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Agriculture,LiveStock Breeding, Forestry and Transport

Agriculture,LiveStock Breeding, Forestry and Transport

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Sustainable Development

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE SECTORS OF AGRICULTURE, LIVESTOCK BREEDING, FORESTRY AND TRANSPORT

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CONTENT

Sr. No.

Subject

Page No.

1.

Sustainable Development in Agriculture Sector

1

2.

Sustainable Development in Livestock Breeding Sector

23

3.

Sustainable Development in Forestry Sector

35

4.

Sustainable development in Transport Sector

51

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Sustainable Development in Agriculture Sector

Development of Agriculture in the time of Tatmadaw Government

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Sustainable Development

Mann Chaung and Mone Chaung dams in Magway Division: dams help benefit agricultural services in the country.

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Agricultural development of Myanmar
Being an agro-based nation, the Union of Myanmar is taking measures for development of agriculture as the base and all-round deve-lopment of other sectors of the economy as well. The agriculture sector fulfils the food requirement of the citizens. It also contributes much towards their socio-economic development and rural development. It is safe to say that only a country with strong economy will be able to ensure peace and stability. Only when there is peace and stability in the country will it be possible to carry out tasks for economic development, uplift of education standard and other development undertakings harm-oniously. Therefore, em-phasis is being placed on development of the agriculture sector which plays a fundamental role in national development. Three objectives, namely, paddy surplus, edible oil sufficiency and increased production of beans and pulses and industrial crops have been laid down and are being implemented for agricultural

The oil palm plantations thriving in Taninthayi Division to meet the target of edible oil sufficiency.

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Sustainable Development

Coffee plantations in Shan State.

Increase in paddy production of Myanmar
In striving for the Union of Myanmar to be a modern and developed nation, the government is paying serious attention to development of the agriculture sector which is the basis in the economic sector of the State. Paddy cultivation shares a sheer amount of volume in the State’s agriculture sector. Moreover, it is the main business of rural areas where majority of the people reside. Myanmar has a favourable weather condition and its soil are fertile. Therefore,

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measures are being taken to reclaim more land and increase per acre yield of paddy through exploiting natural resources and using the power of machinery at full capacity. To increase the per acre yield, the four methods— correct technique, quality strains, organic and inorganic fertilizer and extended sown acreage— are being applied. Moreover, priority is being given to meeting the targeted yield. Previously, con-ventional methods were applied in growing paddy and land was put under monsoon paddy once a year. But, starting from 1992, plans were made to put land under summer paddy. As a result of using quality strain paddy and implementing water supply project, the per acre yield of summer paddy exceeds the yield of monsoon paddy and cultivation of summer paddy is increasing year after year. Thanks to the efforts of making arrangements to increase per acre yield, reclaiming fallow and virgin and wet land, conducting highland cultivation and applying double cropping method, Myanmar’s paddy cultivation capacity has increased. Nowadays, Myan-mar’s paddy production has reached at its peak. The targeted yield of 1200 million baskets has been met as 16 million acres of land have been put under monsoon and summer paddy. At present, the paddy production is two times more than that of the past.

Increase in paddy production of Myanmar
Sr No 1 Subject Sown acreage (million) 1988 24.48 2005 26.6 Progress 1.8

2

Monsoon paddy sown acreage

11.53

15.04

3.51

3

Summer paddy sown acreage

-

3.44

3.44

4

Total paddy production (basket in million) 653 1,200 547

5

Per acre yield (basket)

53

70

17

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Sustainable Development

Myanmar’s population now is over 54 million. A person can have 15 baskets of paddy per year and thus the population need only 810 million baskets of paddy a year. The figure shows that Myanmar is in a position of achieving food sufficiency for as many as 100 million people. The significant progress in the yield of paddy in the time of the Tatmadaw government is shown in the table. *******

Mechanized farming helps agricultural development.

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Cultivation on floating islands at Inlay Lake in Shan State

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Sustainable Development

Extended growing and production of beans and pulses
For the development of the agriculture sector of the nation, plans have been laid down and are being implemented to increase growing of 10 items of crop. Out of the ten crops namely paddy, maize, groundnut, sesame, sunflower, pigeon pea, green pea, green gram, cotton and sugarcane, beans and pulses are important items in the agriculture sector. In Myanmar, beans and pulses are produced most after paddy. Beans and pulses have been grown throughout the country since distant past as they are easy to grow, the cost low and it can be grown as a mixed crop. Of them, gram, lablab bean, pigeon pea, butter bean and soya bean are grown most in the country. Although sown acreage of beans and pulses declined in the past for various reasons, it has now increased and reached up to about two million acres. In line with the market-oriented economic system, beans and pulses are grown not only for domestic consumption but for export. In 1988-89, only 1.8 million acres of land were put under paddy but in 2004-2005, the sown acreage of beans and pulses reached 8.4 million acres. The export items are green gram, pigeon pea, soya bean, cow pea and Myehtaukpe. In 1988-89, only 17000 tons of beans and pulses were exported but in 2004-2005 the number has reached up to 6.5 million tons. As Myanmar is the biggest exporter of beans and pulses out of the ASEAN member countries, she is playing a leading role in growing beans and pulses. Nowadays, measures are being taken to grow high yield strain beans and pulses and as a result the growing of beans and pulses has jumped markedly. The table provides the reader with facts and figures on extended growing and production of high yield strain beans and pulses.

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Extended growing and production of quality strain beans and pulses
Sr No Subject 1988 2005 Progress

1

Sown acreage of high yield strain beans and pulses - Sown acreage of mung (thousand) - Sown acreage of green gram (thousand) - Sown acreage of pigeon pea (thousand) - Sown acreage of soya bean (thousand) 1870 1918 1269 287 1933 2000 1309 328 63 82 40 41

2

Sown acreage of beans and pulses (million)

1.8

8.4

6.6

3

Tons of beans and pulses exported (100,000)

0.17

6.5

6.33

4

Production of beans and pulses (metric ton in thousand) 250 2500 2250

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Sustainable Development

A thriving orange plantations seen in Shan State.

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Growing of edible oil crops for ensuring edible oil sufficiency
With the effective use of natural resources, the Union of Myanmar, blessed with land and water resources, will surely raise her agricultural produce and forestry products. Myanmar’s agricultural capacity has increased as she has been able to use the natural resources effectively. Edible oil crops are important items out of the crops thriving in the country. The major edible oil crops grown in the country are groundnut, sesame, mustard, sunflower and niger. At present, measures are being taken to extend growing of oil palm and other crops to produce more edible oil. As not much water is needed in growing edible oil crops, the crops are growing well in arid zones of the central part of the country. But now, with advanced technology, edible oil crops are grown in various regions of the country including the delta. To meet the demand of domestic edible oil consumption, efforts are being made to extend growing of edible oil crops in Sagaing, Mandalay and Magway Divisions. In growing edible oil crops, sesame is grown through irrigation, sunflower is grown as a double cropping and wheat and gram as mixed crops. Under the leadership of the State, new quality strain groundnut and sesame are grown in suitable regions. Moreover, new hybrid produced by Agricultural Research Department are also used in growing sunflower. Starting from this year, emphasis is being placed on growing quality strain edible oil crops. The table shows concerted efforts made by the Tatmadaw government for ensuring edible oil sufficiency in the country.

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Sustainable Development

Opium-substitute crops in Shan State.

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Extended growing and production of industrial crops
The Union of Myanmar is striving for her citizens to enjoy higher living standard, and emergence of industrialized country. In building an industrialized nation, emphasis is being placed on development of agro-based industry. Included in the agro-based industry are rice mill, oil mill, flour mill, sugar mill, textile factory, jute mill, silk industry, rubber industry, etc. Cotton, sugarcane, jute and rubber are important raw materials used in these industries. With the aim of supplying enough raw materials to State-owned textile

Local peasants working on their farm on Shan hill.

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Extended growing of edible oil crops
Sr 1 2 3 4 5. Subject Groundnut sown acreage (t housand) Sesame sown acreage(thousand) Mustard sown acreage (thousand) Sunflower sown acreage (thousand) Niger sown acreage (thousand) 1988 1111 2557 5 296 122 2005 1617 3620 159 1262 258 Progress 506 1063 154 968 136

Extended production of edible oil
Sr 1 2 3 4 5 Subject Groundnut oil (metric ton in thousand) Sesame oil (metric ton in thousand) Mustard oil (metric ton in thousand) Sunflower oil (metric ton in thousand) Niger oil (metric ton in thousand) 1988 207 168 9 74 12 2005 249 197 12 94 17 Progress 42 29 3 20 5

Growing of quality strain edible oil crops
Sr 1 2 3 Subject Groundnut sown acreage (thousand) Sesame sown acreage (thousand) Sunflower sown acreage (thousand) 1988 2005 1566 3774 1657

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industries, providing more cotton for domestic use and exporting surplus cotton, efforts are being made to extend growing of the crop. In the time of the Tatmadaw government, cotton is designated as a major crop and grown as much as possible. More land are reclaimed to grow sugarcane with the aim of increasing the yield of sugarcane, and to fulfil the needs in domestic consumption of sugar and export the surplus. To extend production of jute, six zones have been formed in Bago and Ayeyawady Divisions where jute thrives well and necessary raw materials have been provided. Out of industrial raw material crops, rubber is one of the items which can fulfil the domestic industrial needs. Moreover, the crop has a bright prospect for export and can penetrate the foreign markets. To increase rubber export, new plants are substituted for the old ones and more land has been reclaimed for entrepreneurs who are engaged in growing rubber. The table shows extended growing and production of industrial crops in the time of the Tatmadaw government which is making all-out efforts for raising the living standard of citizens through industrial development.

Extended production of industrial crops
Sr
1

Subject
Cotton - Sown acreage (thousand) - Yield in viss (1 X 100,000) Sugarcane - Sown acreage (thousand) - Yield in ton (1 X 100,000) Jute - Sown acreage (thousand) - Yield in viss (1 X 100,000) Rubber - Sown acreage (thousand) - Yield in pound (1 X 100,000)

1988

2005

Progress

659 1002 266 51 94 203 333 597

910 1442 343 60 111 229 474 706

251 440 77 9 17 26 141 109

2

3

4

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Rubber plantations grown in Mon State.

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Extended growing of perennials and new items of crops
The agriculture sector not only fulfils the needs of the people but contributes to strengthening of national economic life. Therefore, the government is trying its utmost to extend the production of crops and reach the goal of the agriculture sector. In Myanmar, growing of major crops which are important for domestic consumption are being extended and at the same time, emphasis is being placed on extended growing of ten major crops, three new items of crops and three perennials in the respective states and divisions. The three new crops are coffee, tea and pepper and three perennial crops are oil palm, rubber and Thitseint (Belleric Myrobalan). These crops are grown in the most suitable regions of the country. Arrangements are being made for Taninthayi Division to become an oil pot of the State. In this regard, oil palm zones have been established in the division to extend

Oil palm nursery seen in Kawthoung Township, Taninthayi Division.

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Thriving tea plantations in Chin State. sown acreage and increase the growing of the crop. To be able to fulfil the demand in edible oil consumption of ever increasing population, plans are being made to put 700,000 acres of land under oil palm to produce 500,000 tons of oil palm oil. The private sector also contributes to extended growing of oil palm and oil mills are also being built. Moreover, Thitseint (Belleric Myrobalan) are grown in various regions of the country to fulfil the needs in domestic consumption. Plans are being made to extend growing of tea on .27 million acres of land. Pepper can thrive well in any part of the country and thus it is grown on a commercial scale as it can penetrate international markets. Myanma coffee is famous in foreign markets and the crop is one of the items which can earn foreign exchange. Therefore, fallow and virgin land has been reclaimed in the most suitable regions where coffee can thrive well. The table shows extended growing of three perennial crops and three new items of crop for raising the socio-economic life of the people in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

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Extended growing of three perennial crops
Sr Subject 1988 2005 Progress

1

Oil palm sown acreage (1=100,000)

-

4.5

4.5

2

Rubber sown acreage (thousand)

333

474

141

3

Thitseint (Belleric Myrobalan)

-

various regions

various regions

Extended growing of three new items of crops
Sr Subject 1988 2005 Progress

1

Tea sown acreage (1=100,000)

0.82

2

1.18

2

Coffee sown acreage (1=100,000)

0.74

1.48

0.74

3

Pepper sown acreage (1=100,000)

0.02

0.34

0.32

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Washaung Dam in Myitkyina, Kachin State.

Endeavours to supply water for agricultural purpose
Using the abundant land and water resources in the country through various ways and means, the Union of Myanmar is taking systematic measures for agricultural development. As water is essential for thriving of crops dams, diversion weirs, sluice gates are being built, river water pumping projects implemented and underground water tapped and as a result, arable land throughout the country has increased year by year. Water supply projects are being implemented with the rate of a dam per month and now 180 dams have emerged in states and divisions and these facilities benefit 2.4 million acres of land.

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Thaphanseik pumping project in Sagaing Division supplies water to farmland.

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Out of 870 million cubic feet of water flowing in the rivers and creeks of the country, only 6 per cent of it has been tapped for agricultural purpose. Therefore, river water pumping projects have been implemented and now altogether 293 river water pumping stations benefit over 200,000 acres of land. In rural areas, artesian wells and tube wells have been sunk to supply water to about 100,000 acres of land and the wells also supply potable water to over 16 million rural people. The table shows increase in dams, river water pumping stations, tube wells and benefited acres in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

Arrangements made to supply water for agricultural purpose
Sr Subject 1988 2005 Progress

1 2 3

Dam completed Dam under construction River water pumping project (Completed)

138 -

318 23

180 23

-

29

32 93

4

River water pumping project (Under construction) 4.4 34 1240 7535 7.2 34 1240 7535 2.8

5 6 7

Damming creeks Tube wells Total benefited acres (million)

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Sustainable Development in Livestock Breeding Sector

Development of Livestock Breeding in the time of Tatmadaw Government

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Sustainable Development

Developing meat and fish sector of Myanmar
Meat and fish sector is one of the three main economic pillars of the State. For the development of the meat and fish sector, the three work guidelines namely extended distribution of quality strains, development of prawn breeding and extension of livestock breeding tasks in rural areas have been set. Moreover, tasks are being carried out in states and divisions under the meat and fish sector five-year plan. Effective measures are being taken for development of domestic meat and fish production, ensuring meat and fish sufficiency at home and exporting the surplus to earn more foreign currency and raising the living standard of breeders under the leadership of the State. The tasks of animal husbandry are being carried out in border areas as well as in rural areas as it is important for development of the meat and fish sector. Moreover, quality animal strains that are suited to the respective regions are being bred and feedstuff and medicines for animals distributed to states and divisions. The contribution of the private sector to fish and prawn breeding tasks has risen and as a result domestic consumption as well as export items has increased and the State has earned more income through levying taxes from these business. Socio-economic life of rural people has been raised through conducting livestock breeding tasks on a commercial scale. Development in the livestock breeding sector also contributes to free flow of commodity. Livestock and fish breeders now have a good opportunity in doing their business at home and abroad and meat and fish in hygienic conditions can be distributed. The table shows development in the livestock breeding sector in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

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Myanmar’s developing meat and fish sector
Sr Subject 1988 0.6 2005 1.03 Progress 0.43

1 Extended breeding of animals (1=100,000)

2 Extended breeding of fish and prawn - Acres of fish ponds (1=100,000) 0.06 1.7 1.64 - Acres of paddy-plus-fish ponds (1=100,000) – 0.11 0.11 - Number (1=100,000) – 48.48 48.48 - Acres of prawn breeding ponds (1=100,000) 0.01 2.1 2.09 - Production and distribution of fingerlings (1=100,000) 31.29 2,148.98 2,117.69 3 Fish released into Ayeyawady river (1=100,000)

1,867.34 1,867.34

Prawn produced by a prawn breeding camp in Pathein, Ayeyawady Division.

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Fish breeding in Taninthayi Division

Fish breeding in Taninthayi Division

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Constant emergence of veterinary surgeons
The government has laid down and is implementing economic objectives— development of agriculture as the base and all-round development of other sectors of the economy as well and proper evolution of the market-oriented economic system — for the emergence of a peaceful, modern and developed nation. In accord with those objectives priority is being given to development of the fish and meat sector that is closely related to the agricultural sector. For development of the fish and meat sector, skills and technology of international class are required. The State is making constant efforts for the emergence of technicians in the fish and meat sector. These technicians including veterinary surgeons are now fully engaged in animal health care services, livestock breeding, prevention and control of animal infectious diseases that could spread to man. The Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science has drawn effective curricula on veterinary science and is teaching them to the students in a short time. It also sends scholars abroad for further studies. Nowadays, well-qualified veterinarians and researchers capable of enhancing the standard of fish and meat sector as well as animal husbandry and veterinary science are keeping abreast of those of the world. In recognition of the qualification of Myanmar scholars, Asian Veterinary Universities’ Association presented the awards on Asian veterinary science to two Myanmar veterinarians. In the time of the Tatmadaw government, relentless efforts are being made for development of the fish and meat sector. The table shows the number of post-graduate students and graduates.

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Sustainable Development

Fresh water fish for foreign market.

Fresh water fish for foreign market.

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Number of trainees studying for post-graduate degree
Sr 1 Training PhD (external) – PhD in Fishery – PhD in meat production 2 Masters Degree – Masters Degree in fishery – Masters Degree in meat production – internal – external 24 10 24 10 1988 2005 12 4 8 38 4 34 progress 12 4 8 38 4 34

Number of graduates and post-graduates
Sr 1 2 3 BVS MVS post-graduate -internal -external 4 PhD (external) 10 45 21 10 45 21 degree 1988 812 31 2005 3,511 97 progress 2,699 66

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Sustainable Development

Extended livestock breeding and increased meat production

The agriculture and livestock breeding sectors contribute much towards food sufficiency of national people residing in the Union of Myanmar. To fulfil the food requirements, emphasis is being placed on extended production of meat and fish and proper flow of commodities. With the aim of producing more meat, livestock breeding tasks have been carried out together with the private breeders plus partnership breeding starting from 1994-1995. In doing so, plans have been made to raise at least ten chickens and two pigs per household in rural areas. Now, the tasks cover respective states and divisions and local battalions and units are also taking part in it. For the success of these tasks, quality strain animals have been provided, disease prevention and control carried out, livestock breeding courses opened and the process of artificial insemination applied. In the time of the Tatmadaw government, livestock breeding is being extended covering all states and divisions including border areas and as a result, socio-economic life of rural people has improved. As efforts are being made to extend livestock breeding tasks year after year in various regions of the nation, people are now enjoying adequate meat. The table shows extended livestock breeding and increased meat production in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

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Livestock breeding tasks are being implemented in various parts of the country including border areas for boosting production of meat: A private poultry farm in Taninthayi Division.

Livestock breeding tasks are being implemented in various parts of the country including border areas for boosting production of meat: A private poultry farm in Taninthayi Division.

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Sustainable Development

Extended livestock breeding and increased meat production

Sr

Subject

1988

2005

Progress

1

States and divisions where livestock breeding projects implemented 6 14 8

2

Townships where livestock breeding projects implemented 54 273 219

3

State-owned livestock breeding farm 30 55 25

4

Number of livestock (1=100,000) 5.74 10.31 4.57

5

Meat production (viss) (1=100,000) 8.2 10.2 2.0

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Extended fish and prawn breeding and production, and increased export

L

With many rivers, creeks and lakes, and lying on a long coast- line, Myanmar is blessed with abundant land and water resources. Therefore, the motto of the meat and fish sector is “Where there’s water, there’s fish” and in line with the motto, fish and prawn breeding tasks are being extended. In accord with the market-oriented economic system, arrangements are being made to produce more fish and prawn for the people enabling them to consume more and ensuring sufficiency at home. At the same time, tasks are being carried out to export the products. The private sector is allowed to extend fish and prawn breeding tasks. Financial and technology assistance is being provided to them plus other assistance such as granting land for fish farming and digging of fish or prawn breeding ponds scientifically. In the Myanmar waters also, offshore and coastal fishery sites have been designated and fishing boats from home and abroad are allowed to catch fish in these sites. In the time of the Tatmadaw government success has been achieved in doing research on extended breeding and production of fresh water prawn. In accord with the motto “Produce while doing research”, prawn are being bred at department-owned ponds. Nowadays, there have emerged a large number of fish and prawn breeding ponds in the private sector and fish and prawn production is on the increase. In 1988, over 4 million fingerlings were produced but the number has now risen to 40 million and thus it can be said that the number today is ten times more than the previous one. Moreover, fingerlings have been released into rivers and creeks in order that they are not depleted. To penetrate the markets abroad and to distribute fish and prawn at home on a wide scale, International Aquatic Products Trade Zone was established in Myeik, Tanithayi Division and Fish and Prawn Trade Zone in Hlinethaya Township, Yangon Division. In the time of the Tatmadaw government, people are enjoying adequate supply of fish and prawn in the country. The table shows extended fish and prawn breeding and production, and increased export.

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Sustainable Development

Extended fish and prawn breeding and production, and increased export

Sr

Subject

1988

2005

Progress

1

Acres of fish breeding ponds (1=100,000) 0.62 1.55 0.93

2

Acres of prawn breeding ponds (1=100,000) 0.35 2.05 1.7

3

Production of fish and prawn (ton in thousand) 731 1986 1255

4

Fish and prawn exported (ton in thousand) 14 205 191

5

Value of fish and prawn export - US Dollar (million) - euro (million) - kyat (million) 60 166.95 20 114483.99 166.95 20 114423.99

6

Number of fingerlings released (million) 9.76 186.73 176.97

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Sustainable Development in Forestry Sector

Development of Forestry in the time of Tatmadaw Government

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Sustainable Development

Increased forest plantations
The three main economic sectors of the State— the agriculture sector, the meat and fish sector and the forestry sector— not only fulfil the food, clothing and shelter needs of the people but also contribute much towards national development. The Tatmadaw government, since its assumption of the State’s duties, has paid serious attention to fulfilling the food, clothing and shelter needs of the people which is the third duty out of the four main duties it has been discharging. In an effort for the development of the forestry sector, the tasks for extended growing of trees which can attract markets have been successfully carried out, and these tasks are conducive to people as well as environment conservation. As Myanmar’s forestry policy contributes to national economic development, stability of natural environment and balance of ecology, it wins support of United Nations Conference on Natural Environment and Development. In translating the State’s objectives into action, efforts are being made for development of the forestry sector by conserving forests for its perpetuity, fulfilling basic needs of the people, enhancing work efficiency, encouraging people’s participation. Nowadays, with the assistance of the State and public participation, reserved forests have been established, protected public forest conserved, natural area extended, forest plantations nurtured and trees planted as public activities. As a result, Myanmar becomes green and lush and forest areas have increased year after year. The table shows increase in growing trees and forest plantations in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

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Seinyay Forest Camp in Bago Division: Myanmar is rich in forest resources.

Seinyay Forest Camp in Bago Division: Myanmar is rich in forest resources.

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Increase in growing trees and forest plantations
Subject 1988 2005 Progress

Reserved forest (square mile) Protected public forest (square mile) Natural area (square mile) Setting up of forest (acre) - teak special plantation (acre) - acres of commercial plantation - acres of village plantation - acres of industrial plantation - acres of watershed plantation Acres of Thitseint plantation Tree planting through community movement (million) 4.51 210.25 205.74 19250 19250 6712 255384 248672 13690 126095 112405 16630 286854 270224 42083 493125 451042 140000 140000 2073.93 79115 12540 12433.26 1301458 12540 10359.33 1222343 38839 46889 8050

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More forest plantations established, natural forests conserved
Myanma forests not only help raise the socio-economic life of the citizens but also contribute much towards balancing of natural environment and bio-diversity and ecology. It is safe to say that all-round development of the forestry sector will surely ensure the long-term interests of the generations to come. It can be said that the basic resources of a nation are its soil, water and climate. The deterioration of forest will lead to land and water damage and as a consequence the weather conditions will be abnormal. Therefore, all are to conserve forests. With the increasing population, Myanmar’s dependence on forests rises. As a result the problem of damaging forests and ecological system has to be encountered. According to forest surveys, in the past, over 500,000 acres of forests that is equivalent to 0.32 per cent of the total land area of the country depleted yearly. In the time of the Tatmadaw government, emphasis is being placed on perpetuation of forest and minimizing forest depletion. In order to conserve and promote natural plants, forestry policy and objectives have been laid down and rules and regulations concerning the forestry sector issued. Thanks to these efforts, forest-covered land area of the country has increased. According to satellite photos, 52.28 per cent of land are covered with forests in comparison with about 51 per cent in the past. Moreover, a statement issued by World Food and Agriculture Organization concerning conditions of world’s forest acknowledges about 52 per cent of land in Myanmar is covered with forests. These are the fruitful results of implementing projects of conserving natural forests and growing forest plantations throughout the country including the arid zone of Myanmar. The table shows facts and figures on extended establishment of forest plantations and increasing natural forest conservation.

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Sustainable Development

One of the teak extraction sites of Bago Yoma.

One of the teak extraction sites of Bago Yoma.

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Establishment of forest plantations and conservation of natural forest
Sr Subject 1988 2005 Progress

1

Establishment of plantation (acre) - Acre of firewood plantation - Acre of watershed plantation - Acre of mountain range plantation - Acre of research plantation - Acre of other plantation - Acre of Thitseint plantation Nil Nil Nil Nil 15,825 416 24,645 4,200 15,825 416 24,645 4,200 Nil 66,550 66,550 Nil Nil 203,976 92,340 203,976 92,340

2

Acre of natural forest conservation Nil 1,079,431 1,079,431

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Sustainable Development

Emerging reserved forest, protected public forest and natural forest
Today’s forestry sector covers various kinds of work such as ensuring extraction of timber and forest products in the long run and conserving climate, natural environment, bio-diversity and their ecological system. The huge Himalayan mountain range stretching from the middle east to the northern part of Myanmar, geographical condition and existing of forest make a great impact on balancing of world’s climate. In this regard, Myanmar is trying its best in conserving natural environment, forest and ecological system of bio-diversity. The protected forest areas include reserved forest and protected public forest. According to forest-covered area of Myanmar and based on future needs, the fact that up to 30 per cent of land area of the country should be formed and designated as reserved forest and protected public forest is included in the forestry law. In order to protect natural environment and bio-diversity and to ensure sustained production of forest products, more reserved forest and protected public forest are being established. As a result, trees in the forests increased and ecological system in which animals are inhabiting becomes wide. Therefore, over 25,000 species of plants can be seen throughout the country and about 300 mammals, 360 species of reptiles and over 1,000 species of birds inhabit in the country. At present, arrangements are being made to extend natural areas up to 5 per cent of the land area of the country and this leads to emergence of natural areas which conserve and protect bio-diversities. Altogether 25 sanctuaries and five gardens with the area of 4.07 million acres that is equivalent to 2.43 per cent of land area of the country have been established. In the time of the Tatmadaw government Myanmar's forests become an ecological system in which natural plants are thriving and wild animals inhabiting. For national development systematic measures have been taken in conserving natural forests and protecting wild animals. The table shows emerging reserved forest, protected public forest and natural forest which benefit climate, natural environment and bio-diversity.

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Thriving dense forest in Bago Yoma as development of forest resources in Myanmar.

Thriving dense forest in Bago Yoma as development of forest resources in Myanmar.

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Sustainable Development

Emerging reserved forest, protected public forest and natural forest
Sr Subject 1988 2005 Progress

1 Number of reserved forest 2 Acre of reserved forest (million) 3 Number of protected public forest 4 Acre of protected public forest (million) 5 Increased reserved forest and protected public forest ( per cent) 6 Number of protected reserved forest 7 Acre of protected reserved forest (1=100,000) 8 Number of sanctuary 9 Natural area (square mile)

716 24.75 -

795 30.01 178

79 5.26 178

-

7.23

7.23

14.80 -

22.29 40

7.49 40

4

3.89 25

3.89 21 10359.33

2073.93 12433.26

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Local people’s forest plantations in states and divisions
In the present day, there has been an increase in extraction of timber and forest products as the burgeoning population in the nation is depending much on forests. Hence, priority is being given to control of logging, reforestation, preservation of forests, and extended growing of trees. For development of the forestry sector, the government has laid down and is implementing the 12 Myanmar forest policies with added momentum. In this regard, efforts are being made for ensuring active participation of the entire national people in the conservation of forests and in the management of forest resources. Instructions on public-owned local forest plantations were issued in 1995 for the people to systematically take care of and manage reserved and natural forests, and properly use them. This is aimed at ensuring the active participation of the people in establishing of forests and reforestation. Now, over 26,000 local people are fully engaged in reforestation of 81,733 acres of land. The government is now engaged in extended cultivation of teak at the rate of 20,000 acres per year for substitution of teak extracted. Efforts are being made for cultivation of 800,000 acres of teak in 40 years (from 1999 to 2038). Starting from 2039, the country will be able to produce about 100,000 cubic tons of teak yearly. Thanks to concerted efforts of the government and local people, teak plantations have increased in the time of the Tatmadaw government. The table shows emerging local people’s forest plantations in states and divisions.

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Sustainable Development

Teak plants being nursed by local people. Teak plants being nursed by local people.

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Local people’s forest plantations in states and divisions in acres
SR state/division 1988 2005

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Kachin Kayah Kayin Chin Sagaing Bago (East) Bago (West) Magway Mandalay Mon Rakhine Yangon Shan Ayeyawady Total -

-

780 100 485 465 995 1,043 2,645 750 8,193 165 1,612 400 43,469 20,631 81,733

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54

Sustainable Development

Work programmes for greening the arid zone
The central part of Myanmar is an arid zone with an average annual rainfall of 40 inches. The region therefore prefers water to gold. With scanty rainfall, the region became barren with few plants in the past. In the time of the Tatmadaw government, 13 districts, which were arid zones in the past due to scanty rainfall, have now become lush and green. In an effort to turn the central part of Myanmar into a green zone, the government had laid and implemented the nine-district greening zone project from 1994 to 1997. In 2001, the 30-year multipurpose project was laid down with a view to greening the arid zone. The 30-year project was divided into six phases each lasting five years. The project is being implemented under 11 work programmes, eight objectives and four tasks. On completion, the whole arid zone constituting 9.2 per cent of the nation’s area will become green. The emergence of dams and reservoirs and river water pumping stations created by the government has contributed much to ensuring water supply for agricultural purpose as well as greening tasks in the arid zone. Greening tasks such as reforestation, conservation of natural forest, use of wood-substitute fuel and implementation of water supply tasks are being launched for greening the 13 districts covering 57 townships—17 in Sagaing Division, 16 in Mandalay Division and 24 in Magway Division. At present, those townships have become lush and green. The table shows progress of greening tasks in the time of the Tatmadaw government thanks to concerted efforts of the government and the people in the drive for greening the arid zone. *******

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Teak plants being nursed.

Nursery of teak plantation.

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Sustainable Development

Work programmes for greening the arid zone
Sr Subject 1988 2005

1. 2.

reforestation (acre) conservation of natural forest -conservation of natural forest (acre) - natural regeneration (acre) -weeding (acre) -fire prevention (acre) -amending demarcation of protected forest (mile) -

-

105,000

-

800,000 100,000 454.000 668,227

4,000 924

-demarcation of plantation (mile) 3. use of wood-substitute fuel -high power stoves (number) -use of agri-wastes (ton) 4. water availability -digging of small lakes (number) -building of dams (number) -digging of tube-wells (number)

-

150,000 75,000

-

875 850 50

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57

Sustainable Development in Transport Sector

Development of Transport in the time of Tatmadaw Government

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58

Sustainable Development

Network of new roads throughout the country
To realize the goal of a peaceful, modern and developed nation, aims and objectives have been laid down and are being implemented in the Union of Myanmar. In doing so, more roads and bridges and airports which are essential for promoting productive forces, flourishing of the commercial sector and enhancing friendship and amity among national brethren are being built. In the past, due to lack of regional stability which has resulted in deteriorating of transport infrastructures, people faced difficulties in traveling. After assuming the duties of the State, the Tatmadaw government has laid down four major tasks to mend the deterioration in every situation of the country and it has placed emphasis on ensuring smooth and secure transportation. Thanks to the emergence of Union Highways, highways, town-to-town roads, district-to-district roads and village-to-village roads, a transportation network can be built, and as a result people are now enjoying smooth transport and trade has improved. As all-out efforts are being made with greater momentum year after year to build new roads, upgrade the old ones and repairing the damages in carrying out the tasks for ensuring smooth transportation, the total length of roads has reached 18640 miles and 3 furlongs, up from 13635 miles in 1988. Thus, it can be said that new roads with the total

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Mandalay-Lashio motorway.

Mandalay-Lashio motorway.

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Sustainable Development

Emerging new roads throughout the country
Sr Subject 1988 2005 Progress

1 Extended building of motor roads - Tarred road - Gravelled road - Hard road - Earth road (mile) (mile) (mile) (mile) (mile) 13635/0 5543/0 1569/0 3628/0 2895/0 18640/3 8972/2 3359/5 3089/4 3219/0 5005/3 3429/2 1790/5 Upgraded 324/0

2.

Road construction (Border area) - Earth road - Gravelled road - Tarred road - Road maintenance (mile) (mile) (mile) (mile) 3093/4 1871/1 329/0 3162/6 3093/4 1871/1 329/0 3162/6

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Developing transport network in states and divisions
The Union of Myanmar is made up of 14 states and divisions. Various national races live in different parts of the Union in unity and amity. The government has been building transport infrastructures for the national brethren to have close contacts among them. The government, enlisting the strength of the entire national people, has been building roads and bridges for the development of transport sector. Thanks to concerted efforts of the Tatmadaw, service personnel and local authorities, remarkable progress has been made in this regard. New roads and bridges are being built and the old ones renovated across the nation. In this connection, renovation of roads is being carried out section-wise. In 1988, there were 461 major roads with a length of 13,635 miles. At present, there are 621 major roads stretching 18,640 miles with an increase of 160 roads stretching 5005 miles. Nowadays, construction of roads is under way the length and breadth of the nation while the old ones are being upgraded. Old roads are being renovated in states and divisions. Altogether 21 roads were renovated in Kayin State, 22 in Mon State, 20 in Rakhine State, 25 in Shan State, 38 in Bago Division and 12 in Magway Division. The table shows the increasing number of roads in states and divisions in the time of the Tatmadaw government for secure and smooth transport. *****

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Sustainable Development

Chindurin Bridge (Monywa)

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Increasing number of roads in states and divisions
Sr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 astate and division Kachin Kayah Kayin Chin Mon Rakhine Shan Sagaing Taninthayi Bago Magway Mandalay Yangon Ayeyawady 1988 1471 396 554 695 424 448 4077 1332 397 815 1308 1035 243 440 2005 1629 581 771 1062 431 897 4530 2132 689 1016 1742 1285 543 1332 Progress 158 185 217 367 7 449 453 800 292 201 434 250 300 892

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Sustainable Development

Emerging bridges across the nation
A network of roads and bridges have emerged in the Union of Myanmar. Together with newly emerging roads, bridges large and small have also been built on these roads. In the past, there were only 198 bridges with the length of 180 feet and above but now 209 new bridges have emerged and the number has reached up to 407, increasing two times that of the past. Among the newly emerged bridges, the Tatmadaw has built 11 bridges, Myanma Railways seven, and two by the Ministry of Electric Power. On 26 November 2005, the Ministry of Construction commissioned 707 feet long Thanthamache Bridge on Taungup-Maei-Kyaukpyu road in Yanbye Township, Kyaukpyu District in Rakhine State into service. Therefore, the ministry has built 189 bridges including Thanthamache Bridge. These 189 bridges were built at a cost of over 130,000 million kyat plus US$ 170 million. The government with goodwill has spent a huge sum of money on building bridges, and people are now enjoying invaluable benefits resulting from these endeavours. With the emergence of bridges large and small the length and breadth of the nation, economy, education, health and social standards of people living in the respective regions have improved markedly. Moreover, these facilities link one region and another and thus the spirit of national solidarity and Union Spirit have flourished among national brethren who are actively taking part in regional and national development undertakings. The table shows newly emerged 180 feet and above bridges in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

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Nawaday Bridge.

Nawaday Bridge.

Emerging bridges
Sr 1 Subject 180 feet and above bridge - Construction - bridges completed - bridges under construction - bridges to be built - Tatmadaw Engineering - Myanma Railways - Electric Power 2 Under 180 feet bridges 198 3305 387 31 15 11 7 2 5113 189 31 15 11 7 2 1808 1988 198 2005 407 Progress 209

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Sustainable Development

Emerging bridges across the Union
The Union of Myanmar is made up of plain and hilly regions. In the past, according to its geographical condition, border areas of the country lagged behind in development due to poor transport which was the evil legacy of the past. Lack of stability in some states in the past had led the people living there to dire poverty. Moreover, construction tasks such as building of bridges and roads that would ensure smooth transportation could not be carried out. In the time of the Tatmadaw government, regional development tasks are being carried out with might and main for development of plain and hilly regions including border areas. Thanks to the endeavours made by the Tatmadaw government, bridges large and small have emerged on rivers and creeks where boats and ferries were used to cross them in the past and people are now enjoying smooth transport. There was only a bridge crossing the River Ayeyawady in the past, but now seven bridges spanning the river have emerged. In Mon State, people had to rely on ferries to cross Thanlwin River between Mottama and Mawlamyine. Nowadays, people are able to cross the river with peace of mind using the 11,575 feet long magnificent Thanlwin Bridge (Mawlamyine), the biggest and longest one in Myanmar. Emergence of good foundations in the transport sector throughout the country at present will surely shape the brighter future for generations to come. The Tatmadaw government, giving priority to national interests and enlisting national forces, is making arrangements to build more roads and bridges for national development. The table provides the readers with facts and figures on newly emerged bridges large and small in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

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180 feet and above bridges built across the Union
Sr State/Division 1988 2005 Progress

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Kachin Kayin Chin Mon Rakhine Shan Sagaing Taninthayi Bago Magway Mandalay Yangon Ayeyawady

27 8 2 3 11 24 17 8 36 20 18 7 11

39 13 6 9 44 41 36 15 52 35 27 32 52

12 5 4 6 33 17 19 7 16 15 9 25 41

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Sustainable Development

Aviation industry spreads its wings
The aviation industry plays a vital role in efforts for ensuring smooth and secure transport which is one of the national development drives the government is carrying out. As the passengers’ convenience is offered along with smooth air transport in Myanmar, the number of incoming and outgoing flights in the country has increased year by year. Increase in the number of passengers travelling by air shows the higher living standard of people, regional stability and development and international community’s taking interests in the scenic beauty of Myanmar. Therefore, runways are being extended and upgraded at busy airports and projects for building modern airports are being implemented. Mandalay International Airport was opened to the south of TadaU, and Bago Hanthawady International Airport is under construction. At Yangon International Airport also, runways and aprons have been extended and buildings renovated. In addition to these tasks, runway extension projects are being implemented at Hkamti airport, Ela airport, Bhamo airport, NyaungU airport, Bokpyin airport and Dawei airport. The table shows newly emerged airports and extension of runways in the time of the Tatmadaw government.

Airports constructed, upgraded and renovated
Sr 1 Subject Construction - airport with 5000 feet and above runway 2 Tatmadaw engineering - airport under construction - 5000 feet and above runway under construction 3 National entrepreneurs - 5000 feet and above runway under construction 3 3 4 4 4 4 21 38 17 1988 2005 Progress

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A plane lands at new Kyaukhtu Airport in Magway Division.

A plane lands at new Kyaukhtu Airport in Magway Division.

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Sustainable Development

Newly-built railroad.

Newly-built railroad.

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Extended water transport services
Harmonious development in the transport sector is essential in endeavours for emergence of a peaceful, modern and developed nation. With this end in view, long-term and short-term plans are being implemented in providing services for passengers and goods transportation. To be able to handle the increasing number of passengers and goods, vessels are bought from abroad and new vessels are built at home. Moreover, old vessels are repaired with own technological might. Necessary assistance is being provided for the convenience of holiday makers for rest and recreation. Moreover, package tours sand boat trips are also being arranged for tourists. In goods transportation, priority is being given to import and export goods, overseas good transportation and passengers and good transportation in the coastal areas. With the development of the State, the number of passengers and goods have increased year after year. In line with the market-oriented economic system, container yards and deep sea ports are being built to handle the increasing import and export. The table shows increasing number of vessels and jetties and progress in transporting passengers and goods in the time of the Tatmadaw government. *******

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Sustainable Development

Increasing number of jetties, passengers and goods

Sr

Subject

1988

2005

Progress

1

Jetty (Inland/foreign going vessel)

78

120

42

2

Passenger transport (Inland)

- Number of passenger (million)

2.34

8.47

6.13

3

Goods transport (Inland)

- Goods in ton (million)

0.37

1.38

1.01

- Goods in ton/mile (million)

35.7

150.85

115.15

4

Goods transport (Foreign)

- Goods in ton (million)

0.52

0.77

0.25

- Goods in ton/mile (million)

1193

2364

1171

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Improved rail services for both passengers and freight
Transportation plays an important role in national development. Transport charges for passengers or goods by train are very reasonable after water transport. It can save time, and a large number of passengers and goods can be transported very conveniently. As the nation’s population has been increasing year after year, the role of trains becomes vital in transporting passengers and goods. Therefore, the Tatmadaw government formed the Ministry of Rail Transportation as a separate ministry in 1994 to promote the transportation sector. Myanma Railways is trying its best for the convenience of national people by extending running of passenger trains and at the same time more number of carriages are plying from one region to another for smooth flow of goods. The running of express trains, mail trains, passenger trains, circular trains, light rail bus and freight trains are also being extended. Locomotives and carriages needed for better service are manufactured and repaired at home and some are imported. With the increase in the number of trains, the number of passengers has jumped up to over 43 million in 2005 from over 36 million in 1988. In 1988, the transported amount of goods/mile stood at 197 million but in 2005, the number has reached up to 396 million goods/mile. The service provided by Myanma Railways has contributed much towards national development and the development of socio-economic life of national people. The table bears witness to the efforts made by the Tatmadaw government for the convenience of passengers and smooth flow of goods. *******

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Sustainable Development

Myanma Railways moving into top gear
Sr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Subject Diesel Locomotive Light Rail Bus Engine Rail Bus Engine Diesel Multiple Unit (set)Passenger (million) Passenger mile (million) Freight (ton in million) Freight mile (million) 1988 270 19 5 36.68 1870 1.27 197 2005 293 65 12 5 43.13 1917.63 1.86 369.32 6.45 47.63 0.59 172.32 Progress 23 46 12

Emerging railroads and stations across the country
Smooth and secure transport contributes much towards people’s socioeconomic development. Moreover it helps consolidate friendship among national brethren residing in various parts of the nation. Therefore, roads and bridges as well as railroads are being built across the country to link one region and another. Starting from 1989, the Tatmadaw government has been building new railroads in states and divisions with few railroads and regions where there are no railroads. This is aimed at ensuring equitable development of every part of the country and smooth transportation. Tatma-dawmen have been lending a helping hand to these endeavours.

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–––––

M.V.Chin Shwe Haw of Myanma Five Star Line. M.V.Chin Shwe Haw of Myanma Five Star Line.

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Emerging railroads and stations across the country
Sr 1 2 3 4 5 Subject Miles of railroad Miles of rail track Station Major bridges on railroad Small bridges on railroad 1988 1976.35 2793.86 487 547 5103 2005 3042.39 3952.90 780 735 8484 Progress 1066.04 1159.04 293 188 3381

Railroads are being built not only in the plain regions but also in the hilly ones like Shan State. Thanks to the emergence of Shwe-nyaung-Taunggyi-SaikkhaungNamsam rail roads, goods from hilly regions can now be transported to the plains and vice versa. Now, Ye-Dawei railroad is under construction with the aim of transporting goods from Taninthayi Division where natural resources are abundant. In building new railroads, bridges large and small are also being built and along with the emergence of new railroads, stations have also been built in every region. In 1988, there were only 2700 miles of rail track but at present there are nearly 4000 miles of rail track and thus it can be said that nearly 1200 miles of rail track have been added in the time of the Tatmadaw government. The table provides the readers with increasing facts and figures of stations, bridges and railroads in the time of the Tatmadaw government. * * *

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