TITLE OF THESIS OR DISSERTATION: SIMPLE FORMAT WITH ENDNOTES AND TYPED BIBLIOGRAPHY IN WORD 2007 OR 2010

A Dissertation Presented

by

SAMANTHA S. STUDENT

Submitted to the Graduate School of the University of Massachusetts Amherst in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (or DOCTOR OF EDUCATION)

Month Year

Official Graduate Program Name

.

Student 2010 All Rights Reserved TITLE OF THESIS OR DISSERTATION: SIMPLE FORMAT WITH ENDNOTES AND TYPED BIBLIOGRAPHY IN WORD 2007 OR 2010 .© Copyright by Samantha S.

Chair . STUDENT Approved as to style and content by: _________________________________________ Name O. Chairr.A Dissertation Presented by SAMANTHA S.

Department Head or Dean as appropriate Department Name ._________________________________________ First O. Member _________________________________________ Second M. Member ______________________________________ Name. Member. Name.

DEDICATION .

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS viii .

A.D.ABSTRACT TITLE OF DISSERTATION DEGREE DATE NAME OF STUDENT. COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY Ph. B..A.. COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY M. UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST Directed by: Professor Xxxx Y. Zzzz ix ..

................. NEW SCIENTIFIC DARWINISTS .............................................. 1 Thomas Henry Huxley ..............................................xii LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1 Introduction .............................................................................................ix LIST OF TABLES ..................... 1 Discoveries of Organic Chemists and Evolutionists Complementary ...... 2 x ....................................................................................... xiii CHAPTER 1................................................................................................................................................................................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................viii ABSTRACT..............................................................................

................................................................. 9 THE TABLES ...................Applicability of Darwin's Argument to Human Beings................................................... 2 An Example of a Heading 4 Subdivision Head .. 5 Ernst Heinrich Haeckel .................................. SECOND CHAPTER TITLE ........ 3 An Example of a Heading 5 Subdivision Head ................................... 12 xi ... THE DARWINIAN REVOLUTION ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5 APPENDICES A........................................................................... 3 2................. B............................................................................................................................. 11 BIBLIOGRAPHY .................... 5 Haeckel’s Anti-Anthropocentrism................................................................................

11 xii ....11 Caption for Second Table Which I Made Extra Long to Show How it Wraps in the List .......... Caption for First Table ..................................................LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1.............. 2..........................

.........................................................................................................................LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1.................................... 2...........6 xiii ...........3 Caption for my Second Figure.. Caption for My First Figure ........

However."1 In using the adjective "rational. The most fundamental principles of that order. Huxley and Ernst Haeckel. Both Huxley and Haeckel adopted the anti-creationist aspects of Darwin's theory and used them to attack many traditional beliefs and social institutions. as well as to advance the claims of science to be an authority within society. The chapter also shows how Darwin's theory provided a basis for the foundation of comparative psychology by G. Romanes. are described as "laws of nature. J." Huxley did not suggest that he believed in a rational Mind or Lawgiver rather he meant that he believed the order of the universe to be comprehensible by a rational mind. he is himself an example of the "engineering mentality" form of anthropocentrism. "naught endures save the flow of energy and the rational order which pervades it. H. but" and "Crown of Creation"--which are attempts to resurrect supernatural control of evolution or to portray humans as the goal of creation. as they are observed by humans. Thomas Henry Huxley Huxley argued against primary anthropocentrism and the two forms of evolutionary anthropocentrism--"yes.CHAPTER 1 NEW SCIENTIFIC DARWINISTS Introduction This chapter shows how Darwin's theory of evolution was applied to the study of human evolution by two of the most enthusiastic of the new scientific Darwinists. T. The principle of the universe is order."2 1 . According to Huxley. and scientists are gradually discovering that order.

the evolution of life becomes more plausible." and "On Some Fossil Remains of Man. It contains three essays.Huxley made a point of reminding his readers that the chemicals making up living beings are breaking down and being reformed into new individuals all the time and that people belong to that system of life-and-death: Under whatever disguise it takes refuge. the living protoplasm not only ultimately dies and is resolved into its mineral and lifeless constituents. "On the Natural History of the Man-Like Apes. whether fungus or oak. the discoveries of organic chemists and evolutionists were complementary to each other. Man's Place in Nature was published in 1863.life." "On the Relation of Man to the Lower Animals." 2 . but is always dying. Man's Place was the first book to present the anthropological evidence supporting the theory that humans had evolved from or with other primates. worm or man. Huxley had no doubt that life had evolved from non-living matter.4 Thus. and. Although Huxley had given lectures on the subject of the human relationship to apes in 1860 and 1862. could not live unless it died. strange as the paradox may sound. Applicability of Darwin's Argument to Human Beings Huxley accepted Darwin's argument for evolution by natural selection and set out to demonstrate the applicability of the argument to human beings.3 Discoveries of Organic Chemists and Evolutionists Complementary Since the basic elements in living and non-living things are the same. If life is made of the same materials as non. The book is a precise and exhaustive examination of anatomical archaeological. and geological evidence for the evolution of Homo sapiens.

most educated people still believed in special creation and the Argument from Design." An Example of a Heading 5 Subdivision Head Nevertheless. 3 . naturalists expected and hoped that the study of nature would "reveal some meaning in it.14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Series 3 Series 2 Series 1 Figure 1: Caption for My First Figure An Example of a Heading 4 Subdivision Head One of the major controversies of Darwin scholarship is whether or not there is a "Darwinian revolution. man's relation with God." Darwin's study did just that--but hardly what had been expected or hoped for. arguments and impact are significant enough to warrant the title "revolution. something about man's place in nature." I agree with those who consider that Darwin's insights.

reprint ed. 1970). V: Science and Christian Tradition (London: Macmillan & co.. p. pp. vol.. vol. 4 Thomas Henry Huxley. 316. p. vol. Collected Essays. II..Notes 1 Thomas Henry Huxley. 1894. 3 Thomas Henry Huxley. 1894. 131-31 4 . Collected Essays. Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlag.. 1970). 76. Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlag. 316. Collected Essays. p. 2 Thomas Henry Huxley.. Lay Sermons. reprint ed. II: Darwiniana (London: Macmillan & co.

The Riddle of the Universe (1900). 5 .CHAPTER 2 SECOND CHAPTER TITLE Ernst Heinrich Haeckel Ernst Haeckel. which paralleled the mechanical explanations of physics and astronomy) the final proof of the "unity of organic and inorganic nature. like Huxley. used science as a weapon against some of the prevalent assumptions and institutions of his day. Haeckel’s Anti-Anthropocentrism Many of these were quickly translated into English and sold very well. The most important of his books for an examination of his anti-anthropocentrism are: The History of Creation (translated in 1873). For Haeckel natural selection was both a description of the origin of species and (because it is a mechanical non-teleological explanation of morphology. The Last Link (translated 1898). The Evolution of Man (translated 1879)."1 Haeckel wrote a number of books in an attempt to convert non-scientists to his ideas. and The Wonders of Life (1905).

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Series 3 Series 2 Series 1 Figure 2: Caption for My Second Figure 6 .

1876). and of that of Darwin. 2 vols. Ray Lankester (London: Henry S. Goethe.Notes 1 Ernest Heinrich Haeckel.. and revised by E. King & Co. 7 . trans. I:22. The History of Creation or the Development of the Earth and Its Inhabitants by the Action of Natural Causes: A Popular Exposition of the Doctrine of Evolution in General. and Lamarck in Particular.

APPENDICES 8 .

Ernst Mayr ("The Nature of the Darwinian Revolution. Nevertheless. naturalists expected and hoped that the study of nature would "reveal some meaning in it. 9 . Lewontin. man's relation with God." Science. (Darwin on Man: A Psychological Study of Scientific Creativity. David Hull (Darwin and his Critics: the Reception of Darwin's Theory of Evolution by the Scientific Community. Passmore and Coleman also have interesting comments about Darwin's most important contributions. 1969). no intellectual revolution occurs without a context." Of course. arguments and impact are significant enough to warrant the title "revolution. there were major forces for intellectual change in science in general as well as social change. 1973). Ghiselin (The Triumph of the Darwinian Method.APPENDIX A THE DARWINIAN REVOLUTION One of the major controversies of Darwin scholarship is whether or not there is a "Darwinian revolution." Darwin's study did just that--but hardly what had been expected or hoped for. most educated people still believed in special creation and the Argument from Design. 1974). and Howard Gruber. something about man's place in nature. Darwin did not invent the idea of evolution." I agree with those who consider that Darwin's insights. Modern scientists and historians of science who argue that there is a "Darwinian revolution" include Michael T. 1971).

10 .

but you have to choose one style and be consistent.APPENDIX B THE TABLES Unfortunately. a short caption looks dumb left-justified and a long caption looks dumb center-justified. Table 1: Caption for First Table column1 one one again final one column2 two two again final two column3 three three again final three column4 four four again final four Table 2: Caption for Second Table Which I Made Extra Long to Show How it Wraps in the List Identifying colors red orange blue original placements 4 5 3 1 month later 3 4 2 end of year 3 3 0 11 .

Darwin. or Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. 1904. ________. Cities in Evolution: An Introduction to the Town Planning Movement and to the Study of Civics. Edinburgh. 1949. Charles Robert. facsimile ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. London. London: Williams & Norgate. Edinburgh. Introduction by Ernst Mayr. Preface by Konrad Lorenz. reprint ed. Appleton. The Coming Polity. Interpretations and Forecasts: A Study of Survivals and Tendencies in Contemporary Society. New York: D. 1965. 1964. Cities in Evolution.: Rutgers University Press. and Selection in Relation to Sex. London: Williams & Norgate. Edited by The Outlook Tower Association. ________. Geddes. London: Duckworth & Co. Introduction by Peter Green. ________. Patrick.. 2 vols. Victor and Geddes. New Brunswick. London: Williams & Norgate. 1871. Branford. The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. reprint ed. 1968. General Editor. N. 1872.. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection.. ________. 12 . Ltd.BIBLIOGRAPHY Branford. The Descent of Man.. 1859. Jaqueline Tyrwhitt. 1914.. 1973.. Victor. 1919. and The Association for Planning and Regional Reconstruction. The Making of the Future. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Patrick. London: Murray. 1915. Appleton & Co..J. London: D. City Development: A Report to the Carnegie Dunfermline Trust. reprint ed. London: Ernest Benn.

(1888) XXIV:76-85.________. Home University Library. 13 . 1917.. 1911. Ideas at War. "Variation and Selection. Geddes. John Arthur.: Rutgers University Press. 9th ed. Gilbert. New York: Henry Holt & Co. London: Williams & Norgate. 1972. ________. Patrick Geddes: Spokesman for Man and the Environment." Encyclopaedia Britannica. (1883) XVI:836-47. Evolution. 9th ed. Geddes. The Making of the Future." Encyclopaedia Britannica. Patrick and Thomson. ________. Patrick and Slater.J. Edited and Introduction by Marshall Stalley. New Brunswick. "Morphology. N.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer: Get 4 months of Scribd and The New York Times for just $1.87 per week!

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times