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1. Cc PP xc nh hm lng nc trong TP? - PP sy: + u im: n gin, d thc hin c s dng ph bin trong thc t.

t. + Nhc im: di vi TP cha nhiu cht bay hi or nhiu cht bo thng c sai s. - PP chng ct kn vi dung mi hu c: + u im: C th p dng vi sn phm cha nhiu lipit nhu du, b + Nhc im: Thit b, ha cht dt, kh kim. - PP karl fischer +: xac nh lng nc rt nh, chnh xc cao. +N: thit b t tin, ha cht s dng kh v t -PP khc x k: +: d p dng, chnh xc cao +n: thit b c, d mc sai s 2. xc nh hm lng mui n trong thc phm:

* pp mohr: - dng AgNO3 phn ng vi Cl- vi ch th: K2CrO4 - trc tip - mi trng phn ng: trung tnh V: + mi trng H+: CrO4 + H+ -> HCrO4 S to kt ta Ag2CrO2 -> i mu t + mi trng OH-: Ag+ + OH- -> 2AgOH -> Ag2O+H2O => tn Ag+ -> sai s - Cch tin hnh: + u tin kim tra trung tinh ca mu + thm vi git K2CrO4 10% vao dung dich mu th + sau chun bng AgNO3 0,1N -> mu gch bn vng.

* pp Volhard - Dng AgNO3 0,1N d kt ta Cl- trong dd th, dng dd KCNS hoc NH4CNS tiu chun -> chun AgNO3 d, ch th l phn st. - Gin tip. - mi trng phn ng: trung tnh.

+ Cho vo bm: 10ml dd mu +5ml HNO3 5% v chnh xc 25ml dd AgNO3 0,1N-> thm nc ct, lc u, lng -> lc + ly 20ml dc lc cho vo cc thy tinh, thm 2ml phn st bo ha, sau dng KCNS 0,1N chun -> mu bn A* 00585*F(A-B)*100 + Rn: X= + Lng: X=

- Tnh kt qu; A* 00585*F*100 + Rn: X= + Lng: X= P P A* 00585*F*1000

P A* 00585*F(A-B)*1000 V

V V - Ch : + Thao tc chnh xc + Trnh nh sng mnh v nhit cao + kim tra trung tnh chnh xc + nu c cc ion CO32-, S2-..phi loi b. + Trong qu trnh chun .

+ Trong qu trnh chun + khng chun qu liu lng.

H s pha long: F1 * F2 (F1, F2 ln lt l h s pha long ln 1 v 2) * So Snh 2 PP: - im ging nhau: + Xc nh hm lng mui + PP phn tch th tch + Cch chun b mu. - Khc:

Mohr Trc tip Ch th K2CrO4 n gin Dng t ha cht t tn thi gian

Volhard Gin tip Ch th phn st Phc tp hn Dng ha cht nhiu hn Tn thi gian hn

3. SS PP kh v t: - Ging nhau: + ng nht mu trc khi VCH + Cch ly mu - Kacs nhau: t Kh - VCH bng axit VCH bng cch t thnh tro - S dng cho nhiu dng sn phm hn t hn 4. Nhng ch tiu hu c cn thit cho qu trnh kim nh sn hm: axit Hm lng Nito Hm lng Gluxit Hm lng Protein Hm lng Lipit Hm lng mt s Vitamin Mt s cht gay hi (histamin, Chloamphenicol, nitrofuran)

5. * Cch nhn bit chit ht lipit trong PP Soxhlet: Ly 1 git ete owrddaauf ng xiphong nh vo mt knh ng h bay hi ht ete, nu khng thy vt loang th ete ht. * Cch x hm lng tinh bt: - Cn Pg mu cho vo bm 500ml-> trng dng c bng nc ct ri chuyn c vo bnh. - Cho 10-20ml hh Fehling + 10ml dd mu th, un si v gi nhit si trong 2. - Nhc bnh ra khi bp, nghieengcho kt ta Cu2O lng xung - Lc dd qua phu lc G4 ca h thng bnh lc chn khng Busner, Dng nc ct si d ra kt ta nhiu ln. - Ha tan kt ta Cu2O trn phu v bnh nn bng cch cho lng nh dd Fe2(SO4)3 5% trong mi trng axit. - Ly bnh lc ra v cho chun st (II) hnh thnh bng dd KMnO4 0,1N-> hng nht vng bn trong 15s. c th tch KMnO4 0,1N dng v tra bng Bectrand. Tnh hm lng ng Glucose theo CT: G*100*F X= P*100 Sau ta tnh ra hm lng tinh bt: X= (a-b)*0,9 Trong : a l hm lng ng kh tnh theo Glucose sau khi thy phn b l hm lng ng kh tnh theo Glucose trc khi thy phn (%)

5. chua ca TP l do cc axit c trong TP gy ra, do chua l s ml NaOH 1N trung ha 100g TP. - Ch s chua l s mg KOHcanf thit trung ha ht axit c trong 1g TP.