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Ó˚ 2010

x˜ÏÓï˛!öܲ §¡õyòܲ
≤Ãò#˛õ üç%üòyÓ˚–– fl∫˛õö ö®#
x°B˛Ó˚îñ ≤ÃFåÈò
fl∫˛õö ö®#
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˛õyÌ≈≤Ã!ï˛ü àˆÏDy˛õyôƒyÎ˚
Ü,˛ï˛K˛ï˛y
Ó˚âö% ®ö !§Ç•
ü%oîñ x«˛Ó˚ !Óöƒy§
ܲƒy:ê˛ö !≤Ãrê˛y§≈
ˆÎyàyˆÏÎyà
!í˛ÈÙÈ202ñ Ü,˛£èyÎ˚öñ ~í˛û˛y•zçyÓ˚ ˆã˛Ôü%•ö#ñ xyàÓ˚ï˛°y 799001
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ܲ!Óï˛y
ܲyÓƒ◊# û˛Ryã˛yÎ≈ Ó܉˛§# –– fl∫î≈y°# !ÓŸªy§ û˛Ryã˛yÎ≈ –– xyú˛ˆÏÓ˚yçy ˆ§yüy––
ˆú˛Ó˚ˆÏòÔ§ üy•ü%ò –– çy•yöyÓ˚y ˛õyÓ˚û˛#ö
•yÄÎ˚y•z xyU˛y–– ≤Ãò#˛õ x!üï˛yû˛
ܲ!Óï˛y
ܲ°ƒyîÓ ï˛ ã˛e´Óï˛#≈–– §ˆÏhsˇy£Ï Ó˚yÎ˚ –– öÜ%˛° Ó˚yÎ˚–– ï˛ß√Î˚ ôÓ˚ –– §Ó˚ܲyÓ˚ xy!üö ––
È!ÓŸª!çÍ ˆ§öÈ–– !ÓŸª!çÍ ˆòÓ –– !ò°#˛õܲy!hsˇ °flÒÓ˚ –– ÄÓyˆÏÎ˚ò xyܲy¢ ––
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ï˛üy°ˆÏ¢áÓ˚ ˆò
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Ï wÜ%˛üyÓ˚ !§Ç•
mv` Kvgvjx –– †`‡ek iv‡qi Liv `v½vi cÖwZ‡e`b wb‡q GKwU MícÖwZ‡e`b
KvVMovq ivóª

!öô≈y!Ó˚ï˛ §üˆÏÎ˚ ܲyàç!ê˛ ˆÓÓ˚ ܲÓ˚y ˆàˆÏ°y öy ÷ô%üye !öÓ≈y!ã˛ï˛ ˆ°áܲˆÏòÓ˚ x§•ˆÏÎy!àï˛yÓ˚
ܲyÓ˚ˆÏî– •Î˚ï˛ x!öÎ˚üÈÙÈ•z ܲyàˆÏçÓ˚ ˆöÔܲyÓ˚ !öÎ˚!ï˛ !öû≈˛Ó˚– ~•z ˜Ü˛!ú˛Î˚Í ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ í˛zˆÏjˆÏ¢ƒ
ÎyˆÏòÓ˚ ≤Ãã˛% Ó˚ ˆú˛yöñ email, ˛xyüyˆÏܲ ~ܲ!ê˛ ôyÓ˚îy !òˆÏΈ˚ åÏ È ˆÎ ܲyàç!ê˛ §ü@ˇÃ ÓyÇ°yû˛y£Ïy!ӈϟª
~ܲ!ê˛ û˛y° °yàyÓ˚ çyÎ˚ày ˜ï˛!Ó˚ ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˆ˛õˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ– ~ܲ!ê˛ Ü˛yàç §üÎ˚üï˛ ˆÓÓ˚ öy ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛
˛õyÓ˚yÓ˚ •y°!ú˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ §ü§ƒy üˆÏö •ˆÏFåÈ §!ï˛ƒ•z û˛yˆÏ°y ÎyÓ˚y !°ˆÏáö ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚ ˆ°áyÓ˚
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~û˛yˆÏÓ•zñ çy!ööy ܲï˛!òö ...
≤Ãò#˛õ üç%üòyÓ˚

¢y•‰öyç ü%ߨ# –– Óyò%í˛¸ Ä Ó ƒy!u˛

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ܲyÓƒ◊# û˛Ryã˛yÎ≈ Ó܉˛§#

xü,ï˛ ú˛°§y
~ܲ!òö ӈϰ!åȈϰñ ˛õyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ö#ˆÏã˛Ó˚ üy!ê˛ ˆòˆÏÓ
~áyˆÏö •°%òÓy!° !àˆÏ° áyÎ˚ §Ó%ˆÏçÓ˚ xy¢y
~áyˆÏö Ó˚yáˆÏÓ ï%˛!ü ¢ƒyü ¢§ƒˆÏáï˛
ï%˛!ü•zˆÏï˛y ӈϰ!åȈϰ x¶˛ ï˛ü§y !åÈÖˆÏí˛¸ ~ˆÏö ˆòˆÏÓ
ãÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚ §vÓ˚
ï˛ˆÏÓñ xyç Ìyܲ ~ åÈ°öyñ ˆ°yܲyÎ˚ï˛ fl∫ˆÏ≤¿Ó˚yñ Ìyܲ
àû˛#Ó˚ xï˛°yhsˇ ö#° ˆû˛ˆÏä üyÕ‘yÓ˚y xyçÄ
!ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ xyˆÏ§
ï˛#ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ §Ó%ˆÏç–

ܲ!Óï˛y

ï%˛!ü•zˆÏï˛y ӈϰ!åȈϰñ ÚxyˆÏ°yÓ˚ öy!û˛ˆÏï˛ •yï˛ Ó˚yˆÏáyÛ–
˛õ%ˆÏí˛¸ ÎyÎ˚ ˆ°y•y Îï˛ñ ˛õ%ˆÏí˛¸ ˛õ%ˆÏí˛¸ áÑy!ê˛ •Î˚ ˆ§yöy
ܲ›Ó˚#ü,ˆÏàÓ˚y ~•z x¶˛Ó˚y!e ï˛åÈöåÈ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚
ܲ# á%шÏçˆÏåÈ
~áö !Óï˛Ü≈˛ Ìyܲñ ˛õ,!ÌÓ#Ó˚ ≤Ãyã˛#ö !öÉŸªyˆÏ§
~ˆÏ§y !ü!°ˆÏÎ˚ !ü!¢ˆÏÎ˚ !ò•z ü‡Î˚y Ó˚§yˆÏ°y–
~•z ˛õÓ˚ÓàyˆÏåÈÓ˚ ö#ˆÏã˛ ˆ£Ïy° ˆçyí˛¸y ˛õyˆÏÎ˚ •ÑyˆÏê˛ Ü˛yÓ˚y⁄
ܲyÓ˚y ~•z xy!òü Óöyö# ã˛ˆÏ£Ï ú˛!°ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ
xü,ï˛ ú˛°§y–
ï%˛!ü•zˆÏï˛y ӈϰ!åȈϰ §)Î≈ˆÏܲ ~ˆÏö ˆòˆÏÓ ~ ¢#ï˛° âˆÏÓ˚
§yï˛ˆÏ¢y !¢÷Ó˚ •yˆÏï˛ ï%˛ˆÏ° ˆòˆÏÓ Ó§Ó˚y•z ˆày°y˛õ
ÄÓ˚y ï%˛Ó˚Dü ò%ɧy•ˆÏ§ í˛z!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ˛õ%!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ˆòˆÏÓ
Îï˛ ò%Éá Óyôy
ï%˛!ü•zˆÏï˛y ӈϰ!åȈϰ–

üy!ê˛ Ä ˆüˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ܲÌyê%˛Ü%˛

fl∫î≈y°# !ÓŸªy§ û˛Ryã˛yÎ≈

xçflÀ çˆÏ°Ó˚ ôyÓ˚y ~ˆÏ§y xyçñ !¢Ó˚y ˆüˆÏ° xy!åÈ
~ üy!ê˛ öÓö# ˆÎöñ ˆàÓ˚&Î˚y xÑyã˛ˆÏ° á%ò‰ôyö
!Ó˛õߨ Ü%˛!Z˛ï˛ ˛õyˆÏÎ˚ â%ˆÏÓ˚ â%ˆÏÓ˚ !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ ÎyÄÎ˚y
˛öò#!ê˛Ó˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ
ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚ ˆöÄÎ˚y ú˛§ˆÏ°Ó˚ â yîñ xâ yˆÏö ܲy!ï≈˛ˆÏܲ ˆ˛õԈϣÏ
í˛zë˛yˆÏöÓ˚ Ó%ˆÏܲ ˆüˆÏ° ˆòÄÎ˚y xü° ôyˆÏöÓ˚ ˆ§yöy
ã%Ñ˛ˆÏÎ˚ ã%Ñ˛ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÓ˚ÔˆÏo ˆü¢yˆÏöy–

ˆÎ ˆã˛öy ˛õÌ!ê˛ ôˆÏÓ˚
ã˛ˆÏ° Îy•z xˆÏã˛öy ¢•ˆÏÓ˚
ˆ§•z ˆã˛öy ˛ṏÏܲ ≤Ãîyü
ç#Óö ˆï˛yüyˆÏܲ xyÓ˚
xöƒ öyü öy•z Óy !ò°yüÊ

ï˛°‰ï˛y ÓÑyˆÏ¢Ó˚ ÓˆÏö ˛õyï˛y Ü%˛í˛¸yˆÏöyÓ˚ ˆÓ°y ˆ¢ˆÏ£Ïñ ã%˛°yÎ˚
xy=ö 絈ϰñ Ó!e¢ öy!í˛¸Ó˚ !áˆÏòÎ˚ §%çyï˛yÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚üyߨ
çyí˛zû˛yï˛ ˆÓˆÏí˛¸ ˆòÎ˚ ÄÓ˚yñ !¢÷Ó˚ ü%ˆÏáÓ˚ •y!§ xÑyã˛ˆÏ°
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ÓÑyˆÏ¢Ó˚ ˆÓí˛¸yÓ˚ àyˆÏÎ˚ •yçyˆÏÓ˚y çyö°y=!° á%ˆÏ°–
ˆ§•zÈÙÈ•z ˆüˆÏÎ˚ ôyöܲyê˛y ˆ¢£Ï üy!ê˛ ˆÌˆÏܲ ï%˛ˆÏ° xyˆÏö
á%шÏê˛ ˆöÎ˚ í˛zN˛ç#Ó#Ó˚ •yˆÏï˛ ˆ¢£Ï òyöy ܲ!ê˛
ï˛áö ˛õyÜ%˛í˛¸Óê˛ !âˆÏÓ˚ Ó§y ã˛y£Ïy Ä üç%Ó˚ üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚y
Ó#ç Ä §yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ܲÌyñ ú˛§° ú˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ ܲÌy !ú˛§‰ !ú˛§‰
=Ñç =Ñç xyˆÏ°yã˛öy ܲˆÏÓ˚–
xyí˛z°yˆÏöy í˛zë˛yö ç%ˆÏí˛¸ !•ˆÏüÈÙÈĈÏü !û˛ˆÏç ÎyÄÎ˚y
áˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ xyâ yî e´ˆÏü ˆüˆÏ° ˆòÎ˚ fl∫ˆÏ≤¿Ó˚ xyˆÏ°yÎ˚yöê%˛Ü%˛
ˆ§•zÈÙÈ•z ˆüˆÏÎ˚!ê˛Ó˚ ˆ§Ñyòy Ó%ܲ ˆåȈÏÎ˚
ò)ˆÏÓ˚ ˆçˆÏà ÌyˆÏܲ !åÈê‰˛ !åÈê‰˛ xyˆÏ°Î˚y Ä ï˛yÓ˚y–

S2V
Îy ˆòáyÓ˚ öÎ˚ ˆã˛yá
ˆòáˆÏåÈ ï˛y•zñ x¶˛ ò,¢ƒüy°y
Îy ˆ¢yöyÓ˚ öÎ˚ ܲyö
÷öˆÏåÈ ï˛y•z Ó!ôÓ˚ §Çà#ï˛ÈÙÙÙÈ
flõˆÏ¢≈ xyˆÏ°yܲ ˆö•z
¢∑ ï˛y•z çß√yÓ!ô ˆÓyÓy
åÈ°öy üyôƒü ˛õÌ
ܲ#û˛yˆÏÓ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ Óy!í˛¸ ÎyÓ⁄
S3V
!Ó¢°ƒÜ˛Ó˚î# ~•z
ˆò•!ê˛ˆÏܲ Ó˚yˆÏáy xyç
çáˆÏüÓ˚ ˛õyˆÏ¢–
¢#ÍܲyÓ˚ àÑyÌyÎ˚ ï˛yÓ˚
÷◊*£ÏyÓ˚ §yüÈÙÈàyö ˆ•yܲÈÙÙÙÈ
ˆã˛yˆÏáÓ˚ !¢Î˚ˆÏÓ˚ ˆã˛yá
!öoy Îyܲ x°§ ò%˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚ñ
§ˆÏ¡øy!•ï˛ çö˛õòñ
«˛ï˛ ˆÌˆÏܲ Ó,!‹TôyÓ˚y é˛ˆÏÓ˚–

S4V
•*òÎ˚ Ú§•ç ˛õyë˛Û
Óyöyö û%˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ û˛Î˚ ܲüñ
ÓƒyܲÓ˚î ç!ê˛°ï˛y
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û˛yˆÏ°yÓy§y ˆüyüÓy!ï˛ñ
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S5V
ã%˛¡∫ˆÏöÓ˚ åÈyí˛¸˛õe
~áöÄ ˛õyÎ˚!ö û˛#Ó˚& ˆë˛Ñyê˛
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§yühsˇ ≤ÃÌyÓ˚ û)˛ÈÙÈ◊!üܲ
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ï˛yÓ˚ ˆö•z !öçfl∫ °y°öñ
!ÓK˛y˛õˆÏöÓ˚ ˛õyï˛y
ç%í˛¸y ï˛yÓ˚ ˆüy•@ˇÃhflÏ üö–

xyú˛ˆÏÓ˚yçy ˆ§yüy

ö#Ó˚Óï˛y
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ˆ˛õˆÏï˛ xy!åÈ !˛õë˛ó
x!fliÓ˚ üàˆÏç í˛zí˛¸ˆÏåÈ ò%˛õ%Ó˚ÈÙÙÙÈ
xy!ü ܲÌy Ó!°
ˆÓ˚yˆÏò ˆâyÓ˚°yày ~ܲ°y ¢y!°Ü˛ó
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ˆï˛yüyˆÏÜ˛Ä öÎ˚ ˆçˆÏöy
ܲyòyÎ˚ °%!ܲˆÏÎ˚ Ìyܲy üyåÈ
~ÈÙÈܲÌy àhsˇÓƒ•#öÈÙÙÙÈ
Óy§ ˆÌˆÏܲ ˆöˆÏü ÎyÎ˚ üyé˛Ó˚yhflÏyÎ˚ÈÙÙÙÈ
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!ö!ÿ˛ï˛ xyüyçˆÏöÓ˚ ˆüy•öy •ˆÏÓy–

ü!òÓ˚ï˛yÎ˚ xyÓåÈy ˆÓ˚°ày!í˛¸
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â!í˛¸Ó˚ ÜÑ˛yê˛yÎ˚ §üˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ üö ˆö•z
ˆã˛Î˚yˆÏÓ˚ ˆê˛!ӈϰ é˛Ó˚ˆÏã˛ flø,!ï˛Ó˚ ü!òÓ˚ï˛y–
ˆâyí˛¸y ˆÌˆÏܲ ˆöˆÏü
ü,ï˛ ˆëÑ˛yê˛ ~ˆÏ§ å%ÈшÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ ¢Ó˚yÓ
ˆã˛yˆÏáÓ˚ ü!î àˆÏ° à°à° öyüˆÏåÈ !Ó°y˛õÈÙÙÙ
üyò%ˆÏÓ˚ÈÙÈ˛õyˆÏ˛õyˆÏ¢ ~áö •zÑò%ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ §%!òöÈÙÙÙÈ

xy!ú ˛Ü˛yö ˆÓ˚yò ˆüˆÏá
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ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ !ã˛•´ ˆö•z
ˆÜ˛yÌyÎ˚ ˆ°áy !åÈ° öyüÈÙÙÙÈ
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!Ó£Ï] Ó%°ú˛y•zê˛
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û˛Ó˚ˆÏåÈ Ü˛°§ÈÙÙÙÈ
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ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ çyöy°yÎ˚ÈÙÙÙÈ

x!û˛üyö !öÄ öy Î%Óܲñ
ܲyˆÏö ܲyˆÏö ~ܲÓyÓ˚
ˆï˛yüyˆÏòÓ˚ Ó°%ú˛y•zˆÏê˛Ó˚ £ÏÑyí˛¸!ê˛ˆÏܲ
!çˆÏK˛§ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆòˆÏáyÈÙÙÙÈ
xöÌ≈ !ÓˆÏÓ˚yô Óy!ôˆÏÎ˚
Ó˚yçyÓ˚y ˆÜ˛üö xyö® ˛õyÎ˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ

ˆüyÓ˚àñ ÓyÓ˚y®y xÌÓy ˆày°y˛õ
åÈy•z Ó˚äy çyüyÓ˚ ˛õˆÏܲˆÏê˛ ˆüyÓ˚à!ê˛
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~Ó˚ xyˆÏà ï˛yˆÏܲ °%ˆÏܲyˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ
ò!«˛ˆÏî üˆÏÓ˚ ÎyÄÎ˚y öò#ˆÏòÓ˚ ˆ¢yܲ
¢y°Óö !Ó•yˆÏÓ˚ ˆÓÔk˛!û˛«%˛Ó˚ •y!üÇ
~àyÓ˚!§¶%˛Ó˚ ò%ˆÏà≈Ó˚ ú˛ê˛ˆÏܲ
•y!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÄÎ˚y §)ˆÏÎ≈yòÎ˚
~üö ~ܲú˛y!° ÓyÓ˚y®yÓ˚ à“Ä
ˆ§ !§®%ˆÏܲ °%!ܲˆÏÎ˚ ˆÓ˚ˆÏá!åȈϰy
ˆÎ˛ !ܲ öy ≤Ã!ï˛!òö ˆ¢£Ï Ó˚yˆÏï˛ å%ȈÏê˛ ÎyÄÎ˚y
!ÓüyˆÏöÓ˚ ¢ˆÏ∑Ó˚ !˛õå%È !˛õå%È !àˆÏÎ˚Ä
ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy!òö àhsˇÓƒ á%шÏç ˛õyÎ˚!ö–
Îy•z ˆ•yܲñ ˆüyÓ˚à!ê˛ !ç•¥yÓ˚ !öˆÏã˛
ã%˛•zÇàyˆÏüÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y §%ˆÏÜ˛Ô¢ˆÏ° °%!ܲˆÏÎ˚ Ó˚yˆÏá
Ó£Ï≈y!ï˛•#ö ˆã˛yá
Ó%ˆÏܲÓ˚ ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚
í˛yö •yˆÏï˛Ó˚ ˛õÑyã˛!ê˛ xyä%° í%˛!ÓˆÏÎ˚
Ó˚_´ ˆày°yˆÏ˛õÓ˚ !Ó£Ï]ï˛y
çˆÏ°Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y !åÈ!ê˛ˆÏÎ˚ ˆòÎ˚ xyܲy¢ x!û˛ü%ˆÏáÈÙÙÙÈ

ˆú˛Ó˚ˆÏòÔ§ üy•ü%ò

xy!ü üyˆÏö ò%•zçö !ü̃yÓyò#
ܲáˆÏöy xˆÏöƒÓ˚ çöƒ ܲ!Ó˚ öy ≤Ãï˛#«˛y
˛õˆÏܲê˛û˛!ï≈ Ü˛ÓˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ö#Ó˚Óï˛y !öˆÏÎ˚
!öˆÏçÓ˚ ≤Ãï˛#«˛yÎ˚ Ìy!ܲ ó
xÌã˛
ˆÜ˛yöÄ !òö•z §üÎ˚üˆÏï˛y ˆòáy ˛õy•z öy xyüyÓ˚ó
xy!ü
ˆÜ˛ö ˆÎ
fiê%˛!˛õˆÏí˛Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y !öˆÏçˆÏܲ ܲÌy !òˆÏÎ˚ ܲÌy Ó˚y!á öy
Ó%é˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚ öyñ
üˆÏö •Î˚
xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ˆÏܲ ~ܲÓyÓ˚ ˆÓ˚°ày!í˛¸û˛!ï≈˛ ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ öyàÓ˚ˆÏòy°y§•
˛õyë˛yˆÏöy í˛z!ã˛ï˛ fl∫≤¿yÓyò#ˆÏòÓ˚ xˆÏÎÔ!_´Ü˛ @ˇÃˆÏ• ú˛!í˛¸ä ã˛yˆÏ£Ï–

˛õ÷í˛y_´yÓ˚
ˆ§•z é˛ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ Ó˚yˆÏï˛•z ˆçˆÏö!åÈ°yüñ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ Ó˚ˆÏ_´ û˛yˆÏ§
ˆ§yöyÓ˚ ç%ˆÏï˛y–
¢#ˆÏï˛ ÜÑ˛y˛õˆÏï˛ Ìyܲy åÈyà!¢÷Ó˚ ã%˛ü% ˆáˆÏÎ˚ öyã˛!åÈ Ó ·˛yˆÏ[˛Ó˚ ˆày° !˛õˆÏ벖
xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ xy!Ó‹ÒyÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚!ö ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy Ü%˛!ê˛° ܲ°¡∫y§ñ xyüÓ˚y xy!Ó‹,Òï˛•z !åÈ°yü
˛õy•yí˛¸ÈÙÈ ¢§ƒˆÏ«˛eÈÙÈÓöÈÙÈ˛õy!áÈÙÈ≤Ãyî# !ܲÇÓy §ü%oˆÏܲ §D# ܲˆÏÓ˚–

çyöï˛yü öy ÈÙÙÙÈ
xyüÓ˚y §Ü˛ˆÏ°ÈÙÈ ≤ÈÏï˛ƒˆÏܲ xyˆÏ°yÈÙÈ x¶˛Ü˛yÓ˚ˆÏܲ §y«˛# Ó˚yáy ˛õ,!ÌÓ#Ó˚ ≤ÃÌü ˛õ÷í˛y_´yÓ˚–

¢)öƒï˛y
öò#ˆÏï˛ fl¨yˆÏö ~ˆÏ§ °y!ê˛ü ˆâyÓ˚yˆÏöy Óy°Ü˛
ˆòáˆÏï˛ ˛õyÎ˚
ˆû˛ˆÏ§ Äë˛y üÓ˚y üyˆÏåÈÓ˚ åÈyöyó
ÜÑ˛yˆÏò çˆÏ°Ó˚ û˛ÑyˆÏç xöy•yˆÏÓ˚ Ó˚*˛õy!° Ü%˛!üÓ˚ó ˛õy°yÎ˚
üyˆÏåÈÓ˚ Ó˚yçy •z!°¢ ˛õpy ˆåȈÏí˛¸ §ü%ˆÏo– !Ó£Ï ˆü¢yˆÏöy
ˆ°yܲê˛y
˛õyà° •ˆÏÎ˚ ì˛yˆÏ° xy=ö !öˆÏçÓ˚ àyˆÏÎ˚–
˛õ)Ó˚î •Î˚ ˆ˛õÔÓ˚y!îܲÈÙÈ{à° Äí˛¸yˆÏöy •zFåÈy
¢)öƒï˛yÎ˚ ö,ï˛ƒÓ˚ï˛ ¢)ˆöÏ ƒÓ˚Ê

ôÑyôy
xyܲyˆÏ¢ §¶˛ƒy ˆ¢ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ ã˛w ï˛yÓ˚y
ï%˛!ü xyÓ˚ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ x¶˛ ܲyܲy
ã˛°hsˇ ÓyˆÏ§Ó˚ åÈyˆÏò ˆá°ˆÏåÈ òyÓy–
•!Ó˚î å%Èê˛ˆÏåÈñ ˆ˛õåȈÏö Óyâ

xyüÓ˚y ≤ß¿!Ók˛ •ï˛yüñ ö«˛ˆÏeÓ˚ =ö=ö àyˆÏö Ü˛ÓˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ÷ܲˆÏöy ây§˛õyï˛yÓ˚ ÜÑ˛y˛õö ˆòˆÏá
xyüÓ˚y û˛Î˚ ˆ˛õï˛yü öy ˆï˛ç# ˆÓ˚yˆÏò §)Î≈ ˆë˛yܲÓ˚yˆÏöy {àˆÏ°Ó˚ Äí˛¸yÎ˚ó xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ §ü§ƒy !åÈ°
~ܲê˛y•z
çyöï˛yü öy xyüÓ˚y ܲyÓ˚yÊ

ˆÓyüyÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ ày•zˆÏåÈ ˛õyà° §yÈÙÈ ˆÓ˚ÈÙÈ àyÈÙÈ üy–

çy•yöyÓ˚y ˛õyÓ˚û˛#ö

≤Ãy!hsˇÜ˛ !¢«˛yÌ#≈
ï%˛!ü !ܲ ˜Ó¢yá üyˆÏöy⁄
ˆÓ˚yòñ é˛í˛¸ñ çˆÏ°Ó˚ ˛õòyÓ°#Ê
üyˆÏöyÈÙÙÙÈ §yö!fl;˛ˆÏöÓ˚ Óü≈ ˆ˛õ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚
cˆÏܲ §%Ñã˛ ˆú˛yê˛yˆÏöy ≤ÃáÓ˚ ˜çƒ¤˛ƒ–
¢Ó˚Í üyöˆÏ° ܲy¢ú%˛°Ä üyöy ã˛y•z
fl∫#ܲyÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆöÎ˚y ã˛y•z ï%˛ˆÏ°yê˛ ˆüâ–
üyˆÏöy ˆ≤Ãü⁄ ˜öÜ˛ê˛ƒ⁄
ï˛y•ˆÏ° fl∫#ܲyÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ !öˆÏï˛ •Î˚ ˛õÎ≈yÆ !ÓÓ˚•–
ò%ô ˆÌˆÏܲ ü,ï˛ üy!åÈ ï%˛ˆÏ° !öˆÏï˛ !öˆÏï˛
ï˛yÓ˚ ï,˛£èyˆÏÜ˛Ä §ï˛ƒ üˆÏö •Î˚–
˛õÓ˚y!çï˛ ç° •ˆÏÎ˚ öÎ˚È ÙÙÙÈÎ!ò ˛õyˆÏÓ˚y
!¢!¢Ó˚ •ˆÏÎ˚ !fliÓ˚ ӈϧ ÌyˆÏܲy ܲã%˛˛õyï˛yÎ˚–
xyˆÏ®y!°ï˛ Óyï˛y§ ÎyˆÏܲ Ü%˛!ö≈¢ ܲˆÏÓ˚ !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ ÎyˆÏÓ–
~•z àˆÏ“Ó˚ x«˛Ó˚ !°ˆÏá !°ˆÏá §y«˛Ó˚ï˛y !¢áˆÏÓ
˜ö¢ fl%҈ϰÓ˚ ≤Ãy!hsˇÜ˛ !¢«˛yÌ#≈–

x˛õ!Ó˚ˆÏ¢y!ôï˛ }îñ åÈyÎ˚yÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ
Ó˚ˆÏ_´Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y åÈyÎ˚yˆÏòÓ˚Ä ~ܲ•z Ó˚ä–
üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y åÈyÎ˚yÓ˚yÄ x§%á#ñ ~ܲyܲ#–
˛õ%e ˛õ!Ó˚ï˛ƒ_´y åÈyÎ˚yÓ˚y Ó,k˛y◊ˆÏü ÌyˆÏܲñ
x!ÓÓy!•ï˛yñ fl∫yü# ˛õ!Ó˚ï˛ƒ_´yÓ˚y åÈye#!öÓyˆÏ§–

Ó,k˛y◊ü Ä åÈye#!öÓyˆÏ§Ó˚ åÈyò ~ܲ•z xyܲyˆÏ¢Ó˚ !¢£Ïƒ ӈϰ
~§Ó åÈyˆÏò xyˆÏÓ˚y flõ‹T •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏë˛ í˛zí˛¸hsˇ ˛õy!áˆÏòÓ˚ åÈyÎ˚y–
öܲ° üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ åÈyÎ˚y =ˆÏöÈÙÈ=ˆÏö •Î˚Ó˚yö ˛õy!áÓ˚y ӈϰñ
í˛yöyÎ˚ ˆÓÖˆÏô òyÄ !ܲå%È ï˛y!Óçñ ˆÓшÏô xy!§ !Óö¡À í˛yˆÏ°ñ
ï˛yÓ˚y üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ xÓÎ˚ˆÏÓ åÈyÎ˚y •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏÓ– xy§° åÈyÎ˚yñ
˛õÓ˚flõÓ˚ à“ Ü˛Ó˚ˆÏï˛ Ü˛Ó˚ˆÏï˛ ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy àyåÈñ ˛õy!á ˆòˆÏáÈÙÙÙÈ
ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ åÈyÎ˚yÓ˚yÄ xy°yˆÏ˛õ ü¢=°–
˛õˆÏÌ ˛õˆÏÌ ˆò!á ˆüÔöñ xyö!®ï˛ñ ˆ¢yܲy•ï˛ñ
«˛!ï˛@ˇÃhflÏ åÈyÎ˚yÓ˚y ˆ•ÖˆÏê˛ ÎyÎ˚ ÓƒhflÏñ Ÿ’Ì à!ï˛ˆÏï˛–
~û˛yˆÏÓ xyU˛yÎ˚ÈÙÈàˆÏ“ÈÙÈxy°yˆÏ˛õ üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ åÈyÎ˚yÓ˚yÄ
!öܲê˛Óï˛#≈ •ˆÏï˛ •ˆÏï˛ §ˆÏÓ˚ ÎyÎ˚ ò)ˆÏÓ˚–
~§Ó ò)Ó˚cñ ˜öÜ˛ê˛ƒñ !öɧDï˛yñ ˆÜ˛y°y•ˆÏ°Ó˚ úÑ˛yˆÏܲñ
!ö!£Ïk˛ åÈyÎ˚y˛õÕ‘#ˆÏï˛ xy§yÈÙÈÎyÄÎ˚y ÓyˆÏí˛¸ x!ÓŸªhflÏ åÈyÎ˚y˛õ%Ó˚&ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚–
xÓ§ˆÏÓ˚ üyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ˆÜ˛yˆÏ° ÷ˆÏÎ˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ !¢÷åÈyÎ˚y ˆ¢yˆÏö ˛õÿÏÓ˚
xyâyˆÏï˛ xyâyˆÏï˛ 12!ê˛ é˛ö≈yÓ˚ çß√ܲÌy– ü¢yˆÏòÓ˚ ܲÑyܲÓ˚ !öˆÏ«˛ˆÏ˛õ
x!ï˛Ü˛yÎ˚ •y!ï˛ˆÏòÓ˚ öyhflÏyöyÓ%ˆÏòÓ˚ ܲy!•!ö–
ˆÎ§Ó !•Ç§%ܲ åÈyÎ˚y §D# !åÈ° xyüyÓ˚ñ
ˆû˛ï˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˆ§•z ˛õ%Ó˚ˆÏöy ܲÇܲy°ñ
xÌã˛ ~áˆÏöy Ó¶%˛Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y •yˆÏ§–
ˆ§•z Ó,k˛ åÈyÎ˚yê˛yˆÏܲ ~áˆÏöy á%Ñ!çñ
˜Ó¢yˆÏáÓ˚ ~ܲ ò%˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚ ÎyÓ˚ ܲyåÈ ˆÌˆÏܲ !ܲˆÏö!åÈ°yü ˆÓˆÏï˛Ó˚ í˛y°y–
û˛yÇ!ï˛ öy ÌyܲyÎ˚ ˆÎ ˛õÎ˚§y ˆöÎ˚!ö– ӈϰ!åÈ°ÈÙÙÙÈ
!ÓˆÏܲˆÏ° !òˆÏ°Ä ã˛°ˆÏÓ– !ÓˆÏܲˆÏ° Ó˚yç% û˛yflÒˆÏÎ≈Ó˚ §yüˆÏö
!àˆÏÎ˚ ˆò!áÈÈÙÙÙÈxˆÏöܲ xyˆÏà•z ˆû˛ˆÏäˆÏåÈ ˛õ§Ó˚y–
xyˆÏÓ˚y ~ܲ!ê˛ åÈyÎ˚yˆÏܲ Ó‡!òö ˆò!á öy–
≤ÃáÓ˚ üôƒyˆÏ•´ ÎyˆÏܲ xyˆÏÓ˚y ò#â≈ üˆÏö •ˆÏï˛y–

˛à!ï˛≤ÃÓî Óöñ ˆÓí˛¸y° Ä °y° ӈϰÓ˚ à“

ˆÜ˛yê≈˛ üy¢≈y°

ï%˛!ü !ܲ ˆ§•z âˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ x!ôÓy§#ñ
ˆÎáyˆÏö •yüy=!í˛¸ ˆòÎ˚y ~ܲ!ê˛ !¢÷Ó˚ §yˆÏÌ
§yÓ˚yˆÏÓ°y ˆá°y ܲˆÏÓ˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ °y° Ó°Ê
≤Ã!ï˛§¶˛ƒyÎ˚ ÎyÓ˚ ˆã˛ÔܲyˆÏë˛ Ü%˛!ö≈¢ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ x¶˛ ˆÓí˛¸y°–

x˛õÓ˚yˆÏôÓ˚ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚ Óí˛¸ •ˆÏÎ˚ ˆàˆÏ° §yçyñ
xyˆÏÓ˚y §Ó%ç •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏë˛ âyˆÏ§Ó˚ ܲyÓ˚yàyÓ˚ó
xyܲy¢ ˆÌˆÏܲ é˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ üôƒyˆÏ•´Ó˚ ÓÓ˚ú˛–
ò#â≈ •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏë˛ §%ˆÏ˛õÎ˚ çˆÏ°Ó˚ ≤Ãyã˛#Ó˚–

°y° ӈϰÓ˚ çß√!òˆÏö x¶˛ ˆÓí˛¸y° í˛z˛õ•yÓ˚ ˆòÎ˚ àyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ˛õ¢ü–
!¢÷!ê˛ üyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ܲyåÈ ˆÌˆÏܲ ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy í˛z˛õ•yÓ˚ !öˆÏï˛ öy ˛õyÓ˚yÎ˚ xö%ï˛Æ •Î˚–
ӈϰÓ˚ !ÓˆÏe´ï˛yÄ ˛õ%ˆÏeÓ˚ çß√!òˆÏö !ܲöˆÏï˛ ÓƒÌ≈ •Î˚ ˛õåȈϮÓ˚ °y!ê˛ü–
~§Ó xö%ï˛y˛õñ ˆ«˛yû˛ ~ܲ!ê˛ Ó˚yç•ÑyˆÏ§ ˛õ!Ó˚îï˛ •ˆÏ°
!¢÷!ê˛ ˆ§•z Ó˚yç•ÑyˆÏ§Ó˚ §yˆÏÌ ˆá°ˆÏï˛ öyˆÏü–

ˆ•ˆÏ°ò%ˆÏ° ã˛°y ˆ°yܲy° ˆê˛∆ö Ó%ܲÈÙÈ !˛õˆÏë˛Ó˚ §Ó Îye# öy!üˆÏÎ˚
ˆ¢£Ï ˆfiê˛¢ˆÏö Îáö !Ó◊yˆÏü ÌyˆÏüñ ˆfiê˛¢öüyfiê˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ã˛yˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ܲyˆÏ˛õ
ˆfl∫FåÈyÎ˚ í%˛ˆÏÓ ÎyÎ˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ ï,˛£èyï≈˛ üy!åÈÓ˚ §hsˇyöñ
x!û˛û˛yÓܲÓ˚y ÎyˆÏܲ ˆú˛ˆÏ° ˆàˆÏåÈ ˛õ!Ó˚ï˛ƒ_´ ˆfiê˛¢ˆÏö–
ü,ï%˛ƒÓ˚ xyˆÏà üy!åÈ!ê˛Ä ÷ˆÏöˆÏåÈ ˆ§•z ˆÓ˚yˆÏòÓ˚ ܲy!•!öó

Ó˚yç•Ñy§ Ä ˆÓí˛¸y° !¢÷!ê˛ˆÏܲ !öˆÏÎ˚ °y° Ó° ÎyÎ˚ !öܲê˛fli üyˆÏë˛ñ
~ܲ §üˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ Óôƒû)˛!ü ~•z üyˆÏ법z ˆÓí˛¸yˆÏ°Ó˚ çß√–
ˆ§áyˆÏö ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ §yˆÏÌ ˆòáy •Î˚ ~ܲ Ó,ˆÏ«˛Ó˚–
Ó,«˛ñ ï%˛!ü !ܲ !û˛öˆÏò!¢ ˆ§•z ÓˆÏöÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛!ö!ôñ
û˛Î˚yÓ• òyÓyö° ˆ˛õ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ¢#ï˛ ˛õy!áˆÏòÓ˚ !˛õå%È!˛õå%È ~áyˆÏöñ
≤Ãyã˛#ö ôü≈≤Ãã˛yÓ˚ˆÏܲˆÏòÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y ~áyˆÏö•z !ÓÓy•ñ §Ç§yÓ˚ xyÓy§ö–

ˆû˛yÓ˚Ó˚yˆÏï˛ xyòy°ï˛˛õyí˛¸yñ ˆç°áyöyñ ú˛Ñy!§Ó˚ üM˛È ˆì˛ˆÏܲ ÎyÎ˚
≤ÃáÓ˚ xyˆÏ°yˆÏï˛ñ ~•z xyˆÏ°yÓ˚ §yˆÏÌ §!¶˛ ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ xyˆÏà•z öˆÏí˛¸
ĈÏë˛ ~ܲ!ê˛ Ó˚&üy°ñ çÕ‘yˆÏòÓ˚ •yï˛– ˆ§ÈÙÈ•yˆÏï˛Ó˚ ï˛y°%ˆÏï˛ Ìyܲy
!ï˛° ~•z •ï˛ƒyܲyˆÏ[˛Ó˚ çöƒ ï˛yˆÏܲ ܲáˆÏöy•z «˛üy ܲˆÏÓ˚!ö–

ï%˛!ü !ܲ ˆ§•z öyÓ˚#Ó˚ ≤Ã!ï˛!ö!ôñ ܲÑyܲˆÏöÓ˚ Óy•yöyÎ˚
ò%•yˆÏï˛ ç!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ Ó˚yˆÏá §%ï˛yö!° §y˛õ⁄

xˆÏ°Ô!ܲܲ ˆ§•z ˆÓ˚yˆÏòÓ˚ ܲy!•!ö ÎyÓ˚y ÷ˆÏöˆÏåÈ ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚
§ÓyÓ˚ Ü˛ÓˆÏÓ˚•z çß√ !öˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy öy ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy ú˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ àyåÈ–
«%˛ôy≈ï˛ üyö%£Ï Ä ˛õy!áÓ˚y çyˆÏö öy ˆ§§Ó ú˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ çß√ܲÌy–

û)˛!üܲ¡õ .. !Ó˚á‰ê˛yÓ˚ ˆflÒ° 7.8
åÈyÎ˚y≤ÃÓî ~ܲ!ê˛ Óö ˛õyï˛y é˛Ó˚yˆÏï˛ é˛Ó˚yˆÏï˛ ˆ•ÑˆÏê˛ ÎyÎ˚ öò#Ó˚ !òˆÏܲ–
ÎyÓ˚ ï˛#ˆÏÓ˚ û˛y§üyö Ó˚yç•ÑyˆÏ§Ó˚ !˛õˆÏë˛ •y§ˆÏåÈ ~ܲ !¢÷Îye#–
ˆ§ xyˆÏåÈ ˛õyï˛yÜ%˛í˛¸y!ö üyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ §ï˛Ü≈˛ ˆã˛yˆÏáÓ˚ ˛õy•yÓ˚yÎ˚–
!≤ÃÎ˚ Ó,«˛ñ öyÓ˚# Ä !¢÷ñ ˆï˛yüÓ˚yÄ !ܲ ˆçˆÏö ˆàåÈñ
üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚ ܲáˆÏöy ܲáˆÏöy ç°ˆÏܲ !ÓŸªy§ ܲÓ˚y x!ôܲ !öÓ˚y˛õò–
ܲyÓ˚î §Ó ò%Éá•z ˆï˛y ~ܲ §üÎ˚ ç° •ˆÏÎ˚ é˛ˆÏÓ˚ ÎyÎ˚–

~áyˆÏö ˆ§áyˆÏöñ áˆÏ§ ˆàˆÏåÈ ˛õˆÏ°hflÏyÓ˚yó
ˆÓ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ˆÏåÈ °y° •zˆÏê˛Ó˚ ü%áñ !ÓÓî≈ ¡‘yö–
ã˛yüí˛¸yÓ˚ ˛õy•yÓ˚y ˆ˛õ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÎüö ˆÓ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ˛õˆÏí˛¸
üyLjϧÓ˚ ˆã˛•yÓ˚yñ Ó˚ˆÏ_´Ó˚ Ó˚*˛õ–

≤ÃyÎ˚y¶˛Ü˛yÓ˚ ˆ§•z Óy!í˛¸ñ Ü˛ï˛ •ˆÏÓ ÓÎ˚§⁄
ˆòí˛¸¢ñ ò%¢ñ !ܲÇÓy ~•z ¢•ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚•z §üyö xyÎ˚% !öˆÏÎ˚
~áˆÏöy ã˛°ˆÏåÈ ˛õÌñ ˛õyˆÏÎ˚ ˛õyˆÏÎ˚ ¢ï˛Ó£Ï≈# Ó,k˛yÓ˚ à!ï˛–
x¶˛Ü˛yÓ˚ !§Ñ!í˛¸ˆÏï˛ ˛õÌ û˛yäy òyÎ˚ñ ˆòáy ÎyÎ˚ öy •yï˛ñ ˛õyñ ¢Ó˚#Ó˚ñ
xüyÓ¢ƒyÎ˚ ˆÎüö Ó,«˛Ä ˆòˆÏá öy í˛y°˛õy°yñ ˛õyï˛yÓ˚ Ó˚ä–
Ó‡ ¢!Ó˚ˆÏܲÓ˚ Óy!í˛¸Ó˚ !ܲå%Èê˛y xÇ¢ §ÇflÒyÓ˚ ܲÓ˚yñ
ˆüyê˛y ˆòÎ˚yˆÏ° ã%˛öܲyˆÏüÓ˚ •y!§– ˆ¢£Ï ܲˆÏÓ ˆÓ˚ˆÏá!åÈ ˛õy⁄
ˆ§•z §Ñƒyï˛ˆÏ§ÑˆÏï˛ !§Ñ!í˛¸ˆÏï˛⁄ ~ܲ Î%à⁄ ˆ§áyˆÏö ï˛áö
ÌyˆÏܲö üyñ ÓyÓyñ üyüyñ û˛y•z Ä åÈyÎ˚yöˆÏê˛ àyö ˆ¢áy ~ܲüye ܲöƒy–
fl%҈ϰÓ˚ åÈye#– ~áö ˆ§ Ü˛ï˛ Óí˛¸ñ ˆÜ˛yÌyÎ˚ ˛õˆÏí˛¸⁄
üyˆÏܲ !öˆÏÎ˚ ~áˆÏöy !ܲ åÈyÎ˚yöˆÏê˛ ÎyÎ˚⁄
û)˛ï˛y!_¥Ü˛ ˆ≤’ˆÏê˛Ó˚ ≤ÈÏÓ˚yã˛öyÎ˚ñ ˆ«˛ˆÏ˛õ ĈÏë˛ üy!ê˛ñ
Î!ò û˛Î˚yöܲ ˆe´yˆÏô öˆÏí˛¸ ĈÏë˛ ~ ¢•Ó˚ñ
Ó%Ó!° xyüyÓ˚ åÈye#ñ ÓÑyã˛ˆÏÓ ˆï˛y⁄
˛õÓ˚«˛ˆÏî â%ühsˇ §hsˇyˆÏöÓ˚ ü%ˆÏáÓ˚ !òˆÏܲ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚ Ìy!ܲñ x§•yÎ˚–

§•üÓ˚îÈÙÈܲ
!≤ÃÎ˚ Ó,«˛ñ
~ܲ ~ܲ!ê˛ ˛õyï˛y á%ˆÏ° !öˆÏÎ˚ ˆï˛yüyˆÏܲ í˛z°D ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ã˛yÎ˚ ÎyÓ˚yñ
Ó¶%˛ üyˆÏöy ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚Ê
fl∫çö •ˆÏÎ˚Ä ï˛yÓ˚y ~ܲê%˛ ~ܲê%˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚ á%ˆÏ° !öˆÏFåÈ Óyܲ° Óü≈–
!öÓ≈y¶˛Ó cܲ ˆÌˆÏܲ é˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˛õí˛¸y x!û˛üyöñ Üœ˛y!hsˇñ !Ó£Ïyòñ
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ fl∫≤¿ñ í˛zFå¥È y§ñ ˆû˛ˆÏä ˛õí˛¸yÎ˚ ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ~ˆÏ§ ÎyÎ˚ öy !ܲå%È•z–
ï˛Ó% !öˆÏçÓ˚ •yï˛ ˛õyñ ¢Ó˚#Ó˚ñ §Ó≈yD ˛õ%!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ í˛zö%ˆÏöÓ˚
•Ñy!í˛¸ çy!°ˆÏÎ˚ Ó˚yá ≤Ã!ï˛!òö–
ˆ§•z í˛zö%ˆÏö xy!üÄ ˛õ%ˆÏí˛¸!åÈ Ó‡ÓyÓ˚ñ
í˛z_Ó˚˛õ%Ó˚&ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚y ã%˛°yÓ˚ åÈy•z ˆÌˆÏܲ ~ܲ!òö á%шÏç ˛õyˆÏÓ •yˆÏï˛Ó˚ Óy°yñ
à°yÓ˚ üyò%!°ñ !≤ÃÎ˚ öyܲú%˛°–

§•üÓ˚î ÈÙÈ á
âyˆÏ§Ó˚ §üy!ô ˛á%шÏí˛¸ ˛õyÄÎ˚y •yçyˆÏÓ˚y âyˆÏ§Ó˚ ܲÇܲyˆÏ° çˆÏü Äë˛y Ü%˛Î˚y¢y
§Ó%ç •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏ° xˆÏ°Ô!ܲܲ ~ܲ öò#Ó˚ ܲÌy üˆÏö •Î˚–
çˆÏ° çˆÏ° áí˛¸Ü%˛ˆÏê˛yÓ˚ •y!§ñ Ó˚*˛õy!° üyˆÏåÈÓ˚ §Ñyï˛yÓ˚ñ
ˆ§yöy!° Óy‹õ çˆÏ°Ó˚ xyÓÓ˚î ˆû˛ˆÏä •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏë˛ •yˆÏï˛Ó˚ ܲÖyܲöñ à°yÓ˚ üyò%!°–
ˆåÈyR öyܲú%˛°– âyˆÏ§Ó˚ ܲÇܲyˆÏ°Ó˚ xyˆÏ¢˛õyˆÏ¢Ä xy!Ó‹,Òï˛ •Î˚ ~Ó˚ܲü x°ÇܲyÓ˚–
≤Ãb á%шÏç ˛õyÄÎ˚y ÎyÎ˚ xyˆÏÓ˚y !ܲå%È ï˛ˆÏ̃Ó˚ •Ñy!í˛¸Ü%˛!í˛¸–
ˆÎáyˆÏö ˛õyÄÎ˚y ÎyÎ˚ öyÓ˚#ˆÏòÓ˚ ã%˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ ò°yñ •yï˛ˆÏáÑy˛õyÎ˚ ÓÑyôy ˆ§Ô!áö ܲÑyê˛yñ
~•z üyˆÏë˛Ä ~ܲ!òö çö§üyàü •ˆÏï˛yñ
§üˆÏÓï˛ çöï˛yÓ˚ í˛zͧy•# ˆã˛yˆÏáÓ˚ §yüˆÏö
~áyˆÏö 絈ϰ í˛zë˛ï˛ §•üÓ˚ˆÏîÓ˚ !ã˛ï˛y–

≤Ãò#˛õ

x!üï˛yû˛

•yÄÎ˚y•z xyU˛y
≤Ãò#˛õ üç%üòyÓ˚ ÈÙÙÙÙÈ x!üï˛yû˛ ˆòÓˆÏã˛Ôô%Ó˚#
ܲ!Ó Ä à“ܲyÓ˚–
çß√ É 23 ˆüñ 1962ñ !¢°ÇÙ~–
õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöy É ˆçyÎ˚y•z ܲöˆÏû˛rê˛ñ •yú˛°Ç ܲöˆÏû˛rê˛ñ !¢°ã˛Ó˚ öy!çÓ˚˛õ!R üˆÏí˛° ≤Ãy•züy!Ó˚ fl%Ò°ñ !¢°ã˛Ó˚
˛õyÓ!°Ü˛ •y•zfl%Ò°ñ !¢°Ç ÈÙÈ ~Ó˚ ˆ§rê˛ ~í˛üyu˛§ ܲˆÏ°çñ ÎyòÓ˛õ%Ó˚ •zí˛z!öû˛y!§≈!ê˛–
≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛ ˆ°áyÓ˚ ܲyàç É x§Çზ
≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛ @ˇÃsi É §#çy!Ó˚Î˚yö ~ÓÇ xöƒyöƒ ܲ!Óï˛yñ òƒ flÒy•z ˆ•Ó˚y”˛ñ x!üï˛yû˛ ˆòÓ ˆã˛Ôô%Ó˚#Ó˚ ܲ!Óï˛yñ
àï˛çˆÏß√Ó˚ ܲ!Óï˛yñ {ŸªˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆ¢£Ï =Æã˛Ó˚ñ •y ˆÓ˚ ˆÓ˚ ˆÓ˚ ˆÓ˚ ˆÓ˚ñ í˛z˛õöƒyˆÏ§Ó˚ ˆáÑyˆÏçñ í˛zòy§ ü•° ¢)öƒ
à!°ñ ܲ!ÓÓ˚ Óy!í˛¸–
§¡øyÏööy É ÓyÇ°y ܲ!Óï˛y í˛zͧÓñ ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÎ˚ xÇ¢@ˇÃ•îñ 1999ó ˆò¢ ˛õ!eܲy 2000 §yˆÏ°Ó˚ Ó£Ï≈ˆÏ§Ó˚y
ܲ!Óï˛y §Çܲ°ˆÏö fliyöó ≤Ã!ï˛!òö ˛õ!eܲyÓ˚ Ó˚!ÓÓy§!Ó˚Î˚ˆÏï˛ 2009 §yˆÏ° ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛y !öˆÏÎ˚ ˆ°áy çÎ˚
ˆàyfl∫yü#Ó˚ ≤ÃÓ¶˛ ≤Ãܲy¢–
ܲyàˆÏçÓ˚ ˆöÔܲyÓ˚ !ӈϢ£Ï !Óû˛yà Ú•yÄÎ˚y•z xyU˛yÛÎ˚ ~ÓyÓ˚ x!üï˛yû˛ ˆòÓ ˆã˛Ôô%Ó˚#Ó˚ ü%ˆÏáyü%!á §¡õyòܲ
≤Ãò#˛õ üç%üòyÓ˚–

˛21

É Ü˛!Ó •ˆÏÎ˚ Äë˛yÓ˚ à“!ê˛ Ü˛#⁄ §yôyÓ˚îï˛ ~ ôÓ˚ˆÏöÓ˚ ≤Èϟ¿Ó˚ í˛z_ˆÏÓ˚ ˆ¢yöy ÎyÎ˚ñ !¢÷
ÓˆÏÎ˚§ ˆÌˆÏܲ•z !°!áñ !˛õï˛yÈÙÈ≤Ã!˛õï˛yü•Ä !°áˆÏï˛öñ xü%ˆÏܲÓ˚ ï˛ü%ˆÏܲÓ˚ Îyï˛yÎ˚yï˛
!åÈ° Óy!í˛¸ˆÏï˛ •zï˛ƒy!ò– ~•z§Ó ˆåÈшÏòyà“ ˆ¢yöyÓ˚ xy@ˇÃ• xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ˆö•z– ï˛ˆÏÓ
!ÓŸªy§ ܲ!Ó˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ ˆÓˆÏí˛¸ Äë˛yñ ç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚ !Ó!û˛ß¨ ˆüyí˛¸ñ ï˛yÓ˚ §_yÎ˚
°y!°ï˛ ܲyÓƒÎsfîy ܲ!Ó •ˆÏÎ˚ Äë˛yÓ˚ ˆ˛õåȈÏö ܲyç ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚– ܲˆÏÓ ˆÌˆÏܲ
ܲ#û˛yˆÏÓ Ü˛!Óï˛yˆÏܲ xyÑܲˆÏí˛¸ ôÓ˚ˆÏ° ⁄ ï˛áöܲyÓ˚ Ó¶%˛Ó˚y ܲyÓ˚y ÎyÓ˚y ˆ°áyˆÏ°!áˆÏï˛
ˆï˛yüyˆÏܲ ≤Ãy!îï˛ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ–
É ≤ÃÌü ˆÎÔÓˆÏöÓ˚ û˛Î˚yÓ• öy!hflܲï˛y Ä !òˆÏöÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚ !òö ˆàyüyǧ û˛«˛îñ ˛õ!Ó˚î!ï˛•#ö
!ܲå%È ˆ≤Ãüܲyï˛Ó˚ï˛yñ ~ܲÓyÓ˚ xyd•ï˛ƒyÓ˚ •Ñy ÈÙÈ ü%á ˆÌˆÏܲ ˆÓшÏã˛ ˆú˛Ó˚yñ ~ܲÓyÓ˚
Óyü˛õsi# ܲƒyí˛yÓ˚ˆÏòÓ˚ •yˆÏï˛ üyÓ˚ áyÄÎ˚yñ üòƒ˛õyö Ä xöƒyöƒ ˆö¢yFåÈߨï˛yñ
ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÎ˚ Óy§ û˛yí˛¸y Ó,!k˛Ó˚ ≤Ã!ï˛Óyò xyˆÏ®y°ˆÏö ˆÎyà !òˆÏÎ˚ ˛õ%!°ˆÏ¢Ó˚ •yˆÏï˛
ôÓ˚y ˛õí˛¸ˆÏï˛ ˛õí˛¸ˆÏï˛ ˛õy!°ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÓшÏã˛ ÎyÄÎ˚yñ ã)˛í˛¸yhsˇ ˆö¢y@ˇÃhflÏ xÓfliyÎ˚ ~ܲÓyÓ˚
§!ï˛ƒ•z ˛õ%!°ˆÏ¢Ó˚ •yˆÏï˛ ôÓ˚y ˛õí˛¸yñ !˛õï,˛ï˛y!sfܲ ˛õ!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ¢y§öò[˛ˆÏܲ í˛zˆÏ˛õ«˛y
ܲˆÏÓ˚ ~ܲ xàï˛yö%à!ï˛Ü˛ ˛õy!î@ˇÃ•î ~ÓÇ ï˛yÓ˚•z ˆçÓ˚ !•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ ~ܲ üyÜ≈˛§Óyò#
˛õ)Ó≈§)Ó˚# Ä Ü˛!ï˛˛õÎ˚ ˆ°yû˛# §ü§yü!Î˚ˆÏܲÓ˚ ܲyåÈ ˆÌˆÏܲ ã)˛í˛¸yhsˇ x˛õüyö ~áöÄ
xÓ!ô §•ƒ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ÎyÄÎ˚yÈÙÙÙÙÈÈ ~Ó˚ Óy•zˆÏÓ˚ xyüyÓ˚ ˆÎ ç#Óö ï˛y û˛Î˚ÇܲÓ˚ ˆày°ñ
üôƒ!Ó_ÙÈüy!ú˛Ü˛ ~ÓÇ ï˛yÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ ˆÜ˛yöÄ !Ó˛õIöˆÏܲÓ˚ flõ¢≈ ˆö•z– §%ï˛Ó˚yÇ
~•z ˆåÈшÏòy ç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚ à“ñ ï%˛!ü öyÙÈ÷öˆÏï˛ ã˛y•zˆÏ°Äñ ˆåÈшÏòy •ˆÏï˛ Óyôƒ– •Ñƒy ñ
xyüyÓ˚ !˛õï˛yü• x!¡∫ܲyã˛Ó˚î §!ï˛ƒ•z ܲ!Óï˛y !°áˆÏï˛ö– ïÑ˛yÓ˚ flõ‹T åÈ®K˛yö
!åÈ°– ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ˆ°áy ~ܲ!ê˛ Ü˛!Óï˛yÓ˚ ÷Ó˚&ê˛y ~Ó˚ܲü É
Ú!ÓòyÎ˚ñ ˆåÈ£Ï!R §y°ñ !ÓòyÎ˚ñ !ÓòyÎ˚Ê
xyÓ˚ ˆòáy öy!• •ˆÏÓ ˆï˛yüyÎ˚ xyüyÎ˚–Û
ܲ!Óï˛y!ê˛ ˆ¢£Ï •ˆÏFåÈ xyÿ˛Î≈ ò%!ê˛ Óyܲƒ !òˆÏÎ˚ É
Úxy!üÄ ˆï˛yüy!Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y °%Æ •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÓ ;
˛õÓ˚ˆÏ°yܲñ ˛õÓ˚çß√ÙÙÙȈhflÏyܲÓyܲƒ §Ó–Û
òyò%Ó˚ ܲ!Óï˛y ˆ§Î%ˆÏà !§ˆÏ°ˆÏê˛ !Ó!û˛ß¨ xyö%¤˛y!öܲï˛yÎ˚ à#ï˛ •ï˛– 1919 §yˆÏ°
Ó˚Ó#wöyÌ Îáö !§ˆÏ°ê˛ Îyö ï˛áö ïÑ˛yÓ˚ §¡∫ô≈öy §û˛yÎ˚ òyò%Ó˚ ˆ°áy ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚
§%Ó˚yˆÏÓ˚y!˛õï˛ Ó˚*ˆÏ˛õÓ˚ üyôƒˆÏü Ó˚Ó#wöÿÏܲ ÓÓ˚î ܲÓ˚y •Î˚– !§ˆÏ°ê˛ ˆÌˆÏܲ ≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛
ö,ˆÏ˛õw°y° òyˆÏ¢Ó˚ Ú◊#û)˛!ü !§ˆÏ°ˆÏê˛ Ó˚Ó#wöyÌÛ xyÓ˚ í˛z£ÏyÓ˚Oö û˛Ryã˛yˆÏÎ≈Ó˚ Ú
Úö#° ˆ§yöy!°Ó˚ Óyî#Û Ó•z ò%!ê˛ˆÏï˛ ~•z ܲÌyÓ˚ í˛zˆÏÕ‘á xyˆÏåÈ– ÎyˆÏ•yܲñ òyò%
Óyôƒï˛yü)°Ü˛û˛yˆÏÓ xyüyÓ˚ ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚ ò%!ê˛ !ç!ö§ ã˛y!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚!åȈϰö– ~ܲ åÈ®!¢«˛yñ
ò%•z x!Ó˚!çöy° Ó!B˛üã˛w ˛õí˛¸y– Üœ˛y§ ú˛y•zˆÏû˛Ó˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ ˆåȈϰÓ˚ x˛õ!Ó˚îï˛ Ó%!k˛Ó˚
ܲyˆÏåÈÄ §!ã˛e Ó§%üï˛# !§!Ó˚ˆç
Ï Ó˚ •°ˆÏòˆÏê˛ !öí˛zç!≤ÈrÏ ê˛ åÈy˛õy x!Ó˚!çöy° Ó!B˛üã˛w
ˆÎ ܲ# û˛Î˚ÇܲÓ˚ ܲyÓƒüü≈ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ çß√ !òˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ö ÈÙÙÙÈï˛y xy¢yܲ!Ó˚ Ó%!é˛ˆÏÎ˚ Ó°ˆÏï˛
•ˆÏÓ öy– xyüyÓ˚ üy ܲ°ƒyî#Ä Ü˛!Óï˛y !°áˆÏï˛ö– !ܲv xyˆÏòƒy˛õyhsˇ ˛õ%Ó˚%£Ïï˛y!sfܲ

˛22

~ܲ!ê˛ ˛õ!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ Óyôƒï˛yü)°Ü˛û˛yˆÏÓ §°yç Ä xÓ=!Z˛ï˛y ~ܲçö Óô)Ó˚ !öû,˛ï˛
ܲyÓƒã˛ã≈˛y ܲáö•z ˆï˛üö ≤Ã◊Î˚ ˆ˛õˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ öy– üyÈÙÈ Ó˚ê˛yÄ ˛õyÎ˚!ö– •zöú˛ƒyQ ˆÜ˛í˛z
çyöˆÏï˛ö•z öy ˆÎ xyüyÓ˚ üy ܲ!Óï˛y ˆ°ˆÏáö– !ÓˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ˛õÓ˚ xyüyÓ˚ flf#Ó˚
!öÓ≈¶˛y!ï˛¢ˆÏ΃ xy!ü üyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚ !ܲå%È xçyöy Ó˚•ˆÏ§ƒÓ˚ ˛õ%öÓ˚y!Ó‹ÒyˆÏÓ˚ !öÎ%_´
••z ~ÓÇ ï˛áö üyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ˆ°áy ò%!ê˛üye °y•zö xyüyÓ˚ ~ܲ üy!§Ó˚ ܲyåÈ ˆÌˆÏܲ í˛zk˛yÓ˚
ܲ!Ó˚– °y•zöò%!ê˛ ã˛üÍܲyÓ˚ – üyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ §yÓ˚yç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚ §ï˛ƒ ï˛yˆÏï˛ !Óô,ï˛ xyˆÏåÈ É
Úú˛Ñy!ܲÓ˚ í˛z˛õˆÏÓ˚ ܲy!ê˛ˆÏÎ˚ ç#Óö úÑ˛y!ܲˆÏܲ•z !ò•z úÑ˛y!ܲ
xhsˇ!Ó•#ö !ÓÓ˚yê˛ ¢)ˆÏöƒ ï˛y•z ˆï˛y ˛õˆÏí˛¸ Ìy!ܲ–Û
üy xyüyˆÏܲ ܲöˆÏû˛rê˛ fl%Òˆ°
Ï û˛!ï≈˛ ܲ!Ó˚ˆÎÏ ˚ !òˆÏÎ!˚ åÈ° !ë˛Ü˛•zñ Óy!í˛¸ˆïÏ ˛ !ܲv Ó˚Ó#wöyˆÏÌÓ˚
Ú!¢÷Û Ó•z!ê˛Ó˚ ≤ÃyÎ˚ ˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚yê˛y•z ü%áfli ܲ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°– ˛õy•y!í˛¸ ¢•Ó˚ ˆçyÎ˚y•z xyÓ˚
•yú˛°ÇÙÈ~Ó˚ ˆ˛õyfiê˛ xy!˛õ§ ˆÜ˛yÎ˚yê≈˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ !öç≈ö üôƒy•´=!° üyÈÙȈåȈϰÓ˚ Î%à°
ܲyÓƒ˛õyˆÏë˛ xyÿ˛Î≈ âö •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë˛ï˛– ~û˛yˆÏÓ•z åÈyˆÏ®Ó˚ ˆâyÓ˚ xyüyÓ˚ Ó˚ˆÏ_´Ó˚ ˆû˛ï˛ˆÏÓ˚
ì%˛ˆÏܲ ˛õˆÏí˛¸–˛
xyüyÓ˚ ˆåÈyê˛Ü˛yܲy x!üÎ˚ ˆòÓÄ Ü˛!Óï˛y !°áˆÏï˛ö– Ó%k˛ˆÏòÓ Ó§% Ä §%ô#wöyÌ
òˆÏ_Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y xôƒy˛õܲÈÙÈܲ!ÓÓ˚ í˛zIµ°ï˛ü åÈyeˆÏòÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ xöƒï˛ü !ï˛!öñ
˛õÓ˚Óï≈˛#ܲyˆÏ°Ó˚ xï˛ƒhsˇ §ú˛° §y!•ï˛ƒ ÈÙÈ xôƒy˛õܲ Ä í˛z˛õyã˛yÎ≈– ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ≤ÃÌü ˆÎÔÓˆÏö
ˆ°áy ~ܲ!ê˛ Ü˛!Óï˛yÓ˚ ˆòí˛¸ °y•zö flø,!ï˛ ˆÌˆÏܲ Ó°!åÈñ Óy!ܲê˛y üˆÏö ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚!åÈ
öy– ~•z §ˆÏöê˛!ê˛ ≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ° ˆ§•z xy!ò˛õˆÏÓ≈Ó˚ Ú Ü,˛!_Óy§ Û ˛õ!eܲyÓ˚
ˆÜ˛yöÄ ~ܲ §ÇáƒyÎ˚ É
Úˆ§ ~ˆÏ§ òÑyí˛¸yˆÏ°y myˆÏÓ˚ñ ï˛ß∫# åÈyÎ˚yñ §ühflÏ ò%Î˚yÓ˚
ü%•)ˆÏï≈˛ !Óô,ï˛ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ ¢Ó˚#!Ó˚î# ...Û
ܲyܲy ≤Ã!ï˛ @ˇÃ#ˆÏ‹ø ~ܲÓyÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ !¢°ã˛Ó˚ xy§ˆÏï˛öñ §ˆÏD Ó•z !öˆÏÎ˚ xy§ˆÏï˛ö–
ˆ§Î%ˆÏà !¢°ã˛Ó˚ ¢•ˆÏÓ˚ Ó•z˛õe ˆï˛üö ˛õyÄÎ˚y ˆÎï˛ öy S~áöÄ ÎyÎ˚ !ܲ ?V– ~•z
xÓfliyÎ˚ ܲyܲyÓ˚ xyöy Ó•z=!° ~ܲ û˛Î˚ÇܲÓ˚ ‡°%fli$° çy!àˆÏÎ˚ ï%˛°ï˛ üˆÏöÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ–
xy!ü !§àˆÏöê˛ ˆ≤ç ˆÌˆÏܲ ≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛ xÓö#wöyˆÏÌÓ˚ Úöy°Ü˛Ûñ Ú ¢Ü%˛hsˇ°yñ Ú«˛#ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚
˛õ%ï%˛°Ûñ ÚÓ%ˆÏí˛¸y xyÇ°yÛ ~û˛yˆÏÓ•z ˛õˆÏí˛¸!åÈñ ˛õˆÏí˛¸!åÈ ˛§%Ü%˛üyÓ˚ñ ò!«˛îyÓ˚Oöñ
!Óû)˛!ï˛û)˛£Ïîñ í˛zˆÏ˛õw!ܲˆÏ¢yÓ˚ñ °#°y üç%üòyÓ˚ñ Ó%k˛ˆÏòÓ Ó§%ñ Ü,˛!_Óy§# Ó˚yüyÎ˚îñ
ܲy¢#òy!§ ü•yû˛yÓ˚ï˛ ÈÙÙÙÈ ~•z ˛õí˛¸y=!° ÓyÇ°yû˛y£ÏyÓ˚ !Ó!û˛ß¨ à!° Ä òÓ˚çyˆÏܲñ
÷Ñ!í˛¸˛õÌñ xy°˛õÌ Ä §òÓ˚ü•°ˆÏܲ üˆÏöÓ˚ ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚ ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ ˆàшÏÌ !òˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°–
òyò%ñ üy Ä Ü˛yܲyÓ˚ ܲyÓƒã˛ã≈˛yÓ˚ í˛zòy•Ó˚î !òˆÏÎ˚ xy!ü xÓ¢ƒ•z ~ܲÌy Ó°ˆÏï˛ ã˛y•z!åÈ öy
ˆÎ ܲyÓƒˆÏÓ˚yà xyüyÓ˚ ˛õy!Ó˚Óy!Ó˚ܲ í˛z_Ó˚y!ôܲyÓ˚– ÓÓ˚Ç xy!ü ~ܲÌyê˛y•z Ó°ˆÏï˛
ã˛y•z!åÈ ˆÎñ ܲ!Óï˛y ˆ°áyÓ˚ •zFåÈyñ ~ܲ!ê˛ ˆÓ˚yˆÏàÓ˚ üï˛öñ ~ܲ!ê˛ ˛õy!Ó˚Óy!Ó˚ܲ ÓƒÌ≈ï˛y
!ܲÇÓy ç#Óyî%Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y xyüyÓ˚ üˆÏöÓ˚ IJõÓ˚ ˆã˛ˆÏ˛õ ӈϧ!åÈ°– §Óy•z ˆåȈÏí˛¸ !òˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈöñ
xyüyˆÏܲ ôˆÏÓ˚ ÌyܲˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ È ÙÙÙÙÈ ~Ó˚ܲü xyÓ˚!Ü˛Ê xyüyˆÏܲ §Ó§üÎ˚ §ühflÏ
≤Ã!ï˛Ü)˛°ï˛yÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ ò%•yˆÏï˛ xyàˆÏ° Ó˚yáˆÏï˛ö !Î!öñ xöy!ò ˆòÓñ xyüyÓ˚ xÜ,˛ï˛òyÓ˚

˛23

çƒyë˛yü¢y•zñ !ï˛!ö ì˛y°yÄ ú˛Ó˚üyö çy!Ó˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚!åȈϰö ˆÎñ ˆÜ˛Ó°üye xyüyÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe
˛õí˛¸yÓ˚ ê˛y•zˆÏü àˆÏ“Ó˚ Ó•z ÙÈ˛õí˛¸y xy•zöï˛ ò[˛ö#Î˚ öÎ˚ñ üyç≈ö#Î˚– §%ï˛Ó˚yÇ ˛õí˛¸yÓ˚ Ó•z
ˆáy°y ˆÓ˚ˆÏá•z xy!ü !ò!Óƒ ï˛y í˛zˆÏ˛õ«˛y ܲˆÏÓ˚ ï˛!°ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÎˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ï˛yü ¢Ó˚Íã˛ˆÏwÓ˚
Úò_yÛÎ˚ !ܲÇÓy Ó˚Ó#wöyˆÏÌÓ˚ Úã˛ï%˛Ó˚DÛÈÙÈ~ !ܲÇÓy Ú≤Ãáƒyï˛ ˆ°áܲ Û fl∫˛õöÜ%˛üyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚
!ÓŸªã˛e´!§!Ó˚ˆç
Ï Ó˚ Ï ••z ã˛•z˛ ü°yˆÏê˛Ó˚ ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚ °%!ܲˆÏÎ˚ Ìyܲy àyÈÙÈåÈüåȈüÏ Ó˚•§ƒüÎ˚ï˛yÓ˚
Ó˚_´üyLjϧ– ~•z çƒyë˛y öy ÌyܲˆÏ° xy!ü xyç Îy !ܲÇÓy Îï˛ê%˛Ü%˛ñ ï˛yÓ˚ !ܲFåÈ%!ê˛ •ˆÏÎ˚
í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ï˛yü öy–
xyÓyÓ˚ Ó°!åÈñ çƒyë˛yÓ˚ !fløï˛ ≤Ã◊ˆÏÎ˚ ܲ!Óï˛y ˆ°áyÓ˚ •zˆÏFåÈ öyüܲ x§%á!ê˛ xyüyÓ˚
ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚ ˆàшÏí˛¸ ӈϧ!åÈ°– ~ï˛ê˛y•zñ ˆÎ xyüyÓ˚ á%Ó xflõ‹T ~ܲê˛y ôyÓ˚îy •ˆÏÎ˚
!àˆÏÎ˚!åÈ° ˆÎ xy!ü Ä•z ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛•z çˆÏß√!åÈ– xy§ˆÏ° ˛õy!Ó˚Óy!Ó˚ܲ ~ܲ ˆâÓ˚yˆÏê˛yˆÏ˛õ
ˆÌˆÏܲ ܲ!Óï˛y !°áˆÏï˛ ÷Ó˚& ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ°yü ӈϰ ܲ!Óï˛y xyüyÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ Ü˛áöÄ ü%!_´Ó˚
òÓ˚çy •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏë˛!ö– ÓÓ˚Ç üˆÏö •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈñ ~ ˆÎö xöƒ ܲyˆÏÓ˚y ˆú˛ˆÏ°ÙȈòÄÎ˚y çyüyñ
Îy xy!ü Óyôƒ •ˆÏÎ˚ ˛õˆÏÓ˚!åÈ xyÓ˚ ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚ Ä•z çyüyê˛y•z xyüyÓ˚ àyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ã˛yüí˛¸y •ˆÏÎ˚
í˛zˆÏë˛ˆÏåÈ– ܲ!Óçß√ñ xyüyÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ˆ¢£Ï˛õÎ≈hsˇ ï˛y•z ~ܲ x!û˛¢Æ ç#Óö–
üyüyÓ˚y §Óy•z !åȈϰö !ÓK˛yˆÏöÓ˚ ˆ˛õyܲy– xyÓ˚ xyüyÓ˚Ä xLjÏܲ xÓ˚&!ã˛ !åÈ° öy–
üƒy!ê˛∆ˆÜÏ ˛ñ !≤à •zí˛z!öû˛y!§≈!ê˛ˆÏï˛ xLjÏܲ ˆ°ê˛yÓ˚ ˆ˛õˆÏÎ!˚ åÈ°yü– !ÓK˛yö !öˆÏÎ˚ ˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöy
ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ ˆÎyàƒï˛y ˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚y Ìyܲy §ˆÏ_¥Ä üyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ≤ÃÓ° xy˛õ!_ˆÏܲ x@ˇÃy•ƒ ܲˆÏÓ˚ñ
ˆÜ˛Ó°üye çƒyë˛yÓ˚ ≤Ã◊ˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ åÈeåÈyÎ˚yÎ˚ Ìyܲy xy!ü xyê≈˛§ !öˆÏÎ˚ ˛õí˛¸°yü–
ï˛áöÄ !öÎ˚!üï˛ Ü˛!Óï˛yê˛!Óï˛y !°áï˛yü öy– xyüyÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛y ˆ°áy ÷Ó˚& •Î˚ ÎyòÓ˛õ%Ó˚
!ÓŸª!Óòƒy°ˆÏÎ˚ ˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöy ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ !àˆÏÎ˚– ˆ§áyˆÏö Ó¶%˛ !•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°yü ˆÓ¢
ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲçö ≤Ã!ï˛û˛yÓyö ܲ!ÓˆÏܲ– ÷û˛◊# àˆÏDy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ñ x˛õ% ã˛ˆÏRy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ñ ≤Ãï%˛ƒ£Ï
ӈϮƒy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ Sx˛õ% Ä ≤Ãï%˛ƒ£Ï ~•z ò%ÈÙÈçö ÎyòÓ˛õ%Ó˚ !ÓŸª!Óòƒy°ˆÏÎ˚ ˛õí˛¸ï˛ öyVñ ˛õyÌ≈
ӈϮƒy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ñ ˆÜ˛Ô!¢Ü˛ =•ñ §%!üï˛y Ó§%ñˆ§Ôàï˛ ã˛ˆÏRy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ S ˆ§Ô!üe
ã˛ˆÏRy˛õyôƒyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ~ܲüye ˛õ%eV ≤ÈÏï˛ƒˆÏܲ•z !åÈ° xyüyÓ˚ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚ xˆÏöܲ ˆÓ!¢ §≤Ã!ï˛û˛
Ä ≤Ã!ï˛û˛yÓyö– ˛õˆÏÓ˚ ÎyòÓ˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚ ~ˆÏ§ ˆÎyà !ò° çÎ˚ˆÏòÓ Ó§% Ä §%ï˛˛õy–
ˆ§ö=ÆÈÈÙÙÙÈ ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ò%ÈÙÈçˆÏöÓ˚ åÈ®K˛yö !åÈ° x§yüyöƒ ï˛#«¯˛– xy!ü §yüyöƒ ܲ!Óï˛y
!°!áñ ï˛áöÄ ˛õÎ≈hsˇ ˆö•yÍ•z !öüܲ!Óñ !ܲv ˆÜ˛ö çy!ö öyñ ÎyòÓ˛õ%Ó˚ !ÓŸª!Óòƒy°Î˚
ã˛cˆÏÓ˚ xyüyÓ˚ !ò!Óƒ ~ܲê˛y ܲ!Óáƒy!ï˛ ç%ˆÏê˛ ˆà°– ~üö •° ˆÎ !ÓŸª!Óòƒy°ˆÏÎ˚Ó˚
ܲ°y!Óû˛yˆÏàÓ˚ ü%á˛õe ÚxÓ˚!îÛˆï˛ ˛õÓ˚˛õÓ˚ ò%ÈÙÈ!ï˛ö ÓåÈÓ˚ ¢C ˆây£Ïñ ≤ÃîˆÏÓ®% òy¢=Æ
~•z ò%•z ܲ!ÓÈÙÈ xôƒy˛õˆÏܲÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ ˛õˆÏÓ˚•z xüyÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛y åÈy˛õy •°– Óƒy§ñ xy!üÄ
ܲ!Ó •ˆÏÎ˚ ˆà°yü– ï˛ï˛!òˆÏö ¢C ˆâyˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ Üœ˛yˆÏ§ ÓyÇ°y åȈϮÓ˚ öï%˛ö ܲˆÏÓ˚ ï˛y!°ü
!öˆÏÎ˚!åÈ– ï˛Ó% x«˛Ó˚Ó,ˆÏ_ xyüyÓ˚ û˛%° ˆÌˆÏܲ ˆÎï˛– ˆ§ÈÙÈû%˛° !öÓ˚§ö ܲˆÏÓ˚!åȈϰö
˛õÓ˚Óï≈˛#ܲyˆÏ° xyüyÓ˚ ܲ!ÓÈÙÈ!¢«˛Ü˛ñ ~ܲܲy°#ö Úxï˛wÛ §¡õyòܲñ !Óü° ˆã˛Ôô%Ó˚#–
!ÓŸª!Óòƒy°Î˚ÈÙÈ ç#ÓˆÏö xyüyÓ˚ í˛zˆÏÕ‘áˆÏÎyàƒ §yú˛ˆÏ°ƒÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ ~ܲ!ê˛ •°ñ ~ܲÓyÓ˚
xy§yüÈÙÈxyˆÏ®y°ö !öˆÏÎ˚ ˆ°áy xyüyÓ˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ Ü˛!Óï˛y ˛õˆÏí˛¸ ܲ!Ó Ó#ˆÏÓw
˚ ã˛ˆÏRy˛õyôƒyÎ˚

˛24

≤Ãò#˛õ
x!üï˛yû˛

≤Ãò#˛õ

xÜ%˛t˛ ≤âǧy ܲˆÏÓ˚!åȈϰö– ~•z xyüyÓ˚ ܲ!Ó •ˆÏÎ˚ Äë˛yÓ˚ à“–
É xflf ôˆÏÓ˚y x!üï˛yû˛òyñ xy!ü ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ !Óò%Ó˚ˆÏܲ ˆòáˆÏï˛ ˛õy!FåÈ– Ó%!k˛ç#Ó#
!•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ ~•z éÑ˛yÈÙÈã˛Ü˛ã˛ˆÏܲ í˛z_Ó˚î!ê˛ˆÏܲ ï%˛!ü ܲ#û˛yˆÏÓ Óƒ_´ ܲÓ˚ˆÏÓ⁄
É ü•yû˛yÓ˚ˆÏï˛Ó˚ í˛zˆÏÕ‘á Îáö ≤Èϟ¿Ó˚ üˆÏôƒ•z ã˛ˆÏ° ~°ñï˛áö xyüyÓ˚ í˛z_ˆÏÓ˚Ä Î!ò
ï˛yÓ˚ áy!öܲê˛y §¡±§yÓ˚î •Î˚ñ xy¢yܲ!Ó˚ ≤çDyhsˇÓ˚ âê˛ˆÏÓ öy– òƒyá ≤Ãò#˛õñ
ü•yû˛yÓ˚ˆÏï˛Ó˚ xflfôyÓ˚#Ó˚ ܲÌy í˛zë˛ˆÏ°•z xç≈%ˆÏöÓ˚ öyü!ê˛ ï˛Í«˛îyÍ ˆëÑ˛yˆÏê˛Ó˚ ˆÜ˛yˆÏî
~ˆÏ§ ÎyÎ˚– •Ñƒyñ xç≈%ö– x˛õ!Ó˚§#ü ˆÎyk˛yñ !öü@¿ ˆ≤Ã!üܲ– !ܲv ܲ!Ó⁄ xç≈%öˆÏܲ
!ܲ ܲ!Ó ÓˆÏ° û˛yÓÏy ÎyÎ˚ ܲáöÄ⁄
ÎyÎ˚ñ ~ܲÓyÓ˚•z üye ÎyÎ˚– Îáö xç≈%ö !Ó£ÏyòˆÏÎyˆÏà xyFåÈߨ– Îáö xflf ˆú˛ˆÏ°
!òˆÏÎ˚ Ü%˛Ó˚&ˆÏ«˛ˆÏeÓ˚ üyé˛áyˆÏö•z !ï˛!ö Ü,˛£èˆÏܲ ≤ÈÏÓ˚y!ã˛ï˛ ܲÓ˚ˆÏåÈö ïÑ˛yÓ˚ xhsˇ°≈#ö
!çK˛y§yÓ˚ í˛z_Ó˚ !òˆÏï˛– xÌ≈yÍ ˆÎÈÙÈxç≈%ö xflfôyÓ˚#ñ !ï˛!ö ܲáö•z ܲ!Ó öö– !ܲv
ˆÎÈÙÈxç≈%ö !çK˛y§yÈÙÈ!Üœ˛‹T Ä ≤ß¿û˛yÓ˚yï%˛Ó˚ñ ˆÎ xç≈%ö !Ó£Ï] Ä xflf•#öñ xyï≈˛ Ä
!Ó˚_´ÈÙÙÙȈ§•z xç≈%ö ܲ!Ó– ~ÙȈ«˛ˆÏe !ï˛!ö •Î˚ï˛ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ xflfÈÙÈò«˛ï˛y•#ö òyòy Î%!ô!¤˛Ó˚
~ÓÇ ˆ§•z òyòyÓ˚ ≤ÃyÎ˚ üyö§!˛õï˛y !Óò%ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚•z fl∫ˆÏàye#Î˚–
öy ≤Ãò#˛õñ xy!ü ܲáöÄ xflf ôÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ã˛y•z öy– xyÓ˚ òƒyáñ ~•z ˆÎ xç≈%ˆÏöÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ ~ܲ
ܲ!ÓˆÏܲ á%шÏç ˆ˛õ°yü ~ ˆï˛y ܲ!ÓÓ%!k˛ !òˆÏÎ˚ ˛õy•z!ö– ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚!åÈ xöƒ ~ܲ Ó%!k˛Ó˚
áy!ï˛ˆÏÓ˚•z– ï˛y•z öy⁄ û%˛° ˆÓyé˛ öy xyüyÎ˚ñ xÌ≈˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛ §ÇK˛yˆÏÌ≈ xy!ü Ó%!k˛ç#Ó#
•ˆÏ°Äñ üyˆÏö Ó%!k˛ˆÏܲ xy◊Î˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ç#!Óܲy!öÓ≈y• ܲÓ˚ˆÏ°Äñ Ó%!k˛ç#Ó#Ó˚ §yüy!çܲ
§¡±§y!Ó˚ï˛ §ÇK˛yˆÏÌ≈ xy!ü ܲáö•z Ó%!k˛ç#Ó# ö•z– •ˆÏï˛ ã˛y•zÄ öy– ï˛yˆÏï˛ Ü˛!Óï˛yÓ˚
ˆâyÓ˚ ˆÜ˛ˆÏê˛ ÎyÎ˚– xy!ü üyï˛y°– üyï˛y° •ˆÏÎ˚•z ÌyܲˆÏï˛ ã˛y•z– ÷ô% xyç ˆÌˆÏܲ
!ï˛öÈÙÈã˛yÓ˚ ò¢Ü˛ xyˆÏàÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛yÈÙȈ°áܲ •ˆÏ°ñ !öˆÏçÓ˚ üyï˛°y!üˆÏܲ §ÓyÓ˚ §yüˆÏö
ˆò!áˆÏÎ˚ ˆÎÓ˚ܲü üçy ˆ˛õï˛yüÈÈÙÙÙÙÈ xyç Î%à ˛õyˆÏŒê˛ ˆàˆÏåÈ ÓˆÏ°ñ !öˆÏçÓ˚
üyï˛°y!üˆÏܲ §ÓyÓ˚ ˆã˛yˆÏáÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ xyí˛¸y° ܲˆÏÓ˚ Ó˚y!á– xyˆÏçÈÓyˆÏç ܲÌy !òˆÏÎ˚
ˆì˛ˆÏܲ Ó˚y!ᖠܲyÓ˚î xyçˆÏܲÓ˚ üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ üyï˛°y!üˆÏï˛ ◊k˛y ˆö•zñ ÓÓ˚Ç ˆâߨy xyˆÏåÈ–
xyÓ˚ñ ≤âǧy !ܲÇÓy í˛zòy§#öï˛yÈÙÈ Ü%˛í˛¸ˆÏöy ~•z ܲ!ÓÈÙÈ•*òÎ˚ ˆâߨyˆÏܲ §Ó≈yhsˇÉܲÓ˚ˆÏî
û˛Î˚ ˛õyÎ˚– ï˛y•z xyˆÏçÓyˆÏç ܲÌy !òˆÏÎ˚ !öˆÏçÓ˚ üyï˛°y!üˆÏܲ ˆì˛ˆÏܲ Ó˚yˆÏá– Ä•z
xyˆÏçÓyˆÏç ܲÌyÓ˚ ì˛yܲöy•z xyüyÓ˚ Ó%!k˛ç#Óö– Îyñ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ û˛y£ÏyÎ˚ñ ÚéÑ˛yÈÙÈã˛Ü˛ã˛ˆÏܲ
í˛z_Ó˚ÏîÛ–
É x!üï˛yû˛òyñ ˆ˛õ¢yàï˛ Ü˛yÓ˚ˆÏî xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ç#ÓöÎy˛õˆÏöÓ˚ ÓˆÏí˛¸y xÇ¢ê˛y•z åȈÏܲ
ÓÑyôy– ˆ§áyˆÏö !ã˛hsˇyÈÙȈã˛ï˛öyÓ˚ xÓܲy¢ ≤ÃyÎ˚ ˆö•z– àû˛#Ó˚ï˛Ó˚ ˆÓyô xç≈ˆÏöÓ˚
˛õˆÏÌ ã˛°ˆÏï˛ •ˆÏ° ˆÎ !öç≈öï˛y Óy ~ܲy!ܲˆÏcÓ˚ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçöñ ï˛y xyç ï%˛!üȧ•
ˆÎˆÏܲyöÄ Ü˛!ÓÓ¶%˛Ó˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ•z ò%°≈û˛– ˆàyˆÏòÓ˚ í˛z˛õÓ˚ !ӣψÏúÑ˛yí˛¸yÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y ˜ò!öܲ
ܲyàˆÏçÓ˚ ˆÜ˛Ó˚y!ö!à!Ó˚!ê˛Ó˚ flõ‹T#ܲÓ˚î ã˛y•z!åÈ– ï˛y !ܲ ÷ô% «˛üï˛y!°∞% üôƒˆÏüôyÓ˚
üˆÏï˛y ˆÜ˛Ô¢°àï˛ xÓfliyö üyeÊ Ü˛!Óï˛y !°áˆÏï˛ ~ˆÏ§ Ó%!k˛Ó,!_Ó˚ !òˆÏܲ é˛Ñ%ˆÏÜ
˛ˆàˆÏ° ˆÜ˛ö⁄

˛25

x!üï˛yû˛

É Î!ò Ó!° Ú˜ò!öܲ ܲyàˆÏçÓ˚ ˆÜ˛Ó˚y!ö!à!Ó˚!ê˛Û xyÓ˚Ä ~ܲy •ÓyÓ˚ çöƒ•z ˆÓˆÏåÈ !öˆÏÎ˚!åÈñ
ï˛y•ˆÏ° ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ !ܲ xyüyˆÏܲ !ÓŸªy§ ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ á%Ó•z ܲ‹T •ˆÏÓ⁄ òƒyáñ ˜ò!öܲ ܲyàˆÏçÓ˚
Ó˚!ÓÓy§Ó˚#Î˚ !Óû˛yˆÏàÓ˚ §¡õyòöyÎ˚ xyüyˆÏܲ §•Óy§ ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ •Î˚ xˆÏöƒÓ˚ ˆ°áy
x«˛ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ §ˆÏD– ˆ§§Ó x«˛ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆÓ!¢Ó˚ û˛yà•z !Óçyï˛#Î˚ñ ~•z xˆÏÌ≈ ˆÎ xyüyÓ˚
ˆ°áy x«˛ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ §ˆÏD ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄ !ü° ˆö•z– xÌ≈yÍñ ~•z çyÎ˚àyÎ˚ ~ˆÏ§ xy!ü
!öˆÏçˆÏܲ ˆÓüy°%ü û%˛ˆÏ° ÌyܲˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚– û%˛ˆÏ° Îy•z ˆÎ xy!ü !öˆÏçÄ ü)°ï˛ ~ܲ
x«˛Ó˚!¢“#– !öˆÏçˆÏܲ û%˛ˆÏ° ÌyܲyÄ ˆï˛y ~ܲÓ˚ܲˆÏüÓ˚ ~ܲy Ìyܲyñ ï˛y•z öÎ˚ !ܲ⁄
~ܲy ÌyܲˆÏï˛ •ˆÏ° §Ó §üÎ˚ ˆÎ !öˆÏçˆÏܲ !öˆÏÎ˚•z ÌyܲˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓñ ï˛yÓ˚ ˆï˛y ˆÜ˛yöÄ
Î%!_´@ˇÃy•ƒï˛y ˆö•zÊ ~•z ˆÎ xˆÏöƒÓ˚ ˆ°áy x«˛ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ !û˛ˆÏí˛¸ !öˆÏçÓ˚ x«˛Ó˚!Ó°y§#
x!hflÏcˆÏܲ•z û%˛ˆÏ° ÌyܲyÈÈÙÙÙÈ ~Ä ˆï˛y ~ܲÓ˚ܲˆÏüÓ˚ ~ܲy •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÄÎ˚y•zÊ ï˛yˆÏï˛ Ü˛#
•Î˚ çyˆÏöy ˆï˛yñ üöê˛y úÑ˛yܲy ˆŸ’ˆÏê˛Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚– ˆ§•z ˆŸ’ˆÏê˛Ó˚ IJõÓ˚ Î!ò
ܲáöÄ ˜òÓӈϰ !Óò%ƒFã˛üˆÏܲÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y •yüˆÏ° ˛õˆÏí˛¸ ~ܲ!ê˛ Óy ò%!ê˛ ¢∑ñ ï˛áö üˆÏö
•Î˚ ˆ§§Ó ¢∑ ˆÎö xˆÏöƒÓ˚ ˆ°áy x«˛ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ x˛õ!Ó˚!ã˛ï˛ ˛õ,!ÌÓ# ˆÌˆÏܲ !ú˛!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚
!öˆÏÎ˚ ~° xyüyÎ˚ xyüyÓ˚ ˆã˛öy ˛õ,!ÌÓ#ˆÏï˛– ~•z ÎyÄÎ˚y xyÓ˚ ˆú˛Ó˚y ÌyˆÏÜ ÓˆÏ°•z
~ˆÏï˛ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ xyüyÓ˚ !öˆÏçÓ˚ ˛õ,!ÌÓ# öï%˛ö ܲˆÏÓ˚ xy!Ó‹,Òï˛ •Î˚ xyüyÓ˚•z ܲyˆÏåÈ– Î!ò
ÌyÜ˛ï˛ ˆÜ˛Ó° ~ܲê˛yöy !öˆÏçÓ˚ ˛õ,!ÌÓ#ˆÏï˛ ~ܲˆÏâˆÏÎ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ ÎyÄÎ˚y üyeñ ï˛y•ˆÏ°
!öˆÏçÓ˚ ˛õ,!ÌÓ#ˆÏܲ öï%˛ö ܲˆÏÓ˚ xy!Ó‹ÒyÓ˚ ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ ~•z ˆÓ˚yüyM˛È xyüyÓ˚ ܲáöÄ Ìyܲï˛
!ܲ⁄
~ÓyˆÏÓ˚ «˛üï˛y!°∞yÓ˚ ≤çˆÏD xy!§– òƒyá ≤Ãò#˛õñ ï%˛!ü Ä xy!ü ˆüyê˛yü%!ê˛ ~ܲ•z
ˆ◊!îÓ˚ üyö%£Ï É !¢!«˛ï˛ û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ üôƒ!Ó_ ˆ◊!î– xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ~•z ˆ◊!îàï˛ xÓfliyö•z
ˆï˛y xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ •yˆÏï˛ ˆÜ˛yöÄÈÙÈöyÈÙÈ ˆÜ˛yöÄû˛yˆÏÓ !ܲå%È ÙÈöyÈÙÈ!ܲå%È «˛üï˛y ï%˛ˆÏ° ˆòÎ˚Ê
ˆ§•z «˛üï˛yˆÏܲ xöyã˛yˆÏÓ˚ ˛õÎ≈Ó!§ï˛ öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ Ìyܲyê˛y•z §Ω˛Óï˛ §ÓˆÏã˛ˆÏÎ˚ Óí˛¸
üö%£ÏƒˆÏcÓ˚ ˛õ!Ó˚ã˛Î˚Ê xy!ü üyö%£Ï !•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ ˆüyˆÏê˛•z í˛zFã˛üyˆÏà≈Ó˚ ö•zñ ï˛Ó% ~•z «˛üï˛yÈÙÈ
ÓƒÓ•yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ Óƒy˛õyˆÏÓ˚ xy!ü á%Ó•z §ˆÏã˛ï˛ö– ≤Ãyhsˇ#Î˚ ~ܲ çö˛õˆÏòÓ˚ ï˛ˆÏï˛y!ôܲ ~ܲ
≤ÃyhsˇÈÙȧˆÏã˛ï˛ö ˜ò!öܲ ˛õ!eܲyÓ˚ Ó˚!ÓÓy§Ó˚#Î˚ ˛õyï˛yÓ˚ §yüyöƒ !Óû˛yà#Î˚ §¡õyòܲ
xy!üñ Îï˛ê%˛Ü%˛ «˛üï˛y xyüyÓ˚ Ü%˛!«˛àï˛ ï˛yÓ˚ ܲáöÄ ˆÜ˛yöÄ xöyã˛yÓ˚ âê˛yˆÏï˛ ã˛y•z
öy– ≤ÃÌüï˛ñ xyüyˆÏܲ §Ó §üÎ˚ üˆÏö Ó˚yáˆÏï˛ •Î˚ ˆÎ ~ê˛y ˆÜ˛yöÄ !°ê‰˛° üƒyày!çö
öÎ˚ñ ˜ò!öܲ §ÇÓyò˛õe– xÌ≈yÍ ~Ó˚ IJõÓ˚ §Ü˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ x!ôܲyÓ˚ó !ӈϢ£Ï ˆÜ˛yöÄ
ˆày¤˛#Ó˚ x!ôܲyÓ˚ ~Ó˚ IJõÓ˚ Óï≈˛yÎ˚ öy– §%ï˛Ó˚yÇ ~Ó˚ ˆ°áy !öÓ≈yã˛ˆÏöÓ˚ Óƒy˛õyˆÏÓ˚
xyüyˆÏܲ ΈÏÌ‹T §•ö¢#° ÌyܲˆÏï˛ •Î˚– ˆÜ˛yöÄ ü%§°üyö ôü≈yÓ°¡∫# Óyäy!°Ó˚
ˆ°áy xy!ü §yôyÓ˚îï˛ !ú˛!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ !ò•z öy– üyˆÏöñ ˆ§•z ˆ°áܲ Î!ò ˆüyê˛yü%!ê˛ ÷k˛
ÓyÇ°yÎ˚ !öˆÏçÓ˚ üˆÏöÓ˚ û˛yÓ ≤Ãܲy¢ ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ö !ܲÇÓy §«˛ü •öÈÈÙÙÙÈ !ï˛!ö
ܲáöÄ xyüyÓ˚ ܲyåÈ ˆÌˆÏܲ xӈϕ°y ˛õyö öy– ˆÜ˛ö çyöˆÏï˛ ã˛yÄ⁄ ܲyÓ˚îñ xyüyÓ˚
ï˛áö üˆÏö ˛õˆÏí˛¸ ÎyÎ˚ ¢ï˛y∑#Ó˚ ˛õÓ˚ ¢ï˛y∑# ôˆÏÓ˚ ã˛°ˆÏï˛ Ìyܲy §yüy!çܲ xӈϕ°y
xyÓ˚ ÓM˛ÈöyÓ˚ •z!ï˛•y§– üˆÏö •Î˚ñ ~•z üyö%£Ï !ܲÇÓy üyö%£Ï# Î!ò åÈy˛õyÓ˚ x«˛ˆÏÓ˚

˛26

≤Ãò#˛õ

x!üï˛yû˛

!öˆÏçÓ˚ ˆ°áy ˆòˆÏá !öˆÏçˆÏܲ Ó,•_Ó˚ û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ §üyˆÏçÓ˚ ~ܲçö ӈϰ
û˛yˆÏÓöÈÈÙÙÙÈï˛y•ˆÏ°•z ˆï˛y xyüyÓ˚ !öˆÏçÓ˚ ˛õ)Ó≈˛õ%Ó˚&ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ ¢ï˛y∑#Óƒy˛õ# xӈϕ°yÓ˚
áy!öܲê˛y •ˆÏ°Ä ≤ÃyÎ˚!ÿ˛_ •ˆÏÓÊ !mï˛#Î˚ï˛ñ §ÇÓyò˛õe ≤Ãã˛yÓ˚üyôƒü xyÓ˚ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚
~!òܲܲyÓ˚ ≤ÃyÎ˚ §Ó «˛üï˛yÓyö !¢“#ÈÙȈ°áܲÈÙÈܲ!Ó•z ≤Ãã˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ xyˆÏ°yܲÓ!M˛Èï˛–
xy!ü ï˛y•z §ˆÏã˛ï˛öû˛yˆÏÓñ §%!çÍ ˆã˛Ôô%Ó˚# ˆÌˆÏܲ ÷Ó˚& ܲˆÏÓ˚ !Ó!çÍÜ%˛üyÓ˚ û˛Ryã˛yÎ≈
˛õÎ≈hsˇñ ÷û˛≤çyò ö®# üç%üòyÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ ÷Ó˚& ܲˆÏÓ˚ xyÓ%° ˆ•yˆÏ§ö üç%üòyÓ˚
˛õÎ≈hsˇñ ü%Ü%˛® ˆòÓöyÌ ˆÌˆÏܲ ÷Ó˚& ܲˆÏÓ˚ xüˆÏ°®% û˛Ryã˛yÎ≈ ˛õÎ≈hsˇ §ÓyÓ˚ !§ˆÏê˛Ó˚
í˛z˛õÓ˚•zñ !§ˆÏöüy •ˆÏ°Ó˚ °y•zê˛üƒyˆÏöÓ˚ üˆÏï˛yñ §yôƒüˆÏï˛y xyˆÏ°y ˆú˛°yÓ˚ ˆã˛‹Ty
ܲ!Ó˚– ï,˛ï˛#Î˚ï˛ñ xyüÓ˚y ~ܲ•z Ó,•_Ó˚ û%˛ˆÏàyˆÏ°Ó˚ xÇ¢ •ˆÏ°Ä !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚ ü%oyˆÏòyˆÏ£Ï
Ó,_ÈÙÈç#Óö ˆÓˆÏåÈ !öˆÏÎ˚!åÈ– ÓÓ˚yܲ í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛y !e˛õ%Ó˚yˆÏܲ ܲáöÄ ˆï˛üöû˛yˆÏÓ ˆã˛ˆÏö
öyñ ˆÎüö !e˛õ%Ó˚yÄ •Î˚ï˛ Ó ·˛˛õ%e í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛yˆÏܲ !ã˛öˆÏï˛ üyˆÏé˛üˆÏôƒ•z û%˛° ܲˆÏÓ˚
ˆú˛ˆÏ°– xyüyÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y !öû,˛ï˛ ˆã˛‹Ty ÌyˆÏܲ xyüyÓ˚ çöƒ ÓÓ˚yj ܲáöÄ ~ܲñ ܲáöÄ
ò%•zñ xyüyÓ˚ ܲáöÄ !ï˛ö ˛õyï˛yÓ˚ §#!üï˛ §yüˆÏÌ≈ƒÓ˚ ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚ ~•z§Ó Ó,_=!°ˆÏܲ
ˆû˛ˆÏä ˆòÓyÓ˚– ˛õ#Î)£Ï Ó˚yí˛zˆÏï˛Ó˚ •zrê˛yÓ˚!û˛í˛z ˆÌˆÏܲ ÷Ó˚& ܲˆÏÓ˚ fl∫yï˛# •z®%Ó˚ ܲ!Óï˛yñ
x!û˛!çÍ ã˛e´Óï≈˛#Ó˚ ˆ°áy ò%ò≈yhsˇ !ú˛ã˛yÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ ÷Ó˚& ܲˆÏÓ˚ ≤Ãò#˛õ üç%üòyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚
ܲ!Óï˛yñ !ܲÇÓy í˛z£ÏyÓ˚Oö û˛Rã˛yˆÏÎ≈Ó˚ IJõÓ˚ ˆflõ¢ƒy° ˆ˛õç ˆÌˆÏܲ ÷Ó˚& ܲˆÏÓ˚
xˆÏ¢yܲ ˆòˆÏÓÓ˚ ˆ°áy ≤Ãӈ϶˛Ó˚ ˛õ%öü≈%oîÈÙÙÙÈ ~•z ˛õ!Ó˚ܲ“öyÓ˚•z xD–
xydÓ˚«˛y ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ Ü˛áöÄÈÙÈܲáöÄ á%Ó áyÓ˚y˛õ °yˆÏà ≤Ãò#˛õñ ï˛Ó%ñ xydÓ˚«˛y ˆï˛y
ˆÎˆÏܲyöÄ ≤Ãyî#Ó˚•z ˜ç!Óܲ fl∫û˛yˆÏÓÓ˚ xhsˇà≈ï˛Ê˛ ˛õ,!ÌÓ#Ó˚ ï˛Ìyܲ!Ìï˛ Úˆ◊¤˛Û
≤Ãyî#Ü%˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ ~ܲ §yüyöƒ §ò§ƒ !•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ xy!ü•z Óy !öˆÏçÓ˚ ˆ§•z ˜ç!Óܲ fl∫û˛yÓˆÏܲ
ܲ# ܲˆÏÓ˚ ~!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ Îy•zñ ӈϰy ˆï˛y⁄
É ü)°ƒˆÏÓyô !e´ˆÏÎ˚!ê˛û˛ ˆ°yܲˆÏòÓ˚ñ !ӈϢ£Ïï˛ Ü˛!ÓÈÙȧy!•!ï˛ƒÜ˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ xï˛ƒhsˇ
=Ó˚&c˛õ)î≈ ~ܲ!ê˛ !Ó£ÏÎ˚ Îy •ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ˜ö!ï˛Ü˛ñ öy®!öܲñ ˛õyÓ˚flõ!Ó˚ܲ §¡õˆÏÜ≈˛Ó˚
!ܲÇÓy Ó˚yç˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛ !Ó£ÏÎ˚àï˛– ~Ó˚ í˛zͧ ˆÜ˛yÌyÎ˚⁄ ~ !ܲ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ≤ÃÜ,˛!ï˛àï˛⁄
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ܲ!Ó§_y ï˛yÓ˚ ü)°ƒyÎ˚ö ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ Ü˛áöÄ⁄
É ü)°ƒˆÏÓyô ö,ü%ˆÏ[˛Ó˚ ~ܲ àû˛#Ó˚ ˆ•ÑÎ˚y!°– ˛õ÷ˆÏòÓ˚ Îy xyˆÏåÈ ï˛y ~ܲ xyÿ˛Î≈ §ÇÎü–
ˆáÎ˚y° ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆòáˆÏÓñ ü%_´ ˛õ÷ üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ ï%˛°öyÎ˚ x§Ω˛Ó §ÇÎü#– ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ˆû˛ï˛ˆÏÓ˚
ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ ~ܲ ¢yÓ˚#!Ó˚ܲ ¢,C°y xyˆÏåÈ Îy ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ü%!_´ˆÏܲ ˆfl∫FåÈyã˛y!Ó˚ï˛yÎ˚ ˛õ!Ó˚îï˛
ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ Óyôy ˆòÎ˚– üyö%£Ï ˛õ÷ˆÏòÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ Ó%!k˛Ó,!_ˆÏï˛ í˛zß¨ï˛– xÌã˛ ~ܲ•z §ˆÏD
ï˛yÓ˚ fl∫û˛yˆÏÓÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ ˆÜ˛yöÄ §ÇÎü ˆö•z– ~Ó˚•z çöƒ §Ω˛Óï˛ üyö%£Ï ܲáöÄ
ü%!_´ !ܲÇÓy fl∫yô#öï˛yˆÏܲ å%ÈшÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚!ö– ï˛yˆÏܲ §Ó §üÎ˚ ~ܲê˛yÈÙÈöyÈÙÈ~ܲê˛y ܲyÓ˚àyÓ˚
§ˆÏD !öˆÏÎ˚ ã˛°ˆÏï˛ •Î˚– xˆÏöܲ ܲyÓ˚yàyÓ˚ üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚– ˛õ!ÓyÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y ܲyÓ˚yàyÓ˚–
§üyç xyˆÏÓ˚ܲê˛y– ö#!ï˛ˆÏÓyôñ ôü≈ñ ê˛ƒyÓ%ñ ˆê˛yˆÏê˛üñ Ó˚yçö#!ï˛ñ ò¢≈öñ {ŸªÓ˚È ÙÙÙȧÓ
!ܲå%È•z üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ ~ܲÈÙÈ~ܲê˛y ܲyÓ˚yàyÓ˚– ~•z ܲyÓ˚yàyÓ˚=!° üyö%£Ï ˜ï˛!Ó˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ
ï˛yÓ˚ ü%!_´Ó˚•z çöƒ– xÌã˛ ü%!_´ üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ !ã˛Ó˚ܲy°•z xôÓ˚y ˆÌˆÏܲ ˆàˆÏåÈ–

˛27

≤Ãò#˛õ

x!üï˛yû˛

˛õ÷Ó˚y ï%˛°öyÎ˚ §!ï˛ƒÜ˛yÓ˚ xˆÏÌ≈•z ü%_´– ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ≤ÃÜ,˛!ï˛ ˛õ,!ÌÓ#Ó˚ ≤ÃÜ,˛!ï˛Ó˚•z
≤Ã!ïFåÈyÎ˚y– ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ï˛y•z ˆÜ˛yöÄ {ŸªÓ˚ñ ôü≈ñ ò¢≈öñ í˛yÓ˚í˛z•zöñ ö#!ï˛ˆÏÓyôÈÙÈçyï˛#Î˚
ܲyÓ˚yàyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö •Î˚ öy– ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö •Î˚ öy ~üö!ܲ ˆÜ˛yöÄ ˛õy¢!Óܲï˛yÓ˚Ä–
xÌã˛ üö%£Ïƒc Óy üyö!Óܲï˛y åÈyí˛¸y üyö%£Ï öy !ܲ !ÓˆÏÓܲ•#ö– ~ܲê%˛ ˆû˛ˆÏÓ ˆòáñ
üyö!Óܲï˛y xy§ˆÏ° ܲ#⁄ ï˛y !ܲ üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ !öˆÏçÓ˚ ≤Ãçy!ï˛ˆÏܲ !ê˛!ܲˆÏÎ˚ Ó˚yáyÓ˚
≤Ã!ï˛Ó˚«˛y Ü˛ÓˆÏã˛Ó˚ x!ôܲ !ܲå%È⁄ xÌã˛ ~•z üyö!Óܲï˛y öyüܲ Óü≈!ê˛ˆÏï˛•z üyö%£Ï ܲï˛
Ó˚ˆÏä §yçyÎ˚ñ üˆÏö •Î˚ ~ ˆÎö ˛õ,!ÌÓ# öyüܲ ~•z @ˇÃ•!ê˛Ó˚•z ~ܲ Ó˚«˛yܲÓã˛ñ ï˛y•z
öy⁄ !ܲv ˛õ,!ÌÓ#ˆÏܲ ˆáˆÏï˛ÈÙÈ ˆáˆÏï˛ñ ˛õ,!ÌÓ#ˆÏܲ ˆû˛yà ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ÈÙÈܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ñ ˛õ,!ÌÓ#ˆÏܲ
ö‹T ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ÈÙÈܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ üyö%£Ï ~üö xÓfliyÎ˚ í˛z˛õö#ï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ ˆÎñ xyç Î!ò üyö%£Ï
öyüܲ ≤Ãyî#!ê˛ ˛õ,!ÌÓ# ˆÌˆÏܲ !ã˛Ó˚ï˛ˆÏÓ˚ !Ó°%Æ •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚ñ ï˛y•ˆÏ° ~ÓÇ ~ܲye
ï˛y•ˆÏ°•z xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ~•z @ˇÃˆÏ•Ó˚ xyÎ˚% Ó‡=î ˆÓˆÏí˛¸ ÎyˆÏÓÊ
ï˛y•ˆÏ°ñ òÑyí˛¸yˆÏ°yê˛y ܲ#⁄ ˆÎÈÙÈ≤Ãyî# !öˆÏçÓ˚ ü%!_´Ó˚ çöƒ e´üyàï˛ Ü˛yÓ˚yàyÓ˚ ÓyöyÎ˚ñ
e´üyàï˛ Ó¶˛ö Ó˚ã˛öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ ã˛ˆÏ°ñ ï˛yÓ˚ ü)°ƒˆÏÓyˆÏôÓ˚ í˛zͧ !ܲ ï˛yÓ˚ xy˛õö ≤ÃÜ,˛!ï˛⁄
üyˆÏö ï˛yÓ˚ ˜ç!Óܲ ã˛!Ó˚e⁄ öy !ܲ ~ê˛y ï˛yÓ˚ ö,ü%ˆÏ[˛Ó˚•z ~ܲ àû˛#Ó˚ ˆ•ÑÎ˚y!°⁄
É §yüy!çܲ ü)°ƒˆÏÓyˆÏôÓ˚ ܲÌy üyÌyÎ˚ ˆÓ˚ˆÏá•z Ó°!åÈñ ~•z !Ó£ÏÎ˚!ê˛ !öˆÏÎ˚ xˆÏöܲ
ˆû˛ˆÏÓ!åÈ– ˆÎˆÏܲyöÄ xM˛ÈˆÏ°Ó˚ §üyçÓƒÓfliyÎ˚ Î!ò !ö¡¨ÈÙÈüôƒÈÙÈí˛zFã˛!Ó_ ˆ◊!î!Óöƒy§
Ä û˛yÓ˚§yüƒ !ë˛Ü˛ë˛yܲ ÌyˆÏܲñ ï˛ˆÏÓ ˆ§ÈÙÈxM˛ÈˆÏ°Ó˚ §yüy!çܲñ Ó˚yç˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛ Ä
xÌ≈˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛ û˛yÓ˚§yüƒÄ §yôyÓ˚îï˛ !ë˛Ü˛ ÌyˆÏܲ– ú˛ˆÏ° ~ܲ!ê˛ §%¤%˛ §yÇfl,Ò!ï˛Ü˛
˛õ!Ó˚ü[˛° àˆÏí˛¸ ĈÏ벖 ï%˛!ü ˆÎáyˆÏö Ó§Óy§ ܲÓ˚ñ ≤Ãyhsˇ§ˆÏã˛ï˛ö ˆ§•z xM˛ÈˆÏ° ~•z
û˛yÓ˚§yüƒ•#öï˛y °«˛ƒ ܲÓ˚y ÎyˆÏFåÈ– !ö¡¨!Ó_ Ä í˛zFã˛!Ó_ Óà≈ ò%!ê˛ ˆçyÓ˚òyÓ˚ •ˆÏÎ˚
í˛zë˛ˆÏåÈ– ú˛ˆÏ° §yüy!çܲñ Ó˚yç˜Ïö!ï˛!ܲñ xÌ≈˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛ Ä §yÇfl,Ò!ï˛Ü˛ ˆ«˛Ïe e´ü¢•z
û˛yÓ˚§yüƒ•#ö •ˆÏÎ˚ ˛õí˛¸ˆÏåÈ– =!ê˛Ü˛Î˚ ˆ°yܲ !ê˛ü!ê˛ü ˆüyüÓy!ï˛ó çµ°ˆÏåÈö–
É Óï˛≈üyö !ܲÇÓy ≤Ãyã˛#ö ˛õ,!ÌÓ#Ó˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄ xM˛ÈˆÏ°Ó˚ §üyçÓƒÓfliyÎ˚ !ܲ xÌ≈˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛
û˛yÓ˚§yüƒ ܲáöÄ !ܲ !ë˛Ü˛ xyˆÏåÈñ öy !ܲ ˆÜ˛yöÄ Ü˛yˆÏ° !åÈ°⁄ xy!ü ˆÎÈÙÈxM˛ÈˆÏ°
Ìy!ܲ xÌ≈yÍ ÓÓ˚yܲ í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛yÎ˚È ÙÙÙȈ§áyöܲyÓ˚ Ó˚yçö#!ï˛Ä ˆï˛y ˛õ,!ÌÓ#Ó˚ ï˛Ìy Ó,•_Ó˚
û˛yÓ˚ˆÏï˛Ó˚ Ó˚yçö#!ï˛Ó˚ xö%°@¿Ê ÓÓ˚yܲ í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛yÓ˚ !Ó!ã˛e fl∫û˛yÓ •° ~ܲ x§Ω˛Ó
§•ö¢#°ï˛yó ÎyˆÏܲ í˛zòy§#öï˛yÓ˚ §ˆÏD ï%˛°öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ xydï,˛!Æ °yû˛ ܲÓ˚y ˆÎˆÏï˛
˛õyˆÏÓ˚ñ ï˛ˆÏÓ Ä•z xydï,˛!Æ xyd≤ÃÓM˛ÈöyÓ˚•z öyüyhsˇÓ˚– ÓÓ˚yܲ í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛yÓ˚ xyˆÏÓ˚ܲ!ê˛
˜Ó!¢‹T •° É ˆÎÈÙÈ≤Ã!ï˛Óyò ÓyhflψÏÓ ˆö•zñ ï˛y !ܲv ˛õe˛õ!eܲyÎ˚ ü%áÓƒyòyö ܲˆÏÓ˚
xyˆÏåÈ– xÌ≈yÍñ ~ܲ ôÓ˚ˆÏöÓ˚ •zöû˛y¢≈ö– í˛zˆÏŒê˛y !ã˛e– ÓyhflψÏÓ ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ ˆÜ˛yöÄ
xyˆÏ®y°ö ˆö•zñ !ܲv ˛õ!eܲy=!°ˆÏï˛ ≤Ã!ï˛Óyò Ä §üyˆÏ°yã˛öyÓ˚ åÈí˛¸yåÈ!í˛¸–
ÓÓ˚yܲ í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛yÎ˚ âöÈÙÈâö ˆ°yí˛ˆÏ¢!í˛ÇÈÙÈ~Ó˚ ã˛yˆÏ˛õ üôƒ!Ó_ˆÏ◊!î !ܲv Ó˚yçƒ !Óò%ƒÍ
!Óû˛yˆÏàÓ˚ !ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛ ˆÜ˛yöÄ xyˆÏ®y°ˆÏöÓ˚ ˛õˆÏÌ ÎyÎ˚ öy– ÓÓ˚Ç âˆÏÓ˚ÈÙÈâˆÏÓ˚ !ܲˆÏö
ˆöÎ˚ •zöû˛yê≈˛yÓ˚– xy!üÄ ï˛y•z ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ– !ܲhsˇ ~ܲ•z §ˆÏD ~•z •zöû˛yê≈˛yÓ˚ ˆÜ˛öyê˛yˆÏܲ
xyüyÓ˚ •zöû˛y¢≈ˆÏöÓ˚ ≤Ãï˛#ܲ ÓˆÏ°Ä üˆÏö •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– ܲyàˆÏç !Óò%ƒÍ !Óû˛yˆÏàÓ˚ !ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛

˛28

≤Ãò#˛õ

x!üï˛yû˛

!Ó£Ï í˛zàˆÏÓ˚ÄñâˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ¢y!hsˇ ÓçyÎ˚ Ó˚yáˆÏï˛ !ܲˆÏö ˆöÄÎ˚y •° ˆ°yí˛ˆÏ¢!í˛ÇÈÙÈ~Ó˚
≤Ã!ï˛ˆÏ£Ïôܲ §•çï˛ü ÓƒÓfliy– ~ê˛y ˆï˛y ~ܲ ôÓ˚ˆÏöÓ˚ û˛yÓ˚§yüƒ ÓçyÎ˚ Ó˚yáyÓ˚
üyö!§Ü˛ï˛y•zÊ ï˛y•z öy⁄
ÓÓ˚yܲ í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛yÎ˚ ~•z û˛yÓ˚§yüƒ ~ï˛ §%®Ó˚û˛yˆÏÓ Ó˚!«˛ï˛ xyˆÏåÈ ˆÎÈÙÈ~áyöܲyÓ˚
Óyü˛õsi# ò°=ˆÏ°yˆÏÜ˛Ä ˆ¢£Ï !Óã˛yˆÏÓ˚ ◊!üܲÈÙÈܲ, £Ïܲ ˆ◊!îÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛!ö!ô ӈϰ !ܲå%ȈïÏ ˛•z
üˆÏö •Î˚ öyó üˆÏö •Î˚ ~Ó˚y üôƒ!Ó_ ˆ◊!îÓ˚ §%ˆÏáÓ˚ çöƒ Ó!°≤Ãò_–
~Ó˚ ~ܲüye !Óôyö •ˆÏFåÈ !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚ üôƒ!Ó_ xÓfliyö ˆÌˆÏܲ ˆÓ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ xy§y– !ܲv
ï˛y ܲÓ˚ˆÏÓê˛y ˆÜ˛⁄ §Ó ¢y°yñ ~•z x!üï˛yû˛ ˆòÓ ˆã˛Ôô%Ó˚#ÈÙȧ•ñ ˆï˛y Ä•z
üôƒ!Ó_ÈÙÈç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚ !öÓ˚y˛õò àÑyÌ%!ö•z ˆÓˆÏåÈ !öˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– ˆ§•z !öÓ˚y˛õ_yÓ˚ xyˆÏÓ‹Tö#ˆÏï˛
Ü˛ÇˆÏ@ˇÃ§ÈÙÈ!ÓˆÏç!˛õÈÙÈܲü%ƒ!öfiê˛ §Ó•z ˆï˛y xy§ˆÏ° ç°!ӈϡ∫ ~ܲ•z ö‹Tã˛wò¢≈öÊ
ï˛y•z öÎ˚ !ܲ⁄
É x!üï˛yû˛òyñ Îï˛ò)Ó˚ çy!ö ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ çß√ !¢°Çñ ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚ ˆçyÎ˚y•zñ ˛õˆÏÓ˚ •yú˛°Ç Ä
!¢°ã˛Ó˚– ç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚ !Ó!û˛ß¨ ÓÎ˚ˆ§Ï Ä•z !û˛ß¨ÈÙÈ!û˛ß¨ ˆüyí˛¸=!° !ܲ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ˆ°áyˆÏ°!áˆÏï˛
§•yÎ˚ܲ •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°⁄
É ~•z ≤Èϟ¿Ó˚ áy!öܲê˛y í˛z_Ó˚ •Î˚ï˛ xyüyÓ˚ ˆòÄÎ˚y ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ≤ÃÌü ≤Èϟ¿Ó˚ í˛z_ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚
üˆÏôƒ•z !ö!•ï˛ xyˆÏåÈ– ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚Ä Ó!°– •Ñƒyñ xy!ü !¢°ˆÏäÓ˚ ˆåȈ°
Ï – ~áöÄ çß√û)˛!ü
Ó°ˆÏï˛ xy!ü !¢°ÇˆÏܲ•z Ó%!鲖 xyüyˆÏܲ Î!ò ≤ß¿ ܲÓ˚ xyüyÓ˚ ˆ¢£Ï •zˆÏFåÈ Ü˛#ñ xy!ü
ˆï˛yüyˆÏܲ x¡‘yöÓòˆÏö Ó°Óñ ü,ï%˛ƒÓ˚˛ õÓ˚ !ã˛ï˛yÎ˚ Äë˛y öÎ˚– ÓÓ˚Ç §%ò,¢ƒ ˆÜ˛yöÄ
ܲ!ú˛ˆÏö ü,ï%˛ƒÓ˚ !ê˛!ú˛öÓ:Ó!® •ˆÏÎ˚ !¢°ÇÈÙÈ~Ó˚ xy¢˛õyˆÏ¢ ˆÜ˛yöÄ Ó%ˆÏöyú%˛° àyˆÏåÈÓ˚
ö#ˆÏã˛ !ö!ÿ˛ˆÏhsˇ Ä ö#Ó˚ˆÏÓ §üy!•ï˛ •ÄÎ˚y– •Ñƒyñ ~ܲê˛y ÓÎ˚§ ˛õÎ≈hsˇ xy!ü ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚
!åÈ°yüñ xyüyÓ˚ §ühflÏ û˛yÓÈÙÈ˛õ,!ÌÓ# ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÈÙÈˆÜ˛!wܲ !åÈ°– ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚~ܲê˛y §üÎ˚
~° ç#ÓˆÏö Îáö Ó%é˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚°yüñ xy!ü !ë˛Ü˛ ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚ öÎ˚ Óy xyüyÓ˚
ÌyܲyÈÙÈöyÈÙÈÌyܲyÓ˚ IJõÓ˚ ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚ !ܲå%È•z ÎyÎ˚ xyˆÏ§ öy– ï˛ï˛!òˆÏö !e˛õ%Ó˚yÓ˚ ¢ƒyü°
û˛Ryã˛yÎ≈ñ ˛õÕ‘Ó û˛Ryã˛yÎ≈ Ä ≤ÃÓ%k˛§%®Ó˚ ܲÓ˚ñ Ó ·˛˛õ%e í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛yÓ˚ §OÎ˚ ã˛e´Óï˛#≈ Ä
x!û˛!çÍ ã˛e´Óï˛#≈ñ !¢°ã˛Ó˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ !ï˛ö§%!ܲÎ˚yÎ˚ öï%˛ö ïÑ˛yÓ% ˆàшÏí˛¸ÈÙÈÓ§y §%¢yhsˇ
ܲÓ˚ §Óy•z í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)Ó≈yM˛È°#Î˚ §y!•ï˛ƒ öyüܲ ~ܲ ôyÓ˚öyˆÏܲ •yˆÏï˛Ó˚ ܲ!í˛¸Ó˚ ˆ¢£Ïòyö
!•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ xÑyܲˆÏí˛¸ ôˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ– xyüyÓ˚ ôyÓ˚îy ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ §ˆÏD !üˆÏ° ˆà°– xyüÓ˚y ~ܲê˛y
çyÎ˚àyÎ˚ ~ܲ •ˆÏÎ˚ ˆà°yü–
~Ó˚ xyˆÏà ˆòÓy!¢§ ï˛Ó˚ú˛òyÓ˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ ÎÑyÓ˚ ˆÓˆÏí˛¸ ÈÙÈ Äë˛y ˆÜ˛Ó°üye ÓÓ˚yܲ í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛yÈÙÈ
ˆÜ˛!wܲ !åÈ° öyñ ÈÙÙÙÈ xflõ‹Tû˛yˆÏÓ •ˆÏ°Äñ ~•z í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)Ó≈yM˛È°#Î˚ §y!•ˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚ !òˆÏܲ
~ܲ xD%!°!öˆÏò≈¢ ܲˆÏÓ˚!åȈϰö– xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ÓyhflÏÓï˛y ˆÎ Óyäy!°Ó˚ x˛õÓ˚y˛õÓ˚
û%˛Óö=!°Ó˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ xy°yòyñ xyüÓ˚y ˆÎ çß√§)ˆÏe•z ܲܲÓÓ˚ܲ !ܲÇÓy x§ü#Î˚yñ
!í˛üy§y !ܲÇÓy ü!î˛õ%Ó˚#ˆÏòÓ˚ §ˆÏD ~ܲ Ó˚ˆÏ_´Ó˚ §¡õÜ≈˛§)ˆÏe ÓÑyôy ~ÓÇ ˆ§ê˛y•z ˆÎ
xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ !Ó!¢‹Tï˛yÓ˚ §ÓˆÏã˛ˆÏÎ˚ Óí˛¸ x!û˛K˛yö ÈÙÙÙÈ~•z ܲÌyê˛y §Ω˛Óï˛ ˆòÓy!¢§
ï˛Ó˚ú˛òyÓ˚•z ≤ÃÌü ˛õˆÏÎ˚rê˛ xyí˛zê˛ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚!åȈϰö– ˛õˆÏÓ˚ ˆòáy ˆà°ñ ~•z !Ó£ÏÎ˚!ê˛ !öˆÏÎ˚

˛29

≤Ãò#˛õ

x!üï˛yû˛

xyüÓ˚y xˆÏöˆÏܲ•z !Ó!û˛ß¨ çyÎ˚àyÎ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲÄñ ~ܲ•zÓ˚ܲüû˛yˆÏÓ û˛yÓ!åÈ–
xy!üñ §%ï˛Ó˚yÇñ í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)Ó≈yM˛ÈˆÏ° !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ öy ~ˆÏ° !öˆÏçÓ˚ ˆ°áyÓ˚ àhsˇÓƒ !ܲÇÓy !òàhsˇ
!ܲå%È•z á%шÏç ˆ˛õï˛yü öyñ ≤Ãò#˛õ– •Î˚ï˛ ˆflÀú˛ ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚ !¢!áˆÏÎ˚ ˆòÄÎ˚y û˛y£ÏyˆÏï˛•z
!°áï˛yüñ !ܲv ï˛yˆÏï˛ xyüyÓ˚ !öˆÏçÓ˚ xydy ܲï˛ê%˛Ü%˛ ˛õ!Ó˚ï,˛Æ •ï˛⁄ ˆï˛yüÓ˚y•z Óy
ܲï˛ê%˛Ü%˛ á%!¢ •ˆÏï˛ xyüyÓ˚ ˆ°áy ˛õˆÏí˛¸⁄
É ˆÓ¢ ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲÓyÓ˚ ~ܲyhsˇ xyU˛yÎ˚ !Ó!çÍòy SxÓ¢ƒ ~ ühsˇÓƒ!ê˛ ~•z û%˛ÓˆÏöÓ˚ xyÓ˚Ä
xˆÏöˆÏܲÓ˚•zV ӈϰ!åȈϰöñ ï%˛!ü ï˛ï˛ Óí˛¸ ܲ!Ó öÄ Îï˛ Óí˛¸ û˛y£Ïy!¢“#– ~ê˛y !ö®yñ
öy ≤âǧy ˆÜ˛yö xˆÏÌ≈ ˆöˆÏÓ⁄
É û˛y£Ïy!¢“# ¢∑!ê˛Ó˚ ò%ÛÓ˚ܲˆÏüÓ˚ xÌ≈ •Î˚– ~ܲñ û˛y£ÏyÓ˚ !¢“#ñ £Ï¤˛# ï˛Í˛õ%Ó˚&£Ï §üy§–
xÌ≈yÍ !Î!ö û˛y£ÏyÓ˚ ܲy!Ó˚àÓ˚– ˆÎüö §•ç˛õyˆÏë˛Ó˚ Ó˚Ó#wöyÌñ ܲü°Ü%˛üyÓ˚ üç%üòyÓ˚
!ܲÇÓy xyˆÏ°yܲ §Ó˚ܲyÓ˚ Óy xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ Ó#ˆÏÓ˚wöyÌ Ó˚!«˛ï˛– ÎÑyˆÏòÓ˚ ˆ°áyÎ˚ ˆ°áyÓ˚
!ӣψÏÎ˚Ó˚ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚Ä û˛y£ÏyÓ˚ öï%˛ö !òàhsˇ xy!Ó‹ÒyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ !òˆÏܲ ˛õ«˛˛õyï˛ ˆÓ!¢– !ܲÇÓy
ÎÑyÓ˚yñ ܲü°Ü%˛üyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ û˛y£Ïy ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ Ó°y ÎyÎ˚ñ û˛y£ÏyˆÏܲ üyˆÏÓ˚ö ï˛yˆÏܲ ÓÑy!ã˛ˆÏÎ˚
ˆï˛y°yÓ˚•z çöƒ– xy§ˆÏ° ܲ# •Î˚ çyö ˆï˛yñ àyÎ˚ܲ ˆÎÈÙÈ û˛y£ÏyÎ˚ àyö ܲˆÏÓ˚ö xÌ≈yÍ
§%Ó˚ñ Óyòܲ ˆÎÈÙÈû˛y£ÏyÎ˚ Óyçyö xÌ≈yÍ ï˛y° xyÓ˚ ˆÓy°ñ !ã˛e!¢“# ˆÎÈÙÈû˛y£ÏyÎ˚ åÈ!Ó
xÑyˆÏܲö xÌ≈yÍ ˆÓ˚áy xyÓ˚ Ó˚ÇÈÙÙÙÈ ~=ˆÏ°yÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄê˛yÓ˚•z ÓyhflÏÓçàˆÏï˛ xöƒ
ˆÜ˛yöÄÓ˚ܲˆÏüÓ˚ ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚ ˆö•z– !ܲv §y!•ï˛ƒ §,!‹T ܲˆÏÓ˚ö !Î!öñ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ˆÎÈÙÈû˛y£Ïy
xÌ≈yÍ ü%ˆÏáÓ˚ Ó%!° ÈÙÙÙÈ ï˛y ˆï˛y ≤Ã!ï˛!òö ≤Ã!ï˛!ê˛ ˆ«˛ˆÏe ÓƒÓ•*ï˛ •ˆÏFåÈ– ÓƒÓ•*ï˛
•ˆÏï˛ •ˆÏï˛ ~•z û˛y£Ïyñ ç#ÓöyöˆÏ®Ó˚ ܲÌy ôyÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ Ó°ˆÏ°ñ Ú÷Î˚yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ üyÇ§Û •ˆÏÎ˚
ÎyˆÏFåÈ– ~Ó˚ IJõÓ˚ xyˆÏåÈ ≤Ãã˛yÓ˚ üyôƒˆÏüÓ˚ òy˛õê˛– ≤Ãã˛yÓ˚ üyôƒü û˛y£ÏyˆÏܲ ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚
ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ÈÙÈܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ≤ÃyÎ˚ !åÈÖÓˆÏí˛¸ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆåȈÏí˛¸ ˆòÎ˚– ˆ§•z ~ܲ•z û˛y£ÏyÎ˚ ܲ!Óï˛y !°áˆÏï˛
ˆàˆÏ° ˆÎÈÙÈˆÜ˛yöÄ §ˆÏã˛ï˛ö ܲ!ÓÓ˚ ≤ÃyˆÏî ~ܲ ï˛y!sfܲ ˆçˆÏà í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛ Óyôƒ– !ï˛!ö
ˆòˆÏáö Ó‡ÓƒÓ•*ï˛ •ˆÏï˛ÈÙÈ•ˆÏï˛ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ üyôƒü xÌ≈yÍ ¢∑=!° !öç≈#Óñ Üœ˛#Óñ çí˛¸ò‰àÓñ
≤Ãyî•#öñ ü)ܲñ xyˆÏÓà Ó•ˆÏö x«˛ü •ˆÏÎ˚ ˛õí˛¸ˆÏåÈ– ~•z û˛y£ÏyÓ˚ ܲB˛yˆÏ° ≤Ãyî§M˛ÈyÓ˚
ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ¢∑ܲy˛õ!°Ü˛ÈÈÙÈ Ü˛!ÓˆÏܲ ï˛y•z ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ öy ˆÜ˛yÌyÄñ û˛y£Ïy!¢“#Ó˚ û)˛!üܲyÎ˚
xÓï˛#î≈ •ˆÏï˛•z •Î˚–
û˛y£Ïy!¢“# ¢∑!ê˛Ó˚ xöƒ ~ܲ!ê˛ xÌ≈Ä x¢Óƒ •Î˚– ï˛y •°ñ û˛y£ÏyˆÏܲ !öˆÏÎ˚ !Î!ö
!¢“ ܲˆÏÓ˚öñ Ó‡Ó #!• §üy§– !¢“ üyˆÏö !ã˛e!¢“– û˛y£ÏyˆÏܲ !ã˛e!¢ˆÏ“Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y
ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö xÓö#wöyÌñ °#°y üç%üòyÓ˚ñ ~ÑÓ˚y– ~•z ܲyˆÏç §yôyÓ˚îï˛
ïÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚•z ò«˛ï˛y ~ÓÇ ˛õ«˛˛õyï˛ ˆòáy ÎyÎ˚ ÎÑyÓ˚y åÈ!ÓÈÙÈ xÑy!ܲˆÏÎ˚ xyÓyÓ˚ ~ܲyôyˆÏÓ˚
ˆ°áܲÈÙÈ Ü˛!ÓÄ– !ܲÇÓy ÎÑyÓ˚y ÄhflÏyò åÈ!Ó ÈÙÈ ˆò!áˆÏÎ˚– xy!ü åÈ!ÓÈÙÈ xÑy!ܲˆÏÎ˚ ˆï˛y
ö•z•zñ ˆï˛üö ˛õƒy¢ˆÏöê˛ åÈ!ÓÈÙÈ ˆò!áˆÏÎ˚Ä ö•z– ~ÓÇ xy!ü çy!öñ xyüyÓ˚ û˛y£ÏyÎ˚
!ã˛e!¢ˆÏ“Ó˚ ≤Ã!ï˛ xy°yòy ˆÜ˛yöÄ ò%Ó≈°ï˛yÓ˚ ˛õ!Ó˚§Ó˚ ˆö•z– ÓÓ˚Ç àyöü%?˛– öyÓ˚#Ó˚
ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚Ä §%ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ≤Ã!ï˛ x!ôܲ ò%Ó≈°ï˛y xyüyÓ˚– §yÓ˚yç#Óö ôˆÏÓ˚ xy!ü ˆã˛‹Ty ܲˆÏÓ˚
ˆà!åÈ Ü˛!Óï˛yÎ˚ àyö öyÈÙÈ!°ˆÏáñ ܲ!Óï˛yˆÏܲ ܲ!Óï˛y ˆÓ˚ˆÏá•zñ ܲ#û˛yˆÏÓ ï˛yÓ˚ ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚

30

≤Ãò#˛õ
x!üï˛yû˛

§%ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ÓƒOöyˆÏܲ ú%˛!ê˛ˆÏÎ˚ ˆï˛y°y ÎyÎ˚–
öyñ ≤Ãò#˛õñ xy!ü ܲ!Ó öyÈÙÈ •ˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚ñ !ܲv û˛y£Ïy!¢“# ܲáö•z öy– û˛y£Ïy!¢“#Ó˚y
ܲ!ÓˆÏòÓ˚ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚ xˆÏöܲ Óí˛¸–
É ¢!_´˛õò Ó ·˛ã˛yÓ˚#ˆÏܲ !¢«˛Ü˛ !•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚!åȈϰ⁄ Ä•z §üÎ˚ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ §ü§yü!Î˚ܲ
ˆ°áܲÈÙÈÓ¶%˛ ܲyÓ˚y !åÈ°⁄ ˆï˛yüyˆÏòÓ˚ xyU˛y •ï˛ !ܲ⁄ !öÎ˚!üï˛ !ܲ x!öÎ˚!üï˛⁄
É ¢!_´˛õò ܲáö•z xyüyÓ˚ ≤Ãy!ï˛¤˛y!öܲ !¢«˛Ü˛ !åȈϰö öy– fl%Ò!°Ç ˛õˆÏÓ≈Ó˚ ˛õˆÏÓ˚Ó˚
˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöyÓ˚ §%ˆÏÎyà xyüyÓ˚ ÓÓ˚yܲ í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛yÎ˚ âˆÏê˛!ö– ¢!_´˛õò !åȈϰö ܲˆÏ°ç ÈÙÈ
!¢«˛Ü˛– §%ï˛Ó˚yÇñ ~ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe xy!ü ò%û≈˛yày– ï˛ˆÏÓñ ܲ!Ó ¢!_´˛õòÓ˚ §ˆÏD x!öÎ˚!üï˛
ˆÎ xyU˛y=!° •ï˛ñ ü)°ï˛ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ Óy!í˛¸ˆÏï˛ñ ï˛yˆÏï˛ !¢«˛î#Î˚ !ӣψÏÎ˚Ó˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄ xû˛yÓ
•ï˛ öy– ¢!_´˛õò ˛≤ÃyÎ˚•z ~ܲê˛y ܲÌy Ó°ˆÏï˛öñ §Óy•zˆÏܲ !öˆÏçÓ˚ fl∫ÈÙÈû˛yˆÏÓ !fliï˛
ÌyܲyÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚yü¢≈ !òˆÏï˛ö– Ó°ˆÏï˛ö !öˆÏçÓ˚ û˛yˆÏÓ !°áˆÏï˛– xˆÏöƒÓ˚ û˛yÓ ôyÓ˚ öy
ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛–
ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ ˆâyˆÏÓ˚ÙÈ˛õyÄÎ˚y ~•z üyö%£Ï!ê˛ Ü˛áö•z á%Ó §y!çˆÏÎ˚ =!åȈÏÎ˚ ܲÌy Ó°ˆÏï˛ö
öy– xydˆÏû˛y°y Ä í˛zòy§#öñ Ó˚!§Ü˛ !ܲv !Ó£Ï] ¢!_´˛õò !åȈϰö §%ö#°
àˆÏDy˛õyôƒyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y Î%!_´Óyò#– xyÓ˚ Î%!_´ÓyòˆÏܲ xyô%!öܲï˛yÓyˆÏòÓ˚ ~ܲ xöƒï˛ü
«˛üï˛yˆÏܲw ӈϰ ôˆÏÓ˚ÈÙȈöÄÎ˚yñ xyüyÓ˚ ï˛Ó˚&î üˆÏö ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ܲÌy xˆÏöܲ §üÎ˚•z
ˆï˛üö ˆì˛í˛z ï%˛°ï˛ öy– xÌ≈yÍ ¢!_´˛õò ˆÎüö ܲyˆÏÓ˚yÈÙÈܲyˆÏÓ˚y ܲyˆÏåÈ ˆòÓï˛y !åȈϰöñ
xyüyÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ï˛y !åȈϰö öy– !åȈϰö ˆòyˆÏ£Ï=ˆÏî ˛õ!Ó˚˛õ)î≈ û˛Ó˚ÈÙÈû˛Ó˚hsˇ ~ܲ üyö%£Ï–
÷ô% üyö%£Ï– ÎyˆÏܲ û˛y°Óy§y ÎyÎ˚– ÓyÇ°y ÓƒyܲÓ˚îñ ÓyÇ°y åÈ®ñ ÓyÇ°y ÓyöyöÈÙÙÙÈ
~§Ó §Çe´yhsˇ ˆÜ˛yöÄ mˆÏ®µÓ˚ !öÓ˚§ˆÏö ¢!_´˛õò !åȈϰö ~ܲ fliyÎ˚# ü#üyǧy–
≤ÃyÎ˚•z ~ê˛yÈÙÈÄê˛yÓ˚ çöƒ ïÑ˛yˆÏܲ ˆú˛yö ܲˆÏÓ˚ í˛zï˛ƒ_´ ܲÓ˚ï˛yü–
!¢«˛Ü˛ ööñ !ܲv !¢«˛Ü˛≤Ã!ï˛üó ÓyÓy ööñ !ܲv Ó¶%˛Ó˚ ÓyÓyÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y ÈÙÙÙÈ xyüyÓ˚
ç#ÓˆÏö ¢!_´˛õòÓ˚ xÓfliyö xˆÏöܲê˛y ~Ó˚ܲü– ïÑ˛yÓ˚ §yüˆÏö ô)ü˛õyö ~ÓÇ ïÑ˛yÓ˚
§ˆÏD üòƒ˛õyˆÏöÓ˚ xö%ü!ï˛ !òˆÏÎ˚!åȈϰöñ !ܲv ~ܲ!ê˛ !öˆÏ£ÏôyK˛y ÈÙÈ §ˆÏüï ˛É Ü˛áöÄ
Ó˚yhflÏyÎ˚ ÈÙÈ âyˆÏê˛ÈÙÈÓy•zˆÏÓ˚ñ xöƒ ܲyˆÏÓ˚y Óy!í˛¸ˆÏï˛ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ §yüˆÏö ô)ü˛õyö ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚Ó
öy– Ó˚î!çÍòyñ Ó˚î!çÍ òy¢ üyˆÏé˛üˆÏôƒ !¢°ã˛Ó˚ ~ˆÏ°•z ˆú˛yö ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛öñ Úã˛ˆÏ°
~ˆÏ§yñ !ÓˆÏܲˆÏ° ˆï˛yüyˆÏܲ !öˆÏÎ˚ ¢!_´òyÓ˚ Óy!í˛¸ ÎyÓ–Û ˆ§§Ó !òˆÏö !ï˛ö!ê˛ ≤ÃçˆÏß√Ó˚
!ï˛ö üyö%£Ï ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ÓÎ˚ˆÏ§Ó˚ §Ü˛° ÓƒÓôyö ˆé˛ˆÏí˛¸ ˆú˛ˆÏ° ܲáöÄÈÙÈܲáöÄ ~ܲ•z
ˆòÓ#ˆÏܲ !öˆÏÎ˚ §ˆÏΩ˛yˆÏà ˆüˆÏï˛ í˛zë˛ï˛ É !ï˛!ö ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ ˆòÓ#ñ !¢ˆÏ“Ó˚ ˆòÓ#–
ˆòÓy!¢§ ï˛Ó˚ú˛òyÓ˚òyÓ˚ §ˆÏD ~ܲÈÙÈò%ÓyÓ˚ ¢!_´òyÓ˚ Óy!í˛¸ !àˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°yüñ üˆÏö ˛õí˛¸ˆÏåÈ–
~ܲÓyÓ˚ ≤ÃÓ%k˛§%®Ó˚ ܲÓ˚ xyÓ˚ §%Ó ï˛Ü%˛üyÓ˚ Ó˚yˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ §ˆÏDÄ Ü˛!ÓÓ˚ Óy!í˛¸ !àˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°yü–
öyñ ˆÜ˛yöÄ xy˛õˆÏ¢y¢ ˆö•z ï˛ÑyÓ˚ §ˆÏD !öÎ˚!üï˛ ˆòáy§y«˛yÍ •ï˛ öy ӈϰ– ãÑ˛yˆÏòÈÙÈ
˛õyÄÎ˚y üyö%£ÏˆÏòÓ˚ ~ܲy ÌyܲˆÏï˛ •Î˚ñ ïÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ âöÈÙÈâö ˆòáy •ÄÎ˚y !ë˛Ü˛ öÎ˚–
ï˛yˆÏï˛ ã˛wˆÏâyÓ˚ ÓyˆÏí˛¸ öyñ ˆÎÓ˚ܲü x˛õÓ˚ üyï˛y°ˆÏܲ ˆòˆÏá ˆÜ˛yöÄ üyï˛yˆÏ°Ó˚
ˆö¢yÓ˚ ˛õ!Ó˚üyî ܲáöÄ ÓyˆÏí˛¸ öy–

31

≤Ãò#˛õ

x!üï˛yû˛

É xy!ü Îï˛ê%˛Ü%˛ çy!ö Óy Ó%!é˛ñ Ó%!k˛ç#Ó# Ó°ˆÏï˛ ïÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚•z ˆÓyé˛yÎ˚ S§òˆÏÌ≈Vñ ÎÑyÓ˚y
!ӣψÏÎ˚Ó˚ !Ó!û˛ß¨ x!û˛ü%á !öˆÏÎ˚ û˛yˆÏÓöñ àˆÏÓ£Ïîy ܲˆÏÓ˚öñ ˆ§§Ó !Ó£ÏÎ˚ˆÏܲ öï%˛ö
x!û˛ü%á ˆòÓyÓ˚ ≤ÃÎ˚y§ ܲˆÏÓ˚ö ÈÙÙÙÈ ï˛y !ã˛hsˇyñ ˆã˛ï˛öñ û˛y£Ïy Óy !°!Ó˚ܲ Îy•z ˆ•yܲ öy
ˆÜ˛ö–
xyÓyÓ˚ ˆÜ˛í˛z˛ÈÙÈˆÜ˛í˛z åÈpÓ%!k˛ç#Ó#ñ ÷ô% xƒyܲyˆÏí˛!üܲ ˆÜ˛Ó˚y!ö!à!Ó˚!ê˛Ó˚ üyˆÏé˛
!öˆÏçˆÏܲ xyÓk˛ Ó˚yˆÏáö Óy ÌyˆÏܲöñ !Ó!û˛ß¨ !°ê˛°üƒyàñ ˛õe˛õ!eܲy Ä ¢yÓ˚ò#Î˚y
§ÇáƒyÓ˚ í˛zòÓ˚˛õ)!ï≈˛ ܲˆÏÓ•˚ z §v‹T ÌyˆÏܲö– ~ÑÓy˚ §ÇáƒyÎ˚ ≤Ãã˛% Ó˚– x!üï˛yû˛òyñ ˆï˛yüyˆÏܲ
Î!ò !öˆÏçÓ˚ xÓfliyö Óƒ_´ ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ Ó°y •Î˚ñ ï%˛!ü •Î˚ï˛ §•çyï˛ ò)Ó˚ò!¢≈ï˛yÓ˚
§y•y΃ ˆöˆÏÓ ~ÓÇ üyé˛yüy!é˛ ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ ÌyܲˆÏï˛ ã˛y•zˆÓÏ – ˆ§§Ó •zˆrÏ ê˛ˆÏ°Ü˛ã%˛ƒÎ˚y!°!ê˛Ó˚
≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö ˆö•zñ ˆáy°§ ˆåȈÏí˛¸ ˆÓ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ~ˆÏ§yñ §!ë˛Ü˛ xÓfliyö çyöyÄ–
É ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ !mï˛#Î˚ ≤ÈŸÏ ¿Ó˚ çÓyˆÏÓ ~ÈÙÈ!ӣψÎÏ ˚ xy!ü •z!ï˛üˆÏôƒ•z !môy•#öû˛yˆÏÓ çy!öˆÏÎ!˚ åÈ
ˆÎñ Èxy!ü Ó%!k˛ç#Ó# ö•z– xy!ü üyï˛y°– ã˛wy•ï˛– üyï˛y° •ˆÏÎ˚•z ÌyܲˆÏï˛ ã˛y•z–
!öˆÏçÓ˚ üyï˛°yˆÏüy ܲyí˛zˆÏܲ ˆòáyˆÏï˛Ä ã˛y•z öy– ܲƒy™yÓ˚ye´yhsˇ ˆÓ˚yà#Äñ ˆ¢£Ï ò¢y
xy§yÓ˚ xyˆÏàÓ˚ ü%•)ï≈˛ ˛õÎ≈hsˇñ fl∫yû˛y!Óܲ üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ x!û˛öÎ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚– xyüyÓ˚ Î!ò
ˆÜ˛yöÄ Ó%!k˛ç#Óö ˆÌˆÏܲ ÌyˆÏܲñ ï˛yÓ˚ ˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚yê˛y•z ~Ó˚ܲü ˆÜ˛yöÄ x!û˛öÎ˚– ~•z
x!û˛öˆÏÎ˚ öyüyÓ˚ xyüyÓ˚ !Ó®%üyeÄ •zFåÈy !ܲÇÓy ˆÎyàƒï˛y !åÈ° öy– ï˛Ó% öyüˆÏï˛
•ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈñ ܲyÓ˚î ~•z ܲ!°Ó˚ ˆòˆÏ¢ ܲ!ÓÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄ Ü˛òÓ˚ ˆö•z– ï%˛!ü ܲ!Óï˛y ˆ°á⁄
ï˛y•ˆÏ° ˆï˛y ï%˛!ü ≤ÃÓ¶˛ !°áˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏÓ ï˛yÓ˚ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚Ä û˛yˆÏ°yÊ !ܲÇÓy ï%˛!ü !°áˆÏï˛
˛õyÓ˚ˆÏÓ üyö˛õˆÏeÓ˚ Úx§yüyöƒÛ á§í˛¸yÊ !ܲÇÓy ÎyˆÏܲ ï%˛!ü ç#ÓˆÏö ܲáöÄ ˆòá!öñ
ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ü,ï%˛ƒÙÈ õÓ˚Óï˛#≈ fløÓ˚îyˆÏ°áƒ !ܲÇÓy ˆ¢yܲ˛õeÄÊ ~ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe xyüyÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y•z
ˆòy£Ï É xy!ü ܲáöÄ Ü˛yí˛zˆÏܲ !ú˛!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ !òˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚ öy– ܲyí˛zˆÏܲ ü%ˆÏáÓ˚ IJõÓ˚ ÚöyÛ
Ó°ˆÏï˛ ˆàˆÏ°Ä ç#ÓˆÏö ˆÎ §yüyöƒ ˆÎyàƒï˛yÓ˚ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö •Î˚ñ xyüyÓ˚ ˛K˛yöï˛ñ
ˆ§•z ˆÎyàƒï˛y xyüyÓ˚ xyçÄ x!ôàï˛ •Î˚!ö– ú˛ˆÏ°ñ ~üöÄ •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ xyüyÓ˚
ܲ!Óï˛y ~ÓÇ ÎyÓï˛#Î˚ ˆ°áyˆÏ°!á §¡õˆÏÜ≈˛ ÎÑyÓ˚ ≤Ãã%˛Ó˚ xö#•y ~ÓÇ x◊k˛yñ ˆ§•z
x!ï˛Óyü˛õsi# üyö%£Ï!ê˛Ä Îáö xyüyÓ˚ Óy!í˛¸ˆÏï˛ ~ˆÏ§ xyüyÓ˚ Ó˚!ÓÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ò%˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚
!Ó◊yü!ê˛ í˛z˛õˆÏû˛yà ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ÈÙÈܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ xyüyÓ˚ x¶˛Ü˛yÓ˚yFåÈߨ ܲ!Óç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚ û˛!ӣσÍñ
Îyò%ܲˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ §üyö !ö˛õ%îï˛yÎ˚ñ xyüyÓ˚ §yüˆÏö í˛zß√%_´ ܲˆÏÓ˚ xyüyˆÏܲ !òˆÏÎ˚ ïÑ˛yÓ˚
˛õ!eܲyÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚Óï˛#≈ §Çáƒy!ê˛Ó˚ §¡õyòܲ#Î˚ !°!áˆÏÎ˚ !öˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈö SÓ_´Óƒ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ñ û˛y£Ïy
xyüyÓ˚Vñ xy!ü ï˛áöÄ ÚöyÛ Ó°ˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚!ö–
xy§ˆÏ° !ÓŸª!Óòƒy°Î˚ÈÙÈç#ÓˆÏö ˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöy Îï˛ öy ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈñ ï˛yÓ˚ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÓ!¢ !¢ˆÏá!åÈ
˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöy ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ !öÎ˚üܲyö%ö – xÌ≈yÍ ~ܲôÓ˚ˆöÏ Ó˚ !öÎ˚ü•z xyüyÓ˚ ~•z Ó%!k˛ç#ÓöˆÏܲ
ôˆÏÓ˚ Ó˚yáˆÏï˛ §y•y΃ ܲˆÏÓ˚– ï˛yˆÏï˛ xyˆÏáˆÏÓ˚ !ܲv ~ܲê˛y §%!ÓˆÏô•z •Î˚ñ xy!ü ˆÎ
ܲ!Óï˛yê˛!Óï˛yÄ !°ˆÏá Ìy!ܲÈÙÙÙÈ ~ܲÌy ˆÎ§Ó üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ öyÈÙÈ çyöˆÏ°Ä ã˛ˆÏ°ñ ï˛yÓ˚y
ï˛y çyöˆÏï˛Ä ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ öy– ïÑ˛yÓ˚y çyˆÏö ˆÎ xy!ü Ä•zñ x˛õyë˛ƒ !ܲå%È ≤Ãӈ϶˛Ó˚ ˆ°áܲ–
!ܲv ïÑ˛yÓ˚y Î!ò ˆçˆÏö ˆÎï˛ ˆÎ xy!ü ü)°ï˛ ܲ!Óï˛yê˛!Óï˛y•z !°!áñ ï˛áö xyüyˆÏܲ

32

≤Ãò#˛õ

x!üï˛yû˛

!òˆÏÎ˚ ïÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ã˛ˆÏ° ˆàˆÏ°Äñ xyüyÓ˚ !ܲv ïÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚ ˆüyˆÏê˛•z ã˛°ï˛ öy–
ï˛ˆÏÓ Ó%!k˛ç#Ó#ˆÏòÓ˚ xy!ü !ܲv û˛Î˚ÇܲÓ˚ û˛Î˚ ˛õy•z– ÓÓ˚yܲ í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛yÎ˚ñ §!ï˛ƒÜ˛yÓ˚
§yüy!çܲ xˆÏÌ≈ñ ~ܲçö•z üye Ó%!k˛ç#Ó# !åȈϰö ÈÙÙÙÈ §%!çÍ ˆã˛Ôô%Ó˚#– ïÑ˛yˆÏܲ xÓ¢ƒ
ܲáöÄ û˛Î˚ ˛õy•z!öñ û˛y°ˆÏӈϧ ~ˆÏ§!åÈñ ˛◊k˛y ܲˆÏÓ˚ ~ˆÏ§!åÈ– ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ˆfl¨• ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚
~ÈÙÈç#Óö ôöƒ •ˆÏÎ˚ ˆàˆÏåÈ– xy§ˆÏ°ñ Ó%!k˛ç#Ó#ˆÏòÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ˆàˆÏ° ú˛yí˛zˆÏfiê˛Ó˚ ܲÌy
üˆÏö •Î˚– K˛yöÄ ˆÎ ~ܲ «˛üï˛yˆÏܲw ÈÙÙÙÈ ~•z ˆÓyôê˛y ï˛#Ó  •Î˚– ï˛áö !ë˛Ü˛ ˆáy°§
ˆåȈÏí˛¸ ˆÓ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ xy!§– ≤ÃܲyˆÏ¢ƒ öÎ˚ñ ˆày˛õˆÏö– ~шÏòÓ˚ §DˆÏòy£Ï ô%ˆÏÎ˚ ˆú˛°ˆÏï˛
ÓyÌÓ˚&ˆÏüÓ˚ ¢yÄÎ˚yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ •yˆÏï˛ !öˆÏçˆÏܲ ˆåȈÏí˛¸ !ò•z– çˆÏ°Ó˚ §ygsˇöy xyüyÓ˚ •yˆÏï˛
xyüyÓ˚ ܲ!Óç#ÓöˆÏܲ !ú˛!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ˆòÎ˚– Ó%!é˛ñ ˆÎˆÏܲyöÄ xye´yhsˇ ܲ!Ó Ü˛!Óï˛yÓ˚
üyôƒüüyeñ ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ «˛üï˛yˆÏܲw öÎ˚–
É !ÓŸªy§ ܲ!Ó˚ üyÜ≈˛§Óyò# ò¢≈ö ~ܲ!ê˛ xhsˇà≈ï˛ ¢!_´Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y !e´Î˚y¢#°– !ӈϢ£Ïï˛É
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ àòƒ§Ω˛yˆÏÓ˚ üyÜ≈˛§Óyò# ò¢≈ˆÏöÓ˚ ≤Ãû˛yÓ ˛õyÄÎ˚y ˆàˆÏåÈ– ≤ÃyÎ˚¢•z üˆÏö
•ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ û˛y£ÏyÓ˚ çàÍ!ê˛Ä !öüÈÙÈ!öü •ˆÏ°Ä ~•z ≤Ã!ï˛!e´Î˚yÓ˚•z ú˛§°– ~
!ܲ ÷ô%•z §yüy!çܲ ≤Ã!ï˛Ó¶˛Ü˛ï˛yˆÏܲ ܲê˛yˆÏ«˛Ó˚ ü,ò% xyfl≥˛y°öñ öy üyÜ≈˛§Óyò# ò¢≈ö
û˛yˆÏ°yˆÏӈϧ ˆ°áy⁄
É 1969 §yˆÏ° xyüyÓ˚ 7 ÓåÈÓ˚ ÓÎ˚ˆÏ§ üy üyÓ˚y ÎyÄÎ˚yÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚ xyüyˆÏܲ !¢°Ç ˆåȈÏí˛¸
!ã˛Ó˚ï˛ˆÏÓ˚ xyüyÓ˚ ܲyܲyÓ˚ xy◊ˆÏÎ˚ !¢°ã˛Ó˚ ã˛ˆÏ° xy§ˆÏï˛ •Î˚– ˆ§•z ܲyܲy xöhsˇ ˆòÓ
!åȈϰö üyÜ≈˛§Óyò#– ï˛Íܲy°#ö ˛õ)Ó≈˛õy!ܲhflÏyˆÏöÓ˚ Ó˚yç¢y!• ˆçˆÏ°Ó˚ áy˛õí˛¸y ÄÎ˚yˆÏí≈˛
1950 §yˆÏ° ˆÎ öyÓ˚ܲ#Î˚ Ó!®•ï˛ƒy Ä Ó!®ÈÙÈxï˛ƒyã˛yÓ˚ §Çâ!ê˛ï˛ •Î˚ñ !ï˛!ö !åȈϰö
ï˛yÓ˚ xöƒï˛ü Ó!°– Ä•z âê˛öyÎ˚ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ˆüÓ˚&ò[˛ ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲ ê%˛Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚y •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚– ˆ§!°öy
ˆ•yˆÏ§ˆÏöÓ˚ ÚàyÎ˚e# §¶˛ƒyÛ í˛z˛õöƒyˆÏ§ xöhsˇ ˆòÓ fl∫öyˆÏü ~ܲ ã˛!Ó˚e– ï˛y Îy•z
ˆ•yܲñ ˛õÓ˚Óï˛#≈ˆÏï˛ ˛õ!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ~ܲüye í˛z˛õyç≈ö«˛ü §ò§ƒ xyüyÓ˚ ÓyÓy x˛õ)Ó≈
ˆòˆÏÓÓ˚ xy!Ì≈ܲ ï˛_¥yÓôyˆÏö ïÑ˛yˆÏܲ !¢°ˆÏä !öˆÏÎ˚ xy§y •Î˚ ~ÓÇ ~ܲ !Ó !ê˛¢
§yç≈ˆÏöÓ˚ !ö˛õ%î xˆÏflfy˛õã˛yˆÏÓ˚ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ˆüÓ˚&ò[˛ñ ˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚y˛õ%!Ó˚ öy §yÓ˚ˆÏ°Äñ ˆüyê˛yü%!ê˛
˛õ%öà≈!ë˛ï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏ벖
xyüyÓ˚ ˆ§•z ܲyܲy ~ÓÇ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ≤ÃçˆÏß√Ó˚ ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲçö üyÜ≈˛§Óyò#ˆÏܲ xy!ü ˆåÈyê˛ˆÏÓ°y
ˆÌˆÏܲ•z á%Ó â!ö¤˛û˛yˆÏÓ ˆòˆÏá!åÈ– ~ÑÓ˚y ≤ÃyÎ˚ ≤ÈÏï˛ƒˆÏܲ•z üyܲ§≈ÓyòˆÏܲ ≤Ãã˛!°ï˛
«˛üï˛yˆÏܲˆÏwÓ˚ !Ó˛õÓ˚#ˆÏï˛ öï%˛ö ~ܲ «˛üï˛yˆÏܲˆÏwÓ˚ fli°y!û˛!£Ï_´ ܲˆÏÓ˚
ˆú˛ˆÏ°!åȈϰö– ˆÎ Ó˚yç˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛ ò¢≈ö §Ó≈•yÓ˚yÓ˚ ~ܲöyÎ˚ܲc ÓyˆÏòñ ˛õ,!ÌÓ#Ó˚
§ÓÓ˚ܲˆÏüÓ˚ «˛üï˛yˆÏܲˆÏwÓ˚ !ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛ ܲÌy ӈϰñ ï˛yÈÙÈ•z Îáö ܲyˆÏÓ˚y Óƒ!_´àï˛ñ
˛õy!Ó˚Óy!Ó˚ܲñ ÓƒÓ•y!Ó˚ܲ ç#ÓˆÏö «˛üï˛yˆÏܲw !•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ ˆçˆÏà ĈÏë˛ñ ï˛áö ï˛yÓ˚
ˆã˛•yÓ˚yê˛y ˆüyˆÏê˛•z §%¢#° ÌyˆÏܲ öy– xy!ü xyüyÓ˚ ˆ§•z ܲyܲyˆÏܲ ˆåÈyê˛ˆÏÓ°y ˆÌˆÏܲ•z
û˛Î˚ ˆ˛õï˛yüñ ˆÎû˛yˆÏÓ ≤Ãçy §Ó§üÎ˚ û˛Î˚ ˛õyÎ˚ Ó˚yçyˆÏܲ– ˆ§•z û˛Î˚ üyÜ≈˛§ÓyòˆÏܲÄ
û˛Î˚ ˛õyÄÎ˚yÓ˚ ˛õÎ≈yˆÏÎ˚ ˛õ!Ó˚î!ï˛ ˛õyÎ˚– xyüyÓ˚ çƒyë˛yÈÈÙÙÙÙÈ È!Î!ö û˛Î˚ÇܲÓ˚ Ó˚«˛î¢#°
Ä xöyô%!öܲ ˆ§•z ˛õ!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚ ≤ÃÌü üyÜ≈˛§ÓyˆÏòÓ˚ xyüòy!ö ܲˆÏÓ˚!åȈϰö ÈÙÙÙÈ ï˛ï˛!òˆÏö

33

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x!üï˛yû˛

üyÜ≈˛§ÓyˆÏò Ó#ï˛◊k˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ ˛õy!Ó˚Óy!Ó˚ܲ Ó˚«˛î¢#°ï˛yÓ˚ ˆâÓ˚yˆÏê˛yˆÏ˛õ ˛õ%öÓ˚yÎ˚ §%!fliÓ˚
•ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈö– ˆåÈyê˛ˆÏÓ°yÓ˚ ˆÓ!¢Ó˚û˛yà §Ü˛yˆÏ°•z xyüyÓ˚ â%ü û˛yäï˛ ˆÓ˚!í˛ÄÓ˚ áÓˆÏÓ˚
í˛zk,˛ï˛ ˆÜ˛yöÄ öy ˆÜ˛yöÄ üyÜ≈˛§Óyò# ˆöï˛yÓ˚ Ó_´ÓƒˆÏܲ á[˛ö ܲˆÏÓ˚ çƒyë˛yÓ˚ flõ‹T
í˛zFã˛yÓ˚ˆÏîÓ˚ ÚÓ˚yç˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛ fl∫àˆÏï˛y!_´Û ÷ˆÏö–
öyöy ܲyÓ˚ˆÏî Úx!û˛¢ÆÛ S≤Ã!ï˛ˆÏÓ¢# Ä ò)ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄÈÙÈˆÜ˛yöÄ xyd#Î˚fl∫çˆÏöÓ˚
üˆÏï˛V ~ܲ!ê˛ ˛õ!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ~ܲüye ÓÇ¢ôÓ˚ !•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ xyüyÓ˚ ˛õy˛õ˛õ%îƒ ÈÙÈü%!_´ÈÙÈ Ó˚ˆÏ_´Ó˚
x§%á •zï˛ƒy!ò §ÇflÒyÓ˚ÈÙÈï˛y!í˛¸ï˛ ≤ÃyÎ˚ ÚܲƒyÌ!°Ü˛Û ÈÙÈ•*òÎ˚ ܲáö•z ˛üyÜ≈˛§ÓyˆÏò ò#!«˛ï˛
•ÓyÓ˚ ˆÎyàƒ •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏë˛!ö– ï˛Ó% xyüyÓ˚ ˆ§Ôû˛yàƒ ~•z ˆÎ §yÓ˚yç#Óö Óyüñ üôƒÓyü
Ä x!ï˛Óyü Ó¶%˛Óy¶˛ÓÓ˚y xyüyˆÏܲ ïÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚ §•ã˛Ó˚ !•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ !ÓˆÏÓã˛öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö–
•Î˚ï˛ ïÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ≤Ãû˛yˆÏÓ ~ÓÇ üyÜ≈˛§ÓyˆÏòÓ˚ x§yüyöƒ !ӈϟ’£ÏîÈÙÈ˛õÓ˚yÎ˚îï˛yÓ˚ ˆ≤ÈÏü
˛õˆÏí˛¸ xy!ü üyˆÏé˛ÈÙÈüyˆÏé˛ ~üö !ܲå%È ÙÈ!ܲå%È ˆ°áy !°ˆÏá!åÈ ÎyˆÏï˛ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ Óy
ܲyˆÏÓ˚yÈÙÈܲyˆÏÓ˚y ÄÓ˚ܲü ~ܲê˛y ôyÓ˚îy •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– •Î˚ï˛ ˆ§•z ôyÓ˚îyˆÏܲ ˆ˛õy_´ ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛
§y•y΃ ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ ˆò¢û˛yà !öˆÏÎ˚ ˆ°áy xyüyÓ˚ ò%ÈÙÈ!ï˛öˆÏê˛ à“ Ä ò%!ê˛ í˛z˛õöƒy§≤Ã!ï˛ü
ˆ°áy– òƒyáñ ˆò¢û˛yà xy!ü ˆò!á!öñ §%ï˛Ó˚yÇ ï˛yÓ˚ ˆÓòöy xyüyÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ
Ó˚_´üyLjϧ §M˛Èy!Ó˚ï˛ •ÓyÓ˚ ܲÌy öÎ˚– ~ˆÏܲÓyˆÏÓ˚•z •ï˛ öyñ Î!ò öy xy!ü !¢°Ç
¢•ˆÏÓ˚ Óí˛¸ •ï˛yü– Óí˛¸ •ˆÏï˛ÈÙÈ•ˆÏï˛ ˆòá°yüñ !¢°Ç ~ÓÇ í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)Ó≈yM˛ÈˆÏ°Ó˚ xˆÏöܲ
çö˛õò ˆÌˆÏܲ•z Óyäy!°ˆÏòÓ˚ í˛zÍáyï˛ Ü˛Ó˚yÓ˚ çöƒ ~ܲ ç!ê˛° Óœ$!≤Ãrê˛ Ó˚ã˛öy ܲÓ˚y
•ˆÏÎ˚ ˆàˆÏåÈ– Óyäy!°Ó˚yÄ ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ~•z§Ó !Ó!û˛ß¨ Úöï%˛ö fl∫ˆÏò¢Û ˆåȈÏí˛¸ ˛õy!°ˆÏÎ˚
xy§ˆÏï˛ Óyôƒ •ˆÏFåÈö ~ˆÏܲÈÙÈ~ˆÏܲ– ˆï˛y ~•z !¢°Ç ˆåȈíÏ ˛¸ ã˛ˆÏ° xy§yê˛y ÈÙÙÙÈ ~ܲܲû˛yˆÏÓ
xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ˛õ!Ó˚ÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ öÎ˚ S xyüÓ˚y !¢°Ç ˆÌˆÏܲ ܲáö•z Úí˛zÍáyï˛Û ••z!öVñ !ܲv
§yü!@ˇÃܲû˛yˆÏÓ Óyäy!°ˆÏòÓ˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ xyüyÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ ˆò¢û˛yˆÏàÓ˚ ï%˛°ƒ ~ܲ û˛yäˆÏöÓ˚
ˆÓòöyÓ˚•z çß√ !òˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°– xyüyÓ˚ ~ÎyÓÍ ˆ°áy ò%!ê˛ í˛z˛õöƒyˆÏ§Ó˚•z !Ó£ÏÎ˚
í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)Ó≈yM˛ÈˆÏ°Ó˚ Óyäy!°ˆÏòÓ˚ ~•z ÚˆòˆÏ¢Ó˚ ˆû˛ï˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˆò¢û˛yàÛÈÙÈ~Ó˚ ˆ≤Ã!«˛ˆÏï˛
Ó˚!ã˛ï˛– ˛
É !¢°Ç Ä !¢°ã˛Ó˚ ò%•z üÓ˚&ï˛#ˆÏÌ≈Ó˚ ܲyܲ ï%˛!ü– üyˆÏé˛ •yú˛°Ç Ä Ü˛°Ü˛yï˛yñ ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚
ˆÌˆÏܲ xy˛õyï˛ÈÙÈ !ÓôùhflÏ !¢°ã˛Ó˚ ¢•ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ §y!•ˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚ í˛zU˛#ö ˛õï˛yܲy •yˆÏï˛ §Ó≈yˆÏ@ˇÃ
ï%˛!ü S¢!_´òy ˛õÓ˚ˆÏ°yˆÏܲñ Ó˚î!çÍ xöƒ Ó°ˆÏÎ˚V– ~áö ˆï˛y ~ܲFåÈe §¡Àyê˛–
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ~•z ¢•Ó˚!ê˛Ó˚ ò%ÓÓ˚ fliyñ Ó˚yç˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛ x§yüO§ƒñ çöç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚ ã˛Ó˚ü §ÇܲˆÏê˛Ó˚
≤Ã!ï˛ˆÏÓòö xÌÓy ܲ!ÓÜ,˛ï˛ !ò¢y ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ ˆòáˆÏï˛ ˆ˛õ°yü öy– ܲ!Ó Ä §y!•!ï˛ƒÜ˛
!•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ ~•z òyÎ˚Ók˛ï˛y ~!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÎˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚y öy– xyd˛õ«˛ §üÌ≈ˆÏö ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ §%ˆÏÎyà
!ò°yü–
É ~•z ≤ß¿ê˛y §Ω˛Óï˛ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ˆû˛ï˛ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ≤ß¿ öÎ˚– ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ˆ¢yöy ≤ß¿– xy§ˆÏ°
≤ß¿ê˛y •Î˚ï˛ ÓÓ˚yܲ í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛yÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄÈÙÈˆÜ˛yöÄ üyÜ≈˛§Óyò# ܲ!Ó ÈÙÈ §y!•!ï˛ƒˆÏܲÓ˚ –
•Î˚ï˛ ï˛y•z ~ܲê%˛ fl∫!ÓˆÏÓ˚yô ˆã˛yˆÏá ˛õí˛¸°ñ ˆ§ê˛y•z xyˆÏà Ó!°– ~Ó˚ xyˆÏàÓ˚ ≤Èϟ¿•z
xyüyÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄÈÙÈˆÜ˛yöÄ ˆ°áyÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ ï%˛!ü üyÜ≈˛§Óyò# ò¢≈ˆöÏ Ó˚ ≤Ãû˛yÓ á%ˆÑ ç
Ï ˆ˛õˆÏÎå˚ Èñ

34

≤Ãò#˛õ

xyÓ˚ ~áö xyüyÓ˚ ˆ°áyÎ˚ òyÎ˚Ók˛ï˛yÓ˚ xû˛yÓ !öˆÏÎ˚ ≤ß¿ ï%˛°åÈ–
xy§ˆÏ° !ܲå%È ÙÈ!ܲå%È x!û˛ˆÏÎyˆÏàÓ˚ §yüˆÏö ˆÓyô •Î˚ xyd˛õ«˛ §üÌ≈ö ܲÓ˚y í˛z!ã˛ï˛
öÎ˚– ï˛yˆÏï˛ !öˆÏçÓ˚ xydyˆÏܲ•z x˛õüy!öï˛ Ü˛Ó˚y •Î˚– òƒyáñ xyd˛õ«˛ §üÌ≈ö ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛
!àˆÏÎ˚ xy!ü Î!ò xyüyÓ˚ !öˆÏçÓ˚ ˆ°áy ˆÌˆÏܲ•z í˛zk,˛!ï˛ !ò•zñ Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ê˛y ÷ô% •y§ƒÜ˛Ó˚•z
öÎ˚ñ xyd§æü á%•zˆÏÎ˚ ˆú˛°yÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y •ˆÏÓ– ~§Ó ˆ«˛ˆÏe x!û˛ˆÏÎyˆÏàÓ˚ §yüˆÏö
!ܲÇÓy ö#ˆÏã˛ öï˛ühflψÏܲ òÑyí˛¸yˆÏï˛ •Î˚ñ xˆÏ˛õ«˛y ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ •Î˚ ˆ¢£Ï !Óã˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚– üyˆÏöñ
§üˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ !Óã˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚– ï˛yÓ˚ çöƒ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçˆÏö ü,ï%˛ƒÈÙÈ˛õÓ˚Óï˛#≈ xyÎ˚%Ó˚ çöƒ !¢ˆÏ“Ó˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ
≤ÃyÌ≈öy ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ •Î˚–
÷ô% ~ܲê˛y ܲÌy á%Ó Ü%˛!Z˛ï˛!ã˛ˆÏ_ !öˆÏÓòö ܲ!Ó˚– òyÎ˚ ܲáöÄÈÙÈܲáöÄ §ˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚
ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚Ä Óí˛¸ •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏ벖 ˆÎüö ôˆÏÓ˚yñ ˆÜ˛yöÄ üyà≈§Çà#ï˛ ÈÙÈ Ó˚!§Ü˛•z §yôyÓ˚îû˛yˆÏÓ
!•!®àyö !ܲÇÓy ˛õ˛õ§Çà#ï˛ ˛õåÈ® ܲˆÏÓ˚ö öy– ~•z x˛õåÈ® ܲÓ˚yê˛y Îï˛«˛î Ó˚&!ã˛
!ܲÇÓy ˆüçyˆÏçÓ˚ Óƒy˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ÌyˆÏܲñ ï˛ï˛«˛î ~ˆÏܲ §•çû˛yˆÏÓ ˆüˆÏö ˆöÄÎ˚y ÎyÎ˚–
!ܲv Îáö ï˛y Ó˚&!ã˛Ó˚ ≤ß¿ åÈy!˛õˆÏÎ˚ òyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ˛õÎ≈yˆÏÎ˚ í˛zß#¨ ï˛ •Î˚ñ ï˛áö ï˛yˆÏܲ üyöy ÎyÎ˚
!ܲ⁄ xy!ü !•!®àyö x˛õåÈ® ܲÓ˚!åÈ Ü˛yÓ˚î xyüyÓ˚ òyÎ˚ Üœ˛y!§Ü˛y° àyˆÏöÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ–
xyÓ˚ ~•z òyÎ˚ ÓçyÎ˚ Ó˚yáˆÏï˛ !àˆÏÎ˚ xy!ü •Î˚ï˛ xööƒ§yôyÓ˚î ˆÜ˛yöÄ !•!® §%Ó˚
!ܲÇÓy àyöˆÏܲ•z xyÓç≈öyÓ˚ ï˛Ü˛üy ˛õ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ !ò!FåÈ– ï˛y•ˆÏ°ñ Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ê˛y ܲ# òÑyí˛¸yˆÏ°y⁄
xyüyÓ˚ òyÎ˚ xyüyˆÏܲ §ˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚ ܲyåÈ ˆÌˆÏܲ•z §!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ !öˆÏÎ˚ ~°ñ öÎ˚ !ܲ⁄ ˆòáˆÏÓñ
xyçˆÏܲÓ˚ §üyˆÏç xˆÏöˆÏܲ !öˆÏçÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛Óyò# !ܲÇÓy òyÎ˚Ók˛ ã˛!Ó˚e xê%˛ê˛ Ó˚yáyÓ˚
çöƒ•z ü%!áˆÏÎ˚ ÌyˆÏܲö– òyÎ˚Ók˛ï˛y !ܲÇÓy ≤Ã!ï˛ÓyòÄñ ~áyˆÏö ~ˆÏ§ñ ˛õîƒ •ˆÏÎ˚
ĈÏ벖 •Ñƒyñ xÓ¢ƒ•z Óƒ!_´Ó˚ û˛yÓü)!ï≈˛Ó˚ ã˛yˆÏ˛õ–
ï˛ˆÏÓ Ü˛!ÓÜ,˛ï˛ !ò¢y !öˆÏÎ˚ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ≤Èϟ¿Ó˚ í˛z_ˆÏÓ˚ xyüyÓ˚ Ó_´Óƒ á%Ó•z flõ‹T É Ü˛!Ó
ܲyˆÏܲ !ò¢y ˆòáyˆÏÓö⁄ !ï˛!ö !öˆÏç•z !ܲ ˆÜ˛yöÄ !ò¢y ˆòáˆÏï˛ ˆ˛õˆÏΈ˚ åÏ Èö⁄ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚
§üˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ܲ!ÓÓ˚y ˆï˛y ÓyhflψÏÓÓ˚ e´#í˛¸öܲñ ˆÎˆÏܲyöÄ §yôyÓ˚î üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y•z
§yôyÓ˚î ~ÓÇ x§•yÎ˚Ê ˆ§ ~ܲê˛y §üÎ˚ !åÈ° ˛õ,!ÌÓ#ˆÏï˛ Îáö §üyç ܲ!ÓˆÏܲ
Úo‹TyÛ !•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ @ˇÃ•î ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ°– xyçˆÏܲÓ˚ ܲ!Ó §üyˆÏçÓ˚ ˛õˆÏ« §¡õ)î≈ xöyÓ¢ƒÜ˛–
~ÓÇ !öˆÏçÓ˚ ~•z xöyÓ¢ƒÜ˛ï˛y !öˆÏÎ˚ !ï˛!ö §Ó §üÎ˚•z ܲ%!Z˛ï˛– ܲ!ÓÓ˚ §ˆÏD ï˛yÓ˚
ã˛yÓ˚˛õyˆÏ¢Ó˚ çöç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚ §ò§ƒˆÏòÓ˚ ≤ÈÏû˛ò §Ω˛Óï˛ ~áyˆÏö•z É ˆÎáyˆÏö ï˛yÓ˚
ã˛yÓ˚˛õyˆÏ¢Ó˚ üyö%£ÏˆÏòÓ˚ x§•yÎ˚ï˛y ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ xyÓ˚Ä §yüy!çܲ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆï˛yˆÏ°ñ ˆ§áyˆÏö
ܲ!ÓÓ˚ x§•yÎ˚ï˛y ܲ!ÓˆÏܲ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆï˛yˆÏ° xyÓ˚Ä x§yüy!çܲñ ~ܲ°y– ˆï˛y ñ ~Ó˚ܲü
~ܲçö !Ó˛õߨ Ä xyï≈˛ñ ~Ó˚ܲü ~ܲçö !môyò#î≈ Ä ≤ß¿Ü˛yï˛Ó˚ üyö%£Ï ܲ# ܲˆÏÓ˚
xöƒˆÏܲ !ò¢y ˆòáyˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏÓö ˆÎáyˆÏö !ï˛!ö !öˆÏç•z ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ ˆÜ˛yöÄ !ò¢y
á%шÏç ˛õyˆÏFåÈö öy⁄
É ~ܲê˛y §üÎ˚ !åÈ° Îáö ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yñ !ò!Õ‘ñ ì˛yܲy ~•z§Ó Óí˛¸ÈÙÈÓí˛¸ ¢•Ó˚=!°ˆÏï˛
!ÓŸª§y!•ˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚ !åȈÏê˛ˆÏúÑ˛yê˛y ~ˆÏ§ ˛õí˛¸ï˛– xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ï˛Íܲy°#ö ܲ!ÓÈÙȧy!•!ï˛ƒÜ˛Ó˚y
Îy ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚ §ü,k˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈö– ˆÎÈÙÈܲyÓ˚ˆÏî xyç ܲ°Ü˛yï˛y ÓyÇ°y§y!•ˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚ Ó˚yçôyö#–

35

x!üï˛yû˛

Ä•z ¢•ˆÏÓ˚ ˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöyÓ˚ §%ÓyˆÏò Îͧyüyöƒ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ û˛yˆÏàÄ ç%ˆÏê˛ˆÏåÈ– Ó˚î!çÍòyñ
§%Ó ï˛Ä ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈö Îͧyüyöƒó ï˛y•z ˆï˛yüyˆÏòÓ˚ K˛yöàˆÏû≈˛ ≤Ãçµ!°ï˛ xyˆÏ°y– ~áö
ˆï˛y •zrê˛yÓ˚ˆÏöˆÏê˛Ó˚ ˆòÔ°ˆÏï˛ !ÓŸª§y!•ˆÏï˛ƒ §ÓyÓ˚ âˆÏÓ˚ÈÙÈâˆÏÓ˚ñ !ܲv !ÓˆÏò!¢ ü%!û˛ˆÏï˛
Îï˛ê˛y §y!•ˆÏï˛ƒ ï˛yÓ˚ !åȈÏê˛ˆÏúÑ˛yê˛yÄ öÎ˚– ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ !ܲ üˆÏö •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ Ü˛áöÄ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚
û˛y£ÏyÎ˚ §y!•ï˛ƒã˛ã≈˛yÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe ˆÓ¢ ~ܲê˛y !é˛ü%!ö û˛yÓ ~ˆÏ§ ˆàˆÏåÈ⁄ ã˛yÓ˚!òˆÏܲ ÷ô%
•y!§ÙÈë˛yRyÈÙÈ ï˛yüy¢y Ä üflÒÓ˚yÓ˚ ü,ò% =Oöñ ˆÎö ~ܲ üƒyÓ˚yÌö ˆ¢ˆÏ£Ï !é˛ˆÏüyˆÏFåÈ
ÓyÇ°yܲ!Óï˛y– ܲ!ÓÓ˚y áÓˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ܲyàˆÏçÓ˚ !Ó˚ˆÏ˛õyê≈˛yÓ˚ !ܲÇÓy ˆ¢Î˚yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ !Ó°!@¿Ü˛yÓ˚#
!ܲÇÓy Ó˚yçö#!ï˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ û,˛ï˛ƒ– xyüyÓ˚ ~•z üÓ˚&ò¢≈ˆÏöÓ˚ §yˆÏÌ ï%˛!ü !ܲ ~ܲüï˛⁄
É •Ñƒyñ ˆüyê˛yü%!ê˛ ~ܲüï˛– ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ~•z ≤ß¿ê˛yñ xy!ü Î!ò !ë˛Ü˛ Ó%ˆÏé˛ Ìy!ܲñ ï˛y•ˆÏ°
ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚ §y!•ï˛ƒˆÏܲ !öˆÏÎ˚– !ܲv ~Ó˚ §ˆÏD Ä•z ܲ!ÓˆÏòÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ ï%˛!ü
ç%ˆÏí˛¸ !òˆÏÎ˚åÈñ Îy !öˆÏÎ˚ áy!öܲê˛y ܲÌy Ó°y •Î˚ï˛ x≤Ãy§!Dܲ •ˆÏÓ öy–
òƒyá ≤Ãò#˛õñ Î%!_´àï˛ Ü˛yÓ˚ˆÏî ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ~•z ≤ß¿ê˛yˆÏܲ §¡õ)î≈ §üÌ≈ö çyöyˆÏ°ñ
xyüyˆÏܲ §Ω˛Óï˛ ~ܲÌyê˛yÄ ˆüˆÏö !öˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ ˆÎñ ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚ ÓyÇ°yܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚
Úxôɲõï˛ˆÏöÓ˚Û ü)° ܲyÓ˚î •ˆÏFåÈ Ü˛!ÓˆÏòÓ˚ !Ó˚ˆÏ˛õyê≈˛yÓ˚!à!Ó˚ !ܲÇÓy ˆ¢Î˚yÓ˚ ÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚
§ˆÏD ï˛Ìy Ó˚yçö#!ï˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ §ˆÏD ˆÎyàyˆÏÎyà– ~áyöê˛yÎ˚ ~ˆÏ§ xyüyÓ˚ ˆÜ˛üö ˆÎö
~ܲê%˛ ÓyˆÏôyÈÙÈÓyˆÏôy ˆë˛Ü˛ˆÏåÈ– xy§ˆÏ° ~•z •zrê˛yÓ˚!û˛í˛zˆÏï˛ ~ï˛«˛î ôˆÏÓ˚ xy!ü xyüyÓ˚
üˆÏöÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y ܲˆÏÓ˚ Úܲ!ÓÛ öyüܲ üö%£Ïƒ≤Ãçy!ï˛!ê˛Ó˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ ü)!ï≈˛ñ §ˆÏã˛ï˛ö !ܲÇÓy
x§ˆÏã˛ï˛öû˛yˆÏÓñ Óy!öˆÏÎ˚ ˆú˛ˆÏ°!åÈ– xyüyÓ˚ ÓyöyˆÏöy ü)!ï≈˛ˆÏܲ ˆüˆÏö !öˆÏ°ñ ܲ!Ó
ü)°ï˛ ~ܲ x§•yÎ˚ Óƒ!_´c !Î!ö ãÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚ xy•¥yˆÏö üyï˛y°ñ ˛õ,!ÌÓ#Ó˚ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚ ãÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚
!òˆÏܲ•z ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ò,!‹T ˆÓ!¢ ܲyÓ˚î ˆ§áyˆÏö•z ïÑ˛yÓ˚ û)˛ï˛@ˇÃhflÏï˛yÓ˚ Ó•)ü)°ƒ í˛z˛õܲÓ˚îy!ò
üç%ò Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈñ ˛õ,!ÌÓ#Ó˚ §üyçˆÏܲ xfl∫#ܲyÓ˚ ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ xyˆÏÓ˚ܲê˛y ܲyÓ˚îÄ Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ
ÈÙÙÙÈ ï˛y •°ñ ˛õ,!ÌÓ#Ó˚ §üyˆÏçñ xhsˇï˛ ~•z §üˆÏÎñ˚ ~ܲçö ܲ!Ó á%Ó ~ܲê˛y xï˛ƒyÓ¢ƒÜ˛
!ܲå%È öö ~ÓÇ ~•z §ühflÏ !ܲå%ÈÓ˚ ܲyÓ˚ˆÏî xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ~•z §üyçˆÏòˆÏ• ܲ!Ó á%Ó•z
Ü%˛!Z˛ï˛ !ܲv xyd§æü˛õ)î≈ Ä !ÓˆÏÓܲÓyö ~ܲ ≤Ãyî#–
!ܲv ~ ˆï˛y ˆö•yÍ•z ~ܲ ü)!ï≈˛Ó˚ xÓÎ˚Ó– ˆÎÓ˚ܲüñ Óyü˛õsi#ˆÏòÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ §%ܲyhsˇ
û˛Ryã˛yÎ≈ ~ܲܲyˆÏ° ~ܲ ü)!ï˛≈Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y !åȈϰö– ü)!ï≈˛ñ xy•zܲö– §%ܲyhsˇ ܲï˛ê˛y ܲ#
!°ˆÏá í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛ ˆ˛õˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö ÈÙÙÙÈ ï˛yÓ˚ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚Ä Óí˛¸ ӈϰ !ÓˆÏÓ!ã˛ï˛ •ï˛ §%ܲyhsˇÓ˚
òy!Ó˚oƒ õ#!í˛¸ï˛ñ Î-yˆÏÓ˚yà@ˇÃhflÏñ x§•yÎ˚ !ܲv §Í ç#ÓöÎy˛õö–
ï˛yˆÏï˛ Ü˛ï˛ê˛y ÎyÎ˚ÈÙÈ xyˆÏ§ ≤Ãò#˛õ⁄ xyüÓ˚y !•®%ñ üyˆÏö ˆ˛õÔ_!°Ü˛– xyÓ˚ ˆ˛õÔ_!°Ü˛Ó˚y
ü)!ï≈˛åÈyí˛¸y ˆÓшÏã˛ ÌyܲˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ öy– ܲ!Óü)!ï≈˛Ó˚ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚Ä Óí˛¸ ˆï˛y •° ܲ!Óï˛y–
xyçˆÏܲÓ˚ ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚ ≤Ãy!ï˛¤˛y!öܲ ü•ˆÏ° ˆï˛üö ˆÜ˛yöÄ Ü˛!Óï˛y ˆ°áy •ˆÏFåÈ öy
Îy !òˆÏÎ˚ çàÍ çÎ˚ ܲÓ˚y ÎyÎ˚– !ܲv ï˛yÓ˚ üyˆÏö xÓ¢ƒ•z ~ öÎ˚ ˆÎñ ܲ!ÓÓ˚y
Ó˚yçö#!ï˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ û,˛ï˛ƒ •ˆÏÎ˚ ˆàˆÏåÈö ӈϰ•z ܲ!Óï˛y !°áˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏåÈö öy– àï˛ ¢ï˛ˆÏܲÓ˚
§_ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ò¢ˆÏܲÓ˚ ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÎ˚ xÌ≈yÍ §yü!@ˇÃܲû˛yˆÏÓ §ühflÏ ˛öܲ¢y° xyˆÏ®y°öܲy°
ç%ˆÏí˛¸ í˛z!aï˛ ˆÜ˛yöÄ Ü˛!Ó•z ˆï˛y Ó˚yçö#!ï˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ û,˛ï˛ƒ !ܲÇÓy ˆ¢Î˚yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ !Ó°!@¿Ü˛yÓ˚#

36

≤Ãò#˛õ

x!üï˛yû˛

!ܲå%È•z !åȈϰö öyÈÙÙÙÈ ï˛Ó% ˆ§•z §üˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ •z!ï˛•y§ñ ï˛yÓ˚ xyˆÏàÓ˚ Ä ˛õˆÏÓ˚Ó˚
ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ •z!ï˛•yˆÏ§Ó˚ ï%˛°öyÎ˚ñ xy°yòyû˛yˆÏÓ í˛zIµ°ï˛Ó˚ !ܲå%È !ܲ⁄
xy§ˆÏ° ܲ!ÓÓ˚ ü)!ï≈˛ öÎ˚ñ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ã˛y•z û˛yˆÏ°y ܲ!Óï˛y– xyçˆÏܲÓ˚ ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚
≤Ãy!ï˛¤˛y!öܲ ÈÙÈx≤Ãy!ï˛¤˛y!öܲ §y!•ï˛ƒã˛ã≈˛yÓ˚ çàˆÏï˛ !é˛ü%!öÓ˚ û˛yÓ ~ˆÏ§ ÎyÄÎ˚yÓ˚
ܲyÓ˚î §Ω˛Óï˛ xöƒe ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ °%!ܲˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏåÈ– ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚ ≤ÃÌü ˆ◊!îÓ˚ ˆüôyÓ˚y
xyç xyÓ˚ ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÎ˚ ˆö•zñ ïÑ˛yÓ˚y ≤ÃyÎ˚ §Óy•z !ÓˆÏòˆÏ¢– ~ÓÇ !ÓˆÏòˆÏ¢ ïÑ˛yÓ˚y ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚
ˆòÓ#Ó˚ §ˆÏD ˆÜ˛í˛z•z ˆ≤Ãüy°yˆÏ˛õ ü@¿ ööñ §Óy•z ≤ÃÎ!% _´Ó˚ í˛z˛õy§öyÎ˚ Óƒhfl–Ï xyçˆÏܲÓ˚
!ܲÇÓy xò)Ó˚ û˛!ӣσˆÏï˛Ó˚ !¢°ã˛ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚Ä ≤ÃyÎ˚ ~ܲ•z xÓfliyñ öÎ˚ !ܲ⁄ ¢)öƒfliyö ˛õ)Ó˚î
ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ çöƒ Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ˆà!åÈ ~•z xyüÓ˚y ÈÙÙÙÈ ÎyÓ˚y !ÓˆÏòˆÏ¢ ÎyÓyÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄ §%ˆÏÎyà
˛õy•z!ö ӈϰ•z •Î˚ï˛ñ ~áöÄ Ü˛!Óï˛yˆÏܲ•z !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚ §yüy!çܲ í˛z_Ó˚ˆÏîÓ˚ ≤ÃyDî
!•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ ôˆÏÓ˚ ˆÓ˚ˆÏá!åÈ˛–
§üÎ˚ê˛y•z ˆÎ á%Ó ÓòˆÏ° ˆàˆÏåÈñ ≤Ãò#˛õÊ
É üy•zˆeÏ ´yˆÏú˛yö •yˆÏï˛ ˆï˛yüyˆÏܲ ˆÓ¢ §yÓ°#° ˆòˆÏá!åÈ– x˛õÓ˚yô !öÄ öyñ ˆü°yˆÏü¢yÓ˚
Óƒy˛õyˆÏÓ˚Ä ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ˆÜ˛Ô¢°àï˛ xÓfliyö=ˆÏ°y xyüyÓ˚ öçÓ˚ ~í˛¸yÎ˚!öñ ≤ÃyÎ˚¢•z
û˛y!Ó ˆã˛yá Ó%çˆÏ°•z ˆÎÈÙÈx!üï˛yû˛òyˆÏܲ Sˆû˛y°yû˛y°yñ !öˆÏû≈˛çy°ñ !öÓ˚˛õÓ˚yôV
ˆòáˆÏï˛ ˛õy•zñ ï˛yÓ˚ xhsˇÓ˚yˆÏ° §%ˆÏÜ˛Ô¢°# x!üï˛yû˛ˆÏܲ !ë˛Ü˛ ܲ#û˛yˆÏÓ Óƒy°y™ ܲˆÏÓ˚y
òyòyÊ xy§ˆÏ° ~ÈÙÈçyï˛#Î˚ ≤Èϟ¿ û˛í˛¸ˆÏܲ öy !àˆÏÎ˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ !û˛ß¨ !ӣψÏÎ˚ xyˆÏ°yܲ˛õyï˛
ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ xö%ˆÏÓ˚yô ܲÓ˚!åÈñ ~ܲçö ܲ!ÓÓ˚ ܲ!Ó§_y Ä Óƒ!_´§_yÓ˚ §Çâyï˛ âˆÏê˛ !ܲ⁄
xÌÓy ~ܲ!ê˛ xöƒ!ê˛Ó˚ myÓ˚y ܲáöÄ ≤Ãû˛y!Óï˛ •Î˚⁄ •Î˚ˆÏï˛y çyöˆÏï˛ ã˛y•z!åÈ
ˆ°áyˆÏ°!áÓ˚ çöƒ !ӈϢ£Ï ˆÜ˛yöÄ ç#ÓöÎy˛õˆÏöÓ˚ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö xyˆÏåÈ !ܲ⁄
É ~•z §üyˆÏç ܲ!Ó !•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ !öˆÏçÓ˚ xöyÓ¢ƒÜ˛ x!hflÏcˆÏܲ ˆüˆÏö !öˆÏ°Äñ üyˆÏé˛
ÈÙÈüyˆÏé˛ üyÌyã˛yí˛¸y !òˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏë˛ !öˆÏçˆÏܲ xï˛ƒyÓ¢ƒÜ˛ ӈϰ ˛õ!Ó˚à!îï˛ Ü˛Ó˚yÓ˚ ˆ°yû˛–
ˆ§•z ˆ°yû˛ ˆÌˆÏܲ•zñ §Ω˛Óï˛ñ üyˆÏé˛ÈÙÈüyˆÏé˛ üy•zˆÏe´yˆÏú˛yˆÏöÓ˚ xy•¥yˆÏö §yí˛¸y !òˆÏÎ˚
ˆú˛!°– ~•z ü%•)ˆÏï≈˛ xy!ü ˆÎÈÙÈÓ•z!ê˛ ˛õí˛¸!åÈñ ï˛yˆÏï˛ ~Ó˚ܲü ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲ!ê˛ °y•zö xyˆÏåÈ É
‘When someone sees the same people everyday ... they wind
up becoming a part of that person’s life. And then they
want the person to change. If someone isn’t what others
want him to be, the others become angry. Everyone seems
to have a clear idea of how other people should lead their
lives, but none about his or her own.’ xyüyÓ˚ ç#ÓˆÏö Î!ò ˆÜ˛yöÄ

ˆÜ˛Ô¢°àï˛ xÓfliyö ˆÌˆÏܲ ÌyˆÏܲñ ï˛y•ˆÏ° ~Ó˚ í˛z꤀ ˛õy!Ó˚˛õy!ŸªÜ≈ ˛ §¡õˆÏܲ≈ ~Ó˚ܲü
ˆÜ˛yöÄ í˛z˛õ°!∏˛ ˆÌˆÏܲ•z í˛z!aï˛– xˆÏöˆÏܲÓ˚ ã˛y!•òyÓ˚ ã˛yˆÏ˛õñ ÚüˆÏï˛yÛÓ˚ üyö%£Ï •ˆÏÎ˚
í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛ÈÙÈí˛zë˛ˆÏï˛ ~ܲê˛y §üˆÏÎ˚ Ó%é˛ˆÏï˛ ˆ˛õˆÏÓ˚!åÈ°yüñ ˆáy°yˆÏü°y ˆü°yˆÏü¢yÓ˚ !Ó˛õò
~•z ÈÙÙÙÈ §Óy•z xöƒˆÏܲ !öˆÏçÓ˚ Úˆày¤˛#ÛÓ˚•z ~ܲçö ӈϰ ˆû˛ˆÏÓ ˆöÎ˚– ï˛yˆÏï˛
ˆày¤˛#Ó˚ ˆÎÔÌ!•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ •Î˚ï˛ ˆÜ˛yöÄ à[˛ˆÏày° •Î˚ öyñ !ܲv ˆÎ ~ܲy ÌyܲyÓ˚ çöƒ

37

xyÜ%˛° •ˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏåÈñ ï˛yÓ˚ ÓÑyã˛yÓ˚ !•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ ˆày°üy° •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚– ˆÜ˛í˛z @ˇÃhflÏ •ˆÏï˛ ã˛yÎ˚
öy ≤Ãò#˛õñ üyï˛y°ÈÙÈ°¡õê˛Ä !öˆÏçÓ˚ üyï˛°yˆÏüy xyÓ˚ °y¡õê˛ƒˆÏܲ ï˛Ìyܲ!Ìï˛ §yô%ï˛y
!ܲÇÓy ˛õ!Óeï˛yÓ˚ Ó˚y‡@ˇÃy§ ˆÌˆÏܲ Ó˚«˛y ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˆÜ˛Ô¢°# •Î˚–
xyÓ˚ ܲ!Ó§_y Ä Óƒ!_´§_y ӈϰ §!ï˛ƒ•z xy°yòy !ܲå%È xyˆÏåÈ !ܲ⁄ ܲ!Óï˛yˆÏܲ Î!ò
ÚàˆÏí˛¸ ˆï˛y°yÛÓ˚ çyÎ˚ày ˆÌˆÏܲ §!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ Ú•ˆÏÎ˚ Äë˛yÛÓ˚ çyÎ˚ày ˆÌˆÏܲ ˆò!á ÈÙÙÙÈ
ï˛y•ˆÏ° ܲ!Ó ˆï˛y ~ܲ üyôƒüüyeñ ÎyÓ˚ ô#ñ fl∫≤¿ñ ò«˛ï˛yñ Ü%˛¢°ï˛yñ xyˆÏÓàñ ò%Éfl∫≤¿ñ
ˆÎÔöï˛yñ ü,ï%˛ƒû˛Î˚ §Ó!ܲå%ȈÏܲ xÓ°¡∫ö ܲˆÏÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛y !öˆÏçÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏ벖
ˆ§ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe ܲ!ÓÓ˚ !öˆÏçÓ˚ ܲ!Ó§_yˆÏܲ !öˆÏÎ˚ x•ÇܲyÓ˚ ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ ˆï˛üö !ܲå%È ÌyˆÏܲ
!ܲ⁄ öyñ Ìyܲy í˛z!ã˛ï˛⁄
ˆ°áyˆÏ°!áÓ˚ çöƒ !ӈϢ£Ï ˆÜ˛yöÄ ç#ÓöÎy˛õö ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ã˛y•zˆÏ°Äñ ~•z §üÎ˚ÈÙÈ §üyçñ
~•z ˛õ,!ÌÓ#ñ ~•z xÌ≈ö#!ï˛ Ü˛yí˛zˆÏܲ ï˛y ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˆòÎ˚ !ܲ⁄ ܲáö•z ˆòÎ˚ öy– ܲ!ÓˆÏܲñ
!¢“#ˆÏܲ ï˛y•z Óyôƒ •ˆÏÎ˚•z !öˆÏçÓ˚ Úxhsˇà≈ï˛Û x§%áˆÏܲ °%!ܲˆÏÎ˚ Ó˚yáˆÏï˛ •Î˚– ~ܲê˛y
Óyí˛z° àyö ÷ˆÏö!åÈ°yü ÚÓ˚yˆÏôñ ï%˛•z üˆÏö üˆÏö Îb ܲˆÏÓ˚ ¢ƒyˆÏüÓ˚ !˛õ!Ó˚ï˛ Ó˚yá
ˆày˛õˆÏö– •z¢‰Ó˚yÎ˚ ܲ•z!Ó Ü˛Ìy üyˆÏë˛ âyˆÏê˛ ˆÜ˛í˛z ˆÎö ˆày öy ˆ¢yˆÏö–Û Ü˛!Óï˛y ˆï˛y
ܲ!ÓÓ˚ ˆ§•z Ú¢ƒyˆÏüÓ˚ !˛õ!Ó˚ï˛Û Îy !ï˛!ö Îb ܲˆÏÓ˚ üˆÏöÈÙÈ üˆÏö ˆày˛õö Ó˚yˆÏáöñ ÎyÓ˚
§ˆÏD üyˆÏë˛ÈÙÈâyˆÏê˛ Ú•z¢yÓ˚yÎ˚Û Ü˛Ìy ӈϰö ÎyˆÏï˛ ˆÜ˛í˛z ˆ§•z û)˛ï˛@ˇÃhflÏ Ü˛ˆÏÌy˛õܲÌö
÷öˆÏï˛ öy ˛õyÎ˚– xÌ≈yÍ ~ܲ °%!ܲˆÏÎ˚ Ó˚yáy ç#Óö ÈÙÙÙÈ ï˛y•z ˆï˛yñ ≤ÃÜ,˛ï˛ ≤ÃhflÏyˆÏÓñ
ܲ!Óçß√Ê
xy§ˆÏ° ~•z !û˛í˛¸ÈÙÈÓyò# ˛õ,!ÌÓ#ˆÏï˛ ~ܲy •ÄÎ˚yê˛y•z §ÓˆÏã˛ˆÏÎ˚ Óí˛¸ ˆÜ˛Ô¢°– ï˛yÓ˚
çöƒ ≤ÃˆÏ Î ˚ y çö üy•z ˆ Ï e ´yˆÏ ú ˛yˆÏ ö Ó˚ §yüˆÏ ö !àˆÏ Î ˚ Ä òÑ y í˛¸ y ˆÏ ï ˛ •Î˚ – ܲyÓ˚ î
üy•zˆÏe´yˆÏú˛yˆÏöÓ˚ §yüˆÏö òÑy!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚Ä !Î!ö ~ܲy •ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÎˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ö ÈÙÙÙÈ ˆÎüö
˛õyˆÏÓ˚ö ~ܲçö ≤ÃÜ,˛ï˛ àyÎ˚ܲ ÈÙÙÙÈ !ï˛!ö•z ˆï˛y ~ܲy •ÓyÓ˚ xy§° ˛õÓ˚#«˛yê˛y !òˆÏÎ˚
í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛ ˆ˛õˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈöÊ ï˛yåÈyí˛¸y ~ܲçö ܲ!ÓÓ˚ §ˆÏD üy•zˆÏe´yˆÏú˛yˆÏöÓ˚ ˆï˛y ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ
ˆÜ˛yöÄ !ÓˆÏÓ˚yô ˆö•zÊ Ü˛!ÓˆÏܲ ÷ô% ˆçˆÏö !öˆÏï˛ •Î˚ üy•zˆÏe´yˆÏú˛yˆÏöÓ˚ ≤ÃÜ,˛ï˛
ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ Ü˛!Ó ˆï˛y üy•zˆÏe´yˆÏú˛yöˆÏܲ ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚ ܲÓ˚ˆÏÓö ≤ÃÜ,˛ï˛ àyÎ˚ˆÏܲÓ˚ üˆÏï˛yñ
Ó˚yç˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛ ˆöï˛yÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y öÎ˚Ê
~ܲê˛y §üÎ˚ ˛õÎ≈hsˇ xyüyÓ˚ ≤ÃÓ° üy•zˆÏe´yˆÏú˛yö ÙÈû˛#!ï˛ !åÈ°ñ ~áöÄ ˆÎ ˆö•z ï˛y
öÎ˚– ï˛ˆÏÓñ Ó%é˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ï˛yüñ üy•zˆÏe´yˆÏú˛yöˆÏܲ û˛Î˚ ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚ xy!ü xy§ˆÏ° ~•z
üM˛Èê˛M˛È •zï˛ƒy!òˆÏܲ üˆÏöÈÙÈüˆÏö ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ ÓU˛ ˆÓ!¢ =Ó˚&c !òˆÏÎ˚ ˆú˛°!åÈ– xy§ˆÏ°
ÎyÓ˚ ˆÎáyˆÏö û˛Î˚ñ ˆ§áyˆÏö•z ˆï˛y ï˛yÓ˚ ò%Ó≈°ï˛yÈÙÙÙÈ ï˛y•z öy⁄ ç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y
˛õÎ≈yÎ˚ ˛õÎ≈hsˇ ܲ!ÓÈÙȧˆÏ¡ø°öñ xyˆÏ°yã˛öyÈÙȧû˛y •zï˛ƒy!òÈÙÈ•zï˛ƒy!ò ˆÌˆÏܲ ôy!ü≈ˆÏܲÓ˚
üˆÏï˛y xy!ü !öˆÏçˆÏܲ =!ê˛ˆÏÎ˚ Ó˚yáï˛yü– ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y §üˆÏÎ˚ Óy•zˆÓÏ ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ xyüsfî
xy§ˆÏï˛ ÷Ó˚& ܲÓ˚°– ˆÎyàòyöÄ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˆú˛°°yü– ï˛áö üˆÏö •°ñ âˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ Óy•zˆÏÓ˚
ܲ!ÓÈÙȧˆÏ¡ø°öñ xyˆÏ°yã˛öyÈÙȧû˛yÎ˚ Î!ò ˆÎyàòyö ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚ñ ï˛y•ˆÏ° âˆÏÓ˚Ó˚
ˆû˛ï˛ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ üM˛È ܲ# ˆòy£Ï ܲÓ˚°⁄

38

≤Ãò#˛õ
x!üï˛yû˛

É xyçܲy° ≤ÃyÎ˚¢•z !Ó!û˛ß¨ §y!•ï˛ƒ xö%¤˛yö=!°ˆÏï˛ ˆï˛yüyˆÏܲ áÓÓ˚òy!Ó˚ ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛
ˆòáy ÎyÎ˚– Üœ˛y!hsˇ xyˆÏ§ öy⁄ ˆüÔ!°Ü˛ Ó˚ã˛öyÓ˚ •z¶˛ö ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚åÈ ~§Ó ܲˆÏÓ˚⁄
É ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ~•z ≤Èϟ¿Ó˚ ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚•z ˆÎ ~ܲÓ˚ܲˆÏüÓ˚ áÓÓ˚òy!Ó˚Ó˚ à¶˛ °%!ܲˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏåÈ ≤Ãò#˛õÊ
öyñ ˆüÔ!°Ü˛ Ó˚ã˛öyÓ˚ •z¶˛ö ˛õyÓyÓ˚ ≤ß¿•z ĈÏë˛ öy ~§Ó ܲˆÏÓ˚– Üœ˛y!hsˇ ˆï˛y xyˆÏ§•z–
ï˛ˆÏÓ ˆ§•z Üœ˛y!hsˇ áÓÓ˚òy!Ó˚ ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˆ˛õˆÏÓ˚ öÎ˚ñ áÓÓ˚òy!Ó˚ öy ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚yÓ˚ çöƒ–
Î!ò §!ï˛ƒ§!ï˛ƒ•z áÓÓ˚òy!Ó˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆú˛°ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ï˛yüñ Î!ò ˆÜ˛yöÄ üˆÏM˛Èñ xö%¤˛yˆÏö
flõ‹Tû˛yˆÏÓ §yòyˆÏܲ §yòyñ ܲyˆÏ°yˆÏܲ ܲyˆÏ°y ӈϰ ˆú˛°ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ï˛yü ÈÙÙÙÈ ï˛áö
ˆû˛ï˛ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ Óy‹õê˛y ˆÓ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÎï˛– Üœ˛y!hsˇˆÏÓyôê˛y xyÓ˚ ÌyÜ˛ï˛ öy–
xy§ˆÏ° ܲ# •Î˚ çyö ˆï˛yñ xyüÓ˚y !öˆÏçÓ˚y•z ˆï˛y áÓÓ˚òyÓ˚ˆÏòÓ˚ •yˆÏï˛Ó˚ ˛õ%ï%˛°ñ
Ä•z§Ó xö%¤˛yˆÏöÓ˚ xyˆÏÎ˚yçܲ !ܲÇÓy üM˛È ÈÙÙÙÈ Óy!öˆÏÎ˚ˆÏòÓ˚ e´#í˛¸öܲ ÈÙÙÙÈ ï˛ÑyˆÏòÓ˚
áÓÓ˚òy!Ó˚Ó˚ åÈeÈÙÈåÈyÎ˚yÎ˚ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ˆfiê˛ˆÏç ã˛°ˆÏï˛ ÈÙÈ!ú˛Ó˚ˆÏï˛ •Î˚– §%ï˛Ó˚yÇñ áÓÓ˚òy!Ó˚
ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ §%ˆÏÎyà ˆÜ˛yÌyÎ˚ ˛õyÓñ Ó° ˆï˛y⁄
!ܲv ~Ó˚˛õÓ˚Ä xö%_´ ~ܲê˛y ܲÌy ˆï˛y ˆÌˆÏܲ•z ÎyÎ˚ñ ï˛y•z öy⁄ ˆÜ˛ö ï˛y•ˆÏ° ~§Ó
xö%¤˛yˆÏö xÇ¢@ˇÃ•î ܲ!Ó˚⁄
xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ~•z í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)Ó≈yM˛ÈˆÏ° ˛õyë˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ û˛yˆÏ°yÓy§yÓ˚ ≤Ãܲy¢ê˛y ~ܲê%˛ xöƒÓ˚ܲü–
~•z û˛yˆÏ°yÓy§y !≤ÃÎ˚ ˆ°áˆÏܲÓ˚ Ó•z ˆÜ˛öyÓ˚ üyôƒˆÏü ≤Ã!ï˛ú˛!°ï˛ •Î˚ öyñ ≤Ã!ï˛ú˛!°ï˛
•Î˚ ˆ§•z ˆ°áܲ !ܲÇÓy ܲ!Ó!ê˛ˆÏܲ !òˆÏÎ˚ ú˛Ó˚üyˆÏÎ˚!¢ ˆ°áy !°!áˆÏÎ˚ ˆöÓyÓ˚ üyôƒˆÏü
!ܲÇÓy üM˛Èê˛M˛È •zï˛ƒy!òÓ˚ xyö%¤˛y!öܲï˛yÓ˚ §ˆÏD ˆ§•z ˆ°áܲÈÙÈܲ!Ó!ê˛ˆÏÜ˛Ä §Ç!Ÿ’‹T
ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ üyôƒˆÏü– ~ê˛y Ó%ˆÏé˛ í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚ ӈϰ•zñ ~§Ó xy•¥yöˆÏܲ ~!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÎˆÏï˛
˛õy!Ó˚ öy–
~•z ˆÎ ï%˛!üñ !°!áï˛û˛yˆÏÓ •ˆÏ°Äñ ~ï˛!òö ôˆÏÓ˚ xyüyÓ˚ ~•z §y«˛yÍܲyÓ˚!ê˛ !öFåÈñ
~ê˛yÄ ˆï˛y ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ û˛yˆÏ°yÓy§yÓ˚•z ≤Ãܲy¢Ê §%ï˛Ó˚yÇñ òƒyáñ ˆï˛yüyˆÏòÓ˚
û˛yˆÏ°yÓy§yˆÏܲ ~í˛¸yˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚ öy ӈϰ•z xyüyˆÏܲ üˆÏM˛È !ܲÇÓy åÈy˛õyÓ˚ x«˛ˆÏÓ˚
ò¢≈ܲ !ܲÇÓy ˛õyë˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ §yüˆÏö ~ˆÏ§ òÑyí˛¸yˆÏï˛ •Î˚– ~§Ó òÑyí˛¸yˆÏöyˆÏܲ xˆÏöˆÏܲÓ˚
ܲyˆÏåÈ •Î˚ï˛ xyd!ÓK˛y˛õö ӈϰ üˆÏö •Î˚– ï˛Ó%ñ xö%!ã˛ï˛ ˆçˆÏöÄ ~•z Úxyd!ÓK˛y˛õöÛ
xyüyˆÏܲ Óy xyüyÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y ܲˆÏÎÜ˚ ˛çöˆÏܲ ܲˆÏÓ•˚ z ˆÎˆÏï˛ •Î˚ ˛õyë˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ û˛yˆÏ°yÓy§yˆÏܲ
ï%˛FåÈ K˛yö ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚ öy ӈϰ–
ˆ§ Îy•z ˆ•yܲñ ~ÓyˆÏÓ˚ á%Ó §òˆÏ˛õ≈ §¡õ)î≈ x≤Ãy§!Dܲ ~ܲê˛y ܲÌy ˆï˛yüyˆÏܲ öy
ӈϰ ÌyܲˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚!åÈ öy– ~•z ˆÎ •zrê˛yÓ˚!û˛í˛z ˆöÓyÓ˚ üyôƒˆÏü ï%˛!ü xyüyˆÏܲ Ú!öˆÏçˆÏܲ
Óy!öˆÏÎ˚ ˆï˛y°yÛÓ˚ !ܲÇÓy xyd˛õ)çyÓ˚ ~ܲ §%ˆÏÎyà ܲˆÏÓ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚åÈñ xyÓ˚ xy!üÄ ˆÎ
≤ÃܲyÓ˚yhsˇˆÏÓ˚ ~ܲܲÌyÎ˚ ï˛y °%ˆÏú˛ !öˆÏÎ˚!åÈ ÈÙÙÙÈ ~ˆÏï˛ xyüÓ˚y ò%ÛçˆÏö•z ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ
•y§ƒÜ˛Ó˚ •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë˛!åÈ öy ˆï˛y⁄ xyüyÓ˚ ôyÓ˚îyñ xyüyÓ˚ x!ï˛ û˛_´ ò%Û~ܲçö ˛õyë˛Ü˛Ä
~•z ò#â≈ ≤Èϟ¿y_Ó˚˛õÓ≈ ˛õí˛¸ˆÏï˛ !àˆÏÎ˚ !ÓÓ˚_´ •ˆÏÓöñ Üœ˛y!hsˇ ˆÓyô ܲÓ˚ˆÏÓö– ≤ÃÌüï˛ñ
xy!ü ~üö ˆÜ˛yöÄ Ü˛!Ó !ܲÇÓy ˆ°áܲ ö•z ÎyÓ˚ !Ó!û˛ß¨ ܲü≈ܲyˆÏ[˛Ó˚ xÌ≈yÍ ü)°ï˛
xܲyˆÏçÓ˚ ˆ˛õåȈÏöÓ˚ ܲyÓ˚î çyöˆÏï˛ ˛õyë˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ xy@ˇÃ• Óy ˆÜ˛Ôï)˛•° ÌyܲˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚–

39

≤Ãò#˛õ
x!üï˛yû˛

!mï˛#Î˚ï˛ñ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ≤ß¿=!°ˆÏܲ ~ˆÏܲܲê˛y òyÎ˚ !•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ ôˆÏÓ˚ !öˆÏÎ˚ x!ï˛ §Ç!«˛Æ
çÓyÓ !òˆÏ° ˛õyë˛Ü˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ü)°ƒÓyö §üˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ x˛õã˛Î˚ xy!ü •Î˚ï˛ !ܲå%Èê˛y •ˆÏ°Ä ˆÓ˚yô
ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ï˛yü– !ܲv xy!ü ï˛y ܲ!Ó˚!ö– xyüyÓ˚ üyÌyÎ˚ ~ܲê˛y ܲÌy•z ܲyç ܲˆÏÓ˚
ˆàˆÏåÈ ˆÎñ ~ܲüye ˆ§!°!Ó !ê˛Ó˚y òyÎ˚ ˆû˛ˆÏÓ Ü˛yˆÏÓ˚y ܲÓ˚y ≤Èϟ¿Ó˚ í˛z_Ó˚ !òˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ö–
xyüyÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y x!ï˛ §yôyÓ˚î ܲ!Ó ÙȈ°áܲ ï˛y ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ö öy– ï˛yˆÏܲ ˆ§yçy§%!ç
≤ß¿=!°Ó˚ ü%ˆÏáyü%!á •ˆÏï˛ •Î˚– ~ˆÏï˛ í˛z_Ó˚ Î!ò ò#â≈ Ä Üœ˛y!hsˇÜ˛Ó˚ •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏë˛ñ
ï˛Ó%Ä–
ï%˛!ü !öˆÏçÄ ˆï˛y ≤Ãã%˛Ó˚ §üÎ˚ ö‹T ܲÓ˚åÈ ≤Ãò#˛õñ xyüyÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y ˛õy!ï˛ Ü˛!ÓÓ˚ ~§Ó
xܲyˆÏçÓ˚ !ӣψÏÎ˚ çyöˆÏï˛ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚Ê
É !Ó!û˛ß¨ xyU˛yÎ˚ñ !Ó!û˛ß¨ àˆÏòƒ ˆï˛yüyˆÏܲ ≤ÃyÎ˚¢•z ˆòÓy!¢§ ï˛Ó˚ú˛òyÓ˚ Ä Ó#ˆÏÓ˚wöyÌ
Ó˚!«˛ˆÏï˛Ó˚ öyü !öˆÏï˛ ˆòáy ˆàˆÏåÈ– ˆï˛yüyˆÏòÓ˚ ˆÎyà §)eê˛y ܲ#⁄
É ~•z ò%ÛçˆÏöÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ xy!ü ≤ÃÓ°û˛yˆÏÓ }î#– xy!ü Îáö ܲ°Ü˛yï˛y ˆÌˆÏܲ ˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöyÓ˚
˛õyê˛ ã%˛!ܲˆÏÎ˚ !¢°ã˛Ó˚ !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ xy!§ñ ï˛áö ≤ÃyÎ˚•zñ §üˆÏÎ˚ÙÈx§üˆÏÎ˚ =Î˚y•y!ê˛ ˆÎï˛yü–
=Î˚y•y!ê˛ xyüyÓ˚ üyüyÓ˚ Óy!í˛¸– Ó#ˆÏÓ˚wöyÌ Ó˚!«˛ï˛ ÌyܲˆÏï˛ö xyüyÓ˚ ~ܲܲy°#ö
üyüyÓy!í˛¸ ÙÈ˛õyí˛¸yÎ˚– à!°ê˛yÓ˚ öyü !•°§y•zí˛ Ü˛ˆÏ°y!ö– üy!°àÑyÄ 1 öÇ ˆàê˛ÈÙÈ
ã˛cˆÏÓ˚– ˆ§áyˆÏö Ó#ˆÏÓ˚öÓyÓ%Ó˚ Óy!í˛¸ˆÏï˛ •ë˛yÍÈÙÈ •ë˛yÍ ã˛ˆÏ° ˆÎï˛yü– xüy!Î˚ܲ xyÓ˚
ˆfl¨•≤ÃÓî Ó#ˆÏÓ˚wöyÌ Ó˚!«˛ˆÏï˛Ó˚ §ˆÏD öyöy !ӣψÏÎ˚ ܲÌyÓyï≈˛y •ï˛– ˆòÓy!¢§òy
üyˆÏö ˆ§•z §üÎ˚ܲyÓ˚ ˆòÓy!¢§ ï˛Ó˚ú˛òyÓ˚ !åȈϰö Ó#ˆÏÓ˚wöyÌ Ó˚!«˛ˆÏï˛Ó˚ ≤ÃyÎ˚
üyö§˛õ%ˆÏeÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y– Ó#ˆÏÓ˚wöyˆÏÌÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ ï˛ï˛ê˛y öÎ˚ñ !ܲv !¢“û˛yÓöyê˛yÓ˚
xˆÏöܲê˛y•z ˆòÓy!¢§òyÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ ˛ã˛y!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ !àˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°– òƒyáñ ܲ!Óï˛y ü)°ï˛ ò%ÈÙÈÓ˚ܲˆÏüÓ˚
•Î˚ É ~ܲê˛y û˛y£Ïy!öû≈˛Ó˚ xyˆÏÓ˚ܲê˛y û˛yÓöy!öû≈˛Ó˚– Ó#ˆÏÓ˚wöyÌ !åȈϰö ≤Ã̈Ïüy_´
òˆÏ°Ó˚ ܲ!Ó– !ï˛!ö ˆÎ ܲü°Ü%˛üyˆÏÓ˚ xy§_´ !åȈϰö ~Ó˚Ä xöƒï˛ü ≤Ãôyö ܲyÓ˚î
!åÈ° Ä•z ÈÙÙÙÈ Ü˛ü°Ü%˛üyÓ˚Ä ü)°ï˛ û˛y£Ïy!¢“#– ~§Ó ܲ!ÓÓ˚ xy§° üˆÏöyˆÏÎyà
°%!ܲˆÏÎ˚ ˛ÌyˆÏܲ û˛y£ÏyÓ˚ x˛õyÓ˚ Ó˚•§ƒüÎ˚ï˛yÓ˚ öï%˛öÈÙÈöï%˛ö xy!Ó‹ÒyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚–
ˆÎüöñ xÓö#wöyÌ– ü)°ï˛ ~ܲ û˛y£Ïy!¢“#•z– ˆÎüöñ Ú§•ç˛õyë˛ÛÙÈ~Ó˚ Ó˚Ó#wöyÌ–
û˛y£Ïy•z ~áyˆÏö ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ˆ°áyÓ˚ Ú!Ó£ÏÎ˚Û– §ˆÏ®• ˆö•zñ Ä•z ˛õˆÏÓ≈Ó˚ Ó#ˆÏÓ˚wöyÌ
Ä ˆòÓy!¢§ ï˛Ó˚ú˛òyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ܲyåÈ ˆÌˆÏܲ•z xy!ü ܲ°y˜ÏܲӰƒÓyˆÏòÓ˚ ≤ÃÌüû˛yà ˛õyë˛
÷Ó˚& ܲ!Ó˚–
ˆ§•z ˛õyë˛¢y°y xyüyˆÏܲ ≤ÃÌüÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y !¢ˆÏ“Ó˚ üyôƒü §ˆÏã˛ï˛ö ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆï˛yˆÏ°–
ˆ§ÈÙÈ §üˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ˆòÓy!¢§ çˆÏÎ˚ȧÈÙÈ˛õyà° !åȈϰö– ˆòÓy!¢§òyÓ˚ §ÇflõˆÏ¢≈ ~ˆÏ§
xy!üÄ !ܲ!M˛ÈÍ çˆÏÎ˚§Ü˛yï˛Ó˚ •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛z!벖 xyÓ˚Ä xˆÏöܲ ˆ°áܲÈÙÈܲ!Ó §¡õˆÏÜ≈˛
xy@ˇÃ• Ä ˆÜ˛Ôï)˛•° çß√yÎ˚ ç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚ Ä•z ˛õˆÏÓ≈•z– ˆÎüö ˆ§ÔÓ˚û˛Ü%˛üyÓ˚ ã˛y!°•y
§¡õˆÏÜ≈˛ñ çç≈ !§ˆÏüˆÏöÑy §¡õˆÏÜ≈˛ñ x!öÓ≈yî °y!•í˛¸# Sï˛áöÄ !ï˛!ö Úô!Ó˚e#˛õ%eÛ
•ö!öV §¡õˆÏܲ≈ ñ xˆÏ°yܲÓ˚Oö §¡õˆÏܲ≈ ñ ˆàÔï˛ü Ó§% §¡õˆÏܲ≈– xyüyÓ˚ !ÓŸª!Óòƒy°Î˚
ÈÙÈç#Óö ˆåȈÏí˛¸ xy§yÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚ í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)Ó≈yM˛ÈˆÏ°Ó˚ Îï˛çö ܲ!ÓÈÙÈ ˆ°áˆÏܲÓ˚ §y!ߨˆÏôƒ

40

≤Ãò#˛õ
x!üï˛yû˛

~ˆÏ§!åÈñ •Ñƒy §Óy•zˆÜÏ ˛ ôˆÏÓ˚ ôˆÏÓ•˚ z Ó°!åÈñ ܲyˆÏÓy˚ Ó˚ §y!ߨôƒ•z xyüyÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ !ÓŸª!Óòƒy°Î˚
•ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏë˛!öÈÙÙÙÈ ~ܲüye Ó#ˆÏÓ˚wöyÌ xyÓ˚ ˆòÓy!¢§ ï˛Ó˚ú˛òyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ §ˆÏDÓ˚ §¡õÜ≈˛
ò%!ê˛ åÈyí˛¸y– xyˆÏÓ˚ܲçö xÓ¢ƒ•z !åȈϰöñ §%!çÍ ˆã˛Ôô%Ó˚#– !ï˛!ö ~ܲy•z !åȈϰö
xöƒÓ˚ܲˆÏüÓ˚ xyˆÏÓ˚ܲ!ê˛ !ÓŸª!Óòƒy°Î˚–
˛õÓ˚Óï˛#≈ ≤ÃyÎ˚ ÓåÈÓ˚ !ï˛ˆÏöܲ §üˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ çöƒ ˆòÓy!¢§ ã˛yܲ!Ó˚§)ˆÏe !¢°ã˛ˆÏÓ˚ Óò!°
•ˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏ§ö– xyüyÓ˚ ï˛Íܲy°#ö Óy§fliyˆÏöÓ˚ ~ˆÏE˛ÓyˆÏÓ˚ ܲyåÈyܲy!åÈ•z ÌyܲˆÏï˛ö
!ï˛!ö– ˆ§•z ܲÛÓåȈÏÓ˚Ó˚ §y•ã˛Î≈ ܲáöÄ ˆû˛y°yÓ˚ öÎ˚– ïÑ˛yÓ˚ Óy!í˛¸ˆÏï˛ ÓˆÏ§ñ !¢°ã˛Ó˚
öƒy¢öy° ˆÓ˚yí˛ ôˆÏÓ˚ §ˆÏ¶˛Î˚ •Ñyê˛ˆÏï˛ñ •Ñyê˛ˆÏï˛ñ !ܲÇÓy ¢!_´˛õò Ó ·˛ã˛yÓ˚# Óy !Óü°
ˆã˛Ôô%Ó˚#Ó˚ Óy!í˛¸ˆÏï˛ âê˛y ˆ§§Ó §ï˛ƒ!çÍÈÙÈ!ê˛ö!ê˛öÙÈÈçˆÏÎ˚§ÈÙÈÓ˚Ó#wöyÌÈÙÓ!B˛üÈÙÈ
ܲü°Ü%˛üyÓ˚ÙÈܲÓ!°ï˛ xyU˛y=!° ~ÈÙÈç#ÓˆÏö xyÓ˚ !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ xy§ˆÏÓ öy çy!ö–
ˆòÓy!¢§ ï˛Ó˚ú˛òyÓ˚ !¢°ã˛Ó˚ Ìyܲyܲy°#ö §üˆÏÎ˚ Ó#ˆÏÓw
˚ öyÌ Ó˚!«˛ï˛ ~ܲÓyÓ˚ !¢°ã˛Ó˚
~ˆÏ§!åȈϰö– §Ω˛Óï˛ ˆ§•z ≤ÃÌü Ä ˆ¢£ÏÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y– xyüyÓ˚ Ú§#çy!Ó˚Î˚yöÛ
˛õˆÏÓ≈Ó˚ ܲ!Óï˛y=!° Ä•z §üÎ˚•z Ó˚!ã˛ï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°–
Ó#ˆÏÓ˚wöyÌñ ˆòÓy!¢§òyÓ˚ §y!ߨôƒ xyüyÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ~ܲ !ÓŸª!Óòƒy°Î˚– Î!òÄ xy!ü
!öˆÏç !ܲv ˆ§•z !ÓŸª!Óòƒy°ˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ~ܲ ܲÓ˚&î í»˛˛õÈÙÈxyí˛zê˛–
É ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ §ü§üˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ˆÜ˛yö ˆ°áܲˆÏܲ §ÓˆÏã˛ˆÏÎ˚ ôö# ӈϰ üˆÏö •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°⁄ ˆÜ˛ö⁄
É xÓ¢ƒ•z ˆòÓy!¢§ ï˛Ó˚ú˛òyÓ˚ˆÏܲñ Î!òÄ !ï˛!ö xyüyÓ˚ !ë˛Ü˛ §ü§yü!Î˚ܲ öö– ÓåÈÓ˚
ã˛yˆÏÓ˚ˆÏܲÓ˚ Óí˛¸– ˆòÓy!¢§òy ôö#ñ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ x§yüyöƒ ≤Û!ï˛˛õˆÏÓ≈Ó˚ ܲyÓ˚ˆÏî– xï˛
!Ó¢y°üyˆÏ˛õÓ˚ ≤Û!ï˛ !öˆÏÎ˚ ˆòÓy!¢§ ï˛Ó˚ú˛òyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ xyˆÏà ~ÓÇ ˛õˆÏÓ˚Ä
í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)Óy≈ M˛Èˆ°
Ï Ó˚ ܲ!ÓÈÙÈ ˆ°áܲÜ%˛ˆÏ° xyÓ˚ ˆÜ˛í˛z xyˆÏ§ö!ö– ˆòÓy!¢§òyÓ˚ ˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöy
xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y ˆÓ§yüy° Óy ¢,C°yã%˛ƒï˛ !åÈ° öy– á%Ó ˆüˆÏÌy!í˛Ü˛ƒy!° ˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöy
ܲÓ˚ï˛ ˆòÓy!¢§òy– ˆÎüöñ Îáö çˆÏÎ˚§ ˛õí˛¸ˆÏåÈñ ï˛áö çˆÏÎ˚§•z ˛õí˛¸ˆÏåÈ– üyˆÏö
çˆÏÎ˚ˆÏ§Ó˚ §Ó=ˆÏ°y Ó•z•z ˛õÓ˚˛õÓ˚ ˛õí˛¸ˆÏåÈñ §ˆÏD ˛õˆÏí˛¸ ˆú˛°ˆÏåÈ ò%Û~ܲçö
çˆÏÎ˚§ÈÙÈxyˆÏ°yã˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ Ó•zÄÈÙÙÙÈ ˆÎüö !Ó˚ã˛yí≈˛ ~°üyöˆÏܲ– Îáö Óy•zˆÏÓ° ˛õí˛¸ˆÏåÈñ
ï˛áö ~ܲ•z §ˆÏD ˆòˆÏá !öˆÏFåÈ Óy•zˆÓÏ ˆÏ°Ó˚ ÓyÇ°y xö%ÓyòÄñ üyÎ˚ ü%§°üyö# ÓyÇ°yÎ˚
ܲÓ˚y xö%Óyò!ê˛ˆÏܲĖ xyÓyÓ˚ Îáö §ï˛ƒ!çÍ Ó˚yÎ˚ ˛õí˛¸ˆÏåÈñ ï˛áö ˛õy¢y˛õy!¢ ˛õˆÏí˛¸
ˆú˛°ˆÏåÈ ˆÓ˚ Ó ƒyí˛ˆÏÓ!Ó˚Ó˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄÈÙÈˆÜ˛yöÄ à“@ˇÃsiÄ– ò%ô≈£Ï≈ flø,!ï˛ ˆòÓy!¢§òyÓ˚–
xyüyÓ˚ üˆÏö xyˆÏåÈñ ~ܲÓyÓ˚ §ï˛ƒ!çÍ Ó˚yˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄ ~ܲ !ӈϢ£Ï à“ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yö
Ó•zˆÏï˛ ˛õyÄÎ˚y ˆÎˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ !çˆÏàƒ§ ܲÓ˚yÎ˚ñ ˆòÓy!¢§òy ˆã˛yá Ó%ˆÏç xhsˇï˛ ò%!ê˛ Óy
!ï˛ö!ê˛ ÓyˆÏÓ˚yÈÙÈ!§!Ó˚ˆÏçÓ˚ Ó•zˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ §)!ã˛˛õe ≤ÃyÎ˚ ü%áfli Ó°yÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y ˛õÓ˚˛õÓ˚ ӈϰ
!àˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°–
ˆ§•z ˆòÓy!¢§òyñ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ x§yüyöƒ ˛õyë˛ÈÙÈ x!û˛K˛ï˛y Ä flø,!ï˛¢!_´ !öˆÏÎ˚Ä !ܲv
ܲ!Óï˛yˆÏ°áyÓ˚ ˆÓ°yÎ˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄ x!û˛çyï˛ !°áöû˛!Düy Óy ˆüôy§Ó≈fl∫ï˛yˆÏܲ !öû≈˛Ó˚
ܲÓ˚° öy– xÌ≈yÍ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ˛õyë˛ÈÙÈx!û˛K˛ï˛y ïÑ˛yˆÏܲ ˛õyë˛ÈÙÈ ˆÜ˛!wܲ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ï%˛°° öyñ ÓÓ˚Ç
ï˛y ïÑ˛yˆÏܲ !öˆÏÎ˚ ˆà° ˛õyˆÏë˛Ó˚ Óy•zˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄ ~ܲ ü%!_´Ó˚ ≤ÃyhsˇˆÏÓ˚– xï˛ƒhsˇ §•ç

41

≤Ãò#˛õ

x!üï˛yû˛

§Ó˚°ñ Óƒ!_´àï˛ xy!Ó‹ÒyÓ˚ ÈÙÈ!öû≈˛Ó˚ ܲ!Óï˛yüy°y•z !°ˆÏá ÎyˆÏFåö ˆÎ=ˆÏ°yÓ˚ ˆÎyàƒ
˛õyë˛Ü˛ í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)Ó≈yM˛ÈˆÏ° ≤ÃyÎ˚ ˆï˛üö ˆö•z– ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ˆ§•z x§yüyöƒ ˛õÇ!_´ÈÙÙÙÙÈ
Úüy!ê˛Ó˚ ûÑ˛yˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ =ö ày•zñ ÄÓ˚y !ö®y ܲˆÏÓ˚ñ ü,ß√ˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ x˛õ΢ ܲˆÏÓ˚Û ü%ˆÏáÈÙÈü%ˆÏá
ˆú˛Ó˚yÓ˚ ܲÌy !åÈ°– xÌã˛ñ ò%ɈÏáÓ˚ ܲÌy ~•z ˆÎñ ˆòÓy!¢§ ï˛Ó˚ú˛òyÓ˚ í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)Óy≈ M˛Èˆ°
Ï Ó˚
Óyäy!° ˛õyë˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ~áöÄ ≤ÃyÎ˚ ~ܲ x˛õ!Ó˚!ã˛ï˛ öyü– ~Ó˚ ˛~ܲê˛y ܲyÓ˚î
xÓ¢ƒ ~•z •ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ˆÎñ ˆòÓy!¢§òyÓ˚ Ó•z˛õe í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)ˆÏÓ≈Ó˚ ˛õyë˛Ü˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ
~ˆÏ§ ˆ˛õÔÑåÈÎ˚ öy– ˆÎyàyˆÏÎyà§Ó≈fl∫ï˛yÓ˚ ~•z Î%ˆÏà ç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚ ~•z «˛!ï˛=!° §!ï˛ƒ•z
ï%˛°öy•#ö–
É ~ܲê˛y §üÎ˚ !åÈ° Îáö ¢!_´˛õò Ó ·˛ã˛yÓ˚#ñ í˛zòÎ˚ö ˆây£Ïñ ¢yhsˇö% ˆây£Ïñ Ó ˆÏçwÜ%˛üyÓ˚
!§Ç•ñ !Ó!çÍ û˛Ryã˛yÎ≈ñ !Óü° ˆã˛Ôô%Ó˚# ñÓ˚î!çÍ òy¢ñ !ò°#˛õܲy!hsˇ °flÒÓ˚ ~•z
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§%Ó ï˛Ü%˛üyÓ˚ Ó˚yÎ˚ñ fl∫î≈y°# í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)ˆÏÓ≈ åÈ!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ˛õí˛¸ˆÏ°– xyÓ˚Ä xˆÏöˆÏܲ•z Ìyܲy §ˆÏ_¥Ä
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É ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ !ܲ üˆÏö •Î˚ öy ˆÎ ÓyÇ°yܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ ~•z çÇ¢ö!ê˛ ~áö üôƒˆÏüôyÓ˚ û˛yˆÏÓ˚
ê˛ˆÏ°yüˆÏ°yñ ˆüôyÓ# ~ÓÇ Ü˛!Óï˛yxhsˇÉ≤Ãyî ï˛Ó˚&îˆÏòÓ˚ ≤Ãï˛#«˛yÎ˚ ô%ÑܲˆÏåÈ⁄ ܲáöÄ
!ܲ üˆÏö •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ ˆÎ Óƒ!_´ç#ÓˆÏö ï˛y §ú˛° ˆ°yܲˆÏòÓ˚ !û˛í˛¸ Óyí˛¸ˆÏåÈ ÷ô%⁄
É •Ñƒyñ xy°Óï˛ üˆÏö •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– •zö ú˛ƒyQñ xyüyÓ˚ ˆï˛y §üˆÏÎ˚ÈÙȧüˆÏÎ˚ ~üöê˛yÄ üˆÏö
•Î˚ ˆÎñ Óƒ!_´ç#ÓˆÏö xy!ü !öˆÏçÄ Î!ò û˛Î˚ÇܲÓ˚ §ú˛° !ܲå%È •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë˛ï˛yüñ ôˆÏÓ˚y
Î!ò ã˛yܲ!Ó˚§)ˆÏe !•!Õ‘!ò!Õ‘ ˛õƒy!Ó˚§ÈÙÈ°u˛ö •zï˛ƒy!ò ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆÓí˛¸yï˛yü ˆÎüöê˛y ܲˆÏÓ˚
ˆÓí˛¸yˆÏFåÈö ˆã˛öyÈÙÈxˆÏã˛öy xˆÏöܲ üyö%£Ïñ xy!ü !ܲ xyÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛y ˆ°áyÓ˚ ܲÌy
û˛yÓï˛yü⁄ !ܲÇÓy ôˆÏÓ˚yñ ~Ó˚ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚Ä Ü˛!ë˛ö ~ܲê˛y ˛õ!Ó˚ˆÏÓ¢– ôˆÏÓ˚y çÓ˚&!Ó˚ xÓfliyÓ˚
ܲÌy ÈÙÙÙÈ ˆÎáyˆÏö ܲ!Óï˛y ˆ°áyÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y x˛õܲü≈ˆÏܲ ≤ÃܲyˆÏ¢ƒ•z !ö!£Ïk˛ ˆây£Ïîy ܲÓ˚y
•ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏå–È Ó°y •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ ˆÎñ ÎyÓ˚y•z ܲ!Óï˛y !°áˆÏÓñ ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚•z •yˆÏï˛Ó˚ xyä%° ˆÜ˛ˆÏê˛

44

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ˆöÄÎ˚y •ˆÏÓ– ˆï˛y ~Ó˚ܲü !ÓÓ˚&k˛ï˛yÓ˚ ü%ˆÏáyü%!á •ˆÏÎ˚Ä !Î!ö ˆày˛õˆÏö ܲ!Óï˛y
!°ˆÏá Îyöñ !ï˛!ö•z ˆï˛y ≤ÃÜ,˛ï˛ ܲ!ÓÊ ˆ§Ó˚ܲü ܲ!Ó !ܲ xyÓ˚ ÓÓ˚yܲ í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛yÎ˚
xyˆÏåÈö ˆÜ˛í˛z⁄ xyüÓ˚y ˆÜ˛í˛z•z ˆï˛y ~áöÄ ˆ§Ó˚ܲü ˆÜ˛yöÄ ˛õÓ˚#«˛yÎ˚ í˛z_#î≈ ••z!öÊ
xy§ˆÏ° •Î˚ï˛ Óƒ!_´ç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚ §yú˛°ƒ !ܲÇÓy x§ú˛°ï˛y öÎ˚ñ ~ܲçö ≤ÃÜ,˛ï˛ ܲ!ÓÓ˚
ܲ!ÓçˆÏß√Ó˚ ã˛y!Óܲy!ë˛!ê˛ °%!ܲˆÏÎ˚ ÌyˆÏܲ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ •yï˛ ˆÌˆÏܲ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ !öÓ≈yã˛ˆÏöÓ˚ fl∫yô#öï˛y
ˆÜ˛ˆÏí˛¸ ˆöÓyÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ•z– xÌ≈yÍ !ï˛!ö•z ≤ÃÜ,˛ï˛ ܲ!Ó !Î!ö !öˆÏç ܲ!Óï˛yˆÏܲ !öÓ≈yã˛ö
ܲˆÏÓ˚ö!öñ ÓÓ˚Ç Ü˛!Óï˛y•z ˆÎö ïÑ˛yˆÏܲ !öÓ≈y!ã˛ï˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ–
xyÓ˚ ÓÓ˚yܲ ˛í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛yÓ˚ ˆÎ§Ó ï˛Ó˚&îˆÏòÓ˚ fl∫≤¿ ï%˛!ü ˆòáåÈñ ˆ§•z§Ó ˆüôyÓ#ñ í˛zI°
µ ñ
òyüy°ñí˛zFåÈC
, ° ï˛Ó˚&îÓ˚y ˆï˛y ܲˆÏÓ•z ÓÓ˚yܲ í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛y ˆåȈíÏ ˛¸ Óy•zˆÓÏ ˚ ˛õy!í˛¸ !òˆÏΈ˚ åÏ È ÙÙÙÈ
ÓƒyDyˆÏ°yˆÏÓ˚ !ܲÇÓy °u˛ˆÏöñ !öí˛z•zÎ˚≈ˆÏܲ !ܲÇÓy ܲƒy!°ˆÏú˛y!ö≈Î˚yÎ˚– ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚
ÓƒyÇÜ˛ÓƒyˆÏ°ˆÏ™Ó˚ §ˆÏDÈÙȧˆÏD ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ û%Ñ˛!í˛¸Ä e´üyàï˛ ˆÓˆÏí˛¸ ã˛ˆÏ°ˆÏåÈñ ˆÎüö Óyí˛¸ˆÏåÈ
ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ §%®Ó˚# Óí˛zˆÏòÓ˚ !Ó°y§≤ÃÓîï˛y Ä !öɧDï˛yÄ–
•Î˚ï˛ xyçˆÏܲÓ˚ ÓÓ˚yܲ í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛y•z ï˛yÓ˚ ܲ!Ó˛õ%eÙÈܲ!ÓܲöƒyˆÏòÓ˚ ˆüôy ~ÓÇ §yú˛ˆÏ°ƒÓ˚
ˆçyˆÏÓ˚ ˛õ!Ó˚!ã˛ï˛ •ˆÏï˛ ã˛y•zˆÏåÈ öy– ~ܲܲyˆÏ°ñ üyˆÏö ˆ§•z £ÏyˆÏê˛Ó˚ ò¢ˆÏܲ ˆÎüöê˛y
ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°–
É ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ !Óàï˛ çß√ â%ˆÏÓ˚ ~°yüñ ~ÈÙȧÇܲ°ˆÏö Óƒyáƒyï˛#ï˛ ç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚ ˆÎÈÙÈ˛õ!Ó˚ã˛Î˚
˛õyÄÎ˚y ÎyÎ˚ñ ï˛yˆÏܲ•z !ܲ üƒy!çܲ !Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚!°çü ӈϰ⁄ xyÿ˛Î≈ñ ~ÈÙÈçˆÏß√Ó˚ §yˆÏÌ
ˆÜ˛yöÄ !ü° á%шÏç ˆ˛õ°yü öy– ~ÈÙÈçˆÏß√ ˆï˛yüyˆÏܲ ˆòˆÏá üˆÏö •Î˚ ˆÎö xˆÏöܲ
ˆÓ!¢ ܲˆÏ¡õyç퉲– ˛õ!Ó˚˛õy!ê˛ x!û˛Óƒ!_´Ó˚ xyí˛¸yˆÏ° xöƒ ~ܲ x!üï˛yû˛ñ §yôyÓ˚îï˛
~ÈÙÈôÓ˚ˆÏöÓ˚ Óƒ!_´ˆÏc xyüyÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄ Ó˚&!ã˛ ˆö•zñ ï˛Ó%Ä ~ܲ x!üï˛yû˛ ÎyÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛y
~áöÄ xyüyÓ˚ û˛yÓöyÓ˚ çà͈Ïܲ í˛z§ˆÏܲ ˆòÎ˚ñ í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)ˆÏÓ≈Ó˚ ï˛Ó˚&îˆÏòÓ˚ ˆ◊¤˛
ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ §Çܲ°ˆÏö ˛õˆÏí˛¸ ÎyˆÏܲ û˛yˆÏ°yˆÏӈϧ ˆú˛!°ñ •Î˚ï˛ ï˛yÓ˚ ˆüy•˛õyˆÏ¢ ~áöÄ
xyÓk˛ ÌyܲˆÏï˛ ã˛y•z!åÈ– ~ÓÇ ˆï˛yüyˆÏܲ çyöy•z ܲ!Óï˛yü•ˆÏ° x!û˛ˆÏÎyà ~•z ˆÎ
◊#ã˛Ó˚ˆÏîÓ˚ òy§yö%òy§ ¢!_´˛õò Ó ·˛ã˛yÓ˚#Ó˚ ˆüy•çy° ˆÌˆÏܲ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ §ˆÏÓ˚ xy§y
≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö– x!üï˛yû˛òyñ xy§y!üÓ˚ ܲyë˛àí˛¸yÎ˚ òÑy!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ Îy•y Ó!°ˆÏÓ §ï˛ƒ Ó!°ˆÏÓñ
ӈϰy ï%˛!ü !ܲ ~§Ó x˛õÓ˚yô fl∫#ܲyÓ˚ ܲÓ˚⁄
É ¢!_´˛õò Ó ·˛ã˛yÓ˚#Ó˚ ˆüy•çy°⁄ üyˆÏö ≤Ãû˛yÓ⁄ ~•z ˆï˛y⁄ ~ê˛y Î!ò §!ï˛ƒÄ •ˆÏÎ˚
ÌyˆÏܲñ ï˛y•ˆÏ°Ä ~ê˛y xyüyÓ˚ x˛õÓ˚yô öÎ˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ ÓƒÌ≈ï˛y– !öˆÏçÓ˚ û˛y£Ïy á%шÏç
öyÈÙÈ˛õyÄÎ˚yÓ˚ ÓƒÌ≈ï˛y–
öy ≤Ãò#˛õñ ¢!_´˛õòÓ˚ ≤Ãû˛yÓ xyüyÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛yÎ˚ ~ܲÓî≈Ä ˆö•z– Îy xyˆÏåÈ ï˛y §Ω˛Óï˛
xhsˇƒÈÙÈ!üˆÏ°Ó˚ ≤Ã!ï˛ ~ܲ!ö¤˛ ˆé˛Ñyܲñ ˆÎê˛y âê˛öyã˛ˆÏe´ ¢!_´˛õòÓ˚Ä !åÈ°– ~Ó˚ ܲyÓ˚î
•Î˚ï˛ °%!ܲˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏåÈ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ˛õÑyã˛y!° ˛õyˆÏë˛Ó˚ ˆÎÔÌ í˛z_Ó˚y!ôܲyˆÏÓ˚– ï˛ˆÏÓ ˛õòƒÜ˛yÓ˚
!•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ xy!ü ¢!_´˛õòÓ˚ ã˛yܲÓ˚ •ÓyÓ˚Ä ˆÎyàƒ ö•z– !ܲv ˛õòƒê˛yˆÏܲ Î!ò Óyò !òˆÏÎ˚
òyÄñ Î!ò §Ó˚y§!Ó˚ ܲ!Óï˛yÎ˚ ã˛ˆÏ° xyˆÏ§yÈÙÙÙÈ xyüyÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛y ï˛yÓ˚ ˆüÔ!°Ü˛ à“Ó#ˆÏçÓ˚
ܲyÓ˚ˆÏî•z ¢!_´˛õòÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛yÈÙÈû%˛Óö ˆÌˆÏܲ Ó‡ ò)ˆÏÓ˚– ≤ÃçˆÏß√Ó˚ ÓƒÓôyö ~ê˛yñ §üˆÏÎ˚Ó˚

45

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ÓƒÓôyö– xy!ü ã˛y•zˆÏ°Äñ ¢ï˛ ˆã˛‹Ty ܲÓ˚ˆÏ°Ä ~•z ÓƒÓôyö x!ï˛e´ü ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚
öy ≤Ãò#˛õ– xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ò%ÈÙÈçˆÏöÓ˚ xydyÓ˚ ˆÎ ò%hflÏÓ˚ ú˛yÓ˚yܲ– ï˛ˆÏÓ §Ó !ܲå%ÈÓ˚ ˛õˆÏÓ˚ñ
~§Ó û˛yÓöy ˆï˛y xyüyÓ˚ öÎ˚ñ ˆï˛yüÓ˚Ä öÎ˚ó ~•z û˛yÓöy ˆÎyàƒ §üyˆÏ°yã˛ˆÏܲÓ˚–
≤ÃÌyàï˛Ó˚ Óy•zˆÏÓ˚ ÎyÄÎ˚yÓ˚ fl‘y•zí˛ !ܲå%È §ÇáƒÜ˛ Ó˚ã˛öyÎ˚ í˛zÑ!ܲ !òˆÏÎ˚ ˆàˆÏåÈ– §ÇÓyò˛õe
~ÓÇ xyÓ˚Ä •zï˛ƒy!òÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ !öˆÏçˆÏܲ §!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏÓ˚ܲê%˛ ôƒyöü@¿ •ˆÏ° xyüyÓ˚ ˆï˛y
üˆÏö •Î˚ ˆÓ¢ !ܲå%È xü)°ƒ ˆ°áy ˆ˛õˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚– ~ܲê%˛ ÎbÓyö •ˆÏÓ⁄
•Ñƒyñ xyüyÓ˚Ä •zˆÏFåÈ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ ܲ!Ó •zˆÏÎ˚ê˛ˆÏ§Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y •z!ö§!ú ˛ˆÏï˛ ã˛ˆÏ° ˆÎˆÏï˛ñ áˆÏí˛¸ ÈÙÈ
åÈyÄÎ˚y ˛õyï˛yÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y ˆåÈyR Ü%˛!ê˛Ó˚ Óy!öˆÏÎ˚ öÎ˚§y!Ó˚ !ÓöàyåÈ ˆÓ˚y˛õî ܲˆÏÓ˚
ˆüÔüy!åÈÈÙÈ=O!Ó˚ï˛ ˛õeåÈyÎ˚yÎ˚ §üÎ˚ ܲy!ê˛ˆÏÎ˚ !òˆÏï˛– ˆ§áyˆÏö üôƒÓ˚y!eÄ ¢yhsˇ
xyˆÏ°yˆÏܲÓ˚ ÓöƒyÎ˚ üyÎ˚yüÎ˚ñ ò%˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ xyˆÏ°yÄ öÓ˚ü xyÓ˚ §¶˛ƒy=!° ˛õ)î≈ •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏë˛
ö#ˆÏí˛¸ÙȈú˛Ó˚y ˛õy!áÓ˚ í˛yöyÓ˚ !ö!Óí˛¸ ¢ˆÏ∑–
!ܲv ܲ# ܲÓ˚Ó ≤Ãò#˛õñ ¢•Ó˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ ~•z üú˛§‰§!° ¢•ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ Ü˛Ìƒû˛y£Ïyñ ï˛yÓ˚ !ç˛õ!§ˆÏòÓ˚
ïÑ˛yÓ%ñ ï˛yÓ˚ ˆåÈyˆÏê˛yáyˆÏê˛y ÓyÓ˚ xyÓ˚ ˆÓ˚ˆÏhflÏyÓ˚Ñyç#Óöñ ï˛yÓ˚ •y•yܲyÓ˚ xyÓ˚ í˛zÕ‘y§ñ
ï˛yÓ˚ ö#ã%˛ï˛yñ fl∫yÌ≈˛õÓ˚ï˛yñ ˆ°yû˛ñ ˆÎÔöï˛yñ ï˛yÓ˚ ü,ï%˛ƒ=!°ñ ü,ï%˛ƒû˛Î˚=!°ñ ï˛yÓ˚
§üÎ˚ÈÙÈ¢Ó˚#Ó˚ÈÙÈ•*òÎ˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ ~§Ó ˆÎ xyüyÓ˚ xydyˆÏܲ !ã˛!ÓˆÏÎ˚ ˆáˆÏÎ˚ ˆú˛ˆÏ°ˆÏåÈÊ áÓÓ˚ñ
âyüñ ˆöyÇÓ˚y!üÓ˚ !û˛ˆÏí˛¸•z ~ܲy!ܲc Ä !öç≈öï˛yÓ˚ ï,˛£èy ≤ÃÓ° •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏ벖 ˆ§•z
ï,˛£èy ˆ°áyÓ˚Ä ˆÜ˛yÌyÄÈÙÈˆÜ˛yÌyÄ ï˛yÓ˚ åÈyÎ˚y ˆú˛ˆÏ°– xÌ≈yÍ Óy!•Ó˚ Îáö !û˛ˆÏí˛¸ ÈÙÈ
û˛Ó˚yñ •*òÎ˚ ï˛áö ~ܲy!ܲcˆÏܲ á%шÏç ˆöÎ˚– !ܲv Óy!•Ó˚ Îáö !öç≈öñ ~ܲyܲ#ñ •*òÎ˚
Î!ò ï˛áö !û˛í˛¸ˆÏܲ•z xÓ°¡∫ö ܲˆÏÓ˚⁄ ï˛y•z û˛Î˚ •Î˚ñ !û˛í˛¸ Ä Ü˛°B˛ˆÏÓ˚áyÓ˚ ò)ˆÏÓ˚
ˆÜ˛yöÄ fl∫áyï˛ ~ܲy!ܲˆÏc ã˛ˆÏ° ˆàˆÏ° Î!ò í˛zˆÏŒê˛yê˛y •Î˚⁄ Î!ò xyˆÏ°Ü˛çyu˛yÓ˚
ˆ§°Ü˛yˆÏÜ≈˛Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y !öç≈öï˛y ~ˆÏ§ xyüyÓ˚ ܲZ˛ˆÏÓ˚yô ܲˆÏÓ˚ñ ç#ÓöˆÏܲ !Ó˛õߨ ܲˆÏÓ˚
ˆï˛ˆÏ° Î!ò⁄ ï˛áö ˆï˛y !û˛ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ çöƒ ï,˛£èyÎ˚•z xyÜ%˛° •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏÓ ≤ÃyîÈÙÙÙ xyÓ˚ñöy
ã˛y•zˆÏ°Äñ ˆ§•z ï,˛£èy ï˛yÓ˚ åÈyÎ˚y åÈ!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ˆòˆÏÓ xyüyÓ˚ !°!áï˛ x«˛ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ í˛z˛õÓ˚ÄÊ
!ÓŸª§y!•ˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚ ç!ê˛° ˆ≤ë˛y˛õˆÏê˛ ÓyÇ°yܲ!Óï˛y !öˆÏçˆÏܲ ~ܲ!ê˛ !ӈϢ£Ï ˛õ!Ó˚÷k˛ñ
˛õ!Ó˚üy!ç≈ï˛ fliyˆÏö í˛zߨ#ï˛ Ü˛Ó˚ˆÏï˛ ˆ˛õˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ– ôƒyö Ä ôyÓ˚îyÓ˚ xö%Óï≈˛öñ ï˛#«¯˛˛
˛õÎ≈ˆÏÓ«˛îñ xyô%!öܲ ç#ÓöÓ#«˛yÓ˚ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yà Ä ≤ÃÎ%!_´Ó˚ ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚ ~ÓÇ xÓ¢ƒ•z
x!ÓöŸªÓ˚ í˛z_Ó˚y!ôܲyÓ˚ §Ó !ü!°ˆÏÎ˚ !Ó÷k˛ï˛yÓ˚ ˛õ!Ó˚ã˛Î≈y àû˛#Ó˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ àû˛#Ó˚ï˛Ó˚
•ˆÏFåÈ– ÷ô% §y!•ˆÏï˛ƒ•z öÎ˚ñ §Ó≈e•zñ xò,¢ƒ §%ˆÏï˛yÎ˚ ç!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏåÈ §Ó–
!¢“ÈÙȧy!•ï˛ƒÈÙȧÇfl,Ò!ï˛ñ ~ܲ xöÓòƒ ÓƒyˆÏ°™– ˆ§ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe í˛z_Ó˚y!ôܲyÓ˚ÈÙȧ)ˆÏe ˛õyÄÎ˚y
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§,!‹T¢#° üyöÓˆÏܲ•z !öˆÏÎ˚ ˆÎˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ !Óü)ï≈˛ï˛yÓ˚ !òˆÏܲ– xyç xyüÓ˚y ~ÈÙÈçyÎ˚àyÎ˚
òÑy!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ !ܲ ï˛y ˛õyÓ˚!åÈ⁄ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ üö ˛õˆÏí˛¸ ÌyˆÏܲ ˆÜ˛y°y•ˆÏ°Ó˚ !òˆÏܲ– ~üï˛yÓfliyÎ˚
ܲ!ÓÈÙÈ §y!•!ï˛ƒÜ˛ ï˛Ü˛üyÈÙÈ~шÏê˛ ÈÙÈ ÓˆÏ§ÈÙÈÌyܲy xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ í˛z˛õÓ˚ !ܲ û˛Ó˚§y ܲÓ˚y ÎyÎ˚⁄
öyñ ÎyÎ˚ öy– ܲ!ÓÓ˚y §Ó §üÎ˚•z §üyˆÏçÓ˚ üyÌyÎ˚ ã˛ˆÏí˛¸ ӈϧ ÌyܲˆÏï˛ ã˛yöñ xÌã˛
ïÑ˛yÓ˚y §üyˆÏçÓ˚ ôyÓ˚ ôyˆÏÓö˚ öy– ï˛y•z •Î˚ï˛ xyçˆÏܲÓ˚ §üyç ܲ!ÓˆÏòÓ˚ ~ܲ xöyÓ¢ƒÜ˛

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≤Ãò#˛õ

x!üï˛yû˛

≤Ãyî# !•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ ˛õ!Ó˚à!îï˛ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ– xÌã˛ §ÇÓ˚«˛ˆÏîÓ˚ ≤Èϟ¿ üyˆÏö xï˛#ˆÏï˛Ó˚ ≤ÃyÎ˚
•y!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ÈÙȈΈÏï˛ÈÙÈÓ§y !¢“ Ä §y!•ï˛ƒÜ˛ˆÏü≈Ó˚ §ÇÓ˚«˛ˆÏîÓ˚ Óƒy˛õyˆÏÓ˚ñ ܲ!ÓˆÏòÓ˚ ܲ#
í˛zIµ° û)˛!üܲy ÌyܲˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ ~Ó˚ ã)˛í˛¸yhsˇ í˛zòy•Ó˚î Ó˚Ó#wöyÌ– !öˆÏç ˆ°Ô!ܲܲ
åÈí˛¸y !öˆÏÎ˚ ≤ÃÓ¶˛ !°áˆÏåÈöñ •yåÈö Ó˚yçyÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y ˆ°yܲܲ!ÓˆÏܲ í˛zk,˛ï˛ ܲÓ˚ˆÏåÈö
Ó_,´ï˛yÎ˚ñ xyÓyÓ˚ ïÑ˛yÓ˚•z xy•¥yˆÏö §yí˛¸y !òˆÏÎ˚ ï˛Ó˚&îï˛Ó˚ ≤ÃçˆÏß√Ó˚ ˆÜ˛í˛zÈÙÈˆÜ˛í˛z
ˆ°yܲܲÌyñ ˆ°yܲ§y!•ˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚ §ÇÓ˚«˛î ï˛Ìy ≤ÃܲyˆÏ¢Ó˚ ܲyˆÏç ~!àˆÏÎ˚ xy§ˆÏåÈö–
Ó˚Ó#wöyÌñ §Ó≈ܲyˆÏ°Ó˚ §Ó≈ˆÏ◊¤˛ Óyäy!° ܲ!Ó Ó˚Ó#wöyÌñ ˆ§§Ó ≤Ãܲy¢öyˆÏܲ
ܲáöÄÈÙÈܲáöÄ í˛zIµ°ï˛Ó˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ï%˛°ˆÏåÈö !öˆÏçÓ˚ ˆ°áy û)˛!üܲyÓ˚ üyôƒˆÏü–
xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ~•z í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)Ó≈yM˛ÈˆÏ°Ó˚ ~áö•z ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö xˆÏöܲyˆÏöܲ §y!•ï˛ƒÜ˛ˆÏü≈Ó˚
§ÇÓ˚«˛î ï˛Ìy ≤ÃܲyˆÏ¢Ó˚– !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚ ˆ°áyˆÏ°!á ≤ÃܲyˆÏ¢Ó˚ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚Ä Óí˛¸ •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛
˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ï˛y– !ë˛Ü˛ ~ÈÙÈܲyÓ˚ˆÏî•z xy!ü í˛z£ÏyÓ˚Oö û˛Ryã˛yˆÏÎ≈Ó˚ ~ÓÇ xüˆÏ°®% û˛Ryã˛yˆÏÎ≈Ó˚
ܲyç=!°ˆÏܲ ~ï˛ê˛y =Ó˚&c §•Ü˛yˆÏÓ˚ !ÓˆÏÓã˛öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ Ìy!ܲ– xï˛#ï˛ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ í˛zͧ•z
÷ô% öÎ˚ñ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ûÑ˛yí˛¸yÓ˚Ä– ï˛yÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛ ˆÜ˛yöÄ xӈϕ°yñ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚
ˆÜ˛y°y•°ÈÙÈü%á!Ó˚ï˛ Óï≈˛üyö «˛üy ܲÓ˚ˆÏ°Äñ û˛!Ó£ÏƒÍ Ü˛áöÄ ï˛y ܲÓ˚ˆÏÓ öy–
ï%˛!ü Ä xy!üÄ ˆÎ ˆ§•z ~ܲ•z xï˛#ˆÏï˛Ó˚ áyòƒ •ˆÏï˛ Îy!FåÈ û˛!ӣσˆÏï˛ñ ≤Ãò#˛õÊ
xyüÓ˚yÄ ˆï˛y ~ܲê˛y §üÎ˚ ~ˆÏ° xï˛#ï˛Ü˛yˆÏ°•z •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÓñ ï˛y•z öy⁄
É §üyçñ §Çfl,Ò!ï˛ñ !¢«˛yñ ç#ÓöÎy˛õˆÏö Ó˚&!ã˛Ó˚ ˛õ!Ó˚Óï≈˛ˆÏöÓ˚ §yˆÏÌÈÙȧyˆÏÌ
!¢“ÈÙȧy!•ˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚Ä xyô%!öܲï˛yÓ˚ hflÏÓ˚!ê˛ ÓòˆÏ° ÎyÎ˚– ܲyÓ˚î ˛õyë˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ Ó˚&!ã˛Ä
xDyD#û˛yˆÏÓ ç!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏåÈ ≤ÃÜ,˛!ï˛Ó˚ §yˆÏÌ– xyç Îáö ˆÜ˛yöÄ ˆ£Ïyí˛¸¢# !ܲÇÓy
!öˆÏü≈ò ~Ü%˛¢ˆÏܲ !°áˆÏï˛ ˆò!á ≤Ã!˛õï˛yüˆÏ•Ó˚ û˛y£ÏyÎ˚ñ §ˆÏ®• •Î˚ ï˛yÓ˚ í˛zFã˛y!Ó˚ï˛
û˛y£Ïy ÓyhflÏÓï˛yÓ˚ §ˆÏD ˜mÓ˚ˆÏÌ– ÓyÇ°yܲ!Óï˛y ï˛ˆÏÓ Ü˛yÓ˚ •yˆÏï˛Ê ~ܲ!ê˛ Ü˛!ë˛ö
ÓyhflÏÓï˛yÓ˚ xö%≤ÈÏÓ¢ !ܲ âê˛ˆÏåÈ öy⁄
É ï%˛!ü ï˛Ìyܲ!Ìï˛ Úí˛z_Ó˚yô%!öÜ˛Û Ü˛!Óï˛yÓ˚ ܲÌy Ó°åÈ ˆï˛y⁄ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ §ˆÏDñ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚
mˆÏ®µÓ˚ §ˆÏD ~!ӣψÏÎ˚ xy!ü xhsˇï˛ ~ܲˆÏ¢y ¢ï˛yÇ¢ ~ܲüï˛– ÓyhflψÏÓ xy!ü
x!ï˛üyeyÎ˚ §yÓôyö#ñ ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ ˆÜ˛yöÄ úÑ˛yܲ ˆÓ˚ˆÏá ã˛°!åÈ öyñ ÓƒyÇÜ˛ÓƒyˆÏ°™ !ë˛Ü˛•z
Óy!í˛¸ˆÎÏ ˚ ã˛ˆÏ°!åÈñ !ܲÇÓy ˆ˛õy¢yˆÏܲÓ˚ xy!Dܲ ˆÌˆÏܲ Ó y Ä ˛õƒy!rê˛ˆÏܲ ç°yO!° !òˆÏÎ!˚ åÈñ
ò%ÈÙÈö¡∫!Ó˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ !Ó¢y° Óí˛¸ ˆ˛õyfiê˛ ˆ•y”˛ ܲÓ˚!åÈñ öï%˛öˆÏòÓ˚ xˆÏÎyàƒï˛y §ˆÏ_¥Ä
!öÎ˚ˆÏüÓ˚ ˆ•Ó˚ˆÏú˛Ó˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ã˛yܲ!Ó˚Ä !òˆÏÎ˚ ˆú˛°!åÈ ÈÙÙÙÈ xÌã˛ Ü˛!Óï˛yÎ˚ ˆ§•z ~ܲ•z
xy!ü ã˛yÓ˚˛õyˆÏ¢Ó˚ ÓyhflÏÓï˛yˆÏܲñ ~üö!ܲ !öˆÏçÓ˚ xhsˇ!ö≈!•ï˛ ÓyhflÏÓï˛yˆÏÜ˛Ä xfl∫#ܲyÓ˚
ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˛õyï˛yÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚ ˛õyï˛y ç%ˆÏí˛¸ !°ˆÏá ã˛ˆÏ°!åÈ §yô% û˛y£ÏyÎ˚– xÌ≈yÍ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ Óƒ!_´àï˛
ç#Óö ≤ÃÎ%!_´!öû≈˛Ó˚ öÓƒ≤Ãà!ï˛Ó˚ ˆåÈÑyÎ˚yÎ˚ ˆÎáyˆÏö öï%˛ö ܲˆÏÓ˚ 鲰ü° ܲˆÏÓ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏåÈñ
ˆ§áyˆÏö ܲyÓƒÜ˛ÌyÎ˚ xyüÓ˚y ˆê˛ˆÏö xyö!åÈ |ö!ÓÇ¢ ¢ï˛y∑#Ó˚ fiê˛y•z° Ä û˛yÓyò¢≈ˆÜÏ ˛–
~•z Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ê˛yÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ xÓ¢ƒ•z ~ܲ ôÓ˚ˆÏöÓ˚ û˛[˛y!ü ܲyç ܲˆÏÓ˚– ã˛yÓ˚!òˆÏܲ x§%á
xyÓ˚ xy!ü !°ˆÏá ã˛ˆÏ°!åÈ ÷◊*£ÏyÓ˚ Óyï≈˛y– §yô%ï˛y ˆï˛y û˛y£ÏyÓ˚ Ó!•Ó˚Dñ xˆÏöܲ
ã˛°!ï˛ Ü˛Ìy•z ˆï˛y ï˛yÓ˚ û˛yˆÏÓÓ˚ ˆçyˆÏÓ˚ Ú§yô%Û •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏë˛Ê

47

!ܲv ≤Ãò#˛õñ ˆÜ˛yöÄ !ܲå%È•z ~ܲÓ>y •Î˚ öyÊ ˆÜ˛yöÄ !ܲå%ȈÜÏ ˛•z ~ܲˆÏ˛õˆÏ¢ ò,!‹Tû˛!DˆÏï˛
!Óã˛yÓ˚ ܲÓ˚y !ë˛Ü˛ öÎ˚– ܲyÓ˚î ï˛y•ˆÏ° ˆï˛y xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ˆã˛yá ~!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ !Ó£Ï]ï˛yÎ˚ ˛õ%ˆÏí˛¸
ÎyˆÏÓ x!üï˛yû˛ =Æñ x!öÓ≈yî ô!Ó˚e#˛õ%eñ ˆàÔï˛ü Ó§%ñ ˆàÔï˛ü ˆã˛Ôô%Ó˚#ñ ˆòÓy!¢§
ï˛Ó˚ú˛òyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y x§yôyÓ˚î §Ó Ü˛!ÓÓ˚ í˛zIµ° §Ó ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ Ó•zÊ
§%ï˛Ó˚yÇñ ü)°ï˛ xܲ!ÓˆÏòÓ˚ xö%ܲÓ˚îô!ü≈ï˛yˆÏܲ ˛õy_y öy !òˆÏÎ˚ ≤Ãܲ, ï˛ Ü˛!ÓˆÏòÓ˚ ˆüÔ!°Ü˛
ˆ°áy=!°ˆÏܲñ ïÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ÎyÓï˛#Î˚ ü%oyˆÏòy£Ï Óy í˛z͈Ïܲ!wܲï˛y§•ñ ˛õyë˛ Ü˛Ó˚y ÈÙÙÙÈ ˛õyë˛Ü˛
!•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ ~ê˛y•z xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ~ܲüye àhsˇÓƒ •ÄÎ˚y í˛z!ã˛ï˛– x!öÓ≈yˆÏîÓ˚ ç#Óöyö®ÈÙÈ
!ÓˆÏÓ˚y!ôï˛y !ܲÇÓy §yô% àˆÏòƒÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛ ˛õ«˛˛õyï˛ÈÙÙÙÈ ~=ˆÏ°yˆÏܲ xy!ü ܲáöÄ ï˛ˆÏ_¥Ó˚
xyˆÏ°yˆÏܲ ˆò!á öyñ ÓÓ˚Ç ~§Ó xyüyÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ≤Ãï˛#Î˚üyö •Î˚ ܲ!ÓÓ˚ !ÓŸªyˆÏ§Ó˚ çàÍ
!•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ– xyÓyÓ˚ ˆÎ§Ó í˛zë˛!ï˛ Ü˛!Óñ x!öÓ≈yˆÏîÓ˚ ~•z !ÓŸªyˆÏ§Ó˚ û%˛ÓˆÏöÓ˚ fl∫ˆÏây!£Ïï˛
öyà!Ó˚ܲ •ˆÏÎ˚ñ ܲ!ÓÓ˚ !ÓŸªyˆÏ§Ó˚ ~ܲ Î%!_´@ˇÃy•ƒ ï˛y!_¥Ü˛ ˆã˛•yÓ˚y !òˆÏï˛ ÓƒhflÏ •ˆÏÎ˚
˛õˆÏí˛¸öÈÙÙÙÈ ïÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚ !öˆÏÎ˚Ä xy!ü üyÌy âyüyˆÏï˛ ã˛y•z öy– ܲ!ÓÓ˚y ¢yflfܲyÓ˚ ööñ
˛õ,!ÌÓ#Ó˚ §ühflÏ ¢yflfˆÏܲ ï%˛!í˛¸ ˆüˆÏÓ˚ í˛z!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚ !ã˛Ó˚ܲy°•z fl∫≤Ãܲy¢ •ˆÏÎ˚ ÌyˆÏܲ
ܲ!Óï˛y– ï˛yÓ˚ òÑyí˛¸yˆÏöyÓ˚ çöƒ ˆÜ˛yöÄ ¢yflfÈÙÈ û)˛!üÓ˚ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö •Î˚ öy–

≤Ãò#˛õ

É ˆ°áyˆÏ°!á ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ •ˆÏ° ˛õí˛¸yÓ˚ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö#Î˚ï˛y xyˆÏåÈ !ܲ⁄ xy§ˆÏ° ~ÈÙÈã˛cˆÏÓ˚
xyüyÓ˚ xˆÏöܲ ܲ!ÓÈÙȈ°áܲÈÙÈÓ¶%˛ˆÏòÓ˚ §yˆÏÌ ˛õyˆÏë˛Ó˚ Óƒy˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ܲÌy Ó°ˆÏï˛
!àˆÏÎ˚ •ï˛y¢ •ˆÏÎ!˚ åÈ– §y¡±!ï˛Ü˛ !ܲÇÓy !ã˛Ó˚yÎ˚ï˛ §y!•ï˛ƒ˛õyˆÏë˛Ó˚ x§#ü ò!Ó˚oï˛y
°«˛ƒ ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ– ~ ÙÈÓƒy˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄ ¢ê≈˛Ü˛yê˛ xyˆÏåÈ !ܲ⁄ xyç ~•z
ÓyÇ°yÈÙÈüÎ˚òyˆÏö !°áˆÏï˛ xy§y ˆÜ˛yöÄ ï˛Ó˚&îï˛Ó˚ Ó¶%˛ˆÏܲ ܲ# ˛õÓ˚yü¢≈ ˆòˆÏÓ⁄
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ˆï˛y ≤Ãã˛% Ó˚ ˛õyë˛ÈÙÈx!û˛K˛ï˛y xyˆÏåÈ– ܲáöÄ ˆÜ˛yöÄ ã˛yê≈˛ ˆüöˆÏê˛ö ܲˆÏÓå˚ È⁄
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ §Ó≈ˆÏ¢£Ï ˛õyë˛⁄
x!üï˛yû˛ É xyüÓ˚y ˆÎˆÏ•ï%˛ §Óy•z ü)°ï˛ öyà!Ó˚ܲ ܲ!ÓÈÙȈ°áܲñ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ˆ°áyˆÏ°!áÓ˚
ˆ«˛ˆÏe ˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöyÓ˚ ≤ÈÎÏ y˚ çö#Î˚ï˛yñ §%ï˛Ó˚yÇñ Óƒy°Ü˛!öÓ˚ ê˛ˆÏÓÓ˚ ã˛yÓ˚yàyˆÏåÈ §yÓ˚
ˆòÓyÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y xˆÏüyâ– •ï˛yü Î!ò @ˇÃyü#î ˆ°yܲܲ!Óñ ï˛y•ˆÏ° •Î˚ï˛ ˆÎÔÌflø,!ï˛
Óy!•ï˛ ÄÓ˚ƒy° ê˛∆ƒy!í˛¢ˆÏöÓ˚ xˆÏöܲ !ܲå%ȈÜÏ ˛ xyd§yÍ Ü˛ˆÏÓñ˚ x!û˛K˛ï˛yüyeÈÙȧ¡∫°
àyö !°ˆÏá ˆÎˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ï˛yü ˆÎüöê˛y ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆàˆÏåÈö !§ˆÏ°ˆÏê˛Ó˚ §òƒ≤ÃÎy˚ ï˛ Óyí˛z°
xy∑%° ܲ!Ó˚ü ¢y•– xyÓ˚ xyüyÓ˚ çyöy üˆÏï˛yñ ≤ÃÓ%k˛§%®Ó˚ ܲÓ˚ ~ÓÇ ˛õÕ‘Ó
û˛Ryã˛yÎ≈ ˆï˛y ≤Ãã˛% Ó˚ ˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöy ܲˆÏÓó˚ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ §Ü˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ ˆåÈyê˛ §Æ!£Ï≈ !ÓŸªyˆÏ§Ó˚
≤Ã!ï˛!òˆÏöÓ˚ ≤Ãôyö áyòƒ•z ˆï˛y •° ˛õy벖 ≤ÃÓ%k˛Ó˚ ˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöy ˆÎüö ü)°ï˛
§y¡±!ï˛Ü˛ ~ÓÇ !°ê˛° üƒyày!çöÈÙÈˆÜ˛!wܲñ ˛õÕ‘ˆÓÏ Ó˚ ˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöy xyÓyÓ˚ !ӈϢ£Ï
ÈÙÈ!ӈϢ£Ï Óƒ!_´ !ܲÇÓy !Ó£ÏÎ˚ˆÏܲ !öˆÏÎ˚–
ï˛ˆÏÓñ ˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöyÓ˚ Óƒy˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄ ¢ê≈˛Ü˛yê˛ ˆÎüö ˆö•zñ ˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöyˆÏܲ
!ÓK˛y˛õˆÏöÓ˚ xyÄï˛yÎ˚ !öˆÏÎ˚ xy§yê˛yÄ ˆÓyô•Î˚ !ë˛Ü˛ öÎ˚– !ÓK˛y!˛õï˛ ˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöy
48

˛õyë˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ üˆÏö §yôyÓ˚îï˛ ~ܲôÓ˚ˆöÏ Ó˚ «˛üï˛yˆÏܲˆÏwÓ˚•z çß√ ˆòÎ˚– û˛yˆÏ°yÓy§yÓ˚
˛õyë˛ çyöyö !òˆÏï˛ çyˆÏö öy– ï˛yåÈyí˛¸yñ ˆÓ!¢ ˛õí˛¸ˆÏ°•z ˆÎ ˆÓ!¢ û˛yˆÏ°y ˆ°áy
ÎyˆÏÓ ÈÙÙÙÙÈ ~üöê˛y û˛yÓyÓ˚Ä ˆÜ˛yöÄ Î%!_´@ˇÃy•ƒ ܲyÓ˚î ˆö•z– ÓÓ˚Ç ˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöy
Îï˛«˛î ˛õÎ≈hsˇ öy Ó˚ˆÏ_´Ó˚ §ˆÏD !üˆÏ¢ ÎyÎ˚ñ ï˛ï˛«˛î ˛õÎ≈hsˇ ï˛y •zöˆÏçܲ¢ˆÏöÓ˚
åÈÑ%ˆÏã˛Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y•z û˛Î˚ÈÙÈ˛õyÄÎ˚yˆÏöy– Ó˚ˆÏ_´ !üˆÏ¢ ˆàˆÏ° ï˛yÓ˚ xyû˛yê%˛Ü%˛ ÌyˆÏܲñ
x•ÇܲyÓ˚ê%˛Ü%˛ í˛zôyÄ •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚– òƒyáñ xyüÓ˚y ˆï˛y ç#ÓöyöˆÏ®Ó˚ ܲ!Óï˛yê˛y•z
ˆ¢£Ï˛õÎ≈hsˇ ~ÓÇ ~ܲüye ˆò!á ÈÙÙÙÙÈ ç#Óöyö® ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ܲ!Óç#ÓˆÏö ˆÜ˛yöÈÙÈˆÜ˛yö
Ó•z ˛õˆÏí˛¸!åȈ°
Ï öñ ï˛y xÓ¢ƒ•z ç#Óöyö®ÈÙÈ˛õyà° ˆÜ˛yöÄ ˛õyë˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ ˆÜ˛Ôï)˛•ˆÏ°Ó˚
!Ó£ÏÎ˚ñ !ܲv ç#Óöyö® xüö ܲ!Óï˛y öyÈÙÈ!°áˆÏ° ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ˆ§•z ˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöyÓ˚
ܲï˛ê˛y òyü ÌyÜ˛ï˛ ˆ§•z ˛õyë˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ⁄ xyüÓ˚y ˆÎˆÏܲyöÄ ˆ°áˆÏܲÓ˚ ˆ°áyê˛y•z
ˆò!áñ ˛õí˛¸yê˛y ˆò!á öy– ˆ°áˆÏܲÓ˚Ä §%ï˛Ó˚yÇ ˛õí˛¸yê˛y ˆày˛õˆÏö ˆày˛õˆÏö•z ã˛y!°ˆÏÎ˚
ˆÎˆÏï˛ •Î˚ñ ˆ§•z ˛õí˛¸yê˛yˆÏܲ ˆòáyˆÏöyÓ˚ ˆï˛üö òÓ˚ܲyÓ˚ xyˆÏåÈ !ܲ⁄ ˛õí˛¸yê˛y •ˆÏFåÈ
ܲ!ÓÈÙȈ°áˆÏܲÓ˚ Ó˚yߨyâÓ˚ñ xyÓ˚ Ó˚yߨyâÓ˚ ˆï˛y §yôyÓ˚îï˛ ˆÎˆÏܲyöÄ Óy!í˛¸Ó˚
x®Ó˚ü•ˆÏ°Ó˚•z xD ÈÙÙÙÙÈ ï˛y•z öy⁄ xÓ¢ƒ ú˛yfiê˛ ú%˛í˛ !ܲÇÓy ˆåÈyê˛ ˆ•yˆÏê˛ˆÏ°Ó˚
ˆ«˛ˆÏe Ó˚yߨyâÓ˚ §ÓyÓ˚ ˆã˛yˆÏáÓ˚ §yüˆÏö•z ÌyˆÏܲñ ܲyÓ˚î ˆ§§Ó çyÎ˚àyÎ˚ ˆû˛y_´yÓ˚
!ÓŸªy§ xç≈ˆÏöÓ˚Ä ~ܲê˛y §◊ü ˆã˛‹Ty ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆÎˆÏï˛ •Î˚–
ˆ§•z Ó•zÈÙÈ•z ˆï˛y ü•Í Ó•z Îy xyÓ˚ Ó•z •ˆÏÎ˚ ÌyˆÏܲ öyñ Ó•zˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ò%!öÎ˚yÓ˚ Óy•zˆÏÓ˚Ó˚
ˆÜ˛yöÄ çàˆÏï˛ !öˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏ§ ˛õyë˛Ü˛ˆÏܲ– ˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöyñ §%ï˛Ó˚yÇ Îï˛«˛î ˛õÎ≈hsˇ öy
˛õí˛¸yˆÏ¢yöyÓ˚ çàˆÏï˛Ó˚ Óy•zˆÏÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄ ü%!_´Ó˚ ≤ÃyhsˇˆÏÓ˚ !öˆÏÎ˚ ˆÎˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏåÈ öy
xyüyÎ˚ñ ï˛ï˛«˛î ˛õÎ≈hsˇ xyüyÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ï˛y x§yÓ˚– ~ܲçö ܲ!ÓÓ˚
˛õyë˛ ~áyˆÏö•z ~ܲçö xôƒy˛õˆÏܲÓ˚ ˛õyë˛ÈÙÈx!û˛K˛ï˛yÓ˚ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚ xy°yòy–
xyÓyÓ˚ ≤Ãã%˛Ó˚ öy •ˆÏ°Ä Îͧyüyöƒ ˛õyë˛ÈÙÈx!û˛K˛ï˛y xyˆÏåÈ– ˆ§ÈÙÈx!û˛K˛ï˛y
û˛#£Ïî ~ˆÏ°yˆÏüy°yñ !Ó¢,C°ñ ˆüyˆÏê˛•z ˆüÌ!í˛Ü˛ƒy° öÎ˚– xyüyÓ˚ û˛#£Ïî !≤ÃÎ˚
˛õyë˛ƒ •ˆÏFåÈ ê˛∆ƒy¢ñ ˛õƒyÓ˚y!°ê˛yˆÏÓ˚ã˛yÓ˚ ÈÙÙÙÙÈ e´y•zü !ú˛Ü˛¢öñ !Ì °yÓ˚ñ û)˛ˆÏï˛Ó˚ àØñ
§yˆÏÎ˚™ !ú˛Ü˛¢öñ xƒyí˛ˆÏû˛M˛ÈyÓ˚ ˆfiê˛y!Ó˚ñ ú˛ƒyrê˛y!§ñ ˛õˆÏö≈y@ˇÃy!ú˛– xyüyÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ
~•z ˆ°áy=ˆÏ°y §Ó §üÎ˚•z §Ω˛yÓöyÓ˚ Ó˚•ˆÏ§ƒ û˛Ó˚y– ï˛y•zñ ˛õí˛¸ˆÏï˛ Ó§ˆÏ°•z
üˆÏö •Î˚ñ xy!ü !°áˆÏ° ܲ#Ó˚ܲü !°áï˛yü⁄ ˆÎ ˆ°áy=!° ˛õˆÏí˛¸ û˛yˆÏ°y °yˆÏà
öyñ ˆ§=ˆÏ°yˆÏܲ xy!ü üˆÏö üˆÏö xyÓyÓ˚ !öˆÏçÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y ܲˆÏÓ˚ !°!á– öï%˛öû˛yˆÏÓ
ˆ°áyÈÙȈ¢áyÓ˚ ˛õyë˛ !ö•z– xy§ˆÏ° !öˆÏçÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛!ê˛ ˛ˆ°áyÎ˚ xy!ü •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛
ˆã˛‹Ty ܲ!Ó˚ !í˛ˆÏê˛Ü˛!ê˛û˛ àˆÏ“Ó˚ ˛õyë˛Ü˛ ÎyÓ˚ çyöy ˆö•z xy§° x˛õÓ˚yô#ˆÏܲ– ˆÎ
ˆ°áܲ ï˛yÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ xyÓ˚ Ó˚•ˆÏ§ƒÓ˚ §Ω˛yÓ˚ •ˆÏÎ˚ ÌyˆÏܲ öy–
~•z ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲ!òö xyˆÏà ˛õí˛¸°yü ‡üyÎ˚)ö xy•ˆÏüòÈÙÈ~Ó˚ í˛z˛õöƒy§ Ú°#°yÓï˛#Û–
49

~áö ˛õí˛¸!åÈ ˛õyĈϰy ˆÜ˛yˆÏÎ˚°ˆÏ•yÓ˚ Úxƒy°ˆÏܲ!üfiê˛Û–
≤Ãò#˛õ
É ò%!ê˛ ˛õˆÏÓ≈ üï˛ Óƒ_´ ܲˆÏÓ˚y É
~áöܲyÓ˚ ÓyÇ°y ܲ!Óï˛y xyÓ˚ ~•z ü%•)ˆÏï≈˛Ó˚ í˛z_Ó˚˛õˆÏÓ≈Ó˚ ÓyÇ°yܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚
•y°•!Ü˛Ü˛Í Sò°üï˛ñ fliy!öܲ òyÎ˚Ók˛ï˛y Ä ˆÜ˛Ô¢°àï˛ xÓfliyˆÏöÓ˚ |ˆÏôù≈
!öˆÏçˆÏܲ ˆÓ˚ˆÏáV–
x!üï˛yû˛ É ~áöܲyÓ˚ ÓyÇ°y ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ §ÓˆÏã˛ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zˆÏÕ‘áˆÏÎyàƒ !òܲ!ê˛ •ˆÏFåÈ §Ω˛Óï˛ ~•z
ˆÎñ ï˛yÓ˚ ~ï˛!òöܲyÓ˚ ò!«˛îÈÙÈÓyü !¢!ÓÓ˚ !Óû˛yçöÈÙÈ ˆÓ˚áy!ê˛ ~ï˛!òˆÏö
xÓ°%Æ≤ÃyÎ˚– ~ܲ•z §ˆÏD ≤Ãy!ï˛¤˛y!öܲÈÙÈx≤Ãy!ï˛¤˛y!öܲ ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ ç°ÈÙÈxã˛°
!ÓˆÏû˛ò ˆÓ˚áy!ê˛Ä ≤ÃyÎ˚ í˛zˆëÏ ˛ ˆÎˆÏï˛ ÓˆÏ§ˆÏåÈ– fl∫ÎÇ˚ Úˆò¢Û ˛õ!eܲy•z ~áö Ó‡fl∫ˆÓÏ Ó˚ ˚
ˆÓ˚ܲí≈˛ˆÏ≤’Î˚yÓ˚– xy§ˆÏ°ñ àï˛ Ü˛ˆÏÎ˚ܲ!ê˛ ò¢Ü˛ ôˆÏÓ˚•z ~ê˛y ˆÓyé˛y Îy!FåÈ° ˆÎ
ÓyÇ°y ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ û˛!Ó£ÏƒÍ ˆÜ˛yöÄ xÓfliyˆÏï˛•z ~ܲܲû˛yˆÏÓ Ü˛°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚ xyÎ˚_yô#ö
öÎ˚ñ ï˛Ó% ˆÓyé˛y ˆàˆÏ°Ä ï˛y ~ï˛!òö ˆÎö ≤Ãüyî§yˆÏ˛õ«˛ !åÈ°– §y¡±!ï˛Ü˛Ü˛yˆÏ°ñ
ˆüyê˛yü%!ê˛û˛yˆÏÓ àï˛ ~ܲ!ê˛ ò¢Ü˛ ôˆÏÓ˚ ~ê˛y ܲ# ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆÎö ≤Ãüy!îï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ ˆàˆÏåÈ
ˆÎñ ÓyÇ°y ܲ!Óï˛y Ó°ˆÏï˛ ~áö xyÓ˚ §!ï˛ƒ§!ï˛ƒ•z ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÓ˚ ܲZ˛fl∫Ó˚ˆÏܲ
ˆÓyé˛yÎ˚ öy– ú˛°fl∫Ó*˚ ˛õñ ≤Ã!ï˛¤˛yö ï˛yÓ˚ ¢ï˛ ˆã˛‹Ty §ˆÏ_Ä
¥ ~áö xyÓ˚ ˆï˛üöû˛yˆÏÓ
ˆÜ˛yöÄ öï%˛ö ܲ!ÓˆÏܲ•z Úí˛zͲõyòöÛ Ü˛Ó˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏåÈ öy– öï%˛ö ܲ!ÓÓ˚y í˛zˆÏë˛
xy§ˆÏåÈö öyöyû˛yˆÏÓ ÈÙÙÙÙÈ §Ó§üÎ˚ ˆÎ !°ê‰˛° üƒyày!çˆÏöÓ˚ ˛õ,¤˛y!öû≈˛Ó˚ •ˆÏÎ˚ñ
ï˛yÄ öÎ˚– ܲyÓ˚î •z!ï˛üˆÏôƒ•z Óyäy!°Ó˚ Ó‡!Óû˛_´ û)˛ˆÏày° öyöyôÓ˚ˆÏöÓ˚ ˆåÈyê˛
ˆåÈyê˛ ≤Ã!ï˛¤˛yˆÏöÓ˚Ä çß√ !òˆÏÎ˚ ˆú˛ˆÏ°ˆÏåÈ– !òö ˛õy°ˆÏê˛ ˆàˆÏåÈñ ≤Ãò#˛õ– ~•z
˛õy°ˆÏê˛ ÎyÄÎ˚y ܲï˛ê˛y fl∫yˆÏfliƒÓ˚ ~ÓÇ Ü˛ï˛ê˛y ˆÓ˚yˆÏàÓ˚ °«˛î ï˛y xÓ¢ƒ ~«%˛!î
Ó°y ÎyˆÏFåÈ öy– ï˛ˆÏÓ §üÎ˚ÈÙÈå%ÈшÏÎ˚ Ìyܲy ÓyÇ°y ܲ!Óï˛y xyÓ˚ §üÎ˚ÈÙÈx!ï˛e´ü
ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ã˛yÄÎ˚y ÓyÇ°y ܲ!Óï˛y ÈÙÙÙÙÈ ˆÜ˛í˛z•z ~áö xyÓ˚ §üÎ˚ ˛õy°ˆÏê˛ ˆòÓyÓ˚
ˆá°yÎ˚ ˆï˛üöû˛yˆÏÓ Óƒ!ï˛ÓƒhflÏ öÎ˚ñ ~ܲòy ˆÎüö !åÈ°–
ï˛yˆÏï˛ xÓ¢ƒ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ñ ~•z í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)Ó≈yM˛ÈˆÏ°Ó˚ ܲ!ÓÜ%˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ °yû˛•z •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ–
xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ xyˆÏàÓ˚ ≤ÃçˆÏß√Ó˚ ܲ!ÓÓ˚y •Î˚ï˛ ~ܲܲ !ܲÇÓy ˆày¤˛#Ók˛û˛yˆÏÓ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚
ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚ xˆÏöܲ ˆÓ!¢ «˛üï˛yÓyö !åȈ°
Ï ö– ˆÎ ≤Ã!ï˛Ü)˛° ˛õ!Ó˚ˆÓÏ ¢ÈÙÈ˛õ!Ó˚!fli!ï˛ ïÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚
§yüöy§yü!ö §Ó§üÎ˚ ~ܲ ò%ˆÏû≈˛òƒ ˆòÎ˚yˆÏ°Ó˚ ç!ê˛°ï˛y §,!‹T ܲÓ˚ï˛ñ ï˛yÓ˚ ܲÌy
üyÌyÎ˚ Ó˚yáˆÏ° Ó%!é˛ ˆÎ !e˛õ%Ó˚yÓ˚ ¢C˛õÕ‘Ó xy!òï˛ƒ ˆÌˆÏܲ Ó ·˛˛õ%e í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛yÓ˚
xüˆÏ°®% =• ˛õÎ≈hsˇñ xyÓyÓ˚ Ó ·˛˛õ%e í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛yÓ˚ Ó#ˆÏÓ˚wöyÌ Ó˚!«˛ï˛ ˆÌˆÏܲ
ÓÓ˚yܲ í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛yÓ˚ ¢!_´˛õò Ó ·˛ã˛yÓ˚# ˛õÎ≈hsˇ §ÓyÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛y !°ˆÏá ÎyÄÎ˚yê˛y !åÈ°
ˆÎö ~ܲ üÓ˚î˛õî °í˛¸y•z– ˆ§•z °í˛¸y•z ~áö xyÓ˚ ˆö•z– !ܲv °í˛¸y•z öy
ÌyܲˆÏ°Ä xflf ˆÌˆÏܲ ÷Ó˚& ܲˆÏÓ˚ Óü≈ ˛õÎ≈hsˇ ÈÙÙÙÙÈ §Ó!ܲå%È•z xyˆÏàÓ˚•z üˆÏï˛y
50

≤Ãò#˛õ

xyˆÏåÈñ ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ àyˆÏÎ˚ ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ üÓ˚ˆÏã˛ ˛õí˛¸yÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y ˛õ!Ó˚§Ó˚ ~áöÄ ˜ï˛!Ó˚ •Î˚ÈÙÈ
!ö– ~ܲܲyˆÏ°ñ ÓÓ˚yܲ í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛y í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)Ó≈yM˛È°ˆÏܲ ï˛yÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ ÅIµ°ƒ
~ÓÇ Ü˛Óƒy§!_´Ó˚ üyï˛°y!üÈÙȧˆÏüï˛ ¢y§ö ܲÓ˚ï˛– ~áöñ ò%û≈˛yàƒçöܲ •ˆÏ°Ä
ÓÓ˚yˆÏܲÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛y ˆ§•z ~á•z ê˛∆ƒy!í˛¢ö ÓçyÎ˚ Ó˚yáˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏåÈ öy–
ÓÓ˚Ç ˆÎ í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)ˆÏÓ≈Ó˚ ôyÓ˚îy àï˛ ≤ÃyÎ˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ ò¢Ü˛ ôˆÏÓ˚ ô#ˆÏÓ˚ ô#ˆÏÓ˚ ˆçˆÏà
í˛zˆÏë˛ˆÏåÈñ ï˛yÓ˚ ÓyÇ°yܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ û)˛ˆÏày° Ó˚ã˛öy ܲÓ˚ˆÏåÈ ˆÎ§Ó ܲ!ÓÓ˚ fl∫ˆÏây!£Ïï˛
üyö!ã˛eñ ï˛ÑyÓ˚y ≤ÃyÎ˚ §Óy•z í˛zˆÏë˛ ~ˆÏ§ˆÏåÈö Ó!•Ó≈Ó˚yܲ ˆÌˆÏܲ•zñ ~ܲüye fl∫î≈y°#
!ÓŸªy§ û˛Ryã˛yÎ≈ Ä §Æ!£Ï≈ !ÓŸªy§ åÈyí˛¸y– ~áöܲyÓ˚ í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)Óy≈ M˛È°#Î˚ ܲyÓƒû%˛ÓˆÏöÓ˚
üyö!ã˛e ÎÑyˆÏòÓ˚ òáˆÏ° ïÑ˛yÓ˚y •ˆÏ°ö É !e˛õ%Óy˚ Ó˚ ≤ÃÓk% ˛§%®Ó˚ ܲÓ˚ñ ˛õÕ‘Ó û˛Ryã˛yÎ≈ñ
xˆÏ¢yܲ ˆòÓñ Ó ·˛˛õ%e í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛yÓ˚ !Óܲy¢ §Ó˚ܲyÓ˚ñ §OÎ˚ ã˛e´Óï≈˛#ñ !¢Óy!¢§
ã˛ˆÏRy˛õyôƒyÎ˚ñ x!û˛!çÍ ã˛e´Óï≈˛#ó ÓÓ˚yܲ í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛yÓ˚ fl∫î≈y°# !ÓŸªy§ û˛Ryã˛yÎ≈ñ
xö#ï˛y òy§ ê˛ƒyu˛ö Ä §Æ!£Ï≈ û˛Ryã˛yÎ≈– ~шÏòÓ˚ §ˆÏD ~ܲŸªyˆÏ§ í˛zFã˛y!Ó˚ï˛ •Î˚
ˆÎ öyü=!° ˆ§=!° •° !e˛õ%Óy˚ Ó˚ !ü°öܲy!hsˇ Ä !ÓŸª!çÍ ˆòÓñ ï˛üy°ˆÏ¢áÓ˚
ˆò ~ÓÇ Ó ·˛˛õ%e í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛yÓ˚ !ã˛ß√Î˚Ü%˛üyÓ˚ òy§– ~ˆÏòÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ ≤ÃÓ%k˛ Ä ˛õÕ‘Ó
ˆüôy§Ó≈flñ∫ xˆÏ¢yܲ ܲ“öy≤ÃÓîñ !Óܲy¢ Îyò%ü?% ˛ñ §OÎ˚ !¢Ü˛í˛¸Ü˛yï˛Ó˚ñ !¢Óy!¢§
ï˛sfüöflÒñ x!û˛!çÍ Î%!_´!ö¤˛ Ä òy¢≈!öܲñ fl∫î≈y°# Ä xö#ï˛y ܲ“öy!öû≈˛Ó˚
xydí˛zˆßÏ √yã˛Ü˛ñ §Æ!£Ï≈ àû˛#Ó˚ Ä ˛õyë˛ü@¿ñ !ü°öܲy!hsˇ ˆŸ’£ˆÏ ˛Ï õy_´ Ä ï˛sf§yôܲñ
!ÓŸª!çï˛ ≤ÃÜ,˛!ï˛!Ó°y§#ñ ï˛üy°ˆÏ¢áÓ˚ §¡õÜ≈˛!ӈϟ’£Ïܲ xyÓ˚ !ã˛ß√Î˚ !ü!‹T Ä
ˆ≤Ã!üܲ– !ܲv xyÓyÓ˚ ~Ó˚ܲü ˆ°ˆÏÓ!°Ç !òˆÏÎ˚ ~ˆÏòÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ çàˆÏï˛Ó˚ !ܲå%È•z
≤ÃyÎ˚ ˆÓyé˛y §Ω˛Ó öÎ˚– ˆÎüö ≤ÃÓ%k˛Ó˚ ˆŸ’£Ï !ü°ˆÏöÓ˚ ˆŸ’ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚ §¡õ)î≈
xy°yòyñ xyÓyÓ˚ ˛õÕ‘ˆÏÓÓ˚ òy¢≈!öܲï˛y ܲáö•z x!û˛!çˆÏï˛Ó˚ §üy秈Ïã˛ï˛ö
ò¢≈öüü≈ˆÓÏ Ó˚ ˚ ܲyåÈyܲy!åÈ xyˆÏ§ öy– ~•z !ܲå%È!òö xyˆÏà ˛õÎ≈hsˇ xö#ï˛yñ !ÓŸª!çï˛
Ä ï˛üyˆÏ°Ó˚ ܲ!Óï˛y üˆÏö ˆï˛üö òyà ܲyê˛ï˛ öy– üˆÏö •ï˛ñ ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ xy≤Ãyî
Ä §◊ü ˆã˛‹Tyüyeñ ˆ°áy=ˆÏ°y !ë˛Ü˛ ܲ!Óï˛y •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏåÈ öy– !ܲv •zòyö#Ç
xö#ï˛yñ !ÓŸª!çï˛ ò%Ó˚hsˇ !°áˆÏåÈö–
§Ó !ü!°ˆÏÎ˚ í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)Ó≈yM˛ÈˆÏ°Ó˚ ܲ!Óï˛y ~áö ï˛yÓ˚ û)˛ˆÏàyˆÏ°Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y•z
Óî≈˜ÏÓ!ã˛eƒüÎ˚ !ܲv ï˛yˆÏï˛ ÓÓ˚yܲ í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛yÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛!ö!ôcñ ˆ§•z ~ܲܲyˆÏ°Ó˚
!ܲÇÓòhsˇ#≤Ã!ï˛ü ˆöï,˛ˆÏcÓ˚ §ˆÏD ï%˛°öyÎ˚ñ •Î˚ï˛ xˆÏöܲê˛y•z ¡‘yö– •Î˚ï˛ ÓÓ˚yˆÏܲÓ˚
ܲ!Óï˛y §yü!@ˇÃܲû˛yˆÏÓ Îï˛ê˛y §üyçüöflÒ !ܲÇÓy öyÓ˚#Óyò# !ܲÇÓy í˛z!öˆÏ¢ ˆüÈÙÈÓyò#
ï˛ï˛ê˛y fl∫ôü≈!ö¤˛ öÎ˚–
É ÓyÇ°y ܲ!Óï˛yÎ˚ åÈ® !öˆÏÎ˚ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ Ó¶%˛ˆÏòÓ˚ xÓfliyö ò%ÈÙÈû˛yˆÏà !Óû˛_´– ÓyÇ°y
åÈ® !öˆÏÎ˚ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ û˛yÓöy!ã˛hsˇy ܲ#⁄ ~ܲ!ÓÇ¢ ¢ï˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ ÓyÇ°y ܲ!Óï˛yÎ˚ åȈ®
Ï Ó˚
51

≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö#Î˚ï˛y xyˆÏåÈ !ܲ⁄
x!üï˛û˛y É åÈ® ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ §%Ó˚ öÎ˚ ≤Ãò#˛õñ åÈ® •° ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ ï˛y°– ~ÓyˆÏÓ˚ñ àyˆÏöÓ˚ û˛y£ÏyÎ˚
Ó!°ñ ~ܲ•z xyô%!öܲ àyö ÈÙÙÙÙÈ ˆÎüö Ó˚Ó#w§D#ï˛ ÈÙÙÙÙÈ ~ܲçö ày•zˆÏåÈö
ï˛y°åÈyí˛¸y xyÓ˚ xyˆÏÓÜ˚ ˛çö ày•zˆåÏ Èö §ï˛y°– ˆÜ˛yö àyöê˛y ˆÓ!¢ û˛yˆÏ°y °yàˆÏåÈ
Óy û˛yˆÏ°y •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏåÈ ï˛y ˆÜ˛Ó° !¢!«˛ï˛ ˆ◊yï˛y•z Ó°ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏÓö– àyˆÏöÓ˚
ˆÜ˛yöÄ ˆÜ˛yöÄ ˆ«˛ˆÏe !ܲv ~üöê˛y ã˛ˆÏ° öy– ôÓ˚ñ ¢yflf#Î˚ §D#ˆÏï˛ ï˛y°
xyÓ¢ƒÜ˛û˛yˆÏÓ•z xyˆÏ§– ˆÎüö §ˆÏöê˛ !°áˆÏï˛ ˆàˆÏ° åÈ®K˛yö x˛õ!Ó˚•yÎ≈–
ˆ§ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ Î!ò ï˛y°K˛yö öy ÌyˆÏܲñ ï˛y•ˆÏ° ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ àyö ày•zÓyÓ˚•z
x!ôܲyÓ˚ ˆö•z– xyÓ˚ ï,˛ï˛#Î˚ ˆÎ ôÓ˚ˆÏöÓ˚ àyö •Î˚ñ ˆ°yܲàyöñ ï˛yÓ˚Ä §Óê˛y
ï%˛!ü ï˛y°•#öï˛y !òˆÏÎ˚ üƒyˆÏöç ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏÓ öy– ôÓ˚ñ û˛y!ê˛Î˚y!° üyˆÏö
í˛zòy§#öï˛y !ܲÇÓy xÓ§ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ àyö ÈÙÙÙÙÈ ~Ó˚ ï˛y°•#öï˛y !òˆÏÎ˚ !ܲ ï%˛!ü !ÓˆÏÎ˚Ó˚
àyˆÏöÓ˚ xyöˆÏ®yÕ‘yˆÏ§Ó˚ ï˛y°ˆÏܲ ܲáöÄ áyˆÏê˛y ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏÓ⁄
åȈϮÓ˚ ˆÓ°yÎ˚Ä ˆï˛y ~ܲ•z ܲÌy áyˆÏê˛– xˆÏöܲ §üÎ˚ ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ !Ó£ÏÎ˚ åȈϮÓ˚
fl∫Ó˚*˛õ ~ÓÇ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö#Î˚ï˛yˆÏܲ xˆÏöܲê˛y•z !öî≈Î˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚– ˆÜ˛yö ܲ!Óï˛y fl∫Ó˚Ó,ˆÏ_
•ˆÏÓñ ˆÜ˛yöê˛y üyeyÓ,ˆÏ_ xyÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yöê˛y x«˛Ó˚Ó,ˆÏ_ ÈÙÙÙÙÈ ï˛y ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ !Ó£ÏÎ˚•z
ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ !ö!ò≈‹T ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆòÎ˚– ï˛yåÈyí˛¸y ~=ˆÏ°y ˆï˛y ˆö•yÍ•z ˆüyê˛y òyˆÏàÓ˚
üy˛õܲy!ë˛ ÈÙÙÙÙÈ ~ܲ•z üyeyÓ,_ñ !ܲv ï˛yÓ˚ ã˛°ö Îáö ˛õÑyˆÏã˛Ó˚ ï˛áö ˆ§ ˆÎÈÙÈ
Ó˚ܲüñ åÈÈÙÈüyeyÎ˚ ~ˆÏ° ï˛yÓ˚ flõ®öê˛y•z ˆï˛y ÓòˆÏ° ÎyÎ˚Ê ~•z ÓòˆÏ° ÎyÄÎ˚yˆÏܲ
àû˛#Ó˚û˛yˆÏÓ Ó%é˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚y ˆï˛y ~ܲçö ܲ!ÓÓ˚•z ܲyç–
xyÓyÓ˚ñ àyˆÏö ˆÎüö ï˛yˆÏ°Ó˚ ܲï,≈˛ˆÏcÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y §Ω˛yÓöy ˆÌˆÏܲ ÎyÎ˚ñ ܲ!Óï˛yÎ˚Ä
ˆï˛ü!ö åȈϮÓ˚ ܲï,≈˛c §üÎ˚ §üÎ˚ x§• •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏ벖 åÈ®ñ ˆ§§Ó ˆ«˛ˆÏeñ •ˆÏÎ˚
ĈÏë˛ Ü˛!Óï˛yÓ˚ ˛õˆÏ«˛ ~ܲ ܲyÓ˚yàyÓ˚– ~•z ܲyÓ˚yàyÓ˚ û˛yäˆÏï˛ Ü˛!ÓˆÏòÓ˚ ï˛áö
öï%˛ö öï%˛ö í˛zqyÓöÈÙÈ¢!_´ !öˆÏÎ˚ xÓï˛#î≈ •ˆÏï˛ •Î˚– §y¡±!ï˛Ü˛ ˛õ!ÿ˛üÓD#Î˚
ÓyÇ°yܲ!Óï˛yÎ˚ åÈ® ˆÎ xˆÏöܲ ˆ«˛ˆÏe•z ~ܲ ܲyÓ˚yàyÓ˚ •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zˆÏë˛ˆÏåÈ ÈÙÙÙÙÈ ~Ó˚
≤Ãüyî Úˆò¢Û ˛õ!eܲyÎ˚ ≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛ x§Çáƒ Ü˛!Óï˛y– ˆû˛ï˛ˆÏÓ˚ !ܲFå%È ˆö•zñ ˆÜ˛Ó°
åÈ®ê˛y•z xyˆÏåÈ– ~•z åȈ®
Ï Ó˚ ¢,C° û˛yäyÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe ˆàÔï˛ü Ó§% §y¡±!ï˛Ü˛ ÓyÇ°yÈÙÈ
ܲ!Óï˛yÎ˚ ~ܲ !Ó!¢‹T öyü– ˆàÔï˛ü ≤ÃyÎ˚ ܲáö•z ≤ÃÌyàï˛ åȈϮ ˆ°ˆÏáö!öñ
!ܲv Î!ï˛!ã˛ˆÏ•´Ó˚ IJõÓ˚ ~üö ~ܲ §ˆÏã˛ï˛ö =Ó˚&c xyˆÏÓ˚y˛õ ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö ˆÎ
Î!ï˛!ã˛•´ÈÈÙÈ Ü˛yï˛Ó˚ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛y ≤ÃÌy!§k˛ åÈ®ˆÏܲ öy ˆüˆÏöÄñ ܲ!Óï˛yÎ˚ xydyÎ˚
ˆ≤Ãy!Ìï˛ xöƒ ~ܲ xhsˇ°≈#ö åÈ®üÎ˚ï˛yˆÏܲ•z ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ ¢Ó˚#ˆÏÓ˚ çy!àˆÏÎ˚
ï%˛ˆÏ°ˆÏåÈ– ~Ó˚ܲü §üÎ˚ åÈ® xyÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ ¢Ó˚#Ó˚ •ˆÏÎ˚ ÌyˆÏܲ öyñ •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏë˛
ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ xydyÓ˚•z x!ÓˆÏFåÈòƒ xD–
52

ï˛ˆÏÓñ åÈ®ÈÙÈÓƒÓ•yˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏeÄ Ü˛!Óï˛yÓ˚ û)˛ˆÏày°ˆÏܲ xÌ≈yÍ Ü˛!Ó ˆÎáyˆÏö ˆÌˆÏܲ
ܲ!Óï˛y !°áˆÏåÈö ˆ§áyöܲyÓ˚ fliy!öܲï˛yÓ˚ òy!ÓˆÏܲ ˆÓyô•Î˚ ˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚y˛õ%!Ó˚ ~!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚
ÎyÄÎ˚y ÎyÎ˚ öy– xÌ≈yÍ åȈ®
Ï Ó˚Ä §Ω˛Óï˛ ~ܲê˛y û)˛ˆÏày°ÈÙÈ!û˛!_ xyˆÏåÈ– ¢•ˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚
ˆÜ˛yöÄ x!ôÓy§# Îáö ≤Ãã˛[˛ ã˛í˛¸y Ó˚ˆÏäÓ˚ ˆ˛õy¢yܲ ˛õˆÏÓ˚öñ ˆ§•z ˆ˛õy¢yܲ •ˆÏÎ˚
ĈÏë˛ ï˛yÓ˚ ˛õy!Ó˚˛õy!Ÿª≈ܲï˛yÓ˚ Ó˚ˆäÏ Ó˚ xû˛yÓç!öï˛ ~ܲ •y•yܲyÓ˚ !ܲÇÓy §ygsˇöyÓ˚
≤Ãï˛#ܲ– !ܲv ~Ó˚ܲü Ó˚Çã˛ˆÏä ˆ˛õy¢yˆÏܲ Îáö ˆÜ˛yöÄ xy!òÓy§# SÎyÓ˚y §yôyÓ˚îï˛
Ó˚!äö xyÓ˚ í˛zIµ° ˆ˛õy¢yܲ ˛õÓ˚ˆÏï˛•z ˆÓ!¢ ˛õåÈ® ܲˆÏÓ˚öV !öˆÏçˆÏܲ §yçyöñ
ï˛áö ï˛yÓ˚ ˆ§•z §Iy •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏë˛ ≤ÃÜ,˛!ï˛ÈÙȧǰ@¿ï˛yÓ˚•z í˛z˛õüyö– !ë˛Ü˛ ˆï˛ü!öñ
ܲ°yܲyï˛y ¢•ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄ Ü˛!ÓÓ˚ åÈ®Ü˛yï˛Ó˚ï˛yˆÏܲ xyüÓ˚y Óƒyáƒy ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚
˛õy!Ó˚˛õy!Ÿª≈ˆÏܲÓ˚ åÈ®•#öï˛yÓ˚ !ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛ ~ܲ •y•yܲyÓ˚ !ܲÇÓy ≤Ã!ï˛Óyò !•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ–
!ܲÇÓy ¢•ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆÜ˛ˆÏçy Ä Ó˚&!ê˛ö¢y!§ï˛ åȈϮÓ˚ ~ܲ ≤Ã!ï˛ôù!ö !•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓÄ–
!ܲÇÓy Ä•z ܲˆÏ°ÈÙÈÓÑyôy ç#ÓöÎyeyÓ˚ !ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛ ~ܲ ü%!_´Ó˚ ≤ÃyhsˇˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆáÑyç
!•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓÄ–
í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)Ó≈yM˛ÈˆÏ°Ó˚ §yü!@ˇÃܲ ܲyÓƒã˛ã≈˛y §y¡±!ï˛Ü˛ §üˆÏÎ˚ xyÓ˚ ˆï˛üö åÈ®≤ÃÓî
öÎ˚– ˛õÕ‘Óñ x!û˛!çÍñ fl∫î≈y°#ñ §Æ!£Ï≈ ~ÓÇ ï%˛!ü åÈyí˛¸yñ xyÓ˚ ≤ÃyÎ˚ ˆÜ˛í˛z•z
åȈϮ ˆï˛üö !°áˆÏåÈö öy– xy§ˆÏ° xyüyÓ˚ üˆÏö •Î˚ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ≤ÃyÎ˚ ˆÜ˛í˛z•z
~áö ˛õÎ≈hsˇ !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚ û)˛ˆÏàyˆÏ°Ó˚ xhsˇ°≈#ö åÈ®ˆÏܲ xy!Ó‹ÒyÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛
˛õy!Ó˚!ö–
xyÓ˚ ~ܲ!ÓÇ¢ ¢ï˛y∑#ˆÏï˛ åȈ®
Ï Ó˚ ≤ÈÎÏ y˚ çö xyˆÏåÈ !ܲ öy ï˛y ~ܲ!ÓÇ¢ ¢ï˛y∑#Ó˚
¢!_´üyö ܲ!ÓÓ˚y•z !öî≈Î˚ ܲÓ˚ˆÏÓö– ~ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe xyüyÓ˚ üï˛yüˆÏï˛Ó˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄ òyü
xyˆÏåÈ ÓˆÏ° xy!ü üˆÏö ܲ!Ó˚ öy–
≤Ãò#˛õ
É x!ï˛ §¡±!ï˛ •yÎ˚òÓ˚yÓyˆÏò !•!® Ó°ˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ~ܲ ï˛Ó˚&!îÓ˚ §yˆÏÌ ˛õ!Ó˚ã˛Î˚ âˆÏê˛–
í˛z!ö =ö=ö ܲˆÏÓ˚ Ó˚Ó#wöyˆÏÌÓ˚ àyö ܲÓ˚!åȈϰö– ≤Ã̈Ïü á%Ó xÓyܲ ••zñ
˛õˆÏÓ˚ xÓ¢ƒ xyüÓ˚y Ó¶%˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ Îy•z– xyÓ˚Ä xˆÏöܲ àyö ÷ˆÏö!åÈ ï˛yÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ–
ˆï˛yüyˆÏܲ ~ܲÌy Ó°yÓ˚ ܲyÓ˚î !û˛ß¨ û˛y£ÏyÎ˚ !°!áï˛ ~ܲ!ê˛ Ü˛!Óï˛y ˆÜ˛yö §,!‹T=ˆÏî
x˛õÓ˚ û˛y£ÏyÓ˚ ܲyˆÏÓ˚y ܲyˆÏåÈ ≤ÃyˆÏîÓ˚ ˆòy§Ó˚ •ˆÏÎ˚ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ ˆû˛ˆÏÓåÈ !ܲ⁄ ≤ß¿!ê˛
ï˛yˆÏÜ˛Ä Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚!åÈ– í˛z_ˆÏÓ˚ ˆçˆÏö!åÈ à#!ï˛üÎ˚ï˛yÓ˚ ܲÌy– Î!òÄ xyô%!öܲ ÓyÇ°y
ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ ˜§!öˆÏܲÓ˚y à#!ï˛üÎ˚ï˛yÓ˚ !Ó˛õˆÏ«˛ñ ï˛Ó% ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ !ܲ üˆÏö •Î˚ öy ~!ê˛
§yôyÓ˚î üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ˆ˛õÑÔˆÏåÈ ÎyÓyÓ˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ §•ç í˛z˛õyÎ˚ !åÈ°⁄
x!üï˛yû˛ É ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ~•z ≤ß¿!ê˛ òyÓ˚îÊ òƒyáñ ˛õ,!ÌÓ#Ó˚ ˆÎˆÏܲyöÄ û˛y£ÏyÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y ◊Óî@ˇÃy•ƒ
Ó˚*˛õ xyˆÏå–È Ó˚*˛õ üyˆÏö ò,¢ƒ– ˆÎüö ò)ˆÏÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ ˆÜ˛í˛z ÓyÌÓ˚&ˆÏü ç° ˆì˛ˆÏ°
fl¨yö ܲÓ˚ˆÏåÈñ xyÓ˚ ~ܲê%˛ ò)ˆÏÓ˚ ӈϧ ˆ§•z é˛y˛õ§y ¢∑ ÷ˆÏö•z ï%˛!ü ˆï˛yüyÓ˚
53

üˆÏöÓ˚ ˆã˛yˆÏá ˆ§•z fl¨yöò,¢ƒ ˆòáˆÏï˛ ˛õyFåÈ– û˛y£ÏyÓ˚ ˆÎ ¢∑=!° ò,¢ƒüÎ˚
ôù!öÓyã˛Ü˛ñ ˆ§=!° ˆÎˆÏܲyöÄ û˛y£Ïyû˛y£Ï#Ó˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ•z §%ˆÓÏ yôƒ •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ–˚
!ܲv û˛y£Ïy ˆÎˆÏ•ï%˛ ò,¢ƒüü≈ˆÓÏ Ó˚ ˚ ~•z §#!üï˛ ˆ«˛eˆÏܲ x!ï˛e´ü ܲˆÏÓ˚ §Ó§üÎ˚•z
xˆÏÌ≈Ó˚ !òˆÏܲ ã˛ˆÏ° ˆÎˆÏï˛ ã˛yÎ˚ñ !ܲÇÓy ò,¢ƒˆÏܲ ˆ˛õ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÎˆÏï˛ ÎyÎ˚ ò¢≈ˆÏöÓ˚
!òˆÏܲ ÈÙÙÙÙÈ û˛y£ÏyÓ˚ ◊ÓîˆÏÎyàƒ Ó˚*ˆÏ˛õÓ˚ åÈ!Ó ˆ¢£Ï ˛õÎ≈hsˇ á%Ó ~ܲê˛y xyܲ£Ï≈î
ܲˆÏÓ˚ öy xyüyˆÏòÓ˚– ~ܲê˛y ≤Ãüyî ˆ˛õ¢ ܲ!Ó˚– ÓyÇ°yÎ˚ ôùöƒydܲ ¢∑û˛y[˛yˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚
≤Ã!ï˛!ê˛ ôù!öÓ˚•z ˆÎ ~ܲê˛y !ã˛eüÎ˚ Ó˚*˛õ xyˆÏåÈ ï˛y ˆï˛y x!Ó§ÇÓy!òï˛– !ܲv
÷ô%üye ôùöƒydܲ ¢∑ !òˆÏÎ˚ !ܲ ÓyÇ°yû˛y£ÏyÓ˚ ˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚y ¢!_´ Îyã˛y•z ܲÓ˚y ÎyÎ˚⁄
~ˆÏE˛ÓyˆÏÓ˚ x˛õ!Ó˚!ã˛ï˛ ˆÜ˛yöÄ û˛y£ÏyÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛y ï˛yÓ˚ xÓ=Z˛ˆÏöÓ˚ Ó˚•§ƒ¢!_´ˆÏï˛•z
x˛õÓ˚ û˛y£Ïyû˛y£Ï# ܲyˆÏÓy˚ ≤ÃyˆÏîÓ˚ ˆòy§Ó˚ •ˆÏÎ˚ ˛õˆÏí˛¸– !ë˛Ü˛ ˆÎüö ܲ!Ó ÄÎ˚yí≈˛fl∫yÌ≈
!öç≈ö !Ó˚˛õyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ àyˆÏöÓ˚ ܲÌy öy Ó%ˆÏé˛Ä ï˛yÓ˚ xy!ï≈˛ˆÏܲ !ë˛Ü˛•z Ó%é˛ˆÏï˛
ˆ˛õˆÏÓ˚!åȈϰö– ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ˆ§•z û˛y£Ïy öyÈÙȈÓyé˛y ÄÎ˚yí≈˛fl∫yˆÏÌ≈Ó˚ üˆÏö àyˆÏöÓ˚ !Ó£ÏÎ˚
!ܲÇÓy xÌ≈ !öˆÏÎ˚ !ܲå%È §Ω˛yÓöyÓ˚ñ !ܲå%È §Ω˛yÓƒï˛yÓ˚ñ !ܲå%È ≤Èϟ¿Ó˚ xÓï˛yÓ˚îy
ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ°–
ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ à#!ï˛üÎ˚ï˛y §Ω˛Óï˛ xˆÏÌ≈Ó˚ Óy•zˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄ Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ öÎ˚– ï˛ˆÏÓ ï˛y
ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y ˆû˛ï˛ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ =î– ÓyÇ°y ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ ˜§!öˆÏܲÓ˚y ~Ó˚ !Ó˛õˆÏ«˛
ÌyܲˆÏ°Äñ ïÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚ !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚ ≤ÃyˆÏî àyö ÌyܲˆÏ°ñ ï˛y §Ó ≤Ã!ï˛ˆÏÓ˚yô ô%ˆÏ°yÎ˚
!ü!¢ˆÏÎ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚ ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ üˆÏü≈ ã˛ˆÏ° xyˆÏ§– ~ ≤çˆÏD xy!ü xyüyÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y
üçyÓ˚ xy!Ó‹ÒyÓ˚ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ §ˆÏD ˆ¢Î˚yÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ !öˆÏï˛ ã˛y•z– ï%˛!ü ܲáöÄ ~ܲyhsˇ
!öç≈ˆÏö à#ï˛!Óï˛yˆÏöÓ˚ àyö=!° ˆçyˆÏÓ˚ ˆçyˆÏÓ˚ xyÓ,!_ ܲˆÏÓ˚ !öˆÏçˆÏܲ
÷!öˆÏÎå˚ È⁄ ˆòáˆÏÓñ Ó˚Ó#wöyˆÏÌÓ˚ ü•_ü à#!ï˛Ü˛!Óï˛y Ä=!° ÈÙÙÙÙÈ !ܲv ÷ô%üye
˛õyˆÏë˛ñ ˛õí˛¸yÎ˚ ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ à#!ï˛Ó˚*˛õ !ë˛Ü˛ ˆÎö á%°ˆÏåÈ öy– üˆÏö •ˆÏFåÈñ ˆÓ!¢Ó˚û˛yà
àyˆÏöÓ˚ ¢ˆÏ∑Ó˚•z ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ ˆÎö §%ˆÓÏ Ó˚ ˚ çöƒ xˆÏ˛õ«˛y Ó˚ˆÎÏ ˚ ˆàˆÏåÈ– xyÓyÓ˚ òƒyáñ
ç#ÓöyöˆÏ®Ó˚ ÚÓ˚*˛õ§# ÓyÇ°yÛÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛y=!° ˛õí˛¸ˆ°
Ï ~üöê˛y üˆÏö •Î˚ öy– üˆÏö
•Î˚ öy ~Ó˚ ܲ!Óï˛y=!°Ó˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄ xyˆÏÓ˚y!˛õï˛ §%ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ çöƒ xˆÏ˛õ«˛y xyˆÏåÈ–
ç#Óöyö® àyö ÓÑyˆÏôö!öñ ܲ!Óï˛y•z !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈö– !ܲv ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚Ä ˆÎ Ä•z
ܲ!Óï˛y=!° x§Ω˛Ó à#!ï˛üÎ˚ ~Ó˚ ܲyÓ˚î ˆ§•z §D#ï˛ Ü˛!Óï˛y=!°Ó˚ ¢ˆÏ∑Ó˚
ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ í˛zˆÏë˛ xy§ˆÏåÈ– Ä•z ¢∑Ó˚y §%ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ çöƒ xˆÏ˛õ«˛y ܲÓ˚ˆÏåÈ öyñ ÓÓ˚Ç
!öˆÏçÓ˚y•z ~ܲ x◊&ï˛ §%ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ üü≈Ó˚ àyˆÏÎ˚ ˆüˆÏá !é˛ü •ˆÏÎ˚ ܲ!Óï˛yÎ˚ ӈϧ
xyˆÏåÈ– !ÓöˆÏÎÓ˚ ˚ ܲ!Óï˛yÄ ï˛y•z– xhsˇï˛ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ≤ÃÌü!òˆÏܲÓ˚ ˆÓ!¢Ó˚û˛yà ܲ!Óï˛y•z–
~üö!ܲ ˆàÔï˛ü Ó§%Ó˚ ܲ!Óï˛y ÈÙÙÙÙÈ ÎyÓ˚ xÓÎ˚Ó ≤Ãã˛!°ï˛ñ ≤ÃÌyàï˛ åÈ®ˆÏܲ
~ܲÓ˚ܲˆÏüÓ˚ ≤Ãï˛ƒyáyö ܲˆÏÓ˚•z àˆÏí˛¸ ˆï˛y°y •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ ÈÙÙÙÙÈ ï˛yÓ˚yÄ ~ܲôÓ˚ˆÏöÓ˚
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§yD#!ï˛Ü˛ï˛yÎ˚ xye´yhsˇ– xÌ≈yÍ Ü˛!Óï˛yÓ˚ ˆû˛ï˛ˆÏÓ˚ §%Ó˚ ÌyܲˆÏ°Ä ï˛yÓ˚ xyÓ˚
àyö •ˆÏÎ˚ Äë˛yÓ˚ òÓ˚ܲyÓ˚ •Î˚ öy– !ë˛Ü˛ ~ ܲyÓ˚ˆÏî•z •yˆÏ°Ó˚ ~•z ܲ!Óï˛yˆÏܲ àyö
Óy!öˆÏÎ˚ àyÄÎ˚yÓ˚ ˆ°y˛õyü%oyˆÏòyˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ xy!ü !ÓˆÏÓ˚yô#–
≤Ãò#˛õ
É xy!ü !ÓŸªy§ ܲ!Ó˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ !°ê˛°üƒyàˆÏܲ ˆÜ˛w ܲˆÏÓ˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ ˆ°áܲˆÏày¤˛# àˆÏí˛¸
ĈÏ벖 ~ÓÇ ï˛y xï˛ƒhsˇ fl∫yfliƒÜ˛Ó˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ Ü˛yàçˆÏܲ ÓÑy!ã˛ˆÏÎ˚ Ó˚yáyÓ˚ çˆÏöƒó Ä•z
xM˛ÈˆÏ°Ó˚ §y!•ï˛ƒã˛ã≈˛yÓ˚ ◊#Ó,!k˛Ó˚ çˆÏöƒÄ üD°çöܲ– ˆ§•z xˆÏÌ≈ §ü@ˇÃ
í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)ˆÏÓ≈ ≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛ ˆÜ˛yö ܲyàç=!° §ú˛° ˆÜ˛yö!ê˛ x§ú˛° ˆ§•z !Óï˛ˆÏÜ≈˛
öy !àˆÏÎ˚ ÚܲyàˆÏçÓ˚ ˆöÔܲyÛÓ˚ §¡õyòܲ !•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ ˆï˛yüyˆÏܲ !öɧˆÏB˛yˆÏã˛ Ó°ˆÏï˛
˛õy!Ó˚ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ܲyàç!ê˛Ä x§ú˛° xhsˇï˛ ~ Óƒy˛õyˆÏÓ˚– ÎÑyÓ˚y !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈö
ܲyàç!ê˛ˆÏï˛ ïÑ˛yÓ˚y ≤ÃyÎ˚ ≤ÈïÏ ˛ƒˆÏܲ xyˆÏà•z ˛õ!Ó˚!ã˛ï˛ öyü ˆ°áyˆÏ°!áˆÏï˛ñ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚
ï˛Ó˚&î Ó¶%˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ˆáy°y !öüsfî !òˆÏÎ˚Ä ˆòˆÏá!åÈñ û˛yÓ!åÈ §ü§ƒy!ê˛ ˆÜ˛yÌyÎ˚Ê
üyˆÏé˛üˆÏôƒ•z ˆû˛ˆÏÓ!åÈ ˆÎÔÓö≤Ãy!ÆÓ˚ xyˆÏà•z Ó%!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ˆà° ܲyàç!ê˛– xÌã˛
~üöÄ öÎ˚ ˆÎ ܲyÓƒ˜ÏÓܲˆÏ“ ˆÜ˛yöÄ !Ó˛õÓ˚#ï˛ xû˛#∞y ˜ï˛!Ó˚ •ˆÏFåÈñ !°ê˛°
üƒyày!çˆÏöÓ˚ Î%à ï˛ˆÏÓ !ܲ ˆ¢£Ï •ˆÏÎ˚ ˆàˆÏåÈ⁄ §Çܲ°ö !ܲÇÓy ˜ò!öܲ ܲyàˆÏçÓ˚
Ó˚!ÓÓy§Ó˚#Î˚ !ܲ ˆÜ˛yöÄ §üÎ˚ÓòˆÏ°Ó˚ •z!Dï˛⁄
x!üï˛yû˛ É àï˛ ¢ï˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ £ÏyˆÏê˛Ó˚ ò¢Ü˛ ܲ!ÓÈÙȈ°áܲˆÏòÓ˚ ˆày¤˛#Ók˛ï˛yÓ˚ §%Óî≈Î%àñ §_ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚
ò¢Ü˛ ≤Ã!ï˛¤˛yö !ÓˆÏÓy˚ !ôï˛yÓ˚ §%Óî≈Îà% – ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ•z ˆày¤˛#Ók˛ï˛yÓ˚ xyòˆÏ¢≈
~ܲê%˛ ~ܲê%˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚ û˛yäö ôÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ÷Ó˚& ܲˆÏÓ˚ñ xy!¢Ó˚ ò¢Ü˛ ˆÎüö ˆï˛üöñ
öÓù%•ˆz ÎÏ Ó˚ ˚ ò¢Ü˛ ˆÌˆÏܲ ܲ!ÓÈÙȈ°áܲ !•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ ÎÑyÓ˚y !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛!¤˛ï˛ ܲˆÏÓö˚ ñ
ïÑ˛yÓ˚y §Óy•z !ܲv ~ܲܲû˛yˆÏÓ•z í˛zˆÏë˛ ~ˆÏ§ˆÏåÈö ÓyÇ°y §y!•ˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚ ≤ÃyDˆÏî–
ˆÜ˛yöÄ ˆày¤˛#Ók˛ï˛yÓ˚ ï˛Ü˛üy àyˆÏÎ˚ ˆüˆÏá í˛zˆÏë˛ xyˆÏ§ö!ö–
xyÓ˚ ~áöñ ~•z ï˛Ìyܲ!Ìï˛ í˛z_Ó˚yô%!öܲ Sxy§ˆÏ° !ÓŸªyÎ˚ö ÈÙÈ xye´yhsˇV çüyöyÎ˚
ˆÎˆÏ•ï%˛ §Ó!ܲå%ÈÓ˚•z !Ó!öü≈yî §Ω˛Óñ ï˛y•z §ÓôÓ˚ˆÏöÓ˚ !ÓˆÏÓ˚yô Óy !ÓˆÏÓ˚y!ôï˛y•z
~áö ≤Ãy!ï˛¤˛y!öܲû˛yˆÏÓ fl∫#Ü,˛ï˛– !ö¡¨Óà≈#Î˚ ˆã˛ï˛öy ˆÌˆÏܲ ÷Ó˚& ܲˆÏÓ˚ öyÓ˚#Óyòñ
≤Ã!ï˛¤˛yö!ÓˆÏÓ˚y!ôï˛y ˆÌˆÏܲ ÷Ó˚& ܲˆÏÓ˚ xyM˛È!°Ü˛ï˛yÓyò ÈÙÙÙÙÈ §Ó!ܲå%È•z ~áö
≤Ãy!ï˛¤˛y!öܲû˛yˆÏÓ @ˇÃy•ƒ– ˆï˛yñ ˆÎ §üyˆÏç xy•zܲöÈÙÈû˛yäyÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛Ü)˛° ˆÜ˛yöÄ
˛õ!Ó˚ˆÏÓ¢ xyÓ˚ ˆÓшÏã˛ ˆö•zñ ˆÎáyˆÏö ˆÎÈÙÈˆÜ˛yöÄÈÙÈû˛yäy•z ≤Ãy!ï˛¤˛y!öܲï˛yÓ˚
!§°ˆÏüy•Ó˚ ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚ ÈÙÙÙÙÈ ˆ§áyˆÏö °ê˛° üƒyày!çˆÏöÓ˚ Ó˚yàñ ˆçòñ ˆï˛çñ
ÓòˆÏüçyçñ öï%˛öcÈÙȧ¶˛yöñ xyd§æü ~§ˆÏÓÓ˚ xyÓ˚ xyˆÏàÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y ˆï˛üö
˙!ï˛•y!§Ü˛ ˆÜ˛yöÄ ü)°ƒ ÌyܲˆÏåÈ !ܲ⁄ §Ó!ܲå%È•z ˜Óô ÈÙÙÙÙÈ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ¢!_´˛õòˆÏܲ
ˆüˆÏö ˆöÄÎ˚yê˛yÄ ˆÎüö ˜Óôñ !ë˛Ü˛ ˆï˛üö•z ˜Óô ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ¢!_´˛õòˆÏܲ
öyÈÙÈüyöyê˛yÄ– ~üï˛yÓfliyÎ˚ ˆày¤˛#Ók˛ •ÄÎ˚y !ܲÇÓy !°ê˛° üƒyày!çö ܲÓ˚yÓ˚

xyÓ˚ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ˆÎÔÓöܲyˆÏ°Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y ˆÜ˛yöÄ üyˆÏö ÌyܲˆÏåÈ !ܲ⁄ üˆÏö Ó˚yáˆÏï˛
•ˆÏÓ ˆÎ ¢!_´˛õòÓ˚y !öˆÏç !ܲv ˆày¤˛#Ók˛ •ˆÏÎ!˚ åȈ°
Ï öñ Úxï˛wÛ ˆÓÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ!˚ åȈ°
Ï ö
§yüy!çܲ Ó‡ ≤Ã!ï˛¤˛yˆÏöÓ˚ !ÓÓ˚&k˛ï˛y ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ !àˆÏÎ˚•zÊ
ï˛yåÈyí˛¸y òƒyáñ ÎÑyÓ˚y•z ~ï˛Ü˛y° !°ê˛° üƒyày!çˆÏöÓ˚ üyôƒˆÏü !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚ öï%˛ö
fl∫Ó˚ñ öï%˛ö §Ω˛yÓöyñ öï%˛ö çàˆÏï˛Ó˚ ≤Ãܲy¢ ~ÓÇ ≤Ãã˛yÓ˚ âê˛yˆÏï˛ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈöñ
ïÑ˛yÓ˚y §Óy•z !ܲv ≤Ãã˛!°ï˛ ≤Ã!ï˛¤˛yˆÏöÓ˚ Óy•zˆÏÓ˚ ~ˆÏ§ ~ܲ !Óܲ“ ≤Ã!ï˛¤˛yˆÏöÓ˚•z
≤Ã!ï˛¤˛y ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈö– xÌã˛ xyçˆÏܲ ~üö ~ܲ Î%à òÓ˚çyÎ˚ ~ˆÏ§ Ü˛í˛¸y
öyí˛¸ˆåÏ È ˆÎáyˆÏö !Ó!û˛ß¨ û)˛ˆÏày°ÈÙÈ˛õ!Ó˚§ˆÏÓñ˚ !ӈϢ£Ïï˛ Óyäy!°ÈÙÈxô%ƒ!£Ïï˛ xM˛Èˆ°
Ï
ˆåÈyê˛ ˆåÈyê˛ §ÇÓyò˛õeˆÏܲ ˆÜ˛w ܲˆÏÓ˚ ~ܲôÓ˚ˆÏöÓ˚ xyM˛È!°Ü˛ ≤Ã!ï˛¤˛yö àˆÏí˛¸
í˛zë˛ˆÏåÈ– ï˛Ìƒ ≤ÃÎ%!_´Ó˚ ~•z Î%ˆÏà üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ áÓˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ !áˆÏò e´üÓô≈üyö xyÓ˚ ˆ§•z
!áˆÏòÓ˚ í˛z˛õˆÏÎyà# áyˆÏòƒÓ˚ ˆçyàyö !òˆÏFåÈ ~•z §ÇÓyò˛õe=!°– !Ó!û˛ß¨ xM˛Èˆ°
Ï Ó˚
xyd≤Ã!ï˛¤˛yÓ˚ ˆÎ òy!Î˚c ~ï˛!òö !°ê˛° üƒyày!çˆÏöÓ˚ ÜÑ˛yˆÏô öƒhflÏ !åÈ°ñ ˜ò!öܲ
ܲyàˆÏçÓ˚ Ó˚!ÓÓy§Ó˚#Î˚=!° x§ˆÏã˛ï˛öû˛yˆÏÓ•z ˆ§•z òy!Î˚ˆcÏ Ó˚ xˆÏöܲê˛y !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚
IJõÓ˚ ï%˛ˆÏ° !öˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ–
~ê˛y ˆï˛y flõ‹Tï˛•z ˆÜ˛yöÄ §üÎ˚ ÓòˆÏ°Ó˚•z •z!Dï˛ñ ï˛y•z öy⁄
≤Ãò#˛õ
É xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ xyU˛y=ˆÏ°yÎ˚ üyˆÏé˛ üyˆÏé˛ ò)Ó˚§M˛ÈyˆÏÓ˚ ï%˛!üÄ xÇ¢@ˇÃ•î ܲÓ˚ñ üyˆÏö
ܲÓ˚yˆÏöy •Î˚– ˆ§•z xˆÏÌ≈ ï%˛!üÄ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚•z ~ܲçö SüyˆÏé˛üˆÏôƒ x˛õ!Ó˚!ã˛ï˛V–
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ !ܲ üˆÏö ˛õˆÏí˛¸ x!üï˛yû˛òyñ ˆ§!òö Ó˚yï˛ ò%ˆÏê˛y !ܲ xyí˛¸y•zˆÏê˛ •ˆÏÓñ
xyüyÓ˚ ܲ!Ó¶%˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ã˛y•zÓy§y üyˆÏö !ӈϰyö#Î˚y ˆÌˆÏܲ ˛õÕ‘Óñ ≤ÃÓ%k˛ñ xˆÏ¢yܲñ
!Óü° xyüÓ˚y §Óy•z ˆê˛!°ˆÏú˛yˆÏöÓ˚ !flõܲyˆÏÓ˚ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ à°yÎ˚ Ó˚Ó#wöyˆÏÌÓ˚
~ܲ!ê˛ àyö ÷öˆÏï˛ ã˛y•z!åÈ°yü– ï%˛!üÄ ÷!öˆÏÎ!˚ åȈ°
Ï ñ !ܲv á%Ó ô#ˆÏÓ˚ ӈϰ!åȈ°
Ï
ÚxyˆÏhflÏ ày•zÓ ˆÜ˛üöÛ ÈÙÙÙÙÈ §Ω˛Óï˛ ÚˆÎ Ó˚yˆÏï˛ ˆüyÓ˚ ò%Î˚yÓ˚=!° û˛yä° é˛ˆÏí˛¸Û–
xyüÓ˚y ü%?˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ ÷ˆÏö!åÈ°yü– ï%˛!ü !ܲ àyˆÏöÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yö ï˛y!°ü !öˆÏÎ˚!åȈϰ⁄
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ Ú˛õÓ˚ÓyˆÏ§ ç#î≈ ~ܲï˛yÓ˚yÛ Ü˛!Óï˛yÓ˚ í˛zͧà≈Ä ˆòá°yü ...
x!üï˛yû˛ É •Ñƒyñ àyö xyüyÓ˚ xӈϧ¢yö– àyöñ xyüyÓ˚ üˆÏï˛ñ ˛õ,!ÌÓ#Ó˚ ˆ◊¤˛ !¢“ÈÙÈüyôƒü–
xyçܲy° ~•z xӈϧ¢yö ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚ ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚ ~ï˛ê˛y•z òyöy˛õy!ö ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚ ˆàˆÏåÈ ˆÎ
xy!ü üˆÏö üˆÏö ~•z Ü%˛§ÇflÒyÓ˚ˆÜÏ ˛Ä §!ï˛ƒ ӈϰ ôˆÏÓ˚ !öˆÏÎ!˚ åÈ ˆÎ xyüyÓ˚ ç#ÓˆÏö
ˆ§•z §¡õÜ≈˛=!°•z ˆ¢£Ï ˛õÎ≈hsˇ !ê˛ˆÏܲ ÌyˆÏܲñ ˆÎ=ˆÏ°yÓ˚ üˆÏôƒÜ˛yÓ˚ ˆÎyàyˆÏÎyˆÏàÓ˚
ˆ§ï%˛ •° àyö– öyñ §%Ó˚ öÎ˚ àyö– ~ܲçˆÏöÓ˚ à°yÎ˚ !Ó®%üyeÄ §%ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ flõ¢≈
öy ÌyܲˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ñ ï˛Ó%Ä ˆ§ Îáö üˆÏö üˆÏö àyö ܲˆÏÓ˚ ï˛y ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ §%Ó˚ åÈyí˛¸y
•Î˚ öy– åÈ!ÓÓ˚ çàˆÏï˛ Ü˛y°yÓ˚ Óœy•zu˛ˆÏö§ ÌyܲˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ñ !ܲv àyˆÏöÓ˚ çàˆÏï˛
ˆÜ˛yöÄ §%Ó˚ܲy°y!ü ˆö•z– ˆÎ Ó!ôÓ˚ ï˛yÓ˚ ܲÌy xy°yòy– xy!ü Ó°!åÈ ÎyˆÏòÓ˚

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◊ÓˆÏî!wÎ˚ §¡õ)î≈ §%fli Ä §ã˛°ñ ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ܲÌy– ~ܲ•z Ó˚Çñ §Óy•z ˆòáˆÏï˛
˛õyˆÏFåÈ öy– !ܲv ~ܲ•z §%Ó˚ñ §Óy•z ~ܲ•zû˛yˆÏÓ ÷öˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏFåÈ– ˆÜ˛í˛z @ˇÃ•î
ܲÓ˚ˆÏåÈñ ˆÜ˛í˛z ܲÓ˚ˆÏåÈ öy– ˆ§ê˛y ˆï˛y Ó˚&!ã˛Ó˚ ≤ß¿–
í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)Ó≈yM˛ÈˆÏ°Ó˚ ï˛Ó˚&î ¢!_´¢y°# ܲ!Ó ê˛Ç°yÓ˚ x!û˛!çÍ ã˛e´Óï≈˛#Ó˚ §ˆÏD
xyüyÓ˚ ~ܲ û)˛ï˛@ˇÃhflÏ §¡õˆÏÜ≈˛Ó˚ ˆÜ˛wÄ •° ~•z àyö– x!û˛!çÍ á%Ó
mƒÌ≈•#öû˛yˆÏÓ ÓˆÏ° ˆÎ Ä Ü˛!Óï˛y !°áˆÏï˛ ÷Ó˚& ܲˆÏÓ!˚ åÈ° §%üˆÏöÓ˚ àyö ˛õyàˆÏ°Ó˚
üˆÏï˛y û˛y°Óy§ˆÏï˛ ˆ˛õˆÏÓ˚!åÈ° ӈϰ– xyÓ˚ xy!ü !ã˛Ó˚ܲy° üˆÏö üˆÏö ĈÏܲ
!•ÇˆÏ§ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ~ˆÏ§!åÈ xy!ü !ë˛Ü˛ ÄÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y àyö û˛y°ˆÏӈϧ ܲ!Óï˛y ˆ°áy ÷Ó˚&
ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚!ö ӈϰ– xyüyÓ˚ flf#Ó˚ §ˆÏDÄ xyüyÓ˚ §¡õÜ≈˛§)ˆÏeÓ˚ ü)ˆÏ° !ܲv
àyö– xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ˛õyÓ˚flõ!Ó˚ܲ xy!Ó‹ÒyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆ•ï%˛ !åÈ° û˛#üˆÏ§ö ˆÎy!¢Ó˚ ~ܲ
àyˆÏöÓ˚ ç°§y–
xyÓyÓ˚ òƒyáñ ~ï˛ ÓåÈÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛y !°á!åÈñ !öˆÏç !ܲv ܲáöÄ ˆÜ˛yöÄ Ü˛!Óï˛y
•ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚!ö– í˛z˛õöƒy§ !°ˆÏá!åÈñ !öˆÏç ܲáöÄ ˆ§•z í˛z˛õöƒy§ •ˆÏÎ˚
í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚!ö– ≤ÃÓ¶˛ !°ˆÏá!åÈñ !öˆÏç ˆ§•z ≤ÃÓ¶˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚!ö– !ܲv
~ܲçö ≤ÃÜ,˛ï˛ àyÎ˚ܲ ~ܲ ~ܲê˛y àyö •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ö– ˆÎy!àÎ˚y Ó˚yˆÏà
àyÄÎ˚y ë%˛ü!Ó˚ Ú!˛õÎ˚y!ܲ !ü°ˆÏöy!ܲ xy¢Û xyÓò%° ܲ!Ó˚ü áÑy §yˆÏ•Ó ˆàˆÏΈ˚ åÏ Èö–
û˛#üˆÏ§ö ˆÎy!¢Ä ˆàˆÏΈ˚ åÏ Èö– ܲ!Ó˚ü áÑy xyÓ˚ û˛#üˆÏ§ö ˆÎy!¢Ó˚ àyÄÎ˚y àyöò%!ê˛Ó˚
≤ÃÌü!ê˛ xyüyÓ˚ ܲyˆÏö ˆ¢yöyñ !mï˛#Î˚!ê˛ !¢°ã˛Ó˚ ¢•ˆÏÓ˚•z ˆã˛yˆÏá ˆòáy– üˆÏö
•!FåÈ°ñ û˛#üˆÏ§ˆÏöÓ˚ §yÓ˚y ¢Ó˚#Ó˚ñ §ü@ˇÃ x!hflÏcñ ˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚y §_y ˆÎö ˆ§•z àyö
•ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zˆëÏ ˛ˆÏåÈ– !¢“# ˆÎ xy§ˆÏ° ~ܲ üyôƒü ÎyÓ˚ üôƒ !òˆÏÎ˚ !¢“ !öˆÏç ˆÌˆÏܲ•z
•ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏë˛ ÈÙÙÙÙÈ àyö §Ω˛Óï˛ ~Ó˚ ˆ◊¤˛ í˛zòy•Ó˚î– ˆ§Ó˚ܲüñ ˆòÓÓ ï˛ !ÓŸªyˆÏ§Ó˚
à°yÎ˚ ÎyÓ˚y Ú~ˆÏÓ˚ !û˛áyÓ˚# §yçyˆÏÎ˚ ܲ# Ó˚D ï%˛!ü ܲ!Ó˚ˆÏ°Û àyö!ê˛ ÷ˆÏöˆÏåÈöñ
ï˛yÓ˚y §Óy•z xÓ¢ƒ•z xyüyÓ˚ ~•z üˆÏï˛Ó˚ §ˆÏD ~ܲüï˛ •ˆÏÓö ˆÎ ˆòÓÓ ï˛
!öˆÏç•z Ä•z àyö •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zˆÏë˛!åȈϰö– ˛õˆÏÓ˚ xöƒyöƒ àyÎ˚ܲÈÙÈày!Î˚ܲyÓ˚ à°yÎ˚
~ܲ•z àyö ÷ˆÏö!åÈñ ˆÜ˛í˛z•z Ä•z àyö •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ö!ö– •ƒy!Ó˚ ˆÓ°y
ú˛ˆÏrê˛ Îáö Úçüy•zܲy ˆú˛Î˚yÓ˚ĈÏÎ˚°Û àyöñ !ï˛!ö ï˛y •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏë˛ö– ÓÓ !í˛°yöñ
~ܲ•zû˛yˆÏÓñ !öˆÏç•z ˆÎö •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏë˛ö ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ~ˆÏܲܲ!ê˛ àyö–
xyÓyÓ˚ òƒyáñ ≤ÃÓ¶˛ !ܲÇÓy åÈ!Ó •ˆÏÎ˚ Äë˛y ˆÜ˛yöÄ ˆ°áܲÈÙÈxÑy!ܲˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ˛õˆÏ«˛
x§Ω˛Óñ !ܲv à“ Sˆfiê˛y!Ó˚ xˆÏÌ≈ öÎ˚ñ ˆê˛° xˆÏÌ≈V •ˆÏÎ˚ Äë˛y ˆÎˆÏܲyöÄ ü@¿
Ü˛ÌˆÏܲÓ˚ ˛õˆÏ«˛ §Ω˛Ó– ôˆÏÓ˚y ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛ˆÏÓ¢# ˆÜ˛yöÄ ü!•°y ïÑ˛yÓ˚ fl∫ã˛ˆÏ«˛
ˆòáy ˆÜ˛yöÄ ò%â≈ê˛öyÓ˚ Óî≈öy !òˆÏFåÈöñ •Î˚ï˛ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ û˛y£ÏyK˛yö á%Ó•z §#!üï˛ñ
•Î˚ï˛ ïÑ˛yˆÏܲ !°áˆÏï˛ Ó°ˆÏ° !ï˛!ö ܲáö•z ï˛y ˆ˛õˆÏÓ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏÓö öyñ !ܲv à“
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Ó°ˆÏï˛ Ó°ˆÏï˛ Ü˛# ~ܲ ˆâyˆÏÓ˚ ˆày°ày° •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏåÈ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ˆã˛yáñ !¢í˛zˆÏÓ˚
í˛zë˛ˆÏåÈ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ¢Ó˚#Ó˚ñ üyˆÏé˛üyˆÏ鲕z ˆÜÑ˛ˆÏ˛õ ˆÜÑ˛ˆÏ˛õ í˛zë˛ˆÏåÈ í˛zòƒï˛ ï˛ç≈ö#Ä ÈÙÙÙÙÈ
xyÓ˚ ï%˛!üñ §ü!˛õ≈ï˛ Ä Ü˛yäy° ~ܲ ˆ◊yï˛yñ •ë˛yÍ•z Ó%é˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚åÈ !ï˛!ö !öˆÏç
Ä•z à“!ê˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zˆÏë˛ˆÏåÈö–
ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚ ~•z Ú•ˆÏÎ˚ Äë˛yÛÓ˚ ~ܲ ï%˛ü%° ˆÜ˛y°y•° ˆçˆÏà xyˆÏåÈ ÓˆÏ°•z
•Î˚ï˛ Ü˛!Óï˛y ܲáöÄ àyö xyÓ˚ àˆÏ“Ó˚ ~•z ˆã˛yÓ˚yê˛yö ˆÌˆÏܲ ˛õ%ˆÓÏ y˚ ˛õ%!Ó˚ ܲáöÄ
ˆÓ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ xy§ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ öy–
•Ñƒyñ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ≤Èϟ¿Ó˚ í˛z_ˆÏÓ˚ Ü%˛!Z˛ï˛û˛yˆÏÓ çyöy•z ˆÎ xy!ü §!ï˛ƒ•z àyˆÏöÓ˚
ÎÍܲ!M˛ÈÍ ï˛y!°ü !öˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°yüñ àï˛ ¢ï˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ §_ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ò¢ˆÏܲ– !¢°ã˛ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚
ï˛Íܲy°#ö Ó˚Ó#w§D#ï˛ !¢«˛Ü˛ !¢ˆÏÓw ã˛e´Óï≈˛#Ó˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ– xyüyÓ˚ Ú˛õÓ˚ÓyˆÏ§
ç#î≈ ~ܲï˛yÓ˚yÛ Ü˛!Óï˛y!ê˛Ó˚ í˛zͧà≈ ï˛y•z ïÑ˛yˆÏܲ ܲˆÏÓ!˚ åÈ– àyˆÏöÓ˚ Óƒy˛õyˆÏÓ˚ xyüyˆÏܲ
!Ó˛õ%°û˛yˆÏÓ í˛zͧy!•ï˛ ܲˆÏÓ!˚ åȈ°
Ï ö xyüyÓ˚ fl%Ò° ç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚ ~ܲ üyfiê˛yÓ˚ü¢y•zÄñ
ï˛Íܲy°#ö !¢°ã˛Ó˚ ˛õyÓ!°Ü˛ •y•zfl%҈ϰÓ˚ ≤ç)öܲy!hsˇ ˆòÓ–
≤Ãò#˛õ
É ≤Ãã%˛Ó˚ !°áåÈ– ܲ!Óï˛yñ í˛z˛õöƒy§ñ ˆåÈyê˛à“ñ àòƒñ ˛≤ÃÓ¶˛ñ åÈí˛¸yÓ˚ §Çܲ°öÄ
ˆòá°yü– x°Ó˚yí˛zu˛ ˛õyÓ˚ú˛Ó˚üyÓ˚ •ˆÏÎ˚ Äë˛yÓ˚ !öÓ˚hsˇÓ˚ ≤ÃÎ˚y§ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ
ˆòáˆÏï˛ ˛õy!FåÈ– x!ï˛ §¡±!ï˛ Ü˛yˆÏÓƒy˛õöƒy§– ˆÜ˛yöÄ !ܲå%È ≤’ƒyö ˆ≤Ãy@ˇÃyü
ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆ°áñ öy !°áˆÏï˛ !°áˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏFåÈ §Ó⁄ ˆ°áyÓ˚ Óƒy˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄ
ܲˆÏë˛yÓ˚ !öÎ˚üö#!ï˛ ˛õy°ö ܲÓ˚ !ܲ⁄ ~áö Îy !°áåÈ ˛õÓ˚Óï≈˛#ˆÏï˛ ï˛y ˆû˛ˆÏä
ˆòÓyÓ˚ çöƒ !ܲå%È Ü˛Ó˚åÈ !ܲ⁄
x!üï˛yû˛ É ˆÓ!¢Ó˚û˛yà ˆ°áyÓ˚•z ÷Ó˚&ê˛y •Î˚ ~ܲê˛y !Óò%ƒFã˛üˆÏܲñ •ë˛yÍ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ ~ܲê˛yÈÙÈöyÈÙÈ~ܲê˛y
û˛yÓöy ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÄÎ˚yÎ˚– ~ÓyˆÏÓ˚ñ Ä•z ˛õyÄÎ˚yê˛yˆÏܲ û˛y£yÓ!® ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ ≤Ã!e´Î˚y
§Ó ˆ°áyÓ˚ ˆÓ°yÎ˚ xÓ¢ƒ•z ~ܲ ÌyˆÏܲ öy– ˆÜ˛yöÄ ˆÜ˛yöÄ ˆ°áy xöyÎ˚yˆÏ§
•ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚ ÈÙÙÙÙȈÎüö xyüyÓ˚ í˛z˛õöƒy§ Úí˛zòy§ ü•°ñ ¢)öƒ à!°Û xy!ü ˛õ!eܲyÎ˚
!ܲ!hflÏ çüy !òˆÏï˛ !òˆÏï˛ ˆ¢£Ï ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ– ~üöÄ •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈñ •yí˛zˆÏ§ !àˆÏÎ˚ ã%˛˛õã˛y˛õ
ܲyàçÈÙÈܲ°ü !öˆÏÎ˚ ˆ§•z §ÆyˆÏ•Ó˚ñ üyˆÏöñ ˆ§•z !òˆÏöÓ˚ !ܲ!hflÏ ~ܲê˛yˆÏö !°ˆÏá
!òˆÏÎ˚ ~ˆÏ§!åÈ–
ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ ˆÓ°yÎ˚ ~•z û˛y£ÏyÓ!® ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ ≤Ã!e´Î˚yê˛y ˆÓ!¢Ó˚û˛yà ˆ«˛ˆÏe üˆÏö üˆÏö
•ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚– ܲyàˆÏçÓ˚ ¢)öƒï˛y xyÓ˚ ܲ°ˆÏüÓ˚ ܲy!° ˆ§ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe çyfiê˛ üˆÏöÓ˚ åÈ!ÓÈÙÈ
ˆï˛y°yÓ˚ ܲyç ܲˆÏÓ˚– xy§ˆÏ° ܲ# çyö ˆï˛yñ Îï˛ ÓÎ˚§ Óyí˛¸ˆÏåÈ ï˛ï˛•z Ó%ˆÏé˛
í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚!åÈ ˆÎ ˆ°áyÓ˚ ≤Ã!e´Î˚yê˛y ˆÜ˛yöÄû˛yˆÏÓ•z §¡õ)î≈ !öü≈yî •ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚
öy– ˆ°áyÓ˚ !öˆÏçÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y •ˆÏÎ˚ Äë˛yÓ˚ Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ ÌyˆÏܲ– ˆ°áܲ ˆ§ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe
ˆÜ˛Ó°üye ~ܲ üyôƒü– ~•z üyôƒü •ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚yê˛y•z §ÓˆÏã˛ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÓ!¢ ܲ!ë˛ö–
58

≤Ãò#˛õ

É

x!üï˛yû˛ É

≤Ãò#˛õ

É

x!üï˛yû˛ É

xyú˛yê˛yÓ˚ x°ñ ˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚y Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ê˛y ~ܲê˛y ˆâyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ üï˛ö•z ˆï˛yÊ ~•z ˆâyÓ˚ê˛yÎ˚
ì%˛ˆÏܲ ˆÎˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏ°ñ ~Ó˚ !öÎ˚üö#!ï˛ !öˆÏç ˆÌˆÏܲ•z ˜ï˛!Ó˚ •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚–
xyÓ˚ û˛yäy⁄ ~•z ܲÓåȈÏÓ˚ ~ï˛ öyöyÓ˚ܲˆÏüÓ˚ ˆ°áy !°ˆÏá Îy!FåÈ ≤Ãò#˛õ ˆÎ
xyüyÓ˚ !öˆÏçÓ˚•z üyˆÏé˛üˆÏôƒ §ˆÏ®• •Î˚ xyüyÓ˚ ˆ°áyˆÏ°!áÓ˚ §!ï˛ƒ•z ˆÜ˛yöÄ
ô &Ó˛õò xyˆÏåÈ !ܲ⁄ ≤ÃÓ%k˛Ó˚ ~ܲê˛y ô &Ó˛õò xyˆÏåÈñ !ÓܲyˆÏ¢Ó˚Ä ï˛y•zñ
§Æ!£Ï≈ÈÙÈflî∫ ≈y°#Ó˚Ä ï˛y•z ÈÙÙÙÙÈ !ܲv xyüyÓ˚⁄ ˆ¢£ÏˆÏü£Ï !öˆÏçˆÏܲ §ygsˇöy !òˆÏï˛
•Î˚ ≠ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ô &Ó˛õò ˆï˛y §üÎ˚ ˆ• x!üï˛yû˛– §üÎ˚ ˆÎÓ˚ܲü ˛õy°ˆÏê˛ ˛õy°ˆÏê˛
~ˆÏàyÎ˚ñ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ˆ°áyÄ ˆï˛ü!ö §üÎ˚ˆÏܲ ô &Ó˛õò ˆüˆÏöñ §üˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ §)eüˆÏï˛•z
˛õy°ˆÏê˛ ˛õy°ˆÏê˛ ~ˆÏàyˆÏFåÈ–
û˛Î˚ •Î˚ñ ô &Ó˛õò•#ö ~§Ó ˆ°áyˆÏ°!áÓ˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ ò%!ê˛Ä ˆ¢£Ï˛õÎ≈hsˇ !ê˛Ü˛ˆÏÓ ˆï˛y⁄
ê˛y•z˛õÓ˚y•zê˛yÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ ܲ!¡õí˛zê˛yÓ˚ !ܲÇÓy ï˛Ó˚ï˛yçy •zrê˛yÓ˚ˆöÏ ê˛ á%ˆÑ ç
Ï §òƒ≤Ãܲy!¢ï˛
ˆÜ˛yöÄ ˆ°áyñ üƒyày!çö ˆ°áyÓ˚ çàˆÏï˛ ˆ§Ó˚ܲü ˆÜ˛yöÄ ≤Ãû˛yÓ !ÓhflÏyÓ˚
ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˆ˛õˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ ÓˆÏ° üˆÏö ܲÓ˚⁄ =îàï˛ üyˆÏöÓ˚ ܲÌy Ó°!åÈ–
xyüyÓ˚ çyöyüˆÏï˛y ܲˆÏÎÜ˚ ˛!ê˛ ÄˆÏÎÓ˚ üƒyày!çˆÏöÓ˚ !ÓÓ˚° Óƒ!ï˛e´üˆÏܲ Óyò !òˆÏ°ñ
~áöÄ x!∑ ÓyÇ°y §y!•ï˛ƒ çàˆÏï˛ ˆÎˆÏܲyöÄ ˛õ!eܲy !ܲÇÓy Óy•zˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ §ú˛ê‰˛
ܲ!˛õ ï˛yÓ˚ •yí≈˛ ܲ!˛õÓ˚ §ˆÏD §üyhsˇÓy˚ °û˛yˆÏÓ•z ã˛°ˆÏåÈ– ܲ!¡õí˛zê˛yÓ˚ÈÙÈ•rz ê˛yÓ˚ˆöÏ ê˛
xyˆÏÓ˚ܲê%˛ ã˛¢üyÈÙÈâ!í˛¸Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë%˛Ü˛ñ üyˆÏö xyˆÏÓ˚ܲê%˛ ˆÓ!¢ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚
ç#ÓöÎy˛õˆÏöÓ˚ñ ¢Ó˚#ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ñ xû˛ƒyˆÏ§Ó˚ xD •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë%˛Ü˛ñ ï˛áö•z •Î˚ï˛
§ú˛ê‰˛ÈÙȧÇflÒÓî˚ •yí≈˛ÈÙȧÇflÒÓî˚ ˆÏܲ ˆ˛õåȈöÏ ˆú˛ˆÏ° ~!àˆÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏÓñ ˆ°áyÓ˚ çàˆÏï˛Ä
≤Ãû˛yÓ !ÓhflyÏ Ó˚ ܲÓ˚ˆïÏ ˛ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÓÏ – xy§ˆÏ° Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ê˛y ˆï˛y ˆÜ˛Ó°üye üyôƒüÈÙÈÓò°ñ
ï˛y•z öy⁄ ˆ°áyˆÏ°!áê˛y ˆï˛y ~ܲ•z ˆÌˆÏܲ ÎyˆÏFåÈñ ï˛y•zˆïÏ ˛y⁄ xÓ¢ƒ üyôƒüÈÙÈÓòˆÏ°
ˆ°áyˆÏ°!áÓ˚ ò%!öÎ˚yê˛y•z Î!ò ÓòˆÏ° ÎyÎ˚⁄ Î!ò öï%˛ö ôÓ˚ˆÏöÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄ §y!•ï˛ƒ
üyôƒˆÏüÓ˚•z çß√ •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚ ~Ó˚ ú˛ˆÏ°⁄ •ˆÏï˛Ä ˆï˛y ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ñ ï˛y•z öy⁄ ï˛ˆÏÓñ
xy!ü ≤ÃÎ%!_´ÈÙÈxyí˛¸‹T ö•zñ §üˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ öï%˛ö öï%˛ö ≤Ãܲy¢ÈÙÈüyôƒüˆÏܲ å%ÈшÏÎ˚ñ ˆâшÏê˛ñ
ˆû˛ˆÏÓñ ˆÓшÏã˛ ÌyܲˆÏï˛ ã˛y•z–
~ܲçö §òƒÈÙÈ!°áˆÏï˛ xy§y ï˛Ó˚&îï˛Ó˚ ܲ!ÓˆÏܲ !ï˛ö!ê˛ !ê˛˛õ§‰ ˆòˆÏÓ⁄ SxÓ¢ƒ•z
§y!•ï˛ƒÈÙÈ!Ó£ÏÎ˚ܲV–
≤ÃÌü ܲÌy •ˆÏFåÈñ ˆ°áyÓ˚ Óƒy˛õyˆÏÓ˚ !öˆÏçˆÏܲ xy!ü §Ó §üÎ˚•z ï˛Ó˚&îï˛ü ӈϰ
üˆÏö ܲ!Ó˚– üˆÏö •Î˚ñ Îy ˆ°áyÓ˚ §Ó xöƒÓ˚y•z !°áˆÏåÈ– xyÓ˚ xy!ü xˆÏ˛õ«˛y
ܲˆÏÓ˚ xy!åÈ §Ó §üÎ˚ñ ܲáö ˆ§•z ˆ°áy!ê˛ !°ˆÏá í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚Ó Îy xy!ü åÈyí˛¸y
˛õ,!ÌÓ#Ó˚ xyÓ˚ ˆÜ˛í˛z ܲáöÄ !°ˆÏá í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ö!öñ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏÓöÄ öy– ˆï˛y
~Ó˚ܲü §Ó§üˆÏÎÓ˚ ˚ ˆê˛∆ö ÈÙÈ !ü§ ÈÙÈ Ü˛Ó˚y ĈÏÎ!˚ ê˛ÇÓ˚&ˆÏüÓ˚ ˛õƒyˆÏçOyÓ˚ xöƒ öÓyàï˛
59

˛õƒyˆÏçOyÓ˚ˆÏòÓ˚ ܲ# !ê˛˛õ§‰ ˆòˆÏÓ ÈÙÙÙÙÈ ˆÜ˛Ó° xˆÏ˛õ«˛y ܲÓ˚yñ xy¢y ÈÙÈ öy ÈÙÈ
•yÓ˚yˆÏöy xyÓ˚ !öˆÏçÓ˚ xˆÏ˛õ«˛yÓ˚ í˛z˛õÓ˚ !ÓŸªy§ öy •yÓ˚yˆÏöy åÈyí˛¸y⁄
≤Ãò#˛õ
É Ó°y •ˆÏÎ˚ ÌyˆÏܲ ~ܲçö ≤ÃÜ,˛ï˛ ܲ!ÓˆÏܲ Ó%é˛ˆÏï˛ •ˆÏ° ïÑ˛yÓ˚ §ü§yü!Î˚ܲ ܲyˆÏ°Ó˚
Ó˚yç˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛ Ä xÌ≈˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛ !òܲ!ê˛Ä çyöˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ– xyüyÓ˚ ˆï˛y üˆÏö •Î˚
§yÇfl,Ò!ï˛Ü˛ !òܲ!ê˛Ä §üyö =Ó˚&c˛õ)î≈– ≤çDe´ˆÏü ¢!_´òyÓ˚ SÚ•z!®Ó˚yç# !ò!Õ‘
ˆÌˆÏܲ !•!® ˆ¢áyÎ˚ §hflyÏ òˆÏÓ˚ † !ܲˆÏ°yáyˆÏöܲ ï˛yÄ !ܲˆÏö!åÈ çyï˛#Î˚ §Ç•!ï˛Ó˚
í˛ˆÏÓ˚ÛV ܲÌy üˆÏö xyˆÏ§– xyç !°áˆÏï˛ Ó§y Ü˛ï˛ ¢ï˛yÇ¢ ܲ!ÓÓ¶%˛ˆÏܲ ~
Óƒy˛õyˆÏÓ˚ §ˆÏã˛ï˛ö ӈϰ üˆÏö •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ⁄ ~ÓÇ xyüÓ˚yñ ˛õyë˛Ü˛Ó˚y Îy•z û˛y!Óñ ï%˛!ü
~ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe !öˆÏçÓ˚ xÓfliyö!ê˛Ä çyöyÄ ...
x!üï˛yû˛ É Ó˚yçö#!ï˛ Ä xÌ≈ö#!ï˛ §ˆÏüï˛ ˆÎ !Ó¢y° §yÇfl,Ò!ï˛Ü˛ ˛õ!Ó˚§ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ܲÌy ï%˛!ü
í˛zˆÕÏ á‘ Ü˛ˆÏÓå˚ Èñ xyüyÓ˚ üˆÏï˛ ï˛y ~ܲ!ê˛ ˜ã˛ï˛öƒ– ~•z ˜ã˛ï˛ˆÏöƒ•z xyüÓ˚y xyüyˆÏòÓ˚
Óƒ!_´ˆÏܲ!wܲ Ÿªy§≤ߪy§ !öÎ˚sîf ܲ!Ó˚ ~ÓÇ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ Î!ò ˆÜ˛yöÄ §yüyöƒï˛ü
xÓòyöÄ ˆÌˆÏܲ ÌyˆÏܲñ ï˛y ~•z Ó,•_Ó˚ ˜ã˛ï˛ˆÏöƒ•z !àˆÏÎ˚ ˆ¢£Ï x!∑ !Ó°#ö
•ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚– ôˆÏÓy˚ ~ܲê˛y ¢∑ É ÚÜ%˛°yDyÓ˚Û– ¢∑ê˛y ˆï˛y ˆ§•z §üyˆÏç•z ày!°ày°yç
•ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ˆÎÈÙȧüyˆÏç ÚÜ%˛°Û Óy ÓÇ¢à!Ó˚üyÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y xy°yòy ï˛yͲõÎ≈
xyˆÏåÈ– xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ Óï≈˛üyö §üyçã˛!Ó˚e ÓÇ¢ˆÏàÔÓ˚ÓˆÏܲ á%Ó Óí˛¸ ˆÜ˛yöÄ x!û˛ôyÎ˚
û)˛!£Ïï˛ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ öy– §%ï˛Ó˚yÇñ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ Óï≈˛üyö ˛õ,!ÌÓ#ˆÏï˛ ÚÜ%˛°yDyÓ˚Û ¢∑!ê˛Ó˚
ˆï˛üö ˆÜ˛yöÄ =Ó˚&c ˆö•z– ~ÓyˆÏÓ˚ ~ܲçö xyô%!öܲ !ܲÇÓy í˛z_Ó˚yô%!öܲ
ܲ!Ó Î!ò ‡ê˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛yÎ˚ ¢∑!ê˛ˆÏܲ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yà ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ Îyöñ Î!ò ӈϰö
ÚÜ%˛°yDyÓ˚ ˆÓ˚yòÛ ÈÙÙÙÙÈ xyüÓ˚y xˆÏöܲ ˆû˛ˆÏÓÄ ~Ó˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄ üüyÌ≈ í˛zk˛yÓ˚ ܲÓ˚ˆïÏ ˛
˛õy!Ó˚ öy– xÌ≈yÍñ ¢ˆÏ∑Ó˚Ä §yüy!çܲ •z!ï˛•y§ xyˆÏåÈ– üyÜ≈˛§Óyò#Ó˚y xÌ≈yÍ
ÎÑyÓ˚y Ó˚yç˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛ !òܲ!ê˛ˆÏܲ §ÓˆÏã˛ˆÏÎ˚ =Ó˚&c ˆòöñ ïÑ˛yÓ˚y ˆÎˆÏ•ï%˛ ü)°ï˛ §Ó§üÎ˚•z
§!e´Î˚ñ ï˛y•z ïÑ˛yÓ˚y ~ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe !¢ˆÏ“Ó˚ !ö!‹;˛Î˚ û)˛!üܲyˆÏܲ ≤ÃyÎ˚ §Ó§üÎ˚•z ܲyë˛àí˛¸yÎ˚
ï%˛°ˆÏï˛ ≤ÃÎ˚y§# •ö– xyÓyÓ˚ ò!«˛î˛õsi#Ó˚yñ ÎÑyÓ˚y Îy xyˆÏåÈ ï˛yÈÙÈ•z !ë˛Ü˛ xyˆÏåÈ
ÈÙÙÙÙÈ ~•z ö#!ï˛ˆÏï˛ !ÓŸªy§#ñ ïÑ˛yÓ˚yÄ !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚ !ö!‹;˛Î˚ û)˛!üܲyÓ˚ §ˆÏD ï%˛°öyÎ˚
!¢“ˆÏܲ x!ôܲï˛Ó˚ §!e´Î˚ ӈϰ üˆÏö ܲˆÏÓ˚ ï˛yÓ˚ !òˆÏܲ §Ó§üÎ˚ x!û˛ˆÏÎyˆÏàÓ˚
xyä%° ï%˛ˆÏ° ôˆÏÓ˚ö–
ü%¢!ܲ°ê˛y •Î˚ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ñ ~•z ï˛Ìyܲ!Ìï˛ Ü˛!ÓÈÙȧy!•!ï˛ƒÜ˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ÎÑyˆÏòÓ˚ §Ó§üÎ˚
ü)°ï˛ !¢“ˆÏÓyô•#ö Ó˚yç˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛ ≤Ã!ï˛˛õ«˛ˆÏòÓ˚ §ˆÏD §ˆÏD !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚ IJõÓ˚
ˆã˛ˆÏ˛õÈÙÈÓ§y ÚãÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚ !ö!¢í˛yÜ˛ÛˆÏÜ˛Ä ~ܲ•z ò«˛ï˛yÓ˚ §ˆÏD ˆüˆÏö !öˆÏï˛ •Î˚–
~Ó˚ ˛õ!Ó˚eyî !ö!•ï˛ xyˆÏåÈ §yüy!çܲ §yÇfl,Ò!ï˛Ü˛ ˛õ!Ó˚§Ó˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚
=!ê˛ˆÏÎ˚ ˆöÄÎ˚yÎ˚ öÎ˚ñ ÓÓ˚Ç üˆÏö üˆÏö ~ !ӣψÏÎ˚ xyÓ˚Ä §ˆÏã˛ï˛ö •ˆÏÎ˚ Äë˛yÎ˚–
60

xyüyÓ˚ !öˆÏçÓ˚ ~ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe xöƒï˛ü Ó˚«˛yܲÓã˛ xyüyÓ˚ üyÜ≈˛§Óyò# Ó¶%˛Ó˚y ÎÑyÓ˚y
xyüyÓ˚ §DˆÏòy£ÏˆÏܲ ܲáö•z ˛õ!Ó˚ï˛ƒyçƒ !ÓˆÏÓã˛öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ö !ö– ïÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚ §D=î
xyüyˆÏܲ §Ó§üÎ˚ §yüy!çܲ ÙȧyÇfl,Ò!ï˛Ü˛ ˛õ!Ó˚§Ó˚ §¡õˆÏÜ≈˛ §ˆÏã˛ï˛ö ܲˆÏÓ˚
ˆÓ˚ˆáÏ ˆÏåÈ–
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É xyç ¢!_´òy Î!ò ~•z û%˛ÓˆÏö çß√@ˇÃ•î öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÎ˚ çß√@ˇÃ•î ܲÓ˚ˆïÏ ˛ö
!ܲÇÓy Ó§Óy§ ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛öñ ï˛y•ˆÏ° xyÓ˚Ä xˆÏöܲ ˆÓ!¢ xyˆÏ°y!ã˛ï˛ñ xˆÏöܲ
ˆÓ!¢ ˛õ!ë˛ï˛ •ˆÏï˛ö– ~•z Ó_´Óƒ!ê˛ í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)Ó≈ û˛yÓ˚ˆÏï˛Ó˚ xyÓ˚Ä xˆÏöܲ
ܲ!ÓÈÙȧy!•!ï˛ƒÜ˛ˆÏòÓ˚ çˆÏöƒ•z ≤ÈÎÏ y烖 xyüÓ˚y Ó˚î!çÍ òy¢ !ܲÇÓy ≤ÃÓk% ˛§%®Ó˚
ܲÓ˚ˆÏÜ˛Ä ˆòˆÏá!åÈ Ä•z xyˆÏ°yˆÏܲ xyˆÏ°y!Ü˛ï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛– ~•z Óƒy˛õyÓ˚!ê˛
ˆï˛yüyˆÏÜ˛Ä û˛y!ÓˆÏΈ˚ åÏ È !öÿ˛Î˚•–z xyç ~•z í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)ˆÓÏ Ó≈ ˚ ܲ!Ó Ä §y!•ï˛ƒÜ˛ˆÏòÓ˚
ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ Úí˛z_Ó˚˛õ)ÓÛ≈ Concept˛Ä ˜ï˛!Ó˚ •ˆÏFåÈ Óy •ˆÏΈ˚ åÏ È– ~ܲçö û˛!ӣσÍ
o‹Ty !•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ ~ Óƒy˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ üï˛ Óƒ_´ ܲÓ˚–
x!üï˛yû˛ É Úí˛z_Ó˚˛õ)ÓÛ≈ Concept ê˛y ˆÓ!¢!òö xyˆÏàÓ˚ öy– ~•z Concept ê˛y xyüÓ˚y xˆÏöˆÏܲ
≤ÃyÎ˚ ~ܲ•z §ˆÏD xy!Ó‹ÒyÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ– ~ê˛y ˆÜ˛yöÄ §y!•ï˛ƒ xyˆÏ®y°öÄ öÎ˚ñ
ˆÜ˛yöÄ •z¢ï˛y•yÓ˚Ä öÎ˚– xy§ˆÏ°ñ ~ܲê˛y §üˆÏÎ˚ !e˛õ%Óy˚ Ó˚ñ Ó ·˛˛õ%e í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛yÓ˚
~ÓÇ ÓÓ˚yܲ í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛yÓ˚ •yˆÏï˛ ˆàyöy ܲˆÏÎÜ˚ ˛çö ܲ!ÓÈÙȧy!•!ï˛ƒÜ˛ Ó%é˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ˆ°
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ˆÎ ~•z û)˛ˆÏày°ñ ~ï˛òM˛ÈˆÏ°Ó˚ û)˛ˆÏày°ÈÙȧǰ@¿ •z!ï˛•y§ ~ÓÇ xÓyäy!°
≤Ã!ï˛ˆÏÓ¢#Ó˚y ~áyöܲyÓ˚ Óyäy!°ˆÏòÓ˚ ~ܲ !Ó!¢‹T ã˛!Ó˚e òyö ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ– xyÓyÓ˚
~üöÄ öÎ˚ ˆÎ ~áyöܲyÓ˚ Óyäy!°Ó˚y á%Ó §ˆÏã˛ï˛öû˛yˆÏÓ ˛õí˛¸!¢≤ÃÓî– xy§ˆÏ°
¢ï˛y∑#Óƒy˛õ# ~ܲe Ó§Óy§ !û˛ß¨ã˛!Ó˚ˆÏeÓ˚ ò%•z ≤Ã!ï˛ˆÏÓ¢#Ó˚ üˆÏôƒ•z ~ܲ ôÓ˚ˆÏöÓ˚
x§ˆÏã˛ï˛ö §Ç°@¿ï˛yÓ˚ ˆÓyô §M˛Èy!Ó˚ï˛ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˆòÎ˚– ~áyöܲyÓ˚ Óyäy!°ˆÏòÓ˚Ä
ï˛yÈÙÈ•z •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ã˛y!Ó˚!eܲ ˜Ó!¢ˆÏ‹TƒÓ˚ xˆÏöܲê˛y•z ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ xçyˆÏhsˇ
§ÇK˛y!Î˚ï˛ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈö ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ !e˛õ%Ó˚#ñ x§ü#Î˚yñ !üˆÏçyñ àyˆÏÓ˚yñ ü!î˛õ%Ó˚#
!ܲÇÓy !í˛üy§y Óy !•!®û˛y£Ï# ≤Ã!ï˛ˆÏÓ¢#Ó˚y– ~ˆÏòÓ˚ §ÓyÓ˚ §ˆÏD Óyäy!°ˆÏòÓ˚
§¡õÜ≈˛ ˆÎ üô%Ó˚ !åÈ° Óy xyˆÏåÈñ ï˛yÄ öÎ˚– !ܲv •yöy•y!öñ ¢e&ï˛yñ üyÓ˚!˛õê˛ñ
Ó˚_´˛õyï˛ ÈÙÙÙÙÈ ~=ˆÏ°yÄ ˆï˛y §¡õˆÏÜ≈˛Ó˚•z xDÊ
xyçñ í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)Ó≈yM˛È°#Î˚ ÓyÇ°y §y!•ˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚ ˆÎ xÓÎ˚Ó ô#ˆÏÓ˚ ô#ˆÏÓ˚ flõ‹T •ˆÏÎ˚
í˛zë˛ˆÏåÈ ï˛yÓ˚ ~ܲ!˛õˆÏë˛ ˆÎüö xyˆÏåÈ Óyäy!° !•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ !öçfl∫ï˛yÓ˚
!§°ˆÏüy•Ó˚ !ܲÇÓy xydò¢≈öñ xöƒ !˛õˆÏë˛ ˆï˛üö•z xyˆÏåÈ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛ˆÏÓ¢#
ˆã˛ï˛öy– ~•z ˆã˛ï˛öy xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ~ܲܲy°#ö ܲ°Ü˛yï˛yÈÙÈü!% áöï˛yˆÏܲ xˆÏöܲ ˆÓ!¢
ˆò¢ÈÙȧ¶˛yö# ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ– xyüÓ˚y ~áö !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚ ˆò¢ á%шÏç ˛õy!FåÈ ~•z
í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)Ó≈yM˛È°#Î˚ û)˛ˆÏàyˆÏ°•zñ ˆÜ˛yöÄ Ü˛!“ï˛ ˛õ!ÿ˛üÓˆÏD !ܲÇÓy ÓyÇ°yˆÏòˆÏ¢
61

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!ܲöˆÏï˛ ÎyÄÎ˚y úœ˛ƒyê˛Óy!í˛¸ !ܲÇÓy ˆú˛ˆÏ° xy§y ÚˆòˆÏ¢Ó˚ Óy!í˛¸ÛÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ öÎ˚–
ï˛ˆÏÓ ~•z í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)Ó≈yM˛È°#Î˚ ÓyÇ°y §y!•ï˛ƒÈÙȈã˛ï˛öy ï˛ï˛!òö•z !ê˛ˆÏܲ ÌyܲˆÏÓ
Îï˛!òö xyüÓ˚y xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ û)˛ˆÏày° Ä ≤Ã!ï˛ˆÏÓ¢#ˆÏòÓ˚ §¡õˆÏܲ≈ §ˆÏã˛ï˛ö ÌyܲˆÏï˛
˛õyÓ˚Ó– Îáö xyüÓ˚y ï˛y •y!Ó˚ˆÎÏ ˚ ˆú˛°Ó ï˛áö•z í˛z_Ó˚˛õ)Óy≈ M˛È°#Î˚ ÓyÇ°y §y!•ï˛ƒ
ÚxyüÓ˚y Óyäy!°ÛÈÙÈï%˛°ƒ ˆÜ˛yöÄ í˛yüyˆÏí˛yˆÏ° !ã˛Ó˚!òˆÏöÓ˚ çöƒ ï˛!°ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏÓ–
~ ÎyÓÍ ˆ°áyˆÏ°!áÓ˚ ç#ÓˆÏö ˆüyÓy•z° ~ÓÇ x≤ÈÎÏ y˚ çö#Î˚ Ó¶%˛ˆÏòÓ˚ Ü%˛ÈÙÈ≤Ãû˛yˆÏÓ
ܲï˛ê˛y !ÓôùhflÏ •ˆÏÎ˚åÈ⁄
§!ï˛ƒÜ˛yˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚ Ó¶%˛ˆÏcÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe ≤ÈÎÏ y˚ çö#Î˚ï˛yÓ˚ ≤ß¿ê˛yñ òÓ˚ܲyˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚ !ܲÇÓy xû˛yˆÏÓÓ˚
§üÎ˚ åÈyí˛¸yñ ܲáö•z Óí˛¸ •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏë˛ öy– Ó¶%˛c Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ê˛y•z ˆÎˆÏ•ï%˛ ~ü!öˆÏï˛
ܲyˆÏçÓ˚ ˛õ,!ÌÓ#Ó˚ Óy•zˆÏÓ˚ ˆÓ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ~ˆÏ§ ò%ò[˛ ü%!_´Ó˚ Ÿªy§ ˆöÓyÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y ~ܲ
§ˆÏ¡øy•öñ ï˛y•z ˆÎˆÏܲyöÄ Ó¶%˛c•z ~ü!öˆÏï˛ Úx≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö#Î˚Û– !ܲv ˆüyÓy•z°
û˛#£Ïî•z ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö#Î˚ ~ܲê˛y !ç!ö§ ~ÓÇ ~Ó˚ Ü%˛ÈÙÈ≤Ãû˛yÓ ~áyˆÏö•z ˆÎ ˆüyÓy•z°
xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ~•z öï%˛ö §û˛ƒï˛yÓ˚ öÓƒ §yüy!çܲï˛yÓ˚ ≤Ãï˛#ܲ– ˆüyÓy•zˆ°
Ï Ó˚ ã˛!Ó˚e•z
•ˆÏFåÈ ˆï˛yüyˆÏܲ §Ó§üÎ˚ §yüy!çܲ Óy!öˆÏÎ˚ Ó˚yáy– üyˆÏö ï%˛!ü Îáö ~ܲy
ÌyܲˆÏï˛ ã˛y•zåÈ !ܲÇÓy ~ܲy ~ܲy •Ñyê˛ˆÏï˛ ã˛y•zåÈ ˆÜ˛yöÄ xï˛#ï˛ flø,!ï˛Ó˚ x!°ˆÏ®ñ
!ܲÇÓy •Ñyê˛ˆÏï˛ •Ñyê˛ˆÏï˛ !û˛ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚ ~ܲy •ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÎˆÏï˛ ã˛y•zåÈ ÈÙÙÙÙÈï˛áö ˆüyÓy•z°
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ã)˛í˛¸yhsˇ ¢e&– §%ï˛Ó˚yÇ ~Ó˚ Ü%˛ÈÙÈ≤Ãû˛yˆÏÓ !ÓôùhflÏ •ÄÎ˚yê˛y !ê˛!û˛ˆÏï˛ ô &˛õò#
àyö !ܲÇÓy !§ˆÏöüy ˆòáyÓ˚ úÑ˛yˆÏܲ úÑ˛yˆÏܲ ܲüy!¢≈Îy˚ ° ˆÓ ˆÜÏ ˛Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y•z !ÓÓ˚!_´Ü˛Ó˚
!ܲv x!öÓyÎ≈–
ˆ≤ÈÏü ˛õí˛¸ˆÏ° ˆ°áyˆÏ°!á û˛y° •Î˚⁄ ~Ó˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ !ÓK˛yö§¡øï˛ Óƒyáƒy §¡±!ï˛
ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ ˛õˆÏí˛¸!åÈ– x!üï˛yû˛òyñ ~ Óƒy˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ §Í ~ÓÇ §y•§# í˛z_Ó˚
xy¢y ܲ!Ó˚ñ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ •y•zˆÏ˛õỹy°yüy§ ˆÌˆÏܲ !öà≈ï˛ Ó›!ê˛Ó˚ ï˛#Ó ï˛y ܲ#Ó˚ܲü
§ü,k˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ˆ°áyÓ˚ çà͈Ïܲ⁄
û˛Î˚ ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚y öyñ ≤Ã!ï˛!ê˛ §ú˛° ܲ!ÓÓ˚ ˆö˛õˆÏ̃ Ìyܲy ܲ!Ó˛õb#ˆÏòÓ˚ x§#ü
í˛zòyÓ˚ï˛yÓ˚ ܲÌy xyüÓ˚y xÓàï˛ xy!åÈ– !öû≈˛ˆÏÎ˚ ӈϰyñ ~ˆÏ«˛ˆÏeÄ xöƒÌy
•ÓyÓ˚ öÎ˚–
ôÓ˚ ≤ÃÎ%!_´Ó˚ áy!ï˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˆüˆÏö !ö°yü ˆÎ ˆ≤ÈÏü ˛õí˛¸ˆÏ° ˆ°áyˆÏ°!á û˛y° •Î˚–
~ÓyˆÏÓ˚⁄ û˛y° ˆ°áyˆÏ°!áÓ˚ çöƒ xy!ü e´üyàï˛•z ˆ≤ÈÏü ˛õí˛¸ˆÏï˛ ÌyܲÓ⁄
!ܲv xyüyÓ˚ ܲö§yö≈ ˆÎˆÏ•ï%˛ û˛y° ˆ°áyˆÏ°!áñ xyüyÓ˚ ˆ≤Ãü öÎ˚ñ xyüyÓ˚
ç#Óö ˆÎ ï˛áö ÓƒÓ•*ï˛ ˆ≤Ã!üܲyˆÏòÓ˚ x!û˛¢yˆÏ˛õ xyÓ˚ ò#â≈!öÉŸªyˆÏ§ û)˛ï%˛ˆÏí˛¸
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!Ó£ÏÎ˚ê˛y Óƒ!_´ˆÏï˛ Óƒ!_´ˆÏï˛ !û˛ß¨ !û˛ß¨ àhsˇÓƒ á%шÏç ˆöÎ˚– xyüyÓ˚ ˆ«˛ˆÏe ˆ≤Ãü
62

~ÓÇ ˆÎÔöï˛y ˆ°áyˆÏ°!áÓ˚ ≤Û!ï˛˛õÓ≈ öÎ˚ñ ÓÓ˚Ç ˆ°áyˆÏ°!áÓ˚ !Ó◊yüyàyÓ˚–
ç#ÓˆÏö Îáö ˆ≤Ãü ~ˆÏ§!åÈ°ñ ï˛áö §yü!Î˚ܲû˛yˆÏÓ xyüyÓ˚ ˆ°áyˆÏ°!á Ó¶˛
!åÈ° ~ÓÇ xyüyÓ˚ ܲÌy !ÓŸªy§ öy ܲÓ˚ˆÏ°ñ !ü!°ˆÏÎ˚ ˆòˆÏá !öˆÏÎ˚yñ xy!ü ç#ÓˆÏö
ï˛Ìyܲ!Ìï˛ ˆ≤ÈÏüÓ˚ ܲ!Óï˛y !ï˛öÈÙÈã˛yÓ˚ˆÏê˛Ó˚ ˆÓ!¢ !°!á!ö–
≤Ãò#˛õ
É Ü˛ÌyÎ˚ ӈϰ ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ !e´Î˚y ã˛ˆÏ° á%Ó•z ô#Ó˚ Ä x°«˛ƒ à!ï˛ˆÏï˛– ï˛yÓ˚ !e´Î˚yfli°
üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ !ã˛hsˇyˆÏã˛ï˛öyÓ˚ í˛z˛õÓ˚– !ܲv xyç ~•z ˆÎ ˆÓ˛õˆÏÓ˚yÎ˚yñ ôyÓüyö !ÓŸª
å%Èê˛ˆÏåÈ ã˛Ó˚ü x!öÿ˛Î˚ï˛yÓ˚ !òˆÏܲñ üö%£Ïƒ§üyçÄ e´ü¢•z •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏåÈ §y!•ï˛ƒÈÙÈ
!Óü%á Ä xydˆÏܲ!wܲñ ܲ!Óï˛y Ä ï˛yÓ˚ !e´Î˚y¢#°ï˛yÓ˚ à“!ê˛ !ܲ =Ó˚&c •yÓ˚yˆÏÓ
û˛!Ó£ÏƒÍ ≤ÃçˆÏß√Ó˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ⁄
x!üï˛yû˛ É ~ê˛y ˆï˛y xyüyÓ˚Ä û˛Î˚ ≤Ãò#˛õÊ ï˛ˆÏÓ ~•z û˛ˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ á؈ÏÓ˚ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ñ !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚
!Ó°%Æ≤ÃyÎ˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ ≤Ãçy!ï˛Ó˚ §ò§ƒ ӈϰ ˆüˆÏö !öˆÏÎ˚ñ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ܲáöÄ
xyd§æü á%•zˆÏÎ˚ ˆú˛°y í˛z!ã˛ï˛ öÎ˚– ܲ!Óï˛yÓ˚ !òö Î!ò ˆ¢£Ï •ˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏ§ñ
ܲ!ÓÓ˚y ˆÎö §§æˆÏü !ÓòyÎ˚ ˆöÓyÓ˚ ˛õÌ á%шÏç !öˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ö– ~ü!öˆÏï˛•z
ܲ!Óï˛yñ §y!•ï˛ƒñ !¢“ܲü≈ ~=ˆÏ°yÓ˚ §yüy!çܲ =Ó˚&c ܲˆÏü xy§yÓ˚ û˛ˆÏÎ˚ ~ÓÇ
!öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚ §yüy!çܲ §_yˆÏܲñ §yüy!çܲ ˛õ!Ó˚ã˛Î˚ˆÏܲ xyÓ˚Ä ï˛yͲõÎ≈Ó• ܲˆÏÓ˚
ˆï˛y°yÓ˚ ܲyÓ˚ˆÏîñ ˆÜ˛í˛z ˆÜ˛í˛z !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚ xyçܲy° Úܲü≈#Û ÓˆÏ° xyáƒy!Î˚ï˛
ܲÓ˚ˆÏåÈö É Ú§Çfl,Ò!ï˛Ü˛ü≈#Ûñ Úöyê˛ƒÜ˛ü≈#Ûñ Úˆ°áyܲü≈#Û– ˆÜ˛yöÄ üyˆÏö •Î˚⁄
§Çfl,Ò!ï˛ã˛ã≈˛yñ öyê˛Ü˛ ˆ°áy !ܲÇÓy ܲÓ˚yñ ܲ!Óï˛yÈÙÈà“ ˆ°áy ~=ˆÏ°y !ܲ
xy•yÓ˚ÈÙÈ!öoyÈÙȘüÌ%ˆÏöÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y ˆÜ˛yöÄ Ü˛ü≈⁄ ÓÓ˚Ç ~=ˆÏ°y ˆï˛y ˆü°yÓ˚ üyˆÏë˛
§ÓyÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ §ˆÏÓ˚ !àˆÏÎ˚ âyˆÏ§ ü%á !ܲÇÓy !˛õë˛ !òˆÏÎ˚ ÷ˆÏÎ˚ ÌyܲyÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y
xܲü≈⁄ òƒyá ≤Ãò#˛õñ ~ܲê˛y §üÎ˚ §yˆÏÎ˚™ !ú˛Ü˛¢ö !öˆÏÎ˚ àˆÏÓ£Ïîy ÷Ó˚&
ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ°yüñ ˆÓ¢ !ܲå%È Ó•z˛õeÄ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ ˆú˛°ˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ° ˆ§§üÎ˚
Óyôƒï˛yü)°Ü˛û˛yˆÏÓ– ï˛áö ˆòˆÏá!åÈ ˆÜ˛yöÄ ˆÜ˛yöÄ ˆ°áyÎ˚ o‹TyÈÙȈ°áܲÓ˚y
~üö ~ܲ û˛!ӣσˆÏï˛Ó˚ ܲÌy ܲ“öy ܲÓ˚ˆÏåÈö ˆÎáyˆÏö Úˆ°áÜ˛Û Óy Úܲ!ÓÛ ¢ˆÏ∑Ó˚
ˆÜ˛yöÄ üyˆÏö ˆö•zñ ˆÎáyˆÏö Ó•zÈÙÈ˛õí˛¸y ï˛yÓ˚ ü)°ƒ •y!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ˆú˛ˆÏ°ˆÏåÈ– Î!ò
§!ï˛ƒ§!ï˛ƒ•z ˆ§Ó˚ܲü ~ܲê˛y Î%à ~ˆÏ§ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ˛õ,!ÌÓ#ˆÏï˛ñ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚
ç#Ój¢yÓ˚yÎ˚•z ÈÙÙÙÙÈ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ü)°ƒˆÏÓyô ï˛yˆÏܲ öy ˆüˆÏö !öˆÏ°Äñ !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚
xyd§æü !ܲå%ȈïÏ ˛•z •yÓ˚yˆÏï˛ ã˛y•zˆÓÏ öy– öï%˛ö ˛õ,!ÌÓ#Ó˚ ÓòˆÏ° ÎyÄÎ˚y ˛õ!Ó˚ˆÓÏ ˆÏ¢Ó˚
§ˆÏD üy!öˆÏÎ˚ !öˆÏï˛ öy ˛õyÓ˚y í˛y•zˆöÏ y§ˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚ ú˛!§ˆÏ°Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y•z ܲ!ÓˆÏòÓ˚ ü,ï˛ˆÏò•Ä
ˆÎö xöhsˇ Ó˚•ˆÏ§ƒÓ˚ xÑyï%˛í˛¸ •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏ벖
≤Ãò#˛õ
É x!üï˛yû˛òyñ ôˆÏÓ˚y ~•z ï%˛!ü xyåÈñ ï%˛!ü ÌyܲˆÏÓ öy– ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ã˛yÓ˚˛õy¢ ˆÎÓ˚ܲü
xyˆÏåÈ ï˛y•z ÌyܲˆÏÓñ ô#ˆÏÓ˚ ô#ˆÏÓ˚ ˆÓˆÏí˛¸ í˛zë˛ˆÏÓ– ï%˛!ü ˆÎ ¢)öƒï˛y §,!‹T ܲˆÏÓ˚

ˆàˆÏ° ï˛y !öˆÏÎ˚ ܲyˆÏÓ˚y üyÌyÓƒÌy ÌyܲˆÏÓ öy– ~ û˛yÓöyÎ˚ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ û˛yÓöyÓ˚
çàˆÏï˛ ˆÜ˛yöÄ xyˆÏ®y°ö •Î˚ !ܲ⁄ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ˆ°áyÓ˚ ˆê˛:ã˛yÓ˚ Ä xƒyÓ§y!í≈˛!ê˛
!öü≈yˆÏî ~•z !ã˛hsˇy§)ˆÏeÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄ û)˛!üܲy ÌyˆÏܲ !ܲ⁄ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ Úàï˛ çˆÏß√Ó˚
ܲ!Óï˛yÛ @ˇÃsi!ê˛ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ ~ Óƒy˛õyÓ˚!ê˛ xyüyÓ˚ ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚ ܲyç ܲÓ˚!åÈ°– ˆï˛yüyÓ˚Ä !ܲ
üˆÏö •Î˚ ˆÎ ˆ°áyˆÏ°!áÓ˚Ä ~ܲ!ê˛ üö ˜ï˛!Ó˚ •ÄÎ˚y ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö⁄
x!üï˛yû˛ É xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ≤ÈÏï˛ƒˆÏܲÓ˚•z Óy!í˛¸ˆÏï˛ ú˛ˆÏê˛y@ˇÃyú˛ xyˆÏåÈ ≤Ãò#˛õ– ú˛ˆÏê˛y üyˆÏö §üÎ˚ñ
!Óàï˛ Î%à– üyö%£Ï xˆÏöƒÓ˚ ú˛ˆÏê˛y ˆï˛yˆÏ°ñ !öˆÏçÓ˚Ä ú˛ˆÏê˛y ˆï˛y°yÎ˚ ÈÙÙÙÙÈ ÎyˆÏï˛
ï˛yÓ˚ ˆã˛•yÓ˚yê˛y ˛õ!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚ ÈÙÈ ˛õ!Ó˚çöˆÏòÓ˚ flø,!ï˛ˆÏï˛ ˆÓшÏã˛ ÌyˆÏܲ– !¢ˆÏ“Ó˚ §ˆÏD
ú˛ˆÏê˛yÓ˚ ˛õyÌ≈ܲƒ ~áyˆÏö•z ˆÎ ú˛ˆÏê˛y §Ó !ܲå%ÈÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚Ä Óƒ!_´àï˛– xyÓ˚ !¢“
Óƒ!_´àï˛ öÎ˚– ï˛yÓ˚ ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚ §üÎ˚ÈÙȺüî ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ §yüÌ≈ƒ Ä í˛z˛õܲÓ˚î üç%ï˛
xyˆÏåÈ– û˛!ӣσˆÏï˛Ó˚ öï%˛ö ˛õyë˛Ü˛ !ܲÇÓy ˆû˛y_´yÓ˚ üˆÏöyçàˆÏï˛ !àˆÏÎ˚ ˆ§
öï%˛öû˛yˆÏÓ çß√°yû˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚– xyüyÓ˚ §,‹T ¢)öƒï˛y !öˆÏÎ˚ ˛Î!ò û˛!ӣσˆÏï˛ Ü˛yˆÏÓ˚y
ˆÜ˛yöÄ üyÌyÓƒÌy öy ÌyˆÏܲ SÎy •ÄÎ˚yê˛y á%Ó•z fl∫yû˛y!ÓܲVñ ï˛y•ˆÏ° ôˆÏÓ˚ !öˆÏï˛
•ˆÏÓ ˆÎ xyüyÓ˚ §üÎ˚ÈÙȺüî ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄ «˛üï˛y !åÈ° öy– ï˛Ó% !öˆÏçÓ˚
§üˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏ‹T˛õ,ˆÏ¤˛ ÓÑyôy ˆÌˆÏÜ˛Ä Ü˛yÓ˚&Óy§öyÓ˚ ܲyåÈ ˆÌˆÏܲ xy!ü Îy ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚!åÈ
~ÓÇ ˛õy!FåÈ ÈÙÙÙÙÈ xyüyÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ï˛y ¢ï˛ ç#ÓöÎy˛õö ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ §üyö ü)°ƒÓyö–
xy§ˆÏ°ñ !¢“ ˆï˛y xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛!òöܲyÓ˚ ~•z Ìyܲy=!°ˆÏܲ˛ ~ܲ öyÈÙÈÌyܲyÓ˚
û˛y£ÏyÎ˚•z xö%Óyò ܲˆÏÓ˚ ã˛ˆÏ°ñ ≤Ãò#˛õÊ öyÈÙÈÌyܲyÓ˚ ˆÓyô•#ö ˆÜ˛yöÄ ≤ÃÜ,˛ï˛
!¢“#üö !ܲ xyòˆÏ˛õ•z §Ω˛Ó⁄
≤Ãò#˛õ
É x!üï˛yû˛òyñ ~ xyU˛yÎ˚ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ˆ°áyÓ˚ ã%˛°ˆÏã˛Ó˚y !ӈϟ’£ˆÏ îÏ ˆà°yü öy– •Î˚ï˛
!ë˛Ü˛Ä •ï˛ öy– ~åÈyí˛¸y xyüyÓ˚ «˛üï˛yÄ §#!üï˛– xyüyÓ˚ xy@ˇÃ• !åÈ°
ܲ!ÓÈÙȧy!•!ï˛ƒÜ˛ x!üï˛yû˛ ˆòÓ ˆã˛Ôô%Ó˚# ÎyÓ˚ ܲ!Ó§_yÓ˚ xy!ü =îü%?˛ û˛_´–
•Î˚ï˛ ï%˛!üÄ Ó%é˛ˆÏï˛ ˆ˛õˆÏÓ˚åÈ Îï˛=ˆÏ°y !Ó£ÏÎ˚ !öˆÏÎ˚ ܲÌyÓyï≈˛y •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈñ ~ §Ó•z
xyüyÓ˚ !çK˛y§ƒ !åÈ° öy– àï˛ ã˛yÓ˚ ÓåÈÓ˚ ~•z ï,˛ï˛#Î˚ û%˛ÓˆÏö °yàyü•#ö â%ˆÏÓ˚
ˆÓí˛¸yÓyÓ˚ §%ÓyˆÏò ˆÓ¢ ܲçö ܲ!ÓÈÙȧy!•!ï˛ƒÜ˛ÈÙÈÓ¶%˛°yû˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– ĈÏòÓ˚
ܲÌyÓyï≈˛yÎ˚ í˛zˆÏë˛ xy§y í˛zÍܲZ˛yñ xö%ˆÏÎyà Ä !çK˛y§ƒ !Ó£ÏÎ˚ÈÙÈû˛yÓöy=ˆÏ°y
ĈÏòÓ˚ •ˆÏÎ˚ ï%˛ˆÏ° ôˆÏÓ˚!åÈ üye– û˛Ó˚§y ~•z ˆÎ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ x!û˛¢¡õyˆÏï˛ !Ók˛ •Ó
öy–
ˆ•!üÇĈÏÎ˚Ó˚ Úòƒy Ä”˛üƒyö xƒyu˛ òƒy !§Û üˆÏö xyˆÏåÈ⁄ xyüyÓ˚ ˆï˛y üˆÏö •Î˚ñ
~áöÄ xöyü# ˆ°áܲ ï%˛!ü ˆ§•z Ó%ˆÏí˛¸y ÎyÓ˚ âyüÈÙÈÓ˚_´üyáy !åÈˆÏ˛õ ˆ°ˆÏàˆÏåÈ
!ܲå%Èñ ˆöÔܲy å%Èê˛ˆÏåÈ !ò¢y•#ö– çÎ˚ÈÙÈ˛õÓ˚yçÎ˚ ~áöÄ !Ó¢ ÓÑyÄ çˆÏ°– xyÓ˚Ä
ò%ÈÙÈ!ï˛ö !ܲÇÓy ã˛yÓ˚ ò¢Ü˛ ˛õÓ˚ ܲ# xy¢y ܲÓ˚ˆÏÓ ~•z û˛Óç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ⁄ áy!°

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64

ˆÓyê˛ ÎyÓ˚ ˛õyˆÏ¢ é%˛ˆÏ° xyˆÏåÈ ≤ÃÓ° òÇ¢ˆÏö «˛ï˛!Ó«˛ï˛ ü%ˆíÏ ˛¸y §%ò#â≈ ܲ!Óç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚
Üœ˛y!hsˇ ... !ï˛Ó˚flÒyÓ˚⁄⁄
x!üï˛yû˛ É ~•z xyüyÓ˚ ç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚ ≤ÃÌü §y«˛yÍܲyÓ˚!û˛!_ܲ xyU˛yñ ≤Ãò#˛õ– ~ï˛ ò#â≈ Ä
ܲ!ë˛ö §y«˛yÍܲyÓ˚ xy¢y ܲ!Ó˚ xyüyˆÏܲ xyÓ˚ ç#ÓˆÏö ܲáöÄ !òˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ öy–
ܲ!ë˛ö ~•z xˆÏÌ≈ ˆÎ ~áyˆÏö xyüyˆÏܲ ˆüyܲy!Ó°y ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ ˆÓ¢ !ܲå%È
!ÓÓ˚&k˛ï˛yÓ˚– òƒyáñ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ≤ÈïÏ ˛ƒˆÏܲÓ˚•z ~ܲÈÙÈ~ܲê˛y !öçfl∫ x!û˛ôyö xyˆÏåÈ–
ˆ§•z x!û˛ôyö xy!ü Óy xyüÓ˚y §Óy•z Ó˚ã˛öy ܲ!Ó˚ !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚ ˆ˛õy£Ïƒ ~ÓÇ Ó¢ÇÓò
!ܲå%È ¢∑ !òˆÏÎ˚•z– ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ˆöÄÎ˚y ~•z §y«˛yÍܲyÓ˚ xyüyˆÏܲ §Ω˛Óï˛ ç#ÓˆÏö
~•z ≤ÃÌü !öˆÏçÓ˚ xÓyôƒ !ܲå%È ¢ˆÏ∑Ó˚ ü%ˆÏáyü%!á ܲÓ˚°– ~•z §y«˛yÍܲyÓ˚
û˛!ӣσˆÏï˛Ä xyüyÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ fløÓ˚î#Î˚ •ˆÏÎ˚ ÌyܲˆÏÓ– ~Ó˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ xyüyˆÏܲ •Î˚ï˛
ÓyˆÏÓÓ˚ yˆÏÓ•˚ z â%ˆÓÏ ˚ !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ xy§ˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓñ ~üö!ܲ Î!ò !öˆÏçÓ˚ Ó°y ~•z ܲÌy=ˆÏ°y
ˆÌˆÏܲ xyüyÓ˚ !ÓŸªy§ í˛zˆÏë˛ ÎyÎ˚ ÈÙÙÙÙÈ ï˛áöÄ– ܲyÓ˚î ï˛áö ~•z §y«˛yÍܲyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚
xyˆÏ°yÎ˚ xy!ü ¢öy_´ ܲˆÏÓ˚ !öˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚Ó !öˆÏçÓ˚ ˛õy°ˆÏê˛ÈÙÈÎyÄÎ˚yÓ˚ fl∫Ó*˚ ˛õ!ê˛ˆÏܲ–
ï˛ˆÏÓ ~ܲê˛y•z ܲÌy– !öˆÏçÓ˚ ü%ˆáÏ yü%!á •ˆÏï˛ !àˆÏÎ˚ xy!ü !ܲ §!ï˛ƒ•z §Í ÌyܲˆÏï˛
ˆ˛õˆÏÓ˚!åÈ ~áyˆÏö⁄ öy!ܲ ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ !öˆÏçˆÏܲ ÓyöyˆÏöyÓ˚ ˆá°yÎ˚ ˆüˆÏï˛ í˛zˆÏë˛ˆÏåÈ
xyüyÓ˚ üö⁄ ~ ≤Èϟ¿Ó˚ çÓyÓ ˆÜ˛Ó°üye û˛!ӣσ•z çyˆÏöÊ
xyÓ˚ òƒyáñ §ü%ˆÏo ÎyÓyÓ˚ §yô ÌyܲˆÏ°Äñ §yôƒ xyüyÓ˚ ˆö•z– §%ï˛Ó˚yÇñ xyüyÓ˚
üyåÈÈÙÈôÓ˚yÓ˚ ˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚yê˛y•z ˛õ%Ü%˛ˆÏÓ˚ñ hflÏ∏˛ çˆÏ° ÈÙÙÙÙÈ ˆÎÈÙÈçˆÏ°Ó˚ xyÓ˚!¢ˆÏï˛ §üˆÏÎ˚
§üˆÏÎ˚ !öˆÏçÓ˚Ä åÈ!Ó ˆû˛ˆÏ§ ĈÏë˛ É û˛yäyˆÏã˛yÓ˚yñ ÓƒÌ≈ ~ܲ ãÑ˛yˆÏòÈÙÈ˛õyÄÎ˚y üyö%ˆ£Ï ÓÏ ˚
åÈ!Ó– ï˛ˆÏÓ Î!ò ܲáöÄ ˆÜ˛yöÄ !ë˛Ü˛ë˛yܲ üyåÈ xyüyÓ˚ ÓÑí˛¸!¢Ó˚ ˆê˛y˛õ !àˆÏ°
ˆöÎ˚ ÈÙÙÙÙÈ Î!ò ï˛yˆÏܲ ˆê˛ˆÏöê%˛ˆÏö ˛õ%Ü%˛Ó˚˛õyˆÏí˛¸ ï%˛ˆÏ° xyöyÓ˚ xyˆÏà•z ï˛yÓ˚ üyǧ
ˆáˆÏÎ˚ !öˆÏÎ˚ ã˛ˆÏ° ÎyÎ˚ xöƒ ˆÜ˛yöÄ ≤Ãyî#ñ Î!ò ˛õyˆÏí˛¸ í˛zˆÏë˛ xyˆÏ§ ˆÜ˛Ó° ï˛yÓ˚
ܲB˛y°!åÈÖÓˆÏí˛¸•zñ Ä•z ܲB˛y°ˆÏܲ •yDˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ܲB˛y° ˆû˛ˆÏÓ û%˛° ܲˆÏÓ˚y öy– ≤ÃÌü
ܲÌyñ ˛õ%Ü%˛ˆÏÓ˚ •yDˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ x!hflÏc x°#ܲñ x≤Ãï˛ƒy!¢ï˛ñ x§Ω˛Ó– !mï˛#Î˚ ܲÌyñ
˛õ%Ü%˛ˆÏÓ˚ •yDÓ˚ÈÙÈò¢≈ö üyˆÏö ¢e&ˆÏcÓ˚ xyˆÏ°yÎ˚ !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚ ˛õ%Ü%˛Ó˚ˆÏܲ §ü%o ӈϰ
ˆû˛ˆÏÓ ˆöÄÎ˚y– ¢e&ï˛yÓ˚ !ö!Ó˚ˆÏá öÎ˚ñ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ÓÑí˛¸!¢ ˆú˛ˆÏ° ӈϧ ÌyܲyÓ˚
~ܲ!ö¤˛ï˛yÓ˚ ܲyÓ˚ˆÏî•z ~ܲ!òö xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ˛õ%Ü%˛Ó˚ §ü%o •ˆÏÓ– •Î˚ï˛ xöƒ ˆÜ˛í˛z
üyåÈ ôÓ˚ˆÏÓñ !ܲv xyüyÓ˚•z !åÈˆÏ˛õ–

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ܲ!Óï˛y

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ܲ°ƒyîÓ ï˛ ã˛e´Óï˛#≈

§ˆÏhsˇy£Ï Ó˚yÎ˚

~•z òy•

ˆ°ê‰˛

x°#ܲ fl¨yö ˆ§ˆÏÓ˚ xyüÓ˚y ܲçö ü%ˆÏáyü%!á ӈϧ xy!åÈ
xyÓ˚ üyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ òy•ˆÏ¢ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ xyˆÏ°y ܲÑy˛õˆÏåÈ §ÓyÓ˚ ˆã˛yˆÏáü%ˆÏáó
öò# •y!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏFåÈ û)˛ˆÏày° Ó•zˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ˛õyï˛y ˛í˛zí˛¸ˆÏåÈ
üyé˛Ó˚yˆÏï˛Ó˚ •yÄÎ˚yÎ˚ñ ~ܲ !ã˛°ˆÏï˛ Óy!§ ܲy˛õˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y üy!ê˛Ó˚ û˛yäˆÏö
ˆÎ ÷ˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏåñ ~ܲ •Ñyê%˛ ç°Ü˛yòy ây§ÈÙÈ=Õ√ñ ˆ§ á%Ó !öç≈öñ ~ܲyÈÙÙÙÈ
!Ó¢y° àƒy§ã%˛ˆÏ°yÓ˚ û˛yäy òÓ˚çy ˆë˛ˆÏ° •ü•ü ¢ˆÏ∑ xy=ö
ˆÓ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ xy§ˆÏåÈ ÓyÓ˚ÓyÓ˚ñ üˆÏö •Î˚ ˆÜ˛í˛z ~ˆÏ§ ˆí˛ˆÏܲ !öˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚ó
IJõyˆÏÓ˚ â%ühsˇ ˛õyí˛¸y Ó¶˛ âÓ˚ˆÏòyÓ˚ñ åȈÏöÓ˚ ã˛y°yÎ˚ ÷ˆÏÎ˚ Ü%˛Ü%˛Ó˚ÈÙÈÜ%˛Ü%˛!Ó˚ñ
˛õy¢ˆÏú˛Ó˚y ò#â≈Ÿªy§ñ xӧߨ ¢,DyÓ˚ܲ°y˛õñ ˆì˛í˛z §ˆÏÓ˚ ÎyÎ˚ Ó˚ˆÏ_´Ó˚ ˆû˛ï˛ˆÏÓ˚
•y°Ü˛y x¶˛Ü˛yˆÏÓ˚ §üܲyü# ˆ°yܲçö ˆÓ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ~ˆÏ§ˆÏåÈ Ó˚yhflÏyÎ˚
¢•ˆÏÓ˚ ày!¶˛ü)!ï≈˛Ó˚ xyˆÏ¢˛õyˆÏ¢ çyöy ˆüyÓy•zˆÏ° !ö!£Ïk˛ !ü°ˆÏöÓ˚ §ˆÏB˛ï˛
˛õyã˛yÓ˚ •Î˚–
xyüÓ˚y ï˛Ó% ˆÓî%ÓˆÏöÓ˚ xyÓy!§Ü˛ ~°yܲyÎ˚ !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ ÎyÓñ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ üy
xyÓ˚ ˆö•zñ ÷û˛Ü˛yü# üyö%£Ï xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ˛õ!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚ Ó˚yï˛ ˆçˆÏà ˆ¢yܲy•ï˛
òÓ˚çy á%ˆÏ° ӈϧ xyˆÏåÈ í˛zòy§#öó
ˆû˛yÓ˚ •ˆÏÎ˚ ~° ≤ÃyÎ˚ñ üyÌyÓ˚ IJõˆÏÓ˚ e´ü¢ !ü!°ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏFåÈ
ï˛yÓ˚yÎ˚ û˛Ó˚y åÈyÎ˚y˛õÌñ §yòy åÈy•z ˆöˆÏí˛¸ˆÏã˛ˆÏí˛¸ xyüÓ˚y
üyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ öy!û˛˛õp á%шÏç ˆ˛õˆÏï˛ ã˛y•z– È

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~ˆÏ§ ӈϧ!åÈ°yü ˆû˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚Ä xyˆÏà– ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚ ≤Ãï˛#«˛y xyÓ˚ ≤Ãï˛#«˛yñ ã˛y xyÓ˚ ã˛y–
xӈϢˆÏ£Ï ˆû˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ §)Î≈ ~° ò%Ûâ^ˇê˛y ˆ°ˆÏê˛– ò#â≈ •Û° Ó˚yï˛ xyÓ˚ ˛õï˛ˆÏöÓ˚ òyà Óyí˛¸ˆÏ°y §yòy
ã˛yòˆÏÓ–˚
ˆÎˆÏï˛ ˆï˛y •ˆÏÓ•z ˆû˛ˆÏÓñ ò%Ûâ^ˇê˛y !˛õ!åȈÏÎ˚ •Ñyê˛°yü– ò)ˆÏÓ˚ òÑyí˛¸yˆÏöy ˆê˛∆ö– ≤Ã!ï˛!òö
~üöÈÙÈ•z ˆ°ê˛‰– ≤Ã!ï˛!òˆÏöÓ˚ ˆ°ê‰˛ ~ˆÏ§ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ üyˆÏ§ñ üyˆÏ§Ó˚ ˆ°ê‰˛ }ï%˛ˆÏï˛– ˆÜ˛y!ܲ° í˛yܲˆÏï˛ öy
í˛yܲˆÏï˛ àÓ˚üÈÙÈ •yÄÎ˚yñ •yÄÎ˚y Ó•zˆÏï˛ öy Ó•zˆÏï˛ ◊yÓîñ ◊yÓî xy§ˆÏï˛ öy xy§ˆÏï˛ ˆÓˆÏç
ĈÏë˛ ì˛yܲ– •z!°ˆÏ¢Ó˚ xyüòy!ö ܲü ï˛y•z–
~§Ó ܲÌy Ó°ˆÏï˛ öy Ó°ˆÏï˛•zñ ˛õyˆÏ¢Ó˚ Îye# ӈϰ ĈÏë˛ö ÈÙÙÙÈ ~Ó˚ ≤Ãû˛yÓ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ˆÏåÈ
!¢«˛yÎ˚ÈÙÙÙÈ Ó•z xy§ˆÏï˛ öy xy§ˆÏï˛•z ˛õÓ˚#«˛yñ fl%҈ϰ ˆÎˆÏï˛ öy ˆÎˆÏï˛•z å%È!ê˛– §yüˆÏöÓ˚ Îye#
ӈϰ ĈÏë˛öÈÙÙÙÈ !•Ç§y ÈÙÈ x!fliÓ˚ï˛y–
~áö Îyey ÷Ó˚& •ˆÏÓ– ò%Û˛õyˆÏ¢Ó˚ ˆòyܲyö=ˆÏ°y ˆáyˆÏ°!ö ~áˆÏöyñ Ü,˛£Ïܲ üyˆÏë˛ öyˆÏü!öñ
x!ú˛§ÈÙÈ xyòy°ï˛ ÷Ó˚& •ˆÏÓ ò%Ûâ^ˇê˛y ˆ°ˆÏê˛ñ !Óã˛yÓ˚ˆÏܲÓ˚ Ó˚yÎ˚ !˛õ!åȈÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏÓ– ÜÑ˛yê˛y öy §Ó˚yˆÏ°
â!í˛¸=ˆÏ°y•z ÓyçˆÏï˛ ÌyܲˆÏÓ •zö ~퉲û˛y™– â!í˛¸ˆÏï˛ §¶˛ƒy •ˆÏ° Óy•zˆÏÓ˚ ˆÓ˚yò ˛õˆÏí˛¸ ÌyܲˆÏÓ
ò%Ûâ^ˇê˛y– ¢!ö !àˆÏÎ˚ ì%˛Ü˛ˆÏÓ Ó%ˆÏôÓ˚ âˆÏÓ˚ñ üD° ÷ˆÏe´Ó˚ âˆÏÓ˚ÈÙÙÙÈ Ü˛Ü≈˛ê˛ Ó˚y!¢Ó˚ §hsˇyö •ˆÏÓ !§Ç•
Ó˚y!¢Ó˚ñ ܲöƒy •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏÓ !üÌ%öñ Ó,£Ï ÓˆÏö ÎyˆÏÓ ü#ö–
!ê˛. !ê˛ ÓˆÏ°öñ ~§Ó !öˆÏÎ˚ ~ï˛ Ü˛Ìy ˆÜ˛ö⁄ §yˆÏí ö ˆ°ê‰˛ •zç ~ƒyÓöÓ˚üƒy° x°ÄˆÏÎç
˚ ñ
≤Ã!ï˛!òˆÏöÓ˚ ˆ°ê‰˛ ˆï˛y fl∫yû˛y!Óܲñ ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy xç%•yï˛ ˆ¢yöyÓ˚ ܲï≈˛Óƒ xyüyÓ˚ öÎ˚ñ !ê˛!Ü˛ê˛ Ü˛yê˛ˆÏï˛
ˆÜ˛í˛z !˛õ!åȈÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏÓö öyñ ò[˛˛ §ü%ˆÏá Óï≈˛üyö–
Ó%鲰yüñ xyç xyÓ˚ ܲÌy ӈϰ °yû˛ ˆö•zñ ˆÜ˛yö!òö ܲÌy ӈϰ °yû˛ ˆö•z xÌ≈yÍ
xy¢y ܲˆÏÓ˚ °yû˛ ˆö•z §üÎ˚ ôÓ˚yÓ˚– ~ï˛ ˛õÌÈÙÙÙȧÑy•z §Ñy•z ܲˆÏÓ˚ ÎyˆÏFåÈ §üÎ˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ ˆü•z°ñ
~:ˆÏ≤çñ §%˛õyÓ˚ ú˛yfiê˛ñ §%˛õyÓ˚ÈÙÈ í%˛˛õyÓ˚ ú˛yfiê˛ÈÙÙÙÈ ~ܲ!ê˛ Ü˛yç ~ˆÏ§ ˛õí˛¸ˆÏåÈ xyˆÏÓ˚ܲ!ê˛ Ü˛yˆÏçÓ˚
âyˆÏí˛¸ñ ~ܲ!ê˛ §yÓ˚ˆÏï˛ !àˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏÓ˚ܲ!ê˛ !˛õåȉ!°ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚ñ ~ܲ!ê˛ û˛y!ÓÈÙÙÙÈ~ܲ!ê˛ û%˛!°ñ ~ܲ fl∫≤¿
ˆò!áÈÙÙÙÈ xyˆÏÓ˚ܲ!ê˛ ~ˆÏ§ !üˆÏ¢ ÎyÎ˚ ï˛yˆÏï˛ÈÙÙÙÈ ç!ê˛° ü[˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ âˆÏÓ˚ !ú˛!Ó˚ÈÙÙÙÈ ˆã˛ˆÏö öy ˆÜ˛í˛z
xyüyˆÏܲ–
xyç â%ˆÏüyˆÏÓyñ í˛zë˛Ó ˆ°ˆÏê˛– ÈÙÙÙÈ Óy!í˛¸Ó˚ ܲï≈˛yÈÙÈ•z Î!ò ˆ°ˆÏê˛ çyˆÏàöó xöƒÓ˚y !ܲ
ÎyˆÏÓ |£Ïy çyàÓ˚ˆÏîÊ ÓyÓy çyàˆÏï˛ö ≤Ãï%˛ƒˆÏ£Ïñ ë˛yÜ%˛Ó˚òy çyàˆÏï˛öñ ˛õy!á çyàï˛ñ ú%˛° ú%˛ê˛ï˛ñ
xyˆÏ°y ˛õí˛¸ï˛ !ë˛Ü˛ §üˆÏÎ˚– ~ÓyÓ˚ ¢#ˆÏï˛Ó˚ !§ü‰ ˆòáy !ò° Ó§ˆÏhsˇñ ˆüâ í˛yܲ°ÈÙÙÙÈ ÚÓí˛z ܲÌy
ܲÄÛ í˛yܲ°ñ Ó,!‹T !û˛ˆÏç !û˛ˆÏç–
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~ÓyÓ˚ ç%!üÎ˚yÓ˚ !û˛ˆÏí˛¸ !üˆÏ¢ Îy•zñ ÓyˆÏÓ˚yüyˆÏ§Ó˚ Ó#ç ~ܲ§yˆÏÌ ˛õ%шÏï˛ !ò•z üyˆÏ벖 çß√
Ä ü,ï%˛ƒÓ˚ §y!ê≈˛!ú˛ˆÏÜ˛ê˛ ã˛y•z ~ܲ òÓ˚áyˆÏhflÏÈÙÙÙÈ ~ÈÙÈ•z öï%˛ö §Çfl,Ò!ï˛– ~ܲ•z åÈyˆÏï˛Ó˚ !öˆÏã˛
@ˇÃ#‹øÓ£Ïy≈ ¢Ó˚ÍÈÙÙÙÈ ˆ•ühsˇ¢#ï˛Ó§hsˇñ ~ܲ•z ã˛yï˛yˆÏ° ÈÙÙÙÈ ë˛yÜ%˛Ó˚âÓ˚ñ Ó˚yߨyâÓ˚ñ ˛õyÎ˚áyöy Ä ü•y!ü°ˆÏöÓ˚
!ÓåÈyöyÈÙÙÙÈ ~ÈÙÈ•z §üÎ˚ ôÓ˚yÓ˚ ˆ◊¤˛ ˆÜ˛Ô¢°–
!öÎ˚sfܲ ÎyÓ˚yñ ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ çˆÏöƒ §Ó ˛˛õ,Ìܲ– §)Î≈ã˛wÈÙÈé˛í˛¸é˛Py ˆÌˆÏܲ ï˛yÓ˚y ˛˛õ,Ìܲñ
ò%ÉáÎsfîyÓ˚ IJõˆÏÓ˚ñ ôü≈ÈÙÈxôˆÏü≈Ó˚ |ˆÏôù≈– ï˛yÓ˚y çyàˆÏ° xyˆÏ°y ˛õˆÏí˛¸ÈÙÙÙÈ °y°ÈÙȧÓ%ç–
ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ˆã˛yˆÏá ˆüâñ ˆe´yˆÏô é˛í˛¸ñ Ó˚_´àDy ÓÎ˚ ˆò¢ÈÙÈ≤ÈÏòˆÏ¢– xyüyÓ˚ ܲyç áyòƒ
ˆÎyàyí˛¸ ܲÓ˚y xyÓ˚ ˆã˛yá Ó%ˆÏç üï‰˛ òyö ܲÓ˚y– xyüyÓ˚ ~ܲ•yˆÏï˛ ˆ§°‰ ˆú˛yöñ ~ܲ•yˆÏï˛ üyí˛z§ÈÙÙÙÈ
•z• çàˆÏï˛Ó˚ xyô%!öܲ–
§üÎ˚ å%Èê˛ˆÏåÈñ í˛zˆÏí˛¸ í˛zˆÏí˛¸ ÎyˆÏFåÈ ÈÙÙÙÈ xçyöyÈÙÈxˆÏã˛öy @ˇÃyü– ˆÓ°y ÓyˆÏÓ˚yê˛yÎ˚ Óƒyà ÜÑ˛yˆÏô
•zí˛z!öú˛ü≈ ÎyˆÏFåÈ fl%Òˆ°
Ï ñ ò¢ê˛yÓ˚ !áˆÏò ˆ˛õ° ÓyˆÏÓy˚ ê˛yÎ˚ñ ܲöƒyòyÎ˚@ˇÃhflÏ !˛õï˛y é%˛ˆÏ° ˆàˆÏ°öñ !˛õ!åȈÎÏ ˚
ˆà° ܲyÓ˚yÓy§#Ó˚ ü%!_´Ó˚ §üÎ˚– §Ó ˆ°ê‰˛ ÈÙÙÙÈ xyö® ˆ°ê‰ñ !ÓÓ˚•ÈÙÈ !Ó£Ïyò ˆ°ê˛‰– Î%ÓˆÏܲÓ˚y
ˆáy§ˆÏüçyˆÏç í˛zë˛ˆÏåÈ ÙÈ öyüˆÏåÈ Ü˛yüÓ˚yÎ˚ÈÙÙÙÈ ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ï˛yÓ˚&îƒ ˆö•zñ à°yÓ˚ fl∫Ó˚ ˛õyŒê˛yÎ˚!öñ ˆàÑyú˛
ĈÏë˛!ö ~áˆÏöy ÎÌyfliyˆÏö– Ó,k˛!ê˛ˆÏܲ ˆ˛õ°yü !ܲˆÏ¢yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ üˆÏï˛yñ !ܲˆÏ¢yÓ˚!ê˛ˆÏܲ !¢÷Ó˚ üˆÏï˛yñ
xyÓ˚ !¢÷!ê˛⁄ ÈÙÙÙÈçˆÏß√ˆÏï˛ ˆ°ê‰˛–
û˛yÓˆÏï˛ û˛yÓˆÏï˛ ˆê˛∆ö Ìyü° ¢)öƒfliyˆÏöÈÙÙÙÈˆÜ˛yˆÏöy!òˆÏܲ ˆfiê˛¢ö ˆö•z– !ܲå%È ˆ°yܲ í˛z벰ÈÙÈ
öyü°– ˆê˛∆ö å%Èê˛° xyÓyÓ˚– Îáö Ìyü°ÈÙÙÙÈ ˆfiê˛¢ö ˆö•z ÈÙÙÙÈ Îye# öyü° ÈÙÈí˛z벰ÈÙÙÙÈ å%Èê˛°
xyÓyÓ˚– ˆê˛∆ö ˆÎáyˆÏö ÌyˆÏü ˆfiê˛¢ö ÌyˆÏܲ ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲâ^ˇê˛y ò)Ó˚– ≤Ã!ï˛!òö•z ~Ó˚ ò)Ó˚c ÓyˆÏí˛¸–
xy!ü !Óü£Ï≈ •°yü ~•z ˆû˛ˆÏÓ ˆÎñ ~•z ˆ°áy!ê˛ Ü˛ˆÏÎ˚ܲ ÓåÈÓ˚ xyˆÏà ˆ°áyÓ˚ ܲÌy !åÈ°ñ
xÌã˛ ˆ°áy •° §ˆÏÓüyeÈÙÙÙÈ ˛õyë˛Ü˛ ˆÌˆÏܲ xˆÏöܲ xˆÏöܲ ò)ˆÓÏ –˚ xy!ü xyö!®ï˛ •°yü ~•zˆûÏ ˛ˆÏÓ
ˆÎñ xyüyÓ˚ Óyô≈ܲƒ xy§ˆÏÓ xˆÏöܲ xˆÏöܲ ˛õˆÏÓ˚ñ ã˛yÜ%˛!Ó˚ ˆÓˆÏí˛¸ ÎyˆÏÓ xˆÏöܲ!òö ˛õÓ˚ñ ü,ï%˛ƒ •ˆÏÓ
!ë˛Ü˛ §üˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ xˆÏöܲ ˛õˆÏÓ˚ xÌÓy ï˛yÓ˚Ä ˛õˆÏÓ˚...– xÌÓy ü,ï%˛ƒÓ˚ xˆÏöܲܲy° ˛õˆÏÓ˚ í˛y_´yÓ˚
ˆây£Ïîy ˆòˆÏÓöÈÙÙÙÈü,ï˛– ï˛ï˛«˛ˆÏî xy!ü .... –

öÜ%˛° Ó˚yÎ˚

ç#ÓyŸ¬
§ühflÏ ¢Ó˚#Ó˚ ã˛y˛õy ˛õí˛¸y ˛õÿÏÓ˚
ܲï˛Ü˛ hflψÏÓ˚ °«˛ ÓåȈÏÓ˚ !òö ÎyÎ˚
Ó˚yï˛ ÎyÎ˚ ˛õÓ˚üyî% ˛õÿÏÓ˚Ó˚
˛õ!Ó˚Ó!ï≈˛ï˛ Ó˚*˛õÈÙÈåÈÑyã˛ üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚
ï%˛!ü ¢Ó˚#Ó˚–
°«˛ ÓåÈÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚ xy!ü ~•z ¢•ˆÏÓ˚
xyˆÏÓ˚ܲ üyö%£Ï
ï%˛!üÄ–
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚Ä !ܲ xyüyÓ˚ üˆÏï˛yö !òö
ÎyÎ˚ Ó˚yï˛ ÎyÎ˚⁄
ï%˛!üÄ !ܲ xˆÏ˛õ«˛yÓ˚ xÓ§yö˛õˆÏÓ≈
öï%˛ö üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ xy!Ó‹ÒyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ çˆÏöƒ
«˛îܲy° xyüyÓ˚ §ˆÏD ܲÌy ӈϰy⁄ ˚

àyˆÏöÓ˚ ˆ¢ˆÏ£Ï
~•züye ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ §D#ï˛ §üyÆ
üM˛È áy!° ◊&!ï˛ôÓ˚ ò¢≈ˆÏܲÓ˚yÄ ã˛ˆÏ° ˆàˆÏåÈ
xyôyÓ˚yï˛ ˆçˆÏà ӈϧ xyˆÏåÈ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ fl∫yü#
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ âyï˛Ü˛–
˜¢¢ˆÏÓ ˆÎÈÙÈç%ˆÏï˛yˆÏçyí˛¸y ˆú˛ˆÏ° ã˛ˆÏ° ˆàˆÏåÈy
!ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ ~ˆÏ§ ˛õyÄ!ö flø,!ï˛ ˆ§•z üyˆÏ˛õÓ˚–

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ï˛yÓ˚ ˆåȈϰ •ˆÏ°y ˆüˆÏÎ˚ •ˆÏ°y
ˆ§ ü%_´!é˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ ¢yü%ܲ–

Óyï˛yÎ˚ˆÏöÓ˚ Óy•zˆÏÓ˚ ˆ§•z !öɧD ˆçƒyÍfl¨y
!ö§ˆÏà≈ §ü˛õ≈î åÈyí˛¸y !¢“#Ó˚ xy◊Î˚ ˆö•z–

ï%˛!üÄ á%!¢
!ÓˆÏÎ˚ !òˆÏ°
˛õ!Ó˚ÓyÓ˚ Óí˛¸ •ˆÏ°y
ˆò¢ºüˆÏî ˆÓ!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ ~ˆÏ°
•zã˛yÓ˚!Ó°–

üˆÏM˛ÈÓ˚ ˆ˛õåȈÏö âyï˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ çß√ •Î˚ñ çß√
•Î˚ !mï˛#Î˚ •*òÎ˚ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ xyd§ü˛õ≈ˆÏî–

ˆëÑ˛yê˛ ˆÌˆÏܲ Ó%ˆÏܲ
Ó˚&!òç°yÓ˚ Óyçy Ó˚üî#
çyöˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚
¢yü%ܲ ˆáˆÏ° ÓyFã˛y •Î˚
ˆã˛yá ˛õ!Ó˚‹ÒyÓ˚ ÌyˆÏܲ–

§!ï˛ƒ Îy ӈϰ!åÈ Ü˛y°≈ üyÜ≈˛§ öyÈÙÈ ˛õˆÏí˛¸•z
ï˛yÓ˚ ~ܲ!Ó®%Ä xy!ü xfl∫#ܲyÓ˚ ܲ!Ó˚ öyÈÙÙÙÈ
xyüyÓ˚ !û˛ˆÏê˛üy!ê˛ ˆÌˆÏܲ í˛zˆÏFåÈò ܲÓ˚y
òy°yˆÏ°Ó˚ •yï˛Î¢ ¢y§öò[˛˛ xÓ!ô
ˆ˛õÔшÏåÈ ˆàˆÏåÈ–

ˆ˛õÑã˛y
ܲy°≈ üyÜ≈˛§ ˛õí˛¸yÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚Ä xy!ü ˆòˆÏá!åÈ
xyüyÓ˚ •*òÎ˚ °%!Z˛ï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ ÓyÓ˚ÓyÓ˚ÈÙÙÙÈ
ï˛yÓ˚ ~ܲ!Ó®%Ä xy!ü xfl∫#ܲyÓ˚ ܲ!Ó˚ öyÈÙÙÙÈ
xyüyÓ˚ ˆ≤ÈÏüÓ˚ üç%!Ó˚ ã˛y•z!öñ ◊ˆÏüÓ˚ üç%!Ó˚Ó˚
!môy!Óû˛ˆÏ_´ xyòy°ï˛ xÓ!ô ˆà!åÈ–
ˆ§áyˆÏö xyÿ˛Î≈ Î%!ô!¤˛Ó˚ÈÙÈò%ˆÏÎ≈yôˆÏö ˆÜ˛y°yÜ%˛!° ÈÙÙÙÈ
!§¶%˛§û˛ƒï˛yÓ˚ ˆ§•z ˆÎ xyܲyˆÏ¢Ó˚ ãÑ˛yò
ˆòˆÏá ˆú˛ˆÏ°!åÈ°yüñ ï˛y xyçÄ
xyüyÓ˚ ˆày˛õö Óy܉˛ˆÏ§Ó˚ ~ܲüye §¡õòñ
fl∫ˆÏ≤¿Ó˚ Ó§Óy§–

Ó˚yˆÏï˛Ó˚ ã˛yï˛y° ç%ˆÏí˛¸ !¢Ü˛y!Ó˚ÈÙÈxyˆÏ°y
!òˆÏöÓ˚ §yö@’yˆÏ§ ˆã˛yáÄë˛y üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚
àΩ˛#Ó˚ ü%áñ ˛õÓ˚yˆÏߨ ˆÓшÏã˛ÈÙÈÓˆÏï≈˛
Ìyܲy– §)Î≈yˆÏhflÏÓ˚ ˛õˆÏÓ˚ ≤Ãy܉˛ÈÙȧ)ˆÏÎ≈yòÎ˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ
!§Öòܲyê˛y xˆÏflf !ܲå%È üyö%£Ï ˆÓˆÏÓ˚yÎ˚ó
¢e&ˆÏܲ ˆã˛ˆÏö öy ≤Ãܲy¢ƒ !òÓyˆÏ°yˆÏܲ–
ˆ˛õÑã˛yÓ˚ §Ç§yˆÏÓ˚ §%áñ Ó˚y!eÈÙÈ!ö¢#ˆÏÌñ
ˆçƒyÍfl¨y˛õyÓ˚òÓ˚yˆÏï˛ àò≈û˛ ܲyˆÏܲˆÏòÓ˚
Äí˛¸yí˛z!í˛¸ ˆòˆÏá !ÓÓ˚_´ Î%Ó!ï˛ ˆ˛õÑã˛y–
ï˛Ó%Ä û˛yˆÏ°yñ üôƒÎyˆÏü •zÑò%ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚
üyLjϧ ˆû˛yç §yˆÏÓ˚ñ í˛zÓ≈¢#Ó˚ ú˛§°
Ó˚«˛y ܲˆÏÓ˚ xçyˆÏhsˇ °-#ˆÏ˛õÑã˛yÓ˚y–

Îyey˛õÌ
ò%ÈÙÈ!ܲˆÏ°y!üê˛yÓ˚ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ Óy§yÎ˚
ˆÎˆÏï˛ ˆÎˆÏï˛
71

72

ï˛ß√Î˚ ôÓ˚

•zö §%ƒ•zÇ

í˛z!qò

üˆÏö ܲÓ˚&öñ £Ïyê˛ •yçyÓ˚ ò¢≈ˆÏܲÓ˚ àƒy°y!Ó˚ˆÏï˛
~ܲçö üye ò¢≈ܲ •yï˛ï˛y!° !òˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏë˛ ÈÙÙÙÈ
üye ~ܲçö åÈyí˛¸y £Ïyê˛ •yçyÓ˚ ò¢≈ܲ ã%˛˛õÈÙÙÙÈ
xy˛õ!ö ˆê˛Ó˚•z ˛õyö!ö !ü퉲° fiê˛ƒyˆÏ¡õ Ó° ܲáö
•zö §%ƒ•zÇ å%ÈшÏÎ˚ ˆÓ°‰ ˆú˛ˆÏ° !òˆÏ°y üy!ê˛ˆÏï˛–
ˆ°yܲê˛y !åȈϰy ~ܲüye ç%Î˚y!í˛¸ ò¢≈ܲ
xyÓ˚ xy˛õ!öÄ !åȈϰö ~ܲüye ï˛yÓ˚ÈÙÈ•z–

!öÉ¢ˆÏ∑ ày!°

xˆÏöܲ ˛õˆÏÓ˚ Ó%é˛ˆÏï˛ ˆ˛õˆÏÓ˚!åÈ°yü ÈÙÙÙÈ
!òܲ !öˆÏò≈!¢Ü˛y ܲyç ܲÓ˚ˆÏåÈ öy–
ˆú˛Ó˚yÓ˚ í˛z˛õyÎ˚
•Î˚ï˛ !åÈ°ó
ܲÌy !åÈ° öy
â%üñ ÜÑ˛yã˛y xyˆÏ°yñ ¢yòy Îsföy !åÈ° öy
xÓ%é˛ ô%ˆÏ°y
!åÈ° öy...
xyüyÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚y!çï˛ öˆÏá öˆÏá
ˆÜ˛í˛z ˆòˆÏá!åÈ° ˆÜœ˛yˆÏÓ˚y!ú˛°–
≤ÃÌy•#ö !û˛«˛y Ä x¢)öƒï˛y....
öyñ
ï%˛!ü ܲÌy ӈϰy !ö–
öy ....

ò%ÈÙÈçö ò%ÈÙÈçöˆÏܲ í˛zˆÏ˛õ«˛yÓ˚ !ö¡¨û˛y£Ïy å%ȈÏí˛¸
ã˛ˆÏ° ˆàˆÏ°y ò%ÈÙÈ!òˆÏܲ ÈÙÙÙÈ
˛õˆÏí˛¸ ÌyˆÏܲ §y«˛ƒ•#ö !öÉ¢∑ ày!°
≤Ã!ï˛ˆÏÓ¢#Ó˚y ˆÓyé˛yÎ˚ û˛yÓyÎ˚ ˜ï˛!Ó˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆòÎ˚
öfiê˛y°!çܲ xö%û)˛!ï˛–

flø,!ï˛ •y!§ Óy‡@ˇÃy§
ò%ÈÙÈçˆÏöÓ˚ ò)Ó˚c ˆÓˆÏí˛¸ ˆ¢ˆÏ£Ï Ó,_ÓÍ
≤ÃyhsˇˆÏÓ˚ ~ˆÏ§ !ü!°ï˛ •Î˚ÈÙÙÙÈ

ã˛w!í˛äy–
~ܲê%˛ ˆû˛çy à“–

§ˆÏ•ƒÓ˚ §#üyÓ˚ Óy•zˆÏÓ˚ ˆÎÈÙÈ !öÉ¢ˆÏ∑ ày°yày°
ï˛yÓ˚y §•ƒ ܲˆÏÓ˚!åȈϰyÈÙÙÙÈ
ˆ§=!°•z ~áö ˛õ%ö!Ó≈ˆÏÓ!ã˛ï˛ •ˆÏ°y àû˛#Ó˚ ã%˛¡∫ˆÏö–

!ÓŸªy§ˆÏÎyàƒ öÎ˚
ˆã˛yˆÏá ˆã˛yˆÏá
x!û˛öˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ xÓ%é˛ Üœ˛y!hsˇ

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74

xyÓ˚
§!•£%è !@’§y!Ó˚ˆÏö !û˛ˆÏç Äë˛y
~ܲê%˛Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚y §Ü˛y°

§Ó˚ܲyÓ˚ xy!üö

í˛yܲ öyü
fl∫“ˆÏã˛öy àyˆÏåÈÓ˚ ˛õyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ üyÌy ˆÓ˚ˆÏá ÷ˆÏÎ˚ xy!åÈ– ܲyˆÏö ˆû˛ˆÏ§ xy§ˆÏåÈ
!öÓ˚&ˆÏj¢ !ÓüyˆÏöÓ˚ ¢∑– xyüyÓ˚ ܲÌy
ˆÜ˛í˛z •Î˚ˆÏï˛y ÷öˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏFåÈ öy– û˛Óâ%ˆÏÓ˚ ˆì˛í˛z öò#Ó˚ §yˆÏÌ
≤Ãï˛yÓ˚îy ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ !àˆÏÎ˚ ôÓ˚y ˆáˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ–

öy•ñ
xöƒ !ܲå%È Ó°ˆÏï˛ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°yü–

xy◊Î˚ Ä ≤Ã!ï˛ôù!ö

ôÓ˚yˆÏܲ §Ó˚y ˆû˛ˆÏÓ xy!ü !ã˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ ˛õyˆÏÎ˚ ˆÓшÏô !òˆÏÎ˚!åÈ üö
ú˛yö%ˆÏ§Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y ˆ§ í˛zí˛¸ˆÏï˛ ÌyÜ%˛Ü˛ öy Îï˛ê˛y §Ω˛Ó
çy!ö xy!ü Üœ˛y!hsˇÜ˛Ó˚ ü,ï%˛ƒÓ˚ í˛yܲöyü ˛õÓ˚yû˛Ó–

ܲy°ˆÏܲÓ˚ x!û˛öˆÏÎ˚ §yüyöƒ û%˛° !åÈ°–
§ÇˆÏ¢yôˆÏöÓ˚ §%ˆÎÏ yà
~áöÄ xyˆÏåÈó
û%˛° ܲÓ˚yÓ˚
û%˛ˆÏ° ÎyÄÎ˚yÓ˚
!ܲ¡∫y ....
öy Ìyܲ–
ã˛ˆÏ°yñ xyÓyÓ˚ §ï˛Ü≈˛ â%ˆÏüÓ˚ !û˛ï˛Ó˚
ˆåÈyR ~ܲê˛y !Óï˛Ü≈˛ í˛z§ˆÏܲ !ò•z–
xÓ%é˛ Ó˚äó
!ܲv ܲy!•!öê˛y !°áˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ öy–
... °%ˆÏܲyã%˛!Ó˚
xyÓ˚
!Ó£Ïߨ xyä%°

!ÓüyˆÏöÓ˚ ÓƒÌ≈ï˛y
˛õ!Ó˚!ã˛ï˛ •y!§=ˆÏ°y Óy!§ •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏFåÈ
í˛yܲyˆÏï˛Ó˚ §yˆÏÌ ˆòáy •ˆÏ°•z ˆÜ˛Ó° ã˛M˛È° •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏë˛ üö
ˆê˛!°ˆÏú˛yö xyÓ˚ •zÈÙȈÏüˆÏ° ˆû˛ˆÏ§ xyˆÏ§ Ü˛í˛¸y ˛õyÓ˚!ú˛í˛zˆÏüÓ˚ à¶˛
Óy°ƒÜ˛y°
≤Ã!ï˛!òö ~ܲê%˛ ~ܲê%˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚ üyÓ˚y ÎyˆÏFåÈ–
ˆÎÈÙÈàyåÈ=ˆÏ°yˆÏܲ !ÓŸªy§ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ӈϰ!åÈ°yü =ÆܲÌy
ˆ≤ç!Ó˚!°ç ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆ§ÈÙÈàyåÈ §Ó!ܲå%È ÓˆÏ° !òˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ âyï˛Ü˛ˆÏܲ
xyüyÓ˚ !ÓŸªy§ ˆÓ˚çyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ï˛ˆÏ° ˆû˛çy òy!í˛¸Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y ܲyê˛y ˛õí˛¸ˆÏåÈ–
≤Ã!ï˛!òö ~ܲê%˛ ~ܲê%˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚ •Ñyê˛!åÈ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ !òˆÏܲ
ï%˛!ü ~ܲê%˛ ~ܲê%˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚ §ˆÏÓ˚ ÎyˆÏFåÈy
ˆÎüö o&ï˛àyü# !ÓüyöÄ ôÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ öy xyܲyˆÏ¢Ó˚ í˛yöy–

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76

È!ÓŸª!çÍ ˆ§öÈ

ºüî ˛õ!Ó˚ܲ“öy
ç!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ Îy!FåÈ ~ܲê˛yÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y •zˆÏ°Ü˛!ê˛∆ܲ ï˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ §yˆÏÌ
Îy ÌyˆÏܲ ܲ˛õyˆÏ°– !•üyã˛° ˆÌˆÏܲ ÷Ó˚& •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ ¢ÓÎyey
ܲƒy!°ˆÏú˛y!ö≈Î˚yÓ˚ ˛õy¢ ˆâÑˆÏ£Ï o&ï˛ÎyˆÏö §%üyey
ˆ≤ÈÏï˛Ó˚ §ˆÏD ˆòáy
öy •ÄÎ˚yÓ˚ §Ω˛yÓöy•z ˆö•z–

ˆ•ÑˆÏê˛ Îy!FåÈ ú%˛Ó˚yˆÏFåÈ öy ˛õÌñ ˆòÔí˛¸y!FåÈ Óí˛¸ñ ˆáÑyí˛¸y!FåÈ
üyˆÏé˛ üyˆÏé˛ !öˆÏçÓ˚ ö@¿xydy ˆò¢°y•z !òˆÏÎ˚ ˆ˛õyí˛¸y!FåÈ
ˆ˛õåÈö ˆÌˆÏܲ ÷öˆÏï˛ ˛õy!FåÈ û)˛ˆÏï˛Ó˚ í˛yܲ
=öˆÏï˛ =öˆÏï˛ Îy!FåÈ 00000000 000 x§ÇრôyÓ˚yˆÏ°y Ü%˛ˆÏÎ˚y
~ܲê˛y öy ~ܲê˛yˆÏï˛
˛õˆÏí˛¸ öy ÎyÓyÓ˚
ï˛Ó%Ä xy¢y xyˆÏåÈ Î!ò ˆÓшÏã˛ Îy•z ~ Îyey
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ §ˆÏD ˆÓí˛¸yˆÏï˛ ÎyˆÏÓy §%üyey–

§Ω˛yÓöy•z ˆö•z–

ï˛Ó%Ä ~•z ˆåȈϰ ÎyˆÏÓ
~•z ˆåȈϰ ˛õÿÏÓ˚Ó˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ÎyˆÏÓ ü)!ï≈˛ •ÓyÓ˚ ˆày˛õö ¢ï≈˛ !öˆÏÎ˚–
Ó°ˆÏÓñ ~•z ˆåÈ!ö öÎ˚ñ Ä•z ˆåÈ!ö ã˛y•z
~•z •yï˛ öÎ˚ñ Ä•z ï˛ˆÏ˛õy°∏˛ •yï˛
ˆüˆÏâÓ˚ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚Ä °â%ñ í˛zòy_ üyˆÏë˛Ó˚ üï˛ •yï˛
ˆ§ÈÙÈ•z àí˛¸ˆÏÓ !˛õê˛ˆÏÓ ~•z í˛zò‰ºyhsˇ xyüyˆÏܲ
xy!ü ˆÎ §yÓ˚yê˛y !òö •yˆÏê˛ Ä ÓyçyˆÏÓ˚ â%ˆÏÓ˚ ˆÓí˛¸y°yü ˆÜ˛í˛z û%˛ˆÏ°
~° öy ~!òˆÏܲñ Ó°° öy ÈÙÙÙÈ xyÿ˛Î≈ ˆã˛yá ˆï˛y ˆï˛yüyÓ˚
ü)!ï≈˛Ü˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ˆàˆÏ° ï˛ˆÏÓ ˆÓyé˛y ˆÎï˛ ˙ ˆã˛yˆÏá
Ü˛ï˛ Ü˛ï˛ !§¶%˛ °%!ܲˆÏÎ˚
~•z ˆåȈϰ ~Ó˚ܲü ÎyˆÏÓ–
ˆàˆÏ°•z ˆÎ ü)!ï≈˛Ü˛yÓ˚ ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏÓ ˆ§Ó˚ܲü ˆÜ˛yö ܲÌy ˆö•z
ˆàˆÏ°•z ˆÎ öò# •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏÓ Óy é˛ö≈yÓ˚ àyö
ˆàˆÏ°•z ˆÎ Ó˚yáyˆÏ°Ó˚ ˛õò!ã˛•´ ... ˆàyÎ˚y!°ö# ˆÜ˛yüˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ÓÑyܲ
ˆàˆÏ°•z ˆÎ Ó˚&o ܲy°˜ÏÓÏ¢yá#
ï˛Ó% ~•z ˆåȈϰ ÎyˆÏÓñ §yÓ˚yê˛y ç#Óö ôˆÏÓ˚ ÎyˆÏÓ
!àˆÏÎ˚ !àˆÏÎ˚ xӈϢˆÏ£Ï ç#Óöê˛y ç°yO!° ˆòˆÏÓ–

ÎyÎ˚ xyˆÏ§ öy
ˆÜ˛yê˛Ó˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ ˆÓˆÏÓ˚yˆÏ°•z
˛õyÄÎ˚y §Ω˛Ó !åÈ°
˛õyÌyÓ˚ ≤ÃyhsˇÓ˚
{ŸªˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ӈϫ˛Ó˚ üï˛ í˛zòy_ÈÙÙÙÈ
ˆ˛õyˆÏí˛¸y ò%ˆÏà≈Ó˚ àû˛#ˆÏÓ˚
ˆ˛õÑã˛y˛õyáyÓ˚ é˛y˛õˆÏê˛Ó˚ !ë˛Ü˛ ˛õyˆÏ¢•z
ô%ˆÏ°y ˛õí˛¸y Ü%˛°%!DˆÏï˛ üÓ˚ܲï˛ü!î
77

78

!ܲv ï%˛!ü ˆÓˆÏÓ˚yˆÏÓ ï˛ˆÏÓ ˆï˛y⁄

!ÓŸª!çÍ ˆòÓ

ç°Ü˛ˆÏ‹TÓ˚ @ˇÃyü

ï%˛!ü ˆÓˆÏÓ˚yˆÏÓ öy
!ã˛Ó˚ê˛y ܲy° ï%˛!ü á%ã˛ˆÏÓ˚y §¡õÜ≈˛ !öˆÏÎ˚
ã˛y˛õyö í˛zˆÏï˛yÓ˚
!ã˛Ó˚ê˛y ܲy° ˆÜ˛yö xy•zܲˆÏöÓ˚ áyÓyˆÏÓ˚ ü¢°y ˆòÄÎ˚y
ÓyÓ˚î !åÈ°
!ã˛Ó˚ê˛y ܲy° ˛õy!ÓœÜ˛ °y•zˆÏÓ !Ó˚Ó˚ üyÜ˛í˛¸§yÓ˚ çy° ˆÓyöy ï˛yˆÏܲ
ü•yܲy° ÈÙÈxR•y!§Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y í˛z•zôÓ˚y !ã˛Ó˚yÎ˚ï˛ @ˇÃsiyÓ°#
xyˆÏÓ˚ ç#Óöê˛y ~Ó˚ Óy•zˆÏÓ˚ Ó yòyÓ˚–
ç#ÓöˆÏܲ •yï˛ Óy!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ôÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˆ¢ˆÏáy
ˆöyÇÓ˚y ˆï˛°!ã˛ˆÏê˛ çyüyÓ˚ üï˛ö ˛õÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˆ¢ˆÏáy
ê˛∆y!˛õˆÏçÓ˚ ˆá°y ˆÎüö ~ܲ!ê˛ ü%•)ï≈˛ˆÏܲ
§•flÀ ˆÜ˛y!ê˛ˆÏï˛ û˛yà ܲˆÏÓ˚ÈÙÙÙÈ
≤Ã!ï˛!ê˛ ü%•)ï≈˛•z ~ܲê˛y ç#Óö
Îy !öˆÏç ˆÌˆÏܲ•z §¡õ)î≈
ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy xy•zܲö ӈϰ ˆòÎ˚ öy
ˆÜ˛yö °y•zˆÏÓ !Ó˚ °yˆÏà öy
á%ã˛ˆÏÓ˚y §¡õÜ≈˛=!°Ó˚ Ó˚Ç ã˛ˆÏê˛ ˆàˆÏ°Ä
ï˛yÓ˚ !ܲå%È•z ÎyÎ˚ xyˆÏ§ öy......

ã˛yˆÏã˛≈ Ó˚ â^ˇê˛yÓ˚ !öˆÏã˛
ç°Ü˛ˆÏ‹TÓ˚ @ˇÃyüñ ï˛Ó%Ä
ˆ§ !åÈ° ˛öò#Ó˚ ≤ç)!ï˛ñ
§yô% ˛õ° çyöˆÏï˛ö
~•z §Ó ˛õÓ˚yà!ü°ö Ä xy§ß¨
≤çˆÏÓÓ˚ ܲÌyñ àyˆÏÎ˚˛õí˛¸y üö˛õ%•z
˛õy•yˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ ˆüâñ ≤ÃyÌ≈öyÓ˚Ó ú%˛ˆÏÓ˚yˆÏöyÓ˚ xyˆÏà
ï˛yˆÏܲ ˆê˛ˆÏö ˆöˆÏÓ âö#û)˛ï˛ Óyï˛yˆÏ§Ó˚y–
§üˆÏÓï˛ fl∫Ó˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ í˛zˆÏë˛ ~ˆÏ§
!ï˛!ö•z ˆ¢yöyˆÏï˛ö oy«˛yÓ˚§ Ä Ü˛ˆÏÓy£è ˛õ¢ˆÏüÓ˚
ܲÌyñ ˆÓyé˛yˆÏï˛ö ˆÜ˛ö ~ ÓåÈÓ˚ ÓÑy¢ú%˛°ñ x˛õÎ˚yÓ˚ ôù!ö–
ˆàyê˛y °Dy•z í˛z˛õï˛ƒÜ˛y ç%ˆÏí˛¸ ~•z !Ó!öüÎ˚ Ó˚#!ï˛
§ÓyÓ˚ ˆã˛yˆÏáÓ˚ xyí˛¸yˆÏ° §M˛ÈyÓ˚ !öàˆÏüÓ˚ ï˛Ó˚ˆÏDÓ˚y
÷ˆÏ£Ï ˆöÎ˚ ˆ¢yܲàÑyÌy=!°–

xy=ˆÏöÓ˚ ≤Ãï˛ƒˆÏDÓ˚y
xy=ˆÏöÓ˚ ≤Ãï˛ƒˆÏDÓ˚y ÷ˆÏÎ˚ ÌyˆÏܲ fl¨yöâˆÏÓ˚ñ
ú˛y=ˆÏöÓ˚ Ó˚yˆÏï˛ ˆê˛ˆÏö !•Öã˛ˆÏí˛¸ !öˆÏÎ˚ ˆàˆÏ° ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ xÓƒ_´ ˆáy°§ñ
˛õÓ˚flõÓ˚ ç%ˆÏí˛¸ ÎyÎ˚ üyÎ˚ycܲñ xˆÏ°Ô!ܲܲ ˛õ!ï˛ï˛yÇ¢=!°–
ˆ§•z üˆÏï˛y ï˛y˛õΈÏsfÓ˚y ˆ˛õÔшÏåÈ ÎyÎ˚
≤ÈÏï˛ƒˆÏܲÓ˚ 絈ÏÓ˚Ó˚ ܲ˛õyˆÏ°ñ
79

80

!öÿ%˛˛õ Ó˚&oyˆÏ«˛Ó˚y ï˛y•z ˆöˆÏü ÎyÎ˚ â%ˆÏüÓ˚ ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚
ˆàyô)!°Ó˚ ˛õÎ≈yÎ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ ÷Ó˚& •Î˚ ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ Óƒ!Ìï˛ =îöÊ

üy•zÓÇ ˆfiê˛¢ˆÏöÓ˚ •zê˛á§y ≤’ƒyê˛ú˛ˆÏü≈Ó˚ Ó%ˆÏܲ
ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ xÓöï˛ü%á# ˛õy°ˆÏܲÓ˚ hfl)Ï˛õñ
xflõ‹T xyˆÏ°yÎ˚ ú%˛ˆÏê˛ ÌyˆÏܲ Ä•z fl<°ö¢Ó˚#Ó˚ñ

!ÓˆÏÓ˚yôyû˛y§

ܲáöÄ Ü˛áöÄ ˛õy!áÓ˚yÄ ˆÎÓ˚ܲü
àyö û%˛ˆÏ° ÎyÎ˚ ˛õy˛õˆÏÓyô •ˆÏ°ñ
x!fliÓ˚ ˛õy•yˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ ˆòˆÏ¢ ï˛áö
ˆÜ˛Ó!° !˛õÇ!ܲ!ò!òÓ˚ àyöñ §Ó˚°Óà#≈Î˚ Ó,«˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ÓˆÏö
ï˛yÓ˚y ˆû˛ˆÏ§ ÌyˆÏܲ x¢Ó˚#Ó˚ ˆçƒyÍfl¨yÎ˚–

≤ÃÜ,˛ï˛ ~Ó˚ܲü !ÓˆÏÓ˚yôyû˛y§ ˆÌˆÏܲ•z çß√ •Î˚
!ü◊Ó§!ï˛Ó˚ ˛õy!áˆÏòÓ˚ñ ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ¢Ó˚#ˆÏÓ˚
ˆ°ˆÏà ÌyˆÏܲ ~ܲôÓ˚ˆÏöÓ˚ xy!°DˆÏöÓ˚ åÈÑyã˛ñ
§yô ˛õ° çyöˆÏï˛öñ ~•z !öˆÏÎ˚ ˛õy•yˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ ò%•z ˛õyˆÏ¢
üyˆÏé˛ üyˆÏé˛ í˛zˆÏ_çöy •Î˚ñ í˛zˆÏ_çöy ˆ¢ˆÏ£Ï
¢ï≈˛yô#ö xyˆÏ°yã˛öy •Î˚ñ xyˆÏ°yã˛öy ˆ¢ˆÏ£Ï
ܲyˆÏë˛Ó˚ üyã˛yö=!° öˆÏí˛¸ ĈÏë˛ ˆçƒyÍfl¨yÎ˚
~§ˆÏÓÓ˚ x“ ò)ˆÏÓ˚•z =FåÈ≤ÃܲˆÏ“Ó˚ @ˇÃyüñ
e´ü¢ Ó˚!_´üyû˛y x!û˛üyö# í»˛˛õˆÏàê˛ñ
!ç!Ó˚ !Ó˚Î˚yˆÏäÓ˚ !ÓÓ˚ˆÏ•Ó˚ ܲyˆÏ° ~Ó˚ܲü
ÓòˆÏ° ÎyÎ˚ ú˛§ˆÏ°Ó˚ ˛õÎ≈yÎ˚–
Ó§!ï˛Ó˚ !§Öò%ˆÏÓ˚ ˆüˆÏÎ˚Ó˚y ~•z ü#üyǧy§)e ˆÓyˆÏé˛ñ
ˆÓyˆÏé˛ ≤Ã!ï˛ÓåȈÏÓ˚Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y ~ÓåÈÓ˚Ä
§yô% ˛õ° ˆüê˛yˆÏÓö §Ü˛° ÓˆÏܲÎ˚y–

!˛õÇ!ܲ!ò!òÓ˚ àyö
!˛õÇ!ܲ!ò!òÓ˚ •yÓ˚ˆÏüy!öÎ˚ü ˆÌˆÏܲ
ˆöˆÏü xy§ˆÏåÈ •°%ò !ÓˆÏܲ°ˆÏÓ°y
çy!ê˛DyÓ˚ ˛õy!áˆÏòÓ˚ üˆÏï˛yñ •ï˛ã˛!ܲï˛
ܲü°yÓyàyˆÏö ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ xyd•ï˛ƒyÓ˚ ˆò¢Ê
81

ܲyM˛Èö˛õ%Ó˚ !Ó˚çyû≈˛ ú˛ˆÏÓ˚fiê˛
ܲ¡∫°!ê˛°y ÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˛õ!ÿ˛ˆÏü•z ¢y!hsˇ˛õ%Ó˚ ˆÓÔk˛!Ó•yÓ˚ñ ܲòü°-# ã˛yܲüyÓ˚
ˆÜÑ˛yã˛Ü˛yˆÏöy ã˛yüí˛¸yÎ˚ xyç x!öÎ˚!üï˛ Óyô≈ܲƒû˛yï˛yÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y•z
˜Ó¢yá# ˛õ)!î≈üyÓ˚ xyˆÏ°yñ §ˆÏAâÓ˚ ò)Ó˚ò,!‹TÓ˚ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚Ä Ü˛yˆÏåÈ
ï˛yˆÏï˛•z xyÇ!¢Ü˛ xyˆÏ°y!Ü˛ï˛ •Î˚ ò¢òy ÓyçyÓ˚ˆÏ¢í˛ñ
â£Ïyã˛¢üyÓ˚ xyí˛¸yˆÏ° ÓåȈÏÓ˚ xhsˇï˛ ~ܲÓyÓ˚ ~§üÎ˚ ï˛yÓ˚
˛õM˛ÈyˆÏÎ˚ï˛ §!ã˛ˆÏÓÓ˚ §yˆÏÌ ˆòáy •Î˚ñ ܲòü°-# çyˆÏö §!ã˛ˆÏÓÓ˚y fl∫Î˚Ç!e´Î˚ñ
˛õ)!î≈üyÓ˚ xyˆÏ°yÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y•z ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ˆ£ÏyˆÏ°yܲ°y •Î˚ñ §ÓyÓ˚ ˆã˛yˆÏáÓ˚ xyí˛¸yˆÏ°ñ
ܲòü°-#Ó˚ ˆÎÔÓˆÏö üyˆÏé˛ üyˆÏé˛ •!Ó˚ˆÏîÓ˚ üyLjϧÓ˚ áÓÓ˚Ä ˛õyë˛yï˛
ú˛ˆÏÓ˚fiê˛yÓ˚ û˛y§%ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆåȈϰñ §!ã˛ˆÏÓÓ˚y ï˛áöÄ ˆáÑyç ˆ˛õˆÏÎ˚ ˆÎï˛
!ö!£Ïk˛ •!Ó˚î Ä ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ÓyܲˆÏ°Ó˚ fl∫î≈yû˛yñ çDˆÏ°Ó˚ Ó˚•§ƒüÎ˚ï˛yÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y
ï˛yÓ˚y !üˆÏ¢ ˆÎï˛ Óö≤ÃܲˆÏ“Ó˚ !Ó!ôÓk˛ §ï˛Ü˛#≈ܲÓ˚ˆÏîÓ˚ àyÎ˚ñ xyçܲy° Ó,!‹TÄ
•Î˚ öy ï˛ï˛ñ
!ܲÇÓy ˆüˆÏâÓ˚ !òˆÏöÄ ˆí˛ˆÏܲ ĈÏë˛ üyˆÏé˛ üyˆÏé˛ xò,¢ƒ ˆÜ˛y!ܲ°ñ ܲòü°-# çyˆÏö
!òˆÏö !òˆÏö §Óy•zˆÏܲ ôˆÏÓ˚ xyˆÏåÈ ˛õyˆÏ˛õ–
§ˆÏAâÓ˚ ¢Ó˚ˆÏî ÎyÄÎ˚yÓ˚ xyˆÏà °-#Ó˚ ˆåȈÏí˛¸ ÎyÄÎ˚y °yí˛zˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ üyã˛yöñ
â£Ïyã˛¢üyÓ˚ xyí˛¸yˆÏ°Ä ˆöˆÏü ˆÎˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ~•z§Ó x!öÓ≈yî xyˆÏ°yñ
82

ò¢òy ÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˆ§Ü˛yˆÏ°Ó˚ ç%!í˛¸®yÓ˚ âyê˛ ˆÌˆÏܲ
!ÓˆÏÎ˚ˆÏú˛Ó˚Í •ƒyçyܲÓy!ï˛Ó˚ éÑ˛yܲñ ˆ§Ü˛yˆÏ°Ä ˆÓy!ô§ˆÏ_¥Ó˚ ü%oyÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y•z
!öˆÏçˆÏܲ ˆüˆÏ° ôÓ˚ï˛ §Ó˚ܲyÓ˚# §!ã˛ˆÏÓÓ˚ ò°–

ˆ°áy •Î˚ öy °y°˛õyˆÏòÓ˚ fl∫ï˛sf àí˛¸ö Ä ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚
!Ó£Ï] ã˛«%˛ï˛yÓ˚ܲyÓ˚ ܲÌyñ §üˆÏÓï˛ ≤ÃyÌ≈öyÓ˚Ó ˆÌˆÏܲ !üˆÏ¢ ÎyÎ˚
ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ üˆÏDy°ˆÏÎ˚í˛ cܲ Ä =í˛ú ˛y•zˆÏí˛Ó˚ ˆû˛yÓ˚–

!˛õ˛õ°yåÈí˛¸yÓ˚ çˆÏ° ï˛áöÄ ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy!òö !åÈ° öy ~ï˛ xyÎ˚Ó˚öñ
!ܲÇÓy •yï˛˛õy åÈí˛¸yˆÏöy ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy üƒy!öˆÏDyܲE˛y°ñ ¢yܲƒü%!ö ˆÓÔk˛!Ó•yÓ˚ §Ç°@¿
ç°≤ÃܲˆÏ“Ó˚ âˆÏÓ˚ xyç ì%˛ˆÏܲ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ §!M˛Èï˛ ˛õyˆÏ˛õÓ˚ ç#Óyî%ñ
~ˆÏï˛Ä e%´k˛ öö !û˛«%˛ ◊üî ◊# ◊k˛yö® ü•yˆÏ̈ÏÓ˚yñ ˛õy˛õ Ä ˛õ%ˆÏîƒÓ˚ üyé˛áyˆÏö
!ï˛!ö çyöˆÏï˛ö úÑ˛y!í˛¸˛õÌ Ä Ú ˆà•Ü˛yÓ˚ܲÛÈÙÈ~Ó˚ §¶˛yö–

ÓÑy¢ú%˛° öy ~ˆÏ°Ä ≤Ã!ï˛ÓåȈÏÓ˚Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y ~ ÓåÈÓ˚Ä
ˆ¢yܲyFåÈߨ •zfiê˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ Ó˚yï˛ñ
ˆÎÓ˚ܲü xï˛#ˆÏï˛Ä ܲü°yÓ˚ fl∫î≈yû˛y xy§yÓ˚ xyˆÏà•z
ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ @ˇÃyˆÏü @ˇÃyˆÏü §yô% ˛õ° ˛õyë˛yˆÏï˛ö
˛õ%öÓ˚&ayˆÏöÓ˚ ˛õ!Óe §ÇÓyò Ä xû˛ˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ Óyî#–

~ï˛!ܲå%ÈÓ˚ xyí˛¸yˆÏ°Ä ÷û˛üÎ˚ ã˛yܲüyÓ˚ §yˆÏÌ !ÓˆÏFåȈÏòÓ˚ §¶˛ƒyÎ˚
ç%!í˛¸®yÓ˚ âyˆÏê˛ ˆòˆÏá ˆú˛ˆÏ°!åÈ° ˆçƒ¤˛ ööòñ §ˆÏAâÓ˚ ¢Ó˚ˆÏî ÎyÄÎ˚yÓ˚ xyˆÏà
ï˛yÓ˚ §yˆÏÌ xyÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy!òö •ˆÏÓ öy §y«˛yÍñ Óyô≈ܲƒû˛yï˛yÓ˚ ~ܲyí˛zˆÏrê˛Ä
xyç ÷û˛üÎ˚ Ä ˜Ó¢yá# ˛õ)!î≈üyÓ˚ xyˆÏ°yñ ܲ¡∫°!ê˛°y ÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˛õ)Ó!òˆÏܲ ì˛y°%
çß√ü,ï˛% ƒ•#ö û˛y!ê˛áyöyÊ

~áö xyÓ˚ ï˛ï˛ âö öÎ˚ çDˆÏ°Ó˚ Ó˚•§ƒüÎ˚ï˛yñ
xï˛#ˆÏï˛Ó˚ ò%à≈üï˛yÄ xyÓ˚ ˆö•z ï˛ï˛ñ
ܲü°yÓ˚ Ó˚!§Ü˛ ˛õy•zܲyÓ˚ ~ˆÏ§ ӈϰ ÎyÎ˚
ܲyåÈyˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ ˆû˛yê˛˛õˆÏÓ≈ ~ÓyÓ˚ öy!ܲ ˛õ!Ó˚Óï≈˛ˆÏöÓ˚ •yÄÎ˚yñ
ÓÑy¢Ü˛Ó˚&ˆÏ°Ó˚ úÑ˛yˆÏܲ !ö!Ó‹T ˆöyÎ˚y!ü °%§y•z çyˆÏö
~ˆÏï˛ !ܲå%È Ü˛üˆÏÓ öy ܲü°yÓ˚ òÓ˚ñ !ܲÇÓy !e´§üy§ xy§yÓ˚ xyˆÏà•z
xy§yü ÈÙÈ xyàÓ˚ï˛°y ˆÓ˚yí˛ û˛ˆÏÓ˚ ÎyˆÏÓ ú˛°Óy•# ê˛∆yˆÏܲñ

≤Ã!ï˛ÓåȈÏÓ˚Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y ~ ÓåÈÓ˚Ä
§yô% ˛õ° çyöˆÏï˛ö ~ §üÎ˚ ÓyÎ˚öy ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ xyˆÏ§
ܲyåÈyˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ ܲü°yÈÙÈ ˛õy•zܲyÓ˚ñ ç%°y•zˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ û˛Ó˚yÓ£Ï≈yÎ˚
ï˛yÓ˚y !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˆàˆÏ° ÷Ó˚& •Î˚ fl∫yfliƒ!¢!ÓÓ˚ Ä ãÑ˛yòyÓ˚ üÓ˚÷ü–

§yô% ˛õ° çyöˆÏï˛öñ ˆöyÎ˚y!ü °%§y•z Ó%é˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ öy
~ˆÏï˛y ò%à≈üï˛yÓ˚ üyˆÏöñ àyˆÏåȈÏòÓ˚ ˆã˛yÓ˚yã˛y°yˆÏöÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y
ˆÎÓ˚ܲü ú˛ˆÏÓ˚fiê˛yÓ˚ÓyÓ%Ó˚y ˆòáˆÏï˛ ˛õyÎ˚ öy ˆê˛ˆÏö !•Öã˛ˆÏí˛¸ !öˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÄÎ˚y
à!°ï˛ !¢Ü˛yÓ˚ñ ܲöˆÏú˛¢ˆÏöÓ˚ Ó˚yˆÏï˛ ~§Ó Ó°ˆÏï˛ !àˆÏÎ˚ ˆÜÑ˛ˆÏò ˆú˛ˆÏ°
ˆöyÎ˚y!üÓ˚ ˆö¢yï%˛Ó˚ fl∫yü#–

ú%˛°í˛Ç§y•z í˛yܲÓyLjϰyÓ˚ Ó˚Ñyô%!ö!ê˛ çyˆÏö
ÓyÇ°y ˆÓ˚!§!˛õñ ~•z xú˛!§çˆÏöÄ ˛õƒyˆÏܲˆÏçÓ˚ Óyäy°# ê%˛ƒ!Ó˚fiê˛ ~ˆÏ°
=шÏç ˆòÎ˚ ã˛Ü˛ã˛ˆÏܲ !ê˛˛õ§‰ñ §ÓyÓ˚ ˆã˛yˆÏáÓ˚ xyí˛¸yˆÏ°
ˆí˛ˆÏܲ ˆ§ÈÙÈ•z ӈϰ ˆòˆÏÓ xy§ˆÏ° ÓyÇ°yÓy!í˛¸•z
ˆ¢£Ï §#üyñ ~Ó˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ ò)ˆÏÓ˚ öy ÎyÄÎ˚y•z
Ó%!k˛üyˆÏöÓ˚ ܲyçñ
ã%˛!_´Ó˚ òÓ˚˛õˆÏÌ ~§Ó ˆ°áy •Î˚ öyñ ~üö!ܲ
83

84

!ò°#˛õܲy!hsˇ °flÒÓ˚

§ÇˆÏܲï˛

ã˛°!hsˇÜ˛y
!ã˛hsˇyÓ˚ §ü%oÎyeyÎ˚ xy!ü ܲyí˛zˆÏܲ §ˆÏD !ö•z öy
!ã˛hsˇyÓ˚ §ü%oÎyeyÎ˚ xy!ü ~ܲy
~ܲ!ê˛ çy•yˆÏçÓ˚ §¡õ)î≈ ˆ≤ë˛yà,•
ö@¿ Ä ö#°

xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ !ü°ö •ˆÏÓ ˆçˆÏö
•yÄÎ˚y ˆüâçê˛ ˆû˛ˆÏä !òˆÏÎ˚ñ
àyˆÏåÈâyˆÏ§ ˆòy°yÎ˚ ˆÓ˚yj%Ó˚
û˛yˆÏä !ã˛ˆÏöÓ˚ ≤Ãyã˛#Ó˚
û˛yˆÏD ˆ≤Ãyê˛ö ˆÌˆÏܲ ܲîyÈÙÈxî%ܲîy
ˆ°ç |ˆÏôù≈ ï%˛ˆÏ° ˆÓ˚ˆÏá ò%Î˚yˆÏÓ˚
í˛zÍܲî≈ §üÎ˚
ö«˛e˛õ%ˆÏOÓ˚y òƒyˆáy !ú˛§!ú˛§ ܲˆÏÓ˚
˛õyˆÏÎ˚ ö)˛õ%Ó˚ ˆÓшÏô ˆ•ÑˆÏê˛ ã˛ˆÏ° !˛õ˛õ#!°Ü˛y=!°

ü,ï%˛ƒ
ü,ï%˛ƒ ܲ#⁄
ÈÙÙÙÈxyüyˆÏòÓ˚ xydÓ˚!ï˛Ó˚ ˛õ!Ó˚§üy!Æ–

§üy!ô

ü,ï%˛ƒ ܲ#⁄
ÈÙÙÙÈxyüyˆÏòÓ˚ xydÜ˛ÌˆÏöÓ˚ xÓ§yö–

§yˆÏ˛õÓ˚ àˆÏï≈˛ ˆ§Ñ!ôˆÏÎ˚ !ò°yü ü%á
§y˛õ ˆã˛yˆÏá ˆòˆÏá öy
ï˛yÓ˚ ÓÇ¢#ˆÏ≤Ãü# üö
¢ˆÏ∑Ó˚ flõˆÏ¢≈ !ã˛ˆÏö !öˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚

üy
ï%˛!ü ܲ# çöö# öy!ܲ çyÎ˚y
öy !ܲ üy

§y˛õ ã%˛ˆÏüy áyˆÏFåÈ
~ˆÏܲ ~ˆÏܲ áˆÏ§ ÎyˆÏFåÈ xyüyÓ˚
§Ó xˆÏã˛ï˛öyÓ˚ hflÏÓ˚
xy!ü ï˛yÓ˚ ¢Ó˚#ˆÏÓ˚ ≤ÈÏÓ¢ ܲ!Ó˚
ˆ§ °%ˆÏú˛˛ !öˆÏï˛ ÌyˆÏܲ xyüyÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛û˛yÓ˚
≤Ã!ï˛!ê˛ fl∫yò% ¢∑ Ä ≤Ãï˛ƒÎ˚

àç≈ö˜Ï§Ü˛ï˛ ˆÌˆÏܲ Ó˚Ó ÄˆÏë˛
!ï˛ˆÏ°y_üy
öy öy öy
Ä!ò˛õyí˛z§ Óy§y ÓÑyˆÏô Ó˚ˆÏ_´Ó˚ !û˛ï˛ˆÏÓ˚
üy
xöhsˇ í˛z˛õüy

85

86

ÄÓyˆÏÎ˚ò xyܲy¢

˛õyï˛y° ˆê˛∆ö

~ܲ!ê˛ !Ó!FåÈߨ û˛yÓöy ˆÌˆÏܲ

xyüÓ˚y ~ܲ!ê˛ ˛õyï˛y° ˆê˛∆ö ˆÌˆÏܲ ˆòá!åÈ ˆÎñ ܲ# ܲˆÏÓ˚ ~ܲ!ê˛
ˆê˛∆ˆÏöÓ˚ ܲyüÓ˚yˆÏÜ˛Ä âˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y xy§ÓyÓ˛õe !òˆÏÎ˚ §yçyˆÏöy
ÎyÎ˚ÈÙÙÙÈ xyÓ˚ !¢÷ÈÙÈÓ,k˛ñ Î%ÓܲÈÙÈÎ%Óï˛#ñ ÓÓ˚ÈÙÈÓô)ñ ÓyÓyÈÙÈüy §Óy•z
ˆ§áyˆÏö ~ܲˆÏe !üˆÏ° ã˛yöyã%˛Ó˚ÈÙÈÓyòyü áyÎ˚– xyÓ˚ •ë˛yÍ
ò%â≈ê˛öyˆÏ•ï%˛ ˆê˛∆ö!ê˛ í˛zˆÏŒê˛ ˆàˆÏ° ˆò!áñ üyö%£Ï=ˆÏ°y ˛õy!á xyÓ˚
xy§ÓyÓ=ˆÏ°y ܲ# ܲˆÏÓ˚ üyåÈ •ˆÏÎ˚ öï%˛ö ~ܲ ˛õ,!ÌÓ# !öü≈yî
ܲˆÏÓ˚ ӈϧ– xy!ü Ó°°yüñ xy˛õöyÓ˚y ÎyÓ˚y ÎyÓ˚y ~•z öï%˛ö
˛õ,!ÌÓ#Ó˚ ˛õ«˛ !öˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈöñ §y•§ ܲˆÏÓ˚ •yï˛ ï%˛ˆÏ° !åÈ!öˆÏÎ˚ !öö
x!ÓŸªy§ƒ ˛õ%Ó˚flÒyÓ˚ §ÓÈÈÙÙÙÈ Îy xy!ü xy˛õöyˆÏòÓ˚ çöƒ ≤ÃÓï≈˛ö
ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ– xyÓ˚ ï˛áö xöƒ§Ó ˆê˛∆öÎye#Ó˚y ӈϰñ ~•zû˛yˆÏÓ
ˆê˛∆ˆÏöÓ˚ ܲyüÓ˚y í˛zˆÏŒê˛ !òˆÏÎ˚ ˛õ,!ÌÓ#ˆÏܲ Óò°yˆÏöyÓ˚ ˛õk˛!ï˛ Ó%!é˛
≤ÃÓï≈˛ö •ˆÏÎ˚ ˆà°–

ò%Ûò¢ ÓåÈÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚
öï%˛ö ˆÜ˛yö ˛@ˇÃ•yö%§¶˛yˆÏö
ü%ˆÏáyü%!Რˆòáy •ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ •yˆÏï˛ Ü˛yˆÏë˛Ó˚ åÈyï˛y xyÓ˚
xyüyÓ˚ !≤ÃÎ˚ °y° ï˛Ó˚ü%ˆÏçÓ˚ ú˛y!°ÈÙÙÙÈ
û˛yäy §ÑyˆÏܲy ˆ˛õÓ˚&ÓyÓ˚ ܲyˆÏ°
öò# ï˛yÓ˚ !û˛«˛y˛õye Óy!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚
çˆÏ° ˆê˛ˆÏö ˆöˆÏÓ
ò%Ûò¢ ÓåÈÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚ xyÓyÓ˚ ˆòáy •ˆÏÎ˚ ˆàˆÏ°
xy!ü !ü!åȈϰÓ˚ ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚ ÓyÓyÓ˚ •yï˛ ôˆÏÓ˚
˛õy!°ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÎˆÏï˛ ˆòáˆÏÓy ˆï˛yüyˆÏܲ

!§k˛yhsˇ
ܲ°• !ÓˆÏm£Ï !öˆÏÎ˚ ï%˛!ü
•yˆÏï˛Ó˚ í˛z˛õÓ˚ •yï˛ñ ˛õyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ í˛z˛õÓ˚ ˛õy ˆã˛ˆÏ˛õ
~ܲ≤ÃܲyÓ˚ !§k˛yˆÏhsˇÓ˚ ܲÌy û˛yÓˆÏåÈy

~ܲ!ê˛ Ü%˛!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ˛õyÄÎ˚y ˆ˛õyfiê˛Ü˛yí≈˛ÈÙÙÙÈ
ï˛yˆÏï˛ §Ó öyüôyü xyÓ˚
§¡±!ï˛ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ üyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ öyü
ç%ˆÏí˛¸ ˆòÎ˚y xyˆÏåÈ x!Óܲ°

!§k˛yhsˇ xyç â!í˛¸Ó˚ ˆ˛õu%˛°yü ˆÌˆÏܲ
!åÈê˛ˆÏܲ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ ï˛yÓ˚ üàˆÏçÓ˚ •yí˛¸ x!∑
~!°ˆÏÎ˚ ôˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ ÙÙÙÈ
xï˛É˛õÓ˚ •y§˛õyï˛y° •ˆÏÎ˚
~áˆÏöy ˆ§ ÎÌyÌ≈•z fl∫yû˛y!Óܲ !ܲ öy
~•z ~ܲ ˆòyò%°ƒ ˆüçyˆÏç
ˆÜ˛Ó°•z !§k˛yhsˇ !öˆÏï˛ §üÎ˚ à!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚

öï%˛ö ܲˆÏÓ˚ ÷Ó˚& ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ !àˆÏÎ˚
~ÓyÓ˚ û˛yÓ!åÈÈÙÙÙÈ
ÓÑy!¢ ÓyçyˆÏöyÓ˚ §Ó˚° ˆÜ˛Ô¢°
Ó˚Æ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ ÎyˆÏÓyÈÙÙÙÈ

87

88

~•z ~ܲ ü%áÓ˚ ¢∑•z xyüyÓ˚ ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚
ò#â≈ܲy° Ó§Óy§ ܲˆÏÓ˚
xyüyÓ˚ xyˆÏÓ˚ܲ çˆÏß√Ó˚ ܲÌyÎ˚
xy!ü ܲï˛ê˛y üyö%£Ï !ܲÇÓy
!ü!öÓy§ñ ú%˛ê˛Ó° !ܲÇÓy ï%˛Ó˚&ˆÏ˛õÓ˚ ï˛y§ •ˆÏÎ˚
≤Ãîüƒ ˛õ,!ÌÓ#ˆÏï˛ !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ ~ˆÏ§
~ܲܲ Ó˚yçc ܲ!Ó˚ÈÙÙÙÈ
~•z §Ó !Ó!Óô û˛yÓöyÎ˚ í%˛ˆÏÓ xyˆÏåÈ
xyÓ˚ xyüyÓ˚ Ó°y•z Óy‡°ƒ ˆÎñ ≤Ãï˛ƒ• •yï˛˛õyáy !öˆÏÎ˚
Îï˛ÓyÓ˚ !§k˛yˆÏhsˇÓ˚ ˛àyˆÏÎ˚ •yÄÎ˚y !òˆÏÎ˚ xy!§ÈÙÙÙÈ
xyÓ˚ û˛yˆÏ°yÓy!§ÈÙÙÙÈ ï˛yÓ˚ ˛õyˆÏÎ˚ öï˛çyö% •ˆÏÎ˚
ü%ˆÏáÓ˚ °y°yÓ˚ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚Ä àû˛#Ó˚ ˆû˛ï˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚
xy˛õö ܲˆÏÓ˚ !öˆÏï˛ÈÙÙÙÈ
ˆ§ xyüyˆÏܲ ˛õ,!ÌÓ#ˆÏï˛ !§k˛yhsˇ•#öï˛yÓ˚ !ܲå%È
çß√!öˆÏÓ˚yôܲ !˛õ°
ò%•z •yˆÏï˛ í˛zçyí˛¸ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆòÎ˚
xyÓ˚ ~•z xyˆÏ°yã˛ƒ !§k˛yhsˇ ¢ˆÏ∑Ó˚ xy=!˛õå%È
!ÓˆÏÓã˛öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ Îáö xy!ü Ó˚ã˛öy ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ
ò#â≈ ≤ÃÓ¶˛ ~ܲÈÈÙÙÙÈï˛y°˛õyï˛yñ ܲ°y˛õyï˛y ç%ˆÏí˛¸ÈÙÙÙÈ
ï˛áö ~ܲ ≤ÃÓ#î !§k˛yhsˇ ~ˆÏ§
xyüyÓ˚ í˛z!m@¿ ü%ˆÏá ü%ܲ ï%˛ˆÏ° ӈϰ
~ï˛ê˛y §D#ï˛ü%áÓ˚ ã˛M˛È° ˛õ,!ÌÓ#ˆÏï˛ xy!ü
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ã˛Ü˛ã˛ˆÏܲ !˛õ!FåÈ° üyÌyÓ˚ ï˛y°%ˆÏï˛ ÓˆÏ§
Ó‡ÓyÓ˚ !fliÓ˚ •ˆÏï˛ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ üy!°Ü˛

Óy ܲÎ˚°yÓ˚ ê%˛Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚yÎ˚ òÑyï˛ üyçyÓ˚ Óƒy˛õyÓ˚!ê˛ Ü˛ï˛ê%˛Ü%˛ fl∫yfliƒ Óy
xfl∫yfliƒ§¡øï˛ÈÙÙÙÈ ï˛y !öˆÏÎ˚ ~ܲ ˆ§!üöyÓ˚ ӈϧ ˆàˆÏåÈ– xyÓ˚
ï˛yˆÏï˛ çˆÏí˛¸y •ˆÏÎ˚ ˆàˆÏåÈöÈÙÙÙÈ í˛z!ܲ°ñ !ã˛!ܲͧܲñ §yÇÓy!òܲñ
!¢«˛y!Óòñ Ó%!k˛ç#Ó#ñ §%•z˛õyÓ˚ÈÙÈ!Üœ˛öyÓ˚§• xyˆÏÓ˚y ˆ˛õ¢yç#Ó#–
xyÓ˚ xy!ü ~ܲüye ܲ!Ó ï˛yˆÏï˛ ˆöï,˛c !ò!FåÈ xyÓ˚ ˆÎ Îy
!çˆÏàƒ§ ܲÓ˚ˆÏåÈ ÙÙÙÈ xy!ü •y!§ ü%ˆÏá ï˛yÓ˚ çÓyÓ !ò!FåÈ– xyÓ˚
ï˛áö ~ܲçö !ÓüyöÎye# !Î!ö ò#â≈ܲy° ˛õÓ˚ ~•züye
fl∫ˆÏòˆÏ¢Ó˚ üy!ê˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õy Ó˚yáˆÏ°ö ~ÓÇ ï˛yÓ˚ üyˆÏܲ ç!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ôˆÏÓ˚
•yí˛züyí˛z ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆÜÑ˛ˆÏò ˆú˛°ˆÏ°ö xyM˛È!°Ü˛ û˛y£ÏyÎ˚ñ xyÓ˚
ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚ xyüyÓ˚ §ˆÏD ܲÌy Ó°ˆÏ°ö ܲáˆÏöy •zLjÏÓ˚!ç !ܲÇÓy
ܲáˆÏöy !Ó÷k˛ í˛zFã˛yÓ˚ˆÏîñ ï˛áö ~ܲçö í˛z!ܲ° í˛zˆÏë˛ Ó°ˆÏ°öñ
Úxy˛õöyÓ˚ û˛y•z xyˆÏà !ã˛!ܲͧyÓ˚ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö–Û xyÓ˚ !ã˛!ܲͧܲ
!Î!ö !åȈϰö ÷Ó˚& ܲÓ˚ˆÏ°ö üyü°yÓ˚ ≤Û!ï˛ !öˆÏï˛– xyÓ˚
§yÇÓy!òܲ !Î!ö ~•z §Ó ˆòˆÏá ˆòˆÏá ~ܲê%˛ â%!üˆÏÎ˚ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ˆÏåÈöñ
ï˛y•z ˆòˆÏá !Ó!fløï˛ !¢«˛Ü˛ ܲÛçö ü)á≈ˆÏòÓ˚ ˆ§!üöyÓ˚ ˆú˛ˆÏ°
ã˛ˆÏ° ˆàˆÏ°ö ôyö ܲyê˛yÓ˚ ܲyˆÏç– ˆ¢£Ïï˛Ü˛ ܲÛçö §%•z˛õyÓ˚ÈÙÈ
!Üœ˛öyÓ˚ xyÓ˚ §yôyÓ˚î !üˆÏ° xy!ü ~ܲüye ܲ!Ó fl∫û˛yÓê˛yˆÏܲ
ˆàyåÈàyåÈ Ü˛!Ó˚ Ä ÎyÓ˚˛õÓ˚öy•z û˛yÓ˚§yüƒ xyöÎ˚ˆÏö ÓƒhflÏ •ˆÏÎ˚
˛õ!í˛¸– Ó°y û˛yˆÏ°y ˆÎñ ï˛áˆÏöy x!∑ xyüyÓ˚ ü%ˆÏáÓ˚ xööƒ È
•y!§!ê˛ ~ܲê%˛Ä ¡‘yö •Î˚!ö ˆüyˆÏê˛ÈÙÙÙÈ

~•z •y!§
!ÓüyöÓ®Ó˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ Îye#Ó˚y ˆ§yçy ~ܲ!ê˛ @ˇÃyˆÏüÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ ì%˛ˆÏܲ
˛õˆÏí˛¸ ˆòˆÏáñ ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ üyˆÏÎ˚ˆÏòÓ˚ çöƒ ~•z§Ó @ˇÃyüñ ÜÑ˛yã˛y
˛õyÎ˚áyöyñ xyˆÏ§≈!öܲÈÙÈç° ñ !ܲÇÓy ≤Ãï˛ƒ• â%ü ˆû˛ˆÏä ˆ˛õyí˛¸yüy!ê˛
89

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ü%!çÓ •zÓ˚ü

˛õí˛¸!¢ö#
§¡±§y!Ó˚ï˛ 2Î˚ !°áö

ˆï˛yüyˆÏòÓ˚ à,•˛õy!á xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ åÈyˆÏò ~ˆÏ§ Ó•zöy°y ܲˆÏÓ˚ ÎyÎ˚ ≤Ãܲy¢ƒ ≤ÕˆÏÓ–˚ ˆï˛yüyˆÏòÓ˚ áy!°Óy!í˛¸
˛õy!áÓ˚ xy◊üñ ˛õy°ˆÏܲ ˛õy°ˆÏܲ é˛ˆÏÓ˚ üöí˛zã˛yê˛ö– ~ˆÏï˛y ˆÎ áyöܲy ÌyˆÏܲ çàï˛ üyçyˆÏÓ˚ÈÙÙÙÈ
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ˛õí˛¸yÓ˚ âÓ˚ ˆÜ˛ˆÏöy ~ˆÏï˛y ÓƒyÜ%˛° ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ⁄ ˆÜ˛ˆÏöy ~ˆÏï˛y üöï˛ƒyà# xyüyˆÏܲ ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ⁄
... ˆï˛yüyˆÏòÓ˚ áy°˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ì%˛°Ü˛°!ü ˆí˛ˆÏܲˆÏåÈ !Ó˛õò ÈÙÙÙÈ ï˛y•z ӈϰ Îy•z!ö !ܲ üyˆÏåÈÓ˚ í˛z!åÈ°y
ܲˆÏÓ˚ ܲy°y!O ˆÓ°yÎ˚⁄ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ˆû˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ˛õí˛¸y ú˛!ܲ!Ó˚ àyˆÏöÓ˚ §%ˆÏÓ˚ ò?˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚ üö ÈÙÙÙÈ ˛õ,!ÌÓ#Ó˚
ç°ÓyÎ˚% ˆÜ˛ˆÏöy ~ˆÏï˛y ܲyߨy •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏë˛⁄ ~ˆÏï˛yê˛y òÑy!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ Ìy!ܲñ ~ˆÏï˛yê˛y ܲÓ˚&îy Îy!åÈ
ÈÙÙÙÈû)˛üôƒ§yàÓ˚ ˆÜ˛ˆÏöy ~ˆÏï˛y ܲˆÏÓ˚ !öü@¿ ˆÓ˚ˆÏáˆÏåÈ⁄ ... ˜áã%˛Ó˚y ú˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ ç%ê˛y Ü,˛£èÓ˚yDy •ˆÏ°ÈÙÙÙÈ
!˛õ!‹T ú˛° ˆí˛ˆÏܲ xyˆÏö !öô%Î˚y !öˆÏÓ≈ò– ã˛y•z!åÈ àyå%ÈÎ˚y •ˆÏï˛ÈÙÙÙÈ ˆï˛yüyˆÏòÓ˚ Ó˚yDy Ó˚yDy §%˛õy!Ó˚Ó˚
ܲy®y=ˆÏ°y ˆ˛õˆÏí˛¸ xy!ö ˆ°yˆÏû˛ñ §yú˛ ܲ!Ó˚ ˆçyí˛¸yàyåÈñ Ó˚_´y öy!Ó˚ˆÏܲ°– ï˛y°àyåÈ ˆí˛ˆÏܲ
ˆöÎ˚ û˛yoüy§# ˆÓ˚yˆÏò– ~ˆÏï˛y ˆÎ ˆ°yˆÏû˛Ó˚ öyü ï˛y°ÈÙÈüöüöÈÙÙÙÈ Ü˛ˆÏÓ ï%˛!ü Óy!öˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈy ˆï˛ˆÏ°
û˛yçy ˆày°y˛õ# e´®ö⁄ ... ˛õ%ˆÏÓÓ˚ ÓÓ˚•z í˛yˆÏ° •zê˛y !òˆÏÎ˚ xy!§– !ê˛ˆÏöÓ˚ ê%˛!Õ‘ˆÏï˛ ÄˆÏë˛ öyüôù!öñ
ú˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ áy!ï˛Ó˚– ... ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ܲ!ö¤˛ !òÛÓ˚ !ÓÓy• Óy§ˆÏÓ˚ ܲˆÏï˛y öy åÈ®ÈÙÈ!üˆÏ°Ó˚ ≤Ã#!ï˛í˛z˛õ•yÓ˚
û˛y!§ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ Îyey˛õˆÏÌñ Óyï˛yˆÏ§ Óyï˛yˆÏ§– ~ˆÏï˛y§Ó Ó˚yDy ˆì˛í˛z §%ˆÏÓ˚°y xyÎ˚yï˛ñ üD° ܲÌyÓ˚
Óyî#ÈÙÙÙÈ Ü˛ˆÏÓ ï%˛!ü •z¢yÓ˚y çyöyˆÏÓ⁄ Ó˚yï˛ ˆçˆÏà ˆÜ˛yö ˆ°yˆÏû˛ xy!ü ï˛ˆÏÓ ˆï˛yÓ˚î §yçy•z⁄
x®ˆÏÓ˚ x®ˆÏÓ˚ Ìy!ܲ ˆÜ˛yö í˛z!åÈ°yÎ˚⁄ ܲˆÏï˛y öy à#ˆÏï˛Ó˚ ôù!ö ˆû˛yÓ˚ ˆí˛ˆÏܲ xyˆÏö– •°%ˆÏò
Ó˚yDyˆÏ° ˆò• ˆáÑy˛õyÓ˚ Óy•yÓ˚– ~•zÓyÓ˚ Îyey˛õˆÏÌ •°%ˆÏò •°%ˆÏò Ó%!é˛ §Î˚°yÓ •ˆÏÓy⁄ ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy
ï%˛!ü û%˛° ܲˆÏÓ˚y xôˆÏüÓ˚ öyüñ ܲÌyÓ˚ •z!Dï˛⁄... ÓyÓ˚&•z ˛õyí˛¸yÎ˚ â%!Ó˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ ÓÓ˚ˆÏç ÓÓ˚ˆÏç ܲˆÏï˛y
˛õyˆÏöÓ˚ ≤’yÓö–... ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ Óy!í˛¸ˆÏï˛ Îy•z ܲˆÏï˛y öy í˛z!åÈ°y ܲˆÏÓ˚ñ ï%˛ˆÏ° xy!ö ü%!‹Tã˛y° ˛õyM˛Èy!ï˛
‡Ü%˛ˆÏüÈÙÙÙÈ §Æy ˆÜ˛ˆÏöy ~ˆÏï˛y ~ˆÏï˛y ò)ˆÏÓ˚ ò)ˆÏÓ˚ ÌyˆÏܲ⁄ ... xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ÓyçyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ °-# á!°ú˛yÎ˚
~ˆÏï˛y ˆÎ Óyí˛¸yÎ˚ Ó˚ä ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ Ó˚*ˆÏ˛õÓ˚ñ ~ˆÏï˛y ˆÎ !Óöy¢# Ó˚*˛õ ôˆÏÓ˚ Ó˚yˆÏá ˆ§°y•z ˆü!¢ˆÏöñ
ˆày°y!˛õ ã˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ òyˆÏà ˆÜ˛ˆÏê˛ ã˛ˆÏ° xˆÏ˛õ«˛y xyüyÓ˚ÈÙÙÙÈ á!°ú˛y öyÈÙÈ •ˆÏÎ˚ xyç ú˛yÎ˚òy ܲ#
•ˆÏ°y⁄ ... ˆÎ ÈÙÈÓy!öÎ˚y Óy!öˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ à°yÓ˚ ˆçÄÓ˚ñ öyܲú%˛°ñ ܲyˆÏöÓ˚ ˆÓ¢Ó˚ÈÙÙÙÈ ï˛yÓ˚ ú%Ñ˛ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zˆÏí˛¸
ÎyÎ˚ x!@¿ÈÙÈåÈy•z ܲÎ˚°yÓ˚ òy•– ˛õí˛¸y úÑ˛y!ܲ !òˆÏï˛ ã˛y•z ÈÙÙÙÈ •ˆÏï˛ ã˛y•z x!@¿ò?˛ Óy!öÎ˚y ˆï˛ü!öñ
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ à°yÎ˚ ˆÎˆÏöy ˆ°ˆÏ≤Wz ÌyˆÏܲ ~•z •yˆÏï˛ Ü˛Ó˚y ˆ§•z x!@¿ÈÙÈܲyÓ˚&ܲyç– ... ~•zÓyÓ˚ Óy!Ó˚£Ïy
üyˆÏ§ !åÈÖˆÏí˛¸ ˆàˆÏ° ˛õyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ö)˛õ%Ó˚ñ xy!ü ˆï˛y ã˛y•z!åÈ •ˆÏï˛ xFå%Èï˛ ã˛yüyÓ˚– !öÓ˚ˆÏ° ˆ§°y•z ܲ!Ó˚
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ã˛Ó˚î ôöƒ ˛õyò%ܲy ˛õyˆÏÎ˚°–... ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy ˆÎ ••z öy ˆû˛yˆÏÓ˚ àyˆÏöÓ˚ !¢«˛Ü˛Ê ÓáyˆÏê˛ ˛õy!Ó˚ öy
91

•ˆÏï˛ ÈÙÙÙÈ ˆëÑ˛yˆÏê˛ !öˆÏï˛ !§!Õ‘ §%üô%Ó˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ !ú˛Ó˚!ï˛ÈÙÈ˛õˆÏÌ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ öçÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ ≤Ã◊Î˚ çyöyˆÏÓ⁄ ...
Óyàyö !Ó°y§ ÷ô% ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ áy!ï˛ˆÏÓ˚ xy!ü !öˆÏÎ˚ xy!§– ï%˛!ü ˆÎ ÈÙÈ Óyàyö ˆÌˆÏܲ !ܲˆÏö xyˆÏöy
ç%Ñ•z ú%˛°ñ !û˛öˆÏã˛öy çÓy ÈÙÙÙÈ xy!ü ï˛yÓ˚ üy!°Ü˛yöy ˆ˛õˆÏ° Ó%!é˛ àyˆÏåÈ àyˆÏåÈ §¡õÜ≈˛ åÈí˛¸yˆÏÓÊ ...
~•zÓyÓ˚ Óyí˛¸!hsˇÓ˚ ˆü°yÎ˚ xy!üÄ ˛õyˆÏöÓ˚ ˆòyܲyö ˆòˆÏÓy– xy!üÄ ã%˛!í˛¸Ó˚ Óy: !öˆÏÎ˚ •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏÓy
ÓyÓ!Ó˚ÄÎ˚y°y ˆÓç ÈÙÙÙÈ ï%˛!ü !ܲ ˆÓ˚yòÈÙÈ üyÌyÎ˚ á!Ó˚jyÓ˚ •ˆÏÓ öy⁄ ... Ó˚yˆÏï˛Ó˚ ˆü°yÎ˚ •ˆÏÓy
çê˛yôyÓ˚# ˛õ#Ó˚ñ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ü!•üy àyˆÏÓy ܲZ˛ ú˛yöy ܲˆÏÓ˚– üyöˆÏï˛Ó˚ ˆüyü=ˆÏ°y ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ˆã˛yˆÏáÓ˚
üˆÏï˛y §yÓ˚yÓ˚yï˛ ˆàˆÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏÓ xyˆÏ°yÓ˚ !ç!ܲÓ˚– ... ˆÜ˛ xyüyˆÏܲ ˛õí˛¸ˆÏï˛ ÓˆÏ° ôyÓ˚y˛õyï˛ñ
§Ó˚°yB˛ñ çƒy!ü!ï˛ÈÙÈçáü⁄ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ Óy!í˛¸ˆÏï˛ ÎyˆÏÓy Óy•z§öy •ˆÏÎ˚ ñ xFå%Èï˛ ÓyÓ˚&•z– ˆ§•z ˆ°yˆÏû˛
ü)á≈ •ˆÏÎ˚ Ó˚•zÈÙÙÙÈ ˆ§•z ˆ°yˆÏû˛ xyˆÏçy xy!ü û%˛° ܲ!Ó˚ §)eÈÙÈ §ü%òÎ˚–
xÓ!¢‹T !üö!ï˛ É ˆï˛yüyˆÏܲ Ó˚!ã˛ˆÏï˛ Ü˛ˆÏï˛y ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ í˛z!åÈ°yñ ï˛Ó%Ä ÓƒÌ≈ï˛y xyˆÏ§ ï˛Ó%Ä
ò#öï˛y– ܲ#û˛yˆÏÓ ÓÎ˚yö ܲ!Ó˚ °%܉˛!ê˛ÈÙÈÓˆÏöÓ˚ üyˆÏé˛ xyˆÏçy ˆò!á ôˆÏÓ˚ xyˆÏåÈy ö#° xÓÎ˚ÓÈÙÙÙÈ
ï%˛!ü !ܲ x¶˛Ó˚yˆÏï˛ Óö•y!§ x!ã˛ö xyâyï˛⁄ ˛ò)Ó˚ˆÏòˆÏ¢ Ó˚y!e ˆçˆÏà üˆÏö Ó˚y!á ◊#•RÈÙÈ≤ÃÓyò ÈÙÙÙÈ
ÚÌyÜ%˛Ü˛ ܲÌy ˆ˛õˆÏê˛† ܲ•zü% ܲÌy ¢#ˆÏï˛Û–

˛õ%e
ˆ§•z ˆÎ ~ˆÏ§!åÈ°yü çyˆÏüÓ˚ åÈyÎ˚yÎ˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ ˆ• ˛õ%e xyüyÓ˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ Ó%!Ó Ä xyˆÏüÓ˚ í˛yˆÏ° ˆ°ˆÏà!åȈϰy
ÓyÓ˚&ˆÏòÓ˚ òyà ... ã˛yÓ˚˛õyˆÏ¢ ¢e&ÈÙÈû˛Î˚ñ üy!Ó˚ Ä üÓ˚ܲÈÙÙÙÈxû˛yˆÏÓÓ˚ ˆÓ˚yˆÏò ˆ˛õyí˛¸y ã˛yˆÏ°Ó˚ IJõÓ˚
ï˛Ó%Ä ú˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ í˛yܲñ ˛õ%ˆÏ‹õÓ˚ üyï˛ü ... ï˛Ó%Ä í%˛!˛õÓ˚ í˛yˆÏܲ §¶˛ƒy=ˆÏ°y !öˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏ§ !¢÷Ó˚
e´®ö... ˆ§•z ˆÎ ~ˆÏ§!åÈ°yü ÈÙÙÙÈ ˆ• ˛õ%e xyüyÓ˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ ÓöçyÓ˚&ˆÏ°Ó˚ ˆòˆÏ¢ñ ≤ÃÌü ܲyߨyÓ˚ ˆÓ˚y°
Ó˚yôyã)˛í˛¸y ú%˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ §ü#ˆÏ˛õ !òˆÏÎ˚!åȈϰy !òöû˛Ó˚ Ó˚yDy Ó˚yDy ú%˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ ˆàÔÓ˚Ó... ˛õ,!ÌÓ#ˆÏï˛ Î%k˛ xyÓ˚
ÌyˆÏü öy ˆ• ˛õ%eñ ÓyÓ˚&ˆÏòÓ˚ à¶˛ xyˆÏçy ˆ°ˆÏà ÌyˆÏܲ ÜÑ˛yë˛yˆÏ°Ó˚ í˛yˆÏ°ñ !¢Ó˚#£Ï åÈyÎ˚yÎ˚Ê
ˆ§•z ˆÎ ~ˆÏ§!åÈ°yü !ÓÓ˚•zö ôyˆÏöÓ˚ ˆày°yÎ˚ñ ܲy!°!çÓ˚y ú˛§ˆÏ°Ó˚ ˛õyˆÏ¢ñ öò# xyÓ˚ •yĈÏÓ˚Ó˚
àyˆÏö ... xy!üÄ ˆÎ ~ˆÏ§!åÈ°yü Î%k˛Ü˛yˆÏ° fl∫≤¿!Ók˛ x¶˛ ˛õy°yܲyÓ˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ üˆÏö ˆÓ˚ˆÏáy ˆ• ˛õ%e
xyüyÓ˚Ê
2
!öoyÜ%˛ˆÏO ÷ˆÏÎ˚ xy!åÈ ÈÙÙÙÈ ˛õ%e ˛õyˆÏ¢ ú%˛ˆÏê˛ Ó˚Î˚ ˆÜ˛ï˛Ü˛# Ü%˛§%ü ... ~•z Ó£Ï≈y ÓˆÏí˛¸y !öoy çyày!öÎ˚yñ
~•z Ó£Ï≈y ÓˆÏí˛¸y ç˛õ ܲˆÏÓ˚ !˛õï˛y Ä ˛õ%ˆÏeÓ˚ öyü ... ˛õ%e ˆ•ñ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ çß√ã%˛° öy!í˛¸ Ä öˆÏáÓ˚ òyà
˛õ%ï˛!° û˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˆÓ˚ˆÏá ˆò•zÈÙÙÙÈ!Óàï˛ çß√!û˛ê˛yÎ˚ ˆÎˆÏöy ˆÓ˚ˆÏá xy!§ çß√òyàñ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚¢ ...
~•z Ó£Ï≈y ÓˆÏí˛¸y çß√ çyày!öÎ˚yÊ

92

°#°yˆÏá°y

Ó˚â%ö® !§Ç•

ˆÜ˛ˆÏöy ˆÎ °%!ܲˆÏÎ˚ Ìy!ܲ ˆÜ˛ˆÏöy ˆÎ °%ܲy•zÊ

ܲy!ë˛

~ܲ!òö °%!ܲˆÏÎ˚!åÈ ˆá°yˆÏö°y ˆû˛ˆÏÓ ÈÙÙÙÈ ˆåȈÏí˛¸ ˆàˆÏåÈ ˆ§•z §Ó §D#ÈÙÈ ˆÜ˛y°y•°– öàÓ˚ ÈÙÈ
Ó®ˆÏÓ˚ â%!Ó˚ñ çyöy•z §ˆÏB˛ï˛ÈÙÙÙÈí˛zÖ!ã˛ˆÏÎ˚ ï˛ç≈ö#ÈÙÈã%˛° ܲÌyÓ˚ •z!Dï˛– ӈϰ!åÈ ~•zˆÏï˛y xy!åÈ
Ó¶%˛ÈÙȧ•ã˛Ó˚ÈÙÙÙÈxyüyˆÏܲ Óy!•Ó˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ =Ry !çˆÏï˛ öyÄ– xy!ü ÷ô% •yÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ~ˆÏ§!åÈñ !çï‰˛ˆÏï˛
xy!§ öy•zÊ ˛õí˛¸hsˇ ˆá°yÓ˚ üyë˛ñ ˆÜ˛ˆÏöy ˆÎ ~ÈÙÈ!òˆÏ° Ó˚y!á çƒyhsˇ •z!ï˛û˛yÓÊ ˆÎÈÙÈï%˛!ü Ó%ˆÏé˛ˆÏåÈy
xyç °%ܲy°%!ܲ ˆá°yÓ˚ ï˛!Ó˚ܲyñ Ó!°ÄÈÙÙÙÈ ï%˛Ü%˛!_...

ï˛Ó ~•z ܲZ˛ôù!ö í˛zí˛Yܲ Óyï˛yˆÏ§Ê

à#ï˛
xyˆÏüÓ˚ ÓyàyˆÏö ~ˆÏï˛y Ü%˛Î˚y¢y e´®öÊ
~•z ¢#ˆÏï˛ ˆ˛õˆÏܲˆÏåÈ í˛y!°ü Ü,˛£èÓ˚yDy í˛yˆÏ°– Úxy•z°yÎ˚ öyñ xy•z°yÎ˚ öyÛ í˛yˆÏܲ •*òÎ˚ !û˛çyÎ˚–
ˆçˆÏà xy!åÈ à#ï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ Ó˚y!e !m≤ÕÓ˚Ê
ܲ#ˆÏ§Ó˚ xˆÏ˛õ«˛y ~ˆÏï˛yñ ܲ#ˆÏ§Ó˚ üyï˛üÊ Ü˛#ˆÏ§Ó˚ ò!áöy «˛ï˛ ܲyߨy •ˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏ§ÈÙÙÙÈxyüyÓ˚ •zÓ˚ü
öy !ܲ xy!§Óy ˆàyñ xyç !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ !öÜ%˛O ü!®ˆÏÓ˚Ê

ˆÎ•zˆÏ•ï%˛ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ çyöy ܲy!ë˛Ó˚ !ë˛Ü˛yöy
ˆ§•z ܲy!ë˛ !òˆÏÎ˚ á%Ñ!ã˛ˆÏÎ˚ ï%˛ˆÏ°y ˛õ%%ï%˛ˆÏ°Ó˚ Ó%ܲ
çë˛Ó˚ ÎÜ,˛ï˛ ü%á ˆã˛yá ÈÙÙÙÈá%Ñ!ã˛ˆÏÎ˚ Ó˚_´y_´ ܲˆÏÓ˚y
xyÓ˚ ï˛yˆÏï˛ ï˛,!Æ ˛õyˆÏFåÈ ~ܲ ¢Î˚ï˛yö
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ˆò•FåÈyÎ˚yÎ˚ ˛õy!°ï˛ •ˆÏFåÈ ˆ§ñ Óí˛¸ •ˆÏFåÈ
Óí˛¸ •ˆÏFåÈ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ˆÌˆÏܲÄñ !m=îÈÙÈ !e=î
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ •y!§ •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏFåÈ ¢Î˚ï˛yˆÏöÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y
ü%áû˛Ó˚y òy!í˛¸Ó˚ üˆÏôƒ ˆã˛yá ò%ˆÏê˛y •yˆÏÎ˚öyÈÙÈ ˆ°y°%˛õ
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ˆòÓcˆÏܲ åÈy!˛õˆÏÎ˚ ÓˆÏí˛¸y •ˆÏFåÈ x•z ¢Î˚ï˛yö
~ˆÏï˛y ÓˆÏí˛¸y ˆÎñ ï%˛!ü ÄÓ˚ ü%ˆÏáÓ˚ ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚ ã˛ˆÏ° ÎyFåÈ
ˆï˛yüyˆÏܲ !àˆÏ° ˆú˛°ˆÏåÈ ˆ§
ï%˛!ü •y!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyFåÈ ÄÓ˚ ¢Ó˚#ˆÏÓ˚
!üˆÏ¢ ÎyFåÈ ~ÓÇ •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏåÈy !öˆÏç•z ~ܲê˛y ¢Î˚ï˛yö
§yÓôyöñ Ó%ˆÏé˛ ã˛ˆÏ°y

fl¨yöâˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ܲ!Óï˛y 1
ˆ¢£ÏÓyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y ã˛ˆÏ° xy§yÓ˚ çöƒ û%˛ˆÏ° ÌyܲyÓ˚ çöƒ
ܲÓÓ˚á°yÎ˚ñ !öçfl∫ ܲÓÓ˚ ÓyÓ˚ÓyÓ˚ !àˆÏÎ˚ ˆò!á–
fl¨yöâˆÏÓ˚ òÑy!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ Ìy!ܲ xˆÏöܲ«˛îñ xyä%° !öˆÏÎ˚ ˆáˆÏ° ÎyÎ˚ ç°
ܲ,£¯Ïã)˛í˛¸yï˛°yÎ˚ ï˛ß¨ ï˛ß¨ ܲˆÏÓ˚ áÑ%!ç ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ §%ï˛yÓ˚ ü%á
ÜÑ˛yòÓ öy xyÓ˚ ˛≤Ã!ï˛K˛y ܲ!Ó˚
~ܲ ò%˛õ%Ó˚ÈÙÈ˛õyï˛yÎ˚ ˆï˛ˆÏï˛y ÓyˆÏ‹õ ÷ˆÏÎ˚ Ìy!ܲ
ˆ¢ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ ÷Ó˚& •ˆÏï˛
fl¨yöâˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ òÓ˚çyê˛y Ó¶˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚

fl¨yöâˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ܲ!Óï˛y 2
fl¨yöâÓ˚ xyüyÓ˚ ÓU˛ ˆÜ˛y°y•° !≤ÃÎ˚
ò%˛õ%Ó˚ˆÏï˛ç âÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈÈ È ÙÙÙÙÈ ÓyÓ%•z ˛õy!áÓ˚ñ ~áyˆÏö
93

94

!öçfl∫ í˛zͧˆÏÓ xy§yÓ˚ çˆÏöƒ áÓÓ˚ ˛õyë˛y!FåÈ
àyˆÏåÈÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈñ í˛yܲ!˛õĈÏöÓ˚ •yˆÏï˛ñ ˛õy!áÓ˚ í˛yöyÎ˚
!ö®%ˆÏܲÓ˚ ü%ˆÏáñ !ÓüyöÓ®ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ •yï˛åÈy!öˆÏï˛
xyˆÏåÈ Ó¢#ܲÓ˚î üsf¢!_´
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ §yÓ˚yÇ¢ xyˆÏÓˆÏà ˆÜ˛ÑˆÏ˛õ í˛zë˛ˆÏÓ

fl¨yöâˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ܲ!Óï˛y 3

x!û˛!çÍ ã˛e´Óï˛#≈

ܲ!Óçß√
Ó‡Î%ˆÏàÓ˚ ï,˛£èyñ °ï˛y •ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÓ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏFåÈÈÙÙÙÈ
ˆÜ˛yö‰ê˛y xyüyÓ˚⁄
~•z !ï˛° xyüyÓ˚

â%ˆÏü ÌyˆÏܲ ÎyÓï˛#Î˚ §üyôyö
˛õÓ˚#«˛yÓ˚ ˛≤ß¿=ˆÏ°y xyˆÏà•z fl∫ˆÏ≤¿ ˆÎüö ˆòáy ÎyÎ˚
!¢Î˚ˆÏÓ˚ fl¨yöâÓ˚ !§_´ •ˆÏÎ˚ ˛õyŸª≈åÈyÎ˚y ˆòÎ˚
ï˛y•z ~ܲ x§Ω˛Ó à!ï˛¢#°ï˛yÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ
xy!ü !àˆÏÎ˚ òÑyí˛¸y•z !môy@ˇÃhflÏ çyöy°yÓ˚ ˛õyˆÏ¢
x•z ˆã˛yˆÏáÓ˚È Ü%˛ˆÏÎ˚yÓ˚ çˆÏ° åÈyÎ˚yÎ˚ ˛õï˛öñ
˛õ,!ÌÓ#ˆÏܲ ˆòáˆÏï˛ Ìyܲy ü%?˛ ãÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚ xyˆÏ°yÎ˚
xy!ü â%üy•zñ ˛õ%Ó˚yï˛ö ˆ§•z â%ü

ï˛[%˛° xyüyÓ˚
ˆò•û˛yˆÏ[˛Ó˚ ò!ô xyüyÓ˚
x!@¿ÈÙÈçˆÏ° xyã˛üö ˆ§ˆÏÓ˚
xyüyÓ˚ xy§ö ˆû˛ˆÏ§ ÎyÎ˚
xyüyÓ˚ •zFåÈy ˆû˛ˆÏ§ ÎyÎ˚
~ܲy

ܲ!Óçß√ 2

fl¨yöâˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ܲ!Óï˛y 4
ò%%˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ •°%ò Ó˚ä Îáö fl¨yöâˆÏÓ˚ í˛zÑ!ܲ !ò° È ÙÙÙÙÈ
üˆÏsfÓ˚ üï˛ö §Ó!ܲå%È áˆÏ§ ˛õí˛¸ˆÏ°y ¢Ó˚#Ó˚ ˆÌˆÏܲ
ò%‹T% ˛õy!áÓ˚y ˆÎö í˛z°%ôù!ö !ò°
ˆã˛ÔÓyFã˛yÎ˚ ç° ˛õí˛¸yÓ˚ ˆÓòüsfñ ü,ò%=Oö
˛õ!Óe ç° !åÈê˛ˆÏܲ ˛õí˛¸ˆÏ°y ˆüˆÏé˛ ç%ˆÏí˛¸
~ áÓÓ˚ ï%˛!ü ˆ¢yöyÄ Ó¶%˛ñ ܲÓÓ˚á°yÎ˚ !àˆÏÎ˚
xyܲy¢ Î!òÄ û)˛ï˛ ï˛áöñ ˆüâ Ó%ˆÏܲ !öˆÏÎ˚

fl¨yöâˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ܲ!Óï˛y 5
˛õˆÏÌÓ˚ ò%•z ˛õyÓ˚ !ö!£Ïk˛ xyˆÏÓˆÏà ò)ˆÏÓ˚ !àˆÏÎ˚ !ü°ˆÏåÈñ ˛üˆÏö •Î˚
ã˛yܲyÓ˚ §û˛ƒï˛yÎ˚ ≤ÈÏï˛ƒˆÏܲÓ˚ xÓfliyö !ö!ò≈‹T •ˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏåÈ
÷ô% !ã˛ÍܲyÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ñ !¢§‰ !òˆÏÎ˚ Ä àyö ˆàˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÄÎ˚y
ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy ~ܲ í˛zòy§ ܲÓ˚y ò%˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚ Îáö ˆòáy •Î˚
xyüÓ˚y çyöˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ !ã˛Ó˚hsˇö xyˆÏÓà
95

!ã˛Ó˚!òˆÏöÓ˚ ˆày°y˛õ
xyüyÓ˚ xöhsˇ §Ü˛y° é˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˛õˆÏí˛¸
~ܲy Ó˚y!eÓ˚ •!Ó˚î ˆÜ˛yö‰ ˛õˆÏÌ ÎyˆÏÓ⁄
xy!ü ˆÜ˛yö‰ ˛õˆÏÌ Îy•z⁄
§%®Ó˚ å%ÈˆÑ ÎÏ ˆ˚ åÏ È
öyí˛¸y !òˆÏ°•z é˛í˛¸
~§üÎ˚ ܲyÓ˚y x◊&ñ ܲyÓ˚y x!@¿ñ ܲyÓ˚y ˆ°y•y
òô#!ã˛ ~•z •yí˛¸ ˆòö!ö
!öˆÏܲyˆÏöy í˛zˆëÏ ˛yˆÏö
xy!ü Ó ï˛ñ xy!ü ã˛Ó≈ÈÙÈã%˛£ÏƒÈÙÈ ˆ°•ƒÈÙÈ ˆ˛õÎ˚
xy!ü xö%ˆÏüÎ˚ oÓˆÏî

96

ܲ!Óçß√ 3
xyˆÏ°yÓ˚ ˛õ%Ü%˛Ó˚ !°!á
IJõyˆÏí˛¸ ˆÜ˛y°y•°ñü%á Ó˚y!á hflψÏö
ˆï˛üöÈÙÈ•z x¶˛Ü˛yÓ˚ ˆû˛ï˛ˆÏÓ˚
°yäˆÏ°Ó˚ ú˛°y xyÓ˚ Ó#ˆÏçÓ˚ xy=ˆÏö
!òöÓ˚yï˛ ˆÓòöyÓ˚ üyåÈ=!° é˛ˆÏÓ˚

ˆ§°y•z
ˆû˛ˆÏ§ í˛zë˛ˆÏ° ˛õy!Ó˚
í%˛Ó !òˆÏ° x¶˛Ü˛yÓ˚
¢Ó˚#Ó˚ !òˆÏÎ˚ ˆë˛ˆÏ°y xyüyÎ˚ Óy•zˆÏÓ˚
â%!üˆÏÎ˚ ˆàˆÏ° ˛õ!°ÈÙÈܲyòy
ˆÜ˛yö‰ê˛y ü%áñ ˆÜ˛yö‰ê˛y ˛õyåÈy
ì%˛ˆÏܲ•z ÎyˆÏFåÈ ~ˆÏúÑ˛yí˛¸ÈÙÈ ÄˆÏúÑ˛yí˛¸

¢C÷º ˆòÓÓü≈ö

í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õyÓ˚y §y!•ï˛ƒ É ÓyhflÏÓï˛yÓ˚ !öÓ˚#«˛î

ˆû˛ˆÏ§ í˛zë˛ˆÏ°y ˛õy!Ó˚
í%˛Ó !òˆÏ° §Ó x¶˛Ü˛yÓ˚–

í˛z_Ó˚ xyô%!öܲ §y!•ï˛ƒ !öˆÏÎ˚ ~ܲ §üÎ˚ xyüyˆÏò˛Ó˚ ˆòˆÏ¢ xˆÏöܲ ••zã˛•z •ˆÏÎ˚È!åÈ°– í˛z_Ó˚
xyô%!öܲ §y!•ï˛ƒ xyˆÏ®y°ö ˆï˛üöû˛yˆÏÓ òyöy ˆÓшôÏ Äë˛yÓ˚ xyˆÏà•z ˆÎö •y!Ó˚ˆÎÏ ˚ ˆÎˆÏï˛ ÓˆÏ§ˆÏåÈ–
§y!•ï˛ƒ ˆ≤Ãü#Ó˚y xyçܲy° xyÓ˚ í˛z_Ó˚ xyô%!öܲ §y!•ï˛ƒ !öˆÏÎ˚ ˆ§Ó˚ܲü ˆòáyˆÏFåÈö öy– ~áö
§Óy•z í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õyÓ˚y §y!•ï˛ƒ !öˆÏÎ˚ ܲÌy ӈϰˆÏåÈöÊ
í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆ˛Ï õyÓ˚y §y!•ˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚ §ˆÏD Äï˛ˆÏ≤Ãyï˛ û˛yˆÏÓ ç!í˛¸ˆÎÏ ˚ xyˆÏåÈ ˆ¢Ü˛í˛¸ xö%§È¶˛yˆÏöÓ˚ ï˛#Ó  xyÜ%˛!ï˛–
fl∫ÈÙȈòˆÏ¢Ó˚ ˛≤Ã!ï˛ §çyà xyܲ£Ï≈î– Ó˚yç˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛ Ä xÌ≈˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛ ܲyÓ˚ˆÏî ˆò¢ ˆåȈÏí˛¸ !ÓˆÏòˆÏ¢
!àˆÏÎ˚ ò#â≈!òö Ó§Óy§ ܲÓ˚ˆÏ°Ä ~ܲê˛y !ӈϢ£Ï §üÎ˚ xyˆÏ§ Îáö !åÈߨü)° ~Ó˚ §ˆÏD ç!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚
xyˆÏåÈ üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ §_y üyö%£Ï ï˛yÓ˚ í˛zͧ ÈÙÈ ò¢≈ˆÏö í˛zß√%á •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏ벖 ˆÜ˛ööy ~Ó˚ §ˆÏD ç!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚
xyˆÏåÈ üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ §_y Ä x!hflψÏcÓ˚ !ã˛Ó˚hsˇÓ˚ ≤ß¿ Ê ü)°ï˛ !ܲå%È §ÇáƒÜ˛ ˆ°yˆÏܲÓ˚ ˆò¢ ˆåȈÏí˛¸
!ÓˆÏòˆÏ¢ ÈÙÈ ˛õÓ˚Óy§ ܲÓ˚yˆÏܲ•z í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õyÓ˚y ӈϰ ˆÓyé˛yˆÏöy ˆÎˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚–
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98

í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õyÓ˚y ¢ˆÏ∑Ó˚ xÌ≈ ˆÓyé˛yˆÏöyÓ˚ çöƒ 1989ÈÙÈ ~Ó˚ x:ˆÏú˛yí≈˛ •zÇ!°¢ ¢∑ ˆÏܲyˆÏ£ÏÓ˚
S!mï˛#Î˚V §ÇflÒÓˆ˚ îÏ í˛zˆÕÏ á‘ Ü˛Ó˚y •ˆÏΈ˚ åÏ È ~!ê˛ xyòˆÏï˛ ≤Ãyã˛#ö !@ˇÃܲ‰ ¢∑– ˛õÓ˚Óï≈˛#ܲyˆÏ° í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆ˛Ï õyÓ˚y
¢∑!ê˛ Ä”˛ ˆê˛fiê˛yˆÏürê˛È S!í˛í˛zê˛ É 28 É 25VÈÙÈ ~Ä í˛z!Õ‘!áï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°– Ä”˛ ˆê˛fiê˛yˆÏürê˛ ÈÙÈ ~
í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆ˛Ï õyÓ˚yÓ˚˛ ï˛yͲõÎ≈ Óƒyáƒy ܲˆÏÓ˚ Ó°y •ˆÏΈ˚ åÏ È ñ Ú{ŸªˆÓÏ Ó˚ ˚ •zFåÈyö%ÎyÎ˚# •zçÓ˚yˆÏΈ˚ °
Ï Ó˚ çöàîˆÏܲ
˛õ,!ÌÓ#Ó˚ §Ó≈e x!û˛àüö ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ–Û
~áyˆÏö ï˛y•z ˆòáˆÏï˛ ˛õy!FåÈ •z‡!òˆÏòÓ˚ x!û˛àüˆÏöÓ˚ ˛≤ÃyÓ˚Ω˛ˆÏܲ x:ˆÏú˛yí≈˛ •zÇ!°¢ ¢∑ȈÏܲy£Ï
í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆ˛Ï õyÓ˚yÓ˚ xy!û˛ôy!öܲ xÌ≈ !•ˆÏ§ˆÏÓ ï%˛ˆÏ° ôÓ˚yÓ˚ ˆã˛‹T ܲˆÏÓˆ˚ åÏ È– x:ˆÏú˛yí≈˛ •zÇ!°¢ ¢∑ˆÏܲy£Ï
í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆ˛Ï õyÓ˚yÓ˚ !ÓhflïÏ, ˛ xˆÏÌ≈ ӈϰˆÏåÈöñÚÚThe Jews living dispersed among the gentiles
after captivity and the Jews Christians residing outside the Palestine. The
dispersal (initially) signifies the location of a fluid human autonomous space
involving a complex set of negotiation and exchange between the nostalgia
and desire for the homeland and the making of a new home, adapting to
the power, relationships between the minority and majority, being spokes
persons for minority rights and their people back home and significantly
transacting the contact zone – a space changed with the possibility of
multiple challenges.

í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õyÓ˚yÓ˚ ˙!ï˛•y!§Ü˛ !û˛!Ä Ä ¢∑yÌ≈ ~áyˆÏö ˆÓyé˛y ˆà°– ~•z §üˆÏÎ˚ í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õyÓ˚y
§y!•ï˛ƒ Ó°ˆÏï˛ ï˛y•z ˆÓyé˛y ÎyÎ˚ ˆò¢ ˆåȈÏí˛¸ !ÓˆÏòˆÏ¢ Ó§Óy§Ó˚ï˛ ï˛Ìyܲ!Ìï˛ !öÓ≈y!§ï˛ˆÏòÓ˚ myÓ˚y
Ó˚!ã˛ï˛ §y!•ï˛ƒ– ˆÜ˛ööy 1993È Ù È~Ó˚ x:ˆÏú˛yí≈˛ •zÇ!°¢ ¢∑ˆÏܲyˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ §ÇˆÏ¢y!ôï˛ §ÇflÒÓ˚ˆÏî
í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õyÓ˚y Ó°ˆÏï˛ ˆÓyé˛yˆÏöy •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈñ ÚÚ...anybody of people living outside their
traditional homeland.ÛÛ Î!òÄ í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õyÓ˚yÓ˚ ü)° Ó%ƒÍ õ!_àï˛ xÌ≈ Ó°ˆÏï˛ !àˆÏÎ˚ ˆú˛Ó˚
Ó°y •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈñ ÚÚ In the tradition of Indo - Christian the fall of satan from the
heaven and humankind’s separation from the Garden of Eden,
metaphorically, the separation from God constitute diasporic situtions.
Etymologically ‘Diaspora’ with its connotative political weight is drawn
from Greek meaning to disperse and signifies a voluntary or forcible
movement of the people from the homeland into new regions.’’ ( p.68-69 )

xyüÓ˚y ˆòáˆÏï˛ ˛õy•zñ Å˛õ!öˆÏÓ!¢Ü˛ï˛yÓyˆÏòÓ˚ §üÎ˚ í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆ˛Ï õyÓ˚yÓ˚ §ÇK˛y ˆÎö xyÓ˚Ä Óƒy˛õܲï˛Ó˚
•ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏ벖 ö#ˆÏã˛ ~Ó˚ ܲyÓ˚î§ü)• ˆòÄÎ˚y •° É
x‹Tyò¢ ¢ï˛ˆÏܲ §¡Àyçƒ !ÓhflÏyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ xyܲyA«˛yÎ˚ Î˚%͈ÏÓ˚y˛õ#Î˚Ó˚y !ӈϟªÓ˚ §Ó≈e x!û˛Îyö
ã˛y!°ˆÏÎ!˚ åÈ°– x!ôÜ,˛ï˛ xM˛È°§ü)ˆ•Ï xÌ≈˜öÏ !ï˛Ü˛ ˆ¢y£ÏˆîÏ Ó˚ ú˛°◊&!ï˛ˆÏï˛ Óƒy˛õܲ §ÇáƒÜ˛ ◊!üˆÏܲÓ˚
ܲü≈ §Çfliyö ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö#Î˚ •ˆÏÎ˚ ˛õˆÏí˛¸!åÈ°ó fliyö#Î˚ ◊!üˆÏܲÓ˚ §Çáƒy ˛õÎ≈yÆ !åÈ° öy–
Î˚)͈ÏÓ˚y˛õ#Î˚ˆÏòÓ˚˚ myÓ˚y !öÎ˚!sfï˛ !¢“ §Çfliy Ä Ü˛yÓ˚áyöyÎ˚ ܲyç ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ çöƒ xy!ú ˛Ü˛yÓ˚
◊!üܲˆÏòÓ˚ !öˆÏÎ˚yà ܲÓ˚y •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°– ~ÓÇ ~Ó˚y §Óy•z !åÈ° e´#ï˛òy§– ~•z §Ó e´#ï˛òy§ˆÏòÓ˚
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xyÓyÓ˚ !ӈϟªÓ˚ !Ó!û˛ß¨ ≤ÃyˆÏhsˇ ˛õyë˛yˆÏöy •ˆÏï˛y– Å˛õ!öˆÏÓ!¢Ü˛ˆÏòÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ ˆÎˆÏ•ï%˛ !Ó !ê˛¢ˆÏòÓ˚ §y¡Àyçƒ
!åÈ° x!ôܲï˛Ó˚ !Óhfl,Ïï˛ñ e´#ï˛òy§ˆÏòÓ˚ ˆ§•zçöƒ ˆÓ!¢Ó˚ û˛yà ˆò¢yhsˇÓ˚ âˆÏê˛ !Ó!û˛ß¨ !Ó !ê˛¢
ܲˆÏ°y!ö§ü)ˆÏ•– e´#ï˛òy§ ≤ÃÌy ˆÓxy•zö# ˆây!£Ïï˛ •ÄÎ˚yÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚ ã%˛!_´Ó˚ !û˛!_ˆÏï˛ ◊!üܲˆÏòÓ˚
!öˆÏÎ˚yà ܲˆÏÓ˚ !ÓˆÏòˆÏ¢ ˛õyë˛yˆÏöy ÷Ó˚& •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°–
e´#ï˛òy§ ≤ÃÌy Ó¶˛ •ÄÎ˚yÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚ û˛yÓ˚ˆÏï˛Ó˚ xö%ßï¨ ˛ xM˛È° ~ÓÇ ã˛#ö ˆÌˆÏܲ !öÎ%_´ ã%˛!_´Ók˛
à!Ó˚Ó ◊!üܲˆÏòÓ˚ ã˛y!•òy ˆÓˆÏí˛¸ ÎyÎ˚– ĈÏÎfi˚ ê˛ •z!u˛çñ üy°Î˚ñ !ú˛!çñ ˛õ)Ó≈ ~ÓÇ ò!«˛î xy!ú ˛Ü˛yÎ˚
ï˛áö û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ ~ÓÇ ã˛#öy ◊!üܲˆÏòÓ˚ x!û˛àüö âˆÏê˛–
≤Ãáƒyï˛ §üyçï˛_¥!Óò‰ í˛z•z!°Î˚yü §yÓ˚ú˛yö‰ xyô%!öܲ Î%ˆÏà í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õyÓ˚yÓ˚ !ö!•ï˛ xÌ≈ áÑ%çˆÏï˛
!àˆÏÎ˚ !ÓˆÏòˆÏ¢ Ó§Óy§Ó˚ï˛ !åÈߨü)° x!û˛Óy§#ï˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲ!ê˛ !ÓŸªçö#ö ã˛y!Ó˚!eܲ ˜Ó!¢‹Tƒ
˛õ!Ó˚°!«˛ï˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö– ïÑ˛yÓ˚ x!û˛üï˛yö%§yˆÏÓ˚ñ
ÚÚ1. They or their ancestors have been dispersed from a special original
‘ centre’ or two or more ‘peripheral’ of foreign region;
2. They retain a collective memory, vision or myth about their original
homeland – its physical location , history and achivements ;
3. They believe they are not – and perhaps cannot be fully accepted
by their lost society and therfore feel partly alienated and insulted from it;
4. They feel and regard their ancestral homeland as their , true, ideal
home and as the place to which they or their descendents would (or should)
eventually return – when conditions are appropriate ;
5. They believe the should collectively, be committed to the
maintainance or restoration of their homeland and its safety and prosperity;
and
6.They continue to relate, personally and vicariously, to that homeland
in one way or another, and their ethno - communal consiousness and
solidarity are importantly defined by the existence of such a relationship ;
(Sarfen William cited in Satendra Nandan : ‘Diasporic Consciousness’
Interrogative Post Colonial : Column Theory, Text and context, Editor :
Harish Trivedi and Meenakhshi Mukherjee, Indian Institute of Advanced
Studies1996,p,53 )

í˛z•z!°Î˚yü §yÓ˚!ú˛ˆÏöÓ˚ §ÇK˛y ˆüˆÏö !öˆÏ° !ܲv í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õyÓ˚yÓ˚ xyÓ˚Ä Ü˛ï˛Ü˛=!°
!òܲ ˛õ!Ó˚fl≥%˛ê˛ •Î˚– Ó˚!Óö ˆÜ˛yˆÏ•ö í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆ˛Ï õyÓ˚yÓ˚ xhsˇï˛ É åÈÎ!˚ ê˛ !ӈϢ£Ï !òܲ !ã˛!•´ï˛ ܲˆÏÓˆ˚ åÏ Èö–
~•z åÈÎ˚!ê˛ !ò܉˛ •° É
Ó˚yç˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛ Óy üï˛yò¢≈ ܲyÓ˚ˆÏî x!û˛àüö Èó
◊!üܲˆÏòÓ˚ x!û˛àüö ó
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§y¡Àyçƒ !ÓhflÏyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ çöƒ x!û˛àüö ó
ÓƒÓ§y Óy!îˆÏçƒÓ˚ ܲyÓ˚ˆÏî x!û˛àüö ó
!öåÈܲ Ó§ÓyˆÏ§Ó˚ çöƒ x!û˛àüö ó
§yÇfl,Ò!ï˛Ü˛ ܲyÎ≈ܲyÓ˚ˆÏî x!û˛àüö–
í˛z!Õ‘!áï˛ Ü˛yÓ˚î§ü)• í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆ˛Ï õyÓ˚yÓ˚ !Ó!û˛ß¨ !òܲ •ˆÏ°Ä !ӈϟªÓ˚ §Ó≈e x!û˛Óy!§ï˛ çîàˆÏîÓ˚
üˆÏôƒ Ó˚!Óö ˆÜ˛yˆÏ•öÄ !ܲå%È §yò,¢ƒ °«˛ƒ ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö– §yò,¢ƒ=!° •° É x!û˛Óy!§ï çö§yôyÓ˚î
ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ çß√û)˛!ü SxÌÓy ܲ!“ï˛ çß√û)˛!üV ˆÌˆÏܲ Ó‡ò)ˆÏÓ˚ ò#â≈!òö È ÙÙÙÙÈ ~üö!ܲ ÓÇ¢yö%e´!üܲ
ôˆÏÓ˚Ä •ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ xöƒˆÏòˆÏ¢ Óy§ ܲÓ˚ˆÏå– x!û˛Óy!§ï˛ çö§yôyÓ˚ˆÏîÓ˚ û˛y£Ïyñ xö%§,ï˛ ôü≈ ~ÓÇ
§Çfl,Ò!ï˛Ó˚ üˆÏôƒÄ fl∫ˆòÏ ˆÏ¢Ó˚ ˙!ï˛•ƒ Ä ï˛yÓ˚ ≤Ãû˛yÓ ˛õ!Ó˚°!«˛ï˛ •Î˚ñ ˆÎüö!ê˛ ˆòáy ÎyÎ˚ e´#ï˛òy§
≤ÃÌyÓ˚ ܲyÓ˚ˆÏî û%˛_´ˆÏû˛yà# ~ÓÇ x!û˛Óy!§ï˛ xy!ú ˛Ü˛yö çö§yôyÓ˚ˆÏîÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ–
ï˛ˆÏÓ ~•z §üˆÏÎ˚ Îyï˛yÎ˚yˆÏï˛Ó˚ §%!Óôy Ä í˛zßï¨ ˛ ˆÎyàyˆÏÎyà ÓƒÓfliyÓ˚ §%ˆÏÎyà í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õyÓ˚yÓ˚
ü)° û˛yÓ!ê˛ˆÏܲ xˆÏöܲê˛y•z ÓòˆÏ° !òˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– Å˛õ!öˆÏÓ!¢Ü˛ï˛yÓyˆÏòÓ˚ xyüˆÏ° ˆÎ !öò≈Î˚ ôÓ˚ˆÏöÓ˚
!ö‹;˛üî •ˆÏï˛y È ÙÙÙÙÈÈ xyç xyÓ˚ ï˛y •Î˚ öy !ë˛Ü˛•z– í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õyÓ˚y ~áöÄ ≤Ã!ï˛!öÎ˚ï˛ âê˛ˆÏåÈ–
ˆ§Ü˛yˆÏ°Ó˚ ï%˛°öyÎ˚ ~•z §üˆÏÎ˚ §Çâ!ê˛ï˛ í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õyÓ˚yˆÏܲ §üyç !ÓK˛yö#Ó˚y •z!ï˛Óyã˛Ü˛ ӈϰ
x!û˛!•ï˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö– ~•z §üˆÏÎ˚ !ÓˆÏòˆÏ¢ Óy§Ó˚ï˛ x!û˛Óy!§ï˛ çöàî ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ xydç ÈÙÈ í˛zͧ
§¶˛yˆÏö §òy í˛zß√%á– fl∫ˆÏòˆÏ¢Ó˚ ≤Ã!ï˛ xòüƒ xyܲ£Ï≈îñ ˆò¢#Î˚ ˙!ï˛•ƒ ôü≈ ~ÓÇ û˛y£ÏyÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛ ~ܲ
xö%§!¶˛Í§yüÎ˚ ü%?˛ï˛y çß√ !òˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ ˆÎ !ӈϢ£Ï ôyÓ˚yÓ˚ §y!•ï˛ƒ ˜¢°# È ÙÙÙÙÈÈ ˆàyê˛y !ӈϟª xyç
ï˛y•z Úí˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õy!Ó˚ܲ !°ê˛yˆÏÓ˚ã˛yÓ˚Û öyˆÏü ˛õ!Ó˚!ã˛!ï˛ °yû˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ–
í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆ˛Ï õyÓ˚y §y!•ˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚ ü)° ˜Ó!¢‹Tƒ •ˆÏFåÈ Óƒ!_´§_y Óy !ӈϢ£Ï §¡±òyÎ˚ÈÙÈ ˆày¤˛#Ó˚ çß√û)˛!ü
xÌÓy fl∫ˆòÏ ˆÏ¢Ó˚ ≤Ã!ï˛ !öÓ˚hsˇÓ˚ ~ܲydï˛y ˆÓyô ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ xòüƒ xö%û˛) !ï˛– §y°üyö Ó˚&¢!òÓ˚ û˛y£ÏyÎ˚ñ
ÚÚ The migrant arrives ‘unstuck from more than land.’ He runs from pillar to
post crossing the boundries of time, memory and history carrying’ bundle
of boxes’ always with them with the vision and dreams of returning homeland as and when likes and find fit to return. although, it is axiomatic truth
that his dreams are futile and it would not be possible to return to the
homeland is ‘ metaphorical ‘. The Longing for the homeland is countered
by the desire to belong to the new home, so the migrant remains a creature of the edge, ‘the peripheral man ...ÛÛ Ó˚&¢!òÓ˚ û˛yˆÏ£ÏƒÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛ú˛°ö !û˛ ~§

ö•z˛õˆÏ°Ó˚ ühsˇˆÏÓƒÄ ˛õ!Ó˚fl≥%˛ê˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– !ï˛!ö ӈϰ!åȈϰö ˆÎñ ˛õ!ÿ˛ü û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ m#˛õ˛õ%ˆÏOÓ˚
!e!öòyˆÏò x!û˛Óy!§ï˛ û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚Ó˚y çyöˆÏï˛y fl∫ˆÏòˆÏ¢ !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ xy§y ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ ˛õˆÏ«˛ xyÓ˚ §Ω˛Ó˛ öÎ˚–
fl∫ˆÏòˆÏ¢Ó˚ ≤Ã!ï˛ ê˛yöñ ˆ¢Ü˛ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ í˛zͧ §¶˛yˆÏöÓ˚ ú˛°◊&!ï˛ˆÏï˛ í˛zͧy!Ó˚ï˛ í˛zÍܲZ˛y ~ÓÇ
ˆÓòöyˆÏÓyô •° í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õy!Ó˚ܲ §y!•ˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚ xöà≈° !Ó£ÏÎ˚–
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û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õyÓ˚yˆÏܲ ò%Ú!ê˛ ˆ◊!îˆÏï˛ !ÓöƒhflÏ Ü˛Ó˚y ÎyÎ˚– ~=!° •° É 1.Ó°˛õ)Ó≈ܲ ~ÓÇ
2.˛fl∫ï˛É≤ÃÓ,_–
1.í˛z!ö¢ ¢ï˛ˆÏܲ ˆŸªï˛yD ¢y§Ü˛ˆÏòÓ˚ myÓ˚y ã%˛!_´Ó˚ !û˛!_ˆÏï˛ !öÎ%_´ û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ ◊!üˆÏܲÓ˚y
xy!ú ˛Ü˛yñ !ú˛!ç ~ÓÇ ˛õ!ÿ˛ü û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ m#˛õ˛õ%ˆÏO x!û˛àüö ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ Óyôƒ •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°– ~ •°
Ó°˛õ)Ó≈ܲ í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õyÓ˚y–
2.í˛zß¨ï˛ ç#Óö Îy˛õö Ä û˛y° !¢«˛yò#«˛yñ ã˛yܲ!Ó˚ ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ x!û˛≤ÃyˆÏÎ˚ fl∫ï ˛É ≤ÃÓ,_û˛yˆÏÓ
xˆÏöܲ û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ xyˆÏü!Ó˚ܲyñ !Ó ˆêÏ ˛öñ çyü≈y!öñ ú ˛y™ Ä •zí˛zˆÓÏ y˚ ˆÏ˛õÓ˚ xöƒyöy ˆòˆÏ¢ ˛õy!í˛¸ !òˆÏΈ˚ åÏ Èö
~ÓÇ !òˆÏFåÈö– !ӈϟªÓ˚ §Ó≈e û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ˆÏòÓ˚ ~•z x!û˛àüˆÏöÓ˚ ï˛yͲõÎ≈ˆÏܲ Óƒyáƒy ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ !àˆÏÎ˚
x!üï˛yû˛ ˆây£Ï ühsˇÓƒ ܲˆÏÓ˚öñÚÚThe Indian diaspora is one of the most important
demographic dislocation of Modern Times.ÛÛ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ ~•z ühsˇÓƒ ˆÓ!ë˛Ü˛ öÎ˚– xyüÓ˚y
ˆòáˆÏï˛ ˛õy!FåÈñ û˛y˛Ó˚ï˛#Î˚ˆÏòÓ˚ í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õyÓ˚y ÷ô% Ó,!k˛•z ˛õyˆÏFåÈ öyñ !ÓŸªÈÙÈ §Çfl,Ò!ï˛Ó˚ xDˆÏöÄ
xï˛#Ó =Ó˚&c˛õ)î≈ fliyö x!ôܲyÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ !öˆÏFåÈ– ≤çDï˛ñ üyÜ≈˛[˛˛ ˛õyÓ˚OˆÏ˛õ ˆÎ Visitor Diaspora
~ÓÇ setter DiasporaÛÓ˚ ܲÌy í˛zˆÏÕ‘á ܲˆÏÓ˚åÈö ï˛yÓ˚ §ˆÏD ü)°ï˛ üƒy܉˛§ÄˆÏÎ˚°Û~Ó˚ Invader ~ÓÇ Settler Colonialist ï˛ˆÏ_¥Ó˚ ˆï˛üö ˜Ó§yò,¢ƒ ˆö•z–
Å˛õ!öˆÏÓ!¢Ü˛ xyüˆÏ° ˆÎ§Ó û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ˆòÏ Ó˚ !ӈϟªÓ˚ xöƒe x!û˛àüö âˆÏê˛!åÈ° ÈÙÈ ÎyˆÏܲ Ó°y
•ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ Indian Diaspora – xÌ≈˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛û˛yˆÏÓ ï˛yÓ˚y §FåÈ° !åÈ° öy– fl∫ˆÏò¢ ˆÌˆÏܲ Ó‡
ò)Ó˚Óï≈˛# fliyˆÏö ˛≤ÃÓyˆÏ§ ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ x!û˛Óy§ö âˆÏê˛!åÈ°–
xy«˛!Ó˚ܲ xˆÏÌ≈•z §yÏï˛ §ü%o ˆï˛ˆÏÓ˚y öò#Ó˚ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ≤ÃÓyˆÏ§ x!û˛Óy!§ï˛ Ä•z§Ó û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ˆÏòÓ˚
ˆòˆÏ¢ !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ xy§y x§Ω˛Ó !åÈ°– ï˛Ó% fl∫ˆÏòˆÏ¢ ~ܲ!òö !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ xy§ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏÓ ~•z Óy§öy
ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ üˆÏö §Ó§üÎ˚ ܲyç ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛y– !ܲv ˆ§•z §üÎ˚ xö%ß¨ï˛ ˆÎyàyˆÏÎyà Óy Îyï˛yÎ˚y˚ˆÏï˛Ó˚
ÓƒÓfliyñ xÌ≈˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛ ò%ò≈¢yÓ˚ ܲyÓ˚ˆÏî ˆòˆÏ¢ !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ xy§y xyÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄû˛yˆÏÓ•z §Ω˛Ó !åÈ° öy–
x˛õ!Ó˚§#ü ~•z ˆû˛ÔˆÏày!°Ü˛ ò)Ó˚ˆÏcÓ˚ ú˛ˆÏ° ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ üyö!§Ü˛ï˛yÎ˚ çß√ !öˆÏÎ˚!åÈ° í˛zͧ•#öï˛yÓ˚
!Ó£Ïyò– ~•zû˛yˆÏÓ x!û˛Óy!§ï˛ û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ ܲ!Ó §y!•!ï˛ƒÜ˛ˆÏòÓ˚ üˆÏôƒÄ ˆú˛ˆÏ° xy§y í˛zͧ û)˛!üÓ˚
§¡õˆÏÜ≈˛ ˜ï˛!Ó˚ •Î˚ ~ܲ ˆÓ˚yüƒy!rê˛Ü˛ xyˆÏÓà–
fl∫yô#ˆÏöy_Ó˚ Î%ˆÏà !ӈϟªÓ˚ §Ó≈e û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õyÓ˚y !û˛ß¨ üyey ˆÎyà ܲˆÏÓ˚– ~•z §üÎ˚
!¢!«˛ï˛ û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ˆÏòÓ˚ ü%რí˛zˆÏj¢ƒ !åÈ° û˛y° ã˛yܲ!Ó˚ Óy ÓƒÓ§yÓ˚ üyôƒˆÏü xÌ≈ í˛z˛õyç≈ö ܲÓ˚y–
xÌ≈˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛ û˛yˆÏÓ §ü,k˛ ~•z x!û˛Óy!§ï˛ û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ˆÏòÓ˚ §üܲy°#ö í˛zßï¨ ˛ï˛Ó˚ ≤ÃÎ%!_´!Óòƒy ~ÓÇ
ˆÎyàyˆÏÎyà ÓƒÓfliy ܲÓ˚yÎ˚_ ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ x§%!Óôy •Î˚!ö– °«˛î#Î˚ñ ~áö x!û˛Óy!§ï˛ û˛yÓ˚ï˛#ˆÏÎ˚Ó˚y
üy!Œê˛˛õ°‰ !û˛§yÓ˚ §%ˆÏÎyà !öˆÏÎ˚ !¢«˛yò#«˛y ñ ÓƒÓ§y Óy!îˆÏçƒÓ˚ fl∫yˆÏÌ≈ !ӈϟªÓ˚ Îeï˛e â%ˆÏÓ˚
ˆÓí˛¸yˆÏFåÈö– ≤ÃÌü í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õyÓ˚y§Ω)˛ï˛ û˛yÓ˚ï˛#ˆÏÎ˚Ó˚y ~§Ó §%ˆÏÎyà §%!Óôy ˆÌˆÏܲ Ó!M˛Èï˛ !åÈ°–
§Dï˛ Ü˛yÓ˚ˆÏî•z fl∫ˆÏò¢ˆÏܲ ˆòáyÓ˚ Óy !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ xy§yÓ˚ xyܲyA«˛yÄ !åÈ° ï˛#Ó – í˛zͧ û)˛!ü Óy
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ˆ¢Ü˛í˛¸ §¶˛yö•z ˆÎö ≤ÃÌü ˛õÎ≈yˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õyÓ˚yÓ˚ ≤Ãôyö ã˛y!Ó˚!eܲ ˜Ó!¢‹Tƒ– ~•z
˛õÎ≈ƒyˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ xöƒï˛ü í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õy!Ó˚ܲ ˆ°áÜ !û˛ ~§ ö•z˛õˆÏ°Ó˚ í˛z˛õöƒy§ Úxy •yí˛z§ ú˛Ó˚ !ü .
!ÓŸªy§ÛÈÙÈ ~ x!û˛Óy!§ï˛ û˛yÓ˚ï˛#ˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ í˛zͧ §¶˛yö•z ü)° í˛z˛õç#Óƒ– ÚÚto have lived without even attempting to lay clain to oneÛs portion of earth; to have lived and
died as one has been born, unnecessary and accommodated. Mohan
Biswas pehegrination over the next 35 years, he was to be a wander with
no place to call his own ‘’(Ibid- 40). ≤Ãáƒyï˛ §üyç!ÓK˛yö# !ÓçÎ˚ !ü◊ ï˛y•z !û˛ ~§

ö•z˛õ°ˆÏܲ Úfounding father of old diaspuraÛ ÓˆÏ° x!û˛!•ï˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈö– xyÓ˚ §y°üyö
Ó˚&¢!ò •ˆÏ°ö Úrepresentative of mordern (second) diaspora. Îy•zˆÏ•yܲñ û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚
í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õyÓ˚yˆÏܲ í˛z!Õ‘!áï˛ ò%•z ˛õÎ≈yˆÏÎ˚ !ÓöƒhflÏ Ü˛Ó˚y §Ω˛Ó •ˆÏ°Ä °«˛î#Î˚ ˆÎñ í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õy!Ó˚ܲ
üyö!§Ü˛ï˛y ~ï˛ò‰§ˆÏ_¥Ä ~ܲ•z Ó˚ܲü û˛yÓôyÓ˚yÎ˚ ≤Ãû˛y!Óï˛– ï˛y•z §y!•!ï˛ƒÜ˛ çyç xy•ˆÏüˆÏòÓ˚
û˛y£ÏyÎ˚ñ ÚÚIn the same manner,RushdieÛs Midnight children and shame are
the novel of leave taking from country of his birth (India) and that second
country (Pakistan) where he tried,half heartedly to settle and couldn’t.’’

!ÓˆÏòˆÏ¢ Ó§Óy§Ó˚ï˛ û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆ˛Ï õy!Ó˚ܲ §y!•!ï˛ƒÜ˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ܲ°ˆÏü û˛yÓ˚ï˛ S~ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe •z!u˛Î˚yÊV
~ÓÇ û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ çö§yôyÓ˚ˆÏîÓ˚ ôyÓ˚yû˛y£Ïƒ ~•zû˛yˆÏÓ•z ÓyÓ˚ÓyÓ˚ â%ÏÓ˚y!ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ xyˆÏ§– ~•z ôyÓ˚yû˛y£Ïƒ
ˆÎ á%Ó ~ܲê˛y ü!•üy!ß∫ï˛ ï˛yÄ !ܲv öÎ˚– û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õy!Ó˚ܲ §y!•!ï˛ƒÜ˛ˆÏòÓ˚ Ó˚ã˛öy ï˛y•z
xyhsçy≈!ï˛Ü˛ §y!•ï˛ƒÈÙÈÓyçyˆÏÓ˚ ΈÏ̤˛ çö!≤ÃÎ˚! ˆÜ˛ööy ÚThey.... contribute to the
colonization of the Indian psyche by pondering to western which prefers to
see India in a negative light .ÛÛ SAshcraft, 31-56)– xyhsˇç≈y!ï˛Ü˛ §y!•!ï˛ƒÜ˛ˆÏòÓ˚

ü•ˆÏ° •Î˚ˆÏï˛y ~•zܲyÓ˚ˆÏî•z §%ˆÏܲï%˛ ˆü•ï˛yñ x!üï˛yû˛ ˆây£Ïñ ï˛y!Ó¢ñ ˜áÓ˚ñ xyày ¢!•ò xy!°ñ
ˆ§yöy!° ˆÓy§ñ §y°üyö Ó˚&¢!ò ≤Ãü%á û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏõy!Ó˚ܲ §y!•!ï˛ƒˆÏܲÓ˚y Ó‡° ˛õ!Ó˚!ã˛ï˛
öyü– ˛õy¢y˛õy!¢ ~ê˛yÄ ÓˆÏ° Ó˚yáy òÓ˚ܲyÓ˚ñ í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õy!Ó˚ܲ §y!•!ï˛ƒˆÏܲÓ˚y !ܲv ˆÜ˛yöÄû˛yˆÏÓ•z
§Çܲ#î≈ï˛yÓ˚ à![˛ˆÏï˛ xyÓk˛ öö– ˆÎˆÏòˆÏ¢ Ó§Óy§ ܲˆÏÓ˚ö ˆ§ˆÏòˆÏ¢Ó˚˚ ≤Ã!ï˛Ä ïÑ˛yÓ˚y
ΈÏÌ‹T˛◊k˛y¢#°– •z!ï˛Óyã˛Ü˛ çyï˛#Î˚ï˛yÓyˆÏò !ÓŸªy§# ~•z§Ó §y!•ï˛ƒˆÏܲÓ˚y üyö!Óܲ ü)°ƒˆÏÓyô
ˆÎüö ˆï˛üö•z û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ Ó‡cÓyˆÏòÓ˚Ä ≤Ã¢Ç§Ü˛–
!Ó!Óô §yÇfl,Ò!ï˛Ü˛ x!û˛Kï˛yÎ˚ §O#!Óï˛ í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õy!Ó˚ܲ §y!•!ï˛ƒÜ˛ˆÏòÓ˚ Ó˚ã˛öyܲˆÏü≈Ó˚
˛õyë˛Ü˛ü•°Ä §Dï˛ Ü˛yÓ˚ˆîÏ •z !ÓŸªÓƒy˛õ# !ÓhflïÏ, ˛– ïÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚ §y!•ï˛ƒÜ˛ˆÏü≈ ≤Ã!ï˛ú˛!°ï˛ •Î˚ fl∫ˆòÏ ˆÏ¢Ó˚
flø,!ï˛ˆÏüò%Óï˚ ˛yó !ӈϟªÓ˚ §Ó≈e â%ˆÓÏ ˚ ˆÓí˛¸yˆÏöy x!û˛K˛ï˛yÎ˚ ~ÓÇ fl∫ˆòÏ ˆÏ¢Ó˚ §yÇfl,Ò!ï˛Ü˛ ˙!ï˛ˆÏ•ƒÈÙÙÙÙÈ
ܲ“öy ~ÓÇ ÓyhflÓÏ ï˛yÓ˚ !üˆÏ¢ˆÏ° §,‹T û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆ˛Ï õyÓ˚y §y!•ï˛ƒ xyhsˇçy≈ !ï˛Ü˛ ˛õyë˛Ü˛ ü•ˆÏ°
xÓ¢ƒ•z xyܲ£Ï≈î#Î˚– !öåÈܲ fl∫ˆÏòˆÏ¢Ó˚ ˛õê˛û)˛!ü •Î˚ˆÏï˛y xyhsˇçy≈!ï˛Ü˛ ˛õyë˛Ü˛ ü•ˆÏ° xÓ¢ƒ•z
xyܲ£Ï≈î#Î˚– !öåÈܲ fl∫ˆÏòˆÏ¢Ó˚ ˛õê˛û)˛!ü •Î˚ˆÏï˛y xyhsˇç≈y!ï˛Ü˛ ˛õyë˛Ü˛ ü•ˆÏ° ˆ§û˛yˆÏÓ @ˇÃ•îˆÏÎyàƒ
öyÄ •ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚– ~ !ӣψÏÎ˚ §%ˆÏܲï%˛ ˆü•ï˛yÓ˚ flõ‹T x!û˛üï˛ñÚÚ..idea of home is not a
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consumable entity. You cannot go home by eating certain foods, by
replaying its films on your T.V. screens. At some point you have to live
there again.ÛÛ

§%ˆÏܲï%˛ ˆü•ï˛yÓ˚ üƒy!:üyü !§!ê˛ í˛z˛õöƒyˆÏ§ ˆÓyˆÏ¡∫ ˆÌˆÏܲ ü%¡∫y•zÈ ÙˆÎ˚ Ó˚*˛õyhsˇ!Ó˚ï˛ •ÄÎ˚yÓ˚
§y¡±!ï˛Ü˛ öàÓ˚ÈÙÈ §Çfl,Ò!ï˛Ó˚ Ó˚)˛õˆÏÓ˚áy xy«˛!Ó˚ܲ xˆÏÌ≈•z Óyä‰üÎ˚ •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏ벖 ü%¡y∫ •z ~áö ~üö
~ܲ!ê˛ x˛õ!Ó˚!ã˛ï˛ ü•yöàÓ˚ ˆÎáyˆÏö !åÈßü¨ ˆ) °
Ï Ó˚y xyÓ˚ §üyò,ï˛ öö! í˛yÎ˚y§ˆÏ˛õy!Ó˚ܲ §y!•ï˛ƒÜ˛ˆÏòÓ˚
ˆ°áyÎ˚ ~•zû˛yˆÏÓ•z ÓƒyÆ •Î˚ !Ó!FåÈߨï˛yÓ˚ ˆÓòöyñ fl∫ˆÏòˆÏ¢Ó˚ ≤Ã!ï˛ ê˛yö xÌã˛ ˆ§áyˆÏöÄ !ï˛!ö
ˆ§Ó˚ܲüû˛yˆÏÓ fl∫yàï˛ ööÈ ÈÙÙÙÙÈÈ ~•z ê˛yöyˆÏ˛õyˆÏí˛¸ˆÏö §Ç«%˛k˛ í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õy!Ó˚Ü üöö §Ó≈òy
xyd§ÇÓ˚«˛ˆÏîÓ˚ §#üyhsˇ ˆÓ˚áyÎ˚ òÈ,ì˛¸û˛yˆÏÓ !ÓŸªy§# •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏ벖 ~•z ܲyÓ˚ˆÏî•z §Ω˛Óï˛ fliyö#Î˚
§Çfl,Ò!ï˛ Ä ˙!ï˛ˆÏ•ƒÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛◊k˛y¢#° •ÄÎ˚y §ˆÏ_Ä
¥ í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆ˛Ï õy!Ó˚ܲ §y!•!ï˛ƒÜ˛ !ܲÇÓy Ó%!k˛ç#Ó#Ó˚y
!öçfl∫ x!ôܲyÓ˚ Ó˚«˛yÎ˚ ÎyÓï˛#Î˚ ˜Ó£ÏˆüÏ ƒÓ˚ !ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛ ï˛ÑyˆÏòÓ˚ x!ôà,•#ï˛ ˆòˆÏ¢Ó˚ §Ó˚ܲyˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚ !ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛
≤Ã!ï˛ÓyˆÏò §Ó˚Ó •ˆÏï˛ !môy!ß∫ï˛ •ö öy– ~•z ≤Ã!ï˛ÓyÏò Óy xyˆÏ®y°ˆÏöÓ˚ ˆ˛õåȈÏö !Ó!FåÈßï¨ ˛yˆÏÓyô
ܲyç ܲÓ˚ˆÏ°Ä !Ó!FåÈߨï˛yÓyò !ܲv ~áyˆÏö ܲáö•z §!e´Î˚ öÎ˚– !ÓˆÏòˆÏ¢ ò#â≈!òö Ó§Óy§ ܲÓ˚y
§ˆÏ_¥Ä ò!«˛î ~!¢Î˚yÓ˚ x!ôÓy§#Ó˚y !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚ ˛õ,Ìܲ ˆò¢ Óy ˆ•yü°ƒyu˛ÈÙÈ àí˛¸yÓ˚ çöƒ ˆÜ˛yöÄ
xyˆÏ®y°ö àˆÏí˛¸ ˆï˛yˆÏ°!ö– ˆÜ˛ööyñ û˛yÓ˚ï˛ !ܲÇÓy ò!«˛î ~!¢Î˚yÓ˚ x!ôÓy§#ˆÏòÓ˚Ä §ÓyÓ˚•z
˛õ,Ìܲ#Ü,˛ï˛ §yÇfl,Ò!ï˛Ü˛ ˜Ó!¢‹Tƒñ ˙!ï˛•ƒ ~ÓÇ §¡±òyÎ˚àï˛ §_y Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– !ÓˆÏòˆÏ¢Ó˚ üy!ê˛ˆÏï˛
ï˛y•z !öˆÏçˆÏòÓ˚ ˆò¢ Óy ˆ•yü°ƒyu˛ àí˛¸yÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yöÄ Ó˚ܲü !ã˛hsˇyû˛yÓöy ï˛y•z xÓyhsˇÓ˚ ~ÓÇ xÓyhflÓÏ –
!¢«˛y!Óò §%ô#Ó˚ Ü%˛üyÓ˚ ~ !ӣψÏÎ˚ ӈϰˆÏåÈöñ ÚÚMK Gandhi as the first practitioner of
diasporic hybridity- considers all discriminations of high and low, small or
great, Hindu or Muslim or Christian or Sikh – all were alike the children of
Mother India.’’ ~•z ≤Ãï˛#!ï ˛ü•ydy ày!¶˛Ó˚ üöˆÏö ò,ì˛¸ •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ° Îáö !ï˛!ö ò!«˛î xy!ú ˛Ü˛yÎ˚

!åȈ°
Ï ö–
ˆû˛ÔˆÏày!°Ü˛ ò)Óc˚ ~ÓÇ !û˛ß¨ §yÇfl,Ò!ï˛Ü˛ ˆÓyô í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆ˛Ï õy!Ó˚ܲ §y!•ï˛ƒˆÏܲ fl∫ï˛sf ܲˆÏÓ˚ ï%˛°ˆÏï˛
§y•y΃ ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ– ~ ˆÎö öï%˛ö ܲˆÏÓ˚ñ §¡õ)î≈ öï%˛ö xy!DˆÏܲ ÓyhflÏÓˆÏܲ í˛z˛õ°!k˛ ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ ≤ÃÎ˚y§Ê
~Ó˚ üˆÏôƒ xyÓyÓ˚ §)-û˛yˆÏÓ çy!Ó˚ï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ ÓƒDï˛y xyÓ˚ !ï˛Î≈ܲï˛y– ~•z §üˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ܲï,≈˛cÓyò#
ܲZ˛fl∫ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ !ÓÓ˚&ˆÏk˛ ã˛ƒyˆÏ°O å%ȈÏí˛¸ ˆòÄÎ˚yê˛yÄ í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õy!Ó˚ܲ §y!•ˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚ xöƒï˛ü ˜Ó!¢‹Tƒ–
x!üï˛yû˛ ˆâyˆÏ£ÓÏ ˚ ¢ƒyˆÏí˛y °y•zö§ í˛z˛õöƒyˆÏ§ ã˛üÍܲyÓ˚û˛yˆÏÓ !Óô,ï˛ •ˆÏΈ˚ åÏ È ~•z §üˆÏÎÓ˚ ˚ ã˛°FåÈ!Óñ
ÚÚIn India there is a drill associated with civil disterbances, a curfew is
declared, paramilitary units are deployed ; in extreme cases, the army
monarchs to the stricken areas. No city in India better equiped to perform
the drill than New Delhi, with its high security apparatus,ÛÛ

!ÓŸª ˛õ!Ó˚ºüˆÏî x!û˛K˛ ~ÓÇ §ü,k˛ í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆ˛Ï õy!Ó˚ܲ §y!•!ï˛ƒÜ˛ˆÏòÓ˚ !ã˛hsˇyˆÏã˛ï˛öyÓ˚ ~•z fl∫ï˛sf
ôyÓ˚y xÓ¢ƒ•z í˛zˆÏÕ‘áˆÏÎyàƒ– ˆÜ˛ööyñÚÚ the challenge of post- modernism to
104

overreaching narratives of power relations to silence the voices of the
dispossessed, these marginal voices have gained ascendance and even
found a current status of privilege. Thus shift suggest : that it is from those
who have suffered the sentence of history – subjugation, domination,
diaspora, displacement – that we learn our most enduring lessons for
living and thinking’’ (Bhabha-172).

~•z fl∫ï˛sf ôyÓ˚yÓ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛ú˛°ö ˆòáy ÎyÎ˚ x!üï˛yû˛ ˆâyˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ !Ó!û˛ß¨ í˛z˛õöƒyˆÏ§– ~áyˆÏö
!ӈϢ£Ï ܲˆÏÓ˚ í˛zˆÏÕ‘á ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ •Î˚ ïÑ˛yÓ˚ Ó‡ ˛õ!ë˛ï˛ Ú•yÇ!Ó˚ ê˛y•zí˛Û í˛z˛õöƒyˆÏ§ÛÓ˚ ܲÌy– Ú •yÇ!Ó˚
ê˛y•zí˛Û í˛z˛õöƒyˆÏ§Ó˚ ~ܲyLjϢ !ï˛!ö ӈϰöñ ÚÚWith chance circumstance with a
cateologist from the US, Priya Roy studying fresh water dolphins, the
Oracaella Brebirostris. The multiple histories of the Sunderbas became
alive when the diaries of Marxist school teacher Nirmal came to light . He
withdraws from the romance of political activism and come to settle with
his wife Nilima in lucibari and relation betwwen them is exemplified in the
pragmatism of Nilima:You live in a dream world – a haze of poetry.’’

x!üï˛yû˛ ˆâyˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ í˛z˛õöƒyˆÏ§ í˛z!Õ‘!áï˛ ~•z ôÓ˚ˆÏöÓ˚ ôyÓ˚yû˛y£Ïƒ ü)°ï˛É ˆÜ˛wy!ï˛Ü˛ ~ÓÇ
ˆÜ˛wy!û˛à‰ ¢!_´Ó˚ x°Aâö#Î˚ mˆÏ®µÓ˚ xy«˛!Ó˚ܲ ˆòƒyï˛öy •ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏ벖 Ú•yÇ!Ó˚ ê˛y•zí˛Û í˛z˛õöƒyˆÏ§
xyüÓ˚y ˆòáˆÏï˛ ˛õy•zñ ü!Ó˚ã˛é˛Ñy!˛õˆÏï˛ xy!◊ï˛ !öÓ˚#• !åÈߨü)° ¢Ó˚îyÌ≈#ˆÏòÓ˚ IJõÓ˚ Ó˚y‹T…¢!_´Ó˚
!öˆÏ‹õ£Ïî– ü!Ó˚ã˛éÑ˛y!˛õˆÏï˛ xy!◊ï˛ˆÏòÓ˚ ˆú˛Ó˚ í˛zÍáyï˛ Ü˛Ó˚yÓ˚ çöƒ Ó˚y‹T…¢!_´Ó˚ myÓ˚y !öÎ˚!sfï˛
=u˛yÓy!•ö# Ä•z m#ˆÏ˛õ •yü°y ã˛y°yÎ˚– ÚÚThey had been assembling around the
island, they burn the settler, hearts, they sank their boats, they lay waste
their fields.’’

!ÓŸª •z!ï˛•yˆÏ§ ö!çÓ˚!Ó•#ö ˆò¢û˛yˆÏàÓ˚ üü≈vˇò !Ó£ÏÎ˚ˆÏܲ í˛z˛õç#Óƒ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ò!«˛î ~!¢Î˚y Ä
!Ó ˆÏê˛ˆÏöÓ˚ xˆÏöܲ §y!•ï˛ƒÜ˛•z SÎÑyÓ˚y ü)°ï˛ û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚V !°ˆÏáˆÏåÈö– ò%Éáçöܲñ ˆò¢û˛yà ÷ô% ò%•z
ˆò¢ˆÏܲ !Ó!FåÈߨ ܲˆÏÓ˚!ö; ˆò¢û˛yà ò%•z ˆòˆÏ¢Ó˚ üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ !ÓŸªyˆÏ§ÏÓ˚ !û˛ï˛ˆÏܲ ö!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°–
ˆò¢û˛yˆÏàÓ˚ IJõÓ˚ Ó˚!ã˛ï˛ Óy˛õ!§ !§ôÎ˚yÛÓ˚ Ó‡ ã˛!ã˛≈ï˛ í˛z˛õöƒy§ Úxy•z§ ܲƒy!u˛ üƒyöÛ Ó!e¢!ê˛
xôƒyˆÏÎ˚ ˛õ!Ó˚ÓƒyÆ– ˆàyê˛y í˛z˛õü•yˆÏò¢ ï˛áö §y¡±òy!Î˚ܲï˛yÓ˚ xy=ˆÏö çµ°ˆÏåÈ– ~ܲ!òˆÏܲ
!•®%ñ !¢á xyÓ˚ xöƒ!òˆÏܲ ü%§°üyöÈ ÈÙÙÙÙÈ ºyï,˛ây!ï˛ òyDyÎ˚ í˛zß√_ •ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zˆÏë˛!åÈ° ò%•z Î%Î%ôyö
˛õ«˛– ˛õ#Ó˚!˛õöˆÏòy öyüܲ àÑyˆÏÎ˚ ü%§°üyˆÏöÓ˚y xye´yhsˇ •Î˚; xyÓyÓ˚ °yˆÏ•yˆÏÓ˚ !•®%Ó˚y àî•ï˛ƒyÓ˚
!¢Ü˛yÓ˚ •Î˚– í˛z˛õöƒyˆÏ§Ó˚ xöƒï˛ü ã˛!Ó˚e xyê˛ ÓåÈÓ˚ ÓÎ˚§# ˆ°!ö ˆò¢û˛yˆÏàÓ˚ §üˆÏÎ˚ ˆòáy x!fliÓ˚
Ä x¢yhsˇ ˛õ!Ó˚!fli!ï˛Ó˚ ܲÌy û%˛°ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ öy– Óí˛¸ˆÏòÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ˆ¢yöy Ä•z §üˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ í˛z_y°
Ó˚yç˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛ xÓfliy ~ÓÇ §•§y•z !má![˛ï˛ ˆòˆÏ¢Ó˚ ï˛Íܲy°#ö ˛õ!Ó˚!fli!ï˛ ˆ°!öˆÏܲ ܲ#û˛yˆÏÓ
≤Ãû˛y!Óï˛ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚!åÈ°È ÈÙÙÙÙÈ ï˛yÓ˚ IJõˆÏÓ˚•z àˆÏí˛¸ ˆï˛y°y •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏå xy•z§ ܲƒy!u˛ üƒyöÈÙÈ í˛z˛õöƒy§–
xyÓyÓ˚ Úòƒ ܲy!rê˛∆ ˇí˛z•zòyí˛zê˛ ˆ˛õyfiê˛ x!ú˛§Û öyüܲ ܲyÓƒ@ˇÃˆÏsiÓ˚ ≤ÈÏîï˛y áƒyï˛öyüy ܲ!Ó xyày
105

¢y!•ò xy!°ÛÓ˚ !Ó!û˛ß¨ Ó˚ã˛öyÎ˚ ˆò¢ !Óû˛yˆÏàÓ˚ ú˛ˆÏ° xhsˇ°≈#ö !Ó£ÏyˆÏòÓ˚ §%Ó˚ ôù!öï˛ •ˆÏ°Ä ï˛yÓ˚
üˆÏôƒ ˆÜ˛yöÄ ˆö!ï˛Óyã˛Ü˛ï˛y !üˆÏ¢ Ó˚Î˚ öy– ÓÓ˚Ç §%!ú˛ üï˛ÓyˆÏòÓ˚ í˛zòyÓ˚ï˛y ~ÓÇ û˛!_´ xyˆÏ®y°ˆÏöÓ˚
!ö!á° ˆ≤ÈÏüÓ˚ ~ܲ xööƒ ˆü° Ó¶˛ö xyüÓ˚y ˆòáˆÏï˛ ˛õy•z xyày ¢y!•ò xy!°Ó˚ !Ó!û˛ß¨
Ó˚ã˛öyܲˆÏü≈– ≤çDe´ˆÏü ~áyˆÏö í˛zò%≈˛ ܲ!Ó Ä Å˛õöƒy!§Ü˛ Ó˚y•# üy§%ü˛ Ó˚yçyÛÓ˚ ܲÌy Ó°ˆÏï˛ •Î˚–
û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ í˛z˛õü•yˆÏòˆÏ¢Ó˚ ~•z ≤Ãáƒyï˛ §y!•!ï˛ƒˆÏܲÓ˚ Ó˚ã˛öy§ü)ˆ•Ï Ä §M˛Èy!Ó˚ï˛ •ˆÏΈ˚ åÏ È ˆò¢û˛yˆÏàÓ˚
ˆÓòöy; !åÈßü¨ )° üyö%ˆÏ£ÏÓ˚ ˆ¢Ü˛ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ §¶˛yˆÏö !öÓ˚hsˇÓ˚ fl∫≤¿ ˆòáyÓ˚ Óy§öy– ~!ê˛ ~üö ~ܲ Óy§öy
Îy xyòˆÏï˛ í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õy!Ó˚ܲ §y!•ˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚ ü)° §%Ó˚ˆÏܲ ˛õ!Ó˚fl≥%˛ê˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ï%˛ˆÏ°ˆÏåÈ– Ó˚y•# üy§%ü˛ Ó˚yçy
!°ˆÏáˆÏåÈöñ
ÚÚ !çöˆÏ§ •ü å%Èê˛ àˆÏÎ˚ xÓ‰ ˆÎ˚y çy•yÑ Ü˛ƒyÎ˚ˆÏ§ •ƒyÎ˚ ¢áÈÙȈÎ˚Ù=° ܲƒyÎ˚ˆÏ§ •ƒyÎ˚ñ á%¢Ó% ˆÜ˛
ü•Ü˛ ܲƒyÎ˚ˆÏ§ •ƒyÎ˚ ~ §yÓy ï%˛ ˆï˛y í˛zôyÓ˚ •# ˆ§ =çyÓ˚!ï˛ •ƒyÎ˚ ˛õĈÏÓ˚yÑ û˛yˆÏ° ˆÎ˚y •zö§yöñ
ˆÎ˚y ˆÓ!•§ òyÓ˚ÈÙÈÄÈÙÈ Óyü‰ ˆÎ˚y üܲ# ܲƒyÎ˚ˆÏ§ •ƒyÎ˚ñ ¢#ˆÏ§ ˆÜ˛ üܲyö ܲƒyÎ˚ˆÏ§ •ƒyÎ˚–ÛÛ
ò!«˛î ~!¢Î˚y§Ω)˛ï˛ í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆ˛Ï õyÓ˚y §y!•ˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚ x!ôܲyÇ¢•z ˆ¢Ü˛ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ í˛zͧ §¶˛yˆÏö ˆÜ˛w#û)˛ï˛
•ˆÏΈ˚ åÏ È– xyÓ˚ ~•z !öÓ˚hsˇÓ˚ x!û˛ÎyeyÎ˚ §ÇÎ%_´ •ˆÏΈ˚ åÏ È §yüy!çܲ ÓyhflÓÏ ï˛yñÈ ~üö ~ܲ ÓyhflÓÏ ï˛y
ÎyÓ˚ •yï˛ ˆÌˆÏܲ ˆÜ˛í˛z ˆÓ˚•y•z ˛õyÎ˚!ö– ˆê˛∆ö ê%˛ ˛õy!ܲhflÏyöñ òƒ í˛yܲ≈ í˛y™ƒyÓ˚ñ xyçy!òñ xy•z§
ܲƒy!u˛ üƒyöñ xy ˆÓu˛ •zö òƒ àƒyˆÏç™ñ ê%˛Î˚y§≈ Óö≈ñ !üí˛öy•zê˛ !ã˛°ˆÏí»˛öñ §yö°y•zê˛ xö xy
ˆÓ yˆÏܲö ܲ°yüñ ê%˛Î˚y•z§ ˆí˛í‰˛ñ òƒ ˆÓ˚y˛õ xƒyu˛ xƒyˆÏ¢§ xƒyu˛ ˆ˛õê˛y°§ È ÙÙÙÙÈÈ ≤Ã!û,˛!ï˛ í˛z˛õöƒyˆÏ§
!Ó!û˛ß¨ ò,!‹TˆÏܲyî ˆÌˆÏܲ ˆò¢û˛yˆÏàÓ˚ !Ó£Ïyò í˛z˛õyáƒyö !Óô,ï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– xyÓ˚ ~•z §Ó í˛z˛õöƒyˆÏ§Ó˚
˛õê˛û)˛!ü ò!«˛î ~!¢Î˚y xÌ≈yÍ û˛yÓ˚ï˛#Î˚ í˛z˛õü•yˆÏò¢– ܲy!•!ö xyÓ!ï≈˛ï˛ •Î˚ fl∫yô#ˆÏöy_Ó˚
í˛z˛õü•yˆÏòˆÏ¢– xöfl∫#ܲyÎ≈û˛yˆÏÓ ï˛áö ˆàyê˛y í˛z˛õü•yˆÏò¢ !Ó !ê˛¢ §y¡ÀyçƒÓyˆÏòÓ˚ ¢y§öyô#ö
!åÈ°– ò#â≈ §Ç@ˇÃyˆÏüÓ˚ ˆçˆÏÓ˚ fl∫yô#öï˛y x!ç≈ï˛ •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°– !ܲv ~Ó˚•z §ˆÏD xöyܲy!A«˛ï˛ û˛yˆÏÓ
âˆÏê˛ ÎyÎ˚ ˆò¢û˛yˆÏàÓ˚ üï˛ö ã˛Ó˚ü ò%Éáçöܲ âê˛öy– ~Ó˚ ú˛ˆÏ° !Óû˛_´ ˆòˆÏ¢Ó˚ xÌ≈˜Ïö!ï˛Ü˛
ÓƒÓfliyÓ˚ xyÓ˚Ä xÓö!ï˛ •Î˚; fliyöã%˛ƒï˛ xà!îï˛ üyö%£Ï Ó˚&!ê˛Ó˚&!çÓ˚ §¶˛yˆÏö åÈ!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ !ӈϟªÓ˚
§Ó≈e– í˛z!Õ‘!áï˛ !Ó£ÏÎ˚ !Ó!û˛ß¨ xy!DˆÏÜ xyô%!öܲ í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õy!Ó˚ܲ §y!•ˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚ ü)° í˛z˛õç#Óƒ
•ˆÏÎ˚ í˛zˆëÏ ˛ˆÏåÈ ~ÓÇ ˛õ!Ó˚ˆÓÏ ¢öàï˛ !ӣψÎÏ ˚ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ xˆÏöˆÏܲÓ˚•z üï˛˜Ïmï˛ï˛y ÌyܲˆÏ°Ä xyhsˇçy≈ !ï˛Ü˛˛
§y!•ï˛ƒ ü•ˆÏ° ~•z !ӈϢ£ §y!•ï˛ƒôyÓ˚y ÷ô% çö!≤ÃÎ˚ï˛y xç≈ö ܲˆÏÓ˚!ö È ÙÙÙÙÈ ÎˆÏÌ‹T˛ §‰æüÄ
xyòyÎ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ !öˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– •Î˚ˆÏï˛y í˛yÎ˚y§‰ˆÏ˛õy!Ó˚ܲ §y!•ï˛ƒ ò˛õ≈ˆÏî•z ≤Ã!ï˛!Ó!¡∫ï˛ •ˆÏFåÈ ~ ÈÙÈ ˆòˆÏ¢Ó˚
§Ω˛yÓöyüÎ˚ û˛!ӣσˆÏï˛Ó˚ í˛zIµ° ≤Ã!ï˛FåÈ!Ó– ˆÜ˛ööy !ÓŸªyÎ˚ˆÏöÓ˚ ~•z §üˆÏÎ˚ fliy!öܲ ò¢≈ˆÏöÓ˚
≤Ãy§!Dܲï˛y e´ˆÏü•z •y!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏFåÈ– xyüÓ˚y üyöˆÏï˛ ã˛y•z xyÓ˚ öy ã˛y•zÈ ÈÙÙÙÙÈÈ ~ê˛y•z •ˆÏFåÈ ÓyhflÏÓ–
Ó˚*ì˛¸ ÓyhflÏÓ !

106

@ˇÃsi§e)
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Cohen Robin, Global Diasporas – An introduction. London ˛: UCL
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Rushdie : Shame Picador, Rupa, 1983
S. William cited in Satendra Nandan : ‘Diasporic Consciousness’
Interrogative Post - Colonial : Column Theory, Text and Context, Editor
: Harish Trivedi and Meenakshi Mukherjee; Indian Institute of Advance
Studies 1996.
Stuart Hall, ‘ Cultural Identity and Diaspora in Patric White and Laura
Christmas, eds, colonial discourses and Post - colonial theory : A
Reader, New York : CUP, 1994.
An Area of Darkness, London : Andse Dentesh, 1964.
Amitava Ghosh : The Hungry Tide, Delhi : Ravi Dayal Pub. 2004.
V.S. Naipaul : A House for Mr. Biswas, Penguin, 1969.
Aizaz Ahmad : In Theory : Classes Nations, Litaratures O.U.P. 1992.

Ashcrabt . Bill. And Pal Ahluwalia, Edward Said : The aradox of
dentity Routledge, London and New York, 1999.
10. Suketu Mehta : Maximum City Viking, Penguin, 2004.

11.
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Homi Bhabha : The location of culture, London, 1994.
Rahi Masoom Raza Sheeshe Ke Makan Vale. ed. Kunvar Pal Singh,
Delhi : Vani Pub. 2001.
Bapsi Sidhwa : Ice Candy Man, Sama Publishing, 2005.
Aga Shahid Ali : The country without post office, New Market, 1997.

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!çˆÏàyˆÏ°y
Ü˛ï˛ òÓ˚çyÈÙÈ•z ˆï˛y ˆáy°yÓ˚ ܲÌy !åÈ°
ˆÜ˛yö òÓ˚çy•z á%°ˆÏ°y öy–
Ó,Ìy ~ÈÙÈ òÓ˚çyñ ˆ§ÈÙÈòÓ˚çy
Ó,Ìy ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ òÓ˚çyÎ˚ !á°‰ üyÓ˚y...
!ö!Ó˚!Ó!° §Óy•z ã˛ˆÏ° ˆàˆÏåÈ–
xy!ü Ó˚yhflÏyÎ˚ ~ܲy
àüö Ä àhsˇÓƒ ò%•zÈÙÈ•z x!fliÓ˚–
üyˆÏé˛ üyˆÏé˛ !çˆÏàyˆÏ°y •ˆÏï˛ •zˆÏFåÈ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚
üyˆÏé˛ üyˆÏé˛ û˛y°Óy§ˆÏï˛ •zˆÏFåÈ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ÈÙÙÙÈ
üyˆÏé˛ üyˆÏé˛ û˛y°Óy§ˆÏï˛ •zˆÏFåÈ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ÈÙÙÙÈ
ÎyÓ˚ í˛z˛õˆÏÓ˚ â%!üˆÏÎ˚ xy!åÈ ï˛yˆÏܲĖ
ï˛yÓ˚ÈÙÈ•z Óy ܲ# ˆòy£Ï Ê
ï˛yÓ˚ ˆã˛ï˛öyÓ˚ x¶˛Ü˛yˆÏÓ˚ â%!üˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏåÈ ˆÎ fl∫≤¿#° ˛õ%Ó˚&£Ï
ÎyˆÏܲ ˆ§ ˆòˆÏá!ö ˆÜ˛yö!òö
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ˆ°yˆÏû˛ ܲyï˛Ó˚ öyÓ˚# !ܲ çyˆÏöÈÙÙÙÈ
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ˆ§ ˆï˛y !û˛áy!Ó˚Ó˚ üï˛ñ ˆÜ˛Ó°ÈÙÈ•z §%á á%шÏç üˆÏÓ˚–
ˆòˆÏ•Ó˚ xhsˇÓ˚yˆÏ° ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ !ܲ §%áÈÙÙÙÈ
~û˛yˆÏÓ ˆÓyܲyÓ˚ üï˛ ÓˆÏ§ ÌyˆÏܲ⁄
ˆ§ x˛õÓ˚yô#Ó˚ üï˛ ÈÙÙÙÈ ~ÈÙÈòÓ˚çy ˆÌˆÏܲ ˆ§ÈÙÈòÓ˚çy
ˆÜ˛Ó°ÈÙÈ•z §%á ˆáÑyˆÏçñ
xy!ü ï˛yˆÏܲ â%!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ â%!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ §Ó òÓ˚çy ˆòáy•zÈÙÙÙÈ
ï˛Ó% ñ ˆ§ •ï˛y¢ ÈÙÙÙÈ
xyâyˆÏï˛ xyâyˆÏï˛ !öˆÏçˆÏܲ !öÉfl∫ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆú˛ˆÏ°ñ

107

108

ï,˛Æ öyÈÙÈ •ˆÏ°ÈÙÙÙÈñ xyüyˆÏܲ û%˛° ˆÓyˆÏ鲖
xy!ü ܲ# ܲˆÏÓ˚ çyöˆÏÓyñ ï,˛Æ •ÄÎ˚y ܲyˆÏܲ ӈϰÈÙÙÙÈ
xy!ü ܲ# ï,˛Æ •ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ Ü˛áˆÏöyÊ
ˆÜ˛Ó°•z Üœ˛yhsˇ ˆòˆÏ•Ó˚ ˛õyˆÏ¢ ӈϧ ˆÌˆÏܲ!åÈñ
x◊yÓƒ ò%ɈÏáÓ˚ ܲÌy ÷ˆÏö!åÈñ
ˆÓ˚ˆÏà ˆÌˆÏܲ ˆòˆÏá!åÈ ˆÓòöyÎ˚ ...–
ˆ§ÈÙÈ§Ó öyÓ˚#Ó˚yÄ !öˆÏò≈y£ÏÈÙÙÙÈ

ˆï˛yüyˆÏÜ˛Ä !öÿ˛Î˚•z §%á# ˆòáyˆÏÓÊ
ï%˛!ü §%á# •ÄÈÙÙÙÈ
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚Ä Îyey ˆ•yܲ ÓÜ%˛° é˛Ó˚yˆÏöy ˛õˆÏÌ–
xyüyˆÏܲ xyˆÏÓ˚y ~ܲÓyÓ˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ
ï˛y!ܲˆÏÎ˚ ÌyܲˆÏï˛ òyÄñ
xyˆÏÓ˚y ~ܲê%˛ §üÎ˚ òyÄ ÈÙÙÙÈ ò,¢ƒê˛y !ÓŸªy§ ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ çöƒ–
§ÓÈÙÈ•z !ÓŸªy§ˆÏÎyàƒÊ

xyüyÓ˚ ܲÌy ˆÜ˛í˛z ÷ˆÏö!ö
xy!üÄ ˆï˛y •*òˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ܲÌy Ó°ˆÏï˛ ÓƒyÜ%˛°
ˆÜ˛í˛z ~ï˛ê%˛Ü%˛ §üÎ˚ ˆòÎ˚!ö ÈÙÙÙÈ
§üÎ˚ Ó•üyö öò#Ó˚ üï˛ñ
ˆÜ˛ ܲyÓ˚ ò%Éá ÷öˆÏÓñ fl∫yÌ≈ åÈyí˛¸y –
Óy!§ ú%˛° Ó%ˆÏܲ !öˆÏÎ˚ ~!àˆÏÎ˚ ˆàˆÏåÈ öò# ÈÙÙÙÈ
ˆÎÈÙÈˆÜ˛yö òÓ˚çyÈÙÈ•z á%°ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏï˛y xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ çöƒ
{ŸªˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ˆÎÈÙÈˆÜ˛yö òÓ˚çy•z §üyö
ï˛Ó% ˆÜ˛í˛z ˆÜ˛í˛z xyã˛üܲy•z ˆ•ˆÏÓ˚ ÎyÎ˚
!öˆÏçÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ ÎyÎ˚ ü¢y!Ó˚ !åÈшÏí˛¸
ÎyÓ˚y !öˆÏã˛ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ ÎyÎ˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ !òˆÏܲ ˆÜ˛í˛z
•yï˛ Óyí˛¸yÎ˚ öyñ
§ÓyÓ˚ üï˛ xyç ï%˛!üÄ ã˛ˆÏ° ˆàˆÏ°ÈÙÙÙÈ
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ÎyÄÎ˚yÓ˚ ˛õˆÏÌ !¢í˛z!° é˛Ó˚&ܲ
ây§ú%˛° ú%˛ê%˛Ü˛ ˛õyˆÏÎ˚ ˛õyˆÏÎ˚
ˆï˛yüyˆÏï˛ û˛Ó˚ ܲÓ˚&ܲ §%®Ó˚ ~ܲê˛y ≤Ãçy˛õ!ï˛–
xy!ü xyˆÏÓ˚y ~ܲÓyÓ˚ ï˛y!ܲˆÏÎ˚ ÌyܲˆÏÓyÈÙÙÙÈ üyÛÓ˚ ˆ≤Ã!üˆÏܲÓ˚ !òˆÏܲñ !öÓ˚&˛õyÎ˚
§%á ˆ˛õˆÏ°ñ ï%˛!ü §%á# •ÄÈÙÙÙÈ

109

≤Ãyã˛#ö ˆÜ˛yö !¢“öàÓ˚#Ó˚ üï˛ÈÙÙÙñ Èxy!ü !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ ÎyˆÏÓyÈÙÙÙÈ
xyüyÓ˚ ˆ˛õ¢yÎ˚ñ öÓyàï˛ öyÓ˚#ˆÏÜ˛Ä §Ó á%ˆÏ° á%ˆÏ° ˆòáyˆÏÓyÈÙÙÙÈ
ˆ§ xyüyˆÏܲ í˛zˆÏŒê˛ ÈÙÈ ˛õyˆÏŒê˛ ˆòˆÏáÈÙÙÙÈ
~ܲÓyÓ˚ Ó§yÎ˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ
~ܲÓyÓ˚ òÑyí˛¸ ܲÓ˚yÎ˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ
~ܲÓyÓ˚ ã%˛¡∫ö !òˆÏï˛˛ ӈϰñ ï˛yÓ˚ §ühflÏ ¢Ó˚#ˆÏÓ˚
~ܲÓyÓ˚ ˆÜ˛Ó°•z òÑy!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ ÌyܲˆÏï˛ ÓˆÏ°–
ï˛Ó% Î!ò ˆ§ §%á ˛õyÎ˚Ê
!ÓôùhflÏ ï˛yÓ˚ ¢Ó˚#ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ §yüˆÏö !àˆÏÎ˚ òÑyí˛¸y°yüñ
Ú§%ˆÏáÓ˚ §¶˛yö !ܲå%È ˆ˛õˆÏ°⁄Û
ÈÙÙÙÈï˛yÓ˚ í˛z_Ó˚ ÷ˆÏö xy!ü •ï˛y¢–
Üœ˛yhsˇ ˆòˆÏ•Ó˚ !òˆÏܲ ï˛y!ܲˆÏÎ˚ Ìyܲ°yüÈÙÙÙÈ
~•z ܲ# ˆ§•z ˆò•Ê ˆÎ «˛!îˆÏܲÓ˚ û˛y°Óy§y òy!Ó Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚!åÈ°⁄
ˆòˆÏ• ï˛yÓ˚ !ܲå%È ˆö•z– §Ó Ó˚!ï˛§%á û˛Ó˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ xyˆÏåÈ üˆÏö–
xÌ≈•#ö ˛õ!Ó˚ºüî ˆ¢ˆÏ£Ï Óy!í˛¸ !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚
~ܲê˛y ˆüyüÓy!ï˛ çµy°y•zÈÙÙÙÈ
!ܲå%È ≤ß¿ xÌ≈•#ö ˆçˆÏöÄ
≤Èϟ¿Ó˚ ˆ˛õåȈÏö ≤ß¿ ˆåÈyˆÏê˛
§ˆÏ®ˆÏ• §ˆÏ®ˆÏ• §yÓ˚yÓ˚yï˛ ˆçˆÏà ÌyܲˆÏ°y û˛y°Óy§y–
ˆ• {ŸªÓ˚Ê xyüyˆÏܲ xyüyÓ˚ üï˛ ˆåȈÏí˛¸ òyÄ ÈÙÙÙÈ
xˆÏöܲê˛y û˛Î˚ÇܲÓ˚û˛yˆÏÓ xy!ü !öˆÏçˆÏܲ ö‹T ܲˆÏÓ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚!åÈ
xˆÏöܲê˛y û˛Î˚ÇܲÓ˚û˛yˆÏÓ xy!ü xyüyÓ˚ ≤Ãôyöï˛ü
110

¢e&ˆÏÜ˛Ä «˛üy ܲˆÏÓ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°yü–
!≤ÃÎ˚ !ܲå%È §¡õÜ≈˛ ˆÌˆÏܲ !ö¤%˛ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ üï˛ !öˆÏçˆÏܲ
xy˛õyï˛ï˛ ˆê˛ˆÏö ˆê˛ˆÏö §!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ !ö!FåÈ–
!≤ÃÎ˚ !ܲå%È §¡õˆÏÜ≈˛Ó˚ ö%ö‰ ˆáˆÏÎ˚ ˆòˆÏá!åÈ ÈÙÙÙÈ
ï˛yÓ˚y xyç#Óö !Ó!öüÎ˚ ã˛yÎ˚
xyçܲy° !öüܲ•yÓ˚yˆÏüÓ˚ üï˛ ÈÙÙÙÈ ¢•ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ~ÈÙÈ≤Ãyhsˇ ˆÌˆÏܲ ÄÈÙÈ≤Ãyhsˇ
fl∫≤¿•#ö â%ˆÏÓ˚ ˆÓí˛¸y•z
!öɧD˛õöyÓ˚ ã)˛í˛¸yhsˇ !Ó®%ˆÏï˛ ~ˆÏ§ Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ ~ܲyñ üò•#ö
Ü%˛ˆÏÓ˚ Ü%˛ˆÏÓ˚ áyÄÎ˚y ò%Éá=ˆÏ°yÓ˚ ܲÌy ~áö xyÓ˚ üˆÏö•z ˛õˆÏí˛¸ öy–
§Ó !ܲå%È Ü˛#Ó˚ܲü û˛Î˚ÇܲÓ˚ Ó˚ܲü fl∫yû˛y!Óܲ üˆÏö •ˆÏFåÈÊ
xyçܲy° x¶˛Ü˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ !òˆÏܲ•z ˆÎˆÏï˛ •zˆÏFåÈ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ÈÙÙÙÈ
ò•ˆÏö ò•ˆÏö xyˆÏÓ˚y ˆÓ!¢ ≤Ãçµ!°ï˛ •ˆÏï˛ !ò•z !öˆÏçˆÏܲ
!öç≈ö ܲö‰ˆÏú˛§ Ó˚&ˆÏüÓ˚ §yüˆÏö ÷ô% ÷ô% ˛~ï˛«˛î
òÑy!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ xy!åÈÈÙÙÙÈ
ôü≈Îyçܲ ≤ß¿ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ÎyˆÏFåÈöÈÙÙÙÈ
Úxy˛õ!ö !ܲ ≤Ãû%˛Ó˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ˆÜ˛yö ≤ÃܲyÓ˚ ܲö‰ˆÏú˛§ ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ã˛yö⁄Û
Úxy˛õ!ö !ܲ ≤Ãû%˛ Î#÷Ó˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ˆÜ˛yö ≤ÃܲyÓ˚ ò%Éá ≤Ãܲy¢ ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ã˛yö !ܲÇÓy «˛üy⁄Û
xy!ü ˆÜ˛yö ≤ÃܲyÓ˚ ¢∑ ܲˆÏÓ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚ öy
¢∑Ó˚y x§•yˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ üï˛
ï˛yÓ˚y ˆÓÓ˚ •ˆÏï˛ ã˛yÎ˚ ˆÓòöyÓ˚ ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚ ˆÌˆÏܲñ
xy!ü ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ •zˆÏFåÈ üï˛ ˆÓÓ˚ •ˆÏï˛ !òˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚ öy–
ã˛y•zˆÏ°•z !ܲ ü%á ú%˛ˆÏê˛ §Ó Ó°y ÎyÎ˚Ê
xy!ü ï˛y•z xyÓyˆÏÓ˚y ˆÜ˛yö ¢∑ ܲˆÏÓ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚ öy
Ó˚I%ˆÏï˛ öÎ˚ñ xyçܲy° ¢ˆÏ∑ Óí˛¸ ºü •Î˚ xyüyÓ˚–
xy!ü xyÓ˚ ¢ˆÏ∑ !ÓŸªy§ ܲ!Ó˚ öy–
¢∑ ˆÌˆÏܲ ò)Ó˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ
!öˆÏçÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ öï˛çyö% •ˆÏÎ˚ Ó!§
Ü%˛¢y§ˆÏö Ó!§ öyüyˆÏçÓ˚ û˛!DüyÎ˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ
!öÓ≈yܲ ܲÌyÓ˚y xy§yÈÙÈÎyÄÎ˚y ܲˆÏÓ˚
~ܲ §üÎ˚ ܲÌyÓ˚y ã˛ˆÏ° ÎyÎ˚ xyüyˆÏܲ ˆú˛ˆÏ°
xyüyÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ ÎyÓyÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yö çyÎ˚ày •Î˚ öy
Óy!í˛¸ !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ ÓyÌê˛ˆÏÓÓ˚ ~ܲ ˆÜ˛yˆÏî í˛z°D ӈϧ Ìy!ܲ ...
111

ˆ§•z ܲˆÏÓ ≤ÃyîçÎ˚ ӈϰ!åÈ°ñ ÚxyüyˆÏòÓ˚ ≤ÈÏï˛ƒˆÏܲÓ˚•z ç#ÓˆÏö
~ܲÓyÓ˚ x¶˛Ü˛yˆÏÓ˚ ܲy!ê˛ˆÏÎ˚ xy§y í˛z!ã˛ï˛–Û
xy!ü ˆ§ÈÙÈÓ˚ܲü §y•Ï§ ˆÜ˛yö!òö•z ܲˆÏÓ˚ í˛zë˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚!ö
x¶˛Ü˛yˆÏÓ˚ xyüyÓ˚ Óí˛¸ ˆÓ!¢ û˛Î˚ñ ày =!°ˆÏÎ˚ ĈÏë˛
ï˛yí˛¸yï˛y!í˛¸ Óy!ï˛ çµy°y•z
xyˆÏ°yˆÏܲ !üˆÏ̃ Ó°ˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚ xöà≈°ñ x!Ó◊yü
ˆ§ÈÙÈÓ˚ܲü xyˆÏ°yˆÏï˛•z ≤ÃÌü !üˆÏ̃ Ó°y !¢ˆÏá!åÈ–
!ܲå%È @’y!ö xyˆÏåÈñ ö#Ó˚Óï˛y•z ÎyÓ˚ ≤Ãܲy¢
!ܲå%È Îsfîy xyˆÏåÈñ ~ܲy!ܲˆÏc•z ÎyÓ˚ !Óܲy¢...
ܲö‰ˆÏú˛§ö Ó˚&ˆÏüÓ˚ §yüˆÏö òÑy!í˛¸ˆÏÎ˚ üy ˆÜ˛yö í˛z!_´•z
ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏ°ö öyñ ï˛Ó%ñ
ÜÑ˛y˛õy ˆëÑ˛yˆÏê˛Ó˚ !û˛ï˛Ó˚ !òˆÏÎ˚ ~ܲ!ê˛•z Óyܲƒ ˆÓ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚!åÈ°ÈÙÙÙÈ
Ú≤Ãû%˛ xy!ü !öˆÏò≈y£ÏÊÛ
ï%˛!ü !ܲ §!ï˛ƒ•z §%á# •ˆÏ° ü#ö%!ò
§%á Î!ò §!ï˛ƒ•z ˛õyÄñ ï˛ˆÏÓ §%á# •ÄÈÙÙÙÈ
xyüyÓ˚ çöƒ ˆÜ˛yö ≤ÃܲyÓ˚ üˆÏö ˆÜ˛yö ò%Éá !öÄ öy
xy!ü xyüyÓ˚ ¢)öƒï˛yˆÏܲ üyã˛yÎ˚ ï%˛ˆÏ°
˛õ%Ñ•z àyˆÏåÈÓ˚ üï˛ §%®Ó˚ ~ܲê˛y !Óhfl,Ï!ï˛ !òˆÏï˛ ã˛y•z
ÎyÓ˚ °ï˛yÎ˚ ˛õyï˛yÎ˚ çí˛¸yˆÏöy ÌyܲˆÏÓÈÙÙÙÈ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ •y!§ñ
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ Ó˚!ï˛§%áñ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ xï,˛Æ !ã˛ÍܲyÓ˚ñ
ˆã˛yˆÏáÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yˆÏî ˆ°ˆÏà Ìyܲy ܲyߨyÓ˚ ÷ܲˆÏöy òyà–
ç#ÓöˆÏܲ ÎyÓ˚y xˆÏ•ï%˛Ü˛ ü)°ƒÓyö û˛yˆÏÓÈÙÙÙÈ
xy!ü ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ òˆÏ° ö•z–
öyñ xy!ü ˆÜ˛yö ü,ï%˛ƒÓ˚ ܲÌy û˛yÓ!åÈ öyÈÙÙÙÈ
ÎyÓ˚y ӈϰ ï%˛!ü §ï˛ƒñ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ˆò• §ï˛ƒ öÎ˚ÈÙÙÙÈ
xy!ü ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ òˆÏ°Ä ö•z–
≤ÃyîçÎ˚ ӈϰ!åÈ°ÈÙÙÙÈ !öˆÏçˆÏܲ xhsˇï˛É ~ܲÓyÓ˚ û˛Î˚ÇܲÓ˚
~ܲê˛y ï˛Í˛õÓ˚ï˛yÓ˚ !òˆÏܲ ~!àˆÏÎ˚ !öˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÄÎ˚y í˛z!ã˛ï˛–
öyñ ~ÓyÓ˚Ä xy!ü ˆ§ÈÙÈÓ˚ܲü ˆÜ˛yö !Ó˛õIöܲ !òˆÏܲ
!öˆÏçˆÏܲ !öˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÓyÓ˚ ܲÌy û˛yÓ!åÈ öy–
112

ç#Óö Ä ü,ï%˛ƒÓ˚ üyé˛áyˆÏö ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲÓyÓ˚ !öˆÏçˆÏܲ !öˆÏÎ˚ ˆòˆÏá!åÈ
ç#Óö Ä ü,ï%˛ƒ ò%•zÈÙÈ•z xÌ≈•#ö–
!öüܲ•yÓ˚yˆÏüÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ≤Ãû%˛Ó˚ xyK˛y ˆÎüö xÌ≈•#ö ÈÙÙÙÈ
≤Ãû%˛ Ä !öüܲ•yÓ˚yü ÈÙÙÙÈ ~•z ˆï˛y ˛õ,!ÌÓ#Ó˚ •z!ï˛•y§Ê
Ú~•z ˆò•Û ÈÙÙÙÈ •z!ï˛•yˆÏ§Ó˚•z ˆï˛y ~ܲ !ö¤%˛Ó˚ ˛õyë˛ƒû)˛!ü–
xyüyˆÏܲ ˛õyë˛ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ Ó°%ö ˆï˛y ÈÙÙÙÈ ~•z ç#Óö
˛õ,!ÌÓ#Ó˚ x!hflψÏcÓ˚ çöƒ ܲï˛ê%˛Ü%˛ û˛Î˚ÇܲÓ˚
!ܲÇÓy •ï˛y¢çöܲ⁄
xÌ≈ÈÙÈxöÌ≈ !üˆÏ°!üˆÏ¢ ~ܲyܲyÓ˚
xyçܲy° ï˛y•z ~§Ó !öˆÏÎ˚ á%Ó ~ܲê˛y û˛y!Ó öy
!öüܲ•yÓ˚yˆÏüÓ˚ üï˛ ˆÜ˛Ó°•z xyfl∫yò ܲ!Ó˚ÈÙÙÙÈ
Ó%k˛ˆÏòˆÏÓÓ˚ üˆÏï˛ ÈÙÙÙÈ xy!ü xK˛yö#ñ ˛õ%öç≈ß√ !ö!ÿ˛ï˛–
§öyï˛ö üˆÏï˛ ÈÙÙÙÈ ˛õy˛õ#ñ Ó,Ìy ˆà° xy!¢ °«˛ ˆÎy!ö ˛õ!Ó˚ºüî
ü%§!°ü üˆÏï˛ ÈÙÙÙÈ •yÓ˚yü#ñ ˆòyΈÏáÓ˚ ã˛Ó˚üï˛ü Îye#
xyˆÏÓhflÏy üˆÏï˛ ÈÙÙÙÈxDˆÏåÈò ~áö•z çÓ˚&Ó˚#–
Î#÷ ӈϰö ÈÙÙÙÈ ˆ§ ≤ÃÜ,˛ï˛•z «˛üyÓ˚ x!ôܲyÓ˚#...
xy!ü ã%˛˛õ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ӈϧ Ìy!ܲ
!Óã˛yÓ˚y°ˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏÓˆÏàÓ˚ ܲÌy xÌ≈•#ö–

ï˛yÓ˚ ˆã˛yˆÏá Ó˚y!á!ö ˆã˛yá ÈÙÙÙÈ
ò#â≈ xy°˛õÌ ˛õy!í˛¸ !òˆÏÎ˚ xyç •ë˛yÍ ï˛yÓ˚ ü%ˆÏáyü%!á ÈÙÙÙÈ
ˆ§ ã%˛ˆÏ°yÎ˚ ú%Ñ˛ !ò!FåÈ°
ï˛yÓ˚ ˆã˛yˆÏáÈÙÈü%ˆÏá ˆôÑyÎ˚yÓ˚ ܲy!°
xy!ü ˆüyí˛¸y !öˆÏÎ˚ ã%˛˛õ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ӈϧ ˛õ!í˛¸ ï˛yÓ˚ ˛õy¢y˛õy!¢ÈÙÙÙÈ
üy!ê˛ üyáy ˆí˛ˆÏܲÓ˚ !û˛ï˛ˆÏÓ˚ ~ ˆÎö ã˛y° öÎ˚
xyüyÓ˚•z ˆÓòöyÓ˚ òy˛õyòy!˛õ
¢#ˆÏï˛Ó˚ ˆÓ˚yò ~ˆÏ§ §ˆÏÓ˚ ÎyÎ˚ñ ï˛Ó%
ˆ§ xyÓ˚ xy!ü ӈϧ Ìy!ܲ
ˆ§ =åÈÈyÎ˚ ï˛yÓ˚ °yç%ܲ çyüyÓ˚ ¢Ó˚#Ó˚–
üˆÏö üˆÏö Ó!°ñ ¢Ó˚#Ó˚ öÎ˚ °yÓ!îñ
¢•ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ x¶˛Ü˛yˆÏÓ˚ xˆÏöܲ ¢Ó˚#Ó˚ ˆòˆÏá!åÈ ÈÙÙÙÈ
xy!ü ˆò!áñ
xy=ˆÏöÓ˚ ˆôÑyˆÏÎ˚y xyÓ˚ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ üyáyüy!á
áˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ àˆÏ¶˛ ˆüy ˆüy ܲÓ˚ˆÏåÈ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ¢Ó˚#Ó˚
Î!ò xö%ü!ï˛ òyÄ ÈÙÙÙÈ
ˆï˛yüyˆÏܲ ~ܲÓyÓ˚ xy!°Dö ܲ!Ó˚Ê
xyç xyüyÓ˚ Óy§öyÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yö ˆ¢£Ï ˆö•z
ö#Ó˚Óï˛yÓ˚ ~ï˛ Ü˛yˆÏåÈ ~Ó˚ xyˆÏà xy!§!ö ˆÜ˛yö!òö–

xàï˛ƒy !öç≈öï˛yÓ˚ ≤Ãàyì˛¸ï˛yÓ˚ !òˆÏܲ•z ~!àˆÏÎ˚ Îy•z–
≤ÃyîçÎ˚ ~•züye ˛õyàˆÏ°Ó˚ üï˛ ÓˆÏ° ˆà°ÈÙÙÙÈ Úâ%ˆÏÓ˚
!ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ §ï˛ƒ xyˆÏ§– ï˛yÓ˚y öy !ܲ ≤ÃܲyˆÏ¢Ó˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ x§•yÎ˚ÊÛ
§!ï˛ƒ•z !ܲ ï˛y•zÊ
Ó˚y!e ˆ¢ˆÏ£Ï â%ˆÏüÓ˚ xyˆÏà ÈÙÙÙÈܲœ yhsˇ Óî≈y°#Ó˚ !˛õˆÏë˛ !°á°yü É
Ú!öˆÏçÓ˚•z é˛Ó˚y ˛õyï˛yÓ˚ í˛zÓ≈Ó˚ï˛yÎ˚
ˆÓˆÏí˛¸ í˛zˆÏë˛ˆÏåÈ ~ܲ!ê˛ àyåÈ
xyç ï˛yÓ˚ í˛yˆÏ° ú%˛ˆÏê˛ˆÏåÈ Ó˚ä#ö ú%˛°–Û
ú%˛°ˆÏܲ ˆòáyˆÏFåÈ ˆ≤Ã!üܲyÓ˚ üï˛
xy!ü ˆï˛y ˆ≤Ã!üܲyÓ˚ ˆëÑ˛yˆÏê˛ ˆÜ˛yö!òö ã%˛¡∫ö ܲy!ê˛!öÊ
113

114

Ó ˆç
Ï wÜ%˛üyÓ˚ !§Ç•

!ü°
ܲ!Óï˛yÎ˚ åÈ® ˆÎüö çÓ˚&!Ó˚ñ !ü°Ä ˆï˛ü!ö çÓ˚&!Ó˚ !åȈ°
Ï y ~ܲ§üÎ˚– ï˛ˆÏÓ !üˆÏ°Ó˚ =Ó˚&c xyˆÏàÓ˚
üˆÏï˛y xyÓ˚ ˆö•z– xÓ¢ƒ §Çfl,Òï˛ Ü˛!Óï˛yÎ˚ !öá%ïÑ ˛ åȈ®
Ï Ó˚ ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚ ˛õyÄÎ˚y ÎyÎ˚ñ !ܲv ≤Ãôyö ܲ!Ó˚Îy˚
ˆÜ˛í˛z !ü° !òˆÏÎ˚ ˆ°áyÓ˚ ˆã˛‹Ty ܲˆÏÓö˚ !ö– §Çfl,Òï˛ Ü˛!Óï˛yÎ˚ åÈ®•z ≤Ãôyö– !ü°Û öÎ˚– ÓyÇ°y ܲ!Óï˛yÎ˚
åÈ® ~ÓÇ !ü° ò%ˆêÏ ˛y•z á%Ó =Ó˚&c˛õ)î≈ fliyö x!ôܲyÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ!˚ åÈ°– ï˛ˆÏÓ !üˆÏ°Ó˚ =Ó˚&c !òö !òö ܲˆÏü
ÎyˆÏFåÈ– !üˆÏ°Ó˚ §Ó≈ˆ◊
Ï ¤˛ !öò¢≈ö Ó˚Ó#wöyÌ ~ÓÇ §%ܲ% üyÓ˚ Ó˚yˆÏÎÓ˚ ˚ ܲ!Óï˛yÎ˚– Ó°ˆÏï˛ ˆàˆÏ° Ó˚Ó#wöyÌ•z
!üˆÏ°Ó˚ xyò¢≈ !fliÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚ ˆàˆÏåÈö– ï˛ˆÏÓ ~áöÄ ˆÜ˛í˛z ˆÜ˛í˛z ã˛üÍܲyÓ˚ åÈ®!üˆÏ°Ó˚ ܲ!Óï˛y
!°áˆÏåÈö ˆòáˆÏï˛ ˛õy•z– üˆÏö Ó˚yáˆÏÓö !ü° ÌyܲˆÏ° åÈ® ÌyܲˆÏï˛•z •ˆÏÓ– åÈ® ÌyܲˆÏ° !ü° öyÄ
ÌyܲˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ–˚
!ü° Ó°ˆÏï˛ xyüÓ˚y Ó%!é˛ xhsˇƒ!ü°– xyòƒ ~ÓÇ üôƒ!ü° xyçˆÏܲÓ˚ !òˆÏö ܲ!ÓÓ˚y Óç≈ö ܲÓ˚y•z ˆ◊Î˚
üˆÏö ܲˆÏÓö˚ – ÓyÇ°y ܲ!Óï˛yÎ˚ åÈ® ÌyܲˆÏ°Ä !ü° ÌyˆÏܲ öy ≤ÃyÎ˚¢•z– ï˛ˆÏÓ Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ê˛y xˆÏöˆÏܲÓ˚•z
xyÓåÈy xyÓåÈy çyöy xyˆÏåÈ– á%Ó û˛y° ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆçˆÏö !öˆÏÎ˚ •zˆFÏ åÈ üï˛ ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚ ܲÓ˚&ö xÌÓy Óç≈ö
ܲÓ˚&ö– «˛!ï˛ ˆö•z–
ˆò¢ 2†9†07 §ÇáƒyÎ˚ !Óû˛y§ Ó˚yÎ˚ ˆã˛Ôô%Ó#˚ Ú¢yhsˇ˛õyà° ~ܲyÛ Ü˛!Óï˛y!ê˛ ˆòáy Îyܲ–
~áˆÏöy ˆÜ˛í˛z ≤ß¿ ܲˆÏÓÈ˚ ÙÙÙÈ
çµÓ˚ ˆ§ˆÏÓˆ˚ åÏ È Ü˛ˆÏÓ⁄
§•ƒ ܲˆÏÓy˚ §•ƒ ܲˆÏÓy˚
~ܲê˛y !ܲå%È •ˆÏÓ–
xy!ü ï˛áö xy˛õö üˆÏö
xyöüöy ܲB˛y°
üy!ê˛Ó˚ !öˆÏã˛ •y!˛õ§ ܲ!Ó˚
û˛Î˚ !ܲ ˆÓ˚ñ ã˛[˛y°–
~áyˆÏö 2Î˚ ~ÓÇ 4Ì≈ °y•zˆöÏ !ü° ˆòÎ˚y xyˆÏåÈ– ܲˆÏÓÈÙÈ •ˆÏÓñ ܲB˛y°ÈÙÈã˛[˛y°– xÓ¢ƒ ܲB˛y°
ã˛[˛y° á%Ó û˛y° !ü° öÎ˚–
˛õÎ˚yÓ˚ åȈ®
Ï §yôyÓ˚îï˛ 1ü ~ÓÇ 2Î˚ °y•zˆöÏ !ü° ÌyˆÏܲ–
ü•yû˛yÓ˚ˆïÏ ˛Ó˚ ܲÌy xü,ï˛ §üyö–
ܲy¢#Ó˚yü òy§ ܲˆÏ• ÷ˆÏö ˛õ%îƒÓyö––
~áyˆÏö ≤ÃÌü °y•zˆöÏ Ó˚ §üyö ~ÓÇ !mï˛#Î˚ °y•zˆöÏ Ó˚ ˛õ%îƒÓyö !ü° ˆàˆÏåÈ– §M˛È!Î˚ï˛y á%ˆ°
Ï ˆòáˆÏÓö
115

Ó˚Ó#wöyÌ !üˆÏ° Ü˛ï˛ ˜Ó!ã˛eƒ ~ˆÏöˆÏåÈö–
¢!_´˛õò Ó ·˛ã˛yÓ˚#Ó˚ ~ܲê˛y ܲ!Óï˛y òyÓ˚&î §%®Ó˚ !üˆÏ°Ó˚ ܲyÓ˚&ܲyç xyˆÏåÈ–
÷Ó˚& ܲˆÏÓ!˚ åÈ°yü ܲˆÏÓ
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ˛õÓ˚yû˛ˆÏÓÓ˚
xˆÏöܲ xyˆÏà–
ܲˆÏÓÓ˚ §ˆÏD §ˆÏÓñ û˛ˆÏÓñ •zï˛ƒy!òÓ˚ !ü° ˆòÎ˚y•z ˆï˛y fl∫yû˛y!Óܲñ !ܲv ¢!_´˛õò !ü° !òˆÏΈ˚ åÏ Èö ܲˆÏÓ
ÈÙÈ ˛õÓ˚yû˛ˆÏÓÓ˚ Sû˛ˆÏÓÓ˚V~ܲê˛y x!ï˛!Ó˚_´ÈÙÈÓÈ˚ÙÈ ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ܲ# §%®Ó˚ ˜Ó!ã˛eƒ ~ˆÏöˆÏåÈö !üˆÏ°Ó˚Ê
åȈ®
Ï Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y !ü°Ä ~ܲê˛y ¢!_´ñ ~ܲê˛y «˛üï˛y– ~•z «˛üï˛y •yˆÏï˛ ÌyܲˆÏ° Ü˛ï˛ Ó˚ܲü û˛yˆÏÓ
ˆá°yˆÏöy ÎyÎ˚ ܲ!Óï˛yˆÏܲ– ï˛y•z ~ܲçö ¢!_´üyö ܲ!ÓÓ˚ ˛õˆÏ«˛ åÈ®ÈÙÈ!üˆÏ°Ó˚ ò«˛ï˛y x!ï˛ xyÓ¢ƒÜ˛–
üô%§ò) ö x!üey«˛Ó˚ åȈ®
Ï !ü° Óç≈ö ܲˆÏÓ!˚ åȈ°
Ï ö– ï˛áö xˆÏöˆÏܲÓ˚•z ôyÓ˚îy •ˆÏÎ!˚ åȈ°
Ï y ÈÙÙÙÈ!ü°
Óç≈öê˛y•z ˆÓyô •Î˚ ~•z åȈ®
Ï Ó˚ xy§° ܲÌy– çàm¶%˛ û˛o ˆüâöyò ÓˆÏôÓ˚ ˛õƒyˆÏÓy˚ !í˛ ÈÙÈ å%ÈFå%È®Ó˚# Óô
ܲyˆÏÓƒ á%Ó §%®Ó˚û˛yˆÏÓ ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓˆ˚ åÏ Èö x!üey«˛Ó˚ åÈ®–
Ó˚Ó#wöyÌ ~ܲ•z åȈ®
Ï !ü° ÓƒÓ•yÓ˚ ܲÓ˚ˆ°
Ï ö– ˆÎüö !ÓòyÎ˚ x!û˛¢y˛õñ ܲî≈ܲ% hsˇ# §ÇÓyòó öüflÒyÓ˚–
Îy•z ˆ•yܲñ ~áö x!ï˛ §ÇˆÏ«˛ˆÏ˛õ !ü° Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ê˛y xyˆÏ°yã˛öy ܲÓ˚y Îyܲ–
ˆ¢ˆÏ£ÓÏ ˚ ¢∑!ê˛ Î!ò ~ܲ !§ˆÏ°!Óܲ ~ÓÇ ü%_´fl∫Ó˚ Sfl∫Óy˚ hsˇV •Î˚ SåȈ®
Ï Ó˚ xyˆÏ°yã˛öy ˛o‹TÓƒV ï˛ˆÏÓ
÷ô% fl∫ÓÓ˚ ˆÏîÓ≈ ˚ !ü° !òˆÏ°•z ã˛°ˆÏÓ–
ô)°yÓ˚ üyˆÏé˛ Î!ò öy ˆòö ˛õy
ï˛y•ˆÏ° ˛õyˆÏÎ˚ ô)°yˆÏï˛y °yˆÏà öy–
≤ÃÌü °y•zˆöÏ ˆ¢£Ï ¢∑ ˛õy ÈÙÙÙÈ ~ܲ !§ˆÏ°!Óܲ ~ÓÇ ü%_´fl∫Ó˚ Sfl∫Óy˚ hsˇV •Î˚ xÌ≈yÍ •§hsˇ Î!ò öy •Î˚ñ
ï˛ˆÏÓ ÷ô% fl∫ÓÓ˚ ˆÏîÓ≈ ˚ !ü° •ˆÏ°•z ã˛°ˆÏÓ– ˛õyÈÙÙÙÈ ¢ˆÏ∑Ó˚ ˆ¢ˆÏ£Ï fl∫ÓÓ˚ î≈ xyˆÏåÈ ÈÙÙÙÈ xy– ˛õˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚ °y•zˆöÏ
ÚöyÛÈÙÙÙÈ ¢ˆÏ∑Ó˚ xyÈÙÈ~Ó˚ §ˆÏD !üˆÏ°ˆÏåÈ xï˛~Ó ~ê˛y ÷k˛ !ü°–
~áyˆÏö xyˆÏÓÜ˚ ˛ Ó˚ܲü !ü° ˆòÎ˚y ˆÎˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ÈÙÙÙÙÈ
~£xyüyÓ˚ !åȈ°
Ï y ò)ˆÓÏ ˚ ÎyÓyÓ˚ ˛õyñ
Î!òÄ âyˆÏê˛ !åȈ°
Ï y ˆÎ ˆöÔܲy–
˛≤ÃÌü °y•zˆöÏ ~ܲ !§ˆÏ°ÓˆÏ°Ó˚ ˛õy ¢∑!ê˛ xyˆÏåÈ– !mï˛#Î˚ °y•zˆöÏ Ó˚ ˆ¢£Ï ¢ˆÏ∑Ó˚ ˆ¢£Ï x«˛ˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚
fl∫ÓÓ˚ ˆÏîÓ≈ ˚ !ü° ˆòÎ˚y •ˆÏΈ˚ åÏ È– ˛õyÈÙÈ~Ó˚ xyÈÙÈ~Ó˚ §ˆÏD !mï˛#Î˚ °y•zˆöÏ Ó˚ ܲyÈÙÈ~Ó˚ xy– ÚÚ~Ä •Î˚–ÛÛ
Î!ò ˆ¢ˆÏ£ÓÏ ˚ ¢∑!ê˛ ~ܲ !§ˆÏ°!Óܲ •Î˚ ~ÓÇ •§hsˇ •Î˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ ˆÎüö
§yÓ˚y ç#Óö á%!Ñ ç ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ï˛°‰
ˆÜ˛yÌyÄ ˆö•zñ˛õy•z!ö ~ܲ ˛õ°‰
ÓƒOöyhsˇ !§ˆÏ°Ó° •ˆÏ° ˆ¢£Ï fl∫ÓÓ˚ î≈ x ~ÓÇ ˆ¢£Ï ÓƒOö !ü°ˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ– x°‰ Sï˛°V x°‰ S˛õ°V–
xyˆÏÓÜ˚ ˛ Ó˚ܲü û˛yˆÏÓÄ !ü° ˆòÎ˚y ˆÎˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ–˚
§yÓ˚y ç#Óö á%!Ñ ç ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ï˛°‰
116

ï˛Ó% ˆï˛yüyÎ˚ Ó%!é˛!ö ã˛M˛È°–‰
~áyˆÏö ≤ÃÌü °y•zˆöÏ x°‰ Sï˛°V ~Ó˚ §ˆÏD !mï˛#Î˚ °y•zˆöÏ Ó˚ ˆ¢£Ï !§ˆÏ°ÓˆÏ°Ó˚ fl∫Ó˚ Ä ÓƒOˆÏöÓ˚
ã˛M˛È° ¢ˆÏ∑Ó˚ ˆ¢£Ï !§ˆÏ°ÓˆÏ°Ó˚ fl∫ÓÄ
˚ ÓƒOö x° Sã˛M˛È°V !ü° ˆòÎ˚y •ˆÏΈ˚ åÏ È–
~ÓyˆÏÓ˚ ò%•z !§ˆÏ°ÓˆÏ°Ó˚ ˛§ˆÏD ÌyܲˆÏ° ܲ#û˛yˆÏÓ !ü°ˆÏÓ ˆòáy Îyܲ–
ã˛ï%˛!ò≈ˆÜÏ ˛ åÈ!í˛¸ˆÎÏ ˚ xyˆÏåÈ ˆû˛ˆÏä ÎyÄÎ˚y ˆü°yñ
ï˛yÓ˚•z üˆÏôƒ ï%˛!ü xyüyÓ˚ ܲÓ˚&î !ÓˆÏܲ° ˆÓ°y––
~áyˆÏö ˆ¢£Ï ¢∑ ˆá°y ÈÙÙÙÈ ò%•z !§ˆÏ°ÓˆÏ°Ó˚ ˆüÙÈ°y– ~áö ˆü°yÓ˚ ≤ÃÌü x«˛ˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚ fl∫ÓÓ˚ î≈ ~ ~ÓÇ
!mï˛#Î˚ x«˛ˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚ fl∫Ó˚ ÓƒOö °yÈÙÈ ~Ó˚ §ˆÏD !mï˛#Î˚ °y•zˆöÏ Ó˚ ˆ¢£Ï ¢∑ ˆÓ°yÓ˚ ≤ÃÌü x«˛ˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚
fl∫ÓÓ˚ î≈ ÈÙÈ ~ ~ÓÇ !mï˛#Î˚ !§ˆÏ°ÓˆÏ°Ó˚ fl∫Ó˚ ÓƒOö °yÈÙÙÙÈ xÌ≈yÍ ~°y ÈÙÈ ~°y !üˆÏ°ˆÏåÈ–
ã˛ï%!ò≈ˆÜÏ ˛ åÈ!í˛¸ˆÎÏ ˚ xyˆÏåÈ ˆû˛ˆÏä ÎyÄÎ˚y ˆü°y
åÈ!í˛¸ˆÎÏ ˚ xyˆÏåÈ xyüyÓ˚ Îï˛ Ó°yÄ öy Ó°y–
~áyˆÏö ˆü°yÓ˚ §ˆÏD Ó°yÓ˚ !ü° û%˛° !ü°– ˆü°yÓ˚ §ˆÏD ܲ# ܲ# !ü°ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ ˆòáy ÎyܲÈÙÙÙÈ
ˆá°yñ ˆã˛°yñ ˆç°yñ ˆë˛°yñ ˆì˛°yñ ˆÓ°y •zï˛ƒy!ò– ܲ°yñ !ܲ°y ˛≤Ãû˛, !ï˛ û%˛° !ü°–
ܲyˆÏ°yÈÙÈÓ˚ §ˆÏD ܲ# ܲ# !ü° ˆòÎ˚y ˆÎˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓÈ˚ ÙÙÙÈ xyˆÏ°yñ ÎyÈÙÈ ˆ°yñ û˛yˆÏ°yñ üyˆÏ°yñ ì˛yˆÏ°yñ
çüܲyˆÏ°y •zï˛ƒy!ò– Î!ò ˆ¢£Ï ¢∑!ê˛ ò%•z !§ˆÏ°ÓˆÏ°Ó˚ •Î˚ ~ÓÇ ≤ÃÌü !§ˆÏ°Ó° fl∫Óy˚ hsˇ ~ÓÇ ˆ¢£Ï
!§ˆÏ°Ó° ÓƒOöyhsˇ ÈÙÙÙÈ ÎÌy ã˛Ó˚î– ã˛ÈÙÈflÓ∫ y˚ hsˇ Ó˚î ÓƒOöyhsˇ ï˛y•ˆÏ° ≤ÃÌü !§ˆÏ°ÓˆÏ°Ó˚ fl∫ÓÓ˚ î≈ÈÙÈxÈ
~ÓÇ !mï˛#Î˚ !§ˆÏ°ÓˆÏ°Ó˚ ÓƒOö fl∫Ó˚ ÓƒOöÈÙÈÓö˚ !ü°ˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ– ˆÎüö ã˛Ó˚îÈÙÈ üÓ˚îñ ÓÓ˚îñ fløÓ˚îñ
ܲÓ˚îñ ÓƒyܲÓ˚îñ «˛Ó˚îñ ã˛Ó˚îñ ôÓ˚îñ xyÓÓ˚îñ xyû˛Ó˚î •zï˛ƒy!ò–
xyˆÏ§ =!ê˛ =!ê˛ ˜ÓÎ˚yܲÓ˚î
ô)!° û˛Ó˚y ò%!ê˛ °•zÎy˚ ã˛Ó˚î
!ã˛!•´ï˛ ܲ!Ó˚ Ó˚yçyhflÓÏ î˚ ...
xÌÓy ÈÙÙÙÙÈ
~ˆÏö!åÈ ˛õyí˛¸yÓ˚ ܲ!Ó˚ í˛z˛õy§öy
§yç ܲˆÏÓ˚ °Ä ˛õ%Óy˚ ˆÏÎ˚ Óy§öy...
xÌÓy ÈÙÙÙÙÈ
˛õyܲ ≤Ãîy°#Ó˚ üˆÏï˛ ˆÜ˛yˆÏÓy˚ ï%˛!ü Ó˚¶˛öñ
ˆçˆÏöy •z•y ≤ÃîˆÏÎÓ˚ ˚ §Ó ˆ§Ó˚y Ó¶˛ö–
ã˛yüí˛¸yÓ˚ üï˛ ˆÎö öy ˆòáyÎ˚ °%!ã˛ê˛y
fl∫Ó!˚ ã˛ï˛ ӈϰ òy!Ó öy!• ܲˆÏÓ˚ ü%!ã˛ê˛yñ
˛õyˆÏï˛ ÓˆÏ§ ˛õ!ï˛ ˆÎö öy!• ܲˆÏÓ˚ e´®ö–
~áyˆÏö ï,˛ï˛#Î˚ °y•zˆöÏ °%!ã˛ê˛y ÈÙÈü!% ã˛ê˛y xÌ≈yÍ í˛z!ã˛ê˛y ÈÙÈí˛z!ã˛ê˛y !ü° ˆòÎ˚y •ˆÏΈ˚ åÏ È– ÷k˛ !ü° ~û˛yˆÏÓ•z
•ˆÏÓ–

!û˛«˛y ÈÙÈxˆÏߨ ÓÑyã˛yÓ Ó§%ôy
~•z ÓyÓ˚ •ˆÏΈ˚ åÏ È §%!Óôy–
~áyˆÏö Ó§%ôyÓ˚ §ˆÏD §%!ÓôyÓ˚ !ü° x!ï˛ ò%Ó°
≈ ~ÓÇ û%˛°– Ó˚Ó#wöyÌ ~û˛yˆÏÓ !ü° !òˆÏΈ˚ åÏ Èö ÈÙÙÙÈ
!û˛«˛yÈÙÈxˆÏߨ ÓÑyã˛yÓ Ó§%ôyÈÙÙÙÈ
!üê˛y•zÓ ò%!û≈˛ˆÏ«˛Ó˚ «%˛ôy–
xÌ≈yÍ Ó§%ôy !ï˛ö !§ˆÏ°ÓˆÏ°Ó˚ ¢∑– ï˛yÓ˚ §ˆÏD ò%•z !§ˆÏ°ÓˆÏ°Ó˚ «%˛ôy ¢ˆÏ∑Ó˚ !ü° !òˆÏΈ˚ åÏ Èö–
ï˛y•z ˆï˛yüyˆÏòÓ˚ ˛õyˆÏÓy òÎ˚yÈÙÙÙÈ
≤Ãû˛% ÈÙÙÙÈ xyK˛y ••zˆÓÏ !ÓçÎ˚y–
ò%•z !§ˆÏ°ÓˆÏ°Ó˚ òÎ˚y ¢ˆÏ∑Ó˚ §ˆÏD !ï˛ö !§ˆÏ°ÓˆÏ° !ÓçÎ˚y xÌ≈yÍ xÎ˚yÈÙÈxÎ˚y !ü° !òˆÏΈ˚ åÏ Èö–
ˆë˛Ü˛° ܲáö ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ÜÑ˛yܲö !ܲÇ!ܲö#ˆÏï˛
ܲ“öy!ê˛ ˆà° ܲy!ê˛ •yçyÓ˚ à#ˆÏï˛–
ã˛yÓ˚ !§ˆÏ°ÓˆÏ°Ó˚ !ܲÇ!ܲö#ˆÏï˛Ó˚ §ˆÏD ÈÙÙÙÈ ò%•z !§ˆÏ°ÓˆÏ°Ó˚ à#ˆÏï˛Ó˚ !ü° !òˆÏΈ˚ åÏ Èö– xÌ≈yÍ ≤ÃÌü
°y•zˆöÏ Ó˚ ã˛yÓ˚ !§ˆÏ°ÓˆÏ°Ó˚ ¢∑ !ܲÇ!ܲö#ˆÏï˛ ÈÙÈÓ˚ ˆ¢£Ï ò%•z !§ˆÏ°Ó°ÈÙÈö#ˆÏï˛ ~ÓÇ !mï˛#Î˚ °y•zˆöÏ Ó˚ ò%•z
!§ˆÏ°ÓˆÏ°Ó˚ ¢∑ Úà#ˆÏï˛Ó˚Û !ü° !òˆÏΈ˚ åÏ Èö–
~ܲê˛y ܲÌy üˆÏö Ó˚yáy òÓ˚ܲyÓ˚ !e´Î˚y˛õˆÏòÓ˚ !ü° ÈÙÙÙÙÈ ÎÌyñ û˛!Ó˚Îy˚ ô!Ó˚Îy˚ ܲ!Ó˚Îy˚ §!Ó˚Îy˚ ˛õ!í˛¸Îy˚ ÈÙÙÙÈ
~=ˆÏ°y ò%Ó°
≈ !ü°– ï˛ˆÏÓ xˆÏöܲ §üÎ˚ §yôyÓ˚î ¢ˆÏ∑Ó˚ §ˆÏD !e´Î˚y˛õˆÏòÓ˚ !ü° ~ܲÈÙÈxyôê˛y
ÌyܲˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ–˚
xyÓyÓ˚ ÈÙÙÙÙÈ
ˆày˛õ°yê˛y !ܲ !•Ç§%ˆêÏ ˛ üy áyÓyÓ˚ !ò°yü û˛yà ܲˆÏÓñ˚
ÓˆÏÕ‘ öyˆÏܲ ü%ˆáÏ Ä !ܲå%Èñ ˆú˛ˆÏÕ‘ å%ÈˆÑ íÏ ˛¸ Ó˚yà ܲˆÏÓ–˚
~áyˆÏö ˆ¢ˆÏ£ÓÏ ˚ ¢∑ ܲˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚ §ˆÏD ܲˆÏÓ˚ !ü° öÎ˚ñ û˛yàÈÙÈ~Ó˚ §ˆÏD Ó˚yàÈÙÈ~Ó˚ !ü°–
!üˆÏ°Ó˚ ≤ÃyÌ!üܲ ܲÌy=ˆÏ°y Ó°y •ˆÏ°y– !ü° !ç!ö§ê˛y åȈ®
Ï Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y– ï˛ˆÏï˛y ≤ÈÎÏ y˚ çö#Î˚ öÎ˚–
ï˛ˆÏÓ çyöy ÌyܲˆÏ° ü® !ܲ– üyˆÏé˛ üyˆÏé˛ åÈ®!üˆÏ°Ó˚ ܲ!Óï˛yÄ ˆï˛y !°áˆÏï˛ •zˆFÏ åÈ Ü˛ˆÏÓ–˚
!ü° öyöyÓ˚ܲüû˛yˆÏÓ !òˆÏÎ˚ ÌyˆÏܲö ܲ!ÓÓ˚y– çyöˆÏï˛ •ˆÏ° ˆã˛yáܲyö ˆáy°y ˆÓ˚ˆáÏ §M˛È !Î˚ï˛y ˛õí˛Yö–
xˆÏöܲ ܲ!Ó•z üyˆÏé˛ üyˆÏé˛ åÈí˛¸y !°ˆÏá ÌyˆÏܲö– üˆÏö Ó˚yáˆÏÓö åÈí˛¸yÎ˚ !Ó£ÏÎÓ˚ › öÎ˚ åÈ®!ü°•z
≤Ãôyö !ÓˆÏÓã˛ƒ– åÈ® ÷k˛ •ˆÏÓ ~ÓÇ !ü° •ˆÏÓ x!ã˛!hsˇï˛ƒ ˛õ)Ó–≈ ˆÎ Îï˛ x!û˛öÓ !ü° ˆòˆÏÓö ï˛yÓ˚
åÈí˛¸y ï˛ï˛•z í˛z͈ÏÓy˚ ˆÏÓy– ÎyÓ˚y åÈí˛¸y !°áˆÏï˛ ã˛yö ï˛yÓ˚y §%ܲ% üyÓ˚ Ó˚yˆÏÎÓ˚ ˚ åÈí˛¸y=ˆÏ°y û˛yˆÏ°y ܲˆÏÓ˚
ˆòá%ö– åÈ® Ä !üˆÏ°Ó˚ ܲï˛Ó˚ܲü ܲyÓ˚&ܲyç–
xy!ü åÈ® üy!ö öyñ !ü° Óç≈ö ܲˆÏÓ!˚ åÈ– ˆÓ¢ ܲÌy– ï˛ˆÏÓ ˆçˆÏö Ó˚yáˆÏï˛ ˆòy£Ï !ܲ– xyÓ˚ öy çyöyÓ˚
öyü ܲ!Óc öÎ˚– ˆçˆÏö ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚ Óç≈ö ܲÓ˚&ö–

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eyK †cU wc‡Vi LuvPv †ewi‡q cov gyKz‡ji MvfxwU wSgvq, †_uZjv‡bv `yB †Vuv‡Ui wfZi
†_‡K wR‡ei A‡bKUv Ask Sz‡j Av‡Q| †mB wRe †PvL Kv‡bi Ici gvwQ em‡jI
bÕ‡o ev †jR Nywi‡q Zvovevi kw³ ev †eva Avi Aewkó †bB| †PvL Zz‡j ZvKv‡bv `vq,
†iv‡` Sj‡m hvq, Uvbv 110 wWwMÖi Ic‡i ZvcgvÎv A‡bK w`b †_‡K Pj‡Q, e"wói
†Kv‡bv bvgMÜ †bB, †gNI †Kv_vI R‡g bv| Ggb ZvZv‡bv Livq Zvwoi ¯^v` bvwK
fv‡jv nq| ¯‹z‡ji ZvjMv‡Qi Zvwoi A‡bK wWg¨vÊ, GB Livq †nu‡U †h‡q bv †c‡j
†Kgb n‡e ! †Kv‡bv SzuwK bv wb‡q mvC`‡K m‡½ K‡i iIbv nB Avgv‡`i eo‡Pbv nvjU
w`‡q Kvw›`MÖv‡gi `w‡Y Mv †Nu‡l Kzgvi b‡`i cv‡o A‡bK ZvjMvQ| nvi"Y wkK`vi
Avgv‡`i †c‡j Avb‡›`B Zvwo cvb Kiv‡e, wb‡RI Zvwo‡mev †_‡K ewÂZ n‡b bv,
Dcwi jvf n‡jv †Kv‡bv cqmvI jvM‡e bv| ZeyI g‡b fq, Ggb Uvbv Livq gvwUi
Zjvi cvwb ïwK‡q wUDeI‡q‡ji cvwbI ïwK‡q †M‡j ZvjMv‡Q wK i‡mi †RvMvb _vK‡e
? mvC` wbwðZ ZvjMv‡Qi AwZ k³ Auvk RgvU †jvnvi Mo‡bi wfZi †_‡K im ïKv‡e
bv| Avwg ewj gvwUi nuvwo †_‡KI ïwK‡q †h‡Z cv‡i| mvC` Zey w`we¨ wbwðZ b`xi
cvwb ïKv‡jI Zvwo ïKvq bv| †Kb ? †Kb Avevi wK ! AbvPvi `yivPv‡ii mgq gvbyl
Mvb KweZv bvUK mymg‡qi †P‡q †ewk K‡i, wKQy wKQy im Av‡Q KL‡bv Zv ïKvq bv,
nq‡Zv Gi bvg Rxebim, ZvjMv‡Qi †hgb Zvwo im ! kxZKv‡j †LRy‡ii im †ewk
n‡jI ˆP‡Î Zvwo R‡g †ewk| †cŠ‡li †fv‡i †LRy‡ii wgwó im, ˆP‡Îi `vn‡Z Zvwo nq
SuvSv‡jv, Rxebim KL‡bv ïKvq bv| GB im-Zvwoi Uv‡b Kvw›` hvIqvi c‡_ AvgivI
G‡m eUMv‡Qi bx‡P `uvovB wRwo‡q †bqvi Rb¨|

Kv‡jv ZvMv m~Zvi m‡½ mv`v GKUv Kwo euvav e‡jB nq‡Zv gyKzj‡K †Pv‡L c‡o, †Pbv
hvq| †PvL wPeyK M‡Z© e‡m Zvgv‡U Pvgovi Avov‡j nvwÇi †d"g e‡ov gywL‡q DV‡jI
gyKz‡ji †Pv‡Li Mfxi Lv` †_‡K mv`v AskUzKz †Pv‡L c‡oB| gMR ¸wj‡q hvIqv
†iv‡` Lvj-wej-cyKzi-b`x-bvjvi cvwb ïwK‡q †M‡j kix‡ii ev wkiv-Dcwkivi cvwbI
ïwK‡q hvq| L‡qwi a~mi nvdc¨vÈ †Kvg‡i †KvbiKg AvU‡K _vK‡jI gyKz‡ji LwoIVv Kv‡jv ïKbv Pvgov †f` K‡i ey‡Ki Mjvi me nvo‡Mvo Ggb K‡i †R‡M DV‡j
gvwU‡cvov Rwgi g‡Zv kZ kZ dvUj ev MZ© m"wó nq ; ZLb GB Livq b`x-bvjv Lvjwej cyKzi Rwg, gyKzj ev gyKzjMs Avi Zv‡`i Mvfx ev ej‡`i kixi Ry‡o A‡kl M‡Z©
M‡Z© gvbyl Rv‡bvqvi mn me GK I GKvKvi n‡q I‡V | GKUzLvwb Qvqvi Avkvq gyKzj
nvj‡Ui gvSLv‡b eUMv‡Qi bx‡P `uvovq, cv‡kB †cvov †cvov ZvZv‡bv gvwU‡Z wPgmv‡bv

Avgiv wgqvevwoi †Q‡j, av‡bi †Mvjvq GLbI wKQy avb Av‡Q, Avgb dmj AwZ eb¨vq
bó n‡jv, cvwb e"wói Afv‡e Avi Livq cy‡o †MvUv †ev‡iv †gŠmyg gvi †L‡jv ZeyI
wgqvevwo AviI wKQyw`b †L‡Z cv‡e| Pov `v‡g evRvi †_‡K †KbvI Am¤¢e n‡e bv|
†Zv Avgv‡`i `yÕR‡bi kix‡i Nvg nIqvi g‡Zv h‡_ó cvwbi †RvMvb GL‡bv Av‡Q|
kvU© dZzqv c¨vÈ Nv‡g Pc&P‡c| Zvwo I cvwbi †Zóv cÖej n‡q I‡V| Kuv‡ai e¨vM
†_‡K N‡i wm× Kiv cvwb fiv †evZj †ei K‡i gy‡L Xvwj ! mvC`‡K w`B| Avi ZLb
Mfxi Lv` †_‡K gyKz‡ji †Pv‡Li mv`v, Ii njy` `uv‡Zi mvwi, ïKbv dvUv †VuvU †Pv‡L
c‡o| nv‡Zi Dëv wc‡V †VuvU gyQ‡Z gyQ‡Z Ii Mi"UvI †`wL| mvC‡`i nvZ †_‡K
†evZj wb‡q gyKzj‡K WvwK, Avq, cvwb †b| gyKzj ax‡i G‡Mvq| Ii nuv-Kiv gy‡L cvwb
Xvwj| I cÖ_‡g wMj‡Z cv‡i bv, Mjvq AvU‡K Av‡m| MjvLuvKvwi w`‡q Avevi †bq|
Zvici `yB nv‡Zi Zvjy †Rvov jvwM‡q †g‡j a‡i| †mB Zvjyi †N‡i mvgvb¨B cvwb
R‡g| IB cvwbUzKz wb‡q I Mi"i gy‡Li Kv‡Q †bq| Mi"i †ei nIqv wR‡e cvwbi ¯úk©
jvM‡jI †Zgb mvov †`q bv| gyKzj ZLb Ii `yB Zvjyi cvwbUzKz mn Mi"wUi `yB
†Vuv‡Ui Ici †P‡c a‡i| Avwg GwM‡q Avi GKUz cvwb †X‡j w`B| Mi"Uv Gevi GKUz
b‡o| †evZ‡ji me cvwb †kl K‡i w`‡Z cvwi bv| Avgv‡`i jvM‡e| mvC` ZLb e‡j,

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mv` Kvgvjx
†`‡ek iv‡qi Liv `v½vi cÖ w Z‡e`b wb‡q GKwU MícÖ w Z‡e`b

KvVMovq ivóª

e¨vcKnv‡i Bwi Pv‡li ci Avg‡bi djb Ggwb K‡g †M‡Q, Bwii Av‡M Av‡M †ev‡iv
avb D‡V †M‡j av‡bi I Kv‡Ri †RvMvb mn‡R bv n‡jI †g‡j| ZeyI GB mgqUvq
dvêyb ˆP‡Î MÖvgv‡j Lv‡`¨i GKUv m¼U wbqwgZB ˆZwi nq| Avi GeQi wQj AviI
wbwðZ, AvenvIqvwe`MY Av‡M †_‡KB cÖPÊ Liv I e"wócvZnxbZvi K_v eû Av‡M
†_‡KB Rvwb‡q AvmwQj| ïay †Zv †`‡ki AvenvIqvwe`‡`i Abygv‡bi Dci wbf©iZv
bq, BÈv‡i‡bU hy‡M cwðgv AbygvbI mnRjf¨| meiKg Abygv‡bB †`Lv †M‡Q j¤^v-

mgq e"wónxbZvq cvwbi Kó n‡e, `ytmn Liv NU‡eB| Zvi Av‡M Av‡M eb¨vq Avgb
dmj bóB ïay nqwb, †`‡ki Ab¨Î †`wi‡Z cvwb ïKvevi Rb¨ iwekm¨I wZMÖ¯-I
n‡q‡Q| d‡j G-A‡j Lv`¨ I cvwb NvUwZ wbwðZ cwiw¯'wZ Av‡M †_‡K †R‡bI
†Kv‡bvB e¨e¯'v †bqv hvqwb, we‡kl K‡i `wY I DËi e‡½i wZMÖ¯- GjvKvi Rb¨|
miKvi evowZ Lv`¨ Avg`vwbi e`‡j e¨¯- wQj eo kni¸‡jvi iv¯-vi gvSLv‡b †ivWwWfvBWvi †f‡O Avevi bZzb K‡i emv‡bv, kn‡ii wfZ‡i cªPzi IfviweªR I dvBIfvi
wbg©vY, †hLv‡b †mLv‡b wfwËcÖ¯-i ¯'vcbvq| ivR¯^ Avi we‡`wk mvnv‡h¨i GB nq‡Zv
DwPr e¨envi A_ev kZ©-Abyhvqx e¨envi| Ab¨w`‡K wbR `‡ji †bZv-Kg©x‡`i KȪ¨v±
cvIqv‡bv, Kwgkb jvf G‡ZB myweav| G GjvKvi †fvUvi‡`i cQ›` HwZn¨MZfv‡e
wbw`©ó| AwaKvsk wbw`©ó GKwU `j‡KB AvRb¥ †fvU w`‡q Avm‡Q| d‡j eZ©gvb hviv
iv‡óªi gZv †fvM Ki‡Q Zv‡`i †Kv‡bv MiR †`Lv hvq bv Acic‡i †fvUvi‡`i Lv`¨
cvwb wb‡q fvebvi| gRvi K_v n‡jv, GB GjvKvi †fvUvi‡`i cQ‡›`i `jI GKBiKg
D‡cv I D`vmxbZvq Gwo‡q hvq| KviY G‡`i wb‡q bv fve‡jI w iRvf© †fvUe¨v‡¼i
†ni‡di n‡e bv, †fvU G‡`i w`‡ZB n‡e| D‡cwZ I my‡hvMmyweav †_‡K ewÂZ _vKvB
GB GjvKvi wbqwZ| †`‡Lv mvC`, ÔLivi cÖwZ‡e`bÕ ( 1993) †`‡ek ivq †j‡Lb
1992 mv‡ji MÖx‡®§i ïi"‡Z Abve"wó Liv I Lv‡`¨i Afv‡ei m~Pbv †_‡K g~j Livq
†cuŠQ‡Z †cuŠQ‡Z we¯-xY© AÂj Ry‡o †h fqven g"Zz¨ I AgvbweK Ae¯'vi m"wó nq,
KvM‡R KvM‡R Lei Qovq Zvi wfwˇZ| Ges GB cÖwZ‡e`‡b †`‡ek ivq †e‡Q †bb
†mB cÖvwš-KRb‡`i hviv †kl ch©š- Nvm †L‡q Pzbv cv_i †L‡q gvwU †L‡q cÖv‡Y
euvPevi †Póv K‡iI euvP‡Z cv‡iwb| KvM‡R g"Zz¨i Lei †ei nq, cv_i gvwU LvIqvi
Lei †ei nq, g"Zz¨i Lei Av‡m, miKvi Ges miKv‡ii mswk-ó Avgjv ev wbe©vwPZ
cÖwZwbwaMY GBme Lei wVKB †`‡L ; †`‡L, Zv‡`i myweavg‡Zv e¨vL¨v †`q| GK
cwiev‡ii wZbPviRb g‡i †Mj, givi Lei djvI K‡i Qvcv n‡j †fv‡U-wbe©vwPZ
miKvi ZLb †m-me GjvKvq wcPXvjv iv¯-v evwb‡q †LuvR wb‡Z Av‡m| G‡m Zviv ZLb
RvwZ‡K wgwWqv‡K ÔcÖK…Z mZ¨Õ Lei †`q givi KviY Liv bq, †`‡ek ivq cÖwZ‡e`‡b
miKv‡ii fvl¨ Rvbv‡jb Gfv‡e ÔmiKvi †_‡K ejv n‡q‡Q G‡`i hv eqm n‡qwQj
Zv‡Z G‡`i AvR-ev‡`-Kvj gviv hveviB K_v| ga¨cÖ‡`‡ki gyL¨gš¿xI G-iKg K_v
e‡j‡Qb e‡j Lei †ewi‡q‡Q| Iiv Kvj‡Ki e`‡j AvR gviv †M‡Q e‡jB wK miKvi‡K
Zv‡`i g"Zz¨ wb‡q ˆKwdqZ w`‡Z n‡e ? wKš' Aí eq‡mi RvLwj evC Avi Zvi †Q‡j
Avi †g‡q ? wRjvi Kv‡j±i e‡j‡Qb, I‡`i evwo‡ZB AvPgKv gviv hvIqvi GKUv
Af¨vm Av‡Q| ... RvLwj gviv †M‡Q abyó¼v‡i, †g‡q nIqvi c‡i| Hme Muv‡q †Q‡jwc‡j
nIqvi ci abyó¼v‡i †g‡qiv I-iKg AvKQvi g‡iÕ (Liivi cÖwZ‡e`b, c"ôv 22)|
†`‡ek ivq Awfbe Avw½‡K mvsevw`K M‡`¨i Avfv‡m ÔZ‡K©weZ‡K© mywbwðZÕ wKQy
g"Zz¨i Kvwnbx eqv‡bi g‡a¨ w`‡q Liv `ywf©‡i ev¯-eZv Ges iv‡óªi Mv-euvPv‡bv ˆKwdqZ‡K
g~Z© K‡i Zz‡jb|

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ZzB my‡ev‡ai QvIqvj bv ? gyKj
z nuv bv e‡j bv| Avwg ewj, my‡eva †Kv_vq ? gyKj
z wKQyB
e‡j bv| KvVwgw¯¿ my‡eva GLb Rwgi wbovwb, gvwU KvUv mn gv‡S gv‡S wfvI K‡i|
†Kv‡bv KviY QvovB Avgvi †PvL c~e©-cwðggywL nvj‡Ui Dˇi ev eUMvQwUi Dˇii
MÖvg nvRvinvwUi w`‡K hvq| wKQy eQi Av‡MI IB MÖv‡g my‡eva, Kgj, nxivjvj‡`i
kZvwaK cwievi wQj| KvVwgw¯¿, Kvgvi, Kz‡gvi, †R‡j, PvjwPiv KzUwb mn KZ Kv‡Ri
kZ kZ †Pbv gvbyl wQj| GLb nv‡Z‡Mvbv wZbPviwU cwievi _vK‡Z cv‡i| mvay m‡švl`v Avi nvRvinvwU MÖv‡g †bB| †Kv_vq Zv Rvwb bv| GZ gvbyl †Kv_vq †Mj ? †Kb
†Mj ? GLv‡b †Zv `v½v-jyU-R¡vjvI-†cvovI nqwb| ZeyI Ab¨ MÖv‡gi Lvb †gvnb,
BmnvK gywÝ Avi Zv‡`i eskaiiv †MvUv nvRvinvwU MÖv‡g Ry‡o e‡m‡Q| gvbyl¸wj †Kgb
nvIqv n‡q †Mj ! my‡eva‡`i †h K‡qKRb Av‡Q, f‡q Bu`y‡ii g‡Zv Kuvc‡Z _v‡K|
†c‡Ui `v‡q ev eva¨ n‡q KvVwgw¯¿i Kv‡Ri cyi"lci¤úiv †ckvi e`‡j GLb ûKzg
g‡Zv me KvRB K‡i| KvVwgw¯¿ my‡eva gvwU KvUv KvR Ki‡e bv, Ggb bv D"Pvi‡Yi
mvnm †Kv_vq †Mj ! gyKzj, gyKz‡ji Mi", nvRvinvwU MÖvg, Liv, fqven Liv, cvwb, fvZ
Avi Kv‡Ri cÖej k~b¨Zv †Pv‡Li mvg‡b cÖvgvY¨ n‡q DV‡j GKai‡bi wkniY †eva
Kwi| wKQy Av‡Mi welYœ †Nvi †K‡U †h‡q gb PÂj n‡q I‡V, mvC`‡K ewj, †`‡Lv
mvC` Avgiv †Kgb ARv‡š-B we‡kl `ywU Dcb¨v‡mi welq-Avkq kix‡ii wfZi Xy‡K
†MwQ| GB gyKj
z Avi gyK‡z ji Mi"B `yÕwU Dcb¨v‡mi g~j DcKiY RvqMvRwg, fi‡K›`ª|
mvC` †Vuv‡U nvwm Szwj‡q e‡j, GL‡bv †Zv Zvwo †c‡U c‡o bvB, Zvwo cv‡bi ci †Zv
Zzwg Kvm ewm‡q w`‡e| Avwg nvwm, mwZ¨ †`L, GKw`‡K ÔLivi cÖwZ‡e`bÕ, Ab¨w`‡K
Ô`v½vi cÖwZ‡e`bÕ| mvC` m‡½ m‡½ †hvM K‡i, ejv fv‡jv ïa‡i †bq, fi‡K‡›`ª ïay
Livi gyKzj Mi" bq, `v½vi nvRvinvwU bq, fi‡K‡›`ª Av‡Q ivóªI| wKQyw`b GKwU be¨
MwVZ evg`‡ji m‡½ RwoZ _vKvi myev‡` mvC` †`‡ek iv‡qi wPš-vi Ges j‡¨i
Nivbv‡K mn‡RB wPb‡Z cv‡i| GLv‡b Avgv‡`i g‡Zi HK¨ Zvwo LvIqvi Av‡MB
cÖwZwôZ, Zvwo LvIqvi ev ïKbv †bkvi ci †mB HK¨Zv‡bi gvÎv †e‡o hvq, ZLb Kwe
mvC` AvaywbK Mí Dcb¨vm KweZvi ïLvfyLv BUcv_i KK©kZvi wfZi Rxebim I
bZzb †mŠ›`‡h©i mÜvb †c‡q hvq, weZK© ev‡a bv| Zvwo cv‡bi Av‡MB mvC` iv‡óªi
cÖm½ Zyjj, ab¨ev` Zvi ¯^íKvjxb n‡jI evg ivRbxwZi PP©v| im †me‡b wewPÎ I
ˆewP‡Î¨ fiv i‡mi †LuvR †gjv mnR nq ˆewK|

Dcb¨v‡mi ïi"‡Z we¯"-Z GK f~wgKvq fviZe‡l©i Rj nvIqv cÖev‡ni I m"wói Drm
I Kvh©KviY Rvwb‡q Avj‡Mv‡Q Livi GKUv msÁv ˆZwi K‡i †bb, ÔLiv ej‡Z ïay
R‡ji Afve †evSvq bv Rj, Liv Avi Nv‡mi Afve GKm‡½ N‡U †M‡j Avi GKm‡½
†_‡K †M‡j ïLv GjvKvi gvbyl ey‡S hvq Zviv Livi g‡a¨B emevm Ki‡Q|Õ Livi
cÖwZ‡e`‡b Liv-KewjZ GjvKv¸‡jv, †hgb ga¨cÖ‡`‡ki mvi¸Rv wRjvi `yM©g Muv‡q
Rj bv †c‡q, Lvevi bv †c‡q, G‡Ki ci GK g"Zz¨ NU‡Q ; ¸Riv‡Ui K"Q, ebmKÉ,
RvgbMi ; my‡i›`ªbMi wRjvi j½iLvbvq BwZg‡a¨B AvovB j †jvK G‡m wM‡q‡Q|
ivR¯'v‡b Mi"‡gvl †ePv ïi" n‡q‡Q, gvby‡li ev"PvI wewµ n‡"Q| gnviv‡óªi EbwÎk
nvRvi Mªv‡g wUDeI‡qj ïwK‡q hv‡"Q| KY©vU‡Ki ¸jev‡M© gvwUi Zjvi Rj †b‡g †M‡Q
PvikÕ dzU Mfx‡i| ivR¯'v‡b †ZwÎk nvRvi MÖv‡gi g‡a¨ wek nvRvi MÖvgB Livq ayK‡Q|
Liv-wcwoZ GB A‡j, we‡kl K‡i cvnvwo A‡j Liv †j‡MB _v‡K| Liv †gŠmy‡gi
Av‡M Lv`¨ I cvwbi †Kv‡bv e¨e¯'vi D‡`¨vM wb‡Z eiveiB miKv‡ii Abxnv, KviY
Zv‡`i wn‡m‡e GZme g"Zz¨ †Zv AvKQvi givi Af¨vm e‡jB Iiv g‡i, bvnq abyó¼v‡i,
miKvwi Wv³vi AviI AviI A‡bK Amy‡Li K_vI e‡j| †Zv wK Avi Kiv| cvwb
mieiv‡ni Rb¨ KL‡bv KL‡bv D‡`¨vM wb‡jI Zv ïay KȪ¨v±‡ii gybvdv Avq ch©š-B
mxgve× wQj| †hgb cÖwZ‡e`‡b D‡j-L Av‡Q, Ô1972-Gi Livi c‡i gnviv‡óªi miKvi
Liv GjvKvi Rb¨ Rj mieiv‡ni †h Kg©m~Px wb‡qwQj Zvi wmwKfvM GL‡bv Kvh©Kvi
nqwb Ji½ev` wRjvi ZvjIqv`vi g‡Zv Ae¯'v| `yÕeQi Av‡M IqvUvi mvc-vB †evW©
GK wekvj Ifvi‡nW U¨v¼ ˆZwi K‡iwQj, MÖv‡g MÖv‡g cvBc †U‡b Kj ewm‡qwQj, wKš'
gvwUi †Kvb&Zjv †_‡K Rj Zz‡j Ifvi‡nW U¨v¼ fwZ© Kiv n‡e †m RvqMvUv `yÕeQ‡iI
Lyu‡R †ei Kiv hvqwb|Õ miKvi cÖvqB Livi Aw¯-Z¡B †Zv Luy‡R cvq bv| Liv n‡q fyLv
ïLv n‡j gvbyl gi‡j e¨e¯'v n‡Zv| miKv‡ii wn‡m‡e hLb Gme N‡U bv ZLb IB Rj
†LuvRvi RvqvMvI KL‡bv cvIqv hv‡e bv| gvSLv‡b U¨v¼ cvBc Rwic BZ¨vw`‡Z fv‡jvB
e¨emv n‡q †M‡Q iv‡óªi †KvlvMv‡ii A‡_©i wewbg‡q| f~wgKv †k‡l †`‡ek ivq PviwU
Aa¨v‡q Livq GL‡bv RxweZ ev g"Z gvbyl I Rv‡bvqv‡ii Ici cÖwZ‡e`b K‡ib wfbœ
wfbœ wk‡ivbv‡g| GK t Ôga¨cÖ‡`‡ki mvi¸Rv wRjvi exRKzov MÖv‡g Abvnv‡i g"Z
RvLwj evC‡qi k¦ïi wievB cv‡Êi m‡½ Aw¤^Kvcyi m`i nvmcvZv‡j mvvrKvi|Õ `yB t
Ôga¨cÖ‡`‡ki mi¸Rv wRjvi iNybv_cyi _vbvi exRKzov MÖv‡g Abvnv‡i g"Z RvLwj
evC‡qi †cÖZRxe‡bi weeiY I †cÖZvZ¥vi ¯^xKv‡ivw³|Õ wZb t ÔIwokvi KvjvnvwÊwRjvi
AZ&ij Muv‡q Lv‡g nwiR‡bi Abvnv‡i g"Zz¨i cÖZ¨`k©x Zzjmx bv‡q‡Ki wee"wZ|Õ Pvi
t Ôgvnviv‡óªi we` wRjvi dvBR Znwk‡ji wcivwPIqvw` MÖv‡g iLg evC‡qi g"Z †gv‡li
†cÖZvZ¥vi cÖwZ‡e`b|Õ cvwb Lv`¨ Kv‡Ri Afv‡e gvbyl I Mi" gwn‡li g"Zz¨i cÖwZ‡e`‡b
†`Lv hvq cvwb I Lvev‡ii Afv‡e gvbyl gvwU Pzbvcv_i Nvm, Mv‡Qi cvZv †L‡q †L‡q
euvPvi †Póv K‡iI g‡i| Avi Zv‡`i givi Lei KvM‡R KvM‡R †ei"‡j miKvi wei³
nq, miKvwi Avgjv Wv³viI †µva jyKv‡Z cv‡i bv| Iwokvi ÔWv³vievey wkivg

cÆbv‡qK‡K miKvi GB Lei wb‡ZB †ejMuvI Avi jvLenvj cvwV‡q‡Qb| miKvwi
Wv³vievey G‡m Lye ivMvivwM K‡i †M‡jb| Le‡ii KvM‡Ri †jvK‡`i †K gviv hvIqv
†jv‡K‡`i bvg ejj, G wb‡q Wv³vievey Lye †PvUcvU Ki‡jb| ... ûKzg Abyhvqx
A¨vwWkbvj wWw÷ª± †gwWK¨vj Awdmvi‡K Zvjeiv Muv‡q Avm‡Z n‡qwQj| giv gvby‡li
†c‡U Lvevi wQj wK bv, gj wQj wK bv, Gme bv †`‡LB Le‡ii KvMR‡K †K e‡j w`j
gvwS‡`i evwoi mevB bv †L‡q g‡i‡Q| bv †L‡q giv AZ †mvRv bq Wv³vievey
e‡jwQ‡jb, bv †L‡q gi‡Z n‡j giv ch©š- bv †L‡q _vK‡Z nq, †mUv AZ †mvRv bq|
... Lv‡g nwiRb‡K Z Avwg givi Av‡M Kv`v ¸‡j †L‡Z †`‡LwQ| ... Wv³vievey e‡j‡Qb
GBme giv Amy‡Li giY| ... AvBbm½Zfv‡e gi‡Z n‡j, GBme Amy‡LB Avgv‡`i
gi‡Z n‡e t M¨v‡÷ªvGb‡UivBwUm&, Avgvkv, †gwbbRvBwUmÕ (H c"ôv 80-81)| Avgv‡`i
Gme AvjvcPvwiZvi GK duv‡K †`wL gyKzj gvwU‡Z ï‡q c‡o‡Q, Ii gyL nuv Kiv, ïKbv
†VuvU wRe wZiwZi K‡i Kuvc‡Q| mvC` Szu‡K e‡j, †Zvi †c‡U gj bv Lv`¨, ZzB Kx
LvBwQm ? gyKzj weoweo K‡i e‡j, gBiv †M‡j evev‡i Lei w`‡eb bv, Lv‡ji av‡i
d¨vjvB w`‡qb| Avwg ewj, †Kb ? gyKzj e‡j, wkqvj KzËv †Zv LvB‡Z cvi‡e| `ª"Z
wKQy Rj Ii gy‡L Xvwj| gyKzj †VuvU †P‡U Lvq| ewj, ZzB giwe bv| mvC` Avgvi nvZ
a‡i †Zv‡j, P‡jv, nvi"Y wkK`v‡ii Zvwoi fvM c‡i †M‡j cvIqv hv‡e bv| Avgiv
eUMv‡Qi bx‡P gi‡Z emv gyKzj I Zvi cv‡k Mi"Uv‡K †i‡L `wY cwð‡g nuvwU
Kvw›`MÖv‡gi D‡Ï‡k| mvC` e‡j, hw` g‡iB hvq, Zvn‡j Ii †cÖZvZ¥vi mvvrKvi wb‡q
cÖwZ‡e`b wj‡L Rvbvb †`qv hv‡e| Avwg Pzc _vwK| †iv` Mi‡gi †_‡K gyKz‡ji †kl
Ae¯'vi K_v †f‡e Ak¦w¯- †eva Kwi| mvC` ZLb e‡j, I wVK gi‡e bv, †divi c‡_
wKQy Lvevi wb‡q Avme| Avwg ewj, †`‡Lv †`‡ek iv‡qi †`Lvi fw½, ejvi fw½, welq
wbe©vPb, fvlv GKvš-B Zuvi wb‡Ri m"wó, m‡PZbfv‡eB wZwb Ggb GKwU ixwZ wb‡Ri
Rb¨ evwb‡q wb‡q‡Qb hv Avgv‡`i Dcb¨v‡mi wbR¯^ aviv m"wói m~Pbv K‡i †`‡e,
w`‡q‡QI| Bs‡iR Iqvëvi ¯‹‡Ui †ivgvÝ g‡Wj AbymiY K‡i ew¼gevey `y‡M©kbw›`bx
(1865) w`‡q †h g‡Wj Av`k© cÖeZ©b K‡i w`‡qwQ‡jb †mB c_ †_‡K m‡PZbfv‡e
†`‡ek ivq wbR¯^ c‡_i m~Pbv K‡i Pj‡jb fvlY cÖeÜ wbeÜ w`‡qB bq, wb‡R Dcb¨v‡mi
ci Dcb¨vm wj‡LI| mvC` †hvM K‡i, †`‡ek eveyi Dcb¨v‡mi welq fvlv wb‡q hvB
ejv †nvK Avm‡j Zuvi Avw½K cÖKiYI wel‡qi Aš-f©y³, A_©vr Zuvi Dcb¨vm Ges
M‡íI ¯^Zš¿ Avw½K wbixv welq †_‡K wew"Qbœ e¨vcvi bq, Zv wel‡qiB web¨vm I
mvgwMÖK Dc¯'vcbv| Avwg ewj, ïi"‡Z †QvU Mí wjLevi †mB 1955 †_‡K 1962
ch©š- mvßvwnK Ô†`kÕ cwÎKvq eû Mí †jLv I cÖKv‡ki ¯§"wZPviY K‡i wZwb e‡j‡Qb,
ÔH mgq welq-msK‡Ui Kvi‡Y iƒc‡Ki Kv‡Q evievi †hZvg †hb Avwg GKUv Mí
†c‡q †MwQ, †h Mí w`‡q meUzKzB Avwg e‡j w`‡Z cvwi A_P eyS‡ZB cviwQ ej‡Z
cviwQ bv| ZLbB A‡bK †ewk wb‡Ri welqm¼‡Ui mgvav‡bi Rb¨ d‡g©i ˆewP‡Î¨i
mvnvh¨ wbZvg| †Kv_vI wi‡cvU© wjLjvg| †Kv_vI bvU‡Ki gZ msjvc w`Zvg| ... G-

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iKg, bvbv c×wZi Avkªq wbZvgÕ (K‡_vcK_b, Dcb¨vm wb‡q c"ôv 202)| GB dg©
ev bZzb AvL¨vbfw½ †LuvRv Zuvi GL‡bv Pj‡Q| Ab¨w`‡K wbwðZfv‡e GKUv dg© wZwb
†c‡qI †M‡Qb, Avi Zv n‡jv BD‡ivwcq g‡Wj ev K‡jvwbqvj mvwnZ¨ bq, m¤ú~Y© wbR¯^
fw½, Avevi wbR¯^ fw½i †Kv‡bv ÔUvBcÕ n‡q D‡Vbwb, ZvB Zuv‡K welqvbyhvqx me mgq
ejvi fw½wU Lyu‡R wb‡Z nq|
mvC` e‡j, ïi"i hhvwZ Dcb¨v‡m (cwiPq mvgwqwK‡Z avivevwnKfv‡e cÖKvk nq
1964 †_‡K 1968 ch©š-) wZwb cÖPwjZ Ae¯'vb‡K web¨¯- K‡i‡Qb cÖPwjZ c‡_B,
†mLv‡b M‡íi GKwU wbw`©óZv Av‡Q| Ôgvbyl Lyb K‡i †KbÕ GB wØZxq Dcb¨vmI cÖ_ve×
iƒcB| c‡ii ÔAvcvZZ kvwš-Kj¨vY n‡q Av‡QÕ (1972 mv‡j iPbv) I Ôgd¯^wj
e"Ëvš-Õ (1980) †_‡K mywbw`©ó iƒce‡Ü AvL¨vb‡K cÖKvk Kivi cwie‡Z© Dcb¨v‡mi
wbR¯^ g‡W‡ji †LuvR ïi" n‡q hvq| welq eqv‡bI ejv hvq Av‰K‡kvi PwP©Z gvK©wmq
ivRbxwZi cÖfve Av‡m| bv, Gfv‡e ejv hv‡e bv, Avwg ewj, ïi" †_‡KB wkí mvwnZ¨PP©v,
Zuvi AvL¨vb I fw½ wbg©v‡Yi c‡_ wbw`©ó †K›`ª ˆZwii e`‡j eis Zuvi Kg‡iW mËv I
†jLK mËvi g‡a¨ Aš-M©~p we‡iva N‡U| gvK©wmq mvwn‡Z¨ fvlv welq Avw½K wb‡q
Ggb wbixv I AbymÜvb evÃbxq bq| Mí †mLv‡b †K›`ªxqfv‡ei w`‡KB hv‡e| †`‡ek
ivq g‡b K‡ib, Ômvwn‡Z¨i †K›`ªUv me‡P‡q A¯úó I Awbw`©ó| Avi †m-Kvi‡YB Mí
Dcb¨v‡m AwaKvsk mg‡q AwZwbw`©ó n‡q hvq| Mí Dcb¨v‡m †K‡›`ªi GB AwZwbw`©óZv
we‡jwZ Dcb¨vm †_‡K Avgiv wk‡LwQ| Avgv‡`i †`kxq AvL¨v‡b †K›`ª GiKg AwZwbw`©ó
bqÕ (H, c"ôv 199)| Livi cÖwZ‡e`b ev `v½vi cÖwZ‡e`‡b †`‡Lv †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó †K›`ª
bvB, Gi ïi" I †kl w`‡qI e"Ë ˆZwi K‡i bv| wZwb e"Ë I wbw`©óZv‡K m‡PZbfv‡e
cÖZ¨vL¨vb K‡i Avm‡Qb, GB cÖZ¨vL¨v‡bi dg© I fvlvI cÖ_vi e"ˇK cÖZ¨vL¨vb K‡i|
Zuvi AwZmv¤úªwZKZg Dcb¨vmUv‡K †`‡Lv, bvg Ôe¨w³MZ d¨vwmwe‡ivax hy× wb‡q GKwU
Dcb¨vmÕ 2007 eB‡gjvq cÖKvk| cÖvq †cÖvp‡Z¡ †cuŠ‡Q GK bvix Avwe®‹vi K‡i, eyS‡Z
cv‡i Zvi ¯^vgx wKfv‡e Zv‡K †cÖg myL RR©wiZ m½g †_‡K ewÂZ K‡i‡Q, Zvi GB
kixi AcviM ¯^vgxi wg_¨v †cŠi"l An¼v‡ii Kv‡Q `wgZ D‡cwZ n‡q‡Q| †m †h
ewÂZ D‡cwZ GI eyS‡Z Zvi lvU eQi n‡q hvq| Avi gRvi K_v n‡jv Dcb¨vmwU ïi"
nq cÖ"Q` ev gjvU †_‡K, cÖ"Q`cUB Dcb¨v‡mi ïi"i c"ôv| Avi †kl gjv‡U _v‡K
eBwUi cÖKvk msµvš- Z_¨| mˇii Kv‡Q G‡mI wZwb cÖKvkfw½ ˆZwi Ki‡Qb, LyR
u ‡Qb|
AvR‡Ki A‡bK Zi"‡Yi †jLvI †`‡ek iv‡qi cv‡k wPš-v I cÖKvk cÖKi‡Y mv‡ewK
g‡b nq| Avi KwgDwb÷ mvwn‡Z¨i K_v Zzwg ej‡Qv, GK ¯§"wZPviYg~jK wbe‡Ü
(`x‡cb †`‡e‡ki `x‡cb, Z…cv‡K GK †Zvov, c"ôv 61-62) wZwb ej‡Qb, Avwg
nvgv¸wo †`qv eqm †_‡K KwgDwb÷ cvwU© Kwi| †Zi-†PvÏ eQi eq‡m cvwU© †eAvBwb
nIqvi ci A¨v‡i÷ n‡qwQ|. . .R‡j Wy‡e †hgb GKRb gvbyl‡K Rvb‡Z nq †m Wye‡Q|
Ggb ˆK‡kvi m‡Ë¡I KwgDwb÷ mvwnZ¨ e‡j GKUv Avjv`v Ni Kivi e¨vcv‡i Avgvi Kx

GK weiw³Ki AvcwË wQj| KwgDwb÷iv †hfv‡e mvwnZ¨ wkí eyS‡Z PvB‡Zb, Zv‡Z
Avwg G‡Kev‡iB mvq †cjvg bv| eySZvgB bv wKQy| †Kgb GKUv †gvowj g‡b n‡Zv|Õ
mvC‡`i †Pv‡L jvj iO a‡i‡Q, Avi Avgvi K_vi wf‡o Mjv GKUz e‡m †M‡jI Zvwoi
†bkvq cv gv_v k~‡b¨ `yj‡Q bv| nvi"Y wkK`v‡ii †Q‡j cv‡fj †ZjSvj gvLv‡bv gywo
GK Mvgjv †i‡L wM‡qwQj, Zv Avwg gy‡L w`‡Z bv cvi‡jI mvC` †kl K‡i G‡b‡Q|
Avgvi †Pv‡L ZvB cÖkœ DV‡j I Ii nv‡Zi e¨vM †`Lvq| gyKz‡ji Rb¨ I ïi"‡ZB wKQy
Avjv`v K‡i †i‡L‡Q| wU‡bi gM †_‡K Zvwo gy‡L †d‡j e‡j, 1962-†Z wee"wZ
w`‡q†`‡ek ivq †`k Avb›`evRvi cwÎKvq †jLv eÜ K‡iwQj| ewj, †Zv, IB ey‡R©vqv
cÖwZôv‡bi KvM‡R Zuvi Pj‡e †Kb, wZwb ZLb ïay wjUj g¨vM †Kw›`ªK mvwnwZ¨K n‡q
DV‡jb| Zuvi cÖvq me cÖavb iPbvB wjUj g¨v‡M cÖKvwkZ| GL‡bv wZwb ZvB| kvi`xq
`yB GKwU msL¨vq wjL‡jI Zuvi g~j †Î wjUj g¨vM| Gevi Avwg GKUz †L‡q Mjvi ¯^i
Rwo‡q ewj, Zzwg wbðq Rv‡bv †P‡Kv‡k-vfvwKqvq †mvwf‡qZ wgwjUvwi hLb cÖ‡ek Kij
ZLb †`‡ek ivqB cvwU©i g‡a¨ cÖKv‡k¨ we‡ivaxZv K‡iwQ‡jb, GUv Lye mnR KvR wQj
bv| †`‡ek iv‡qi GB cÖKvk¨-mgv‡jvPbvi Rb¨ KwgDwb÷ cvwU© wgwUs AvnŸvb K‡i|
cvwU©i mf¨ †`‡ek ivq wgwUs‡q Avevi ej‡jb, Ô†P‡Kv‡k-vfvwKqv wKfv‡e Pj‡e Zv
GK †P‡Kv‡k-vfvwKqvi gvbylB w¯'i Ki‡Z cv‡i, †mvwf‡qZ BDwbqb †Kv‡bv mgvRZvwš¿K
†`‡ki †dŠwR AwffveK bq|Õ AviI ej‡jb, †P‡Kv‡k-vfvwKqvq `wYcš'x wePz¨wZi
†hme cÖgvY †`qv n‡jv, Zvi meKÕwU †mvwf‡qZ BDwbq‡bi mvgvwRK Rxeb m¤ú‡K©
mZ¨| Zvn‡j †mvwf‡qZ‡K wVK Kivi Rb¨ †dŠR cvVv‡e †K ?Õ (H c"ôv 56)| GB
e³‡e¨i ci GKRb WvKmvB‡Ui ÔkªwgK †bZvÕ †`‡ek iv‡qi Mjv wU‡c av°v w`‡q
†`qv‡j †d‡jÕ w`‡qwQj| RjcvB¸wo emev‡mi mgq cvwU©i n‡q GKw`‡K ivReskx
Avi g‡`wkqv‡`i g‡a¨ KvR Ki‡Qb Avi Ôgv‡S g‡a¨ `y‡e©va¨ Mí wjL‡Qb| ej‡Qb,
ÔcvwU© fvOvi mgq RjcvB¸woi cvwU©i Awd‡m wgwUs‡q Avgvi gy‡L _yZz wQwU‡q Nv‡o
av°v w`‡q bvwg‡q †`qv n‡qwQj| wKš' Avwg GI RvbZvg, Avwg wd‡i AvmeÕ (H)|
†ZgRyi cvwU©i mf¨ nvi"Y wkK`vi Gevi gyL †Lv‡j, †Zvgv‡Mv eo eo K_v Avi eyS‡Z
PvB bv, GLb wK Ki‡Z cv‡iv K‡iv, gvbyl †Kgvq gi‡Z‡Q †`‡Lv bv| ewj, Zzwg e‡jv
Avgiv wK Ki‡Z cvwi, †Zvgvi g‡Zv †Zv cvwU© Kwi bv| cvwU© bv Ki‡jI Avgv‡Mv g‡a¨
†f` Kg, †K‡›`ªi jyUcvU bv _vK‡j, `j¸wj gvby‡li Rb¨ ivRbxwZ Ki‡j GB Livq
gvbyl bv LvBqv ïKvBqv gi‡Zv bv| RbM‡Yi †fv‡U wRZv n‡e RbkÎ", wccj&m& G‡bwg|
mvC` e‡j, Zzwg g‡b Ki Giv RbM‡Yi †fv‡U wR‡Z ? nvi"Y gy‡L gywo †d‡j wPwe‡q
wPwe‡q e‡j, †m †Zv Av‡iK Kvwnbx †fvU †Kgvq nq GBi Dc‡i GKLvb Dcb¨vm
†j‡Lv bv K¨v †Zvgiv ? mvC` ZLb e‡j, LÊ LÊ K‡i GmeB †`‡ek iv‡qi Dcb¨v‡m
Av‡Q| wKš' Zzwg e‡jv, Dwb cwi®‹vi K‡i e‡j‡Qb, ÔgvK©m&ev‡`i weÁvb Avgv‡`i
ˆ`e‡b‡Îi Db¥xjb NUvq|Õ Avwg †hvM Kwi, GB weÁvbB Zv‡K Livi cÖwZ‡e`b †jLvq,
†mB cÖwZ‡e`b Z_vKw_Z gvK©wmq ev KwgDwb÷ Av`k© cÖPvi me©¯^ mvwnZ¨ bq| wZwb

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cÖwZ‡e`b K‡ib, g"Z †gv‡li †cÖZvZ¥vi Revbew›` †_‡K| Zvi givi aib I KviY
Zv‡Z _v‡K wKš' †Kv‡bv cÖwZc cÖKv‡k¨ _v‡K bv, we‡`ªvnI bv| iLg evC‡qi g"Z
†gvl Zvi givi mg‡q ej‡Q, ÔevC †`LwQj, Avwg ZL‡bv giwQ| bvwK Avgvi giv †kl
n‡q †M‡Q| AvwgI wVK Rvwb bv, Avwg ZL‡bv giwQjvg, bvwK ZLb Avgvi giv †kl
n‡q †M‡Q, Avwg Rvwb bv, Avwg GKev‡i gwiwb, A‡bKY a‡iB giwQjvg, nqZ A‡bKw`b
a‡iB| evC‡qi m‡½ Rj †L‡Z bv G‡j nqZ evwo‡Z ï‡q ï‡qB g‡i †hZvg| ... Rj
†L‡Z G‡mI †eu‡P _vK‡Z cvijvg bv| ïLvi mgq gvbylRb Mi" †gvl G-iKgfv‡eB
g‡i| Nvm bv †c‡q, Mg bv †c‡q, Rj bv †c‡q Avi Nvm †L‡Z wM‡q, Mg Avb‡Z wM‡q,
Rj †L‡Z wM‡q| Livi giY G-iKgB `yÕgy‡Lv giY| ... mvg‡bi PweŸk NÈvq evC
Avgvi K_v g‡b K‡i GUzKz Rj Kg Lv‡e evC hw` H cy‡iv PweŸk NÈv †eu‡P _v‡K|
Livi giY Z GiKgB| †K KLb gi‡e wKQy wVK _v‡K bvÕ (Livi cÖwZ‡e`b, c"ôv
103)| GB K_v ejvi mgq Avgv‡`i `yÕR‡biB gyKzj Avi Ii Mi"Uvi K_v g‡b n‡q,
Pvcv GKUv j¤^v k¦vm c‡o| mvC` e‡j, hvB †nvK, GB †gvl ev evC ev gyKzj GKB
†kªYxi| †gvl GLv‡b Rv‡bvqvi bv n‡q eis evC-i GKUv G·‡Ubkb ej‡Z cvi|
Kvwnbxi meUzKz, cÖZxK Dr‡cÖv e‡jv, ev Zvi †Rvo jvMv‡bv †QvU †QvU UzKiv¸‡jv e‡jv
Zv Ly‡j Ly‡j e¨vL¨v Kivi Z_vKw_Z †hŠw³K Kg©wU †jLK‡K †Kb Ki‡Z n‡e ? Avwg
`ª"Z ewj, evn& Zzwg †Zv Avgvi K_vB ejQ, †Zvgvi KwgDwb÷ mvwnZ¨B cÖ_veÜ mvwn‡Z¨i
g‡Zv GB `vwqZ¡UzKz cvjb K‡i| †`‡ek ivq Kvwnbx, fvlv Avi d‡g©i wfZ‡i Zuvi
`vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡i Qv‡ob| bvn‡j RLwj evC‡qi †cÖZvZ¥v ev †gv‡li †cÖZvZ¥vi cÖwZ‡e`b
Ki‡Z hv‡eb †Kb ? Dwb †hŠw³Kfv‡eB Ggb A‡hŠw³K web¨v‡mi w`‡K G‡Mvb|
mvC` e‡j, bv Avgvi K_v †kl n‡jv bv, †`‡ek ivq KwgDwb÷ mvwnwZ¨K‡`i g‡ZvB
e¨w³i HwZnvwmKZv †Luv‡Rb I wbg©vY K‡ib| Avgvi Kɯ^i †e‡R I‡V, e‡jv gvK©wmq
mvwnwZ¨K‡`i g‡Zv bq, gvK©wmq weÁv‡bi Avw¯-K‡`i g‡Zv Dwb e¨w³i BwZnvm
†Luv‡Rb| Avwg eje ïay e¨w³ bq, R½j b`x nvUevRvi Rv‡bvqvi mn gvby‡liB
HwZnvwmKZv †evSevi †Póv K‡ib| mvC` Gevi wei³ nq, Zzwg Avi †L‡qv bv, A‡b¨i
K_v ejvi AwaKvi Zvwoi †Z‡R D‡cv KiQ| ï‡bv, †`‡ek ivq wb‡R ej‡Qb, ÔJcb¨vwmK
wn‡m‡e g‡b Kwi e¨w³i HwZnvwmKZv †evSevi †Póv KivUv Avgvi KvR| Zvn‡j mgv‡Ri
Ges mf¨Zvi cwieZ©‡bi †h PvjKkw³ †mUv‡K bv ey‡S Avwg e¨w³i HwZnvwmKZv
eyS‡Z cvie bv| Avgvi Kv‡Q †m PvjKkw³ KwgDwb÷ cvw©UQvov wKQy bv| cvwU©B †mB
gvbe-Dcv`vb †hUv mf¨Zv‡K e`jv‡eÕ (K‡_vcK_b, Dcb¨vm wb‡q, c"ôv 203)|
mvwn‡Z¨i wZ¯-v, kvjeb, †gvl, Rwg, Liv meB mËv n‡q I‡V, e¨w³i ewa©Z iƒc|
†hgb ÔDw"Qbœ D"PviYÕ (1998) Dcb¨vmwUi K_v g‡b K‡iv| †mLv‡b evZvm mgy`ª f~wg
PwiÎ n‡q I‡V ÔaŸsm¯-~‡ci wfZi nvIqv Zvi cÖ‡ek I cÖ¯'v‡bi c_ wb‡q †bq| GB
K_v¸wj †mB evZv‡m aŸsm¯-~‡ci wfZ‡i Xy‡K, evZvm †_‡K S‡i hvq|Õ (Dw"Qbœ D"PviY,
c"ôv 45) A_ev Ôc"w_exi GKwU cÖavb mgy`ª †_‡K DwÌZ evZv‡mi wei"‡× M‡o IVv

c"w_exi GK cÖavb bM‡ii ARmª †`qvj Avi †`qv‡j hw` GB K_v¸wj wQbœwfbœ n‡q bv
†hZ, Zvn‡j, GB K_v¸wj nq‡Zv Avi-GK mgy`ªevqyi m‡½ wg‡k Av‡iv `~ieZ©x n‡q
DV‡Z cviZÕ (H, c"ôv 48)| ewj, eyS‡Z cviwQ, Zvwoi †Suv‡K ZzwgI Avgvi hyw³‡Z
c`v_©¸Y evwo‡q w`"Q| Dw"Qbœ D"Pvi‡Yi †h D`vniY w`‡j Zv‡K hw` Zzwg KwgDwb÷
mvwnZ¨ e‡jv, Zvn‡j iex›`ªbv‡_i ÔejvKvÕ KweZvI KwgDwb÷ mvwn‡Z¨i `vi"Y bgybv
n‡Z cv‡i| ce©Z Pvwnj n‡Z ˆekv‡Li wbi"‡Ïk †gN ...| †Zvgvi m‡½ †hvM K‡iB
ejwQ, KwgDwb÷ cvwU© m¤ú‡K© †`‡ek iv‡qi AviI gš-e¨, M‡elK cÖvewÜK gvK©wmq
wPš-K wkevRx e‡›`¨vcva¨vq †`‡ek ivq‡K cÖkœ Ki‡Qb, e¨w³i Rxeb †h-BwZnv‡mi
Aš-M©Z †mB BwZnvm‡K hw` GKRb Jcb¨vwmK †Luv‡Rb Zvn‡j wZwb KwgDwb÷ cvwU©‡K
Kxfv‡e †`L‡eb ? Dˇi †`‡ek ivq ej‡Qb, ÔAwZ ˆeÁvwbK, AwZ c~e©wbw`©ó, AZ¨šDciZjvi ev¯-eZv‡eva, G‡Kev‡i dvjZz KZK¸‡jv kã, Gi m‡½ nq‡Zv cvwU©i
ˆ`bw›`b KvR wg‡j hvq| wKš' Avgvi Kv‡Q KwgDwb÷ cvwU©Uv Zv bq| Avgvi Dcb¨vm
wjLevi GKgvÎ KvR hw` nq e¨w³i HwZnvwmKZv Zvn‡j Avgv‡K Avi-GKUv kw³‡ZI
wek¦vm Ki‡Z nq †h kw³ BwZnvmUv ˆZwi Ki‡Z cv‡i| e¨w³, †`k I Kv‡ji mxgv
AwZµg K‡iI †mB kw³ mwµq _vK‡Z cv‡i| †mB kw³UvB KwgDwb÷ cvwU©| e¨w³i
GKUv BwZnvm Av‡Q GUv hw` Avwg wek¦vm Kwi, Zvn‡j †m-BwZnvm Av‡iv eo GKUv
BwZnv‡mi Ask GUvI Avgv‡K wek¦vm Ki‡Z nq| Avi †mB eo BwZnvmUv gvbyl ˆZwi
K‡i GUv wek¦vm bv Ki‡j Avgvi e¨w³i BwZnv‡mi KvwnbxI n‡q hv‡e e¨w³i wbqwZi
Kvwnbx| Avevi e¨w³i wbqwZI BwZnv‡mi Aš-M©Z| Avi KwgDwb÷ cvwU© Qvov †KD Z
e‡j bv †h Zviv BwZnvm‡K wbqš¿Y Ki‡Z cv‡iÕ (H, c"ôv 200)| mvC` †mvRv `uvwo‡q
hvq, e‡j, Livq giv †gvl, gvwU Kv`v †L‡Z †L‡Z Lv‡g nwiR‡bi giv, Pzbvcv_i †L‡Z
†L‡Z RvLwj evC‡qi giv, RvLwj evC‡qi k¦ïi wievB cv‡Êv, †h e‡j, ÔexRKzovq GLb
ïLv| mviv eQi ïLv| cv‡Êv ïLvq _v‡K| cv‡Êvi kixi ïLv| cv‡Êvi kix‡ii wfZ‡i
evB‡i Rj mq bv| cv‡Êv‡K ïLvq _vK‡Z nq| cv‡Êv‡K eb‡`IZvi kv‡c _vK‡Z nq|
cv‡Êvi †g‡N Rj _vK‡Z bvB| cv‡Êvi cyKz‡i Rj _vK‡Z bvB| exRKzovi cvnvo cvi
nIqvi Av‡M †gN Lvwj n‡q hvq| cv‡Êvi cyKz‡ii Zjvq duvK, ivwˇi cyKz‡ii Rj
cvZv‡j P‡j hvqÕ A_ev wZ¯-vi eb¨vq †f‡m hvIqv evNvi", kvje‡b evNvi"i Kuv‡a
mIqvi n‡q †h BwZnv‡mi gvbyl †LuvRv, e¨w³i HwZnvwmKZv †evSv ev Zvi wbqwZ,
wbqwZI BwZnv‡mi Aš-f©y³, †Zv gvbyl wbqwZ BwZnv‡mi †gje܇b †`‡ek iv‡qi †h
Awbw`©ó Dcb¨vm cwiµgv Zvi wfZi cÖvqB †Kw›`ªKZv ˆZwi nq ˆewK, †K‡›`ªi ¯^iƒc
†Pv‡LI aiv c‡o, Avi Zv iv‡óªiB ¯^iƒc| AvcvZZ †gvl Avi †cÖZvZ¥v wb‡q d‡g©i
†Ljvq †nuqvwj Ki‡jI Aš-M©~p Kvh©Kvi‡Y ivóª †g‡j| Ges ivóª‡K †`Lvi g‡a¨I
†`‡ek iv‡qi wb‡Ri aviYv g‡Zv KwgDwb÷ cvwU©i †`Lv †nvK, Zv wKš' gvbyl †hfv‡e
cvwU©‡K †P‡b, †mB †Pbvi MocoZv †Pv‡LI †mfv‡eB aiv c‡o, Zvi †_‡K nq‡Zv
Avjv`v wKQy bq| fvlv dg© Avi wk‡íi hv`y‡Z ivóª‡K wPwýZ Kivi fw½wU hw`I m¤ú~YB©

127

128

Zuvi wbR¯^| GLv‡b wZwb wkíx I mªóv| AvcvZZ kvwš- Kj¨vY n‡q Av‡Q, wZ¯-vcv‡ii
e"Ëvš-, mgq Amg‡qi e"Ëvš- ev Liv `v½vi cÖwZ‡e`bI A_©vr cÖwZ‡e`b Avi
e"Ëv‡š- iv‡óªi †Pnviv Zvi µxovbK f~wgKv †evSv Avi †evSvevi †gvg mvdj¨ Avwg
eje gvK©wmq PP©vi dj| †m wbðqB, Avwg ewj G‡Z †Kv‡bv we‡iva †bB, gvby‡li Ici
Av¯'v †i‡L, fveev`‡K MÖvn¨ bv K‡i `xN©Kvj Av`wk©K ivRbxwZi mswk-óZvq Ggb
¯^"Q I mZ¨ `"wó ˆZwi n‡Z cv‡i| gvK©mev‡`i weÁvb Zuvi ˆ`e‡b‡Îi Db¥xjb NwU‡q
†h m"wói mgv‡iv‡n fwi‡q †Zv‡j, †mB m"wó‡K Z_vKw_Z KwgDwb÷ mvwnZ¨ ev
gvK©wmq mvwnZ¨e‡j †kªYxe× Ki‡Z cvwi bv, GB m"Rbkxj mvwnZ¨dg© †Kv‡bv we‡kl
`k©‡bi D‡Ïk¨g~jK cÖPvi †cÖvcvMvÊv bq, Zzwg Liv `v½vi cÖwZ‡e`b‡K ev Zvi e"Ëvš¸‡jv‡K †cÖvcvMvÊvi n¨vÊeyK fve‡Z cvi bv| we‡kl †kªYxe× mvwnZ¨ we‡kl D‡Ïk¨
cÖPv‡iB wbwnZ _v‡K|

Avgv‡`i Ggb jvMvgnxb Z‡K© nvi"Y wkK`vi Lye ¯^"Q›`‡eva K‡i bv| D‡V †h‡q
Mvgjvq fvZ fvwR BZ¨vw` hv Av‡Q Zv f‡i wb‡Ri MvgQvq †eu‡a nv‡Z awi‡q †`q,
e‡j, K_v w`‡q Rxeb †Kbv hvq bv, hvI, hvIqvi c‡_ my‡ev‡ai evwo LveviUv w`qv
Avm| mvC` Avgvi w`‡K ZvKvq, `yÕR‡bB †LZgRyi cvwU©i mf¨ nvi"Y wkK`v‡ii
mvg‡b jw¾Z n‡q DwV| K_v bv evwo‡q c‡_ cv w`B| gyn~‡Z© †`‡ek iv‡qi cwie‡Z©
nvi"Y wkK`vi Avgv‡`i fvebv `Lj K‡i †bq| gy‡L †KD wKQy ewj bv| Kcv‡ji Nvg
gyQ‡Z gyQ‡Z ewj, gyKzj hw` g‡i hvq ? mvC` wKQy e‡j bv| wb‡RB ewj, gi‡Z †Zv
cv‡iB| Livi giv e‡j K_v, bv †L‡qI gi‡Z cv‡i, †L‡Z †L‡Z gi‡Z cv‡i, KZ
gi‡QI| ¯‹z‡ji gv‡V j½iLvbvq w`‡b w`‡b gvbyl evo‡Q| eUZjvq G‡m †`wL gyKzj
†bB, Ii Mi"Uv‡KI †`Lv hv‡"Q bv| eUMv‡Qi Dˇi nvRvinvwU MÖv‡gi w`‡K nuvwU,
my‡ev‡ai N‡i LveviUv †i‡L Avmv hvq| K‡qK MR Dˇi nuvU‡ZB `~‡i wgwj‡q †h‡Z
_vKv xY GKUv aŸwb Kv‡b Av‡m, nwi, nwi‡evj, nwi nwi‡evj...| Avevi Avgiv †Pv‡L
†PvL †i‡L bxi‡e nuvwU| c‡_ †Pbv GKRb‡K †c‡q hvB, bvg wbZvB| Zvi nv‡Z cuvPUv
UvKv w`‡q ewj, `v`v GB †cvUjvUv my‡ev‡ai evwo w`qv Avm| wbZvB-Gi †PnvivI
gyKzj ev Avgv‡`i MÖv‡gi †ewki fvM gvby‡liB g‡Zv| mvC` m‡›`n K‡i, ïLv fyLv
wbZvB wK my‡ev‡ai N‡i LveviUv †kl ch©š- w`‡q Avm‡e ? Avwg Bw½‡Z ewj, Amyweav
wK, GKB K_v, I Aš-Z AviI `yB-GKw`‡bi Rb¨ euvPzK| Avgv‡`i gb †_‡K `ª"Z
G-cÖm½ wgwj‡q †h‡Z _v‡K, †hfv‡e K_vi †Zv‡o Zvwoi †bkvI D‡e †M‡Q| Avwg
ewj, Livi cÖwZ‡e`b, `v½vi cÖwZ‡e`b wjLevi wZb/Pvi eQi Av‡M †`‡ek ivq Abyfe
KiwQ‡jb, ÔmvgvwRK iƒcvš-‡ii Ggb GKUv ¯-‡i GLb Avgiv XyKwQ †hLv‡b Dcb¨v‡mi
wfZi w`‡qB AwfÁZvi PwiÎ Avgiv †R‡bey‡S wb‡Z PvBe| evsjv Dcb¨vm Zvi †mB

e"nËi gnËi f~wgKvi R‡b¨B GLb ˆZwi n‡"Q| cwðwg g‡W‡ji cvK I ÔLvovÕ †_‡K
†ewi‡q ¯^vaxbZv Av‡›`vj‡bi g‡Zv AwfÁZv, `v½v, `ywf©, †`kfv‡Mi g‡Zv AwfÁZv
Avgv‡`i Dcb¨v‡mi cÖavb welq n‡q DV‡e|Õ GiciB GB `yÕwU Dcb¨vm, Livi
cÖwZ‡e`‡bi GK eQi ci †e‡ivq `v½vi cÖwZ‡e`b (1994)| A‡hva¨vi evewi gmwR`
ev ivg gw›`i NUbv Zv‡K cªjyäI K‡i GB cÖwZ‡e`b wbg©v‡Y| gvÎ GKwU c¨viv-¯e‡K †MvUv 105 c"ôvi Dcb¨vmwU iPbv, †Kv_vI †hb `g †djevi Rb¨ mvgvb¨ †¯úm
ivLevi wZwb dzimr cvb bv| GK wbtk¦v‡mB GB bZzb iPbv c‡o †dj‡Z nq| Ges GB
Dcb¨v‡mi ci‡Z ci‡Z wZwb †Mv‡q›`v mvsevw`Kmyjf AbymwÜrmvq `v½vi wcQ‡bi
Rw½evR‡`i Avgv‡`i gM‡R AvOyj †V‡m †`wL‡q †`b, iv‡óªi nZ©vKZ©v cwiPvjK
weavZv‡`i cÖZ¨ c‡iv mn‡hvwMZv I B܇b fviZe‡l©i BwZnvm AviI GKevi Kvwjgvwjß
Kivi `v½vq cÖavb gš¿x, cªavb cÖavb wePvicwZ, cywjk Kg©KZ©v, Avgjv mn iv‡óªi
gZv‡fvMx I gZvwjáy‡`i f~wgKvi K_v GK wbtk¦v‡m e‡j hvb| Av‡eM gvqv weåg
RvMv‡bv fvlv, bZzb GK Awfe¨w³, Aš-Z GKwU evK¨ D`vniY wn‡m‡e †h †Kv‡bv
¯'vb †_‡KB D×"Z Kiv †nvK bv †Kb, †evSv hvq bZzb AvL¨vbfw½i Rb¨ KZ ˆZwi
GB gbb| cª_g c"ôv †_‡K cov hvq, †hLv‡b AvKv‡ki bx‡P AvKv‡ki gZB `kw`K
†_‡K AeZ‡j gvwUi w`‡K wb‡R‡K SzwK‡q †`qv eZ©y‡ji ev M¤^y‡Ri wbg©vZv ¯'cwZi
K_v wZwb ej‡Qb, ÔAvwg †K Zv †KD Rvb‡e bv, Rv‡b bv, Zv Kv‡iv Rvb‡Z †bB, Zv
Rvbv hvq bv, †hgb Rvbv hvq bv Mfxi Ai‡Y¨iI Mfx‡i kvjZi" ecb K‡iwQj †K,
†hgb Rvbv hvq bv †Kvb& †m S‡o Ak¦‡Ìi exR wM‡q c‡owQj b`xcv‡i, †hgb Rvbv hvq
bv cvnvo‡K †g‡Ni Avkªq K‡i M‡o Zz‡jwQj †K, †hgb Rvbv hvq bv †gN‡K R‡ji
Avavi K‡i AvKv‡k fvwm‡q iv‡L †K, fvwm‡q fvwm‡q wb‡q hvq †K, †hgb Rvbv hvq bv
cvwL Zvi evmv †Kvb& Mv‡Qi †Kvb& Wv‡ji †Kvb& Luv‡R euva‡e, †hgb Rvbv hvq bv evZvm
GKw`K †_‡K Avi GKw`‡K e‡q P‡j hvq †Kb, †hgb Rvbv hvq bv mgy‡`ªi H we¯-v‡i
nVvr w`K‡fvjv evZvm KLb-KLbI GKm‡½ `kw`K †_‡K GKUv we›`yi w`‡K Qy‡U
Av‡m †Kb, †hgb Rvbv hvq bv GKB Mv‡Qi GKB d‡ji mnmª exR †_‡K gvÎ ¸wUK‡qK
exR MvQ n‡q I‡V †Kb, †hgb Rvb‡Z †bB giY †Kv_vq KLb †Kvb& †Pnvivq †`Lv
†`‡e, †hgb Rvb‡Z †bB cyi"l-bvix‡Z †mB wgjb n‡e KLb hv‡Z AviI GKwU gvby‡li
exR †evbv n‡e, †hgb Rvb‡Z †bB gv‡Vi wfZi w`‡q cv‡q Pjv c_ Puv`wb‡Z gy‡Q wb‡q
Avevi †iv‡` Gu‡K †`q †K, †hgb Rvb‡Z †bB mgy‡`ªi GKUv †XD cvo ch©š- Avm‡Z
cv‡i Avi GKUv †XD cv‡i bv †Kb, †Zgwb G-K_v Rvb‡Z †bB, Rvbv‡Z †bB Rvbv hvq
bv †Kvb& M¤^yR Kvi iPbv, M¤^yR Z wPiKvjB w`M‡š- wg‡k _v‡K, wbtm½, M¤^yR w`M‡š_v‡KÕ (`v½vi cÖwZ‡e`b, c"ôv 7)| fvlv cÖm‡½ c‡i ejwQ, mvC` wfZ‡i wfZ‡i
D‡ËwRZ †eva K‡i wKQy GKUv ejvi Rb¨, Ggb Zwš^ GKUv Dcb¨v‡m iv‡óªi m‡½ m‡½
wgwWqvi f~wgKvI wZwb †`Lvb,
wgwWqvi Ggb imRvwiZ AvVv‡jv cÖPvi †`‡L †evSv hvq bv, †K Kv‡K e¨envi Ki‡Q|

129

130

ANUbNUbcwUqwm ivóª

g‡b n‡Z cv‡i ivóª bq, wgwWqvi Kv‡qwg ¯^v‡_© ivóª‡K wgwWqv e¨envi Ki‡Q, †Lj‡Q,
bvPv‡"Q| †mB gyn~‡Z© kwPb‡`‡ei `ª"ZZg †mÂzwi ev fvi‡Zi wek¦Rq wµ‡KU g¨vPI
†evanq `k©‡Ki g‡bv‡hv‡Mi Afv‡e ¯úÝik~b¨ fqven †jvKmv‡b c‡o †hZ| †Ke&j&
wWk P¨v‡bj¸‡jv ïay wb‡R‡`i bq, wewewm wmGbGb-Gi Qwe wb‡q, DcMÖn †_‡K mg¯fviZel©‡K GK we›`y‡Z G‡b, fviZel© GKB mgq †Rv‡bi g‡a¨ n‡jI †mw`b Qq
wW‡m¤^i ïay A‡hva¨vi mg‡qB fviZxq mgq w¯'i K‡i iv‡L †Uwjwfkb K¨v‡giv|
†`‡ek iv‡qi †mBiKg †gvg eY©bv, ÔKi‡meKiv QyU‡Q, Zv‡`i †QvUvi iO Av‡Q, Zv‡`i
gv_vq jvj †dwUª Av‡Q, ... Zv‡`i kix‡ii Pvgovq fviZxq iO Av‡Q, fviZxq †mB
Pvgov we‡`wk †j‡Ý I wdëv‡i DcMÖn gvidr mviv c"w_exi `"k¨ n‡q I‡V, Zv‡`i
†mB Pvgovi eyK cywo‡q †Lv`vB Kiv ÔRq kªxivgÕ Zv‡`i †mB Pvgovq Kcv‡ji Ici
Dwé w`‡q †Lv`vB Kiv Rq kªxivg, Zv‡`i wc‡Vi †cwk‡Z †Lvw`Z ÔRq kªxivgÕ, Zv‡`i
Qy‡U hvIqvi Zv‡j Zv‡j bo‡Q| †mB nvRvi-nvRvi gvby‡li GKw`‡K Qy‡U hvIqvi Q›`
ai‡Z K¨v‡giv Ô†¯-vÕ n‡q hvq, ... Qy‡U hvIqvi `"k¨‡K ev¯-e K‡i Zzj‡Z K¨v‡giv
†KvR-Av‡c P‡j †h‡Z cv‡i| †mB nvRvi-nvRvi gvby‡li HKvwš-K Qy‡U hvIqvi wecix‡Z
K¨v‡givq AvKv‡ki †g‡Ni g‡a¨ †f‡m _v‡K wbtm½ wZbwU M¤^yR hv w`M‡š-i Ask,
AvKv‡ki Ask| wc-G-wmÕi †Rvqvb‡`i Kuv‡a †bvqv‡bv ivB‡d‡ji VvÊv bxjvf `xwß
K¨v‡givq Av‡m| K¨v‡givq bvUK dz‡U, ïay `"‡k¨i bvUK| ... †eówbi Avov‡j e›`yK
nv‡Z cywjk, jvwV nv‡Z cywjk, D‡`¨vMnxb fw½‡Z w¯'i, †KD †KD GgbwK e‡mI|
K¨v‡givq Avjv`v Avjv`v K‡i †`L‡Z cv‡i GB GZ e›`yK, GZ e¨vR, GZ jvwV, GZ
†QvU †gwkbMvb| K¨v‡giv ¸Y‡Z cv‡i bv, wKš' K¨v‡giv †`Lv‡Z cv‡i| K¨v‡giv †`Lvq
t †mw`b A‡hva¨vq ïay Ki‡meKivB wQj bv, ivóª Zvi mg¯- kw³ wb‡q wbw®Œq Dcw¯'
wQj| K¨v‡giv †`Lvq t cvuPkÕ eQ‡ii w`Mš- e`‡j hvq Ki‡meK‡`i mwµq MuvBwZ‡Z,
kve‡j, nvZzwo‡Z, †jvnvi i‡W Avi Avav-mvgwiK evwnbxi wbw®Œq ÷vb‡MÖ‡bW, ivevi
†c‡jU, ivevi ey‡jU, KvZz©R jvwV‡Z, K¨v‡giv †`Lvq t fviZxq iv‡óªi wei"‡× †KvbI
kw³ gmwR‡`i wZbwU M¤^yR‡K gvwU‡Z bvwg‡q Av‡bwb, fviZxq ivóªe¨e¯'vi cÖwZiv
evwnbxI wb‡Ri wb®ŒqZv w`‡q †mB M¤^yR aŸsm K‡i‡Q, †mB wfZ Dc‡o w`‡q‡Q|Õ
mvC‡`i †SuvK-cÖMjfZv _vwg‡q Avwg ewj, iv‡óªi cywjk, cÖwZiv Avi e¨e¯'vcbvi
Av‡M †Lv` ivóªbvqK cÖavb gš¿x biwmsn ivIÕi f~wgKv Qq Zvwi‡Li Av‡Mi K‡qKw`b
†`‡Lv, ïay wbw®ŒqZv bq, G †hb Zvi B"Qv c~iY, Ges B"Qv jyKv‡Z, AvBwb I ivRbxwZi
Avov‡j, msweavb MYZš¿ ag©wbi‡cZv BZ¨vw` eywji Avov‡j †X‡K ivL‡Z Pvq| †`‡ek
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we‡`‡ki g‡Wj, Ôkv¯Õ¿I evievi cÖZ¨vL¨vb K‡i Avm‡Qb| bvn‡j wZwb g"Z †gv‡li
Revbew›` Ki‡Z hv‡eb †Kb ! `v½vi cÖwZ‡e`‡b myiv‡Ui †mB n¨vÊjyg kªwgK wkd&U&
†k‡l e-y †`‡L n¯-‰g_yb K‡i †kvqvi ci ciB Avevi al©‡Yi Av‡`k †c‡j †h m¼‡Ui
g‡a¨ c‡o †`‡ek evey †Kb Ggb m¼‡Ui g‡a¨ `v½vi GKwU iƒc †`Lv‡eb ! m‡Z¨i
Dj½ iƒcB wZwb †`L‡Z I †`Lv‡Z Pvb ! fvlvi cÖK…Z m‡Z¨i av‡iB Jcwb‡ewkKZvi
duvov KvU‡e !

136

Ä•z ~°yܲyÎ˚ •Î˚ˆÏï˛y xyÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y ã˛í˛Y•zÄ xÓ!¢‹T ˆö•z– Ó,k˛ñ ˆ≤ÃÔì˛¸ xyÓ˚ Î%ÓˆÏܲÓ˚y ˆï˛y
ˆáˆÏï˛y•zñ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ @ˇÃyˆÏüÓ˚ ˆÜ˛Ôï)˛•°# ˆû˛yçöÓ˚!§Ü˛ !ܲˆÏ¢yÓ˚Ó˚yÄ ˆ°yˆÏû˛ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ •Î˚ˆÏï˛y ˆÜ˛yö
!ܲå%È öy Ó%ˆÏ鲕z ò¢üy•zˆÏ°Ó˚ Ä•z ê˛ÇâˆÏÓ˚ ã˛í˛Y•z û˛yçy ˆáˆÏï˛ ˆÎˆÏï˛y... xyܲü° ï˛áö Ó°ˆÏ°yñ
ï˛yÓ˚ xy§ˆÏ° ã˛í˛Y•z ˛õy!á òÓ˚ܲyÓ˚ ˆö•z–

à“

ï˛y•ˆÏ° ã˛Äí˛¸y ˆë˛ÑyˆÏê˛Ó˚ ôˆÏö¢ ˛õy!á⁄
ôƒyö# ӈϰ ÎyÓ˚ §%öyü xyˆÏåÈñ ã˛R@ˇÃyˆÏüÓ˚ ˛õy•yí˛¸# xM˛Èˆ°
Ï ÎyˆÏòÓ˚ ˛õyÄÎ˚y ÎyÎ˚ñ Óy®Ó˚ÓˆÏö
Ó˚&üy öyˆÏü ~ܲê˛y çyÎ˚ày xyˆÏåÈñ ÷ˆÏöˆÏåÈö⁄ ˆ§áyˆÏö Óí˛¸ Óí˛¸ àyˆÏåÈÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yê˛ˆÏÓ˚ Óy§y ˆÓшÏô
ÌyˆÏܲ ÄÓ˚yñ í˛zˆÏ_çöy Óyí˛¸ˆÏÓ ~•z xy¢yÎ˚ áyˆÏüyܲy•z ˆ°yܲçö ˆÜ˛ˆÏöy ˆÎ !öÓ˚#• ˛õy!á!ê˛Ó˚
K˛y!ï˛ ÙȈày¤˛# ôùǧ ܲˆÏÓ˚ !òˆÏFåÈÊ

¢y•‰öyç ü%ߨ#

Óyò%í˛¸ Ä Ó ƒy!u˛

!òöyç˛õ%ˆÏÓ˚ ò¢üy•z° öyˆÏü ~ܲê˛y çyÎ˚ày xyˆÏåÈ ˆ§áyöܲyÓ˚ •yˆÏê˛ ~ܲê˛y ˆåÈyR ê˛ÇâˆÏÓ˚
ã˛í˛Y•z ˛õy!á !Ó!e´ •Î˚ñ ˛õy!á öÎ˚ xy§ˆÏ° !Ó!e´ •Î˚ ˛õy!á û˛yçy !ܲÇÓy Ó°ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ö ã˛í˛Y•z
˛õy!á û˛yçyñ ò¢üy•zˆÏ°Ó˚ Ä•z ê˛ÇâˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ §yüˆÏö ˆàˆÏ°•z xy˛õ!ö ˆòáˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓö !ÓÓ˚yê˛ ï˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚
áÑyã˛yÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ åÈê˛ú˛ê˛ ܲÓ˚ˆÏåÈ ¢ï˛ ¢ï˛ ã˛í˛Y•zñ ˆ¢yöy ÎyÎ˚ üyˆÏë˛Ó˚ üˆÏôƒ çy° ˆ˛õˆÏï˛ ~§Ó ã˛í˛Y•z
ôÓ˚y •Î˚ñ ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚ áˆÏjÓ˚ ~ˆÏ° ê˛˛õyê˛˛õ ã˛í˛Y•z ï%˛ˆÏ° çÓy•z ܲˆÏÓ˚ ü¢°y ˆüˆÏá ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚ í%˛ˆÏÓy
ˆï˛ˆÏ° é˛ê˛˛õê˛ ˆû˛ˆÏç ˆòÄÎ˚y •Î˚– •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚ àÓ˚ü àÓ˚ü xyÓ˚ üã˛üˆÏã˛ xyhflÏ ã˛í˛Y•z ú ˛y•z– ã˛í˛Y•z
ˆáˆÏ° öy!ܲ üò≈yöy ¢!_´ ÓyˆÏí˛¸ñ ï˛y•z §yüÌ≈ƒ ≤Ãï˛ƒy¢# ˛õ%Ó&˚ ˆÏ£ÓÏ ˚ !û˛í˛¸ ò¢üy•zˆ°
Ï Ó˚ Ä•z ˆòyܲyöê˛yÓ˚
§yüˆÏö ˆ°ˆÏà•z ÌyˆÏܲñ xÓ¢ƒ xy˛õöyˆÏܲ xy!ü ò¢ ÓyˆÏÓy˚ ÓåÈÓ˚ xyˆÏàܲyÓ˚ à“ Ó°!åÈñ ~ï˛!òˆÏö
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ôˆÏö¢ ˛õy!áÄ öyñ xy§ˆÏ° xyܲü° á%ÑçˆÏåÈ Óyò%í˛¸ñ Óyò%ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ üyÇ¢ñ ˆÓã˛yÓ˚y Óyò%í˛¸ñ
˛õy!á Óy ˛õ÷ ˆÜ˛yö ˆàyˆÏe•z ˛õˆÏí˛¸ öyñ ˆ§ê˛y Óí˛¸ Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ öÎ˚ñ Óí˛¸ Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ •ˆÏFåÈ ~Ó˚ üyÇ¢
á%шÏç ˛õyÄÎ˚yñ xyܲü° ÷ˆÏöˆÏåÈ Óyò%ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ üyÇ¢ ˆáˆÏ° •Ñy˛õyö# û˛y° •Î˚ñ §y!òܲyÓ˚ Óyí˛¸yÓy!í˛¸
Ó˚ܲˆÏüÓ˚ •Ñy˛õyö#Ó˚ ê˛yö xyˆÏåÈñ ܲˆÏï˛y í˛y_´yÓ˚ñ ܲˆÏï˛y Ä£Ï%ôñ ܲˆÏï˛y §yÓôyöï˛yñ !ܲå%ȈÏï˛•z !ܲå%È
•Î˚ öyñ ≤ÃyÎ˚•z àû˛#Ó˚ Ó˚yˆÏï˛ ˆã˛yá Óí˛¸ Óí˛¸ ܲˆÏÓ˚ x§•yˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y ˆçyˆÏÓ˚ ˆçyˆÏÓ˚ Ÿªy§ ê˛yöˆÏï˛
ÌyˆÏܲ ˆ§ñ •zöˆÏ•°yÓ˚ ˆöÎ˚yÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚ !ܲå%Èê˛y ¢y!hsˇñ !ܲv ˆ§•z ¢y!hsˇÄ «˛îfliyÎ˚#ñ xyܲü° ÷ˆÏöˆÏåÈ
Óyò%ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ üyÇ¢ ˆáˆÏ° •Ñy˛õyö# öy !ܲ ~ˆÏܲÓyˆÏÓ˚•z !ÓòyÎ˚ ˆöÎ˚ xyÓ˚ ç#ÓˆÏöÄ Ü˛yˆÏåÈ ˆâÑˆÏ£Ï öyñ
~•z üˆÏ•Ô£ÏˆÏôÓ˚ ܲÌy ˆ§ ˆçˆÏöˆÏåÈ •yÎ˚òyÓ˚ ܲ!ÓÓ˚yˆÏçÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈñ •yÎ˚òyˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ §Ç@ˇÃˆÏ• ˆçÑyˆÏܲÓ˚
ˆï˛°ñ ˆ¢Î˚yˆÏ°Ó˚ üyÇ¢ñ ÷ܲˆÏöÓ˚ öáñ ôˆÏöˆÏ¢Ó˚ ˆë˛Ñyê˛ §Ó•z xyˆÏåÈñ ˆö•z ÷ô% Óyò%ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ üyÇ¢–
xyܲü° çyˆÏö §K˛yˆÏö §y!òܲy ܲáˆÏöy•z Óyò%ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ üyǧ ˆáˆÏï˛ ã˛y•zˆÏÓ öyñ ï˛yˆÏܲ Ó°ˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓñ
~ê˛y ü%Ó˚!àÓ˚ üyÇ¢ñ û˛y° ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆï˛° ü¢°y !òˆÏÎ˚ Ó˚yߨy ܲÓ˚ˆÏ° Óyò%ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ üyÇ¢ öy !ܲ ü%Ó˚!àÓ˚
üyLjϧÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y•z §%fly∫ ò% °yˆÏàñ xyܲü° ܲ“öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ á%Ó xyÓ˚yü ˛õyÎ˚ ˆÎ §y!òܲy ü%Ó˚!àÓ˚ üyÇ¢
ˆû˛ˆÏÓ ï,˛!Æ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ Óyò%ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ üyÇ¢ ˆáˆÏÎ˚ !öˆÏFåÈ xyÓ˚ ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚•z !ã˛Ó˚ç#ÓˆÏöÓ˚ çöƒ •y ܲˆÏÓ˚
ܲ‹TܲÓ˚ Ÿªy§ê˛yöy Ó¶˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚ •Ñy˛õyö#ü%_´ é˛Ó˚é˛ˆÏÓ˚ ¢Ó˚#Ó˚ !öˆÏÎ˚ ú%˛Ó˚ú%˛Ó˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ â%ˆÏÓ˚ ˆÓí˛¸yˆÏFåÈ–
xyüyÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y Óyò%í˛¸ òÓ˚ܲyÓ˚ñ Óyò%í˛¸⁄
Óyò%í˛¸ ˆï˛y !òˆÏö üÓ˚yñ Ó˚yˆÏï˛ çyày ˛õy!áñ !ö¢yã˛Ó˚ñ ã˛#öyÓ˚y ܲ# üˆÏö ܲˆÏÓ˚ çyˆÏöö⁄ üˆÏö
ܲˆÏÓ˚ Óyò%í˛¸ §%á xyÓ˚ ò#â≈yÎ˚%Ó˚ ≤Ãï˛#ܲ– ï˛ˆÏÓ Ä•z ˆÎ Ó˚_´ˆÏã˛y£Ïy Óyò%ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ ày°à“ ÷ˆÏöˆÏåÈö öy⁄
û˛ƒy¡õyÎ˚yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ ܲÌy⁄ ÷ˆÏöˆÏåÈö⁄ ~ çöƒ ˆÓ!¢Ó˚û˛yà §üÎ˚ üˆÏö ܲÓ˚y •Î˚ Óyò%í˛¸ x÷û˛ñ ü,ï%˛ƒ
xyÓ˚ ˆÓ˚yˆÏàÓ˚ ≤Ãï˛#ܲ– xyüyÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y Óyò%í˛¸•z òÓ˚ܲyÓ˚ñ
˛õyˆÏÓöñ Óyò%í˛¸Ä ˛õyˆÏÓöñ ~ܲê%˛ xˆÏ˛õ«˛y ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓñ áÓÓ˚ !òˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ Óyò%í˛¸
!¢Ü˛yÓ˚#ˆÏòÓ˚ñ ï˛yÓ˚y xyÓyÓ˚ xyçÓ üyö%£Ïñ §Ó §üÎ˚ ˆ°yܲy°ˆÏÎ˚ xyˆÏ§ öyñ
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xyܲü° ~ܲê˛y fl∫yfliƒÓyö Óyò%ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ xí≈˛yÓ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚ á%˛õ!Ó˚ âÓ˚ê˛y ˆåȈÏí˛¸ ˆÓ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ xy§ˆÏ°
Ó%é˛ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ Óy•zˆÏÓ˚ §¶˛ƒyÓ˚ xyÓåÈy x¶˛Ü˛yÓ˚ñ xyܲyˆÏ¢ éÑ˛yܲ ˆÓшÏô ܲyˆÏ°y Ó˚ˆÏäÓ˚ ˛õy!áÓ˚ ò°
í˛zˆÏí˛¸ ÎyˆÏFåÈñ ÄÓ˚y !ܲ Óyò%í˛¸ñ !ö¢yã˛Ó˚ í˛zí˛¸hsˇ hflÏöƒ˛õyÎ˚#ñ x¶˛Ü˛yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ à¶˛ ÷шÏܲ ˆçˆÏà í˛zˆÏë˛ˆÏåÈ
ÎyÓ˚y ˆ§•zÈ ÙÙÙÈÈ öyÈÙÈ˛õy!áñ öy‰È ÙÈ ˛õ÷ ò°å%Èê˛ ≤Ãyî#Ü)˛°ñ xyò%Ó˚ Óyò%í˛¸ ã˛y°ï˛y Óyò%í˛¸ñ ܲ°y Óyò%ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚
éÑ˛yܲñ ò%•z ˛õyˆÏÎ˚ í˛y° xÑyܲˆÏí˛¸ í˛zˆÏŒê˛y •ˆÏÎ˚ é%˛ˆÏ° Ìyܲy xyˆÏ°yÈÙÈ!ÓˆÏm£Ï# ≤Ãyî#... xyFåÈyñ Óyò%í˛¸
!ܲ ˆ˛õy£Ï üyˆÏö⁄ ˆÜ˛í˛z !ܲ ˆã˛‹Ty ܲˆÏÓ˚ˆÏåÈ ÄˆÏòÓ˚ ˆ˛õy£Ï üyöyˆÏï˛⁄ ~ܲê˛y Óyò%í˛¸ ܲï˛!òö ÓÑyˆÏã˛⁄
Óö#xyòü ˆ¢á ~ܲê%˛ ˆÜ˛ˆÏ¢ ӈϰöñ Óyò%í˛¸ öyñ xy!ü xy§ˆÏ° ¢Ü%˛ö §¡∫ˆÏ¶˛ û˛y° Ó°ˆÏï˛
˛õyÓ˚ˆÏÓyñ ĈÏòÓ˚ §Ó ï˛Ìƒ xyüyÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ xyˆÏåÈñ ܲyÓ˚î ¢Ü%˛ö •ˆÏFåÈ ≤ÃyÎ˚ !Ó°%Æ ≤Ãyî#ñ
xyÓ˚ Óyò%í˛¸⁄
öy Óyò%í˛¸ xyˆÏåÈñ Óyò%í˛¸ ˛°%Æ •ÄÎ˚yÓ˚ xy¢Çܲy ~áˆÏöy ˜ï˛!Ó˚ •Î˚ öy•z–
ï˛y•z⁄ Óyò%í˛¸ ˛õyÄÎ˚y ÎyÎ˚⁄
ÎyÎ˚ñ @ˇÃyˆÏüÓ˚ ˆàˆÏ°•z ˛õyˆÏÓöñ ӈϰ öy Óyò%í˛¸àyåÈñ ˆÎ§Ó àyˆÏåÈ ÷ô% Óyò%í˛¸•z é%˛ˆÏ°
ÌyˆÏܲñ ¢•ˆÏÓ˚Ä Óyò%í˛¸ ˛õyˆÏÓöñ ˛õyÓ!°Ü˛ Óy§=ˆÏ°yˆÏï˛ üyö%£Ï ˆï˛y Óyò%í˛¸ˆÏé˛y°y •ˆÏÎ˚•z ã˛°yˆÏú˛Ó˚y
ܲˆÏÓ˚ñ ˆòˆÏáö!ö⁄
Óyò%í˛¸ ܲÎ˚!òö ÓÑyˆÏã˛⁄
~§Ó ï˛Ìƒ •zrê˛yÓ˚ˆÏöê˛ §yã≈˛ !òˆÏ°•z ˛õyˆÏÓöñ òÑyí˛¸yö ˆòˆÏá ˆö•zñ •Ñƒy 20 ÓåȈÏÓ˚Ó˚ üˆÏï˛y
ÓÑyˆÏã˛ñ Óyò%í˛¸ ˆ˛õy£Ïy⁄
•Ñƒy !ÓˆÏòˆÏ¢ xˆÏöˆÏܲ•z Óƒyê˛ •yí˛z§ ÓyöyÎ˚ñ Óyò%ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ ò° ~ˆÏ§ ˆ§§Ó Óƒyê˛ •yí˛zˆÏ§
ÌyˆÏܲ– xy!üÄ ~ܲê˛y Óƒyê˛ •yí˛z§ ÓyöyˆÏÓyñ xyüyˆÏòÓ˚ åÈyˆÏòñ Ó%é˛ˆÏ°ñ ÎyˆÏï˛ Óyò%ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ ò° ~ˆÏ§
ÌyܲˆÏÓ–
§y!òܲy ~ܲê%˛ xÓyܲ •ˆÏÎ˚ Ó°ˆÏ°yñ Óyò%ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ âÓ˚⁄ åÈyˆÏò⁄ ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy⁄
~ü!ö–
ܲÓ%ï˛ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ âÓ˚ ÓyöyÄñ •zFåÈy •ˆÏ° ܲÓ%ï˛Ó˚ ˛õyˆÏ°yñ Óyò%í˛¸ ˆÜ˛ˆÏöy⁄ ~ܲê˛y Ü%˛Í!§ï˛
≤Ãyî# ... ΈÏï˛y§Ó í˛zqê˛ ...ÈÈ xyˆÏÓ˚ ô%Ó˚Ê Ü%˛Í!§ï˛ öyñ Óyò%í˛¸ xy§ˆÏ° á%Ó §%®Ó˚ ≤Ãyî#ñ xyÓ˚ ï%˛!ü
í˛zqê˛ Ó°ˆÏåÈy⁄ !ÓˆÏòˆÏ¢ Óƒyê˛ •yí˛z§ á%Ó•z ܲüö ~ܲê˛y Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ñ ≤’y•zí˛zí˛ !òÎ˚y Óyöy•zˆÏï˛ •Î˚ñ
~ܲê˛y 15 ú%˛ê˛ °¡∫y °y!ë˛Ó˚ üyÌyÎ˚ Ó§yˆÏÓy •yí˛z§ê˛yñ ܲyˆÏ°y Ó˚ˆÏäÓ˚ •yí˛z§...
ˆ§•z •yí˛z§ !ܲ Óyò%í˛¸ ˆòáˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ⁄ ÄÓ˚y ˆï˛y x¶˛ñ ˆã˛yˆÏá ˆòˆÏá öyñ
xyˆÏÓ˚ öyñ ~•zê˛yÄ û%˛° ôyÓ˚îyñ Óyò%í˛¸ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ xyüyÓ˚ ˆã˛ˆÏÎ˚ û˛y° ˆã˛yˆÏá ˆòˆÏáñ
139

xyFåÈyñ Óyò%í˛¸ ˛õ%ˆÏ£Ï ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ °yû˛ê˛y ܲ# ÷!ö⁄ Óyò%í˛¸ !òÎ˚y •ˆÏÓê˛y ܲ#⁄
Óyò%í˛¸ !ܲv ü¢y áyÎ˚ çyˆÏöyñ ~ܲ â^ˇê˛yÎ˚ ˛õÑyã˛¢ ü¢y ˆáˆÏÎ˚ ˆú˛ˆÏ°ñ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ xyÓ˚
ܲˆÏÎ˚° !ܲˆÏö ü¢y üyÓ˚ˆÏï˛ •ˆÏÓ öyñ ≤ÃyÜ,˛!ï˛Ü˛ í˛z˛õyˆÏÎ˚ ü¢Ü˛ !öôö •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏÓ...
!ܲvñ xy!ü ÷ö!åÈ Óyò%í˛¸ öy!ܲ ˆÎÈÙÈü%á !òÎ˚y áyÎ˚ ˆ§•z ü%á !òÎ˚y•z •yˆÏà... ÄÎ˚yܲ Ì% ...
û˛yÓˆÏï˛•z !âߨy °yˆÏà...
ܲ# çy!öÊ ~•zê˛y ˆï˛y çy!ö öy– ï˛ˆÏÓ xyüyÓ˚ öyö#Ó˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ~ܲê˛y à“ ÷ö!åÈ°yüñ x“
x“ üˆÏö xyˆÏåÈñ ˆï˛yüyˆÏܲ Ó!°ñ xˆÏöܲ!òö xyˆÏà ˛õ,!ÌÓ#Ó˚ §Ó ≤Ãyî#Ó˚y û˛yӈϰy ï˛yÓ˚y ò%•ûz ˛yˆÏà
û˛yà •ˆÏÓñ ~ܲ û˛yˆÏà ÌyܲˆÏÓ ˛õy!áÓ˚yñ xöƒ û˛yˆÏà ˛õ÷Ó˚y– ï˛y•z ••zˆÏ°yñ ˛õy!áÓ˚y ˆà°
~ܲ!òˆÏܲñ ˛õ÷Ó˚y ˆà° xyˆÏÓ˚ܲ!òˆÏܲñ Óyò%í˛¸ ܲÓ˚ˆÏ°y ܲ# ≤Ã̈Ïü ˆà° ˛õy!áˆÏòÓ˚ òˆÏ°ñ Ó°ˆÏ°yñ
xy!ü í˛zí˛¸ˆÏï˛ ˛õy!Ó˚ñ ˆ˛õyܲy üyÜ˛í˛¸ áy•z xy!ü ˆï˛y ˛õy!á•zñ ~ܲê%˛ ˛õˆÏÓ˚ ï˛yÓ˚ üˆÏö ••zˆÏ°yñ xy!ü
hflÏöƒ˛õyÎ˚#ñ ÓyFã˛y çß√ ˆò•zñ öy•‰ xy!ü xy§ˆÏ° ˛õ÷ˆÏòÓ˚ òˆÏ°•z ˛õí˛¸ˆÏÓyñ ˆ§ ˛õy!áÓ˚ ò° ˆåȈÏí˛¸
˛õ÷ˆÏòÓ˚ òˆÏ° xy§ˆÏ°yñ ~ܲê%˛ ˛õˆÏÓ˚ §¶˛ƒy â!öˆÏÎ˚ xy§ˆÏï˛•z xyÓyÓ˚ ï˛yÓ˚ í˛zí˛¸ˆÏï˛ •zFåÈy ••zˆÏ°yñ
ˆ§ xyÓyÓ˚ !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˆà° ˛õy!áˆÏòÓ˚ òˆÏ°ñ !ܲv ˛õy!áÓ˚y ï˛yˆÏܲ xyÓ˚ òˆÏ° ˆöÎ˚ öyñ üˆÏöÓ˚ ò%ɈÏá ˆ§
xyÓyÓ˚ ˆà° ˛õ÷ˆÏòÓ˚ òˆÏ°ñ ˛õ÷Ó˚yÄ Ó˚yà ܲˆÏÓ˚ ü%á !ú˛!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ !ö°ñ Óyò%Ó˚ ï˛áö ˛õí˛¸ˆÏ°y
ˆòyÈÙÈê˛yöyÎ˚ñ !öˆÏçÓ˚ ˛õ!Ó˚ã˛Î˚ !öÎ˚y ˆ§ ï˛áö !môy!ß∫ï˛ñ ï˛yÓ˚ ˆ§•z !môy §Ω˛Óï˛ ~áˆÏöy ܲyˆÏê˛
öy•zñ xyܲüˆÏ°Ó˚ ~ܲ ˆ°áܲ Ó¶%˛ à“ê˛y ÷ˆÏö ühsˇÓƒ ܲÓ˚ˆÏ°yñ Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ê˛y xˆÏöܲê˛y ~üöñ ôˆÏÓ˚y
~ܲçö ܲ!Óï˛yÄ ˆ°ˆÏáñ àòƒÄ ˆ°ˆÏáñ ܲ!ÓÓ˚y ï˛yˆÏܲ òˆÏ° ˆöÎ˚ öy ӈϰ ˆ§ àòƒÜ˛yÓ˚ xyÓyÓ˚
àòƒÜ˛yÓ˚Ó˚y º& Ü%Ñ˛ã˛ˆÏܲ ӈϰñ xyˆÏÓ˚ Ä ˆï˛y ܲ!Óñ ú˛ˆÏ° ï˛yÓ˚ xyÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yö òˆÏ°•z çyÎ˚ày •Î˚ öy–
Ó‡ü%á# ≤Ã!ï˛û˛y •ˆÏ° Îy •Î˚ñ ~ˆÏ«˛ˆÏe Óyò%í˛¸ˆÏܲ ï%˛!ü Ó°ˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚y Ó‡ü%á# ≤Ã!ï˛û˛y– !môy!ß∫ï˛
!ܲv Ó‡ü%á# ≤Ã!ï˛û˛yÓyö Óyòyü# ¢Ó˚#Ó˚ xyÓ˚ ܲyˆÏ°y °¡∫y ˛õyáyÓ˚ ≤Ãyî#!ê˛ !ܲ åÈyˆÏòÓ˚ í˛z˛õÓ˚ ܲÓ˚y
Ä•z Óƒyê˛ •yí˛zˆÏ§ Óy§y ÓÑyôˆÏÓ⁄ Óyò%í˛¸ˆÏܲ xyÜ,˛‹T ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ çöƒ ˆåÈyR Óy§yê˛yˆÏï˛ ˛õyܲy ܲ°y
é%˛°yÎ˚y Ó˚y!áñ ܲ°y ˛õˆÏã˛ Ü˛yˆÏ°y •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚ñ Óyò%ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ ˆòáy ˆüˆÏ° öy– !ü°ˆÏÓ ˆÜ˛öñ ӈϰy⁄
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ í˛zˆÏj¢ƒ !ܲ û˛y°ñ ü•Í⁄ ï%˛!ü !ܲ ÷ô% xyòÓ˚ ܲˆÏÓ˚ xy‚yò ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ çöƒñ !öÉfl∫yÌ≈û˛yˆÏÓ
ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ xy◊Î˚ ˆòÎ˚yÓ˚ çöƒ ~ˆÏï˛y Îb ܲˆÏÓ˚ Óyò%ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ âÓ˚ Óyöy•zˆÏåÈy⁄ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ í˛zˆÏj¢ƒ ˆï˛y
Óyò%í˛¸ öyñ Óyò%ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ üyÇ¢... ˆÎ üyÇ¢ Óí˛zˆÏܲ áyÄÎ˚y•zÎ˚y ï%˛!ü ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ Óí˛zˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ •Ñy˛õyö# û˛y°
ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ã˛yÄ– ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚ §%fli Óí˛z !öÎ˚y â%Ó˚Óyñ ˆÓí˛¸yÓyñ •yÄÎ˚y áyÓyñ ÓyˆÏÓ˚ üçyñ ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ fl∫yÌ≈
ã˛!Ó˚ï˛yÌ≈ ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ çöƒ Óyò%ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ ò° !öˆÏç ˆÌˆÏܲ í˛zˆÏí˛¸ ~ˆÏ§ !öˆÏçˆÏܲ ˆÜ˛yÓ˚Óyö# ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆòˆÏÓñ
~ˆÏï˛y•z ˆ§yçyÊ
öy•ñ Óyò%í˛¸•z Î!ò öy xy§ˆÏ°y ï˛y•zˆÏ° xyüyÓ˚ Óƒyê˛ •yí˛z§ !òÎ˚y !ܲ ˆâyí˛¸yÓ˚ !í˛ü •ˆÏÓ⁄
Ä•zê˛y ÓÓ˚Ç öyüyÎ˚y•z ˆú˛!°– xyܲü° ï˛áö ܲyí˛zˆÏܲ !ܲå%È öy ӈϰ ã%˛˛õÈÙÈã˛y˛õ åÈyˆÏò ã˛ˆÏ° ÎyÎ˚–
ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚ Óyò%ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ âÓ˚ öyüy•zˆÏï˛ !àÎ˚y ˆòˆÏá xÓyܲ ܲy[˛ñ âÓ˚ ˆï˛y áy!° öy•zñ Óyò%ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ âˆÏÓ˚Ó˚
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ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚ áí˛¸ÈÙÈÜ%˛ê˛y !öÎ˚y ~ܲ ˆçyí˛¸y ã˛í˛Y•z !ò!Óƒ Óy§y ˆÓшÏô §Ç§yÓ˚ ÷Ó˚& ܲˆÏÓ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– ܲyˆÏÓ˚y
çöƒ xy§ˆÏ° ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy !ܲå%È áy!° ÌyˆÏܲ öy ˆòáˆÏåÈyñ !ë˛Ü˛•z ܲ#û˛yˆÏÓ ˆÎö çyÎ˚ày òá° •ˆÏÎ˚
ÎyÎ˚Ê ~•z ã˛í˛Y•z ò¡õ!ï˛ Ü˛ï˛ xÓ°#°yÎ˚ xˆÏöƒ çöƒ ÓyöyˆÏöy Óy!í˛¸ òᰠܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆú˛°ˆÏ°y... ~•z
§Ó û˛yÓˆÏï˛ û˛yÓˆÏï˛ xyܲü° Óƒyê˛ •yí˛zçê˛y öy ˆû˛ˆÏä•z !öˆÏã˛ ˆöˆÏü xyˆÏ§– §y!òܲy ï˛áö
â%üyˆÏFåÈñ §yÓ˚yÓ˚yï˛ ≤Ãã˛[˛˛ Ÿªy§Ü˛ˆÏ‹T û%˛ˆÏàˆÏåÈ ˆÓã˛yÓ˚#ñ áyˆÏê˛ ÓˆÏ§ ӈϧ xÑyÜ%˛˛õÑyÜ%˛ ܲˆÏÓ˚ öyˆÏܲ
ü%ˆÏá Ÿªy§ ˆê˛ˆÏöˆÏåÈñ !ÓåÈyöyˆÏï˛ ~ܲòü•z !˛õë˛ ˆë˛Ü˛yˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚!ö– §Ü˛y°ˆÏÓ°y ï˛y•z ï˛yÓ˚ â%ü öy
û˛y!äˆÏÎ˚ xyܲü° ˆ§yçy Óö#xyòü ˆ¢ˆÏáÓ˚ xyhflÏyöyÎ˚ ã˛ˆÏ° xyˆÏ§–
üyö%£ÏˆÏܲ ܲï˛û˛yˆÏÓ x˛õüyö ܲÓ˚y ÎyÎ˚ çyˆÏöö⁄ Óyò%í˛¸ !¢Ü˛yÓ˚#Ó˚y xyüyˆÏܲ ˆ§•zû˛yˆÏÓ
x˛õüyö ܲÓ˚ˆÏåÈ–

xyˆÏÓ˚ û˛y•z xy!ü xy!ü≈Ó˚ •y!Ó°òyÓ˚ñ
ܲ•z ˆò!áñ xy•z!í˛ Ü˛yí≈˛ ˆò!áñ Ü˛ï˛«˛î ôˆÏÓ˚ Ó°ˆÏï˛!åÈ Ü˛yí≈˛ ˆòáyÄñ
ܲyí≈˛ !ܲ §yˆÏÌ ÌyˆÏܲ öy!ܲ !ü~èy⁄ ܲyí≈˛ öy•zñ
~•z ˆï˛y §ˆÏ®•çöܲ ܲÌyÓyï≈˛yñ
xyܲü° ï˛áö üôƒfliï˛y ܲÓ˚yÓ˚ çöƒ ӈϰñ xyˆÏÓ˚ Ó˚yˆÏáö ˆï˛y û˛y•zñ åÈy•zí˛¸y ˆòöñ
Îy•zˆÏï˛ ˆòö í˛zöyˆÏܲñ ܲöˆÏfiê˛Ó°Ó˚y ï˛áö ÓÎ˚flÒˆÏܲ ˆåȈÏí˛¸ xyܲüˆÏ°Ó˚ !òˆÏܲ üöˆÏÎyà# •Î˚ñ
xy˛õˆÏö ˆÜ˛⁄ ~áyˆÏö ܲ# çöƒ xy§ˆÏåÈö⁄ xy•z!í˛ Ü˛yí≈˛ ˆòáyöñ xy˛õˆÏöÓ˚ ܲÌyÓyï≈˛yÄ
§ˆÏ®•çöܲñ ~!òˆÏܲ xyˆÏ§öñ xy˛õˆÏöÓ˚ ü%á ÷шÏܲ ˆòáˆÏÓyñ à¶˛ ˛õy•z !ܲ öyñ ܲyˆÏåÈ xyˆÏ§öñ

xy˛õˆÏöÓ˚ Óyò%í˛¸ ˆï˛y xyˆÏö•z öy•z xyüyˆÏܲ ӈϰ xyàyü# xüyÓ§ƒy öy xy§ˆÏ° öy!ܲ
Óyò%í˛¸ ˛õyÄÎ˚y ÎyˆÏÓ öyñ ~•zê˛y ~ܲê˛y ܲÌy⁄ ӈϰöñ x˛õüyö öy⁄

xyܲü° ܲyˆÏåÈ xy§yÓ˚ ÓòˆÏ° ~ܲê%˛ §ˆÏÓ˚ ÎyÎ˚–
xyˆÏÓ˚ û˛y•z xyüyÓ˚ ü%á ˆï˛y xy˛õöyˆÏܲ ÷ÑܲˆÏï˛ !òˆÏÓy öyñ

Óyò%í˛¸ xy˛õyï˛ï˛ Óyò ˆòöñ xyüyˆÏܲ ò%•z ˆÓyï˛° Ó y!u˛Ó˚ ÓƒÓfliy ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆòöñ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏÓö⁄

ˆÜ˛ö !òˆÏÓö öyñ ˆÜ˛yˆÏöy⁄

Ó ƒy!u˛⁄

xyˆÏÓ˚ !ü~èyñ Óƒy˛õyÓ˚ê˛y •y•zˆÏç!öܲ öyñ ÷ô% ÷ô% xy!ü ˆÜ˛ö xy˛õˆÏöˆÏÓ˚ ü%á ÷ÑܲˆÏï˛

•Ñƒyñ ÷ö!åÈ ë˛yu˛yÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ áy•zˆÏ° öy!ܲ ¢Ó˚#Ó˚ àÓ˚ü •Î˚ñ •Ñy˛õyö#ˆÏï˛ í˛z˛õܲyÓ˚ •Î˚ñ
˛õyÓ˚ˆÏÓö ˆÎyàyí˛¸ ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛⁄ ï˛y•zˆÏ° xyÓ˚ áyüyܲy ~ܲê˛y ≤Ãyî §Ç•yˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ òÓ˚ܲyÓ˚ öy•z...
xy!ü ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏÓy öyñ ï˛ˆÏÓ xyüyÓ˚ ~ܲ !¢£Ïƒy xyˆÏåÈñ Óy!¢° ˆÓ!í˛¸ ÓÑyˆÏôÓ˚ í˛z˛õˆÏÓ˚ Ó!hflψÏï˛
ÌyˆÏܲñ öyü Ü,˛£èã)˛í˛¸yñ òƒy Óœƒyܲ ˆ°í˛#ñ Ä ˆÎyàyí˛¸ ܲˆÏÓ˚ !òˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏÓñ ~ܲ §¶˛ƒyÎ˚ ã˛ˆÏ°
ÎyˆÏÓöñ xyüyÓ˚ öyü Ó°ˆÏÓöñ ܲyç •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyˆÏÓ–
xyˆÏÓ˚ ò)Ó˚ñ ~ï˛ ò)ˆÏÓ˚ ÎyÄÎ˚y °yàˆÏÓ öyñ ܲyˆÏÓ˚y ܲyˆÏåÈ ~ܲê˛y üˆÏòÓ˚ °y•zˆÏ§™ ÌyܲˆÏ°•z
•ˆÏÓñ öÎ˚ˆÏï˛y !ÓˆÏò!¢ ˛õy§ˆÏ˛õyê≈˛–
Ó˚yˆÏáö Ä•z§Ó Îsfîyñ xy˛õˆÏö Ü,˛£èã)˛í˛¸yÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ•z Îyöñ ¢!öÓyÓ˚ §¶˛ƒyˆÏÓ°yÎ˚ ...
Óy!¢° ˆÓ!í˛¸ ÓÑyˆÏô ˆì˛yܲyÓ˚ ü%ˆÏá §)Î≈yˆÏhflÏÓ˚ xyÓåÈy xyˆÏ°yÎ˚ xyܲü° ˆòˆÏá •zí˛z!öú˛ü≈
˛õÓ˚y ò%•zçö ˛õ%!°¢ ܲöˆÏfiê˛Ó° ~ܲ ÓÎ˚flÒ ˆ°yˆÏܲÓ˚ §yˆÏÌ í˛zFã˛fl∫ˆÏÓ˚ Óy•yˆÏ§ !°Æñ xyܲü°
˛õy¢ !òˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÓyÓ˚ §üÎ˚ ÓÎ˚flÒ ï˛yˆÏܲ ÌyüyÎ˚ñ ˆòˆÏáö ˆï˛y û˛y•zñ xy!ü xy!ü≈Ó˚ •y!Ó°òyÓ˚ñ
~•záyˆÏö •Ñyê˛ˆÏï˛ xy§!åÈñ xyÓ˚ Ä xyüyˆÏܲ áyüyܲy•z xyê˛yܲy•zˆÏåÈñ Îy•zˆÏï˛ !òˆÏFåÈ öyñ
~•zñ ~•zñ ~•zñ

!òˆÏÓy⁄
xyܲü° xyÓ˚ ~ܲê%˛ §ˆÏÓ˚ òyÑí˛¸yÎ˚– ܲöˆÏfiê˛Ó°ˆÏòÓ˚ ï˛Ó% !öÓ,_ ܲÓ˚y ÎyÎ˚ öy– ï˛yÓ˚y
ˆï˛!í˛¸Î˚y ˆüçyˆÏç !ã˛Õ‘yÎ˚ñ xy˛õˆÏöÓ˚y ÌyöyÎ˚ ã˛ˆÏ°ö– ÌyöyÎ˚ !àÎ˚y §Ó ˛õ!Ó˚ã˛Î˚ Óy•zÓ˚ ܲÓ˚ˆÏÓy–
xyÓ˚ ï˛áö•z âуyã˛ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ ~ܲê˛y ˆüyê˛Ó˚ §y•zˆÜÏ ˛° ~ˆÏ§ ĈÏòÓ˚ ˛õyˆÏ¢ ÌyˆÏü– ܲöˆÏfiê˛Ó°mÎ˚
§y°yü !òˆÏÎ˚ ˆ§yçy •ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚ñ ÓÎ˚flÒ •yí˛züyí˛z ܲˆÏÓ˚ ܲyˆÏ°y ˆ˛õy£Ïyܲ ˛õÓ˚y ˆüyê˛Ó˚ §y•zˆÏܲ°
xyˆÏÓ˚y•#ˆÏܲ âê˛öy ӈϰ– ܲöˆÏfiê˛Ó°Ó˚yÄ ˛õyŒê˛y !ܲå%È Ó°ˆÏï˛ ã˛y•zˆÏ° ï˛yˆÏòÓ˚ •yï˛ •z¢yÓ˚yÎ˚
Ìy!üˆÏÎ˚ !òˆÏÎ˚ ܲyˆÏ°y ˆ˛õy£Ïyܲ àΩ˛#Ó˚ à°yÎ˚ñ Ú ˆÜ˛ xy˛õöyÓ˚yñ ܲ•z ˆÌˆÏܲ xy§ˆÏåÈöñ ܲ# Óƒy˛õyÓ˚Û
~Ó˚ܲü ò%ã˛yÓ˚ê˛y üyü%!° ≤ß¿ˆÏ¢ˆÏ£Ï ӈϰñ
ÚxyFåÈyñ xy˛õöyÓ˚y Îyöñ ò%!òö xyˆÏà ~áyˆÏö ~ܲê˛y üyí≈˛yÓ˚ ••zˆÏåÈ ˆï˛y...Û
ˆ§ ˆüyê˛Ó˚ §y•zˆÏܲˆÏ° fiê˛yê≈˛ ˆòÎ˚–
xyܲü° ï˛áö Óy!¢° Ó!hflψÏï˛ ì%˛ˆÏܲ ~ܲê˛y ç#î≈ ê˛ÇÈÙÈâˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ §yüˆÏö öí˛¸ÓˆÏí˛¸ ˆÓ!M˛ÈˆÏï˛
ӈϧ ã˛yˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ xí≈˛yÓ˚ ˆòÎ˚– ã˛yˆÏÎ˚ ã%˛ü%ܲ !òˆÏÎ˚ ˆòyܲy!öˆÏܲ !çK˛yˆÏ§ñ
xy•zFåÈyñ Ü,˛£èã)˛í˛¸yÓ˚ âÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yöê˛y⁄

~ܲçö ˛õ%!°¢ ܲöˆÏ‹TÓ° ôüˆÏܲ ĈÏë˛ñ áyüyܲy xyê˛Ü˛y•z öy•zñ xy!ü ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ ü%ˆÏá
à¶˛ ˛õy•z!åÈñ §ˆÏ®•çöܲ à¶˛ñ !üåÈy ܲÌy Ü˛Ä ˆÜ˛ö⁄
141

ˆòyܲy!ö ï˛áö ˛õyŒê˛y !çK˛yˆÏ§ñ xy˛õˆÏö ˛õ%!°¢ñ öy §yÇÓy!òܲ⁄ ï˛y•zˆÏ° !ܲ xy!ü≈⁄
ˆàyˆÏÎ˚®y⁄ öy !ܲ ï˛yÓ˚ xyd#Î˚ fl∫çö⁄ ï˛Î˚ ܲ#⁄ ܲyfiê˛üyÓ˚⁄ üy° !ܲöˆÏÓö⁄ xyˆÏà Ü%˛ˆÏöy!òö
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xy•zˆÏåÈö⁄ ˆ•Ó˚ âÓ˚ á%шÏçö ܃yö⁄
Ó ƒy!u˛ òÓ˚ܲyÓ˚ñ ò%•z ˆÓyï˛°ñ
xyçˆÏܲ çyöàyñ ˛õ%!°ˆÏ¢ ˆÓ˚•zí˛ !òˆÏÓyñ ò%•z†ã˛y•zÓ˚!òö ˛õˆÏÓ˚ xyˆÏ§öñ
ˆòyܲy!ö !ú˛§!ú˛§ ܲˆÏÓ˚ Ó°ˆÏ° xyܲü° ˆò!Ó˚ öy ܲˆÏÓ˚ Óy§yÎ˚ !ú˛ˆÏÓ˚ xyˆÏ§ñ §y!òܲyÓ˚
ܲyˆÏåÈ–
ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ çöƒ Ó ƒy!u˛ ˆÎyàyí˛¸ ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛!åÈñ ≤Ã!ï˛!òö ò%•z ã˛yü%ã˛ Ü˛ˆÏÓ˚ áyÓyñ ¢Ó˚#Ó˚ û˛y°
ÌyܲˆÏÓñ ò%•z !òö ˛õÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚ Ÿªy§ í˛zë˛ˆÏÓ öy–
Ó ƒy!u˛ ܲ#⁄ öï%˛ö Ä£Ï%ô⁄
Ä£Ï%ˆÏôÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y•zñ xyD%ˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ Ó˚§ñ !ÓˆÏò!¢ñ à¶˛ê˛y ~ܲê%˛ Ü˛í˛¸yñ ~•z xyÓ˚ !ܲñ
§y!òܲy ï˛yÓ˚ §Ó˚° ˆã˛yá ˆüˆÏ° •Ñy˛õyö# ˆÌˆÏܲ ˛õ!Ó˚eyˆÏîÓ˚ xy¢yÎ˚ xyܲüˆÏ°Ó˚ !òˆÏܲ
ï˛y!ܲˆÏÎ˚ ÌyܲˆÏ° xyܲü° •yˆÏ§–
ܲ# ˆòˆÏáy •Ñƒy⁄
ˆò!á öyñ û˛y!Óñ û˛y!Ó ~•z x§%áê˛y xyüyÓ˚ ˆÜ˛ˆÏöy ••zˆÏ°yñ !Óí˛¸yˆÏ°Ó˚ ˆ°yü ˆÌˆÏܲ öy
!ܲ ~•zê˛y xyˆÏ§ñ xyüyÓ˚ òy!ò !Óí˛¸y° ˛õ%£ÏˆÏï˛yñ xyÓ˚ ˆåÈyê˛ˆÏÓ°y xy!ü ˆï˛y òy!òÓ˚ §yˆÏÌ•z
Ìyܲï˛yüñ !Óí˛¸y° ôÓ˚ï˛yüñ !Óí˛¸yˆÏ°Ó˚ §yˆÏÌ â%üy•zï˛yüñ ˆá°ï˛yü... òy!òÓ˚Ä ˆï˛y •Ñy˛õyö# !åÈ°ñ
ü•yáy!° Ó«˛Óƒyô# •y§˛õyï˛yˆÏ° !ã˛!ܲͧy ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ xy•z§y òy!ò üyÓ˚y ˆà!åÈ°
xyˆÏÓ˚ ô%Ó˚ ~•z§Ó !ë˛Ü˛ öyñ Óyò ˆòÄ ˆï˛y... ˆï˛yüyÓ˚ •zöˆÏ•°yÓ˚ xyˆÏåñ È öy ˆ¢£Ï⁄

âÓ˚ ˆòáˆÏÓö ˆ§•záyˆÏö•z ÄÓ˚ âÓ˚... é%˛˛õ!í˛¸ âÓ˚ê˛yˆÏܲ ˆòˆÏá xyܲüˆÏ°Ó˚ üˆÏö •ˆÏ°y ≤Ãy˜Ïà!ï˛•y!§Ü˛
Ü%˛!ê˛Ó˚ñ ç#î≈ñ ˛õ%Ó˚yï˛öñ §Ñƒyï˛ˆÏ§ÑˆÏï˛ åÈyï˛y˛õí˛¸y ˆÎö Óyï˛yˆÏ§Ó˚ ~ܲê%˛ •yÕÒy §üÌ≈ö ˆ˛õˆÏ°•z
ÓÑyˆÏ¢Ó˚ ˆÓí˛¸y ˆòÄÎ˚y Üœ˛yhsˇ âÓ˚ê˛y é%˛˛õ‰ ܲˆÏÓ˚ ÷ˆÏÎ˚ ˛õí˛¸ˆÓÏ – xyÓ˚ âˆÏÓÓ˚ ˚ ã˛yÓ˚˛õyˆÏ¢ ây§ñ °ï˛y˛õyï˛yÓ˚
Óyí˛¸hsˇ Óy•yÓ˚ñ ˆÎö ~ˆÏòÓ˚ í˛z˛õÓ˚ Ó‡!òö ˆÜ˛í˛z •Ñyê˛yã˛°y ܲˆÏÓ˚ öy– xyܲü° ã˛y ˆòyܲy!öÓ˚
ܲÌyüˆÏï˛y !¢Ó˚#£Ï àyåÈ ˆáÑyˆÏçñ !ܲv ÓyhflψÏÓ ~áyˆÏö !¢Ó˚#£Ï àyåÈ ˆÜ˛yÌyÎ˚⁄ ~ ˆï˛y ˆflÀú˛ ~ܲ!ê˛
Óyò%í˛¸ àyåÈñ ˆÎ˚ àyˆÏåÈÓ˚ í˛yˆÏ° í˛yˆÏ° ˛õyï˛yÓ˚ ÓòˆÏ° ˆåÈyê˛ Óí˛¸ ¢ï˛ ¢ï˛ Óyò%í˛¸ é%˛°ˆÏåÈ–
Óy•‰ ˆÓ¢ñ Óyò%í˛¸ xyÓ˚ Ó ƒy!u˛ ˆòá!åÈ ~ܲ§yˆÏÌ•z ˛õyÄÎ˚y ÎyˆÏÓñ xyܲü° û˛yˆÏÓñ !ܲv
•yˆÏï˛Ó˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ ~ï˛ §Ó Ä£Ï%ô ÌyܲyÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚Ä Ü,˛£èã)˛í˛¸yÓ˚ Ÿªy§ê˛yö Óy •Ñy˛õyö# ÌyˆÏܲ ܲ#û˛yˆÏÓ⁄ ò%•z
ã%˛ü%ܲ Ó ƒy!u˛ Óy ~ܲ Óy!ê˛ Óyò%ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ üyÇ¢ ï˛yÓ˚ çöƒ ˆÜ˛yö Óƒy˛õyÓ˚•z öy– í˛z˛õ¢ü ï˛ˆÏÓ Ü˛ï˛ò)ˆÏÓ˚⁄
ܲyÓ˚ ܲyˆÏåÈ⁄ ˆÜ˛yÌyÎ˚⁄ xyܲü° ˆÎö û˛yˆÏÓ xyÓ˚ ï˛áö•z ï˛yÓ˚ ày ˆâÑˆÏ£Ï ~ܲê˛y Ó˚&@¿ ˆ°yü Äë˛y
ˆâˆÏÎ˚y Ü%˛Ü%˛Ó˚ Ü%Ñ˛•z Ü%Ñ˛•z ܲˆÏÓ˚ ˆÓ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ÎyÎ˚– xyܲü° ~ܲê%˛ ã˛üˆÏܲ !˛õ!åȈÏÎ˚ ~ˆÏ§ Ü,˛£èã)˛í˛¸yÓ˚
âˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ éÑ˛yˆÏ˛õ ˆê˛yܲy ˆòˆÏÓ !ܲ öy û˛yˆÏÓñ ¢ï˛ •ˆÏ°Ä öyÓ˚#Ó˚ à,• ~!ê˛ñ xyÓ˚ ï˛áö•z ï˛yˆÏܲ
•ï˛û˛¡∫ ܲˆÏÓ˚ é%˛˛õ!í˛¸Ó˚ éÑ˛y˛õ á%ˆÏ° ܲyˆÏ°y ܲy˛õí˛¸ öy !ܲ ܲyˆÏ°y ˆÓyÓ˚áy öy !ܲ ܲyˆÏ°y ˆ°yˆÏü
xyÓ,ï˛ ~ܲ!ê˛ Ü,˛£èöyÓ˚# xÌÓy ~ܲ!ê˛ Ü˛yˆÏ°y ≤Ãyî# !ܲÇÓy ò,¢ƒyhsˇˆÏÓ˚ ~ܲ!ê˛ Ü˛yˆÏ°y Óyò%í˛¸
ˆÓ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ~ ˆ§ í˛yöy é˛y˛õˆÏê˛ xyܲyˆÏ¢ í˛zˆÏí˛¸ ÎyÎ˚ ... ï˛yÓ˚ ˆ˛õåÈö ˆ˛õåÈö ÷ܲˆÏöy §¶˛ƒyÎ˚ éÑ˛yܲ
ˆÓшÏô í˛zˆÏí˛¸ ÎyÎ˚ !¢Ó˚#£Ï àyˆÏåÈ ~ï˛«˛î ôˆÏÓ˚ é%˛ˆÏ° Ìyܲy Óyò%ˆÏí˛¸Ó˚ ò° ...
âê˛öyÓ˚ xyܲ!fløܲï˛yÎ˚ xyܲüˆÏ°Ó˚ •ë˛yÍ üˆÏö ˛õˆÏí˛¸ §y!òܲyÓ˚ çöƒ •zöˆÏ•°yÓ˚ !ܲöˆÏï˛
•ˆÏÓ xyÓ˚ ï˛yÓ˚ ˛õˆÏܲˆÏê˛ ˆÜ˛yö ê˛yܲy öy•z xÌÓy ˆÜ˛yö í˛z˛õ¢ü öy•z xÌÓy ~!ê˛ ~ܲ!ê˛ •Ñy˛õyö#@ˇÃhflñÏ
Ÿªy§ê˛yöy §¶˛ƒy ˆÎ x!:ˆÏçˆÏöÓ˚ xû˛yˆÏÓ x!ÓÓ˚yü •Ñy ܲˆÏÓ˚ !öÉŸªy§ !öˆÏï˛ ã˛yÎ˚ñ xy˛õyï˛ï˛ ï˛yÓ˚
~ܲ!ê˛ •zöˆÏ•°yÓ˚ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö–

≤ÃyÎ˚ ˆ¢£Ïñ xyÓ˚ üˆÏö •Î˚ ܲˆÏÎ˚ܲê˛y ˛õyú˛ ˆöÄÎ˚y ÎyˆÏÓñ xyöy °yàˆÏÓ
xy•zFåÈyñ xyöˆÏÓyˆÏöñ ò%•z ã˛y•zÓ˚ !òö ˛õÓ˚...
ò%•z ã˛yÓ˚ !òö ˛õÓ˚ §¶˛ƒyˆÏÓ°y xyܲü° xyÓyÓ˚ Óy!¢° Ó!hflÏÓ˚ ç#î≈ ê˛ÇÈÙÈâˆÏÓ˚Ó˚ §yüˆÏö
öí˛¸ÓˆÏí˛¸ ˆÓ!M˛ÈˆÏï˛ ÓˆÏ§ ã˛yˆÏÎ˚Ó˚ ܲyˆÏ˛õ ã%˛ü%ܲ ˆòÎ˚–
Ü,˛£èã)˛í˛¸yˆÏï˛y Ó‡!òö ••zˆÏ°y ܲyˆÏÓ˚y §yˆÏÌ Óí˛¸ !ӈϢ£Ï !ü°yˆÏü¢y ܲˆÏÓ˚ öyñ ~üˆÏö•z Ä
Ÿªy§ê˛yˆÏöÓ˚ Ó˚&à# ... ~ܲÓyÓ˚ ê˛yö í˛zë˛ˆÏ° §•ˆÏç òü !öˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ öy... !öˆÏçÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y•z ÌyˆÏܲ...
üy° ã˛y•zˆÏ° ˆï˛y xyüyÓ˚ ܲyåÈ ˆÌ•zܲƒyÄ !öˆÏï˛ ˛õyˆÏÓ˚ö ...
!ܲv xyܲü° Ü,˛£èã)˛í˛¸yˆÏï˛ !fliÓ˚ ÌyܲyÎ˚ ˆòyܲy!ö í˛zòy§# û˛!DˆÏï˛ xyä%° í˛z!Ñ ã˛ˆÏÎ˚ ˆòáyÎ˚ñ
Ä•z ˆÎ ê˛y!RáyöyÓ˚ !˛õåȈÏö í˛y•zˆÏöÓ˚ à!° !òÎ˚y ì%˛•zܲƒy ÓyˆÏü Îy•zˆÏÓöñ Ó!hflÏÓ˚ ~ˆÏE˛ˆÏÓ˚ ˆ¢£Ï
üyÌyÎ˚ !ã˛˛õyÓ˚ üˆÏôƒ ~ܲê˛y !¢Ó˚#£Ï ˛àyˆÏåÈÓ˚ ï˛ˆÏ° xy¶˛y•zÓ˚ üˆÏï˛y çyÎ˚àyÎ˚ xy°yòy ~ܲê˛y é%˛˛õ!Ó˚
143

144

~ܲ!ê˛ çÓ˚&Ó˚# ≤ß¿
!°ê˛° üƒyày!çˆÏöÓ˚ ˆÜ˛yö û)˛!üܲy xyˆÏåÈ !ܲ §y!•ˆÏï˛ƒÓ˚ çàˆÏï˛⁄ ~•z ≤ß¿ê˛y û˛#£Ïîû˛yˆÏÓ û˛y!Óï˛
ܲˆÏÓ˚ !öˆÏçˆÏܲ– xhsˇï˛ ˆ°áܲ !¢“#ˆÏòÓ˚ xö#•y Óy !ö!°≈Æï˛y ˆòˆÏá ~ê˛y•z üˆÏö •Î˚– ÚÚܲyàˆÏçÓ˚
ˆöÔܲyÓ˚ÛÛ §ˆÏD Î%_´ •ÄÎ˚yÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚•z ~•z !Ó£ÏÎ˚=!° xyüyÓ˚ öçˆÏÓ˚ xyˆÏ§– ~ü!öˆÏï˛ åÈ!Ó xÑyܲyÓ˚
çàˆÏï˛Ó˚ §ˆÏD !öˆÏçˆÏܲ !ü!¢ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÓ˚ˆÏá!åÈ ÓˆÏ° !°ê˛° üƒyày!çö ÎyÓ˚y ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ö ïÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚ §ˆÏD
ò#â≈!òˆÏöÓ˚ §áƒï˛y– ˆ§•z §áƒï˛y !åÈ° ≤ÃFåȈÏò Óy x°ÇܲÓ˚ˆÏî– !°ê˛° üƒyày!çˆÏöÓ˚ üü≈ܲÌy
xçyöy•z !åÈ° xyüyÓ˚– !ܲv ܲyàˆÏçÓ˚ ˆöÔܲyÓ˚ §ÇflõˆÏ¢≈ ~ˆÏ§ ~ÓÇ §¡õyòöyÓ˚ xöƒï˛ü
òy!Î˚c ˛õyÄÎ˚yÓ˚ ˛õÓ˚ !ܲå%È x!û˛K˛ï˛y §M˛ÈÎ˚ •ˆÏ°y– ~•z x!û˛K˛ï˛y û˛y° öy áyÓ˚y˛õ ˆ§ê˛yÄ
§!ë˛Ü˛ xö%üyö ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚!åÈ öy–
ˆ°áܲˆÏòÓ˚ öyü ܲˆÏÓ˚ °yû˛ ˆö•z– !ܲv ≤ÃyÎ˚ ~ܲ ÓåÈÓ˚ xyˆÏà !ã˛!ë˛ !òˆÏÎ˚ xyüsfî çy!öˆÏÎ˚ñ
ï˛yÓ˚˛õÓ˚ ≤ÃÌü !òˆÏܲ 1†2 üy§ ˛õÓ˚˛õÓ˚ üˆÏö ܲ!Ó˚ˆÏÎ˚ ˆòÄÎ˚y– §ÓˆÏ¢ˆÏ£Ï ≤ÃyÎ˚ ≤Ã!ï˛!òö ï˛yàyòy
!òˆÏÎ˚Ä ˆ°áy ˛õyÄÎ˚y ÎyÎ˚!ö– ~ܲê˛y üƒyày!çö ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˆàˆÏ° ï˛yÓ˚ ˛õ)Ó≈ ˛õ!Ó˚ܲ“öy òÓ˚ܲyÓ˚–
ˆ§•z ˛õ!Ó˚ܲ“öy üy!ú˛Ü˛ ˆ°áܲ !öÓ≈yã˛ö ܲÓ˚y •Î˚ ~ÓÇ ïÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚ !Óö¡À xyüsfî çyöyˆÏöy •Î˚
ˆ°áyÓ˚ çöƒ– ~áöñ ˆÜ˛yö ˆÜ˛yö !°!áˆÏÎ˚Ó˚y Î!ò ˆ¢£Ï ü%•)ˆÏï≈˛ x˛õyÓ˚àï˛y ≤Ãܲy¢ ܲˆÏÓ˚ö ï˛áö
§¡õyòˆÏܲÓ˚ ܲÓ˚&î û˛yÓyˆÏÓà xy!ü ˆòˆÏá!åÈ ~ÓÇ xö%û˛Ó ܲˆÏÓ˚!åÈ– ≤ß¿ê˛y ~•z xö%û)˛!ï˛ ˆÌˆÏܲ•z
çˆÏß√ˆÏåÈ– !°ê˛° üƒyày!çˆÏöÓ˚ !ܲ ˆÜ˛yö ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö xyˆÏåÈ⁄
xˆÏöˆÏܲÓ˚ §ˆÏD SxÓ¢ƒ•z ˆ°áyˆÏ°!áÓ˚ §ˆÏD ÎyÓ˚y Î%_´V ܲÌy ӈϰ Îy üˆÏö •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ– ˆ°áܲÓ˚y
xˆÏöˆÏܲ•z xyÓ˚ !°ê˛° üƒyày!çˆÏö !ÓŸªy§ ܲˆÏÓ˚ö öy– ïÑ˛yÓ˚y üˆÏö ܲˆÏÓ˚ö xyˆÏàÓ˚ üï˛ xyÓ˚
xyˆÏ®y°ˆÏöÓ˚ ˛õÎ≈yˆÏÎ˚ ˛õˆÏí˛¸ öy !°ê˛° üƒyày!çö– xyˆÏàÓ˚ üï˛ üyˆÏö 60 ~Ó˚ ò¢Ü˛ !ܲÇÓy
80†90 ~Ó˚ ò¢ˆÏܲÓ˚ ≤ÃÌü ˛õÎ≈yˆÏÎ˚ ˆÎüö !åÈ°–
~•z §Ó ˆòˆÏá ÷ˆÏö xyüyÓ˚ Îy üˆÏö •ˆÏÎ˚ˆÏåÈ ï˛y •ˆÏ°y ~•zñ ˆÎ Ó•zˆÏü°yÓ˚ ˆòÔ°ˆÏï˛ ¢•Ó˚
xyàÓ˚ï˛°yÎ˚ ~áö ≤Ãܲy¢öy !¢ˆÏ“Ó˚ öy®!öܲ xÓfliyö– ˆÜ˛yö ܲ!Ó Óy à“ܲyÓ˚ ~ÓÇ Å˛õöƒy!§Ü˛ñ
≤ÃÓ¶˛Ü˛yÓ˚Ó˚y !öˆÏçÓ˚ ˆ°áy ò%•z ü°yˆÏê˛Ó˚ ˆû˛ï˛Ó˚ ˆ¢yû˛ö ≤ÃܲyˆÏ¢Ó˚ xyˆÏÎ˚yçö ܲÓ˚ˆÏï˛ ˛õyÓ˚ˆÏåÈö–
!ܲ ≤ÈÏÎ˚yçö !°ê˛° üƒyày!çˆÏö ~ܲê˛y ܲ!Óï˛y Óy à“ åÈy!˛õˆÏÎ˚– ~ê˛y !öï˛yhsˇ•z xyüyÓ˚ !öçfl∫
xö%üyö– û%˛° •ˆÏ° §ÓˆÏã˛ˆÏÎ˚ ˆÎ á%!¢ •ˆÏÓ ˆ§Ä xy!ü– ~ï˛§Ó ≤Ã!ï˛Ü)˛°ï˛yÓ˚ üˆÏôƒÄ ÎÑyÓ˚y
ܲ!Óï˛yñ à“ ~ÓÇ xöƒyöƒ ˆ°áy !òˆÏÎ˚ ܲyàˆÏçÓ˚ ˆöÔܲyÓ˚ £Ï¤˛ §ÇáƒyˆÏܲ §ü,k˛ ܲÓ˚ˆÏ°ö ïÑ˛yˆÏòÓ˚
çyöy•z !Óö¡À ◊k˛y– ~•z ≤Ã!ï˛ˆÏÓòˆÏö xyÓ˚Ä xˆÏöܲ !ܲå%È !öˆÏÓòö ܲÓ˚y ˆÎï˛– üö Ó°ˆÏåÈ
ï˛yˆÏï˛ !ï˛_´ï˛y Óyí˛¸ˆÏÓ Ó•z ܲüˆÏÓ öy–
fl∫˛õö ö®#

˛≤Ã#!ï˛ Ä ÷ˆÏû˛FåÈy

ˆÓ˚çyö xy!° ï˛˛õyòyÓ˚
§û˛y˛õ!ï˛ñ !ÓçÎ˚öàÓ˚ Ó yòy§≈ Üœ˛yÓ
ܲ!Ó˚üàO

˛≤Ã#!ï˛ Ä ÷ˆÏû˛FåÈy

üï˛y•zÓ˚ xy!° ï˛˛õyòyÓ˚
§û˛y˛õ!ï˛ñ ˆüò° !Ó° í˛zߨÎ˚ö ~ö. !ç. Ä.
!ÓçÎ˚öàÓ˚ñ ܲ!Ó˚üàO

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