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‫))ﻫﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﻣﻠﻲ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ((‬

‫ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺷﻬﻴﺪ ﭼﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻫﻮﺍﺯ‪،‬ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻜﺪﻩ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺁﺏ‬


‫‪ ۱۲‬ﺍﻟﻲ ‪ ۱۴‬ﺍﺭﺩﻳﺒﻬﺸﺖ ‪۱۳۸۵‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ )‪ (GIS‬ﻭ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ )‪(RS‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬

‫ﻣﻨﺎ ﮔﻼﺑﻲ‬
‫ﺩﺍﻧﺸﺠﻮﻱ ﺩﻛﺘﺮﺍ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻜﺪﻩ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺁﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺷﻬﻴﺪ ﭼﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻫﻮﺍﺯ ﻭ ﻛﺎﺭﺷﻨﺎﺱ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺁﺏ ﻭ ﺑﺮﻕ‬
‫ﺧﻮﺯﺳﺘﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻴﺪ ﺑﻬﺰﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻴﺎﺭ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻜﺪﻩ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺁﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺷﻬﻴﺪ ﭼﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻫﻮﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﺮﻭﻣﻨﺪ ﻧﺴﺐ‬
‫ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻴﺎﺭ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻜﺪﻩ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺁﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺷﻬﻴﺪ ﭼﻤﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻫﻮﺍﺯ‬

‫ﭼﻜﻴﺪﻩ‬
‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻳﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺱ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻮ ﻭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ‪ %۹۰‬ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺁﺏ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻛﺸﺎﻭﺭﺯﻱ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺁﺑـﺸﻮﺋﻲ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺟﻤﻌﻴﺖ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻏﺬﺍﻳﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻮﻱ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺁﺏ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻚ ﻛﺎﻻﻱ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﻧﻤـﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳـﺖ‪ .‬ﺑـﻪ‬
‫ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺩﻫﻪ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺑﺤـﺚ ﺑـﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﺎﻓـﻞ ﺗﺨﺼـﺼﻲ ﮔـﺸﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﻫﻤـﻪ ﺍﻳـﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻞ ﺗﺎﻛﻴﺪ ﺑﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻜﺘﻪ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻛﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﺶ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﻛﻠﻴﺪ ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻴـﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜـﺸﻲ‬
‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻭ ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻﹰ ﺑـﺪﻭﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈـﺮ ﮔـﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﻣﻴـﺰﺍﻥ ﺁﺏ ﻣـﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴـﺎﺯ ﻭﺍﻗﻌـﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺁﺏ ﺭﺍ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﭘﺮﺍﻛﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﻣﺰﺍﺭﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻌﺖ ﺍﺭﺍﺿﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﻮﻉ ﻛﺸﺖ ﻭ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺖ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺤـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺼﺎﻝ ﺗﺎ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺁﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻭ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﭘـﺬﻳﺮ ﻧﻤـﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻔﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻱ ﺑـﻪ ﺻـﻮﺭﺕ ﺭﻭﺯﺍﻧـﻪ ﺗﻮﻟﻴـﺪ ﻣـﻲ ﮔـﺮﺩﺩ ﻛـﻪ ﻧﻴـﺎﺯ ﺑـﻪ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﺪﻫﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻭ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻨﺘﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻭ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻭ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﺮﺍﻭﺍﻧﻲ ﭘﻴـﺪﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ ﺣﻮﺿﻪ ﺁﺑﺮﻳﺰ ﺑﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﺪﻭﺳﺘﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻣﺪﻝ‬
‫ﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﺒﻴﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﺣﻮﺿﻪ ﺁﺑﺮﻳـﺰ ﺭﻭﺩﺧﺎﻧـﻪ ﻻﺍﻭﮒ ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻠﻴﭙﻴﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﺳﻮﻧﻲ ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚ ﺷﻬﺮ ﭘﺎﺗﻨﺎ ﻫﻨﺪﻭﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﻧﻤـﻮﺩ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻛـﺸﻮﺭ ﻣـﺎ‬
‫ﻧﻴﺰ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ ﻛﻮﺛﺮ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻨﻮﺏ ﺧﻮﺯﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﻭ ﮔﺘﻮﻧﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺷﻤﺎﻝ ﺧﻮﺯﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳـﻦ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻢ ﻫـﺎ ﻣـﻮﺭﺩ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﺮﺭﺳـﻲ ﻭ ﺷـﻨﺎﺧﺖ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴـﺎﻳﻲ ﻭ ﺳـﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻭ ﻧﺤـﻮﻩ ﺑـﻪ‬
‫ﻛﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻭ ﻧـﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫـﺎﻱ ﻛـﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳـﻦ‬
‫ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﻭ ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻭ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻳـﺪ ‪ .‬ﻧﺘـﺎﻳﺞ ﺍﻳـﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩ ﺁﺏ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﻱ ﺍﻟﮕﻮﻱ ﻛﺸﺖ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﻴـﻴﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺁﺏ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﻭ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻭ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺴﻂ ﺩﺍﺩ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﮊﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﻠﻴﺪﻱ ‪ :‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ‬

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‫‪ (۱‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﺧﻄﺮﻧﺎﻙ ﻛﻤﺒﻮﺩ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻫﻪ ﺍﺧﻴﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ‪ ۲۶‬ﻛﺸﻮﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺟﻤﻌﻴﺘﻲ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ ۳۰۰‬ﻣﻴﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻧﻔـﺮ‬
‫ﺩﭼﺎﺭ ﻛﻤﺒﻮﺩ ﺁﺏ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻃﺒﻖ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺑﻴﻨﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﺗﺎ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ۲۰۵۰‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﻪ ‪ ۶۶‬ﻛﺸﻮﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺟﻤﻌﻴﺘﻲ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺩﻭ ﺳـﻮﻡ‬
‫ﻛﻞ ﺟﻤﻌﻴﺖ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺭﺳﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﻟﺤﺎﻅ ﻧﺮﺥ ﺟﺎﺭﻱ ﺭﺷﺪ ﺟﻤﻌﻴﺖ ﻭ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﻪ ﮔﺬﺍﺭﻱ ﻛﻼﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺑﻨـﺎﺋﻲ ﺁﺏ ﺍﻧﺘﻈـﺎﺭ ﻣـﻲ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺩ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺤﺮﺍﻧﻲ ﺗﺮ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ )‪. (۵‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺳﺮﺍﻧﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺁﺏ ﺗﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ۱۹۵۰‬ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺟـﺰﺀ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻘﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﺍﻧﻪ ﺁﺏ ﺗﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪﻩ ﺍﻱ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ ۵۰۰۰‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ۱۰۰۰۰‬ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﻲ ﻛﻪ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺑﻴﻨﻲ ﻣـﻲ ﺷـﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺳـﺎﻝ‬
‫‪ ۲۰۲۵‬ﺳﺮﺍﻧﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺁﺏ ﺗﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ‪ ۱۰۰۰‬ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﻌﺐ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﻭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺭﻳﺰﻱ ﻭ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﺑـﺮﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺻـﺤﻴﺢ ﻭ‬
‫ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣـﺼﺮﻑ ﺣـﺪﻭﺩ ‪%۹۰‬ﻣﻨـﺎﺑﻊ ﺁﺏ ﻣﻮﺟـﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨـﺶ ﻛـﺸﺎﻭﺭﺯﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺳﺘﺎﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺏ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺿـﺮﻭﺭﺕ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣـﻪ ﺭﻳـﺰﻱ ﺩﻗﻴـﻖ‬
‫ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻗﻮﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ )‪.(۲‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺯﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻭ ﻣﺮﻣﺖ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﻗﻴـﻖ‬
‫ﺑﺨﺶ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪ .‬ﺗﻠﻔﻴﻖ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠـﻒ ﻣـﺪﻳﺮﻳﺘﻲ‬
‫ﭼﻮﻥ ؛ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺑﺤﺮﺍﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺭﻳﺴﻚ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ؛ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻣﺪﻝ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻛـﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﻣﺜﺒﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺧﺎﺻﻪ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺁﺏ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺎ ﻛﺎﻻﻱ ﺍﺭﺯﺷﻤﻨﺪﻱ ﭼﻮﻥ ﺁﺏ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺶ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﻱ ﻭ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫـﺎ ﻭ ﻣـﺪﻝ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﻛـﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﻛـﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻋﻠـﻮﻡ ﻣﺨﺘﻠـﻒ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻞ ﻭ ﻣﺠﺎﻣﻊ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺩﻭ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ‪ ۱‬ﻭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ‪ ۲‬ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧـﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺷـﺒﻜﻪ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻴـﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ‬
‫ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ ﻭ ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (۱- ۱‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ) ‪( GIS‬‬


‫ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﻪ ‪ GIS‬ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻲ ﻣﺘﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓـﺰﺍﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻧـﺮﻡ ﺍﻓـﺰﺍﺭ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﺯﻣـﻴﻦ ﻣـﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ )‪. (۷‬‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﺩﻫﻪ ‪ ۱۹۶۰‬ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻫﺎﻱ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻜـﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺘﺤـﻮﻝ ﮔﺮﺩﻳـﺪ ﻭ ﻓـﻦ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬
‫ﭘﻴﺸﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺟﺎﻱ ﮔﺰﻳﻦ ﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﻭ ﺷﻴﻮﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻨﺘﻲ ﺷﺪ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﻦ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻻﻳﻞ ﻣﺘﻌـﺪﺩ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻳﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻦ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﭼﻨﺪﺍﻧﻲ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻧﮕﺮﻓﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﻛـﺎﻫﺶ ﻗﻴﻤـﺖ ﺳـﺨﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﻛﺮﺩ ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻣـﺮﻭﺯﻩ ‪GIS‬‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻭ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺴﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻠﻴـﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﻘﻘﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺭﻳﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺩﻫﺪ ‪ .‬ﺩﻫﻪ ‪ ۱۹۹۰‬ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻋﺼﺮ ﺷـﻜﻮﻓﺎﻳﻲ ‪ GIS‬ﺑـﻪ ﺷـﻤﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺁﻭﺭﺩ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻫﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﺍﺕ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻤﻨﺪﻱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﺴﻂ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ‬
‫ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﻱ ﺍﺑﺪﺍﻉ ﺷﺪ )‪.(۳‬‬
‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﻪ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﻧﻮﻋﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻤﻚ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺗﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﺗﺮ ﻭ ﺑﻬﻴﻨـﻪ ﺗـﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻓﺮﻣﺖ ﻭ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻭ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ﻭ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺟﺴﺘﺠﻮ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﻓﻀﺎﻱ ﭘﺮﺳـﺶ ﻭ ﭘﺎﺳـﺦ ﺑـﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻔﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺕ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﻳﺎﺭﻱ ﮔﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ )‪. (۶‬‬

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‫‪۱) Remote Sensing‬‬
‫‪۲) Geographical Information System‬‬

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‫ﺳﻪ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ؛ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺺ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫـﺎ ﻣـﻲ ﺑﺎﺷـﻨﺪ ﻛـﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺷـﻜﻞ )‪(۱‬‬
‫ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ ‪ : ۱‬ﺍﺟﺰﺍ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ )‪( ۶‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻒ ( ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺺ ‪ :‬ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺺ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﻪ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﻭ ﭘﻴﺎﺩﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻭ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑـﻪ ﻫﻨﮕـﺎﻡ ﺳـﺎﺯﻱ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫـﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺑـﺮ‬
‫ﻋﻬﺪﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ( ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ‪ :‬ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻭ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻪ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻭ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻠﻴـﻞ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫـﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺝ( ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻔﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻔﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺿـﻴﺤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻲ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻪ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ‪ ،‬ﻧﺸﻴﺐ ﻭ ﻓﺮﺍﺯ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﺴﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺭﻳﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺑﻨﻴﻪ ﻓﻨﻲ ﻭ ‪ ...‬ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷـﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺩﻩ‬
‫ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻲ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻛﻴﻠﻮﻣﺘﺮﺍﮊ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖ ﻋﻮﺍﺭﺿﻲ ﭼﻮﻥ ﺭﻳﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﺴﺘﮕﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﭘﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺍﻧﺸﻪ ﻭ ‪ ...‬ﻭ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺗـﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻛﻨﻨـﺪﻩ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﻣﻜـﺎﻧﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﺳﻨﺎﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻙ ﻭ ﻧﻘﺸﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬
‫‪ -‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖ ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻲ ‪GPS‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻧﻘﺸﻪ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻲ‬
‫‪ -‬ﻋﻜﺲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻫﻮﺍﺋﻲ ) ﺗﻜﻨﻴﻚ ﻓﺘﻮ ﮔﺮﺍﻣﺘﺮﻱ (‬
‫‪ -‬ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﻱ ) ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ( )‪. (۱۲‬‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ ‪ : ۲‬ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ )‪(۶‬‬

‫‪ (۱- ۱- ۱‬ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ‪GIS‬‬


‫ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻌﺎﺭﻳﻒ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ‪ GIS‬ﺑﻪ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺁﺭﺍﻧﻮﻑ ‪ : ۱۹۸۹ ،‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋـﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺩﺳـﺘﻲ ﻳـﺎ ﻛـﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺍﺳـﺖ ﻛـﻪ ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ ﺫﺧﻴـﺮﻩ ﻭ ﺑـﻪ‬
‫ﻛﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ )‪. (۱۳‬‬

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‫ﭘﺎﺭﻛﺮ ‪ : ۱۹۸۸ ،‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻚ ﻓﻦ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻀﺎﻳﻲ ﻭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﻀﺎﻳﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻭ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ )‪. (۱۳‬‬

‫‪( ۱-۲‬ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ‬


‫ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺷﺪ ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻲ ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﺧـﺬ ﺷـﺪﻩ ﺑـﻪ ﻭﺳـﻴﻠﻪ ﻣـﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻣﻮﺳـﻮﻡ ﺑـﻪ ﻓـﻦ‬
‫ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻫﺎﺭﭘﺮ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻨﺠﻴﺪﻥ ﺍﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺗـﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻭ ﺍﻧـﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﮔﻴـﺮﻱ‬
‫ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻳﻚ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻤﺎﺱ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺑﺎ ﺁﻥ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ )‪. (۸‬‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﻠﻲ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﻪ ‪ RS‬ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭ ﻫﻨﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻥ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﻳﻚ ﺷﻲ ﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﻳـﺎ ﭘﺪﻳـﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳـﻖ‬
‫ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺣﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻤﺎﺱ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻜﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺷﻲ ﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﻳﺎ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﺗﺤـﺖ ﺑﺮﺭﺳـﻲ ﻧﺒﺎﺷـﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻥ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻧﻮﻋﻲ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﭼﺸﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪﻩ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ )‪. (۷‬‬
‫ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﮊﻱ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﮊﻱ ﺗﺠﺰﻳـﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻠﻴـﻞ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴـﺎﻳﻲ ﺗـﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣـﻲ‬
‫ﺩﻫﺪ ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻲ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﻣﻌﻨـﻲ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪﻭﺩﻱ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻚ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﻘﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﻳﻚ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﻳﻚ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻱ ﺑـﻪ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺭﺍﻫﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺁﺑﺮﺍﻫﻪ ﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﭼﺎﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﻔـﺖ ‪ ،‬ﭼﺎﻫـﻚ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﻣـﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﺍﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻣـﺰﺍﺭﻉ ﻭ ‪ ...‬ﻛـﻪ ﻫـﺮ ﻛـﺪﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ‪ ،‬ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﻭ ﭼﻨﺪ ﻭﺟﻬﻲ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﻱ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺖ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﻲ ﺑـﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﺯﺗﺎﺑﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻟﺰﻭﻣﺎﹰ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﻨـﺪ ﺑـﻮﺩ ‪ .‬ﺑـﻪ ﺑﻴـﺎﻥ ﺩﻳﮕـﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺳـﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺑﻜﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺻﻼﺡ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﺒﺎﺱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻫـﺪﺍﻑ ﻭ ﺩﻳـﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﻣـﺸﺨﺺ ﻭ‬
‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﻱ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ )‪. (۱‬‬

‫‪ (۲‬ﻣﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ‪ GIS‬ﻭ ‪ RS‬ﺩﺭ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ‬
‫ﺑــﻪ ﻣﻨﻈــﻮﺭ ﻧﻤــﺎﻳﺶ ﻧﺤــﻮﻩ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫــﺎﻱ ﻣــﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﻱ ﻭ ﺳﻴــﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋــﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴــﺎﻳﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻣــﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺁﺑﻴــﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﻨﻄﻘــﻪ‬
‫‪ Riotunuyan‬ﺩﺭ ﺁﺭﮊﺍﻧﺘﻴﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺁﺑﻴـﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺟـﺮﺍ ﮔﺮﺩﻳـﺪ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻪ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺖ ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺁﺏ ﺳﻄﺤﻲ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺁﺑﻴـﺎﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺨـﺼﻴﺺ ﺁﺏ ﺳـﻄﺤﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒـﺎﻁ ﺑـﺎ‬
‫ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻲ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻭ ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﺁﺏ ﺳﻄﺤﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺪﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﺧﺺ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻛﺮﺩﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻬﻴﻨـﻪ ﺳـﺎﺯﻱ ﺍﻧﺠـﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺷﺪ ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻫﻮﺍﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺿﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ﻛﺸﺎﻭﺭﺯﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺑـﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣـﻪ ﺭﻳـﺰﻱ ﺗﻮﺯﻳـﻊ ﺁﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﺗﻮﭘـﻮﮔﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﺸﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﺎﻛﺸﻨﺎﺳﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ‪ ERDAS‬ﻭ ﺭﻗﻮﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﻣﺮﺯ ﻭﺍﺣـﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻨﻄﻘـﻪ ﺍﻱ‬
‫ﻭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﺎﻙ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ‪ ARC/INFO‬ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪ ‪ .‬ﺳﭙﺲ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴـﺎﻳﻲ ﻻﻳـﻪ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠـﻒ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺷﺎﺧﺺ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ )‪. (۱۴‬‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﺪﻭﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻭ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺖ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻎ ﺑﺮ ﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻴﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺑـﻪ‬
‫ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻫﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺧﻴﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺯ ‪ GIS‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺭﻳﺰﻱ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻛﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﻫﺎ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺑﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺁﺑﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﻱ ﺷﺎﺧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺁﺏ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬
‫ﺍﺯ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ‪ ARCINFO/GIS‬ﻧﻘﺸﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﺎﻟﻬﺎﻱ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ‪ Panta‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﻮﺿـﻪ ‪ Banha‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺎﻟـﺖ ‪ Bihar‬ﻫﻨﺪﻭﺳـﺘﺎﻥ ﺗﻬﻴـﻪ‬
‫ﺷﺪ ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﻙ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺭﻧﺪﮔﻲ ﻭ ﭘﺘﺎﻧﺴﻴﻞ ﺁﺑﻬﺎﻱ ﺯﻳﺮﺯﻣﻴﻨﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻭ ﺷﺎﺧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﺮﻋـﻲ‬
‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻛﺪ ﮔﺬﺍﺭﻱ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺁﺏ ﺧﺎﻙ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﺮﻧﺞ ﻭ ﺑﻘﻴﻪ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ﻭ ﻣـﺪﻝ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺟﺮﻳـﺎﻥ ﺁﺏ ﻛﺎﻧـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺗﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻧﺸﺖ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ ‪ .‬ﺑﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳـﺎﺱ ﻧﻴـﺎﺯ ﺁﺑﻴـﺎﺭﻱ ‪ ۱۴‬ﺭﻭﺯﻩ ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﻱ ﻫﺮ ﺷﺎﺧﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺁﺑﻲ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻓﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪:‬‬

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‫‪ -‬ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺷﺎﺧﻪ ﻛﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻛﺎﻧﺎﻟﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ‪GIS‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺁﺏ ﺧﺎﻙ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﺮﻧﺞ‬
‫‪ -‬ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺰﺍﺭﻉ ﺑﺮﻧﺞ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺗﺤﺖ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ‬
‫‪ -‬ﺑﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺁﺏ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﻱ ﻫﺮ ﺷﺎﺧﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺍﻓﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺁﺏ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ )‪. (۱۶‬‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ‪ Amor‬ﻭ ﻫﻤﻜﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ۲۰۰۲‬ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻣﺪﻝ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﺒﻴﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﮔﻴـﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻢ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴـﺎﻳﻲ‬
‫ﺟﻬﺖ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺏ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻌـﺪ ﺯﻣـﺎﻧﻲ ﻭ ﻣﻜـﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺣﻮﺿـﻪ ﺁﺑﺮﻳـﺰ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺩﺧﺎﻧﻪ ‪ Laoag‬ﻛﺸﻮﺭ ﻓﻴﻠﻴﭙﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ ‪ .‬ﺳﻪ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺑﺮﻧﺞ ‪ ،‬ﺫﺭﺕ ﻭ ﺑﺎﺩﺍﻡ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻗـﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓـﺖ‬
‫ﻭ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻳﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻫﺮ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻮﻝ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺷﺒﻴﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻌﻴـﻴﻦ ﭘﺘﺎﻧـﺴﻴﻞ ﺗﻮﻟﻴـﺪ ﻣﺤـﺼﻮﻝ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ )‪.(۹‬‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺍﻱ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ‪ ، Arcview‬ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴـﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺨـﺶ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﻫـﺸﺖ ﮔﺎﻧـﻪ ﺁﺑﻴـﺎﺭﻱ ﺩﺭﻩ ‪Rio‬‬
‫‪ Grande‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺭﻭﺯﺍﻧﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻤﻜـﺎﺭﻱ ﺗـﻴﻢ ﻣـﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺑﺨـﺶ ﻭ ﺳـﺮﻭﻳﺲ ﺗﻮﺳـﻌﻪ ﻛـﺸﺎﻭﺭﺯﻱ ﺗﮕـﺰﺍﺱ ﺩﺭ ﻗـﺴﻤﺖ‬
‫ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻛﺸﺎﻭﺭﺯﻱ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺗﮕﺰﺍﺱ ‪ A&M‬ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﻫﺮ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬
‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺭﻭﺯﺍﻧﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺎﻳﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺰﺭﻋﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻫﻔﺘـﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻣـﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺳـﺎﻝ ﻭ ﻳـﺎ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻠﻔﻴﻖ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭ ﺳﺎﻝ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻟﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲ ﺗـﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﮕﻮﻫـﺎﻱ ﻣـﺼﺮﻑ ﺁﺏ ﺭﺍ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ )‪. (۱۰‬‬
‫ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻦ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ‪ Ray and Dadhwal ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ۲۰۰۱‬ﺗﺒﺨﻴـﺮ ﻭ ﺗﻌـﺮﻕ‬
‫ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﭘـﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﻭﺍﻗـﻊ ﺩﺭ ‪ Gujarat‬ﻫﻨﺪﻭﺳـﺘﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑـﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩ ﻛـﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﻧـﺪ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳـﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴـﻖ ﺿـﺮﻳﺐ ﮔﻴـﺎﻫﻲ ‪Kc‬‬
‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻛﺸﺖ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺷﺎﺧﺺ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺑﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﻧﻘﺸﻪ ﺗﺒﺨﻴﺮ ﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻕ‬
‫ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺍﻱ ﻫﻮﺍﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﺷﺪ ﻭ ﺳﭙﺲ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻧﻘﺸﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ Kc‬ﻭ ‪ ، ET0‬ﻧﻘﺸﻪ ﺗﺒﺨﻴﺮ ﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻕ ﻓﺼﻠﻲ‬
‫ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺷﺪ )‪. (۱۵‬‬
‫‪ Gundogdu‬ﻭ ﻫﻤﻜﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ۲۰۰۲‬ﺑـﻪ ﻣﻨﻈـﻮﺭ ﺍﻓـﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻋﻤﻠﻜـﺮﺩ ﭘـﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻴـﺎﺭﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴـﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻧﺪ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﻭ ﻛﺎﺭﺁﻣﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻧـﺮﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ‪ ARC/INFO‬ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻱ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺎﻟﻜﻴـﺖ ﺍﺭﺍﺿـﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﭘـﻮﮔﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺧـﺎﻙ ‪ ،‬ﺷـﺒﻜﻪ ﺭﺍﻫﻬـﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﻱ ﺍﺭﺍﺿﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺍﺯ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻳﺴﺘﺎﺑﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻫﻮﺍﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ ﻣـﻲ ﺑﺎﺷـﺪ ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨـﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺁﺑﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ‪ CROPWAT‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻴـﺰﺍﻥ ﺁﺏ ﻣﻮﺭﺩﻧﻴـﺎﺯ ﻫـﺮ ﻣﺰﺭﻋـﻪ‬
‫ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺁﺑﻲ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﺭﺵ ﻭ ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺁﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺷﺎﺧﺺ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ) ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﺁﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺍﺯ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻳﺴﺘﺎﺑﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻴﻔﻴـﺖ ﺁﺏ ﺯﻫﻜـﺸﻲ ‪ .‬ﺁﺑﻴـﺎﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻧـﺴﺒﺖ‬
‫ﺟﻤﻊ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺁﺏ ﺑﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﻭ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺷﺨـﺼﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﻣﺤـﺼﻮﻻﺕ ( ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺯﻳـﺎﺑﻲ ﺭﺍﻧـﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﺯﻳـﺴﺖ‬
‫ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ – ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ )‪. (۱۱‬‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺩﻳﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ۱۳۸۱‬ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ ﻛﻮﺛﺮ ﺑﺎ ﻣـﺴﺎﺣﺖ‬
‫‪ ۱۶۳۵۰‬ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻠﮕﻪ ﺧﻮﺯﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﭘـﺮﺱ ﻭ‬
‫ﺟﻮﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺷﺎﺧﺺ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻻﻳﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ‪ ،‬ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ ﺩﻫﻲ ﻛـﻪ‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺣﺎﺋﺰ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺑﺤﺮﺍﻧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺷﻮﺭﻱ ﻭ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺁﺏ ﺁﺑﻴـﺎﺭﻱ ﻣـﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴـﺎﺯ‬
‫ﻫﺮ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻫﺮ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺗﺤﺖ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻳﻚ ﻛﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺍ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻛﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻣﺰﺭﻋـﻪ ﻭ ﻳـﺎ‬
‫ﺁﺑﮕﻴﺮ ﺁﺏ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻭ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺁﺏ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﮕﻮﻱ ﻛـﺸﺖ ﻭ ﺩﺭﺻـﺪ ﻛـﺸﺖ‬
‫ﻫﺮ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﻣﺎﻩ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺩﻫﺪ )‪. (۳‬‬

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‫ﺩﺭ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﮔﺘﻮﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘـﺎﺩﻳﺮ ﺁﺏ ﻣـﺎﺯﺍﺩ ﺑـﺮ ﻧﻴـﺎﺯ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘـﺎﻁ ﺗﺤﻮﻳـﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣـﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺑـﻪ ﺯﺑـﺎﻥ‬
‫‪ Foxpro‬ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ‪ .‬ﺟﻬﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳـﺖ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻥ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺗﻲ ﺩﺭﺑـﺎﺭﻩ ﺳـﻄﻮﺡ ﻭﺍﻗﻌـﻲ ﻛـﺸﺖ ﻭ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﻛﺸﺖ ﻭ ‪ ...‬ﺍﺯ ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﻱ ﻭ ﻧﻘﺸﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺎﺩﺍﺳﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺁﺏ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻔﻜﻴﻚ ﻫـﺮ ﻣﺤـﺼﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺍﺯ ﺳﻨﺪ ﻣﻠﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﻭ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺳﻄﻮﺡ ﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻛﺸﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻫـﺮ ﻗﻄﻌـﻪ ﺯﺭﺍﻋـﻲ ﺑـﺎ ﺗﻮﺟـﻪ ﺑـﻪ ﺍﻋﻤـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﮕﻮﺭﻳﺘﻢ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺩﻫﻲ ﺁﺏ ﻛﻞ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻱ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻫﺮ ﺩﺭﻳﭽﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻛﺸﺖ ﻫﺮ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺳـﻬﻢ ﺁﺏ ﻣـﺎﺯﺍﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ ﻳـﻚ‬
‫ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺭﻳﺰﻱ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ )‪. (۴‬‬
‫ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻄﻮﺭ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺒﻼﹰ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺷﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻭ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪ ﻳﻜﺴﺮﻱ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻪ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ ؛ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ‪ :‬ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻳﻚ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺑﺎ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ‪ :‬ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻪ ﺩﺳﺘﻪ ﻛﻠﻲ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ؛ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫـﺎﻱ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ) ‪ ، ( ArcInfo , Arcview , ArcGIS‬ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ) ‪ ( IDRISI‬ﻭ ﺩﺳـﺘﻪ ﺳـﻮﻡ ﻧـﺮﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻭ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ) ‪. ( ERDAS‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ‪ :‬ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻔﻲ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻭ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﺸﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧـﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﮔﻴـﺮﻱ ﻫـﺎﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻜﺲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻫﻮﺍﻳﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﻭ ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﻲ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻳـﺎ ﺑـﻪ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﻣـﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴـﺎﺯ ﺟﻬـﺖ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺑـﻪ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻨـﺪ ﺍﺯ ؛ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫـﺎﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻜﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻫﻮﺍﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻭ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﻭ ﺧﺎﻙ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻜﻲ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬
‫‪ -‬ﻃﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﺯﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﭘﺮﻭﻓﻴﻞ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻃﻮﻟﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﻫﺎ‬
‫‪ -‬ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻛﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺑﺨﺶ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻲ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺿﺮﻳﺐ ﺯﺑﺮﻱ‬
‫‪ -‬ﺗﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺗﺮﺍﻭﺵ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺎﻧﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻭ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ ؛ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻫﻮﺍﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﺭﻧﺪﮔﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺗـﺎﺑﺶ ﺧﻮﺭﺷـﻴﺪ ﻭ ‪ ، ...‬ﺩﺍﺩﻩ‬
‫ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﻛﺸﻨﺎﺳﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺟﻬﺖ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﻭ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻧﻴـﺎﺯ ﻣـﻲ ﺑﺎﺷـﺪ ‪ .‬ﺑـﻪ ﻣﻨﻈـﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﭼﻮﻥ ‪ ArcInfo , Arcview , ArcGIS‬ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷـﺪﻩ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﻼﻭﻩ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﻱ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ‪ IDRISI ILWIS‬ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻛﻪ ﻓﺎﻳـﻞ ﺧﺮﻭﺟـﻲ‬
‫ﺁﻥ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ‪ GIS‬ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﭘﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﻱ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺁﺑﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ‪ GIS‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻮﺷﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺨﺼﺼﻲ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺁﺑﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤـﻮﺩ ﻭ‬
‫ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﺍﺧﻴﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ‪ GIS‬ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﻛﻠﻴـﻪ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻳـﻚ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋـﻪ ﮔـﺮﺩﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬
‫ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻔﻲ ﻳﺎ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺑﻪ ﺻـﻮﺭﺕ ﻧﻘـﺸﻪ ﻫـﺎﻱ ‪ ۱:۵۰۰۰۰۰‬ﻳـﺎ ‪۱:۲۵۰۰۰‬‬
‫ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺭﻗﻮﻣﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ‪ AutoCAD‬ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ‪ GIS‬ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ‪ .‬ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥ ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﻱ ) ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺗـﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﻣـﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﻱ ‪ ETM ، LandSAT TM‬ﻭ ‪ Spot‬ﺍﻏﻠـﺐ ﻣﻮﺟـﻮﺩ ﺍﺳـﺖ ( ﺭﺍ ﺑـﺎ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﺎﻳـﻞ‬
‫ﺭﺍﻫﻨﻤﺎﻱ ﺁﻥ ﻭ ﻧﻘﺸﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ CAD‬ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺗﻔﻜﻴﻚ ﻣﺴﻴﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﻭﺩﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻭ ﺁﺑﺮﺍﻫﻪ ﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻣﺰﺍﺭﻉ ﺩﺭ ﺣـﺎﻝ ﻛـﺸﺖ ﻭ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺷﻮﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻣﺎﻧﺪﺍﺑﻲ ﻭ ‪ ...‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ‪ GIS‬ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻲ ) ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻲ ( ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻻﻳﻪ ﻻﻳﻪ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻔﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺁﺑـﻲ ‪،‬‬

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‫ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺰﺍﺭﻉ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻳﺴﺘﺎﺑﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺟﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﻲ ﺍﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﻛـﺸﺎﻭﺭﺯﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺟـﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺁﺏ ﺗـﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﺷـﺪﻩ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ‪ GIS‬ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻬﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺁﺑﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻗﺎﺑـﻞ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺑـﻪ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻢ ﻣـﻲ ﺑﺎﺷـﺪ ‪ .‬ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺟﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺳﻨﺪ ﻣﻠﻲ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻟﮕﻮﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻛﺸﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺁﺑﻲ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ‪ Cropwat‬ﻭ ﻧﻮﺷـﺘﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣـﻪ‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺭﻭﺷﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺁﺑﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺟﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺳﻨﺪ ﻣﻠﻲ ﺁﺏ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﻢ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻣـﻲ ﮔـﺮﺩﺩ ‪ .‬ﺑـﺎ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ‪ Cropwat‬ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺁﺑﻲ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﻛﺸﺖ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺰﺍﺭﻉ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﺭﺍﺑﻂ ﻣﻲ ﺗـﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺁﺑﻲ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﻣﺰﺍﺭﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﺠﺮﺍﻱ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﻓﺮﻋﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺣﺘـﻲ ﺳـﻄﻮﺡ ﺍﻧـﺸﻌﺎﺑﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘـﻪ ﺗﺤـﺖ ﻛﻨﺘـﺮﻝ ﺭﺍ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻓﺮﻣﺖ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻲ ﻫﺎ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ‪ GIS‬ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ ‪ .‬ﺑﻌـﻼﻭﻩ ﻧـﺮﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ﻳﻚ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻧﻮﻳـﺴﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺳـﺐ ﻣﺎﻧﻨـﺪ‬
‫ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ‪ Avenue‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ‪ VBScript ، Arcview‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ‪ ArcGIS‬ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺑﺎ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺳـﻪ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺵ ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺰﺭﻋﻪ ﻳﺎ ﺁﺑﮕﻴﺮ ﻛﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﺩﻭ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺖ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﻣﺰﺭﻋﻪ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺰﺍﺭﻉ ﺗﺤﺖ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﻛﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﺩﻭ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﻧﻚ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺁﺑﻲ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺧﺎﻟﺺ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﻣـﻲ‬
‫ﺁﻳﺪ ‪ .‬ﻳﻚ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎﻱ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺁﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺁﺏ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴـﺎﺯ ﺗﺤـﻮﻳﻠﻲ ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻫﺮ ﺁﺑﮕﻴﺮ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺁﺑﮕﻴﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳـﻦ ﻛـﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﭘﺎﺭﺍﻣﺘﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻫﻮﺍﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﮕﻮﻱ ﻛﺸﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺳﺎﻝ ﻳﺎ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻭ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻣﺠـﺪﺩ ﺑـﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻬـﺮﻩ ﺑـﺮﺩﺍﺭﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ‪ GIS‬ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺷﺎﺧﺺ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺖ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ﻳﻚ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪ ﺩﺍﻧﺴﺘﻦ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﻗﺪﻳﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ ‪ .‬ﻣﻬﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺷﺎﺧﺺ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣـﻮﺭﺩ‬
‫ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ ؛ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﺴﺒﻲ ﺷﻮﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﺴﺒﻲ ﻋﻤﻖ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺁﺏ ﺯﻳﺮﺯﻣﻴﻨﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﺴﺒﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﺣـﺪ ﺳـﻄﺢ‬
‫ﻭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﺰﺭﻋﻪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻔﺎﺿﻞ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻗﺪﻳﻢ ﺍﺯ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻭ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻗﺪﻳﻢ ﭘﺎﺭﺍﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﻣﻲ‬
‫ﺁﻳﻨﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﻠﻲ ﺧﻼﺻﻪ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ‪ GIS‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺻـﻮﺭﺕ ﺯﻳـﺮ‬
‫ﺧﻼﺻﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ (۱‬ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﻧﻘﺸﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﻗﻮﻣﻲ ﻋﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬
‫‪ (۲‬ﺭﻓﻊ ﺧﻄﺎ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻭ ﺗﻮﭘﻮﻟﻮﮊﻱ‬
‫‪ (۳‬ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺗﻮﭘﻮﻟﻮﮊﻱ‬
‫‪ (۴‬ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﻋﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬
‫‪ (۵‬ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺩﻫﻲ ﻣﺪﻝ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻻﻳﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻲ‬
‫‪ (۶‬ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺁﺑﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻪ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺷﺪﻩ‬
‫‪ (۷‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﻱ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻄﻮﺡ ﻛﺸﺖ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻨﻮﻉ ﻛﺸﺖ‬

‫‪ (۳‬ﺑﺤﺚ ‪ ،‬ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ‬


‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﭘﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺭﻳﺰﻱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺁﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﻙ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﻭ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﻪ ﮔﺬﺍﺭﻱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺿـﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﻣـﻲ ﺑﺎﺷـﺪ ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﺠـﺎﻳﻲ ﻛـﻪ ﺣـﺼﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺭﻳﺰﻱ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﺍ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣـﻪ ﺭﻳـﺰﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻲ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﻲ ﺭﻭﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺍﺗـﻼﻑ ﺁﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧـﺮﮊﻱ ﻭ ﺳـﺮﻣﺎﻳﻪ‬
‫ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻛﺸﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ ﻛﺸﺎﻭﺭﺯﻱ ﻭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺘﺎﹰ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﻭﺭﻱ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﺳﺘﺎ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﺯ ‪ GIS‬ﻧﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﻧﻚ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺟﻬﺖ ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻣﺮ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣـﻪ ﺭﻳـﺰﻱ ﺁﺑﻴـﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﻛﺎﺭﺁﻣﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻴـﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜـﺸﻲ ﻭ‬

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‫ﺑﻪ ﺧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻫﻤﻪ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺭﻗﻮﻣﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻃﺮﺍﺣﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻣـﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺑـﺎ ﺍﻧﺒـﻮﻫﻲ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻧﺎﻣﻨﻈﻢ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺭﻭﺑﺮﻭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻴﺎﻥ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴـﺎﻳﻲ ﻗـﺎﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻛﻠﻴﻪ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻔﻲ ﻳﻚ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﻳﻜﭙﺎﺭﭼﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴـﺎﺭ ﻣـﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻗـﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﻫـﺪ ‪ .‬ﻃﺒﻘـﻪ‬
‫ﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺱ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺁﺑﻲ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ ﺗﺎ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻔﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺑﻬـﺮﻩ ﺑـﺮﺩﺍﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻭ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﻭ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻤـﺎﻳﺶ ﻫﻨﺪﺳـﻲ‬
‫ﻛﻠﻴﻪ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻔﻲ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻄﻠﻊ ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﻠﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻫﻮﺍﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺿﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ﻛﺸﺎﻭﺭﺯﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺑﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺁﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﺗﻮﭘـﻮﮔﺮﺍﻓﻲ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﻱ ﻭ ﻧﻘﺸﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﺎﻛﺸﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺷﺎﺧﺺ ﻫﺎﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻭ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﺩ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺁﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺗﺤـﺖ ﭘﻮﺷـﺶ‬
‫ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺧـﺎﻙ ﻭ ﺩﺳـﺘﻴﺎﺑﻲ ﺑـﻪ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻢ ﺯﻫﻜـﺸﻲ ﻭ ﺣـﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺗـﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﺑـﺮ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺩﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﺭﺍﻧﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻔﻜﻴﻚ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺑـﺎﻳﺮ ﻭ ﻏﻴﺮﺣﺎﺻـﻠﺨﻴﺰ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺗﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺁﺏ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻬﺎ ﻳﺎ ﺳﻔﺮﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺯﻳﺮﺯﻣﻴﻨﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (۴‬ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻓـﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺑﻬـﺮﻩ ﮔﻴـﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳـﻦ ﻓﻨـﺎﻭﺭﻱ ﻫـﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﻳﺮ ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ (۱‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻭ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎ ﺭﺷﺘﻪ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﺠﻮﻳﺎﻥ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (۲‬ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﻱ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻛﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺗﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎ ﻭ ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺗﻲ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (۳‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻱ ﻛﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻗﺖ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﺑﺎ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﻔﻜﻴﻚ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (۴‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺩﮔﻲ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ ﻛﺸﻮﺭﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﻨﺎﻭﺭﻱ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫـﺎﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ ﻛﺸﻮﺭ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (۵‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﻱ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻭﺳـﻴﻌﻲ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺍﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻮﻉ ﻛﺸﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺑﻜﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻳﻚ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺎ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺗﻔﻜﻴﻚ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ ‪ ،‬ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩ ﻣـﻲ ﮔـﺮﺩﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻔﻜﻴﻚ ﺍﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﺻﺤﺮﺍﻳﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺸﻜﺮ ﻭ ﻗﺪﺭﺩﺍﻧﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺁﺏ ﻭ ﺑﺮﻕ ﺧﻮﺯﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺩﻓﺘﺮ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ ﺑـﻪ ﺩﻟﻴـﻞ ﺣﻤﺎﻳـﺖ‬
‫ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺎﻟﻲ ﺗﺸﻜﺮ ﻭ ﻗﺪﺭﺩﺍﻧﻲ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ‬
‫‪ (۱‬ﺍﺭﺯﺍﻧﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺡ ‪ . ۱۳۷۵ ،‬ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺗﻠﻔﻴﻘﻲ ‪ GIS,RS‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﻭ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺧﺸﻚ ﻭ ﺑﻴﺎﺑـﺎﻧﻲ ‪ .‬ﺩﻭﻣـﻴﻦ ﻫﻤـﺎﻳﺶ ﻣﻠـﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ ﺯﺍﻳﻲ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺷﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ ﺯﺩﺍﻳﻲ ‪ .‬ﺹ ‪. ۲۴-۱۳‬‬
‫‪ (۲‬ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻠﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺵ ﺩﻳﺎﻧﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺡ ﺣﺠﺎﺯﻱ ﻭ ﻙ ﻣﺤﻤﺪﻱ ‪ . ۱۳۸۴ ،‬ﻛﺎﺭﮔﺎﻩ ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﻲ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻴـﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻧـﻮﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺷـﺒﻜﻪ ﺁﺑﻴـﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺭﺍﻧﻲ ﭘﻴﻠﻪ ﺳﻮﺍﺭ ﻣﻐﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (۳‬ﺩﻳﺎﻧﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺵ ‪ . ۱۳۸۱ ،‬ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴـﺎﻳﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻣـﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺑﻬﻴﻨـﻪ ﺁﺏ ﻣـﺼﺮﻓﻲ ﺷـﺒﻜﻪ ﺁﺑﻴـﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜـﺸﻲ ﻛـﻮﺛﺮ‬
‫ﺧﻮﺯﺳﺘﺎﻥ ‪ .‬ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﺭﺷﺪ ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻜﺪﻩ ﻛﺸﺎﻭﺭﺯﻱ ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺗﺮﺑﻴﺖ ﻣﺪﺭﺱ ‪ .‬ﺹ ‪. ۱۳۸۱‬‬

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. ‫ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﺁﺏ ﻛﺸﺎﻭﺭﺯﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺷـﺒﻜﻪ ﺁﺑﻴـﺎﺭﻱ ﮔﺘﻮﻧـﺪ‬. ۱۳۸۳ ، ‫ ﻙ‬، ‫( ﺭﻧﮕﺰﻥ‬۴
. ‫ﺳﻴﻤﻨﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻭ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻛﺸﺖ ﻭ ﺻﻨﻌﺖ ﻧﻴﺸﻜﺮ ﻭ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ ﺍﻫﻮﺍﺯ‬
‫ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻭ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻲ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻧـﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﮔﻴـﺮﻱ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻧﻬـﺎﻱ ﺣﺠﻤـﻲ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ‬. ۱۳۸۱ ، ‫ ﻩ‬، ‫( ﺻﺒﺎﻍ ﺯﺍﺩﻩ‬۵
‫ ﺳﺎﺯﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻲ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜـﺸﻬﺎ ﻟﻮﻟـﻪ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﻧﻴﻤـﻪ ﭘـﺮ ﻭ ﻛﺎﻧﺎﻟﻬـﺎﻱ ﺍﻧﺘﻘـﺎﻝ‬، ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺎﻟﻬﺎﻱ ﺭﻭﺑﺎﺯ‬
‫ ﻣﻘﺎﻟـﻪ ﺍﺭﺍﺋـﻪ ﺷـﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺳـﻴﻤﻨﺎﺭ ﺳـﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺁﺏ ﻭ ﺑـﺮﻕ‬. ‫ﻓﺎﺿﻼﺏ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﺁﻛﻮﺳﺘﻴﻚ ﺩﺍﭘﻠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﺗﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴـﻚ‬
. ‫ﺧﻮﺯﺳﺘﺎﻥ‬
‫ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺑﻴـﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ‬GIS,RS ‫ ﻛﺎﺭﮔـﺎﻩ ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷـﻲ ﻛـﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ‬. GIS,RS ‫ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻲ ﺑﺮﺧـﻲ ﻧـﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫـﺎﻱ‬. ۱۳۸۳ ، ‫ ﺡ‬، ‫( ﻃﺒﺎﻃﺒﺎﻳﻲ‬۶
. ‫ ﻛﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﻣﻠﻲ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ‬. ‫ﺯﻫﻜﺸﻲ‬
‫ ﺍﺻﻮﻝ ﻭ ﻣﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺗﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻭ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﻫـﻮﺍﺋﻲ‬. ۱۳۸۱ ، ( ‫ ﺡ ﻣﺎﻟﻤﻴﺮﻳﺎﻥ ) ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ‬، ( ‫( ﻟﻴﻠﺴﺎﻧﺪﻭ ﻛﻲ ) ﻣﻮﻟﻒ‬۷
. ۱۵ ‫ ﺹ‬. ‫ﻭ ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﻱ‬
. ۲۵۷ ‫ ﺹ‬. ‫ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻧﺸﺮ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻫﻲ‬. ‫ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ‬. ۱۳۷۵ ( ‫ ﻡ ) ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ‬، ‫ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻱ‬، ( ‫( ﻫﺎﺭﭘﺮ ) ﻣﻮﻟﻒ‬۸
9) Amor, V. M., Das Guptal, A., Loof, R. 2002. Application of GIS and Crop Growth Model
in Estinating Water Productivity. Journal of Agriculture Water Management. Volume 54, pp
205-225.
10) Fipp, G., and Leigh, E. 2000. GIS-Based Management System for Irrigation Districts.
Proceeding of International Conference on Challenges Facing Irrigation and Drainage in the
New Millennium, USCID, Fort Collins, U.S.A., pp 103-116.
11) Gundogdu, K.S., Degirmenci, H. and Demirtas, C. 2002. Creation of GIS Supported Data
Base in Irrigation Project Management. International Conference, Cairo, Egypt.
http://www..uludag.edu.tr.
12) http://www.irirw.com/newsite/GIS/Links/moarefi.htm
13) http://www.ittransport.ir
14) Menenti, M., Azzali, S., and D'urso, G. 1995. Management of irrigation schemes in arid
countries. In: Use of Remote Sensing Techniques in Irrigation and Drainage, ed. Vidal, A.,
pp. 81-98.
15) Ray, S. S. and Dadhwal, V. K. 2001. Estimation of Crop Evapotranspiration of Irrigation
Command Area Using Remote Sensing and GIS. Journal of Agriculture Water Management,
Volume 49, pp 230-249.
16) Sarangi, A., Rao, N. H., Brownee, Sh. M., Singh, A. K. 2001. Use of Geographic
Information System (GIS) Tool in Watershed Hydrology and Irrigation Water Management .
http://www.GIS development.net.

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