Data

Represents unorganized and unprocessed facts.
 Data is static in nature.  It can represent a set of discrete facts about events.

 It is a prerequisite to information.

An organization sometimes has to decide on the nature and volume of data that is required for creating the necessary information.

Information  Information can be considered as an aggregation of data (processed data) which makes decision making easier.  Information has usually got some meaning and purpose. .

Knowledge Knowledge can be seen as information that comes with insights. judgment. intuition.  In some sense knowledge represents truth and therefore offers a reliable basis for action.  . and values. framed experience.

Wisdom Accumulated Knowledge or Enlightenment  Wisdom comes with Knowledge and experience  Ability to apply knowledge or experience  It enables the individual to be rational  The trait of utilizing knowledge and experience with common sense and insight  The quality of being prudent and sensible  .

in isolation. .  Knowledge is an appreciation of the possession of interconnected details which. truths or information gained in the form of experience or learning.What is “Knowledge"?  Knowledge is the awareness and understanding of facts. are of lesser value.

Types of Knowledge Shallow Knowledge  Deep Knowledge  Reasoning  Heuristics  Common Sense  Declaratives Knowledge  Procedural Knowledge  Semantic Knowledge  Episodic Knowledge  .

Shallow Knowledge  Readily recalled surface knowledge with minimal understanding of the problem area Loan of small amount checking the salary & assets .

.Deep Knowledge  Acquired through years of experience of years Loan approval checking credit rating. net worth. pattern of paying on time etc.

Knowledge as know-how  Knowledge based on reading & training Knowledge based on practical experience  .

Reasoning  relating one concept to another If A>B. B>C then A>C .

Heuristics  Rules of Thumb based on years of experience .

Common Sense  A collection personal experience and facts acquired over time which humans tend to take for granted . .

Procedural Knowledge  How to do a task / Carry out a procedure  Psychomotor skills Hold a handrail while riding an escalator  Non psychomotor Fluently speaking a language .

Declarative Knowledge Awareness knowledge of which the expert is conscious  Shallow – readily recalled – simple uncomplicated information  Resides in short term memory Remember a number from a list to dial  .

Semantic Knowledge Deep kind of highly organized knowledge  residing in long term memory  In the memory for years  Used very often  Seems like second nature Vocabulary. facts. relationships  .

Episodic Knowledge Based on experiential information  Is in long term memory  More time an expert takes to explain the knowledge the more episodic it is  .

Shallow Knowledge • Procedural Knowledge • Declarative Knowledge • Semantic Knowledge Deep Knowledge • Episodic Knowledge .

Tacit Knowledge Knowledge embedded in human mind through experience and jobs  Personal and hard to formalize and communicate  Intuitions. values & beliefs .

training course  Knowing that – theoretical knowledge  Easier to identify as it is a physical entity which can be measured and distributed  . spreadsheet.Explicit Knowledge Knowledge codified & digitalized in documents. books. memos.

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