘They were two sorcerers who used to teach [people] magic’. the sorcery that they were inspired to [perform] (al-malakayn. also read Mīkā’īl. When he died.[2:97] Say. a supplement to malā’ikatihi. of Paradise. down upon your heart by the leave. and said. the devils showed people where these books were. is a circumstantial qualifier. they have not acted according to what it said about belief in the Messenger and otherwise. [2:99] And We have revealed to you. clear proofs. or Mīkā’il. ‘the two kings’) who were. they then took to learning them and rejected the Scriptures of their prophets. Nay (bal indicates a transition). that is. who would compile it in books. and the latter brought them out and found that they contained sorcery. [2:100] Why. namely. [2:102] And they follow (wa’ttaba‘ū is a supplement to nabadha. he did not work magic because he disbelieved. that is. of scriptures. in Babylon — a town in lower Iraq — Hārūt and Mārūt (here the names are standing in for ‘the two angels’. but most of them are disbelievers. to the effect that he is a true Prophet.

to what you are commanded and be prepared to accept it. God is of bounty abounding. the thing. [for] the office of His Prophet. evil then would have been. and this was sorcery. and give ear. by this magic. of God’s chastisement. there is a variant reading. [2:107] 18  . in the Prophet and the Qur’ān. would have been better’. (rā‘inā is an imperative form from murā‘āt) which they used to say to him. is the predicate). whom He will. or postpone. they would not have learnt it. from among the Arabs (al-mushrikīna. did not hurt any man thereby. or the like of it. if they had but known. and been fearful. derived from the noun al-ru‘ūna [‘thoughtlessness’]. if they had but known. We erase from your heart’. has been omitted. ‘from God. to the Prophet (s). the Jews. a variant reading [of nunsi’hā] is nunsihā. and so the believers were forbidden to use it. look at us. those sellers. do not say. he shall have no share in the Hereafter. ‘of’. the Fire. he is a believer. [2:104] O you who believe. had believed. do not disbelieve’. that is. [2:106] When the disbelievers began to deride the matter of abrogation. but say. either together with its recital or not [that is only its judgement. should be revealed to you from your Lord. instead. including abrogating and substituting [verses]? (the interrogative here is meant as an affirmative). ‘surely’] is for oaths) they. ‘idolaters’. the portion due for this [act] in the Hereafter. one that is more beneficial for [Our] servants. [whoever] chooses it and took it in place of God’s Book. that this is better they would not have preferred that over this (la-mathūbatun. From them they learned how they might cause division between a man and his wife. that is. They found this very amusing and used to address the Prophet (s) in this way. ‘Regard us’. ‘verily the reward’. that is. such as sorcery (the response to the [conditional clause beginning with] law. the response to the conditional sentence [begun with mā] is: We bring [in place] a better. nunsikh. from ‘to forget’: so ‘[Whatever verse We abrogate] or We make you forget. that is. And surely (the lām [of la-qad. knew well that whoever (laman: the lām denotes [part of] the subject of the sentence and is semantically connected to what precedes it. they would teach him. [2:103] Yet if only they. save by the leave of God. in terms of religious obligation and reward. meaning ‘[Whatever verse] We command you or Gabriel to abrogate’. the Jews. [2:105] Those disbelievers of the People of the Scripture and the idolaters. is a supplement to ahl al-kitābi. do you not know that God has power over all things?. so that they would hate each other. the sorcerers. and We withhold its recital or retain it in the Preserved Tablet. is explicative). by abandoning acts of disobedience towards Him. if this person refused and insisted on learning it.they are taught it: whoever learns it is a disbeliever. that is. saying that one day Muhammad enjoins his Companions to one thing and then the next day he forbids it. We abrogate. ‘People of the Scripture’. is the subject. the lām is that of oaths. and this was a derogatory term in Hebrew. God revealed: And whatever verse (mā is the conditional particle). for it would have made the Fire obligatory in their case. but whoever renounces it. the man introduces the relative clause) buys it. and this is indicated by [His following words]) verily. and min ‘indi’Llāhi khayrun. any Inspiration. but God singles out for His mercy. by His will. that has been revealed containing a judgement. yet they. and did not profit them. so that We do not reveal the judgement contained in it. in the Hereafter. ‘if’. and the min. that they sold themselves for. and they learned what hurt them. by learning it. if they were to learn it. [but it is intimated to be] ‘they would have been rewarded’. the reality of the chastisement they would be destined for. than that for which they sold themselves. ‘Observe us’. but its recital continues]. do not wish that any good. a reward from God would have been better. that is to say. and for disbelievers awaits a painful chastisement. either because it is easier [to implement] or contains much reward. out of envy of you. no portion of Paradise.

recite the Scripture. from the envy (hasadan is the object denoting reason). in religion and will admit the confirmer into Paradise and the falsifier into the Fire. taking the latter in place of the former by refraining from contemplating the clear proofs and by requesting others instead. Say. whatever good. aforetime?. [2:113] The Jews say. ‘face’ [sc. [2:110] And perform the prayer. adheres to His commands (wajh. [2:108] When the Meccans asked [the Prophet] to enlarge the size of Mecca and make Safā full of gold. that can be used as support [for their claims]. and will requite you for it. represents [the import of] the verbal noun) they might make you disbelievers. others will also enter Paradise. revealed to them: in the Scripture of the Jews there is the confirmation of Jesus. each party separately claiming Paradise for its members exclusively. and that you have none. doing what He pleases. being. the ignorant. that is. and be forgiving. their wicked souls have prompted them to this [attitude].1568039483 19  . besides God. God shall decide between them on the Day of Resurrection regarding their differences. and no fear shall befall them. of their own souls. ‘they recite the Scripture’: the sentence is a circumstantial qualifier). in the way of obedience. yet they. [2:112] Nay. you shall offer for your own souls. [2:109] Many of the People of the Scripture long that (law. and the Christians say. has surely strayed from the even way. are their desires. sayings. assuredly God sees what you do. neither shall they grieve. neither protector. their false passions. ‘middle way’). Thus. after you have believed. so that [when it has submitted] there is all the more reason for the other parts [to follow]). has become clear to them. ‘You have no basis’. and they rejected Moses. truly God has power over all things. with God. if you speak truly’. and pay the alms. ‘The Christians stand on nothing’. in this matter. in the way that these have said. affirming God’s Oneness. stay away. to them: ‘Produce your proof. and in that of the Christians there is the confirmation of Moses (yatlūna’l-kitāba. by his people. in the Torah. your evidence for this. ‘purpose’]. and they rejected Jesus. ‘The Jews stand on nothing’. is here mentioned because it is the most noble part of the body. being virtuous. his reward is with his Lord. that is. to every person of religion they would say.Do you not know that to God belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth. ‘the like of what they say’] is the explication of dhālika. its reward. and make no encroachments against them. when they asked him to show them God openly among other things. such as [observing] kinship and charity. to keep away His chastisement when it comes. other than God. that can be used as support [for their claims]. from among the Arabs and others. meaning. [2:111] And they say. leave them be. ‘None shall enter Paradise except those who are Jews (hūd is the plural of hā’id) or Christians’: this is what the Jews of Medina and the Christians of Najrān said when they disputed with the Prophet (s). Such. with regard to the Prophet (s). ‘that [way]’): that is to say. you shall find it. yet pardon. in the Hereafter. whoever submits his purpose to God. ‘[if only] that’. that is to say. the following was revealed: Or do you desire to question your Messenger as Moses was questioned. nor helper?. till God brings His command. namely. say the like of what these say (this last phrase [mithla qawlihim. after the truth. he has mistaken the proper path (al-sawā‘ essentially means al-wasat. both groups. the reward of his deeds being Paradise. but. concerning fighting them. whoever exchanges belief for unbelief. to safeguard you.

wills. making them exist without any exemplary precedent. to their prophets. about why the disbelievers did not believe. so that His Name be not invoked in them. say (read wa-qālū or [simply] qālū) ‘God has taken to Himself a son’. or concerning the supererogatory prayers on animal-back during journeys. because these two [directions] represent both sides of it [the earth]. for them in this world is degradation. the guidance. ‘all that’. all obey His will. [2:119] We have sent you. a bearer of good tidings. 20  . Why does a sign not come to us?’. debasement through being killed. and when He decrees. in order to include all [creation] that is not rational. Muhammad (s). So. the Fire. that is to say. it becomes (fa-yakūnu: a variant reading has fa-yakūna. Knowing. there is the Face of God. who do not know. also functioning as a command. [2:115] The following was revealed either when the Jews criticised the change of the direction of prayer [qibla]. as possessions. in the same way that these [disbelievers] have spoken. [a people] who know that these are [God’s] signs and so they believe in them. that is. as a way of exalting Himself above this. through destruction and impeding people from them: this was revealed to inform of the Byzantines’ destruction of the Holy House [sc.[2:114] And who does greater evil — that is. You shall not be asked about the inhabitants of Hell-fire. none does more evil — than he who bars God’s places of worship. and is expressed by [the particle] mā. Lo! God is Embracing. that is. and warner. on account of it being the response [in the subjunctive mood] to the jussive statement). whithersoever you turn. a thing. to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth. how to manage His creation. of the Fire. the entire earth. Jerusalem]. the Jews and the Christians. submitting to that which is required from each one of them: here the emphasis is on rational beings. spoke those before them. for those who respond to this [guidance]. God says: Glory be to Him!. namely. their hearts are much alike. [2:117] Creator of the heavens and the earth. ‘Frighten them by threats of waging war against them. creatures and servants. in terms of unbelief and stubbornness: this is meant as consolation for the Prophet (s). which one may pray in any direction: To God belong the East and the West. of Paradise. that is the disbelievers of Mecca. and this sovereignty contradicts having a child. [2:116] And they. and strives to ruin them?. to the Prophet (s): ‘Why does God not speak to us?. He but says to it ‘Be’ and it is. His bounty embracing all things. Yet We have made clear the signs to a people who are certain. such men might never enter them. taken captive and forced to pay the jizya. the direction of prayer with which He is pleased. save in fear (illā khā’ifīna is a predicate. ‘do not ask’. say. and in the Hereafter a mighty chastisement. Nay. [to say] that you are His Messenger. from among past communities. with the truth. in [their] obstinacy and demand for signs. so that not one of them shall enter it feeling secure’). and those that claim that the angels are God’s daughters. your faces in prayer by His command. of the sort we have requested in order to show your sincerity. that is to say. [2:118] And they. the like of what they say. or [it was revealed] when the idolaters barred the Prophet (s) from entering Mecca in the year of the battle of Hudaybiyya. to those who do not respond to it. with the final apocopation of the vowel on account of it being an imperative). in prayer and praise. to exist. for your responsibility is only to deliver the Message (a variant reading of lā tus’al is lā tas’al. for to request other signs would be obduracy.

who recite it as it was revealed (haqqa tilāwatihi. snuffing up water into the nostrils [to clean them]. that is. to him: ‘I make you a leader. He said. exalted. in which there is safety: God granted 21  . We commanded them: ‘Purify My House. He. ‘its true recitation’. is the true guidance’. a day when no soul shall for another. to be a place of visitation. neither shall they be helped. [2:124] And. they believe in it (this is the predicate): this was revealed concerning a group of Ethiopians that presented themselves [to the Prophet] and accepted Islam. to those who bow and prostrate themselves’. [2:126] And when Abraham said. trimming the fingernails. shall not reach the evildoers’. God. making it a predicate). [whims] to which they are calling you. of leadership. circumcision and washing one’s private parts after elimination. respectively). the rinsing of the mouth. and yet not act violently against him. an exemplar in religion. the Divine revelation. remember My favour wherewith I favoured you. those who pray: (al-rukka‘ and alsujūd are the plurals of rāki‘. made everlasting for them. Abraham (Ibrāhīm: also read Ibrāhām) with certain words. the disbelievers from among them: this indicates that [the covenant] will reach only those who are not evildoers. ‘My Lord. besides which there is only error. not until you follow their creed. and: ‘Take (ittakhidhū is also read ittakhadhū. on this [Day] be requited. that is. and who recite it with true recitation. nor any intercession shall benefit it. make leaders [from among them]. and that I have preferred you over all the worlds: a similar verse has already been mentioned. [2:123] And beware of. [2:122] O Children of Israel. in ritual residence. place. hypothetically speaking. you shall have against God neither friend. by distorting it. ‘one prostrated’. make this. is a circumstantial qualifier. they shall be the losers. O people. that is. And if you were (wa-la-in: the lām is for oaths) to follow their whims. because they will be destined for the Fire. ‘one bowing’. and sājid. their religion. fear. to yourselves Abraham’s station. neither the Christians. and whoever disbelieves in it. to protect you. that is. that is. shaving armpit and pubic hair. [when no soul for another] shall be of any avail. said. with certain commands and prohibitions with which He charged him: it is said that these included the rituals of the Pilgrimage. against God’s chastisement. for those that shall go round it and those that cleave to it. the founding stone he used when building the House. Islam. for the people. so that you perform two units of prayer for the circumambulation. for a place of prayer’. of safety for them from the injustice and attacks that befall other places: a person could come across his father’s killer there. tried. [2:121] Those to whom We have given the Scripture (this is the subject of the sentence).[2:120] Never will the Jews be pleased with you. the Ka‘ba. [2:125] And when We appointed the House. for the people. to defend you against Him. and he fulfilled them. and a sanctuary. trimming facial hair. when his Lord tested. mention. shall be accepted from it. in the revealed Book. nor helper. and no compensation. cleaning of the teeth. ‘My covenant. he performed them thoroughly. ‘And of my seed?’. And We made a covenant with Abraham and Ishmael. of graven images.’ Said he. a land secure. after the knowledge. my progeny. Say: ‘God’s guidance. combing of the hair. haqqa is in the accusative because it is the object of the verbal noun). to which they flock from every direction. no ransom. that has come to you.

upon his sons. that is. [2:130] Who therefore. Truly You are the Hearing. 20:75]. and enjoined them to adhere firmly to it until death overtook them. a place to which to return. saying: ‘My sons. of the House. the length of his life. a little. the Wise. that is to say. make. of deeds. and purify them. ‘Submit’. a people. but then I shall compel him. I shall drive him in the Hereafter to the chastisement of the Fire. [2:133] 22  . You are the Mighty. said. by granting him sustenance in this life. and they are here singled out for mention in the request in accordance with God’s saying My covenant shall not reach the evildoers). those of the high stations [al-darajāt al-‘ulā. abandoning it. he said. and Wisdom. ‘raises up’). despite their [moral] impeccability. to You and. [2:131] And mention: When his Lord said to him. the Knowing. both of them saying: ‘Our Lord! Receive this. mention. building it (min al-bayt. from us. We elected him. the Victor. exalted. and Ishmael with him (waIsmā‘īlu is a supplement to Ibrāhīmu). may also be read awsā) upon his sons this. see that you die not save in submission: he forbade them from abandoning this submission [to God]. ‘of our seed’] here is partitive. the Qur’ān. to him I shall give enjoyment (read either umti‘uhu or umatti‘uhu). so that he cannot find an escape — how evil a journey’s end!’. either the one who ignores that his soul has been created for God. Indeed We chose him. of words. our holy rites. our progeny. building. except he who fools himself?. for prophethood and friendship. making it a sanctuary in which no human blood is shed. a messenger. one of them and God granted him this petition with [the sending of] Muhammad (s). the Qur’ān. and [so did] Jacob. and teach them the Book. and that it is obliged to worship Him. and is used here in accordance with God’s above-mentioned saying My covenant shall not reach the evildoers). God has chosen for you the [true] religion. the Merciful: they asked Him to turn towards them. and provide its people with fruits: something which actually happened when there came itinerants from as far as Syria. Surely You are the Relenting. when Abraham raised up the foundations. in His creation. [2:128] Our Lord! And make us submissive. the people of this House. shrinks from the religion of Abraham. teach us. cleanse them of idolatry. cf. the supports or the walls. such of them as believe in God and the Last Day’ (this phrase stands in place of its people. compliant. whereas before. and in the Hereafter he shall be among the righteous. or the one who treats it with frivolity and degrades it. Q. obey God and devote your religion purely to Him. it had been devoid of any vegetation or water. ‘of the House’. our ceremonies for worship or for the pilgrimage. a community. [2:129] Our Lord! And send among them. submissive to You (min [in the phrase min dhurriyyatinā. the religion of submission [to God] (islām). no prey is hunted and which is never deserted in any of its parts. is semantically connected to yarfa‘u. no injustice is committed towards anyone. He. who shall recite to them Your signs. out of humbleness and in order to teach their progeny.him his request. and show us. what the former contains of judgments. [2:127] And. meaning ‘none’. I will also provide with fruits. and relent to us. [2:132] And Abraham enjoined (wassā. ‘I have submitted to the Lord of the Worlds’. in this world. ‘And whoever disbelieves. creed. of our seed.

and the Tribes. and is feminine because it agrees with the gender of its predicate) is a community that has passed away. ‘One God’. the sense being. were you …’] is similar to the hamza of denial [sc. you shall not be asked about what they did. and the prophets. to Him we submit’ (the initial am [of the phrase am kuntum. while the second is that of the Christians of Najrān). O Muhammad (s). the first of these is the saying of the Medinan Jews. sabaghanā’Llāhu. we make no division between any of them. a hanīf (hanīfan is a circumstantial qualifier referring to Ibrāhīma. and to Him we submit’. if Muhammad were a prophet. ‘You were not present at his death. [2:137] And if they. [2:136] Say: (this address is to the believers) ‘We believe in God. the Gospel. and in that which has been revealed to us. substitutes for the preceding idh) he said to his sons. then they are clearly in schism. ‘Or. believe in the like (mithl. and who has. ‘the like’ is extra) of what you believe in. expelling Nadīr and exacting the jizya from them. and he was not of the idolaters’. the reward for their deeds (lahā mā kasabat. a-kuntum]. in opposition to you. has gone before. and prophets were never sent from among the Arabs. God will suffice you. one that inclines away from all other religions to the upright religion). ‘God has marked us’): this denotes His religion. theirs is what they have earned’. [2:138] The mark of God (sibghata’Llāhi: a verbal noun reaffirming the earlier āmannā. present. the Torah. ‘when’. and also because the status of an uncle is akin to that of a father).When the Jews said to the Prophet (s). theirs is what they have earned. ‘your God’). Say. They said. against them. were you witnesses. as it leaves its mark on a person. ‘We will worship your God and the God of your fathers Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac (in recognition of the predominant [mention of the father figures] Ishmael is also counted as a father. and Jesus. when death came to Jacob? When (idh. and their schisms. the ten scrolls. and it is in the accusative. from belief in it. he would have been one of us’. in the same way that they will not be asked about what you did. constitutes the commencement of a new sentence) and yours (the Jews are being addressed here) is what you have earned. his sons. the following was revealed: [2:139] 23  . ‘marking’. to them: ‘Nay. the Qur’ān. [2:135] And they say. substitutes for ilāhaka. Isaac. that is to say. of their circumstances: God sufficed him [with regard to them] by killing Qurayza. the Jews and the Christians. ‘Do you not know that on the day of his death Jacob charged his sons with Judaism?’. Jacob. is the subject of this sentence and denotes Abraham. so how do you ascribe to him what does not befit him?’). in the same way that a dye leaves its mark on a garment. Ishmael. this latter statement being an affirmation of the former. the one towards which He made human beings naturally inclined. the Knower. Jacob and his sons. ‘What will you worship after me?’. He is the Hearer. and revealed to Abraham. and you shall be guided’. rather the creed of Abraham. because of the verbal construction implied. but if they turn away. [2:134] That (tilka. ‘Be Jews or Christians (the particle aw is for detail. of their sayings. Thus. One God (ilāhan wāhidan. none [has]. is for specification) than God? And Him we worship: the Jews said to the Muslims. after I die?. then they are truly guided. we follow. believing in some and disbelieving in others in the manner of Jews and Christians. of Books and signs. from their Lord. ‘We are the people of the first Book and our direction of prayer (qibla) is more ancient. that is to say. and that which was given to Moses. the following was revealed: Or. a better mark (sibghatan. that is.

so that it is not improbable that among our deeds there will be those for which we will deserve to be honoured. ‘they will say’] denotes the future tense and informs of the Unseen. ‘though’. there is none more unjust than him: these are the Jews. people. Jerusalem). when He does not let their deeds go to waste (al-ra’fa means ‘intensity of mercy’. when He said. you were facing. Isaac and Jacob. to be wasted. save for those. Abraham was not a Jew. that he delivered [the Message] to you. and the three clauses that follow it are all circumstantial qualifiers). your prayers towards the Holy House [of Jerusalem]. [2:142] The fools. troublesome for people. and He is our Lord and your Lord?. and returned to unbelief doubting the religion and thinking that the Prophet (s) was confused about this issue. [2:141] That is a community that has passed away. we are more worthy to be chosen (the hamza [of a-tuhājjūnanā. the religion of Islam. Thus He commands that they face whichever direction He wills. in order to win the hearts of the Jews. the change of direction. ‘would you then dispute’] is for rejection. and the Tribes — they were Jews. the Jews and the idolaters. but He will reward you for them (the reason that this [verse] was revealed was that some had asked about the status of those that had died before the change of direction [of prayer]). that is. for which you will be requited. but when he emigrated he was commanded to face the Holy House [of Jerusalem]. who followed the Messenger. that is. sc. that is.Say. nor a Christian [Q. the Prophet (s) and the believers. of them. Say: ‘To God belong the East and the West. to them: ‘Would you then dispute with us concerning God. all directions. God is Gentle with. and believed in him. a testimony. to a straight path’. He guides whomever He will. that is. for you now. that you might be witnesses to the people. make. hence. And who does greater injustice than he who conceals. the sīn [of sa-yaqūlu. and so it is for Him to choose whom He will. believing. Ishmael. and is mentioned first to allow for the end rhyme of the verse [with the preceding one]). excellent and upright. this being the Holy House (bayt al-maqdis. on the Day of Resurrection. for which we will be requited. He dissociated Abraham from both [groups]. that is. also read yaqūlūna. theirs is what they have earned. were (wa-in. that He chose a prophet from among the Arabs. is softened. matter. received from God?. in religion and in deed. [that it become] manifest knowledge. God has greater knowledge. O community of Muhammad (s). but God would never cause your faith. and you are among these [guided ones]. 3:67]. and a number of them apostatised as a result of this— though it. and to you belong your deeds. you shall not be asked about what they did: a similar [verse] has already been mentioned above. Our deeds belong to us. a midmost community. except that We might know. And God is not heedless of what you do’: [this is] a threat for them. to them: ‘Have you then greater knowledge. We appointed you. and that the Messenger might be a witness to you. or has God?. among the people. from him who turned on his heels. nay. and there can be no objection. and to Him we are sincerely devoted. for they concealed God’s testimony about Abraham’s pure faith in the Torah. the direction. and its noun apocopated. [2:140] Or. ‘What. truly. and We did not appoint. originally being: wa-innahā) a grave thing. from the direction they were facing in their prayers formerly?’. and those mentioned with him [Abraham] are his followers [in not belonging to either group]. he has. hides from people. that their messengers delivered [the Message] to them. His guidance being. that is. that is the Ka‘ba: the Prophet (s) used to face it in prayer. do you say (taqūlūna. or they were Christians?’ Say. in the same way that We guided you to it. [2:144] 24  . will say. unlike you. the ignorant. and yours is what you have earned. has turned them. the direction. He prayed in this direction for sixteen or seventeen months before he changed direction. whom God has guided. [2:143] Thus. Merciful. ‘do they say?’): ‘Abraham.

as I would my own son. towards the Sacred Mosque. which is more eloquent than merely saying. so vie with one another in good works. turn your face towards the Sacred Mosque. God will bring you all together. [2:149] From whatever place you issue. ‘you do’. his description. [2:148] Every person. as already appears above [sc. on account of the description in their Scripture of how the Prophet (s) would re-orient himself to it. God is not heedless of what you do (ta‘malūna. the change towards the Ka‘ba. the Jews or the idolaters. [so that there be not] any cause for contention regarding the change to a different direction of prayer. out of obduracy. is for affirmation) seen you turning your face about in the. [2:147] The truth comes from your Lord. about your truthfulness in the matter of the direction of prayer. ‘do not waver’. ‘they do’. ‘he is made to turn to it’). to which he turns (muwallīhā. that you will love. strive with acts of obedience and acceptance of these. ‘[be not] of such a disposition’. [2:150] From whatever place you issue. may also be read as ya‘malūna. so that there be not any argument from the people. Those who have been given the Scripture know that it. in prayer. ‘he turns to it’. ‘indeed’. [2:145] Yet if (wa-la-in: the lām is for oaths) you should bring to those who have been given the Scripture every sign.We have indeed (qad. O believers. that is to say. even though there is a party of them that conceal the truth. of every community. surely God has power over all things. this [truth] which you [Muhammad (s)] follow. [2:146] Those to whom We have given the Scripture. they will not follow your direction. God is not heedless of what you do. because of the descriptions of him in their Scripture: [‘Abd Allāh] Ibn Salām said. and you are not a follower of their direction (this is a categorical negation of his [the Prophet’s] desire that they become Muslims and of their desire that he return to their direction of prayer. If you were to follow their whims. is also read as muwallāhā. their contentions against you will cease to exist. the Ka‘ba. looking around for the Revelation and longing for the command to face the Ka‘ba: he [the Prophet] wished for this because it was the prayer-direction of Abraham and would be more conducive to the submission of the Arabs [to Islam]. the Jews and the Christians. the revelation. towards it. has his direction (wijha). and wherever you are (addressing the [Muslim] community) turn your faces. then be not among the doubters. that is. who doubt it. 2:144]. the ones to which they summon you. and wherever you may be. ‘I recognised him the moment I saw him. in other words [it would be referring to] the Jews’ denial of the matter concerning the direction of prayer). turn your face towards the Sacred Mosque. they recognise him. hypothetically. In this way. ta‘malūna. as they recognise their sons. it is the truth from your Lord. can be read ya‘malūna. if. is the. while they know. fixed. [his] qibla. you were to follow them. after the knowledge. when you obey His command (alternatively. neither are they. Wherever you may be. ‘you do’. now We will surely turn you to a direction that shall satisfy you. then you. Turn your face. that is. will surely be among the evildoers. its repetition is intended to point out that the stipulation applies equally to being on a journey or otherwise). in prayer. 25  . truth from their Lord. followers of one another’s direction. in his prayers. against you. turn your faces towards it (all of which is being repeated for emphasis). direction of the. heaven. Muhammad (s). but my recognition of Muhammad (s) was more intense’. gathering you on the Day of Resurrection and requiting you for your deeds. on a journey. that has come to you. ‘they do’.

do not fear their arguing [with you] regarding the change to it [the Ka‘ba]. it is just a lamp’. God will reward him and compensate him with what is better’. is a supplement to li-allā yakūna. [2:151] As also We have sent (this [verbal clause ka-mā arsalnā. as a result of slaughter. a calamity. regarding the Hereafter. ‘I will reward you’. ‘whoever pronounces the istirjā‘ [sc. [but you] do not know their condition.both [the contentions] of the Jews when they say. and wisdom. in a hadīth about God [that He says]: ‘whoever remembers Me in himself. we are His possession and servants. contained in green birds that take wing freely wherever they wish in Paradise. of yourselves. that is to say. whereupon ‘Ā’isha said to him. it is said that on one occasion when his lamp blew out. acting in obstinacy. [2:152] So remember Me. ‘They are dead’. of Paradise. by complying with My command. [2:155] Surely We will try you with something of fear. when they are struck by an affliction. Muhammad (s). of an enemy. ‘He [Muhammad (s)] claims to follow the creed of Abraham. seek help. and of the idolaters when they say. and hunger. during calamities. the Qur’ān. excepting the evildoers among them. death and disease. by guiding you to the principal rituals of your religion. [2:153] O you who believe. to you and to purify you. that. I will remember him in Myself. but fear Me. whereupon He will requite us: in one hadīth [it is said that]. and to teach you the Book. ‘Surely we belong to God. to the truth (wa-li-utimma. the formula ‘surely we belong to God and to Him we will return’] when an affliction befalls him. according to a hadīth. We will try you to see if you practise patience or not. through disobedience. in the Hereafter. say. and whoever remembers Me in an assembly. to which he replied. to recite Our verses. and be not ungrateful towards Me. by way of drought. ‘that I may perfect’. ‘[Also We have sent] by way of perfection’). The exceptive statement [indicated by illā] is a continuous one. the rulings therein. a messenger. in obedience and afflictions. ‘He [Muhammad (s)] rejects our religion. saying: ‘But. the meaning being: ‘No one will have anything to say against you. with whom He does as He pleases. ‘that there be not’). [2:156] those who. surely God is with the patient. glorification and the like. [2:154] And say not of those slain in God’s way. and diminution of goods. but follows our direction of prayer’. and that I may perfect My grace upon you. except for what these people say’. I will remember him in an Assembly more excellent than his’. and fruits. as a result of destruction. yet give good tidings. Similarly. and to Him we will return’. for My grace. the Qur’ān. and be thankful to Me. by way of crop damage: that is to say. through patience. but you are not aware. but he contravenes his [Abraham’s] qibla’. among you. their spirits are. helping them. to the patient. to cleanse you from idolatry. who will say. through prayer. and do not fear them. and that you may be guided. the Prophet (s) uttered the istirjā‘. ‘Whatever bothers a believer is an affliction [of sorts]’: this is reported by Abū Dāwūd in his [section on] mursal reports. 26  . as it [My grace] has been perfected by Our sending. and lives. I will remember you: this is said to mean. and to teach you what you knew not. and prayer (He singles it out for mention on account of its frequency and its greatness). ‘as We have sent’] is semantically connected to wali-utimma [of the previous verse]. by being obedient. ‘He [Muhammad (s)] only changed to this direction because of his [natural] inclination towards the [idolatrous] religion of his forefathers’. rather they are living.

as reported by Muslim. and die disbelieving (wa-hum kuffār. [2:158] Truly Safā and Marwa. what they were concealing — them I shall turn [relenting]. [not even for] a blink of an eye. God is Grateful. are among the waymarks (sha‘ā’ir. and mercy. however. to rectitude. forgiveness. it. [in] the curse and the Fire. He will move them far away from His mercy. turning back from such [deeds]. or the Visitation. from their Lord. He is the Compassionate. 27  . [2:159] The following was revealed concerning the Jews: Those who conceal. and show clearly. the [ritual] ceremonies of His religion. in their actions. grace. and there was an idol atop each mountain which they used to stroke. based on the fact that when no sin can be incurred. that is. whoever prepares to perform the Pilgrimage [hajj] or the Visitation [‘umra]: the original sense of both terms [hajja and i‘tamara] is ‘to aim for’ and ‘to visit’. to believers. any good deed such as circumambulation or other. considered it to be a pillar [of the Pilgrimage rituals]. that is. such as the ‘stoning’ verse and the description of Muhammad (s). [the latter] indicated by the following words: the chastisement shall not be lightened for them. the angels. meaning. is One God. ‘Begin with what God has begun’. al-Safā. as reported by al-Bayhaqī and others. [2:163] When they asked him [Muhammad (s)] to describe his Lord. is a circumstantial qualifier) — upon them shall be the curse of God and the angels. and by the cursers. believers. two mountains near Mecca. for such a deed and rewards that person for it. and make amends. [2:162] Abiding therein. respectively. and of people altogether.[2:157] Upon those rest blessings. [2:161] But those who disbelieve. ‘God has prescribed for you the pacing [sa‘y]’. the Torah — they shall be cursed by God. the Merciful. there is no god except Him. the ta’ here being assimilated) good. that is. so whoever makes the Pilgrimage to the House. they deserve such [a curse] in this life and in the next. ‘people’ here is said to be either [people] in general. [it would not be] a sin. ‘circumambulate’] has been assimilated with the tā’). when they supplicate that they be cursed. or by every single thing. The Prophet made clear its obligatory aspect when he said that. that is. he would not be at fault. after We have shown them clearly in the Scripture. Al-Shāfi‘ī and others. I am the Relenting. that is. and he [the Prophet] also said. the Merciful. the context implies free choice. that is not obligatory on him. and whoever volunteers (tatawwa‘a: a variant reading is yattawa‘. the clear proofs and the guidance that We have revealed. no respite shall be given them. if he circumambulates them (the original tā’ [of yatatawwafa. or believers. ‘they being disbelievers’. the following was revealed: Your God. from people. [2:160] Except those that repent. in which to have time to repent or to excuse themselves. by pacing quickly (sa‘y) between them seven times: this was revealed when the Muslims were averse to this [circumambulation]. because the pagan Arabs used to circumambulate them. Knowing. It is reported from Ibn ‘Abbās that this pacing [between the two] is not obligatory. without any equal in either essence or attribute. and those — they are the truly guided. the One deserving of your worship. accepting their repentance. plural of sha‘īra) of God.

and the alternation of the night and day. if only we might return again. the particle an. by dividing them and spreading them throughout on account of the vegetation. once they have entered it. and what comes after it have taken the place of the objects in both cases. it is the ‘evildoers’ [who constitute the subject of the clause and govern the verb yarā]. on this day (the particle law. changing it from south to north. and constitutes the subject [of the clause]. and the following was revealed: Surely in the creation of the heavens and the earth. the rain. and follow not the steps. you would see a grave sight. If he. just as He showed them the severity of His chastisement and their disowning of one another. and that God is terrible in chastisement (according to one reading. subjugated by God’s command. and the clouds compelled. ‘he sees’. that is to say. that is. the power and the vanquishing. So. he is a manifest foe to you. on the Day of Resurrection. between heaven and the earth. by magnifying them and being subservient to them. regrets. ‘if only’. has been omitted). lawful (halālan is a circumstantial qualifier) and wholesome (tayyiban is an adjective for emphasis). [2:166] When (idh here substitutes for the previous idh) those who were followed. according to another [reading]. ‘O. what he embellishes [of temptations]. from them (taqatta‘at. ‘that’. works. other than God. 28  . to the world. for a people who comprehend. exalted be He. without being attached [to either of the two] — surely there are signs. ‘we disown’). they would not take to themselves compeers’. when (idh here denotes idhā) they see (read either as active [yarawna. and the cords. and they have seen the chastisement. but those who believe love God more ardently. what is delicious. whose enmity is clear. were to see those who did evil. is an optative. ‘cut away’. the moment they come to see it with their own eyes. and the water. for them! Never shall they exit from the Fire. the leaders. as their love of Him. God sends down from the heaven with which He revives the earth. the person listening [to the verse] governs the verb yarā. idols. than those who love their compeers. are cut away before them. the ones who had been followed. as they have disowned us!’. besides God. and the ships that run in the sea. ‘if’. passing and returning. the ways. after it has dried out. after it is dead. that is. indicating His Oneness. from cold to warm. because the former never reject God. so too. whereas the latter when faced with hardship soon abandon those [compeers] for God. this is because. ‘disown’). for they thrive on the fertile pastures it produces. with vegetation. moving to wherever God wishes. ‘he knows’. [if you] O Muhammad (s). The general meaning [of the verse] then is: ‘If they were aware in this world of the severity of God’s chastisement and of the fact that power is God’s alone. God shall show them their. increasing and diminishing. altogether (a circumstantial qualifier) belongs to God. evil. ‘they are made to see’]) the chastisement. [2:167] And those who followed say. as. anguish (hasarāt is a circumstantial qualifier). that is to say. the response to the [initial conditional] law. and the marvels contained in them. is a supplement to tabarra’a. and disown them. of Satan. and its response is natabarra’a. eat of what is in the earth. the bonds of affection and kinship that were between them on earth. [2:168] The following was revealed when some said that it was unlawful to take a camel that has been let loose (sawā’ib): O people. meaning. loving them. with what profits men. and do not become cracked and sink. and the disposition of the winds. [when] they have denied misleading them [the latter]. by taking to themselves compeers. disown their followers. that is. that.[2:164] They then asked for a sign to prove this. and He scatters abroad in it all manner of crawling thing. ‘they see’] or passive [yurawna. the might. of trade and merchandise. and so it [yarā] has the sense of ya‘lam. [a people] who contemplate. as God is loved. [2:165] Yet there be people who take to themselves compeers.

comprising all the descriptions of Muhammad (s). that is. nor transgressing. to those who are obedient to Him. every other [part] being implied thereby. and the one who calls them to guidance. deeming unlawful the camel let loose. and they were not guided?. and theirs is a painful chastisement. save a call and a cry. in this world. bahīra). not desiring. poured forth. the attribute. and that you should speak against God what you do not know. and [practising] the slitting of the camel’s ear (sc. The aggressor and the transgressor are excluded from this [dispensation]. Merciful. no sin shall be on him. God is Forgiving. to His friends. such as the fugitive or the excise collector. as in [sūrat] al-An‘ām [see Q.[2:169] he only commands you to evil. for what He has made lawful for you. committing aggression against them by waylaying them. from the filth of sin. 6:145]. to rebel against Muslims. ‘Follow what God has revealed’. to this the Sunna adds [as also constituting carrion] what has been severed from a living creature. dumb. the consumption of it. [2:175] 29  . what is abhorred by the Law. that is. they say. the disbelievers. to the truth. if it be Him that you worship. God says: What? (the hamza [of a-wa-law] is for repudiation). for whom it would be unlawful to eat any of the mentioned. this is the opinion of al-Shāfi‘ī. for eating it. concerning religion. and give thanks to God. the flesh of swine. and to these two [categories] one should also add every person that sets out on a journey in disobedience. sin. out of anger with them. and indecency. what has been hallowed to other than God. only a sound. what has been slaughtered in other than His Name (al-ihlāl is the raising of one’s voice. Even if their fathers do not understand anything. since this is the subject of the general address here. blind — they do not comprehend. [2:171] The likeness. however. accorded fish and locusts. taking this [little price] in its place from the debased ones among them. [2:170] And when it is said to them. [2:173] He has only forbidden you: carrion. any admonition. and similarly [the consumption of] what follows. for He has granted them wide berth in this matter. do they follow them. and sell it for a little price. wherewith We have provided you. meaning the Jews. such as forbidding what He has not forbidden and otherwise. Yet whoever is constrained. A special status is. [2:174] Those who conceal what God has revealed of the Scripture. the truth of Muhammad (s)] — they shall consume nothing in their bellies but the Fire. that are lawful. they are deaf. of those who disbelieve. for fear of losing out if they were to manifest it [sc. unless they repent [of their disobedience]. forced by dire need to eat of the above-mentioned. ‘No. not understanding its meaning: when they listen to an admonition they are like cattle that hear the cry of their shepherd but do not understand what he is saying. pertaining to affirmation of God’s Oneness and the good things that He has made lawful. [all of] which is what has not been slaughtered in accordance with [prescriptions of] the Law. eat of the good things. [2:172] O you who believe. is as the likeness of one who shouts to that which hears nothing. the meat is singled out for mention because that [part] is what people mostly seek. God shall not speak to them on the Day of Resurrection. because that is their journey’s end. in the way of idol-worship. neither purify them. that is to say. which they used to do when sacrificing for their gods). blood. but we follow what we found our fathers doing’. the Fire.

by him. hardship. and those that are at variance regarding the Book. in their faith and in their claims to piety. that. for you. the setting free of. even if the former be a slave and the latter a free man. But if anything. and a mercy. and for. and the prophets. in the way of charity. both in the attributes [of the one slain] and in the action involved. is also read al-barr. The other [opinion] is that retaliation is the duty. for He has given you latitude in this matter and has not categorically demanded that one [of the said options] be followed through. these. which has been mentioned of their eating of the Fire and what follows it. however. believing in parts of it while disbelieving in others. that it was sorcery. [2:178] O you who believe. that is. True piety. whereas the blood money is merely compensation [for non-retaliation]. in prayer. despite [it being]. taking the former in place of the latter in this world. given. and not for a slave. for you is retaliation. the action of the one who has pardoned in pursuing the killer. of God. the pardoner. that are obligatory. and concealing them. here implies the waiving of retaliation through a partial pardon by the inheritors [of the slain]. in the way that He made it obligatory for Jews to retaliate and for Christians to [pardon and] accept blood money. of which the predicate is [the following. of the blood. and who gives of his substance. both the captive and the one to be manumitted by contract. And let the payment. of those who have slain. [2:176] That. that is. the particle man. is because God has revealed the Book with the truth. to you. is pardoned any one. a free man. so that if one were to pardon but not name his blood money. illness. [after] pardoning — his is a painful chastisement. namely. concerning this matter. that it was poetry. that is. that you turn your faces. stipulation mentioned here about the possibility of retaliation and the forgoing of this in return for blood money. to the East and to the West. a facilitation. in the sense of al-bārr [‘the dutiful person’]) is [that of] the one who believes in God and the Last Day and the angels and the Book. to kinsmen and orphans and the needy and the traveller and beggars. is an alleviation. that is. that it was divination — are in schism. In reality they would have no patience whatever [to endure the Fire]. prescribed. those who endure with fortitude (al-sābirīna is the accusative of laudation) misfortune (al-ba’sā’ is abject poverty). and this [latter] is the preferred [opinion]. what makes them so patient for the Fire?. disagreement. with regard to the Qur’ān. and these are the ones who are fearful. which is one of al-Shāfi‘ī’s two opinions here. to him. The Sunna makes it clear that a male may be killed [in retaliation] for a female. fa’ittibā‘un]) let the pursuing. others. The fact that the ‘pursuing’ results from the ‘pardoning’ implies that one of the two [actions] is a duty. and others still. and chastisement at the price of pardon. the mention of akhīh [‘his brother’] is intended as a conciliatory entreaty to pardon and a declaration that killing should not sever the bonds of religious brotherhood. for a free man. after that. and a female for a female. the one inheriting [from the slain]. but they are at variance regarding it. slaves. [the pardon] that would have been prepared for them in the Hereafter. the one slain. so that a Muslim cannot be killed in return for an disbeliever. had they not concealed this matter. then nothing [happens]. and those who fulfil their covenant when they have engaged in a covenant. ‘any one’. of 30  . and what was [given] before [alms were made obligatory]. and peril. is killed. made obligatory. that is. and who observes prayer and pays the alms. demanding the blood money without force. how great is the extent of their patience? This [statement] is intended to provoke amazement in the believers at the way in which they [the disbelievers] commit sins that necessitate their punishment in the Fire with complete indifference. with God or with others. of the blood money by the slayer. by being unjust towards the killer and slaying him. far removed. [2:177] It is not piety.Those are they that have bought error at the price of guidance. be with kindliness. from the truth. in relation to his brother. the pious person (al-birr. and a slave for a slave. by your Lord. ‘anything’. without procrastination or fraud. the scriptures. is the subject of a conditional or a relative clause. regarding the slain. be honourable. are the ones who are truthful. that is. the Jews — although it is said that these are the idolaters some of whom said. cherished. at the height of a battle in the way of God. and for him who commits aggression. so that the retaliation is waived (the use of the indefinite shay’un. on equal terms. This was revealed in response to the claim made by the Jews and the Christians to this effect. and that religious affiliation should be taken into account also. described in the way mentioned.

and for those who are. when any of you is approached by death. but if this latter is conditional. ‘he fasts’) numbered. [2:182] But if any one fears injustice. God (this verse has been abrogated by the ‘inheritance’ verse [āyat al-mīrāth. few or specific in number. that were before you so that you might guard yourselves. equal to the ones during which he broke his fast — let him fast them instead. 4:11] and by the hadīth: ‘Do not make testament for one [already] inheriting’. of the testator’s words. ‘when’. an error. by commanding that justice be done. of the deeds of the trustee. the testator and the trustee. ‘the fast’. and if any of you. a redemption: which is. 2:185]: Ibn ‘Abbās said [by way of qualification] ‘Except for the pregnant one and the one breastfeeding. those of Ramadān. but later on this was abrogated by fixing the Fast [as an obligation]. with regard to this matter. as will be mentioned below. or if one is strained by the fast in both cases and breaks it. the response to the [conditional] particle in. [2:181] Then if anyone. is. if they break their fast out of 31  . who are present at the month. surely God is Hearing. and so it [retaliation] was stipulated by the Law. they could choose between fasting or offering the redemption. ‘let him make testament’). possessors of intellect. whether a witness or a trustee. that is great longevity. then a number of other days. is in the accusative as the object of al-siyām. then no sin shall be upon him. resulting from the changed testament. and knowing it. So let those of you. able to do it. or sin. or of being killed in this world.the Fire in the Hereafter. as reported by al-Tirmidhī). nor preferring the richer person — an obligation (haqqan here emphasises the import of what has preceded) on those that fear. [2:184] For days (ayyāman. because he has purposely increased the share of a third or specified a rich individual. for. is to make testament (al-wasiyyatu is in the nominative because of kutiba. he would refrain [from such action] and would have thereby given life to himself and to the one whom he had intended to kill. [2:183] O you who believe. in other words. and is semantically connected to the particle idhā. and leaves behind some good. ‘if’. It is also said that the [lā] negation of the verb [yutīqūnahu] is not actually implied. [2:179] In retaliation there is life for you. against acts of disobedience. requiting [each] accordingly. that is justly. with about the same amount one consumes in a given day. is the Fast. because if the would-be killer knew that he would be killed [in retaliation]. [to fast] on account of old age or chronic illness. after hearing it. not giving more than the allotted share of a third. that is. or be on a journey. obligatory [for you]. communities. it [the fast] curbs the desires that prompt these [acts]. and so makes things right between them. shall rest upon those who change it (here the explicit subject stands in place of the implicit one). that is. in which prayers are shortened. material possessions. Knowing. [implied to be] fa’l-yūsi. then it [al-wasiyyatu] indicates the response. the testament. in straying from what is right. made obligatory. from one making testament (read mūsī or muwassī). [by] its causes. so that you might fear killing. be sick. see Q. if the latter is adverbial. the sin. Merciful. not. the feeding of a poor man. O people of pith. fast it [Q. surely God is Forgiving. changes it. for you. God has specified a small number as a way of facilitating matters for those under the obligation. where God says. that is. during the month. [2:180] Prescribed. prescribed for you. in favour of his parents and kinsmen honourably. fearing retaliation. ‘days’. that is. or of an implied yasūmū. just as it was prescribed for those. one mudd measure of the principal food of that town each day (a variant reading has [genitive] fidyatin as an explicative clause. because at the very beginning of Islam.

‘a guidance’. your women. are God’s bounds. they are a vestment for you. is good for him. ‘who are present’). and he informed them of this. is to go in to your wives. and you are a vestment for them (a metaphor for their embraces or their need for one another). of the Guidance. This was a prohibition pertaining to one who used to leave [the mosque]. namely. so that we should call out to him?’. [2:188] 32  . The whiteness and the darkness of the dawn [twilight] are likened to two black and white threads in the way they stretch out. God knows that you have been betraying yourselves. lucid verses. until the white thread is distinct. and desires not hardship for you. from the Preserved Tablet to the earthly heaven on the Night of Ordainment [laylat al-qadr] from Him. Those. and magnify God. while the explanation of the black thread. when you have completed them. is a circumstantial qualifier). the rulings that guide to truth. the night. who are present at the month. the Criterion. ‘Do not overstep’. wherein the Qur’ān was revealed. upon the night of the Fast. so let them respond to Me. for having guided you. volunteering. while you are residing [therein] with the intention of [performing] i‘tikāf (‘spiritual retreat’). than breaking the fast and paying the redemption. for the people. in Me that they might go aright. while you cleave to the mosques in devotion [to God]. and for this reason He has permitted you the breaking of the fast during illness or travel. the true [moment of daybreak]. to you. and the following was revealed: And when My servants question you concerning Me — I am near. for having directed you to the principal rites of His religion. by having sexual intercourse on the eve of the fast: this happened with ‘Umar [b. God desires ease for you. delimited by God for His servants so that they do not overstep them. and that you might be thankful. My call to them to be obedient. ‘Is our Lord nearby so that we should talk to Him secretly. [this ease being] the very reason He has commanded you to fast. [that] they [might] become guided. as well as [an abrogation of] the unlawfulness of eating and drinking after the night prayer. For him who volunteers good. or is He far away. which explains the white thread. but it is repeated here to avoid the mistaken impression that it has been abrogated by the comprehensive implication of man shahida. by granting him his request. before you even turned in repentance. fast it and if any of you be sick. I answer the call of the caller. al-Khattāb] and others. that discriminates between truth and falsehood. and seek what God has prescribed for you. and so He has turned to you [relenting]. from the black thread at daybreak. lie with them. and do not lie with them. to the night. that. when it is permitted to you. that is. used in verses elsewhere). has been left out. and then return. a guidance (hudan. [let them] persevere in faith. have sexual intercourse with his wife. that is. in sexual intercourse: this was revealed as an abrogation of its unlawfulness during the earliest phase of Islam. from daybreak. So now. but that you should fast (wa-an tasūmū is the subject) is better for you (khayrun lakum is its predicate). in the case of these two. to them in My knowledge. the verse remains valid and has not been abrogated’). or if he be on a journey. He supplements [the previous statement with]: and that you fulfil (read tukmilū or tukammilū) the number. is more intense than lā ta‘taddūhā. [at any time] during the night. if you but knew. in sexual intercourse. and as clear proofs. whilst in a state of i‘tikāf. just as He makes clear to you what has been mentioned. when he calls to Me. [2:185] These days of. God makes clear His signs to people so that they might fear [disobeying] His prohibitions. then do it. after the setting of the sun. do not approach them (lā taqrabūhā. of the fasting days of Ramadān. and let them believe. and they apologised to the Prophet (s). to God for this. So let those of you. the month of Ramadān. guiding away from error. of. rulings mentioned. [2:187] Permitted to you. then a number of other days (this [concession] has already been mentioned. [2:186] A group of followers of the Prophet (s) asked him. and. then complete the fast. by offering more than the minimum amount mentioned for the redemption. that this is better for you.concern for the child. So. until it arrives. of sexual intercourse or what it produces of offspring. and eat and drink. and He has pardoned you.

and expel them from where they expelled you. against them by initiating the fighting. there (a variant reading drops the alif in the three verbs [sc. do not. as a result of any arbitration. such as theft and extortion. surely God is Forgiving. do not let one consume the goods of the other. that is. from Mecca. their fast and their breaking it. so that the sense is ‘slaying’ in all three. embroiled. and fear God. he made a pact with the disbelievers that he would be allowed to return the following year. to the judges. at which time they would vacate Mecca for three days. [2:193] Fight them till there is no sedition. the thing that you greatly feared. that which is illicit according to the Law. when you would bore holes in them to enter them and then exit. a portion of other people’s goods. that you may prosper. that you may consume. But fight them not by the Sacred Mosque. or by His saying [below]: [2:191] And slay them wherever you come upon them. sedition. proffer them. in the way that the sun is?’ Say. so come to the houses by their doors. disregarding their doors. Those that desist. and then wax until they are full of light. the disbelievers. no idolatry. in the Sacred Enclosure. and. all worship. [2:190] After the Prophet (s) was prevented from [visiting] the House in the year of the battle of Hudaybiyya. O Muhammad (s). they used to do this and claim that it was out of piety. their idolatry. in [your] state of pilgrimage inviolability (ihrām). and are not always the same. alone and none are worshipped apart from Him. [2:192] But if they desist. plural of hilāl): ‘Why do they seem very thin. God loves not the aggressors. from unbelief and become Muslims. in return. for business. that is to say. then if they desist. is the requital of disbelievers. them in the Sacred Enclosure or while in a state of pilgrimage inviolability. in deception. ‘for the people’). and the religion. there. therefore. and then wane again as at the first. hattā yaqtulūkum. killing and expulsion. It is not piety to come to the houses from their backs. and the Pilgrimage’ (wa’l-hajji and the Pilgrimage’. for the sacred month. and so the following was revealed: And fight in the way of God. in sin while you are aware. are not evildoers and should not be shown any enmity. is more grievous. God by not contravening His commands. This is indicated by the following words. until they should fight you there. about the new moons (ahilla. to them: ‘They are appointed times (mawāqīt is the plural of mīqāt) for the people. there shall be no enmity. slay them. Merciful. that is. is for God. but aggress not. [2:189] They will ask you. more serious. and not just ‘fighting’]) — such. the regulation of these [goods] or any bribes. ‘immunity’ [Q. The Muslims were averse to becoming engaged in fighting while in a state of pilgrimage inviolability in the Sacred Enclosure [al-haram] and during the sacred months.Consume not your goods between you. save against evildoers. from idolatry. than slaying. kill them 33  . but piety is to fear. that you are in error. Having prepared to depart for the Visitation [‘umra]. however. that is to say. with those who fight against you. [appointed times] by which its season is known. is a supplement to li’l-nāsi. for if they [the new moons] always looked the same. no aggression through slaying or otherwise. wa-lā taqtilūhum. [2:194] The sacred month. when in a state of pilgrimage inviolability. none of these things could be known. to elevate His religion. [that you may] triumph. 9:1]. for their women’s waiting periods. do not aggress against them. just as they fight you during it. fa-in qatalūkum. the ones that overstep the bounds which God has set for them: this stipulation was abrogated by the verse of barā’a. for them to know the times for sowing the land. then if they fight you. and this was done after the Conquest of Mecca. to them. [he and] the believers were concerned that Quraysh would not keep to the agreement and instigate fighting.

for three days. through fighting in the Sacred Enclosure. that is to say. this is one of two opinions of al-Shāfi‘ī. until the offering. in obedience to Him. and is divided among the needy. a redemption by fast. and fear God. or has an ailment of the head. the [Muslim] response is also referred to as ‘aggression’. or during a state of ritual purity or in the sacred months. and know that God is severe in retribution. then no blood [sacrifice] or fast is obligatory in his case. and cast not your own hands. in addition to the one that enjoys the Visitation. on the Day of Sacrifice. then whoever enjoys the Visitation. then commit aggression against him in the manner that he committed against you. And of seven when you return. then. holy things (hurumāt. until the Pilgrimage. is for him whose family are not present at the Sacred Mosque. incumbent upon him is. to your domicile. that. after which the head is shaved and the release is effected. If they are [present however]. If any of you is sick. attire. qārin.. mentioned. but if you are prevented. that is. that is a full ten (this sentence reaffirms what has just been said). by spending etc. in what He commands you and prohibits you. the other being that it is not [incumbent]. because there are none available.during it: a response to the Muslims’ consideration of the momentous nature of this matter. there is also the one that enters into the state of pilgrimage inviolability for both the Visitation and the Pilgrimage together [sc. The term ahl. [be it] Mecca or any other. whoever commits aggression against you. from fulfilling them by an enemy. He rewards them. ideally. but not be domiciled. and know that God is with the God-fearing. in a state of pilgrimage inviolability. for him. In the Sunna. or when you have completed the rites of the Pilgrimage’ (there is a shift from the third [to the second] person). To this [last] has been added the [case of the] one who shaves his head without excuse because the requirement of redemption is most obvious in his case. such as a sheep that he sacrifices after entering into the state of pilgrimage inviolability. before the months of the Pilgrimage and enjoy the Visitation. in kind if these [holy things] are violated. [2:195] And spend in the way of God. consisting of three cubic measures of the principal food of the town for six needy persons. for you — a sheep — and do not shave your heads. ‘or’. or a voluntary almsgiving. or a ritual sacrifice. If one were to take up [temporary] residence. by withholding funds needed for the struggle or abandoning it altogether. as mentioned. ‘family’. the sacrifice is then made with the intention of releasing oneself from the state of pilgrimage inviolability. by completing them according to their due. [2:196] Fulfil the Pilgrimage and the Visitation to God. In such a case. mentioned stipulation regarding the incumbency of the offering or the fast upon the person that has enjoyed [the Visitation]. but ideally before the sixth. when avenging yourselves and [by] renouncing aggression. helping and assisting [them]. having completed it and observed its ritual prohibitions. or oils. even if he has enjoyed [the Visitation]. he should not fast during these the days of tashrīq. that is. Moreover. but before circumambulation [has been performed]. then. God loves the virtuous. the slaughter of a sheep (aw. according to al-Shāfi‘ī. knowing that the enemy has gone or is not present. be it with an excuse or without. The mention of ‘family’ is intended as a notification of the proviso in the case of being ‘domiciled’ [in the vicinity of the Sacred Mosque]. incumbent upon him is. that is. such as lice or severe pains. but be virtuous. When you are secure. its place of sacrifice. according to the sounder of two opinions attributed to al-Shāfi‘ī. then [give] such offering as may be feasible. until he enters its ritual inviolability in the relevant months. he should enter into the state of pilgrimage inviolability before the seventh of Dhū’l-Hijja. let his offering be such as is feasible. then that [fast or sacrifice] will be incumbent upon him. denotes freedom of choice). ‘one who combines’] or in the case where the Pilgrimage encroaches upon [a Visitation]. within the enclosure. is what must be treated as sacrosanct) demand retaliation. because this will give your enemy the advantage over you. because that is what it resembles formally. because one is discouraged from fasting on the Day of ‘Arafa. And fear God. [2:197] 34  . a fast of three days in the Pilgrimage. that is. against whoever opposes Him. is said to denote ‘oneself’. reaches its place. such things as scents. but also [it is required in the case of] one that enjoys. in holy struggle and the like. plural of hurma. so that they are not within 50 miles of the Sacred Enclosure. yourselves (the bā’ of bi-aydīkum ‘with your hands’ is extra) into destruction. or if he finds none. or because he does not have sufficient funds. without shaving. and has thus shaved his head while in a state of pilgrimage inviolability. according to al-Shāfi‘ī. do not release yourselves from the state of pilgrimage inviolability.

becoming a burden for others. by not making us enter it. but when you press on. and will reward you for it. God is Forgiving. in this world’. then no lewdness. ‘Our Lord. O people of pith!. [2:201] And there are others who say. Merciful. is the particle denoting the reason). 35  . and remember Him as He has guided you. whoever undertakes. because had it come after it. by repeating the talbiya [sc. called Quzah. [or] quarrelling. push on. God knows it. ‘Our Lord. to suffice you your journey: this was revealed regarding the people of Yemen. it would have functioned as an adjectival phrase). fa-lā rafatha wa-lā fusūqa wa-lā jidāla]. our lot. from ‘Arafa. the duty of Pilgrimage during them. by standing there together with them (for. and is intended to encourage [people] to petition for good in both abodes. than your remembrance of them (ashadda is in the accusative because it is a circumstantial qualifier referring to dhikr ‘remembrance’. ‘as’. while [the latter] the way of the believers. and guard us against the chastisement of the Fire’. the tahlīl [lā ilāha illā Llāh. ‘remember’. O Quraysh. [2:199] Then (thumma denotes the sequence intended) press on. that is. a mountain at the end of Muzdalifa. as you remember your fathers. O God. in the Pilgrimage (a variant reading [for fa-lā rafathun wa-lā fusūqun wa-lā jidāla] has the accusative for all three nouns [sc. ‘at thy service. labbayka Llāhummā labbayk. But the best provision is piety [taqwā. after the overnight stay at Muzdalifa. such as Pilgrimage and supplication. This [former statement] depicts the manner of the idolaters. and seek God’s forgiveness. having stood [in prayer] upon it. at thy service’]. according to Muslim. to the believers. give to us in this world good. or disputing. There are some people who say. your holy rites. ‘piety’. and fear you Me. which itself is in the accusative as the object of udhkurū. thus. they used to stand at Muzdalifa. Paradise. a reward. reckoning with the whole of creation in half a day of this world. the deeds they have performed. such people will have no part. prohibition is meant in all three cases). [O] possessors of intellect. as a result of. a grace. what they have earned. the devotions pertaining to your pilgrimage. and they are given it. or yet more intensely. as He says: [2:202] Those — they shall have a portion. [no] sexual intercourse for them. who use to make the Pilgrimage and not take any provisions with them. for your sins. nor wickedness. [nor] acts of disobedience. from where the people press on. for which one is promised a reward. as you used to remember them and boast about them at the end of your pilgrimage. then remember God. upon himself. [2:200] And when you have performed. from ‘Arafāt. give to us. by way of voluntary almsgiving. no lot. though previously. the Prophet (s) stood there remembering God and supplicating until his face began to glow brightly. in the Hereafter. is in months well-known: Shawwāl. by entering into the state of pilgrimage inviolability. literally ‘guarding’] with which you are able to guard against asking others [for things]. the time for it. having cast [stones] at the Jamrat al-‘Aqaba. Dhū’l-Qa’da and ten nights. to the principal rites of His religion and the rituals of His Pilgrimage (the kāf of ka-mā. of Dhū’l Hijja. from your Lord. disdaining to stand with other people). in the Hereafter. and completed. by engaging in commerce at the Pilgrimage: this was revealed in response to their aversion to such an idea. Whatever good you do.The Pilgrimage. remember God. as one hadīth states. you were astray. some say all. And take provision. by extolling Him and repeating the takbīr [saying Allāhu akbar. In one hadīth. performed the circumambulation and stopped at Minā. [2:198] You would not be at fault if you should seek bounty. before His guidance. from. and good. sustenance. ‘God is Great’]. ‘no god but God’] and making supplications. and God is swift at reckoning. at the Sacred Waymark. that is.

a hypocrite who spoke kindly in the presence of the Prophet (s). moreover. during certain days numbered. and follow not the steps. know then that God is Mighty. the lucid arguments. for him — how evil a cradling. in the Hereafter. the three days of tashrīq. his temptations to you by way of creating divisions. all of you. So Hell shall be enough. in your actions. he hastens. leaving them all his property. but it would not please you in the Hereafter because it contradicts what he actually used to believe. hastening. he walks. have come to you. and nothing can prevent Him from taking His vengeance against you. that is. his departure from Minā. On one occasion he passed by some crops and livestock that belonged to the Muslims and later that night he set fire to them [the crops] and slaughtered them [the livestock]. and who calls on God to witness what is in his heart. he is a manifest foe to you. he is seized by vainglory. if he fears. leaving you behind. with you and your followers on account of his enmity towards you: this was al-Akhnas b. the ways. expend themselves in obedience to God. If any man hastens on. [it] suffices. it is not a sin for him: that is. [2:209] But if you slip. says: [2:205] And when he turns his back. in His actions. yet he is most stubborn in dispute. who emigrated to Medina when the idolaters began to persecute him. Islam. on the second day of tashrīq after he has cast his stones. [2:204] And among people there is he whose speech in the life of this world pleases you. who after converting to Islam still observed the Sabbath with reverence and were averse to [the consumption of] camels: O you who believe. the one he was commanded to avoid committing. that is. one whose enmity is obvious. Salām and his companions. Sharīq. into submission (read al-salm or al-silm). into all of its precepts. a resting place it is! [2:207] But there are other men who sell themselves. God then revealed his mendacity in this matter. to the effect that this is the truth. that is.[2:203] And remember God. come. that. [2:208] The following verse was revealed regarding ‘Abd Allāh b. that is to say. God. and if he delays. as being in accordance with what he says. swearing that he believed in him and that he loved him. Wise. in his sin. and frequently sitting with him. 36  . and God is Gentle with His servants. such that he stays until the third night and cast his stones. and God loves not corruption. and know that to Him you shall be gathered. meaning. for He guides them to what pleases Him. in two days. of Satan. pride and rage. about the earth to do corruption there and to destroy the tillage and the stock (these [last two actions] are included in such ‘corruption’). Sinān al-Rūmī]. they have the choice of either. ‘God is Great’] while you cast your stones at the Jamarāt. [2:206] And when it is said to him. kāffatan is a circumstantial qualifier referring to al-silm. after the clear proofs. desiring God’s pleasure: this was Suhayb [b. by making takbīr [saying Allāhu akbar. is no sin for him. ‘Fear God’. for the sin has been precluded in both cases. God during his pilgrimage — for such [a person] is truly a pilgrim — and fear God. that He may requite you for your deeds. and incline away from implementing all of its precepts. it does not please Him.

those mentioned. 16:33]. ‘with the truth’. [2:213] People were one community. in faith. so that some believed while others disbelieved. ‘ask’. in religion. and some believed. illness. is semantically connected to anzala. meaning His chastisement. [about] religion. regarding which (min [of min al-haqqi. who passed away before you?. then God sent forth the prophets. and only those who had been given it. believers. and were so convulsed. in the shadows (zulal. ‘matters are returned’] or active [tarji‘u al-umūr. out of insolence. that the Messenger and those who believed with him said (read yaqūla or yaqūlu). and God guides. and warners. to them. whomever He will to a straight path. whoever changes God’s grace. and its specifier). not expecting to see any help. ‘When will God’s help come?’. His Command. in the Hereafter. mocking them and treating them condescendingly with their wealth. shall be above them on the Day of Resurrection. what God has blessed him with in the way of signs. ‘We gave’. that is. ‘after’] is semantically connected to ikhtalafa. wait for. with ample sustenance in the Hereafter or in this world. plural of zulla) of clouds. then God guided those who believed to the truth. and the sending down of manna and quails. [2:215] They will ask you. God is severe in retribution against him. This was the question posed by ‘Amr 37  . and hardship. what came upon.[2:210] What do they. is the interrogative particle linking the second object of the verb sal. on account of their poverty. by His leave. by His will. so that you may endure as they did. the manifest arguments for God’s Oneness. between people regarding their differences. ‘He revealed’) that He might decide. and God responded to them: Ah. with His guidance. that God shall come to them. the Scripture. [2:212] Decked out fair to the disbelievers. those that fail to enter into it [sc. but surely God’s help is nigh. ‘matters return’]). the Books. the Children of Israel. had come to them (min [of min ba‘di. the matter of their destruction has been completed. on the part of the disbelievers. but those who fear. of Mecca. O Muhammad (s). that is. by all types of tribulations. a new sentence begins here. on account of the extreme hardship afflicting them. for these constitute the causes of guidance. ‘only those’]). idolatry. which they exchanged for unbelief. in disguise and they have fallen in love with it. out of unbelief. and God sustains whomever He will without reckoning. of trials. of the Fire for the disbelievers. O Muhammad (s). the path of truth. how many a clear proof. or that God’s command should come to pass [Q. meaning. Yāsir]. those. and to God all matters are returned. where He will requite each according to his deeds (read passive [turja‘u al-umūr. and is also the second object of the verb ātaynā. is the life of this world. the likes of Bilāl [al-Habashī]. and He revealed with them the Scripture. this is similar to where God says. [2:214] The following was revealed after the Muslims suffered a trying experience: Or did you suppose that you should enter Paradise without there having come upon you the like of. after it has come to him. ‘Ammār [b. and Suhayb [al-Rūmī]. after the clear proofs. when He gives to those that were mocked possession of the property and lives of those that mocked them. [2:211] Ask. explaining the previous one: They were afflicted by misery. ‘how many’. by way of rebuke. namely. but they fell into disagreement. manifest ones such as the parting of the sea. did We give them (kam. ‘they differed’. differed about it. while others disbelieved. extreme poverty. according to it. and together with what follows should be understood as coming before the exception [illā lladhīna. one to another. with the truth (bi’l-haqqi. await. and the angels? The matter is determined. [the help] which we were promised. Islam] completely. ‘of the truth’] here is explicative) they were at variance. of Paradise for the believers. and they deride the believers. about what they should expend. in coming. as bearers of good tidings.

‘much’) because of the fighting. and profit for men. from it — that is graver (the predicate of the [last] subject). and divinatory arrows. they are the most deserving of it. and denotes one half of the question represented by the expender. the disbelievers. martyrdom or reward. because of the hardship involved. they are invalid. and dies disbelieving — their. you will find much evil. in it. and God is Forgiving. [deeds] such as [performing] the Pilgrimage: al-Shāfi‘ī is of this opinion. as a result of victory. Mecca. His religion. The disbelievers reviled them for making fighting lawful in a sacred month. and so God revealed the following: They ask you about the sacred. Thus they will not count for anything and will not result in any reward. His reward. and will requite it accordingly. your idolatry. in the following) it is for parents and kinsmen. not. from God’s way. to them: ‘Whatever you expend of good (min khayrin. that is. while. is the predicate). and those who emigrate. They. and the traveller. They fought against the idolaters and killed [‘Amr b. and he would not have to repeat them. and struggle in God’s way. Merciful. to them: ‘Fighting (qitālun is the subject) in it is a grave thing (kabīr. and disbelief in Him. cursing and swearing that ensue from it.b. but to bar (saddun is the subject). covering small and large amounts. so that. and he will be rewarded for them. people. God has knowledge of it’. the needy. is great sin (a variant reading [for kabīr. God knows. O believers. some gave up drinking. if you were to reject fighting. ‘great’] has kathīr. [2:218] When those of the raiding party [of ‘Abd Allāh b. than the usefulness’. The specification of death as a condition is because if that person were to return to Islam [again]. by way of expending or otherwise. ‘grave’. al-Jamūh. his original deeds would not be invalidated. the Prophet (s) and the believers. so strive in what He commands you. your. [2:217] Thus the Prophet (s) sent forth the first of his raiding parties under the command of ‘Abd Allāh b. in God. until. and sedition. booty. Jahsh] thought that. slaying’. abiding therein. is an explication of mā. this. even if you would like to do so. to bar from. in this world and the Hereafter. what is good for you. and it may happen that you love a thing which is bad for you: because the soul inclines towards those desires which result in its destruction and its rejection of the religious obligations that would bring about its happiness. When this verse was revealed. obligatory [for you]. that is. that is. Say. Those are the inhabitants of the Fire. ‘whatever’. that is. in order to elevate His religion — those have hope of God’s compassion. and. thinking that it was the last day of Jumādā II. in the partaking of both. even if you are averse to it. Perhaps. God responds with regard to the one receiving the expenditure. will not cease to fight against you. Jahsh. is greater. and you know. ‘Abd Allāh] Ibn al-Hadramī in [the sacred month of] Rajab. heinous in terms of sin. that is. this pertaining to the other half of the question. they would not receive any reward. the forbidden. while others persisted. impoverished and denied the reward. and fighting in it (qitālin fīhi. ‘of good’. and whatever good you may do. then. and what the ruling is regarding them. if they are able. gambling. disbelievers. that is. graver. you will find much good in fighting. the degenerate behaviour in which they result. Say. to them. He was a wealthy elderly man and went to ask the Prophet (s) what and for whom he should expend. orphans. to them: ‘In both. and depart from their homeland. of believers. they turn you from your religion. although they had been released from the sin [of having slain in the sacred month]. Say. but the sin in them. is graver than. and to expel its people. Yet it may happen that you hate a thing which is good for you. [that is] more heinous in terms of sin than fighting in it. works have failed. by nature. in God’s sight. [2:216] Prescribed for you. ‘the sacred month’]). because then you may be subjugated. 5:90-91] 38  . by way of delight and enjoyment in wine. ‘fighting in it’. and whoever of you turns from his religion. is fighting. is an inclusive substitution [for al-shahri l-harāmi. the following was revealed: Verily the believers. [2:219] They ask you about wine. and acquiring money effortlessly from gambling. though it be hateful to you. good. to unbelief. until the verse of sūrat al-Mā’ida [Q. month. the Sacred Mosque.

and He loves those who cleanse themselves. [2:223] Your women are a tillage for you. of Paradise. [2:222] They will ask you about the monthly period. disbelievers. that is.finally made it illicit. God makes clear His signs to you that you might reflect. if they became intimate with them. Truly. the people of idolatry. call to the Fire. those who repent. the place where you sow [the seeds of] your children. that is. by avoiding it. for his wealth and good looks. for sexual intercourse. Say. al-‘afwu. that is. lying down. as. by looking after it. to Paradise and pardon. so that His call may be heeded by marrying with His friends. and made it difficult for you by prohibiting you from intermixing with them. and do not expend what you need. ‘Comfortably’ (al-‘afwa [in the accusative] is also read in the nominative. by His leave. and your mingling with them. in religion and it is only natural for one to intermix his affair with his brother. from him who sets. where He will requite you according to your deeds. the female organ. and God will requite both. idolaters. A believing slave is better than an idolater. who may be a free woman. in what He commands and prohibits. this world and the Hereafter. and God calls. and follow what is best for you in both. aright. during menstruation and not resorting to any other part. Those. is better’. So. so part with women. Do not marry idolatresses. and do not approach them. for. in His actions. the surplus of your need. so you do too. this was revealed as a rebuttal of the idea that it was shameful to marry a slavegirl and that it was better to marry an idolatress free woman. Wise. sitting down. Surely God is Mighty. and had He willed He would have harassed you. ‘In the Name of God’ (bismillāh) when you commence intercourse. the child would be born cross-eyed. and fear God. in this time. They will ask you about orphans. from the front or the back: this was revealed in response to the Jews saying that if a person had vaginal intercourse with his wife from behind. righteous deeds. in sexual intercourse. menstruation and the spot in which it occurs. and how should one treat women during it. until they believe. refrain from sexual intercourse with them. and if you intermix with them. And they will ask you what. such as saying. they are your brothers. the front part. whether standing up. victorious in His affair. God loves. by His will. and the distress their affair caused them. Say: ‘To set their affairs aright. it. that is. until they have cleansed themselves after its cessation. [2:220] on. until they are pure (yathurna. how much. the specified place. [that] they [might] be admonished. implying a preceding huwa). than you not doing this. that is. this would distress them. [2:221] O Muslims. in whichever way. and offer for your souls. when they have cleansed themselves. just as He explained to you what has been mentioned. 39  . expend. that is to say. [lawful to you] are the chaste women among those who were given the Scripture). at the Resurrection. ruining yourselves. who feared Him. you wish. as God has commanded you’. or in the part affected. so come to your tillage. a believing slavegirl is better than an idolatress. until they believe. or yattahharna: the original tā’ [of yatatahharna] has been assimilated with the tā’). of sins. because they invite one to perform deeds that merit this. 5:5]. that is. off believing women to. And do not marry. through the voice of His prophets. though you may admire her. in their property when he intermixes with them. that is. in terms of their funds. then come to them. in the monthly period. to the believers. but if they put aside the money due to them and prepare their meals for them separately. though you may admire him. from impurities. and He makes clear His signs to the people so that they might remember. because of her beauty and wealth: this provision excludes the womenfolk of the People of the Scripture (as indicated by the verse [Q. God knows well him who works corruption. your funds and theirs. or the place whence it issues is so. and give good tidings. and for this reason one should not marry with them. filth. and know that you shall meet Him. Say: ‘It is an ailment. to the deeds that merit these two. they should expend. the matters of. He rewards and honours. they may slip into error.

in rights. if you 40  . by God’: in such instances there is no sin and no redemption required. on the other hand. of what you say. women shall have rights.[2:224] Do not make God. their spouses. between them. It is not lawful for you. such as ‘By God’. during the waiting period. and result in perjury. so as not. in His Kingdom. you are then obliged to revert to them to retain them. but an incitement [to set things right] in the case of repealed divorce. that is. of dowry. just because you swore against them. rights. which requires a redemption. The waiting period for immature or menopausal women is three months. such as performing righteous deeds and so forth. surely God is All-Hearing. back from the oath. of purity or menstruation — these are two different opinions — which begin from the moment of divorce. 65:4]. namely. no other person has the right to marry them during their waiting period. and to put things right between people: this means. meaning that after the waiting period mentioned. ‘better right to’. And it is not lawful for them to hide what God has created in their wombs. [2:225] God will not take you to task for a slip. free kindly. do them and make redemption. if they revert. before remarrying. due from them. in such time. as mentioned. to be pious and God-fearing. of what they say. repudiation of the type that may be revoked. due from their spouses. what their intention is. pregnant women. when you commit perjury in your oaths. them. which constitute an act of obedience. [2:226] For those who forswear their women. in such instances oaths are hateful. or setting. but He will take you to task for what your hearts have earned. in the way of kind conjugality and not being harmed. but their men have a degree above them. as stated in the sūrat al-Talāq [Q. that is. as stipulated by the Law. if they desire to set things right. a cause of impediment. since He delays the punishment of the one deserving it. nay. that is. 33:49]. of their resolve. a hindrance. which is what the tongue utters spontaneously and unintentionally. ‘Indeed. they can only revert or divorce. [2:227] But if they resolve upon divorce. of your circumstances. of the harm they caused their women by swearing. to bring them back. to take of what you have given them. surely God is Hearing. Knowing. have a better right to restore them. with justice. and put pressure on the woman [to return]. a wait of four months. to them. or repeal it and resume sexual relations. the term ahaqq. and God is Forgiving. since. if they believe in God and the Last Day. O male spouses. in what He has ordained for His creatures. in your oaths. [this understanding of the verse is] justified by the reason for its revelation. must wait until they give birth. Merciful. does not denote any priority. the statement is not a condition for the possibility of return. even if they refuse. because of their [the husbands’] payment of a dowry and their [husbands] being the bread-winners. that is to say. God is Forgiving. that results. [2:229] Divorce. setting up [such impediments] by swearing in His Name frequently. is twice. similar to those. of child or menstruation. on account of His saying. for three periods (qurū’in is the plural of qar’). then let them go through with it. [2:228] Divorced women shall wait by themselves. Their mates. in any case. effected by doing the opposite [of the oath]. by swearing that they will not have sexual intercourse with them. This [stipulation] applies to those who have been sexually penetrated but not to those otherwise. in your oaths. there shall be no [waiting] period for you to reckon against them [Q. as in their duty to obey their husbands. by not repealing it. Wise. then honourable retention. their refraining from such deeds. while slavegirls must wait two months. according to the Sunna. Forbearing. God is Mighty. by swearing in His Name. do not be prevented from doing righteous deeds. of slips [in your oaths]. Knower. without harming them.

be harmed. completed. unless the. the rulings contained therein. whoever does that has wronged his soul. who then wanted to restore her. divorces her. If you fear they may not maintain God’s bounds. so as to force them to redemption. very nearly. and they have. should. both verbs are also read in the second person [sc. In other words. during the suckling if they be divorced. prescriptions mentioned. that is. by being charged with more than he is able to bear. allā yuqīmā is an inclusive substitution for the person [governing the verb]. because it is for the benefit of such a person. should he take of the dowry. by returning to them. do not transgress them. should she offer of it. and the wisdom. with the direct object taking the accusative ending. a mother shall not be harmed by her child. tuqīmā. the prohibition against debarring. neither of them would be at fault if she were to ransom herself. better. them. that is. or to repudiate them or confine them indoors for a long time. after the two utterances [of divorce]. [2:231] When you divorce women. parents. is purer for you. and clothe them. to transgress. their term. divorced. God knows. in accordance with the Law. Those. and remember God’s grace upon you. or set them free honourably. That. matters mentioned. He has revealed to you. if they think that they will maintain God’s bounds. honourably. and you know not. the Qur’ān. are God’s bounds. ‘they (dual form) fear’] has yukhāfā. as reported by al-Hākim. the young man who is the trustee of his [father’s] property. any of this. [2:230] If he. in harm (dirāran is an object denoting reason). reached. [2:232] When you divorce women. to that of the father in terms of providing sustenance and clothing for the [other] parent. when reverting. has a similar duty. husbands when they. is an admonition for whoever of you believe in God and the Last Day. and fear God. so that you should give thanks by acting in accordance with it. [a people who] reflect. the woman and her first husband. The occasion for the revelation [of this verse] was: Ma‘qil b. who has sexual intercourse with her. If he. and cleaner. shall. divorces her. the end of. that is. the one inheriting from his father. then retain them. couple fear that they may not maintain God’s bounds. food for. But if the two. suckle their children for two full years (kāmilayn. are God’s bounds. honourably. the second husband. to exhort you therewith. after the completion of the waiting period. [2:233] Mothers. that. neither. The mention of both parents here in relation to the child is intended to show sympathy [for both]. their term. that is to say. if she does not want to. by being forced to suckle it. and consultation. by his child. which He makes clear to a people who have knowledge. its ability. on account of the child. what is in your interest. refraining from debarring. by exposing it to God’s chastisement. that is. on account of it. there is no culpability either for the man. until she marries another husband. that is. in this instance. is an adjective for emphasis). not harming them. the husband.divorce them. Whoever transgresses God’s bounds — those are the evildoers. and the Book. Islam. then neither of them would be at fault. after the third [utterance of] divorce. so follow His commands. and they have reached. No soul is charged save to its capacity. of waiting. the male spouses and their women. do not retain them. and this is the maximum length of time. for you and for them. in jest by contravening them. to the best of his ability. or for the woman. to return to each other. take not God’s verses in mockery. ‘you maintain’]). the mothers. have agreed together honourably. or leave them until their term is completed. and know that God has knowledge of all things. this is. takhāfā. do not debar them — addressing the guardians here — from marrying their. that is. Those. for such as desire to fulfil the suckling. a father. so that 41  . bearing in mind the suspicion that can be aroused by the couple on account of prior intimacy. so that he should divorce her. The heir. as reported by the two Shaykhs [Bukhārī and Muslim]. of some money. but Ma‘qil refused. married. that they will not honour the rights God has established for them (a variant reading [for yakhāfā. and nothing can be hidden from Him. Yasār’s sister was divorced by her husband. agreement. ‘two full ones’. It is for the father to provide. she shall not be lawful to him after that. desire by mutual consent. in wedlock. ‘you fear’.

where the female is a minor’. with the intention of marriage. then one-half of what you have appointed. that is. of resolve or otherwise. of marriage. [while] you have not had sexual intercourse with them. and know that God sees what you do. make remission. in other words. the affluent among you. for four months and ten. ‘comforts’). [2:236] You would not be at fault if you divorce women while you have not touched them (tamassūhunna: also read tumāssūhunna). when they have reached. ‘while’. in the way of adorning themselves and offering themselves before suitors. refraining from marriage. relates to the verbal action and is also adverbial) that is to say. or. is either a second qualifier of matā‘an. or hide in your hearts. and so He has permitted you to make such offers. or an emphatic verbal noun). O guardians. God is aware of what you do. their term. giving them what they can enjoy. 65:4]. in proposing to them impatiently. on the virtuous. to be bountiful towards one another. offer. toward him who is fearful of Him. [2:235] You would not be at fault regarding the proposal. And if you (addressing the parents) desire to seek nursing. And do not resolve on the knot. has reached its term. that which is permitted to you. God knows that you will be mindful of them. unless it be that they. or as Ibn ‘Abbās is reported to have said. ‘honourably’. and that nothing of it can be hidden from Him. during the waiting period. unless you speak honourable words. completed. by leaving her the entire amount. but do not make arrangements. regarding what they may do with themselves. and the needy man. provided you hand over. behind. there are no sinful consequences for divorcing them if you have not copulated with them or assigned them a dowry. that is. The waiting period in the case of pregnant women is for them to give birth — as stated by a verse in sūrat al-Talāq [Q. must be given to them and the other half returns to you. in delaying the chastisement of the one deserving it. the period prescribed. so be fearful of Him. ‘The legal guardian. for your children. in accordance with the Law (bi’l-ma‘rūf. the consummation. for them (the particle mā. that He should chastise you if you have made such resolve. in accordance with the Law. honourably. dowry. the one of ample means. after their death. from other than the mothers. nor appointed any obligation. and know that God is Forgiving. surely God sees what you do. and has been completed. [2:237] And if you divorce them before you have touched them. they shall wait by themselves. ‘obligation’. or ‘How many a man must desire you!’. then they would not be at fault. yet make provision of comforts for them honourably. in this matter. leaving. both secretly and openly. Forbearing. the women. yet that you should remit (wa-an ta‘fū is the subject) is nearer to piety (aqrabu li’l-taqwā is its predicate). ‘How beautiful you are!’. in this respect. to effect ablactation before the completion of the twoyear period. and fear God. or he makes remission. to wean. ‘comforts’. to women. and forgo it. that is. that is. and will requite you accordingly. the one in whose hand is the knot of marriage.the child’s best interests are clear. and you have already appointed for them an obligation. you would not be at fault. such as are acknowledged by the Law. nights: this applies to women who are not pregnant. of marriage until that which is written. die. such as proposals. of waiting. according to his means. so divorce them. and know that God knows what is in your souls. [2:238] 42  . honourably. to them. you present. [2:234] And those of you who pass away. according to his means — an obligation (haqqan. the husband to be. is an adjectival qualification of matā‘an. what you have given. The slavegirl must wait for half this period [of four months] according to the Sunna. in which case nobody would be at fault. of restricted income. wives. the obedient ones. then you would not be at fault. whose spouses have died: such as men saying. what you intend to give them in the way of wages. ‘Who could find one like you?’. in kindness and good nature. Forget not kindness between you. with them secretly.

either that of the afternoon. make testament (wasiyyatan. or is relative). but most people. disbelievers. or the morning. who went forth from their habitations fearful of death? (hadhara’l-mawt: an object denoting reason). [2:239] And if you are in fear. it is also said to mean ‘in silence’ [sākitīn]. by performing prayer. ‘provision for a year’. The purpose of 43  . let them. in His Kingdom. as is feasible — an obligation (haqqan. after eight days or more. and this [phenomenon] remained with their descendants. as a result of the supplication of their prophet Ezekiel (Hizqīl). and stand. ‘obligation’. that is. plural of rājil). Truly God is bounteous to people. of an enemy. or a torrent. He has repeated the phrase in order to include the woman that has been touched [sexually]. as reported by Ahmad [b. you would not be at fault. making the gestures of genuflexion and prostration. honourably. in His actions. God is Mighty. may He be exalted. ‘We used to speak to each other sometimes during prayer. The testament mentioned here was abrogated by the ‘inheritance’ verse [Q. regarding what they may do with themselves honourably. from any fear. four. so that you might understand. ‘Has your knowledge not attained’. is a circumstantial qualifier). what they can enjoy of property and clothes. that is. by performing them at their appointed times. in accordance with the Law. but when you are secure. it denotes obedience’. ‘Die!’. eight. for. such as when He gave life back to those just mentioned. appears in the Qur’ān. and they lived on for a while with the effects of death still upon them. praying while walking. forty or seventy thousand. 2:234] which was revealed later. or another prayer (there are many opinions on this matter). before He taught you its obligations and its proper ways (the particle kāf [of ka-mā. [2:240] And those of you who die. God has singled it out for mention because of its merit. In the opinion of al-Shāfi‘ī. God makes clear His signs for you. a year (matā‘an ilā l-hawl. Wise. as reported by the two Shaykhs [Bukhārī and Muslim]. such as adorning themselves or abandoning the mourning. ‘Wherever the [expression] qunūt [‘submission’]. and the waiting of one year [without expulsion] was abrogated by the previous verse four months and ten [Q. on account of the Prophet (s) saying. and give them provision. thirty. but when this was revealed. until the completion of. God said to them. in which he said. ‘as’] has the same meaning as mithl [‘like’]. and the middle prayer. reflect. [2:242] So. li Lllāhi qānitīn: some have said that this means ‘obedience’. without expelling them from their habitations. plural of rākib). Arqam. is in the accusative because it is governed by an implied verb) on those who fear God. leaving wives. the habitation remains hers. since the previous verse addresses a different issue. or mounted (rukbān. or wasiyyatun) for their wives. or a predatory animal. may God have mercy on him. while the mā is related to the verbal action. but if they go forth. facing the direction of the qibla or otherwise. in whichever way you can. [2:243] Have you not seen (an interrogative to provoke amazement and a longing to hear what will follow). prayers. Then He gave them life. ten. or that you should cut off their expenditure. In other words. as an obligation. and they did. submissive to God.Maintain the. [you] the guardians of the dead one. then remember God. on the basis of a hadīth of Zayd b. of their own accord. 4:12]. are not thankful. Hanbal] and others. in prayer. we were commanded to be silent and were forbidden to talk’. those thousands. such that when they wore garments these turned into shrouds for the deceased. as He taught you what you knew not. These were a people from among the Children of Israel who fled their homeland after it was afflicted with plague. five. which they are given. then standing (rijāl. [2:241] There shall be provision for divorced women. that is. or the midday. in the same way that He has explained to you what has been mentioned.

of those who deserve it. ‘There is nothing to stop us fighting. in knowledge and body: at that time. [2:245] Who is he that will lend God a loan. said. to unite us and to whom we can refer [matters]. and God is Embracing. the story and the tale of. Mighty and Majestic. sustenance for whomever He wills in order to try him. and will requite them accordingly. says. by expending his property in the way of God. and God responded by sending forth Saul. which is why the following [statement] is supplemented to it: [2:244] So fight in God’s way. [2:246] Have you not seen. the prophet. ‘How can he be king over us when we have better right than he to kingship. of the Children of Israel. said. and the most perfect of character. God gives the kingship to whom He will. Knowing. reassurance for your hearts. the ones that crossed the river with Saul (Tālūt). Samuel. and enlarges. of your sayings. which God sent down to Adam. He. as will be mentioned soon. the circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject of the verb ya’tiyakum. the council. and He will multiply (yudā‘if. and a remnant of what the folk of Moses and the folk of Aaron left behind. in His bounty.mentioning the story of these people is to encourage believers to fight [in the way of God]. the interrogative is intended to confirm the expectation that follows [sc. and God has knowledge of the evildoers. that they will not fight]). ‘Why should we not fight in God’s way. ‘might it be’. of his kingship. the angels bearing it (tahmiluhu l-malā’ikatu. and has increased him broadly. establish. God. from your Lord. The angels bore it between the earth and the 44  . provided the requirement [we demanded] is forthcoming’. in the way He does. Yet when fighting was prescribed for them. God straitens. after they had demanded a sign of his kingship: ‘The sign of his kingship is that there will come to you the Ark. namely. it in abundance for whomever He wills in order to test him. he [Saul] was a tanner or a shepherd. Knowing. the Israelites]. for kingship. until the Amalekites seized it from them in battle. He. for us a king. when we have been expelled from our habitations and our children?’. exalted be He. he was the most knowledgeable and the most handsome of all the Children of Israel. out of pureness of heart. if you are believers’. They used to commence fighting invoking it before their enemy and marching behind it. ‘Verily God has raised up Saul for you as king’ They said. when they said to a prophet of theirs. as well as experience peacefulness in its presence. also read yuda‘‘if) it for him manifold?. or ‘asītum) if fighting is prescribed for you. Moses. where He will requite you for your deeds. with him. and He will requite you accordingly. a measure (qafīz) of the manna that used to come down on them. by expending it for the sake of God. in order to elevate His religion. and we will fight. since he is not of the tribe of monarchs or that of prophets. to them: ‘Might it be that (‘asaytum. the death of. an assembly. up to ten or seven hundred times or more. as will be mentioned. amply. in the Hereafter through the Resurrection. in God’s way’. and know that God is Hearing. after. the prophet. except a few of them. The meaning is. to them. and there can be no objection. Surely in that shall be a sign for you. and to Him you shall be returned. a chest containing the images of the prophets. that which they suffered at the hands of Goliath and his men. ‘Send. The prophet then asked his Lord to send forth a king. They said. as a result of these latter being taken captive or killed. that is good. as God says: therein is a Spirit of Peace. and the pieces of the broken tablets. [2:248] And their prophet said to them. [2:247] Then their prophet said to them. they turned their backs. of your affairs. ‘there will come to’). ‘God has chosen him over you. which were Moses’s pair of sandals and his staff. Aaron’s turban. you will not fight? (allā tuqātilū is the predicate of ‘asā. from fighting in cowardice. and which was handed down to them [sc. seeing he has not been given amplitude of wealth?’ which he can use to establish a kingdom.

the sundry miracles and the many special qualities. who restricted themselves to a scoop: it is reported that one scoop was enough for each man and his horse. and assuredly you are one of the Messengers [of God]. and these were the ones that crossed it. group of men. and he chose seventy thousand of their young men. and Wisdom. those who came after them. their communities. ‘How often (kam. ‘many’) a little company. he is also of my followers. at the Resurrection. substitutes for [saying] ba‘dan min al-nās. and confirmed him. Muhammad (s). are the verses of God We recite to you. and they numbered over three hundred. ‘a scoop’). But they drank of it. such as Moses. the ones who confined themselves to the one scoop. and mosques being destroyed. except a few of them. verses. and David. and they were cowardly and did not cross it. [2:253] Those (tilka is the subject) messengers (al-rusul is either an adjective or the predicate) some We have preferred above others. test. and the combination [of kingship and prophethood] had never come to anyone before him. that is. [2:249] And when Saul went forth with the hosts. in truth.sky while they gazed at it. when they reached it and saw that it was abundant. by repelling some by means of others. they. Jerusalem]. And We gave Jesus son of Mary the clear proofs. and whoever tastes it not. ‘God will try. by God’s leave. and He taught him such as He willed. who was among the ranks of Saul’s army. would not have fought against one another after the clear proofs had come to them. in order to distinguish the obedient among you from the disobedient. said. on account of his call being to all peoples. after the messengers. by strengthening our hearts for this struggle. [providing them] with help and assistance. and make firm our feet. by His will. ‘surely you are’]. because of their disagreement and their leading one another astray. functions as a predicate. is not of my followers. whoever drinks of it. and adhered firmly to his faith. pour out upon us patience. as 45  . [2:250] So. facing them in military columns. satisfying himself therewith and not taking more. meaning kathīr. and God gave him. strengthened him. the kingship. and some He raised in rank. ‘how’. namely. you. he is of me. by His will. between Jordan and Palestine. slew Goliath. namely. the ones that drank profusely. of its water. Those who thought. with idolaters defeating and slaying Muslims. but God is bounteous to all worlds. prophethood after the death of Samuel and Saul. until finally they placed it before Saul. the heat was intense and so they asked him for water. is not of me. ‘We have no power today against Goliath and his troops’. some there are to whom God spoke. he said. but they fell into variance. they said. and some disbelieved. said. the emphasis is made here with the particle inna [of innaka. except for him who scoops up with his hand’ (ghurfa. as narration. with the remainder of the statement being a rebuttal of the disbelievers’ saying. and when he crossed it. on account of the superiority of his community to all others. [no power] to fight them. with those who believed. of the manufacture of mail-coats and the speech of birds. with a river. by assigning a particular trait to one not found in the other. or gharfa. them. [2:252] These. has overcome a numerous one. that all people be guided. ‘You are no Messenger’. with certainty that. they would meet God. ‘Our Lord. ‘some’. ‘some people’) by means of others the earth would have surely been corrupted. when they went forth against Goliath and his troops. with the Holy Spirit. Had God not repelled people some (ba‘dahum. his being the Seal of the Prophets. O Muhammad (s). David. And had God willed. and God is with the patient’. over the Children of Israel. Gabriel who would accompany him wherever he went. that is. by the leave of God. and grant us victory over the disbelieving folk!’ [2:251] And they routed. they broke. as He willed. They then acknowledged his kingship and hastened to enlist in the [holy] struggle. from the Holy House [sc. and some of them believed.

resorting to a more sophisticated argument. for not respecting God’s command. and had God willed they would not have fought against one another (repeated here for emphasis). and God 46  . that is. the tight knot. ‘The seven heavens compared to the kursī are like seven silver coins lying in a metal shield [of armour]’. above His creation by virtue of His subjugation [of them]. none is there. the preserving of them. before there comes a day in which there shall be neither commerce. and they encompass nothing of His knowledge. He then had two men brought before him. Satan or idols (tāghūt. and what is after them. to inform of it by way of His messengers. Slumber does not seize Him. the One that creates life and death in bodies. so whoever disbelieves in the false deity. of what is said. therein they shall abide. there is no god. expend of what We have provided you with. in this for him. said: ‘God brings the sun from the east. the Great. shafā‘atun [as opposed to lā bay‘a. has laid hold of the most firm handle. His throne subsumes the heavens and the earth. except Him. of unbelief. namely. ‘Who is this Lord of yours to whom you are calling us?’. and believes in God. and makes to die’. that is. because of the fact. without His permission (a variant reading has all three nouns in nominative inflection bay‘un. and make to die’. those are the inhabitants of the Fire. He brings them forth from the shadows. that cannot be severed. those that disbelieve in God or in the obligations He has imposed on them — they are the evildoers. And the disbelievers — their protectors are false deities. unbreaking. Abraham. nor intercession. lā shafā‘ata]): this is the Day of Resurrection. that God had given him the kingship?. what is due of it as alms. the One constantly engaged in the management of His creation. it is also said that the kursī (‘throne’) itself subsumes them on account of its vastness. that is. God is Hearing. that shall intercede with Him save by His leave?. ransom. so bring. as possessions. said: ‘My Lord is He who gives life. perplexed and amazed. Rectitude has become clear from error. or as a reference to all those Jews who believed in the Prophet before he was sent. but then rejected him. entering into. to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth. he [Nimrod] said. is used in a singular and plural sense). helper. [2:257] God is the Protector. of the affairs of this world and the Hereafter. it from the west. [2:255] God. khullatun. into the light. the Eternal Sustainer. ‘disputed’) Abraham. in response to the other’s question. He knows what lies before them. giving success to whomever He will and disappointment to whomever He will. concerning his Lord. his arrogance towards this very grace of God: this was Nimrod (Nimrūd). save such as He wills.the Christians did after Jesus (al-Masīh). the Tremendous. that bring them forth from the light into the shadows: the repetition of ‘bringing forth from’ here is either to be taken as a reflection of His [previous] words. that is. When Abraham realised that this man was a fool. creation. but God does whatever He desires. “He brings them forth from the shadows”. the heavens and the earth. the Living. does not burden Him. Knowing. you. ‘I give life. that is say. [2:258] Have you not seen him who disputed with Abraham. that can be of any benefit. by sparing. as in the hadīth. religion. lā khullata.’ Then the disbeliever was confused. And the disbelievers. by killing. ‘false deity’. [2:254] O you who believe. wearies Him not. who is there. it is said that His knowledge encompasses them both. He is the Sublime. of the believers. of what is done. creatures and servants. of faith. that is to say. there is none worthy of being worshipped in [all] existence. [2:256] There is no compulsion in. neither sleep. killed one and spared the other. nor friendship. they know nothing of what He knows. When (idh is a substitution for hājja. through clear proofs it has become manifest that faith is rectitude and disbelief is error: this was revealed concerning the Ansār [of Medina] who tried to compel their sons to enter into Islam. the Everlasting.

its roof tops: after Nebuchadnezzar had destroyed it. he said. the cup of juice. turn them towards you. meaning ‘How We shall move it and make it stand’). those who deserve such multiplications. namely. to you. he saw that [the bones] had been reconstituted and clothed with flesh. and all the parts began to fly back together. despite the length of time (the final hā’ of yatasannah. the Holy House [sc. such as he. and look at your ass. collapsed. in His bounty. upon its turrets. and no fear shall befall them. challenging the power of the exalted One. disbelieving. God. making it bray. and injury. mention. then he raised him up. in the Hereafter. cut them up and mix together their flesh and feathers. [2:259] Or. He said. but it is also said to be silent. Ezra (‘Uzayr). through direct vision. [2:263] 47  . and was made dead and then brought back to life again at sunset. derived from the two expressions. brought him back to life to show him how this could be done. how it is. that God has power over all things’. nashara and anshara. in addition to that [certainty] which is sought through logical reasoning. in every ear a hundred grains: likewise what they expend will be multiplied seven hundred times. ‘Yes. in which case the root would be s-n-y. as a response to his request. with the knowledge of direct vision. and that the Spirit had been breathed into it. an eagle. We did this so that you would know and. [a city] that was fallen down. ‘How long have you tarried?’. to him. is as the likeness of a grain of corn that sprouts seven ears. I ask You. He. did you see. he said. so God made him die. the reward for their expenditure. thus making it a command from God). you have tarried a hundred years. how We shall set them up. Said He. been here?. it has not spoiled. or surhunna). do you not believe?’. to that person. that nothing is beyond Him. and so that the ones listening will know the purpose [of the request]. combining until they were whole and returning to their heads. God asks him this even though He knows of his belief in this [power]. in His actions. I do believe. so that We would make you a sign. to the art of argument. for example. ‘know!’. the figs. ‘I was good to him and restored his affairs’. said. when it was made clear to him. of those who expend their wealth in the way of God. a hundred years. And know that God is Mighty. Knowing. ‘I know (a variant reading for a‘lam. so God multiplies. said. that is. how We shall raise them back to life (nunshiruhā. then set a part of them on every hill. Look at your food. of the ass. is with their Lord. Jerusalem]. of [the truth of] the Resurrection. as a result of witnessing it. when Abraham said. he said. is said to belong to the original root. then summon them. ‘My Lord show me how You give life to the dead. has [the imperative] i‘lam. even more than this. ‘How (annā means kayfa. ‘such as he who’. riding on an ass and carrying with him a basket of figs and a cup of juice. a variant reading omits the final hā’). for the people. [2:260] And. for whom He will. and he saw that it had died. their wage. and then clothe them with flesh’. ‘how’) shall God give life to this now that it is dead?’. God. and thus he thought it was a day’s sleep. [2:262] Those who expend their wealth in the way of God then do not follow up their expenditure with reminder of their generosity. he said. in the land around you. exalted be He. And look at the bones. who (the kāf of ka’lladhī. and all that remained were its withered white bones. and they will come to you in haste.’. in obedience of Him. ‘I have tarried a day.guides not the folk who do evil. ‘Take four birds. and twist them to you (sirhunna. [so that it may be] at peace. of the one on whom they expended. and remain dead for. ‘to spoil’. and when he looked at it. or part of a day’. He called them. so that my heart may be re-assured’. a variant reading has nunshizuhā. s-n-h. God is Embracing. So. [2:261] The likeness. a raven and a cock and did with them as has been mentioned. Abraham took a peacock. by mentioning this to people whom he would prefer not to know about it. ‘but. and drink. by saying. ‘Nay. in My power to revive. is extra) passed by a city. ‘Why. or nanshiruhā. Wise’. ‘I know’. of the quality of the expenditure. but kept their heads with him. neither shall they grieve. because he fell asleep before noon.’ He.

of the expenditure. to realise the reward thereof. for him there is in it all manner of fruit. (tall. as. its fruits. after the rain has washed it away. likewise are the expenditures of those mentioned: they will increase with God. They have no power (lā yaqdirūna is a resumption of the statement about the likeness of the one that expends for show. [2:267] O you who believe. vanishes and how it is of no avail when he will be most in need of it in the Hereafter (the interrogative [ayawaddu. then a whirlwind (i‘sār are violent winds) with fire smites it. the vile. Laudable. if no torrent smites it. annul not. and makes him too weak to profit from it. upon a hill. so how do you expect to give what is due to God from this?. [2:264] O you who believe. and. since they do not believe in it. and forgiveness. smites it. means lā taqsudū) the corrupt. so that you might reflect. [2:265] But the likeness. and a torrent. this is the person who performs deeds of obedience. of date-palms and vines. in the manner of the annulment of the expenditure of. with rivers flowing beneath it. and to confirm themselves. the vile part. This is a similitude of how the expenditure of the one expending for show.Honourable words. they find no reward for it in the Hereafter. purify. it as alms (tunfiqūna. in the way that He has explained what has been mentioned. regardless of how much rain falls. he begins to work disobedience. towards him for his persistence. (read rabwa or rubwa) a high ground. of your expenditures. but they are weak. and know that God is Independent. for your expending. Forbearing. one who expends of his substance to show off to men and believes not in God and the Last Day: this is the hypocrite. In other words. ‘you expend’. until all his good deeds have been consumed. in His delaying the punishment of the reproachful and injurious one. so that he loses what he is most in need of. of property. of intense rain. is as the likeness of a garden. of it. ‘would any wish’] is intended as a denial). the above-mentioned. your voluntary almsgivings with reproach and injury. a torrent smites it and it yields. The likeness of him is as the likeness of a smooth rock on which is soil. in other words. According to Ibn ‘Abbās. in contrast to the hypocrites who do not hope for it. then old age smites him. ‘seek’). it grows and bears fruit. and God is Independent. the good things you have earned. and God sees what you do. without closing your eyes to it. is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the person of [the verb] tayammamū. kind talk and a generous reply to the beggar. of the voluntary almsgiving of His servants. yourselves. just as one finds nothing of the dust that was on the surface of the smooth rock. and smooth with nothing on it. [2:266] Would any of you wish to have a garden. and now he and his children have become incapacitated. and he has seed. regardless of how much they were. that they did. So. if you were given it as something due to you. twice the fruits of another [garden]. and it is consumed?. but when Satan comes to him. expend of. through reproach and deriding him for his begging. seeking God’s good pleasure. twofold. of grains and fruits. the person becomes plural on account of the [potential plural] implication of alladhī. the rewards of. its produce (read ukulahā or uklahā). ‘the one who’) over anything that they have earned. God makes clear the signs to you. the good things. and seek not (lā tayammamū. gives forth. are better than a voluntary almsgiving followed by injury. and leaves it barren. for you would never take it. by being careless and mindless. [2:268] 48  . or the one who reproaches [after having expended]. of those who expend their wealth. an orchard. that is to say. an orchard. God guides not the disbelieving folk. confused. and take heed. praised in every situation. of what We have produced for you from the earth. a light drizzle) which falls on it and suffices it on account of its altitude. without any resources. and He will requite you for it. then dew. young children who cannot manage it. that is.

but if you conceal them. you expend is for yourselves. as regards giving it to the poor. in disobedience to God. nothing of it being hidden from Him. the ignorant man supposes them. as sustenance from Him. and His bounty. the profitable knowledge that leads to [righteous] action. importunately. and will requite it accordingly. make manifest. but God promises you. yet none remembers (the tā’ of yadhdhakkar has been assimilated with the dhāl). and whatever good you expend. property. your evil deeds (read yukaffir. yukaffir. so that it serves as an example and so that one is not accused [falsely of not giving]. and fulfil. ‘voluntary almsgiving’). and whatever vow you make. being a supplement to the locus of fa-huwa. those who have confined themselves [in preparation] for the struggle: this was revealed concerning the people of Suffa. by making you fear [loss] when you make a voluntary almsgiving. this is obligatory. to whomever He will. and he who is given wisdom. that is to say. denoting a prohibition). whomever He will. it is a fine thing. rich because of their abstinence. and God is Embracing. since they are fully engaged in the struggle. possessors of intellects. but God guides. your supererogatory deeds. means safaran) in the land. who prevent almsgiving and vows. that is. they do not beg in the first place. and you will not be wronged. and enjoins you to indecency. to engage in commerce and earn their living. with His guidance. either in apocopated form [with no final vowel. be it as alms or a voluntary almsgiving. shall know them by their mark. that is to say. desiring only God’s Face (this clause is the predicate. so there is no question of persistence. [none] is admonished. Knowing. consisting in some four hundred of the Emigrants (muhājirūn). for then you are expending. God is aware of what you do. and give them to the poor. surely God knows it. and so you withhold it. it is better to make it manifest. [2:271] If you proclaim. but the people of pith. knowing its inner and outer aspects. and make urgent demands. [you are responsible] only for conveying the Message [to them]. because he will end up in perpetual bliss. or with nominative inflection [yukaffiru. ‘it will absolve’. or expend other than the way they should. His pardon. and they are unable to journey (darban. [2:273] For the poor (this is the predicate of the missing subject. shall be repaid to you in full. and will requite you for it. that is to say. nukaffir]. you will not suffer any diminishment of it (both [of the last two] sentences emphasise the first one). who are constrained in the way of God. ‘that is’. or nukaffir. since the reward is for you. they do not beg of men. your voluntary almsgivings. their refraining from asking for things. that is to say. [2:270] And whatever expenditure you expend. in His bounty. As regards the obligatory almsgiving. the one who expends. For the evildoers. that is even better for you. to show them. [2:272] When the Prophet (s) was prohibited from giving voluntary alms to idolaters [as an incentive] for them to embrace Islam. [2:269] He gives wisdom. to protect them from His chastisement. al-sadaqāt. 49  . that is. set apart [from the other Muslims] for the study of the Qur’ān and to take part in raids. to embrace Islam. surely God has knowledge of it. than making them manifest or giving it to the rich. has been given much good. some of. and it will absolve you of. that they should embrace Islam. by the signs of their humility and exertion. And whatever good you expend. the following was revealed: You are not responsible for guiding them. His reward and not any other transient object of this world.Satan promises you poverty. niggardliness and the impeding of almsgiving. ‘We will absolve’. its requital. that is. for people. nukaffiru]. indicating the beginning of a new sentence). on account of the way they behave. they have no helpers. for your sins. the one being addressed. but you. And whatever good. in return for your expenditure.

not being unjust. should be in difficulties. their wage awaits them with their Lord. which befalls them. wanted to reclaim some of the usury from before. is semantically connected to yaqūmūna. and forbidden usury. did you but know. then be warned. they say.[2:274] Those who expend their wealth night and day. by charging interest. by way of any diminution. tatasaddaqū. usury. secretly and openly. [if you know] that it is better for you. [2:278] O you who believe. and no fear shall befall them. but whoever reverts. do what you have been commanded. treating it like trade in terms of lawfulness — those are the inhabitants of the Fire. is better for you. abandon. ‘they rise’). increasing them. those made before the prohibition and which cannot be reclaimed from him. as one whom Satan has made prostrate. and no fear shall befall them. [those who] seize by way of. he shall have his past gains. with regard to pardoning him. you shall have your principal sums. ‘What power can we have in a war against Him!’ Yet if you repent. the original amounts. true to your faith. that. ‘usury is like trade’ is the expected word order]. When it was revealed. God responds to them saying that: God has permitted trade. have knowledge. any guilty. as reported by Muslim. profligate devouring it. till things are easier (read maysara or maysura. is because. since it is expected of the believer that he adhere to God’s command: this was revealed when some of the Companions. abiding therein. a voluntary almsgiving. of war from God. demented. then do it. ‘Whoever gives respite to one in difficulty. or waives his debt. if you are believers. has been assimilated with the sād). except. that is. God will place him under His shade. shall not rise again. neither shall they grieve. and His Messenger. from touch. and no injustice being done to you. [2:276] God effaces usury. and pay the alms — their wage awaits them with their Lord. respite. where the second tā’ of the softened form. ‘from touch’. of the fact that. He will requite. is committed to God. from devouring it. that is to say. they said. [2:277] Those who believe and perform righteous deeds. and his affair. diminishing it and eliminating any blessing in it. but that you should give (tassaddaqū. and establish the prayer. making them grow and multiplying their reward. which is an excess [levied] in transactions of money or foodstuffs either on their value or on credit. but He augments voluntary almsgivings with interest. and forgo it. meaning ‘a time of ease’). ‘Trade is like usury’. let him have. [2:275] Those who devour. in debt. neither shall they grieve. after the prohibition. fear God. Whoever receives an admonition from his Lord and desists. by waiving his debt. then. in terms of permissibility: this [statement] is a type of reversed simile used for intensity [sc. and give up. God loves not. a postponement. [through] madness (min al-mass. from their graves. who deems usury licit. against you: herein is a grave threat for them. ingrate. to devouring it. the one in difficulty. on a day when there shall be no shade except God’s’. the usury that is outstanding. In a hadīth it is said. [2:279] But if you do not. [2:280] And if any man. [2:281] 50  . rising.

in which case the nominal sentence is missing its subject. two witnesses. the debtor. to bear witness and take responsibility for the testimony. or weak. The provisions here are delegated (to the personal choice of the people involved). he should not be niggardly in this respect. when dictating. then one man and two women. nor should the creditor press them by charging them with what is not suitable for the testimony or the dictation. that is sinfulness. and let him fear God his Lord. ‘that’] has the conditional in. a squanderer. on account of their piety and probity. let 51  . to write it down. forgets the testimony. the creditor. plural of rahn) in hand. be it a parent. the date on which it is due (ilā ajlihi is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the [pronominal suffix] hā’ of taktubū-hu. and not diminish anything of it. ‘she will remind’. the debt. travelling and you contract a debt. ‘as’. ‘whenever’. so that she may be reminded if she errs or strays into error. when you are trading with one another. not up to dictating on account of old age or immaturity. is extra) they are summoned. a known. in what He commands and prohibits. ‘you write it down’). [that is] more helpful in summoning witness. of the debt due. and God knows all things. that which you have witnessed in truth (for this frequently occurred). for this is a better means of preventing dispute. or not knowing the language and so forth. because this [forgetfulness] is the cause of it (a variant reading [for an. and must be fully aware of his obligations. will remind her (read fa-tudhakkira or fa-tudhkira). be it. ‘refuse’). is more equitable. through any loss of a good deed or the incurring of an extra evil deed. men. and be not disdainful. if he is requested for such a task. be pressed. ‘you shall be returned’. that is. and let the debtor dictate. that is. what it has done of good or evil. given their lesser astuteness and accuracy. hiya. the other. for he is the one being witnessed. with regard to the amount and the due dates. as a guarantee for you. one upon another for a stated. what is in your best interests. whenever (the mā of idhā mā. ‘it [fem. to distorting [the agreement]. with [the verb inflected as] tudhakkiru. but the stipulation is made in the event of travel because in this case it is more important to have a guarantee. where writers may be forthcoming. namely. the requital of. writing down. ‘if’. or the active [tarji‘ūna] meaning ‘you shall return’). or if the two. the one in charge of his affairs. and must be the pronoun for tijāra. down. and you do not find a writer. the number of women is because of the fact. such witnesses as you approve of. just as He has given him the advantage of knowing how to write. a custodian or an interpreter. dictate justly. the one remembering. God teaches you (wa-yu‘allimukumu Llāhu. and let a writer write it. or unable to dictate himself. [that] there is. what it has earned. the contract of debt. the response to which [follows]). not increasing or decreasing the amount or the terms. ‘trade’. making it a new sentence. the creditor and the debtor. the merchandise itself. down between you justly. And let not either writer or witness. that. to bear witness. And if the debtor be a fool. and lack of truth. an executor. shall be paid in full. with its term. term. And fear God. [2:283] And if you are upon a journey. trusts another. unless it be. when you contract.And fear a day wherein you shall be returned to God. the Day of Resurrection (read the passive [turja‘ūna] meaning. pronoun]’) that you give and take between you. lazy. what is prohibited to you. on account of being dumb. trade carried out there and then (tijāratun hādiratun: a variant reading has tijāratan hādiratan. so let him write (repeated for emphasis). on that day. The Sunna clarifies the permissibility of making pledges in towns. a little or much. more upright for testimony. and to satisfy the pledgee or his representative. so that if one of the two women errs. and if you do. And summon to bear witness. over the debt and does not require a pledge. witnesses. because it contains the reminder. is an implied circumstantial qualifier or it denotes the beginning of a new clause). as confirmation and security against any dispute. mature Muslim free men. as God has taught him (the kāf of ka-mā. [2:282] O you who believe. and they shall not be wronged. then let his guardian. a debt. when you are dealing with. over it. then a pledge (ruhun or rihān. that is to say. such as in prepayment for (future) delivery of goods or a loan. And take witnesses. then you will not be at fault if you do not write it. is semantically connected to the verb ya’ba. without there being a timeframe. more just. God’s reference to it being ‘in hand’ (maqbūda) is a condition for the pledge given to be valid. to the one writing the contract. a rebellion against obedience. and every soul. in God’s sight. But if one of you. accurately. write it down. that is. and nearer. that is to say. being prevented from testimony or dictation. closer to attaining [the desired state] that you will not be in doubt. and let the witnesses not refuse. in you. the one that has forgotten — the ‘reminding’ clause is the reason [for the choice of two women]. and let not any writer refuse to write it down. be not men. small or great.

The petition here. Our Lord. by establishing definitive proof [for us] and victory over them in battle. believing in some and disbelieving in others. or err. if you are summoned to give it. kullu wāhidin]) believes in God and His angels. and they say. Medinese: [consisting of] 200 or 199 verses. of good and its reward. wa-yu‘adhdhib. effacing our sins. then. of obligations and trials. such as You did lay upon those before us. is a way of acknowledging God’s favour. whoever conceals it. namely. 52  . of evil and resolve for it. And do not conceal the testimony. affirms the truth of. an affair which we cannot bear. ‘we make no distinction between any of His messengers’. to chastise (both verbs are apocopated [fa-yaghfir. “Granted”. Whether you disclose. and pardon us. and forgive us. informing you of it on the Day of Resurrection. what was revealed to him from his Lord.him who is trusted. In a hadīth it is stated that when this verse was revealed and the Prophet (s) was reciting it. for it is what it has merited. of evil and its burden: no person shall be requited for another’s sin or for what he has not earned. we ask you: Your forgiveness. the Qur’ān. and His messengers. all of them and each of them. by way of chastisement. what it is capable of bearing. the paying of a quarter of one’s property for alms. even if he was tempted to do it. ‘We hear. by straying from the right path unknowingly — as You used to take to task those before us: God has lifted this [burden] from this community. take us not to task. our Lord. if we forget. in the manner of the Jews and the Christians. ‘the Messenger’). yu‘adhdhibu] in which case. his heart is sinful: the heart is mentioned because it is the locus of the testimony. Muhammad (s) believes in. ‘then He’). and the believers (wa’l-mu’minūna is a supplement to al-rasūlu. our Master and the Guardian of our affairs. the believers complained of evil whisperings and it grieved them that they should be taken to account according to [the principle expressed in] it. the return at the Resurrection. do not burden us beyond what we have the power. and have mercy on us. as reported in hadīth. ‘he will chastise’] if taken as the responses to the conditional. what we have been enjoined to hear and accept. and against it is what it has earned. nothing of which can be hidden from Him. And God has power over all things. upon the Children of Israel. and God knows what you do. and let him fear God his Lord. When the previous verse was revealed. to You is the homecoming’. the debtor. deliver his trust. to forgive. And they say. the killing of oneself in repentance. and chastise whom He will. namely. that is. there are other sinful consequences. and the severing of the impure part. so grant us assistance against the disbelieving folk. manifest. the strength. and because if it sins. and in His Books. but they may also be read with a final nominative inflection [yaghfiru. burden us not with a load. Say: Our Lord. to bear. ‘he will forgive’. for it is expected of a patron that he assist his clients against their enemies. and obey. [2:284] To God belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth. as for example. God shall take you to account for it. and so the following was revealed: [2:286] God charges no soul save to its capacity. and so the person will be punished as though he were a sinner. after each word it was said to him. our Lord. [2:285] The Messenger. what is in your hearts or hide it. the debt. it would [constitute a new clause and] follow on from an implicit fahuwa. ‘if you proclaim’. including reckoning with you and requiting you. with mercy added to Your forgiveness. that is. when delivering it. Then He will forgive whom He will. each one (the tanwīn of kullun stands in place of the second noun in an annexation [sc. and revealed after [sūrat] al-Anfāl. in tubdū. You are our Patron.

and others allegorical. as guidance (hudan. and none knows its interpretation. that it is from God. lucid in proof. they follow the allegorical part. the Eternal. the initial tā’ [of yatadhakkar] has been assimilated with the dhāl). the predicate of which is [what follows]) say. whereas the two Books were revealed in one instance). all. desiring sedition. ‘We believe in it. [3:5] Nothing. O Muhammad (s). [3:2] God! There is no god except Him. also say: 53  . Lord of Retribution. God specifies them [heaven and earth] because sensory perception does not go beyond these. meaning that its parts resemble each other in terms of beauty and veracity. who. white. yet none remembers (yadhdhakkar. the Qur’ān or any other [revelation]. with veracity. its explanation. There is no god except Him. a circumstantial qualifier meaning. the Living. but people of pith. and as 2) ‘allegorical’ [mutashābih]. As for those who disbelieve in God’s signs. is from our Lord’. As for those in whose hearts is deviation. save God. possessors of intellect. whose meanings are not known. He mentions this [Criterion] after He has mentioned the three Scriptures so that it encompasses all [revealed Scriptures] besides these. and He revealed the Criterion (al-furqān). the original basis for rulings. of Books. in His actions. among the ignorant of them. as males or females. 39:23]. in knowledge (al-rāsikhūna fī’l-‘ilm is the subject. so that nothing can prevent Him from effecting His promise and His threat. meaning the Scriptures that discriminate between truth and falsehood. And those firmly rooted. God is Mighty. such as the opening verses of some sūras. the Mighty. for them awaits a terrible chastisement. the Book. none is admonished. and nazzala for that of the Qur’ān. when they see those following that [allegorical part only]. throwing them into specious arguments and confusion. and we do not know its meaning. and He revealed the Torah and the Gospel [3:4] before. its explanation. enveloped. whatever is hidden in heaven and earth from God. on account of His knowledge of universals and particulars.(Al ‘Imrân) [3:1] Alif Lām Mīm: God knows best what He means by these [letters]. in what it announces. by the truth. black or otherwise. for the latter entails repetition. [3:7] He it is Who revealed to you the Book. 11:1]. [3:6] He it is Who forms you in the wombs as He will. ‘guides from error’) to people. the Qur’ān. [3:3] He has revealed to you. victorious in His affair. meaning that it contains no imperfections. forming the Mother Book. that is. and desiring its interpretation. of the clear and the allegorical. the like of which none can do. wherein are verses [that are] clear. where He says A Book consimilar [Q. inclination away from truth. in His Kingdom. confirming what was before it. that is to say. with a severe punishment for those that disobeyed Him. to those who followed these two [Books] (He uses the word anzala for the revelation of these two. He [God] refers to the whole [Qur’ān] as: 1) ‘clear’ [muhkam] where He says [A Book] whose verses have been made clear [Q. the Wise. no existent thing. before revealing it [the Qur’ān]. established and capable. the allegorical part. Him alone. hādiyīn.

such as is inappropriate for us — as You caused the hearts of those [others] to deviate — after You have guided us. with two horses. in obedience to Him. and mustered. as the way. in order to attain its reward. or wa-yuhsharūna. the disbelievers. or [read] sa-yughlabūn. and he mentioned that one of these would be when the Book is opened in front of them.[3:8] Our Lord. such as ‘Ād and Thamūd. and God granted them victory despite their fewer number. for you in two hosts. an example (the verb qad kāna. You shall gather mankind for a day. [after] You have shown us the way to it. The two Shaykhs [Bukhārī and Muslim] reported that ‘Ā’isha. more numerous than themselves. with His help whom He will. is used to separate [the statement to follow from the previous one]). [3:10] As for the disbelievers. ‘Do not fool yourself just because you killed a few men of Quraysh. from among the Jews. ([read] in both ways [wa-tuhsharūna. He destroyed them. two parties. and the. Al-Tabarānī reported in his al-Kabīr that Abū Mūsā al-Ash‘arī heard the Prophet (s) say. inexperienced and knowing nothing about fighting’. on the day of Badr. saw them. in manifest vision. He strengthens. and another unbelieving. numbering almost a thousand. ‘you will be mustered’. ‘I fear nothing for my community except three faults’. of which there is no doubt. ‘You shall be vanquished (sa-tughlabūn. ‘The Messenger of God (s) recited this verse: It is He Who revealed to you the Book. [an evil] resting place. “When you see those pursuing the allegorical parts. in [their] desire to interpret it. through being killed or taken captive and made to pay the jizya (which actually took place). to the disbelievers. ‘fuel’). as the habit. ‘they will be mustered’]). yet none remembers but people of pith’ [Q. namely. no uncertainty. that is. the Muslims. His promise of the Upraising: there is a shift of address here from the second [to the third] person and these [last words] could constitute God’s speech. so beware of them” ’. they. that met. which you shall enter — an evil cradling!’. ‘We believe in it. do not cause our hearts to deviate. whereupon the following was revealed: Say. communities of people before them. who numbered three hundred and thirteen men. witnessing. one another in battle. granting him victory. O Muhammad (s). God is severe in retribution. that is. and those firmly rooted in knowledge say. and the believer will desire to interpret it. of Pharaoh’s folk. verily God will not fail the tryst. [3:11] Their way is. who denied Our signs. 3:7] [end of the] hadīth. in the Hereafter. to Hell. may God be pleased with her. [they shall constitute] what the Fire will be fuelled by (read waqūd [as opposed to wuqūd]. for their sins (this statement explains the previous one). on a day. them against God. and said. six plates of armour and eight swords. and give us mercy from You. wherein are verses clear [to the end of] the verse. in this world. [against] His chastisement. You are the Bestower. will protect. that is. The purpose of their supplication in this way is to show that their concern is with the matter of the Hereafter. all is from our Lord. one company fighting in the way of God. for God confirms. most of them on foot. [know that] these are the ones God refers to [in this verse]. that is. save God. they said. do not cause them to incline away from the truth. when You will requite them for their deeds as You had promised. as a strengthening. after his return from Badr. twice the like of them. and for this reason they ask [God] for adherence to the path of guidance. ‘they shall be vanquished’). [3:9] Our Lord. [3:13] There has already been a sign. [3:12] When the Prophet (s) enjoined the Jews to enter into Islam. neither their riches nor their children will avail. the Day of Resurrection. Surely in 54  . those — they shall be fuel for the Fire. the Prophet and his Companions. God seized them. as the eye sees. and yet none knows its interpretation. said. ‘there has been’.

and those of knowledge. others rejecting it. and the angels. [3:16] Those (alladhīna is either an adjectival qualification of. but God — with Him is the more excellent abode. in their faith. some affirming God’s Oneness. (qā’iman. and God is Seer. For those that are fearful. of His servants. is submission [to the One God]. none that is truly worshipped in existence. (al-islām). when they enter it. that is to say. [3:19] Lo!. or a substitution for. the Divine Law with which the messengers were sent. that there is no god. the Jews and the Christians. is in the accusative because it is a circumstantial qualifier and is governed by the import of the statement [implied to be something like] tafarrada. ‘Shall I tell you. stored-up heaps of gold and silver. compliant before God. constantly and uniquely maintaining His creations with justice. sc. cows and sheep. so forgive us our sins. and for this reason one should desire none other than this [abode]. the cultivation of land. shahida Llāhu … anna l-dīna ‘inda Llāhi l-islām. [3:17] The patient. that is. ‘God bears witness that religion with God is Islām]). in religion. [3:18] God bears witness. ‘Lord. of idolatry. but then perishes. of something better than that?. O Muhammad (s) to your people. decreed for them [therein] is eternal life. the religion with God. camels. in You and in Your Prophet. in His actions. by saying. He has borne witness to this. obedient. Our Lord. That. ‘those’]). those who are discerning: so will you not be warned by this and become believers? [3:14] Beautified for mankind is love of lusts. imploring God’s pardon. God is swift at reckoning. namely. in obedience and against disobedience (al-sābirīna. through [their] conviction and in words. is the comfort of the life of this world. we believe. forgive us’ at daybreak’. of menstruation and other impurities. [that] which has been mentioned of lusts (this interrogative is meant as an affirmative). 55  . And whoever disbelieves in God’s signs. [that is to say] He has made it clear to His creation through proofs and signs. that which the self lusts after and calls for. and guard us from the chastisement of the Fire”. beautified by Satan. place of return. cattle. as an inclusive substitution for annahu to the end [of that verse. of Oneness. horses of mark. requiting each of them according to his deeds. the Wise. differed. the subject being [the following jannātun…]’) are Gardens underneath which rivers flow. fine [horses]. or by God as a test — of women. which is mentioned. came to them through transgression. ‘He alone is [upholding]…’). ‘the patient’. of charity. founded upon the affirmation of God’s Oneness (a variant reading [for inna. shall I inform you. which is mentioned. except Him. upholding. singled out here for mention because it is the time of unawareness and of the joy of sleep. enjoyed while it lasts. and beatitude (read ridwān or rudwān. meaning ‘much pleasure’) from God. and spouses purified. [3:15] Say. there is no god except Him (He has repeated it for emphasis). on the part of the disbelievers. abiding therein. pleasing [to Him]. at requiting him. among themselves. with their Lord (‘inda rabbihim is the predicate. the Mighty. ‘that’. and tillage. which is Paradise. Those who were given the Scripture. the previous alladhīna) who say: “O. expenders.that. ‘upholding’. only after the knowledge. knower. truthful. is an adjectival qualification [of alladhīna. in His Kingdom. in the last part of the night. is a lesson for people of vision. [have also borne witness to this] by affirming it. children. from among the prophets and the believers. ‘lo!’] has anna.

‘then. what good they did in the way of charity and kindness to kin. that is to say. that is. dispute with you. [3:23] Have you not seen those who were given a portion. that it might decide between them. your duty is only to deliver. no uncertainty. ‘being called’. because they said. that is. to Islam. since these [works] are of no consequence. in yakfurūna. the requital of. and slay those who enjoin to equity. but they [the Jews] refused to do so. [3:24] That. and so the two were stoned. and no evil deed shall be increased. [what] it has done of good or evil. and then a party of them turned away. for forty days [only]. that is. fabashshirhum. they have been guided. is also read as yuqātilūna. to justice. the Message. ‘the lies which they used to invent’). So give them good tidings. ‘it has deluded them in their religion’. [3:26] 56  . after which it would end. its relative clause. shall not be wronged?. This was revealed concerning the Jews: two of them fornicated and they [the Jews] asked the Prophet (s) to adjudicate the case. of a painful chastisement. is a circumstantial qualifier). for the other [parts of the body] will just as soon [surrender once the countenance has]). and to the uninstructed. have failed. When the Torah was brought and consulted. let them know. on a day. and say to those who have been given the Scripture. ‘Submit!’ And so if they have submitted. the Arab idolaters: ‘Have you submitted?’. that is to say. except for a number of days’. who are reported to have killed forty–three prophets and to have been forbidden this by a hundred and seventy devout worshippers among them. being called to the Book of God (yud‘awna. and so they have nothing to reckon with. [no] protectors from the chastisement. say. concerning religion. what is has earned. from among the People of the Scripture and others. is chosen here because of its noble character. is semantically connected to mā kānū yaftarūna. shall be paid in full. so give them good tidings] is considered part of the predicate of inna because its noun. and every soul. ‘the Fire shall not touch us. and whoever follows me’ (wajh. ‘if they disbelieve…’. when We gather them for a day. the same verdict was found. [3:25] But how will it be. turning away and rejection was. ‘they fight against’) the prophets without right. and these are the Jews. the Day of Resurrection. of which there is no doubt. He ruled that they be stoned. each of whom was killed immediately. [whose works] are invalid. of the Book. a share. the Jews and the Christians. people. from error. and so requites them for their deeds — this [statement] was [revealed] before the command to fight [them] had been revealed. in that no good deed shall be diminished. [that is to say] I have submitted to Him. to them: ‘I have surrendered my countenance to God. ‘countenance’. their predicament. in their saying this. [3:21] Those who disbelieve in the signs of God and slay (yaqtulūna. but they [the Jews] became wrathful. and the lies they used to invent. and they. the length of time their forefathers worshipped the calf. and God sees His servants. give them good tidings…’]). they have no helpers. I. that is. The use of ‘good tidings’ here is meant as a sarcastic ridicule of them (the fā’ [of fa-bashshirhum.[3:20] So if they. O Muhammad (s). the disbelievers. have deluded them in their religion (wagharrahum fī dīnihim. in this world and the Hereafter. but if they turn their backs. [3:22] Those are the ones whose works. the Torah. resembles a conditional [sc. opposed? to the acceptance of its rulings.

God warns you. as a safeguard (tuqātan. and You abase whom You will. whom You will without reckoning’. as regards the sins. instead of. God warns you of His Self (this is repeated for emphasis). from sperm-drops and eggs [respectively]. into the day and You make the day to pass. and this includes punishing those who patronise them. God loves not the disbelievers. in your hearts. rather than. or disclose it. the sperm-drop and the egg. of patronage to them. that is. Merciful. Say: ‘O God. [unless] you fear something. such as humans and birds. with abundant provision. and forgive you your sins. of His Self. [whoever] takes them as patrons. and God is Able to do all things. and God is Kind to His servants. and to God is the journey’s end. to him. the following was revealed: Say. from among your creatures. by seizing it from him. to them: ‘Obey God. knows what is in the heavens and what is in the earth. in Your power. into the night. and what it has done of evil (the [last statement constitutes the] subject. that is. follow me. [3:33] 57  . [if they] object to obedience. is the verbal noun from taqiyyatan). an extremely lengthy distance so that it [the evil] could never reach it. God is Forgiving. and You provide. God knows it and. each of them increasing by the amount by which the other decreases. ‘We only worship idols out of our love for God. meaning that He will reward you. in which case you may show patronage to them through words. by giving it [the kingdom] to him. O Muhammad (s). and He will requite you. to enter. and You bring forth the dead. [3:30] And remember. and the Messenger’. [3:28] Let not the believers take the disbelievers as patrons. by one who [now] follows me. you give the Kingdom to whom You will. that they might bring us close to Him’. and seize the Kingdom from whom You will. from the living. and so the following was revealed. it will wish that between it and that there were a great distance. [3:32] Say. and God will love you. does not belong to. [3:29] Say. [3:31] When they said. the religion of. is good. the return. But if they turn their backs. You bring forth the living from the dead. [3:27] You make the night to pass. ‘as a safeguard’. that is to say. to enter. God in anyway — unless you protect yourselves against them. in Your hand. as well as evil. manifest it. You exalt whom You will. as regards the [belief in the] Oneness of God which he enjoins upon you. Master of the Kingdom. the predicate of which is [what follows]). He. ‘If you love God. to them: ‘Whether you hide what is in your breasts. ‘How preposterous!’. committed previously. He instills fear in you. [warning] that He may be wrathful with you if you take them as patrons. that is. the hypocrites said. the day every soul shall find what it has done of good present before it. the believers — for whoever does that. You are Able to do all things. meaning that He will chastise them (the [third person] pronominalisation [‘they’] is replaced by the overt noun [‘the disbelievers’]).When the Prophet (s) promised his community sovereignty over the lands of Persia and Byzantium. but not in your hearts: this was before the hegemony of Islam and [the dispensation] applies to any individual residing in a land with no say in it.

abundant provision. while she would not be suitable on account of her lesser physical ability. drink and oil. her private parts. ‘Whence comes this to you?’ She. ‘I gave birth’ [making these Hanna’s words. a girl.’ he said. ‘O. Zachariah prayed to his Lord. and made her grow excellently. I have given birth to a female’ — and God knew very well what she had given birth to: a parenthetical statement constituting God’s speech (a variant reading [for wada‘at. of petition. all twenty nine of them departed to the River Jordan. without consequence. of intentions. with gracious acceptance. since only males were consecrated to the service of God. and Zachariah took charge of her. except for Mary and her son’. [3:36] And when she gave birth to her. ‘O. The others said. and with those of his family line all deceased. ‘Imrān died while she was still pregnant. that she had asked for. he took her to him (a variant reading [of kafalahā. Whenever Zachariah went into the sanctuary. after she had reached old age and longed for a child. when Zachariah had seen this and realised that the One with power to bring something about in other than its [natural] time. ‘No. He sends it to me from Paradise. the effects of menstruation on her. ‘Lord. the most noble seat [in the temple]. He received Mary from her mother. Lord. and none apart from him went up to her. for whomever He will without reckoning’. You what is within my womb as a consecration. Thus. by making prophethood reside in [them and] their progeny: [3:34] the seed of one. She would grow in a day by as much as a new-born grew during a year. He took [charge of] her and built for her a gallery-room with a ladder in the temple. said. where she was. and winter fruits in summer. above the worlds. He has chosen. to protect them from the accursed. she said. or Zakariyyā. Her mother took her to the priests. when he entered the sanctuary to pray in the middle of the night. sc. with Zakariyyā’. has wada‘tu. ‘he took charge of her’] is kaffalahā. and would find her with summer fruits in winter. said. and she had been hoping for a boy. for. because she was the daughter of their religious leader. You are the Hearer of. as reported by the two Shaykhs [Bukhārī and Muslim]. In a hadīth [it is stated]: ‘Every new-born is touched by Satan and begins [life] by crying. verily. is able to bring about a child in old age. where they cast their quills. He used to bring her food. ‘From God. ‘she gave birth’. that was bestowed upon her. [one] liberated and delivered from the distractions of this world for the service of Your Holy House [in Jerusalem]. I have vowed to. [3:38] Then. 58  . that is. ‘O Mary. Abraham and ‘Imrān]. because he is designed for the service [of God]. God is Hearer. the Knower. the room. of them. at which point Zachariah said. her children. in the accusative and ‘God’ as the subject of the verb). Knower. and commend her to You with her seed. offspring from. when the wife of ‘Imrān. Lo! It is You Who are the Hearer. Adam and Noah and the House of Abraham and the House of ‘Imrān. and supplicated to God and sensed that she was carrying child. and so on. Accept this from me. Hanna. bestow upon me from You a goodly offspring. He made her grow up with excellent character. he found her with provisions. a righteous son. ‘He [God] gave Zachariah charge of her’.’ ‘Truly God provides. is not as the female. her maternal aunt lives with me’. apologetically. another. ‘I am most worthy of her. agreeing that the one whose quill remained fast and floated to the surface of the water would be most worthy of [being guardian over] her. meaning [He preferred] their selves [sc. the keepers of the Holy House [of Jerusalem] and said: ‘This here before you is the dedication [I offered]’. saying. that is. They competed for [guardianship of] her. [3:35] Mention. Satan’. just as God says. the outcast. Lord. Zachariah’s quill remained fast [and surfaced]. [3:37] Her Lord accepted the child. still very young. the male. [not until] we have cast lots’. offer. ‘and God knows very well what I have given birth to’]).Lo! God preferred. ‘And I have named her Mary.

Gabriel. the custom is to attribute the child to its father. through [his] intercession and the high stations [al-darajāt al-‘ulā. ‘Be’. the matter. that he is God’s Spirit. perform prayer. a boy. O Muhammad (s). at the end of the day and at its beginning. namely. which has been mentioned of the matter of Zachariah and Mary. with God creating a boy from both of you. and in order to manifest this great power he was inspired with the question so that he would be answered through it [this great power]. and the Hereafter. We reveal it to you. namely. an indication of my wife’s pregnancy. be compliant before Him. [3:45] Mention. Gabriel. for three days. Gabriel. ‘So it. in the water. honoured shall he be in this world. ‘Your sign. Jesus. the inhabitants of your time. and made you pure. [3:40] He said. standing in the sanctuary. when the angels. about the custodianship of Mary. He said. and a prophet of the righteous’: it is said that he never sinned and never so intended. at evening and dawn’. that is. ‘God does what He will’. a lord. that is. whose name is the Messiah. when they were disputing. of the touch of men. for. ‘My Lord! Appoint for me a sign’. He addresses her attributing him to her in order to point out that she will give birth to him without a father. [3:39] And the angels. nothing can prevent Him therefrom. to God. when they were casting quills. He has elected you. will be’. of the news of what was unknown to you. when old age has overtaken me. is that you shall not speak to men. and my wife is barren?’. because he was created through the word kun. 120 years [old]. namely. Mary. being. nor were you with them. He said. that is. and nights. but not from remembrance of God. which of them should have charge of. [3:42] And. And when his soul longed for the swift fulfilment of that of which good tidings had been given: [3:41] He said. that is. gestures. he is referred to as [God’s] ‘Word’. prostrating and bowing with those who bow’. God gives you good tidings of a Word from Him. mention. forbidden from women. cf. be obedient to your Lord. son of Mary. Q. 20:75]. you shall refrain from speaking to them. drawing their lots so that it be manifested to them. and one chaste. and glorify. when the angels. through prophethood. means bi-anna. [3:44] That. ‘O Mary. from God. for this. [after] I have reached extreme [old] age. save by tokens. at worship that (anna. who shall confirm a Word. And remember your Lord often. [which of them should] bring up. having reached the age of 98. [3:43] O Mary. in the temple. said. is of the tidings of the Unseen. such that you might have known it and related it. but truly you know it only through revelation. a variant reading has inna. namely. God has preferred you. pray with those who pray. a son. that is.[You are] the One Who answers. supplication’. ‘O Mary. implying a direct speech statement) ‘God gives you good tidings (read yubashshiruka. ‘My Lord! How shall I have a boy. [3:46] 59  . Jesus. with a following. for you were not with them. and of those brought close. or yubshiruka) of John. that is. said. He has preferred you above all women of the worlds. called to him.

son of Noah. has innī. ‘something like the shape of’: the kāf is the subject of a passive participle) then I will breathe into it (fīhi. when God sent him to the Children of Israel. [and] ‘he is’. [3:51] Surely God is my Lord and your Lord. exalted be He. that is. and what you treasure up. being the most perfectly-created of birds. and what I have never seen. I will inform you too of what things you eat. it is also said that he made it all lawful for them. is a straight path’. ‘I have come to you with a sign. the [suffixed] pronoun [-hi] refers to the [preceding] kāf). I have come to you with a sign from your Lord. he said to them. ‘Lord. So he created for them a bat. What happened to her after this is mentioned later in sūrat Maryam [Q. ‘It is such. and. He said. and he would inform people what they had eaten and what they would eat. Surely in that. ‘truly I’. fifty thousand in one day on the condition that each person would become a believer. means. ‘I am God’s Messenger to you’. and the Gospel. so that ba‘d. and obey me. and to make lawful for you some of that which was forbidden to you. willing its creation. is a sign for you. by the leave of God — He repeats this to preclude any false attributions of divinity to him — he brought back to life his friend ‘Āzar. or. mentioned. Jesus] may be distinguished from the work of the Creator. and he cured. is also read tā’iran) by the leave. if you are believers. that is. But they rejected him and did not believe in him. I have come to you. that which I enjoin upon you. 19:21ff]. [3:52] 60  . it would fall dead — so that the work of a creature [sc. through supplication. from your Lord. and the daughter of the tithe-collector. the will. and it is. script. I will create (a variant reading for [the particle introducing the relative clause] annī. the son of an old woman. but he died [again] immediately. Thus he made lawful for them fish and birds which had no spikes. and he is of the righteous’. This. Gabriel breathed into the opening of her garment and she became pregnant. during his tender years. [3:48] And We will teach him (read nu‘allimuhu. so worship Him. indicating a new [independent] sentence) [that] I will fashion. I will also heal the blind (akmah is one that is blind from birth) and the leper. wisdom. and it will be a bird (tayran. ‘all’). and I bring to life the dead. for you out of clay like the shape of a bird (ka-hay’at. namely. in what I command you of affirming God’s Oneness and being obedient to Him. and the Torah. an indication of my truthfulness. and [he also brought back to life] Shem. confirming that which was before me of the Torah. God. and they would watch it flying. ‘that I’. in your houses. and that he might know that perfection belongs to God [alone]. [3:49] And He will make him. and it is that. these two are singled out for mention because with both afflictions the person is completely helpless. ‘some’. [3:47] She said. the command. ‘He will teach him’) the Book. in it. God creates what He will. Thus. all of whom lived on and produced offspring. that God will create from you a child without a father. yu‘allimuhu. that is to say. When He decrees a thing. He says to it only: “Be”. but when it went out of sight. store. of God. He [Jesus] was sent in an age of [characterised by] medicinal science. He has repeated it for emphasis and to expand upon it: so fear God. kull. how shall I have a child when no mortal has touched me?’. and in his manhood.He shall speak to mankind in the cradle. neither through conjugality or otherwise. as a child before the age of speech. [3:50] Likewise. to be a messenger to the Children of Israel. or after puberty.

by casting the likeness of Jesus onto the person who intended to kill him. The disciples said. schemed. and God is the best of schemers. remembrance. He then said to her. until the Day of Resurrection. [3:53] Lord. He will pay them in full (yuwaffīhim. ‘Verily. ‘of verses’ is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the [suffixed pronoun] hā’ of natlūhu. as regards religion. namely. their disbelief. before he was raised and afterwards. through being killed. O Jesus. in the Fire. they shall have no helpers. while Jesus was raised up into heaven. those Christians and Muslims who believed in your prophethood. [They were] twelve men who were of pure white complexion (hawar). ‘O Jesus. Then to Me shall be your return. that is. he said. and he will die and have prayers performed over him. seizing you. we accept the truth of. taken captive and made to pay the jizya. [he will remain for] forty years. we believe in what You have revealed. ‘Who will be my helpers. In a hadīth recorded by Muslim.And when Jesus sensed. [3:55] And mention. and I will decide between you. God. of the Gospel. to Your Oneness and to the truthfulness of Your Messenger. unto God?’. It is possible that what is meant [by the forty years] is the total time he will have spent on earth. he will remain for seven years. but some say that they [were called hawāriyyūn because they] were bleachers of clothes (qassārūn). ‘this’). the disbelievers among the Children of Israel. those who disbelieved. The two Shaykhs [Bukhārī and Muslim] narrate a hadīth [in which it is stated] that he [Jesus] will descend when the Hour is nigh and will rule according to the Law of our Prophet [Muhammad]. [3:56] As for the disbelievers. we believe in. departing. I am gathering you. namely. It is reported that God. and so they killed him. who do righteous deeds. the Resurrection shall bring us together again’. the Jews. but his mother clutched to him in tears. God loves not the evildoers. I will chastise them with a terrible chastisement in this world. that we have submitted. what is mentioned of the matter of Jesus. witness. narrate to you. inscribe us therefore with those who bear witness’. and I am cleansing you of. and they plotted to kill him. break the cross and impose the jizya. when he was thirty three years old. and that he will slay the false messiah and the swine. and I am setting those who follow you. clear. [3:54] God says: And they. sent him [Jesus] a cloud which raised him up. We recite to you. the Qur’ān (min al-āyāt. becoming above them through [definitive] argument and the sword. and raising you to Me. and the Hereafter. [when] he became aware of. those who assist His religion: they were Jesus’s intimates and the first to believe in him. according to Abū Dāwūd al-Tayālisī. O Muhammad (s). and God schemed. 61  . above those who disbelieved. of verses and wise. [3:57] But as for the believers. removing you far away from. and its operator is the demonstrative import of dhālika. He will chastise them. [3:58] This. none to protect them from it. This took place on the Night of Ordainment (laylat al-qadr) in the Holy House [of Jerusalem]. when God said. in you. ‘We will be helpers of God. against Jesus. to help His religion. and we follow the Messenger. exalted be He. away from the world without death. is also read nuwaffīhim. His mother lived on after him for six years. as to what you were at variance about. most knowledgeable of him [Jesus]. ‘We will pay them in full’) their wages. by assigning someone to assassinate him. Jesus.

so that it convinces the disputer and establishes itself in one’s mind more effectively. and it was only after these two were revealed that Jewry and Christianity came into being. as the case of Adam. disputes with you concerning him. which is [implied to be] amr ‘Īsā [‘the matter concerning Jesus’]). a human being. When they went to see the Prophet (s). There is no god but God.’. Jews and Christians. after him. they would have gone home and found neither possessions nor family’. a very long time. of dust. then let us humbly pray and invoke God’s curse upon those who lie’. neither the Gospel. curse the one that tells lies concerning the affair of Jesus’. According to Ibn ‘Abbās [the Prophet] said. ‘When I supplicate. claiming that he belonged to one of your [two] religions. and that every people that has ever challenged a prophet to a mutual imprecation has been destroyed’. Fātima and ‘Alī. the report free of any doubt. is the true story. as reported by Abū Nu‘aym. [3:63] And if they turn their backs. ‘that…not’) and that we do not associate anything with Him. ‘Let us think about it and we will come back to you’. when the Torah was not revealed. ‘[a word] regarding which the matter is upright’) between us and you. those who are uncertain about it. and it is. They said. ‘Be’ — without a father — and he was. you say ‘Amen’. He said to Jesus. [that we are of] those who affirm the Oneness of God. meaning mustawin amruhā. and he was. and assuredly God is Mighty. is as Adam’s likeness. [3:62] This. be not of those who waver. assuredly God knows the agents of corruption. ‘You know that he is a prophet. in His Kingdom. the falsehood of what 62  . in rejection of God’s Oneness. ‘the agents of corruption’]). and the Christians made a similar claim. after the knowledge. rejecting faith. is the verbal noun. The judicious one among them said. the following was revealed: O People of the Scripture! Why do you argue about. but they refrained from this mutual imprecation and made peace with the Prophet on the condition that they pay the jizya. al-Husayn. of his affair. It is also reported that had they set out with this intention. He created him. They left him and departed. in His actions. whom God created without father or mother: this is a comparison of one remarkable thing with another more remarkable. that has come to you. beside God’.[3:59] Truly. say. he said to them [the Najrān delegation]. similarly. our selves and your selves. Wise. who had set out with al-Hasan. [3:60] The truth is from your Lord (al-haqqu min rabbik. and do not take each other for lords. dispute over. to them: ‘Come! Let us call our sons and your sons. from among the Christians. ‘Had they set out and performed the mutual cursing. and if they turn their backs. the predicate of a missing subject. ‘Be. and will requite them (here the [third person] pronominalisation has been replaced with the overt noun [al-mufsidūn. [3:61] And whoever. as you have taken rabbis and monks. [3:65] When the Jews claimed that Abraham was Jewish and that they were following his religion. his remarkable case. come now to a word agreed upon (sawā’. say. The Prophet (s) had called upon the Najrān delegation to do this when they disputed with him about Jesus. his form. you to them: ‘Bear witness that we have submitted’. they would have been consumed by fire. but. that is. by saying: ‘Lord. mentioned above. Adam. do you not comprehend?. in God’s sight. the likeness of Jesus. and gather them together. Abraham?. our wives and your wives. What. that we worship none but God (allā is [made up of] an-lā. [3:64] Say: ‘O People of the Scripture!. then said He to him.

that is. the believers. might then turn back. [3:68] Surely the people with the best claim. Abraham in truth was not a Jew.you say? [3:66] Lo! (hā. so that they. [3:71] O People of the Scripture! Why do you confound. and he was never of the idolaters. concerning the affair of Moses and Jesus. ‘do not believe’) anyone should be given the like of what you have been given. yet they cause none to stray. the Qur’ān. [3:69] When the Jews called Mu‘ādh [b. and conceal the truth. that is Islam. and those who believe. is the subject) are those (the predicate is [what follows]) who dispute about what you know. they are the ones that ought to say. accords with. because the sin for their leading [others] astray falls upon them. [why do] you mix. when you yourselves bear witness?. from whom the exclusion is being made. his circumstances. at the end of it. ‘lo’. the Jews. says. al-Yamān] and ‘Ammār [b. truth with falsehood. ‘Believe in what has been revealed to those who believe. from his [Muhammad’s] religion. ‘anyone’. and of the virtues (the term ahad. and not you. the descriptions of the Prophet. your religion’. ‘in one who’. their Helper and Preserver. and God is the Protector of the believers. and a hanīf. neither a Christian. Yāsir] to [join] their religion. Say. ‘the like of what you have been given’. and you know not. except themselves. wisdom. Abraham are those who followed him. that includes all the descriptions of Muhammad (s). 63  . [3:73] And they also said: And do not believe except in one who (the lām of li-man. God. is extra) follows. and that they [the believers] will then say: these [Jews] are knowledgeable and they could only have turned away from it after accepting it because they know it to be false. [when] you know that it is the truth. to some among them. but they are not aware. exalted be He. at the beginning of the day. said: No. precedes that which is being excluded. of this. in order to dissociate Abraham [from their claims]. by distorting and falsifying [scripture]. ‘We follow his religion’. who inclined away from all other religions towards the upright one. the Qur’ān. of Abraham’s circumstances. and your claim to be adhering to their religions: why do you then dispute concerning that of which you have no knowledge?. everything else being error (this statement is parenthetical) — that (an [and what follows] is the direct object of the verb wa-lā tu’minū. that it is the truth? [3:72] A party of the People of the Scripture. Jabal]. Muhammad (s) on account of his according with him as regards most [of the rulings] of his Law. while the believers do not heed them in this. to them. O Muhammad (s): ‘True guidance is God’s guidance. while you know?. and this Prophet. [3:67] God. [3:70] O People of the Scripture! Why do you disbelieve in God’s verses. and God knows. in it. and disbelieve. say. the following was revealed: There is a party of the People of the Scripture who yearn to make you go astray. professing the Oneness of God. during his time. is for calling attention to something). from among his community. You (antum. Hudhayfa [b. but he was a Muslim. most worthy of. ‘you’. of the Book.

that is. while they know. on the Day of Resurrection. [3:74] He singles out for His mercy whom He will. by refraining from disobedience and performing deeds of obedience. of ample bounty. ‘We have no duty towards. and [God’s covenant with them] regarding one that swears an oath to a falsehood when bearing witness or when selling merchandise: Those that sell. [the Jews say do not believe] that another has been given the like of it. for they considered it lawful to be unjust towards any person of a different religion. He gives it to whomever He will. unless you keep standing over him. before your Lord’. the extra hamza denoting rebuke) in other words. if you trust him with a hundredweight. like Ka‘b b. of God. on account of his trustworthiness. the like of ‘Abd Allāh b. and has fear. for truly God loves the God-fearing: ‘He loves them’ means that He will reward them (the overt noun [al-muttaqīn. namely. that God revealed. and they speak falsehood against God. as was the case with Ka‘b b. with them that they believe in the Prophet and return faithfully what has been entrusted to them. cleanse them. alAshraf. should dispute with you. that they are liars. ‘such that’. God’s covenant. for you have the sounder religion (a variant reading has a-an. but whoever fulfils his covenant. if you trust him with one dinar. [no] lot. those who deserve it. [3:76] Nay. altering it by reciting it not according to the way in which it was revealed. there shall be no share. the People of the Scripture. but according to the way in which they have distorted it. Say: ‘Surely bounty is in God’s Hand. he will deny it. [3:77] The following was revealed with regard to the Jews when they distorted the descriptions of the Prophet (s) and God’s covenant with them in the Torah. and they attributed [the source of] this conviction to God. for as soon as you leave him. the Gentiles’. the believers. that they are liars. says. ‘It is from God’. he will return it to you. as part of the Book. ‘the God-fearing’] has replaced the [third person] pronominalisation). which he then returned to him. such distortion. by attributing such things to Him. exchange. and theirs will be a painful chastisement. [that they should] prevail over you. not leaving him for one minute. out of wrath against them. with much money.the meaning being: ‘Do not affirm that anyone should be given this unless they follow your religion’). They speak falsehood against God. [3:79] When the Christians of Najrān claimed that Jesus had commanded them to take him as a Divinity. as in the case of the descriptions of the Prophet (s) and other similar matters. by restoring a trust and other such things. there is a duty incumbent over them in this regard. yet it is not part of the Book. on account of his treachery. That. exalted be He. for them in the Hereafter. or that they. exalted be He. and God shall not speak to them. Knowing. [3:78] And there is a group. their invoking God’s name in mendacity. God. [no possibility of acquiring] sin because of. yet it is not from God. on the Day of Resurrection. nor look upon them. while they are aware. to whom a man from Quraysh entrusted a dinar and later denied it. so how can you say that no one else will be given what you have been given? God is Embracing. of this world. and some 64  . such that you might affirm it. who twist their tongues with the Book. of them. al-Ashraf. so that you may suppose it. the one he has made or the covenant of God. and they say. for a small price. God. and of them is he who. says. [3:75] And of the People of the Scripture is he who. [nor] have mercy upon them. and their own oaths. nor will He purify them. refusal to return things. exalted be He. the Arabs. will not return it to you. Salām to whom a man entrusted 1200 plates of gold. is because they say. a party. God is of bounty abounding’.

from their Lord. and emphasising the aspect of the oath in this ‘making of the covenant’. [3:82] Then whoever turns his back. to denote a new clause. ‘you teach’) of the Book and in what you study’. in the way that the Sabaeans have taken the angels. ‘What (if read lamā. [3:81] And. by the sword and by seeing what it [such refusal] results in. He. and to Him we submit’. the latter’s sons. My covenant. the Prophet (s). ‘lord’. it would then be connected to the verb akhadha. when God made a covenant with the prophets. it would be introducing a subject clause. covenant. we make no division between any of them. as a superlative [of rabbiyyūn]). ‘We affirm’. ātaynākum. [3:83] What! Do they. it would be a supplement to yaqūla. it shall not be accepted from him and in the Hereafter he shall be among the losers. ‘He took’. meaning la’lladhī [or li’lladhī respectively]) I have given you (ātaytukum. said to them. Ezra. when to Him has submitted. is derived from rabb. after you have submitted? He would not do this. also read as tu‘allimūn. ‘Then bear witness. and the prophets. then there shall come to you a messenger confirming what is with you. without refusal. on account of the fact that you used to do this. and in that which was given to Moses and Jesus. whoever is in the heavens and the earth. he should say. or if read lā ya’murakum. mention. because he will end up in the Fire. O Muhammad (s): ‘We believe in God. or in a variant reading. the mā. to them. Would He order you to disbelieve. is a relative particle in both cases. prophethood. ‘what…other’] denotes a disavowal). the Judgement. in rejection. with the extra alif and nūn. if you reach his time and perceive him. before you and them. the ones who turn away. ‘what’. and the Christians. [3:85] The following was revealed regarding those who apostatized and became disbelievers: Whoever desires a religion other than Islam. and I shall be with you among the witnesses’. ‘Be servants to me instead of God. or unwillingly. exalted be He. ‘he should say’. and their communities [of descendants] follow them [in what is incumbent upon them]. meaning ‘[it belongs not that…] a mortal [should order you]’). ‘you shall be returned’.’ Rather. is also read tabghūna. God. 65  . meaning ‘God [would not order you]’. then that he should say to men. of the Book and wisdom. may also be read turja‘ūna. if it is read limā. willingly. and that which has been revealed to Abraham and Ishmael. and Isaac and Jacob. the following was revealed: It belongs not to any mortal that God should give him the Book. that is. Jesus. after that. the Jews. devoting worship sincerely [to Him]. on you on that condition?’ They said. by virtue of what you know (ta‘lamūn. the understanding of the Divine Law. ‘Do you affirm. for its benefit is that you engage in action. My load. labouring (rabbāniyyūn. desire (yabghūna. [do you] accept. and that which has been revealed to us. and that is Muhammad (s) — you shall believe in him and you shall help him’ (this constitutes the response to the oath). they are the wicked. [3:84] Say. to this before your own souls and [those of] your followers. ‘Be masters. by believing [in some] and disbelieving [in others]. ‘those of the Lord’. ‘We have given you’) of the Book and wisdom. and the Tribes. scholars. this? And do you take. to take the angels and the prophets as lords.Muslims asked that they should be permitted to prostrate themselves before him. He said. ‘[do] you desire?’) other than God’s religion. [3:80] He would never order you (read lā ya’murukum. and to Him they shall be returned? (yurja‘ūna. [to Him] has yielded. made everlasting for him. the hamza at the beginning of the verse [a-fa-ghayra.

and so it was forbidden him. folk. which was after the time of Abraham. had come to them? God guides not the evildoing.[3:86] How shall God guide. and as a declaration of the reason for it [repentance] not being acceptable in the case of one who dies in unbelief) if he would ransom himself thereby. but Abraham did not eat camel’s meat nor drink its milk’. they shall [not] be given any respite. in Moses. as it was not unlawful in his time. so that the truth of what you say may become clear. the whole earth full. that is. after they have believed. camels: when he was afflicted with sciatica (‘irq alnasā). ‘You claim that you follow the creed of Abraham. [3:92] You will not attain piety. and He will requite it accordingly. God knows of it. then truly God is Forgiving. [3:87] Those — their requital is that there shall rest on them the curse of God and of the angels and of men altogether. of what you love. and bore witness. of gold shall not be accepted from any one of them (the fā’ [of fa-lan yuqbala. in Muhammad (s) — their repentance shall not be accepted. that the Messenger is true. Jacob. [3:90] The following was revealed regarding the Jews: Surely those who disbelieve. and die disbelieving. to protect them from it. to them. [3:88] Abiding therein. [3:89] But those who repent thereafter. in the curse. namely. or in the Fire implied by it [the curse]. God. and after the clear signs. the disbelieving. resembles a conditional statement. then said: 66  . and then increase in unbelief. before the Torah was revealed. as they claimed. he made a vow that if he were cured he would not eat of it again. they were stupified and did not bring it [the Torah]. and make amends. the chastisement shall not be lightened for them and they shall not be reprieved. to them: ‘Bring the Torah now. in what you say. and whatever thing you expend. that is. ‘painful’). the reward for it. exalted be He. the manifest proofs of the truth of the Prophet. Say. [3:91] Surely those who disbelieve. [He shall] not [guide]. ‘it shall not be accepted’] has been included in the predicate of the inna clause. in their actions. until you expend. a people who have disbelieved after their belief. or when they have died as disbelievers. for them awaits a painful chastisement (alīm is [the same as] mu’lim. that is. that is to say. and they shall have no helpers. [and after] their bearing witness. if you are truthful’. ‘those [who disbelieve]’. the amount needed to fill it up. those are the ones who go astray. Merciful. which is Paradise. of your wealth. [until] you give voluntary alms. the following was revealed: All food was lawful to the Children of Israel save what Israel. [3:93] When the Jews said to the Prophet. that is. when they are drawing their last gasps of life. forbade for himself. in Jesus. and recite it. because the statement about alladhīna.

inclining away from the truth. why do you disbelieve in God’s verses. a blessed place (mubārakan. it was built by the angels before the creation of Adam. [3:95] Say: ‘God has spoken the truth. meaning mu‘awwajatan. as reported in the hadīth of the two Sahīhs [sc. meaning ‘the intention [to journey there]’). ‘Our direction of prayer (qibla) came before yours’. was that at Bakka (a variant of Makka [Mecca]. that transgress the truth into falsehood. and [is Independent of] their devotions. Among these [signs] are the fact that the reward for good deeds is multiplied in it and that birds never fly over it. established for the people. such that they caused them to quarrel and the two [tribes] were on the verge of fighting one another: O you who believe. The Prophet (s) explained this [ability] as having provisions and a ride. and after it the Aqsā [in Jerusalem] was built. as stated in your Book? God is not heedless of what you do’. from God’s way. that is. among which is. and not during the time of Abraham. for worship. by denying the truth of the Prophet and concealing His graces. and a guidance to all worlds. that is. and set about reminding them of their mutual hostility in the days before Islam. when God is Witness of what you do?’. As for the one who disbelieves. ‘people’). the jinn and the angels. It is the duty of people towards God to make the pilgrimage to the House (read either as hijj al-bayt or hajj al-bayt. ‘made crooked’). the one which I follow. not liable therein to be killed or oppressed or otherwise. as two variants of the verbal noun from hajj. therefore follow the creed of Abraham. [3:96] When they said. a period of forty years separating them. because it is their qibla. was a white foam. so called because it ‘crushes’ [tabukku] the necks of tyrants). the Qur’ān. a circumstantial qualifier referring to la’lladhī. and on which his footprints remain. causing them to turn away. and whoever enters it is in security. [3:100] The following was revealed when the Jews passed by the Aws and the Khazraj and were infuriated by their comradeship. and he was not an idolater’. 67  . and will requite you for it? [3:99] Say: ‘O People of the Scripture. [while] you know that the religion which is upright and pleasing [to God] is that of Islam. and it [the House] has endured all this length of time and the constant passing of hands over it. in this matter. [3:97] Therein are clear signs. on earth. of al-Bukhārī and Muslim]. and in the hadīth [that states]: ‘The first thing to appear on the surface of the water. those are the evildoers. God is Independent of all worlds. just as He has in all that He has related. the following was revealed: The first house. the station of Abraham. if he is able to make his way there (man istatā‘a ilayhi sabīlan substitutes for al-nās. in the way of unbelief and mendacity. at the creation of the heavens and the earth. after the proof has become manifest that the prohibition was made by Jacob. while you yourselves are witnesses. a hanīf. instead He gives you respite until your appointed time and then requites you. underneath which the earth was unrolled’. [3:98] Say: ‘O People of the Scripture. the stone upon which he stood to build the House. why do you bar believers. the humans. inclining away from all religions towards submission (islām). in God or in what He has made obligatory with regard to the Pilgrimage. that is.[3:94] Whoever invents falsehood against God after that. His religion. desiring to make it crooked (‘iwajan is the verbal noun. ‘that’) meaning a place of blessings. as reported by alHākim [al-Naysābūrī] and others.

So. However.if you obey a party of those who have been given the Scripture. they will turn you. is up to it. and enjoining decency. upon you. His bestowing of favours. he is guided to a straight path. God. thanked and not shown ingratitude. 68  . since what is mentioned is a collective obligation [fard kifāya]. and He brought your hearts together. such as the ignorant. after submitting [to Islam]. in Paradise. but He delivered you from it. so that He is obeyed and not disobeyed. His religion. when you were enemies. clutch. and forbidding indecency. [3:108] Those. that is. is strong enough for this [task]?’ But it was then abrogated by His statement: So fear God as much as you can [Q. the Day of Resurrection. They said. remember God’s grace. [3:105] Be not as those who scattered. for not every person. and disputed. and some faces whitened. it is also said that this particle is extra. those. they shall be in God’s mercy. these being the disbelievers. just as He has made clear for you what has been mentioned. remembered and not forgotten. that is to say. abiding therein. are the verses of God which We recite to you. and do not die. and you were upon the brink. through belief. [3:104] Let there be one community of you calling to good. in their religion. O Muhammad (s). that is to say. and these are the believers. such that to fall into it you only had to die disbelieving. [3:101] How can you disbelieve (this is an interrogative of amazement and rebuke) while you have God’s verses recited to you. to Islam. in truth. God makes clear to you His signs that you might be guided. [3:102] O you who believe. punishing them for no crime. namely. so that by His grace you became brothers. after you have believed. and what is meant is. fear God as He should be feared. the edge. after the clear proofs came to them. bid and forbid. clings to. and do not scatter. who are thrown into the Fire and to whom it is said in rebuke: ‘Did you disbelieve after you had believed. over it. professing the Oneness of God. [3:106] The day when some faces are blackened. the victorious (the particle min. of a pit of fire. ‘so that you are a community [calling to good and so on]’). through Islam. those there awaits a mighty chastisement. on the day the covenant was made? Then taste the chastisement for what you disbelieved!’ [3:107] But as for those whose faces are whitened. 64:16]. ‘Who. and these are the Jews and the Christians. God’s bond. in religion and comradeship. except as Muslims. and His Messenger is in your midst? Whoever holds fast to. ‘of’. into disbelievers. are the successful. that call. As for those whose faces are blackened. O Messenger of God. and God desires not any injustice for the worlds. together. [3:103] And hold fast to. ‘of you’] is partitive. O companies of the Aws and the Khazraj. these verses. and is not incumbent upon every individual of the community. [in minkum.

those. and some of them are not like this and are not righteous. ‘prostrating themselves’. they have incurred. equal. and to Him all matters are returned. some of the People of the Scripture are a community upright. and a rope of the. you shall not be deprived of its reward. may God be pleased with him and his companions. are of the righteous. ‘you do’. O community of Muhammad (s). that is. that (dhālika is [repeated] for emphasis). and believing in God. that. then [it is referring to them] ‘the upright community’). those are the inhabitants of the Fire. you shall not be denied it ([read] in both ways [fa-lan tukfarūhu. according to God’s knowledge. or fa-lan yukfarūhu. they will turn their backs to you. ‘you shall not be denied it’. [3:113] Yet they. they have no protection other than this. enjoining decency and forbidding indecency. in other words. because they disbelieved in God’s signs. are not all alike. and forbidding indecency. Salām. the People of the Scripture. is. such as slander and threats. is a circumstantial qualifier). [3:115] And whatever good you do. or if this is read yaf‘alū. a rope of God.[3:109] To God belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth. will not harm you. and used to transgress. them. with anger from God. as possessions. protect. [3:111] They. prostrating themselves. manifested. and God knows the God-fearing. God’s command. against you. because they disobeyed. except a little hurt. but you will be helped against them. and poverty shall be cast upon them. against His chastisement: these two are singled out for mention because a person usually avails himself either by paying a ransom. passing from what is lawful into what is unlawful. against God. described in the way God has mentioned. O company of Muslims. neither their children. Salām. may God be pleased with him and his companions. with integrity. ‘they do’. some of them are believers. [3:116] As for the disbelievers. people. then they will not be helped. (taf‘alū. so that they have no strength and no protection. the Jews. the disbelievers. is. are wicked. or by [resorting to] the help of his children. [3:110] You. [3:114] They believe in God and in the Last Day. creatures and servants. that is. adhering to the truth. vying with one another in good works. are the best community brought forth. they have ended up. but you will be rewarded for it. and if they fight against you. Had the People of the Scripture believed. in any way. wherever they are found. it. such as ‘Abd Allāh b. with their tongues. O community. but most of them. believing. if they be [clinging to]. who recite God’s verses in the watches of the night. enjoining decency. such as ‘Abd Allāh b. performing prayer (wa-hum yasjudūn. in retreat. [3:112] Abasement shall be cast upon them. this being the latter’s covenant of security for them on the condition that they pay the jizya. their riches shall not avail. their belief. save. 69  . and slew the prophets without right. to men. would have been better for them. during its hours. ‘they shall not be denied it’]).

O believers. the disbelievers. and when they meet you they say. befalls you. He has knowledge of it and will requite them for it. The Prophet pitched camp at the ravine on Saturday 7th of Shawwāl in year 3 of the Hijra. mention O Muhammad (s). in rage. and fear. the description. and God hears. that smote the tillage. be this way until the end of your lives. for battle. The Prophet (s) set out with 1000 or 950 men. so it is with what they expend. they rejoice thereat (the conditional statement here is semantically connected to the previous conditional. on account of their kinship and their [pretence of] friendship towards you. Hatred. Jubayr at the foot of the mountain and said to them: ‘Defend us with your arrows in case they come up from behind us. is as the likeness of a wind wherein is a blast. they bite at you their fingertips. it grieves them. all of them. from among the Jews. in the way of enmity towards the Prophet or in the way of voluntary almsgiving or the like. so that they could not profit from it. knows. anyone apart from yourselves. of their enmity. do not take as intimates. all of it. of enmity. their places. this. what you say. is yet greater. such as defeat or drought. sc. ‘lo!’. Say: ‘Perish in your rage. and remain here whether we are being defeated or on the verge of victory’. and destroyed it. fī’l-khabāl] has been omitted). God encompasses what they do (ya‘malūn. for you shall not see what will please you. even if there be no biting involved. of what they. [3:122] 70  . Christians and the hypocrites. a favour such as victory or booty. He arranged their lines and placed a group of archers under the command of ‘Abd Allāh b. [3:118] O you who believe. but they wronged themselves. God knows what is in the breasts’. such men spare nothing to ruin you (khabālan is in the accusative because the preposition [that usually precedes it. their harm. since they oppose you in religion. in extreme fury at what they see of your mutual affection: the biting of the fingertips is used to figuratively express the severity of rage.abiding therein. is for calling attention [to something]). [3:119] Lo (hā. [3:117] The likeness. they would love. as sincere friends. and what their breasts conceal. but if evil. by their mouths. He had his back and that of his troops to Uhud. through unbelief and disobedience. revealing to them your secret thoughts. when they lost what they expended. is revealed. [3:120] If good fortune. through unbelief. by sowing discord among you and informing the idolaters of your secret [plans].’ but when they are alone. they wish. but they love you not. there you are. your circumstances: this was the day of [the battle of] Uhud. it perishes and they profit nothing from it. the crops. ‘We believe. which necessitated this loss. of a people who have wronged themselves. what is in the hearts. the meaning being that their enmity towards you is endless. and what comes in between is a parenthetical [statement]. but they do not believe in your Book. that is to say. you love them. it is manifested. stations for them to stand at. expend in the life of this world. Now We have made clear to you the signs. for you to suffer ([al-‘anat means] extreme hardship). God did not wrong them. to have [them] occupy. enmity towards you. including that which these conceal. in the Books. that is to say. you believe in the Book. their guile will not hurt you (read either lā yadirkum or lā yadurrukum) at all. then do not befriend them. they would not be remiss about corrupting you. while the idolaters numbered 3000. befalls you. so why do you befriend them? Avoid them!) Yet if you endure. to assign the believers. ‘what you do’). or may be read ta‘malūn. when you went forth at dawn from your family. if you understand. that is. God by [not] befriending them and so on. of extreme hot or cold. at Medina. [3:121] And. it is evil for them.

for they are indeed evildoers. by [virtue of their] disbelief. was only as a good tiding to you. the Mighty. it is sufficient for you. and that your hearts might be at peace. and his companions began to retreat. the Wise. come against you instantly. is semantically connected to the clause containing nasarakum. distinctively marked [for the battle]. humiliate them through defeat. that is to say. an adverbial qualifier of nasarakum. and God was their Protector. substitutes for the previous idh) two parties of you. that is to say. ‘How does a people who have drenched the face of their Prophet in blood [expect to] prosper?’. by slaying them or making them fall captive. ‘He gave you victory’). [about] to shrink from the battle and retreat.When (idh. [3:127] And that He might cut off (li-yaqta‘. [3:126] What God ordained. ‘He gave you victory’ [in the previous verse]) you were saying to the believers. let loose down to their shoulders. and [victory comes] not because of a large army. and they. the Prophet received a head wound and his front tooth was broken. frustrated. He relents to them. God in not contravening [His command]. let them place their trust in Him and none other. 8:9]. Victory comes only from God. then it became three [thousand] then five [thousand]. their Helper. of victory. so that the angels fought together with them riding upon piebald horses wearing yellow or white turbans. ‘Why should we get ourselves and our children killed?’ and he also said to Abū Jābir al-Salamī — who had said to him. because at first He reinforced them with this [thousand]. [that] they might be at rest. whether. until such time as. that is. not having secured what they desired. promising them as reassurance [for them]: ‘Is it not sufficient for you that your Lord should reinforce you. ‘sent down’). [3:123] When they were defeated. Ubayy. [that] He should succour you. it is God’s concern. that He might destroy. the idolaters. in encountering the enemy. of reinforcement. the two flanks of the army. a party of the disbelievers. ‘I implore you by God for your Prophet’s sake and yours’ — ‘If we knew how to fight. the hypocrite. your Lord will reinforce you with five thousand angels accoutred’ (read musawimmīn or musawammīn). so that they fall back. a location between Mecca and Medina. were about to lose heart. [3:129] 71  . few in number and weapons. the following was revealed as a way of reminding them of God’s favour: God already gave you victory at Badr. through [their acceptance of] Islam. Indeed. they were patient and God fulfilled His promise to them. with three thousand angels sent down? (read munzalīn or munazzalīn. He gives it to whomever He will. He [Ibn Ubayy] said. return. or suppress them. [3:125] Yea. on the Day of Uhud. for His blessings. after ‘Abd Allāh b. as God says: if you are patient. in order that you might be thankful. nay. the following was revealed: It is no concern at all of yours. meaning. [3:124] When (idh. In [sūrat] al-Anfāl [it is stated] with a thousand [Q. So fear God. the Banū Salima and the Banū Hāritha. and he said. and fear. or chastises them. and let the believers rely on God. when you were contemptible. [3:128] When. and not be terrified by the large number of the enemy as compared to your small number. we would follow you!’ But God then made them [the Banū Salima and the Banū Hāritha] steadfast and they did not abandon [the field]. so be patient.

or wrong themselves. in what they did. all manner of unbelief has preceded. and behold how was the end of those who denied. [3:133] And vie with one another hastening (read wa-sāri‘ū or [simply] sāri‘ū) to forgiveness from your Lord. Merciful. through such actions. all. O believers. of obedience! [3:137] The following was revealed regarding the defeat at Uhud: Ways of life have passed away before you. and an admonition for such as 72  . so that you may find mercy. and Gardens beneath which rivers flow. excellent is the wage. [3:138] This. in obedience to God. remember God. that is to say. and to a garden as wide as the heavens and the earth. as broad as both of them together if put side by side. [and] desist from following it up even though they are able to. as possessions. those who wrong them. the messengers. [3:136] Those — their requital is forgiveness from their Lord. And fear God. abiding therein (khālidīna fīhā. that is. and a guidance. He will reward them. persevere. and restrain their rage. and God loves those who are virtuous. how their affair ended in destruction. He forgives whom He wills. so that you may prosper. from error.To God belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth. And God is Forgiving. such as a kiss. lest you be chastised with it. waiving their punishment. chastisement for. and pray forgiveness for their sins — and who. is an exposition for. but have desisted from it. of those workers. that is. so travel in the land. [3:131] And fear the Fire that has been prepared for the disbelievers. shall forgive sins but God? — and who do not persist. an implied situation. it is foreordained that they will abide in it once they enter it). that is to say. do not exact usury. a despicable sin such as adultery. with less than that. in [times of] ease and difficulty. [that] you may triumph. breadth denotes ampleness. I am only giving them respite until their appointed time. [3:135] And who when they commit an indecency. that is. creatures and servants. His threat of punishment. this wage. [3:130] O you who believe. none. that what they did was sinful. twofold and severalfold (read mudā‘afatan or mud‘afatan) by increasing the amount [to be repaid] when the [loan] period comes to an end and delaying the request [of the loan]. that has been prepared for those who fear God in being obedient and abandoning acts of disobedience. and pardon their fellow-men. Qur’ān. by abandoning such [usury]. forgiveness for. [3:134] Who expend. So do not grieve on account of their victory. to those who obey Him. mankind. where they have been given respite but are then seized [with punishment]. of His friends. in prosperity and adversity. that is. [3:132] And obey God and the Messenger. and chastises whom He wills. knowing.

the disbelievers. and whoever desires the reward of the Hereafter. through victory over them. those who believe. Why. one day for one group. when you said. that is. ‘If he has been killed. And whoever desires. neither grieve. and the blessings He bestows upon them are only a [means of] drawing out [their punishment]. for what befell you at Uhud. so that [if he were to die] you should turn back [to your previous religion]’). in other words. among mankind. 73  . [3:142] Or. that is. has touched the other people. he will not harm God in any way. We dispense them. for His graces by staying firm. but will be harming himself. that is. that is. and God will requite those that are thankful. destroy.’ Now you have seen it. messengers have passed away before him. war. believers. that is. for you shall prevail. nor does standing one’s ground sever life. and that God may know. here a verbal noun. If any man should turn back on his heels. when it was rumoured that the Prophet had been killed and the hypocrites had said to the believers. the reward of this world. the following was revealed: Muhammad is only a messenger. the disbelievers. go back to your [previous] religion’. truly. like others. He will chastise them. the next day for another. that is. [3:141] And that God may prove the believers. the disbelievers. by His decree. and efface. purifying them of sins through what befalls them. and that He may take witnesses from among you. so why did you retreat [in defeat]? Defeat does not ward off death. will you turn back on your heels. ‘he was not a worshipped being. by his deeds.are God-fearing. through knowledge manifested outwardly. if he should die or is slain. already. his requital in it. what has been alloted to him. will you return to unbelief (the last statement is the locus of the interrogative of denial. shrink [not] from fighting the disbelievers. and We will requite the thankful. so why did you retreat? [3:144] With regard to their being routed. Such days We deal out in turn. a like wound (qarh or qurh. [3:140] If a wound touches you. that they might be admonished. ‘Would that we had a day like the Day of Badr in order to attain what its martyrs attained. did you suppose you should enter Paradise without God knowing. of its reward. if you are. neither brought forward nor deferred. God has prescribed this) term. [3:145] It is not for any soul to die. in [times of] hardship? [3:143] You were longing for (tamannawna: one of the two letters tā’ has been omitted from the original [tatamannawna]) death before you met it. save by the leave of God. a prescribed (kitāban. among them. through knowledge manifested outwardly. which is the exhaustion that results from a wound and the like). We will give him of it. that is. looking on. [a term fixed] in time. nay. We will give him of it. but he shall have no share in the Hereafter. who are sincere in their faith from others. that is to say. the cause of it. who among you have struggled and who are patient. and God loves not the evildoers. (the response to this [last conditional clause] is the sum [meaning] of what has preceded it). with your eyes [open] and contemplating the conditions. at Badr. honouring them with martyrdom. befalls you at Uhud. [3:139] Faint not.

some of you saying. and He is the best of helpers. for our comrades have been given victory’. the disbelievers. and God loves the virtuous. the command of the Prophet (s) that you remain at the foot of the mountain for the arrow attack. implied to be raddakum bi’l-hazīma [‘He turned you back in defeat’]) from them. idols. Paradise (husnuhu. until you lost heart. [3:147] All that they said. a declaration of the fact that what had befallen them was the result of their evil actions and a humbling of their selves. in the face of struggle. abandoning his station for the sake of the booty. but they fainted not. that is. the predicate. that is. during trials. [nor did they] succumb to their enemy. your Helper. a variant reading has qātala. denotes [extra] favour in addition to what is deserved). towards you. holding to it until he was slain.[3:146] How many a prophet has been killed (qutila. the disbelievers. God. the subject of which [follows]) thousands manifold [fought]. Then He turned you away (thumma sarafakum is a supplement to the response of the [clause containing] idhā. ‘Our Lord. their abode shall be the Fire. for what they have associated. that is. and help us against the unbelieving folk’. because of their associating. [back] to unbelief. disagreed. ‘We should not disobey the command of the Prophet (s)’. what you have done. in our affairs. but they were terrified and did not return. over the command. when their prophet had been killed while they stood their ground and were steadfast. [3:152] God has been true to His promise. yet now He has pardoned you. ‘[when you lost heart] He denied you His assistance’). [3:148] And God gave them the reward of this world. and abandoned your station in search of the booty. as you did when it was said that the Prophet (s) had been killed. but God is your Protector. of giving you victory. by His will. had shown you what you longed for. with strength for the struggle. meaning that He will reward them. [3:149] O you who believe. of wounds and the slaying of their prophets and companions. with God that for which He has revealed no warrant. after He. the subject of the verb being the person governing it) and with him (ma‘ahu. and some of you desired the Hereafter. ‘has fought’. they did [not] shrink. Jubayr and his companions. was. so that He might try you. Some of you desired this world. victory and booty. his command. and the fairest reward of the Hereafter. nor did they humble themselves. of assistance (the response to the [clause containing] idhā is indicated by what precedes it. [no] argument in support of its worship. such as ‘Abd Allāh b. our overstepping the bounds. namely. [3:151] We will cast terror (read ru‘b or ru‘ub) into the hearts of the disbelievers: after departing from Uhud they resolved to return in order to exterminate the Muslims. they neither weakened. in what they command you. and you disobeyed. if you obey the disbelievers. ‘Let us depart. And God loves the patient. that He might test you and so make manifest the sincere ones from those otherwise. the resting place. and God is Bounteous to the 74  . [3:150] Nay. ‘the fairest of it’. so obey only Him and not them. that is to say. and you will revert as losers. and quarrelled. others saying. [until] you shrank from battle. when you slew them by His leave. of the evildoers. in the face of what afflicted them in God’s way. evil is the abode. they will make you turn back on your heels. and make firm our feet. forgive us our sins and our excesses.

so that (li-kaylā is semantically connected either to ‘afā. security — a slumber (nu‘āsan. They would become dizzy under their shields and their swords would fall from their hands. and they were unable to fall asleep: these were the hypocrites. but we were forced to set out’. ‘Had the choice been ours. and then die. [we have no part in] the assistance which we were promised. with some among you whom God had appointed that they be slain. that is to say. after grief. what is in the hearts. (yaqūlūna. regarding their affair. they would not have died and would not have been slain’. or ya‘malūna. so that their only wish was their deliverance. the lā [of kay-lā] is thus extra) you might not grieve for what escaped you. those. fleeing in the distance. of sincerity or hypocrisy. Forbearing. with the exception of twelve men — truly. and their staying put [at home] would not have saved them. they caused them grief. [3:153] Remember. to them: ‘Even if you had been in your houses. encountered each other. with his [evil] insinuations. would have gone forth. but God pardoned them. God is Forgiving. namely. hastening not against the disobedient [with punishment]. for anyone and the Messenger was calling you from your rear. They conceal within their hearts what they do not disclose. do not say as they say — so that God may make that. that is. saying. or are on raiding campaigns (ghuzzan. He does what He wills. age of ignorance. that is.believers. [3:154] Then He sent down upon you. that is to say. the Muslims. the decree is His. your hearts. to you. or nominative kulluhu as a subject [of a new sentence]. ‘they do’). those thoughts during the. [being] in addition to the grief of the booty forfeited. and so no staying put can prevent death. of you. He did what He did at Uhud. when they disobeyed the Prophet’s command. not turning around. is said to mean ‘alā. saying. the day the two hosts. the battleground where they were to fall. what they [do not] manifest. with grief. we would not have set out and thus been slain. thinking wrongly of God. ‘Come to me servants of God. [as] the hypocrites. [3:155] Truly. the Muslim host and that of the disbelievers. [that He might] test. [with grief] doubled. through some of what they had earned. we would not have been slain here’. to the places where they were to lie’. servants of God!’. for God’s decree will be. [3:156] O you who believe. And. through defeat. [that He might] distinguish. [not] stopping. ‘with’. the moment they thought that the Prophet had been killed or that he would not be given victory. Say. and God sees what you do (ta‘malūna. ‘Have we any part whatever in the affair?’ (read [interrogative] hal as [negative] mā) that is. and God is aware of what you do. or athābakum. who say of their brothers. in other words. anguish in their hearts. for grief (ghamman bighamm. ‘security’) overcoming (yaghshā or taghshā) a party of you. ‘Had they been with us. neither for what befell you. is an explication of the preceding [statement]) ‘Had we had any part in the affair. that God might try. He requited you. from the battle. inevitably. ‘a raiding party’. decreed. and they would have been slain. thoughts of. of booty. and He gives death. when you were ascending. of sins. when they travel in the land. be not as the disbelievers. to them: ‘The affair belongs entirely (read accusative kullahu to denote an emphasis. For God gives life. Say. and that He might prove. and God knows what is in the breasts. the predicate of which is [what follows]) to God’. is the plural of ghāzin). at Uhud. this way. and He tries people only to make [matters] manifest for them. the believers. that is. and a party whose own souls distressed them. namely. 75  . for whom it had been appointed. ‘for’) because of the grief that you caused the Prophet when you disobeyed [his command]. and He will requite you for it. ‘He rewarded you’. regardless of the Prophet and his Companions. what was in your hearts. those of you who turned away. ‘He has pardoned’. to believers. as a conclusion of their affair. so He rewarded you. saying. that they be slain would have sallied forth. Nothing can be hidden from Him. ‘saying’. ‘slumber’ substitutes for amanatan. what was in your breasts. the bā’ [bi-]. and are then slain. of being slain and [of] defeat. saying [of theirs]. with pardon. that is. Satan made them slip.

carrying it around his neck. what it has earned. whose abode is Hell? An evil journey’s end. the following was revealed: It is not for a prophet to be fraudulent (an yaghulla. meaning to attribute ghulūl. [3:158] And if (wa-la-in. [3:160] If God helps you.[3:157] And if (wa-la-in. and consult them. it is! [3:163] No! They are of degrees. in the [holy] struggle or otherwise. that is. and God sees what they do. that is. so do not presume this of him. rely on God. that is. in this world (read tajma‘ūn. [if] He gives you assistance against your enemy. and fierce of heart. and on no one else. until I forgive them. ill-natured. and for those that are laden with God’s anger. [3:162] Is he who follows God’s beatitude. and to none other than Him that. forgiveness. belonging to varying stations: for those that follow His beatitude. being obedient and not defrauding. after His forsaking [you]? In other words. shall be paid in full. let the believers rely. find out their opinions. ‘you amass’. you shall be mustered. like him who is laden. as on the Day of Uhud. because of his disobedience and fraud. punishment. your affair in the battle and otherwise. the lām is for oaths) you are slain in God’s way. Therefore on God. yamūtu). split away. then who is there who can help you after Him?. and ask forgiveness for them. before God. ‘Perhaps the Prophet took it’. [what] it has done. to carry out what you wish after counsel. then every soul. there is no one to help you. the lām is for oaths) you die ([read] in both ways [muttum or mittum]. in the matter. [one who] returns. the Prophet (s) would frequently consult them. if death comes to you thereat. individuals of [different] degrees. and indeed. [3:161] When some red velvet cloth went missing on the Day of Badr and some people began to say. [3:159] It was by the mercy of God that you. [3:164] 76  . that is. O Muhammad (s). And when you are resolved. and will requite them for it. put your trust in Him and not in [any] counsel. and He will requite you. they would have dispersed. to be treacherous with regard to the spoils. and they shall not be wronged. a variant reading has the passive an yughalla. [if] He refrains from assisting you. a single thing. in the Hereafter. were lenient with them. in order to win their hearts over and so that you may be emulated [in this respect]. ‘forgiveness’] is the response to the oath [clause of la’in]. and mercy. a resort. from God. the requital of. or are slain. that is. had you been harsh. therefor from Him for you (the clause introduced by the lām [of lamaghfiratun. a reward. as on the Day of Badr. it is to God. for their sins. to him). pass over what they have done. ‘fraud’. and occupies the place of the verbal action as a subject. that is. but if He forsakes you. for your sins. then none can overcome you. or yajma‘ūn. brutish and coarse towards them. from [singular form] māta. the fraudulent and the otherwise. ‘they amass’). whoever defrauds shall bring what he has defrauded on the Day of Resurrection. for God loves those who rely. [that] you showed indulgence [toward them] when they disobeyed you. on Him. the predicate of which [is what follows]) are better than what they amass. with God’s anger. So pardon them. or die (read muttum or mittum. from about you. in [holy] struggle. that is.

that they are. that is. the. if you are not going to fight. but rather. the day the two hosts encountered. ‘If we knew how. may be substituted by [what follows. they said. [refraining] from [joining] the struggle. Say. and. [3:168] Those who (alladhīna substitutes for the previous alladhīna. God then said. death from yourselves. or constitutes an adjectival qualification [of it]) said to their brothers. bi-an lā). and you had afflicted twice the like of it. to them: ‘It is from yourselves. Say. and to purify them. did you say. they would not have been slain’. a circumstantial qualifier referring to the person governing yurzaqūn. and those who. when seventy of you were slain. His enemies. ‘sustained’) in what God has given them of His bounty. whilst they themselves. from among their believing brothers (allādhīna. of hypocrisy. in religion. so that they can understand what he says and feel honoured thereby. and to teach them the Book. with the fruits of Paradise. wisdom. an Arab like them. living with their Lord. rejoicing. because you abandoned your [battle] stations and were thus defeated. sc. us against the enemy by increasing the multitude [of our fighters]. meaning. slaying seventy of them and taking another seventy captive. in that staying put delivers one from it [sc. for even if they had known how to fight they would not have followed you. innahum. [3:169] The following was revealed regarding martyrs: Count not those who were slain (read qutilū or quttilū) in God’s way. the martyrs at Uhud or those who stayed put with us. the Sunna. the Qur’ān. by His will. believers. in the Hereafter. meaning. ‘those who’. when it was said to them. [3:165] And why. as dead. how did this defeat happen to us when we are Muslims and God’s Messenger is among us (the last statement [annā hādhā. that is. is softened [in place of inna]. from death]. ‘Abd Allāh b. before he was sent. provided for [by Him]. obeyed us. including [the giving of] assistance and the withholding of it. and He requited you for your disputing [the Prophet’s command]. showing them to be liars: They that day were nearer to unbelief than to belief. ‘how is this?’] constitutes [the locus of] the interrogative of denial). for the sake of His religion. at Badr. to them: ‘Then avert. was by God’s leave. to fight we would follow you’. after they had fled the fighting. true. that is. they rejoice for their [brothers’ future] security and felicity (allā [of allā khawfun] is an-lā. to cleanse them of sins. ward off.Truly God was gracious to the believers when He sent to them a messenger from among their own. whereas before they had been outwardly nearer to belief. that is to say. those that have not yet joined them. neither shall they grieve. not an angel or a non-Arab. through knowledge manifested outwardly. Surely God has power over everything’. for the sake of those who have not joined them but are left behind. And God knows best what they hide. Ubayy and his companions: ‘Come now. if you speak the truth’. [3:167] And that He might also know the hypocrites. for what they manifested of their forsaking the believers. saying with their mouths that which was not in their hearts. or defend’. when distress befell you. fight in the way of God. the Qur’ān. their spirits inside green birds that take wing freely wherever they wish in Paradise. at Uhud. 77  . ‘rejoicing…that no fear’]): that no fear shall befall them. they were in clear error. in amazement. they are. ‘Had they. ‘though they…’) before. joyful. ‘How is this?’. though (in. that is. [3:166] And what afflicted you. stayed put. as reported in a hadīth). [if] we were skilled enough. [3:170] Rejoicing (farihīna. to recite to them His verses. namely. at Uhud. had. and that He might know.

[3:176] Let them not grieve you (read yuhzinka. and they followed the beatitude of God. in their belief in God and in certainty. that is. at Uhud — (the predicate of the subject [alladhīna] is [what follows]) for all those who were virtuous. and they said. that is. only hurting themselves. from Badr. Mas‘ūd al-Ashja‘ī. exalted be He. increased them in faith. if you are. and theirs is a mighty chastisement. the disbelievers. ‘those who’. but rewards them. substitutes for the previous alladhīna. ‘The people [have gathered against you]’ to the end [of the verse]. taking it in place of it. to disobey him. from any slaying or wounds. that is. said. any lot. is only Satan making. the Meccans or the hypocrites: in other words. Nu‘aym b. an alternative expression to [4th form] ahzanahu. [3:177] Those who purchase unbelief at the price of faith. and there awaits them a painful chastisement (alīm means mu’lim. and do not go out to [encounter] them. have gathered. shall be a great wage. ‘he made him grieve’. ‘painful’). their multitudes. Abū Sufyān and his companions. by obeying Him and obeying His Messenger. namely. [3:178] 78  . against you. Paradise. and bounty. and God is of bounty abounding. but that.[3:171] Joyful in grace. believers. ‘The people. in the reward. with grace and bounty from God. [3:175] That. in order to exterminate you. truly. do not be concerned for their unbelief. namely. says: [3:174] So they returned. [3:172] Those who (alladhīna. ‘God is sufficient for us. for those that obey Him. [3:173] Those to whom (alladhīna. the one saying to you. in addition to it. therefore fear them’. or yahzunka from [1st form] hazanahu. they will not hurt God at all. and no evil touched them. from God. the One to whom the matter is entrusted. saying. succumbing to it promptly by supporting it. safely and with profit. therefore do not fear them. and that is why God forsook them. and that (read wa-anna as a supplement to ni‘matin. ‘he made him grieve’) those that vie with one another in unbelief. or wa-inna to denote a new clause) God does not let the wage of believers go to waste. He will deal fully for us with their affair. in the Fire. in the Hereafter. with their unbelief. you. after the wounds had afflicted them. and so they traded and made profits. and feared. in Paradise. or an adjectival qualification [of it]) people. but fear Me. fear his friends. an excellent Guardian is He’ . God desires not to assign them any portion. namely. [to] his call to set out for battle: when Abū Sufyān and his companions wanted to resume [hostilities] they agreed with the Prophet (s) that the encounter would be at the [annual] market-fair of Badr a year from the date of Uhud. is the subject) responded to God and the Messenger. they will not hurt God at all. They thus set out with the Prophet (s) and arrived at the market-fair of Badr. by obeying him. but God had cast terror into the hearts of Abū Sufyān and his followers and so they did not turn up. when they [agreed to] set out [for the battle]. They [the believers] had merchandise with them. lest you abandon My command. God. by their actions.

O people. ‘it shall be written’) and. or lā tahsabanna. [3:179] It is not God’s purpose to leave. adding that. ‘do not suppose their niggardliness…’]. through the burdensome obligations that will reveal this [distinction] — He did this on the Day of Uhud. the pronoun [huwa. We shall write down. the believers in the state in which you. namely the Jews. with His obligatory almsgiving. of His messengers whom He will. only that they may increase in sinfulness. We shall order that it be written. apprising him of [some of] His Unseen. [that] Our indulging [them]. but only in place of the second in the case of the other reading [tahsabanna]. [till] He separates. for God is never unjust towards His servants’. till He shall distinguish (read yamīza or yumayyiza). are. those who…that their niggardliness is better for them’]). in the scrolls containing their deeds so that they will be requited for it (a variant reading [for active naktubu. or lā tahsabanna. 3:181]) same who said. ‘it is’] in the case of the reading yahsabanna [sc. namely. wa-lā yahsabanna lladhīna…bukhlahum huwa khayran lahum. ‘those who’ [Q. who is he that will lend God a good loan [Q. then yours shall be a great wage. as reported in a hadīth. an adjectival qualification of the previous alladhīna. is for what your hands have sent before: ‘hands’ are used to designate a human being because most actions are performed with them. [3:181] Verily God has heard the saying of those. to Muhammad (s). the hypocrite. punishment. ‘Indeed God is poor. ‘do not suppose’) that what We indulge them in. it is worse for them. wa-lā tahsabanna bukhlahum. what they have said. through frequent disobedience. but God chooses. hypocrisy. the first [direct object] is bukhlahum ‘their niggardliness’ implicit before the relative clause [alladhīna] in the case of the reading tahsabanna [sc. and we are rich’: they said this when the verse. [3:180] Let them not suppose (read lā yahsabanna. meaning God [shall say]) to them by the tongue of the angels in the Hereafter. and We shall say (naqūlu. one of humiliation. the believer. in extending their [terms of] life and deferring them [their death].And let not the disbelievers suppose (read lā yahsabanna. We grant them indulgence. so that you could recognise the hypocrites from the others. it will be said to them: That. their niggardliness. 2:245] was revealed. ‘If God were [truly] rich. ‘let them [not] suppose’. ‘do [not] suppose’). that we should not believe in 79  . and if you believe and guard against. where the sincere are intermingled with those otherwise. also read ya‘malūna. ‘do not suppose’) those who are niggardly with what God has given them of His bounty. as when He apprised the Prophet (s) of the position of the hypocrites. He selects. in the Torah. and theirs is a humbling chastisement. from the good. when he will have a snake around his neck biting viciously at him. the Fire. anna [of anna-mā] and its two operators stand in place of the two objects. that it. is better for them (khayrun lahum. the evil one. ‘We shall write’] has the passive yuktabu. ‘let them not suppose. And God is aware of what you do (ta‘malūna. that is. nay. ‘let them not suppose’. ‘let them not suppose’. is the second direct object. or before the pronoun [huwa. their slaying (read accusative qatlahum or nominative qatluhum) the prophets without right. they shall have hung around their necks on the Day of Resurrection. So believe in God and His messengers. We shall write down. also read yaqūlu. before the distinguishing. [3:182] When they are thrown into [the Fire]. ‘[that] it is’] is used to separate [the two statements]. in the Hereafter. We give [them] respite. to abandon. the obligatory almsgiving of their wealth. and to God belongs the inheritance of the heavens and the earth. who said. that is. And it is not God’s purpose to apprise you of the Unseen. what they were niggardly with. He would not be asking us for loans’. punishing them without them having sinned. ‘they do’). is better for their souls (in the case of the reading yahsabanna. ‘Taste the chastisement of the Burning. inheriting them after the annihilation of their inhabitants. ‘God has already made covenant with us. [3:183] Those (alladhīna. and will requite you for it.

otherwise it will remain as it is. or read lā yahsabanna. accepting his truthfulness. Why did you slay them. but you slew them: the address here is for those living at the time of our Prophet Muhammad (s). of grazing livestock or other [kind of animal] one offers [in sacrifice] to God. the requital of your deeds. enjoyed for a little while. Book. in the Hereafter. but if you are patient. If it is accepted. [messengers] such as Zachariah and John. that is. if you are truthful?’. and they concealed it. so were denied messengers before you who came bearing clear proofs. ‘with the Scriptures and with the Illuminating Book’]). is for emphasis [in the case of both readings above]) secure. in a place where they can escape. he will have attained his ultimate wish. but instead they shall be in a place of wherein they shall be tortured. or yubayyinunnahu. the [final] nūn nominative indicator has been omitted because two nūn letters [would otherwise] succeed one another. as has been the plural person indicator wāw where two unvocalised consonants have come together). and you shall hear from those who were given the Scripture before you. to them in rebuke: ‘messengers have come to you before me with clear proofs. from the Fire and admitted to Paradise. even though the deed was their forefathers’. ‘you shall not conceal it’. that is. the lucid. ‘let them not reckon’) those who rejoice in what they have brought. the life of this world is but the comfort of delusion. But they rejected it. with miracles. says. they took in its place. and the Illuminating. and bought with it. you shall surely be paid in full your wages. Whoever is moved away. being [themselves] misguided — do not reckon them (fa-lā tahsabannahum. through this. in the way of adherence to the truth. miracles. Say. Living in. in it (alīm 80  . [how evil is] this purchase of theirs! [3:188] Do not reckon that (lā tahsabanna. when God made covenant with those who had been given the Scripture. and so we will not believe in you until you bring us this [offering]. then perishing. exalted be He. or yaktumūnahu. and not conceal it’ (read taktumūnahu. will have triumphed. mention. behind their backs. but not in the case of Jesus and Muhammad. how evil is what they have bought. through [the obligations of] worship and through calamities. a white fire will come down from the heaven and consume it. the Jews and the Christians. [in what] they have done by leading people astray. so be patient as they were. the Torah and the Gospel (a variant reading establishes the [prefixed preposition] bā’ in both [words. until he bring us an offering to be devoured by fire’. and who love to be praised for what they have not done. in your property. [3:186] You shall surely be tried (la-tublawunna. lest it [the supremacy] escape them. [3:185] Every soul shall taste of death. from among the Arabs. the pledge [taken] from them in the Torah. in other words. from the chastisement. a small price. and in your selves. on the Day of Resurrection. that is. and from those who are idolaters. Such a covenant was made with the Children of Israel. sc. [3:184] But if they deny you. about [the fact] that you would believe if it [the offering] were brought [to you]. they discarded the covenant. ‘You shall expound it (read tubayyinunnahu. that is. in the way of insult. and the Scriptures. distanced. you shall surely be tested. and fear. and with that which you said. and so they did not act in accordance with it.any messenger. there shall be a painful chastisement for them. then. bi’l-zubur wa-bi’lkitāb l-munīr. slander and [their] flirting with your women. ‘they shall expound it’) the Book. enjoying supremacy over them in knowledge. through the duties [imposed] thereupon and through the damages that affect them. to people. of this world from the debased among them. and that is Hell. for they [their descendants] are content with it. it is one of those things regarding which one must necessarily have firm resolve. namely. of inanity. God. ‘they shall not conceal it’). God — surely that is true resolve. much hurt. [3:187] And. such as the scrolls of Abraham.

their supplication. [3:193] Our Lord. or [summoning them] to the Qur’ān. and the marvels contained in them. standing and sitting and on their sides. [3:190] Surely in the creation of the heavens and the earth. there are signs. we have heard a caller calling. the two direct objects of the first h-s-b verb would be indicated by the two direct objects of the second h-s-b verb. forgive us our sins and absolve us of. grant us what You have promised us through. for people possessing intellects. You will not fail the tryst’. ‘I do not let the labour of any labourer among you go to waste. is out of extreme humility. ‘painful’). and the evildoers. and God has power over all things. a circumstantial qualifier). [each] according to [his own] capacity. in the way of mercy and favour: they are asking Him that they be made among those that deserve such a promise. and so do not make them manifest by punishing us for them. our Lord. ‘do [not] reckon’. saying: ‘Our Lord. ‘helpers’] is extra). the storehouses of rain. but if one reads tahsabanna. sustenance. the prophets and the righteous. reclining. shall have no helpers. receive our spirits together. they are both equal when it comes to recompensing them for their deeds and for not neglecting them. an adjectival qualification of the preceding [li-ūlī l-albāb. exalted be He (the overt noun [‘the evildoers’] has replaced the pronominalisation [‘whomever’] in order to inform that the [punishment of] abasement is specifically theirs. the tongues of. [3:192] Our Lord. summoning people. for. You will have humiliated. “Believe in your Lord!” And we believed. So guard us against the chastisement of the Fire. [3:189] To God belongs the kingdom of the heavens and of the earth. in vain (bātilan. including the punishing of disbelievers and the saving of believers. ‘O Messenger of God. to deduce therefrom the power of their Creator. or a substitution for it) remember God. So. in all states: [it is reported] from Ibn ‘Abbās that they perform prayer in these ways. to belief (li’l-īmān means ilā l-īmān) and this is Muhammad (s). the min of [min ansār. and in the alternation of night and day. and abase us not on the Day of Resurrection. ‘for people of pith’]. but as a proof of the totality of Your power. The repetition of the phrase. but they are not certain that they are among those who deserve it. with the pious. and reflect upon the creation of the heavens and the earth. by saying that. that is to say. that. You have not created this. then only second direct object would be omitted). frivolously. our Lord. (If one reads yahsabanna. When Umm Salama asked. conceal. whomever You admit into the Fire. increasing and diminishing.means mu’lim. ‘let them [not] reckon’. Glory be to You!. why is there no 81  . [3:194] Our Lord. vegetation and so forth. [3:195] And their Lord answers them. the disbelievers therein. to abide therein. Your messengers. our evil deeds. coming and going. and take us [in death]. saying. for people of pith. indications of God’s power. in Him. God’s promise is fufilled regardless. the promise of Resurrection and Requital. creation that we see. You will have abased. [3:191] Those who (alladhīna. to protect them from God’s chastisement. exalted above any frivolity. be you male or female — the one of you is as the other (this statement is a reaffirmation of the previous one): that is.

then their abode is Hell — an evil cradling. be patient. (An-Nisâ’) [4:1] O people. God is swift at reckoning. That which is with God. like ‘Abd Allāh b. not purchasing with the verses of God. humble before God (khāshi‘īn is a circumstantial qualification of the person of [the verb] yu’min. 82  . scattered. as [stated] in the sūrat alQasas [Q. the Qur’ān. that is. and its operator is the import of the adverbial phrase) from God Himself. of Mecca. like the Jews. of this world. as others. [an evil] resting place it is! [3:198] But those who fear their Lord — for them shall be Gardens underneath which rivers flow. be steadfast. and fear God by whom you claim [your rights] from one another (tassā’alūna: the original tā’ [of tatasā’alūna] has been assimilated with the sīn. ‘who’). and takes into account the [potentially plural] sense of man. for My religion. many men and. revealed after [sūrat] al-Mumtahana. the disbelievers. fear God. Medinese: [consisting of] 176 or 177 verses. Those — their wage. and what has been revealed to them. from Mecca to Medina. the following was revealed: Let it not delude you. the Torah and the Gospel. which they enjoy for a short while in this world and then perishes. Salām and his companions and the Negus. [3:199] Verily. by concealing them for fear of losing their supremacy. [the fairest] requital. Eve (Hawwā’).mention of women when it comes to the Emigration (hijra)?’. reckoning with the whole of creation in about half a day of the days of this world. while we are struggling!’. A reward (thawāban is a verbal noun reaffirming the import of la-ukaffiranna) from God! (there is a shift of person here). [a reward] which they will be given twice over. women. engaging in commerce and acquiring profit: [3:197] That is [but]. which they have before them in the Torah and the Gospel pertaining to the descriptions of the Prophet (s). and were slain (read qutilū or quttilū) — them I shall surely absolve of their evil deeds. so that you will prosper. have done. a little enjoyment. that is. Adam and Eve. in the way of reward. ‘who believe’. is better for the pious. there are some among the People of the Scripture who believe in God. persist in the struggle. it is decreed for them to abide. concealing these with forgiveness. and fought. 28:54]. abiding. that is. lest they be more patient than you. and from the pair of them. ‘I ask you. from one of his left ribs. many. and I shall admit them to Gardens underneath which river flow’. it is in the accusative [nuzulan] because it is a circumstantial qualifier referring to jannāt. those who suffered hurt in My way. the following was revealed: and those who emigrated. Who created you of a single soul. than the enjoyment of this world. fear your Lord. and what has been revealed to you. [3:200] O you who believe. with the disbelievers. and were expelled from their habitations. that the disbelievers go to and fro in the land. that is. is with their Lord. ‘Look at the enemies of God. separated and spread. the reward for their deeds. a small price. And God — with Him is the fairest reward. and from it created its mate. [3:196] When the Muslims began to say. His punishment by being obedient to Him. in [performing] acts of obedience. a hospitality (nuzul is what is prepared for a guest. a variant reading has tasā’alūna). in the face of afflictions and in refraining from acts of disobedience. therein. Adam. how comfortable they are. [so that] you will win [admittance to] Paradise and be delivered from the Fire. and vie in patience. in all of your circumstances. so that one of you says to the other. ‘gardens’.

wastefully. meaning. He is ever possessed of such an attribute. prepare for them a kind reception. fearing. right [judgement] in matters of religion and their property. test. marry. [4:5] But do not. and so the following was revealed: [4:3] If you fear that you will not act justly. lest they should grow up. and. a variant reading has qiyaman. give to the foolish. that is. then. or resorting to slavegirls. kinship ties. [by] adding it. O guardians. women and children. for the good. until they have become eligible for it through puberty or [legal] age. or only one. as a free gift (nihlatan. and speak to them decent words. the absorbing of it. who is a guardian. it is likelier. that is. as you do when you take what is good from the orphan’s property. by giving them their property when they reach maturity. is a verbal noun). well the orphans. their bridal money (mahr. that is. that is. and did not treat them all equally. lest they expend it improperly. the squanderers from among men. as a supplement to the pronoun contained in bihi [sc. into your property. heedful of your deeds. feed them from it. deliver their property to them. let him be abstinent. Surely God has been watchful over you. that is. a present given out of the kindness of one’s heart. or ‘For God’s sake…’. [that] you will [not] be equitable. that is. their property. marry such (mā means man) women as seem good to you. and absorb not their property. [4:2] The following was revealed regarding an orphan who demanded his property from his guardian but was refused it: Give the orphans. which. is for specification and is taken from the subject of the verb [thus. with no harm therein for you with regard to the Hereafter: this was revealed in response to those who were opposed to this [consumption]. is the verbal noun from qāma. and leave him your faulty property instead. the women]). and clothe them. restrict yourself to. is rich. [that] you will [not] be inequitable. meaning that the property which sustains your livelihoods and the well-being of your children. but do not exceed this. for which He will requite you. the lawful. O guardians. your property. according to al-Shāfi‘ī. towards them in terms of [their] expenses and [individual] share. that with which property is valued). but if they are pleased to offer you any of it of their own accord (nafsan. [each man may marry] two. then also fear lest you be unjust towards women when you marry them. at which time you will be obliged to hand it over to them. fear. or. and become mature. and are thus distressed in this matter. consume it with. what your right hands own. God]). since these do not have the same rights as wives. that is. wholesome appetite. is the completion of fifteen years. provide for them thereof. when they have reached maturity.by God…’. two or three or four. towards the orphans. hastening to expend it. let him 83  . if you perceive in them maturity. plural of sudqa). [if] their own selves are pleased that you should have something of the dowry and they give it to you then. and do not exchange the evil. ‘and kinship ties’] is wa’l-arhāmi. lest you sever them (a variant reading [of wa’larhāma. a serious sin. but if you fear you will not be equitable. by that marrying of only four. that is to say. is a great crime. without due merit. that you will not be unjust. and some of them had ten or eight wives under their care. They used to implore one another by ties of kinship. of slavegirls. consume it not. [4:4] And give women their dowries (saduqāt. When this was revealed they found it difficult to maintain guardianship over orphans. before reaching maturity with regard [the duties of] religion and [before] they can [legally] manage their own affairs. the property that is theirs but held by you. ‘value’. the under-age ones that have no father. that is. then. thus. or four. only one. ‘maintenance’. If any man. and in haste. [4:6] Try. a praiseworthy consequence. ‘of their own accord’. taking the one in place of the other. that is. it is nearer [in outcome]. muhūr). it refers back to ‘they’. the unlawful. the plural of qīma. good. which God has assigned to you as maintenance (qiyāman. or three. until they reach the age of marrying. surely that.

weak offspring. God says. be one (wāhidatan. by enjoining him to give as voluntary almsgiving no more than the third [of the inheritance]. He commands you. and leave the remainder for the ones inheriting. is also read wāhidatun. be. since. let them fear God. the deceased’s. they shall enter. the lot. be little or much. in which they shall burn. 4:176]. and he receives two thirds. would be afraid for them. their property. are only consuming. if he has a child. that is. [4:11] God charges you. grant them. so that half the property is his. the equivalent of the portion. if he is the only one. the daughter. women more than two. honourably. and if they. is attended by kinsmen. of them. to the one approached by death. it is [mistakenly] thought that the entitlement of two females to twothirds derives from the fact that a female is entitled to one third when with a male. as a guardian of His creatures’ deeds and as a reckoner of these [deeds] (the bā’ [in bi’Llāhi] is extra). since in the case of two sisters. because that is where such [action] leads. pertinent words. God has made it. the orphans. an intense fire. They shall receive twothirds of what he leaves [Q. only that people were all too readily neglecting it. only. more deserving of such a share. to be given to them. in the matter concerning orphans. without any right. if there are two [women] with him. the matter of. [4:10] Those who consume the property of orphans unjustly. and let them give what they would love for their own offspring after their death. let him consume. belongs a share. likewise if they be two women. the property. and to his parents. something. take witnesses over them. that is. It is said that fawq. are about to. and orphans and the poor. that they be ruined. And when you deliver to them. O guardians. of two females. and speak. to each one of the two (li-kulli wāhidin minhumā. with what He will mention: to the male. speak to them. and the other half is theirs. that they have received it and that you are absolved [of the obligation]. it is a duty. making the kāna [construction] syntactically complete) then to her a half. after their death. the right [words]. and. but if he has no 84  . it is also said to guard against the wrong impression that the greater the number [of females] the greater the portion [they are entitled to]. of the inheritance. and they shall be exposed to (read active yaslawna. that is. your children. out of it. ‘to his parents’) the sixth of what he leaves. [4:8] And when the division. apportioned. parents and kinsmen leave. and to the women belongs a share of what parents and kinsmen leave. concerning. substitutes for the previous li-abawayhi. the whole of it as. if there is only one female with him. [4:9] And let them fear. and since a female is entitled to a third with a male. kindly. however. whether it. those of kinship who cannot inherit. then she has a third. but that it is for the young [inheritors]. honourable words. young ones and kin. let them be concerned for the orphans. [4:7] The following was revealed as a repudiation of pre-Islamic practices in which women and children were not given any inheritance: To the men. fire in their bellies. leaves. [The term] ‘child’ (walad) also applies to a grandchild. but if she. ‘more than’. Some say that this [stipulation] was abrogated. by apologising to them that it is not your possession [to divide as you wish]. in line with the wage for his work. she is all the more deserving [of the same share] with a female. then for them two-thirds of what he. young children. you are able to refer to a clear proof: this is a command [intended] for guidance. God suffices as a reckoner. According to Ibn ‘Abbās. the deceased. or passive yuslawna). and likewise ‘parent’ (abb) to a grandparent.abstain from the orphan’s property and refrain from consuming it. those who. others say that it was not. a blaze. so that they do not end up as dependants. since it was encouraged [but not prescribed]. so that if any dispute occurs. leave behind them. if the inheritors are young. the offspring. an obligatory share. if he is poor. deceased. of what. he takes it all. a portion. before the division [is effected]. introduces a relative clause. of it. if they. male or female: the point of the substitution is to show that they do not share the sixth [but receive one each].

one of humiliation. that is the great triumph. or what remains after the spouse. also read. if they have no children. abiding therein. so that they may act in accordance with them and not infringe them. or passive yūsā). and nothing for the siblings. God is Knowing. to his mother a sixth. then for them an eighth of what you leave. [having] neither a parent nor child. ‘to be bequeathed’) in other words. or [their belonging to] a different religion or being slaves. any debt. but if they have children. ‘being inherited from’. Wise. is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the person governing [the verb] yūsā. its predicate being [what follows]) — you know not which of them is nearer in benefit to you. then for you a fourth of what they leave. He will admit him (yudkhilhu. without causing any prejudice to the inheritors by bequeathing more than the third). then to his mother (read li-ummihi. be more than that. has a brother or a sister. of what he leaves. of His creation. yudkhilhu and nudkhilhu]) to a Fire. as a shift [to the first person plural] read nudkhilhu. accords with its [general plural] import. ‘abiding’. surely God is ever Knowing. whether one or more. The inheritance stipulated for those mentioned shall take place. and His Messenger. and for this reason He has prescribed for you inheritance: a prescription from God. any bequest that he may bequeath (read active yūsī. His laws. in what He has ruled. from the same mother. He is ever possessed of such attributes. a verbal noun reaffirming [the import of] yūsīkum. of the property. Forbearing. [more] than one. and for him. in what He has ordained for them. but it be that such.child. him He will admit ([read] in both ways [as above. [4:12] And for you a half of what your wives leave. the rest being for the father. that is. The only One with knowledge of this [reality] is God. [4:13] Those. and the rest for the father. rulings mentioned with respect to orphans and what followed.) [4:15] 85  . And for them. Your parents and children (ābā’ukum wa-abnā’ukum. if you have no children. alone or along with a spouse. as read by Ibn Mas‘ūd and others. to show that it should be taken seriously. or. in both places [here and further down]. after any bequest you may bequeath. which He has delimited for His servants. while [the plural person in] khālidīn. of the obligations which He has ordained for His creatures. males or females. that is. If it be a man leaving an inheritance (yūrathu. but if you have children. then to each of the two a sixth. or. Whoever obeys God and His Messenger. or any debt. from them or from others. is the subject. a fourth of what you leave. and his heirs are his parents. the predicate of which is [the following kalālatan. or. the siblings from the same mother. after any bequest they may bequeath. then they share a third. in this world and the Hereafter. and transgresses His bounds. the repayment of. and vice versa. are God’s bounds. abiding therein. two or more. again the consensus is that the grandchild is as the child. even though it should only be fulfilled after the latter [has been repayed]. [4:14] But whoever disobeys God. ‘We will admit him’) to Gardens underneath which rivers flow. li-immihi in order to avoid the cumbersome transition from a damma [‘u’] to a kasra [‘I’]) a third. there shall be a humbling chastisement. or it be a woman. or any debt: the consensus is that the grandchild in this case is like the child. a man leaving an inheritance with no direct heir. leaves him an inheritance. (In both [of the last] verses. that he may owe. if he has siblings. The Sunna specifies that the individuals mentioned may receive the relevant inheritance provided that they are not barred from it on account of their having committed murder. the male and female equally. the wives. after any bequest to be bequeathed or any debt without prejudice (ghayra mudārrin. in deferring the punishment of those that disobey Him. is an adjectival qualification. ‘whoever’. the [singular] person [of the suffixed pronouns and the verbs] accords with the [singular] form of [the particle] man. after. in it. but if they. leaving an inheritance and having no direct heir. It may be that one supposes his son to be beneficial to him. from you or from another. and then it turns out that the father had been the more beneficial [of the two]. the fulfilment of. ‘without direct heir’]) and not having a direct heir. ‘Bequest’ comes before ‘debt’. that is to say. a charge (wasiyyatan. ‘He charges you’ [of the beginning of the previous verse]) from God.

the angels of. and make amends. ‘making it clear’. neither for those who die disbelieving. that is. and if they so wished they could marry [a woman] without a dowry. then be patient. sins. an act of disobedience. but if they repent. in other words. adultery or homosexual intercourse. and is Merciful. is only of those who do evil. This was stipulated for them at the very beginning of Islam. and the married woman be stoned. death take them or. [4:16] And when two of you (read wa’lladhāni or wa’lladhānni) men. and similarly if homosexual intercourse is meant. perhaps He does this when He provides you with a righteous child 86  . to those who repent. then repent shortly thereafter. He will accept their repentance. that is to say. with insults and beatings with sandals. Wise. And God is ever Knowing. then detain them in their houses.As for those of your women who commit lewdness. a circumstantial qualifier. Those — We have prepared for them a painful chastisement. that is. God will relent to those. except when they commit flagrant (read mubayyina. out of His bounty. Consort with them in kindness. upon witnessing his predicament: ‘Indeed now I repent’. your [former] wives from marrying others by retaining them while you have no desire for them yourselves. adultery. they used to inherit women from their kin. alShāfi‘ī] was of the opinion that it referred to an adulterer and an adulteress. but this [opinion of his] may be countered by the fact that [the reference to] the two [men] becomes clear on account of the particle min being attached to a masculine pronoun [minkum. Muslim men. the one which He has prescribed for Himself to accept. in ignorance (bi-jahālatin. and the pangs of death begin. as was stated before. and by the fact that they suffer the same punishment. [both effect the action of] repentance and [are both granted] that they be left alone [thereafter]. coercing them into this. through [good] action. punish them both. neither debar them. he is flogged and banished. it seems more obvious that homosexual fornication is meant [by this verse]. Judging by the dual person pronoun. then leave them be. ‘Come listen to me! Come listen to me! God has now made a way out for them’. out of it. of you to witness against them. even though the former [sc. until. for this would not avail him and would not be accepted from him. even if he be married. or until she died and they could inherit from her. of this [lewd act]. ‘clear’) lewdness. This [verse] is abrogated by the prescribed punishment if adultery is meant [by the lewd act]. when death approaches one of them. and do not harm them. but then a way out was appointed for them through [the stipulation] that the virgin should receive a hundred lashes and be banished for a year. and if they witness. God ever turns [relenting]. it may happen that you hate a thing wherein God has set much good. or marry her off and take the dowry for themselves. ‘they are ignorant’ while they are disobeying their Lord). but according to him. for if you hate them. a lewd act. before the last gasps of death. as alternative forms) that is to say. of the dowry. the person who is the object of the [penetrative] act is not stoned. that is. if they repent in the Hereafter upon seeing the chastisement: it will not be accepted from them. call four. to them. [4:18] Repentance is not for those who do evil deeds. until. then you have the right to coerce them until they redeem themselves to you or forfeit [their dowries]. with regard to [their] expenditure and lodging. according to al-Shāfi‘ī. and prevent them from mixing with people. They were thus forbidden such practices. [4:19] O you who believe. The prescribed punishment was explained thus in the hadīth. being decent in speaking [to them]. until. so that you may go off with part of what you have given them. in what He does with them. or prevent her [from marriage] until she gave up what she had inherited. ‘of you’]. only to harm them. rather. God appoints for them a way. [all of] which applies specifically to men. [4:17] The repentance that God accepts. commit it. given that for women detention is stipulated. he says. as reported by Muslim. such as adultery or rebellion. or mubayyana. it is not lawful for you to inherit women against their will (read either karhan or kurhan. of His creatures. against them such [lewdness]. In pre-Islamic times.

surely that. who are. Would you take it by way of calumny. and you have given to one. of captured [slave] girls. beyond all that. [4:23] Forbidden to you are your mothers. and maternal aunts. to then marry their daughters — and the spouses of your sons who are of your loins. the daughter of one’s wife from another husband). that is. prior to this prohibition. whose spouses. by way of a dowry or a 87  . it is permissible to marry each of these separately or to own them [as handmaidens] together. and this includes the paternal and maternal grandmothers. from God). that is. save what your right hands own. marrying them. those suckled by the man’s paternal aunts. to you in this matter. whom you may have sexual intercourse with. including their children. being brought up. when each of you has been privily with the other. your paternal aunts. of the spouses. that they should be retained honourably or set free virtuously. through sexual intercourse. your sisters. your step-daughters (rabā’ib. and manifest sin? (buhtānan. reiterating the obvious. that is. those with spouses. or maternal aunts. your foster sisters. of what you have done in the past. be they Muslim free women or not. Lawful for you (read passive wa-uhilla. or those suckled by his brother’s daughters. take of it nothing. including the children of these daughters. namely. vile. Merciful. the daughters of these. unless it be a thing of the past. an evil way. and ithman. by divorcing the one. injustice. if they should lower themselves [to such standards]. which validates the dowry. women. or his sister’s daughters. two sisters together. is that you seek. using your wealth. in sexual intercourse — but if you have not yet been in to them you are not at fault. [4:24] And. which is forgiven you. and these foster-sisters include those suckled by a woman with whom the man has had intercourse. five times within the first two years. and daughters. but only have sexual intercourse with one of them. means it results in maqt. according to the Sunna. by what right. as opposed to those whom you have adopted. if you leave them. [an evil] path is this. from your fathers and mothers. as pointed out in a hadīth. being born of your wives you have been in to. plural of rabība. and. ‘sin’. wedded women. ‘severe hate’. ‘What kinship makes unlawful suckling also makes unlawful’. the interrogative here is meant as a rebuke. or active wa-ahalla).through them. but only after they have been absolved of the possibility of pregnancy [after the completion of one menstrual cycle]. and that is what God commanded. in marriage. your brother’s daughters. on account of the [Prophet’s] hadīth that. and abominable (maqtan. that you should marry them before they have left their spouses. in contrast. that is. even if they should have spouses among the enemy camp. in marriage. from preIslamic times. is obscene. as reported by al-Bukhārī and Muslim. and that you should take to you. forbidden to you are. the sisters of your fathers and grandfathers. without any additional import). when you may have married in one of the ways mentioned: you are not at fault. you may marry. this is what God has prescribed for you (kitāba is in the accusative because it is the verbal noun). a binding pledge. God is ever Forgiving. except what He has forbidden you of women. a large sum as dowry. [4:22] And do not marry women whom (mā means man) your fathers married. that is. your foster mothers who have given you milk. in your care (allātī fī hujūrikum is an adjectival qualifier. and they have taken from you a solemn covenant. the sisters of your mothers and grandmothers. your sister’s daughters. ‘calumny’. your mothers-in-law. [4:20] And if you desire to exchange a wife in place of another. end in the accusative because they are circumstantial qualifiers). [sisters] by kinship or by suckling: the Sunna adds that you may not marry her together with her paternal or maternal aunt. and as a disavowal where He says: [4:21] How shall you take it. a hundredweight. unless it be a thing of the past.

openly fornicating. the paths. if they commit lewdness. the one of you is as the other. for He is the One to know her [true] merit: many a slavegirl may be more excellent [in faith] than a free woman. and have had sexual intercourse with. and abstain from marrying slavegirls. a circumstantial qualifier). in marriage. of His creatures. God is Knowing. or the Magians and adulterers. is in accordance with the prevalent practice. marrying of slavegirls on account of insufficient means. before you. their guardians. their dowries. because of the distress that it causes in the way of the punishment in this world and in the Hereafter). bringing you back from the disobedience which you practised. Wise. God has not made wedlock the precondition for the prescribed punishment to show that stoning does not apply in their case [sc. so suffice yourself with its outward manifestation and leave the innermost matters to Him. but is used to mean zinā. But when they are given in wedlock. [when] they are married off (a variant reading [for the passive uhsinna. so that you might be like them. to obedience to Him. in what He has ordained for you. is waived. believing maids whom your right hands own. who commit adultery. God is Forgiving. ‘fornication’. ‘believing’. after the obligation. for man was created weak. women in wedlock. and give them their wages. through 88  . [whoever] is not wealthy enough. fornicating. but those who follow their passions. ‘they are given in wedlock’] has the active ahsanna. Here. Wise. in the way of what is lawful and what is unlawful. free. you are not at fault in agreeing together. That. without procrastination or diminution. free. yet it is better for you to be patient. God knows very well your faith. the laws of your religion and what is in your best interests. and does not add to the import). slavegirls]. whom it is unlawful to marry. the dowries that you have assigned them. as an obligation. you and they. let him take. [4:26] God desires to make clear to you. not illicitly. even if one should find no believing women and fear [the distress of fornication]. companions fornicating in secret. by allowing room for manoeuvre in these matters. the legal punishment. [4:29] O you who believe. decreased or increased. such as adultery. with the permission of their folk. in wedlock and not. give them their wages. So marry them. [4:25] And whoever has not the means wherewith. and are thus given fifty lashes and banished for half a year. and to turn [in forgiveness] towards you. God is ever Knowing. [4:28] God desires to lighten things for you. Moreover. unlawfully according to the Law. in illicitly. so that you might follow them. as opposed to those of you who might not have such a fear [of distress] with regard to their free women and for whom it is unlawful to marry her [the slavegirl]. fornication (al-‘anat originally means distress. women. honourably. and make the rulings of the Law easier for you. they shall be liable to half the chastisement. consume not your goods between you wrongly. or taking lovers. desire that you deviate with a terrible deviation. and to guide you in the ways. [4:27] And God desires to turn [forgivingly] towards you (He repeats this in order to expand upon it). virgin. transgressing what is right by committing what has been forbidden you. Merciful. prophets. being equal in religion. God’s words ‘believing maids’ precludes unbelieving women. to be able to marry believing (al-mu’mināt. of married. and this is meant to encourage marriage with slavegirls. the Jews and Christians. ‘they enter into wedlock’). is for those of you who fear the distress of sin. of you.price. of those. in decency. so do not disdain to marry with them. [male] slaves by analogy are liable to the same punishment. Such wives as you enjoy thereby. lest the child should become enslaved also. in what He has ordained for them. as women in wedlock (muhsanāt. likewise for one who has sufficient means to marry a free woman [it is unlawful for him to marry a slavegirl instead]: this is the opinion of alShāfi‘ī. unable to abstain from women and passions.

So give them. But those related by blood are nearer to one another [Q. those for which the threat of punishment has been prescribed. and share not beds with them. and to those to whom your right hands (aymān. that is. meaning ‘oath’ or ‘hand’) were pledged (read ‘āqadat or ‘aqadat). their portions of the inheritance. disobedient to you. a reward for. namely. when such signs appear. and admit you by an honourable gate (read mudkhalan or madkhalan). in knowledge. and to women a share from what they have earned. [4:31] If you avoid the grave sins that are forbidden you. [4:34] Men are in charge of. through mutual agreement. that is. when He enjoined their male spouses to look after them well. [4:30] And whoever does that. Surely God is ever Merciful to you.usury or usurpation. God is ever High. disciplining them and keeping them in check. what they have earned. by way of being obedient to their spouses and guarding their private parts: this was revealed when Umm Salama said: ‘Would that we were men. lest it lead to mutual envy and hatred. wherein he shall burn. through mutual good-will: such [goods] you may consume. what you need and He will give it to you. a reason to strike them unjustly. [4:33] To each. now. make them fear God. to their husbands. retire to other beds if they manifest such disobedience. [reiterated] for emphasis). [4:35] 89  . [guarding] their private parts and otherwise during their spouses’ absence. of their property. authority and otherwise. also read tijāratun). transgressing what is lawful. these number as much as seven hundred — We will absolve you of your. which parents and kinsmen leave. and injustice (zulman. do not seek a way against them. for them. If they then obey you. among them. because of what God has guarded. including where merit is deserved and that for which you ask. minor. and because of what they expend. God is ever Knower of all things. are obedient. a circumstantial qualifier). 8:75 and 33:6]. on them [the women]. [ever] aware [of it]. fornication or theft — according to Ibn ‘Abbās. reason. in what is desired from them. Great. and that for God is an easy matter. of that. evil deeds. which he has been forbidden. admit. so that we could join the struggle and receive the reward they receive!’ And ask (read wa-s’alū or wa-salū) God of His bounty. for their acts in the struggle and so on. on account of your acts of obedience. property. except it be trading (tijāratan. We have appointed heirs. And kill not yourselves. so that the goods be from trade effected. plural of yamīn. [by an honourable] admittance or location. but not violently. that is. that is. Paradise. to a fire. and strike them. because of that with which God has preferred the one over the other. like murder. lest He punish you for treating them unjustly. man and woman. To men a share from. so beware of Him. relations to be given. Therefore righteous women. including your circumstances: this verse was abrogated by His words. be it in this world or the Hereafter. [4:32] Do not covet that in which God has preferred some of you above others. him We shall certainly expose. God is ever Witness over everything. in the way of worldly affairs or religion. women. which is a sixth. their share. And those you fear may be rebellious. those allies with whom before the coming of Islam you made covenants of mutual assitance and inheritance. for them. they have authority over. guarding in the unseen. because God has given them the advantage over women. if they refuse to desist [from their rebellion] after leaving them [in separate beds]. when He forbids you such things. through aggression (‘udwānan. admonish them. by committing what leads towards destruction on account of some affiliation.

[the weight of] the smallest ant. [4:41] 90  . to be seen of them. [4:36] And worship God. declare His Oneness. the likes of the hypocrites and the Meccans. The two arbiters do their best and bid the one guilty of the injustice to desist. exalted be He. success. God is ever Aware of them. desire to set things right. God. and to orphans. Surely God is ever Knower. his kinsmen. harm lies in what they follow (the interrogative is meant as a disavowal. for a companion. the law [of law āmanū. there is no harm therein. ‘for them there is a promise of severe punishment’). and to the friend at your side. of everything. and near kindred. and to the neighbour who is a stranger. in addition to the doubling. says. or a colleague at work. then an evil comrade has he. and to the wayfarer. the one far from you in terms of [physical] vicinity or kinship. in other words: shiqāqan baynihimā [is the normal construction]) send forth. one’s wife. ‘if they were to believe’] conveys the sense of the verbal noun [sc. Be kind to parents. in their duty. and if it. a just man. and an arbiter from her folk: the husband delegates to his arbiter the [matter of] divorce or the acceptance of compensation in its place. Whoever has Satan for a comrade. ‘[any] breach between the two’. a breach. a great wage. and will requite them for what they have done. one of humiliation. and to what your right hands own. from his folk. from a believer. being dutiful and gentle-mannered. and. if they. that is to say. Aware. the arrogant. is also read in taku hasanatun. in the way of knowledge and property: these are the Jews (the predicate of the [said] subject is [an implied] lahum wa‘īdun shadīd. God will grant them. and give from Himself. by diminishing thereby a person’s good deeds or increase thereby his evil deeds. [4:37] Those (alladhīna. an arbiter. and expend of what God has provided them?. what harm would this cause them? In other words. in which case the kāna [construction] is [syntactically] complete). He will double it (yudā‘ifuhā. the subject) who are niggardly. and the boastful. and bid other people to be niggardly. in this and other matters. ‘if it be a good deed’. in the same. mādhā ‘alayhim īmānuhum.And if you fear. the married couple. Rather. of what is hidden and what is manifested. the atom. and believe not in God and the Last Day. between the two. is for a range [of alternatives]. Surely God loves not the conceited. [4:40] Surely God shall not wrong. anyone. and to the neighbour who is near. be a good deed (in taku hasanatan. and conceal what God has bestowed upon them of His bounty. from ten times up to more than seven hundred times. as these do. to you in terms of [physical] vicinity or kinship. ‘those’) who expend of their substance to show off to people. or they suggest separation if they see fit. while she delegates to her arbiter the [matter of] separation. become aware of. the two arbiters. it is also said. and associate nothing with Him. [the one who boasts] before people of what he has been given. a humbling chastisement. of bondsmen. ‘what burden would their belief be upon them?’]). [4:38] And those (wa’lladhīna. the one cut off during a journey. a travelling companion. the married couple (the genitive construction shiqāqa baynihimā. for them with their consent. that no one can estimate. [4:39] And what burden is on them if they were to believe in God and the Last Day. a dispute. and to the needy. also read yuda‘‘ifuhā). so much as the weight of an atom. be it reconciliation or separation. And We have prepared for those that disbelieve. whose command he follows. a supplement to the previous alladhīna. determining for them what constitutes [an act of] obedience.

they say to him. [a term] with which it had been forbidden to address him. up to the elbows (the verb masaha. that is. when you have sobered up. clean earth. nor whilst you are defiled. [4:43] O you who believe. Islam. we never associated anything with You’ [Q. as a result of [sexual] penetration or ejaculation (junuban. and wipe your faces and your hands. group. ‘Mind us’ (rā‘inā). draw not near to prayer. when We bring forward from every community a witness. twisting. Forgiving.So how shall it be. ‘By God. however. that you should stray from the path of truth and be like them. that is to say. this is also the opinion of al-Shāfi‘ī. But if you are sick. in which case you may perform prayer: a proviso is made for the traveller because a different stipulation applies to him. crossing. the words. by a drink: this was revealed concerning being drunk during the congregational prayer. a route. until you know what you are saying. from among the Jews distort. your words. purchasing error. from their contexts. defaming. the day of bringing forward. is in the accusative because it is a circumstantial qualifier. wholesome soil. ‘if’. although at another stage they do actually hide it and say. with it. strike it twice. [4:46] Some. functioning as an invocation. namely. ‘O would that I were dust!’ [Q. the predicament of the disbelievers. with their tongues and slandering. that God revealed in the Torah pertaining to the descriptions of Muhammad (s). or if any of you comes from the privy (al-ghā’it). our Lord. religion. as stated by Ibn ‘Umar. and this shall be its prophet. If they had said. and hear as one who does not hear’ (wa’sma‘ ghayr musma‘in is a circumstantial qualifier. and We bring you. as witness against these? [4:42] Upon that day. a place designated for relieving nature. [unless] you are travelling — until you have washed yourselves. alter. may stand on its own with a direct object or take a particle [before the direct object. [4:45] God has better knowledge of your enemies. to the Prophet (s). masaha bi-]). to testify against it regarding its deeds. or active tasawwā. it is [referring to] sexual intercourse). a variant reading has lamastum: both mean lams. and we disobey. a portion. means an. God suffices as a Helper. when he commands them something. ‘that’) the earth might be levelled with them (read passive tusawwā. and they say. with guidance. and desiring that you should err from the way?. whilst you are inebriated. so that like it they might also become dust. of the Book. that is. those who have disobeyed the Messenger. being a curse word in their language. or you have touched women (lāmastum. sc. or tassawwā). according to Ibn ‘Abbās. ‘touching with the hand’. of what they did. seek. or on a journey. the disbelievers. that is. that is. do not perform prayer. ‘defiled’. when the time [for the prayer] has commenced. and you can find no water. 6:23]. than you do. that is. ‘to wipe’. And they will not hide from God any talk. as will follow. those [contexts] in which they were placed. having made the effort to seek it out and search for it — the sick being exempt in this case — then resort to. [and this is] because of the terror of that day. in other words. God is ever Pardoning. as is stated in another verse: The disbeliever shall say. mosques. God suffices as a Protector. 78:40]. the exception being if one were merely passing through and not staying. a Preserver of you from them. ‘We have heard. and He informs you of them in order that you avoid them. and may be used to refer to the singular or plural) — unless you are traversing. [4:44] Have you not seen those who were given a share. [or if any of you] have defecated. It is said that the purpose [of this verse] is to prohibit the approach to places of prayer. ‘And may you not hear!’) and. with which to purify yourselves for prayer. [or] travelling whilst you are [ritually] defiled or impure. O Muhammad (s). the Jews. your command. a way. distorting. ‘We have 91  . will wish that (law. with an illness made worse by [contact with] water. defending you against their plotting. and it extends to touching with other parts of the skin.

and ‘Consider us. upon a more upright way. when they [the latter] said to them: ‘Are we. and do such and such … not more rightly guided than Muhammad. Salām converted to Islam. God purifies whom He will. and they shall not be wronged. it would have been better for them. they have no share in it whatever. that is to say. as We cursed. two idols belonging to Quraysh. removing them from His mercy. he who has contravened the religion of his forefathers. [4:51] The following was revealed regarding Ka‘b b. who are the guardians of the House. Whoever associates anything with God. you. [4:50] Consider. it [the threat] was lifted. [4:49] Have you not seen those who praise themselves for purity? namely. you will never find for him any helper. or curse them. Salām and his companions. that is.’ (unzur ilaynā) instead of rā‘inā.heard and obey’. and turn them inside out. when they say. His decree. and so it was said that this had been a conditional threat of punishment. sin. but God has cursed them. [not even] something as worthless as 92  . in other words. an evident. believe in what We have revealed. then they would not give the people a single date-spot. anyone to protect him from His chastisement. and make them like the napes of the neck. ‘We are God’s children and His beloved’. so they believe not except a few. and he whom God has cursed. ‘Hear’. offer hospitality to the guest. are more rightly guided. set free the captive. those of the Sabbath. Nay. by admitting him into Paradise without punishment. [4:53] Or have they a share in the Kingdom?. to Abū Sufyān and his companions. and. how they believe in al-Jibt and al-Tāghūt. ‘Abd Allāh b. of the Qur’ān. save. when they came to Mecca and saw those killed at Badr. and that suffices for a clear. such as ‘Abd Allāh b. confirming what is with you. how they invent falsehood against God. of the Torah. a flat plate. before We obliterate faces. ‘These. and more upright. so that when some of them converted to Islam. to whomever He wills. forgiveness for. they shall not be diminished of their deeds. the Jews. It is also said that obliteration and transformation will take place before the rising of the Hour. in other words. among them. sin. who give drink to the pilgrim. only. in that way. and then admits them into Paradise. [as] We transformed. But He forgives other than. than what they said. and God’s command. a great. and even if they did. a single date-thread. and abandoned the Sanctuary?’. and say to the disbelievers. that. than the believers’? [4:52] Those are the ones whom God has cursed. [4:48] God forgives not that anything should be associated with Him. then he has indeed invented a tremendous. severed the ties of kinship. as much as the peel on a date-stone. of sins. more just than that. by transforming them into apes. among them. erasing the eyes. [4:47] O you who have been given the Scripture. instead of ‘And we disobey’. and began to incite the idolaters to avenge them [their dead] by waging war against the Prophet (s): Have you not seen those who were given a share of the Book. al-Ashraf and other such scholars from among the Jews. And whomever He wills of the believers He punishes for their sins. noses and eyebrows in them. is done: after this was revealed. through faith. for their unbelief. in amazement. it is not a matter of their purifying themselves.

[4:57] And those that believe. refer it to God. in the way of prophethood and abundance of women? In other words. nothing being beyond His power. namely. and thus it remained in [the keep of] his descendants. whereupon ‘Alī recited to him this verse. [4:58] Verily. the mīm of ni‘ima has been assimilated with the indefinite particle mā. wherein they abide: they shall have therein spouses purified. and Solomon had a thousand. We shall replace them with other skins. the Book and wisdom. ‘If he were truly a prophet. his forefather. upon the arrival of the Prophet (s) in Mecca in the year of the Conquest. David and Solomon. are they jealous of people. We shall admit them to Gardens underneath which rivers flow. He [‘Uthmān] was amazed by this. and thereafter [refer] to his Sunna: in other words examine these [disputes] with reference to these two [sources]. when they command you to obey God and His Messenger. of what is said. ‘If I had known that he was the Messenger of God. [4:54] Or. God commands you to restore trusts. while he lives. Talha al-Hajabī. ‘Uthmān b. they wish that he be deprived of such things. the rights entrusted [to you by others]. and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. and he accepted Islam. if you believe in God and the Last Day. ‘Here you are. as a chastisement for those who do not believe. He commands. of menstruation and every impurity. [4:55] And there are some of them who believe in him. For We gave the House of Abraham. of the Prophet (s). Excellent is (ni‘immā. Seer. Shayba. [who] reject [him] and do not believe. to His Book. it holds true in general on account of the plural person [to which it is addressed]. wherein they shall burn. nay. in Muhammad (s). that. he would not be concerned with women’. after he [‘Uthmān] had tried to prevent him [‘Alī from taking it] saying. that they may taste the chastisement. to a Fire. for you than quarrelling or [adhering to] personal opinions. ‘an excellent thing [is]’) the admonition God gives you. in other words. 93  . Upon his death.the tiny spot on the back of a date-pit. God is ever Hearer. reference to the two [sources]. and prophethood. and some of them who bar from him. I would not have prevented him’. never replaced by any sun. [4:59] O you who believe. free women and slavegirls. na‘ima shay’an. burnt. and We shall admit them to plenteous shade. and more excellent in interpretation. saying. obey God. And when you judge between people. disagree. took the key of the Ka‘ba from its keeper. of what is done. for the bounty that God has bestowed upon them. Surely God is ever Mighty. and We gave them a mighty kingdom: David had ninety–nine women. back to their owners: this was revealed when ‘Alī. Wise. in the end. rulers. which is the object described. that you judge with justice. that is everlasting [shade]. because of the extent of their niggardliness. Hell suffices for a blaze. Although the verse was revealed regarding a specific occasion. that they may suffer its severity. in His creation. and the Messenger. about anything. and perform righteous deeds. [it is yours] now and always’. that is. he [‘Uthmān] gave it [the key] to his brother. The Messenger of God (s) then ordered him [‘Alī] to give it back to him [‘Uthmān] saying to him. and this is the shade of Paradise. may God be pleased with him. We shall admit them. the likes of Moses. as often as their skins are consumed. If you should quarrel. that is. to restore a trust and to judge with justice. that is. is better. [4:56] Surely those who disbelieve in Our signs — We shall expose them. restoring them to their initial unburnt state. by force.

one excessive in tempting [others] to falsehood (tughyān). far astray. al-Ashraf. he [‘Umar] killed him. and the Messenger’. is explicative) ‘Slay yourselves’ or ‘Leave your habitations’. regarding what you decide. they had come to you. al-Ashraf. Merciful. and not that he should be disobeyed or opposed. and asked forgiveness from God. [4:61] And when it is said to them. reprimand them so that they repent of their unbelief. But Satan desires to mislead them. what has been prescribed for them. Ka‘b b. they would have found God Relenting. and harmony’. affecting them. (fa-lā. a punishment. in the way of hypocrisy and the mendacity of their excuses. in deference to his [the Prophet’s (s)] status). [no] constraint or doubt. or read accusative qalīlan. and the Messenger had asked forgiveness for them (there is a shift from the second [to the third] person in this address. make them fear God. ‘they turn away’ [of the previous verse]). as an 94  . their souls penetrating words. befalls them for what their own hands have sent before them. in what he commands and judges. that is to say. namely. from the truth. but submit. and not to associate with him. desiring to take their disputes to a false deity (tāghūt). and admonish them. reconciliation between the disputing parties by [any] approximate judgement without regard for the painful truth. and when he replied. so turn away from them. ‘that’. ‘Come to what God has revealed. of unbelief and acts of disobedience. between them and find in themselves no inhibition. and so they went before ‘Umar. But the hypocrite was not satisfied. swearing by God that. to them. If. whereupon he [‘Umar] turned to the hypocrite and asked him. repentant. ‘Is this true?’. ‘Yes’. when an affliction. by seeking the judgement of the false idol. when they had wronged themselves. as a substitution. to others. by the leave. The hypocrite called on Ka‘b b. by the command. as regards rulings in the Qur’ān. [4:63] Those — God knows what is in their hearts. you see the hypocrites turn away from you vehemently. Have you not seen those who claim that they believe in what has been revealed to you. settlement. save a few (read nominative qalīlun. [4:64] We never sent any Messenger. the issue of. when they have been commanded to renounce him?. has become mixed up. without objection. the lā is extra) by your Lord! They will not believe until they make you judge over what has broken out. and say to them regarding. and what was revealed before you. The Jew told him what had happened. as We did for the Children of Israel. they would not have done it. [4:62] How would it be. a supplement to yasuddūn. of God. [4:66] And had We prescribed for them: (the particle an. When they came to him. would they then be able to turn away and escape it? No! They then come to you (thumma jā’ūka. to them. in turning to other than you for arbitration. in other words. with forgiveness. that is. to arbitrate between them. while the Jew called on the Prophet (s). [4:65] But no. but that he should be obeyed. that he may judge between you. [but] comply with your ruling. ‘We sought only virtue. [what] would they do. in full submission. the Prophet ruled in favour of the Jew.[4:60] The following verse was revealed when a Jew and a hypocrite fell into a dispute.

be wary of him and be vigilant against him. ‘God has been gracious to me. Ubayy. there are some of you who tarry. with which He has favoured them. the most excellent of the Prophet’s Companions. and the righteous. in separate groups. then move forward. in Paradise. as if (ka’an is softened. [4:70] That. since in it one will enjoy seeing them. [4:72] Verily. prepare to fight him. that is. Some Companions said to the Prophet (s): ‘How will we be able to see you in Paradise. they are with those whom God has blessed of the prophets and the truthful. ‘verily … who tarry’] is for oaths). that is. lest I should be hurt. that is. in one assembly. namely. Paradise. in other words. he says. between you and him: this [statement] refers back to the words [in the previous verse] ‘God has been gracious to me’. any acquaintance or friendship. so that I might have won a great triumph!’. in companies. the hypocrite. ‘that’. for I was not a witness with them’. take your precautions. and not because they have earned it through their obedience. that is. those slain in the path of God. God suffices as Knower. yet if they had done what they were admonished to do. [a stronger] confirmation of their faith. had they confirmed themselves. it would have been better for them. the predicate of which is [the following]) is bounty from God. such as a conquest or booty. even though they will be in the highest stations in relation to others. in what he commands. that is. then. [4:71] O you who believe. who indeed hesitate to join the fighting. and so the following was revealed: [4:69] Whoever obeys God and the Messenger. its subject having been omitted. such as slaughter or defeat. [all those] other than the ones mentioned. and the martyrs. [4:68] And We would have guided them to a straight path. in other words [it should be] ka’annahu) there had never been (read lam yakun. We would have surely given them from Us a great wage. the lām is for oaths) a bounty from God befalls you. and stronger in establishing. he will surely cry. [4:73] But if (wa-la-in. would that I had been with them. because of the fullness of their truthfulness and their affirmation of the truth. of the reward of the Hereafter. and his companions — counting him [the one who tarries] as one of them [the Muslims] is from the perspective of outward appearances — (the lām in the verb [la-yubatti’anna.exceptive clause) of them. [4:67] And then. [4:74] 95  . their being with those mentioned (dhālika. when you will be in the highest stations and we will be lower than you?’. What fine companions they are!. in regret. such as ‘Abd Allāh b. visiting them and being in their presence. 35:14]. or move forward all together. trust in what He has told you: None can tell you like One Who is aware [Q. is the subject. if an affliction befalls you. of obedience to the Messenger (s). which are: ‘Oh (yā. [that] I might have taken a good share of the booty. against your enemy. present [at the fighting]. and comes as a parenthesis between the statement ‘that he will cry’ and the very words he cries. is for exclamation). or lam takun) any affection. one raiding party followed by the next.

that is. it is from God. [4:78] Wherever you may be. surely the plotting of Satan. Asīd.God. overcomes his enemy. ‘what is wrong with these’] is an interrogative intended to provoke amazement at their extreme ignorance. ‘Our Lord. death will overtake you. from the bad luck [you bring]. as soon as fighting was prescribed. in other words. it has come to you from His 96  . so do not shrink from fighting for fear of death. as it did with them when the Prophet (s) arrived in Medina. Fight therefore against the friends of Satan. [4:77] Have you not seen those to whom it was said. whom the disbelievers persecuted and prevented from emigrating. because of the harm the disbelievers had inflicted upon them — and these were a group from among the Companions — and establish the prayer. bring us forth from this town. ‘more’. such as drought or misfortune. the supporters of his religion and you will defeat them with the strength you draw from God. the punishment of. to defend us against them. ‘O. women. any words. they are taken aback by fear. that is. in other words. [4:79] Whatever good (hasana means khayr) befalls you. or enjoying it [the world]. why have You prescribed fighting for us? Why not (lawlā is [to be understood as] hallā) defer us to a near term?’ Say. and pay the alms’? Then. good and evil. ‘lo’. [4:75] What is wrong with you. that you do not fight: this is an interrogative of rebuke. the response to the lammā. ‘This is from you’. against believers. and cannot stand up to God’s plotting against the disbelievers. who say. says: So let them fight in the way of God. was made obligatory. is from God. ‘what’ [of mā li-hā’ūlā’. We shall give him a great wage. lofty. is indicated by idhā. the oppressed men. and appoint for us from You a helper’. Satan. Say. a single date-thread. whose people are evildoers. [4:76] Those who believe fight in the way of God. as they would fear. ‘This is from God’. may also be read lā yuzlamūna. the disbelievers. [they fear] punishment at their hands through death. to them: ‘Everything. to state that one cannot even come close to doing something is [rhetorically] more intense than saying that he cannot do it). is ever feeble. O Muhammad (s). befalls them. Ibn ‘Abbās. so struggle [in the way of God]. Mecca. O man. God responded to their supplication and facilitated escape for some of them. for them. and whoever fights in the way of God and is slain. is in the accusative because it is a circumstantial qualifier. than their fear of Him (ashadda. dies a martyr. God. and children. they say. may God be pleased with him and his father. though you should be in raised-up.’ What is wrong with this people that they do not understand. ‘Restrain your hands. they say. and they said. to them: ‘The enjoyment of this world. and what follows). the deliverance of. lo. through unbelief. towers’. and the Hereafter. said. of no substance. ‘as soon as’. that which is enjoyed therein. such as fertility and abundance. there is nothing to prevent you from fighting. is better for him who fears God’s punishment by avoiding disobedience to Him. and appoint for us a protector from You. and those who disbelieve fight in the way of a false deity. befalls them. and you shall not be wronged (lā tuzlamūna. our Lord. who proceeded to seek justice for the wronged from those that had wronged them. ‘they shall not be wronged’) you shall not be diminished of your deeds. but if an evil thing. in the way of God. and for. those who sell the life of this world for the Hereafter. they do not come close to comprehending. ‘My mother and I were among them’. or conquers. while others remained behind until Mecca was conquered — in charge of them the Prophet (s) placed ‘Attāb b. that is. frightened of death. the Jews. to take charge of our affair. supplicating. or with more fear. as much as the peel on a date-stone. delivered to them (the mā. it will end up by perishing. forts. is trifling. And if a good thing. to elevate His religion. a party of them fear people. exalted be He. from fighting the disbelievers when they desired it at Mecca. Paradise. a plentiful reward.

in other words. for He will suffice you. if they had kept quiet about it until they were fully informed. [whoever] avoids obedience to you. [when] they depart. God is mightier. that is. and God suffices as Witness. they broadcast it. through defeat. as has already been mentioned in [sūrat] Āl ‘Imrān [Q. one in accordance with the Law. verily obeys God. and God suffices as a Guardian. and more severe in castigation. [they hide] disobedience to you. in the abominations to which he commands you. Their affair is Ours [to deal with] and We will requite them. [4:85] Whoever intercedes. and whether it is a matter that ought be broadcast or not. do they not ponder. the judicious elders among the Companions. from you. through victory. through Islam. Thereupon. I shall sally forth [to fight]. misfortune. or from among the feeble believers. the ones who broadcast it. [4:81] They say. And urge on the believers. and whoever turns his back. to you in your presence in the way of [their] obedience. it has come to you as a necessary consequence of sins you have committed. but when they sally forth. they make it widely-known: this was revealed regarding a group from among the hypocrites. befalls you is from yourself. or of fear. than them. the hypocrites [say] when they come to you. so that they will be requited for it. in other words. would have known it. If they had referred it. shall 97  . And but for the bounty of God to you. those among them who are able to think it out. do they [not] contemplate. and so the hearts of the believers would lose courage and the Prophet (s) would become distressed. to people as a messenger (rasūlan. If it had been from other than God surely they would have found therein much inconsistency. where God restrained the might of the disbelievers by casting terror into their hearts and preventing Abū Sufyān from sallying forth. that is. [4:82] What. to you’. [much] contradiction in meaning and irregularity in arrangement. to you through the Qur’ān. ‘Our affair is [all about] Obedience. in forgiveness. ‘a party’] or simply omitted) they entertain secretly [feelings]. [4:83] And when there comes to them an issue. and the marvellous truths contained in it. a party of them harbour (the [final] tā’ [of the feminine-ending in bayyatat. between people.bounty. God writes down. be it of security. in punishment. maybe God will restrain the might. so do not be concerned with their failing to join you. the meaning being: fight. but as a warner. with a good intercession. do not be concerned with them: We have not sent you as a watcher over them. to keep watch over their deeds. you would surely have followed Satan. even if [I go] alone’. rely on God. from the Prophet (s) and those of authority. O Muhammad (s). other than what they say. And so the Messenger of God (s) said: ‘By Him in Whose Hand is my soul. of the disbelievers. the war. This [statement] was before the command to fight [them was revealed]. ‘harbour’] can either be elided with the following tā’ [of tā’ifa. except a few [of you]. [those who] follow it up and seek knowledge of it. even if you are on your own. to the Messenger and to those in authority among them. who used to do this. what they harbour. in the way of God. So turn away from them. the Qur’ān?. is a circumstantial qualifier for emphasis). put your trust in Him. 3:151]. [news] concerning the raiding parties sent by the Prophet (s) and what has happened to them. he sallied forth with seventy cavalrymen to the first [battle at] Badr. from them. than them. O Muhammad (s). the news. you are charged only with yourself. in their scrolls [of deeds]. for you have been promised victory. of your Mission. We have sent you. whatever evil. [4:84] So fight. [4:80] Whoever obeys the Messenger. to Whom matters are entrusted. He commands that it be written. incite them to fight and make them desire it. and His mercy.

that is. Had God willed. neither taking them as captives nor slaying them: this statement and what follows was abrogated by the ‘sword’ verse. in other words. to give them sway over you. a people between whom and you there is a covenant. and of the one that greets a person who is in the act of relieving himself. with better than it. in unbelief. and by God. associating with them. or as a helper. and offer you peace. that you should disbelieve as they disbelieve. because of it. from your graves. a proper emigration that would confirm their belief. And so if they stay away from you and do not fight you. then do not interfere with them. to associate with. to assist you against your enemy. To the disbeliever [who says ‘peace be upon you’] one should simply say. so then you. or. He would have given them sway over you. by strengthening their hearts. a wicked person. [4:91] 98  . what is the matter with you. so that assuredly they would have fought you: but God did not will it and so He cast terror into their hearts. He has turned them back [to disbelief]. all things. reconciliation. including things such as returning a greeting. [4:86] And when you are greeted with a greeting. by saying back to him what he said. one in contravention of it [the Law]. would be equal. therefore do not take friends from among them. [those who come to you] refraining from fighting either you or them. God conserves. the reward for. on. it. or return it. no one is. [4:90] Except those who attach themselves to. He will surely gather you. [He does not allow you] a means to take them captive or to slay them. as when it is said to you. when God has overthrown them. And he whom God sends astray. [being] on the side of their people. And who is truer in statement. then. ‘Peace be upon you. they wish. as captives. in other words. in the way of disbelief and acts of disobedience. [4:88] When a group retreated from Uhud. people were at variance over their status. come to you with their breasts constricted. greet. while others said. The Sunna specifies that one should not return the greeting of an disbeliever. those who. ‘Let us slay them’. ‘Uwaymir al-Aslamī. and whoever intercedes with an evil intercession. and do not take any of them as a patron. two groups. for what they earned?. an innovator. you will never find for him a way. until they emigrate in the way of God. or one eating — indeed it is actually disapproved with the exception of the last. all things. ‘No!’ So the following was revealed: What is wrong with you. if they turn away. and slay them wherever you find them. regarding the hypocrites. or one in the bath. the former being the preferred one. from it. Surely God keeps count of. the Day of Resurrection whereof there is no doubt. and they. or fighting their people. to. that is. a path to guidance. siding with you. [who] seek refuge with. take them. that is. because of it. the one that greeted you. ‘Peace be upon you’. it is a duty to greet in one of these two ways. dejected. no uncertainty. and so requites every person according to his deeds. in speech. He has power over. about the prospect of fighting you. Some said. that you have become two parties. [4:89] They long. ‘And upon you’. the share of the sin.receive a share of. to count them among the guided (the interrogative in both places is for disapproval). He holds [you] accountable for. What. by responding to him with. and God’s mercy and blessings’. then God does not allow you any way against them. in the manner of the Prophet’s (s) covenant with Hilāl b. and remain upon their ways. do you desire to guide him whom God has sent astray?. even if they should [outwardly] manifest belief. and requites accordingly. a pledge of security for them and for whoever attaches himself to them. [4:87] God — there is no god except Him. than God?. [if] they submit. shall receive the like.

if he be a Magian. as is the case with the Protected People (ahl al-dhimma). So. the value of which has already been mentioned. It is reported from Ibn ‘Abbās that it [the verse] should be understood as it stands. belongs to a people between whom and you there is a covenant. or if he is pardoned then he has to pay the blood-money. a relenting from God (tawbatan. is incumbent upon the slayer. as in the case of [repudiating one’s wife by] zihār. He who slays a believer by mistake. but it would not be anything new if this threat [of punishment] were to be forgone. his requital is Hell. a clear and manifest proof for you to slay them and capture them. a treaty. then the setting free of a believing slave. in other words. aware of the fact that he [the slain] is a believer. and has prepared for him a mighty chastisement. and. when they return to them. that is. yet whenever they are returned to sedition. ‘a person’). his paternal relations [and not other relatives]. no such slaying should result at his hands. 99  . with you and is a believer. and is in the accusative because of the implied verb). must be paid to his family. by manifesting belief before you. then from the killer himself. and it constitutes a third of the blood-money for a believer. and security from their own people. a believing slave (raqaba denotes nasama. but no bloodmoney is to be paid to his family. ‘relenting’. by refraining from fighting you. the slain person’s inheritors. the rich among them pays half a dinar. to his family. something which alShāfi‘ī advocates in the more correct of two opinions of his. But if he has not the wherewithal. if the slain be a Jew or a Christian. then the blood-money. or the means to obtain one. since they are at war [with you]. except by mistake. where the killer has slain with what in most cases is not [a] lethal [implement]. idolatry] He forgives whomever He will [Q. but then happens to strike him with what in most cases would not kill. then let him set free. restrain their hands. and. do not. twenty mature ones and twenty young ones [not more than five years old]. then it can be taken from the treasury. let him emancipate. twenty male sucklings. unless they remit it as a charity. there is no [right to] retaliation and blood-money is paid instead. they are overwhelmed by it. and two thirds of a tenth of it. the slain. In the Sunna this [blood-money] is explained as being equivalent to one hundred camels: twenty pregnant. then take them. If he. In such a case. and blood-money is to be submitted. if they still cannot meet this. through unbelief.You will find others desiring to have security from you. in the Fire: this may be explained as [referring to] the person that deems such [killing] licit. of His creation. abiding therein. [wherever] you find them. falling into it in the worst of ways. as in the case of hunting or [shooting at] trees. namely. and these were [the tribes of] Asad and Ghatafān. for him. Wise. do not. and [the Sunna stipulates] that it is incumbent upon the killer’s clan. the slain. intending to kill him. on account of their treachery. against them We have given you clear warrant. The verse in [sūrat] al-Baqara [Q. at war. and if this is not possible. is incumbent upon the slayer. in this [case] and that of intentional killing redemption is more urgent than in unintentional killing. as captives. If he. if they do not stay away from you. there is a type of killing that is identified as [being with] quasi-deliberate intent (shibh al‘amd). twenty female sucklings. then the fasting of two successive months. is the verbal noun. so that it [this type of killing] is described as intentional. while the one of moderate means [pays] a quarter of a dinar each year. with something that is lethal. is incumbent upon him as a redemption: here God does not mention the transition to [an alternative to fasting which is] giving food [to the needy]. failing to find one. in what He has ordained for them. to be paid. killing him by mistake. from you. abrogating other verses of ‘forgiveness’. 4:48]. [whenever] they are summoned to idolatry. He has removed him from His mercy. It is made clear in the Sunna that between the intentional and the unintentional. [4:93] And whoever slays a believer deliberately. because of what He says: Other than that [that is. as a redemption. when he meant to strike some other thing. and God is wroth with him and has cursed him. or as being his requital if he were to be requited. unintentionally. offer you peace. and slay them wherever you come upon them. and the setting free of a believing slave. 2:178] clearly indicates that the one who kills deliberately should be killed in return. And God is ever Knowing. belongs to a people at enmity. for [setting free] a slave. to him by waiving [their claim to] it. but [considered] unintentional in [that there applies] the fixing of the period [for payment] and the sharing of the burden [by the killer’s clan]. [4:92] It is not for a believer to slay a believer. an obligation on him. They share this [burden of the blood-money] over three years.

in other words. 100  . So they killed him and took away his flock: O you who believe. a means [of going] to the land of emigration. so that you then end up killing him. from the land of unbelief to another land. seeking by this. their abode shall be Hell — an evil journey’s end. Surely God is ever Aware of what you do. on account of some injury. ‘ascertain’. God has promised the goodly reward. while they are wronging their souls. that is. when you are going forth. with a great reward (ajran ‘azīman. to them in rebuke: ‘What was your predicament?’. the land of Mecca. exalted be He. Surely God is ever Forgiving. and God has preferred those who struggle over the ones who sit at home. as an adjectival clause. by a degree. perhaps God will pardon them. women. So you were formerly. the transient goods of the life of this world. is substituted by [the following. But they said. out of fear’. ‘other than those who have an injury’. ghayru ūlī l-darar. and are not guided to a way. which is an indication of being a Muslim: ‘You are not a believer: you are only saying this to dissimulate for fear of your life and property’. and children who are unable to devise a plan. in the way of spoils. since both have the same intention. [4:97] The following was revealed regarding a group of people who submitted to Islam but did not emigrate and were then slain in the battle of Badr alongside the disbelievers: And those whom the angels take [in death]. but the extra degree is given to those who have carried out the struggle. ‘in what circumstances were you with regard to your religion’. a variant reading has fa-tathabbatū. giving excuses. to those that obey Him. and do not say to him who offers you peace (read al-salām or al-salam). stations one higher than the other in honour. They will say. to His friends. its enjoyment. With God are plenteous spoils. ‘He has preferred’]). from Him. [4:99] As for such. having remained among the disbelievers and neglected to emigrate. here and further below). says: as for such. Merciful. making you known for your faith and uprightness. Forgiving. [4:95] The believers who sit at home. rendering you free of the need to kill such a person for his property. God has preferred those who struggle with their possessions and their lives over the ones who sit at home. but God has been gracious to you. in the way of God. darajātin minhu]). or in the accusative. ‘He only greeted us dissimulating. the greeting. So be discriminating. ghayra ūlī l-darar. away from the struggle. by [a degree of] merit. having no strength to emigrate and no substance. and he offered them a greeting of peace. travelling in order to struggle. and will requite you for it. unable to establish religion. be discriminating (fa-tabayyanū. that is. it is! [4:98] Except the oppressed among the men.[4:94] The following was revealed when a group from among the Companions passed by a man from the Banū Sulaym driving his flock of sheep. other than those who have an injury. for God is ever Pardoning. the angels will say. that is. desiring. or [offers you] submission. when your lives and property were protected simply upon your professing the faith. [4:96] degrees. as others did? God. of the two groups. without any injury. and forgiveness and mercy (maghfiratan and rahmatan are in the accusative because [they constitute an object] of the implied verb [faddala. declaring the profession of faith (shahāda). ‘We were oppressed. to them in rebuke: ‘But was not God’s earth spacious that you might have emigrated therein?’. as an exceptive clause) are not the equals of those who struggle in the way of God with their possessions and their lives. The angels will say. yet to each. lest you kill a believer and treat those entering the religion as you were treated [formerly]. in the land’. Paradise. such as a chronic illness or blindness or the like (read in the nominative.

[if you fear] that you may be harmed [by them]: this [fear of affliction at the hands of the disbelievers] is [just intended as] an explication of the reality [of the situation] at that time and the point no longer applies. standing and sitting and on your sides. when you have stood up to pray. surely God is ever Forgiving. in the way of victory and the reward for it. or if you are sick. present. with them. if you fear that you may be afflicted by those who do not believe. and you hope from God. the party standing with you. Damra al-Laythī. you should be more willing for it than them. and abundance. in seeking. with them until you have completed the prayers. God is ever Knower. thereupon. his wage is then incumbent upon. as occurred with Junda‘ [or Jundab] b. in order to fight them. Merciful. along the way. just like you. to lay aside your weapons. and not carry them: this implies that when there is no such excuse. are. yet they do not shrink from fighting you. of provision. [when] you are secure. and since you have this advantage over them. and so it should not be postponed from these times. by [repeating] ‘There is no god but God’ (tahlīl) and ‘Glory be to God’ (tasbīh). and the following was revealed: Be not faint. which is [approximately] 50 miles. as reported by the two Shaykhs [Bukhārī and Muslim]. 101  . in other words. that is. and this is the opinion of al-Shāfi‘ī. places of emigration. observe the prayer. God. fixed [with]. by making it two [genuflexions] instead of four. God’s words ‘you would not be at fault’ should be understood as [denoting] a dispensation and not a requirement. on guard until you complete the prayers. O Muhammad (s). that is. The disbelievers wish. the Prophet (s) dispatched a group to seek out Abū Sufyān and his companions. by making an assault against you and capturing you. enjoined. [when] they have prayed. surely the prayer is for believers a prescription. against the enemy and be on your guard as best you can. of all things. in the land you would not be at fault if you shorten the prayer. [4:101] And when you are going forth. that you should be heedless of your weapons and your baggage that they may descend upon you all at once. The Prophet (s) did this once at Batn Nakhla. lying down. in His actions. it is pointed out that ‘travel’ (safar) means long-distance [travel]. perform it with its proper due. while another party stand back. and let them. Then. if rain bothers you. and let another party who have not prayed come and pray with you. [when] you have completed it. in all states. and this is the more preferable opinion. remember God. they are also suffering as you are suffering. the other [opinion] is that this [precaution] constitutes a sunna. [be not] weak. among them. and this is one of two opinions held by al-Shāfi‘ī [on this matter]. and then death overtakes him. in pursuing. [4:104] After they returned from Uhud. [if] you have pains from a wound. and herein is the reasoning behind keeping weapons on oneself. the other party. and you stand to lead them in prayer (this type of address is customary in the Qur’ān). their enmity being evident. God has prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating chastisement. You are not at fault. whoever goes forth from his house as an emigrant to God and His Messenger. that for which they cannot hope. the disbelievers. but they complained about their wounds. But take your precautions. take their weapons. let them. be behind you. that is. Then when they have performed their prostrations. [4:102] When you. that is. while you [all] fear an enemy.[4:100] Whoever emigrates in the way of God will find in the earth many refuges. it is compulsory to carry them. [4:103] When you have performed the prayer. let a party of them stand with you. travelling. if you are suffering. let this party go on guard. at specific times. that is. taking their precautions and their weapons. the enemy. an obligation. the disbelievers are a manifest foe to you. when you are reassured. In the Sunna. Wise. its appointed times are set.

in His knowledge [of them]. Merciful. on behalf of Tu‘ma and his men (a variant reading has ‘anhu. that is to say. in knowledge. of what they do. whereupon the following was revealed: Surely We have revealed to you the Book. [and then] he repents. committing a sin [the consequences of which are] limited to him. [4:109] Ah! There you are (addressing Tu‘ma’s clan) you have contested. the Qur’ān. but they do not hide themselves from God. [4:112] And whoever commits a mistake. Wise. like Tu‘ma. [4:107] And do not dispute on behalf of those who betray themselves. or who will be a guardian for them. and then casts it upon the innocent. from people. at night with discourse displeasing to Him. [4:108] They. and His mercy. but who will contest against God on their behalf on the Day of Resurrection. a minor sin. [commits] a sin by which another is harmed. He will punish him. and a manifest sin. you have disputed. hide themselves. that is to say. since the evil consequences fall on him. would have intended. in shame. [would have] conspired. the likes of Tu‘ma and his clan. while they plot. Tu‘ma accused him of having stolen it. or a sin. as when Tu‘ma falsely accused the Jew. and his clan asked the Prophet (s) to advocate on his behalf and absolve him. O Muhammad (s). [4:111] And whoever commits a sin commits it against himself only. and sinful. of Tu‘ma’s clan. no one will do such a thing. by his false accusation. and then prays for God’s forgiveness. in their resolve to swear by God and deny the theft and accuse the Jew of it. a party of them. on their behalf. And do not be a disputant for traitors. [one which is] evident on account of what he has committed. ‘on his behalf’) in the life of this world. by way of protecting you. [4:110] Whoever does evil. that is to say. Merciful. [4:106] And pray for forgiveness from God. [one who is innocent] of it. surely God loves not one who is treacherous. for He is with them. [4:113] Were it not for God’s bounty to you. if He were to punish them. God is ever Encompassing. he shall find God is Forgiving. a grave sin. and God is ever Knower. surely God is ever Forgiving. he has thereby burdened himself with calumny. ‘We have revealed’) so that you may judge between people by that which God has shown you.[4:105] Tu‘ma b. for that which you considered doing. in His actions. with the truth (bi’l-haqq is semantically connected to anzalnā. for the evil consequences of their betrayal shall fall on them. what God has taught you. they conspire. When it was discovered with the latter. to lead you astray. Ubayriq stole a coat of mail and hid it with a Jew. harming no one else. for it. or wrongs himself. frequently betraying. and take charge of their affair or defend them? In other words. and swore by God that he [Tu‘ma] had not stolen it. to him. through acts of disobedience. disputing on their behalf. from judging with 102  .

long life. he who enjoins to voluntary almsgiving. such as al-Lāt. the secret talk of. by worshipping [these female idols]. [after] the truth has become manifest to him through miracles. one who has rebelled against obedience [to God]. and they (in. and that there 103  . made perpetual for him. [4:114] There is no good in much of their. an apportioned share. We shall make him a leader of the misguidance which he has followed. namely. instead of God. And surely I will command them and they will change God’s creation’. ‘only’) only pray to. And whoever does that. they will not hurt you at all. [whoever] opposes. [one that is] evident. [what] the idolaters worship. And he. that there will be no resurrection and no reckoning. other than Him. that is. [4:115] But whoever makes a breach with. or setting things right between people. that is.truth by deceiving you. making lawful what God has made unlawful and making unlawful what God has made lawful. that is. We shall admit him in the Hereafter. verily he has strayed far away. God has revealed to you the Book. I shall cast into their hearts [thoughts] that life will endure. the Messenger. a righteous deed. of people’s. [4:119] And I will surely lead them astray. are but females. desiring. [and] nothing else of the affairs of this world. Whoever associates anything with God. He forgives all except that. [4:117] What (in. for they are obeying him in this [worship of female idols]. and follows. in this and other respects. after guidance has become clear to him. by leaving this as it is between them in this world. but they lead only themselves astray. ‘God [will give him]’) a great wage. to whomever He will. the aforementioned. and this was done to the [she-camels they called] bahā’ir. and We shall expose him. idols with feminine names. an appointed portion. ‘He will give him’. where he will burn — an evil journey’s end. a path. of Your servants. I will appoint for myself. [4:116] God does not forgive that anything should be associated with Him. said. is [to be understand as] mā. by disbelieving. We shall turn him over to what he has turned to. [4:118] God has cursed him. what they converse and talk secretly about. has surely suffered a manifest loss. instead of Him. and surely I will command them and they will cut up the cattle’s ears. and surely I will fill them with desires. ‘Assuredly I will take to myself. is [to be understand as] mā. and God’s bounty to you. they [only] worship. from truth with evil whisperings. other than the way of the believers. He has removed him from His mercy. Satan. following him and obeying him. from the truth. in Hell. [other than] the path they follow in religion. and fills them with desires. And whoever takes Satan for a patron. and He has taught you what you did not know. that is. God. since he will end up in the Fire. al-‘Uzza and Manāt. [substituting] His religion with unbelief. a rebellious satan. secret conversations. God’s good pleasure. an [evil] return it is. is ever great. [whom] I shall call to obey me. of rulings and the Unseen. We shall surely give him (read nu’tīhi or yu’tīhi. that is to say. or kindness. since the evil consequence of their leading you astray would have fallen on them. the Qur’ān. in the truth that he brings. and wisdom. the rulings contained therein. seeking. except for. [4:120] He promises them. ‘only’) they pray to. of attaining their hopes in this world.

and you prevent them from marrying [others]. [one] inclining away from all religions to the upright religion. that is to say. to them: ‘God pronounces to you concerning them. falsehood. as possessions. one whose love for Him is pure. no alternative [to it]. and is a believer — such shall be admitted into (read passive yudkhalūna. to marry them. [4:125] And who. the dint in a date-stone. as is stated in hadīth.will be neither resurrection nor requital. that is. to protect him. that is. He is ever possessed of such attributes. for them. that is. concerning. any friend. any. [and] none. equitably. [and] declares God’s Oneness. O guardians. women. the oppressed. that is. Whatever good you do. that you give them what is their due. righteous deeds. to defend him against Him. the Qur’ān. God is ever Knower of it’. young. as a hanīf? (hanīfan is a circumstantial qualifier). and. with respect to inheritance and dowry. Whoever does evil shall be requited for it. or active yadkhulūna. He also commands you. dependent upon. or helper. is fairer in religion than he who submits his purpose. whether male or female. is only delusion. the matter of. and what is recited to you in the Book. and He will requite you for it. that is. of inheritance. and He also pronounces to you. creatures and servants. therewith. your desires nor the desires of the People of the Scripture. coveting their inheritance: in other words. and God is ever the Encompasser of all things. in the ‘inheritance’ verse [Q. is truer in utterance. but upon righteous deeds. other than Him. [4:128] And if a woman (wa-in imra’atun is in the nominative because of [it being the subject of] the explicative verb 104  . [4:121] For such — their abode shall be Hell. We shall admit them to Gardens underneath which rivers flow. in statement. 4:11]. [4:127] They will ask you for a pronouncement concerning. that you deal justly. than God? [4:123] When the Muslims and the People of the Scripture began to pride themselves [upon God’s promise] the following was revealed: It. [4:122] But those who believe and perform righteous deeds. and who follows the creed of Abraham. [than he who] is compliant and offers his deeds sincerely. [what] is obligatory. not. and not be wronged. to God and is virtuous. either in the Hereafter or in this life through trials and tribulations. this matter. for you. by as much as. [and] none. and he will not find besides God. God pronounces to you not to do this. God’s promise in truth. that is. the one that is in accordance with the creed of Islam. [4:124] And whoever does. And God took Abraham for a close friend. and who. with orphans. ‘they shall enter’) Paradise. God promised them this and fulfilled it in truth. in knowledge and power. is not. that is. and they shall find no refuge from it. [who] desire. and their inheritance. [4:126] To God belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth. concerning the orphan women to whom you do not give what is prescribed. Say. because of their ugliness. abiding therein for ever. as His elect. but what Satan promises them. children. and.

a variant reading has an yuslihā. meaning that they have a natural propensity for this. meaning the scriptures. [4:133] If He will. that is. the reward of this world. the married couple. We have charged those who were given the Scripture. reconciliation is better. surely God is ever aware of what you do. because he is averse to her and aspires to one more beautiful than her. to you in this respect. injustice. says: But greed has been made present in the souls (al-shuhh is extreme niggardliness). witnessing the fact that what is contained in them belongs to Him. never absent from it. even if you be eager. He can remove you. God suffices as a Guardian. out of His bounty. [4:130] But if they. before you. by way of divorce. in explaining the natural disposition of man. so that she concedes something to him in return for continuing companionship. in what He has ordained for them. ill-treatment or rejection. or part with her (an yassālahā. in your conjugal life with women. and a man would scarcely allow her [to enjoy] him if he were to fall in love with another. the one from whom you turn away. yet do not turn altogether away. in terms of shares and maintenance expenses. for the one who wants it. if she agrees to this [then that is fine]. out of His plenty. as if they [the souls] are ever in its presence. by his deeds. instead of you. fear His punishment. so that you leave her. God is ever Embracing. but if [she does] not. from [the fourth form] aslaha). like one suspended. by being obedient to Him. possessions and servants. and bring others. and giving him another as wife. being unjust to them. exalted be He. Merciful. and fear. of His creatures in bounty. O people. praise-worthy for what He does with them. if he looks down on her by refraining to sleep with her or by not maintaining her adequately. If you set things right. [4:132] To God belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth (He has repeated this in order to reaffirm [the reason] why fear of God is necessary). regarding the inclination in your hearts. [4:134] Whoever desires. so why do any of you demand the lower [reward]? Why do you not seek the higher one. namely. and He will not be harmed by your disbelief: God is ever Independent. O people of the Qur’ān: ‘Fear God’. surely God is ever Forgiving. from her husband ill-treatment. by giving her another as husband. then the husband must either give her all her due. and He will requite you for it. the Jews and Christians. Praised. for this. Wise. or rejection. And We said to them and to you: ‘If you disbelieve. The meaning is: a woman would scarcely allow [another] to share her husband with her. in what you have been charged with. they are not at fault if they are reconciled through some agreement. turning his face away from her. anticipates. as creatures. separate. [from the need] of the other. to treat equally. and fear. then to God belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth’.[that follows]) fears. by devoting yourself sincerely to Him. and you. one that is neither a slavegirl nor a woman with a husband. and no one else has it. [4:129] You will never be able to be just to. God. surely God is ever able to do that. than separation. by being just with the shares. your wives. ‘they reconcile’: the original tā’ [of yatasālahā] has been assimilated with the sād. God will compensate each of them. then God has the reward of this world and of the Hereafter. towards the one you love with respect to the shares and maintenance expenses. of the need for His creation or their worship. [4:131] To God belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth. since what [reward] 105  . in terms of love. If you are virtuous.

‘It has been revealed’) to you in the Book. in sūrat al-An‘ām [Q. to the truth. witnesses. and then disbelieved. 6:68].he seeks can only be found with Him. verily he has strayed far away. or refrain. to the messengers. God is closer to the two. [4:138] Give tidings to. if you were to sit with them. until they engage in some other talk. because they mistakenly believe them to be strong — do they desire. the Qur’ān. in this world and the Hereafter. believe. for otherwise you. [do] they seek. whether the person. [4:140] It has been revealed (read active nazzala. ‘the hypocrites’) take disbelievers for friends instead of believers. power with them? (an interrogative of disavowal). into Hell. seeking his pleasure. Muhammad (s). those who believed. and the Book which was revealed before. inform. so that you do not incline away from the truth. in God and His Messenger and the Book which has been revealed to His Messenger. say. so be witness against them [your selves] by affirming the truth and not concealing it. [hoping] for misfortunes [to befall you]. to you: ‘Were we not with you?’. just as they were gathered together in this world in unbelief and mockery. even though it. [4:136] O you who believe. with perseverance. surely God is ever aware of what you do. being disbelieved in and mocked. such as a conquest or booty. if a victory. than you and He has better knowledge of what is good for them. that is. So do not follow any whim. in your testimonies by being partial to the rich one. after that. [read it as] annahu) ‘When you hear God’s signs. witnessed against. the hypocrites that for them there is a painful chastisement. ‘He has revealed’. is either a substitution for. or an adjectival qualification of. Truly. and. [4:139] Those who (alladhīna. in Jesus. from giving it. that: (an has been softened and its subject omitted. be upright in justice. do not sit with them. in Moses. in the Qur’ān. nor to guide them to a way. in Muhammad — it was not for God to forgive them. parents and kinsmen. or. namely. ‘He revealed’]). by worshipping the calf. or passive nuzzila. and His messengers. against. for God. would surely be like them’. and then disbelieved. and then increased in disbelief. [4:141] Those who (alladhīna. power belongs altogether to God. namely. all together. and none but His friends shall attain it. the scriptures (a variant reading [for nuzzila and unzila. that is to say. be rich or poor. and will requite you accordingly. namely. they shall not find such [power] with them. O Muhammad (s). the chastisement of the Fire. but if the 106  . [4:135] O you who believe. in other words. substitutes for the previous alladhīna [of verse 139]) wait in watch for you. Seer. or [by being partial] to the poor one out of compassion for him. the disbelievers and the mockers. from the truth. and that is the Qur’ān. the Jews. and then believed. ‘was revealed’] has the active form for both verbs [nazzala and anzala. al-munāfiqīna. for if you twist (a variant reading [for talwūw] has talū) [if] you distort your testimony. in sinfulness. God will gather the hypocrites and disbelievers. in religion and in the struggle? So give us from the booty. and the Last Day. lest you swerve. comes to you from God. for what they have persisted in [of disbelief]. be against yourselves. God is ever Hearer. And whoever disbelieves in God and His angels and His Books. of the truth. the witnessing. [4:137] Verily.

you will never find for him a way. and they do not remember. believers. or conceal it. in Him? (the interrogative is meant as a denial. for their prayers. capable of capturing you and slaying you. take not the disbelievers as friends instead of the believers: do you desire to give God over you. and hold fast to. by your taking them as friends. [4:142] The hypocrites seek to trick God. that is to say. 107  . and did we not defend you against the believers?’. of hypocrisy. and them. on the Day of Resurrection. reluctantly. rewarding them. and he whom God sends astray. and thus have we not done you a favour? God. to be seen by people. unless a person has been wronged. a manifest proof of your hypocrisy? [4:145] Verily. of the deeds of believers. a clear warrant?. and so they will be disgraced in this world through God apprising His Prophet of what they hide. and make amends. to these. manifest. its bottom. in which case He would not punish him for uttering it out loud. [4:148] God does not like the utterance of evil words out loud. or pardon evil. and. [4:143] Wavering. over the believers. in the Hereafter. and God will never grant the disbelievers a way. to them: ‘Did we not gain mastery. then surely God is ever Pardoning. with the believers. but we spared you. [4:147] Why would God chastise you if you are thankful. injustice. and punished in the Hereafter. they say. He will requite them for their trickery. exalted be He. God save a little. over you. and that is Paradise. Knower. in order to escape His rulings in this world. Powerful. pray [to]. and believe. neither to those. of what is done. by gaining a victory over you. by annihilating them. [if] you do it in secret. [4:149] If you show. of His favours. by forsaking them and apprising you of their plans.disbelievers have some luck. a path [back] to guidance. When they stand up to pray. place. God is ever Thankful. in other words: He would not punish you). lest they be victorious over you. God is ever Hearer. of the Fire. hesitant. says: God will judge between you. and you will never find a helper for them. belonging. all the time. but He is tricking them. they stand up lazily. put their trust [in]. by any person. authority. [4:146] Save those who repent. free from any pretence. He will punish him for it. and God will certainly give the believers a great wage. those are with the believers. by manifesting the opposite of what they hide in themselves of unbelief. in the way of pious deeds. admitting you into Paradise and them into the Fire. that is. of what is said. God and make their religion purely God’s. for ostentation. of His creation. in their deeds. Knowing. disbelievers. [4:144] O you who believe. a means [to success]. when he is informing [others] of the wrong done to him by the wrong-doer or summoning [them] against him. the hypocrites will be in the lowest level. between that unbelief and belief — not. anyone to guard them from the Fire. good. in terms of what they shall be given.

and for their saying. had come to them. all at once. ‘reason’]. [4:157] 108  . [4:152] And those who believe in God and. and so they cannot heed any admonition. their forefathers. of the others. as punishment for them. so they do not believe. as was revealed to Moses. the Jews. God is ever Forgiving. in other words [it should be understood as] la‘annāhum bi-sabab naqdihim. bowing’. and We said to them. Merciful. before our eyes. also read yu’tīhim. seized them. evident and manifest sway over them. they. they obeyed him. ‘We believe in some. in Jesus (the bā’ [of bi-kufrihim. [4:155] So. ‘Transgress not (a variant reading [of lā ta‘dū] is lā ta‘addū. Salām and his companions. [4:154] And We raised above them the Mount. and seek to adopt a way. over this. will ask of you. death. while it cast a shadow [hovering] above them: ‘Enter the gate. to follow. emphasising the content of what precedes it in the sentence). They then took to themselves the [golden] calf. for their evildoing. ‘He shall surely give them’) their wages. and say. to the Prophet (s): ‘Our hearts are covered up’. a path. of the messengers. for they said. [4:153] The People of the Scripture. among them. between them. the bā’ is causative and connected to a missing element [such as sabab. but they broke it. ‘Show us God openly’. namely. then [know that]. a second time. but God sealed them for their disbelief. by the covenant with them. ‘do not act unjustly [in]’) the Sabbath’. when they accused her of fornication. If you consider this shocking. for their breaking (fa-bi-mā naqdihim: the mā is extra. [between] unbelief and belief. on account of the covenant made with them. and We took from them a firm covenant. like ‘Abd Allāh b. and We said to them. the gate of the town. the chastisement of the Fire. so the thunderbolt. and cannot grasp what you say — nay. and slaying the prophets wrongfully. all of. that they might fear. [4:156] And for their disbelief. except for a few. and We bestowed upon Moses clear authority. and We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating chastisement. that is. when they harassed him [Moses] with this demand. yet We pardoned that. ‘for their disbelief’] is repeated in order to separate it [‘their disbelief’ in Jesus] from what is supplemented to it [‘their utterance against Mary’]) and their uttering against Mary a tremendous calumny. merely to harass [you]. and did not annihilate them. in other words [it is similar in meaning to] lā ta‘tadū.[4:150] Those who disbelieve in God and His messengers and seek to divide between God and His messengers. the miracles testifying to God’s Oneness. after clear proofs. His messengers and do not seek to divide between any of them. to cause a Book to be revealed to them from the heaven. where the original tā’ [of lā tata‘addū] is assimilated with the dāl. those — We shall surely give them (nu’tīhim. and disbelieve in some’. by believing in Him but not in them. ‘We cursed them for the reason of their breaking’) their covenant and disbelieving in the signs of God. for a god. to His friends. for when he commanded them to slay themselves in repentance. the reward for their deeds. asked Moses for something greater than that. O Muhammad (s). by fishing during it. [4:151] Those are the disbelievers truly (haqqan is the verbal noun. to those who obey Him. and so they accepted it.

through bribes in adjudications. Wise. the Emigrants and the Helpers. of scriptures. are surely in doubt regarding. that which they imagined [they saw]’. [4:160] And because of the evildoing (fa-bi-zulmin is [to be understood as] fa-bi-sababi zulmin. the Psalms]. and the prophets after him. his father. and those who observe the prayer (wa’l-muqīmīna l-salāta is in the accusative because it is a laudative. and the Tribes. in His kingdom. believing in what has revealed to you. of people. and We gave to. 109  . is a discontinuous exception) in other words: ‘instead. and others said: no. and the believers. of Jesus. before his death. it would denote the name of the revealed Book [cf. those things [mentioned] where God says [And to those of Jewry] We have forbidden every beast with claws [Q. ‘inscribed’). they follow conjecture regarding him. concerning Jesus. that is. and We have prepared for the disbelievers among them a painful chastisement. who was an associate of theirs [the Jews]. Paradise. boastfully. ‘and for the reason of the evildoing’) of some of those of Jewry. that is to say. [before the death] of one belonging to the People of the Scripture upon seeing the angels of death with his very eyes. the slaying of. him. God raised him up to Him. only the pursuit of conjecture (illā ittibā‘a l-zann. God cast his [Jesus’s] likeness to him and so they thought it was him [Jesus]. that is. from God’s way. David the Inscribed Book (read zabūran. God. at which point his faith will not profit him. says. in the Torah. like ‘Abd Allāh b. and on the Day of Resurrection he. and Jesus and Job and Jonah and Aaron. [from] His religion. his two sons.And for their saying. in His actions. it is also read in the nominative [wa’l-muqīmūna l-salāta]). and pay the alms. for some of them said. the Messenger of God’. We revealed to Abraham and. and their consuming people’s wealth through falsehood. Jesus son of Mary. it is he. and Solomon. his [Jacob’s] children. ‘He shall surely give’) a great wage. was given the resemblance. as is stated in hadīth. maktūban. [4:163] We have revealed to you as We revealed to Noah. God is ever Mighty. meaning mazbūran. Salām. as they claim: in other words. after he descends at the approach of the Hour. Ishmael and Isaac. of what they did when he was sent to them. when they saw the slain man: the face is that of Jesus. and what was revealed before you. the slaying of. Jesus. will be a witness against them. a circumstantial qualifier emphasising the denial of the slaying). and so it is not he. and. but the body is not his. namely. [4:161] And because of their taking usury when they had been forbidden it. him. [4:159] And there is not one of the People of the Scripture but will assuredly believe in him. but he. and those who believe in God and the Last Day — to them We shall surely give (nu’tīhim. They do not have any knowledge of. read zubūran would make it a verbal noun. as. exalted be He. And those who disagree concerning him. many. established. is also read yu’tīhim. and Jacob. We have forbidden them certain good things that were lawful for them. 6:146]. [4:158] Nay. and because of their barring. the one slain and crucified. ‘We slew the Messiah. in repudiating their claim to have killed him: And yet they did not slay him nor did they crucify him. the Jews. in Jesus. In other words. and they did not slay him for certain (yaqīnan. for all of these [reasons] We have punished them. or [it means] before the death of Jesus. the son of Isaac. a time. in knowledge. [4:162] But those of them who are firmly rooted.

and God spoke directly. We sent. the saying of. in His actions. to this.[4:164] And. with what He has revealed to you. it is decreed for them to abide. Jesus the son of Mary. abiding. and messengers We have not told you of: it is related that God sent eight thousand prophets [in total]. substitutes for the previous rusulan. the truth. in him and seek what. then surely to God belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth. in God. 28:47]. [4:169] except for the path of Hell. or [He has revealed it] with His knowledge therein. [4:167] Surely those who disbelieve. 40:78]. four thousand [of them] from [the Children of] Israel. to make. and His Word which He cast to. neither to guide them to any path. once they enter it. God is ever Mighty. exalted be He. [4:168] Surely those who disbelieve. to you. the following was revealed: But God bears witness. He has revealed it. Mary. and the angels also bear witness. of His creation. and [the remaining] four thousand from other peoples. by concealing the descriptions of Muhammad (s). thus We sent them to pre-empt such excuses. and your disbelief will not harm Him. [which] He conveyed to. of punishment for those that disbelieve. of Mecca. as stated by the Shaykh [Jalāl al-Dīn alMahallī] in [his commentary on] sūrat Ghāfir [Q. as possessions. why did you not send a messenger to us so that we might follow Your signs and be among the believers [Q. that is. in God. Wise. And if you disbelieve. that is. was only the Messenger of God. from Him: he [Jesus] is here attached to God. people. therein. Wise. [4:166] When the Jews were asked about his [Muhammad’s] prophethood (s) and they denied him. without mediation. [4:165] messengers (rusulan. ‘messengers’) bearing good tidings. against God after. and bar. [from] the religion of Islam. forever. of reward for those that believe. and warning. enveloped. such as exalting Him above any associations with a partner or a child: the Messiah. in your religion and do not say about God except. in what He does with them. the Gospel. that he is the 110  . the messengers. it is better for you. they have indeed gone far astray. one whose spirit is. that is. through His knowledge. in His kingdom. the sending of. has now come to you with the truth from your Lord. as an honouring for him. [4:170] O people. messengers We have told you of before. We sent them. the Messenger. in him. and God suffices as a Witness. and say: Our Lord. He makes clear [the truth of] your prophethood. so believe. and God is ever Knowing. [He has revealed it] knowing it fully. from the truth. of the miraculous Qur’ān. do not go beyond the bounds. and not as you claim. and who have done wrong. so that people might have no argument. from the way of God. [4:171] O People of the Scripture. Muhammad (s). and these are the Jews. [to] the path that leads to it. whatever. and a spirit. it is not for God to forgive them. than that which you are presently seeking. to Moses. by concealing his descriptions. do not go to extremes. to the Prophet. to them. creatures and servants. and for God that is an easy matter.

dies. a definitive argument. If there be two sisters. what no eye has seen. to protect them from it. that the gods are. the Christians who claim that which is the subject of the address to them [above]. and God has knowledge of all things’. besides God. or more — for this was revealed regarding Jābir [b. and waxes proud. to be a servant of God. and it is mentioned as a refutation of those who claim that they [the angels] are gods or the daughters of God. or a god alongside Him. God makes clear to you. and He will guide them to Him by a straight path. because one that possesses a spirit is compound. 4:11]. [4:172] The Messiah. then he [the maternal uncle] receives nothing. with what was stated before. from both parents or from one. namely. the brother. has now come to you from your Lord. the religion of Islam. and if a daughter. shall receive the equivalent of the portion of two females. namely. from this and say what. if there be. or one of three. He will assuredly muster them to Him. any friend. similarly. to ward it off them. God is but One God. and this is the one referred to as an indirect heir (kalāla). men and women. ‘perishes’] that explains it) perishes. [to say]. having no children. if the brother and sister be from the same mother. [4:176] They will ask you for a pronouncement. and He will give them more of His bounty. Refrain. He will surely admit them to mercy from Him. while God transcends being compound and the attribution of compounds to Him. just as He refuted. all of them. [4:174] O people. light. but he has a sister. transcending [the possibility]. [4:173] As for those who believed. in all that she leaves. and as for them who disdain and are too proud. God. as possessions. would never disdain. [would never] scorn or reject haughtily. Jesus and his mother. the Prophet (s). no ear has heard and no man’s heart has ever wished for. concerning indirect heirs. and they shall not find for themselves. to God. Glory be to Him. ‘Three’. among them. then the male. Whoever disdains to worship Him. Say: ‘God pronounces to you concerning indirect heirs. leaves. among the inheritors. He will chastise them with a painful chastisement. [4:175] As for those who believe in God. a clear. then whatever is left after her share. or helper. and no parent. namely. and he. a Witness to this. and hold fast to Him. in the Hereafter. So believe in God and His messengers. whom you claim is a god. theirs are two-thirds of what he. creatures and servants. neither would the angels who are nigh. including [matters of] inheritance: it is reported by the two Shaykhs [Bukhārī and Muslim] that al-Barā’ [b. that is. if she has no children: but if she has a son. revealed after [sūrat] al-Fath. hers is half of what he leaves. If a man (in imru’un is in the nominative because of the verb [halaka. ‘Abd Allāh]. who did righteous deeds. God suffices as a Guardian. ‘Āzib] said that this was the last of the ‘duty’ verses to be revealed. a brother. lest you go astray. which is the chastisement of the Fire. it is better for you. a proof. and such sovereignty is not compatible with [that] prophethood [of Jesus]. as was stipulated at the beginning of the sūra [Q. other than Him. that He should have a son! To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth. the reward for their deeds. (Al-Mâ’idah) [5:1] 111  .son of God. the stipulations of your religion. and do not say. to worship Him. against you. Verily. which is the profession of His Oneness. and We have revealed to you a manifest. Medinese: [consisting of] 120 verses. then the one receives a sixth. siblings. He will pay them in full their wages. and bounty. the Qur’ān. is her heir. disdain to be servants: this is a splendid digression [to the matter of the angels]. who died and was survived by sisters —.

for whom [such] consumption is forbidden. in contrast to the one who [purposely] inclines to sin. but may also be continuous. and what has been hallowed to other than God. therefore do not fear them. and the flesh of swine. in that it was sacrificed in the name of something other than Him. as forbidden in [the verse below] Forbidden to you are carrion…[Q. to him by permitting it to him. God decrees whatever He desires. and if they prohibited them they would desist. to death. is in the accusative as [it introduces] a circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject of the pronoun lakum. that you demand an oath or a ruling. violate the sanctity of. His. [5:2] O you who believe. the boon offered in the [Meccan] Sanctuary. to consume some of what has been forbidden him and consumes it. the one actively engaged in it. fulfil your bonds. of you apostatising from it. 6:145]. but it is also said by [effecting] their safe entry into Mecca. transgression of God’s bounds. and the beast fallen. do not help one another (ta‘āwanū: one of the two original tā’ letters [in tata‘āwanū] has been omitted) to sin. what has been spilt. and the beast beaten down. ‘to you’). made from the trees around the Sanctuary. by fighting in it. is the plural of qilāda. to eat after slaughtering [them]. provision.O you who believe. 5:3]. camels. [5:4] 112  . [5:3] Forbidden to you is carrion. cattle. nor. for now they perceived its strength. by perfecting it [your religion]. by interfering with it. Islam for you as religion. then hunt for game (a command denoting permission). but fear Me. catching it while it still breathes life and then sacrificing it — and what has been sacrificed in. Help one another to righteousness. nor the sacred month. of such animals — except for what you have sacrificed duly. ghayra. nor the garlands (qalā’id. Merciful. do not interfere with these [offerings] or with those who place them. the name of. and these. and enmity. except that which is now being recited to you. to an act of disobedience — then God is Forgiving. Lawful to you is the beast of the flocks. fear His punishment by being obedient to Him. seeking bounty. And let not hatred (read shana’ānu or shan’ānu) of a people that. [marked] with flags. those repairing. to him for what he has consumed. as mentioned in [sūrat] al-An‘ām [Q. chosen. and the beast gored. that is. and they were retained by the keeper of the Ka‘ba. idols (nusub is the plural of nusāb) and that you apportion. by doing that to which you were enjoined. and I have approved. by fighting them [who are]. that is. surely God is severe in retribution. and piety. beatitude. and. the forbidding concerns that which has succumbed to death and the like. a rebellion against obedience. which is a qidh. and what beasts of prey have devoured. do not profane God’s sacraments (sha‘ā’ir is the plural of sha‘īra). from pilgrimage inviolability. that is. such as a waylayer or a criminal. Q. There were seven of these [arrows]. 9:4]). that is. from a height to its death. ‘a small arrow’. not inclining purposely to sin. as they [the Meccans pagans] falsely claimed (this was abrogated by the barā’a verse [of sūrat al-Tawba. They would use them for abitrations and when they commanded them they obeyed. Verily. barred you from the Sacred Mosque cause you to commit aggression. ‘not’. by resorting to Him. by hunting [game] while you are on pilgrimage. that is. But whoever is constrained by emptiness. nor the offering. and sheep [and goats]. to death by another. the consumption of it. that is. And fear God. and there can be no objection thereto. through commerce. And on the Day of ‘Arafa in the year of the Farewell Pilgrimage. its rulings and obligations (after this [verse] nothing about [what is] lawful or unlawful was revealed) and I have completed My favour upon you. by hunger. the exceptive clause here is a discontinuous one. the [ritual] ceremonies of the religion. because [they]. from their Lord. having hoped for it [earlier]. by refraining from what you have been forbidden. But when you are discharged. Today I have perfected your religion for you. those heading. that is wickedness. in the way of making [things] lawful or otherwise. to death. the following was revealed: Today the disbelievers have despaired of your religion. through the divining of arrows (azlām: the plural of zalam or zulam. against those that oppose Him. against them by killing them or otherwise. were placed around it [the offering] to protect it). without feathers or a head). the covenants confirmed between you and God and [between you and other] people. and blood. and the beast strangled. in other words. game not being lawful to you when you are on pilgrimage (hurum means muhrimūn. to the Sacred House. acts of disobedience. that is.

4:43]). as is clarified in the Sunna. Likewise. purify. it is explained in the Sunna that the requirement here is for the wiping to encompass the whole of these two parts. things are permitted to you. and is consequently unlawful for consumption. that is. as long as they have not eaten any of it. in marriage. up to the ankles. training [them] as hounds (mukallibīn is a circumstantial qualifier. if he dies in this state [of unbelief]. God is swift at the reckoning’. is intended to show the requirement of [a specific] order during the purification of these limbs. so as to fornicate with them secretly. ‘head’] is generic. wash. and your hands up to the elbows. so that you might give thanks. He 113  . without [excessive] water pouring over. when you stand up. through Islam. and so it counts for nothing and he will not be rewarded for it. ‘training [them] as hounds’. that they can be curbed when cried at and that they can seize the quarry without eating of it. but if you are sick. when you unleash it. and in the Hereafter he shall be among the losers. Whoever disbelieves in faith. clean earth. and the food of those who were given the Scripture. O Muhammad (s). that is. in wedlock. ‘disciplining them’) of what God has taught you. [5:5] Today the good. that is to say. that is. wildcats or birds that catch food. for His graces. to pray. wipe over [the head] adhering [the hand] closely. that is. quarry of. as is clarified in the Sunna. then head for. or you have touched women (as mentioned already in the verse in [sūrat] al-Nisā’ [Q. or wa-arjulikum in the genitive because of its adjacency to [the genitive] bi-ru’ūsikum). that is. meaning. and the. and wipe your heads (the bā’ in bi-ru’ūsikum is for ‘adherence’). And mention God’s name over it. This is in contrast to the untrained [hunting creatures]. If you are defiled. derived from kallabtu al-kalba. that is. Say: ‘The good. and wipe your faces and your hands. The interposing of the wiping of the head between [the mention of] the hands and the feet. if you give them their wages. you have taught. prior good. is taken from the Sunna. Indeed. about what. ‘I released the hound against the quarry’) teaching them (tu‘allimūnahunna is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject of mukallibīn. including them [the ankles]. dogs. through Islam. including them [the elbows]. and permitted to them is your food. as reported in hadīth in both of the Sahīhs [of Bukhārī and Muslim] — therein it is also mentioned that a catch made by an arrow over which God’s name is mentioned is equivalent [in lawfulness] to the catch of trained hunting creatures. animals slaughtered by the Jews and Christians. using two strikes (the bā’ of bi-wujūhikum. and they are the two protruding bones at the juncture of the legs and the feet. including the elbows. and that He may perfect His grace upon you. seek. fornicating overtly with them. that is. or taking them as lovers. [whose] apostatises. 2848851345 [5:6] O you who believe. is permitted to you. His pledge. even if they have killed it. and the married women of those who were given the Scripture before you. whose catch is not lawful [for consumption]: the mark of these [being trained hunting creatures] is that they should return after they have been sent out. his. ‘your faces’. when you intend to go. and so the minimum required to fulfil [the stipulation] is acceptable. travelling. and His covenant. wholesome dust. [if] he has defecated. denotes ‘adherence’. in other words. as in the other rituals of worship. free. [5:7] And remember God’s grace upon you. by explaining the laws of the religion. and not illicitly. or if any of you comes from the privy. And fear God. of the art of hunting. things are made lawful for you. and your feet (read wa-arjulakum in the accusative as a supplement to aydīyakum. which He made. the noun [ra’s. In addition. and you cannot find water. washing and purification with dust. hunting creatures. and you are in [a state of] ritual impurity. as al-Shāfi‘ī asserts). yourselves. the requirement of making intention (niyya) in this [ablution].They will ask you. with an illness made worse by water. in the obligations He has imposed on you with regard to ablution. food. is made lawful for them. delicious. so eat what they have caught for you. their dowries. If they eat any of it. married women. work has indeed failed. God does not desire to make any hardship for you. or on a journey. wash your faces. which are washed. with it. as al-Shāfi‘ī asserts. which is the wiping of some of the hair. of filth and sins. then it cannot be counted as ‘what they have caught’ for their trainers. the minimum number of times by which this may be known is three. are permitted to you for marriage. but He desires to purify you. any constraint. the delicious. the believing. having made the effort to look for it.

that. [5:8] O you who believe. all the more reason for [Him to have knowledge of] other things. Paradise. and We raised up (there is a shift of address away from the third [to the first] person) from among them twelve leaders. of what they were reminded of. 9:5]. the disbelievers. Yet pardon them. helping and assisting. [5:13] God says: So because (bi-mā. I will absolve you of your evil deeds. remember God’s favour upon you. and made their hearts hard. in the way of breaking a covenant or some other matter. And fear God. 114  . to them: ‘I am with you. Surely if (la-in. and they have forgotten. they pervert words. in the Gospel. when a people. Surely God knows what is in the breasts. [5:10] And they who disbelieve and deny Our signs — they shall be the inhabitants of Hell-fire. [5:14] And with those who say ‘We are Christians’ (this is semantically connected to [what follows]) We made a covenant. unyielding to the acceptance of faith. the Jews. surely he has strayed from the right way’. namely. the lām is for oaths) you establish the prayer. in order to attack you. pertaining to faith and other matters. is nearer to God-fearing. all that you command and forbid. Let not hatred of a people. purposed to extend their hands against you. and they have forgotten a portion of that they were reminded of. in [fulfilling] what is His due. they substitute them. witnesses in equity. to the Prophet (s) upon pledging allegiance to him: ‘We hear and we obey’. just as We did with the Children of Israel. justice. and you — addressing the Prophet (s) now — will never cease to discover some treachery on their part. what is in the hearts [of people]. and believe in My messengers and succour them. except for a few of them. and pay the alms. lest you break it. surely God loves the virtuous: this was abrogated by the ‘sword’ verse [Q. the mā is extra) of their breaking their covenant. and they [too] broke the covenant. as a way of binding them [to it]. he has erred from the path to Paradise (al-sawā’ originally means ‘the middle way’). covenant. [5:9] God has promised those who believe and perform righteous deeds. they have abandoned. but He restrained their hands from you. and I will admit you to gardens underneath which rivers flow. be just. towards both friend and foe. that is. And they broke the covenant. and to harm them on account of their enmity. that is.bound. [5:12] God had made a covenant with the Children of Israel. So whoever of you disbelieves after that. an excellent promise: they shall have forgiveness and a great wage. cause you not to be just. help them. be upright before God. and protected you from what they intended to do to you. for what will be mentioned shortly. [of what] they were enjoined to in the Torah. and lend to God a goodly loan. a portion. We removed them from Our mercy. a part. And God said. and fear God. And fear God. in justice. from each tribe one leader. of what we love and what we despise. in the way of following Muhammad (s). [5:11] O you who believe. and forgive. those in which God has placed them. pertaining to the descriptions of Muhammad (s) in the Torah and other things. with you when you said. by expending in His way. in other words. Quraysh. and will requite you for it. from their contexts. to be responsible for his people’s fulfilment of the covenant. We cursed them. in His covenant. and in God let the believers put their trust. who have submitted themselves [to Islam]. surely God is aware of what you do. namely.

and therefore you are saying lies. God has power over everything. making clear to you. the parting of the sea and other things. and his mother. the laws of religion. the paths of safety. the Prophet (s). Say. and established you as kings. insofar as they make him [Jesus] a god. he would be able to do so. to the ways of peace. to Him is the journey’s end. a Christian sect. remember God’s favour to you. and all that is between them. the Book by which. that is. if you are punished: ‘There has not come to us any bearer of good tidings (min bashīr. And to God belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth. ‘O my people. and He guides them to a straight path. which He wills. the [final] return. and requite them for this. those. among them enmity and hatred until the Day of Resurrection. and these were the Jacobites. an interval of 569 years. the min is extra) nor any warner’. you shall be rewarded as they are rewarded and you shall be requited as they are requited. and He is like a father to us in terms of compassion and care. him for. from among you. including punishing you for not following him [the Messenger]. the father does not punish his son. when He established among you. and a Book. [from] unbelief. there has come to you a bearer of good tidings and a warner. such as the ‘stoning’ verse and the description [of the Prophet Muhammad (s)]. each sect charging the other with unbelief. Say: ‘Who then can do anything. prophets. For to God belongs the kingdom of the heavens and of the earth. there has verily come to you Our Messenger. Muhammad (s). but He has punished you. by His will. ‘God is the Messiah. none can do anything of the sort. [we are] like his sons in terms of closeness and rank. [5:16] whereby. For. on account of their schisms and differing whims. [5:20] And. which he does not reveal. and His beloved ones’. whom He wills. into the light. making clear to you much of what you used to conceal of the Scripture. mention. nor the loving his beloved. and gave you such as He had not given to any in all the worlds. He forgives. the religion of Islam. by believing. O Muhammad (s): ‘Why then does He chastise you for your sins?. you are mortals from among. forgiveness. serving only to disgrace you. in the way of manna and quails. There has verily come to you from God a light. and He chastises. son of Mary. the Torah and the Gospel. We have caused. say: ‘We are the sons of God. a Qur’ān. and there can be no objection thereto. mortals. since if Jesus were a god. now there has come to you Our Messenger. against. since this would not be of any benefit. [5:21] 115  . if what you say is true. and pardoning much. [5:19] O People of the Scripture. both of them. and all that is between them. son of Mary’. Nay. God guides whoever follows His good pleasure. and God will assuredly tell them. that is to say. Indeed. in the Hereafter. all. lest you should say.So We have stirred up. of it. whom He wills’. and brings them forth from the shadows. by His leave. him for. that is. plain and manifest. and so you shall have no excuse. to them. chastisement. [who then can] defend. after an interval between the messengers. He creates what He will. [5:17] They indeed are disbelievers those who say. Muhammad (s). God has power over all things. the chastisement of. God if He desires to destroy the Messiah. of what they wrought. [into] belief. He created. [5:18] The Jews and Christians. and all those who are on earth?’. [5:15] O People of the Scripture. possessing servants and retinues. Jews and Christians. namely. lucid. that is. for there was no messenger between him and Jesus. when Moses said to his people.

it. distinguish. unlike the other leaders. them. and so the people became cowardly. he asked his Lord to bring him close to the Holy Land. we will be sitting here’. in the land — according to Ibn ‘Abbās this [land] was about nine parasangs [sc.000. Ahmad [b. O Muhammad (s). how they each offered a sacrifice. It is reported that they would travel throughout the night earnestly. except those under twenty years of age. and in Cain’s. two men of those who feared. [5:22] They said.O my people. which in Abel’s case was a ram. the purified. to which the first replied. For if you enter by it. So go forth. said. that is. bewildered. some green crops. we will never enter it so long as they are in it.’. if you are believers’. ‘God accepts only from the God-fearing’. from Cain. for they are bodies without hearts. you and your Lord. the Holy Land. 116  . and I control no one else to be able to force them to obedience. they shall wander lost. shall be forbidden them. and have no fear of them. ‘The sun was never detained for any human. [which] He commanded you to enter. of the two sons of Adam. when a fire came down from the heaven and consumed his offering. so do not grieve for the wicked folk’. and do not turn back in flight. to God. there are giants in it. us from the wicked folk’. Put your trust in God. those remaining of the people of ‘Ād. and fight. [5:27] And recite. and a chastisement for those others. Moses and Aaron died in the wilderness. God. or you will end up as losers’. the story. the gate of the town. away from the fighting. enter the Holy. and He did. until he had finished with fighting them. It is said that they numbered 600. and these were Joshua and Caleb — who were from among the leaders that Moses dispatched to bring back news of those giants — to whom God had been gracious. the tale. and not accepted from the other. I control none but myself and my brother. exalted be He. [5:24] They said. by making them virtuous. in your efforts. and so he became furious and kept secret his envy until Adam left on pilgrimage. with the same result. Joshua became a prophet sometime after his fortieth year and he was commanded to fight against the giants. thereupon. ‘Because only your offering was accepted’. So separate. [do not] retreat in fear of the enemy. until they all perished. ‘I will surely slay you. ‘Why?’. ‘O Moses. [5:23] There said. [5:26] He. namely. 30 miles]. you will be victorious: the two [Joshua and Caleb] said this because they were certain of God’s assistance and the fulfilment of His promise. telling only Moses. Land which God has ordained for you. Moses. and this was a mercy for them. ‘O Moses. your people. to within a stone’s throw. Hanbal] reported in his Musnad the [following] hadīth. ‘My Lord. The other said. from Abel. ‘Enter against them by the gate!. to him. Abel and Cain. except for Joshua during those days in which he marched towards the Holy House [of Jerusalem]’. as related in hadīth. He said. if they depart from it then we will enter’. and it was accepted from one of them. who were very tall and mighty. And they would travel all day. and this is Syria (al-shām). and the other said. truthfully (bi’l-haqq is semantically connected to utlu. we will never enter it until they depart from it. but in the morning would find themselves back where they had started. for forty years. So he sallied forth with those that remained by his side and he fought against them. to enter. to him: ‘Then it. who divulged the news. to them. ‘recite’). it was a Friday and the sun stopped for him for an hour. contravening God’s command. to them. said. [5:25] He. When Moses was on the verge of death. for they concealed what they had discovered about the giants.

and so hide my brother’s nakedness?’ And he became one of the remorseful. so he slew him and became one of the losers. thus. or have their hands and feet cut off on opposite sides. [5:29] I desire that you should end up with my sin. with clear proofs. in slaying you. but after that many of them still commit excesses in the land. by waylaying. I fear God. by fighting against Muslims. and so become an inhabitant of the Fire. he then dug [a hole] for him and covered him up. the carcass. or be banished from the land (the aw. it shall be as if he had slain mankind altogether. fornication or waylaying and the like. and so he carried him on his back. [5:31] Then God sent forth a raven. says: that is the requital of the evildoers’. such as imprisonment and the like). shortly before [he is killed]. death is for those that have only killed. or crucified. that is. slain. to slay his brother. the lām is for oaths) you extend your hand against me to slay me. whereas I do not want to end up with your sin if I were to slay you. by slaying him. overstepping the bounds through disbelief. the sin of slaying me. that is. crucifixion is for those that have killed and stolen property. to the Children of Israel. and whoever saves the life of one. committed. by refraining from slaying. of his brother. it is also said. God. it seduced him. is a degradation. for know that God is 117  . the chastisement of the Fire. is [used] to indicate the [separate] application of [each of] the cases [listed]. Once they felt well they slew the Prophet’s shepherd and stole the herd of camels: Truly the only requital of those who fight against God and His Messenger. as repent before you overpower them. which Cain did. ‘Woe to me! Am I not able to be as this raven. And he did not know what to do with him. mentioned requital. to show him how he might hide the nakedness. miracles. [5:34] Except for such. He said. the cutting off [of limbs on opposite sides] is for those that have stolen property but have not killed. for them in this world. [5:32] Because of that. [5:33] The following was revealed when the ‘Arniyyūn came to Medina suffering from some illness. in the land. other than. digging up the soil with its beak and with its legs and throwing it up over a dead raven next to it until it completely hid it. scratching into the earth. exalted be He. a humiliation. I will not extend my hand against you to slay you. [5:30] Then his soul prompted him. namely. with banishment are included similar punishments. warmongers and waylayers. while banishment is for those that pose a threat — this was stated by Ibn ‘Abbās and is the opinion of al-Shāfi‘ī. because he was the first of the Children of Adam to die on earth. it shall be as if he had saved the life of all mankind — Ibn ‘Abbās said [that the above is meant] in the sense of violating and protecting its [a soul’s] sanctity [respectively]. or. Our messengers have already come to them. ‘or’. for having carried him. in the way of unbelief. That.[5:28] ‘Yet if (la-in. is that they shall be slaughtered. their right hands and left feet. or for. and hasten about the earth to do corruption there. killing and the like. corruption. We decreed for the Children of Israel that whoever slays a soul for other than a soul. the Lord of the Worlds. and in the Hereafter theirs will be a great chastisement. and become one of them. and your own sin. and the Prophet (s) gave them permission to go and drink from the camels’ urine and milk. the more sound of his [al-Shāfi‘ī’s] two opinions is that crucifixion should be for three days after [the] death [of the killer]. the one that you had committed before.

and struggle in His way. [5:37] They will desire. Merciful. chastisement for. ‘then cut off’]) cut off their hands. If. refrains from theft. as is clarified in the Sunna. him for. the actions of. it would not be accepted from them. then. his actions. Merciful. wa’lladhī saraqa wa’llatī saraqat. once he has been overpowered [by the authorities] — this is also the more sound of two opinions held by him. and God has power over all things. and amends. fear God.Forgiving. whom He wills. if she thieves’ etc. he should be killed and have his limbs cut off [on opposite sides]. to them of what they have done. to them. for both of them. [5:38] And the thieving male and the thieving female (the definite article in both [nouns] relates to the subject [sc. in expressing what has been stated.] the fā’ has been included in the predicate [fa’qta‘ū. after which discretionary punishment is applied. a person has killed and stolen property. ‘if he thieves. and then [on subsequent re-offending] the left hand [is amputated]. falling 118  . they will wish. and seek the means to Him. the rights of the victim to have the penalty of amputation carried out and his property restored are not [automatically] forgone after repentance. [5:35] O you who believe. and the like of it with it. chastisement. his repentance is of no avail. but they will not exit from it. Wise. and al-Shāfi‘ī is of this opinion. those who vie with one another in disbelief. to exit from the Fire. from God. [5:36] Truly. so that you might prosper. [5:41] O Messenger. that obedience which brings you closer to Him. if they possessed. to point out that when such a person repents only God’s prescribed punishments (hudūd) — and not those deriving from the rights of human beings — are waived. all that is in the earth. theirs shall be a painful chastisement. ‘And the male who thieves and the female who thieves’]. as for the disbelievers. In fact. followed by the right foot. only if he is pardoned before being taken to the Imam is the [punishment of] amputation waived. and if the person were to re-offend. in His creation. the left foot should then be amputated from the ankle. God will relent to him. but not crucified — this is the more sound of two opinions held by al-Shāfi‘ī. However. the right hand of each of the two from the wristbone. a perpetual. and God knows best. His way will prevail. I do not know of any that have tackled this [topic]. triumph. as a requital (jazā’an is in the accusative because it is a verbal noun) for what they have earned. However. it is explained in the Sunna that the amputation applies to [the stealing of] a quarter of a dinar and upwards. because this [clause] resembles a conditional statement [sc. [5:40] Do you not know (the interrogative here is meant as an affirmative) that to God belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth? He chastises. God is Mighty. fear His chastisement. let them not grieve you. by being obedient to Him. in order to elevate His religion. This [proviso] is expressed without any statement to the effect ‘do not submit them to prescribed legal punishment’. including chastising and forgiving. by which to ransom themselves from the chastisement of the Day of Resurrection. God is indeed Forgiving. that is. and an exemplary punishment. This is how I see it. definitely. whom He wills. forgiveness. theirs shall be a lasting. him for. [5:39] But whoever repents after his evildoing. and forgives.

in other words. O Jews. with their tongues (bi-alsinatihim is semantically connected to qālū. which accords with what is in their Scripture. listeners to calumny and consumers of unlawful gain (read suhut or suht). for had He desired it. And so they dispatched [men from] Qurayza to ask the Prophet (s) about the ruling concerning the two. [that which] God bid them to observe. which you take in return for concealing them. [that which] was entrusted to them. So judge between them [to the end of] the verse [Q. from among the Jews. who had submitted. [5:43] But how is it that they make you their judge when they have the Torah. and for wounds (read wa’l-jurūhu or wa’l-jurūha) retaliation. [and then] they reject your ruling of stoning. but fear Me. after that. who listen to calumny. from their contexts. fabricated by their rabbis. Therefore. the ‘stoning’ verse and otherwise. other folk. then judge justly between them. you would have [been able to do something for them]. the jurists. and if you judge. My signs for a small price. [5:45] And therein. and an eye. wherein is God’s judgement. is to be amputated. this is left to arbitration. listening to. and light. but if you are not given it. in other words. they were not seeking thereby [by making you their judge] to discover the truth but a lighter punishment for them. listening acceptingly. they cannot harm you at all. humiliation. and an ear. for a life. we [Muslims] are obliged to judge between them if they request arbitration before us — and this is the more sound of al-Shāfi‘ī’s two opinions. to the ones they dispatched: ‘If you are given this. as in the case of a hand or a leg. of accepting it! Whomever God desires to try. and then they turn away. Although this stipulation was prescribed for 119  . meaning that He will reward them. that which is illicit. that is. of unbelief. and a tooth. [who] had been compliant before God. by being disgraced and subjected to the jizya. perverting words. and from among those of Jewry. in disclosing what you have pertaining to the descriptions of Muhammad (s). should be gouged out. We made obligatory. Whoever does not judge according to what God has revealed — such are the disbelievers. We prescribed. ‘We believe’ but their hearts do not believe. be slain in return. for an eye. because of. and in the Hereafter theirs shall be a great chastisement. then we are obliged to judge according to the consensus [of legal scholars and not just alShāfi‘ī]). So do not fear men. and he pronounces some other ruling for you. If they come to you. for a nose. however. and were witnesses to. saying. [the contexts] in which God had placed them. that is to say. 5:48]. ‘[such] as say’). for a tooth (a variant reading has the last four [nouns] in the nominative). distorted ruling. among whom two married persons committed adultery. that is to say. such as the ‘stoning’ verse. from error. those that judge fairly. which Muhammad (s) has pronounced for you as a ruling. as did the rabbis. that is. that is. wherein is guidance. to lead astray. [5:42] They are. such as bribes. and do not sell. theirs shall be degradation in this world. in the Torah. but in cases where one is not able to [retaliate]. by which the prophets. if it has slain one. Those are they whose hearts God did not desire to purify. and the priests. flogging. do not exchange. from the Children of Israel. of stoning: the interrogative here is for [provoking] amazement. and these are the hypocrites. should be pulled out. the scholars among them. who have not come to you: these were the inhabitants of Khaybar. judged for those of Jewry. when you conceal it. accept it. by preventing such [a trial]. If their request for arbitration involves a Muslim. lest they change it. for an ear. is to be cut off. on behalf of some. you cannot avail him anything against God. [5:44] Surely We revealed the Torah. according to. substituting them. for them that a life. an exposition of the rulings. between them. of God’s Scripture.headlong into it. then take it. there is a folk. of (min here is explicative) such as say with their mouths. then beware!’. that which they were bidden to observe. request [to you] for arbitration? Such are not believers. its truth. if you turn away from them. of this world. and a nose. in it. that are in the Torah. you. they [who] manifest it at every opportunity. then judge between them or turn away from them: the [second] option given here was abrogated by His saying. but whom they did not want to stone. God loves the just. to judge between them. the person is entitled to retaliate if this is feasible.

to God you shall all return. that is. and as a guidance and an admonition to the God-fearing. the judgement of paganism. footsteps.them. ‘[do] you desire?’). making it a supplement to that which is governed by the previous verb [ātaynāhu. [5:50] Do they desire (yabghūn. and beware of them lest they seduce you. for some of their sins. and requite each of you according to his deeds. confirming (musaddiqan is a circumstantial qualifier) the Torah before it. 120  . among them. and light. Whoever does not judge according to what God has revealed. deviating. O Muhammad (s). then that shall be an expiation for him. with the truth (bi’l-haqq is semantically connected to anzalnā. affiliating with them or showing them affection. He would have made you one community. and do not follow their whims. is also read tabghūn. counted with them. [5:48] And We have revealed to you. ‘let [them] judge’. that is. an exposition of the rulings. no one. of the differing Laws. [those] which they have committed. being united in disbelief. We have appointed a divine law and a way. out of charity. many of mankind are wicked. wherein is guidance. in the matter of retaliation and otherwise. [lest] they lead you astray. [5:46] And We caused Jesus son of Mary to follow in their. in order to see who among you is obedient and who is disobedient. ‘We gave to him’]). [do] they seek. but whoever forgoes it. away from the truth that has come to you. But if they turn away. Whoever does not judge according to what God has revealed — those are the wicked. Whoever amongst you affiliates with them. Yet who. following one Law. it is established in our Law. and We gave to him the Gospel. To every one of you. So vie with one another in good works. able to restrain himself. is better in judgement than God for a people knowing. they are patrons of each other. through their deceit and deviation when they turn away? (this is an interrogative meant as a disavowal). by affiliating with disbelievers. from part of what God has revealed to you. and do not follow their whims. testifying [to it] — the ‘Book’ means the Scriptures. in the matter of religion. Him. do not take Jews and Christians as patrons. through resurrection. If God had willed. of what he has done [of other sins]. their turning away. according to what God has revealed. those are the evildoers. He separated you one from the other. from error. confirming the Torah before him. to you. if they take their cases before you. the Qur’ān. O communities. but. between the People of the Scripture. strive hastily thereunto. with punishment in this world. God does not guide the folk who do wrong. So judge between them. retaliation. the prophets’. for them to proceed along. a clear path in religion. from the judgement revealed. and He will then inform you of that in which you differed. and desire some other. surely. [5:51] O you who believe. of rulings (a variant reading of wa’l-yahkum. ‘We have revealed’) confirming the Book that was before it and watching over it. [5:47] We said: So let the People of the Gospel judge according to what God has revealed therein. [5:49] And judge between them according to what God has revealed. that is. and [that He desires] to requite them for all of their sins in the Hereafter. is wa-li-yahkuma. then know that God desires to smite them. he is one of them. the Book. that He may try you in what He has given to you. with certainty? These [people] are singled out for mention because they are the ones who reflect. the rulings contained therein.

which time will bring round against us. turns back. That. and then they will end up. to disbelief — this is a notification of what God knew would happen. Ubayy the hypocrite. the following was revealed: Your patron is God only. mocking it and laughing at it among themselves. whoever of you apostatises (read either yartadid. or just yaqūlu. such as drought or defeat. towards disbelievers. and God is Embracing. in their place. saying. those who believe. God. that is. those who. through their punishment. sympathetic. weakness of faith. they will cease to supply us with provisions. when their secrets are revealed: ‘Are these the ones who swore by God their most earnest oaths. and the believers who establish prayer and pay the alms. ‘O Messenger of God. from his religion. that they were surely with you?. [5:53] And they say (read wa-yaqūlu. [mocking] attitude. He gives it to whom He will. ‘the party of God’] to fall in the place of [an implied] fa-innahum. for what they kept secret within themselves. is because they are a people who 121  . with assimilation [of one of the dāl letters with the other]). humble. since they belong to His party. in the way of doubt and affiliating with disbelievers. our people have shunned us’. as reported by al-Hākim [al-Naysābūrī] in his Sahīh. and that if Muhammad’s affair should come to nothing. that. of those who deserve it. severe. [as something] to be mocked. in the way that the hypocrites fear the reproach of the disbelievers. from among (min is explicative) those who were given the Scripture before you and [from among] the disbelievers (read al-kuffāri or al-kuffāra). ‘for verily they’. they are the victors. for some of them apostatised upon the death of the Prophet (s) — God will assuredly bring. as an explication. in mockery and as a game. disgracing them. is God’s bounty. [if you are] truthful in your faith. says: But it may be that God will bring victory. [5:58] And. for verily the party of God. a people whom He loves and who love Him: the Prophet (s) said. in religion. to indicate a new [independent] sentence. by refraining from affiliating with them. if you are believers. stern. and in the Hereafter. or wa-yaqūla as a supplement to what follows). exalted be He. therein. remorseful. in this world. God. [5:57] O you who believe. or yartadd. because of His assistance to them (He has made this [hizb Allāh. and His Messenger. the prayer. making the utmost effort thereby [to swear]. when you make the call to prayer. says: Their. and fearing not the reproach of any reproacher. take it. as an excuse for this: ‘We fear lest we suffer a turn of fortune’.[5:52] And you see those in whose hearts is sickness. struggling in the way of God. the like of ‘Abd Allāh b. by assisting His Prophet and making His religion prevail. are invalid. they have ended up as. and as a game. [5:54] O you who believe. or some commandment from Him. bowing down. and they have become. through ignominy. [5:56] Whoever affiliates to God and His Messenger and the believers. or performing voluntary prayers. that is. with separation [of the two dāl letters]. do not take as patrons those who take your religion in mockery. that will reveal the secrets of the hypocrites. ‘They are people like him’. and he pointed to Abū Mūsā al-Ash‘arī. the idolaters — and fear God. good. vying with one another for them. the losers’. He will help them and assist them. humble. to affiliate with them. of abundant bounty. exalted be He. [they] His followers). Knowing. description mentioned. towards believers. to one another in amazement. works have failed. [5:55] When [‘Abd Allāh] Ibn Salām said.

do you spite. [whom] He has removed from His mercy. the use of sharrun. ‘that we believe’). and these were the Jews. falling headlong. [do] you repudiate. says: Fettered be. and with whom He is wroth. ‘some of whom’]. those whom God has cursed. when their circumstances became straitened. in sin. [5:63] Why do the rabbis and the priests. to the prophets. and so they have departed. exalted be He. [5:61] When they. of hypocrisy. withheld be. Nay. is our faith and your opposition [to it]. which they have been committing. on account of their denial of the Prophet (s). ‘What you repudiate. the [singular] form [of min is taken into account]. [5:59] The following was revealed when the Jews said to the Prophet (s). and in what precedes [minhum. ‘[those] whom’. is intended to counter their saying. requital. in calumny. that. for their abode shall be the Fire. after having been the wealthiest of people: ‘God’s hand is fettered’. from the performance of good deeds. vying. 2:136]. ‘some of whom’. and that most of you are wicked?’ (wa-anna aktharakum fāsiqūn is a supplement to an āmannā.do not understand. [this wickedness] itself being the necessary consequence of such [a refusal] — but in fact this [faith of ours] is not something to be repudiated’. and their consuming of unlawful gain. withholding the sending forth of provision upon us — this was their metaphor for niggardliness — may God be exalted above this. namely. ‘We know of no religion worse [sharrun] than yours’. in it. He expends how He will. ‘hand’. ‘Whom among the messengers do you believe in?’. their hands. by transformation. worship the false deity. [5:62] And you see many of them. but His hands are extended out wide — a hyperbole for the attribute of generosity — the use of [yadā] the dual for yad. the Jews. not forbid them from uttering sin. and they have not believed. and enmity. what is illicit. by way of reward. since the utmost that an affluent person can give freely of his wealth is when he gives it with both hands. as an invocation against them. and he replied: in God and in that which has been revealed to us [Q. [5:64] The Jews said. ‘abud being a [variant] plural of ‘abd. is intended to imply abundance. ‘middle’). from God? They are. from the path of truth (al-sawā’ originally means al-wasat. the hypocrites from among the Jews. those who. They are worse situated (makānan is for specification). ‘apes’). calumny. by obeying him (the particle minhum. come to you. and some of whom He has turned into apes and swine. ‘We believe’. of what is worse than. the accusative ending [of ‘abuda] is because the clause is a supplement to al-qirada. and what has been revealed to us. and there can be no 122  . and when he mentioned Jesus they said. but they have entered. ‘We know of no religion worse than yours!’ Say: ‘O People of the Scripture. and what was revealed. like bribes. and further astray from the even way’. us for any other cause than that we believe in God. that is to say. takes into account the [potentially plural] import of the particle min. wrongdoing. and they are cursed for what they have said. and consuming unlawful gain? Evil is what they have been doing. in fact. in giving abundantly or straitening. about which you are spiteful. And God knows very well what they were hiding. in disbelief. God. a variant reading has ‘abuda al-tāghūt as [the genitive of] an annexation. before. unto you ensconced. evil is that. in refraining from forbidding them. ‘worse’. [shall] I inform you. they say. in refusing to accept it — [a refusal] which is described as ‘wickedness’. Satan. the followers of. and adallu. among them. deed of theirs. and. from you ensconced. [5:60] Say: ‘Shall I tell you. ‘further astray’.

but many of them — evil is that. And what has been revealed to you from your Lord. instead of [the perfect tense] qatalū is to narrate past events [as if in the present] and to conclude [in harmony with] the end123  . by implementing what is in them. risālātihi. He repels them. thing. of the Qur’ān. if they do not believe in you. and what was revealed to them. The Prophet (s) used to have guards up until [the time that] this [verse] was revealed. from their Lord. they would surely have received nourishment from above them and from beneath their feet. [they hasten about] corrupting. Every time a messenger came to them. ‘Depart. ‘His Messages’) since to conceal some of it is to conceal it all. We would have absolved them of their evil deeds and We would admitted them to Gardens of Bliss. And what has been revealed to you from your Lord. or read plural. and God does not love corrupters. who may try to kill you. a group [among them]. for if you do not. the likes of ‘Abd Allāh b. for war against the Prophet (s). so do not grieve for the disbelieving folk. including believing in me [Muhammad (s)]. they denied it. to believe in God and His messengers. [5:69] Surely those who believe and those of Jewry ([this constitutes] the subject of the clause).objection to this. Salām and his companions. in other words. ‘surely’). believes in God and the Last Day and behaves righteously — no fear shall befall them. of the Qur’ān. and the Sabaeans. do not be concerned with them. God will protect you from people. and We sent messengers to them. you have no basis. by their being given provision in abundance. neither shall they grieve. if you do not make known all of what has been revealed to you. ‘no fear shall befall them. [5:68] Say: ‘O People of the Scripture. and the Christians (and [what follows] substitutes for the [above] subject): whoever. they denied. then he said. and so every sect among them is opposed to the other. of scriptures. that is. by implementing what is therein. the Jews. neither shall they grieve’] is the predicate of the subject and also indicates the predicate of [the clause beginning with] inna. they slay. on which to rely. make known. implementing it [the Torah]. that which has been revealed to you from your Lord. God does not guide the unbelieving folk. which they do. will surely increase many of them in insolence and disbelief. and they are the ones who believed in the Prophet (s). some. in religion. And they hasten about the earth in corruption. until you observe the Torah and the Gospel and what was revealed to you from your Lord’. in the way of truth. and feared unbelief. all of. Every time they light the fires of war. meaning that He will punish them. will surely increase many of them in insolence and disbelief. in the Hereafter (this [fa-lā khawfun ‘alayhim wa-lā hum yahzanūn. are a just community. of them. [5:67] O Messenger. in Muhammad (s). because of their disbelief in it. and We have cast between them enmity and hatred until the Day of Resurrection. and some. as reported by al-Hākim. namely. including believing in the Prophet (s). [5:65] But had the People of the Scripture believed. a sect among them. of them. with what their souls did not desire. that is. God extinguishes them. every time they desire it [war]. you will not have conveyed His Message (risālatahu. and do not conceal any of it out of fear that you may suffer some harm. Some of them. that is. with it pouring forth from every place. [5:66] And had they observed the Torah and the Gospel. for God protects me now’. ‘they slay’. [5:70] And We made a covenant with the Children of Israel. because of their [very] disbelief in it. of them. through acts of disobedience. such as Zachariah and John (the use of [the present tense] yaqtulūn. that is. from among them.

gods. If they do not desist from what they say. in worship. on account of their extremism — these were their forefathers — and have led many. of your sayings. to guard them against the chastisement of God. Then God relented to them. a second time. for him God has made Paradise forbidden. to him. how We make the signs. son of Mary’ (a similar verse has preceded [Q. otherwise he would not have passed away. to them. many of them (kathīrun minhum substitutes for the [third] person [‘they’]). for. ‘Indeed God is the Messiah. neither lowering nor elevating Jesus above his proper place. son of Mary. that is. and strayed from the even way’. worship God. and one who is such cannot be a god because of his compound being and fallible nature. [5:71] And they thought. how they are turned away!. He is one of them. they both used to eat food. God is Forgiving. [5:74] Will they not turn in repentance to God and seek His forgiveness?. of your circumstances (the interrogative is meant as a disavowal). my Lord and your Lord. and do not follow the whims of a people who went astray formerly. in amazement. there would be no (read as an lā takūnu. [unable] to hear it. then they were wilfully blind and deaf. other than Him. ‘that there would [not] befall [them]’) trial. shall suffer a painful chastisement. in your religion. where an has been softened. extremes. do [not] overstep the bounds. his mother was a truthful woman. and because of the [impurities such as] urine and excrement that he produces. or read an lā takūna. for he is not a god as they claim. [5:75] The Messiah. to the one who repents. from the path of truth (al-sawā’ originally means ‘middle’). [5:73] They are indeed disbelievers those who say. when they declare a trinity. He has forbidden him admittance to it.rhyme of the verses). other than those. Verily he who associates anything with God. do not go to extremes. Merciful. and profess His Oneness. the Fire. a punishment against them. [those] who are fixed upon unbelief. where it [an] requires a [following] subjunctive. of truth. [other] people. Jews and Christians. and so they were wilfully blind. and for wrongdoers (wa-mā li’l-zālimīna min. [5:77] Say: ‘O People of the Scripture. the other two being Jesus and his mother. [how] they are turned away from the truth despite the proof being established. for their denial of the messengers and their slaying of them. [5:72] They indeed are disbelievers those who say. then behold. messengers passed away before him. ‘O Children of Israel. like all other human beings. I am a servant and not a god. that is. that is. 124  . the min is extra) there shall be no helpers’. those of them who disbelieve. to the truth and could not see it. Behold. and will requite them for it. of Our Oneness. and God sees what they do. [5:76] Say: ‘Do you worship besides God. for what they say (the interrogative is intended as a rebuke). clear to them. the Knower’. astray. they presumed that. and his abode shall be the Fire. that is to say. when they repented. For the Messiah said. [siddīqa means] extremely truthful. ‘God is the third of three’. and deaf. 5:17]). what cannot hurt or profit you? God is the Hearer. and so he passed away like them. namely. when there is no god but the One God. was only a messenger. and they [who claim this] are a Christian sect.

O Muhammad (s). in the way of deeds. cursing. see many of them affiliating with those who disbelieve. so inscribe us among the witnesses. [5:81] Yet had they believed in God and the Prophet. into Paradise? [5:85] God. because some of them are priests. says: And when they hear what has been revealed to the Messenger. the Qur’ān. exalted be He. [5:83] This [verse] was revealed when the Negus’s delegation from Abyssinia came to him (s): when the Prophet (s) recited sūrat Yā Sīn. from among the Meccans. son of Mary. that. [5:79] They did not prevent one another. by believing. those who affirm their acceptance of the truth. we believe. [5:86] 125  . 5:115. was because of their disobedience and their transgression. which their souls have offered on their behalf. and monks. [verily evil] was this deed of theirs. exalted be He. and you will truly find the nearest of them in love to those who believe to be those who say ‘Verily. [5:80] You. because of the intensity of their disbelief. Evil is that. that is to say. any indecency that they committed. that is. that is the requital of those who are virtuous. below] — that. and what has been revealed to him. and because they are not disdainful. wherein they will abide. [with] the disbelievers. they cried and submitted [to Islam]. there is nothing to prevent us from faith when its prerequisites are present. [5:84] And. Q. verily evil was what they used to do. when he invoked God against them and they were transformed into apes — these were the people of Eilat — and by Jesus. you see their eyes overflow with tears because of what they recognise of the truth. scholars. of Mecca. one would not forbid the other from committing again. but many of them are wicked. and hope (natma‘u is a supplement to nu’minu. ‘How similar this is to what used to be revealed to Jesus!’ God. we are Christians’. in response to those Jews who reviled them for their Islam. we accept the truth of your Prophet and your Book. ‘we believe’) that our Lord should admit us with the righteous people?’. of the Qur’ān. ignorance and utter preoccupation with following whims. of following the truth. [5:82] You. Muhammad (s). O Muhammad (s). for [the day of] their inevitable return. will truly find the most hostile of people to those who believe to be the Jews and the idolaters. the believers. namely. rebellious against faith. they would not have affiliated with them. They say. ‘Our Lord.[5:78] Cursed were the disbelievers of the Children of Israel by the tongue of David. saying. such that God is wroth with them and in the chastisement they shall abide. out of spite for you. as the Jews and the Meccans are. they would say: why should we not believe in God and what has come to us of the truth. says: So God has rewarded them for what they have said with Gardens underneath which rivers flow. when he invoked God against them and they were transformed into pigs — they were the ones [who ate] at the Table [cf. devout worshippers. nearness of theirs in love to the believers is.

because of the evil and discord that result therefrom. and fear God. from which. in Whom you are believers. and to bar you. which is what the tongue utters spontaneously. so that you might be thankful. and divinatory arrows are an abomination. [5:90] O you who believe. unless it be for a righteous deed or setting right between people. and games of chance. [5:87] When a number of Companions resolved to practise fasting and night vigil continuously. and sleeping on beds. such as when one says. 2:225]. and idols. [5:88] And eat of the lawful and good food which God has provided you (halālan tayyiban. nor worse. [5:89] God will not take you to task for a slip. for each needy person one mudd measure. and this is the opinion of al-Shāfi‘ī. or a loin cloth — it is not sufficient that these [items] mentioned be given only to one needy person. where you have sworn an oath intentionally. of the midmost food. ‘lawful and good food’. the following was revealed: O you who believe. by God’. do not break them. of disobedient acts. but if you turn away. do [not] exceed God’s command. of Satan’s work. and whoever does not find the means. verily wine. that intoxicates and overcomes the mind. [5:93] 126  . to Him for this. you feed your families. of the oath if you break it. an evil deemed vile. by God’. it is not obligatory to follow the [above] sequence [of alternatives when making an expiation]. this abomination consisting of the things mentioned. and to abstain from women. [5:91] Satan desires only to precipitate enmity and hatred between you through wine and games of chance. slave. believing. with what may be [properly] called clothes. as stated in the verse of sūrat al-Baqara [Q. do not forbid the good things that God has made lawful for you and do not transgress. or the setting free of a. when you partake of them. without intending to swear an oath. so avoid it. which is mentioned. or ‘Yes. from obedience. So.But those who disbelieve and deny Our signs — they are the inhabitants of Hell-fire. as an expiation for him — as it appears [in this verse]. gambling. interpreting the general [stipulation] in a restricted sense. God does not love transgressors. do not do it. for any one of the [expiations] mentioned. in the same way that He has explained to you what has been mentioned. in your oaths. then know that Our Messenger’s duty is only to proclaim plainly. from partaking of them? In other words: Desist! [5:92] And obey God and obey the Messenger. the closest or the principal [food you consume]. God makes clear to you His signs. or the clothing of them. that is. the expiation thereof. is the expiation of your oaths if you have sworn. ‘No. is the feeding of ten of the needy. perfume. consumption of meat. So will you then desist?. and beware. as applies in the expiation for slaying or repudiation through zihār. neither better. is the direct object and the preceding genitive construction [mimmā. That. a turban. so that you might prosper. but keep your oaths. such as a shirt. but He will take you to task for that to which you have pledged (read ‘aqadtum. ‘aqqadttum or ‘āqadttum) oaths. to convey clearly [the Message] — your requital falls on Us. then the fasting of three days. and have broken them. contained. from the remembrance of God and from prayer — He has specifically mentioned it [prayer] so as to magnify it. by your being preoccupied with them. which he adorns. ‘of … which’] is a circumstantial qualifier connected to the former). according to al-Shāfi‘ī.

food. for you to consume. such as fish. for consumption. is in the accusative because it is an adjectival qualification of what precedes. may God be pleased with them. so that he may taste the evil consequence. ‘Umar and ‘Alī. ‘then the compensation [shall be]’. O people. to be judged. ‘expiation’]). which will be caught by your hands and. Ibn ‘Abbās. what it casts out that is dead. ‘the expiation of food’] as an explication [of kaffāra. the burden of the compensation. in other words. the equivalent of that. while they were in [the state of] pilgrimage inviolability. Whoever transgresses thereafter. since such an annexation is only morphological and not [valid] as a [grammatical] characterisation). Unintentional slaying [of game] is also included with intentional slaying in what has been mentioned [of required compensation or expiation]. who fears Him in the Unseen (bi’l-ghayb is a circumstantial qualifier). the equivalent of what he has slain. [5:94] O you who believe. Ibn ‘Abbās and Abū ‘Ubayda adjudged a cow [as redemption] for wildebeest or wild ass. in fasting. then the compensation shall be (read fa-jazā’un. [‘Abd Allāh] Ibn ‘Umar and [‘Abd al-Rahmān] Ibn ‘Awf. ‘expiation’. the one he has perpetrated. in an annexation with the following noun [sc. Or. and then were God-fearing and virtuous. while He is absent [to the eyes]. God has pardoned what is past. sacrificed there and given as a voluntary offering to its needy [residents]. an expiation: other than compensation. after that prohibition against it. an offering (hadyan is a circumstantial qualifier referring to jazā’. and. food for the poor. be you in pilgrimage inviolability or not. His way will prevail. your lances: this was in [the plain of] al-Hudaybiyya. the travellers among you. and it is what can only live in the sea. fa-jazā’u mithli. the forbidden things. as Ibn ‘Abbās. [a sheep] also [as a redemption] for [slaying] pigeons. such as crabs. [5:96] Permitted to you. through knowledge outwardly manifested. one who does not see Him but nonetheless avoids hunting game. ‘compensation’. his shall be a painful chastisement. for the hajj or the ‘umra. then the person is obliged [to compensate] with [equivalent] value. a sheep for a gazelle. [5:95] O you who believe. of flocks. and for the wayfarers. but forbidden to you 127  . the equivalent [is to be judged]. of wine and [indulged in] of gambling before the prohibition. and believed and performed righteous deeds. of his deed. kaffāratu ta‘āmin. and it cannot be sacrificed wherever [else] it may be (bāligha l-ka‘ba. ‘the like of’]) that is to say. a similar creature (a variant reading has an annexation construction for jazā’. both possessing astuteness. is the game of the sea. or. it is incumbent on him [to make]. but if he has the means to [provide the food] then it is incumbent on him to do so. whoever of you slays it wilfully. ‘then the compensation of’]). equivalent to the value of the compensation. of game slain before it was prohibited. beasts and birds would flock to their caravans. it is incumbent on him [to compensate with]. God will surely try you. God will take vengeance on him. followed by a nominative [mithlu. so that God may know. that is. to take as their provisions. and if he should find the means then this [expiation] is. so that he fasts one day for every mudd measure [that he is unable to provide]. ‘Umar and others did. [sc. is a provision for you. so long as they fear. meaning that He will reward them. that is. God loves the virtuous. God is Mighty. Lord of Retribution. ‘to reach the Ka‘ba’. [and then] adhered to fear of God and belief.Those who believe and perform righteous deeds are not at fault in what they may have consumed. the smaller of. a compensation is incumbent on him. as in the case of a small bird or locusts. the larger of which by. but not what is able to live both in the sea and on land. and hunts. in deeds. but whoever offends again. which He releases to you. and food from it. with some game. He will surely test you. even if it stands as an annexation. do not slay game while you are in the state of pilgrimage inviolability. with which they are able to identify the nearest [animal] in equivalence to it [the slain animal]. and then were God-fearing and believed. to be taken into the Sanctuary. in other words. because they [pigeons] resemble these [sheep] in taking scoops of water [when drinking]. by two just men among you. against those who disobey Him. being one mudd measure for each poor person (a variant reading has kaffāra. all adjudged a beast of sacrifice [as redemption] for an ostrich [slain]. and that is. [food] to be taken from the principal food of the town. if there is no equivalent beast of flock for the game slain. ‘compensation’) to reach the Ka‘ba.

if disclosed to you. and He will requite you for it. [5:99] The duty of the Messenger is only to convey [the Message]. to whom you shall be gathered. for God is Forgiving. Dhū’l-Hijja. House as an [enduring] institution for mankind. in the way that people did at the time of paganism. before such things came to pass. [an institution] by which their religious affair is sustained. during the time of the Prophet (s). alMusayyab. do not hunt them. and fear God. and what of these you conceal. as is clarified in the Sunna. and God knows what you reveal. yet if you ask about them while the Qur’ān is being revealed. ‘to remain standing’. you asked about.is the hunting of game on the land. so do not ask again. are not equal. inviolable. Merciful. is so that you may know that God knows all that is in the heavens and in the earth. the Sacred. but once these things are disclosed. instituted for them to be secure from fighting during them. a Sā’iba. who said: ‘The bahīra is that [camel] whose milk is consecrated to idols and whom no human 128  . the lawful. a Wasīla or a Hām. and what you hide. so that you might prosper. on account of the security [guaranteed] for those who enter it and the fact that they are not interfered with. Forbearing. what deeds you manifest. Al-Bukhārī reported [in a hadīth] from Sa‘īd b. would trouble you. to His friends. the Qur’ān will reveal them. as the verbal noun from [1st form] qāma. by neglecting to implement them. and the good. So do not ask about them. O people of pith. meaning the sacred months of Dhū’l-Qa‘da. the unlawful. so long as you remain in pilgrimage inviolability: if it is caught by one not in pilgrimage inviolability. He has not stipulated [in His Law]. do not ask about things which. and that God is Forgiving. even though the abundance of the evil attract you. through pilgrimage to it. and because all manner of fruits are brought to it (a variant reading [for qiyāman] has qiyaman. without defectiveness [of the middle radical]). instituted for their owner so that he does not suffer any interference. indeed: God has pardoned those things. in avoiding it.’ So fear God. and this consists of those edible beasts that live on it. as is their this-worldly [affair]. ‘[always] standing’. and that God has knowledge of all things: thus that appointing of His in order to secure benefits for you and to ward off harm from you. [if] revealed. mentioned appointment. that. to them. that is. [5:101] The following was revealed when they began to ask the Prophet (s) too many questions: O you who believe. triumph. anything such as a Bahīra. [5:97] God has appointed the Ka‘ba. and then they disbelieved in them. [5:98] Know that God is severe in punishment. then it is permissible for a person in pilgrimage inviolability to consume it. and the sacred month. the offering and the garlands. [5:100] Say: ‘The evil. of His enemies. Muharram and Rajab. to you. [5:103] God has not ordained. because of the hardship that would ensue from them. [they asked] their prophets about such things and they received the response in the form of [revealed] explications of the rules concerning them. [5:102] Verily a people before you asked about them. they will be disclosed to you: meaning that if you ask about certain things during his lifetime. it will grieve you. testifies to His knowledge of all that is in existence and all that will be.

that both of them have merited [the suspicion of] sin. and most of them do not understand. [from] other than your own religious community. exalted be He. [5:105] O you who believe. for example. and every intelligent person proud of his own opinions. of those most concerned. it is also said to mean others. alladhīna. draws near to one of you. would then be consigned to their idols and be exempt from bearing any load. plural of awwal. [5:104] And when it is said to them. both of them saying: ‘We will not sell it. let testimony between you. even if he. they shall swear by God. prayer and. he who is astray cannot hurt you. but the disbelievers invent lies against God. [if] it be ascertained after they have sworn their oaths. ‘two men of justice among you’. in kinship to the deceased. 129  . then you are [still] responsible for [looking after] your own soul”. [5:106] O you who believe. neither by swearing by Him [falsely]. ‘two others’) after the. preserve them and do what is in their best interest. which after completing a certain number of copulations with a female. which He has commanded us [to give]. if what they are accused of is found with them and then they claim that they had bought it from the deceased or that he had bequeathed it to them. for in this they have [merely] followed the example of their forefathers. as its first offspring. the hām is the mature male camel. in the way of a breach of faith or perjury in the testimony. ‘of those’). that this is mendacity. and then if you see niggardliness being obeyed.may milk. is the predicate expressed with the sense of an imperative. by attributing [the sanctioning of] such [practices] to Him.]’. ‘when’. is an adjectival qualification of ākharān. on the basis of the [following] hadīth of Abū Tha‘laba al-Khushanī: ‘I asked the Messenger of God (s) about it [this verse] and he said. the person before whom it is being sworn or the one for whose sake testimony is being given. for then. does that suffice them. is a substitute for idhā. a close relative of ours. ‘None of those misguided ones from among the People of the Scripture can hurt you’. ‘Come to what God has revealed and to the Messenger’. ‘What we have found our fathers following suffices us’. [5:107] But if it be discovered. [our testimony] in [swearing by] God. and He will inform you of what you used to do. with the bequest. in the way of religion and laws. Unto God you shall return. [for] any compensation that we might take in exchange for it from this world. a variant reading has al-awwalīn. “Enjoin one other to decency and forbid one another indecency. that is. that is. Then you shall empanel them. we would surely be among the sinful’. and they shall swear by God. nor will we hide testimony to God. and bayn. to the breach of faith of the two witnesses. that is. the inheritors. or of two others from another folk. be that of two men of justice among you (ithnāni dhawā ‘adlin minkum. to His ruling concerning the permitting of what you have forbidden. God. whims being followed. being the nearest (al-awlayān is a substitution for ākharān. followed by another female. nor by testifying falsely for the sake of that [price]. all together. when death. bearing one after the other without a male in between: she would then be left to roam freely for their idols. that is. the wasīla is the young she-camel that would give birth to a young female. and they would call it hāmī. so that the oaths are to be taken from them. ‘two others’. you shall detain them (tahbisūnahumā. they say. ‘testimony’. if we were to hide it. hīn. at the time of a bequest. then two others shall take their place. if you are rightly guided: it is said that this means. and requite you for it. ‘you shall empanel them’. [if] you are uncertain about it [their testimony]. or an adverbial qualifier of time for [the verb] hadara. [one of] its causes.’ as reported by al-Hākim and others. in this matter. ‘draws near’). be a near kinsman. this present world being preferred. if you are travelling in the land and the affliction of death befalls you. to any truth (the interrogative is meant as a disavowal). for any price. if you are in doubt. you are responsible for your own souls. ‘let [two men] bear witness … [etc. the genitive annexation of shahāda. mid-afternoon. is meant to allow for a range [of alternatives]. as an adjectival qualification of. the sā’iba is the one they would leave to roam freely for their gods and was forbidden to bear any load. ‘at the time of’. even if their fathers knew nothing and were not guided?. ‘between’. says: What. in other words. in other words. or a substitution for. that they have done something to incur it. namely.

our testimony. or. and the Gospel. by My will. ‘Verily. but when he died. and the Torah. This stipulation holds for the two trustees. ruling mentioned. that they. son of Mary. the day when God shall gather the messengers. God does not guide the wicked people. involved a man from the Banū Sahm who had set out on a journey with Tamīm alDārī and ‘Adiyy b. where the owners said that they had bought it from Tamīm and ‘Udayy. is truer. to speak to people (tukallimu’l-nāsa is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the [suffixed pronoun] kāf in ayyadtu-ka) in the cradle. Fear God. our oath. when God said. of a bird by My permission. but is abrogated in the case of the two witnesses. and so [because of this] they will not lie. and we have not transgressed. The bowl was later discovered in Mecca. they [his relatives] found that a silver bowl plated with gold was missing and so the two were brought before the Prophet (s). the nearest of the inheritors in kinship [to the deceased] shall swear to the perjury of the two men and to the truth of what they [the inheritors] suspected. and you breathe into it and it becomes a bird by My permission. who would swear to the two men’s breach of faith or perjury. You. since he was raised up [to God] before middle age. from the inheritors. and in maturity — this implies that he will descend before the Hour. ‘Amr b. that is. the [Sahmī] man fell ill and instructed them as to his bequest and asked them to deliver what he had left to his family. [makes it] likelier. the plaintiffs. if he cannot find any [from among the former] because he is travelling or for some similar reason. than their testimony. ‘We have no knowledge. when they were both [still] Christians. to what you have been commanded. [the form] in which they have been charged to bear it. for then we would assuredly be among the evildoers’: meaning. If then some indication surfaces that the two men have been lying and these two then claim some motivation for this action [of theirs]. in al-Tirmidhī’s version. Gabriel. but when they have calmed down. is more faithful. without distortion or breach of faith. when you summoned [them] to proclaim God’s Oneness. which is the Day of Resurrection. The Prophet (s) made the two swear oaths. that they will be afraid that after their oaths other oaths may be taken. as reported by al-Bukhārī. When the two came back with his bequest. If the inheritors have doubts about the two men and claim a breach of faith on the part of the two for having taken something or given it to some other person — alleging that the deceased bequeathed it to him — then let the two men swear in full [in the way mentioned above]. who was closer to the deceased man. be thankful for it. we have [not] overstepped the [bounds of] truth in our oaths. after which two of the Sahmī man’s close kin came to swear their oaths. are the Knower of things unseen’. al-‘Ās. and He will say. [He does not guide the wicked] to the way of goodness. thereupon this verse was revealed. only You. The man from the Banū Sahm died in a place where there were no Muslims. the witnesses or the trustees. to them. The specification in this verse that the oath be from the two inheritors nearest in kinship concerns the incident regarding which it was revealed. and they swore an oath. [5:110] Mention. ‘O Jesus. they shall say. their oath. and wisdom. the image.and they shall both say. stood up with one other from among the kin. or let him instruct in his bequest that the two be from among his co-religionists or from among others. Likewise. it is likelier. and listen. the testimony of non co-religionists is abrogated. as a child. as a rebuke for their peoples: ‘What answer were you given?’. The reason for [stipulating] the mid-afternoon prayer is to consecrate the oaths. [5:109] Mention. and when I taught you the Scripture. This [incident]. as has already been mentioned in [sūrat] Āl ‘Imrān [Q. in yet another version. let the one about to die call two men as witnesses to his bequest. The next verse was then revealed. in which case they would be disgraced and would incur penalties. those things which are hidden from [God’s] servants and that which they [the messengers] have forgotten all knowledge of on account of the great terror of the Day of Resurrection and their fright. [5:108] That. by refraining from betrayal and perjury. they [proceed to] bear witness against their communities. they took the bowl [and sold it] and then gave what remained [of that money] to his family. listening in acceptance. of this. when I strengthened you with the Holy Spirit. and how you create out of clay the likeness (kahay’at: the kāf here functions like a noun and is a direct object). brings closer [the eventuality]. Baddā’. 3:55]. and you heal the blind and the leper 130  . where the oath devolves to the inheritors. remember My favour to you and to your mother. will bear the testimony in its true form. those rebelling against obedience to Him.

by My permission. is your Lord able. our Lord. Jesus. son of Mary. that is. [5:117] I only said to them that which You commanded me. You are the Best of Providers’. shuddering: ‘Glory be to You!. [5:115] God said. to [say]. [5:116] And. did you say to mankind. on it were seven loaves and seven large fish. when you request signs. that is. and you raise the dead. Jesus. preventing them from [saying] what they used to say. “We believe. to Jesus at the Resurrection in rebuke of his followers: ‘O Jesus. lī. it is unjustified [for me]. in your claim to prophethood. send down upon us a Table from the heaven. would He (a variant reading has hal tastatī‘a rabbaka. it. to request this in order. from their graves back to life. for us. ‘not’. ‘right to’. in my self. what you have done. You know what is. Jesus. a celebration for us. 131  . when the disciples said. In one hadīth it is said that the Table sent down from heaven consisted of bread and meat. And provide. miracles. I shall surely chastise him with a chastisement wherewith I chastise no other being from among all the worlds’: and so the angels descended with it from heaven.’ [5:112] Mention. said: ‘O God. says. is nothing but manifest sorcery” (a variant reading [for sihrun. for the first (li-awwalinā is an inclusive substitution for lanā. and that is: “Worship God. and the disbelievers among them said. that we may acquire more awareness [of the fact]. which we shall consecrate and honour. mention. to eat of it and that our hearts be reassured. and so they ate of it until they were full. after it has been sent down. that is. that it shall be. besides God”?’ He. ‘sorcery’] has sāhirun. ‘Are you able to ask of Him?’) to send down on us a Table from the heaven?’ He. said. if you are believers’. and that we may be among the witnesses thereof’. when God says. that you (annaka is softened to an) have spoken truthfully to us. [when] I commanded them by the tongue of Jesus: “Believe in Me and in My Messenger”. [5:111] And when I revealed to the disciples. when you brought them clear proofs. exalted be You above all that does not befit You. that is. [he] Jesus [is nothing but a manifest sorcerer]). and how I restrained the Children of Israel from you. ‘for us’. ‘O Jesus. to them: ‘Fear God. what You keep hidden of Your knowledge: You are the Knower of things unseen. but I do not know what is within Your Self. with the repetition of the [oblique] preposition [li-]) and the last of us. son of Mary. the day of its sending down [shall be]. they said. [5:113] They said. those who will come after us. when they intended to kill you. If I indeed had said it. and were [consequently] transformed into apes and swine. You would have known it. ‘We desire. in other words. and that we may know. such as [having] a partner and so on. It is not mine. by My permission. my Lord and your Lord. bear witness that we have submitted”. is explicative). hidden by me. of Your power and my prophethood. is the predicate of laysa. a watcher. and a sign from You. when God will say. as related by Ibn ‘Abbās. to say what I have no right to (bihaqq. through increased certainty. “This.” And I was a witness. granting his supplication: ‘Verily I shall send it down (read munziluhā or munazziluhā) to you. ‘sorcerer’. but whoever of you disbelieves afterward. in both. “Take me and my mother as gods. over them. [5:114] Jesus. son of Mary. and they were commanded not to be treacherous and nor to store anything for the next day: but they were and they stored some of it. ‘mine’.

those of them who are believers. at the conclusion of which you die. 141. [5:120] To God belongs the kingdom of the heavens and of the earth. and He knows what you 132  . or both? These are three possibilities. the Wise’. in the world. be. sustenance and everything else. with His reward — that is the great triumph’. 93. vegetation. with Him. the Day of Resurrection. and if You forgive them. You were Yourself the Watcher over them. and they are well-pleased with Him. including what I said to them and what they said after me. [6:2] It is He Who created you from clay. the storehouses of rain. is the day those who were truthful. despite the existence of this proof. God is well-pleased with them. every darkness (zulma) and every light: the use of the plural only in the case of the former is because it [darkness] has many causes. and You Yourself are Witness over all things. [5:119] God says. namely. [5:118] If you chastise them. just as [it shall not avail] the disbelievers when they believe upon seeing the chastisement. doubt. wherein they shall abide forever. for [each of] you. 151. Who created the heavens and the earth — He singles out these two for mention because for the observer they constitute the most awesome [visible] creation. those among them who are fixed upon disbelief. and this is one of the proofs of His Oneness. when you know that it was He Who initiated your creation. and all that is in them (wa-mā fīhinna: the use of mā. [when] You raised me up to the heaven. He knows your secrets and your utterance.whilst I was amongst them. [6:3] He is God. ‘that’. fixed. O disbelievers. 152. that is. in His actions. like Jesus. indicates the predominance of all those non-rational creations). 114. as the Shaykh [Jalāl al-Dīn al-Mahallī] states in [his commentary on] sūrat alKahf [Q. for there is none among them with power over all things. 91. [ever] established. then He decreed a term. is even more capable of bringing you back [to life after death]. ‘This. verily they are Your servants. the Observer of their deeds. for your resurrection. are the Mighty. darknesses and light. and whatever else. but when You took me [to You]. so that one believes in it? Or. is it meant as a eulogy. [Consists of] 165 verses. which are Medinese and which were revealed after [sūrat] al-Hijr. 153. yet thereafter you. all Meccan except for 20. to God: is this meant to be informative. that is. and You are their Master. they worship others equally. in the heavens and in the earth. by creating your father Adam from it. that is. and One Who has the power to initiate [creation]. 23. only You. you are uncertain about the Resurrection. because this is the Day of Requital. You. then those who disbelieve. the most likely of which is the last. He created. shall profit by their truthfulness. Theirs will be Gardens underneath which rivers flow. and He appointed. ascribe equals to their Lord. 18:1]. and He has power over all things. because of their obedience to Him. A term is stated. including the rewarding of the truthful and the punishing of the liar — He is specifically addressing rational beings. (Al-An‘âm) [6:1] Praise. The sincerity of those who were liars in this world shall not avail them on that Day. what you keep secret and what you utter openly among yourselves. which means to describe in beautiful terms. disposing of them as You will: there can be no objection to [what] You [do]. in His affair. the One worthy of being worshipped. Aware and knowing them.

[6:7] And had We revealed to you a Scripture. an angel. inscribed. one torrent after another. We assigned them an [established] place. We established them. how they were destroyed through chastisement. in the Qur’ān. how many. [6:8] And they say. perhaps they will take heed. to Muhammad (s). ‘This is but a mere mortal like the rest of you’. that they be destroyed. [6:4] Not a verse (min āya: min introduces a relative clause) of the verses of their Lord. to them: ‘Travel in the land. Then We destroyed them because of their sins. the rain. a man. when it came to them. in the earth. [as] We have [not] assigned. [6:6] Have they not seen. that is. and made the rivers to flow beneath them?. would have been decreed. ‘Why has an angel not been sent down to him?’. and had they then touched it with their hands — this is more powerful than saying. and We raised up after them another generation. (s) — but those who scoffed at them were encompassed by that which they mocked. We would assuredly have made him. as is God’s custom [in dealing] with those before them. the one who is sent down to them. through strength and abundance. meaning ‘many’) a generation. to confirm his truthfulness. for them what they are confusing. and see the nature of the consequence for the deniers’. [We would have sent him] in the form of a man. on parchment. in disobedience and obduracy: ‘This is nothing but manifest sorcery’. what you do of good and evil. obscured. for themselves. We would have assuredly confused. when they say. in their travels to Syria and to other places. of the messengers. but there shall come to them the news. [by the] punishment [sent down on them]: those who mock you will be encompassed likewise. as they requested. they would [not] be given any extra time for repentance or an excuse. and then they would not be given any respite. destroying them when they disbelieve after their request is granted. had We sent him down and made him a man. and. as they have requested and if they then did not believe.earn. ‘had they seen it with their eyes’. We destroyed before them. namely. that is. comes to them. [6:11] Say. the matter. [6:5] They denied the truth. [how many] a community of past communities. as We have not established. but they turn away from it. of what they were mocking. the Qur’ān. (kam is predicative [and not interrogative]. since it [touch] is more effective in eliminating doubt. the disbelievers would have said. 133  . the consequences. you (there is a shift in the address here from third person [to second]). [to] the Meccans. [6:9] And had We appointed him. and how We unleashed the heaven. because of their denial of the prophets. beneath their dwellings. the angel. upon them in torrents. so that they would be able to see him. since no human being is capable of seeing an angel. yet had We sent down an angel. [6:10] And messengers were indeed mocked before you — this is meant as a consolation for the Prophet.

or read active yasrif. exalted be He. no uncertainty. by worshipping other than Him. the Knower’. with Him. and if He touches you with good. is Witness between me and you. as a bounty from Him — this is a gentle summoning of them to the faith. the referential noun has been omitted) on that day. the following was revealed: Say. He will have desired good for him. the Aware. the chastisement of a dreadful day’. and. to them: ‘What thing is greatest in testimony?’ (shahādatan: this is for specification. He has decreed. the Day of Resurrection. [6:19] When they said to the Prophet (s). the Omnipotent. to them: ‘Shall I take as a protector. including His touching you with this. O people of Mecca. there is no other response. and He is the Wise. ‘the chastisement’. that is the manifest triumph. and is not given sustenance. the night and the day. except Him. of what is said. [6:18] He is the Vanquisher. evident salvation. there is no other response — He. [6:13] And to Him. everything — He is its Lord. will have had mercy on him. Those who have forfeited their own souls (this is the subject) — by exposing them to the chastisement — they do not believe (this is the predicate). the Exalted One. such as an illness or impoverishment. and none other than Him has the power to remove it from you. ‘He averts’. and is not fed?’. in His creation. if I should rebel against my Lord. the One Who has created them without any precedent. for Whom nothing is impossible. Say: ‘I have been commanded to be the first to submit. namely. [6:14] Say. He Who feeds. that is to say. and He is the Hearer. in order to requite you for your deeds. and whomever it may reach (wa-man balagha: this is a 134  . it was said to me: “Do not be among those who associate others” ’. a trial. Who gives sustenance. the Originator of the heavens and the earth. then none can remove it. to my truthfulness. [6:16] He from whom it is averted (read passive yusraf. to God. for Himself mercy. [6:17] And if God touches you with an affliction. He will surely gather you together on the Day of Resurrection of which there is no doubt. thereby. for even if they do not say this. belongs all that inhabits. such as health and affluence. and this Qur’ān has been revealed to me that I may warn you. Say: ‘God — even if they do not say this. of what is done. and is derived from the [implied] subject of the sentence). from among this community. He has prescribed. Superior [is He]. resides [in]. then He has power over all things. ‘Bring us someone to testify to the truth of your prophethood. over His servants.[6:12] Say: ‘To whom belongs what is in the heavens and in the earth?’ Say: ‘To God. its Creator and its Possessor. [6:15] Say: ‘Indeed I fear. [none can] lift it. namely. ‘God’ [as the subject]. [that I may] make you fear. of their innermost [thoughts] as well as their outward [actions]. other than God. He. ‘it is averted’. namely. to worship. for the People of the Scripture have denied you’.

in other words. a deafness. [6:27] If you. it is verily the case that. none.supplement to the [suffixed] pronoun [‘you’] of undhira-kum. [6:22] And. before the Fire. Qur’ān. that is to say. and how that which they were forging. they would not believe in it. but did not [himself] believe in him. is the plural of ustūra). but they do not perceive. on the day We shall gather them all together. And if they were to see every sign. covers. [was only] their saying. that is. Muhammad (s). to people. by the descriptions of him in their Scripture. does greater evil than he who invents a lie against God. in rebuke. against God. to this. by ascribing to Him an associate. Say. that is. the lies. but we would be among the believers!’ (read nukadhdhibu and nakūnu as a new 135  . O Muhammad (s). and keep away from it. [so that] they [do not] comprehend the Qur’ān. who have forfeited their own souls do not believe. similar to [their] jokes and strange tales (asātīr. the disbelievers say. ‘Oh (yā is for exclamation) would that we might be returned. how they lie against themselves. has failed. [when] they are exposed. [6:26] And. or denies His signs?. ‘I may warn you’). who used to forbid [people from] hurting him. so that they do not hear it with a willingness to accept it. and We have placed veils. to them: ‘I do not bear witness’. ‘Where are those associates of yours whom you were claiming?’. in the way of associates. of them. or rabbanā as a vocative) we were never idolaters’. ‘by God’]. those. when you recite. this. in him. exalted be He. says: See. and in their ears a heaviness. by denying that their idolatry. they the evildoers shall not prosper. Say: ‘He is only One God. and so they do not believe in him: it is said that this was revealed regarding Abū Tālib. Do you indeed bear witness that there are other gods with God?’ (this interrogative is meant as a disavowal). upon their hearts so that they do not understand it. of the ancients’. them! [6:25] And there are some of them who listen to you. and I am innocent of what you associate’. ‘This. as they recognise their sons. is absent [before]. [6:24] God. because the harm thereof will befall them. to the world. [6:21] And who. with Him of idols. to be associates of God? [6:23] Then their dissension (read accusative fitnatahum or nominative fitnatuhum) their apology. ‘By God. the Qur’ān. is nothing but the fables. to those who associated other gods with God. and they say. then we would not deny the signs of our Lord. was (read lam takun or lam yakun) only to say. they forbid it. and it is only themselves they destroy. our Lord (read rabbinā as an adjective of [wa’Llāhi. then We shall say. ‘fables’. so that when they come to you to argue with you. mention. [6:20] Those to whom We have given the Scripture recognise him. whomever among men and jinn the Qur’ān may reach. the following of the Prophet (s). on account of this. when they keep away from him. could see when they are made to stand. O Muhammad (s).

through resurrection. of idolatry. during life on earth. On their backs they shall be bearing their burdens. and so they [now] wish for that [mentioned in the previous verse]. to them. Paradise. ‘they do not associate you with mendacity’) but evildoers (al-zālimīn replaces the previous pronominalisation [‘they’]) knowingly reject. they were returned. evil is that. the Resurrection. our Lord. by the tongue of the angels. or a-fa-lā ta‘qilūna. the Qur’ān. and even if. expresses extreme suffering. we shall not be resurrected’. and so believe? (read a-fa-lā ya‘qilūna. that is to say. ‘do you not understand?’). it is the truth! He will say. namely. those who deny the Resurrection. so be patient until the victorious help comes to you through the destruction of 136  . ‘O grief of ours’. for they know that you are truthful (a variant reading [for lā yukadhdhibūnaka. when they promise that they would believe [if they were to be returned]. is nothing but a game and a diversion. by their saying. [6:28] God. the [vocative] call to which is figurative. in denial. so come forth!’) that we neglected it!’. [6:30] If you could see when they are made to stand. they shall say. before. the signs of God. or read nukadhdhibu and nakūna). through the destruction of their peoples. or read nukadhdhiba and nakūna as the [subjunctive] response to the optative [clause]. deny. is better for those who fear idolatry. comes upon them suddenly. [6:29] And they. hypothetically. preoccupation with it. which they bear! [6:32] The life of this world. they would return to that which they are forbidden. says: Nay — [here used] in order to reject the desire to believe implied by the optative [exclamation] — that which they used to conceal. meaning ‘Now is the time for you [O grief]. ‘Then taste the chastisement because you disbelieved’. to you. [6:34] Messengers indeed have been denied before you — herein is a consolation for the Prophet (s) — yet they endured patiently the denial and the persecution until Our victorious help came to them. By God. to the world. not the truth?’ They will say. What. [6:33] We know indeed (qad is a confirmative particle) that it grieves you that. do they not understand? this. we were never idolaters! [Q. than our present life. 6:23]) has now become evident to them. yet it is not that they deny you. life. say. by our Lord’. before their Lord. resurrection and reckoning. you would certainly see an awesome thing! He will say. surely the abode of the Hereafter (wa-la’l-dāru is also read wa-la-dāru’l-ākhirati). the worldly life. they are truly liars. ‘do they not understand’. that is. as their limbs have borne witness [against them]. Ah. matter. to hide. ‘Yes indeed. and they ride them. ‘not [that] they deny you’] has lā yukdhibūnak. exalted be He. while obedience and what is conducive to it are of the things of the Hereafter. ‘There is no other. in secret. in rebuke: ‘Is this. burden of theirs. The response to the clause ‘if [you could see]’ would be ‘you would be seeing a terrible thing indeed’.[independent] sentence. which they say. ‘Alas for us (yā hasratanā. [when they are] presented. so that these come to them at the Resurrection in the vilest of forms and with the most putrid of smells. until (hattā is purposive to expose the [extent of their] mendacity) when the Hour. [6:31] They indeed are losers who deny the encounter with God.

that is. of this matter. on account of your concern for them. [unable] to utter truth. He would have gathered them together in guidance. suddenly. if you can. but they are communities like to you. so do not be among the ignorant. that its sending down would be a trial for them. in the Preserved Tablet (al-lawh al-mahfūz). the disbelievers — they are likened to them on account of their inability to hear — God will resurrect them. for you. ‘Be dust’. so be patient until God delivers His judgement — but had God willed. There is none to change the words of God. in such a way so as to understand and take heed. of idols and will not call them. in darkness. is grievous. and dumb. [6:38] There is no (mā min: min is extra) animal. then call upon them. comes upon you. an underground passage. to send astray. they would necessarily be destroyed. the Qur’ān. the religion of Islam. Say. which includes this [chastisement]. such things as suffering. to them: ‘Surely God has the power to send down (read yunazzil or yunzil) a sign. and judgement shall be passed upon them. and you will forget. will answer. He sends astray. your call to faith. and then it will be said to them [the animals]. and upon none other. to remove from you. will ye call upon any other than God? No! If you speak truly!’. to guide. [too] great. that you may bring them a sign. then to their Lord they shall be gathered. O Muhammad (s). then go ahead: the meaning is that you will not be able to do this. [tidings] through which your heart can be at peace. but most of them do not know’. say. as for the dead. [6:35] And if their aversion. [a straight] road. and there has already come to you tidings of the messengers. that the idols can benefit you. with its wings. He whom God wills. upon Him. He sets him on a straight path. and He will requite them for their deeds. together with its sustenance and affairs. and He will remove that which you call upon Him. We have neglected nothing (min shay’: min is extra) in the Book. [6:39] And those who deny Our signs. and then to Him they will be returned. a stairway. in the way that its creation has been ordained. seek out a hole. [6:36] Only those who hear. to heaven. that crawls. are deaf. His promises. and the hornless sheep shall retaliate against the horned ram. ‘Why has a sign not been sent down to him from his Lord?’. to hearing them in such a way so as to accept [them]. [6:37] And they. and so they do not believe. [6:42] 137  . to guide them. the disbelievers of Mecca. in [times of] tribulation. or a ladder. if He wills. and whom He wills. [6:40] Say. in unbelief. to Islam. the Resurrection. [a sign] such as the she-camel [of the prophet Sālih] or the staff [of Moses] or the Table [of Jesus]. [that is] inform me. to remove it. [6:41] Nay. but He did not will this. or the Hour. [nothing] that We have not written. what you associate with Him. in the Hereafter. if God’s chastisement comes upon you.your people. through the air. on the earth and no bird that flies. you will call. in the earth. from among those they have requested. then. for if they then [still] denied it. from among those they have requested. you will neglect. in this world. to the Meccans: ‘Do you see yourselves.

the disbeliever. [how] We make clear. that whereof they were reminded. in the way of misery and hardship. We seized them suddenly. equal to the seeing man. And I do not say to you. neither shall they grieve. to the people of Mecca: ‘Have you considered. that which He took away from you. they were not so. [6:43] If only. a seal upon your hearts. [if] He were to make you blind. [6:49] But those who deny Our signs. [6:46] Say. [6:48] We do not send messengers. and would not yield to faith. that which is hidden from me and has not been revealed to me. none but these will be destroyed. [if] He were to make you deaf. from among the angels. the proofs of Our Oneness! Yet thereafter they are turning away. [6:45] So the last remnant of the people who did evil was cut off. and lo! they were confounded. from which He provides sustenance. I only follow what is revealed to me. until. so that you no longer knew anything. that with which they were admonished and threatened. with chastisement. when they forgot. to them: ‘I do not say to you. Praise be to God. the chastisement shall afflict them because they were wicked. inform me. at night or during the day. in them. folk?’ That is to say. and Satan adorned for them what they were doing. in his deeds. in order to draw them on by degrees. no fear shall befall them. that they might believe. came upon them.Indeed We sent to communities before you (min qablika: min is extra). so that they might be humble. illness. in the Hereafter. [when] they neglected. even though the necessitating factor was there. when Our might. in the way of graces. We opened (read fatahnā or fattahnā) to them the gates of all things. rebelling against obedience. when they rejoiced in what they were given. messengers. and they did not heed the admonition. [6:50] Say. [good tidings] of Paradise. “I am an angel”. they had been humble. abject poverty. except the evildoing. despairing of anything good. to those who disbelieve. to them: ‘Have you considered for yourselves. But their hearts were hard. as you [are wont to] claim? See how We dispense. [warning] of the Fire. and makes amends. suddenly or openly?. and so they persisted in them. and We seized them with misery. Whoever believes. they reject them and do not believe. and as warners. for giving victory to the messengers and destroying the disbelievers. [6:44] So. Would any be destroyed. and I do not have knowledge of the Unseen. the unbelieving. Our punishment. “I possess the treasure houses of God”. who is the god other than God to give it back to you?’. in other words. in the way of disobedient acts. and hardship. Lord of the Worlds. the believer? No! Will you 138  . abased. by having them annihilated. the signs. stamp. if God were to seize your hearing. if God’s chastisement were to come upon you. but they denied them. a wanton rejoicing.’ Say: ‘Is the blind man. except as bearers of good tidings. and set. [6:47] Say. and your sight. to those who believe.

the noble ones and the rich. ‘truly He’] has annahu. they would not have preceded us [in attaining it]. that is. because of his desire that they become Muslims. God. the poor. some of them by others. Merciful’. ‘truly’. if I did follow them. sabīlu]. in other words. We have tested. if you do this. of it when he did it.’ Say: ‘I shall not follow your whims. may say. exalted be He. says: Is God not best aware of those who are thankful?. He has decreed. denied Him. ‘that’. ‘that you may discern’.not then reflect’ upon this and believe? [6:51] And warn. that you should drive them away (this is the response to the negative sentence) and be of the evildoers. [repents] of it. besides God. other than Him. and makes amends. by worshipping them. and that the way. Your Lord has prescribed. through their worship. to the effect that. to intercede for them (the negative sentence stands as a circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject of [the verb] yuhsharū. to guide them? Indeed [He is]. as a substitution for al-rahma. [6:55] And thus. in the same way that We have explained what has been mentioned. read in the accusative [as opposed to the nominative. and repents thereafter. the ones whom God has favoured from among us?’. and not [desiring] any of the transient things of this world — and these are the poor. towards him (a variant reading [for innahu. [with] the Qur’ān. to help them. preferring the [latter] one by giving [him] precedence in [attaining] faith. if what they hide in themselves be displeasing. with guidance? In other words [so that they may say]: if what they follow is [true] guidance. The idolaters had reviled them and demanded that he [the Prophet] expel them. ‘then He’). verily I would have gone astray and I would not be of the rightly guided’. they have no protector. so that truth becomes manifest and is implemented in [people’s] deeds. the path. [6:52] And do not drive away those who call upon their Lord at morning and evening desiring. already. the Qur’ān. [6:57] Say: ‘I am upon a clear proof. so that they could sit with him. of God. for then. God. truly (innahu. in his actions — truly He. in disavowal. and constitutes the object of [what they] fear) — the sinning believers are meant here. and hence avoided (wa-li-yastabīna may also be read wa-li-tastabīna. threaten. may also be read as annahu. those who fear they shall be gathered to their Lord: apart from Him. nor are they accountable for you in anything. of the sinners may be become clear. The Prophet (s) wanted [to do] this. implying a direct address to the Prophet [s]). You are not accountable for them in anything (min shay’in: min is extra). ‘they shall be gathered’. [6:54] And when those who believe in Our signs come to you. say. is Forgiving. exalted be He. the rich man by the poor man. to Him. ‘Are these. and you have. [6:56] Say: ‘Truly I have been forbidden to worship those whom you call upon. [6:53] And even so We have tried. ‘the way’. my 139  . therewith. so that they might be wary. the signs. and no intercessor. [those whom] you worship. His countenance. forgiveness shall be for him. evident. We distinguish. after his [evil] deed. from my Lord. ‘mercy’) whoever of you does evil in ignorance. the noble one by the commoner. a [clear] statement. to them: ‘Peace be upon you. that is. We expound. by desisting from what they engage in and performing deeds of obedience. with sabīla. so that they. for Himself mercy.

to them: ‘God delivers you (read yunjīkum or yunajjīkum) from that and from every distress. He decrees the. truth. that is. creatures. darkness and hardship. [6:60] It is He Who takes you at night. [from 140  . the lām is for oaths) You. Truly God is Knowing. reckoning with the whole of creation in half a day of the days of this world. may be accomplished. and not a leaf (min waraqatin: min is extra) falls. from this. [6:59] And with Him. [in] the towns along the rivers. [6:63] Say. to record your deeds. [6:61] He is the Vanquisher. And He sends guardians over you. that is. the angels charged with the seizing of the spirits. [6:62] Then they. the judgement. and afterward to Him is your return. happening.Lord. as reported by al-Bukhārī. deliver us (anjaytanā. He has knowledge of the Hour [and He sends down the rain and He knows what is in the wombs. by day. so that He might requite them. and God knows best the evildoers’. over His servants. they do not fall short of what they have been commanded. and in the waters. He knows what is. ‘but He knows it’]. 31:34]. judgement of. its treasure houses. in this matter and in [all] others. nothing of wet or dry ([this entire clause] wa-lā habbatin fī zulumāti l-ardi wa-lā ratbin wa-lā yābisin is a supplement to waraqatin. by restoring your spirits. the Preserved Tablet (al-lawh al-mahfūz). during your journeys? When. angels. O Muhammad (s). and He is the Best of Deciders’. and these are the five things mentioned in His saying: Surely God. seizing your spirits during sleep. The exceptive clause [illā fī kitābin mubīn. He is the swiftest of reckoners. the matter between you and me would have been decided. God. the term of life. their Possessor. Surely His is the judgement. And no soul knows what it has earned for the morrow. and so requite you for it. Not a grain in the shadows of the earth. on land. is God’s alone. but He knows it. [the Best of] Judges (a variant reading [for yaqdī. [from] their terrors. Then He will inform you of what you used to do. the Just. are the keys of the Unseen. namely. the decree that will be carried out in their case. ‘He decrees’] has yaqussu. a variant reading has tawaffāhu) and they neglect not. you call upon Him openly and secretly. saying: “Verily. by my hastening it for you. until. and when to punish them. exalted be He. I do not have that which you seek to hasten. ‘[if] He delivers us’). so that I might find rest. none but He knows them. [6:58] Say. namely. take him (tawaffathu. are restored to God their Protector. but God has it. and He knows what you commit. in the daytime. ‘but it is in a clear book’] constitutes an inclusive substitution for the previous exceptive clause [illā ya‘lamuhā. Our messengers. of the chastisement. nor does any soul know in what land it will die. Superior. [6:64] Say. Q. to the people of Mecca: ‘Who delivers you from the darkness of the land and the sea. so that an appointed term. [what] you earn. Aware. is also read anjānā. on the basis of a hadīth to this effect. if (la-in. when death approaches one of you. through resurrection. when you associated others with Him. we shall truly be among the thankful”’. [in] the deserts. Then He raises you up therein. ‘a leaf’) but it is in a clear book. or the paths that lead to knowledge of it. to them: ‘If I did have what you seek to hasten. the Eternal. ‘He relates [the truth]’). the believers. the True.

a [fixed] time in which it will take place and be concluded. or to confound you. we would never be able to sit in the Mosque or perform circumambulations. that perhaps they might understand. besides God. lest a soul perish. [lest] it be given up for destruction. because they disbelieved. that they might realise that what they follow is falsehood. such as the causing of the earth to cave in [cf. And you will come to know’ — this is a threat for them. from the heaven. and so do not interfere with them — this was [revealed] before the command to fight [them]. Remind. the Prophet (s) said. [after] you remember. 141  . it has no protector. the proofs of Our power. turn away from them. [no] helper. but it is the reminder. ‘If we get up [and leave] every time they delve [into the matter of the Qur’ān]. making a mockery of it. the Qur’ān. but He denied me this [request]’. [6:67] Every tiding. to requite you. such as stones [cf. to them: ‘I am not a guardian over you. Q. as reported by al-Bukhārī. to confuse you. for them shall be a draught of boiling water and a painful chastisement. with which they have been charged. Say. that is. or from beneath your feet. that which it offers as ransom. I am only a warner and your affair is left to God — this was [revealed] before the command to fight [the idolaters]. when it was revealed. in anything (min shay’in: min is extra). of discoursing thus. [6:68] When you see those who engage in discourse about Our signs. the Qur’ān. has a conclusion. [for] those who discourse [in mockery]. and no intercessor. are not accountable for them. what it has done. that is. that they are accountable for. [though] it pay every ransom. he [is reported to have] said. thereby. Q. And if (immā: the letter nūn of the conditional particle in has been assimilated with the extra mā) Satan should make you forget (read yunsiyannaka or yunassiyannaka). after the reminder. 11:67]. with the evildoing folk (the overt noun [al-qawm al-zālimīn. including [the tiding concerning] your punishment. Therefore. and do not sit with them. In another hadīth. as a game and a diversion. ‘As for this. those who take their religion. through fighting. [6:70] And forsake. leave alone. and whom the life of this world has deluded. until they discourse on some other topic. by the Qur’ān. [every] announcement. sects with differing whims. even though its proper meaning has not yet come’.] is easier and lighter’. When this [verse] was revealed. in mockery. [a reminder given] to make them remember and to admonish them. but when the last statement was revealed. [6:66] Your people have denied it. Muslim reports the [following] hadīth: ‘I requested from my Lord not to make my community violent towards each other. Yet it is the truth. ‘This [chastisement etc. Q. Yet you associate others with Him’. and to make you taste the violence of one another’.every] other anxiety. Those are the ones who perish by what they have earned. and though it offer every compensation. the following was revealed: Those who fear God. and you sit with them. for what it has earned. admonish people. other than Him. ‘I seek refuge with Your Countenance!’. then do not sit. to ward off the chastisement from it. ‘the evildoing folk’] replaces the [third person] pronominalisation). it will surely come to pass. if they should sit with them. [6:69] The Muslims then said. [how] We clarify for them. so that perhaps they will be wary. 29:40]. it shall not be accepted from it. See how We dispense. [6:65] Say: ‘He has the power to send forth upon you a chastisement from above you. he said. the signs. 8:32] or a Cry [cf. in parties.

upon him he saw a star — said to have been Venus — and said. and it is — this is the Day of Resurrection. [6:77] And when he saw the moon rising. mention. and what follows it. [unless] He establishes me within [true] guidance. that is to say. and that he might be of those knowing. with certainty (the sentence beginning with wa-kadhālika. appearing. everything else being error. shall we worship. when Abraham said to his father Āzar. is [the true] guidance. ‘I love not those that set’. as such [attributes] pertain to accidents — but this had no effect on them. on the Day of Resurrection for reckoning. which was his cognomen. the day He says. 40:16]. he has companions. the horn. the Aware. to a thing. I see you and your people. with the purpose of [manifesting] truth. after God has guided us. confused. nor hurts us. a group. far from the truth. if we worship them. bewildered. what is hidden and what may be seen. by [this act of] taking them [as gods]. and we have been commanded to submit to the Lord of the Worlds. is blown. and they do. We show Abraham the kingdom of the heavens and the earth. He is the Knower of the Unseen and the visible. his [first] name being Terah (Tārikh): ‘Do you take idols as gods. to take them as lords. just as We show him the misguidance of his father and his people. [they are there] in order to guide him to the [right] path. I shall surely become one of 142  . And. in manifest error’. the comparative statement [beginning with ka’lladhī. [6:73] He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in truth. He it is to Whom you shall be gathered’. in the earth. he said. saying to him: “Come to us!”’. [6:75] And so. His words are the truth. who call him to guidance. establishing prayer and fearing Him. ‘be turned back’). ‘bewildered’. [6:72] and to. [6:71] Say: ‘Shall we call upon. in His creation. which is Islam. the second blast by [the angel] Isrāfīl. and His is the Kingdom the day when the trumpet. is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the [suffixed pronoun] hā’ [of istahwat-hu. God’s guidance. [to submit] by. you shall be brought together. instead of God. is a parenthetical statement and a supplement to [the one beginning with] qāla. to his people. if we neglect [to worship] them — these are the idols. ‘whom they have lured’]). and he perishes (the interrogative statement is meant as a disavowal. he said. and so be turned back. to Islam? — Like one whom the devils have lured. because it is not possible for a [true] Lord to be transformed or to change place. ‘like one whom’] is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject [of the verb] nuraddu. not knowing where to go (hayrān. but he does not respond to them. [and so] return to idolatry. He is the Wise. the truth that will doubtless come to pass. ‘he said’). [when] it darkened. that he might infer thereby [the truth of] Our Oneness. to them: ‘This is my Lord. mention. led astray. to worship? (an interrogative meant as a rebuke). who were astrologers: ‘This is my Lord’. ‘and so’. ‘Unless my Lord guides me. ‘Be’. of things inwardly hidden and outwardly manifest. ‘Rise up’.’ But when it set he said. exalted be He. it.for their unbelief. Say: ‘Truly. when He says to creatures. that is to say. that is. But when it set. that which neither profits us. [6:76] When night descended. as you [are wont to] claim. when it disappeared. when there shall be no kingdom for any other than Him: ‘Whose is the Kingdom today? God’s’ [Q. [6:74] And.

[6:80] But his people disputed with him. ‘Do you dispute with me (read a-tuhājjūnnī. ‘this’. But when it set. (the predicate is [what follows]) We bestowed upon Abraham. darajātin man nashā’). inclining towards the upright religion. when it can neither profit nor harm. ‘my Lord’] is masculine). is used [for the feminine shams. And Noah We 143  . if you have any knowledge. the nūn which grammarians refer to as nūn al-raf‘. with God. that you have associated with God. in worship. and which the Qur’ānic reciters refer to as nūn al-wiqāya. Him Who originated. [6:84] And We bestowed upon him Isaac and. in the way of idols and accidental bodies. ‘sun’] because the predicate [rabbī. the heavens and the earth. they argued with him about his religion and threatened him that the idols would strike him with evil if he abandoned them. created. or atuhājūnī where one of the two letters nūn is omitted. ‘the nūn of preservation’). mixed. [6:83] That (tilka is the subject [of the sentence] and is substituted by [the following hujjatunā]) argument of Ours. has guided me. his son. idolatry — explained as such by a hadīth in the two Sahīhs [of Bukhārī and Muslim] — theirs is security. he said. namely. and they are rightly guided. each one. as in the case of the setting stars and what came afterwards. darajāti man nashā’. of His creation. concerning. but still this had no effect on them. ‘O my people. and the argument against them had become stronger and they still had not repented. with Him. We raise up in degrees whom We will (read this as [a genitive] annexation. that they might strike me with some evil. in the way of idols. surely your Lord is Wise. Which of the two parties has more right to security. harmful to befall me and it does. he said. since they have no power to do anything. so follow Him. says: [6:82] Those who believe and have not confounded. [degrees] in knowledge and wisdom. exalted be He. exalted be He. God when He. They then asked him. Jacob. We guided him to it. as an argument. and you fear not. a hanīf. this is greater!’ than the star and the moon (the masculine [demonstrative pronoun] hādhā. when He has power over all things. God. ‘the nūn of [modal] independence’.the folk who are astray’ — an intimation to his people that they are astray. [any] argument or proof. is it us or you. with which Abraham inferred God’s Oneness. or as [accusative] nunation. in His actions. and I am not of those that associate others’. which require an originator. ‘This is my Lord. with God. of the two. We guided. Knowing. will you not remember. God. [6:78] And when he saw the sun rising. that for which He has not revealed to you any warrant?’. the Oneness of. My Lord encompasses all things through His knowledge. to it? I have no fear of what you associate with Him. I am seeking in worship. from chastisement. that is. surely I am innocent of what you associate. unless my Lord wills something. He said. God [in]. their belief with evildoing. of who has more right? In other words: it is us. ‘What do you worship?’ [6:79] He said: Verily I have turned my face to. this and believe? [6:81] How should I fear what you have associated. do you argue with me. against his people.

Say. when they said. that is. then indeed We have entrusted it to. and Jonah and Lot. whether pausing or continuing the recitation. with the silent hā’. and Job and Joseph. Say: ‘God’. in the Torah. and Jesus. the Qur’ān. so if these. were of the righteous. wisdom. ‘Noah’. namely. been idolaters. judgement. David and. and of their seed. and Elisha (Ilyasa‘. son of Jacob. the lām is extra). the paternal nephew of Aaron. ‘you put it’. We have set aside for it. his son. 144  . ‘and they hide’] or in the second person plural [taj‘alūnahu. all that they did would have been in vain. Solomon. of mankind and jinn. their way of affirming God’s Oneness and of [exercising] patience (read iqtadih. the Emigrants (Muhājirūn) and the Helpers (Ansār). through the elucidation therein of what you were confused about and in disagreement over. ‘of’. that is. yubdūnahā. ‘follow’. wa-tukhfūna. disbelieve therein. to the Prophet (s). ‘and you hide’]) on parchments. revealed it — and if they do not say it. wa-yukhfūna. all. O Jews. and We chose them and We guided them to a straight path. what you choose to disclose thereof. is partitive. to them: ‘Who revealed the Book which Moses brought. to give me. [6:85] And Zachariah and. and Moses and Aaron. in the same way that We have requited them. to the people of Mecca: ‘I do not ask of you. while others had disbelievers among their offspring). religion to which they were guided. is only a reminder. you write it down on fragments of notes. son of Hārān.’ Say. ‘they reveal it’. what you did not know. measured not God with His true measure. or [it means] they have not attained the true knowledge of Him. brother of Abraham. ‘they put it’. son of Mary — this shows that [the term] ‘seed’ (dhurriyya) can include offspring from the female [side] — and Elias. We requite the virtuous. [6:90] They are the ones whom God has guided. that is. in these three. the Qur’ān. as in [the case of] the descriptions of Muhammad (s). any wage for it. meaning the Books [of God]. so follow their guidance. before Abraham. because some of them did not have offspring. John. [6:87] And of their fathers. ‘all of them’. there is no other response — then leave them to play in their discourse. or to Nūhan. hypothetically speaking. [6:86] And Ishmael. an admonition. disputing with him about the Qur’ān: ‘God has not revealed anything to any mortal. his son. in the Qur’ān. a people who do not disbelieve in it.guided before. had they. their falsehood. tubdūnahā. We preferred above all the worlds. is God’s guidance wherewith He guides whom He will of His servants. and you have been taught. through prophethood. of them. they have not extended Him the grandeur that truly befits Him. neither you nor your fathers’. and prophethood. of what is in them. ‘you reveal it’. min. [6:88] That. brother of Moses. and of his seed. [6:91] They. a variant reading omits it in continuous recitation). to all the worlds’. which you disclose. the Jews. but you hide much. [6:89] They are the ones to whom We gave the Scripture. that is. and of their brethren (this [clause] is a supplement either to [the previous] kullan. of them. it. a light and guidance for mankind? You put it (in all three instances [the verbs may be] read either in the third person plural [yaj‘alūnahu. that is. that is. son of Abraham. that is. and so. all. Noah’s [seed]. people of Mecca.

that is. the first light that appears after the darkness of night. confirming that which was before it. that is to say. in the world. in His kingdom. and — it is said to them in rebuke — We do not see with you your intercessors. intercession of theirs. from the plants. your bond has been dissolved (a variant reading [for baynukum. amongst you. whom you claimed to be associates. the throes. from the palm-trees. it has been severed between you. ‘that it may warn’. that is. abandoned.That. the sperm and the egg. Splitter and Bringer-forth. as a supplement to the [syntactical] status of al-layla. that is. He splits the morning shaft. and that you may warn (li-tundhira. of death and the angels extend their hands. making it an adverbial qualifier. is the ordaining of the Mighty. and the sun and the moon (read both in the accusative. without you having any choice. ‘between you’. despite the proof being established? [6:96] He is the Cleaver of the daybreak (al-isbāh is the verbal noun. and the date-stone. the inhabitants of Mecca and all other people. wa’l-shamsa wa’l-qamara. and the bird from the egg. that is. that is. ‘It is revealed to me’. fearing the punishment thereof. and is the Bringer-forth of the dead. as a vindication [of previous scripture] and for you to warn therewith. such as the human being from the sperm. of scriptures. for the calculation of [periods of] time (or [if the prefixed preposition] bā’ is [considered to have been] omitted [bi-husbān]. [6:94] And. which you claimed. He brings forth the living from the dead. the Mother of Towns and those around it. when the. saying to them in stern censure: ‘Give up your souls!. We have revealed it for [the] blessings [it gives]. beating and torturing them. it is said to them upon their resurrection: ‘And now you have come to Us singly. ‘the night’) for reckoning. and that you used to scorn His signs’. against them. evildoers are in the agonies. If you could only see. 145  . ‘if [you could only see]’. [6:95] God it is Who splits the grain. is a blessed Book We have revealed. when nothing has been revealed to him — this was revealed regarding [the false prophet] Musaylama [al-Kadhdhāb] — or he who says. is: ‘you would be seeing a terrifying thing’. ‘they follow courses precisely calculated [bi-husbān]’. or read li-yundhira. so how then are you turned away from faith. Today you shall be requited with the chastisement of humiliation because you used to say about God other than the truth. as is stated in the verse of [sūrat] al-Rahmān [Q. in other words. barefoot. That. How then are you deluded?. and they observe their prayers. by claiming prophethood when he has not been called to it. of claiming prophethood and inspiration falsely. Qur’ān. in deserving your worship. in other words. 8:31]. and you have left what We conferred on you. that is. ‘to confirm that which was before it and to warn’]). mentioned. the Knowing. each alone without family. of God. making it [husbān] a circumstantial qualifier referring to an implied verb [such as yajriyān. the bond ‘between you’ [has been severed]’). The response to the conditional [statement beginning with] law. ‘they follow courses’]. possessions or children. of His creation. ‘I will reveal the like of what God has revealed’? — these were the mockers who would say: If we wish we can speak the like of this [Q. in the world. mentioned. disdaining to believe in them. the idols. ‘your union’] has baynakum. you’. is God. from the living. ‘dawn’). and He has appointed the night for stillness. of wealth. behind your backs. [6:93] And who. 55:5]). and that. naked and with foreskins. none. as We created you the first time. in which creatures rest from toil.[6:92] And this. to us that we may seize them. meaning al-subh. O Muhammad (s). and those who believe in the Hereafter believe in it. has failed. or who says. as supplement to the import of the preceding statement [sc. does greater evil than he who invents lies against God.

O you addressed. [6:98] And He it is Who produced you. for khashab) when they have borne fruit. And He is Guardian over. We bring forth from it. and some. of you. the indirect object) as associates (shurakā’a. min tal‘ihā. affirm His Oneness. how should He have a son. that is. when this first begins. [6:100] Yet they ascribe to God (li’Llāhi. [a people] who reflect. and. the plural of thamara. they invent. which He originated uniquely without precedent. how it looks. proofs of His power. that is. from the verdure. [6:101] He is. gardens. from the shoots. meaning ‘the greens’ [in other words. and the state to which they return. namely. Look. the proofs of Our power. similar (mushtabihan is a circumstantial qualifier). [6:103] Vision cannot attain Him. vegetation]. some. after they have reached full growth. not alike. their ripening. and. Verily We have distinguished the signs for a people who understand. as indicated 146  . for a people who believe: it is these [people] that are specifically mentioned because they are the ones to profit from those [signs] by their believing in them. like shajara. your Lord. what is being said to them. upon their fruits (read thamarihi or thumurihi. which is substituted by [the following. bringing forth from it. even though He created them: so how can they be associates? And they falsely impute to Him (read kharaqū or kharraqū). of Him having a child. exalted be He. We bring forth (there is a shift away from the third [to the second person in this address]) plants of every kind. to resurrect and to do all other things. with the water. [He is] Keeper of. [as plural of] shajar. when travelling. in dense clusters — such as the spikes of wheat and the like — and from the palm-tree (wa-mina’l-nakhli is the predicate. al-jinn]) the jinn. and therefrom. orchards. in the loins (a variant reading [of mustaqirrun. the signs. verdure. spouse. from a single soul. and is substituted by [the following. in the womb.[6:97] And He it is Who appointed for you the stars that you may guide your course by them amid the darkness of land and sea. all things. [look] upon. We bring forth. for a people who have knowledge. of grapes. such that some. Surely. We have elucidated. and olives. and He created everything. stalks with date clusters. and pomegranates. bunched up. ‘from its pollen’]) from its pollen — that which is the first to be produced by it — spring bunches of dates (qinwānun is the subject of the sentence). the fruits of which are. Verily We have distinguished. that produces shoots. in all that are signs. the direct object. the leaves of both [of these] being. Ezra (‘Uzayr) is the son of God. and the angels are the daughters of God. are established. ‘established’] has mustaqarrun. Adam. the Originator of the heavens and the earth. So worship Him. and khashaba. in reflection. one near the other. sons and daughters without any knowledge. ‘tree’. in contrast to the disbelievers. that was meant to be created. the Creator of all things. are deposited. that is. ‘[a piece of] wood’. Glory be to Him — an affirmation of His transcendence — and exalted be He above what they describe!. thick-clustered grain. and He has knowledge of all things? [6:102] That then is God. [6:99] And He it is Who sent down water from the heaven and therewith. saying. There is no god but Him. they [the eyes] cannot see Him — this is [a denial that applies] in particular [circumstances]. a resting place for you). of you. when He has no consort. since [it is accepted] that the believer will see Him in the Hereafter. created you. but. since they obey them by worshipping graven images.

[6:107] Had God willed. 75:22f. that is. because of what I already know (a variant reading [for lā yu’minūna. so that you might [be able to] coerce them to faith — this was [revealed] before the command to fight [them]. We dispense.by God’s words. in the same way that We have explained what has been mentioned. He perceives them. truly. namely. ‘that perhaps’. the Aware. when they come.]. it is not possible in [the case of] anyone other than Him to attain all vision while it [vision] cannot attain Him or encompass Him in knowledge. [6:106] Follow what has been revealed to you from your Lord. to them: Clear proofs have come to you from your Lord. and turn away from the idolaters. [6:105] And so. that he has perceived [them]. how would you know if they have believed. you would not know this. the disbelievers. There is no god but Him. We elucidate. variant reading) the scriptures of past peoples and brought this [Qur’ān] therefrom. ‘that truly’] as meaning la‘alla. good and evil. in the same way that We have adorned for these that which they practise. and whoever is blind. so that you might then requite them for their deeds. And I am not a keeper. O Muhammad (s). another [variant reading] has annahā [instead of innahā. then it. making the address to the disbelievers. [6:110] And We shall confound their hearts. to them: ‘Signs are only with God’. and that We may make it clear for a people who have knowledge. may say. We shall turn their hearts away from the truth. the signs. of your deeds: I am but a warner. Say. and they commit them. to them and goes astray. that is to say. a watcher. of them. so that they cannot 147  . ‘if there came to them a sign’). and We have not set you as a keeper over them. that they might take heed. besides God. ‘you will not believe’. I am but a warner. as clearly as you see the full moon at night’) — and it is also said [to mean] that it [vision] cannot encompass Him. [6:108] Do not revile those whom they call upon. ‘they will not believe’] has lā tu’minūna. whereas they cannot perceive Him. a watcher. We have adorned for every community their. at the end of this: ‘You have studied with someone’. that is. but He attains [all] vision. will be to his own hurt. through their ignorance of God. since the reward resulting from his perception will be his. the disbelievers of Mecca. nor are you a guardian over them. they would not have been idolaters. lest they then revile God out of spite. through ignorance. then to their Lord they shall return. [6:109] They. And He is the Subtle. then it is for his own good. gazing upon their Lord [Q. and that they. deeds. namely. in the Hereafter. So. or as governed by the preceding clause [la’in jā’athum āyatun. and requite them for it. over you. they will not believe. [6:104] Say. them and believes. have sworn by God the most earnest oaths that if there came to them a sign. and by the hadīth of the two Shaykhs [Bukhārī and Muslim]: ‘Verily you shall see your Lord. the evil consequence of his being astray. if these [signs] did come [to them]? In other words. that you have consulted with (dārasta) the People of the Scripture or [that] you have studied (darasta. of what they requested. they will believe in it. the idols. the Qur’ān. [in dealing] with His friends. out of aggression and wrongfully. and He will tell them what they used to do. But what will make you realise?. whoever perceives. and He sends them down as [and when] He wills. On that Day faces shall be radiant.

of mankind and jinn who inspire. ‘devils’]) devils. of sins. either by contravening [His rulings] or evading [His appointed terms]. Those to whom We have given the Scripture. an arbiter between you and me. let the disbelievers be. in truthfulness and justice (sidqan wa-‘adlan is for specification). the first time. [6:114] The following was revealed when they asked the Prophet (s) to appoint an arbiter between him and themselves. that is. perplexed. away from it. they are merely guessing. in the verses that have been revealed. So leave them. of disbelief and otherwise. in order to delude them. regarding it: this is intended to affirm to the disbelievers that it is the truth. meaning ‘throng upon throng’. saying: ‘What God has killed is more worthy of your consumption than what you kill yourselves!’. plural of qabīl. just as We have appointed these your enemies (and this [‘adūwwan. and that they may be pleased with it. in delusion. [from] His religion. and their eyes. the falsehood that is disguised as such [fine speech]. with what they fabricate. [to] that fine [speech]. of what is said. of what is done. ‘an enemy’. the doubters. when it is He Who revealed to you the Book. the likes of ‘Abd Allāh b. that is. the Qur’ān. just as they did not believe in it. the Torah. whisper. as they have requested. is substituted by [the following. the Knowing. the rebels. demand. wherein truth is distinguished from falsehood. [6:113] And that the hearts of those who do not believe in the Hereafter may incline to it (wa-li-tasghā is a supplement to [the above] ghurūran. earn. yet. and they were witness to your truthfulness. and We had gathered against them all things in droves (read qubulan. and that they may acquire. and be punished for it. what they are acquiring. of this. and We shall leave them in their insolence. other than God as a judge. know that it is revealed (read munzal or munazzal) from your Lord in truth. they would never have done it. wandering blindly. they follow only supposition. yet they would not have believed. clearly explained?. that is. so that they do not see it and thus do not believe. and the dead had spoken with them. of what has been adorned for them — this was [revealed] before the command to fight [them]. or read qibalan. Salām and his companions. as God already knows. in their misguidance. that is. hesitating. but most of them are ignorant. [6:115] Perfected is the word of your Lord. so do not be of the waverers. [6:118] 148  . [6:111] And if We had sent down the angels to them. that they believe and they did. shayātīn. and will requite both of them. Say: Shall I seek. He is the Hearing. [6:112] And so We have appointed to every Prophet an enemy. when they dispute with you concerning [the status of] carrion. none can change His words. in the way of rulings and appointed terms. unless God willed. that mutual inspiration. meaning ‘before their very eyes’). [6:117] Your Lord knows best those who stray from His way and He knows well the rightly guided.understand it. ‘in delusion’). fine speech to each other. had your Lord willed. [6:116] If you obey most of those on earth. the disbelievers. they will lead you astray from the way of God. speaking falsehood in this [matter].

‘[many] lead [others] astray’). that is. ‘[many] are led astray’. outward aspect of sin and its inward aspect. is he who was dead. and appointed for him a light by which to walk among people. ‘He has detailed’. with which to support their claims. ‘as him who’) is in darkness whence he cannot emerge? — and this is the disbeliever — No! So. And truly the devils inspire. comes to them. in the same way that We have made the wicked folk of Mecca its leaders. ‘His Messages’] or singular [risālatahu. [read] ka-man huwa. in the way of permitting [the consumption of] carrion and otherwise. ‘likeness’. He knows the right place for it to be placed in. in the way of a message and inspiration to us. of sacrifices. until we are given the like of what God’s messengers were given’. [6:123] And thus. in deeming carrion lawful. if you believe in His signs. We have made in every city its sinners great ones. where it has died or been sacrificed to other than His Name — otherwise. has been adorned for them. though they do not perceive. ‘He knows’] implicit in a‘lam. and this is the opinion of al-Shāfi‘ī — verily it. read the passive [fussila. in the way of disbelief and acts of disobedience. ‘[that which] has been forbidden’] or the active [fassala. they say.So eat from that over which God’s Name has been invoked. says: God knows best where to place His Message (read plural [risālātihi. [that which] has been sacrificed to His Name. ‘[what] He has forbidden’]) for you what He has forbidden. in this [matter]. the disbelievers. this. God. [6:124] And when a sign. in the Hereafter. you are truly idolaters. but they plot only against themselves. by what their own selves fancy. and He thus places it 149  . surely those who earn sin shall be requited. their friends. ‘the best knower’) that is to say. in the verse: Forbidden to you is carrion … [Q. because we are wealthier and more senior in years. except that to which you are compelled?. ‘it has been detailed’. and harrama. ‘We will not believe. or. exalted be He. thereof. 5:3]. is lawful. Truly your Lord knows the transgressors. any act of disobedience. whether intentionally or forgetfully. and hurrima. by their whims. in the same way that faith has been adorned for believers. what a Muslim sacrifices and does not invoke God’s Name over. is wickedness. when He has detailed (for both verbs. the people of Mecca. which is also lawful for you. that you do not eat from that over which God’s Name has been invoked. what is overt of it and what is secret — it is said that ‘sin’ here means fornication. it is said. those who overstep [the bounds] of what is lawful into what is unlawful. whisper [to]. as was stated by Ibn ‘Abbās. to impede the faith. in other words. hayth. [6:119] What is wrong with you. leave. is extra. the eating thereof. constitutes the direct object because of the verb [ya‘lam. through guidance. distinguishing thereby the truth from falsehood — this [light] being faith — as him whose likeness (ka-man mathaluhu: mathal. because the evil consequences thereof will befall them. ‘where’. and if you obey them. [6:121] And do not eat from that over which God’s Name has not been invoked. through unbelief. ‘His Message’]. The meaning is: there is nothing to prevent you from eating what has been mentioned. for He has explained to you what is forbidden for consumption. for what they used to perpetrate. or la-yudillūna. [6:120] And forsake. in him. and that [over which God’s Name has been invoked] is not among these [forbidden things]. [6:122] The following was revealed regarding Abū Jahl and others: Why. But truly many are led astray (read la-yadillūna. to dispute with you. without any knowledge. what the disbelievers have been doing. a contravention of what is lawful. that they may plot therein. and We gave him life. [what] they used to earn. of the truth of the Prophet (s). that is.

are not worthy of it.[there] — these people. by casting into his heart a light which it [the heart] expands for and accepts. Then their friends. exalted be He. all together. [6:126] And this. thus has the sense of man. namely. of acts of disobedience. which is located outside it. for their plotting. as an adjective. of those times when they will exit from it in order to drink boiling water. desires to send astray. those who obeyed them. when he is charged with [the obligations of] the faith. this [proviso] pertains to those whom God knows will believe (mā. with no crookedness therein (mustaqīman. and He will be their Friend because of what they used to do. of His creatures. ‘We bear witness 150  . mankind enjoyed what the jinn adorned for them of passions. We have detailed. however. as reported in a hadīth. or [He casts] Satan. chastisement. to abide therein’ — except what God wills. Paradise. is in the accusative because it is a circumstantial qualifier emphasising the [previous] statement. by your misleading [them]. ‘this’]). a third [variant reading] has yas‘ad) to the heaven. has said: Then they shall return to the Hell-fire [Q. Surely your Lord is Wise. according to Ibn ‘Abbās. from among both of your number — which holds true in the case of mankind [since messengers came from among them]. that is. [6:128] And. because of the hardship for him therein. ‘whom’). extremely tight (read harijan. or harajan as a verbal noun. that is to say. [path] that you follow. [6:130] ‘O assembly of jinn and mankind. Humiliation from God and a terrible chastisement shall smite those who have sinned. we enjoyed one another. He gives him authority. He makes his breast narrow (read dayqan or dayyiqan). He expands his breast to Islam. the Day of Resurrection — this [statement] expresses extreme regret on their part. the day when He. that is. by which it [the heart of the misguided one] is described hyperbolically) as if he were engaged in ascent (yassa‘‘ad. creatures. to them. your abode. We have elucidated. did not messengers come to you from among you. [a people] who heed admonition — such [people] are singled out for mention because they are the ones to profit [from the signs]. as God. you have garnered much of mankind’. and it is operated by the import of the demonstrative noun [hādhā. ‘We shall gather them’). may also read nahshuruhum. [6:129] So. God. over those who do not believe. [6:127] Theirs will be the abode of peace. and constricted. the signs for a people who remember (yadhdhakkarūn: the original tā’ has been assimilated with the dhāl). from among mankind will say. but now we have arrived at the term which You have appointed for us’. We let some of the evildoers have power over others because of what they are wont to earn. by saying this. while the jinn [enjoyed] mankind’s obedience to them. He. Knowing. is also read as yassā‘ad: in both [forms] the original tā’ has been assimilated with the sād. just as We let the rebels from among mankind and jinn enjoy one another. ‘constricted’. like this making [of the breast narrow]. or [by ‘messengers’ if the jinn are meant] those messengers among the jinn who are their warners. will say. God casts ignominy. that is. and whomever He. ‘what’. mention. is the path of your Lord. the ones who listen to the speech of the [human] messengers and convey it to their kind — to recount to you My signs and to warn you of the encounter of this Day of yours?’ They shall say. So. ‘straight’. 37:68]. and it will be said to them: ‘O assembly of jinn. exalted be He. with their Lord. in His actions. God. by the tongues of the angels: ‘The Fire is your lodging. that is. shall gather them (yahshuruhum. ‘Our Lord. [6:125] Whomever God desires to guide. O Muhammad (s). [unable] to accept it. a straight one.

‘their children’. and leave whom He will. that which you are promised. of His creatures and their worship. will not find happiness. ‘it has been adorned’]. saying. will not prosper’. but He has spared you. [who shall have] the praiseworthy sequel in the abode of the Hereafter: will it be us or yourselves? Surely the evildoers. will surely come to pass. with qatlu. assign to God. says: So that which is intended for their associates does not reach God. just as He produced you from the seed of another folk. according to my circumstances. which they dispense to such keepers [of the tillage and cattle]. sending of the messengers. is read in the nominative as the subject of the verb zayyana. that is. ‘God is Independent [and is not in need] of this’. in the same way that what is mentioned was adorned for them. Evil is that. not having had any Messenger to make [things] clear to them. [6:133] Your Lord is Independent. thus [read as] li-annahu. inevitably. [6:131] That. ‘you do’). [phonetically] lightened.against ourselves’. with the lām [of li-annahu] implied. ‘This is for God’ — so they assert (read bi-za‘mihim or bi-zu‘mihim) — ‘and this is for our associates’: and if any of the portion of these [associates] fell into God’s portion. [6:134] Truly. exalted be He. of creatures. according to what they have done. If He will. an alternative reading has the passive [zuyyina. of the Hour and chastisement. and so they did not believe. shall have degrees. O people of Mecca. they used to restore it [to that of their associates]. ‘those associates of theirs’. awlādahum. to them: ‘O my people. by burying them alive (shurakā’uhum. of good or evil. ‘because’) your Lord would never destroy the towns through injustice. and the cattle which He multiplied. of requital. God. [whom] He removed. [6:135] Say. as a mercy to you. the Lord of Mercy. the crops. truly I am acting. ‘the slaying’]. in the nominative [as the subject of this passive verb]. He created. those associates of theirs. says: And the life of this world deluded them. as God. the disbelievers. ‘adorned’. [6:136] They. and you cannot escape. and that which is intended for God does reach their associates. He can remove you. which they decree! [6:137] And thus. saying. that [all] this was conveyed to us. a portion. by destroying you. the disbelievers of Mecca. which they dispense to visitors and the needy. [you cannot] elude Our chastisement. in the accusative on account of it [being the direct object of qatlu. while their inhabitants were heedless. have adorned for many of the idolaters the slaying of their children. act according to your state. And assuredly you will know whose (man: the relative particle introducing the object of the verb ‘you will know’) sequel shall be the abode. your circumstances. to succeed after you. exalted be He. and shurakā’ihim in the genitive as an 151  . of the tillage. and to their associates belongs a portion. Your Lord is not heedless of what they do (ya‘malūna: may also be read ta‘malūna. of those who perform deeds. And they bear witness against themselves that they were disbelievers. they would leave it there. is because (an. ‘the slaying’. on their part. [6:132] All. but when something of His portion fell into theirs. provision of theirs. from among the jinn.

such as palm-trees. He produces. is a circumstantial qualifier) and unlike. for our males and forbidden to our spouses. fit to bear loads. in other words. the alms as appropriate. O 152  . so leave them and that which they fabricate. by giving it all away. with the appropriate requital thereof. cattle. He produces. Truly. and crops diverse in flavour. from among the retainers of the graven images and others — so they assert. Eat of the fruit thereof when it ripens. who overstep [the bounds of] that which He has delimited for them. [6:140] They are losers who slay (read qatalū or qattalū) their children. forging lies against Him. [this and] that as [either] permitted or forbidden. ascribing such [rules] to God. their religion for them. types (thamāniyata azwājin substitutes for hamūlatan wa-farshan. without knowledge. forbidden. his methods of forbidding [things] or deeming [them] lawful. He will assuredly requite them for what they used to fabricate. the camels [they call] Sā’ibas or Bahīras. gardens. God does not love the prodigal. will assuredly requite them for their describing. eat of that which God has provided you and do not follow the steps of Satan. and cannot therefore be ridden. [6:142] And. one whose enmity is evident. such as the large [mature] camels. [6:143] Eight pairs. in [terms of their] savour. such as young camels or sheep (such [cattle] are called farsh because they are like ‘bedding [farsh] spread on the ground’. God. palmtrees. and pay the due thereof. out of ignorance. so that nothing remains for [the consumption of] your dependants. that is. Verily they have gone astray and are not guided. creates. He. ‘some for burdens and some for light support’): two of sheep. rising upwards on a stem. No one is to eat of them except whom we will’. trellised. but if it be dead (read maytatun or maytatan. of His creatures. ‘That which is within the bellies of these. and untrellised. in His actions. Surely He is Wise. and pomegranates. invoking instead the names of their idols. that they may destroy them and to confuse. in calumny against God. by burying them alive. and olives. against Him. ‘These cattle and tillage are sacrosanct. as in the case of watermelons. and some for light support. Surely he is a manifest foe to you. a male and a female. extending along the ground. Had God willed. Say. one tenth or half of it. forbidden. and the verb as either feminine takun or masculine yakun. that is. in folly. Knowing. they would not have done so. of what has been mentioned. orchards. and of goats (read ma‘az or ma‘z) two. ‘alike’. and have forbidden what God has provided them. [6:138] They say. [diverse] in the shape and savour of its fruit and seed. such as the camels [they call] Sā’ibas or Hāmīs. in [terms of their] leaf (mutashābihan. the women. ‘their associates killing the children’] — this is acceptable [syntactically] — and the annexation of qatlu to shurakā’ihim [in this latter reading] is on account of them [the associates] commanding [the idolaters to do] this). is reserved. they have no [convincing] argument for it — ‘and cattle whose backs have been forbidden. namely. permitted. before its maturity [passes]. on account of their [physical] closeness to it). ‘if it be’) then they [all] may be partakers thereof’.annexation to qatlu. [6:139] And they say. alike. to make obscure. not fit for these [load-bearing tasks]. of the cattle some for burden. [6:141] And He it is Who produces. when they slaughter them. on the day of its harvest (read yawma hasādahu or yawma hasādihi). and. and do not be prodigal. and cattle over which they do not invoke the Name of God’. so that the object in this case intervenes between the two elements of the annexation [qatlu awlādahum shurakā’ihim.

on account of their wrongdoing. ‘it be’. that. says: So. and of oxen and sheep We forbade them the fat of them. or the flesh of swine — that indeed is an abomination. that he may lead mankind astray without any knowledge? Truly God does not guide evildoing folk’. which is the fat of the rump: these were lawful for them. until they tasted Our might. if you speak truly’. be they male or female? Inform Me with knowledge. our idolatry and our forbidding [of things] are by His will. We forbade every beast with hoof. our fathers. those who were before them gave the lie. present. We requited them. then all females are so [forbidden]. forbidden. of the details of such prohibitions. except it be. in what is revealed to me. of these two [types]. in the same way that these have lied. merely guessing’. then say. that is. to him for what he has consumed. [every animal] which does not have divided toes. Say: ‘Have you any knowledge. But whoever is constrained. God. and on another. that God is satisfied with this. their entrails. that is. such that you can adduce for us?. and then ascribe such [rules] to God: ‘Is it the two males. thereof. He has forbidden. [6:146] And to those of Jewry. then both genders are prohibited. does greater evil than he who invents a lie against God. the thin fat lining the stomach and the fat of the kidneys. of the sheep and goats. or what is mingled with bone. you. a wicked thing that has been hallowed to other than God. verily We are truthful. preceding it) or blood poured forth. in other words. that is. meaning: on what basis has the prohibition been made? If it is on the basis of maleness. save what their backs carry. in this matter. you have no such knowledge. anything forbidden to him who eats thereof except it be (read yakūn or takūn) carrion (maytatan. with. if on what the womb may contain. in this [matter]. or if read maytatun. the females thereof. or. it has been slaughtered in the name of someone else. that is. that is to say. [6:144] And of the camels two and of the oxen two. Our chastisement. [6:149] 153  . when God charged you with this?. 4:160]. for their insolence. what is carried by. [6:147] So. neither. Then who. on what basis are such specifications made? (the interrogative is meant as a repudiation). that is. and His might. to their prophets. flowing. [6:145] Say: ‘I do not find. telling lies therein. with regard to what you have brought. His chastisement. or. then with the form yakūn.Muhammad (s) to those who on one occasion deem male cattle forbidden. will never be driven back from the sinning folk’. So. nor would we have forbidden anything’. prohibition. what [fat] is attached to it. such that you use it to support your claims? Nay! You speak lies in this [matter]. such as camels and ostriches. to them: ‘Your Lord has all-embracing mercy. their intestines (hawāyā is the plural of hāwiyā’ or hāwiya). to do any of what has been mentioned. ‘Had God willed. the Jews. Merciful’. we would not have been idolaters. or that which the wombs of the two females contain. and so He must be satisfied with it. exalted be He. in [recounting] Our tidings and Our appointed times. as opposed to [the case of] a liver or a spleen. then surely your Lord is Forgiving. in this [matter]. if on the basis of femaleness. none. Say: ‘Is it the two males He has forbidden or the two females? Or what the wombs of the two females contain? Or were you witnesses. or the two females. if they deny you. neither coveting nor transgressing. prohibition. You follow only supposition. when it comes. as already mentioned in sūrat al-Nisā’ [Q. we [nor]. then all males are forbidden. towards him. and he consumes it. [6:148] The idolaters will say. for He does not hasten [to bring about] your punishment — herein is a gentle summoning of them to the faith. To these [prohibited things] the Sunna adds all beasts of prey with canine teeth and birds [of prey] with talons.

And give full measure and full weight. This. or inna. for him who does good. with lām [of li-anna. which is fairer. so follow it. reflect. as in the case of retaliation. [6:153] And that (read anna. grave sins. [acts committed] overtly or in secret. which you have forbidden. and God knows that his intention had been well-meaning. bring forth. We do not charge any soul beyond its capacity. lest you should say. that you may fear — We will provide for you and them — and that you do not draw near any acts of lewdness. those who do not believe in the Hereafter and ascribe equals to their Lord. and that you do not slay the life which God has made sacred. ‘straight’. when he is sexually mature. should be a kinsman. do not bear witness with them. [6:152] And that you do not approach the property of the orphan save with that. by being truthful. paths opposed to it. [6:151] Say: ‘Come. [6:154] Then (thumma is for [describing events in a] sequence) We gave Moses the Scripture. by observing it. that perhaps they. [to pass] a judgement or otherwise. desisting from any fraud. and that you do not slay your children. This is what He has charged you with. and do not follow the whims of those who deny Our signs. as is stated in one hadīth. whether it be manifest or concealed. is a circumstantial qualifier). Then if they testify. His religion. [6:156] We have revealed it. which is mentioned. And if you speak. and a detailing. of all things. [6:155] And this. in justice. that is. those who can testify that God has forbidden this’. that perhaps you will remember (read tadhakkarūn or tadhkurūn). then: ‘To God belongs the conclusive argument. ‘because’] being implied. until he is of age. ‘The Scripture was revealed only upon two parties — the Jews and 154  . Qur’ān. except rightfully. that you be dutiful to parents.Say. if you have no definitive argument. is a blessed Book which We have revealed. as beginning a new sentence) this. destitution. through the Resurrection. because of poverty. associating others [with Him]. needed for religion. that perhaps you might find mercy. the Children of Israel. and do not follow other ways. that perhaps you will be God-fearing’. to guide you. so that if one makes a mistake in a measure or weight. that I have charged you with. then be just. complete. so follow it. This is what He has ordained for you. in grace. for had He willed. you will be admonished. and as a guidance and a mercy. what it can bear in such [matters]. O people of Mecca. that is. He could have guided all of you’. is My straight path (mustaqīman. the perfect [one]. an explanation. away from His way. might believe in the encounter with their Lord. I will recite that which your Lord has made a sacred duty for you: that (allā: [consisting of anlā] an being explicative) you associate nothing with Him. And fulfil God’s covenant. even if he. your witnesses. the Torah. such as fornication. approach. then he suffers no blame. namely. the person receiving the statement or the one being accused in it. is what He has charged you with. by implementing what is in it. and the stoning of an adulterer. by burying them alive. or [as] the prescribed punishment for apostasy. [6:150] Say: ‘Come. the one wherein lie his best interests. lest it separate you (tafarraqa: one of the two letters tā’ [of the original tatafarraqa] has been omitted) make you incline. and be wary. fairly. that perhaps you will understand. of disbelief.

and have become differing parties. in these things. as [stated] in the hadīth [corpus]. And to this. not knowing any of it. a soul which had not [until then]. a hanīf. 155  . and my living. affirmation of the Oneness [of God]. [6:159] Those who have sundered their religion. [6:158] Are they waiting — the deniers are indeed waiting — for nothing less than that the angels should come to them (read ta’tīyahum or ya’tīyahum). nothing shall be diminished from their [just] requital. the reward for ten good deeds. [6:161] Say: ‘As for me. that is to say. that is. some [act of] obedience. you have no concern with them at all. their reading [of the scripture]. its [appropriate] requital. and he was not of the idolaters’. and they are the Jews and the Christians). and they shall not be wronged. in other words [read as] innā) indeed have been unacquainted with their study’. earned in its belief some good. by being at variance over it. since it is not in our own language. We too are waiting’.the Christians — before us and we (in has been softened. does greater evil than he who denies God’s signs and turns away from them? We shall surely requite those who turn away from Our signs with dreadful. that is. a [clear] statement. meaning that they have abandoned the religion to which they were enjoined. an upright [one]. shall receive tenfold the like of it. those portents of His that indicate [the arrival of] the Hour? On the day that one of your Lord’s signs comes — and this is the rising of the sun from the west. has come to you from your Lord. that is. that is. ‘they have sundered’] has fāraqū. the Lord of the Worlds. do not be concerned with them. and my dying. Say: ‘Wait. my death. to seize their souls. my life. my devotions. Now indeed a clear proof. the creed of Abraham. [6:162] Say: ‘My prayer and my rituals. and whoever brings an evil deed shall only be requited the like of it. its noun omitted. dīnan qiyaman]) a right religion. that is. Their case will go to God — He will take charge of it — then He will inform them. or that your Lord. my Lord has guided me to a straight path (ilā sirātin mustaqīm is substituted by [the following. I have been commanded. the most severe. and I am the first of those who submit’. [6:163] No associate has He. for it. in the way of pilgrimage and otherwise. in the Hereafter. [the affirmation of] ‘there is no god but God’. as reported in the hadīth of the two Sahīhs [of Bukhārī and Muslim] — it shall not benefit a soul to believe if it had not believed theretofore (lam takun āmanat min qabl is an adjectival qualification of nafs. should come. sects with regard to such [matters] (a variant reading [for farraqū. that is. of what they used to do. we would have surely been more rightly guided than they are’. ‘If the Scripture had been revealed to us. from among this community. [6:160] Whoever brings a good deed. are all for God. because of the excellence of our minds. accepting some [aspects] of it and rejecting others. 9:5]. for him who follows it. and a guidance and a mercy. and requite them for it: this was abrogated by the ‘sword’ verse [Q. none. and who. meaning His chastisement. chastisement for their aversion. for one of these things. [6:157] Or lest you should say. ‘a soul’) or. in other words. its repentance shall be of no benefit to it. or that one of your Lord’s signs should come?. His command.

merely emphasising the ‘littleness’). came upon it at night or while they slept at noon (qā’ilūn: al-qaylūla is a rest taken halfway during the day. [no] constraint. in your breast because of it. ‘[it is revealed] for [the purposes of] warning’) and as a reminder for those who believe. ‘is revealed’. to them. God. and to what extent they implemented that which was 156  . ‘We have destroyed’]) a city. Meccan. exalted be He. Then to your Lord shall you return. in other words. of those who disobey Him. in other words. have We willed its destruction! So Our might. their [only] words. in order to manifest the obedient among you and the disobedient. [do not] take. and do not follow. and was revealed after [sūrat] Sād. [6:165] And He it is Who has made you successors (khalā’if is the plural of khalīfa). in the earth and has raised some of you above others in degrees. except for verses 163-170 inclusive. in other words. [no] sinful. [7:2] This is. of sin. a Book that is revealed to you — addressing the Prophet (s) — so let there be no inhibition. ‘that you may warn’. [He has made you] to succeed one another therein. that is. ‘little’] is extra. meaning its inhabitants. the mā [of qalīlan mā. is semantically connected to unzila. soul shall bear the burden of another. the Possessor. in it. even if it does not involve sleep). through wealth and status and otherwise. and surely He is Forgiving. beside Him. soul. of all things?’ Every soul earns. when Our might came upon them. for a god. [7:3] Say to them: Follow what has been revealed to you from your Lord. only against itself. that He may test you. [We shall question those] communities. the Qur’ān. [7:6] Then verily We shall question those to whom the Message was sent. I shall not seek any other than Him. when He is the Lord. [7:4] How many (kam is predicative and is the direct object [of the main verb. the original tā’ [of tatadhakkarūn] has been assimilated with the dhāl. namely. Our chastisement. was to say. Surely your Lord is swift in punishment. and no burdened. ‘[little] are you or they admonished’. any patrons. that is to say. sometimes it came upon it at night. namely. a variant reading has tadhkurūn. have We destroyed. (Al-A‘râf) [7:1] Alif Lām Mīm Sād: God knows best what He means by these [letters]. Merciful. which are Medinese: it consists of 205 or 206 verses. to believers. other than Him. obeying them in disobedience of Him.[6:164] Say: ‘Shall I seek any other than God for a lord. Little do you remember (read tadhakkarūn or yadhakkarūn. and sometimes it came during the day. to convey it — for fear that you might be called a liar — that you may warn thereby (li-tundhira. and He will inform you of that over which you differed. in what He has given you. about their response to the messengers. ahlaknāhā. [7:5] And their only plea. in other words. ‘We were evildoers indeed’. so that He may try you.

out of it! Surely you are among the abased!’. until the day of an appointed time [Q. by causing them to travel towards the Fire. ‘the weighing’). ‘What prevented you from falling prostrate (allā is [made up of] an-lā. [7:8] The weighing. people. then said to the angels: ‘Prostrate yourselves before Adam!’. As for those whose scales are heavy. about the conveying [of that Message]. until the day when they. in the earth. We shaped him with you [deposited] in his back. is an adjectival qualification of al-wazn. [7:9] And as for those whose scales are light. that is. on the day of the questioning mentioned. because they mistreated. We shall inform them. a prostration that is a bow of salutation. Our signs. [7:16] 157  . exalted be He. of deeds or of the scrolls of these [deeds] shall be — in a balance that has a tongue and two palms [as scales]. [7:12] He. and have appointed for you therein livelihoods (ma‘āyish is the plural of ma‘īsha). that is. from the Garden — it is also said. You created me from fire. those are the ones who have lost their souls. the Day of Resurrection. for this. 38:81]. the contemptible! [7:14] Said he. as reported in a hadīth — on that day. all save Iblīs. because of evil deeds. that is. the lā being extra) when I commanded you?’ He [Iblīs] said. ‘Lo! You are of those reprieved’ — in another verse. the true [weighing]. [go down] from the heavens — it is not. ‘the true’. postpone my affair. the father of the jinn. it is said. the means by which you [are able to] subsist. your father Adam. of what they did. they are the successful. and We shall question the messengers. with [previous] knowledge. [until] the time of the first blast [of the Trumpet]. said. while him You created from clay’. with good deeds. O Children of Adam. are resurrected’. that is. for you to show pride here. little (qalīlan mā: mā is to emphasise the ‘littleness’) thanks you show. the triumphant. then shaped you.conveyed to them. ‘Then go down from it. ‘I am better than him. namely. [7:15] Said He. [7:13] Said He. that is. [7:10] And We have given you power. [7:7] And We shall narrate to them with knowledge. [7:11] And We created you. So they fell prostrate. who was among the angels — he was not of those who make prostration. they [knowingly] denied. so go forth. the fair [weighing] (al-haqq. nor [were We absent] during the time of bygone communities and what they did. ‘Reprieve me. for verily We were not absent. that is. right. when the messengers were conveying [the Message].

exalted be He’. 20:120]. lest he come between the servant and the mercy of God. and when they tasted of the tree. but do not come near this tree. [7:23] They said. of people. ‘Our Lord. degraded (read madh’ūman) disgraced or despised. he cannot come upon them from above. believing. on his part. because You have sent me astray (fa-bi-mā aghwaytanī means bi-ighwā’ik. with you. in other words. on the path that leads to You. and say to you. dwell. in this matter. ‘O Adam. that is. [7:22] Thus did he lead them on. to them that which was hidden (wūriya: based on [the verbal form] fū‘ila and [derives] from [the infinitive] al-muwārā) to them of their shameful parts. “Verily Satan is a manifest enemy to you”?’. one whose enmity is evident? (the interrogative is meant as an affirmative). and prevent them from following it [that path]. by delusion. ‘However. ‘as for those who’: the lām is for inceptiveness. ‘for Your sending me astray’: the bā’ is for oaths. [when] they ate of it. their shameful parts were manifested to them. as [is stated] in another verse: Shall I guide you to the Tree of Immortality and a kingdom that does not waste away? [Q. that is. that is. who follow you (la-man. Iblīs. And he said. whispered to them that he might manifest. that is. that is the necessary consequence of eating from it. ‘Now. on Your straight path. As for those of them. by our act of disobedience. to cover themselves up therewith. in the Garden. He said. they began to stick. and eat from whence you will. [thus] did he debase them in their status. ‘Your Lord prohibited you from this tree only. you (anta: this is reiterated in order to emphasise the subject of the verb uskun. removed from mercy. ‘Go forth from it. that is. [7:20] Then Satan. in aversion. or it is for introducing the oath. ‘whoever follows you. from every side. that is to say. ‘who’: in other words. he swore to both of them by God. ‘dwell’.Said he. that is. for the Children of Adam. and with people — herein [in this address] those present have predominance over those absent (this [last] sentence [of the verse] expresses the sense of ‘the requital’ [suggested] in the conditional man. we shall surely be among the lost’. I am a sincere adviser to you’. because its exposure ‘shames’ (yasū’u) that person — and they began to piece together. the front [private part] of each was revealed to the other. 158  . [7:19] And. and if You do not forgive us and have mercy on us. and the response of the oath is [the following]) verily I shall sit in ambush for them. And their Lord called them: ‘Did I not prohibit you from this tree. then I shall punish him’). and to supplement to it [what follows]) and your wife. And You will not find most of them thankful’. ‘Truly. [7:17] Then I shall come upon them from before them and from behind them and from their right and from their left. to eat of it — and this was wheat — lest you become evildoers’. reveal. [7:18] Said He. through your seed. Ibn ‘Abbās said. ‘shameful’. [7:21] And he swore to both of them. which is [the following]) I shall assuredly fill Hell with all of you’. we have wronged ourselves. onto themselves some of the leaves of the Garden. as well as their behinds — each of these parts is called saw’a. Eve (read Hawwā’). and banished. lest you become angels (malakayn may also be read malikayn) or become immortals’.

lead you astray. your shameful parts. or circumambulating the [Sacred] House naked. ‘justice’. that is. devoting your religion to Him.[7:24] Said He. that is. [it is as if] He said. fairness. or read as libāsu’l-tawqā as the subject. and so we followed their example. [7:29] Say: ‘My Lord enjoins justice. such as idolatry. you shall live. and think that they are guided’. [on] earth. and call upon Him. [until] your terms [of life] are fulfilled. the predicate of which is the [following] sentence) that is best. [7:27] O Children of Adam! Let not Satan tempt you. that is. ‘the garment of Godfearing’. performing your prostrations purely for Him. from where you do not see them — because of their ethereal bodies or their being colourless. an enemy to the other. Surely he. ‘a garment’. his army. saying. and believe (the address shifts from the second [to the third] person). he and his tribe. ‘We cannot perform the circumambulations wearing clothes in which we were disobedient to God’ — and so they forbade this [wearing of clothes] — they say. while another party has deserved to go astray — they have taken devils as patrons instead of God. of you. Do you say concerning God that which you do not know?’. each of you. as he caused your parents to go forth from the Garden. in every place of worship. enjoined it on us’. ‘so turn’ towards it) your faces. sees you. to them: ‘God does not enjoin indecency. that He has said? (the interrogative is meant as a repudiation). [7:26] O Children of Adam! We have sent down on you a garment. Satan. ‘Go down. through the Resurrection (read active takhrujūn. [7:31] 159  . and the garment of God-fearing. and feathers. that is. [7:28] And when they commit any indecency. as a supplement to the preceding libāsan. to cover up. with all those you comprise of your seed. so you will return. [free] of any idolatry. each seed. And set (wa-aqīmū is a supplement to the [syntactical] significance of bi’l-qist. righteous deeds and virtuous traits (read as libāsa’l-taqwā. that is to say. [7:25] Said He. that is one of God’s signs. [so] He will bring you back to life on the Day of Resurrection. Say. As He brought you into being. He has guided. ‘you shall be brought forth’). other than Him. We have created it for you. helpers and companions. by tempting them. Adam and Eve. lest you fall into temptation. to conceal. or read [wa-aqīmū] with an implied fa-aqbilū. the proofs of His power. and from there you shall be brought forth’. ‘you shall come forth’. [7:30] A party. when you were nothing. do not follow him. towards God. perhaps they will remember. of those who do not believe. also. that is. or passive tukhrajūn. meaning all that one adorns oneself with of garments. ‘We found our fathers practising it. There will be for you on earth an abode. that is. ‘There. stripping (yanzi‘u is a circumstantial qualifier) them of their garments to manifest to them their shameful parts. and enjoyment for a while’. on account of the wrong each does to the another. ‘Be just and set [your faces]’. worship Him. and there you shall die. We have made the devils friends. and God has. a place of settlement. [as] He created you.

communities of jinn and mankind who passed away before you’ (fī’l-nār. narrating to you My signs. in the way of provision. [7:34] Every community has a term. at every place of worship.O Children of Adam! Don your adornment. [7:35] O Children of Adam! If (immā: the nūn of the conditional particle in has been assimilated with the extra mā) there should come to you messengers from among you. [who] reflect. will say. exalted be He. the act of disobedience. ‘into the Fire’. so give them a double 160  . that they were disbelievers. against people. Every time a community enters. it curses its sister-community. of what has been inscribed as theirs in the Preserved Tablet (al-lawh al-mahfūz). those whom they revered and followed: ‘Our Lord. at prayer and at the circumambulation. term [of life] and other matters. such of them as are apparent and such as are hidden. He truly does not love those who are excessive. [7:38] He. until. abiding therein. and that you say concerning God that which you do not know’. and sin. to take their souls. even if others should share it with them. and the good things. and so we cannot see them. not believing in them — those shall be the inhabitants of the Fire. for a people who know’. ‘They have gone astray from us’. those who were the followers. caught up with. that is. shall reach them until. by ascribing to Him a partner or a child. such as fornication. the last of them. in reprimand: ‘Where is that which you were calling upon. the angels. We explain them in such detail. on the Day of Resurrection. come to them. When their term comes they shall not delay it a single hour nor bring it forward. grave sins. when they have all followed. in disavowal of them. any definitive proof for such association. of the Scripture. or khālisatan as a circumstantial qualifier) for those who believed during the life of this world. because of its having gone astray on account of it. on the Day of Resurrection: ‘Enter into the Fire among. or denies His signs?. and they will bear witness against themselves. upon death. the Fire. worshipping. for they are the ones to profit from these [signs]. shall be exclusively (read khālisatun meaning ‘exclusively theirs’. and that you associate with God that for which He never revealed any warrant. associating others with God. [7:33] Say: ‘My Lord forbids only indecencies. they are not present [before us]. the delicious foods. but do not be excessive. the number of. what you want. their lot. of [God’s] sustenance?’ Say: ‘These. the overt ones and the secret ones. ‘Who has forbidden the adornment of God which He has brought forth for His servants. deservedly. and eat and drink. beside God?’ They will say. [7:37] And who — that is. and wrongful insolence. the Qur’ān. in his actions — no fear shall befall them. that which covers your nakedness. namely. they say. [7:36] And those who deny Our signs and scorn them. none — does greater evil than he who invents a lie against God. neither shall they grieve. oppression. Those — their portion. then whoever fears. and makes amends. in the Hereafter. in the way of forbidding what He has not forbidden and other things. when Our messengers. is semantically connected to udkhulū. a [finite] period of time. to them. Thus We detail the signs. these led us astray. one another there. to them. shall say to the first of them. in the way of garments. ‘enter’). [the one] that came before it. [7:32] Say.

that is. in the way of reward. [7:39] And the first of them shall say to the last of them. which your Lord promised. to be true. you have inherited it for what you used to do’. or ya‘lamūn. chastisement. not believing in them. [all] spite that existed between them in the world. they seek the way that is. [7:44] And the inhabitants of Paradise will call to the inhabitants of the Fire. what will be for each party. the reward of which is this [Paradise]. beneath their palaces. So. between both parties. ‘if … not’ is omitted. and they will say. and over them coverings. alternatively. and so is their entry [into Paradise]. that is. when their spirits are carried up to it after death. which is impossible. ‘You have no advantage over us.’ He. exalted be He. through disbelief. God. chastisement. [7:40] Those who deny Our signs and scorn them. and beneath them. a caller. for we would surely never have been guided if God had not guided us (the response to the [conditional] law lā. either in affirmation or in reprimand: ‘We have found that which our Lord promised us. flow rivers. which is [the following]) those are the inhabitants of Paradise. for instead they are taken down into Sijjīn [cf. exalted be He. from God’s way. to be true?’ They will say: ‘Yes!’ And then a crier. [understand it as] annahu. [7:42] And those who believe and perform righteous deeds (wa’lladhīna āmanū wa-‘amilū’l-sālihāti is the subject) We do not charge any soul beyond its scope. have you found that. Verily the messengers of our Lord did bring the truth. shall proclaim between them. We requite those who are sinful. [7:46] 161  . and his spirit is carried up into the seventh heaven. once they have settled in their dwellings: ‘Praise be to God. crooked. Who guided us to this. ‘We do not charge any soul beyond its scope’. says to them: So taste the chastisement for what you used to earn’. [7:43] We shall strip away all rancour. desiring it. disbelieving in the Hereafter’. abiding therein. will be a double. its capacity for action (lā nukallifu nafsan illā wus‘ahā. indeed the gates of heaven shall not be opened for them. Q. [7:41] Hell shall be their bed. of fire (ghawāshin is the plural of ghāshiya and its nunation compensates for the omitted yā’). 83:7f. as is stated in one hadīth — nor shall they enter Paradise until the camel passes through the eye of the needle. for whom the gates are opened.’ And it is cried to them: (an is read softened.chastisement of the Fire. constitutes a parenthetical statement. with this requital. of you and them. [from] His religion. will say. but you do not know’ (read ta‘lamūn. action. Thus do We requite the evildoers. [7:45] who bar. making them hear that: ‘God’s curse is on the evildoers. since you did not disbelieve because of us: you and we are equal [in this predicament]. ‘they [do not] know’). intervening between it [the above subject] and its predicate. that is in their breasts. because it is indicated by the preceding [clause]). you. ‘For each.] — in contrast to the believer. it is an explicative particle in all five places [here and the four to follow]) ‘This is your Paradise. people.

He has prohibited. by their mark — glowing faces in the case of the believers and blackened [ones] in the case of the disbelievers. nor shall you grieve’] is a circumstantial qualifier. the negation clause [‘no fear shall come upon you. and on the Heights. have not entered it. [7:50] And the inhabitants of the Fire call out to the inhabitants of Paradise [saying]: ‘Pour on us some water. or your multitude. they shall say. ‘While they are in this situation. the consequences of what is in it? 162  . that is. said to be the wall of the Heights. which We have detailed. [7:52] And indeed We have brought them. the wall of Paradise.’ [7:47] And when their eyes. God appears to them and says “Get up and enter Paradise. ‘Enter Paradise. [as protection against] the Fire. And they also say to them. with knowledge (‘alā ‘ilmin is a circumstantial qualifier. of property. ‘which We have detailed’]) and a mercy for a people who believe. ‘enter’ (imperative. ‘knowing what has been detailed in it’). second person plural)] has the passive udkhilū.’ Therefore today We have forgotten them. which God has provided you!’ They say: ‘God has forbidden. both to the disbelievers. from among the inhabitants of the Fire. their position being high — and they call to the inhabitants of Paradise: ‘Peace be upon you!’ God. who know each. and your haughtiness. ‘God causes them to have this aspiration only because He desires to be generous to them’. ‘they have been admitted’. pointing to those [formerly] oppressed Muslims: [7:49] Are these the ones of whom you swore that God would never grant them mercy?’: it has already been said to them. whom they know by their mark. Paradise. We have left them in the Fire. although they aspire. whose good deeds and evil deeds are equal. [7:51] those who took their religion for a diversion and a game. for I have forgiven you”. your disdaining of belief. do not assign us. a Book. to enter it. as [is stated] in the hadīth. [saying]: ‘Your masses. just as they forgot the encounter of this day of theirs.And between them. al-Yamān] said. [7:48] And those of the Heights call to men. those of the men of the Heights. are men. food. a barrier. of the inhabitants of Paradise and those of the Fire. Al-Hākim reported that Hudhayfa [b. a guidance (hudan is [also] a circumstantial qualifier referring to the hā’ [the suffixed pronoun of fassālnā-hu. [7:53] Are they waiting — they are not waiting — for anything but its fulfilment. exalted be He. have not availed you. in other words. no fear shall come upon you. that is. to the Fire. is a veil. [between] the inhabitants of Paradise and those of the Fire. in the direction of. Al-Hasan [al-Basrī] said. and because they used to deny Our signs. when they neglected to perform [good] deeds for it. the people of Mecca. nor shall you grieve’ (a variant reading [for udkhulū. says: They. the inhabitants of the Fire. those men of the Heights. and whom the life of this world has deluded. in it. ‘they entered’. in other words. or some of that. the Qur’ān. that is. ‘Our Lord. [which] We have made clear through tidings and the Promise [of reward] and the Threat [of punishment]. with the evildoing folk’. that is. are turned towards. which is. [they enter Paradise] while this is being said to them). or dakhalū. for they are able to see them.

We lead it. ‘[with which] He is bearing good tidings [of His mercy]’. one devoid of any vegetation. wholesomely. While as for the.On the day when its fulfilment comes. the winds. be God. as We have made clear what has been mentioned. bad — the vegetation in. the Master. through idolatry and acts of disobedience. [7:56] And work not corruption in the land. its vegetation comes forth. [We lead it there] in order to revive it. to God and so believe. all. It will then be said to them. and in hope. it comes forth only miserably. ‘the heavens’. Like that. creation and the command. that is. Verily. the predicate of which follows) have been made subservient. bear heavy clouds. of His punishment. ‘mercy’. [7:58] As for the good land. and a third variant has bushran. that we may act otherwise than we used to act?’. by this water. in the equivalent thereof. is in the masculine because it [rahma] is annexed to Allāh. [We lead] the clouds (herein is a shift from the third [to the first] person). but the reason for His not having done so is that He wanted to teach His creatures to be circumspect. Blessed. after it has been set right. then they constitute the subject of the sentence. and then We send down thereon. and if in the nominative. in alleging [that God has] a partner. in its entirety. he [heeds it and] benefits from it. ‘messenger’. and that which they used to invent. when they. Had He willed He could have created them in an instant. on that land. them. shall say. in other words. of the days of this world. the obedient (qarīb. [and instead] affirm God’s Oneness and refrain from associating others with Him. who are braggarts and loud-mouthed in [their] supplications. and call upon Him in fear. another reading has nashran as the verbal noun. ‘No!’ God. in subservience. then presided upon the Throne. bringing forth. Magnified. unfolding with His mercy. for they have ended up in perdition. the singular of the last is bashīr) until. of His mercy — surely the mercy of God is near to the virtuous. and believe. ‘Indeed. laboriously and with difficulty — this is the similitude of the disbeliever. similar [in pattern] to rasūl. dispersing before the rains (a variant reading [for nushuran. as the predicate of [the feminine noun] rahma. since there was no sun then. He cloaks (read yughshī or yughashshī) the night with the day. or shall we be returned. in secret. by His power. ‘near’. that is to say. from their graves. that is. ‘unfolding’] has nushran. that they may intercede for us. the one of rich soil. the signs for a people who are thankful. has failed. by permission of its Lord — this is a similitude of the believer who. ‘throne’. our Lord’s messengers came with the truth. meaning mubashshiran. one whose soil is. fruits of every kind. and bring forth thereby. which will be [on] the Day of Resurrection. He covers each one with the other: each following the other in swift pursuit — and the sun and the moon and the stars (if all of these are read in the accusative. and quietly. a presiding befitting of Him (al-‘arsh. to the world. then they constitute a supplement to al-samāwāt. [have been] subdued. as a result of the sending forth of messengers [to it]. He loves not the aggressors. the singular of the first reading is nashūr. so We dispense. in the [classical] language is the elevated seat on which a king sits). [7:54] Surely your Lord is God. by His command. [those who] neglected to believe in it. exalted be He. says: Verily they have lost their souls. has abandoned. those who were forgetful of it before. [7:59] 163  . [7:57] He it is Who sends the winds. so that you might remember. Who created the heavens and the earth in six days. when he hears an admonition. We make clear. Truly. Even. [clouds heavy] with rain. through revivification. ‘God’). of the Worlds! [7:55] Call upon your Lord humbly (tadarru‘an is a circumstantial qualifier). His is. Have we then any intercessors. that is. We shall bring forth the dead. the Lord. to a dead land.

that he may warn you? And remember when He made you vicegerents. said: ‘Truly We see you in manifest error’. ‘misguidance’. ‘My people. and increased your stature in extension. [7:61] He said. ‘O my people. from your Lord should come to you through. I fear for you. instead of min ilāhin. to. ‘any god’). ‘O my people.Verily (laqad is the response to an oath that has been omitted) We sent Noah to his people. [7:69] Or do you marvel that a reminder from your Lord should come to you through. and I am your truthful adviser. trustworthy in the Message [I convey]. deny. Truly. [7:60] The council. worship God! You have no god other than Him (read ghayrihi as an adjective of ilāh. but I am a messenger from the Lord of the Worlds. and so to deny it is more effective than to deny the latter). a man from among you. the earlier. on earth. an admonition. those of his people who disbelieved. the tongue of. and that you might be shown mercy’. He said. said: ‘We truly see you in folly. [7:62] I convey to you (read ublighkum or uballighukum) the Messages of my Lord. the tongue of. in the Ark. and We drowned those who denied Our signs. [7:67] He said. affirm His Oneness! You have no god other than Him. will you [not] fear Him. the Day of Resurrection. of chastisement if you do not believe. Truly they were a people blind. to the truth. or ghayruhu as a substitution in its place [sc. and I am advising you. there is no folly in me. God. marvel that a reminder. We sent. [in] the ship. ‘god’. ignorance. a man from among you. the chastisement of an Awful Day’. ‘Ād their brother Hūd. worship God. ‘O my people. in strength and in height — (the tallest of them 164  . that he may warn you. if you worship other than Him. and we truly deem you of the liars’. but I am a messenger from the Lord of the Worlds. for I know from God what you know not. in your Message. of his people. [7:63] Do you then. I desire good [for you]. [7:68] I convey to you the Messages of my Lord. by it? [7:64] But they denied him. of the respected elders. that is. from drowning. and he said. after the people of Noah. and so We delivered him and those with him. there is no error in me (dalāla is more general than al-dalāl. and that you may fear. and so believe? [7:66] The council. Will you not fear?’. by means of the Flood. [7:65] And.

with which you. ‘Yes! Truly we believe in the Message with which he has been sent. [7:73] And. worship God! You have no god other than Him. an illustration. ‘Already. if you are of the truthful’. Truly there has come to you a clear proof. either by hamstringing or beating her. have named idols that you worship. and hewing its mountains into houses. what our fathers worshipped? Then bring upon us what you promised us. on account of your denial of me: thus a blighting wind was unleashed against them [cf. from his Lord?’ They said. God has not revealed any warrant?. to Thamūd (Thamūda. and wrath from your Lord have fallen. a sign for you (lakum āyatan is a circumstantial qualifier operated by the import of the demonstrative noun [hādhihi. ‘to those who were oppressed’]. people. We sent. this is the she-camel of God. by a mercy from Us. [7:71] He said. for that. 60). from your Lord. on you. of my truthfulness.measured 100 feet. and do not touch her with harm. terror. 51:4]. ‘O my people. from among the believers. ‘to such of them as believed’. [7:72] So We delivered him. and were not believers (wa-mā kānū mu’minīna is a supplement to kadhdhabū. that is. to you. Q. read without declining [the noun]. [who] disdained belief in him. that is. repeating the preposition [li-. who denied Our signs. and those with him. namely. in which you lodge during summer. that is. in which you lodge during winter (buyūtan. is in the accusative because of the implied circumstantial qualifier). seeking corruption’. So remember God’s bounties and do not be degenerate in the earth. triumph. and gave you habitations in the land. So leave her to feed throughout God’s earth. after ‘Ād. as denoting the tribe [of Thamūd] itself) their brother Sālih. another. ‘to’]): ‘Are you aware that Sālih has been sent. His graces. He said. [7:75] Said the council of those of his people who waxed proud. that is. any definitive argument or proof? Then await. ‘Truly we are disbelievers of that which you believe!’ [7:77] The she-camel was given the water one day and then. abandon. from among his people (li-man āmana minhum. and forsake. for which. ‘houses’. is a substitution for the preceding clause [li’lladhīna istud‘ifū. chastisement. [they] must be [sent down]. to those who were oppressed. ‘this’]). [7:70] They said. Remember then God’s bounties. so that you might prosper’. ‘Have you come to us that we should worship God alone. the shortest. for the worship of which. the chastisement. Do you dispute with me concerning names which you have named. ‘[those who] denied’). making castles in its plains. Hūd. Truly I shall be with you waiting’. on earth.’ [7:76] Said the ones who were proud. We extirpated them. lest you be seized by a painful chastisement. of chastisement. in what you say. but they soon tired of this: So they 165  . [7:74] And remember how He made you vicegerents. they had asked him to make it come out of a [specific] rock which they had designated. you and your fathers. to such of them as believed. and We cut the root of those.

‘indeed you … ’) come lustfully to men instead of women? Nay. and they lay lifeless prostrate in their habitations. and barring. Verily there has come to you a clear proof. be crooked.hamstrung the she-camel — Qudār hamstrung her by their command. [7:83] So We delivered him and his family. [every] route. worship God! You have no god other than Him. those who believe in Him — when you threaten to kill them — and desiring that it. from [the abomination of penetrating] the rears of men. driving away. Surely they are folk who would be pure!’. ‘O my people. dead. is better for you. seized them. in the way of chastisement for [our] killing it. [penetrating] the rears of men. a violent earthquake and a cry from the heaven. [7:80] And. people’s goods. idh qāla]) when he said to his people. from your Lord. to [prove] my truthfulness. if you are indeed a messenger’. pronouncing both hamzas. diminish [the value of]. but you do not love sincere advisers’. ‘Expel them. [from] His religion. through the sending of messengers [thereto]. 166  . mention. from your city. except his wife: she was of those who stayed behind. to Midian their brother Shu‘ayb. a variant reading has innakum. transgressing [the bounds]. So behold what was the end of the sinners! [7:85] And. That. humans or jinn? [7:81] Do you (read a-innakum. [7:79] So he turned his back on them. such as no one in all the worlds ever committed before you. that is. and said. He said. [7:82] And the response of his people was only that they said. but in both cases inserting an alif between the two. by way of unbelief and acts of disobedience. so hasten to it. Sālih left [them]. Lot (Lūtan is substituted by [the following. or by not pronouncing the second one. a miracle. [if you are] seekers of faith. if you are believers. So give full measure and weight and do not defraud. or by charging them excise [tax]. terrifying people by seizing their garments. [7:86] And do not sit in every path. ‘O my people. after it has been set right. who remained in the chastisement. We sent. mentioned. and do not work corruption in the earth. keeled over their knees. killing her with a sword — and flouted the commandment of their Lord. [going] from what is lawful to what is unlawful. that is. [7:78] So the Trembling. and said. threatening. bring upon us that which you promised us. from God’s way. Lūt and his followers. and it destroyed them. you are a wanton folk’. ‘Do you commit abomination. ‘O Sālih. I have conveyed to you the Message of my Lord and gave you sincere advice. seeking that the path. the stones of baked clay (hijārat al-sijjīl). [7:84] And We rained upon them a rain.

[7:94] And We did not send a prophet to any city but that. dead. before you. decide. to it? (the interrogative is meant as a disavowal). but you believe not: so why should I grieve for a disbelieving people?’ (the interrogative is meant [rhetorically] as a negation). its people with misery. the fairest of them. there. [never] had residence. and you. then be patient. between us and our people. O Shu‘ayb. our religion (the plural person predominates over the singular in their address [to Shu‘ayb] because Shu‘ayb was never part of their religious community. His knowledge embraces all things. the predicate of which is [introduced by the following ka-an. by delivering the affirmer [of this truth] and destroying the denier [of it]. has been softened. He is the best of judges’. And behold what was the end of the agents of corruption. its subject omitted. those who denied Shu‘ayb.And remember when you were but few. the violent earthquake. [7:91] So the Trembling. in it. [7:90] Said the council of those of his people who disbelieved. until God judges between us. for us to return to it. and then He multiplied you. I have conveyed to you the Messages of my Lord and advised you sincerely. you shall indeed be losers’]). wait. [so that they might 167  . when they denied him. We punished. after God has delivered us from it. illness. for You are the best of deciders’. [7:89] We would be forging a lie against God if we were to return to your creed. and they lay lifeless prostrate in their habitations. some said to others: ‘Verily if (la-in: the lām is for oaths) you follow Shu‘ayb. Our Lord. adjudicators. in those dwelling-places of theirs. it is as if (ka-an. from our city. [7:93] So he turned back on them. We seized. in other words [understand it as] ka-annahum) they had never dwelt. they were the losers (the emphasis effected by the repetition of the relative clause [alladhīna kadhdhabū Shu‘ayban. ‘as if’]). abject poverty. even though we are averse. that is. for denying their messengers. [behold] how destruction was the conclusion of their affair. unless you return to our creed’. of believing: ‘Surely we will expel you. that is. and a party who do not believe. [7:92] Those who denied Shu‘ayb (alladhīna kadhdhabū Shu‘ayban. ‘O my people. that [it be so] and forsakes us. should we return to it. ‘if you follow Shu‘ayb. you shall indeed be losers’. so that they might be humble. right. [7:88] Said the council of those of his people who were disdainful. and so in the same [plural] way he responded:) He said. including my situation and yours. Our Lord embraces all things through His knowledge. unless God our Lord wills. ‘What. and those who believe with you. that is to say. and said. keeled over their knees. It is not. seized them. and hardship. In God we have put our trust. this constitutes the subject [of the sentence]. ‘those who denied Shu‘ayb’] and what follows it is intended as a refutation of what they had said previously [sc. adjudicate. [7:87] And if there is a party of you who believe in that with which I have been sent.

the admonition. in the [second] instance. to those who inherit the earth. His drawing them on by degrees. after. and said. that is. before these [signs] came to them. unaware of it? [7:98] Or. And. says: So We seized them. those who inhabited it that. [has it not] become clear. as a [place of] habitation. believed. [some of] the stories of their peoples. manifest miracles. out of ingratitude towards this grace: ‘Hardship and happiness befell our fathers before’. and so We seized them. and so believe. Verily their messengers brought them clear proofs. nay. people. [7:100] Has it not been shown. None feels secure from God’s plotting but the people who are losers. some of their tidings. with the chastisement. ‘so’. and been fearful. the chastisement. before. that is. seal up their hearts so that they do not hear. the deniers. and then seizing them suddenly. and the [particles] fa. [7:96] Yet had the people of the towns. that is. as We smote those before them? (the hamza in the four instances are meant to indicate rebuke. We punished them. are meant to indicate a supplement. disbelieved in. exalted be He. until they multiplied. they persisted in disbelief. just as it has befallen us. any loyalty to a covenant from the day the pledge was made. of unbelief and acts of disobedience. Our chastisement. the destruction of. in other words [understand it as] annahu). on account of what they used to earn. We. We would have indeed opened upon them (read la-fatahnā or la-fattahnā) blessings from the heaven. any covenant. by way of vegetation. its noun having been omitted. [7:95] Then We gave them in place of evil. with chastisement. wealth and health. We relate to you. Thus does God seal up the hearts of the disbelievers. We could smite them. but they denied. the messengers. beforehand the time of its coming. which have been mentioned. and not the consequence of God. while they perceived not. by way of rain. in what they had denied. as a supplement). ‘or do [they] feel secure’. so remain firm in what you follow. when these [signs]came to them. in a way so as to reflect. upon them at night while they are sleeping?. which have been inserted in two instances [each]. and wa. ‘and’. and this is nothing but the habit of time. the deniers. and earth. through graces. (an is the softened form and constitutes the subject [of the verb]. a variant reading [for a-wa-amina] has aw amina. [7:102] And We did not find in most of them.be] self-effaced. feel secure from the coming of Our might. [7:101] Those towns. [7:97] Do the people of the towns. but they would not believe. in God and the messengers [sent] to them. good. suddenly. 168  . O Muhammad (s). Nay (wa-in: in is softened) We found that most of them were indeed wicked. God. do the people of the towns feel secure from the coming of Our might upon them in the daytime while they are playing? [7:99] And so do they feel secure from God’s plotting?. if We will. for their sins?.

or by not 169  . and lo! it was white. So behold what was the end of those who work corruption. but he denied him. these are actually Pharaoh’s words. that is. [7:112] to bring you every cunning sorcerer’ (sāhir: a variant reading has sahhār) to outdo Moses in the art of magic. ‘I say nothing but the truth about God’]). So what do you command?’ [7:111] They said. when they were destroyed. ‘O Pharaoh. [for whom] it is appropriate. and what follows it [sc. ‘Surely (a-inna: read pronouncing both hamzas. I am a messenger from the Lord of the Worlds. gatherers. signs to Pharaoh and his council. in this. he took it out from his bosom. the Children of Israel’: he [Pharaoh] had enslaved them. outstanding in the art of magic. [7:109] The council of Pharaoh’s folk said. and send into the towns summoners. for the beholders. an enormous snake. they disbelieved in. haqīqun. then produce it. [7:113] And the sorcerers came to Pharaoh. [7:110] who would expel you from your land. after them. to say nothing but the truth about God (a variant reading [for ‘alā] has ‘alayya. nine. its predicate being an. in [sūrat] al-Shu‘arā’ [Q. postpone [any decision regarding] their affair. [after] the messengers mentioned. is the subject [of the sentence]. and so it is as if they said it in consultation with him. his folk. saying. ‘that’. So send forth with me. to Syria. them. in which case. manifest [for all to see]. So he [Moses] said: [7:105] I am. ‘Put him and his brother off a while. but they mistreated. [7:106] Said he. as you claim. to him: ‘If you have come with a sign. if you are of those who speak the truth’. and not its usual skin colour. Moses with Our. 26:34]. And so they summoned [them]. ‘Surely this man is a cunning sorcerer. [7:104] And Moses said. to you. Pharaoh. by way of disbelief. Truly I have come to you with a clear proof from your Lord. [7:107] Then he cast down his staff and lo! it was a serpent. one for whom it is right. ‘it is right’. [7:108] And he drew forth his hand. ‘for me’.[7:103] Then We sent. radiant.

[7:121] They said. of what we have. and that which they were doing. scared them. [7:117] And We revealed to Moses [saying]: ‘Cast your staff. [thus was it] confirmed and made manifest. in the way of sorcery. ‘Yes. that is. ‘Have you believed (a-āmantum. [7:120] And the sorcerers fell down in prostration. becoming humiliated — they ended up abased. there defeated. and overawed them. was proved false. [7:116] He said. this is a command permitting them to cast first. what I will do to you! [7:124] 170  . [7:123] Pharaoh said. with one of the original tā’ letters [of tatalaqqafu] omitted) the illusion they were creating. is a plot you have plotted in the city that you may expel its people from it. or we shall be the casters!’. But you shall come to know. misleading them from perceiving the real state of these [ropes and staffs]. ‘We believe in the Lord of the Worlds. [7:122] the Lord of Moses and Aaron’. Pharaoh and his folk. [7:118] Thus did the truth come to pass. And when they cast. and indeed you shall be of those brought near’. in Moses. [7:119] Thus were they.’ And lo! it swallowed up (read talaqqafu. that you have done.pronouncing the second one. as a means to manifesting the truth. and replacing the second one with an alif) in him. their ropes and staffs. your staff. and produced a mighty sorcery. but inserting an alif between the two in both cases) there will be a wage for us if we are the victors?’ [7:114] He said. ‘O Moses. either you cast. by making them appear to be slithering snakes. before I gave you leave? Surely this. ‘Cast!’. for they realised that what they had witnessed of the staff could not be done through sorcery. [7:115] They said. they put a spell upon the people’s eyes. read pronouncing both hamzas. that which they were transforming by delusion.

and flout you and your gods?’ — he had fashioned small idols for them to worship. praiseworthy. Surely their ill augury is with God. that is. of water. ‘We suffered harm before you came to us. to cast a spell upon us therewith. ‘Surely to our Lord. keeping them alive [for us]. I am your lord the highest [Q. and they did not give thanks for it. [7:127] Then the council of Pharaoh’s folk said. with him. however it come about. of God’. that He may observe how you shall act’. spiteful. new-born. we shall be restored. believers. after our death. 79:24]. when that with which he has threatened us comes to pass. sequel belongs to those who are wary. Surely the earth is God’s and He bequeaths it. ‘Whatever sign you bring us. [such as] fertility and abundance. towards us only because we have believed in the signs of our Lord when they came to us. He said. then I shall have every one of you crucified’. pour out onto us patience (and constancy). For surely we have [irresistible] power over them!’. their persecution. in it. [7:128] Moses said to his people. befell them. ‘I am your lord and their lord’. lest we revert to unbelief. [7:130] And verily We seized Pharaoh’s folk with the years. that whatever befalls them is from Him. ‘This belongs to us’. [7:126] You are vindictive. [7:129] They said. as we did with them before. in the Hereafter. [7:133] So We unleashed upon them the flood. and since you have come to us. we shall return. by calling to disobedience against you. [7:132] And they said. and so the Children of Israel grieved. ‘Seek help in God and be patient. that is. ‘We shall slaughter (read nuqattilu or naqtulu) their. and take us to You as men who have submitted’. and they did this to them. 171  . [that they might] heed the admonition. to whom He will from among His servants. we will not believe in you’. to Moses. and had said to them. to him [to Pharaoh]: ‘Will you leave Moses and his people to work corruption in the land. of drought. and dearth of fruits.’ He said. they would augur ill of Moses and those.I shall assuredly have your hands and feet cut off on opposite sides. and become believers. smote them. which consumed their crops and fruits. He gives it. Who brings it upon them. and whenever an evil thing. Our Lord. and the locusts. ‘Perhaps your Lord will destroy your enemy and make you successors in the land. which penetrated their houses and which for seven days would come up to people’s necks as they sat. the right hand and the left foot of every one. so that they might remember. sons and spare their women. they said. and so he [Moses] invoked God against them. but most of them do not know. [7:125] They said. The. which is why he says. [such as] drought or hardship. [7:131] But whenever a good thing. we deserve it.

Indeed if (la-in: the lām is for oaths) you remove from us the terror. they passed by. they said. for repaying God’s grace to you with what you have said. such that they infested their houses and food supplies. [7:134] And when the terror. [who were] burdening you and making you taste. clear. their way will be destroyed and what they have been doing is in vain’. distinct. [7:137] And We bequeathed upon the people who were oppressed. your women. constantly worshipping them. make for us a god.. when He has favoured you above all the worlds?’. to the end [of the verse. remember. or al-qurād. ‘Shall I seek other than God as a god for you. the chastisement. verily we will believe in you and let the Children of Israel go with you’. and they came upon. a people cleaving in devotion (read ya‘kufūn or ya‘kifūn) to idols they had. exalted be He: Yet We desired to be gracious to those who were oppressed in the land . [7:140] He said. the reason. They said. and this was Syria. [7:139] Truly as for these. and We destroyed utterly what Pharaoh and his folk had been creating. namely. was a tremendous trial. [flowing] in their water. persecution at the hands of their enemy. with water and trees (allatī bāraknā fīhā. [7:138] And We brought the Children of Israel across the sea.likewise [engulfing them for seven days]. the terror from them to a term which they should reach. ‘O Moses. that they denied Our signs and were heedless of them. to remove the chastisement from us if we believe. ‘the land’). [what they had been] raising of edifices. which would follow [and consume] what the locusts left behind. not reflecting upon them. and what they had been erecting (read ya‘rishūn or ya‘rushūn). ‘O Moses. ‘woodworm’. lo! they were already reneging. pray to your Lord for our sake by the covenant which He has made with you. [in that] deliverance or chastisement. ‘He delivered you’) from Pharaoh’s folk who were inflicting upon you. for the Children of Israel because they endured patiently. slaying your sons and sparing. which was His saying. [7:135] But when We removed. an idol for us to worship. to worship (abghīkum. ‘ticks’). is originally abghī lakum). and were a sinful folk. [either] a grace or a 172  . the eastern parts of the land and the western parts thereof which We had blessed. through the supplication of Moses. the Children of Israel. ‘which We had blessed’. and the fair word of your Lord was fulfilled. the worst kind [of chastisement]. just as they have gods. ‘[shall] I seek for you’. and the blood. terrible chastisement. by way of architecture. ‘Truly you are an ignorant folk. retaining. Q. when We delivered you (anjaynākum: a variant reading has anjākum. 28:5]. breaking their covenant and persisting in their disbelief. is an adjectival qualification of al-ard. in the ways He has mentioned in His sayings? [7:141] And.’ He said. signs: but they were too scornful. and therein. fell upon them. [7:136] So We exacted retribution from them and therefore We drowned them in the sea (al-yamm denotes salty waters) for.. of your time. through bondage. namely. and the lice (al-qummal is like al-sūs. to believe in them. and the frogs.

of My favours. that is. I repent to You. in Your transcendence. without any intermediary. stays fixed. an explanation. So take what I have given you. that you may take an example from them. to follow. [for] My having spoken to you. and be righteous. and Moses said to his brother Aaron. ‘You shall not see Me. I have elected you. you do not have the power to see me. from your Lord. God. after he has fasted [during that period]. that was the month of Dhū’l-Qa‘da. to the mountain He levelled it to the ground (read dakkan or dakkā’a. bi-risālātī. he disliked the [bad] odour of his mouth and so cleaned his teeth. for having asked You what I was not commanded [to ask]. as an admonition and a detailing. said. ‘Glory be to You!. And when his Lord revealed Himself. by humiliating them so that they do not magnify themselves. Thus was the time appointed by his Lord concluded. turning [of them] away. the proofs of My power. ‘I shall not be seen’. exalted be He. I shall show you the abode of the wicked. ‘take it then’]) firmly. of all things (li-kulli shay’in substitutes for the previous genitive construction [min kulli shay’. and if it remains. the Tablets of the Torah — these were made from the Lotetree of Paradise. over my people. those who behave arrogantly in the earth without right. as stated in one hadīth verified by al-Hākim. [of] Pharaoh and his followers. you will not have the capacity [for it]. God then commanded him [to fast for] another ten nights so that He may speak to him despite the odour in his mouth: as God says. or singular.tribulation. adopt it as a way. and I am the first of the believers’. the use of this expression [lan tarānī. and they were either seven or ten — about all things. and his Lord spoke with him. for My Messages (read plural. and enjoin your people to adhere to the fairest [precepts] in it. [7:146] I shall turn away from My signs. that is to say. That. and if they see every sign do not believe in it. having lost consciousness at the awesomeness of what he had seen. to him: ‘O Moses. ‘Take it then (there is an implicit qulnā. [7:143] And when Moses came at Our appointed time. and that is Egypt. [7:144] He. that is. nights of Dhū’l-Hijja. implies that it is possible to see God. chosen you. 173  . And when he recovered his senses he said. before this [fa-kudhhā. Yourself. with speech which he heard from all directions. ‘you shall not see Me’] instead of lan urā. But when it came to an end. one needs in religion. the time at which We had promised to speak to him. at the end of which We would speak to him. ‘for My Message’) and My Speech. when he was departing to the Mount for the communion [with his Lord]: ‘Succeed me. [among them] with regard to their affair. that I may behold You!’ Said He. in the way of creations and otherwise. then you shall see Me’. bi-risālatī. is because they have denied Our signs and were heedless of them. be my deputy. and if they see the way. but behold the mountain. and be of the thankful’. and if they see the way of error. the people of your time. he said. [then] you shall remain fixed [able] to see Me. so will you not heed the admonition and desist from what you are saying? [7:142] And We appointed (read wa-wā‘adnā or wa-wa‘adnā) for Moses thirty nights. otherwise. of rectitude. the time at which God had promised him to speak to him. [7:145] And We inscribed for him in the Tablets. the guidance that has come from God. that is. of my time. of bounty. misguidance. the path. which is stronger than you are. that is. ‘My Lord! Show me. by consenting with them to acts of disobedience. in its place. as forty (arba‘īna is a circumstantial qualifier) nights (laylatan is for specification). and completed them with ten. A similar statement has been made above. and do not follow the way of the agents of corruption’. or of chrysolite or emerald. seriously and earnestly. [when] He manifested of His Light the equivalent of half a nail of a little finger. ‘We said’. He completed the fast. do not adopt it as a way. ‘about all things’]). that is. from among mankind. meaning madkūkan) and Moses fell down senseless.

‘O. what I have done to my brother. they shall not. what they used to do?’. with his right hand. to rejoice thereat. [7:150] And when Moses returned to his people. the Resurrection and so on. and bitterly grieved. Even. a god. verily we shall be among the losers’. the requital [for]. [and] realised. since they are not binding [in this case]. a calf. and abasement was stamped upon them until the Day of Resurrection. angry for the sake of his Lord. the good deeds they performed in the world. are invalid. in the way of denial and acts of disobedience? [7:148] And the people of Moses. He said. and which remained in their possession. which they had borrowed from Pharaoh’s folk on the pretext of a wedding celebration. and my brother. after I had gone. so how can it be taken as a god? Yet they took it as such. against God by way of idolatry and otherwise. by worshipping the calf. and saw. [which] made audible sounds [like a cow]: it [the calf] was transformed in this way when the dust. as a god. by which he meant [the standard form of saying ‘my mother’] ummī: the mention of her is more affectionate [in appealing] to his heart). and do not count me among the folk who have done evil’. they said. and will not be rewarded. he said. that is. which he [the Samaritan] had collected from [where] the hoof of Gabriel’s steed [had trodden]. and he seized his brother by the head.[7:147] Those who deny Our signs and the encounter in the Hereafter. 174  . and they were broken into pieces. and abasement shall come upon them from their Lord in the life of this world: and so they were punished [for this deed] by the command to slay themselves. so We requite those who invent lies. such as the maintenance of kinship ties or voluntary almsgivings. ‘a calf’]). that they had gone astray. which lowed. Do not make my enemies gloat over my misfortune. and were evildoers. son of my mother! (read either ibna ummi or ibna umma. [7:149] And when they became at a loss. for it has the effect of [giving] life to that in which it is placed (the second direct object of the verb ittakhadha. ‘My Lord. which the Samaritan had fashioned for them therefrom. which you have followed in my place. angry. Shall they. thereby. Did they not see that it spoke not to them. chastisement. wrath. by your humiliating me. [7:151] He said. their works. he includes him in the supplication in order to reconcile him and to fend off any gloating over his misfortune. have failed. forgive me. evil is the [manner of] succession. for taking it so. this idolatry of yours. the Tablets of the Torah. [when] they became remorseful for having worshipped it. after he had departed for the communion [with God]. that is. dragging him toward him. Truly the people judged me weak and they were close to killing me. ‘Unless our Lord is merciful to us and forgives us (read both [verbs] either in the third person singular or in the second person singular). be requited anything but. in [your] reproach [of them]. and this was after Moses’s return [from the communion]. was placed in its mouth. in anger. has been omitted. of flesh and blood. ‘[they] made’. nor guided them to any way?. [7:152] God. made of their ornaments. after him. exalted be He. and [seized him] by the beard. as We have requited them. but it would be ilāhan. ‘Surely those who chose the calf. and admit us into Your mercy. to them: ‘Evil is that. Would you hasten on the judgement of your Lord?’ And he cast down the Tablets. because of them. that is. with his left hand. for You are the Most Merciful of the merciful’. ‘[as] a god’). that is. by the hair. a [mere] living body (jasadan is a substitution [for ‘ijlan. says. that is.

that they used to bear. for Our appointed time. ‘These [people] were not the same ones who asked to see God and were struck by the thunderbolt [cf. [7:158] Say. [7:157] those who follow the Messenger. before my departure with them. so that the Children of Israel might see this and not make [false] accusations against me. he took the Tablets. revere. making lawful for them the good things. and help him. is truly Forgiving. to guide. [7:154] And when Moses’s anger abated. Q. the uninstructed Prophet. [7:156] And prescribe for us. 2:55]’. so forgive us and have mercy on us. ‘[That earthquake was] because they did not separate themselves from their people when the latter took to worshipping the calf’. addressing the Prophet (s) here: ‘O mankind. from among them. He [Moses] then departed with them. Muhammad (s) whom they will find inscribed in their Torah and Gospel. from error. Then those who believe in him. it was written that: there was guidance. said. [7:155] And Moses chose of his people seventy men. in other words. enjoining them to decency and forbidding them indecency. that is.[7:153] But those who commit evil deeds and repent. looking after our affairs. says: ‘My chastisement — I smite with it whom I will. towards them. [the Messenger] of Him to Whom belongs the kingdom of the heavens and of the earth. [7:159] And among the people of Moses there is a community. in the Hereafter. so that you might be guided. Believe. by the truth and act 175  . that is. and follow him. to You’. that is. whereby You send astray whom You will. and in their copy. the Qur’ān. a violent earthquake. such as [the requirement] to kill oneself as a repentance and the severing of that part that had come into contact with any impurity. and me [with them]. who believes in God and His words. subsumes. they are the ones who will prosper’. He gives life and makes to die. then. You are our Protector. to lead stray. in this world. He. repented. subsided. to chastise. I am the Messenger of God to you all. God. in name and description. in God and His Messenger. Will You destroy us for what the foolish ones among us have done? (this interrogative is meant as a plea for compassion. for those who are Godfearing and pay the alms. and My mercy embraces. which were forbidden [to them] by their Law. [in] what was inscribed upon them — in other words. and the shackles. namely. such as carrion and the like. which he had cast down. and relieving them of their burden. and mercy for all those who hold their Lord in awe. thereafter and believe. and follow the light that has been revealed with him. [who] have fear [of Him] (the lām [in li-rabbihim. the Qur’ān. is but Your trial. and making unlawful for them the vile things. ‘their Lord’] has been inserted into the direct object because it [the direct object] has preceded [the verb]). by God’s command. the hardships. and guide whom You will. in this world good and in the Hereafter. the trial which the ignorant ones underwent. seized them. a group. in God — indeed your Lord thereafter. he. and honour. he [Ibn ‘Abbās] added. ‘Do not punish us for the sins of others’). but when the Trembling. the uninstructed Prophet. We have turned. that is. There is no god but Him. and those who believe in Our signs. people. all things. who guide. led aright. him. and so I shall prescribe it. ‘My Lord. after repentance. for You are the Best of all who show forgiveness. Your test. It. good. Ibn ‘Abbās said. had You willed You would have destroyed them long before. grant [us]. that is. their onus. desist from them. Merciful’. Moses. from among those who had not worshipped the calf. for the time at which We promised him that they should come and apologise for their comrades’ worship of the calf.

by which we excuse ourselves. terrible. [about] what befell its inhabitants. through transgression. We separated the Children of Israel. from the heat of the sun. lest we are reproached for failing to prohibit [them] in any way. bordering the Red Sea (bahr al-qulzum). We shall forgive (read naghfir. they said instead. a chastisement. said. ‘As an exculpation. and there gushed forth. We shall give more to those who are virtuous. about the city that was by the sea. O Muhammad (s). ‘how’) a community among them. [7:160] And We divided them. which they had been commanded not to do on that [day]. And when they went to fish. of fishing’. and this was Eilat. Exoneration. in rebuke. burst forth. that is. the Holy House [of Jerusalem]. [7:163] And question them. in terms of reward. by fishing. when they overlooked. And We made the cloud overshadow them. the city split into three: one third joined the fishing party. the gate of the city.’ And they did not wrong Us. [each] tribe among them. ‘our concern is for [an]. And We revealed to Moses. and did not desist. Thus were We trying them for their wickedness. how (idh is an adverbial qualifier of ya‘dūn. and seized those who did wrong. ‘tribes’). [saying]: ‘Strike the rock with your staff’. [7:166] 176  . as a trial from God. violate. mention. they would not come to them. with a grievous. a prostration that is [actually] a bow. [7:161] And. and say. [7:164] And when (wa-idh is a supplement to the preceding idh. when it was said to them. that whereof they had been reminded. but on the day they did not observe the Sabbath. prostrating. into twelve (ithnatay ‘asharata is a circumstantial qualifier) tribes (asbātan substitutes for this [previous circumstantial qualifier]) communities (umaman substitutes for the preceding [asbātan. but they wronged themselves. when his people asked him for water. [that for which they had been] admonished. or the passive tughfar) you your transgressions. and so that they might be wary. through obedience.justly according to it. ‘A grain inside a hair’ and entered [the gate] dragging themselves on their rears. in the wilderness. when passing judgements. who neither fished nor prohibited it. now knew their drinking-place. each people. our admonishing [them] is. ‘they [would] transgress’) their fish would come to them on the day of their Sabbath floating at the surface. and We sent down to them manna and quails — which are [respectively. We delivered those who forbade evil. from it twelve fountains. ‘Dwell in this city. So We sent down upon them terror. [7:165] And when they forgot. how they would transgress. equal to the number of tribes. and eat therein wherever you will. from the heaven for their evildoing.’ and enter the gate. before your Lord. visible at the surface of the water. a type of citrus] turunjabīn. another prohibited them. and he struck it. in the wilderness. chastisement for their wickedness. and the quail and We said to them: ‘Eat of the good things We have provided for you. while a third abstained from both fishing and prohibiting. when they would not consecrate the Sabbath over the other days. [7:162] But the evildoers among them substituted a saying other than that which had been said to them. the Sabbath. to those who prohibited it: ‘Why do you preach [admonition] to a folk whom God is about to destroy or chastise with a severe chastisement?’ They said.

‘Be apes. to desist from. ‘in’ [sc. in the earth. that He would send against them. disbelievers and wicked individuals. into communities. God sent Solomon against them. they would take them (wa-in ya’tihim ‘aradun mithluhu ya’khudhūhu: this sentence is a circumstantial qualifier). those who would inflict on them grievous torment. ‘has it [not] been taken?’). the likes of ‘Abd Allāh b. and We said to them: ‘Take firmly. the ephemeral aspects of this lowly thing that the world is. sects. as if it were a canopy. and evil things. ‘has [it] not been taken’. is a supplement to yu’khadh. and they became so: this is an explication of what preceded [with regard to the details of their ‘grievous chastisement’]. may also be read as ta‘qilūn. [7:169] And there succeeded after them a generation who inherited the Scripture. what We have given you. Thus. from their forefathers. and they thought. And We tried them with good things. made it known. they had [initially] refused [to accept] them because of their being burdensome. who was delighted by it. they hope for forgiveness whilst committing the same offence again and persisting in it: and in the Torah there is no [such] promise about forgiveness for persistence [in sin]. Nebuchadnezzar. Some of them are righteous. despised!’. We separated them. ‘reformers’]. ‘That group was not destroyed because they had been averse to what the others did and had said. Merciful. in other words. also there is here the replacing of the [third person] pronominalisation [alladhīna. and some of them. Salām and his companions. ‘I do not know what befell the group that abstained’. ‘[do] you [not] understand?’) that it is better and so prefer it to [the abode of] this world? [7:170] And those who adhere (read yumassikūn or yumsikūn) to the Scripture. [7:171] And. We said to them. in other words. and yet if similar transient things were to come to them. they were certain. with graces. in the way of what is lawful and what is unlawful. when We wrenched the mountain above them.And when they disdained. who slaughtered [some of] them and took [others among] them captive. is an interrogative meant as an affirmative) from them that they should not say about God anything but the truth? And they have studied (wa-darasū. of those who disobey Him. seriously and earnestly. that is. through humiliation and the exacting of the jizya-tax [from them]. We lifted it up [unearthing it] from its root. because of God’s threat to them that it would fall upon them if they refused to accept the rulings contained in the Torah. are otherwise. what is in it. from their wickedness. ‘the covenant in the Scripture’]) been taken (a-lam yu’khadh. Lo! verily your Lord is swift in requital. that which was prohibited to them. [7:167] And when your Lord proclaimed. [in dealing] with them. but then accepted them. and remember 177  . to those who obey Him. abased. Ibn ‘Abbās said. that it was about to fall upon them. ‘Why do you preach (admonition) …’ Al-Hākim reported [in a hadīth] that he [‘Ikrima] referred this opinion to Ibn ‘Abbās. so that they might revert. and saying. to the Day of Resurrection. and have established prayer. their wages). with misfortunes. verily We shall not let the wages of reformers go to waste (innā lā nudī‘u ajra l-muslihīn: the sentence is the predicate of alladhīna. what we have done. They continued to pay this [tax] to the Magians up until the [time of the] sending of our Prophet (s). the Jews. Has not the covenant of the Scripture (mīthāqu l-kitābi. the annexation functions in place of fī. mention. who [also] imposed it on them. ‘those who’. and imposed the jizya-tax on them. Do they not understand? (ya‘qilūn. they have read. ‘those who’] with an overt noun [al-muslihīna. people [who]. ‘It will be forgiven us’. ‘Ikrima said. choosing the transient things of this inferior [life]. from among them. that is. [7:168] And We divided them. so why do they impute lies to it [the Scripture] by ascribing to it [the idea of] forgiveness for persistence [in sin]? And the Abode of the Hereafter is better for those who are wary. the Torah. and after him. of what is unlawful. And lo! verily He is Forgiving.

offspring after offspring. indeed. [7:177] Evil as an example are the people. Bā‘ūrā’. when your Lord took from the Children of Adam. is as the likeness of a dog: if you attack it. by acting in accordance with it. We would have raised him up. but he cast them off. with the same preposition [min. that is. And when he did. saying. catching up with him and so he became his comrade. the invocation turned against him and his tongue fell out onto his chest. read third person [yaqūlū. who had been given some knowledge [of the Scriptures]. and Satan pursued him. but he was disposed to. we testify’. Will You then destroy us. and made them testify against themselves.what is in it. ‘It is merely that our fathers were idolaters before. to this. ‘you say’]) on the Day of Resurrection. we were unaware’. by calling [others] to them. and so We abased him. lest they should say (in both instances. ‘therefore his likeness’]. from among our forefathers. and no other animal is like it in this way (both conditional sentences constitute a circumstantial qualifier. it has its tongue lolling out despicably in all circumstances. by facilitating his way to [good] deeds. ‘from the Children of Adam’]. So recount the tale. by driving it away or curbing it. is the likeness of those people who deny Our signs. and this [taking of] testimony is. We explain them even as We have explained the covenant. and that they might revert. who denied Our signs. of him to whom We gave Our signs. [7:172] And. in the way that they multiply. he rebelled in disbelief. ‘Am I not your Lord?’ They said. judging by the [contextualising] fā’ [of fa-mathaluhu. of this. and judging by God’s saying: That. [looking] like small ants at [the valley of] Na‘mān on the Day of ‘Arafa [because of their multitude]. ‘Yea. [7:175] And recite. the Jews. that is to say. The purpose here is to point out the similarity [between the one who follows his whims and a dog] in terms of condition and vileness. that they might reflect on them. the earth — that is. and who was asked [by them] to invoke God against Moses. to the Jews. [7:174] Thus We detail the signs. [7:176] And had We willed. thereby. and followed his whims. to them. ‘Truly. O Muhammad (s). from their loins (min zuhūrihim. Oneness of God. and we were descendants of theirs. it lolls its tongue out. likeness. and were wont to wrong themselves. his description. and if you leave it. [all] from the loins of Adam. chastise us. by [their] establishing idolatry? The meaning is: they cannot use such arguments when they have been made to testify before their very selves to God’s Oneness. and so we followed their example. at peace [in]. God set up proofs of His Lordship for them and endowed them with [the faculty of] reason. upon it and so believe. remember. through denial. that is. from their disbelief. Therefore his likeness. To effect this reminder by the tongue of the bearer of the miracle [Muhammad (s)] equally serves [as a reminder] for every soul to remember this within itself. the tale. ‘they say’] or second person [taqūlū. a scholar from among the Children of Israel. this was Bal‘am b. which relates what comes after it to what came before it in the way of ‘inclining towards this world and following whims’. You are our Lord. before our time. emerging in his disbelief in the same way that a snake emerges from its [shed] skin. is an inclusive substitution for the preceding [clause: min banī Ādama. by bringing forth one from the loins of the other. ‘from’]) their seed. to the ranks of the scholars. this world — and inclined to it. 178  . for that which those who follow falsehood did?’. that they might reflect. evil is the example of the people. not knowing it! [7:173] Or lest you should say. it lolls its tongue out. and he became of the perverse. the tidings. that you might be God-fearing’.

[7:184] Have they not considered. Him by them. We will lead them on gradually. They will be requited. upon. the kingdom (malakūt is mulk) of the heaven and of the earth. [7:183] And I will respite them — assuredly My scheme is strong. whence they do not know. he has no guide. so that they are able to infer the power of their Creator and His Oneness. because [at least] they [cattle] seek what is beneficial to them and stay away from what is harmful to them: these individuals. and he whom He sends astray — truly they are the losers. and cannot be withstood. ninety nine. on the other hand. for what they did — this was [revealed] before the command to fight [them]. from al-Mannān (‘Lord of Favours’). and having ears wherewith they do not hear. so that they might hasten to believe.[7:178] He whom God guides. and leave those who blaspheme His Names (yulhidūn. one whose warning is evident. the requital. by deriving from them names for their gods. from Allāh (‘God’). as a supplement to what comes after fā’ [of fa-lā hādiya lahu. [7:179] And We have indeed urged unto Hell many of the jinn and mankind. the proofs of God’s power with a perception that entails reflection. rather they are further astray. are proceeding towards the Fire. [upon] the fact that. the truth. will they believe? [7:186] Whomever God sends astray. and. as the beginning of a new sentence. or wa-nadharhum. [7:182] And those who deny Our signs — the Qur’ān — from among the people of Mecca. he is guided. as in the case of al-Lāt. in a way so as to reflect and take heed. ‘so he has no guide’]) in their insolence to wander on blindly. what things God has created (min shay’in is an explication of the preceding mā. We will draw them on by degrees. in the Hereafter. out of [sheer] obstinacy. than cattle. al-‘Uzzā. ‘they blaspheme’. that there is no madness in their comrade. [7:181] And of those whom We created there is a community who guide by the truth. or [the same verbs] in the imperfect jussive [apocopated form] wa-yadharhum. powerful. name. the Qur’ān. meaning ‘those who incline away from the truth’). 179  . from [fourth form] alhada or [first form] lahada. These — they are the heedless. that. ‘what’). having hearts wherewith they do not understand. and. ‘and We leave them’. upon. And He leaves them (read in the imperfect indicative wayadharuhum or wa-nadharuhum. they are like cattle. that is. perceive or listen — nay. it may be that their term is already near. Most Beautiful Names — mentioned in hadīth — (al-husnā is the feminine for al-ahsan) so invoke. Muhammad (s)? He is but a clear warner. and act justly therewith: this is the community of Muhammad (s). in their failure to understand. and so realised that. These. and having eyes wherewith they do not perceive. from al-‘Azīz (‘Mighty’). the signs or the admonitions. as stated in a hadīth. [7:180] And to God belong the. lest they die as disbelievers and move towards the Fire? In what fact then after this. and Manāt. [7:185] And have they not reflected upon the dominion.

shall be. by naming it ‘Abd al-Hārith. namely. in worship. of Paradise. those who worship them. the sperm-drop. Adam. It weighs heavily. the Resurrection. I would have acquired much good. associate. we indeed shall be of the thankful’. but are themselves created. those who cannot create anything. who considered it ‘fair-uncommon’ (hasan gharīb). Then. the people of Mecca. He alone shall reveal it. to attract it to. for Adam was immune [from a sin such as associating others in worship with God]. to disbelievers. and adversity. when he had sexual intercourse with her. [7:187] They. it. out of perplexity. in the way of idols (this sentence is consequent. and moved to and fro with it. ‘Abd Allāh]. and they became anxious that it should be a dumb child.hesitating. and made. but this [namesake ‘Abd] is not an association [of another with God] in terms of servitude. I am but a warner. a child. when. except as God wills. to You for it. would not touch me. that knowledge of it lies with God. This [affair] was the result of Satan’s inspiration and his doings’: reported by al-Hākim. myself. that is sound. They will question you. that is. exalted be He. but most people do not know’. that is. Jundub] reported that the Prophet (s) said.” She named it so and it lived. and it will live. will question you about the Hour. in the heavens and the earth. namely. Eve. upon their inhabitants. when it shall come to pass. that is the people of Mecca. that he might take rest in her. and a bearer of good tidings. it is Who created you from a single soul. It will not come on you save all of a sudden’. is only with my Lord. who deemed it [the report] ‘sound’ (sahīh). when it is not right to be a ‘servant’ (‘abd) of any one but ‘God’ [sc. nor can they help themselves?. Had I knowledge of the Unseen — that which is hidden from me. [7:190] But when He gave them a sound one. ‘If You give us one. she came and went [easily] on account of its lightness. from him his spouse. [7:191] Do they associate. manifest it. to them: ‘The knowledge of. created. Samura [b. or hurt. but exalted is God above what they. ‘servant of al-Hārith’. since I would take precautions against such [adversity] by avoiding what is harmful. [7:192] and who are not able to give them. [7:189] He. that is. by breaking them or otherwise (the interrogative is meant as a rebuke). she bore a light burden. such that you have come to acquire knowledge of it. [a sound] child. to repel it. and become intimate with her. they cried to God their Lord. at its proper time (li-waqtihā: the lām here functions as fī. a supplement to [the one beginning with] khalaqakum. to a people who believe’. unimpaired. meaning sharīkan. because of its awesomeness. Say. 180  . but when she became heavy. as if you were preoccupied with. and [also reported] by al-Tirmidhī. God. “Name it [the child] ‘Abd al-Hārith. when he covered her. obsessed with inquiring about. Say: ‘Knowledge of it is only with God (innamā ‘ilmuhā ‘inda’Llāhi is for emphasis). ‘an associate’) in that which He had given them. it. ‘at’). so that what comes between the two is a parenthetical statement). because of the child growing inside her. ‘He created you’. of the Fire. any help. in the way of impoverishment and otherwise. with Him. by defending themselves against someone intending to damage them. ‘On one occasion when Eve gave birth — all the children she bore had failed to survive — Satan visited her and said [to her]. they ascribed to Him associates (shurakā’a: a variant reading has shirkan. tremendously. [7:188] Say: ‘I have no power to bring benefit.

and He will ward it off from you. the idols. and then see clearly. then scheme against me. indeed. [7:196] Truly my Protector. they remember. as a person looks. of what is done. if you are truthful. that is. have they ears wherewith they give ear? (an interrogative of rejection). decency. if anything should turn you away from that which you have been commanded to do. they do not hear. for I am not concerned with you. they will not follow it. because they cannot hear. and do not counter their stupidity with the like. and do not scrutinise them. when a visitation from Satan touches them. to it. your call. 181  . the One in charge of my affairs. and you see them. in [claiming] that they are gods: God then illustrates their utter incapacity and the superiority which their worshippers possess over them. besides God are servants. [refraining] from calling them. to guidance. [distinguishing] the truth from what is other than it. staring at you. in other words. that is.[7:193] And if you call them. and so they return [to God]. [7:199] Indulge [people] with forgiveness. saying: [7:195] Have they feet wherewith they walk or. ‘if’. [whom] you worship. looking toward you. has been assimilated with the extra mā. the idols. that is. owned. they will not follow you (read yatba‘ūkum or yattabi‘ūkum). O Muhammad (s). God’s punishment and His reward. [accepting] what issues spontaneously from people’s manners [of behaviour]. whether you call them. and He takes charge of the righteous. have they hands (aydin is the plural of yad) wherewith they can grasp or. [7:197] And as for those on whom you call besides God. then. [7:201] Truly the God-fearing. they have none of these things. with the response to the command being omitted). have they eyes wherewith they can see or. so why should I be concerned with them? [7:198] And if you call upon them. that is. O Muhammad (s): ‘Call upon your associates. Seeing. to destroy me. is God Who reveals the Book. befalls them (tayfun: a variant reading has tā’ifun). of what is said. [do not] give me any respite. call them then and let them answer you. which you have. [when] something [of the sort] overcomes them. and waste no time. they have no power to help you. indeed. and enjoin kindness. like you. seek refuge in God (fa’sta‘idh bi’Llāh is the response to the conditional clause. but they do not perceive. to guidance. He is Hearing. nor can they help themselves’. that is. and turn away from the ignorant. to them. ‘any’) any insinuation from Satan should provoke you. so why do you worship them when you are more complete in being than they are? Say. the Qur’ān. [7:194] Truly those on whom you call. indeed. [7:200] And if (immā: the letter nūn of the conditional particle in. It will be the same [response] for you. the idols. or whether you are silent. by protecting them.

do not stop short. [8:2] 182  . the people of Mecca. And do not be among the heedless. secretly. The Muslims fell into dispute over the spoils of [the battle of] Badr. and obey God and His Messenger. exalting Him as being transcendent above what does not befit Him. The young men said.’ Thus the following was revealed: (Al-Anfâl) [8:1] ‘They question you. humbly.[7:202] And their brothers. so do not claim it as yours exclusively. [refraining] from speech. had you been exposed. [why have you not] produced one [all by] yourself? Say. [7:203] And when you do not bring them. ‘These [spoils] should be ours because we hastened to join the fighting’. so that you might find mercy: this was revealed regarding [the requirement of] refraining from speech during the [mosque] sermon. they devote their submission and worship exclusively to Him: so be like them! Medinese. Qur’ān. holding up the banners behind you. namely. that is. So fear God and set things right between you. and fearfully. and. lead them further into error. believers’. concerning the spoils of war — the booty — to whom do they belong? Say. at morning and evening. and. O Muhammad (s). and it is not for me to bring anything from myself. from your Lord. to them: ‘The spoils of war belong to God. you would have come back to us. and to Him they prostrate. if you are. who divides them according to God’s command. ‘We were your support. to them: ‘I follow only that which is revealed to me from my Lord. submissively. [7:205] And remember your Lord within yourself. the devils. as reported by al-Hākim in his al-Mustadrak. is insight. of God’s remembrance. to worship Him. more quietly than speaking out loud. they. [7:206] Surely those who are with your Lord. they. that is. by seeing clearly. at the beginning of the day and at its end. a sign. because it [the sermon] comprises it. ‘Why have you not chosen one?’. and the Messenger. from among those which they request. others say that it was revealed regarding the [requirement of silence and attention during the] recitation of the Qur’ān in general. that is. in awe of Him. truly. a middle way between the two. Who places them where He will. through mutual affection and the refraining from quarrelling. which here has been expressed by [the recital of] ‘the Qur’ān’. listen to it and pay heed. are not too proud. [set right] the reality of that [state of affairs] which is between you. [7:204] And when the Qur’ān is recited. and a guidance and a mercy for a people who believe’. they say. while the old men said. they do [not] disdain. the brothers of devils from among the disbelievers. that is. in the way that those who are God-fearing come to see clearly. that is. The Prophet (s) divided these [spoils] between them equally. and was revealed after [sūrat] al-Baqara. it consists of 75 or 77 verses. [do not] desist from it. which are Meccan. louder than [speaking] in secret. the angels. except for verses 30 to 36 inclusive. that is. this. proofs. they glorify Him.

and when His verses are recited to them. and forgiveness. and so Abū Jahl and some Meccan fighters rode out to defend it — these constituted the ‘band’. [8:5] As your Lord brought you forth from your home with the truth (bi’l-haqq is semantically connected to akhraja. exalted be He. that is. and generous provision. with their Lord. which had actually been better for them: likewise is this [state of affairs better for them]). [8:9] When you sought help from your Lord. they increase their faith. when His threat of punishment [is mentioned]. is the predicate of an omitted subject. I shall assist you. asking Him to help you by granting you victory over them. as God. are the true. remember. So they agreed with him to attack the [Meccan] band. are only those who. by His. and to cut the root of the disbelievers. It happened that Abū Sufyān was returning from Syria with a caravan. and He answered you [saying]: ‘I shall reinforce you. says: [8:6] They dispute with you concerning the truth. in other words. in obedience to God. the real. rank upon rank’. in other words: their aversion to this state [of affairs of the booty being God’s and the Prophet’s] is similar to their aversion when you were brought forth [to fight]. to the very last man. that other than the armed one. described in the way mentioned. performing them as they ought to be [performed]. efface. but Quraysh became aware of this. Abū Jahl was then advised to return. [8:8] And that He might cause the truth to be realised and annul. 183  . to that. preceding. as though they were being driven to death while they looked. and you longed. that Islam should triumph. [you longed that] the caravan. without doubt. were averse. ‘He brought forth’). after it had become clear. ‘We have not come prepared for this!’. and not in any other. ‘He brought you forth’. [the order] to fight. but God willed that the truth be realised. [other than] the fighting one with the weapons. utterly averse to it.The believers. kamā. that is. fear. saying to them. but he refused and marched on towards Badr. when God is mentioned. [8:4] Those. [8:7] And. [8:3] Those who observe the prayers. at it [death] with their very eyes. however much the sinners. falsehood. that it should be yours. [who] put their trust in Him [alone]. their acceptance of the truth. the idolaters. The Prophet (s) consulted with his followers. in Paradise. their hearts tremble. complaining. ‘as’. should be yours. you were wishing. by extirpating them. either the caravan or the band [of Meccan fighters]. and who rely upon their Lord. when God promised you one of the two parties. disbelief. because it had fewer men and less reinforcements than the band [of Mecca fighters]. and who expend. [He willed] to manifest it. stations in Paradise. to going forth (the [last] sentence is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the [suffixed pronoun] kāf in akhrajaka. and so He commanded you to fight against the band. Abū Sufyān drove the caravan via the coastal route and it managed to escape. The Prophet (s) and his followers went forth to plunder it. with a thousand angels. For them are ranks. and indeed a party of the believers were averse. [after it had] become evident to them. ‘God has promised me one of the two parties’. believers. words. those whose faith is complete. but some of them were averse to this. from that with which We have provided them.

chastisement befalling them is. is the chastisement of the Fire. [8:17] You did not slay them. [smite] the extremities of their hands and feet: thus. while actually intending to relaunch an attack — or joining another detachment. he has truly incurred the wrath of God. amassed. is for you. turning around. they had opposed. and smite of them every finger!’. at Badr by your own might. [8:12] When your Lord inspired the angels. because they had contended with. by helping [them] and giving [them] good tidings. ‘thousands’. by giving you assistance. that is. for battle — by pretending to be in flight. fleeing. only as good tidings. into the hearts of the disbelievers. The Prophet (s) threw a handful of pebbles against them and every single idolater was struck in his eye. and thus they were defeated. unless manœuvring. and you threw not. from Him. Victory comes only from God: surely God is Mighty. against the fear that had befallen you. and sent down upon you water from the heaven. This [threat] applies so long as the [numbers of] disbelievers do not surpass twice [that of the believers]. with assistance and victorious help. ‘thousand’] has the plural āluf. but it then became three thousand. it would roll off before his sword reached it. that is. advancing slowly because of their large numbers. to seal. [8:11] Remember. 3:124-125] (a variant reading [of alf. Wise. [8:10] And God appointed it. had you been on the right path. the day of the encounter with them. I shall cast terror. you would not have been thirsty and impure. [8:15] O you who believe. the heads. so make the believers stand firm. chastisement. while the idolaters enjoyed [access to] water. O Muhammad (s). so taste it. God and His Messenger: whoever contends with God and with His Messenger. ‘coins’). from God. and then five thousand. [an evil] return it is. in the Hereafter. [8:13] That. and that your hearts might thereby be reassured. surely God is severe in retribution. [saying]: ‘I am with you. a company of Muslims. similar [in pattern] to aflus. do not turn your backs to them. [against] the eyes of the [unbelieving] folk. [8:14] That. when He caused slumber to overcome you as security. so smite above the necks. but God slew them. the reinforcement. in this world. and to remove from you the evil of Satan. for 184  . as a trick. that is. fear. as stated in [sūrat] Āl ‘Imrān [Q. and [know] that for the disbelievers. when you threw. against him. the pebbles. your hearts. lest they sink in the sand. calling on it for assistance. [8:16] Whoever turns his back to them on that day. that is. with whom He reinforced the Muslims. with certainty and endurance. and his abode will be Hell — an evil journey’s end!.one rank following after the next: God promised them this [number] at first. and to strengthen. when you encounter the disbelievers inching forward. his whisperings to you that. and to make firm your feet. to purify you thereby. when one of them went to strike an disbeliever’s head. from minor and major ritual impurities. O disbelievers.

you in any way. namely. He did this in order to vanquish the disbelievers. and He will requite you for your deeds. [8:20] O you who believe. a [fair] gift. to assist him against you. and dumb. it will better for you. and do not turn away from Him. for it will be the source of everlasting life [for you]. from it. but would encompass them and others. to fight against the Prophet (s). the true gift. O disbelievers. from unbelief and waging war. in the matter of religion. and not the Prophet (s) and the believers. your troops. the decisive conclusion. ‘We hear. or read anna. those who do not understand. He would have made them hear. in such a way as to reflect and heed admonition — these are either the hypocrites or the idolaters. and that He might try the believers with a fair test.a handful of pebbles thrown by a human being cannot strike the eyes of [every person in] a large troop. to hearing the truth. We shall return. against those who oppose Him. [8:19] If you have sought a judgement. for you. ‘because God is with the believers’]). of their conditions.’ and they hear not. But if you return. with obedience. to accepting it. and verily God is with the believers (read thus inna. has now come to you. and know that God is severe in retribution. would certainly not fall exclusively upon the evildoers among you. [unable] to utter it. and the way to guard against it is to repudiate that evil which necessarily results in [precipitating] it. will not avail. in such a way as to understand. by making that [throw] reach them. obey God and His Messenger. by the fact that the one so described has [already] perished: this was Abū Jahl and those killed with him. averse. however numerous it be. [8:25] And be afraid of a trial which. they would have turned away. by contravening His command. surely God is Hearing. [8:22] Surely the worst of beasts in God’s sight are those who are deaf. but God threw. so that he cannot believe or disbelieve except by His will. will not protect. and [know] that God weakens the plan of the disbelievers. [8:23] For had God known of any good in them. and that it is to Him that you shall be gathered. 185  . were they to listen to the truth. of their sayings. Knowing. when He calls you to that which will give you life. [8:21] And do not be as those who say. and your host. destroy them today!’ — the judgement. booty. respond to God and the Messenger. out of obstinacy and in denial. and had He made them hear — hypothetically speaking — already knowing that there is no good in them. [8:18] That is. any righteousness. [8:24] O you who believe. to the Qur’ān and the admonitions. and know that God comes in between a man and his heart. with an implicit lām [li-anna‘Llāha ma‘a’l-mu’minīn. if it were to fall upon you. and if you desist. while you are listening. indicating a new sentence. ‘O God! Whoever among [the two of] us is the one who has severed the ties of kinship and brought us what we had never known. if you have sought a decisive conclusion [of this battle] — Abū Jahl had said.

to chain you up and imprison you. and reinforced you. revealed. they said. [8:32] And when they said. while you are aware. so that you will be delivered. with His help. is nothing but the fables.[8:26] And remember when you were few and oppressed in the land. [lest] the disbelievers should seize you swiftly. when the disbelievers — who had gathered to discuss your affair at the council assembly — were plotting against you. Qur’ān. be indeed the truth. with the angels. were being recited to them. against you. your sins. and they were plotting. if you fear God. and God is of tremendous bounty. remember. and would recount these to the Meccans. and absolve you of your evil deeds. and God was plotting. [8:30] And. when He revealed to you what they had devised and commanded you to leave [Mecca]. then rain down stones upon us from the heaven. ‘We have already heard! If we wish we can speak the like of this — al-Nadr b. But they [Banū Qurayza] consulted with him [as to whether they should cede]. in Medina. the lies. by turning [in repentance] to Him and in other ways. of the ancients’. and he pointed out to them that a slaughter would ensue — for members of his family and his property were among them: O you who believe. for His graces. that which has been entrusted to you. in the way of religion or otherwise. [8:28] And know that your wealth and your children are a trial. do not betray God and the Messenger. ‘Abd al-Mundhir: the Prophet (s) had dispatched him to the Banū Qurayza so that they would submit to his [the Prophet’s] authority. in return for [our] denial of it: this was said by al-Nadr and others. [8:29] The following was revealed regarding his [Abū Lubāba’s] repentance: O you who believe. [8:33] God then says: But God was not about to chastise them. and that with God is a tremendous wage. [8:27] The following was revealed regarding Abū Lubāba Marwān b. or slay you — all of them [acting as] assassins of one man — or to expel you. the Qur’ān. to confine you. al-Hārith said this. how He gave you refuge. that you might be thankful. and forgive you. betray your trusts. the most knowledgeable among them about it. namely. and provided you with the good things. while you were among 186  . from Mecca. that Muhammad (s) recites. and God is the best of those who plot. and were fearful lest men should snatch you away. do not. ‘O God! If this. for you. in mockery and in delusion that he had some insight and certainty about it [the Qur’ān] being false. from You. on the day of Badr. by devising a way [out] for you. impeding you from the concerns of the Hereafter. so do not forfeit it by giving [undue] attention to wealth and children. strengthened you. He will grant you a [means of] separation. this. where he would buy books containing the tales of the Persians. between yourselves and what you fear. the land of Mecca. for he used to travel on trading business to al-Hīra. or bring on us a painful chastisement’. and. for what they requested. against them. acting treacherously for the sake of [preserving] them. the spoils. [8:31] And when Our verses. O Muhammad (s).

from unbelief. and the disbelievers. the disbeliever. your Helper and the One Who takes charge of your affairs — an excellent Protector. for when chastisement is sent down it is all-encompassing. will be forgiven them. of their deeds. no more and religion is all for God. [from] performing circumambulations there. verily We would have chastised the disbelievers among them with a painful chastisement [Q. it is also said that this [last clause] refers to those oppressed believers among them. but if they return. will be gathered. driven. and heap them up all together and put them in Hell: those. [you have] seized from the disbelievers by force. [8:34] But what [plea] have they now. and an excellent Helper!. in the end. in the Hereafter. from the good. but most of them do not know. none other being worshipped. and they will expend it until. then they will be defeated. the way of [dealing with] the ancients has already gone before!. that they have no [rightful] custodianship over it. in order to bar from God’s way. the believer. in this world. or li-yumayyiza. the chastisement for your unbelief! [8:36] The disbelievers expend their wealth. [8:40] But if they turn away. is semantically connected to takūnu. similar to where God says Had they been clearly separated. from the Sacred Mosque. surely God sees what they do. is He. they are the losers. into Hell. Our way [in dealing] with them. such as Abū Sufyān and his companions. in waging war against the Prophet (s). prevent the Prophet (s) and the Muslims. for having lost it and lost what they had intended [by expending it]. as they claim? Its only [rightful] guardians are the God-fearing. crying. to waging war against him. by destroying them: We will do the same with these ones. from unbelief and from waging war against the Prophet (s).them. that God should not chastise them. and will requite them for it. and no community was ever chastised except after its prophet and the believers had departed from it. with the sword. [8:37] that God may distinguish (read li-yamīza. though they are not its guardians?. as they performed the circumambulations: ‘Your forgiveness! Your forgiveness!’. the fifth of 187  . then it abrogates the previous one. for God had chastised them at Badr and in other instances — when they bar. 48:25]. it will be a source of anguish for them. nor was God about to chastise them while they sought forgiveness. and place the wicked one upon another. exists. from belief. idolatry. alone. [8:38] Say to the disbelievers. [He is] for you. [8:39] And fight them until sedition. that which is past. know that God is your Protector. after your departure and that of the oppressed [believers] — if this [verse] is understood in accordance with the first opinion [that it refers to the idolaters asking forgiveness]. is. a regret. that is. then if they desist. [8:35] And their prayer at the [Sacred] House is nothing but whistling and hand-clapping: in other words they do this in place of the prayer which they were ordered to perform — therefore taste now. that if they desist. among them. ‘it will be’ [from the previous verse]) the wicked. [8:41] And know that whatever spoils you have taken. at Badr.

the day the two armies. 3:13] — so that God might conclude a matter that was to be done. And God has power over all things. the Muslims and the believers. the coastal side. fallen into disagreement. those Muslims cut off during travel — in other words it [the fifth] is due to the Prophet (s) and [those of] these four categories in the way that he used to apportion it: a fifth of the fifth for each one and the remaining four fifths for those who had captured the spoils. and the orphans. over the matter. so that they would advance and not turn back from fighting you — this was before close combat had begun. the one nearer to Medina (read ‘udwa or ‘idwa. that which is in the hearts. [8:44] And when God made you see them. then stand firm. from faltering and quarrelling. those whose fathers have passed away and are in poverty. then be aware of that. as stated in sūrat Āl ‘Imrān [Q. your power and dominion. call upon Him for victory. in your sleep. and the cavalcade. over the larger [enemy] army. ‘the day’) you were on the nearer bank. after a manifest proof has been established against him. that is. and do not quarrel with one another. and He made you seem as few in their eyes. might believe. to have it dispensed as He will. so that you would advance against them. to fight them and do not [flee in] retreat. reverting. giving them victory and assistance. but God saved. Knowing. shrunk in cowardice. a group of disbelievers. the one further from it. children of Muslims. when God showed them to you in your dream. as few. Muhammad (s). was. which discriminated between truth and falsehood. through His knowledge — namely. the victory of Islam and the obliteration of unbelief — He did this so. and the needy. in a place. ‘in God’) We sent down upon Our servant. and your strength. that you may succeed. below you. [8:42] When (idh substitutes for yawma. met. that is. despite their small number. and be patient. that he who perished might perish. and had you. and they were on the yonder bank. Surely God is with the patient.it is for God. and the traveller. [8:46] And obey God and His Messenger. those Muslims in [dire] need. the triumph of the believers. agreed to meet. when they were [in fact] 1000. you would have faltered. on the Day of Discrimination. [8:43] Remember. and so you informed your companions of this. and the [enemy] band. but. the matter of fighting. after a clear proof. after a clear proof. do [not] fall into dispute with one another. meaning ‘the side of a valley’). when you met — in your eyes as few. O believers. and quarrelled. in the way of angels and signs. surely God is Hearing. become cowardly. but when it began. and remember God much. and that he who survived might live. and that which (wa-mā is a supplement to bi’Llāhi. including giving you victory despite your being few and their being greater in number. lest you falter. the caravan. you would have surely failed to keep meeting. for battle. the day of [the battle of] Badr. you. namely. fade. and had He shown them to you as many. [8:45] O you who believe. as 70 or 100. that God might conclude a matter that was to be done. and they were delighted. the kinsmen of the Prophet (s) from among the Banū Hāshim and the Banū [‘Abd] al-Muttalib. He brought you together at a different time. and for the Messenger and for the kinsmen. He knows that which is in the breasts. might be a disbeliever [even]. [8:47] 188  . when you meet a host. He made them [the disbelievers] see these [believers] as twice their number. if you believe in God. and to God all things are returned. [that you may] triumph.

and will requite them for it. Hishām. exalted be He. for I shall be your protector’. in recklessness and to show off to men — when they said. ‘they disbelieved’. in the way of angels. and. adorned their deeds for them. lest He destroy me. in what He wills. [for] barring against the way of God and [for] fighting Muslims. with chastisement. in flight. mention. [8:52] The way of these people is. But when the two armies. chastisement of the disbelievers. [8:51] That. while God encompasses. God is strong. Mālik. [whoever] puts his trust in Him. a weakness of faith. sacrificed the camels. for I see what you do not see. when the angels take (read either as yatawaffā or tatawaffā) the disbelievers. because of their sins (the sentence beginning with kafarū. ‘you would truly have seen an terrible sight’). he withdrew. like the way of Pharaoh’s folk and those before them: they disbelieved in God’s signs and so God seized them. ‘if’. in His actions. [8:48] And. [8:53] That. when they had feared to set out on account of their enemy. until they have changed that which is in themselves. to them: ‘Today no person shall overcome you. chastisement. people. from among the [Banū] Kināna — he appeared to them in the form of Surāqa b. the Banū Bakr. the Muslims. and [know] that God is Hearing. [when] they met and he [Satan] saw the angels. Wise. [8:49] When the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a sickness. because most actions are accomplished with them — and [know] that God is never unjust to His servants’. would be la-ra’ayta amran ‘azīman. I fear God. explains the previous one). by encouraging them [to go] to meet the Muslims. in knowledge. and God is severe in retribution’. God. Truly. Knowing. for truly God is Mighty. ‘Are you abandoning us in such a predicament?’. His way will prevail. Iblīs. also read ta‘malūna. [until] they have exchanged the grace conferred upon them for unbelief. in the mistaken belief that they will be victorious because of this. that Satan. in the way that the Meccan disbelievers exchanged their being ‘fed against hunger’. of being your protector. is for what your hands have sent before you — He refers to this [their actions] exclusively with these [hands]. sighted each other. O Muhammad (s). the Fire (the response to the [clause beginning with] law. is because God would never change a grace that He had conferred on a people. ‘We will not return until we have drunk wine. saying — when they had said to him. says in response to them: but whoever relies on God. and said. that is. from the way of God. the Muslims and the disbelievers. severe in retribution. what they do (ya‘malūna. that is. such that he would punish them for no sin. ‘I am quit of you. their being made ‘safe from fear’ [cf. his hand clasping that of al-Hārith b. [8:54] 189  . Q. he turned his back. ‘Their religion has deluded them’. the chieftain of that region. he will triumph. and have been entertained by singers at Badr.And do not be like those who went forth from their dwellings. substituting it with affliction. ‘you do’). they say to them: ‘Taste the chastisement of burning. for unbelief. beating (yadribūna is a circumstantial qualifier) their faces and their backs. with hooked iron rods. said. [8:50] And if you could only see. 106:4] and the sending of the Prophet (s) to them. and [until] people have heard about this — barring. for they had set out to fight a large army despite their small number. to defend their caravan and but did not return after it had passed safely.

[you will not] be diminished anything thereof. not to support the idolaters. [8:57] So if (fa-immā: here the letter nūn of the conditional particle in. behind them to scatter. ‘if’. the hypocrites or the Jews. meaning. were evildoers. Truly God does not love the treacherous. that is. then cast it back to them. then incline to it. they conclude one.Like the way of Pharaoh’s folk and those before them: they denied the signs of their Lord. of actions. and according to another [variant reading] anna is read [instead of inna] with an implicit lām [sc. and We drowned the folk of Pharaoh. in their treachery. shall be repaid to you in full. truly He is the Hearer. Mujāhid said. and conclude a pact with them: Ibn ‘Abbās said. lest they accuse you of treachery. fighters. meaning. that is to say. as reported by Muslim. they cannot elude Him (a variant reading has wa-lā yahsabanna. [8:60] Make ready for them. has been assimilated with the extra mā) you come upon them. might remember. and you will not be wronged. and then break their pact every time. [that they might] take heed from their example. with fairness (‘alā sawā’ is a circumstantial qualifier). terrify. the Knower. disbelieving communities. whatever force you can. ‘and do not let them suppose themselves to have outstripped’]. [if] you find them. for fighting them. whom you know not: God knows them. who have concluded a pact with you. by your apprising them thereof. some treachery. from any folk. for it was revealed regarding the Banū Qurayza. the Prophet (s) said that this refers to ‘archers’. the disbelievers of Mecca. ‘This [stipulation] applies exclusively in the context of the People of the Scripture. 190  . [8:58] And if you fear. by making an example of them and punishing them. so that the first direct object is omitted. of words. his people together with him. its requital. and others besides them. [8:59] The following was revealed regarding those who escaped capture on the day of Badr: And do not. And whatever thing you expend in the way of God. and rely on God. of God. ‘and do not let them suppose’. God. [8:56] those of them with whom you have made a pact. anywhere in the war. so that they. ‘themselves’ [sc. the enemy of God and your enemy. [8:55] The following was revealed regarding [Banū] Qurayza: Surely the worst of beasts in God’s sight are the ungrateful who will not believe. and all. through some indication that comes to you. and they are not fearful. namely. ‘restraining them [for use] in the way of God’) that thereby you may dismay. [deal with them so as to] cause those. ‘settlement’). to disperse. 9:5]’. dissolve their pact. while you and they have equal knowledge that the pact has been broken. the ones behind them. that is. ‘This has been abrogated by the “sword verse” [Q. [that] they have eluded Him: indeed they cannot escape. actually being [an implied] anfusahum. let those who disbelieve suppose that they have outstripped. other than those — namely. so We destroyed them for their sins. [8:61] And if they incline to peace (read silm or salm. ‘because they cannot escape’]). put your trust in Him. in a pact. O Muhammad (s). and of horses tethered (ribāt is a verbal noun.

but when they became numerous this was abrogated by God’s saying): [8:66] Now God has lightened [the burden] for you. by making a [peace] settlement in order to make preparations [for war] against you. and fear God. then God is sufficient for you. that is. And God is with the steadfast. [8:64] O Prophet. let the twenty of you fight the two hundred [of them]. after old feuds [had divided them]. they will overcome a thousand of those who disbelieve. nothing being beyond [the scope of] His wisdom. for you. [8:69] Now eat of what you have plundered. He it is Who strengthened you with His help and with the believers. while God desires. [8:70] O Prophet. His way prevailing. by His will (this is predicative. but God reconciled their hearts. they will overcome two hundred. the Hereafter. its reward. by His support [of them]. urge on. steadfast. in other words: fight twice your number and stand firm against them). desire the transient things of this world. of them. of them. If there be (read as yakun or takun) a hundred of you. by ransoming. the disbelievers. the believers to fight. So if there be (read as yakun or takun) a hundred of you. its ephemeral gains. and let them stand firm against them. and if there be a thousand of you. 47:4]. [8:65] O Prophet. [8:63] and reconciled. their hearts. an awful chastisement would have afflicted you for what you took. say to those captives who are in your hands: (asrā. [making you unable] to fight ten times your number. [8:68] Had it not been for an ordinance from God which had preceded. Wise: this was abrogated by His words [and set them free] afterward either with grace or by ransom [Q. Merciful. you could not have reconciled their hearts. may also be read as asārā) ‘If God knows of 191  . Had you expended all that is in the earth. suffice you. steadfast. in other words. for they are a people who do not understand (this [sentence] is predicative. they will overcome two hundred. brought together. You. through His power. but functions as an imperative. they will overcome two thousand by the leave of God. God suffices you.[8:62] And if they desire to trick you. the thousand [of them]. as lawful and good. and the hundred [of you]. If there be twenty of you. O believers. through your killing them. functioning as an imperative. and God is Mighty. going all the way in fighting disbelievers. for He knows that there is weakness (read du‘fan or da‘fan) in you. Wise. and the believers who follow you. Truly He is Mighty. as ransom. exhort. [8:67] The following was revealed when they ransomed those taken captive at Badr: It is not for any Prophet to have (read as an takūna lahu or an yakūna lahu) prisoners until he has made slaughter in the land. Truly God is Forgiving. making spoils and the taking of captives lawful for you.

Truly God is Forgiving. [8:75] And those who believed afterwards. and those who provided refuge and assisted — those are the true believers. the captives. whereas this [sūra] was revealed to remove security by way of the sword. than [those who share] inheritance on account of [their common] faith and emigration mentioned in the previous verse. the Merciful’. and God is Knower. they have betrayed God before. [8:71] And if they. and so there is no inheriting between you and them. in your hearts He will give you better than that which has been taken from you. of His creatures. According to [a hadīth related] by Hudhayfa [b. for the Prophet (s). And those who believed but did not emigrate — you have no duty to make an alliance (read wilāya or walāya) with them. after the first believers and emigrants. Medinese [entirely]. The basmala. including the wisdom regarding [the rules of] inheritance. in Paradise. the Preserved Tablet (al-lawh almahfūz). and emigrated and strove with you — they are of you. in terms of [mutual] support and inheritance. these being the Helpers. those are allies of one another. ‘In the name of God. and for them is forgiveness and a generous provision. that is. through words which they speak [to you]. Unless you do this. except against a folk between whom and you there is a covenant. ‘Āzib] that this was the last sūra to be revealed. [8:72] Truly those who believed and emigrated and strove with their wealth and their lives in the way of God. desire to betray you. and will forgive you. Merciful’. kinsmen. there will be sedition in the land and great corruption. and so there is no inheriting between you and them and no share of the spoils for them. at Badr. does not preface this [sūra] because the Prophet (s) was not commanded to [recite] it [in this way]. in terms of [mutual] support and inheritance. by way of ransom. through unbelief. Wise. in terms of inheritance. any faith or sincere devotion. them against the disbelievers. (At-Tawbah) [9:1] 192  . through slaying and capture. a pact: in which case. O Muhājirūn and Ansār. by His multiplying it for you in this world and rewarding you in the Hereafter. the Compassionate. or [Medinese] except for one verse. and those related by blood. but He has given [you] power over them. before Badr. al-Yamān]: ‘You call it the sūra of Repentance. these being the Emigrants. in which he states [by way of an isnād] from ‘Alī that the basmala is [invoked] for ‘security’ (amān). and assisted. do not assist them against these others and so break your pact. until they emigrate.any good. with disbelief gaining power and Islam becoming weak. and God sees what you do. your sins. as may be understood from a hadīth reported by al-Hākim. so let them anticipate the like if they return [to betrayal]. [8:74] And those who believed and emigrated and strove for the way of God. and those who provided refuge. are nearer to one another. [unless] you ally yourselves with the believers and sever relations with the disbelievers. Al-Bukhārī reported [by way of an isnād] from al-Barā’ [b. in His actions. Truly God is Knower of all things. or [Medinese] except for the last two verses ending with verse 130 [which are Meccan]. but it is actually the sūra of Chastisement (al-‘adhāb)’. this was abrogated by the end of this sūra. according to the Book of God. but if they ask you for assistance in the matter of religion then it is your duty to assist. [8:73] And those who disbelieve are allies of one another.

by fulfilling pacts. and in the Hereafter. then know that you cannot escape God. a pact for an indefinite period of time. the religion of God. if you repent. the dwelling-places of his folk. the term. and lie in wait for them at every place of ambush. [at] the end of the period of deferment — slay the idolaters wherever you find them. on the basis of what will come shortly — after which there will be no security for you. captive. but if you turn away. the Prophet (s) sent forth ‘Alī. Truly God loves those who fear [Him]. which is mentioned. ‘one’. [9:6] And if any one of the idolaters (ahadun. So. provide security for him. from among the disbelievers. O idolaters. But if they repent. the completion of. four months. to castles and forts. except for those with whom you made a pact at the Sacred 193  . [as for these] fulfil your pact with them until. travel in security. then leave their way free. to those who repent. or more than.This is: A declaration of immunity from God and His Messenger to. so that he might hear the words of God — the Qur’ān — and afterward convey him to his place of security. by [sending them to] the Fire. or one for [a period of] less than. of unbelief. is in the nominative because of the [following] verb [istajāraka. and know that you cannot escape God. in the land for four months — beginning with [the month of] Shawwāl. and who have not diminished [their commitment to] you in anyway. you shall [not] elude His punishment. and [so is] His Messenger. then grant him protection. to which you have agreed. also free from obligation: in that same year. And give tidings to — inform — those who disbelieve of a painful chastisement. [9:4] Excepting those of the idolaters with whom you have made a pact. that is. [at every] route that they use (kulla. so that he might reflect upon his situation — that. anyone. and confine them. [9:3] A proclamation. until they have no choice except [being put to] death or [acceptance of] Islam. is in the accusative because a [preceding] genitive-taking preposition has been removed). acting treacherously. and establish prayer and pay the alms. from belief. that is. and also [he proclaimed] that after this year no idolater will [be allowed to] make pilgrimage or circumambulate the House naked. when the sacred months have passed — that is. ‘seeks your protection’] that validates it) seeks your protection. the annulment of the pact shall be as God mentions in His saying: [9:2] ‘Journey freely. reach. a notification. from God and His Messenger to mankind on the day of the Greater Pilgrimage. and do not interfere with them. humiliating them in this world by having them killed. and of [punishment in] the Fire in the Hereafter. with regard to the terms of the pact. Merciful. and so they must [be made to] hear the Qur’ān in order to [come to] know [religion]. it will be better for you. that God is free from obligation to the idolaters. if he does not believe. and their pacts. is because they are a people who do not know. and take them. as reported by al-Bukhārī. [9:7] How can the idolaters have a pact with God and His Messenger — they cannot —while they disbelieve in God and His Messenger. requests security from you against being killed. who proclaimed these verses on the Day of Sacrifice at Minā. against you. the Day of Sacrifice (yawm al-nahr). ‘every’. namely. nor supported. be it during a lawful [period] or a sacred [one]. and that God degrades the disbelievers’. [of] slaughter or capture in this world. assisted. of unbelief. year 9 [of the Hijra]. God is Forgiving. the idolaters with whom you made a pact. [9:5] Then.

[if] they have the upper hand over you. [9:15] And He will remove the rage. We explain. of this world. the day of al-Hudaybiyya — these were Quraysh. His religion. the Qur’ān. they do not respect. ‘oaths’] has the kasra inflection [for the alif. at your hands and degrade them. but will instead harm you as much as they can (the conditional sentence [‘if they …’] is [also] a circumstantial qualifier). So long as they are true to you. He will have them killed. their covenants. [who] reflect. be true to them. the grief. if you are believers. its heads (here an overt noun [‘the leaders of unbelief’] has replaced the [third person] pronominalisation) — verily they have no [binding] oaths. then fight the leaders of unbelief. after [making] their pact and assail your religion. their pacts. their oaths. God turns [in forgiveness] to whomever He will. and God will chastise them. those. Truly God loves the God-fearing: the Prophet (s) had kept to the pact made with them until they broke it by supporting the Banū Bakr against Khuzā‘a. and most of them are wicked. kinship. and intended to expel the Messenger. to be true to these [words]. sc. denotes incitement) fight a people who broke. violated. your allies? So what is stopping you from fighting them? Are you afraid of them? God is more worthy of your fear. and have barred [people] from His way. slander it. violators of pacts. that is. [no] pacts (a variant reading [for aymān. which they are wont to do. And God is Knowing. keeping to the pact and not breaking it. any bond. 194  . when they fought alongside Banū Bakr against Khuzā‘a. while their hearts refuse. when. deed of theirs. when they return to Islam. can they have a pact. [9:8] How. the signs for a people who know. against you first?. humiliate them through capture and subjugation. Wise. and He will give you victory against them. by fulfilling it (fa-mā. [9:9] They have purchased with the signs of God. when you fail to fight them. [removing the harm] done to them — these are the Banū Khuzā‘a. for whom an exception was made earlier [Q. Truly evil is that. 9:4]. ‘[no] faith’]) — so that they might desist. and He will heal the breasts of a people who believe. from Mecca — for they discussed this between them in their council assembly — initiating. [9:10] They respect neither bond [of kinship] nor treaty with regard to a believer. with regard to you. ‘so long as’: the mā is a conditional particle). then they are your brothers in religion. their oaths. ‘will not’ or ‘is not’.Mosque?. pleasing you with their tongues. a small price. from unbelief. [9:14] Fight them. as in the case of Abū Sufyān. they have refrained from following them in favour of passions and whims. [9:13] Will you not (a-lā. īmān. [they do not] take into consideration. combat. in their hearts. if they get the better of you. [9:12] But if they break. they are the transgressors. with charming words. and We detail. [if] they violate. or treaty. pact. [9:11] Yet if they repent and establish prayer and pay the alms.

their works have failed. And God is aware of what you do. the disbelieving. no longer viable. and fears none but God alone. your kinsmen (‘ashīratukum: a variant reading has ‘ashīrātukum). so that you have refrained from emigrating and struggling for the sake of such [things]. as a confidant or an ally? In other words: when it has not yet become manifest who the sincere ones are — those described in the exclusive way mentioned. [9:24] Say: ‘If your fathers. an intimate friend?. against themselves. do not take your fathers and brothers for your friends. are dearer to you than God and His Messenger and struggling in His way. if they prefer. folk: this was revealed to refute those who claimed this. they are the triumphant. and merchandise for which you fear there may be no sale. and those. to be the same as he who believes in God and the Last Day and struggles in the way of God? They are not equal. whoever of you takes them for friends. through knowledge outwardly manifested. if they have chosen. [9:18] Only he shall attend God’s places of worship who believes in God and the Last Day. and the possessions which you have acquired. than others. And God does not guide the wicked folk’. and God guides not the evildoing. that is. the ones who will attain good. those of you who have struggled. everlasting. 195  . masjid). and pays the alms. and have struggled in the way of God with their possessions and their lives are greater in degree. with God. [their works] are invalid. and dwellings which you love. those.[9:16] Or (am has the meaning of the [initial a-] hamza used to express disavowal) did you suppose that you would be left [in peace] when God does not yet know. [9:21] Their Lord gives them good tidings of mercy from Him and beatitude. for them shall be gardens wherein is enduring. to unbelief. and your clan. in God’s sight. [do you reckon] those who do such things. [9:20] Those who believe. [9:17] It is not for the idolaters to attend God’s places of worship (masājid. [9:19] Do you reckon the giving of water to pilgrims and the attendance of the Sacred Mosque. and your brothers. such are the evildoers. bliss. and your sons. in rank. sincerely. disbelief over belief. that is. in merit. and have not taken. [9:23] The following was revealed regarding those who refrained from emigrating because of their families and trade: O you who believe. then wait until God brings about His command — this is meant as a threat to them. bearing witness. and have emigrated. [9:22] therein they shall abide forever (khālidīna is an implied circumstance). besides God and His Messenger and the believers. Surely with God is a tremendous reward. and observes prayer. it may be that those will be among the rightly guided. is also read in the singular. such as al-‘Abbās and others. and in the Fire they shall abide. and your wives. entering them or sitting in them.

so do not let them come near the Sacred Mosque. in other words [understand it as being] ma‘a rahbihā. the scholars among the Jews. Jesus. [9:31] They have taken their rabbis. and [against] Qurayza and al-Nadīr. otherwise. curse. Wise. namely. [9:30] The Jews say: Ezra is the son of God.000. with his [the Prophet’s] permission. because of the severe fear that afflicted you. the idolaters are indeed unclean. for all its breadth (bi-mā rahubat. [9:26] Then God sent down His Spirit of Peace. imitating the utterances of those who disbelieved before [them]. on account of their inner vileness. such as Badr. such that you could not find a place in which you felt secure. retreating. the religion of Islam — from among of those who (min. and who do not forbid what God and His Messenger have forbidden. or ‘by their own hands’. from among them. them! How they are deviated!. not delegating it [to others to pay]). poverty. after this year of theirs. ‘from’. the one that abrogated other religions. however. while the disbelievers were 4. year 9 of the Hijra. and they fought [once again]. they would have believed in the Prophet (s). being subdued. when (idh substitutes for yawma. on the day of Hunayn — a valley between Mecca and Tā’if. And God is Forgiving. not on account of our being few’: and they numbered 12. the annual tax imposed them. His reassurance. the devout among the Christians. if He will: and He indeed enriched them through conquests and [the imposition of] the jizya. ‘despite its breadth’). [9:29] Fight those who do not believe in God. as lords beside God — following them in making lawful what God has made unlawful and making 196  . ‘those who’) have been given the Scripture. turned away from the truth.[9:25] God has already helped you on many fields. fleeing: the Prophet (s). despite the proofs having been established. on his white mule remained firm. ‘the day’) your vast numbers were pleasing to you. for. remember. the firm one. until they pay the jizya tribute. [9:28] O you who believe. of angels. and so they turned back towards the Prophet (s). it was straitened for you. nor in the Last Day. God assail.000). the Jews and the Christians. that is. and that is the requital of the disbelievers. by [their acceptance of] Islam. Merciful. then you turned back. namely. such that you were saying. If you fear impoverishment. as a result of the cessation of their commerce with you. while Abū Sufyān was charging on his mount. the mā refers to the verbal noun. [they are] filth. mimicking them. after al-‘Abbās called them. and chastised the disbelievers. for which they have no support. and. explains [the previous] alladhīna. but it availed you nothing and the earth. readily (‘an yadin is a circumstantial qualifier. ‘compliantly’. that is. and He sent down legions. from among their forefathers. you did not see. [9:27] Then afterwards God will relent to whom He will. nor do they practise the religion of truth. ‘We shall not be defeated today. of battle. with only al‘Abbās by his side. upon His Messenger and upon the believers. is the son of God. nay. let them not enter the Sanctuary. That is the utterance of their mouths. [remember] the day on which you fought Hawāzin — this was in Shawwāl in year 8 [of the Hijra]. and their monks. God will surely enrich you from His bounty. with slaughter and capture. God is Knowing. such as wine. meaning. and the Christians say: The Messiah. [being made] submissive and compliant to the authority of Islam.

Muhammad (s). is the right. all the religions which oppose it. that they may make up. except to worship One God: there is no god except Him. that is. Their evil deeds have been adorned for them. profane. even though the disbelievers be averse. from the way of God. [from] His religion. to Safar — is only an excess of unbelief. ‘[they] go astray’). as they used to do during paganism. such as postponing the sacredness of Muharram. And those who (wa’lladhīna is the subject) hoard up gold and silver. are sacred.unlawful what He has made lawful — and the Messiah. So do not wrong yourselves during them. and do not expend them. son of Mary. [taste] its requital. but it is also said to mean [do not wrong yourselves] at any time during all the months [of the year]. with their tongues. His light. they do not pay from it what is due to Him by way of alms and charity — give them tidings. and bar. of a painful chastisement. during these sacred months. which God has hallowed. the months. that is. religion. the number. even though the disbelievers be averse. inform them. supporting and assisting [them]. inviolable: Dhū’l-Qa‘da. even as they fight you altogether. burnt — their skins will be stretched until these [hoards of gold and silver] can be placed on them entirely. to this. to this. but without observing the individual months themselves. when they were not commanded. with acts of disobedience. in the Torah and the Gospel. that is. than the four months. because of their rejection of God’s ruling thereof. people’s goods by false means. these treasurehoards. one year they make it. and so they profane what God has hallowed. in the way of God. make it prevail. by profaning one month and hallowing another in its place. [9:36] Verily the number of months. the month postponed. and know that God is with those who fear Him. His Law and His proofs. and it will be said to them: ‘This is what you hoarded up for yourselves: so taste now what you used to hoard!’. over every religion. many of the rabbis and monks indeed consume. [9:38] 197  . of months. the deferment of the sacredness of a given month to another. Muharram and Rajab. That. [9:32] They desire to extinguish God’s light. all of them. [9:35] On the day when it shall be heated in the fire of Hell and therewith their foreheads and their sides and their backs shall be branded. [9:37] Postponement [of the sacred month] — that is. as in the case of bribes [paid] for judgements. [9:33] He it is Who has sent His Messenger. and God refuses but to perfect. to make manifest. that He may manifest it. and hallow it another. from the day that He created the heavens and the earth. And fight the idolaters altogether. and God does not guide the disbelieving folk. with God is twelve months in the Book of God. such that they do not hallow more. such that they deem them to be good [deeds]. with what they say about Him. used to reckon the year. people. with the guidance and the religion of truth. making of them sacred. four of them. [9:34] O you who believe. the Preserved Tablet (al-lawh al-mahfūz). take. throughout the months. for their burden [of sin] is greater therein. as an affirmation of His transcendence [high]. Dhū’l-Hijja. glory be to Him. above what they associate [with Him]. whereby those who disbelieve are led astray (yudallu may also be read yadillu. the upright. or less. if it arrives while they are at war.

to the ground. He will not forsake him in another. upon perceiving the [sound of the] feet of the idolaters [nearby]. 9:91]. he will definitely see us!’ — ‘Do not despair. [9:43] The Prophet (s). and an easy journey. And God is Mighty. exercising his personal judgement. by swearing false oaths. and He will substitute [you with] another folk other than you. of angels. and the Word of God. with legions. the other being Abū Bakr: in other words. the Prophet (s). Still they will swear by God. for God [Himself] will indeed bring victory to His religion. had said to him. and so they stayed behind. [both] in the cave and in the locations in which he fought battles. the Prophet (s). and so the following was revealed as a reprimand for him. was the uppermost. [9:40] If you do not help him. for God has power over all things. that is. that is. light and heavy!. that is. easily acquired. [go forth] strong or weak. others. and He made the word of those who disbelieved. gain. he said to his companion. Are you so content with the life of this world. the Hereafter but little. the call to idolatry. in other words. His reassurance — some say this means upon the Prophet. Then God sent down His Spirit of Peace upon him. trivial. ‘Go forth in the way of God. [know that] God has already helped him. in His actions. Struggle in the way of God with your possessions and your lives: that is better for you. in His Kingdom. assisting [us]. at all. Abū Bakr — who. that it is better for you. the profession of His Oneness (shahāda). and God knows that they truly are liars. that is. in place of its bliss? Yet the enjoyment of the life of this world is. the one vanquished. the one prevailing and triumphant. but the distance. [if you do not] set out with the Prophet (s) for the struggle. that is. one of two. that is. but with the pardon first. to stay sitting upon it? (the interrogative is meant as a rebuke). or rich or poor — but this was abrogated by the verse. had given leave to a group to stay behind. the following was revealed: O you who believe. when (idh substitutes for the previous idh) the two were in the cave — a breach in the mountain called Thawr — when (idh substituting again). should you neglect to help him [to victory].’ you sink down heavily (iththāqaltum: the original tā’ [of tathāqaltum] has been assimilated with the thā’. God. to go forth. a transient pleasure of this world. of moderate [length]. when you return to them: [saying]: ‘Had we been able. what is wrong with you that. [9:41] Go forth. Wise. was too great for them. and its delights. The weak would not be at fault … [Q. if only you knew. He will chastise you with a painful chastisement. He will bring them in your place. you hesitate and are disinclined to [participate in] the struggle.’ destroying their souls. when they desired to kill him or imprison him or banish him at the council assembly — the second of two (thāniya ithnayn: this is a circumstantial qualifier). you did not see. or [‘him’ as being] the Prophet (s). and you will not hurt Him. ‘If one of them should merely look below his feet. rather than with the Hereafter?. in this saying of theirs. we would have gone forth with you. and the conjunctive hamza has been supplied). verily God is with us’. in both instances [here and in the next verse]) you do not go forth. that is. they made him resort to leaving. energetically or not. just as God helped him in such a situation. it is also said [to mean]. the nethermost. they would have followed you. in order to reassure his heart: May 198  . that is. [9:42] The following was revealed regarding the hypocrites who stayed behind [away from the campaign]: Had it — that to which you summon them — been a near. [9:39] If (illā: lā has been assimilated with the nūn of the conditional particle in. seeking spoils. from Mecca. when the disbelievers drove him forth. including bringing victory to His religion and His Prophet. the hardship. and they thought it too burdensome. when it is said to you. comparison with the enjoyment of. that is. because of the hardship and the extreme heat from which they were suffering.When the Prophet (s) summoned men for the Tabūk campaign. in. that it means upon Abū Bakr — and supported him. so do not sink down heavily. that is.

to what they say. [9:48] Indeed. ‘We took our precaution. prevailed. at what has afflicted you. came. ‘Grant me leave. judiciously — when we stayed behind — before’. and it was said. our Helper and the One in charge of our affairs. they would have made some preparation for it. says: Surely they have [already] fallen into temptation!. such as tools and provisions. for whom there shall be no escape therefrom. who do not believe in God and the Last Day. He is our Protector. befalls you. that is. before this act of disobedience. the [victorious] help. God. entering it superficially. [9:47] Had they gone forth among you. to stay behind. [9:51] Say. and God knows the evildoers. I shall not be able to stay away from them and be led into temptation’. [9:50] If good fortune. 199  . befalls you. to it [His religion]. He did not want them to go forth. some hardship. with you. and scrutinised your affairs. so He slowed them down. they thought long and hard how to plot against you and invalidate your religion. ‘they have fallen’] has [the singular form] saqat. and whose hearts are doubtful. and among you there are some who would listen to them. to stay behind. His religion. uncertain. they say. ‘he has fallen’). listening in readiness to accept it. and you knew those who were lying. it vexes them. and I fear that if I were to see these Byzantine women. why did you not leave them. they would only have caused you more trouble. ‘Will you do battle against the Byzantines?’. and do not lead me into temptation’: this was al-Jadd b. ‘I am infatuated with women. stood mighty. such as a victory or [a taking of] some spoils. and they turn away. but if an affliction. until the truth. and God knows the pious. by abandoning the believers. exalted be He. that they may struggle with their possessions and their lives. they still being averse. so in their doubt they waver. [more] corruption. desiring. [9:49] And there are some of them who say. they would have hastened to spread slander among you. but God was averse that they should be sent forth. they are confused. against you. rejoicing. until it was clear to you which of them spoke the truth. that is.God pardon you! Why do you give them leave. to stir up sedition. to whom the Prophet (s) said. about religion. in God let the believers put their trust’. He made them [feel] lethargic. between you. that is. [with] the sick. to stay behind. God decreed this. seeking. and to which he replied. and would have hurried to and fro among you. in their excuse. to stay behind. And surely Hell shall encompass the disbelievers. some equipment. by casting enmity. already before. [9:46] If they had desired to go forth. and God’s command. [9:45] They alone ask leave of you. Qays. by staying behind (a variant reading [for saqatū. the women and the children: in other words. that we be afflicted thereby. when you first came to Medina. in it? [9:44] Those who believe in God and the Last Day do not ask leave of you. to them: ‘Nothing shall afflict us but that which God has decreed for us. they sought to stir up sedition. to them: ‘Stay back with those who stay back!’.

‘it would have been better for them’). ‘being accepted’ constitutes the object) have disbelieved in God and His Messenger. for this to [befall] us. or at our hands. but if they are given none then they are enraged. [9:59] If only they had been content with what God and His Messenger have given them. which is the feminine form of ahsan). in order to protect themselves. what will suffice us. your end. but that they (innahum is the subject of the verb. and so they swear merely in pretence. for God to afflict you with a chastisement from Him. [9:54] And nothing prevents their expenditure from being accepted (read as yuqbala or tuqbala) from them. [9:53] Say: ‘Expend. that is. or any place to enter. while an tuqbala. by way of the hardship that they encounter in amassing such [wealth and children] and the calamities [they suffer] as a result thereof. voluntary almsgivings. they would turn and bolt away to it. [9:60] 200  . [9:58] Some of them defame you concerning the. in the way of spoils and the like. to God we are suppliants’. to expend. [the two fair] outcomes? (husnayayn is the dual form of husnā. and that their souls should depart while they are disbelievers. apportioning of. in which to seek refuge. with a calamity from the heaven. from other spoils. ‘if only’. to occur. ‘Sufficient for us is God. they are content. do not deem fair Our graces to them. we are also waiting with you’. and that they do not come to [perform] prayer save as idlers. So wait. [9:55] So do not let their wealth or their children please you. sluggishly. in obedience to God. for they consider it a financial penalty. and His Messenger [will also give us]. that you should deal with them as you have done with the idolaters. [9:56] And they swear by God that they truly are of you.[9:52] Say: ‘Are you waiting (tarabbasūn: one of the two original tā’ letters [in tatarabbasūn] has been omitted) for anything. so He punishes them in the Hereafter with the worst punishment. God will give us from His bounty. it. should we be given permission to fight you. and that they do not expend without their being reluctant. that is. but they are not of you. and had said. if they are given a share of them. is la-kāna khayran lahum. victory or martyrdom? We are waiting in your case too. what you expend. for this is a [way of] drawing [them] on by degrees [to punish them]: God only desires thereby to chastise them in the life of this world. they would hasten to enter it and get away from you with the undeterred speed of an indomitable steed. [that they are] believers. you are surely a wicked folk’ (the imperative statement here [also] functions as a predicate). underground chambers. willingly or unwillingly. shall not be accepted from you. that is. or some caverns. for us but one of the two fair things. that He enrich us (the response of [the conditional] law. they are a folk who are afraid. [9:57] If they could find a shelter.

or that they might defend Muslims. as well as the tax-summoner. ‘which He has imposed’]). and the needy. Say. he is. [9:61] And of them. The lām [of li’l-fuqarā’. the fact is that. has been omitted). the one cut off [from resources] during his journey — a duty imposed by God (farīdatan. that what has reached you of the Messenger being injured they did not do. ‘a listener’. and for the debtors. Indeed [in such a situation] it suffices to give three individuals from each category. but God and His Messenger are more deserving that they should please them. that is. [9:62] They swear by God to you. but anything less than that is not sufficient. as is indicated by the plural form. that is. ‘a duty’. ‘A listener. and for. in other words. and those whose hearts are to be reconciled. and not in others (the lām [of li’lmu’minīna. The Sunna shows that the prerequisite condition for receiving [a share] of such [monies] is that the person be a Muslim. ‘for the poor’] indicates that it is obligatory to include every individual [of these categories in the distribution of the proceeds]. of His creatures. who listens. or rahmatin. the manumission of. those in debt. lest it should reach him: ‘He is only a listener!’. may God be pleased with him. for him shall be the fire of Hell. even if they be wealthy. and not one who listens to evil. in His actions. are those who injure the Prophet. he listens to anything that is said. through obedience. is in the accusative because of an implied verb [sc. as a supplement to khayrin. According to al-Shāfi‘ī. the one who takes the oaths [from those who claim them]. but not a Hashimī or a Muttālibī. and accepts it. he believes us. when they are forbidden from [doing] this. so that they might please you. it is impermissible to dispense these [alms-proceeds] other than to these [categories]. one who believes in God and has faith. in the believers. or that Islam might be firmly established. and in other senses [such as ‘trusting’]) and who is a mercy (read rahmatun. and for the traveller. And God is Knower. saying. the other two [categories] are given [of the alms-tax]. because of the [established] power of Islam.The voluntary almsgivings. in the genitive. ‘God and His Messenger’. and. however. 201  . so that when we swear to him that we have not communicated [to others] a particular thing. to good for you. the one who collects [them]. for them there is a painful chastisement’. believers (the merging of the pronouns into one [in yurdūhu. and those who work with them. who cannot find anything to suffice them in the least. even if they be wealthy. it is not. as a requital. or to deny [these proceeds to] any one of these [categories] if they exist. according to the sounder [opinion]. the alms to be dispensed. he trusts. [for] slaves to be manumitted by contract. [for] those who are engaged in the struggle. are only for the poor. that is. the hypocrites. all of whom are [classed according to different] categories. so that they might become Muslims. if they have taken out a debt without intending thereby an act of disobedience. as a supplement to udhunun. Those who injure God’s Messenger. the first and the last [of these categories] are no longer given [of the alms-tax] today. whoever opposes God and His Messenger. or that their peers might become Muslims. to abide therein? That is the great abasement. by casting aspersions on him and communicating [to others] what he says [in confidence]. of those for whom there is no [share of the] booty (fay’). or those who have repented but have nothing with which to fulfil [the penalty of expiation]. who cannot find anything to suffice them. if they are. [with] these alms. The Imam must divide these [proceeds] among them equally. in the nominative. [either that] or it is because the predicate of Allāhu wa-rasūluhu. ‘to good’) to those of you who believe. for the way of God. O believers. faradahā. in contrast. slaves. Wise. in what they inform him. or to set things right between people. ‘in the believers’] has been added to distinguish between belief in the sense of ‘submitting [to God]’ (islām). that is. but he is permitted to give priority to certain individuals over others within any one category. the slave to be manumitted by contract. Thus. [9:63] Do they not know that. obligatory [to do so] when the person in charge of the monies has to apportion it but [finds that] it is insufficient. true. ‘their pleasing them’] is because the ‘pleasure’ of both [God and His Messenger] are mutually dependent.

their works have become invalid in this world and in the Hereafter. If We forgive (read passive yu‘fa. they are the wicked. They enjoyed their share.[9:64] The hypocrites are cautious. and so were destroyed. in order to pass [the time of] the road. from expending in obedience [of God]. so He has forgotten them. Those. the fire of Hell. and yet despite this they persist in mockery. and His signs. that is. just as those before you enjoyed their share. You have disbelieved after believing. [9:67] The hypocrites. and His Messenger? [9:66] Make no excuses. are allies of one another. like those before you. [9:71] And the believers. to them: ‘Were you then mocking God. chastisement. and those. ‘We forgive’) a party of you. and the folk of Abraham. but they wronged themselves. they resemble one another in religion. both men and women. as pieces of an individual entity. because of its sincerity and its repentance. that. Their messengers brought them clear proofs. to abide therein: it will suffice them. and they withhold their hands shut. who were far mightier than you. they indeed are the losers. hypocrisy of yours. He has removed them from His mercy. their lot in this world. as a requital and a punishment. about their mockery of you and of the Qur’ān while they were journeying with you towards Tabūk. ‘it is forgiven’. Humayyir. lest it be brought out. they have forgotten God. and the Deviant [cities]?. of those before them reached them — the folk of Noah. [9:69] You. He will make manifest. lest a sūra should be revealed to them. the folk of Sālih. O hypocrites. O hypocrites. they enjoin decency and forbid 202  . but they denied them. in conversation. He has deprived them of His grace. for that. both men and women. just as they indulged [in vain talk]. persisting in hypocrisy and mockery. And God has cursed them. [to] the believers. by committing sin. its inhabitants. and Thamūd. by punishing them for no sin [on their part]. ‘[it] shall be chastised’. that is. perpetual. the folk of Hūd. of hypocrisy. your share. Truly the hypocrites. they enjoin indecency. with miracles. in falsehood and defamation of the Prophet (s). We will chastise (read either [passive] tu‘adhdhab. assuredly they will say. and you indulge [in vain talk]. of which you are fearful’. Say. [9:65] And if (la-in: the lām is for oaths) you question them. your disbelief has become manifest even as you have manifested belief. or active [first person plural] na‘fu. and the dwellers of Midian. informing them of what is in their [the hypocrites’] hearts. and ‘Ād. and forbid decency. as in the case of Jahsh b. [9:68] God has promised the hypocrites. Say: ‘Keep mocking! (this is an imperative of threat) God will bring out. meaning. both men and women. faith and obedience. the tale. they fear. or nu‘adhdhib) another party because they were sinners’. are. and the disbelievers. unbelief and acts of disobedience. making excuses: ‘We were only engaging [in idle talk] and jesting’. So you enjoy. and theirs will be a lasting. and more abundant in wealth and children. [9:70] Has not the tidings. God would never have wronged them. and we did not mean it. they have abandoned obedience of Him. the cities of the folk of Lot. that is. are of one another. the folk of Shu‘ayb.

and they have none on earth as protector. so he [Tha‘laba] began to throw earth on his head [in remorse]. Truly God is Mighty. until the day they meet Him. that God and His Messenger should have enriched them of His bounty. of the defamation that has reached you [as being] from them. but he did not accept it. [9:77] So He made the consequence in their case hypocrisy. an evil journey’s end. and they obey God and His Messenger. God. or helper. with words and [definitive] arguments. al-Khattāb]. who also did not accept it. swear by God that they said nothing. when they had been in dire need: the meaning is that this was all that they attained from him. that is. they lied: he [Tha‘laba] then brought [the payment of] his alms to the Prophet (s). of hypocrisy and believe in you. because they failed God in what they promised Him and because. who did not accept it. for their abode will be Hell.indecency. [9:73] O Prophet. in their hearts. [9:72] God has promised the believers. in the way of assassinating the Prophet on the night of al-‘Aqaba. and in the Hereafter. and be harsh with them. exalted be He. we will give voluntary alms (la-nassaddaqanna: the original tā’ [of natasaddaqanna] has been assimilated with the sād) and become of the righteous’: this was Tha‘laba b. but they did indeed say the word of disbelief and did disbelieve after their submission [to God]: they did indeed manifest disbelief after having manifested submission [to God]. and ‘Ammār b. through rebuke and aversion [towards them]. but stopped attending the Friday prayer and congregational prayers and refused to pay the alms-tax. upon his return from Tabūk — there were about ten to twenty of them. says: [9:76] Yet when He gave them of His bounty. is superior to all of that. and the hypocrites. of that concerning which. they observe prayer and pay the alms. both men and women. He went to ‘Uthmān [b. by having them killed. He puts everything in its proper place. for residence. Yāsir struck the faces of their riding camels when they came against him and were thus repulsed. and blessed dwellings in the Gardens of Eden. from obedience to God. ‘God has forbidden me to accept [it] from you’. nothing can prevent Him from fulfilling His promise and His threat. as God. with the sword. God will have mercy on them. but if they turn away. That is the supreme triumph. in aversion. which is nothing to be spiteful about. who said to him. it will be better for them. of which he would give every needy person his due. So if they repent. fixed. Gardens underneath which rivers flow. Those. the hypocrites. He then approached Abū Bakr with it. [9:78] 203  . Hātib. ‘Affān]. who asked the Prophet (s) to supplicate on his behalf so that God would give him wealth. And they purposed that which they never attained. in the Fire. struggle against the disbelievers. and they were only spiteful. God will chastise them with a painful chastisement in this world. they became niggardly with it and turned away. by way of spoils. He then went to ‘Umar [b. to guard them from Him. on the Day of Resurrection. [an evil] resort it is! [9:74] They. he died during the latter’s reign. Wise. to abide therein. to defend them. from belief. and beatitude from God is greater. He [the Prophet] thus supplicated for him and he became wealthy. they detested. [9:75] And some of them have made a covenant with God [saying]: ‘If He gives us of His bounty.

63:6] Alike it will be regarding them: whether you ask forgiveness for them or you do not ask forgiveness for them [God will not forgive them]. a man came and gave a large amount as voluntary alms. in this world. meaning [the choice] to ask forgiveness.Did they. on account of this other hadīth of his: ‘I shall ask more than seventy times’. to a party of them. lo! they disbelieved in God and His Messenger. they said to one another. [9:79] When the verse concerning ‘voluntary alms’ [Q. [they died] disbelieving. and deride them (and the predicate [of the mentioned subject] is [the following]) — God [Himself] derides them. and that God is the Knower of the hidden things?. You were content to stay behind the first time. what is concealed from the eyes. to them: ‘You shall never more go forth with me. God will not forgive them: it is said that the ‘seventy’ is intended to express [by hyperbole] a great frequency of asking forgiveness. this. and their confidential talks. I would have done so’. O Muhammad (s). [Q. rejoiced at remaining behind the Messenger of God. say. ‘Do not go forth. and offer it. [9:82] But let them laugh a little. [nothing but] what they are capable of. and you shall never fight with me against an enemy. and more worthy for them to guard against. [9:84] When the Prophet (s) prayed over [the dead body of ‘Abd Allāh] Ibn Ubayy. ‘He is [merely] showing off!’ Another man then came and gave a [moderate] measure [of food]. with you on some other campaign. in the heat!’ Say: ‘The fire of Hell is hotter. and such as find nothing [to offer] but their endeavours. ‘I have been given the choice. [9:80] Ask forgiveness for them. that the very number [seventy] is actually meant. He has requited them for their derision. that is because they disbelieved in God and His Messenger. [9:83] So if God brings you back. 9:75] was revealed. from [the journey to] Tabūk. the Prophet (s) said. what they conceal within themselves. ‘God has no need of this man’s charity!’ The following was then revealed: Those who (alladhīna is the subject) find fault with. by not staying behind. It is also said. do not set off to [join] the fight. and God does not guide the wicked folk. that is. And they said. and weep much. so the hypocrites said. and died while they were wicked. and were averse to striving with their wealth and their lives in the way of God. as reported by al-Bukhārī. not know that God knows their secret. 204  . or do not ask forgiveness for them: this leaves the choice of asking forgiveness. such as women and children and others. did they but understand’. however. they would not have stayed behind. expressed in the form of an imperative). defame. the hypocrites. in the Hereafter. nor stand over his grave. In [the Sahīh of] al-Bukhārī there is a hadīth [which states]: ‘If I was sure that were I to ask more than seventy times. so stay behind with those who stay behind’. than Tabūk. away from [military] campaigns. God would forgive [them]. up to him. from Tabūk. and they ask leave of you to go forth. performing supererogation. the believers who offer alms voluntarily. what they confide in each other. and I made it’. If you ask forgiveness for them seventy times. and so they said. the following was revealed: And never pray over any one of them when he is dead. [9:81] Those who were left behind. or refraining. and theirs will be a painful chastisement. whereupon it was made clear to him [the Prophet] that the matter regarding forgiveness had been concluded by the verse. at a burial or as a visit. as a requital for what they used to earn (the sentence is predicative of their state. of those hypocrites who stayed behind in Medina.

in other words [it would usually be read as] al-mu‘tadhirūn. falls upon them. but it is also said that they were the Banū Muqrin — you having said to them. [9:88] But the Messenger and those who believe with him strive with their wealth and their lives: for them are the good things. their eyes flowing. [to ride] with you on the raid — these were seven men of the Ansār. [9:91] As for the weak. the affluent among them ask leave of you. [those] hypocrites among the Bedouin. should they stay away from it. the blind and the chronically ill. God desires only to chastise them thereby in this world. so they do not understand. but by [adhering to] obedience. asking for leave. that is. when they came to you so that you might give them a mount. a section of the Qur’ān. those [of them who were] excused. with tears (min al-dam‘i: min is explicative) for sorrow that they could not find the means to expend. to stay behind on account of their excuses. if they remain true to God and to His Messenger. Merciful. [9:86] And when a sūra. which [itself] is a variant reading). through such [behaviour]. And those who lied to God and His Messenger. [9:89] God has prepared for them Gardens underneath which rivers flow. ‘when’). against those who are virtuous.[9:85] And let not their wealth and their children please you. ‘Leave us to be with those who sit at home’. There is no way [of blame]. and that their souls should depart while they are disbelievers. no sin. [9:87] They are content to be with those who stay behind (khawālif is the plural of khālifa. in this life and in the Hereafter. for the [campaign] struggle. that is. those. they are the successful. [refraining] from coming to give [their] excuses — a painful chastisement shall befall those of them who disbelieve. [what is] good. stayed behind. ‘I cannot find [a mount] whereon to mount you’ (this [last sentence] is a circumstantial qualifier). to them. saying. saying: ‘Believe in God and strive with His Messenger’. is revealed. and the sick. by not spreading false rumours or impeding [others from joining the struggle]. pouring. And God is Forgiving. such as the old. no way of reproach. [9:90] And those Bedouins who had an excuse (al-mu‘adhdhirūn: the original tā’ has been assimilated with the dāl. no blame. [9:92] Nor against those who. by feigning belief. and those who find nothing to expend. when they stay behind. to abide therein: that is the supreme triumph. [came] to the Prophet (s). [9:93] 205  . and so he gave them leave to do so. they departed. by granting them such leeway [in this matter]. the triumphant. turned back (this is the response to the [clause beginning with] idhā. meaning the women who ‘stay behind’ [takhallafna] at home) and a seal has been set upon their hearts. for the struggle.

God will be pleased with them. refraining from reproaching them. He has already informed us of your [true] status. and their abode shall be Hell. [9:95] They will swear to you by God. from Tabūk. not on you. to those who obey Him. are more intense in unbelief and hypocrisy. than the city-dwellers. [when] you return. that you may be satisfied with them. and [so will] His Messenger. So leave them be. meaning [to] God. the supplications. ‘beneath which’]) — to abide therein forever: that is 206  . [9:94] They will make excuses to you. on account of their harshness and crude nature and their being too remote to hear the Qur’ān. God will admit them into His mercy. Knower. as a liability and a [financial] loss. we will never believe you! God has already told us tidings of you. as [pious] offerings to bring [him] nearer to God. as a means. of the Emigrants and the Helpers. up to the Day of Resurrection. that is. by being virtuous.The way [of blame] is only against those who ask leave of you. in what He does with them. They are content to be with those who stay behind and God has set a seal on their hearts. Wise. and He has prepared for them Gardens — with rivers flowing beneath them (a variant reading adds min [min tahtihā. for His reward [to them]. His Paradise. in deeds. for having stayed behind. through resurrection. those who were present at [the battle of] Badr. [9:98] And of the Bedouins there is he who takes what he expends. filth. the expenditure of such [men]. when they are rich. Truly God is Forgiving. and are more likely not to know the bounds of what God has revealed to His Messenger. for you. and requite you for it. and God is Knower. that is. or [it means] all the Companions. Merciful. [9:96] They will swear to you. namely. on account of their inner vileness. when you return to them. that they had [genuine] excuses for staying behind. in the way of God. and He will tell you what you used to do’. from the campaign. in the way of rulings and [legal] prescriptions. to the Knower of the unseen and the visible. for they are an abomination. or alsaw‘) turn of fortune. And God is Hearer. so that they do not know: a similar statement has already been made. for him. of the sayings of His servants. Theirs shall be the evil (read as al-sū‘. to Him. to stay behind. of the Messenger. God will surely not be satisfied with the wicked folk. And God will see your work. but expends it out of fear: these were Banū Asad and [Banū] Ghatafān. for their obedience of Him. [9:97] The Bedouins. to [secure] the prayers. then you will be returned. when you turn back. as a penalty. and awaits for you [evil] turns of fortune. Say. Surely these. such as [men from among the tribes of] Juhayna and Muzayna. the [Arab] nomads. to them: ‘Do not make excuses. with them: your satisfaction is of no avail in the face of the wrath of God. so that you may leave them be. and takes what he expends. of His creatures. and. and so be rid [of you]. [9:100] And the first to lead the way. that is. but if you are satisfied with them. chastisement and destruction shall turn on them. because he does not aspire to be rewarded for it. and they will be pleased with Him. that these should turn against you. will bring them nearer (read qurubatun or qurbatun). to them. to them. the fortunes of time. in the way of God. [9:99] And of the Bedouins there is he who believes in God and the Last Day. and those who follow them. as requital for what they used to earn. of their actions.

the voluntary alms. or otherwise. whose repentance is delayed. for God will surely see your actions. who will be mentioned afterwards: Murāra b. whether He chastises them. Knower. engrossed in it and persisting [in it]. to them (the interrogative is intended as an affirmative [statement] and is meant to incite them to [offer] repentance and charity). Wise. [9:103] Take of their wealth some alms. that is. [9:101] And among those around you. Truly God is Forgiving. in what He does with them. their former [participation in the] struggle. and He will tell you what you used to do’. to God’s command. to purify them and to cleanse them thereby. who are deferred (read murja’ūna or murjawna). by accepting their repentance. for them: it is also said [to mean] reassurance [for them]. and [so will] His Messenger and the believers. and by way of punishment in the grave. Umayya. from among those who stayed behind. and God is Knower. they swore that only the Prophet (s) would untie them. he thus took a third of their wealth and gave it away as charity. and We shall chastise them twice. that their repentance has been accepted. who have confessed their sins. of their sins. which he did when this [verse] was revealed. And God is Hearer. Mālik and Hilāl b. to the Knower of the unseen and the visible. then they will be returned. a mercy. [to] God. and so the matter regarding them was suspended for fifty days. through resurrection. who are obstinate in hypocrisy. Ashja‘ and Ghifār. concerning them. such as [the tribes of] Aslam. during which time people avoided them. that is. It may be that God will relent to them. and pray for them. [9:107] 207  . to a terrible chastisement. and the Merciful?. or relents to them. the Fire. with another that was bad. not out of hypocrisy. of the Bedouins there are hypocrites.the supreme triumph. khalatū ‘amalan sālihan]) they have mixed a righteous deed. You do not know them — an address to the Prophet (s) — but We know them. supplicate for them. there are also hypocrites. in the Hereafter. that is. to them. according to His will. accepts. by causing them to die without [their having made any] repentance. they did not excuse themselves before the Prophet (s). or to people [in general]: ‘Act. al-Rabī‘. and so requite you for it. These [others mentioned] are the three. [9:105] And say. and among the townspeople of Medina. and you will be returned. [9:104] Do they not know that God is He Who accepts repentance from His servants and takes. by disgracing them or having them killed in this world. [9:102] And [there are] others (ākharūn is the subject). [9:106] And [there are] others. or the their confession of their sins. and that God is He Who is the Relenting. Ka‘b b. to His servants. O inhabitants of Medina. however. as you will. Unlike the others. [another] folk. namely. which is their having stayed behind. truly your prayers are a comfort. until it was later revealed that God had relented to them. Merciful: this was revealed regarding Abū Lubāba and a group of men who tied themselves to the walls of the mosque after they heard what had been revealed regarding those who stayed behind. for having stayed behind (i‘tarafū bi-dhunūbihim is an adjectival qualification of it [the subject] and the predicate is [the following. They stayed behind out of laziness and their inclination for peace and quiet. of His creatures.

but. a variant reading has the passive verb come first [sc. good’. in it are men. than that [other one]. by way of kindness towards the poor in times of [heavy] rain or [extreme] heat and in order to provide [a place of worship] for the Muslims. ‘binding’] are verbal nouns. upon piety from the first day. by having some of these pray in their [the hypocrites’] mosque. the former is the better. about to collapse (read juruf or jurf) so that it toppled with him. there: and so he sent a group of men to destroy and burn it. those who have chosen a mosque — these were twelve men from among the hypocrites — by way of harm. to do. before it was built — meaning the above-mentioned Abū ‘Āmir — they will swear: ‘We desired nothing. that is. and so we began to wash in the way they did”’. as mentioned in Bukhārī — is worthier. Let this be your way’. in hope of. so that whoever comes from his side may stay there: he had gone to the Byzantine Emperor (qaysar) to bring troops to fight against the Prophet (s). [9:111] Indeed God has purchased from the believers their lives and their possessions. has praised handsomely the way you purify yourselves in the story about your mosque. since they built it on the orders of the monk Abū ‘Āmir. They had asked the Prophet (s) to perform prayers in it. so what is this purification which you perform?” They said. to cause distress for those of the mosque of Qubā’. as a sanctuary for him. from Him. and as an outpost. an observation post. such that they die. and God bears witness that they are truly liars. who love to purify themselves. of a bank. and to cause division among the believers. or he who founded his building upon the brink. O Messenger of God. that they expend it in obedience of Him — for example by striving in His way — so that theirs will be [the reward of] Paradise: they shall fight in the way of God and they shall kill and be killed (this sentence is independent and constitutes an explication of the [above-mentioned] ‘purchase’. by building it. for those who waged war against God and His Messenger before. ‘they shall be killed and shall kill’]. an overhang. According to one hadīth reported by al-Bazzār [they said]: ‘We use stones [to scrape off remnants] and follow this with water’. “God. fight on). in their hearts unless their hearts are cut. that is crumbling.And. Wise. Ibn Khuzayma reported in his Sahīh [by way of an isnād] from [‘Uwaym] b. and so the following was revealed: [9:108] Never stand. namely. which is the likeness of the [building of the] mosque of Qubā’. constructed the day you arrived in Medina (dār al-hijra) — this was the mosque of Qubā’. into the fire of Hell?: [this is] an excellent similitude for building upon that which constitutes the opposite of fear of God and [for] what it leads to. who pray in the mosque of Qubā’. so that it collapsed [taking] with it the one who built it. Sā‘ida that: ‘The Prophet (s) came to them at the mosque of Qubā’ and said. the edge. to pieces. meaning that some of them are killed while those who remain. while the latter is the likeness of the mosque of ‘harm’ (masjid al-dirār). “By God. [9:109] Is he who founded his building upon fear of God and. all that we know is that we used to have Jews in our vicinity and they used to wash their behinds after defecation. in what He does with them. and God is Knower. A mosque which was founded. of His creatures. And God guides not the evildoing folk. torn. in this [claim of theirs]. the interrogative is meant as an affirmative: in other words. therein. one whose foundations were built. to perform prayer. and God loves those who purify themselves (muttahhirīn: the original tā’ [of mutatahhirūn] has been assimilated with the tā’) that is. and disbelief. ‘promise’. ‘That is the way [for proper purification]. and haqqan. exalted be He. to which he [the Prophet] said. that is a promise which is binding (both [wa‘dan. and in its place they left a refuse pit where decaying cadavers would be dumped. [never] perform prayer. a point of doubt. and are in the accusative on account of their omitted [implicit] verbs) upon Him in the Torah and the Gospel and the Qur’ān. and who fulfils his covenant better than God?. [9:110] The buildings which they have built will never cease to be a misgiving. among them. fa-yuqtalūna wa-yaqtulūn. the Ansār. better. He will reward them. Rejoice then (there is a shift from the third [to second] person here) in this bargain of 208  . for you to stand. that is. beatitude. no one is better in fulfilling it.

and those who believe. the subject being implicit). to Islam. including who deserves to be sent astray. or helper. truly Abraham was soft of heart. any protector. and their souls. and where the heat became so intense that they resorted to drinking filth. that is. which was their predicament during the raid at Tabūk. when the earth was straitened for them. for having died as disbelievers. [9:112] Those who repent (al-tā’ibūna is in the nominative as a laudative. that is. I will ask my Lord forgiveness for you [Q. those who fast. but when they are not wary of it. 19:47].yours which you have made. to preserve you from Him. bargain. Surely God is Knower of all things. until He had made clear to them that which they should be wary of. when he said to him. relatives. [9:113] The following was revealed regarding the Prophet (s) asking forgiveness for his uncle Abū Tālib. Truly He is Gentle. is the supreme triumph. because of the anxiety and their [sense of] alienation resulting from the delay of God’s relenting to them [with mercy]. that is. for the same reason [as those mentioned above]. and you do not have. until 209  . His rulings. [formerly denied] His relenting to them. those who maintain God’s bounds. but when it became clear to him that he was an enemy of God. after it has become clear to them that they are inhabitants of the Hell-fire. [9:117] God has truly relented. [9:118] And. for that. those who prostrate themselves. He relented. by implementing them. the one that secures the ultimate goal. to ask forgiveness for the idolaters. who devote their worship sincerely to God. Merciful to them. of Paradise. he declared himself innocent of him. forbearing. He gives life and He makes to die. that is. [9:115] And God would never send a people astray after He had guided them. then He relented to them. other than Him. besides God. in the way of deeds. so they could find no place wherein to feel secure. [had almost] inclined away from following him. where two men would share a single date. that is. despite its vastness. their hearts. He has [truly] perpetuated His relenting. were straitened for them. those who bow. during the time of this [hardship]. after the hearts of a party of them had almost deviated (read either as tazīghu or yazīghu). and refrained from asking forgiveness for him. ten men would take turns on one camel. enduring harm patiently. then they deserve to be sent astray. those who worship. in favour of staying behind due to the hardship that afflicted them. and give good tidings to the believers. that is. making frequent entreaty and supplication [to God]. to the three who were left behind. to defend you against His hurt. even though they be kinsmen. such that they [their souls] could not find happiness or solace. to the Prophet and the Emigrants and the Helpers who followed him in the hour of hardship. by making them steadfast. and some of the Companions asking forgiveness for their idolatrous parents: It is not for the Prophet. those who enjoin decency and forbid to indecency. O mankind. those who give praise. or to be guided. from idolatry and hypocrisy. [9:116] Surely to God belongs the kingdom of the heavens and of the earth. [9:114] Abraham’s prayer for the forgiveness of his father was only because of a promise he had made to him. to Him in every state. upon his death as an disbeliever. in the hope that he would submit [to God]. those who perform prayers. for all its breadth.

or great. the Merciful. He made them successful in finding repentance. capture or plunder. fear God. since they disbelieve in it. there are some of them. small. in [their] faith and covenants. Ibn ‘Abbās said that this [verse] is specifically [intended] for raiding parties. helping and granting [them] victory. that is. from the raid. to their companions. therein [in the way of God]. any sum. that they may be rewarded for it. by adhering to His commands and prohibitions. and they die while they were disbelievers. when he sets out on a campaign. prohibition against staying behind. Truly God is the Relenting. be harsh with them. severity. rather He rewards them. [it only adds] disbelief to their disbelief. the [due] reward thereof. it has increased them in faith. of every tribe. that God may reward them the best of what they used to do. those who remain behind. that is. so that they may beware? of God’s punishment. on a raid. 210  . is revealed. and they rejoice. a weakness of faith. [9:119] O you who believe. nor do they cross a valley. nor gain any gain from the enemy. that is. even if it be a single date. and to prefer their lives to his life. while the others remain behind. by adhering to sincerity. and be with those who are truthful. that they might also turn [in repentance]. Truly God does not leave the wage of the virtuous to go to waste. as a righteous deed. followed by the next nearest of them. by guarding them against hardships which he [the Prophet] is content [to suffer] himself (this statement is a prohibition expressed as a predicate). in other words. mockingly: ‘Which of you has this increased in faith?’. and so the following was revealed: It is not for the believers to go forth. meaning wat’an) that enrages the disbelievers. is because neither thirst nor toil nor hunger afflicts them in the way of God. fight those of the disbelievers who are near to you. nor tread they any tread (mawti’an is a verbal noun. the wage of those [mentioned]. the hypocrites. they were certain. of them go forth. so that they. that is. [9:125] But as for those in whose hearts is sickness. because they accept that it is true. [9:123] O you who believe. during a [campaign] march. [9:121] Nor expend they. [9:122] When the Prophet (s) was about to dispatch a raiding party — after they [certain Muslims] had been reproached for staying behind — all of them went forth. Then He turned [relenting] to them.they thought. that is. of the Qur’ān. altogether: why should not a party. a group. of God. [9:120] It is not for the people of Medina and for the Bedouins [who dwell] around them to stay behind God’s Messenger. and let them find harshness in you. be it through slaughter. that. that is. but a righteous deed is therefore recorded for them. because of it. while the previous one is [specifically] to prohibit any individual staying behind when the Prophet (s) sets out [on a campaign]. it only adds abomination to their abomination. the nearest. and know that God is with the pious. of every section. by refraining from [acts of] disobedience to Him. who say. but it is recorded for them. by teaching them some of the rulings which they have come to learn. and God says: As for those who believe. [9:124] And whenever a sūra. that (read the softened an) there is no refuge from God except in Him. may become learned in religion and that they may warn their folk when they return to them.

and so if no one can see them they get up [and leave]. desiring good for them. ‘that’. and the Prophet (s) recites it. except for verses 40. is explicative): ‘Warn. of the days of this world. in Him have I put my trust. 94. that is. ‘from among the verses of the Book’]). that is. Still they do not repent. your experiencing hardship and encountering harm [is hard on him]. these signs. they look at one another. it consists of 109 or 110 verses. threaten. ‘for’] and its dependent genitive noun [al-nās. Muhammad (s). afflicted. say: ‘God suffices me. otherwise they stay put. Verily there has come to you a messenger… to the end of the sūra’ [sc. and saying: ‘Will anyone see you?’. desiring to flee. Those. [10:2] Is it for the people. [9:129] So if they turn away. in return for the deeds they have sent forward. 211  . the kursī. which has been made clear. from guidance. your suffering. [refraining] from believing in you. the Qur’ān (the genitive annexation [āyāt al-kitāb] has the meaning of min [sc. for they do not reflect [on it]. to the believers full of pity. [9:127] And whenever a sūra is revealed. ‘Truly this. if you get up [and flee]?. every year once or twice?. that is a [preceding] fair reward. [9:128] Verily there has come to you a messenger from among yourselves. and in none other. The disbelievers say. Ka‘b that he [Ubayy] said: ‘The last verse to be revealed was [from]. O believers. not see’) that they are tested. Then they turn away. Qur’ān that comprises all of that [mentioned]. God turns their hearts away. of their hypocrisy. which is singled out for mention because it is the greatest of all things created. that is. the preposition [li-. with chastisement. is [the following. the hypocrites ([in which case] read a-wa-lā yarawna. ‘a sorcerer’. hard. ‘the people’] constitute a circumstantial qualifier of His saying): a wonder (‘ajaban: read in the accusative as a predicate of kāna. wherein is mention of them. which is also its subject if read according to the former [accusative] reading. persisting in their disbelief. with drought and diseases. that is. There is no god except Him. who is full of concern for you. and give good tidings to those who believe that they have a prior.[9:126] Do they not see. (Yûnus) [10:1] Alif lām rā’: God knows best what He means by these [letters]. 95 and 96. min āyāti’l-kitāb. [nor] do they heed admonition. and He is the Lord of the Tremendous Throne’ (al-‘arsh al-azīm). where it is the Prophet (s) to whom they are referring [as being ‘a manifest sorcerer’]. Al-Hākim reported in al-Mustadrak [by way of an isnād] from Ubayy b. and was revealed after [sūrat] al-Isrā’. a preceding. merciful. an awhaynā]) that We have inspired a man from among them. which are Medinese. Meccan. or if read a-wa-lā tarawna. are the signs of the wise Book. or if read in the nominative [‘ajabun] as its subject: its predicate. ‘do you. that you should be rightly guided. [saying] (an. 9:128-129]. is manifest sorcery’: a variant reading [for la-sihrun] has lasāhirun. the disbelievers. [promise of] truth with their Lord’?. that is. namely. because they are a folk who do not understand. the truth. that you should suffer. nor do they remember. one of you — Muhammad (s) — for whom it is grievous. the people. profoundly compassionate. the people of Mecca (this interrogative is meant as a disavowal. [10:3] Truly your Lord is God Who created the heavens and the earth in six days. Upon Him I rely. Q.

and in the accusative because of the verbs implicit in them). for a people who fear. directing affairs. through their faith.’ And their final prayer will be: ‘Praise be to God. the number of the years and the reckoning. and other things. since they reject [the truth of] it. justly. in [their] coming and going. for them will be a draught of boiling water and a painful chastisement because they disbelieved. affirm His Oneness. He began it by originating [it]. ‘Because He’] originates creation. that He may requite. Creator and Director. therein will be: ‘Peace. God did not create that. what they request they find before them. [10:7] Truly those who do not expect to encounter Us. between them. And those who disbelieve. and are content with the life of this world. their request for what they desire in Paradise will be to say: ‘Glory be to You. that is. not in vain. is the return of all of you: God’s promise. becoming concealed for two nights when a particular month has 30 days. so worship Him. trees. those who believe and perform righteous deeds. moon. who reflect. [10:5] He it is Who made the sun a radiance. 212  . Lord of the Worlds’. [10:6] Truly in the alternation of night and day. exalted be He above such things. There is no (mā min indicates a relative clause) intercessor. so that. then He presided upon the Throne. O God!’. and. then recreates it. a presiding befitting of Him. ‘The idols intercede for us!’. there are signs. Truly He (read innahu as a new sentence. among creatures. [10:10] their prayer therein. or [concealed] for one night. that is. so that you might know. He will lead them. and determined it. exalted be He. of animals. He details (read yufassilu or nufassilu.in the same measure [of time]. which is mentioned. and feel reassured. since there was no sun or moon then: had He willed He could have created them in an instant. is God. the earth. and so believe: He singles these out for mention because they are the ones to benefit from them [such signs]. and the moon a light. their Lord will guide them. and [in] what God has created in the heavens. [10:4] To Him. reward. save after His permission: a refutation of their saying. and those who are heedless of Our signs. in the way of [practising] idolatry and [performing] acts of disobedience. in it. exalted be He. save in truth. or annahu with an implied lām [sc. with respect to its movement. through resurrection. in Him. [10:8] those. sun. mountains. and their greeting. emitting light. through resurrection. feel secure. thereby. your Lord. ‘We detail’) the signs for a people who know. stars and other things. seas. in truth (both [wa‘da and haqqan] are verbal nouns. lo!. in stations: 28 stations in 28 nights every month. to intercede for anyone. their abode will be the Fire because of what they used to earn. Will you not remember? (tadhakkarūna: the original tā’ [of tatadhakkarūna] has been assimilated with the dhāl). by appointing for them a light with which they will be able to find their way on the Day of Resurrection. Him. [10:9] Truly those who believe and perform righteous deeds. instead of [the life] the Hereafter. [of] the proofs of Our Oneness. in. increasing and diminishing. neglecting to ponder them. rivers. when it has 29 days. but the reason for His not having done so is that He wanted to teach His creatures to be circumspect. indications of His power. li-annahu. Rivers will flow beneath them in the Gardens of Bliss. that. of angels.

or sitting or standing. in other words [read as] ka-annahu) he had never called upon Us because of a misfortune that befell him. communities. are recited to them. verses. I only follow that which is revealed to me. manifest (bayyināt is a circumstantial qualifier). Say. that is. in other words. la-qudiya ajaluhum]. indeed. should befall a. For I have already dwelt among you a [whole] lifetime. to them: ‘It is not for me to change it of my own accord. its subject omitted. successors (khalā’if is the plural of khalīfa) in the earth after them. the idolaters. in his unbelief. lying down. if I should disobey my Lord. So. one in which our gods are not denigrated. that this [Qur’ān] is not from myself? [10:17] And who. [10:13] And indeed We have destroyed generations. but they would not believe (wa-mā kānū li-yu’minū: this is a supplement to zalamū. in it. who do not expect to encounter Us. ‘if’. he passes on. by His destroying them. those who do not expect to encounter Us. by changing it. and. Surely. the following was revealed: And if God should hasten for mankind evil as they would hasten good. [10:14] Then We made you. but when We have relieved him of his misfortune. illness or poverty. 213  . of forty years. folk. O people of Mecca. the Day of Resurrection. before you. disbelieving. that We might behold how you would behave. We shall requite the sinning. the unbelieving.[10:11] When the idolaters sought to hasten [their] chastisement. their messengers brought them clear proofs. in the same way that supplication during misfortune and abstention [from supplication] in times of comfort were adorned for him. by way of idolatry. with nominative ajaluhum [sc. or change it’. no one. man. does greater evil than he who invents a lie against God. the sinners. ‘Bring a Qur’ān other than this. those who do not fear the Resurrection. or read as the active with accusative ajalahum [sc. so will you not understand?’. as if (ka-an is softened. not relating to you anything [of the sort]. ‘He would have made it known to you’] as the response to the [conditional] law. and is a supplement to what preceded. the chastisement of a dreadful day’. and whether you would take heed from their example and believe in Our messengers. it is that. that which they do. [10:12] If misfortune. ‘He would have already concluded their term’]). of your own accord. la-qadā ajalahum. But We leave those. the idolaters. in other words. [10:16] Say: ‘If God had willed I would not have recited it to you. before this [Qur’ān]. is adorned for the prodigal. or denies His signs?. by ascribing a partner to Him. their term [of life] would already have been concluded for them (read as the passive. [nor] would He have made you aware of it (the lā [of wa-lā adrākum] is for negation. So. just as We destroyed those. O people of Mecca. he calls upon Us on his side. hesistant and perplexed. they shall [never] find happiness. that is. a variant reading has the lām [sc. when they did evil. say. [from] the Qur’ān. that is. to wander blindly in their insolence. He would have made it known to you by the tongue of someone other than myself). ‘they did evil’). shall not prosper. but He gives them respite. nor would He have made it known to you. in every state. [10:15] And when Our clear. la-adrākum. Truly I fear. indicating their truthfulness. [denies] the Qur’ān.

gentle. behold! they have some plot concerning Our signs. to them: ‘The Unseen. [10:21] And when We made people. [of] rain and fertility. by associating others with God. 214  . that is. while others disbelieved. only to Him: ‘If (la-in: the lām is for oaths) You deliver us from these. at requiting. but it is also said [that this was the case] from the time of Abraham to that of ‘Amr b. ‘Why has a sign not been sent down on him. And had it not been for a word that had already preceded from your Lord. in this life. wrongdoing. misery and drought. [10:20] And they. from his Lord?’. [between] mankind. of them: ‘These are our intercessors with God’. that is submission [to the One God]. regarding that over which they differed. their supplication. then to Us is your return. the disbelievers of Mecca. if you do not believe. for the chastisement. after death. in other words. it is [but]. that which can neither hurt them. the enjoyment of the life of this world. terrors. we shall verily be of the thankful’. ‘an enjoyment’. would you inform. which you will enjoy for a short while. Say. and waves come on them from every side. on Muhammad (s). say. is only against yourselves. nor profit them. guardian. behold! they are insolent in the earth wrongfully. that which is concealed from servants. is also read yamkurūn. its affair. besides God. that had afflicted them. it would have been decided between them. that is. Then say. as was the case with [previous] prophets. O mankind. Luhayy. belongs only to God. and We shall inform you of what you used to do. to them: ‘Would you tell. and they say. some of them remaining firmly [upon belief in One God]. your insolence. [of those] who affirm [Your] Oneness. ‘they are plotting’). surely Our. after adversity. by the disbelievers being punished. secure in their faith. So wait. [to the effect] that requital would be deferred until the Day of Resurrection. [10:23] Yet when He has delivered them. then they differed. for if He had a partner. following one religion. since nothing can be hidden from Him. I am waiting with you’. Say. in other words [read as with an omitted verb such as] tatamatta‘ūna. other than Him. that is. [10:22] He it is Who conveys you (yusayyirukum: a variant reading has yanshurukum) across the land and the sea. and they think that they are overwhelmed. God of what He does not know in the heavens or in the earth?’ (the interrogative is meant as a disavowal). a staff or a [glowing] hand. blowing violently. there comes upon them a stormy wind. from the time of Adam to the time of Noah.[10:18] And they worship. [10:19] Mankind was but one community. the people of Mecca. in the way of mockery and denial. taste of mercy. ‘[one which] you shall enjoy’). [that] they shall perish. if they do worship it — and these are the idols. therefore He alone can bring them forth: mine is only to covey the Message. since the sin thereof shall fall against them. that is. in [affirmation of] His transcendence. Glory be to Him!. and it is from this [Unseen] that signs come forth. messengers are writing down that which you are plotting’ (tamkurūn. in religion. destroying everything. in the way of a she-camel. He [Himself] would know it. until when you are in ships and they sail with them (there is a shift of address from second [to third] person) with a fair. breeze and they rejoice therein. should they not worship it. they call upon God. to them: ‘God is swifter at plotting. and High be He exalted above what they associate! with Him. and then requite you for it (a variant reading [for nominative matā‘u] has accusative matā‘a.

wa’mtāzū’l-yawma ayyuhā’l-mujrimūn. which is to contemplate God. [10:26] For those who do good. that he be guided. ‘adhere to’. Then We shall make a separation. as the plural of qit‘a. cloaked [in]. by having faith. envelop. shall overcome. every soul shall experience (tablū derives from balwā. [10:30] There. all together. as [is stated] in the verse. or qit‘an. and their associates will say. by practising idolatry. then We shall say to those who associated others [with God]: ‘In your place! (makānakum is in the accusative because ilzamū. as [reported] in a hadīth by Muslim [in his Sahīh]. when the earth has taken on its ornaments. mention. Paradise. which is Paradise. that is. they are the inhabitants of Paradise: therein they will abide. you sinners. [10:28] And. as reaped corn. ‘for those who do good’. whereof mankind eat. until. that is. [what] it offered in the way of 215  . 36:59]. is implied [sc. ‘it shall recite’. creation. the signs for a people who reflect. meaning juz’an. exalted be He. ‘you were not …’] is for negation. between them. ‘us’] precedes the verb in order [to accord] with the end-rhyme [of the Qur’ānic verse]. that is. that is. then the plants of the earth mingle with it. in other words [read it as] ka-annahā) the previous day it had not flourished. [10:27] And for those (wa’lladhīna is a supplement to li’lladhīna ahsanū. the day on which We shall gather them. strips of darkest night (read qita‘an. with flowers (izzayyanat. no defender. to a straight path. [as though] it never were. and cattle [eat]. so [read as] innā) we were unaware of your worship’. the religion of Islam. and the believers. [plants] such as wheat and barley and so on. ilzamū makānakum]). ignominy shall overcome them — they have no protector. to them: ‘It was not us that you were worshipping (mā [of mā-kuntum. the description. the direct object [iyyānā. its splendour of plants. upon this day!’ [Q. and has adorned itself. on that day. of the life of this world is only as water. fully capable of harvesting its fruits. a variant reading has tatlū. [10:25] And God summons to the Abode of Peace. that indeed (in is softened. nor ignominy. and We make it. so [understand it as] wa-li’lladhīna. the idols. soot. [do] We make clear. ‘recitation’) what it did before. [they mingle] because of it. neither dust. ‘adorned itself’. Our command. that is. against God — as if their faces had been covered with. We shall distinguish. You (antum: this emphasises the [second person plural] subject concealed in the implied verb [ilzamū]. ‘a trial’. which We send down from the heaven. as though (ka-an is softened. Those. and He guides whomever He wills. [10:29] God suffices as a witness between us and you. ‘a part’). is originally tazayyanat. Those. and more. is the fairest reward. ‘Now be separate. its crops. like that which has been reaped with sickles. [there shall be] the requital of an evil deed by the like thereof. Our decree or Our chastisement.[10:24] The likeness. by summoning [people] to faith. they are the inhabitants of the Fire: therein they will abide. grief. of pasture. ‘and for those’) who earn evil deeds. [the Abode] of security. but the tā’ has been substituted with the zāy and assimilated with it) and its inhabitants think that they are masters of it. Thus do We detail. and allows for the supplement [that follows]:) and your associates!’. their faces. attaching themselves one to another. derived from tilāwa. rain. comes upon it by night or day.

more deserving of being followed? (the interrogative is meant as an affirmation and a rebuke. and believe? [10:32] That. the Word of your Lord is justified concerning those who are wicked. no uncertainty — from the Lord of the Worlds (min rabbi’l-‘ālamīn is semantically connected to tasdīqa. follow nothing but conjecture. Surely God is Knower of what they do. So what is wrong with you. revealed [as]. Lord: so what is there. and sight. your true. after truth. thus he who mistakes the truth. that is. or Who owns hearing. has fallen into error). [10:37] And this Qur’ān is not such as could ever be produced. despite proof having been established. shall be absent [before them]. but it is. ‘a detailing’. and. [of lies] against Him. one where what does not deserve to be followed is followed? [10:36] And most of them. in worshipping idols. and will requite them for it. [10:34] Say: ‘Is there of those whom you associate [with God] one that originates creation. in the way of associates. then recreated it?’ Say: ‘God originates creation. a exposition of the rulings and other matters which God has prescribed — wherein is no doubt. and this [Word] is [either] the verse. together]’. [Q. ‘a confirmation’. Him. 216  . of Scriptures. from faith. turned away from worshipping Him. the creation of this [faculty]. [10:35] Say: ‘Is there of those whom you associate [with God] one that guides to the truth?’.’ Then say. that is. Lord. to them: ‘Will you not then fear?’. plants [out of]. then is God. [how do you make] this corrupt judgement. 32:13]‘Verily I shall fill Hell [with jinn and mankind. a variant reading [for accusative tasdīqa] has the nominative tasdīqu and nominative tafsīlu. established. in other words. and they shall be returned to God. and Who directs affairs?’. there is nothing after it [truth] other than that [error]. which is the worship of God. and Who brings forth the living from the dead and brings forth the dead from the living. ‘it is’). to them: ‘Who provides for you. the former is more deserving).deeds. or one who does not guide. Doer of all these things. or to an omitted unzila. [one who] is not [himself] guided. [it could not be] a fabrication. their rightful. when what is sought is knowledge. then recreates it. and that which they were inventing. How then are you turned away. ‘revealed’. and a detailing of the Book. Say: ‘God guides to the truth. or it is [the following:] that they do not believe. out of the heaven. [those who] disbelieve. how do you judge?’. How then are you deviated?’. except error? (the interrogative is meant as an affirmative. [10:31] Say. shall fail them. despite the proofs having been established? [10:33] Thus. in other words. everlasting. since they imitate their fathers therein. [their] established. by [means of] setting up [definitive] arguments and creating guidance. meaning the ability to make hear. [by anyone] besides God. God. a confirmation of what is before it. rain. the earth. [for the accusative tafsīla] by [reading] an implied huwa. unless he is guided?. truly conjecture avails nothing against truth. just as those are turned away from faith so. between creatures? They will surely say. is One Who guides to the truth — and this is God — more deserving of being followed. ‘It is He.

We shall destroy these [people]. And your Lord knows very well the corrupters: this is a threat for them. that is. for denying the messengers. ‘on the day’]). but they denied that. as if they had not tarried. in this world. upon their being resurrected. it is. then say. even though they do not see? — He likens them [the Meccan disbelievers] to these [the blind] because they fail to be guided. Say: ‘Then bring a sūra like it. that is. because of the terror of what they see (the comparative sentence is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the [third person] pronoun). for you are eloquent speakers of Arabic like me. those who were before them denied. besides God. you are innocent of what I do. that is. in other words. in terms of the clarity and the rhetorical excellence of its language. [they denied] the Qur’ān and did not reflected upon it. [10:41] If they deny you. In a similar manner. But they were not able to do this. and I am innocent of what you do’: this was abrogated by the ‘sword’ verse [Q. [10:45] And on the day when He shall gather them. that is. through resurrection. God being aware of this in their case. but an hour of the day. they do not understand?. or in the grave. and to you your work. [10:40] And of them. [of] the people of Mecca. ‘He has invented it’?. [10:42] And of them are some who listen to you. to them: ‘Unto me is my work. nay. in [saying] that this is an invention. for help in this [matter]. 9:5]. when you recite the Qur’ān. by way of invention. [behold] how their affair was concluded. [they are] much worse [since God says]: It is not the eyes that are blind. by their being destroyed. the knowledge whereof they did not comprehend. says: Nay. But will you make the deaf to hear — He likens them [the Meccan disbelievers] to these [the deaf] because they are not able to benefit from what is recited to them — even though. their messengers. recognising one another. Muhammad (s) has invented it.[10:38] Or do they say. those will verily have lost who denied the encounter with God. and some who would never believe therein. [even though they do not] reflect? [10:43] And of them are some who look toward you. So. [10:44] Verily God does not wrong mankind in any way. are some who believe in it. and call upon whom you can. and whereof the interpretation. 22:46]. for each there will be a [due] requital of his deeds. exalted be He. but thereafter the recognition ceases on account of the severity of the terrors (the [last] sentence is either an implied circumstantial qualifier or one connected to the adverbial qualifier [yawma. if you are truthful’. [10:39] God. but blind are the hearts within the breasts [Q. has not yet come to them. Behold then what was the consequence for the evildoers!. but mankind wrong themselves. 217  . But will you guide the blind. other than Him. knowing one another. for they were not guided. the consequence of the threats [made] therein. in the same [manner of] denial. with their deafness.

chastisement comes upon you by night or day. requited for anything but. judgement is passed between them justly. by my Lord! Verily it is true and you cannot escape’. or [it means] in the chastisement. ‘If I come to you. and all those who accepted his truthfulness. of what they do. to inform. God’s. of the communities [of this world]. to Us they shall return. of chastisement. [Say] inform me: If His. when [until now] you have been hastening it on?’. the intention here is to provoke terror [in them]. during your lifetime (the response to the conditional statement has been omitted. ‘then so shall it be’). that which you promise us in the way of chastisement and resurrection? Say: ‘Aye. that the sinners. or We take you [to Us]. that you will believe therein?. before punishing them. they will not miss it. ‘the sinners’] has replaced the [second person. avert. if you are truthful. by a single hour. fairly. in mockery [of it]. and they are not wronged. nor bring it forward. [10:52] Then will it be said to those who were evildoers: ‘Taste the everlasting chastisement!. ‘you’] pronominalisation. The interrogative sentence is the response to the conditional. about it?’ [10:49] Say: ‘I have no power to. seek to hasten? (an overt noun [al-mujrimūn. to give me power over: so how could I possess the power to bring about the chastisement? For every community there is an appointed time. that is. Are you.[10:46] And whether (wa-immā: the nūn of the conditional particle in has been assimiliated with the extra mā) We show you something of that which We promise them. such that they are punished and the messenger. myself. the idolaters. or to. you are not. And when their messenger comes. benefit. in God. from. to them. when it has come down (the [use of] hamza [in a-thumma. is there of it. when it has come to pass. the requital of. that is. by being punished for no crime: similarly. ‘Is it true?’. [you cannot] elude 218  . [of] the chastisement. indeed. in the way of their denials and disbelief. of chastisement. moreover. what you used to earn?’ [10:53] And they ask you to tell. hurt. them. When their time comes. [10:48] And they say: ‘When will this promise. bring. as [in the case where] you might say. [10:50] Say: ‘Have you considered?. in other words [understand it as being] fa-dhāka. and so will chastise them with the severest punishment. what. in other words. and they deny him. We shall deal with these [disbelievers of your community]. except as God might will. they cannot put it off. [nor] overtake it’. in other words: how awful is that which they seek to hasten!) [10:51] Is it [only] then. come to pass. what would you give me?’. do you believe. there is a messenger. [when] it has befallen you. and God. it [your belief] will not be accepted from you [in that instance] and it will be said to you: Now. the one in which you shall abide. that is. Aware. is Witness. a fixed period until they perish. [10:47] And for every community. part. are delivered. ‘is it then’] is to deny [the possibility of] deferrment [of chastisement].

surely God’s promise. of riches. [between] all creatures. [10:60] And what do they suppose. from error. a manifest. Why. in the earth or in the heaven escapes. but most of them. nay [you]. [10:56] He gives life and makes to die. God is addressing him and his community. but We are witnesses. to make that lawful or unlawful? No! Or do you. and to Him you shall be returned. nor do you recite anything regarding it. and a guidance. in it. those who invent lies concerning God. fearing reproach. and a mercy for those who believe. nor what is less than that or greater. [is] fixed. [10:57] O people. but most of them do not give thanks. when they see the chastisement. namely. over you when you are engaged therein. inform me. [the weight of] the smallest ant. it would offer it as ransom. there has come to you an admonition from your Lord. for having neglected faith. 219  . and tajma‘ūn. which He has revealed to you. any matter. by attributing that to Him. that is. and they will feel remorse within them. has created. by way of the Qur’ān. inhabitants of Mecca. are not occupied with any business.the chastisement. what provision God has revealed. and they are not wronged. that is. [10:54] And if each soul that has done wrong. [10:58] Say: ‘In the bounty of God. regarding such a matter — [or it means: nor do you recite anything] from God. [that] has disbelieved. but it has been decided justly between them. had all that is in the earth. and a healing. bounty and mercy. [will happen to them] on the Day of Resurrection?: do they reckon that He will not chastise them? No! Truly God is Bountiful to mankind. your Lord. nor do you perform any action. is true. and this [Book] is the Qur’ān. ‘they hoard’. [10:55] Why. the Preserved Tablet (al-lawh al-mahfūz). their leaders keep it [their remorse] secret from the weak ones whom they had led astray. a Book which contains [mention] of that which is [permissible] for you and that which is enjoined on you. [10:59] Say: ‘Have you considered. by granting them respite and bestowing graces upon them. [in] the action. for what is in the breasts. in anything. And not so much as the weight of an atom. that is. and He shall requite you for your deeds. this. ‘you hoard’). Say: ‘Has God given you permission. how you have made some of it unlawful and some lawful?’. [that is] Islam. but it is in a clear. is hidden from. in this world (read yajma‘ūn. let them rejoice: it is better than what they hoard’. O Muhammad (s). a cure. of resurrection and requital. [10:61] And you. of corrupt beliefs and uncertainties. for you. watchers. Book. in the Hereafter. people. the Qur’ān. against chastisement on the Day of Resurrection. surely to God belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth. in that. invent lies concerning God?’. and in His mercy. do not know. as in the case of [the camels called] al-Bahīra or al-Sā’iba. and carrion.

[no] proof. and they are only telling lies. that is. for this. [10:65] And let not what they say. by observing His commandments and prohibitions. those who believe and fear. after death. as possessions. God. neither shall they grieve. in this world. in this [matter]. [10:66] Why.[10:62] Assuredly God’s friends. ‘God has taken [to Him] a son’. that is. belongs wholly to God. the Jews and the Christians. at death. idols. [without need] of anyone. Surely in that are signs. creatures and servants. [those who] worship. that is. no failing of His promises. for only he who has need of a child would desire [to have] one. Truly (inna: indicates a new sentence) power. the Knower. for a folk who are able to hear. and those who claim that the angels are the daughters of God. [10:63] They are. grieve you. God. exalted be He. Do you say about God what you do not know? (an interrogative meant as a rebuke). that you have not been sent [as a prophet] or otherwise. they shall not find happiness. of deeds. their supposition that these are gods who intercede for them. by attributing offspring to Him. He is the Hearer. Those who call upon. that you say. indications of His Oneness. of His. [10:70] Theirs will be. besides God. because they used to disbelieve. [in affirmation of] His transcending having offspring. then to Us is their return. since one is able to see during it. exalted be He above this: they are following nothing but conjecture. and will requite them and grant you victory. possessions and creatures. and the day to see: the attribution of sight (ibsār) to ‘the day’ is figurative. [only] a little. mentioned. that. There is no changing the Words of God. [10:68] They. are not following associates. which they will enjoy for the duration of their lives. [10:64] Theirs are good tidings in the life of this world: in a hadīth verified by al-Hākim this has been explained as [referring to] a propitious vision which an individual might have or [a vision] which another might have of that person. in this [matter]. other than Him. of speech. say. surely to God belongs all who are in the heavens and all who are in the earth. might. enjoyment. and in the Hereafter: Paradise and reward. You have no warrant. then We shall make them taste terrible chastisement. He is Independent. hearing [in such a way so as] to reflect and be admonished. is the supreme triumph. says to them: Glory be to Him!. [10:69] Say: ‘Truly those who invent lies concerning God. no fear shall befall them. [10:67] He it is Who made for you the night that you should rest therein. in reality. exalted be He. as servants. 220  . shall not prosper’. in the Hereafter. to you. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth.

the story. that it is sorcery? Is this sorcery?. and they brought them clear proofs. that is. then implement it against me. any reward for it. those with him.[10:71] And recite. Behold then the nature of the consequence for those who had been warned!. is a hardship. my admonishing you. so We saved him and those with him in the Ark. [to] the Meccan disbelievers. then let not your decision be a secret between you. ‘Have you come to us to divert us. such as Abraham. in that they were destroyed: likewise We deal with those who deny. with Our. nine. O Muhammad (s). successors. but they were disdainful. by [unleashing] the Flood. they said. to turn us away. when the one who has brought it has indeed prospered and has invalidated the sorcery of the sorcerers? Now sorcerers do not prosper’ (the interrogative in both instances is meant as a disavowal). together with your associates (wa-shurakā’akum: the wāw [wa-] means here ‘with’). to them. [10:76] So. that is. in the earth. resolve upon what you will do to me. my stay among you. miracles. and were a sinful folk. from my reminding [you]. in the land. for you. signs. [after] Noah. my reward. is too great [to bear]. before the sending of messengers to them. when the Truth came to them from Us. ‘Surely this is manifest sorcery’. ‘Do you say [so] of the Truth when it has come to you. Thus do We seal. that is. and do not put it off. from what we found our fathers following. [do not] give me respite. manifest it and proclaim it to me. [10:77] Moses said. so turn [and go] away: my wage. the land of Egypt? We will not believe you two’. and I have been commanded to be of those who submit [to God]’. and made them. [sorcery that is] clear and evident. in God have I put my trust. We sent Moses and Aaron to Pharaoh and his council. of Noah (Nūhin is substituted by [the following. We sent messengers to their people. I have not asked you for any wage. after them. [10:73] But they denied him. [10:79] 221  . [10:74] Then. that is. [10:78] They said. after him. and that yours both might be the greatness. [10:75] Then. as is my reminding you. nay. falls only on God. [10:72] But if you turn away. the tale. but it was not for them to believe in that which they had denied before. idh qāla]) when he said to his people. stamp [upon]. carry out what you desire. concealed. for I am not concerned by you. that is. Hūd and Sālih. to believe in them. so decide upon your course of action. the kingship. his folk. if my sojourn. by the signs of God. ‘O my people. the hearts of the transgressors — so that they cannot accept faith — in the same way that We sealed the hearts of those [before]. and We drowned those who denied Our signs.

after they had said to him. ‘have you brought’]. that he [Pharaoh] might persecute them. if you have believed in God then put your trust in Him. ‘Our Lord. as a consequence thereof. and give good tidings to the believers’. Our Lord. or we shall be the casters! [Q. Pharaoh’s. of. ‘What (mā is interrogative and the subject. in which case mā is the relative particle of the subject) Verily God will bring it to nothing. out of fear of Pharaoh and their council. You have indeed given Pharaoh and his council splendour and riches in the life of this world. Our Lord. [every] individual excelling in the art of sorcery. ‘In God we have put our trust. the land of Egypt. that is. [10:82] And God will vindicate. ‘O my people. places in which to perform prayers. He will establish and make prevail. folk. Moses said to them. ‘Bring me every cunning sorcerer’. the Truth by His words. worship. a variant reading has al-sihru with a single hamza. You have given them this. [10:84] And Moses said. Moses said. [from] Your religion. 7:115]: ‘Cast your cast!’ [10:81] Then. in the land. obliterate. make us not a [cause of] temptation for the evildoing folk. and truly he was of the prodigal. ji’tum bihi]) have you brought? Sorcery? (ā’l-sihru [a-al-sihru] is a substitute [for the predicate ji’tum bihi. do not make them prevail over us. Truly God does not make right the work of those who do corruption. [10:86] and deliver us by Your mercy from the unbelieving folk’. so that you might be secure from fear — for Pharaoh had prohibited them from performing prayers — and establish. of victory and Paradise. so that they do not believe until they see the painful chastisement’: he [Moses] invoked God against them and Aaron said ‘Amen’ at the end of his invocation. transform. their riches and harden their hearts. stamp upon them and shackle [them]. making it predicative. the children of. Our Lord. however much the sinners be averse’. [10:88] And Moses said. its predicate being [the following. by His promises. when they had cast. his. turn them away from his [Moses’s] religion by torturing them. that is. [10:83] But with Moses. Either you cast. a party. and truly Pharaoh was despotic. 222  . arrogant.And Pharaoh said. He will efface it. [10:87] And We inspired Moses and his brother [saying]: ‘Appoint houses for your people in Egypt and make your houses oratories. that they may lead [people] astray. fulfil. their ropes and staffs. none believed save a few descendants. [10:85] So they said. [of] those who transgress the bounds by claiming to be Lords. from Your way. [10:80] And when the sorcerers came. if you have [truly] submitted [to Him]’. lest they then think that they are upon the right path and so end up succumbing to [the] temptation [of thinking that they are upon the right path] because of us.

Syria and Egypt. [of] those who have doubts about it. namely. So the two of you remain upright. O Muhammad (s). and I am of those who submit [to Him]’: he reiterated this [his submission to God] so that it might be accepted from him. are in doubt concerning what We have revealed to you. the Torah. are heedless of Our signs’. when they seek to hasten on My judgement — it is reported that he [Moses] remained [alive] a further forty years thereafter. if you. ‘truly it is …’ indicating a new sentence) there is no god save Him in whom the Children of Israel believe. that is. not learning the lesson therefrom. and Gabriel thrust mud from the sea into his mouth. [10:93] And verily We appointed for the Children of Israel an excellent abode. and they did not differ. and We provided them with good things. And truly most people. such that some believed while others disbelieved. together with his hosts. a noble [place of] residence. on account of your being astray and your leading [others] astray. ‘I have no doubt. your lifeless corpse. said. when the [fate of] drowning overtook him. in insolence and transgression (baghyan wa-‘adwan: these constitute the [direct] object denoting reason). so do not be of the waverers. [10:92] But this day We shall save you. for it is confirmed [therein] with them and they can inform you of its truth. he said. and do not follow the way of those who have no knowledge’. until the knowledge came to them. Verily the Truth from your Lord has come to you. that you may be.[10:89] He. for those after you a sign. a lesson. The Prophet (s) said. in your body. when hitherto you have disobeyed and been of those who do corruption?. do you believe. And he [Gabriel] said to him: [10:91] ‘Now. Truly your Lord will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection concerning that wherein they used to differ. According to Ibn ‘Abbās. 223  . of stories — hypothetically speaking — then question those who read the Scripture. [10:96] Truly those against whom your Lord’s Word. but it was not. [against whom] it is due. a variant reading has innahu. We shall bring you out of the sea. [10:95] And do not be of those who deny God’s signs and so be of the losers. before you. the people of Mecca. will not believe. away from belief. until. [God] exalted be He. ‘I believe that (annahu is [to be understood as] bi-annahu. nor will I question’. [10:94] So. [10:90] And We brought the Children of Israel across the sea. and Pharaoh pursued them. with the Message and the Call until such time as chastisement befalls them. some of the Children of Israel doubted his death and so he was brought out [of the sea] for them to see. ‘Your prayer has been answered: thus their riches were transformed into stones and Pharaoh did not believe until he was about to drown. of chastisement. lest [God’s] mercy embrace him. he caught up with them. is justified. that they might come to know your servitude and not venture upon deeds like yours.

[10:105] And. to the disbelievers of Mecca: ‘Behold what is in the heavens and in the earth!’. chastisement. Would you then compel people. the Prophet (s) and his Companions. but I worship God Who will take you to Him. that is. after seeing a portent of the chastisement. when [the time comes for] chastising the idolaters. to [that] deliverance. [10:98] If only there had been one town — meaning its inhabitants — that believed. by His will. according to God’s knowledge. Say: ‘Then await. until they see the painful chastisement. [Who] will seize your souls. it has been said to me: “Set your purpose for religion. inclining towards it. it is incumbent upon Us to deliver the believers. these [signs and warners] will not benefit them. [10:101] Say. for they did not wait [to believe] until it came to pass. and profited by its belief — except for the people of Jonah: when they believed. and I have been commanded to be of the believers. O people of Mecca. [10:104] Say: ‘O people. We removed from upon them the chastisement of degradation in the life of this world and We gave them comfort for a while. in other words. that is. to fall upon those who have no understanding. [worshipping] other than Him — namely. [10:103] Then We shall deliver (nunajjī: the imperfect tense is [being used] to narrate a past situation) Our messengers and the believers. exalted be He. until they are believers? No! [10:100] And it is not for any soul to believe save by the permission of God. of communities. that is.[10:97] though every sign come to them. idols — for you have doubts concerning God. until the conclusion of their terms [of life]. from the chastisement. before chastisement befell it. the like of chastisements that befell them. [10:106] 224  . all who are in the earth would have believed together. as a hanīf. [10:99] And if your Lord willed. if you are in doubt of my religion. [10:102] What do they await. then [know that] I do not worship those whom you worship besides God. In like manner. that is. this: I shall indeed be with you among the waiting’. But signs and warners (nudhur is the plural of nadhīr. [those who do not] reflect upon God’s signs. messengers) do not avail a folk who will not believe. at which time it [their belief] will be of no use to them. and do not be of the idolaters. and He causes abomination. [and] whether it is true. of signs indicating God’s Oneness. to do what God did not will that they do. when they deny you. but the like of the days of those who passed away before them?.

besides God. errs only against it. since the reward of his being guided will be his. to Him. except for verses 12. So whoever is guided. every person of merit. a Book whose verses have been set clear. And I am not a guardian over you’. that I might then compel you to [accept] guidance. with some hurt. [11:2] [Saying:] ‘Worship none but God. if you disbelieve. and 114. people of Mecca. and He will give. [11:4] Unto God is your return. then repent. [from] God. from your Lord. it consists of 123 verses. and a bearer of good tidings’.and do not call upon. and He will give you. until a time appointed. since the evil consequence of his erring shall befall [only] it [his soul]. nor hurt you. expounded. from One Wise. and if He desires good for you. through rulings. with [such] good. this is. [11:3] And [bidding you]: ‘Ask forgiveness of your Lord.” He is the Forgiving. [11:5] 225  . the Truth has come to you from your Lord. that is. [the due for] his merit. until God give judgement. But if you turn away (tawallaw: one of the two tā’ letters [of tatawallaw] has been omitted). Truly I am to you a warner from Him. [10:107] And if God afflicts you. including reward and chastisement. the fairest of them: he [the Prophet] endured patiently until God judged that the idolaters be fought and that the People of the Scripture pay the jizya-tax. the Merciful’. if you object. Informed. death. for [your] idolatry. should you not worship it. the Day of Resurrection. I fear for you the chastisement of an awful day. Meccan. and He is the Best of Judges. by giving His command. that which can neither profit you. namely. and He has power over all things’. and was revealed after Yūnus. in this world. whomever He will of His servants. in other words. through [acts of] obedience. smites you. [do not] worship. return. hypothetically speaking. concerning them. in the Hereafter. in deed. (Hûd) [11:1] Alif lām rā’: God knows best what He means by these [letters]. fair enjoyment. 17. [10:109] And follow what is revealed to you. and then detailed. his reward. then you will surely be of the evildoers. for if you do. of reward. that is. is guided only for the sake of his own soul. if you believe. this. which are Medinese. such as impoverishment or illness. that [bounty] which He has intended for you. and endure [patiently]. the Call and their hurting [you]. namely. [10:108] Say: ‘O people. that is. there is none who can remove it save Him. stories and admonitions. in the way of pleasant living and abundant provision. and whoever errs. through marvellous arrangement and wonderful meanings. of chastisement. should you worship it. He strikes with it. there is none who can repel His bounty.

All. he is exultant. those who endure. that is. [patiently] and perform righteous deeds. [which of you] is most obedient to God. warded off. He created them and all that is beneficial and good for you in them. and that your breast should be straitened by it. misery. ‘He [Who] created’). that is. exalted be He. ‘This. lo! he is despairing. a clear. and that. Qur’ān that speaks of resurrection — or. [such as] impoverishment and hardship. [such as] wealth and [good] health. [reckoned] moments. before creating them. [11:6] And there is not (wa-mā min: min is extra) a creature (dābba is that [creature] which treads [dabba]) in the earth but the sustenance thereof rests on God. wanton. [sustenance] which He has undertaken [to provide]. during times of comfort. the afflictions. And if you were to say. the first of which was Sunday and the last. ‘The ills. knows what they keep hidden and what they proclaim. you might [think to] leave out some of what is revealed to you. borne by the winds — that He might try you (li-yabluwakum is semantically connected to khalaqa. [11:10] But if We cause him to taste prosperity after some misery. yet still he does not give thanks for this. which is the Preserved Tablet (al-lawh al-mahfūz). the arrival of. Book. they will surely say. sorcery’ (sihrun: a variant reading has sāhirun. is in a manifest.As reported by al-Bukhārī [by way of an isnād] from Ibn ‘Abbās. which they derided shall surround them. [it] shall come down upon them. chastisement. have gone from me’. It is also said: [that it was revealed] regarding the hypocrites: Lo!. lo! the moment they cover themselves with their garments. by 226  . [11:9] And if We cause. Friday — and His Throne. O Muhammad (s). what is in the hearts. out of His bounty. that had befallen him. those who disbelieve will say. was upon the water. lo!. that is. it cannot be averted. what is preventing it from being sent down? God. in order to test you: which of you is best in conduct. God. a reckoned time. such that you do not convey it to them. in other words. after death. says: Verily on the day when it comes to them. O Muhammad (s). which is Paradise. for they do not take it seriously. And He knows its habitation. that which is mentioned. [11:12] Perhaps. [11:7] And He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in six days. clear. ungrateful. exalted be He. the disbelieving. [11:8] And if we postpone the chastisement for them until. or in the womb. when he had not anticipated that they would go away. exalted be He. boastful. He. assuredly he will say. to them: ‘Truly you shall be raised again after death’. and then wrest it from him. theirs will be forgiveness and a great reward. [11:11] save. man to taste some mercy from Us. and so their hiding is to no avail. in which case the reference is to the Prophet (s). having lost hope of God’s mercy. the following was revealed regarding those who were embarrassed to withdraw [to relieve nature] or to have sexual intercourse [without their clothes] and become exposed to the heaven. Truly He knows what is in the breasts [of men]. from them. they fold up their breasts that they may hide from Him. wrapping themselves up therewith. but. its dwelling-place in this world — or in the loins — and its repository. [from] God. in mockery: ‘What is detaining it?’. intensely ungrateful to Him. [this] that you are saying — is nothing but manifest. to people of what he has been given. ‘sorcerer’.

in the Qur’ān. they believe in it. Surely the curse of God is upon the wrong-doers. they shall not be defrauded. the requital of any good that they did. [11:16] Those are they for whom there is nothing in the Hereafter but the Fire. the Fire shall be his appointed place. that is. the angels. that is. that is. seeking that the 227  . if you are truthful’. that is. in terms of clarity and rhetorical excellence. So do not be in doubt. not as an invention of lies against Him. the Qur’ān. [11:17] Is he who relies on a clear proof. that is. does greater wrong than he who invents a lie concerning God?. that is. by ascribing to Him partner and child. the people of Mecca. do not believe. Will you then submit?. they shall be brought before their Lord. that is. those on whom you call for assistance. the ones who rely on a clear proof. or the believers. [from] the religion of Islam. if they. as an example and a mercy? (imāman wa-rahmatan is a circumstantial qualifier) [is such a person] like one who is not so? No! Those. and before it. ‘These are they who lied concerning their Lord’. in uncertainty. therein. by giving them abundant provision. but he who disbelieves in it of the partisans. the idolaters. [on] other than Him. amid [the rest of] creation. desiring [to have] it. and so for them will be Paradise. the Torah. in order [for them] to assist you. [11:13] Or do they say. [11:14] Then. and will not be rewarded. but most of mankind. Those. and God is Guardian over all things. in the Hereafter. in other words: ‘Submit!’ [11:15] He who desires the life of this world and its adornment. or an angel not come with him?’. that is. on the Day of Resurrection. so He will requite them [accordingly]. upon whom you can beside God. by persisting in idolatry — it is said that this was [revealed] regarding the dissimulators — We shall repay them their deeds. ‘He has invented it’?. it [the proof] being the Qur’ān. and the witnesses (ashhād is the plural of shāhid) namely. for you are Arabs who speak [Arabic] eloquently. to confirm his sincerity. after this definitive argument. that is. [will] be invalid. that is. enwrapped. what they contrive will have failed. and useless is that which they used to do. he [the witness] being Gabriel. who will bear witness that the messengers conveyed [the Message] and that the disbelievers denied [them]. concerning it. and yours is only to convey [the Message]. also a witness to it. [11:18] And who. about it [the Qur’ān] being an invention of lies. [before] the Qur’ān. none. this address is to the idolaters. He is Preserver [of all things]. and that (an is softened. know. from God. only in God’s knowledge. because they say. and therein. as we had requested? You are but a warner. meaning the Prophet (s).reciting it to them. Truly it is the Truth from your Lord. Say: ‘Then bring ten sūras the like thereof. from his Lord. [a clear proof] which is followed by a witness. not to produce what they have requested. ‘Why has a treasure not been sent down for him. to it of its veracity [as being]. [11:19] they who bar [people] from God’s way. in it. concerning the Qur’ān. do not answer you. such as charity or kindness to kin. [namely] all the disbelievers. in other words [understand it as] annahu) there is no god save Him. was the Book of Moses. in this world. and then to one sūra — and call. that is. will say. invented. a clear statement. that it has been revealed. from Him. like myself — he challenged them to these [ten sūras] first. they shall [not] be made to suffer diminution in anything.

‘O my people. or [who] repent. and that which they used to invent. said: ‘We see you but a mortal like us. because of their extreme aversion to it.way be. has failed them. without thinking you over (it [bādiya’l-ra’ya] is in the accusative because it is an adverbial clause. with regard to your claim to [be bringing] a Message: they [the disbelievers] included his folk with him in their address [to him]. [of lies] concerning God. and the one who sees and the one who hears. impulsively. that is to say: at the time that their opinion first came into being). ‘they’. the riffraff among us. the truth. in other words. is [reiterated] for emphasis) are disbelievers. one whose warning is plain. a clear statement. the respected elders. and in the Hereafter they (hum. nay. you worship none but God. We do not see that you have any merit over us. [11:24] The likeness. [11:22] Without doubt. we deem you liars’. of his people who disbelieved. [11:21] Such are they who have lost their souls. [11:20] Such will not escape. that is to say. [11:23] Truly those who believe and perform righteous deeds and humble themselves. [11:27] The council. They could not hear. other than Him. nor did they use to see. is as the blind and the deaf. the chastisement of a painful day’. the description. this being the likeness of the believer. [11:28] He said. beside God. in which case ‘he said’ has been omitted) for you a clear warner. in the way of claiming [that He has] a partner. it is as though they did not have the [physical] capacity for it. it. [through] rash opinion (bādiya’l-ra’ya: read with hamza or without [in both cases]). should you worship other than Him. before their Lord: such will be the inhabitants of Paradise. they [can] have no allies. this being the likeness of the disbeliever. and it has been 228  . crooked. are they equal in likeness? No! Will you not then remember? (tadhakkarūn: the original tā’ [of tatadhakkarūn] has been assimilated with the dhāl) [will you not then] be admonished? [11:25] And verily We sent Noah to his people [and he said]: ‘I am (annī: a variant reading has innī. made everlasting for them. they will be the greatest losers in the Hereafter. the disbelievers and the believers. such as the weavers and the shoemakers. of the two parties. verily. [who] are at peace and feel reassured. for their journey’s end shall be to the Fire. God. have you considered: — inform me — if I am [acting] upon a clear proof. [no] helpers to protect them against His chastisement. abiding therein. for their having led others astray. in the earth and. is absent [before them]. Lo! I fear for you. painful in this world and in the Hereafter. For them the chastisement will be double. [11:26] That. and you have no merit over us. from my Lord and He has given me mercy — prophethood — from Him. for which you would deserve our following you. and we see not that any follow you save the vilest among us.

My wage. [11:30] And O my people. as you have commanded me. not mine. “I have knowledge of the Unseen”. “I possess the treasure houses of God” nor. at the Resurrection. 71:26]. my reward. Muhammad (s) has invented the Qur’ān? Say: ‘If I have invented it.obscured. nor do I say. who would help. from you (‘amiyat. [in] their hearts. of crime. But I see you are a people who are ignorant. and I am innocent of what you commit’. if I drive them away?. for the decision is His. for this. if He wills. Do not be distressed. then my crime will be upon me. and you cannot escape Him. ‘He has invented it’?. [who would] defend. in the way of idolatry. so bring upon us that wherewith you are threatening us. Will you not then remember? (tadhakkarūn: the original second tā’ [in tatadhakkarūn] has been assimilated with the dhāl). [11:35] God. [11:36] And it was revealed to Noah that: ‘None of your people will believe except he who has already believed. if you are of the truthful’. you have disputed with us and disputed with us at length. says: Or do they. when you attribute invention to me. Lo! if I were to say this. ‘Only God will bring it upon you. a variant reading has the passive ‘ummiyat). I do not ask of you any wealth. that is. So. while you are averse to it? We are not able to do that. ‘and my counsel will not benefit you’). [will you not then] be admonished? [11:31] And I do not say to you. elude God. my sin [will be upon me]. I am human like you. falls only upon God and I will not drive away those who believe. ‘O Noah. to hasten it on for you. [11:32] They said. in the way of chastisement. ‘obscured’. then indeed I would be of the evildoers’. [11:29] And O my people. the punishment for it. leave not [one of the disbelievers] upon the earth [Q. God responded to this invocation of his and said: 229  . he [Noah] invoked God against them with the words: My Lord. can we compel you to it. that is. they shall surely meet their Lord. me against God. “I am an angel”. concealed. exalted be He. are we [able] to force you to accept it. [11:34] And my counsel will not benefit you if I desire to counsel you when God desires to keep you astray (the response to the conditional is indicated by wa-lā yanfa‘ukum nushī. which you should give me. say. [11:33] He said. and He will requite them and exact vengeance for them from those who wronged them and drove them away. in other words. for conveying the Message. Nor do I say to those whom your eyes scorn that God will not give them any good — God knows best what is in their souls. of the consequence of your affair. there is none to help me. He is your Lord and to Him you will be brought back’. the disbelievers of Mecca. grieved. [against] His chastisement. because of what they do. nay.

Canaan. God gathered for Noah all the beasts of prey and birds and other [animals]. [11:44] And it was said. they scoffed at him. [11:39] and you shall know to whom (man introduces the relative clause which constitutes the direct object of the [action of] ‘knowing’) will come a chastisement degrading him. [11:40] Such that when (hattā represents the objective for [the action of] ‘building’) Our command came. and by Our inspiration. the ship. with water — this was the sign for Noah — We said. [of every] male and female. and upon whom an enduring. Noah. mocked him. from the ship. a male and a female (ithnayn constitutes the direct object). God. ‘O my son. of every kind. ‘O earth. half of whom were men and the other half. of his people passed him. an everlasting. has mercy’. abate!’. oven gushed forth. [from] His chastisement. embark with us and do not be with the disbelievers!’ [11:43] He said. Said he. lo! they shall be drowned’. or mujrāhā and mursāhā. both being verbal nouns. and Noah called out to his son. Merciful’. Truly my Lord is Forgiving. He said. under Our eyes. baker’s. meaning. God. whereupon he would take them aboard the ship. and do not address Me concerning those who have done evil. for their destruction. the length of its course and where it docks. ‘This day there is none that can protect from God’s command. says: And the waves came between them. that have sprung forth from you — and it reabsorbed it [all] except for what came down from the sky and formed rivers and seas — and O heaven. withhold the 230  . it is also said that the number of all those aboard the ship was eighty. ‘Though you scoff at us. a group. except — but — him on whom He. when we are saved. under Our watch and protection.[11:37] Build the Ark. [by] Our command. from the water’. the entire journey). from among them. chastisement will fall’. and the. he will be protected. while you drown. so he was among the drowned. According to the story. in the ship. said. two. even as you scoff. ‘Load therein. in terms of their height and size. ‘Embark therein! In the Name of God be its course and its mooring (read majrāhā and marsāhā. and his right hand would fall upon a male and the left upon a female. [those who] have disbelieved. And none but a few believed with him: it is said that these were six men and their wives. whom he took aboard together with their three wives. for He did not destroy us. in contrast with Shem. [11:42] And it sailed with them amid waves like mountains. [11:38] And he was building the Ark (yasna‘ is narrating a past state [in the present tense]) and whenever a council. ‘I shall take refuge in a mountain that will protect me. that they be destroyed: this was his wife and his son Canaan. of every species of these two. exalted be He. in other words. [by asking] that I should refrain from destroying them. he [Noah] would go through every species [to select them] with his hands. [11:41] And he. that is. swallow your waters. who was standing away. yet we scoff at you. his wife and children — save those against whom the Word has already gone forth. women. and your family — that is. and those who believe’. Ham and Japheth. preserve me.

from Us and blessings. and these will be the disbelievers. We sent. containing [stories such as] the story of Noah. Will you not understand? [11:52] 231  . ‘My Lord. I do not ask of you any wage for it. ‘it is not a righteous deed’: a variant reading has ‘āmila. And the waters subsided. O Muhammad (s). affirm His Oneness. in which case the person governing [the verb ‘amila] is his son). these verses. near Mosul. in safety. and then a painful chastisement will befall them’. in your worship of graven images. ‘My Lord.rain. in this world. [11:51] O my people. sequel is for those who are God-fearing. [you do but] invent lies against God. So be patient. from the tribe. and it settled. to ‘Ād their brother. decreased. lo! he is not of your family. You yourself did not know it. the matter of the destruction of Noah’s people was complete. [11:47] He said. for the affirmation of His Oneness. good things. And [there will be other] communities (read umamun). which We inspire in you. your asking me to save him. are of the tidings of the Unseen. with ghayra in the accusative. Qur’ān. He said. and it did. [and] the ship came to rest. a mountain in Mespotamia (al-jazīra). ‘O Noah. as Noah endured. So do not ask of Me (read either fa-lā tas’alanni. do but invent. is not a righteous deed. [11:46] He. in respect to saving your son. And the affair was accomplished. that is. of those [who will be] saved. from [the sin]. the most knowledgeable and the fairest of them. You have no god (min ilāhin: min is extra) other than He. that is. disembark from the ship. that I should ask of You that whereof I have no knowledge. upon you and upon some communities [that will spring] from those with you. is of my family. said: ‘O Noah. those who are [and those who will be] the believers. Canaan. and You are the Most Just of Judges’. the verb. folk!’ [11:45] And Noah called out to his Lord and said. go down. [to spring] from those with you. for he is a disbeliever and there is no deliverance for disbelievers (‘āmalun ghayru sālihin. and truly Your promise is the Truth. lo! my son. in the ship. to whom We shall give enjoyment. in conveying [the Message] and in [enduring] your people’s hurt. [11:49] Those. when you ask about what you do not know. Hūd. that is. in peace. in the Hereafter. or fa-lā tas’alni) that whereof you have no knowledge. praiseworthy. or with a greeting. [God] exalted be He. and You promised me that they would be saved. and it was said: ‘Away with — perish — the evildoing. or of the followers of your religion. I seek refuge in You. nor did your people [know it] before this. Lo! my wage falls only upon Him Who originated me. which never fails. I admonish you lest you be among the ignorant’. [11:50] And. [11:48] It was said. Truly the. my excess. ‘O my people. the disbelieving. from their children and their seed. You. created me. Unless You forgive me. lo! it. [of] the tales of that which was hidden from you. upon al-Jūdī. worship God!. and have mercy on me I shall be among the losers’.

idolaters. a severe. then give me no respite. and my Lord will set in place of you a folk other than you. O my people. [11:60] And a curse was made to follow them in this world. [on] the way of truth and justice. bear witness also. go forth in the land and look at these [remains]. that I am innocent of what you associate. [11:56] Truly I have put my trust in God. You cannot injure Him in any way. chastisement. Do not turn away as sinners’. for me. by your idolatry. in other words. for [your] idolatry. you have not brought us any clear proof. [11:54] We say nothing. save that one of our gods has possessed you in some evil way’. that is. a curse [will follow them] for all creatures to see. God then describes their case. their Lord. ask forgiveness of your Lord. that is. Truly My Lord is Preserver.And. over all things’. [11:58] And when Our command. you and your graven images. so that no benefit or harm occurs except by His permission — the forelock is specifically used here because he who is taken by his forelock suffers the ultimate humiliation. ‘O Hūd. saying: they knowingly denied the signs of their Lord and disobeyed His messengers (rusulahu is in the plural. so plot against me. He will release the sky. Lo! away. [far] from God’s mercy. if you object. with abundant rainfall. still I have conveyed to you that wherewith I was sent to you. [11:57] And if you turn away (tawallaw: one of the two tā’ letters [of tatawallaw] has been omitted). followed the command of every rebellious tyrant. through wealth and children. that is. from Us. and we are not believers in you. and He will add to you strength to your strength. [11:53] They said. grant me [no] reprieve. all together. the riffraff. namely. [but] He is its possessor and subjugator. that is. that is. and We delivered them from a harsh. Surely my Lord is on a straight path. they knowingly denied. and we are not going to forsake our gods on [the basis of] your saying. return. the folk of Hūd!’ 232  . came to pass We delivered Hūd and those who believed with him by a mercy. He said. concerning you. by guidance. and they. because of what you say. [11:59] And that was ‘Ād — [this is] an allusion to their remains. from people. and on the Day of Resurrection. and so you are raving. [the principle of] God’s Oneness). and you. rendering you insane. with ‘Ād. through obedience. with Him. for your having cursed them. ‘Lo! ‘Ād disbelieved in. because when a person disobeys a messenger he has [effectively] disobeyed all of them. since they share a common principle in that [Message] with which they come. to Him repentant. my Lord and your Lord. [every] leader of theirs who is obstinate with regard to the truth. Watcher. [He will release] the rain — for they had been denied it — upon you in abundance. [11:55] beside Him. ‘Lo! I call God to bear witness. [any] evidence for what you say. there is no (mā min: min is extra) creature. no living thing that treads upon this earth. but He takes it by the forelock. Our chastisement. then turn. devise ways to destroy me.

this is the she-camel of God. and has given you to live therein. [who will] defend me. We sent. a sign for you (āyatan is a circumstantial qualifier operated by the demonstrative noun [hādhihi. that is to say. whereafter you will be destroyed. they numbered 4000. concerning that to which you are calling us’. or left. ‘O my people. before this. in the way of graven images? Truly we are in grave doubt. We delivered Sālih and those who believed with him. ‘Enjoy [yourselves]. for their destruction. [11:62] They said. by a mercy from Us. as indeclinable. li-Thamūda. and He has given me from Him mercy. [11:64] And. ‘this’]). in your dwellings for three days. ‘that’]. we had hoped that you would become [our] chief. live. keeled over their knees. when Our command came. the Victor. prophethood. have you considered: if I am [acting] upon a clear proof. ‘O my people. Responsive’. [Who] began your creation. O my people. He said. if I disobey Him? You would only be adding. through [acts of] obedience. to Thamūd their brother. He has made you inhabitants. so ask forgiveness of Him. [against] His chastisement. to my loss. then turn. in their dwelling-place: ‘Lo! Thamūd disbelieved in their Lord. said. Do you forbid us to worship what our fathers worshipped?. We delivered them. that has issued from you.[11:61] And. He it is Who produced you. to those who ask of Him. [my] misguidance. [11:68] as if (ka-an had been softened and its subject omitted. which is the majority view). or read yawma’idhin on the basis of it [yawm. Qudār hamstrung her at their command. by commanding me to do that. You have no god other than He. Leave her to eat in God’s earth and do not cause her any harm. return. affirm His Oneness. from idolatry. Sālih. Truly my Lord is Near. a [clear] statement. [11:65] But they hamstrung her. That is a promise that will not be belied’. Truly your Lord is the Strong. [11:66] So. declined. [11:63] He said. in other words [understand it as] ka’annahum) they had not dwelt there. dead. li-Thamūdan. by creating your father Adam from it. from the earth. the Mighty. against God. to His creation by [virtue of] His knowledge. worship God!. and. from the ignominy of that day (read yawmi’idhin [if understood] as declinable. in the way of [affirming] God’s Oneness. ‘day’] being annexed to an invariable [idhin. if you do hamstring her. Sālih. [by] hamstringing [her]. and he. lo! away with Thamūd!’ (this may be read. [doubt] creating [great] uncertainty. referring to the district or the tribe). you had been one of promise among us. ‘O Sālih. living therein. from my Lord. who will help me. [11:67] And those who did evil were seized by the Cry. so that they ended up lying lifeless prostrate in their habitations. lest you be seized by a near chastisement’. from the tribe. to Him repentant. 233  .

penitent. standing by. at the good tiding of their destruction. ‘What if there were one believer in it?’ They said. that a child should be born to such an aged couple. whom she would live to see. of a child. Glorious!’. pleading. ‘No’. that is. he began to plead with Us. a very difficult. ‘No’. [11:74] And when the awe. ‘Lot is in it’. ‘this’). He said. He said. to destroy them. Sarah. and so We gave her the good tiding of Isaac. desist from this. for their destruction. ‘We know full well who is in it’ … to the end [of the narrative]. They said. [11:75] Assuredly Abraham was forbearing. ‘Would you destroy a town in which there are 300 believers?’ They said. He said. Shall I bear a child when I am an old woman. a fear of them. and so he feared for them from his people. Lo! we have been sent to the people of Lot’. O. the House of Abraham. ‘Peace!’. matter of the. Generous. serving them. [11:70] And when he saw their hands not reaching to it. ‘Would you destroy a town in which there are 14 believers?’ They said. he was grieved on their account. always returning [to God] in repentance: thus he said to them. ‘my woe’]). and truly there will come upon them a chastisement which cannot be repelled’. after Isaac. Truly your Lord’s command. departed from Abraham and the good tiding came to him. ‘Peace!’ (salāman is a verbal noun). pleading with Our messengers. of Jacob. ‘Woe to me! (yā waylatā is an expression used in [reaction to] a serious matter. ‘Fear not. [11:71] And his wife. and this my husband is an old man?. has gone forth. He said. ‘Are you astonished by God’s command?. Abraham’s wife. they said: ‘O Abraham. and. he was suspicious of them and conceived. They said. his son. ‘No’. [by] His power? The mercy of God and His blessings be upon you. He said. people of the House!. ‘Would you destroy a town in which there are 40 believers?’ They said.[11:69] And verily Our messengers came to Abraham with good tidings. Truly this is a strange thing’. long-suffering. laughed. ‘No’. of [the birth of] Isaac and. people of Lot. because they had handsome faces and were dressed as [visiting] guests. be upon you. and felt constrained in his power to protect them. concerning the. the fear. ‘No’. day’. imploring. after him. he kept secret in himself. ‘This is a distressful. and did not delay to bring a roasted calf. [11:77] And when Our messengers came to Lot. [11:73] They said. the alif [suffixed in waylatā] substitutes for the yā’ of the genitive annexation [waylatī. Truly He is Praised. and he said. [11:72] She said. he was distressed. 100 or 120 years old (shaykhan is in the accusative because it is a circumstantial qualifier. They said. [11:76] When he had pleaded with them at length. 234  . Jacob. 99 years old. operated by the demonstrative import of dhā. He said. ‘Would you destroy a town in which there are 200 believers?’ They said.

to resist you or could resort to some strong support!’. that is. affirm His Oneness. to Midian their brother Shu‘ayb. [11:83] marked. as [her being] an exception among [his] ‘family’. give full measure and weight. and do not degrade me. towards him — and previously. for it [the chastisement] will take place thereupon). in the accusative. no need of. they replied: Truly their tryst is [for] the morning. and We rained upon them stones of baked clay. and so exclaimed. [each one of them] with the name of the person it would strike. except for your wife: (read illā imra’atuka. [11:85] O my people. came to pass We made their uppermost. And diminish not the measure or the weight. So fear God. They shall not reach you. When he [Lot] asked them about the time of their destruction. with any harm. when the angels saw this. should you not believe. [11:81] they said. at which point a stone struck her and killed her. working corruption. before my guests. ‘Would that I had strength. and do not defraud people in respect of their goods. when they became aware of them. they are purer for you. ‘Woe is my people!’. ‘he 235  . namely. came to him. their cities. clay baked in fire. do not diminish anything of their due. before they came. I would surely fall upon you. your daughters. and they. You have no god other than He. and do not be degenerate in the land. that is. Lot. [to] some clan that would help me. and I fear for you. ‘You know full well that we have no right to. and let not one of you turn round. do no take her along when you travel) lo! she shall be smitten by that which smites them: it is said that he did not take her along with him. He. and when he said. in justice. [do not] disgrace me. destroying you (the attribution of this term [‘besetting’] to ‘a day’ [as opposed to ‘the chastisement’] is figurative. [enjoying] a grace which precludes any need for stinting [people]. the chastisement of a besetting day. ‘O my people! Here are my daughters.[11:78] And his people. [11:80] He said. marry with them. in other words. they had been committing abominations. and you know well what we desire’. ‘I want it to be sooner’. [11:84] And. the stones — or their lands — are not far from the evildoers. they said: is the morning not nigh [enough]?’ [11:82] So when Our command. [besetting] you. a variant reading has illā imra’ataka. lest they see the terrible predicament that will befall them. ‘O Lot. So. in the way of sexual intercourse with men. in the nominative. meaning afsada. the nethermost — when Gabriel raised them to the sky and dropped them upside down to the earth. penetrative sexual intercourse with men. it is also said that she did set out [with them] and turned round. We sent. truly we are messengers of your Lord. with your Lord (‘inda rabbik is an adverbial qualifier for these [stones]). I see you in prosperity. Is there not among you any upright man?’. to enjoin decency and forbid indecency? [11:79] They said. so travel with your family during a part of the night. hastening. as a substitute for ahadun. fulfil [the due of] both of these. by killing or otherwise ([lā ta‘thaū] derives from ‘athiya. ‘O my people. for their destruction. worship God!. power. one after another. running. [from] the people of Mecca. He said. said.

let not the breach with me. and will requite you. that we should cease. rejected. ‘O my people. too. is better for you. the second being [what follows]) make you deserve. ‘you’] constitutes the first direct object. in the way of chastisement. is my clan more venerable in your sight than God?. so far as I am able. powerful. to believers. [11:89] And.corrupted’. or the people of Hūd. their dwelling-places or the era in which they were destroyed. ‘O my people. not mindful of Him? Truly my Lord encompasses. does your [way of] prayer command you. the dispute [you have] with me (shiqāqī. neglected?. so take heed [of this]. your circumstances. [repentant]. I desire only to set things right. mufsidīn. Affectionate’. my ability to do this [successfully] and [to enjoin] other acts of obedience. that we should leave what our fathers [used to] worship. that provision of His which remains for you after you have given full measure and weight. Truly we see you are weak. is only with God. [11:86] The remainder [which is] from God. in proclamation of their lack of concern: ‘O Shu‘ayb. I return. is a circumstantial qualifier reiterating the import of the term operating it. abject. and were it not for your clan. act according to your ability. You are indeed the forbearing. [11:88] He said. then repent to Him. that I should requite you for your deeds: I was sent only as a warner. ‘the breach with me’. behind your backs. God. or. and then partake. [11:87] They said. in your case. what you do. to stone. a watcher. that there befall you the like of what befell the people of Noah. [too] venerable. meaning that such a command is an absurdity which no person calling to good would commend. in what I forbid you. than fraud. [11:93] And. if you are believers. wholesome. with the obligation [to make sure]. Truly my Lord is Merciful. such that you refrain from killing me because of them. have you considered that I might be [acting] upon a clear proof from my Lord and that He has provided me with fair. thus committing the same. ‘working corruption’. we would have stoned you. in knowledge. O my people. [11:90] And ask forgiveness of your Lord. and the people of Lot. are not far away from you. for us’. for you are not. by way of [enjoining] justice. In Him I trust and to Him I turn. ta‘thaū. [11:92] He said. and I am not a guardian over you’. loving towards them. instead of [your] protecting me for [being the Messenger of] God? And do you put Him. to do as we will with our goods?. You will soon know upon whom (man is the relative particle introducing the direct object of [the action 236  . according to mine. we do not understand much of what you say. but it is your clan that is powerful. ‘make you deserve’. behind you. among us. to him mockingly: ‘O Shu‘ayb. in the way of fraud or stinting? And I do not desire to be inconsistent. in which the [suffixed] pronoun [-kum. O my people. sustenance from Him?. [11:91] They said. of idols. is the subject of the verb yajrimannakum. the right-guided’: they said this in mockery. ‘[do not] be degenerate’). lo! I [too] am acting. that is. or the people of Sālih. My success. should I then blemish it with what is unlawful. earn you [as punishment].

a manifest and evident proof. Some of them. like that seizing. it is. is [something] of the tidings of the towns. while they are doing wrong. defend. [11:100] That. is the seizing of your Lord when He seizes the towns. a curse. And sit in watch. O Muhammad (s). ‘The Prophet (s) said. destroying them for not having committed any sins. for those entering it! [11:99] And a curse was made to follow them in this [world]. Their gods did not avail. he will admit them. [11:94] And when Our command came. Truly His seizing is painful. such that there are no vestiges thereof. severe. destroyed together with its inhabitants. “God gives [extended] respite to the evildoer. just as Thamūd was done away with!’ [11:96] And verily We sent Moses with Our signs and a clear warrant. to the Fire — an evil place. [11:95] as if (ka-an is softened. for their destruction. have been cut down. and they will follow him. and who is a liar.of] ‘knowing’) will come the chastisement that will abase him. and they [their gods] — through their [the disbelievers’] worship of these [gods]. that is. [but] loss. meaning its inhabitants. those [gods] upon whom they called. in other words [understand it as] ka-annahum) they had never dwelt there: ‘Lo! Away with Midian. [of] the towns. as well as. only its inhabitants having been destroyed. but they followed Pharaoh’s command. dead. above]’. and Pharaoh’s command was not rightguided. but when He seizes him there is no escape for him”. that is. when the command of your Lord. as they did in this world. them in any way (min shay’in: min is extra). did not increase them in anything but ruin. other than Him. whereupon the Prophet (s) recited the verse: Such is the seizing of your Lord [Q. [whom] they worshipped. [11:98] He will go before his people on the Day of Resurrection. We delivered Shu‘ayb and those who believed with him by a mercy from Us. The two Shaykhs [Bukhārī and Muslim] reported [by way of an isnād] from Abū Mūsā al-Ash‘arī that he said. 11:102. through idolatry. besides God. by way of sins: in other words. on the Day of Resurrection — evil is the assistance offered!. waiting. nothing can avail them in any way when He seizes them. and the Cry seized those who were evildoers — Gabriel cried at them — and they ended up lying lifeless prostrate in their habitations. and some. but they wronged themselves. appropriate. which We relate to you. and he will lead them. [11:101] And We did not wrong them. which is mentioned (dhālika is the subject. [11:102] Such. [11:97] to Pharaoh and his council. are standing. much like crops harvested with sickles. the predicate of which [follows]). wait for the consequence of your affair: I too will be with you watching’. came. of them. 237  . His chastisement. in their case. keeled over on their knees.

[11:106] As for those who are damned. [11:104] And We do not defer it but to a term [already] reckoned. [11:110] And We verily gave Moses the Scripture. exalted be He. their whole due. They worship only as their fathers worshipped — that is. their lot therein will be wailing. The interpretation given above seems to be the clear and obvious one. of idols: We will indeed chastise them as We did those before them — this is intended as solace for the Prophet (s). concerning what these [folk] worship. except. that is. in this world. Some of them.[11:103] There is indeed in that. comes. witnessed by all creatures. mankind will be gathered. [11:109] So do not be. O Muhammad (s). the case would have been decided between them. in other words. [for] the length of the duration of both in this world. what your Lord may will — as mentioned already [of increasing the duration]. on which. the Day of Resurrection. [doubt] creating [great] uncertainty. to defer the reckoning and the requital for creatures to the Day of Resurrection. what your Lord may will. but God knows best what it means. some believing. of them. they will be in the Fire. regarding that over which they differed. [one not] to be cut off. for him who fears the chastisement of the Hereafter: that. will be wretched. which is mentioned of stories. other than. [11:111] And assuredly (read wa-in or wa-inna) to each. and [some]. in the way of adding to the duration of these two. [11:107] abiding therein for as long as the heavens and the earth endure. and were it not for a word that went forth from your Lord. to all creatures. [some] creatures. which is a loud sound. according to God’s [prior] knowledge. [but] to a time predetermined by God. is a day to which. undiminished. [11:108] And as for those who are fortunate (read sa‘idū or su‘idū) they shall be in Paradise. in full. and sighing. but differences arose concerning it. others denying. no soul shall speak (takallamu: one of the tā’ letters [of tatakallamu] has been omitted) except by His permission. verily (la-mā: the mā is extra and 238  . that is. in the same way — before. just as [is the case] with the Qur’ān. and indeed We chastised them. joyous. which is a faint sound. that is. and truly they. their portion of the chastisement. Truly your Lord is Doer of what He desires. those who deny it. that is. and that is a day witnessed. are in grave doubt concerning it. like those [fathers of theirs]. and We shall surely pay them. the Torah. in doubt. such that it [their abiding] becomes indefinite: meaning that they will abide therein forever. devoid of affectation. in uncertainty. a lesson. that day. a sign. [11:105] The day it. other than. abiding therein for as long as the heavens and the earth endure except. each having been determined [to be thus] from pre-eternity. that is. which in their case is indicated by His words. an endless bounty.

before you men possessing a remnant [of good sense]. and then asked him. through corruption and neglecting to forbid. But those who did wrong. through affection or adulation. such as the five prayers. at sunset and late evening. [do not] overstep the bounds of God. lest the Fire touch. while their inhabitants were righteous. let him also remain upright. and so they do not differ in it — and that is why He created them. annul misdeeds. a portion. Indeed good deeds. [11:113] And do not incline toward the evildoers. smite.the lām is in the place of an implied oath or a separator. that is. and then you will not be helped. making the [preceding] in for negation). by patiently enduring through [acts of] obedience [to God]. that is. [those] for whom He desires good. in [enduring] the harm inflicted [upon you] by your people. that is. and in some watches (zulafan is the plural of zulfa). [who] believes. [11:114] And establish prayer at the two ends of the day. [He created] those of difference for that [in other words. but they continue to differ. to guard you from Him. with you. an admonition for those who heed them. [11:119] except those on whom your Lord has mercy. as reported by the two Shaykhs [Bukhārī and Muslim]. [pray] in the morning. O Muhammad (s). forbidding corruption in the earth (this [statement] is intended to be a negation. and. ‘but’. in religion. and were sinners. and in the afternoon. other than Him. the requital thereof. or [by showing] satisfaction with their actions. [11:117] Yet your Lord would never destroy the towns through injustice. in other words. ‘Is this [verse true] for me?’ and the Prophet said to him. Truly He is Aware of what they do. past communities. in full. people of one religion. knowing the inner and outer aspects thereof. but. so 239  . your Lord will pay for his works. on His part. [11:115] And be patient. you. That is a remembrance for the mindful. and you have. except. a variant reading has lammā. he who repents. [11:112] So remain upright. a few of those whom (mimman: min is explicative) We delivered from among them. of the night. ‘there never were such [men] among them’). for indeed God does not waste the wage of those who are virtuous. He would have made mankind one community. you will [not] be protected from His chastisement. and do not transgress. and will requite you for it. ‘It is [so] for every person of my community’. besides God. no protectors (min awliyā’: min is extra). with the sense of illā. [11:118] Had your Lord willed. believers. minor sins: this was revealed regarding one who kissed a female stranger and told the Prophet (s) about it. at noon. Truly He sees what you do. acting in accordance with the commandment of your Lord and supplicating Him. [11:116] If only there had been among the generations. as you have been commanded. against them. at first light and before sunset. that is. followed that by which they were made profligate. did forbid [corruption] and were thus delivered. that is. or in [performing] prayer. men of religion and virtue.

[11:123] And to God belongs the Unseen of the heavens and the earth. verses. in the language of the Arabs. the one that manifests truth [distinguishing it] from what is falsehood. all that is necessary. for He is sufficient for you. [11:121] And say to those who do not believe: ‘Act according to your ability. and to Him all matters are returned (read active yarji‘u. according to our status — [this is] a threat for them. we are acting. [12:4] Mention. Meccan. which are Medinese. for this. so that they should receive mercy]. trust in Him. that is. and the nunation compensates for a [missing] genitive annexation). and your Lord is not heedless of what they do. or verses. (Yûsuf) [12:1] Alif lām rā’: God knows best what He means by these [letters]. Jacob: ‘O my father (read yā abati to indicate the omitted yā’ of genitive annexation [sc. for the consequence of your affair. originally a yā’. we are also waiting’. to you this Qur’ān. 2. [11:122] And wait. in Our revealing. meaning ‘return’. namely: ‘I will surely fill Hell with jinn and mankind together’. there has come to you the Truth and an admonition and a reminder to the believers: they are specifically mentioned here because they are the ones to benefit from them. through their belief [in them]. though (wa-in: in is softened. your heart. the Qur’ān (the genitive annexation carries the meaning of [partitive] min. that is. of yā abī]. We relate to you of the accounts of the messengers. accounts. meaning ‘[are] returned’) and He will exact retribution from those who were disobedient. comprehend its meaning.that they should differ] and those deserving mercy for that [in other words. or read yā abata to indicate that an alif. Those. reassure. ‘We relate’. when Joseph said to his father. affirm His Oneness. and was revealed after sūrat Hūd. but He defers [dealing with] them until their [appointed] time (a variant reading has ta‘malūn. so that you. And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled. [12:3] We will relate to you the best of narratives in what We have revealed. and rely on Him. has been 240  . So worship Him. ‘[what] you do’). are the verses of the Book. ‘all that’) with which We might strengthen. in contrast to [the case with] the disbelievers. in other words [understand it as] wa-innahu) prior to it you were of the heedless. 3 and 7. the knowledge of what is concealed within them. O people of Mecca. [11:120] And all that (kullān is in the accusative because [it is the direct object] of naqussu. And in these. it consists of 111 verses. or passive yurja‘u. except for verses 1. ‘from’) that makes plain. might understand. that (mā substitutes for kullan. [according] to your status. [12:2] We have revealed it as an Arabic Qur’ān.

by repenting. what is wrong with you that you do not trust us with Joseph? We are indeed his wellwishers. into some distant land. I saw them ([repeated] for emphasis) prostrating themselves before me’ (sājidīn: this plural form is used to describe [the act of] ‘prostration’. ‘O father. the interpretation of visions. Surely we shall take good care of him’. if you are to do anything’. which is an attribute associated with rational beings). or [third person plural] yarta‘ wa-yal‘ab. when they. into the bottom of a well (ghayābat al-jubb is the darkest recess of a well. after killing Joseph or casting him away. so that he might turn [his attention] to you and not be distracted by anyone else. in manifest error. a variant reading has the plural [ghayābāt]). [12:9] Kill Joseph or cast him away into some land. in what He does with them. your mother. [when] some of Joseph’s brothers. to some of the others: ‘Surely Joseph (la-Yūsufu is the subject) and his brother. for those who inquire. so that your father might be solely concerned with you. in other words. in the way of separating [Joseph from us]: so content yourselves with this [solution]. lest they plot against you some plot. the moon. with prophethood. in the way that you have seen. you might be a righteous folk’. eleven planets and the sun and the moon.omitted) I saw. we are indeed only looking out for his best interests. said. out of envy. and upon the House of Jacob — [upon] his sons — as He perfected it. Joseph and his brethren — who were eleven — are signs. namely. his full brother Benjamin. Wise’. formerly on your fathers Abraham and Isaac. ‘that he might frolic and play’). so that some caravan might pick him up. and that thereafter. but cast him. [12:5] He said. [12:7] Verily in. said. in my sleep. a group. the sun and your father. do not relate your vision to your brothers. ‘Do not kill Joseph. and teach you the interpretation of events. will your Lord prefer you. that is. [12:10] One of them. though we be a [hardy] band. Truly your Lord is Knower. [12:8] Mention. [one] of evident enmity. knowing that the interpretation [of the dream] is that they represent the [eleven] planets. Truly Satan is to man a manifest foe. are dearer (ahabbu is the predicate) to our father than we are. ‘O my son. [lest] they scheme to kill you. [12:12] Send him forth with us tomorrow. of what you desire. Judah. to frolic and play (read [first person plural] narta‘ wa-nal‘ab. ‘that we might frolic and play’. to the desert. with prophethood. that is. lessons. of His creatures. about their tale. choose you. that is. for preferring those two to us. throw him. so that we might be spirited and roam freely. [12:13] 241  . Lo! our father is in plain aberration. and perfect His grace upon you. [12:11] They said. [12:6] Thus. the tale of.

in the well. when we are [so hardy] a band. but he fell into the water and took refuge near a rock. of theirs when they are unaware’. because it is an adverbial qualifier. and the wolf ate him. they disguised his real status. he sent him off with them. said. when he saw that it [the shirt] was undamaged and realised that they were lying: ‘Nay. our clothes. that is. to put him into the bottom of the well (the response of lammā. Jacob. meaning fawqa [qamīsihi]): they slaughtered a lamb and dabbed it [his shirt] with its blood — but they forgot to tear it [the shirt] — and they said that it was his blood. you would still have accused us [of lying] in this story. [12:17] They said. [12:19] And there came a caravan — travellers going from Midian to Egypt. without any anxiety! (fasabrun jamīlun is the predicate of a missing subject such as amrī. that is. in other words [understand it as being] fa‘alū dhālika. distracted [by something else]. but your souls have beguiled you into something. But you would never believe us. shooting. has been omitted. And God is the One Whose succour is sought in that [predicament] which you describe’. that which you mention of Joseph’s affair. before you. ‘they did [just] that’) by taking off his shirt — after having beaten him. claiming that he was. When he reached half-way down the well. [12:20] 242  . ‘my course]’).He said. humiliated him and desiring to kill him — and lowering him in a bucket [into the well]. a group. And We revealed to him. and he let down his bucket. But God knew well what they were doing. but Judah prevented them. and left Joseph by our things. ‘Truly if (la-in: the lām here is for oaths) the wolf were to devour him. They then called to him and he responded. your departure [with him grieves me]. the one who goes down to the water [source] to draw from it. ‘when’. into the well and Joseph clung to it and he pulled him out. Yet comely patience!. and agreed. of this affair. as [a piece of] merchandise. and so you did it to him. so how much more so when you think ill of us? [12:18] And they came with false blood on his shirt (‘alā qamīsihi has the status of an accusative [of the verb]. ‘This is a slave of ours: he is a runaway’. because of your adoration of Joseph. thinking that they had [decided to have] mercy on him. in other words [it is to be understood as] ‘Come [O good news]. for their land had many wolves in it). who stopped near to Joseph’s well — and they sent their water-drawer. [12:14] They said. resolved. Thus. weeping. [12:15] So when they went off with him. ‘Lo! It grieves me that you should go with him. and when he saw him: he said. through true revelation (wahy haqīqa) — he was 17 years of age or just under — in order to reassure his heart: ‘Truly you shall inform them. after this day. ‘Good news!’ (a variant reading [of yā bushrā] has yā bushrāya: this [vocative] call is figurative. they flung him [from the bucket] so that he would [fall and] die. even though we speak the truth’. now is your time!’) ‘This is a young boy’. ‘O father. of [who] you [are] (wa-hum lā yash‘urūna is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the action of ‘informing’). [12:16] And they came to their father in the evening. because I would be separated from him. He. then we indeed are losers!’. They then wanted to smash his head with a rock. and they hid him. [this] deed. incapable [of anything]. fearing that they might kill him. we went competing. while you are heedless of him’. and I fear lest the wolf devour him (al-dhi’b here represents the genus. His brothers became aware of this and came to him. by saying. but Joseph did not say anything.

who bought me. ‘had it not been’. in other words. said. said. locked up in a jail. a variant reading has hīta laka or haytu laka). nothing being beyond Him. while she. and she closed the doors. So the caravan brought him to Egypt. [12:23] And she. and so I cannot betray him with regard to his family. in terms of obedience (mukhlisīn: a variant reading has mukhlasīn. And 243  . had it not been that he saw the proof of his Lord: Ibn ‘Abbās said. who has given me an honourable place. until he attained what [status] he attained. ‘that We might teach him’] is [to be understood as being] extra). in whose house he was — namely Zulaykhā — attempted to seduce him. We established Joseph in the land.Then they sold him — they [the caravan] purchased him from them — for a very low. [an honourable] residence with us. exalted be He. ‘Truly he. [who intends] fornication. that We might ward off from him evil. or we may adopt him as a son’ — for he was chaste. price. she sought sexual intercourse with him. whereupon his [sexual] desire withdrew [from his body] through his fingernails (the response to lawlā. just as We rewarded him. ‘Jacob was made to appear before him. of the house. I seek refuge with God from this. and lewdness. he said. but most people — and they are the disbelievers — do not know. ‘God forbid!’. and softened the Court Officer’s heart for him. Thus. God’s way [always] prevails. whereupon they encountered her master. where the one who had bought him sold him for 20 dinars. understanding in [matters of] religion. Potifar. for they. two pairs of sandals and two robes. but that he should be imprisoned. that is. that We might teach him the interpretation of events. ‘We established’. said to his wife. his brothers. set small store by him. [an implied] li-numallikahu. So it was. Truly. the Court Officer (Qitfīr al-‘azīz). or [suffer] a painful chastisement?’. has been omitted: [understood to be] la-jāma‘ahā. and knowledge. and he struck his [Joseph’s] breast. a diminished. declaring himself innocent [of the charge]: ‘It was she who attempted to seduce me’. wisdom. ‘so that We might give him kingship’. against your folk. Maybe he will be useful to us. or else the wāw [of wa-li-nu‘allimahu. ‘Give him an honourable place. just as We delivered him from being killed and from the well. evildoers. never prosper’. in other words. by having him beaten. my master. before his call to prophethood. her husband. to him: ‘Come!’ (hayta laka: the lām [of laka] is for clarification. [12:21] And he of Egypt who purchased him. is my lord. he would have sought the same. We reward those who are virtuous. fornicators. that We made him see the proof. to [the good] of their souls. betrayal. [12:26] He. this. the land of Egypt. And she said. caught hold of his garment and pulled him towards her. [the act of] fornication. that is. and she tore his shirt from behind. Joseph. and he would have desired her [too]. at the door. ‘What is to be the requital of him who intends evil. 20 or 22. she asked him to lie with her. the interpretation of visions (wa-li-nu‘allimahu min ta’wīli’l-ahādīth is a supplement to an implied [missing part] connected to makkannā. ‘he would have lain with her’). Thus. She. Zulaikha (Zulaykhā). ‘chosen/purified [servants]’). Truly he was of Our devoted servants. [12:25] And they raced to the door: Joseph making for it in order to escape. in order to grab hold of him. [12:22] And when he reached his prime — which was at 30 or 33 years of age — We gave him [power of] judgement. a handful of dirhams. [an honourable] residence. composed herself and then. [12:24] And she certainly desired him.

they exalted. (hubban is for specification. that is. O. he said: ‘Indeed this — that is. is no human being: this is but a noble angel!’. since one leans upon it (ittikā’): this [repast] was utruj. that is. on account of his all-encompassing beauty. and he is of the liars. without feeling any pain. women. She then gave each one of them a knife and said. because their hearts were so engrossed by Joseph. Lo! we see her to be in plain aberration’. your saying: ‘What is to be the requital of him who intends …’ to the end [of the verse. Verily your guile is great. and they exclaimed: ‘God preserve us! — in exaltation of him — This. Joseph. lest it be broadcast. [12:32] She. and you. exalted be He. Truly He is the Hearer. the wife of the Court Officer. of words. of deeds. they were in awe of. the sinful: this is intended as a supplication. towards them and become of the ignorant. O Zulaykhā. [12:31] And when she heard of their machinations. and He fended off their wiles from him. but the tale was reported and became public. ‘[her] love of him has entered her heart’s pericardium (shaghāfa qalbihā). it is [reported] that one half of all beauty was given to him. those abased. 244  . ‘citron’). Joseph. [12:30] And some of the women in the city. matter and do not mention it [to anyone]. then says: [12:34] So his Lord answered him. when she saw what happened to them. [12:27] but if his shirt has been torn from behind. then she speaks the truth. ignore this. then she has lied. their backbiting of her. his supplication. her servant. in her love of him. [12:33] He said. Q. ‘My Lord. but he withheld himself. said. ask forgiveness for your sin: surely you have been of the erring’. Yet if he does not do what I bid him. Indeed he has smitten her heart with love. its inner casing). prison is dearer to me than that to which they are urging me. she sent for them and prepared for them a repast (muttaka’ is food that requires cutting with a knife. you blamed me (alladhī lumtunnanī fīhi is an explication of her excuse). which is why God. which is [a characteristic] not usually found among humankind. the sinful. to Joseph: ‘Come out before them!’ And when they saw him. namely. with the knives. [12:28] So when he. her paternal cousin — it is reported that he was still [a child] in the cradle — and he said: ‘If his shirt has been torn from the front. 12:25] — is of the guile of you. and he is of the truthful’. I shall incline. her husband. And if You do not fend off their wiles from me.a witness of her own folk testified. said. in other words. he refused. the city of Egypt. ‘This is he on whose account. for the love of whom. saw that his shirt was torn from behind. [12:29] Then he said: O. the Knower. he verily shall be imprisoned. ‘The Court Officer’s wife has been seducing her boy. Indeed I did attempt to seduce him. in error evident. The women said to him: ‘Obey your mistress!’. In the Sahīh [of al-Bukhārī]. then I shall tend. and verily shall be of those brought low’. him and cut their hands.

the cup-bearer. [12:41] O fellow-prisoners! As for one of you. [12:37] He said. the punishment in which they shall end up. [12:36] And there entered the prison with him two youths. is the upright. right. decree. ‘Let us try him’. as usual. he said. for indeed we see you as being among the virtuous’. anything but [mere] names that you have named. the religion. but most people — and these are the disbelievers — do not give thanks. the Almighty. is from God’s bounty to us and to mankind. that is. [12:38] And I follow the creed of my fathers. that you have named for idols. the interpretation thereof.[12:35] Then it seemed. that they should imprison him for a while. This is from that which my Lord has taught me — herein is an incitement for them to believe. about which you enquired. They noticed that he interpreted dreams and so they said. alone. is the matter regarding which you sought opinion’. the straight. any definitive argument or proof. which he reinforces with the following words: Lo! I have forsaken the creed. with which you are provided. He was thus imprisoned. other than Him. he shall serve his lord. It never was. concluded. the other. in order to inform [them] that he knew how to interpret dreams: ‘The food. Tell us. regarding them. God. Judgement. its interpretation. said: ‘I dreamed that I was carrying on my head bread whereof the birds were eating. that is. of a folk who do not believe in God and who moreover (hum. it appeared. He has commanded that you worship none but Him. Abraham and Isaac and Jacob. That. [whom] he was certain. the cup-bearer. one of whom was his cup-bearer. after they had seen the signs. would be saved of the two — and this 245  . his master. ‘they’ [is repeated] for emphasis) are disbelievers in the Hereafter. belongs only to God. whether you spoke truthfully or were lying. until such time as people ceased to talk of him. shall not come to you. decided. [12:39] He [Joseph] then explicitly calls them to faith. God has not revealed any warrant. That. to God. that is. saying: O my two fellow-prisoners!. and so they ascribe partners [to God]. religion. regarding worship of them. better? (an interrogative meant as an affirmative). but I shall tell you the interpretation thereof. his food-taster. he will depart after three [days] and. [12:40] You do not worship. [good] to them. is. One of them. apart from Him. [12:42] Then he said to the one whom he deemed. before it. two young men [servants] of the king. comes to you. for us to associate anything (min shay’in: min is extra) with God — on account of our [God-given] immunity [from error]. wine to drink. while you are asleep. and as for the other. while you are conscious. the food-taster. inform us [of]. affirmation of [God’s] Oneness. They said. said: ‘I dreamed that I was pressing wine’. affirmation of [God’s] Oneness. to them both. or. indicating Joseph’s innocence. you and your fathers. but most people — and these are the disbelievers — do not know. The other. and so they associate others with Him. the One. inmates [of the prison]: Are several lords better. he will depart after three [days] and. he will be crucified so that the birds will eat from his head: this is the interpretation of both your dreams. ‘We never dreamed a thing!’. grapes.

[what was] the case 246  . and summoned him in order to depart [from the prison]. after a time. of kine (‘ijāf is the plural of ‘ajfā’). stored. remembering (iddakara: the original tā’ [of tadhakkara] has been changed to a dāl and assimilated with the dhāl). and [concerning] seven green ears of corn and [seven] others dry. that I may return to the people. in prison for some years: it is said [that he remained] for seven years. being swallowed up. [12:43] And the king. or for twelve. give us your opinion concerning seven fat kine that are devoured by seven lean ones. the one who interpreted it. so send me forth’. in other words. Joseph. then interpret it for me. by seven lean ones. after the seven barren years. the predicament of Joseph. of grain sown during the fertile years. [12:50] And the king.was the cup-bearer: ‘Mention me to your lord’. so that he. to forget the mention. the cupbearer. [12:47] He said. its interpretation. dry. and in which they will press [fruit]. barren and unyielding. the cup-bearer. a mixture. And when the messenger came to him. he remained. because of its [that year’s] fertility. of dreams! And we are not knowledgeable in the interpretation of dreams’. [12:48] Then after that. this is. one given to truth. ‘I saw in [a dream] seven fat kine being devoured. and say to him. ‘There is a young man in jail who has been wrongly imprisoned’. in other words. said. that is. there shall come seven hard. of Joseph. that is seven [other] ears of corn. of the two young men. years — the interpretation of the seven lean ones — which shall devour what you set aside for them. ‘You shall sow — that is. that is. so they sent him forth and he came to Joseph. he said — with the intention of manifesting his innocence — ‘Return to your lord and ask him. that is. O truthful one. so that they might know’. and other [seeds]. to inquire: “What of. in other words. said: ‘Bring him to me!’. but Satan caused him. and said: [12:46] ‘O. through rain. [to] Joseph. you shall eat [all] this during these [seven hard years]. there shall come a year in which the people will be granted relief. [go ahead and] sow — seven years consecutively — and this was the interpretation of the seven fat ones — but that which you reap. Joseph. except for a little which you eat: thresh it. [12:45] And he of the two who was released. that had wound themselves around the green ones and risen above them. ‘I will inform you of its interpretation. al-Walīd — said. stayed. that is. that is. So he [the cup-bearer] departed. namely. [12:49] Then after that. lest it spoil. [after] a period of time. to the king and his courtiers. your master. before his master. ‘A jumble. all except a little which you have preserved. if you can interpret visions’. after the seven fertile [years]. after the messenger had come to him and informed him of its [the dream’s] interpretation. leave it in the ear. grapes. [12:44] They said. the king of Egypt — al-Rayyān b. O courtiers! Give me [your] opinion about my vision: expound for me its interpretation. and seven green ears of corn and others.

he [Joseph] then humbled himself before God and said: [12:53] Yet I do not exculpate my own soul. after [having suffered] hardship and imprisonment. the land of Egypt. gave him a signet-ring to wear. of slipping into error. [12:51] He said. [12:56] Thus. He then washed himself. than the wage of this world. women. is so that he. plea of innocence. my Lord has mercy. when you solicited Joseph?’. entrusted over our affair. [12:57] Yet the wage of the Hereafter is better. is ever inciting to evil. that he may settle in it wherever he wished.’ The Court Officer’s wife said. the Court officer. He [Joseph] established justice in Egypt and people became subject to him. We established Joseph in the land. and appointed him in place of the Court officer. has knowledge of their guile’. that I may use him for myself’. ‘Now the truth is out. so what do you think we should do? He said. According to the story. The messenger came to him [to Joseph] and said. may know I did not betray him. verily the soul. and so protects [from sin]. who then summoned them [the women]. my master. for those who believe and are Godfearing. one worthy of custodianship thereof. as such. he said. People [from far and wide] will come to you and ask you to supply them [with provisions]’. whom he removed from his position. did you find on his part any inclination towards you?: ‘God preserve us!’ they said. 12:26]. He [Joseph] discovered that she was [still] a virgin and she bore him two children. meaning the person [upon whom]. He [the king] said. said. And when he had spoken with him. a person of status. in the same way that We were graceful towards Him by delivering him from prison. the land of Egypt. put on some good clothes and entered upon him. Joseph. except that whereon. [now] it has become clear. ‘Respond to the king!’. with regard to his family. ‘Gather food [stocks] and sow abundantly in these fertile years. ‘Bring him to me. ‘We know of no evil in him. And so the years of drought arrived and afflicted the land of Canaan and Syria. We confer Our mercy on whomever We will and We do not waste the wage of the virtuous. and who later died. he [the messenger] thus returned and informed the king. and that truly God does not guide [to success] the guile of the treacherous.with. in his absence (bi’l-ghayb is a circumstantial qualifier). the women who cut their hands?” Surely my lord. to him: ‘Indeed you are on this day in our presence established and trustworthy’. ‘Whom can I delegate this [task] to?’ [12:55] He. in his saying. Truly my Lord is Forgiving. and knowledgeable in such affairs — it is also said [that he meant]: [I am indeed] a [competent] scribe and accountant. [12:54] And the king said. It was she who attempted to seduce me [Q. and so he [the king] made him [Joseph] take the latter’s spouse as a wife. ‘What was your business. Joseph was then informed of this and he said: [12:52] ‘That. then store the corn in its ears. and so he got up and bid farewell to [his] fellow-prisoners and prayed for them. that I may make him mine exclusively. I am indeed a skilled custodian’. ‘Place me in charge of the storehouses of the land. it was I who attempted to seduce him and he is indeed of the truthful’. Merciful’. the king crowned him. 247  . with none to share [him with me].

as a specification. and that I am the best of hosts? [12:60] But if you do not bring him to me. ‘Yes. he said. that I complete it.’ He [Joseph] commanded that they be given lodging and treated well. [12:64] He said. He said. before? despite [the fact] that you have done to him what you have done? Yet God is best at guarding (hifzan: a variant reading has hāfizan. Benjamin.[12:58] And Joseph’s brothers came — except for Benjamin — in order to secure provisions. the prophet of God. and because they supposed that he had died. we will try our hardest to seek him from him. unless you send forth our brother to him [to the Court officer]. They spoke to him in Hebrew and he said to them. there will be no measure. and so I hope that He will show favour [to me] by guarding him. when they found out that the [new] Court officer of Egypt was providing food at its [fair] price. ‘Should I — [I will] only — trust you with him like I trusted you with his brother. ‘Bring me a brother of yours from your father. [12:63] So when they went back to their father. their [supply] sacks. they said. that we may obtain the measure (read naktal or yaktal. ‘that he may obtain the measure [for us’]). ‘Does he have children other than you?’ They said. so that they may recognise it when they return to their folk. and he recognised them. ‘You might be spies!’ They said. that I might know that you have been truthful in what you said. similar to when they say li’Llāhi darruhu fārisan. That we will surely do’. and He is the Most Merciful of merciful ones’. namely. our father is Jacob. ‘his servants’): ‘Place their merchandise. ‘From the land of Canaan. in their saddlebags. deeming it unlawful to retain these [monies]. in order to comfort himself with him in place of the other. but they did not recognise him. because it had been a long time since they had seen him. how excellent a horseman he is!’). Do you not see that I give the full measure. [12:65] 248  . We used to be twelve. and empty their sacks. without any fraud.’ He said. ‘By God. ‘and you shall be denied [the measure] and will not [be allowed to] come near [me]’). to us. and these were a few dirhams. [12:62] And he said to his young men (li-fityatihi: a variant reading has li-fityānihi. that is. ‘O father. Surely we will guard him well’. and they entered to him. that is. ‘a guardian’. and so come back’. Joseph. ‘[We have come] for supplies’. as if reproaching them: ‘What brings you to my land?’ They replied. the measure will be denied us. to be his brothers. in other words. for you with me. [when] he had given them the full measure [of food]. and so he keeps him by his side. ‘God forbid!’ He said. but the youngest of us passed away: he perished in the wild. [12:59] And when he had equipped them with their provision. that [money] with which they bought the supplies. not knowing who he was. only his full brother remains. ‘So where are you from?’ They said. or a supplement to the [syntactical] locus of fa-lā kayla. so send forth our brother with us. ‘We will try to tempt his father away from him. [12:61] They said. and do not come near [me]’ (wa-lā taqrabūn is [either] a prohibition. He was the most beloved to him [our father] from among us. no provisions.

[12:73] 249  . by your swearing an oath. that is to say: what greater thing than this can we ask for from the king’s generosity?’. this [that I have said] is only out of affection [for you]. but most of mankind — and they are the disbelievers — do not know. at what they did’. that is. against God (min Allāhi: min is extra) anything. of food [supplies]. that is. because We had taught him. he said. it was but a need in Jacob’s soul which he [thus] satisfied. [12:70] And when he had equipped them with their provision. [12:66] He said. that assuredly you will bring him back to me. Yet I cannot avail. given his munificence. a golden cup studded with jewels. he took his brother into his arms. because of our brother. in the name of God. protect. into the saddlebag of his brother. [12:68] God. and he [Joseph] agreed with him that he would devise a trick to keep him [Benjamin] with him. Thus he sent him with them. ‘I will not send him with you until you give me a [solemn] pledge. out of affection [for them]. namely. says: And when they entered in the manner which their father had bidden them. which He might have decreed against you. to this effect. ‘O father. On Him I rely. alone. Witness. we and you. or are overwhelmed and thus unable to bring him back. after they were dismissed from Joseph’s court: ‘O cameleers. and we shall receive an extra camel’s load. Then a crier shouted. ‘what [more] do you desire?’. And we shall get provisions for our family. caravan. unless you are besieged’. ‘God shall be Guardian. what [more] should we desire? (mā nabghī: mā is interrogative. They agreed to this. Benjamin. Here is our merchandise restored to us. therefore do not despair. ‘What is it that you are missing?’ [12:72] They said. exalted be He. he put the drinking-cup. [12:69] And when they entered to Joseph. saying [to him]: ‘Truly it is me. a covenant. it did not avail them anything (min shay’in: min is extra) against God. Egypt. as an address to Jacob — for they had mentioned to him his [the king’s] generosity towards them). [against] His decree. by one gate. for the king [to grant us]. food. the [camel’s] load. you. a variant reading has mā tabghī. in Him I trust. He commanded him not to tell them anything. And he who brings it shall have a camel’s load. coming towards them. and I will guarantee that’. ‘We are missing the king’s goblet. that will be an easy measure’. they found that their merchandise had been restored to them. such that you die.And when they opened their belongings. [his] cup. [about] God’s inspiring His elect. we shall obtain supplies for them. ‘O my sons. your brother. do not enter. and on Him let all the trusting rely’. in the way of envying us. do not be grieved. and this [need] was his desire to fend off the evil eye [from them]. separately. you are surely thieves!’ [12:71] They said. Judgement belongs to God. They said. [12:67] And he said. a herald cried. but enter by separate gates. and guard our brother. by this that I have said. And verily he was possessed of knowledge. after. And when they gave him their [solemn] pledge. lest the evil eye smite you. over what we say’.

for then truly — if we were to take anyone other than him — we would be evildoers’. manifest it. lo! he has a father. [according] to the laws of the king of Egypt — since his [a thief’s] requital according to his law would have been a beating and a penalty of twice [the value of] the stolen item. the verb having been omitted and placed in a genitive annexation with its direct object. through theft. But Joseph kept it secret in his soul and did not disclose it. to them (the [suffixed] pronoun [in yubdi-hā. could not have taken his brother. [for] the stolen item. in other words.] ‘refuge is with God’. lest he worship it. ‘So.They said. what shall be his requital. that is. the thief’s. the predicate of which is [the following. Thus. he was only able to take him with God’s will. [12:78] They said. a brother of his stole before’. [what] you are mentioning with regard to him. They thus permitted Joseph to have their saddlebags searched. better than him [and so on] until it ends with God. [12:76] And so he began with their sacks. [with such] a requital. [lit. [12:74] They. We raise by degrees whom We will (read with a genitive annexation. the thief. entailing astonishment) ‘You know very well that we did not come to work corruption in the land. enslave him. before his brother’s sack. and it will grieve him to part with him. or [simply] with nunation. [thus] We taught him how to devise a plot to take his brother. as [We did] with Joseph. ‘If he is stealing. is in the accusative because it is a verbal noun. because of your stealing a brother of yours from your father. and nothing else: this was the customary practice of the family of Jacob. but not enslavement — unless God willed. than Joseph and his brother. who loves him more than we do. if you prove to have been liars?’. did We contrive for Joseph. and searched them. exalted be He. that is. being careful not to lie. in [terms of] your actions. then he pulled it. in his place. in terms of knowledge. and above every man of knowledge. ‘disclose it’] refers to the word[s] in his [following] saying). ‘we are certainly not thieves’. we have never stolen [anything]. that is. an aged man. darajāti man nashā’. as a slave. ‘His requital (qālū jazā’uhu: the subject. says: Thus. out of his brother’s sack. instead of him: indeed we see that you are among the virtuous’. by God’s inspiring him to ask his brothers [about the nature of requital] and their responding according to [what is decreed by] their customary practice. he. and who finds solace in him from [the anguish he feels for] his dead son. said. according to the king’s law. exalted be He. and we are certainly not thieves’. [12:79] He said. when you said. ‘we seek refuge with God’) that we should take anyone save him with whom we found our property — he did not say ‘[save] him who stole [our property]’. ‘O Court officer. shall be the requital for it. And God knows very well what you are describing’. [understand it as] na‘ūdhu bi’Llāhi. that he be enslaved — this is then reiterated by His words: He. the crier and his men. [12:80] 250  . Joseph — he had stolen a golden idol from his maternal grandfather and smashed it. ‘By God. the drinking-cup. in other words. on account of theft. man wujida fī rahlihi) shall be [the requital of] him in whose saddlebag it is found.’ (ta’Llāhi is an oath. ‘God forbid (ma‘ādha’Llāhi. that is. for him to be taken according to the law of his father [Jacob]. from among creatures. God. is one who knows better. [12:77] They said. he said. and your wronging him. darajātin man nashā’). within himself: ‘You are a worse case. and [if] it is found among your belongings? [12:75] They said. Joseph. [through such] contrivance. so take one of us. lest he be accused [of the theft]. do we requite those who do evil’.

your son has indeed stolen and we testified. Indeed He is the Knower. [12:82] And ask the city in which we were — namely Egypt — in other words. a covenant. through the deliverance of my brother. on account of your illness (it [haradan. on the verge of perishing. in other words [understand it as meaning] yunājī ba‘duhum ba‘dan. anguished and grief-stricken. when we gave our pledge: had we known that he would steal. ‘but your souls have beguiled you into. you will never cease remembering Joseph until you are consumed. and I know from God what you do not know. from the certainty of having seen the [king’s] cup in his saddlebag. and you did it: he accused them because of what had happened with them before concerning Joseph. [12:81] Go back to your father and say. the Wise’. all [back] to me. and He is the best. Then he said: [12:87] O my sons. ‘By God. for him. in His actions. which cannot be endured unless it is proclaimed [yubaththu] to others — and grief only to God. and said. part with. or God judges for me.So when they despaired of [moving] him. my grief for Joseph!’ (yā asafā: the [final] alif [of asafā] has taken the place of the [possessive] yā’ of genitive annexation [sc. but not manifesting his grief.’ he said. to them: ‘I complain of my anguish — (bathth is) severe grief. that which was hidden from us. the men of the caravan. ‘one conferring with the other’). [12:85] They said. the land of Egypt. to return to him. [12:86] He said. will be my [course of] patience! It may be that God will bring them. seek news of them. have adorned [for you]. ‘consumed’] is a verbal noun equally [applicable] to one person or more) or you are of those who perish’. [and that is] that Joseph’s dream is true and that he is alive. “O our father. send forth [someone] to ask its people. the fairest. ‘formerly’). and the caravan. Indeed none despairs of the [gracious] Spirit of God save the disbelieving folk’: 251  . and formerly (wa-min qablu mā: the mā is extra) you failed regarding Joseph? (but it [the mā] is also said to be relating to the verbal action. Joseph and his two brothers. with which we approached — and these were a group of Canaanites. Surely we speak the truth” ’. yā asafī]. and do not despair of God’s [gracious] Spirit. of judges. until my father permits me. for it is worth complaining to Him. no longer addressing them. in other words [it means] yā huznī [‘O my sorrow’]). only regarding what we knew. ‘Alas. [12:84] And he turned away from them. [of] the dead. in what we say. we could not have guarded against the Unseen. against him. with grief. this land. we would not have taken him [with us to Egypt]. [in other words it is] a subject. Yet comely patience. And his eyes turned white. said: ‘Are you not aware that your father has taken a solemn pledge. something. go and enquire about Joseph and his brother. their dark colour was effaced and became white on account of his tears. in years — Reuben — or. The most senior of them. the predicate of which is min qabl. such that he was [filled] with suppressed agony. His mercy. [the most senior of them] in opinion — Judah. So I will never leave. So they went back to him and told him as much. they withdrew to confer privately [together] (najiyyan is a verbal noun that can be used to refer to one person or more. concerning your brother. [12:83] ‘Nay. from you by God. not to any other than Him. of my predicament.

[12:91] They said. ‘By God. and they told him that his eyesight had gone. [if only] you [did not] regard me as foolish. has befallen us and our family. with kingship and in other ways. or by not pronouncing the second. and bring me all your folk’. Verily if one fears. [12:93] He [Joseph] asked them about his father. truly God has preferred you over us. because of its worthlessness — it consisted of counterfeit dirhams or something else — so fill up. and whenever it is cast upon a sufferer. by bringing [us] together. but in both cases inserting an alif) you. leaving behind the palm fields of Egypt. it heals him — and lay it on my father’s face. in rebuke: ‘Do you realise what you did to Joseph. [12:88] And so when they entered to him. Joseph?’. what happens to him. God does not waste the wage of those who are virtuous’. God will forgive you. [12:95] 252  .and so they departed to Egypt [to look] for Joseph. and this is my brother. He rewards them: he [Joseph] thus took pity on them and he was overtaken by compassion [for them] and removed the partition between them and himself. if only you did not think me doting’. ‘indeed we’) have been erring’. It [the shirt] had come from Paradise: Gabriel commanded him [Joseph] to send it off [to Jacob] saying that the scent of Paradise lingers in it. and he will recover his sight. across a distance of three or eight or more days’ journey. on you this day — he specifically mentions this [day] because it was [the day] when they expected to be reproached. by overlooking the worthlessness of our merchandise. God has truly shown favour. and his brother. truly God requites the charitable’. of where the affair of Joseph will lead? [12:90] They said — after recognising him by his noble traits — cautiously [inquiring]: ‘Is it really (read a-innaka. misfortune. he [Joseph] had it around his neck when he was at the bottom of the well. [no] blame. after having separated him from his brother. with God’s permission. you would believe me. for us the measure and be charitable to us. and indeed we (wa-in: in is softened. and He is the Most Merciful of the merciful. either pronouncing both hamzas. he said. refused by any person who sees it. the one he wore when he was thrown into the fire. oppressing him. in other words [it is understood as] innā. He has been gracious. they said. He said. ‘I am [indeed] Joseph. ‘Truly I sense the scent of Joseph — which the east wind had brought to him. their father said. ‘There shall be no reproach. to those of his sons and their children present. [12:92] He said. complete. while you were ignorant?’. And so he said: Go with this shirt of mine — and this was the shirt of Abraham. in the way of beating [him] and selling [him] and otherwise. [if] one fears God. ‘the virtuous’] has replaced the [third person] pronominalisation). sinful towards you and treated you disgracefully. to them. and endures. [12:89] Then. [12:94] And as the caravan set forth. and we have come with reject merchandise. to us. ‘O Court officer. hunger. in this [respect] (the overt noun [almuhsinīn. although any other day would have been more appropriate [for them to be reproached on].

He died at the age of 120 years. in your excessive adoration of him. [12:96] Then. made trouble. in this world and the Hereafter. the Merciful’: he [Jacob] put off this [plea of forgiveness] until [the last hour] before dawn. realising that he would not remain [alive] forever. he seated them next to him. or 40. prostrating before him — a prostration that was [actually] a bowing down. upon the throne. in order to be closer to [the likelihood of] it being accepted. [12:101] When he was nearing his end. ask forgiveness for us of our sins. Guardian of my best interests. in safety’. since He brought me out of the prison — he did not say ‘out of the well’. he charged Joseph to take him and bury him by his father [Isaac]. He lived after that for another week or more. They then departed for Egypt. came. Truly my Lord is Subtle in [bringing about] what He will. or for 17 years. indeed You have given me [something] of sovereignty and You have taught me the interpretation of events. in his tent. if God will. or [he put it off] until the eve of Friday. The duration of his separation [from Joseph] had been 18. Originator. lest his brothers feel ashamed — and has brought you from the desert after Satan had incited ill feeling. He [Joseph] then returned to Egypt and remained [alive] for another 23 years. Truly He is the Knower. of the heavens and the earth! You are my Protector. and Joseph sat down on his throne. you are certainly in your misguidance. ‘Assuredly I shall ask forgiveness for you of my Lord. of old’. truly we have been sinful’. [12:102] 253  . and your [enduring] hope of encountering him [again] despite the length of time [that has passed]. or 80 years. and so he [Joseph] himself went and buried him there. When death approached him. His father [Jacob] remained with him for 24 years. in His actions. on his face and he regained his sight. Creator. Indeed my Lord has made it true. “Indeed I know from God what you do not know?” ’ [12:97] They said. ‘O father. And indeed He has been gracious to me. the Wise. when (fa-lammā an: an is extra) the bearer of good tidings. that is. Judah. not placing their foreheads down [on the ground]. his parents and brothers. ‘O our father. to them: ‘Enter into Egypt. [12:98] He said. [eventually] they placed him in a marble coffin and buried him at the top of the Nile so that both banks would be blessed [by his body] — Glory be to the One Whose Kingdom never ends. he took his parents. he cast the shirt. Then he said. Lo! He is the Forgiving. of His creatures. and they fell down. Take me [in death] to You in submission [to You] and join me to the righteous’. this was their standard [form of] greeting at that time. the ability to explain dreams.They said. from among my fathers. to him: ‘By God. with the shirt — he had [been the one who] brought the blood-stained shirt. and they entered. your error. between me and my brethren. and said. in [a show of] magnanimity. and so now he wished to bring him joy. ‘Did I not say to you. [12:99] And when they entered to Joseph. where Joseph and the senior courtiers came out to meet them. The Egyptians were very covetous with regard to his grave. his father and his mother — or [and] his maternal aunt — into his arms. [12:100] And he raised his parents. this is the interpretation of my vision of old. after he had [previously] brought him grief — he laid it. He said. he longed for the everlasting kingdom and said: My Lord.

[in affirmation] of His being exalted high above having partners. being upon sure knowledge. of the Unseen. You possess him and all that he possesses’. of God. for you were not with them. which is why. Paradise. plain proof. predicated by what preceded [sc. to plot against him. the people of Mecca. ‘to whom We revealed’) — and not angels — from among the people of the towns. or a-fa-lā ta‘qilūn. a calamity enveloping them. [for] the Qur’ān — it. who are crude and ignorant. is there in the heavens and the earth which they pass by. but disregard!. most people. to them: ‘This is my way — which He explains by saying: I call to. the tales. and I am not of the idolaters’ — this [sentence] is also subsumed by the [explanation of] his statement about ‘his way’. against him. [when] they resolved upon it. without ascribing partners. for it. [12:106] And most of them do not believe in God. an admonition. this. and schemed. indicating the Oneness of God. namely. since they are more knowledgeable and wiser than the people of the desert. they used to say: ‘At Your service. while they are unaware?. of the time of its arrival beforehand? [12:108] Say. O people of Mecca. you were not present among them to know their story and so tell it to others: knowledge of it has come to you through revelation. the religion of. [12:103] Yet. is but a reminder. when they were destroyed for denying their messengers? And verily the abode of the Hereafter.That. that is. is better for those who are wary. that is. or the coming of the Hour upon them suddenly. by worshipping idols. that is. not travelled in the land and seen the nature of the consequence for those who were before them?. the principal towns. to all the worlds. God. which We reveal to you. to Him. that is. the Qur’ān. when crying their [ritual] response to God. [12:109] And We did not send before you [any messengers] save men inspired by revelation (yūhā ilayhim: a variant reading has nūhī ilayhim. So Glory be to God!. such that they might affirm that He is the Creator and the Sustainer. Will they not understand? (read a-fa-lā ya‘qilūn. Have they. [12:104] Nor do you ask them any wage. which they witness. ‘being upon sure knowledge’]). which is mentioned of the matter of Joseph. [12:107] Do they deem themselves secure from the coming upon them of a pall. that they believe. the people of Mecca. save a partner that belongs to You. what has been hidden from you O Muhammad (s). [whoever] believes in me (man ittaba‘anī is a supplement to anā. ‘Will you not understand?’). meaning it [when they said it]. the subject. in other words. when they agreed upon their plan. will not believe. of God’s chastisement. that is. how they ended up. however eager you might be. ‘I’. with Joseph’s brothers. is of the tidings. [12:105] And how many a sign. and so have faith? [12:110] 254  . no partner have You. that you should take. not reflecting upon it. I and whoever follows me.

possessors of intellect. it consists of 43. He directs the command. that is. which is mentioned. to the exclusion of others. that is. the Qur’ān (the genitive annexation carries the meaning of [partitive] min. 12:109]). indications of His Oneness. It. Our help came to them and whomever We willed We delivered (read fa-nunajjī or fa-nunjī. diverse terrains. neighbouring each other. Surely in that. He details. the idolatrous. [13:3] And He it is Who spread out. And Our wrath. the signs. of every species. and a guidance. through resurrection. and its darkness. and the verse ‘And those who disbelieve will say. the night. some briny. with the day. to mean [that they were denied] to such an extent that [they believed that] there would not be any [possible acceptance of] faith thereafter. ‘You are not sent [by God]’. verse 31]. ‘If only it were a Qur’ān …’. [13:2] God is He Who raised up the heavens without visible supports (‘amad is the plural of ‘imād. ‘a column’. for a people who reflect. except for the two verses [sc. Alternatively. until [the conclusion of] an appointed time. orchards. Meccan. in the nominative. ‘from’). when the messengers despaired and thought. [to whom] Our support waned until. of scriptures. an elucidation. are the verses of the Book. is not a fabricated. and of every fruit He has made in it two kinds. discourse but. the Qur’ān (this [preceding sentence] constitutes the subject. cannot be averted from the sinning. some of little yield and some fruitful — and these constitute proofs of His power. are signs. a confirmation of what was [revealed] before it. wherein is no doubt. which is [the same as] an ustuwāna. it is Medinese. and a detailing. and that which has been revealed to you from your Lord. He expounds. namely. these verses. Q. He conducts the affairs of His Kingdom. along its course. some good. except for the verse [beginning with] ‘Those who disbelieve will continue to …’ [second half of 31]. He covers. joined side by side. O people of Mecca. and this [statement] is true. this Qur’ān. as past tense. the predicate of which is [the following]). or read kudhibū. upon God’s handiwork. similarly [constituting proofs of His power are] His words: and date-palms sharing one root (sinwān is the plural of sinw. of them. the indications of His power. is the Truth. might be certain of the encounter with your Lord. a presiding befitting Him. so that you. that they were denied (read kudhdhibū. ‘of vines’). exalted be He. Our chastisement. the sun and the moon. of everything.Until (hattā indicates the end [result] indicated by [the previous statement] wa-mā arsalnā min qablika illā rijālan. but most people. made subservient. that one needs for [the proper observance of] religion. ‘gardens’. which are date-palms belonging to the same root. to mean that the communities thought that their messengers had been lied to concerning the victory which they had been promised). [when] the messengers were certain. 45 or 46 verses. in the genitive. 44. [as a supplement] to a‘nābin. that is. from error. exalted be He — and gardens. He cloaks. that is. but with many offshoots) and date-palms otherwise. [until] the Day of Resurrection. since there are no actual supports) then presided upon the Throne. of vines and sown fields (read zar‘un. extended [flat]. as a supplement to jannātun. [each] of 255  . and a mercy for a folk who believe: such [folk] are singled out for mention because they are the ones to benefit from it. folk. and disposed. a lesson for people of pith. do not believe. the messengers’ [stories]. exalted be He. an invented. created. ‘[whomever We wished] was delivered’). therein firm mountains and rivers. (Ar-Ra‘d) [13:1] Alif lām mīm rā’: God knows best what He means by these [letters]. [12:111] Verily there is in their stories. or fa-nujjiya. the people of Mecca. or read zar‘in. the earth and set. it is. moving. And We did not send before you [any messengers] save men [above. [13:4] And on the earth are tracts. each one. that it is from God. Those.

and what is in them. bitter — and these are [also] proofs of His power. [who] hide themselves. for otherwise He would not have left a single creature on the face of it [the earth]. [of] what is hidden and what is witnessed. God. by day. are pronounced. through His [overpowering] subjugation (read al-muta‘ālī or al-muta‘āl. or read yusqā as [referring to] the mentioned [date-palms]) by the same [source of] water. that is to say. for it is not your duty to bring forth signs.individual root. [13:11] 256  . of the chastisement: And they would have you hasten on the evil. [13:10] [They are all] the same. one or more. those — fetters shall be around their necks. rather than the good. to guide them to their Lord with the signs that He gives him. then surely wondrous. without any precedent. [13:8] God knows what every female bears. out of mockery. exalted be He. against those who disobey Him. and what they increase. ‘Why has not some sign been sent down upon him. [those who] are manifest [to view] when they make their way. Surely in that. says: You are only a warner. O Muhammad (s). and not what with they request. and otherwise. ‘gardens’. [it is wondrous] because the One Who has the power to originate creation and [to originate] what has been mentioned [above]. the High Exalted. ‘acacia’). they shall be the inhabitants of the Fire. are signs for a people who understand. one to threaten the disbelievers. abiding therein. or the she-camel. or read wa-yufaddil. similar [in pattern] to samura [pl. above His creation. the chastisement. Those are the ones who disbelieve in their Lord. in both instances [a-idhā and a-innā]. the punishments of disbelievers like them: will they not take warning from these? Truly your Lord is forgiving to mankind despite their evil-doing. one variant reading has the first [a-idhā] as the interrogative. a prophet. samurāt]. from his Lord!’. the Great. of it. when there have indeed occurred before them exemplary punishments (mathulāt is the plural of mathula. [13:9] [He is] the Knower of the unseen and the visible. and We make some of them to excel (wa-nufaddil. and for every folk there is a guide. which is mentioned. [13:5] And if you wonder. ‘the High Exalted’). and what the wombs reduce. ‘and He [God] makes [some of them] to excel’) others in flavour (read fī’l-ukul or fī’l-ukl): and so some are sweet. [surely] deserving wonder. in the night. others. And everything with Him is according to a [precise] measure. and those who lurk. but in both cases inserting an alif or not [inserting it]. a [precise] amount and limit which it does not exceed. exalted be He. while another variant reading has the [exact] opposite). the Tremendous. exalted be He. and those. according to His knowledge. or [one may] pronounce the first and not pronounce the second. those of you who speak secretly and those who do so openly. shall we indeed then be [raised] in a new creation?’. [13:7] And those who disbelieve say. of the time of gestation. watered (read tusqā as [referring to] jannāt. in its darkness. [who] reflect. is their saying. has [also] the power to restore them [to life] (both hamzas. of male or female. and those who go forth. and truly your Lord is severe in retribution. at the disbelievers denying you. in denial of resurrection: ‘When we have become dust. upon Muhammad (s). and the second one [a-innā] as the predicate. [13:6] The following was revealed regarding their hastening on. the like of the staff and the [glowing] hand. [rather than] mercy.

having no associate therein. such that it burns [that person]: this was revealed regarding a man to whom the Prophet (s) had sent someone to invite [to Islam] and who said. He unleashes the thunderbolts — these are a fire which issues forth from the clouds — and smites with them whom He will. and so too the angels. guarding him through God’s command. [it is only] in perdition. the clouds that are heavy. that it may reach his mouth. for a people there is none that can repel it. proclaims His praise.For him. Say: ‘Are the blind one and the seer. from [their] comely nature. [13:12] He it is Who shows you the lightning. [13:14] His. argue with the Prophet (s). of God. that is. protectors. equal? No! Or have they set up for God associates who have created the like of His creation. angels who follow him. in travellers. that is. and they. that is. equal? Or are darkness. ‘Glory be to God through His praise’ (subhāna’Llāh wa-bi-hamdihi). [13:15] And to God prostrate whoever is in the heavens and the earth. such as hypocrites and those coerced by the sword. at the edge of a well. or unwillingly. [13:13] And the thunder — this is an angel. calling to it. about God. the words that constitute it [the truth]. idols. other than God. other than Him — namely. from [the danger of] the jinn and others. of thunderbolts. faith. so that creation seems alike. and these are: ‘there is no god but God’ (lā ilāha illā’Llāh). that is. are attendants. and the call of the disbelievers. with rain. that is. the disbelievers. [reach] his mouth. [respectively]. Indeed God does not alter the state of a people — He does not deprive them of His grace — unless they have altered the state of their souls. exalted be He. there can be no other response. apart from Him. 257  . to his front and to his rear. and so He cannot have an associate in terms of worship. or in [the severity of His] retribution. by His command. either from among the attendant angels or others. proclaim His praise. save as. have no protector (min wālin: min is extra) to avert it from them. through an act of disobedience. and you abandon the One Who is their Possessor? (an interrogative meant as a rebuke). so that they believe them worthy of being worshipped on account of what these [associates] have created? (an interrogative of disavowal). or of silver. dispute. whereupon a thunderbolt came down on him and blew off the top of his head. and the light. apart from Him. He creates. he says. and He produces. yet they. ‘you call’). that is. is the response to. Say. for man. in power. [those whom] they worship. of His servants. not so! None save the Creator is worthy of being worshipped. for those who are at home. [is] what the associates create and the creation of God [alike]. one who stretches forth his hands towards water. disbelief. willingly. O Muhammad (s). in awe of Him. other than Him. ‘Who is the Messenger of God? And what is God? Is He [made] of gold. in the mornings and the evenings. or of copper?’. that is. Say: ‘God is the Creator of all things. chastisement. driving them. in other words. who is in charge of the clouds. but it would never reach it. [13:16] Say. of rain. for whom God wills misfortune. and He is the One. the disbeliever and the believer. such as believers. the idols — do not answer them anything. and those upon whom they call (read yad‘ūn or tad‘ūn. ever: likewise they [the idols] will not answer them. to them: ‘Then have you taken beside Him. their worship of idols — or their actual supplication — goes only astray. that is. that is. to worship. by its rising through the well to [reach] him. the Subjugator’. to your people: ‘Who is the Lord of the heavens and the earth?’ Say: ‘God’ — and even if they do not say it. [while he] constantly. though He is great in might. [inspiring] fear. of which they ask. to them?’. prostrate. is the call of truth. and hope. and their shadows also. who have no power to benefit or harm themselves?’. And if God wills misfortune.

and dread an awful reckoning — a similar [statement] has preceded. an evil resting place. from among their fathers and their spouses and their descendants. Truth. God points out truth and falsehood. their Lord’s countenance. [those who] believed. [He points out] the similitude thereof. is established and enduring. namely: [13:23] Gardens of Eden. sends down water. it passes away as dross. those. they would offer it to redeem themselves therewith. on the other hand. and so believes in it. Thus. which they shall enter. and [staying] away from disobedience. whereat the valleys flow according to their measure. God strikes. [13:18] For those who respond to their Lord. like him who is blind?. [meaning] the one that was taken from them while they were still atoms — or [meaning] any covenant — and do not break the pact. and this [latter scum] consists of the impurities expelled by the bellows. from among the transient things of this world. while that which is of use to mankind. and fear their Lord. remember. or yūqidūn. useless refuse. when they [the minerals] are melted. by way of obedience. rising above it. it is! [13:19] The following was revealed regarding Hamza and Abū Jahl: Is he who knows that what is revealed to you from your Lord is the truth. by abandoning belief. none of which will be forgiven. secretly and openly. and therewith the like of it. even if it should prevail over the truth at certain times. of faith and kinship ties and so forth. exalted be He. such as [repelling] ignorance through forbearance. and does not know it. the like of the scum of the flood. which is useful. for a time: likewise. that is. the praiseworthy sequel in the Hereafter. and maintain the prayer and expend. in the way mentioned. lingers. similitudes. ornaments. falsehood wanes and is [eventually] effaced. rain. or ware. in the way of water and minerals. even if 258  . according to their full capacity. of the flood and of the minerals smelted. desiring. against the chastisement. and this [scum] is the filth and the like that lies on the surface of the earth. and harm through patience. heed [such admonitions]. He makes clear. silver or copper. For such there shall be an awful reckoning. through obedience and [during] hardship. and from that which they smelt (read tūqidūn. in obedience. ‘you smelt’. namely the disbelievers — if they possessed all that is in the earth. Paradise. [there rises] a scum the like of it. saying: He. desiring. remains. [13:20] such as fulfil God’s covenant. [13:22] such as are patient. and repel evil with good. possessors of intellect. there shall be the goodly reward. and their abode shall be Hell. such as gold. of that which We have provided them. theirs shall be the sequel of the [heavenly] Abode: that is. and the flood carries a scum that swells. adornment. or [religious] obligations. seeking [to make]. and that is that they will be requited for every single thing they did. [13:21] and such as cement what God has commanded should be cemented. and those who do not respond to Him. in the way mentioned. Thus. and nothing else. of the earth’s minerals. ‘they smelt’) in the fire. His Threat [of punishment]. nor believes in it? No! But only people of pith.[13:17] He then strikes a similitude of truth and falsehood. from the sky. they. As for the scum. that is. as a [place of] residence. seeking. such as utensils. [those who] answer Him. that is. in the earth. along with those who were righteous.

namely. ‘If you are [truly] a prophet. like the staff and the [glowing] hand or the she-camel. that you may recite to them that which We have revealed to you. [13:24] They will say [to them]: ‘Peace be upon you. the predicate of which [is the following]) theirs shall be blessedness (tūbā is a verbal noun derived from tīb. banishment from God’s mercy. that we may plant and sow seeds. restricts it. [13:27] And those who disbelieve. ‘And what is the Compassionate One?’ Say. by God’s remembrance. whose shade a mounted traveller travelling for 100 years would still not traverse) and a fair resort. How excellent is. from his Lord?’ Say. We have sent you to a community before whom other communities have passed away. for whom He will. that is. then make these mountains of Mecca drift away before us. through unbelief and acts of disobedience. your sequel. and straitens. and the angels shall enter to them from every gate. is but [a brief] enjoyment. [13:31] The following was revealed when they said to him. ‘those who’. in what they acquire therein. this is the reward. comparison with the life of. in order to congratulate them. rejoice. the hearts of the believers. a trifling thing. in the life of this world. from among the people of Mecca. of the gates of Paradise or of [the gates of] the palaces [of Paradise]. Hell. for whomever He will. they said. find rest. He makes it abundant. by His promise [of reward].these [latter] did not perform deeds of the same [merit] as theirs. and resurrect for us our dead fathers to speak to us and tell us that you are a prophet’: Even if it were a 259  . that is. and work corruption in the earth. for. alladhīna. to send astray — such that signs cannot avail him in any way — and He guides. and sever what God has commanded should be cemented. In Him I trust and to Him is my recourse’. when they were commanded to prostrate themselves to Him. or [the name of] a tree in Paradise. He directs. to Him. they shall share with them their stations [of Paradise] as an honouring for them. those who turn in repentance’. to them: ‘Indeed God sends astray whomever He will. the awful sequel in the abode of the Hereafter. is substituted by [the following. ‘those who …’]). been sent down upon him. a wanton rejoicing. to His religion. when they first enter. for your patience’. the sequel of the [heavenly] Abode! [13:25] And those who break God’s covenant after pledging it. O Muhammad (s): ‘He is my Lord. just as We sent prophets before you. there is no god save Him. [13:30] Thus. the Hereafter. ‘Why has not some sign. [13:28] those who believe and whose hearts are reassured. yet the life of this world. Verily by God’s remembrance are hearts reassured. that is. that is. and theirs shall be the awful abode. [13:29] those who believe and perform righteous deeds: (alladhīna āmanū wa-‘amilū’l-sālihāt is the subject. upon Muhammad (s). during life on earth. enjoyed and then lost. [a fair] place to return to. [13:26] God expands provision. and make for us rivers and springs in it. the Qur’ān. ‘goodness’. in. to them. theirs shall be the curse. the people of Mecca. [those who] return to Him (man. say. yet they disbelieve in the Compassionate One. and they.

protector. in the same way that you have been mocked — this is meant as solace for the Prophet (s) — but I gave respite to those who disbelieved. and I shall deal with those who have mocked you in the same way. of an associate. according to what We recount to you [is as follows]: beneath it rivers flow. taken captive. for if He did. He has no associate. even if they were given what they request [of signs]. namely. He could have guided all mankind?. because it does not exist therein. over every soul what it has earned?. He would know him — exalted be He above such a thing. through being killed or taken captive. that aligned themselves against you in enmity. [from] the path of guidance. and none other. then I seized them. comes to pass. Salām and others from among the believing Jews. because of their actions. rejoice in that which has been revealed to you. the sequel. which He does not know in the earth? (an interrogative of disavowal). of idolatry. is more severe. but the affair belongs entirely to God. of those who were wary. he alighted at Hudaybiyya until the conquest of Mecca took place. it [My retribution] will come to pass. is the reward. to faith. is everlasting. torn. that is. and among the factions. Nay. continue to be struck by devastation. Paradise. Or is it — nay — you call them associates. [13:35] The likeness. what is consumed in it. such as ‘Abd Allāh b. will you inform God. for him there is no guide. of Paradise. or the earth were cleft. they still would not believe. in other words. that is. a catastrophe that devastates them through all manner of hardship. such as being killed. such that they would respond. that (an is softened. from His chastisement. [13:34] For them there is chastisement in the life of this world. [13:32] messengers were certainly mocked before you. what it has done of good or evil — and this is God — like the idols who are not so? No! This [response] is suggested by [the following words]: Yet they ascribe to God associates. That. merely [a manner of] speaking?’. and the requital of the disbelievers is the Fire! [13:36] And those to whom We have given the Scripture. from God. from among the idolaters and the Jews. without any truth in it. O Muhammad (s). hoping that they [the ones requesting them] might believe: Have they not realised. The following was revealed when the Companions were keen that what was requested [of signs] should be manifested. and [suffering] war or drought. which has been promised to the God-fearing (this is a subject. such as the mention of the ‘Compassionate One’ (al-Rahmān) and all that is other than the stories [related therein]. the predicate of which has been omitted). that is. without [the need for] any sign? And the disbelievers. and they have no defender. and not to associate [anything] with Him. so that none believes except he whom He wills that he believes. because of its according with what they have with them [of revelation]. that is to say.Qur’ān whereby the mountains were set in motion. 260  . and its shade. Say: ‘I have been commanded — in that which has been revealed to me — only to worship God. truly God does not break His promise: and indeed. and whomever God sends astray. or you alight. never replaced by any sun. for Him: who are they? Or will you inform Him. from among the people of Mecca. their unbelief. near their home — Mecca — until God’s promise. its food. together with your army. that is. of victory against them. [it is merely] on the basis of false conjecture. because of what they wrought. are those who reject some of it. in other words. Nay. or the dead were spoken to. the description. has been adorned for those who disbelieve and they have been barred from the way. and no other. moved from their places. those who believe. their disbelief. Say: ‘Name them!. never perishing. [13:33] Is He Who stands. with retribution. watches. To Him I call and to Him shall be my return’. and how was My retribution?. but their scheming. is everlasting. and verily the chastisement of the Hereafter is more grievous. in other words [understand it as] annahu) had God willed. of something.

its [source of] origin. 54 or 55 verses. that he should bring a sign. because they are servants enthralled [by Him]. For every term. in the language of the Arabs. fadhāk [‘then so shall it be’]). and he who possesses knowledge of the Book’. a variant reading has kuffār [‘the disbelievers’]) shall assuredly know for whom shall be the sequel of the [heavenly] Abode. of communities. by giving victory to the Prophet (s). [those of] the disbelievers. And nor is their plotting like the plotting of God. plotted. the people of Mecca. that is. to assist you. [13:42] And indeed those that were before them. you shall have no protector. to ward off His chastisement. [13:39] God effaces. there is none that can repel His judgement and He is swift at reckoning. 261  . from among them. except for the two verses 28 and 29. against their prophets just as they plot against you. before chastising them. wherein is inscribed its delimitation. And if you should follow their whims. Meccan. children — and you are like them. it consists of 52. diminishing it at its outlying regions?. [13:38] And when they derided him for having many wives. that is. and it was not for any Messenger. in that to which they summon you of their creed. which are Medinese. We have revealed it. and We assigned to them wives and seed. in other words [understand it as being]. [13:41] Or is it that they. have not seen how We visit the land. for. And God judges. but to God belongs all plotting. after what has come to you of knowledge. the Qur’ān. as a [decisive] judgement in Arabic. of God’s Oneness. that is. and this is the ultimate plotting. exalted be He. [13:40] And whether ([read as] immā: the nūn of the conditional particle in. of which nothing is ever changed. save by God’s leave. The disbeliever (the genus is meant here. whereupon We shall requite them. He knows what every soul earns. for you to judge thereby between people. whatever He will and He fixes (read yuthbit or yuthabbit). and so its requital is prepared for it. ‘whether’. among His creatures as He will.[13:37] And so. of it [the Book]. [how] We target their land. your duty is only to deliver [the Message]. therein whatever He will of rulings or other matters. and which consists of what He inscribed in pre-eternity (azal). has been assimiliated with the extra mā) We show you a part of that which We promise them. just like that [manner of] revelation. to them: ‘God suffices as a witness between me and you. to my truthfulness [as a messenger]. the following was revealed: And indeed We sent messengers before you. against God (mina’Llāhi min: the [second] min is extra) and no defender. hypothetically [speaking]. since He brings it to them whence they are not aware. and with Him is the Mother of the Book. to you: ‘You have not been sent [by God]!’ Say. from among the Christian and Jewish believers. or We take you [to Us]. there is a Book. period. of chastisement. during your lifetime (the response of the conditional statement has been omitted. the praiseworthy sequel in the abode of the Hereafter: will it be theirs or that of the Prophet (s) and his Companions? [13:43] And those who disbelieve say. when they finally come to Us. it is for