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Binomial Expansions

Factorials

n! is the symbol for the result when all the numbers between
1 and n are multiplied together.

n! = 1 × 2 × 3 × ...( n − 3)(n − 2)(n − 1)n


where
n∈N

Special case: 1!= 0!= 1

4!= 4 × 3 × 2 × 1
Example:
4!= 24

Factorials can grow at an exponential rate. This means that


they can get very large very fast.

E.g . 65!= 8.248 × 10 90


To overcome this problem we can simplify factorial
expressions
10! 10 × 9 × 8 × 7 × ... × 1
Example : =
8! 8 × 7 × 6 × ... × 1
we can cancel out 8!
10 × 9
=
1
= 90
We can apply this simplification method in the permutation
combination formulas when n is large.

n! n!
n
Pr = and n
Cr =
(n − r )! r!( n − r )!

100!
Evaluate 100
C2 =
2!×98!
Example: 100 × 99
=
2 ×1
= 4950

Write as a product 24!− 22!


We note that 24!= 24 × 23 × 22 × 21 × ... × 1
= 24 × 23 × 22!
Example: Therefore
24!− 22!= 24 × 23 × 22!− 22!
= 22!(24 × 23 − 1)
= 22!× 551

Sigma: page 59, exercise 4.1