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Tania Dey B090918Ch

What is mixing ?
Mixing, a physical process which aims at reducing non-uniformities in fluids by eliminating gradients of concentration, temperature, and other properties.

What is fermentation broth ?

Medium Gas bubbles Substrate


Cells in suspension

Dissolve solids in liquids Dispersing air in form of bubbles Improve heat transfer Consumption of oxygen Increases interfacial area Equilibrate the conc of nutrients and substrate Overall provides conductive environment for cell suspention to interact with the sustrate in a better manner.

Mixing equipment (Standard mixing tank)

Impeller Turbine Propeller

Various types of Agitator

Factors affecting selection of mixing equipment

Cell morphology Susceptibilty of cell to shearing Viscosity Density Interphase (gas-liquid/ liquid -liquid) Power requirement

Power requirement for mixing

Electrical power required to drive the motor connected to agitator. Is a function of
a) b) c) d) e) f) Viscosity Density Presence of suspended solids Speed of agitator Type of impeller Orientation of vanes

Ungassed Newtonian fluids

The relationship between variables affecting power required is usually expressed in terms of dimensionless numberspower number(Npo) Impeller Reynolds number(NRei) Froude number(NFr) Po - power required Ni - impeller speed di - impeller diameter

Froude number takes care of gravitational effect Only significant for unbaffled fermentor and cases where NRei <300 Power number gets modified to-

NRei versus Npo for various impellers

Zone 1
LAMINAR ZONE Npo falls as NRei increases

Zone 2
TRANSITION ZONE In which the plots are curved

Zone 3

TURBULENT ZONE Npo is constant as NRei increases

Ungassed Non Newtonian fluids

Difficult as viscosity changes due to shear rate Seldom reach turbulent zone Apparent viscosity [a] is used in Nrei a = K-1

Nrei(non newtonian)= (Nidi2)/(K-1)

Ungassed tank with ruston turbine

Gassed system
Power required in gasses is always less than ungassed .

Pg power required for gassed system Fg volumetric gas flow rate V liquid volume Wi width of the impeller

Na is aeration factor given by Na = Fg/(Nidi3)

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