‫ަތ ާޢ ަ‬

‫ރފ ްް‬
‫ބ ޯ‬
‫ކ ާ‬
‫ކ ޮ‬
‫ހ ަ‬
‫ރ ާމ ެބ ޭ‬
‫ނ ަ‬
‫ރ ް‬
‫ބ ުހ ްޘ ުކ ު‬
‫ނ ަ‬
‫ގ ުތ ް‬
‫ހ ޮ‬
‫ސ ަލ ަހ ުތ ަތ ާކ ެބ ޭ‬
‫ށދޭ ަމ ް‬
‫ކ ް‬
‫ޔ ްތ ޮ‬
‫ނ ިހ ާމ ަ‬
‫ރޓ ލޯ ިއ ް‬
‫ޓ ް‬
‫ޯ‬
‫ތ‬
‫ބ ިއ ަތ ަކ ީ‬
‫ޖ ީ‬
‫ރ ުމ ެގ ުކ ި‬
‫ޓ ް‬
‫ނ ޯ‬
‫ރ ިއ ް‬
‫މ ެގ ެތ ެ‬
‫އ ުކ ް‬
‫ށ ަތ ާކ ިޖ ާ‬
‫ނ ުކ ް‬
‫އ ަމ ަ‬
‫ޔ ަކ ެ‬
‫ބ ަ‬
‫ނ ‪ަ 2‬‬
‫ނ ެމ ެވ‪ަ .‬‬
‫ލ ަ‬
‫ލ ާ‬
‫ބ ާ‬
‫ަ‬
‫ރޓ ލޯ ެގ‬
‫ށ ަތ ެކ ެވ‪ީ .‬‬
‫ނ ީ‬
‫ދ ީ‬
‫ށ ެވ‪ެ .‬އ ީ‬
‫ރ ާމ ެބ ެހ ީ‬
‫ޖ ީ‬
‫ނ ަ‬
‫ޔ ްއ ަވ ް‬
‫ރ ަ‬
‫ެތ ެ‬
‫ނ ުކ ްއ ަތ ެކ ެވ‪.‬‬
‫ނ ަމ ަދ ީ‬
‫ނ ީ‬
‫ނ ިގ ަފ ިއ ާވ ަ‬
‫ނ ެ‬
‫ބ ުހ ް‬
‫ސ" ިމ ަ‬
‫ޝ ް‬
‫ރޓ ަ‬
‫"ޓ ް‬
‫ޯ‬
‫ބ ެހ ްއ ަކ ަމ ް‬
‫ނ ަ‬
‫ޓ ް‬
‫ލ ިއ ު‬
‫ލ ާ‬
‫ބ ާ‬
‫ޔ ްއ ަ‬
‫ނ ަ‬
‫ބ ުހ ެގ ާމ ަ‬
‫ރޓ ަ‬
‫ޓ ް‬
‫ޯ‬
‫ބ ެހ ެކ ެވ‪.‬‬
‫ށ ާވ‬
‫ރ ެއ ީ‬
‫އ ެލ ި‬
‫އ ާ‬
‫ޤ ޫ‬
‫ޔ ަކ ެ‬
‫ބ ަ‬
‫ނ ‪ަ 2‬‬
‫ނ ުކ ް‬
‫ނ ަ‬
‫ރ ައ ްއ ަވ ް‬
‫ރޓ ެގ ެތ ެ‬
‫ޓ ް‬
‫ށ" ެއ ެވ‪ޯ 1.‬‬
‫ކ" ުކ ް‬
‫ނ ަ‬
‫ބ ުހ ެގ ާމ ަ‬
‫ރޓ ަ‬
‫ޓ ް‬
‫ޯ‬
‫ނ‬
‫ނ ީ‬
‫ށ ެވ‪ެ .‬އ ީ‬
‫ށ ަތ ްއ ެބ ެހ ީ‬
‫ޔ ީ‬
‫ށ ާމ ަ‬
‫ގ ަތ ް‬
‫ގ ްތ ޮ‬
‫ނ ަތފާ ުތ ޮ‬
‫ބ ަކ ް‬
‫ކ ާ‬
‫ކ ޮ‬
‫ޓ ް‬
‫ޯ‬
‫ރ ުކ ް‬
‫ނ ުކ ާ‬
‫ބ ުލ ު‬
‫ޖ ަތ ަމ ުއ ަޤ ޫ‬
‫ށ ަތ ާކ ުމ ް‬
‫ށ ަފ ިއ ާވ ުކ ް‬
‫ކ ް‬
‫ނ ޮ‬
‫ނ ަމ ާ‬
‫ގ ުތ ް‬
‫ޮ‬
‫ނ‬
‫ށ ަތ ެކ ެވ‪.‬‬
‫ރޓ ައ ީ‬
‫މ ަހ ުކ ާ‬
‫ގ ުތ ް‬
‫ނ ޮ‬
‫ޤ ޫ‬
‫ޓ ް‬
‫ނ ޯ‬
‫ގ ުތ ް‬
‫ރ ޮ‬
‫ނ ުކ ާ‬
‫ޓ ަމ ަ‬
‫ނ ީފ ްލ ް‬
‫ޔ ިވ ް‬
‫ރ ާ‬
‫ޝ ޫހ ު‬
‫ނ ަމ ް‬
‫ގ ުތ ް‬
‫ށ ަފ ިއ ެވ ެއ ެވ‪ެ .‬އ ޮ‬
‫ކ ް‬
‫ޮ‬
‫ނ‬
‫ނ ީ‬
‫ކ " ީ‬
‫ރޓ ައ ީ‬
‫ރ ިޢ ްލ ުމ ެވ ި‬
‫ނ ް‬
‫ދ ެލ ްއ ިދ ު‬
‫ބ ަ‬
‫ރ ަތ ްއ ަ‬
‫ނ ަފ ާ‬
‫ނ ިލ ުބ ު‬
‫ނ ެގ ްއ ުލ ް‬
‫ނ ެއ ަކ ުމ ް‬
‫ރ ުމ ް‬
‫ނ ުކ ު‬
‫ނ ާމ ެއ ްއ ު‬
‫ހ ިޒ ް‬
‫ޖ ޭ‬
‫ނ ެ‬
‫ނ ަވ ަތ ުއ ުފ ަލ ް‬
‫ހ ަކ ެމ ްއ ު‬
‫ޖ ޭ‬
‫ނ ެ‬
‫ރ ް‬
‫ުކ ަ‬
‫ނ‬
‫ާ‬
‫ނ ިހ ާމ ަ‬
‫ބ ުބ ް‬
‫ސ ަ‬
‫ރޓ ެގ ަ‬
‫ޓ ް‬
‫ސ ޯ‬
‫ނ ަމ ެވ ް‬
‫ލ ިލ ަކ ުމ ަގ ިއ ވ ީ ަ‬
‫ބ ާ‬
‫ރ ަފ ްއ ަ‬
‫ރ ެމ ެވ‪ި 2".‬މ ަތ ާޢ ަ‬
‫ލ ިޒ ްމ ުކ ު‬
‫ނ ާ‬
‫ގ ުތ ް‬
‫ނ ޮ‬
‫ޤ ޫ‬
‫ޔ ްއ ާވ‬
‫ނ ީ‬
‫ސ ަލ ަހ ުތ ަތ ުކ ެގ ެތ ޭ‬
‫ށދޭ ަމ ް‬
‫ކ ް‬
‫ޔ ްއ ޮ‬
‫ނ ިހ ާމ ަ‬
‫ރޓ ލޯ ިއ ް‬
‫ޓ ް‬
‫ނ ޯ‬
‫ގ ުތ ް‬
‫ނ ެދ ެއ ެވ‪ެ .‬އ ޮ‬
‫ނ ެއ ިގ ެގ ް‬
‫ސ ަލ ަހ ުތ ަތ ެކ ްއ ާވ ަކ ް‬
‫ަމ ް‬
‫ރ ަގ ިއ‬
‫ިހ ެމ ެ‬
‫ނ‬
‫ނ ީ‬
‫ރ ުވ ް‬
‫ނ ުކ ެ‬
‫ދ ަޢ ަމ ެލ ްއ ު‬
‫ސ ަފ ަ‬
‫ނ ެއ ްއ ެވ ް‬
‫ނ ަޙ ްއ ުޤ ް‬
‫ށ ު‬
‫ދ ަލ ަކ ް‬
‫މ ެހ ްއ ެގ ުމ ަ‬
‫ނ‪.‬‬
‫‪ީ -1‬‬
‫ޔ ްއ ޮ‬
‫ނ ިހ ާމ ަ‬
‫ނ ަތ ްއ ަތ ުކ ް‬
‫ދ ަކ ް‬
‫ނ ާވ ަފ ަ‬
‫ޔ ްއ ެގ ްއ ުލ ް‬
‫ނ ަ‬
‫ރ ަ‬
‫މ ެހ ްއ ެގ ުފ ާ‬
‫ކ ްއދޭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ީ -2‬‬
‫ކ ްއދޭ‬
‫ރ ޮ‬
‫ރ ިޢ ްއ ަޒ ްތ ަ‬
‫މ ެހ ްއ ެގ ައ ުބ ާ‬
‫ރ ްއ ާކ ެތ ި‬
‫‪ެ -3‬އ ީ‬
‫‪ާ -4‬‬
‫ނ ެމ ާހ ަކ ް‬
‫ރ ެއ ް‬
‫ޖ ުހ ަމ ްއ ުކ ާ‬
‫ނ ަހ ަމ ެ‬
‫ލ ިހ ް‬
‫ނދ ުކ ެއމީ ެހ ްއ ެގ ުއ ަފ ާ‬
‫ނ ާވ ާހ ިހ ަ‬
‫ރ ު‬
‫ބ ު‬
‫ނ ޭ‬
‫ރ ަހ ިއ ް‬
‫ރ ަތ ަ‬
‫ދ ުކ ާ‬
‫ނ ުހ ްއ ަ‬
‫ނ ު‬
‫ޤ ޫ‬
‫ނ ަތ ްއ‬
‫ޔ ްއ ޮ‬
‫ނ ިހ ާމ ަ‬
‫ރ ިއ ް‬
‫ރޓ ލޯ ެގ ެތ ެ‬
‫ޓ ް‬
‫ޯ‬
‫ކ ްއދޭ‪.‬‬
‫ރ ޮ‬
‫ސ ަލ ަހ ުތ ަތ ްއ ަ‬
‫ނ ެގ ަމ ް‬
‫ރ ް‬
‫މ ާހ ެގ ަ‬
‫ނ ިލ ުބ ު‬
‫‪ެ -5‬ގ ްއ ުލ ް‬
‫ކ ްއ ެދ ެއ ެވ‪.‬‬
‫ރ ްއ ަކ ެތ ި‬
‫ބ ަލ ުދ ެވ ި‬
‫ނ ީ‬

‫ރސ ް‬
‫ސ ުޓ ޕާ ަ‬
‫ސޕާ ް‬
‫ރ ް‬
‫ޓ ެ‬
‫‪ް :1‬‬
‫ނ ަކ ަމ ާ‬
‫ނ ައ ާމ ް‬
‫މ ާހ ެގ ައ ަމ ް‬
‫ކ ަގ ް‬
‫މ ެގ ާމ ަ‬
‫ށ ިއ‬
‫ސ ުދ ަގ ިއ ީ‬
‫ނ ައ ީ‬
‫ނ‪ީ :‬‬
‫ގ ުތ ް‬
‫ހ ޮ‬
‫ސ ާއ ެބ ޭ‬
‫ސޕ ާ ް‬
‫ރ ް‬
‫ޓ ެ‬
‫ދ ަޢ ަމ ުލ ަތ ެކ ެވ‪ް .‬‬
‫ރ ާވ ަފ ަ‬
‫ރ ުކ ު‬
‫ސ ު‬
‫ށ ައ ަ‬
‫ނ ަކ ަމ ް‬
‫ނ ަވ ް‬
‫ނ ާވ ަހ ަކ‬
‫ިމ ި‬
‫ޖހޭ ަމ ިއ ަގނ ުޑ ެދ ާ‬
‫ދ ެއ ްއ ޮ‬
‫ޤ ިއ ާ‬
‫ނ ެ‬
‫ކ ްއ ަލ ް‬
‫ރ ފާ ަހ ަގ ޮ‬
‫ދ ްއ ާކ ިއ ު‬
‫ަ‬
‫އ ެވ ެއ ެވ‪.‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪Principles of Tort Law (Fourth Edition), Vivienne Harpwood.‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪Principles of Tort Law (Fourth Edition), Vivienne Harpwood , P 1‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‬މ ަފ ަ‬ ‫ޖ ާހ ަ‬ ‫ައ ުހ ަމ ުދ ަގ ިއ ަގ ިއ ަ‬ ‫ށ ެވ‪. P 80.‬‬ ‫ނ ައ ި‬ ‫ށ ައ ި‬ ‫ރވާ ުކ ަޑ ަކ ަމ ުކ ް‬ ‫ނ‪ަ (.‬މ ާ‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ޔ ިދ ު‬ ‫ނ ާ‬ ‫ރ ުތ ް‬ ‫ޔދޭ ަފ ާ‬ ‫ނ ާ‬ ‫ގ ަތ ަކ ްއ ެއމީ ަހ ަކ ް‬ ‫ޮ‬ ‫ނ‪.‬‬ ‫ނ ޯ‬ ‫ރ ަހ ަމ ެވ ެގ ް‬ ‫ނ ްއ‬ ‫ނ ެވ ީ‬ ‫ުފ ި‬ ‫ޖ ުހ ް‬ ‫ށ މީ ެހ ްއ ަގ ިއ ަގ ިއ ެ‬ ‫ސ ަލ ަކ ް‬ ‫ނ‪ި .‬‬ ‫ރ‪ ،‬ފ ޯ ްލ ް‬ ‫ޓ‪ެ ،‬‬ ‫ސ ްލ ް‬ ‫އ‪ެ :‬އ ޯ‬ ‫ނ ަވ ްއ ަތ ެ‬ ‫ނ ެގ ިތ ް‬ ‫ރސ ް‬ ‫ސ ުޓ ޕާ ަ‬ ‫ސޕ ާ ް‬ ‫ރ ް‬ ‫ޓ ެ‬ ‫ް‬ ‫ސ‬ ‫ބ ެޓ ީ‬ ‫ރ ްއ ެވ ެއ ެވ‪ެ .‬‬ ‫ޔ ުތ ަގ ިއ ި‬ ‫ރ ުމ ެގ ި‬ ‫ށ ައ ި‬ ‫ޓ ައ ީ‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫ކ ިމ ުބ ަ‬ ‫ށ ު‬ ‫ރ ް‬ ‫ރ ަވ ަ‬ ‫ޓ ުހ ެ‬ ‫ރ ަމ ައ ަޗ ް‬ ‫ސ ަލ ަކ ް‬ ‫ިމ ާ‬ ‫ނ‬ ‫ނ ީ‬ ‫ރ ަކ ާމ ެއ ީ‬ ‫ރ ިޅ ެވ ި‬ ‫ލ‪ަ ،‬އ ުހ ަމ ުދ ެގ ުކ ި‬ ‫ށ‪ަ :‬އ ީ‬ ‫ށ ުހ ްއ ި‬ ‫ނ ަކ ަމ ެ‬ ‫ރ ެދ ްއ ުކ ް‬ ‫ބ ު‬ ‫ޓ ު‬ ‫ސ ްލ ޮ‬ ‫އ ެއ ޯ‬ ‫ނމޭ‪ި . Dr.‬‬ ‫ނ ަވ ަތ ި‬ ‫ދ ާހ ަލ ުތ ަގ ިއ ެއ ީ‬ ‫ދ ް‬ ‫ހ ަ‬ ‫ދ ުލ ޯ‬ ‫ބ ަ‬ ‫ނ ެގ ްއ ުލ ުމ ެގ ަ‬ ‫ނ ަފ ާ‬ ‫ނ ަ‬ ‫ށ ިލ ުބ ު‬ ‫ޔ ް‬ ‫ނ ަ‬ ‫އ ަ‬ ‫ނ ޭ‬ ‫ރވ ޭ ެ‬ ‫ދ ުޢ ާވ ުކ ެ‬ ‫ކ ުޓ ަގ ިއ ަ‬ ‫ދ ްއ ޯ‬ ‫ައ ުހ ަމ ަ‬ ‫ނ‪.‬ވ ީ ާމ ައ ި‬ ‫ނ ުމ ިހ ް‬ ‫ތ ެބ ުލ ް‬ ‫ނ ޯ‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ނ ަވ ަތ ޫ‬ ‫ތ ު‬ ‫ނ ިގ ޯ‬ ‫ނ ެދވ ޭ ަޢ ަމ ެލ ްއ ިހ ް‬ ‫ޭ‬ ‫ނ ެމ ެވ‪.‬‬ ‫ނ ުކ ި‬ ‫ަޢ ަމ ަލ ީ‬ ‫ބ ެވ ް‬ ‫ށ ެގ ްއ ުލ ެމ ްއ ު‬ ‫ރ ަތ ް‬ ‫ރ ަފ ާ‬ ‫ދ ުޢ ާވ ުކ ާ‬ ‫ނ ަ‬ ‫ރ ުތ ެގ ަޢ ަމ ުލ ް‬ ‫ބ ަފ ާ‬ ‫ދ ުޢ ާވ ިލ ޭ‬ ‫އ‪ަ :‬‬ ‫ދ ަވ ަ‬ ‫ެ‬ ‫ސ‬ ‫ނ ިލ ި‬ ‫ނ ީ‬ ‫ރ ުތ ް‬ ‫ބ ަފ ާ‬ ‫ދ ުޢ ާވ ިލ ޭ‬ ‫ރ ަ‬ ‫ށ ުވ ެ‬ ‫ތ ެބ ުލ ަމ ް‬ ‫ނ ޯ‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ނ ަވ ަތ ޫ‬ ‫ތ ު‬ ‫ނ ޯ‬ ‫ޔ ިލ ުބ ު‬ ‫ނ ާ‬ ‫ދ ެ‬ ‫ނގ ިއ ާ‬ ‫ިހ ަ‬ ‫ނ‬ ‫ނ ެއ ެވ‪ .‫ހ ެ‬ ‫ޖ ޭ‬ ‫ނ ެ‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ނ ަ‬ ‫އ ް‬ ‫ރ ުތ ެގ ިދފާ ުޢ ެއ ްއ ޮ‬ ‫ބ ަފ ާ‬ ‫ދ ުޢ ާވ ިލ ޭ‬ ‫ސ ަގ ިއ ަ‬ ‫ސޕ ާ ް‬ ‫ރ ް‬ ‫ޓ ެ‬ ‫އ‪ް :‬‬ ‫ުފ ަ‬ ‫މ ަގ ިއ‬ ‫ނ ެއ ެވ‪ީ . Anita Stuhmcke.‬‬ ‫ިއ ްމ ްޕ ި‬ ‫ނ ަކ ް‬ ‫ކ ް‬ ‫ނ ޮ‬ ‫ށ ުބ ެ‬ ‫ނ ަކ ަމ ް‬ ‫ނ ައ ްތ ުލ ް‬ ‫ނ ަހ ްއ ުޣ ް‬ ‫ނ ު‬ ‫ލ ާ‬ ‫ބ ާ‬ ‫ރ ަތ ަމ ަ‬ ‫ނ ެމ ުފ ަ‬ ‫ެއ ް‬ ‫ނ ަތ ްއ ަތ ެކ ްއ‬ ‫ނ ެވ ީ‬ ‫ލ ީ‬ ‫ރ ެހ ްއ ެ‬ ‫ސ ަކ ަހ ަލ ުހ ަ‬ ‫ނ ‪ެ -1‬އ ްއ ެވ ް‬ ‫ށ ުބ ެ‬ ‫ނ ަކ ަމ ް‬ ‫ނ ައ ްތ ުލ ް‬ ‫ނ ަހ ްއ ުޤ ް‬ ‫ތ‪ު .‬މ ާ‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ޔ ެއ ްއ ިދ ު‬ ‫ނ ާ‬ ‫ނ‬ ‫ނމ ޭ ުބ ި‬ ‫ށ‪ަ :‬އ ީ‬ ‫ައ ި‬ ‫‪Essential Tort Law (Second Edition).‬‬ ‫ސ ްލ ް‬ ‫ެއ ޯ‬ ‫ރ ެދ ްއ ުކ ް‬ ‫ބ ު‬ ‫ނ ަ‬ ‫ޔ ުކ ު‬ ‫ނ ާ‬ ‫ކ މީ ަހ ަކ ް‬ ‫ސ ްލ ް‬ ‫ޓ‪ެ :‬އ ޯ‬ ‫ނ‪.‬‬ ‫ނ ިތ ުކ ި‬ ‫ނ ީ‬ ‫‪ެ 3‬އ ަކ ަމ ީ‬ ‫ލ ަކ ް‬ ‫ބ ާ‬ ‫ޅ ަމ ްއ ަޓ ާކ ަ‬ ‫ށ ަކނ ަޑ ެއ ު‬ ‫ޓ ެއ ްއ ަކ ަމ ް‬ ‫ސ ްލ ް‬ ‫ރ ައ ިދ ެއ ޯ‬ ‫ސ ެބ ް‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ނ ަ‬ ‫ައ ިދ ިމ ޫ‬ ‫ނ ަތ ްއ ަތ ެކ ްއ‬ ‫ޓ ީ‬ ‫ެވ ެއ ެވ‪.‬‬ ‫‪Law of Tort (Notes Book) . Mohamed Jameel Ahmed‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ .‬ފ ު‬ ‫ސ ުދ ަގ ަކ ަމ ްއ ުވ ް‬ ‫ނ ަޤ ް‬ ‫ނ ާ‬ ‫ރ ުތ ް‬ ‫ރ ަފ ާ‬ ‫ނ ާ‬ ‫ނ ވ ީ ަކ ަމ ަކ ްއ‬ ‫ޔ ިދ ީ‬ ‫ނ ައ ި‬ ‫ޔ ުކ ި‬ ‫‪ަ 2‬އ ި‬ ‫ނ ުވ ް‬ ‫ު‬ ‫ނ)‬ ‫ކ ާ‬ ‫ށ ުވ ް‬ ‫ރ ަކ ަމ ަކ ް‬ ‫ބ ްއ ެ‬ ‫ބ ެ‬ ‫ސ ަ‬ ‫ނ ަ‬ ‫ޤ ޫ‬ ‫ނ‪.‬އ ީ‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ނ ެމ ް‬ ‫ސ ް‬ ‫ރ ަ‬ ‫ޓ‪.‬‬ ‫ރ ަތ ަމ ީ‬ ‫ށ ެއ ުބ ާ‬ ‫ރ ަކ ަމ ަކ ް‬ ‫އ ާ‬ ‫ދ ުޢ ާވ ަގ ިއ ޭ‬ ‫ރ ަ‬ ‫ށ ުކ ާ‬ ‫ރ ުތ ެގ ަމ ްއ ަޗ ް‬ ‫ބ ަފ ާ‬ ‫ދ ުޢ ާވ ިލ ޭ‬ ‫ނ ަ‬ ‫ށ ަ‬ ‫ބ ަޑ ް‬ ‫ޮ‬ ‫ނ‬ ‫ނ ުކ ި‬ ‫ބ ަލ ީ‬ ‫ނ ޯ‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ނ ަވ ަތ ޫ‬ ‫ތ ު‬ ‫ރ ަކ ެމ ްއ ޯ‬ ‫އ ާ‬ ‫ކ ުޚ ުދ ޭ‬ ‫ތ ެބ ުލ ެމ ެވ‪.‬‬ ‫ސ ީ‬ ‫ރ ުހ ުމ ަގ ާ‬ ‫ެބ ް‬ ‫ނ ިތ ިޖ ް‬ ‫ޔ ެތ ްއ ެ‬ ‫ސ ްއ ަ‬ ‫ނ ެއ ްއ ެވ ް‬ ‫ޤ ޫ‬ ‫ނ ު‬ ‫މ ެހ ްއ ެގ ު‬ ‫ނ‬ ‫ސ ާމ ީ‬ ‫ސ ަހ ިއ ި‬ ‫ނ ީ‬ ‫ކ ީ‬ ‫ރ ައ ީ‬ ‫ރ‪ެ :‬ބ ަޓ ީ‬ ‫ޓ ީ‬ ‫ޖ ާހ ަ‬ ‫ނ ަ‬ ‫ސ ެގ ް‬ ‫ރ ިޅ ައ ިއ ް‬ ‫ލ‪ަ ،‬އ ުހ ަމ ުދ ަގ ިއ ަގ ިއ ު‬ ‫ސ ަލ ަކ ް‬ ‫ނ‪ި 4.

‬‬ ‫ނ ެމ ް‬ ‫ޜ ް‬ ‫ރ ަ‬ ‫ނ ފ ޯ ްލ ް‬ ‫މ ަހ ުކ ިހ ެފ ެހ ްއ ުޓ ް‬ ‫ނ ަމ ެވ ް‬ ‫ށ ަ‬ ‫ޅ ަކ ް‬ ‫ކ ަ‬ ‫ނ ެމ ުކ ަޑ ަވ ުގ ުތ ޮ‬ ‫ިކ ަތ ް‬ ‫ނ ެޓ ެކ ެވ‪.‬‬ ‫ހ ެ‬ ‫ޖ ޭ‬ ‫ނ ެ‬ ‫ު‬ ‫ނ‬ ‫ނ ެއ ެވ‪ި .‬‬ ‫ރ ުކ ެ‬ ‫ު‬ ‫ކ‬ ‫ބ ީ‬ ‫ނ ުކ ީ‬ ‫ސ ެބ ް‬ ‫މ ެވ ް‬ ‫މ ެހ ްއ ެގ ަގ ިއ ަގ ިއ ެ‬ ‫ސ ު‬ ‫ށ ެވ ް‬ ‫ރ ަކ ް‬ ‫ރ ްއ ެގ ަވ ަ‬ ‫ނ ަވ ެ‬ ‫ިކ ަތ ްއ ެމ ުކ ަޑ ިމ ް‬ ‫ރ‬ ‫ޓ ީ‬ ‫ޖ ިހ ުލ ީ‬ ‫ކ ީ‬ ‫ރ ަކ ާމ ެއ ީ‬ ‫ރ ިޅ ެވ ި‬ ‫ގ ުތ ް‬ ‫ނ ެއ ެވ‪ި .‬ޓ ެ‬ ‫ލ ައ ަ‬ ‫ރ ަމ ްތ ަކނ ޑާ ާ‬ ‫ބ ުމ ެގ ުޙ ު‬ ‫ދ ެއ ްއ ެ‬ ‫ުހ ްއ ަ‬ ‫ގ ްތ ަތ ުކ ެގ‬ ‫ނ ިތ ‪ެ ،‬އ ި‬ ‫ނ ަމ ެވ ް‬ ‫ސ ަ‬ ‫ގ ް‬ ‫ނ ަވ ަތ ެއ ްއ ެޗ ްއ ުދ ްއވާ ަފ ިއ ޮ‬ ‫ސ‪ު ،‬‬ ‫ގ ް‬ ‫ގ ަފ ޮ‬ ‫ނ ިހނ ާ‬ ‫ރ ުތ ް‬ ‫ބ ަފ ާ‬ ‫ދ ުޢވާ ިލ ޭ‬ ‫ރ ަގ ިއ ‪ަ -1‬‬ ‫ެތ ޭ‬ ‫ސ ‪،‬‬ ‫ނ‪ި .‬އ ޮ‬ ‫ނ ާ‬ ‫ރ ް‬ ‫ުހ ު‬ ‫ސ ެއ ްއ‬ ‫ސ ީ‬ ‫ޓ ީ‬ ‫ރ ަމ ީ‬ ‫ބ ަ‬ ‫‪.‫ރ ަގ ެވ ް‬ ‫ރ ުތ ެބ ް‬ ‫ޝ ު‬ ‫ޔ ަ‬ ‫ނ ެވ ިދ ަ‬ ‫ޔ ް‬ ‫ބ ާ‬ ‫ތ ަގ ަ‬ ‫ޓ ައ ިދ ެބ ް‬ ‫ސ ްލ ް‬ ‫އ ެއ ޯ‬ ‫ޖ ުހ ް‬ ‫ެ‬ ‫ސ‬ ‫ޓ ީ‬ ‫ޓ ީ‬ ‫ނ‪ި .‬މ ޮ‬ ‫ހ ެ‬ ‫ޖ ޭ‬ ‫ނ ެ‬ ‫ބ ަލ ް‬ ‫ޔ ަތ ްއ ަ‬ ‫ނ ަ‬ ‫ދ ުޢ ާވ ިލ ޭ‬ ‫ށ ުވ ުމ ަގ ިއ ަ‬ ‫ރ ައ ަކ ް‬ ‫ެއ ެކ ެވ‪ެ .‬ބ ާ‬ ‫މ ާހ ިހ ެފ ެހ ްއ ުޓ ް‬ ‫ޮ‬ ‫ނ‬ ‫ގ ެތ ްއ ެވ ެއ ެވ‪ީ .‬މ ުކ ް‬ ‫ރ ް‬ ‫ނ ުކ ު‬ ‫ނ ު‬ ‫ނ ަމ ާ‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ށ ަވ ު‬ ‫ބ ަމ ް‬ ‫ރ ްއ ެއ ެހ ް‬ ‫ނވާ ެ‬ ‫ޖ ަ‬ ‫ނ ުގޅޭ ަ‬ ‫ައ ިދ ިތ ާމ ެގ ް‬ ‫ށ‬ ‫މ ެހ ްއ ެގ ި‬ ‫ނ ީ‬ ‫ނ ަކ ް‬ ‫ނ ާ‬ ‫އ ް‬ ‫ސ ެދ ްއ ޮ‬ ‫ޅ ަޤ ް‬ ‫ރ ަގ ު‬ ‫ނ ަ‬ ‫ނ ެވ‪ު . Dr.‬‬ ‫ދ ެލ ްއ ަކ ް‬ ‫ނ ެގ ައ ިމ ްއ ަލ ުމ ަ‬ ‫އ ާ‬ ‫އ ޭ‬ ‫ރ ުތ ް‬ ‫ރ ަފ ާ‬ ‫ދ ުޢ ާވ ުކ ާ‬ ‫ޓ ަކ ިއ ަ‬ ‫ށ ަ‬ ‫ނ ަމ ް‬ ‫ށ ިދ ު‬ ‫ކ ް‬ ‫ބ ުތ ޮ‬ ‫ާ‬ ‫ނ‬ ‫ނ ެއ ީ‬ ‫ސ ި‬ ‫ބ ަމ ް‬ ‫އ ާ‬ ‫ސ ޭ‬ ‫ނ ަމ ެވ ް‬ ‫ގ ެތ ްއ ަގ ިއ ަ‬ ‫ދ ޮ‬ ‫ސ ާ‬ ‫ނ ަވ ަތ ު‬ ‫ށ ު‬ ‫ކ ް‬ ‫ދ ޮ‬ ‫ސ ާ‬ ‫ޖހޭ ެ‬ ‫ނ ެ‬ ‫ށދޭ ް‬ ‫ކ ް‬ ‫ބ ުތ ޮ‬ ‫ާ‬ ‫ށ‬ ‫ނ ެގ ި‬ ‫ނ ީ‬ ‫ނ ެއ ެވ‪ީ .‬‬ ‫ނ ި‬ ‫މ ެހ ްއ ެގ ިމ ި‬ ‫ސ ީ‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫ޅ ިއ ަގ ެ‬ ‫ނ ުގ ަ‬ ‫ނ ަކ ް‬ ‫ނ ަވ ް‬ ‫ނވ ޭ ެދ‬ ‫ނ ި‬ ‫މ ެހ ްއ ެގ ިމ ި‬ ‫ީ‬ ‫ބ ަހ ުކ ް‬ ‫ނ ަ‬ ‫ނ‪ު .‬‬ ‫ސ ި‬ ‫ނ ު‬ ‫ށ ަގ ުއ ުއ ުކ ް‬ ‫ބ ަމ ް‬ ‫މ ެގ ާމ ަ‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ަވ ު‬ ‫ބ ުތ ަގ ިއ ެއ ްއ ެޗ ްއ‬ ‫މ ެހ ްއ ެގ ި‬ ‫ނ ަވ ަތ ީ‬ ‫ކ މީ ެހ ްއ ެގ ި‬ ‫ނ ައ ީ‬ ‫ނ‪ީ .‬‬ ‫ށ ްއ ުކ ީ‬ ‫ބ ީ‬ ‫ރ ާ‬ ‫ނ ު‬ ‫ނ ަމ ް‬ ‫ޜ ް‬ ‫ރ ަ‬ ‫ފ ޯ ްލ ް‬ ‫ޅ ަކ ް‬ ‫ކ ަ‬ ‫ނ ެމ ުކ ަޑ ަވ ުގ ުތ ޮ‬ ‫ގ ުތ ަގ ިއ ިކ ަތ ް‬ ‫ނ ޮ‬ ‫ޤ ޫ‬ ‫އ ަޢ ިއ ު‬ ‫ށ‬ ‫ނ ީ‬ ‫ޓ ‪ި :‬މ ީ‬ ‫ސ ިއ ްމ ްޕ ި‬ ‫ނ ުގ ަ‬ ‫ނ ަކ ް‬ ‫ނ ަވ ް‬ ‫ނ ަމ ެވ ް‬ ‫ަ‬ ‫ޅ ިއ ަގ ުތ ެމ ެވ‪.‬‬ ‫ހ ެ‬ ‫ޖ ޭ‬ ‫ނ ެ‬ ‫ށ ު‬ ‫ރ ަކ ް‬ ‫ނ ުކ ާ‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ބ ު‬ ‫ރ ެގ ޭ‬ ‫ބ ު‬ ‫ޓ ަކ ިއ ާ‬ ‫ށ ަ‬ ‫ރ ަމ ް‬ ‫ުކ ު‬ ‫ށ‬ ‫ރ ަމ ްތ ަކނ ޑާ ިލ ަކ ް‬ ‫ބ ުމ ެގ ުޙ ު‬ ‫ހ ެ‬ ‫ޖ ޭ‬ ‫ނ ެ‬ ‫ށ ު‬ ‫ބ ަކ ް‬ ‫ނ ިލ ޭ‬ ‫ށ ެގ ްއ ުލ ް‬ ‫ރ ަތ ް‬ ‫ރ ަފ ާ‬ ‫ދ ުޢ ާވ ުކ ާ‬ ‫ނ ެވ‪ަ .‬‬ ‫ސ ިއ ްމ ިޕ ި‬ ‫ނ ާވ ީ‬ ‫ސ ީ‬ ‫ސ ުޓ ލޭ ް‬ ‫ސޕާ ް‬ ‫ރ ް‬ ‫ޓ ެ‬ ‫ޮ‬ ‫ނޓ ުް‬ ‫އ ާ‬ ‫ރ ަފ ާ‬ ‫ބ ަމ ަކ ް‬ ‫ށ ިލ ަ‬ ‫މ ަހ ަކ ް‬ ‫ގ ުތ ް‬ ‫ނ ޮ‬ ‫ޤ ޫ‬ ‫ރ ުތ ެގ‬ ‫ބ ުމ ެގ ެވ ި‬ ‫ށ‪ެ ،‬އ ި‬ ‫ބ ިއ ަފ ިއ ާވ ަޙ ްއ ުޤ ި‬ ‫ނ ީ‬ ‫ނ ީ‬ ‫ިމ ީ‬ ‫ރވ ޭ ޮ‬ ‫ސ ުކ ެ‬ ‫ސޕ ާ ް‬ ‫ރ ް‬ ‫ރ ިއ ަގ ުތ ެމ ެވ‪ު 6.‬މ ީ‬ ‫ރ ެއ ެވ‪ަ .‬ސ ަ‬ ‫ނ ެވ ަ‬ ‫ނ ެ‬ ‫ނ ެމ ްއ ޫ‬ ‫ނ ުމ ިހ ް‬ ‫ތ ެބ ުލ ް‬ ‫ށ ޯ‬ ‫ރ ަކ ް‬ ‫ނ ަވ ަ‬ ‫ރ ިކ ާހ ިމ ް‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ބ ު‬ ‫ރ ެގ ޭ‬ ‫ބ ު‬ ‫ނ ެވ‪ާ . P 295‬‬ ‫‪Law of Tort (Notes Book) . Vivienne Harpwood. Mohamed Jameel Ahmed‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ .‬ބ ް‬ ‫ނ‬ ‫މ ާހ ެގ ި‬ ‫ބ ީ‬ ‫ޓ ީ‬ ‫ނ ެއ ްއ ޮ‬ ‫ރ ިއ ް‬ ‫އ ެގ ެތ ެ‬ ‫ނ ާހ ަލ ްތ ަތ ެކ ްއ ެވ ެއ ެވ‪ޭ .‬‬ ‫ބ ަފ ާ‬ ‫ދ ުޢ ާވ ިލ ޭ‬ ‫ޓ ައ ްއ ަވ ެދ ެއ ެވ‪ަ .‬‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ސ ުޓ ލޭ ް‬ ‫ސޕ ާ ް‬ ‫ރ ް‬ ‫ޓ ެ‬ ‫ސ ް‬ ‫ނ ެވ ް‬ ‫ށ ުލ ް‬ ‫ކ ް‬ ‫ަލ ްއ ޮ‬ ‫ރ ުތ ެގ ިދފާ ުޢ ަތ ުކ ެގ‬ ‫‪Principles of Tort Law (Fourth Edition) .‬މ ީ‬ ‫ނ ެމ ައ ާ‬ ‫ރ ެގ ެއ ް‬ ‫ބ ް‬ ‫ކ ެ‬ ‫ނ ުކ ު‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ބ ު‬ ‫ރ ެގ ޭ‬ ‫ބ ު‬ ‫ނ ާ‬ ‫ގ ުތ ް‬ ‫ލ ިޒ ެމ ެވ‪ެ .‬‬ ‫ރ ައ ާވ ެ‬ ‫ނ ަ‬ ‫ދ ުޢ ާވ ިއ ް‬ ‫ރ ްތ ެއ ަ‬ ‫ބ ަފ ާ‬ ‫ދ ުޢ ާވ ިލ ޭ‬ ‫ަ‬ ‫ކ‬ ‫ގ ަތ ީ‬ ‫ބ ީ‬ ‫ށ ާވ ަ‬ ‫ނ ިތ ަކ ަމ ް‬ ‫ރ ަކ ެމ ްއ ެ‬ ‫ބ ު‬ ‫ރ ުހ ުމ ަގ ިއ ައ ިދ ަމޖޫ ޫ‬ ‫ނ ު‬ ‫ރ ު‬ ‫މ ާހ ެއ ުކ ެ‬ ‫ދ ުޢ ާވ ިލ ޭ‬ ‫ަ‬ ‫ނ ަމ ެއ ެވ‪.

Vivienne Harpwood .‬‬ ‫ސރ ި‬ ‫ސ ް‬ ‫ނ ުއ ަ‬ ‫ނސ ްް‬ ‫ި‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ސ ިދ ު‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ނ ެގ ެ‬ ‫ޖ ުހ ް‬ ‫ނ ެ‬ ‫ނ ަހ ަމ ު‬ ‫ނ ަވ ަތ ިހ ް‬ ‫ނ ު‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ނ ިދ ު‬ ‫ށ ެގ ްއ ުލ ް‬ ‫ޔ ަކ ް‬ ‫ބ ަ‬ ‫ޅ ަ‬ ‫ބ ެމ ްއ ަގ ިއ ުއ ޭ‬ ‫ނ‪.‬މ ާ‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ށ ެގ ްއ ުލ ެމ ްއ ިދ ު‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ނ ަ‬ ‫ނ ުމ ް‬ ‫ާއ ް‬ ‫ނ‪.‬‬ ‫ުއ ި‬ ‫ނ ެ‬ ‫ދ ްއ ާކ ާވ ަހ ަކ ައ ުކ ް‬ ‫ނ ަވ ަތ ަ‬ ‫ނ ު‬ ‫ިލ ުޔ ަމ ުކ ް‬ ‫ނ ެވ‪.‬އ ް‬ ‫ނ ެގ ްއ ުލ ަމ ެ‬ ‫ށ ިލ ުބ ު‬ ‫ރ ަތ ް‬ ‫ރ ަފ ާ‬ ‫ދ ުއ ާވ ުކ ާ‬ ‫ަ‬ ‫ނ ެއ ެވ‪.‬‬ ‫ދ ެ‬ ‫ރ ިވ ާ‬ ‫ށ ުކ ެ‬ ‫ޅ ް‬ ‫ކ ަ‬ ‫މ ާހ ާއ ެދ ޮ‬ ‫ށ‪ެ ،‬އ ުކ ް‬ ‫މ ާހ ައ ް‬ ‫ބ ުމ ެގ ުޙ ު‬ ‫ނ‬ ‫ރ ީ‬ ‫ށ ުކ ި‬ ‫ރ ަމ ްތ ަކނ ޑ ާ ަލ ިއފާ ީ‬ ‫މ ެހ ްއ ެގ ި‬ ‫ީ‬ ‫ސ ެ‬ ‫ސޕ ާ ަ‬ ‫ރ ް‬ ‫ނ‪ު .‬‬ ‫ބ ަޑ ް‬ ‫ރ ޮ‬ ‫ށ ުވ ެ‬ ‫ގ ަތ ް‬ ‫ރ ޮ‬ ‫ނ ެއ ަކ ް‬ ‫ރ ުތ ް‬ ‫ނ ަފ ާ‬ ‫ނ ިދ ް‬ ‫ނ ެގ ްއ ުލ ް‬ ‫ބ ާ‬ ‫ސ ަގ ިއ ަ‬ ‫ޖ ް‬ ‫ސ‪ެ :‬ޑމ ޭ ެ‬ ‫ޖ ް‬ ‫ެޑމ ޭ ެ‬ ‫ށ‬ ‫ނ ުކ ި‬ ‫ލ ީ‬ ‫ރ ިހ ެމ ެ‬ ‫ކ ުޓ ައ ުމ ު‬ ‫ނ ެމ ަފ ުހ ަކ ަމ ަކ ްއ ޯ‬ ‫ށ ެވ‪ެ .‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪Law of Tort (Notes Book) .‬ޓ ެ‬ ‫ރ ް‬ ‫ދ ުޢ ާވ ުކ ު‬ ‫ށ ަ‬ ‫ޅ ް‬ ‫ކ ަ‬ ‫މ ާހ ާއ ެދ ޮ‬ ‫ނ ުކ ް‬ ‫ގ ުތ ް‬ ‫ނ ަތ ްއ ަތ ެކ ްއ ެވ ެއ ެވ‪ި . Mohamed Jameel Ahmed‬‬ ‫‪Essential Tort Law (Second Edition) .‬‬ ‫ރ ެ‬ ‫ައ ުބ ާ‬ ‫ބ ުހނ ްް‬ ‫ނ ަކ ަމ ަކ ް‬ ‫ނ ަވ ަތ ެއ ިއ ް‬ ‫ނ ު‬ ‫ގ ުލ ް‬ ‫ނ ާ‬ ‫ރ ާމ ްތ ަ‬ ‫ނ ަވ ަތ ަކ ާ‬ ‫ރ ިއ ިއ ްއ ަޒ ްތ ު‬ ‫ދ ާ‬ ‫މ ެހ ްއ ެގ ަޤ ަ‬ ‫ރ ެ‬ ‫ައ ުބ ާ‬ ‫ށ‬ ‫ކ ީ‬ ‫ބ ުހ ަމ ީ‬ ‫ކ ިލ ާ‬ ‫ރ ަތ ަމ ޮ‬ ‫ނ ުފ ަ‬ ‫ގ ުތ ް‬ ‫ނ ެއ ެވ‪ެ 9.‬‬ ‫ރ ަގ ެހ ްއ ެގ ޫ‬ ‫ށ‪ި :‬ތ ާމ ޭ‬ ‫ސ ަލ ަކ ް‬ ‫ސ‪ި :‬މ ާ‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ސ ް‬ ‫ނ ުއ ަ‬ ‫ރ ިއ ެވ ް‬ ‫ނއީ ްޕ ަ‬ ‫ދ ަވ ަ‬ ‫ެ‬ ‫މ ަތ ްއ‬ ‫ގ ަގ ިއ ުހ ި‬ ‫ޓ ި‬ ‫ނ ުވ ް‬ ‫ށ ެގ ްއ ުލ ް‬ ‫ށ ަވ ެދ ެއ ެގ ައ ް‬ ‫ރ ެގ ައ ް‬ ‫ޖ ިހ ެގ ް‬ ‫ސ ެ‬ ‫ގ ް‬ ‫ނ ޮ‬ ‫ެދ ިމ ެގ ް‬ ‫ނ‪.‬އ ަކ ަމ ުކ ެއ ީ‬ ‫ނ ާވ ޮ‬ ‫ސ ެގ ްއ ުލ ެމ ްއ ު‬ ‫ށ ެވ ް‬ ‫ނ ަކ ް‬ ‫ނ ަވ ަ‬ ‫ުގ ަ‬ ‫ގ ުތ ަގ ިއ ެއ ެވ‪.‬‬ ‫އ ި‬ ‫ިމ ީ‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫ށ ުލ ުމ ް‬ ‫ކ ް‬ ‫ދ ޮ‬ ‫ށ ޫ‬ ‫ކ ް‬ ‫ނ ޮ‬ ‫ނ ަވ ަތ ު‬ ‫ނ ު‬ ‫ރ ުމ ް‬ ‫އ ަކ ެމ ްއ ުކ ު‬ ‫ބ ެހ ެވ‪ު .‬އ ޮ‬ ‫ދ ެ‬ ‫ށ ެބ ެހ ިވ ާ‬ ‫ގ ަތ ަކ ް‬ ‫ރ ެދ ޮ‬ ‫މ ެހ ްއ ެގ ައ ުބ ާ‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ނ ިދ ު‬ ‫ނ ަކ ް‬ ‫ޔ‬ ‫ގ ަތ ީ‬ ‫ނ‪ީ . p 132‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪Principles of Tort Law (Fourth Edition) . p 370‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ . Dr.‬މ ޮ‬ ‫ަކ ް‬ ‫ރގ‬ ‫ރ ީ‬ ‫ށ ުކ ި‬ ‫ކ ް‬ ‫ނ ޮ‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ބ ު‬ ‫ރ ެގ ޭ‬ ‫ބ ު‬ ‫ނ‪ަ ،‬އ ިދ ާ‬ ‫ރ ް‬ ‫ލ ަމ ްތ ުކ ު‬ ‫ސ ާ‬ ‫ށ ަގ ިއ ާވ ަތ ެކ ިތ ަ‬ ‫ދ ު‬ ‫ރ ެގ ަ‬ ‫ބ ު‬ ‫ނ ިތ ާމ ެގ ާ‬ ‫ބ ިއ ް‬ ‫ިކ ަ‬ ‫ށ‬ ‫ށ ުލ ް‬ ‫ކ ް‬ ‫ރ ޮ‬ ‫ބ ު‬ ‫ނ ޭ‬ ‫ބ ުމ ް‬ ‫ސޕ ާ ަ‬ ‫ރ ް‬ ‫ޓ ެ‬ ‫ް‬ ‫ނ ެއ ެވ‪.‬މ ާ‬ ‫ަތ ަކ ް‬ ‫ނ‪.‬‬ ‫ނ ުހ ި‬ ‫ނ ިލ ެބ ް‬ ‫ނ ެގ ްއ ުލ ް‬ ‫ރ ުތ ް‬ ‫ނ ަފ ާ‬ ‫ނ ިލ ުބ ު‬ ‫ރ ަގ ިއ‪ެ ،‬ގ ްއ ުލ ް‬ ‫ސ ަތ ުކ ެގ ެތ ޭ‬ ‫ރ ެމ ޑީ ް‬ ‫ސ ެގ ެ‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ސ ް‬ ‫ނ ުއ ަ‬ ‫ނ‬ ‫ި‬ ‫ނ ައ ް‬ ‫ރ ަ‬ ‫މ ެހ ްއ ެގ ުފ ާ‬ ‫ރ ޮ‬ ‫އ ު‬ ‫ބ ުބ ަ‬ ‫ސ ަ‬ ‫ިދ ާމ ިވ ަ‬ ‫ށ ައ ިދ‬ ‫ގ ުތ ަގ ިއ ީ‬ ‫ސ ްލ ަހ ެވ ި‬ ‫ނ ްއ ާތ ުލ ެމ ެވ‪ެ .‬ފ ަ‬ ‫ށ ެ‬ ‫ޔ ަކ ް‬ ‫ބ ަ‬ ‫ސ ެދ ަ‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ސ ް‬ ‫ނ ުއ ެ‬ ‫ނ‬ ‫ރ ަތ ަމ ީ‬ ‫ި‬ ‫ނ ިވ ްއ ުކ ް‬ ‫ބ ެފ ް‬ ‫ސ ުފ ޯ‬ ‫ނ ާ‬ ‫ށ‪ު :‬‬ ‫ސ ަލ ަކ ް‬ ‫ނ‪ި 8. Anita Stuhmcke.‫ޟ ޫ‬ ‫ނ ‪ު ،‬‬ ‫އ ުތ ް‬ ‫ދ ެއ ްއ ޮ‬ ‫ނ ުހ ްއ ަ‬ ‫ނ‪ާ ،‬ޤ ޫ‬ ‫އ ުތ ް‬ ‫ދ ޮ‬ ‫ރ ުތ ެގ ުހ ްއ ަ‬ ‫ރ ަފ ާ‬ ‫ރ ަގ ިއ ޭ‬ ‫ެތ ޭ‬ ‫ރ ާޙ ަލ ްތ‬ ‫ރ ީ‬ ‫ނ ީ‬ ‫ގ ެގ ެވ ި‬ ‫ނގ ް‬ ‫ސ ެއ ްއ ިހ ު‬ ‫ނ ެގ ާޙ ިދ ާ‬ ‫ށ‪ަ :‬އ ިލފާ ު‬ ‫ސ ަލ ަކ ް‬ ‫ށ‪ި .

‬‬ ‫ބ ެހ ްއ‪ަ ،‬‬ ‫ނ ަ‬ ‫ކ‪ި ،‬ތ ާމ ުބ ާ‬ ‫ރ ެ‬ ‫ނ ައ ުބ ާ‬ ‫ބ ަހ ުކ ް‬ ‫ނ ަ‬ ‫ނ ަވ ަތ ުބ ާ‬ ‫ނ ު‬ ‫ދ ްއ ާކ ާވ ަހ ަކ ައ ުކ ް‬ ‫ަ‬ ‫ދ ްއ ާކ‬ ‫ބ ުހ ަމ ީ‬ ‫ނ ައ ެ‬ ‫ބ ުބ ް‬ ‫ސ ަ‬ ‫ރ ާކ ެތ ްއ ެގ ަ‬ ‫ރ ަޙ ަ‬ ‫ނ ަވ ަތ ުކ ާ‬ ‫ރ ެތ ްއ ު‬ ‫ޝ ާ‬ ‫ރ ިއ ާ‬ ‫ލ ާމ ެތ ްއ‪ު ،‬ކ ާ‬ ‫ާވ ަހ ަކ ެއ ްއ‪ ،‬ދޭ ަމ ުޢ ޫ‬ ‫ނ ާކ ެގ‬ ‫ރ ަކ ް‬ ‫ށ ުހ ުތ ު‬ ‫ށ‪ި ،‬ޢ ްއ ަޒ ަތ ް‬ ‫ރ ް‬ ‫ައ ުބ ަ‬ ‫ނ ިލ ުބ ެމ ެވ‪.‬އ ުބ ި‬ ‫ނ ެހ ް‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ނ ަ‬ ‫ނ‪ަ .‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ .‬‬ ‫ކ ެތ ުދ ާވ ަހ ަކ ެއ ްއ ު‬ ‫ނ ެގ ިދފާ ުޢ ަތ ުކ ެގ ެތ ޭ‬ ‫ޝ ް‬ ‫ެޑ ެފމ ޭ ަ‬ ‫ނ ަވ ަތ ެތ ުދ‬ ‫ރ ަގ ިއ ެއ ެދ ްއ ިކ ާވ ަހ ަކ ައ ީ‬ ‫ށ ުވ ް‬ ‫ލ ާމ ަތ ަކ ް‬ ‫ނ ުމ ަމ ުޢ ޫ‬ ‫ށ ުމ ިހ ް‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ނ ަ‬ ‫ކ ާއ ްއ ުމ ް‬ ‫ލ ާމ ެތ ްއ ަކ ަމ ް‬ ‫ަމ ުޢ ޫ‬ ‫ނ‪.‬އ ިދ ިމ ޫ‬ ‫ށ ުވ ް‬ ‫ލ ާމ ަތ ަކ ް‬ ‫ދ ަފ ިއ ާވ ަމ ުޢ ޫ‬ ‫މ ާހ ު‬ ‫ދ ުޢ ާވ ުކ ާ‬ ‫ަ‬ ‫ނ ިދފާ ުޢ ަތ ެކ ްއ‬ ‫ސ ެއ ެހ ި‬ ‫ރ ީ‬ ‫ރ ުހ ުމ ަގ ިއ ީ‬ ‫ެވ ެއ ެވ‪.‬‬ ‫ނ ާވ ަހ ަކ ަތ ަކ ީ‬ ‫ށ ުވ ެމ ެވ‪ެ .‫ސ ާ‬ ‫ރ ް‬ ‫މ ެހ ްއ ެގ ައ ުބ ަ‬ ‫ނ ިދފާ ެޢ ްއ ެ‬ ‫ޤ ޫ‬ ‫ކ‪ެ ،‬އ ްއ ެވ ް‬ ‫މ ެހ ްއ ެގ ައ ުބ ާ‬ ‫ޔ ިލ ުޔ ަމ ުކ ް‬ ‫ިލ ާ‬ ‫ށ‬ ‫ނ ިތ ީ‬ ‫ނ ީ‬ ‫ރ ެބ ުހ ަމ ީ‬ ‫ނ ީ‬ ‫ޝ ިއ ުޢ ުކ ު‬ ‫ނ ާ‬ ‫ޔ ‪ެ ،‬އ ިލ ުޔ ް‬ ‫ދ ިލ ުޔ ެމ ްއ ިލ ެ‬ ‫ރ ަފ ަ‬ ‫ރ ައ ާ‬ ‫ުހ ުތ ު‬ ‫ރ ެމ ެވ‪.

‫ރ ް‬ ‫ސ ުތ‬ ‫ިފ ުހ ި‬ ‫ަތ ާޢ ަ‬ ‫ރ ުފ‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫ރސ ް‬ ‫ރސ ުޓ ޕާ ަ‬ ‫ސޕާ ް‬ ‫ރ ް‬ ‫ުޓ ެ‬ ‫ނ‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫ސ ްލ ް‬ ‫ެއ ޯ‬ ‫ޓ‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫ެބ ް‬ ‫ރ‬ ‫ޓ ީ‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫ނ ެމ ް‬ ‫ޜ ް‬ ‫ރ ަ‬ ‫ސ ިއ ް‬ ‫ފ ޯ ްލ ް‬ ‫ނ ުޓ‬ ‫ނ ިޕ ި‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫ރސ ުޓ ލޭ ް‬ ‫ސޕާ ް‬ ‫ރ ް‬ ‫ުޓ ެ‬ ‫ނ ުޓ‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫ނ ް‬ ‫ސ ް‬ ‫ނ ުއ ަ‬ ‫ސ‬ ‫ި‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫ރ ެބ ުހ ް‬ ‫ައ ުބ ާ‬ ‫ނ‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪CASE TABLE‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ .

MEERING V GRAHAME. SCOTT V SHEPHERD (1773) 7 .WHITE AVIATION CO (1919) PLENTY V DILLON (1991) RIGBY V CHIEF CONSTABLE OF NORTHAMPTONSHIRE (1985) STEPHENCE V MYERS (1830).

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