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Educational resources to get you started for the business of Cloud Computing
An introduction to
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ISBN: 9781742447919 ISBN-10: 1-74244-791-0
The Art of Service
Cloud Computing & Scalability Issues ..............................................................1 Cloud Computing & Security ..............................................................................4 Cloud Computing as the Ultimate Temporary Storage Solution ............7 More Businesses Opting for their Own Private Cloud Computing Networks ............................................9 More City Governments Turning to Cloud Computing ........................... 12 Recent Advances in Mobile Cloud Computing .......................................... 15 The Nuts and Bolts of Cloud Computing ...................................................... 18 “Virtualization” & the Emerging Cloud-Based Operating Systems ..... 21 What Are Lobots? ................................................................................................. 24 Your Cloud Computing Service and Client Expectations ....................... 26 A Closer Look at Amazon’s EC2 and S3 Services ........................................ 30 Effective, Manageable, Customizable & Flexible: This Is Cloud Computing…................................................................................ 33 How Advertising Based Pricing Models Function (with Regards to Cloud Computing) .............................................................. 37 How Cloud Computing Can Assist in Disaster Recovery Efforts........... 40 How Cloud Computing Positively Affects the Environment.................. 43 The 3 Types of Cloud Computing Services................................................... 47 The Basic Architecture of Cloud Computing ............................................... 51 What Do Cloud Brokers Do? ............................................................................. 55 What Is The Function of a Content Delivery Network (CDN) ................. 58 Will Cloud Computing Really Reduce Your Budget?................................. 61
The Browser Based Client OS ............................................................................ 65 Cloud Application Development Tools ......................................................... 69 Cloud-Driven Business and IT Services.......................................................... 72 Cloud Management Platforms ......................................................................... 77 Cloud Parallel Processing ................................................................................... 81 Cloud Services Brokerage................................................................................... 85 Cloud Testing Tools and Service....................................................................... 89 Cloudbursting ........................................................................................................ 92 Community Cloud................................................................................................. 96 Virtual Private Cloud Computing...................................................................101 Cloud APaaS ..........................................................................................................104 Cloud Computing for the Enterprise ............................................................108 Cloud Computing Security Concerns ..........................................................112 Cloud Email............................................................................................................116 Cloud-enabled BPM Platforms .......................................................................121 Compute Infrastructure Services ...................................................................125 DBMS as a Cloud Service ..................................................................................129 Enterprise Portals as a Service ........................................................................133 Hybrid Cloud Computing .................................................................................137 Private Cloud Computing .................................................................................141 The 4th stage of cloud development: ...........................................................145 Cloud Computing................................................................................................149 Cloud Service Integration.................................................................................153 Looking at Cloud Storage.................................................................................158 Cloud/Web Platforms.........................................................................................162 Elasticity ..................................................................................................................166
.............................................................188 Service Level Management for cloud computing ........ ................170 Platform as a Service (PaaS) .....................................221 v .............210 ITIL Information Security Management ...........................................................................................................212 Is this the end of an era? Will Cloud Computing separate the “boys from the men”?........ what changes for the end-user? ...... head for the clouds! ..........................pie in the sky? No................................218 Lessons learnt from running Cloud Computing without ITIL Processes ............................................2 peas in a pot...........197 Cloud Computing killed the Capacity star ....................193 Cloud Computing........................................ SaaS or virtualization..................................208 Cloud computing or rather........182 Ivanka’s Blog Articles Cloud Computing and ITSM .............................................200 Will ITIL V5 still have Capacity Management as a process? Or is it replaced by Cloud Management? ............178 Why can’t we agree on the definition of Cloud Computing? .174 What can go wrong in Cloud Computing? .............................................. computing in the cloud .......................................................................216 ITIL framework like tide in the ocean? or is this start of a tsunami?! ...................Contents Server Virtualization: What’s your ROI ................................ ............206 Green IT ..........203 The benefits of Cloud Computing in relation to Climate change................................190 Top 10 things to consider when migrating to SaaS or Hosted Software solutions -......................................................the facebook way ...................
..............................................Contents Does ITIL still cover all Service Management aspects when you utilize Cloud Computing?...244 8 Best Cloud Computing Essential Tips for the business traveller ..... (follow on from ITIL Capacity Management) .............................249 What do you think of cloud based email? .229 Stupid Cloud Computing ................................................................................ The Art of avoiding disasters in the office through continuity management.........why don’t you work? .....................225 What Software Application do companies want in the cloud?.........231 Three things Project managers needs to know to manage successful SaaS implementations....................................................................................the private cloud is here.......................................234 In times of economic crisis..................... don’t stick your head in the sand but HEAD FOR THE CLOUD! ....................................................237 No need to fear .....................................251 vi ....................240 What Sao Paulo forgot to do ............................................. ..247 Don’t compare Apples to Cloud Computing...........
part i the art of serViCe .
processes and media to ever growing numbers of VertiCal sCalability Can be achieved through the addition of extra hardware such as hard drives. they are: T o put it succinctly. Your cloud’s scalability is basically its’ performance report card. the goal being to provide equal (or near equal) access to everyone connected to the cloud. servers.Cloud Computing & Scalability Issues computing in general is the ability of various apps and web objects to effectively scale up or down in order to match the system that they’re running on. There are two methods used to increase scalability potential. CPU’s. This is a signifier that data delivery capabilities might need to be significantly upgraded. scalability is the cloud’s ability to provide applications. Most individuals seem to be adrift in the belief that all scalability issues are automatically dealt with by the cloud itself. These kinds of setups can cause scalability issues as well. But most of the time scalability issues are just an expression of too many individuals accessing the same data at the same time. Many cloud networks may be set up to grant certain individuals access to greater amounts of system resources than other cloud users. What is Scalability in Cloud Computing? users. etc… While this is not entirely a solution in and 1 . this is O ne of the most pertinent issues facing cloud certainly not the case at all.
Horizontal scalability is really just a quick fix for a growing or expanding cloud… But it also serves as a sort of buffer for vertical scalability. software and even hardware that have been designed to handle and distribute increased traffic. Reliance on the use of synchronous calls. 2 . horizontal sCalability Create more access points within the current system. isn’t necessarily as effective as vertical scalability however.the art of serViCe Cloud Computing & sCalability issues of itself. Horizontal scalability is intimately associated with the manner with which points of access are distributed across a network. it is necessary if a cloud network is to be able to accommodate ever growing numbers of virtual machines. Multiple Load Balancers Integrating multiple load balancers into your system is probably the best solution for dealing with scalability issues. Overuse of third-party scaling. server farms. Items that interfere with scalability: • • • Too much software clutter (no organization) within the hardware stack(s). There are many different forms of load balancers to choose from.
software. 3 . you will reap the benefits of both. By incorporating the best solutions present in both vertical and horizontal scaling. problems arise from lack of resources not the inherent architecture of their cloud itself. you should simply start cloning them. Creating a cloud network that offers the maximum level of scalability potential is entirely possible if we apply a more “diagonal” solution. For most individuals. Once your servers reach the limit of diminishing returns (no growth). This will allow you to keep a consistent architecture when adding new components.the art of serViCe Cloud Computing & seCurity • • • Not enough caching is taking place. Databases not being used properly. apps and users. A more diagonal approach should help you deal with the current and growing demands that you are facing. The Solution.
Given its current scale and usage level by most of the world’s population you might even say that it is statistic 0ally safer than a visit to your local cyber café. As time rolls on and additional developments are integrated. because it E very great leap in isn’t. cloud computing technological development What are some of the specific security risks associated with cloud computing? • • • • Long-term hosting capabilities. Luckily. Who has access to data within the hosting company? Location of consumer data. 4 . Cloud computing is certainly no exception. the risks and security concerns eventually fade off into obscurity.Cloud Computing & Security is usually accompanied by a host of mild to possibly severe risks. it may never actually reach this critical stage as there are various organizations working towards reinforcing security. Data recovery in the event of a catastrophe. once people catch on to this new technology and begin implementing it into their daily lives the security risks could potentially run rampant. it carries with it a few security concerns that are being dealt with even as you’re reading this. However. That’s not to say that cloud computing is inherently dangerous.
Data Recovery in the Event of a Catastrophe Mistakes are going to happen. This includes outsourced IT professionals and others as well as those working directly for the provider. A total cataclysmic failure of multiple servers could lead to the loss of consumer data. Assurances must be put into place by cloud computing 5 . it doesn’t matter whether your data is on a local or remote drive. your provider. Then one day. you’ve been happily using a cloud computing service for a number of years and store most of your personal and business files there as well.the art of serViCe Cloud Computing & seCurity Long-term Hosting Capabilities Here’s a scenario. Who Has Access to Data Within the Hosting Company? The individuals that directly manage customer data might have complete access to unencrypted files. without warning. A cloud computing service provider needs to have measures in place that are capable of equalizing the fallout from a major crash. Will these changes affect access to your data? What if your provider is acquired by a larger conglomerate and they decide to completely restructure everything? The obvious solution for emerging cloud computing companies is to offer their customers assurances and an established plan of action. should the unthinkable occur. announces a series of “big changes” that are to take place immediately.
Cloud computing providers must provide their customers with an idea on where their data is to be physically stored.the art of serViCe Cloud Computing & seCurity providers that will limit access to personal data for emergency or userdefined purposes only. 6 . but they acquired said data from a host based in a country that does not honor the current laws that are in place. Cloud computing security concerns are paving the way toward even greater computer security developments and measures. The real challenge or burgeoning cloud computing companies is going to be effectively marketing their services amid all of these serious security concerns. then recovery and prosecution will not be possible. In order to establish a higher level of security it will be necessary for cloud computing providers to disclose the primary locations of their clients’ data. if a hacker decides to manipulate or steal data from a customer. None of these problems are insurmountable however. and if history has taught us anything it’s that bigger problems always lead to better solutions. Location of Consumer Data Different locations have different regulations in place concerning the privacy of user data. For example.
like the Gladinet’s cloud desktop even allow you to work offline and synchronize your data instantly when you connect to the net. much more sophisticated than email. The systems in play right now are of course. today we have cloud computing. Some newly developed systems. How Might Cloud Computing Meet Your Storage Expectations? You can… • • Transfer files to and from devices easily. but no longer. This is perfect for individuals that are always on the go with their mobile devices and laptops. Host your site’s larger files with cloud computing.Cloud Computing as the Ultimate Temporary Storage Solution it comes time to upgrade your PC. thereby 7 . Mac or laptop? Is it really necessary to go out and buy an W hat do you do with all of your important files when external device just to transfer files from one piece of hardware to the other? Maybe a couple of years ago it was. If you’ve ever sent yourself an email with attachments then you are already familiar with the basics of cloud computing.
8 . keeping it separate from your work. cloud drives are perfect for this type of application. It is possible (even with a lower tier hosing account) to accept thousands upon thousands of visitors as long as you’re dealing with text. Arguably. I prefer to use cloud computing as my ‘de-facto’ back up method. if something is suitable for entertainment purposes as well as commerce then it is probably of great value. the most useful application for cloud computing is offsite hosting. Create backups for business trips or vacations. • • • Store personal items like music on your cloud drive. compressed images and html. Backup your entire file system for transplant onto another device. That is to say. But it is also an incredibly versatile system for a variety of web-based activities. some have even speculated that it might ignite an entirely different type of digital revolution. What’s the perfect solution? Host your large files from a separate source. Cloud computing delivers in both these regards. Like most people. but as soon as video. The mark of any new technological development can be measured by its usefulness to both businesses and individuals. audio or other large media enter the picture.the art of serViCe Cloud Computing as the ultimate temporary storage solution extending your bandwidth limitations. problems arise. If you own or run a website then you are probably familiar with bandwidth limitations.
More Businesses Opting fortheir Own Private Cloud Computing Networks explore the benefits of owning a priVate Cloud Computing network on the consumer market (music streaming services. The costs incurred for standard software and hardware upgrades for most companies is simply astronomical. Imagine being able to virtually eliminate at least 50% of your upgrading expenses for the year. and the like). Expenses Are Down this Quarter… Businesses can enjoy lowered operating costs in exactly the same way that a private cloud user might. That’s why a lot of tech savvy businesses are installing their own private cloud computing networks. But it would be unwise for a business G iven that fact that cloud computing is so effective to adopt a cloud computing network that was open over the internet (due to security issues. corporate espionage. it allows all employees to access one central hardware stack with more 9 . This is exactly what cloud computing does. for example) it only follows logic that it would also be valuable in a business capacity.
and so on and so forth. you only need a talented and 10 . In a way a cloud system almost keeps things organized automatically. A business with their own cloud network knows what their employees are doing at all times. send out mass memos. Since software and hardware upgrades are applied and maintained in this central location there is virtually no loss in productivity for individual employees either (due to technical problems at least). cloud computing is the perfect interface for keeping things moving forward in an organized manner. Ideally. Smaller IT Department Because the actual amount of computer hardware is much less in a private cloud network compared with current networks. conduct interdepartmental communications. The very design of a cloud computing network actually reinforces group participation. Cloud Computing Is Synonymouswith Organization Since everyone accesses the same system it is also very easy to collect and compile reports.the art of serViCe priVate Cloud Computing networks than enough computing power and features to keep them satisfied. that way your team(s) can concentrate on more demanding matters. And let’s not forget about performance. cloud computing is recognized for its speed. If we extend this idea to project development. the need for more IT staff will diminish.
Though nothing has been officially set in stone. and many. The benefits of adopting a cloud system are obvious.the art of serViCe priVate Cloud Computing networks dependable group of a few individuals (whose sole responsibility is that of the hardware itself ). The lowered operating costs of a private cloud computing network alone are worth the price of admission. Once more commercially developed systems become available they’ll most likely begin flying off the shelves and into businesses everywhere. it’s really only a matter of time before every business on the planet has implemented their own private cloud network. 11 .
Cloud upgrades computing are impractical and extremely is looking to change all that. especially where technology is concerned.More City Governments Turning to Cloud Computing a Closer look at why goVernmental organizations are setting up their own Cloud networks and out of control in recent years. There seem to be two distinct end results for most administrations. This of course stems from the fact that conventional hardware/software expensive. an expensive system that requires constant upgrading. budgets have been bloated Cloud Computing is Much Cheaper Connecting 200 displays to one source is certainly cheaper than creating 200 sources. wouldn’t you agree? This is the fundamental concept behind cloud computing and a perfect illustration of why it’s cheaper than a conventional system of personal 12 . along with the way government conducts its business. or a complete lack of M ost city government adequate hardware and software altogether. each with their own display.
This of course saves everyone time in the long run as well as tedious (and expensive) hardware and software upgrade procedures. Success Is Being Documented Most governments shy away from integrating new concepts until they have empirical data that shows clear benefits as applied to their unique situation. All hardware and software upgrades occur at the cloud’s hub. there haven’t been enough documented instances of direct remuneration (until now). 13 . The resources of the cloud (super computer) are shared by everyone. it’s starting to gain ground. User machines are usually simple display devices with a minimal operating system and some RAM. Upgrades Are Performed in one Central Location One of the hallmarks of cloud computing is the fact that there is no user-end hardware to upgrade. Now that more and more governments are adopting cloud networks (and with great successes). This is one of the reasons why cloud computing has been so slow to catch on. this means less cost per individual user and an increase in resources available to each user as well.the art of serViCe more City goVernments turning to Cloud Computing CPU’s with their own hard drives. This is usually a network of servers and other hardware that is looked after and maintained by a knowledgeable and talented group of individuals.
the message is clear.the art of serViCe more City goVernments turning to Cloud Computing The Figures Don’t Lie In a survey conducted by the Public Technology Institute it was found that at least 45% of local governments in the US were using cloud computing (in some form or another). and use it too“. and eat it too”. This is largely attributed to the recent strains that have been placed on budgets across the country. the switch is underway. So in essence. allowing them to slash their technology budget. Governments that were adamantly saying NO to the cloud are now embracing it with open arms. Or in this case. the transition to cloud-based systems is already underway. While most of these institutions may only be using elements of cloud computing. 14 . while actually gaining features! Cloud computing offers them a way to (literally) “have their cake. “have their tech.
hardware space. The limitation with these devices has always been HTML5 The web’s new markup language is a perfect fit for cloud computing. Mobile cloud computing. anticipated overwhelming According to the statistics there were over four billion active mobile phones by the time that 2009 came to a close. This will make it possible for individuals to carry around (even smaller) devices that are just as powerful as their new computers at home. HTML5 will allow devices to store pertinent information temporarily in order to alleviate mobile 15 . plug-in support for web pages. and advanced data processing capabilities.Recent Advances in Mobile Cloud Computing M an obile is cloud computing to be success. anyway) it only makes sense that it would eventually be incorporated into mobile computing. smaller and faster components are constantly being developed and implemented. While newer. In the last couple of years the demand for browser capable mobile devices has skyrocketed and shows no signs of slowing down. And that figure has grown by a billion or more with even more projected growth coming in the years to come. the simplest solution is right in front of our noses. It allows for device-caching. Because cloud computing is not hardware-intensive (from the user end.
which is great and extremely healthy as well. cloud computing wouldn’t be practical or even possible. In all honesty.The Nuts and Bolts of Cloud Computing it’s going to Change the way we do things. but just how muCh will Change? computing is pushing us. people are getting excited. Without these in place. While many of us tech junkies are eager A world without the need for hard drives is where cloud to jump into “the Cloud”. 18 . and for good reason. cloud computing was/is an eventuality. this is a major breakthrough in not only computing but also communication. so to speak. what’s unclear is just how many of us are ready to give up our drives or transition to a drive-less structure. The influence of megalithic telecommunications organizations (and their incessant push towards simplifying and miniaturizing virtually every electronic device capable of communicating with another human being) is creating a situation where the tail is starting to wag the dog. cloud computing isn’t so much a step forward as it is a step in a different direction. “One Thing Leads to Another” One of the main things that is driving cloud computing is the recent advancements in wireless speed and connectivity. In many ways. The bottom line is.
By keeping things light and simple individual access 19 . Minimal Requirements The best thing about cloud computing however is the minimal operating systems that most companies are going to begin incorporating into their devices.the art of serViCe the nuts and bolts of Cloud Computing Cloud Computing … Just another Utility? Cloud computing has been compared to the standard utility companies. power to the people. the ‘goods’ come from one central location. cloud computing is essentially a centralized service that users access. This means all the hardware. software. you’re just turning things off and on. With cloud computing the resources of the cloud itself are at your disposal. The Power of the Cloud One of the biggest benefits of cloud computing is its ability to offer users access to off-site hardware and software. This may ultimately give more people access to a larger pool or resources at an extremely reduced cost. In other words. electricity or gas. processors and networks will combine to give individuals much more computing power than has ever been possible. How so? Just like water. and it does bear a striking resemblance to these institutions. This will completely change nearly every facet of information exchange as well as influence everything from social networking to web development.
A more likely scenario might involve most people using the cloud for specific devices or tasks. and holding onto their hard drive based systems for other duties.the art of serViCe the nuts and bolts of Cloud Computing devices are going to last a lot longer and become much more durable. And of course. But there is a strong chance that at least half or more of the world’s connected population might. losing or breaking a device is no longer going to be of any particular concern. It is still highly unlikely that most everyone will openly adopt and implement cloud-based systems for all their devices in lieu of traditional hard drives. 20 . as they will be easily replaced and there’s no danger of losing your files or information either.
The new cloud operating systems are essentially advanced or virtualization interfaces. The emerging operating systems are being designed to more effectively manage available resources through the implementation of advanced virtualization. interfaces that allow the user end device to access real or simulated hardware / software.“Virtualization” & the Emerging Cloud-Based Operating Systems computing are the same entity. for example. There is some debate among tech groups that virtualization / cloud computing will eventually make operating systems (as we know them today) obsolete. What they aren’t taking into account however is 21 . Cloud computing was actually A t first glance most assume that virtualization and cloud born from the progress achieved in virtualization technology. this is only partially correct. Cloud computing is only possible through the use of virtualization. but not the other way around. this is being met with strong opposition as most individuals predict that this potential web OS will be much more unreliable than the current standard models. Obviously. Virtualization software (which may mimic the capabilities of certain hardware) can be employed on a home computer that’s not even connected to the net. In the outer reaches of the tech sphere there is a push toward implementation of an entirely web-based OS.
not hardware. the new “boss” is going to be software. there will also be fewer instances of inter application conflicts / crashes as well. Cloud computing makes is possible for the OS to provide seemingly unlimited resources to individual applications. so higher levels of efficiency are going to become possible. while the advanced computational prowess of software is not only performing its regularly assigned tasks. cloud operating systems will not be reliant on hardware. Hardware is being relegated to a backseat position. This will also greatly increase an individual system’s ability (and speed) to monitor the entire run-time environment for changes and / or potential attacks and viruses. The biggest perk of a cloud operating system is that individual applications will no longer be required to share resources. Today’s cloud computing think tanks are looking at the internet and what’s possible there and then designing their hardware and operating systems around those possibilities (as opposed to the old method of creating hardware and software and then upgrading components around newly emerging capabilities). Instead. in fact. But what of the new operating systems that are emerging for standard cloud computing applications? How will they differ from what we’re currently using? First of all. In other words.the art of serViCe “Virtualization” & the emerging Cloud-based operating systems the fact that a web-based OS isn’t going to be designed for any of the current computer systems we’re currently using. the web OS will be designated for a new type of computer that is essentially just a portal to the web. but also 22 .
23 .the art of serViCe “Virtualization” & the emerging Cloud-based operating systems doing all the work that hardware was originally responsible for. Cloud computing is the next logical step in the evolution of the personal computer and will give individual users access to an even larger bank of resources than ever before.
lobots participate in. This native awareness the lobots possess. Lobots are even being used to clear virtual machine RAM. They are essentially devices that both identify individual users as well as assist them in provisioning data. lobots pre appraises the blocks of data that are to be transferred amongst the host and client. gives them an almost 6th sense for dealing with security issues. Security is another area that I n the world of cloud computing. Lobots are your go-to guys. Lobots are self-sufficient and autonomous apparatuses. like after shutdown or disconnection from the cloud (to further ensure the physical integrity of the cloud). And of course there’s one of the more critical functions that lobots perform. As more people become 24 . part bouncer and always on call for action. physically & incessantly monitoring the cloud for any and all issues or developments. One of the most commonly repeated apprehensions of favoring cloud computing is the perceived lack of security.What Are Lobots? They are the physical entities that communicate between the network and your virtual machine. Upon coming into contact with cloud-based data they immediately break open the atmosphere and scan it for tampering. they are your first strike assault team in the cloud. It ascertains the security requirements present in accordance with the data itself before any other actions are taken. Lobots are part librarian. They’re solely responsible for integrity of security within certain parameters (validation and authentication).
Keep up the good work little guys. The overall success or failure of cloud computing is in a way resting in the hands of the little lobots. hopefully they will understand that cloud security is just as effective as what’s currently in use. 25 .the art of serViCe what are lobots? aware of protocols like the Lobot. if no more so. Eventually. they will perhaps even serve additional functions apart from the ones they’re currently serving. As time pushes onward we are likely to see lobots becoming increasingly more sophisticated.
by either techies or consumers. availability and flexibility. multiple well-known companies were developing and What Customers Expect • • • • Security Availability Adaptability Customer service 26 . As a result. they are security. This year however. the most important is arguably meeting customer expectations. experts are predicting unprecedented growth in the cloud computing arena.Your Cloud Computing Service and Client Expectations T here are various launching their own services. considerations to take into account when establishing your own cloud computing service. specific client expectations are still up for debate. There are a few things that remain constant however. your assets are your clients. But what exactly are ‘cloud computing’ customers looking for? 2010 was a booming year in the world of cloud computing. your primary concern should be in securing your potential assets. and with all this new growth there will be growing pains to deal with. As with any business. in this case. The full range of applications for cloud services has not been fully explored yet.
the art of serViCe your Cloud Computing serViCe and Client expeCtations There are essentially two different groups that you are marketing your cloud computing services to. but they’re most likely using cloud services on a limited scale. consistent speeds at all hours and specialized security. and advanced identity management technologies. Security Whether or not you’re providing services for individuals or businesses security is a big concern. Individuals are concerned about these items as well. data segregation. Availability If your service is frequently or completely unavailable. The momentum behind cloud computing literally falls apart the instant that availability becomes an issue. Both of these groups have their own concerns and desires that you must address individually. technologies and other control elements that work together to ensure the highest level of safety that is possible. they are going to require larger volumes of bandwidth. This must include a system of guidelines. the success 27 . you run the risk of losing business. This must include high-level encryption. individuals and businesses. Businesses are not going to utilize cloud computing services in the same manner as individuals. Most individual users are more apt to utilize cloud computing for entertainment or personal purposes and not strictly business.
This also extends into the arena of software. it’s speeding up dramatically. but can also deal with and solve problems on a customer to customer basis. your company’s ability to integrate new software developments in a timely manner cannot be underestimated (since most current cloud computing systems are based on some type of software interface).e. Customer Service Because cloud computing is in its infancy. Your company’s ability to transition to a well established business will rest largely on the shoulders of your customer service department. your potential customer base can still be salvaged with an excellent customer service support staff. Developing a strong business reputation is essential within the tech world. i. you should anticipate any number of problems arising in the future. A great way to 28 . people that not only know what they’re talking about. Adaptability The technological race isn’t slowing down. in fact. Even if your developments are met with a certain level of failure. As cloud computing becomes more commonplace companies will need to be flexible enough to offer support for emerging devices and technologies.the art of serViCe your Cloud Computing serViCe and Client expeCtations of cloud computing hinges on its ability to provide access that is comparable to that of local hardware. As such. you should strongly consider only hiring extremely knowledgeable employees for this department.
once firmly established. Over time you’ll gain a much greater understanding of what your client’s expectations are. 29 . begin to accumulate tactics for dealing with “wild card” elements. in this way you can simply go down the list and improve your service one step at a time.the art of serViCe your Cloud Computing serViCe and Client expeCtations identify potential problem areas is to establish a board or forum where customers can directly voice their concerns. Try to focus on all known elements first and then. and how to best meet or exceed them. If you are able to successfully manage all of the aforementioned elements then you stand an excellent chance of developing your company into a powerhouse business.
A Closer Look at Amazon’s EC2 and S3 Services A mazon has officially made its mark on the world of cloud to consumer cloud computing. RAM. These developments are arguably the most significant to occur in recent years with regards What Exactly Do These Services Offer Consumers or Businesses? Both EC2 and S3 are opening doors for people. the full range of possibilities for each of these splendid services has not been fully explored yet by consumers. computing with its landmark EC2 and S3 services. Amazon’s EC2 is essentially a complete solution for 30 . processor etc…) via the net. storage. Since this computer is accessed via the net. software. apps. all you need is an internet connection. EC2 or Elastic Compute Cloud Imagine being able to access an entirely different computer (with its own resources. you are essentially taking it with you everywhere you go. through them Amazon is looking to corner the SaaS (software as a service) market (with EC2) as well as the cloud driven entertainment experience (with S3). And of course. EC2 is a complete virtual computing solution with near unlimited power at its disposal and S3 is arguably the ultimate system for archiving and accessing your musical entertainment.
maintenance or configuration. it would be in the ‘millions upon millions of dollars range’). maintain and purchase all the necessary components to build a comparable network. flexible and extremely powerful way. SaaS is a level / type of service offered by a cloud computing provider. storage. What does this mean for the businesses that apt to use EC2? For businesses. here is a quick summary. runtime. the provider gives their client all of the resources needed to make cloud computing possible. security. which in this case is Amazon. this includes interface apps / programs / method. and of course network access. virtualized hardware.the art of serViCe a Closer look at amazon’s eC2 and s3 serViCes individuals or businesses seeking a SaaS-style service. In the SaaS model. Through EC2 businesses can leverage the extreme power of multitudes of servers all at a comparatively low cost (just imagine trying to set up. 31 . SaaS or Software as a Service For those that are unfamiliar with what SaaS stands for. EC2 is a way to break into the world of cloud computing in a cheap. EC2 is basically an access point to a virtualized computer with an almost unlimited amount of additional resources at its disposal. Clients are essentially only paying for access to these resources and are not responsible for any kind of setup. safe. EC2 gives nearly any company or individual the ability to access extremely advanced computational resources at an extremely affordable cost.
Currently it is a freely available service (at 5GB.com). 32 . by purchasing an album of MP3’s from Amazon they provide a free account upgrade to 20GB) that also allows users to upload mp3’s from their current collection (that were not purchased from Amazon. S3 utilizes the power of the internet to give consumers the power to create an ongoing database for their entire musical / sound based media collection. But instead of simply miniaturizing some storage device or inventing a new type of physical storage medium. and it’s one that will most likely replace all other models.the art of serViCe a Closer look at amazon’s eC2 and s3 serViCes S3 or Simple Storage Service The idea behind Amazon’s S3 service is giving people the ability to take their entire music collection with them wherever they go. S3 is pretty much the music delivery service that we’ve all been dreaming about. The implications of these services (to the world of cloud computing and computer networking in general) is far reaching. If they continue to grow in popularity. in the way that individuals and businesses do both their networking and computing (not to mention access their entertainment). it may signal a ‘changing of the guard’ so to speak.
there is very little Effective Anything that a traditional grid network can do. is there anything that it can’t do? In the world of computing and networking. Manageable. a better question to ask might be.Effective. how does it do that / those things? With regards to cloud computing. cloud computing can do better or just as well. that hasn’t been considered by practitioners of cloud computing. the first and most immediate question that everyone asks is. like providing individual network users with their own set of seemingly 33 . Let’s take a look at what makes cloud computing worth your time. Customizable & Flexible: This Is Cloud Computing… W henever a new product or idea comes along. It is also effective in the sense that it does many things that other networking methods simply cannot do. what can it do? That is usually followed by the question. This is largely because those that were at the forefront of traditional grid-based computing and networking now “have their head in the clouds” so to speak and are dedicated to making cloud computing a success of epic proportions.
Manageable Of the many ways that you can organize a computing network. It is the most customizable networking / computing solution that has ever been created. And because most cloud computing networks are backed up (security wise) on a daily basis. data loss and data corruption prevention.the art of serViCe effeCtiVe. What’s even more astounding is the fact that despite 34 . the cloud model offers the greatest level of manageability. Couple that with the fact that cloud networks are more performance oriented and you have a system that is extremely hard to top. this is not an exaggeration. Through it you can determine who has access to what. and even what time(s) said information can be accessed. manageable. And because cloud computing resources are provisioned in one central location. how often information can be accessed. Customizable Virtually any type of hardware. cloud networks are able to simply incorporate and aggregate additional hardware so that the initial integrity of the system isn’t compromised in any way. And unlike grid systems which require annual hardware upgrades just to stay in business. software or idea can be integrated into the cloud computing model. Customizable & flexible unlimited resources. it’s more or less a mobile system that offers users the ultimate in security. they are extremely easy to service and mange.
This means for a reasonable price a business can have access to a state of the art networking system that is among the best the world has to offer. Customizable & flexible its high marks in terms of overall customizability. the remaining items are at their discretion to implement as they see fit. it’s still the most affordable way to incorporate the highest possible level of features. Another aspect of cloud computing flexibility is its ability to integrate new software. cloud computing offers its users different levels of choices. which force businesses to have to buy and maintain their own system and hardware (at great expense). Flexible Unlike grid networks.the art of serViCe effeCtiVe. 35 . For example. apps. In the SaaS model (software as a service). In the IaaS model (infrastructure as a service) a company simply pays to use a cloud provider’s extensive hardware resources. Because cloud computing is localized to one specific area (with user terminals simply behaving like access points to the centralized resources) it is extremely easy to integrate new hardware and software. operating systems and hardware. manageable. A classic example that demonstrates just how customizable cloud computing really is would be how quickly a new cloud network is able to provision and reconfigure capacity. storage and servers (especially when compared with traditional networks). the two most common levels of cloud service are IaaS and SaaS. a cloud provider literally takes care of every aspect of setting up and maintaining a cloud network for their client.
the art of serViCe effeCtiVe. manageable. simplified maintenance. unlimited access. It is in essence the next evolution of the standard computing model and is poised to replace the current grid networking model. 36 . Cloud computing is making things possible that have might have been considered virtually impossible just a few years ago. Its ability to offer businesses extremely advanced services. powerful virtualized hardware and almost boundless resources make cloud computing the obvious choice for both computing and networking. Customizable & flexible And this can be done without having to reconfigure the entire system or user machines.
It’s essentially a symbiotic financial marketing relationship between two companies. Advertising based models with regards to cloud computing essentially serve a dual function. costs operation so that services can be offered to potential customers for free is not a new concept. But in reality it is actually helping them in at least 2 different ways. they’re gaining access to a useful cloud computing service 37 . First off. feeling that it exploits cloud computing users.How Advertising Based Pricing Models Function (with Regards to Cloud Computing) inCluding a look at how this funds aCtiVities like new software deVelopment U and sing to advertising cover the money of service to customers in the hopes that they will also be lured in by the strategic advertising of the other company. one company gets paid to offer their There are some people that might decry this type of (advertising based model) arrangement. they are both a service and a vehicle for another company to sell its products.
Secondly. apps. cloud computing is definitely on the rise globally. they’re being presented with the most popular (and often times most useful) products for their particular demographic. It’s only a matter of time until the next series of software breakthroughs occur in the field. If you take into account the forward momentum of the cloud computing movement. virtualized hardware and other tools. there are several companies that are embracing the idea of using part of their advertising revenue to jump start their new or ongoing software development projects. The facts are pretty clear.the art of serViCe how adVertising based priCing models funCtion that probably includes software. Since cloud computing is still largely unexplored / unexploited there is a lot of potential in the arena of software development. From a business or logical standpoint this is a match made in heaven. and new developments are emerging every day. combine that with the realization that it is still an undeveloped field and 38 . and simply mirrors the kind of symbiotic relationship echoed by other companies that produce goods or services that are compatible with one another. whoever is responsible for these breakthroughs will be leading the pack (scientifically and financially). In the world of cloud computing. Companies like Google base their advertising model on a very complex algorithm that (through a series of data collection techniques and calculations) is able to approximate the interests of each individual user and present them with customized ads that feature products that they most likely would have purchased anyway.
org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0808/0808.the art of serViCe how adVertising based priCing models funCtion then take into account all the software and application research that’s being done you’ll quickly discover that there is a huge potential there.com/index/739391152.rpath. companies are literally investing in their future at virtually no risk. This is especially true because the longer a free cloud computing service remains active on the net the more popular it becomes.pdf http://arxiv. By using excess funds (which could actually be construed as profit. due to the low cost of running and maintaining a cloud computing network) from advertising to develop the tools that will become integral to the next phase of development in cloud computing.informaworld. As long as their operating costs are lower than the amounts they receive from advertisers they stand to lose nothing from the venture.jsp?arnumber=4664329 39 .pdf http://ieeexplore.pdf http://www.ieee. Sources: http://www.org/xpls/abs_all.3558.com/corp/images/stories/white_papers/rPath_WP_ forresterfutureview.
what must catastrophic loss of data. more like an eventuality. If they’re not. hardware / software settings. Here are a few reasons why cloud computing is infinitely superior for disaster recovery efforts: • • Entire system backups can be performed daily (preferably at night after all activity has ceased for the day). applications. Total time spent backing up is significantly reduced. 40 .How Cloud Computing Can Assist in Disaster Recovery Efforts (and then I f your business uses and / or relies on a computer network let’s you be honest. In fact. This is another area where cloud computing is ahead of the curve. etc…) you have to make sure that the conditions are exactly the same as they were before catastrophic failure occurred. Because the integrity of data on these networks is dependant on the conditions of the network itself (operating system. there’s absolutely no guarantee that your efforts will be successful. business doesn’t these days?) absolutely have a plan for dealing with Traditional data recovery and backup is extremely time-consuming and prone to errors. you shouldn’t even think about it as a potential issue.
In a fraction of the amount of time it takes to back up a traditional system you can have a copy of everything on your entire system sent and stored in a secure location. 41 . • Data recovery and backups are much cheaper than they would be on a traditional network. the days / weeks that are usually spent with a traditional network. all information. • • Time spent restoring a system after a catastrophic failure is but a fraction of the time normally required. So if for example. Being able to backup an entire system on a daily basis is arguably the biggest benefit of switching to a cloud computing network. settings and even hardware is “virtualized” in a cloud computing network. backups can be rendered automatically. Cloud computing also offers businesses the option of becoming mobile. And unlike the process involved in trying to do this with a standard network (which involves a lot of manual labor). your worksite is damaged in some way that necessitates moving somewhere else (until repairs can be made) you can simply take your entire network with you. This is completely impossible with a traditional non-cloud based system. There will be few if any errors when the system is being restored and it should only take a few hours to complete vs. “hardware” and user settings can be stored off-site. operating systems.the art of serViCe how Cloud Computing Can assist in disaster reCoVery efforts • Because servers. software.
A business’ computer network is essentially its lifeline. It is in truth. 42 .the art of serViCe how Cloud Computing Can assist in disaster reCoVery efforts Cloud computing offers businesses the best options for network security. the most responsible and prudent thing to do (switching over to a cloud based system). options that are free from the kinds of worries that induce nightmares in IT department personnel. In some cases catastrophic network failure and / or loss of data could actually cripple a company (like in software development for example). if it fails or is compromised in any way there will most likely be huge profit losses. Since cloud computing is logistically superior with regards to data recovery and / or disaster prevention it only follows logic that organizations should implement these types of systems as soon as possible. because a network failure may be just around the corner.
) A business’ carbon footprint is directly linked with the amount of greenhouse gases that they are responsible for releasing into the environment.How Cloud Computing Positively Affects the Environment how their activities directly and indirectly affect the environment. (This is also referred to as a company’s M odern. companies tend to focus on How are greenhouse gases created / released / further concentrated? • • • • • • • • • • Transportation Clearing land Food production and consumption Fuel production and consumption Manufactured goods Materials Wood Roads Buildings Other various service(s) Many businesses out there incorporate many of the individual points on this list into their daily operations. The problem of course is that 43 . forward-thinking “carbon footprint”.
the art of serViCe how Cloud Computing positiVely affeCts the enVironment there are thousands of organizations all pumping carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Let’s say you have 3 companies. 100 generators running at 10% capacity or a larger generator running at 90% capacity? Let’s say there are 100 companies (with offices in the same building) with 100 small loads to transport from destination A to B. This brings us to cloud computing. What if instead of 3 companies there were 100? Wouldn’t it be more efficient and better for the environment if those companies were all operating within the same cloud network? Here are a couple of analogies that will help clarify: • • What’s more efficient. If you take a look one company’s system and network. The same thing could be said for any of the other companies and their networks. you’ll probably notice that it uses only around half of its computer resources potential. specifically. let’s apply this same type of thinking to a much larger scenario. thereby decreasing the number of systems needed to do the same work from 3 to 1. why not just have 1 larger truck make the entire delivery? How much 44 . how it reduces the overall amount of pollution. All 3 of these companies could be running off of one remotely located cloud network. Instead of using 100 small trucks to deliver these goods. all 3 of these companies have and need extensive computer networks in order to function. they’re all using a lot of energy but only running at partial capacity. Now. which is thought to contribute greatly to global warming and pollution.
And often times. And unlike physical hardware. Of course a naysayer might claim that the energy required to run virtual hardware on a cloud network will compensate for this. most virtual hardware is essentially “turned-off” when it’s not in use. Older Networking Hardware Can Be Reused in a Cloudbased Architecture The amount of time and money spent upgrading by most companies is astronomical. however they are not taking into account the fact that running a piece of physical hardware uses a lot more energy than its software-based counterpart. their old hardware just sits somewhere gathering dust or it is simply tossed into the garbage.the art of serViCe how Cloud Computing positiVely affeCts the enVironment fuel do you think is saved this way? In the same way that there is a certain speed you can travel on the highway that increases overall fuel efficiency. there is a certain amount of activity that can be handled by an individual network that guarantees a more efficient use of the electricity used to power said network. Virtualized Hardware Produces no Pollution The ability of cloud computing to simulate hardware and/or hardware processes means that there is no physical entity present that will actually emit pollution. The amount of pollution produced by the groups manufacturing these servers 45 .
When you take your old hardware and integrate it into a cloud architecture you are essentially recycling your hardware. However. 46 . and it’s one that actually offers businesses more abilities and possibilities. there is an elegant solution for companies that are making the switch to a cloud-based architecture. Cloud computing is currently the best option for environment. This will also save your business a lot of money in the long run in addition to helping out the environment. As more and more companies steadily increase their level of required computer networking the need for a more efficient and elegant solution will become obvious. Why continuously produce hardware that’s just going to become outdated and need replacing in a few years time? The traditional network model is extremely wasteful in this regard.the art of serViCe how Cloud Computing positiVely affeCts the enVironment and hardware stacks is extremely high.
47 . but many people are (still) bewildered by they actually stand for. Obviously. They are of course: computing creating • • • SaaS – Software as a Service IaaS . To put it simply. paas & iaas? I f an individual or organization decides to implement a cloud network or (without their owning own private cloud) they have essentially 3 different levels of service (or options) to choose from. there are a lot details that will further define the responsibilities of the user for each level of service. What’s confusing to most people is exactly what each level (of service) is set up to provide to users. SaaS means that the cloud provider controls everything (you just pay to access their system) and IaaS gives users control over around half of the responsibilities of the cloud (PaaS is somewhere in the middle).The 3 Types of Cloud Computing Services what is saas.Infrastructure as a Service PaaS – Platform as a Service These abbreviations can be found scattered across the net and are used liberally within the cloud computing blogosphere.
that’s the job of your provider. network. This means that the provider is essentially just giving users access to their cloud network’s hardware infrastructure. operating systems. Not only do they control / maintain the hardware.the art of serViCe the 3 types of Cloud Computing serViCes SaaS In the “Software as a service” model. data. storage. applications and data. A perfect example of SaaS is Gmail. For individuals / organizations that are new to cloud computing or simply don’t wish to invest any additional funds into developing their own private cloud. operating system as well as any software required to access the cloud itself. upgrading or functionality. applications. servers. you don’t’ have to worry about security. but they also employ their own platform / integration system as well. maintenance. The provider in an IaaS setup will be responsible for only what is part of the back end or hardware end of the cloud. IaaS The typical IaaS setup will involve letting users control their own interface. It is important that you fully trust the abilities of your provider however. your cloud computing provider presents you with a complete package that requires virtually no additional input from the user end in order to remain functional. this is the perfect choice. The benefit to SaaS is that everything is taken care of for you. because under SaaS you have absolutely no control over the integrity of the network itself. It is the 48 .
As with both SaaS and IaaS. the provider has complete control over the physical aspects of the cloud itself. PaaS just gives you a basic framework to build upon. it’s certainly not impractical or unimaginable. Of course they will still need to setup their own servers. virtualization system and configure their own operating system. but with the wealth of material currently available detailing how it’s done. If a business decides to implement their own private cloud network at some point (which seems to be a very popular idea these days) there is also prepackaged software available that will allow them to create their own applications. creating and managing your own private cloud is the one that offers the best long term savings. interfacing code / software is provided by the vendor. And of all the options for implementing a cloud network. PaaS PaaS is essentially a combination of SaaS and IaaS in that it allows users to control a limited amount of aspects but most of the software and all of the hardware is managed by the provider. data storage. Users in a PaaS setup only manage applications and data. data and runtime environment. 49 .the art of serViCe the 3 types of Cloud Computing serViCes responsibility of the user to deal with everything else and determine what to actually implement in their own cloud space. hardware. security. Private clouds are fairly difficult to setup and manage.
if you’re completely new to the idea of cloud networking or need something that’s virtually error-free and can be quickly integrated. Both PaaS and IaaS could be seen as sort of ‘stepping stones’ toward creating and owning a private cloud network. your best option is definitely SaaS. And as stated earlier. 50 .the art of serViCe the 3 types of Cloud Computing serViCes Finding the right level of cloud computing service for your particular needs may require a little trial and error.
they are: • • • Applications Platform / Programming Resources / Infrastructure These 3 tiers may be combined or implemented in many different ways to form any number of cloud computing architectural designs. 51 . to most people is how it works. the front end and back end. this system is also referred to as cloud computing architecture. Cloud computing is There are essentially 3 tiers in a basic cloud computing architecture.The Basic Architecture of Cloud Computing O ne of the most perplexing aspects of cloud computing essentially a series of levels that function together in various ways to create a system. how it is structured. or more specifically. If we further break down the standard cloud computing architecture there are really two areas to deal with.
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Front End The front end includes all client (user) devices and hardware in addition to their computer network and the application that they actually use to make a connection with the cloud. Back End The back end is populated with the various servers, data storage devices and hardware that facilitate the functionality of a cloud computing network.
(user) level and then work our way inward toward the actual resources / hardware / Infrastructure of the cloud.
Applications / (User Level)
This area is compromised of the client hardware and the interface used to connect to the cloud. There are many different ways that users can access and use a cloud network. • • Through a privately built, owned and operated cloud network. Through an outsourced service in which another company provides all the hardware, software and access required. In a model such as this the provider is usually located offsite (this model is comparable to the type of service provide by utility companies). • Other companies may simply offer users access to a specific application / software that performs specific tasks.
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Platform / Programming
A cloud computing network’s platform is the actual programming, code and implemented systems of interfacing that help user-level devices (and applications) connect with the hardware and software resources of the cloud. A cloud computing platform is generally divided up between the front end and back end of a network. Its job is to provide a communication and access portal for the client, so that they may effectively utilize the resources of the cloud network. The platform may only be a set of directions, but it is in all actuality the most integral part of a cloud computing network; without it cloud computing would not be possible.
Resources / Infrastructure
The resources / infrastructure of cloud computing architecture is essentially all the hardware, data storage devices (including virtualized hardware), networking equipment, applications and software that operates and drives the cloud. The speed, fluidity and abilities of the cloud are all a part of the design of the infrastructure. Any changes, improvements or additions that are made in the cloud are performed here. The rules associated with cloud computing architectural design are in flux, nothing is set in stone. This is because cloud computing is still in its infancy. Most groups are content to do their R&D with open-source models, which allow any number of individuals to make modifications
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to individual components of any cloud computing architectural development. The benefit here is that it’s much cheaper, faster and often times more creative. In the coming years as cloud computing asserts its dominance (over traditional grid-based networking) there will likely be many new developments and changes to the basic architecture currently in use. Sources: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=5429058 http://www.computer.org/portal/web/csdl/doi/10.1109/ICWS.2009.144 http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.149.7163&rep =rep1&type=pdf http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4664329 http://arxiv.org/abs/0907.4622
What Do Cloud Brokers Do?
companies and customers, cloud computing has their own brokers that perform nearly the same kinds of tasks.
agencies have brokers to act and intermediaries between insurance
Due to the staggering number of cloud computing service providers that are springing up everywhere it has become fairly commonplace for companies to utilize brokers to round up and solicit potential clients. There are a few reasons why a cloud computing service provider might want to hire a broker to serve as their customer liaison. First off, as with other business models, having a third party present that is motivated by commission payment only ensures that brokers are only paid for results. So if cloud brokers are able to bring in satisfactory numbers, they are compensated well and the cloud provider has their “ready to buy” customers prepackaged for them. In other words, everybody wins. Well, almost everybody anyway. There’s still the customers themselves, perhaps they will end up paying more over the years for their cloud services because of brokerage fees? There is however specific benefits for customers that retrieve their cloud services through brokers. Since most cloud brokers are knowledgeable individuals (with regards to cloud computing) they should be able to help clients ascertain what specific kinds of features and / or plan they need to suit them. This is assuming of course that the cloud broker is involved in ethical business practices and is not simply
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what do Cloud brokers do?
trying to sell customers on tons of features that they simply do not need. (There is a potential for cloud computing companies to offer cloud brokers higher commissions for selling higher priced plans, this could lead to unethical practices where brokers purposefully mislead their customers into purchasing more expensive service packages). Of course the relationship between cloud brokers and cloud providers is not guaranteed to be a fruitful one, or even an amicable one. This is after all, a situation where brokers need cloud computing companies more than they need brokers. Ultimately it is up to the cloud service providers to decide what brokers should be paid and / or how truly valuable they are to their respective organizations. One possible area where brokers might be extremely useful is in selling cloud service packages to larger institutions and businesses. Once again, commission fees are usually based on the overall sale amount; so if a broker lands a contract with let’s say “a large university”, then they could be earning extremely hefty commissions. This creates a situation that cloud computing service providers can really benefit from. It is usually quite difficult for a cloud provider to perform their regular tasks and aggressively market themselves to potential clients, but through the use of brokers that is no longer an issue. In fact most brokers will aggressively seek out clients anyway (to earn those hefty commissions). Look at it this way, it’s very expensive for a cloud provider to employ their own team(s) of salaried brokers in much the
In this way.the art of serViCe what do Cloud brokers do? same way that it’s expensive for a business to design and implement their own private cloud network. The ultimate success or failure of cloud brokers is determinant on how they conduct their operations. in both cases it’s much cheaper to simply purchase these services a la’ carte. the brokerage firm has all the power and control. It is still pretty much unclear whether or not cloud brokering will become a lucrative or valuable practice. the power to decide that lies in the hands of consumer. In truth. However many people see this kind of situation as being nearly impossible to maintain due to the nature of business itself and the predisposition of one or the other company to gain control. the brokerage firm could set the prices for services and then offer customers specifically designed packages of cloud computing services. In this business model a large cloud brokerage firm could buy or contract smaller cloud provider companies to provide them with services at discounted rates. so to speak. What about brokerage firms? Cloud brokerage firms could spring up everywhere. the service provider is simply their “IT department” or manufacturing division. Then of course there is the ideal situation. 57 . whereupon large cloud providers and large brokerage firms work together in symbiotic fashion to grow each of their respective businesses. In other words.
Without the ability of a CDN to 58 . the net and all over the world has a lot to do with content delivery networks. CDN’s provision data in such a way that makes it more readily available depending on where you are located. the use of a CDN increases bandwidth significantly and protects data integrity as well. Overall performance is also increased with the assistance of a content delivery network. a content delivery network provides the system by which cloud computing can deliver its services to large numbers of users within a cloud network. How is this accomplished? By setting up How Do Content Delivery Networks Fit into the Cloud Computing Model? In many ways. On the technical side of things.What Is The Function of a Content Delivery Network (CDN) plus a brief look at a CdC or “Content deliVery Cloud” O ne of the reasons information is so readily accessible on a series of computers or servers that all contain copies of the same data. much higher volumes of traffic are possible to process. which also creates the ability to service more individuals with the same data.
will be located in much closer proximity to the geographical location. Why Do Businesses Need to Utilize Content Delivery Networks? A better question to ask might actually be. This ultimately gives individual users more direct access to increased performance since their virtualized hardware for example. the content delivery cloud (CDC) (which is essentially an extended form of a content delivery network that’s designed to provide scalable access to individual clients for things like virtualization and application / program access across a cloud network). 59 . a content delivery cloud performs exactly the same operation but with more complex operations and tasks like virtualized hardware. This brings us to one of the more recent developments in relation to content delivery networks. which is supposed to be superior to grid networking in terms of performance capabilities). Whereas a traditional CDN simply accesses data and creates copies of that data for random access. It will never be unable to accommodate your visitors.the art of serViCe what is the funCtion of a Content deliVery network (Cdn) make information freely available to those in a cloud. it essentially makes data available 24/7 – 365. why wouldn’t a business want to utilize a content delivery network? Here are some of the benefits of using a CDN (for businesses): • • Cheaper than establishing and maintaining your own servers / data center. data delivery performance would suffer greatly (thereby undermining another purpose of cloud computing.
7163&rep =rep1&type=pdf http://portal. No matter how much traffic you receive it will be virtually (or extremely rare) for you to surpass any kind of bandwidth limitation. Content delivery network services operate in a similar fashion (to IaaS providers) in that they are essentially just data centers that make information deployment and storage services available to their users.psu.acm.1. Sources: http://portal.ist. So a dedicated CDN essentially translates into .edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.149.the art of serViCe what is the funCtion of a Content deliVery network (Cdn) • Because data will be stored in multiple locations across the globe.no more lost traffic due to bandwidth limitations. • You are given an almost unlimited amount of bandwidth.org/citation.cfm?id=1564625 60 . This translates directly into increased levels of overall performance.acm. All software and runtime components are at the user’s discretion.cfm?id=844158 http://citeseerx. visitors will be able to access the data that’s geographically closer to them.1. Content delivery network service providers are operating on the same wavelength as cloud computing providers that specialize in IaaS (Information as a service). The IaaS model of service is essentially set up so that a cloud computing vendor only needs to provide the hardware resources needed to populate a cloud computing network.org/citation.
With no formal scientific studies to refer to. a grid based network. the debate over whether a cloud computing The truth is that cloud computing is most definitely cheaper for most applications or businesses. As a result.Will Cloud Computing Really Reduce Your Budget? T here is very little in the way of published information (or framework is financially viable still rages on. but perhaps not all of them. studies) available regarding the cost effectiveness of cloud computing over traditional networking for businesses. it’s very difficult for those that are pro cloud computing to build a rock solid argument (and very easy for skeptics to deface what evidence is present). The most notable include: • • • • • • • • Hardware costs Licensing fees for software usage Storage concerns / requirements Administrative costs Maintenance Backup costs Power usage considerations Software assimilation 61 . There are many different factors to consider when looking at the cost effectiveness of Cloud Computing vs.
not to mention additional hardware costs.the art of serViCe will Cloud Computing really reduCe your budget? The cost of having to constantly upgrade hardware and software alone is enough to drive businesses away from traditional grids and headlong into Cloud Computing. This essentially means that fewer overall upgrades are necessary over a 10 year period which is even more incredible when you consider that there’s no danger in terms of ‘loss of performance capabilities’. This translates into large amounts of capital that must be spent just to ensure 62 . However the biggest financial benefit of switching over to a cloud network is still hardware-related. Where traditional grid networks require that not only servers and control hardware be replaced on a semi-annual basis. With cloud computing. Another area where cloud computing excels is in its back-up abilities. which makes it easier to predict actual storage requirements from year to year and more efficiently manage the storage space that’s there already. cloud computing is able to effectively recycle old servers and hardware stacks for other uses within the network itself. an entire network shares storage space. And more software developers are catching up to the idea of releasing cloud-based software packages (that will allow businesses to greatly cut their overall expenses related to software licensing). this unused space must also be maintained and paid for. A traditional grid network requires a lot of effort and man hours to effectively back-up. In a traditional system there if often very large segments of data (storage space) that is virtually unused. Cloud computing is also more flexible and efficient with its storage capabilities as well.
the art of serViCe
will Cloud Computing really reduCe your budget?
that a network and its data is secure in the even of an emergency. This is a non-issue in Cloud Computing. A typical Cloud Computing network will be set up to perform daily back-ups of an entire network of servers compromising every scrap of information (including user information, settings and preferences) contained therein. The data is stored off-site in a secure location. This process is usually automated and requires only a fraction of the personnel required to do the same thing on a traditional network. Then there’s the issue of maintenance; in a traditional network (operating within a large corporation, for example) there is a need to employ a significant number of IT specialists just to keep the system up and running. Once again, cloud computing is head and shoulders above in this regard as well; because a large cloud can be effectively managed by a much smaller team of specialists. Cloud-based networks also tend to use less energy than their grid-based counterparts. This is due to the fact that there is less actual hardware present and more virtualization occurring. One of the unforeseen benefits of cloud computing is its ability to provide management and accounting with solid data that they can use to prepare better fiscal budgets. Today’s companies spend significant portions of their budgets on tech-related expenses because they are completely reliant on the abilities of these systems to help them run their enterprise. Cloud computing is not only cheaper to run and manage than a traditional network (in a number of different ways), it also gives businesses the power to do more than ever before.
the art of serViCe
will Cloud Computing really reduCe your budget?
Sources http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=5160911 http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167739X08001957 http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1327513 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4738445 http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.149.7163&rep =rep1&type=pdf http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1721672
The Browser Based Client OS
present and future
operating system is central to the future of cloud computing and is one (idea) that many on the forefront (of cloud computing) hold very dear. In order for cloud computing to be deemed truly successful it needs to be able to wane users from reliance on personal hardware, software and storage. In fact, browsers are fast becoming a topic of interest that is almost parallel
he idea of using a browser to replace the traditional
with that of operating systems (just perform a simple Google search to confirm); in many circles, they have surpassed the OS as a central focus. This doesn’t mean to imply that operating systems are going the way of the dinosaur, far from it; they’re simply being migrated away form users and into remote hardware stacks. In other words, the browser is moving closer to the consumer and the OS is moving farther away.
What purpose does a cloud computing OS actually serve? They function in ways that are typical or familiar, but a cloud operating system is much more a series of logical processes that hold together and “direct traffic” for the various software, hardware and virtualized hardware/software processes that compromise a user system. A cloud OS essentially a hardware site interface construct that responds to the commands given by a browser or client OS.
the art of serViCe
the browser based Client os
Referring to a browser as an OS is actually a bit of a misnomer, because the actual operating system is not reflected in the construct or design of the browser itself; it simply provides a gateway that allows users to connect to the on-site OS which actually does the work. The actual cloud OS, which is responsible for the advanced functions of a virtual computer, will likely be inaccessible for most individuals on the userend. Modifications of any OS will likely be left in the hands of the cloud manager, which may even be a third party participant if a cloud provider has outsourced this position. It is still unclear how “modifiable” cloud components will be in terms of individual component customization. Many of the mobile browser models (that are currently in use in cell phones and tablets, for example) are providing the inspiration that is leading to the development of better and more complex browser client operating systems. Experts in the field of cloud development can essentially use the lessons learned from the overall effectiveness of different mobile device browsers as a form of research and development. There is one area of concern (over the browser OS) among potential cloud users and initiates however; and that’s a worry over a lack of central features. Many individuals seem to feel that a lack of personal hardware / software resources is going to translate directly into poor performance and/or memory loss. Developers have devoted a lot of time and money toward creating solutions for a whole host of contingent issues related to performance and reliability. These
the art of serViCe
the browser based Client os
solutions include ideas such as the implementation of minimal storage units that are designed to provide buffers between the client browser and the host resources in the event of disconnect from the net. When the client reconnects, information is transferred and synching is performed automatically. In terms of performance, the average connection speed has been steadily increasing year after year since the internet was established. It is estimated that by the time cloud computing takes over, many individuals throughout the world will be utilizing fiber-optic based connections which will provide speeds at or above T1. The actual role of the browser OS will obviously be much more intensive than the kinds of operations that we currently associate with the term ‘browser’. The actual cost of connectivity is lowering day by day and the idea of having a remotely located system is beginning to look more and more attractive as well; this essentially translates into the browser OS “picking up the slack” that used to be handled by traditional operating systems. Individuals in today’s world possess computers that are extremely powerful in scale, yet they rarely (if ever) actually use even half of these resources. After starting up, most people go straight to their internet browser of choice; all of the hardware resources from these millions of individuals are basically going to waste. The point is that the clientserver model has essentially morphed into a form of cloud computing (anyway). The average person uses the internet for virtually everything,
leading to more widespread use. It may very well be that browser-client operating systems (through cloud computing) will only appeal to a select group of individuals at first. who are one of the leading developers / purveyors of eCommerce software and design. resources and processes are usually remotely located and accessed via the net. (as with other organizations that were initially apprehensive about cloud computing) their abilities and beneficial traits will be broadcast throughout the world. But over time. Currently on the net there is a big push from individuals and groups to participate in the open-source development of a more comprehensive browser OS for cloud computing. most notably the Magento platform. The idea is to cut costs while at the same time opening up access to a much larger pool of ideas from individuals that would otherwise (through traditional development means) never be able to provide input. It is a tactic that has been successfully applied by other organizations.the art of serViCe the browser based Client os and all of the information. The only difference between this and cloud computing is that hardware resources are not wasted. The development and implementation of a truly great browser OS will mark the beginnings of a brighter future for cloud computing in general. 68 .
one uses the standard programming language(s). there can be serious issues when it comes time to integrate a newly developed application. The purpose of cloud AD tools is to streamline the process of creating functional elements that can further facilitate cloud functions and usability. Cloud application development tools were created C loud computing platforms offer software designers to provide a standardized and convenient set of methods for crafting applications that are both compatible with current cloud builds/platforms and easy to integrate with them as well. Because cloud networks or infrastructures are often extremely complex. Obviously more complex or critical applications (which might be responsible for running critical processes) cannot be designed through the use of a graphical interface alone. however. sets or classes of application development tools.Cloud Application Development Tools even more options and plasticity than has ever been previously possible. There are essentially two types. and the other may utilize a graphical interface (or similar) to allow even a non-experienced programmer to design effective applications for various uses. 69 . Developing applications for use in cloud computing is facilitated through the use of specific development tools that interact with the runtime environment (of the cloud). there are certain libraries (like those based on Java) that may allow for a combination of both graphical and proprietary methods.
from inception. there are usually additional methodologies for cloud-based 70 . Those applications that are to be integrated with the cloud platform itself are often developed utilizing both graphical interfaces and standard programming languages simultaneously. (resting on the top or inside the runtime environment. for example) has its own specific set of tools that must be used to create applications for them. And with every new breakthrough in terms of function. However. The range and scope of cloud application development tools is always expanding. This takes much of the weight off of individual developers in terms of designing applications that will mesh well with the existing architecture.the art of serViCe Cloud appliCation deVelopment tools Depending on how deeply embedded within the structure of the cloud the newly designed application is. Many of the toolsets that exist for each individual platform are often integrated into the system itself. The real benefit here is that large portions of an application (that’s under development) can be created via graphical interface. These types of situations can only be resolved by expert programmers with an advanced knowledge of traditional programming languages and methods. especially as more intensive and complex operations are involved / concerned. the possibility of encountering potential issues is still extremely high. for example) the need for more highly skilled programmers will become necessary. Each platform (APaaS or a SEAP. proprietary methods will be utilized. when the time comes to integrate and refine.
and of course. there is no limit to what an individual could potentially accomplish through the use of cloud application development tools. 71 . cloud AD tools are also useful for making adjustments/changes to an existing cloud infrastructure as well. In truth. Using them to create better systems for conducting business operations is big plus.the art of serViCe Cloud appliCation deVelopment tools application development (that may become part of the cloud AD tools library).
analysis provided courtesy of computers often greatly factors into how a business makes future decisions in all areas of its operation. and directly contributing to both the manner and the method by which any business conducts their operations.Cloud-Driven Business and IT Services I n the modern world of business. it only makes sense that these service companies would utilize it (cloud computing) to service other organizations. There are essentially two ways that cloud-driven services can be utilized. 72 . Leveraging the power of cloud computing to help businesses achieve specific goals and tasks is certainly an intelligent move. In fact. computing is merging with the inherent desires of any organization’s business and/or IT operations. manage operations and analyze their activities. collect as well as make projections upon. which correlate (in various combinations) with These are just some of the reasons why there are specific organizations that provide services in the area of business and IT development. Since cloud computing is designed to aggregate data in ways that make it much easier to analyze. It should also come as no surprise that computing is having a significant impact on the way that businesses accumulate data.
How do these specialists assist business owners and/or IT managers? They provide a variety of information that includes (but is not limited to) the following: • • • • • • Analysis of IT infrastructure and architecture Consulting / Advising Creation of a contingency plan (for cloud security and emergency action) Integrating new elements into a pre-established system Regular testing procedures Analysis of business strategy / effectiveness 73 . running a business in today’s world necessitates the use of sophisticated computational networks (some much more than others).the art of serViCe Cloud-driVen business and it serViCes The two areas that cloud-driven business and IT service (providers) deal in. It may be difficult or impossible for a business person to make an informed decision regarding their technological assets without the assistance of specialists. they are: • • Consultancy / maintenance / analysis Specific solutions / actions Consultancy / Maintenance / Analysis As stated earlier. one of the ways that cloud service organizations assist businesses is in a consultant or analysis capacity.
Specific Solutions / Actions If a cloud services organization isn’t communicating directly with (business) management they are probably dealing with that organization’s IT department and manager. efficiency and eliminating future risk(s). a cloud services organization will be asked to extend their operation into other business-intensive areas like: • • • • • The management of specific programs. In many cases it may be necessary to give them (the enterprise paying for services) a detailed account of how individual tech elements directly influence their operations and strategy. thereby increasing productivity. Often times. the same rules apply. The focus of a cloud services organization with regards to consultancy / maintenance / analysis is basically to make sure that other organizations know how to use their cloud technology and what to use it for. Ensuring the proper deployment of additional services. Ensuring legal and operational compliances / certifications are met. the only difference is that most of the data. analysis and 74 . This is done so that more informed decisions can be made.the art of serViCe Cloud-driVen business and it serViCes But their range of service may not end there. Fostering an environment that brings clients together. Creating brokerages to sell additional services. Nevertheless.
fluidity and manner with which businesses conduct their operations. manage. maintain and/or derive a series of solutions that can be used with regards to a cloud network. And given that many organizations might be improperly utilizing their 75 . so to speak. Many of the concerns in this area will be dealing with cloud architecture(s) and / or specific services that may have been requested by an enterprise. They are essential in many cases because most organizations are severely lacking in their knowledge and understanding of cloud-based technology and/or how to provide their own clientele with specific services utilizing these technologies. . As a result. integrate various systems that are already in place and develop better strategies for future decision making. how cloud computing might offer those in business and IT management additional ways to communicate with one another.the art of serViCe Cloud-driVen business and it serViCes advice will be geared toward helping IT professionals implement. with entirely different objectives in mind). there is little common ground between those in business and those in information technology (they’re often speaking entirely “different languages”. The goal in this regard is to help businesses achieve or discover more ways to integrate their technical capabilities and know how with their business knowledge and objectives. there tends to be miscommunication and/or loss of valuable data that could be used to derive more constructive business solutions and objectives. Cloud-driven business and IT service organizations exist to find ways to improve the speed. Specifically. solve problems. Often times.
This is best accomplished by hiring a cloud-driven business and IT services organization to create new systems of measurement/ analysis as well as instruct those present on how to best implement these systems.the art of serViCe Cloud-driVen business and it serViCes own technological / computing resources (with regards to analysis of business strategy). there is also an additional need for many businesses to be able to determine how to best collect. 76 . analyze and craft new strategies.
a CMP management platform) is integrated with other hosted services (as we will look at later) there may be more or fewer options available to enterprises. functionalities and development. (Individuals or groups that use bundled services from a cloud provider do not have to concern themselves with What does a cloud management platform specifically oversee/manage? Design elements. application usage.Cloud Management Platforms T he job of a cloud is actually managing their network. If however. Upper level functions of a cloud management platform might involve 77 . obviously). a cloud management platform might simply continuously monitor the activities going on inside the cloud. On the low end of the spectrum. deployments. Think of it as a “dashboard” interface that controls the finer / critical elements of a cloud network. ensuring its capabilities. server architecture(s). then they will be able to take advantage of the myriad options available from the various cloud management (cloud platforms out there as well. management platform to essentially oversee virtually all aspects of a cloud network. If an individual or company is simply leasing access to a cloud provider’s hardware. A cloud management platform is an essential tool for individuals like IT managers or those lucky enough to actually own a private cloud. and even websites that are based in a cloud network are just a few of the things that a cloud management platform deals with.
these issues are usually dealt with by the cloud management platform as well. through them. it is possible to isolate users so that any other type of application program interface they connect with will be unable to compromise their individual security.the art of serViCe Cloud management platforms creating adaptable environments / conditions for different types of system integration. from one hardware stack to another. entire clouds can be copied and pasted by CMP’s. you have an extremely powerful set of tools at your disposal. 78 . this may be done as often as desired. One of the great benefits of a standardized cloud management platform is its ability to transfer data and processes from one system to another. The job of the CMP is to act in an administrative capacity. Cloud management platforms are also able to ensure complete security of an entire network by means of creating images of the system architecture and structure. Performance and availability are also key factors as to how efficiently a cloud network is behaving. When you couple this with the ability of cloud management platforms to automatically scale to the network and storage capabilities that are present on-site. In effect. Security is also an area that is touched upon by cloud management platforms. not actually running systems or processes that are inherently necessary. They can however manage individual applications and help ensure that the right types of decisions are being made on a continuous basis so that the functionality of a network is not jeopardized (by individual or groups of applications).
These types of hosting / service providers are essentially trying to integrate the core functionality found in many top end cloud management platforms with various levels of additional cloud services. they are unique to every individual cloud network. grid networks are often assembled from “off the shelf” software and hardware and tweaked according to the conditions where they reside (and the needs of those on the network). Software is what drives cloud computing. (grid networking is most unlike cloud networking in that) hardware and software are usually intended to be used/bundled together in grid networking and cloud networking (which is driven via software/code) can take advantage of any type of additional hardware. 79 . One of the emerging dissonances between traditional grid based computing and cloud computing is the number of options that are offered to cloud network managers. This includes everything from the CMP end to their individual service options. For users / IT mangers that are familiar with the ins and outs of cloud computing / networking this type of arrangement would be an excellent solution and give them everything they need to jump start their cloud network and keep it operating smoothly. Some companies are even beginning to offer a type of self-service cloud management platform / solution that essentially gives users and businesses the option to control every aspect of the hosted cloud service. cloud management platforms are essentially a streamlined way of enabling software and hardware to work more efficiently with one another. In fact.the art of serViCe Cloud management platforms Because CMP’s are so incredibly customizable.
networks. The truth it seems is that cloud computing offers us a dizzying range of possibilities and we’ve yet to fully explore them. 80 . cloud developers) to function properly. Cloud computing is a very software intensive field. cloud providers.the art of serViCe Cloud management platforms It is unclear how organizations that offer cloud management platforms will further partner and/or integrate with the emerging cloud-based software/application models. Cloud management platforms essentially provide the glue that allows several cloud elements (cloud applications / software. yet the true depth of what can be accomplished (within a software environment) has yet to be fully explored or implemented into the types of cloud environments that are currently in operation. hardware.
Cloud Parallel Processing the Current state of Cloud parallel proCessing and how it might affeCt the indiVidual user larger P arallel processing is essentially multithreading on a much scale. utilized in situations involving both hardware and software. The problem with parallel processing (as it relates to cloud computing) is that there is currently a lack of language or code to adequately support. traditionally. The obvious solution (for lack of resources within the context of cloud computing) is to simply give individual users the capability to requisition the additional resources needed to perform a task or series of tasks. virtualized hardware or simultaneous versions of the same machine in order to boost computing power and speed. software multithreading is not used (at the individual level) to process tasks that place a heavy burden on system resources. or evenly distribute workloads so that functions can be In cloud computing parallel processing might entail using multiple versions of the same operating system. The problem with this however is that many (nearly all) 81 . In most instances. integrate or utilize it. Multithreading is accomplished faster. program. its purpose is to essentially “divide and conquer”. multithreading is employed as a hardware function. powerfully and more efficiently.
The most obvious place to begin employing parallel processing is within the realms of multimedia. they are not capable of taking advantage of everything that parallel processing has to offer. Despite the prevalence of broadband services worldwide. Parallel processing could also put an end to many of the online performance issues that consumers are apt to complain about.the art of serViCe Cloud parallel proCessing of the applications / programs that run within the cloud computing framework are not currently fully compatible with parallel processing. it will take them a while to figure out how to drive this new invention as well as how to best use it. For example. as well as other types of multimedia viewing. businesses and cloud computing in general. The power and scope of parallel processing is vast and untapped. programs like 82 . A comparable illustration of the current scenario. This of course means that software designers (as well as cloud developers) are going to need to find or create new ways of adapting these applications or programs for use in a multi-core / processing situation. once more developers become aware of the inherent potential (of parallel processing) there will be a surge in this area. many individual users are still somewhat hampered by the slow performance of online video. it would be like giving an automobile to a rural town that’s only familiar with the horse and cart. Or perhaps a better way of putting it would be. gaming. Just imagine being able to run multiple versions of the same program without error or performance lag. Basically there is a huge potential here for individuals.
With parallel processing they could run entirely separate versions of the same program all at the same time without any performance lag or deterioration.the art of serViCe Cloud parallel proCessing Photoshop (which is known to over exploit and hog system resources) utilize multiple threads to perform their operations. Obviously there will be growing pains. it took many years of toil. If a graphic designer wants to work on multiple projects simultaneously they have to open and run them within one application framework. trial and error to reach its current state. One sees it as the phasing out of the era of the personal computer. The real argument in the “for or against cloud computing” debate is really about how all these past discoveries are being utilized in a future model. but where one group may see something as being wholly negative. the other sees potential. There are essentially two schools of thought when it comes to the current state of cloud computing. The power that parallel processing offers to the individual is 83 . This could eventually lead to a re-thinking of the way that software is designed and implemented. paving the way for new programs that are set up to run multiple instances instead of just threads. Not only does this bog down their system. but it also can limit them creatively. the current model of computing did not simply spring up overnight either. The other sees it as a bridge to a new way computing on a grand scale. Both of these observations are true in a sense. with its own hardware and software. How does this relate to parallel processing? In many ways parallel processing is one of the next evolutionary phases in the development of cloud computing itself.
84 . Once the kinks have been worked out and parallel processing becomes commonplace (assuming that they are able to work out the inherent problems) the individual is going to be able to do more than ever before. The prevalence of parallel processing could very well lead to a fundamental shift in consumer expectations as well. which would be far outside of the means of the majority of individuals. and all for a very slim price tag. accruing that same level of power would essentially entail the individual user building their own private cloud.the art of serViCe Cloud parallel proCessing unsurpassed and unprecedented in the history of personal computing. In the end it all comes down to whether or not you would like your computing service(s) to be akin to a utility (water / electricity) or something that you self manage. On a grander scale. the power offered to the individual by a parallel processing system is virtually limitless. In truth however. which is extremely unreasonable. parallel processing might very well raise global expectations for the speed and efficiency of delivered data over the net. For the average person to attain the kind of power offered by PP they would have to invest in a very expensive system.
a cloud computing provider) with additional profits and ideas. (as is often 85 . which in turn will allow them to narrow their focus toward technical considerations and innovations. They are also predicting that these same brokerage firms will also be responsible for driving profits and innovation forward. In fact. In any type of business it is the job of the broker to find ways to package goods and / or services in ways that benefit both producers and consumers. Why brokers and not developers or consumers? As with other types of businesses.Cloud Services Brokerage the middlemen between proViders and Consumers act as the middlemen between cloud providers and consumers) will become increasingly important over the next decade. developers/manufacturers often lack the tools or know-how to M any experts are predicting that brokerage firms (which reach a broad consumer base. Most people are resigned to think of brokerage firms as unnecessary (or yet another set of players that must be paid) participants which drive up profits to compensate for their salaries. The truth is that by virtue of the participation of brokerage firms a business can often increase profits many times over. find ways to reach an entirely new demographic as well as broaden their overall appeal. In most cases the actions of a brokerage firm will actually provide the producer (in this case.
security). For example. Multiple Types of Brokers for Multiple Cloud Types As is the case with other web related services. manufacturers. this is of course what brokerage firms specialize in. The bottom line is that no matter how brilliant and / or groundbreaking a concept. Less involved types of cloud services like SaaS and PaaS (Software 86 . offices. which has the widest appeal) will be angled toward both individual users as well as large businesses simply because it offers the user virtually everything they need (software. IaaS (Infrastructure as a service. brokers will likely form businesses with the intent of connecting specific types of consumers to cloud services. PaaS and SaaS). hardware. This means that there will be brokerage firms that will emerge that cater only to businesses within specific fields (like information technology. there will be brokerages that will concentrate on and cater to individual consumers only. pharmaceuticals). Large businesses will be able to take advantage of the lower costs of operation with IaaS as well. code.the art of serViCe Cloud serViCes brokerage the case) marketing ideas from brokerage firms often find their way back to the research and development departments of providers which usually results in entirely new perceptions about what a product does or can do. storage. Likewise. their consumer’s needs (IaaS. virtualized hardware. factories. The group(s) that a cloud brokerage firm caters to will depend largely on what type(s) of service(s) that they are promoting and of course. service or product is it needs additional personnel to “bring it to the market” so to speak. access.
The old system of deployment (grid-based software and hardware) is flawed in that large amounts of money are spent on software and hardware that are often never even used (or used in a minimal percentage). Brokerage firms will also work with both consumers and developers on the software side of things as well. PaaS and SaaS) give brokerage houses the flexibility to create their own customized service packages to market directly to consumers. (but would still like to use cloud services as a 87 . Platform as a Service) will be marketed by brokerages to moderate to larger sized businesses that have the capabilities of “filling in the technological gaps” with either their own developments or that which they contract out to additional groups. A cloud-based setup will not only cut the costs of operation for many groups and individuals but it will also cut the amount of time spent learning or adapting to a new system by a significant amount as well. The ultimate aim of these firms is to provide a “buffet of available services and software options” that the end user or IT manager can then pick and choose from. This data will then serve as the template for their individual service packages which are aimed at specific types of buyers. These three service models (IaaS. And for those companies that are not ready to take the plunge into cloud computing just yet. brokerages will then be able to determine what any particular demographics’ cloud computing needs really are. After a significant amount of marketing data has been collected.the art of serViCe Cloud serViCes brokerage as a Service.
88 . With regards to cloud computing. Cloud brokers are essentially propagating the very idea of cloud computing throughout the market itself. It is the job of cloud brokerages to find new ways to enhance the outward appeal of this new technology. When big developments and changes come along (like cloud computing) there is a learning curve as well as a new set of technological possibilities that the market and consumers alike must adapt to and familiarize themselves with. These brokerages will essentially be selling companies a system that they can use to collect point of sale data. It is through this type of “soft selling” that many businesses may become turned on to the idea of cloud computing in a big way. which will be extremely beneficial to retail enterprises. brokers are needed to generate the revenue that is needed in order to lay the groundwork for the next phase in its development. for example.the art of serViCe Cloud serViCes brokerage way to collect and store static data) there will be brokerages that offer data service packages. which is no easy task.
Most cloud testing today is being performed via automated services. they are all load balancing and stress related. exclusive. need to be made to ensure that a proper load-balancing effect is achieved when a higher volume of traffic is present. • To simulate large volumes of traffic in order to determine what 89 . if any. very little has been developed in the way of specific tools and/or services to help test public or private clouds. Data or resources may be distributed across a cloud in an unpredictable manner. there are currently more than a few companies that are offering tailored services in the area of cloud testing for extremely low costs as well. • To ascertain the load balancing abilities of the cloud or a website. through the use of cloud testing a cloud manager can determine what changes. but there are software What Is Cloud Testing and what Is Its Purpose? There are essentially three reasons why someone might need to test a cloud in the first place. Additionally. in fact.Cloud Testing Tools and Service how Cloud testing works and what it is used for C loud testing tools and packages offered by certain service(s) are not mutually companies that may allow an individual or organization to handle the task themselves.
but it also can alert those in charge of any potential problem areas as well.the art of serViCe Cloud testing tools and serViCe the limitations of a cloud or website are. By simulating extremely large volumes of traffic you can determine the maximum number of users that can be present before some critical failure occurs. Cloud testing is also necessary whenever additional hardware is added to an existing cloud network. Not only does testing the entire cloud with the additional hardware resources added tell you what new capabilities have been added. 90 . as their operations are dependant on paying customers to whom they provide services. • To discover and correct any possible glitches / errors before they are encountered by real users / visitors. Through the application of a rigorous and thorough testing procedure it is possible to effectively identify potential problem areas and remedy them before users have a chance to discover them for themselves (which could result in the loss of ongoing work or other important data). This allows a cloud manager / owner to not only make better policy decisions about the use of their cloud but also provides them with a real world figure concerning usage of their system. This is particularly valuable for cloud provider organizations.
more and more global tech companies are beginning to slowly develop their own cloud-based tools and services. nor does a set of established standards for various cloud builds concerning imposed limitations or rule sets. 91 . The development of such institutions may take several years of prolonged experimentation. Many of the best solutions concerning cloud testing are still under investigation and those companies that are undertaking the task of actually performing cloud testing are relatively small organizations. the results of these simulations are then observed and tabulated on-site (or even off-site in some cases) wherever the hardware stacks (of the cloud) are located via software. Those performing the test are looking for certain criteria or evidence that will tell them what changes (if any) need to be effected.the art of serViCe Cloud testing tools and serViCe How Is Cloud Testing Performed? Remote or on-site software applications can be loaded up to simulate the type and volume of traffic that might be experienced under normal operating conditions. A series of complex user scenarios are loaded and used to generate traffic from around the globe. this will lead to a direct demand for more qualified tests and testing procedures. data gathering and evidence presentation. However. A conventional standards and practices board for cloud testing does not currently exist.
Cloudbursting is essentially a load balancing measure or set of measures that seeks to accrue more resources for a cloud (or cloud user) that has exceeded their hardware / bandwidth limitations. One of the current limitations of this new model is a lack of proper management software tools that can create tiers for data streams so that newly requisitioned 92 . computing is that of cloudbursting or cloud balancing as it is often called. reVerse Cloudbursting & Cloud balanCing O ne of the most heavily discussed topics in cloud cloud network. By most accounts. It simply does not make sense for most organizations to purchase additional resources just to cover these overdraft periods (because they would not be used at any other time). oVerdrafting.k.a. cloudbursting only becomes a necessity in times where peak levels of traffic are experienced across an entire How Does Cloudbursting Work? Once the limits of a cloud network have been reached (in terms of storage space or computing power) requests are sent out to other requisitioned servers to make up the difference. Because this type of situation is infrequently encountered. many organizations simply opt to temporarily requisition their additional cloud hardware / resources (offsite or from another provider).Cloudbursting a. and by “renting” additional resources they are able to save quite a lot of capital.
As it currently stands. applications that don’t involve a complex: • • • • • Infrastructure System / series integration Set of internal structures that are vital to the core data center Application delivery structure Series of components 93 . Security Concerns of Cloudbursting One growing area of concern around cloudbursting is that of security. more specifically. cloudbursting is sort of a ‘work in progress’. all integral processes and virtualization might be better handled on-site or via the chief cloud services provider. cloudbursting may be best used as a form of temporary offsite data storage. it’s just that at the current moment it’s not. So basically. can it be guaranteed? The security around cloudbursting is not as solid as what is found in a typical cloud environment. This is the reason why many specialists in the field of cloudbursting recommend it for non-critical processes that do not include the use or transfer of sensitive data / information. In other words. That is not to say that it can not be secured using the same methods employed by large scale cloud service providers.the art of serViCe Cloudbursting resources can be implemented.
The typical workaround in these types of situations involves the use of hybrid environment management tools. Resigning customer data to a public cloud could lead to an eventual leak of data. Cloudbursting is not a permanent solution in this sense. Whether or not this will work properly is dependant on the platform 94 . It is for this very reason (lack of runtime and software resources) that cloudbursting should be regarded as a more affordable solution than a conventional upgrade of service or hardware.the art of serViCe Cloudbursting For retail and / or eCommerce businesses. just a temporary fix. The difference is that cloudbursting is done to supplement the software structures that have already been established by a service or private cloud. How Does Cloudbursting Differ from IaaS or PaaS? Many individuals may be quick to draw comparisons between established types of cloud services such as Infrastructure as a Service or Platform as a Service (which both essentially offer cloud users access to an array of hardware resources). using cloudbursting must be approached very carefully. And there’s no better way to lose face than by letting customer information and data fall into the wrong hands. Incompatibility Issues Another potential problem with cloudbursting is the incompatibility of the various runtime environments or components of the host network and the cloudbursting one.
Excessive implementation of cloudbursting is a definite signifier that additional hardware resources need to amassed or a more extensive / encompassing cloud service plan must be adopted.the art of serViCe Cloudbursting that both clouds are operating on (they are usually required to be utilizing the same platform). 95 . but as your business / organization continues to expand it may only be a temporary fix. However. Cloudbursting is an excellent way to supplement your current cloud network or hosted cloud services in times of need. in the short term cloudbursting remains an excellent solution for supplementing networks that operate within the realms of retail or eCommerce sales. Many cloud providers are extending their services to include “hybrid cloud” capabilities so that cloudbursting will no longer be an issue of concern among their customers.
when is it (community cloud) a good idea and when is it a bad idea? An interesting feature of community clouds is that they can be managed in several different ways.Community Cloud faCts and Considerations the resources of an extensive cloud network is not a new one. one of the mostly commonly referenced areas such as this would be healthcare. for example. But area T he concept of multiple organizations sharing of interest is not the only reason that a group of organizations might share a community cloud. All involved organizations can hold a meeting to appoint a joint cloud manager. but the real question is. Cloud vendors routinely utilize community clouds in cases where multiple organizations share the same area of interest or background. perhaps they require the same type(s) of security or compliances. For instance: • • • Every organization can appoint their own manager to deal with their own resources. A third party may be appointed to oversee management of the entire community cloud. There are an endless number of reasons as to why a community cloud might be formed. 96 .
The biggest roadblock for implementing the community cloud model in the public sector (en masse) is lack of resources. most notably: • • • • How will availability and/or potential security breach issues be handled (from a legal perspective)? How are operational / maintenance costs divided among those participating in the community cloud venture? How will the managing body distribute the cloud resources? (Will they be prorated? For example) Will there be contracts involved? And if so. Most public organizations simply do not have the capital. who will draw up said contracts? 97 . but are quickly finding their way into the public sector. Community clouds have mostly been resigned to governmental organizations. This is slowly changing however. the technology behind cloud computing is being disseminated by more and more people every day after all. expertise. or access to the equipment needed to effectively pull off a community cloud scenario. Community Cloud Considerations Establishing a community cloud warrants an investigation into several areas.the art of serViCe Community Cloud • A head manager may be appointed who works in conjunction with “branch” managers from every organization participating in the community cloud.
community clouds must also be able to offer individual organizations a set of emergency options. a lack of either availability or security ultimately translates into loss of profits.the art of serViCe Community Cloud • • • • Are there any special considerations to be made concerning security? Will the community cloud be open geographically? How will the establishment of services be paid for? Who will be responsible for establishing a management structure? Setting up. meaning. As it is. One of the reasons that businesses have neglected to implement or participate in community cloud networks is due to a lack of established security regulations / procedures. 98 . running and operating a community cloud is a bit like running a hospital or classroom. no organization currently oversees or provides any type of authenticated security verification for the processes. all data must be backed-up in another location in order to allow them to speedily recover important files. Any business participating in a community cloud scenario should make sure that all data transmitted (both to and from) should be double encrypted. data remains encrypted when stable and when being transmitted. structure or establishment of community cloud services. And as with any other type of cloud network. basically. there are inevitably going to be problems and mishaps. For businesses. so you must have a contingency plan in place to deal with these issues.
One of the biggest selling points of the community cloud model is that it does not require individual organizations to provide their own IT departments / infrastructures. conversely. they do not share profits). the more capital is available to invest. You would assume that since a group of organizations inhabit the same community cloud that they would be able to share software licenses. This is great news for companies looking to run their operation sans an IT department (thereby freeing up 99 . But this is also true of any other type of cloud or grid networking / computing. the lower the individual investor’s cost. this is not the case. so it should not be that much of an inhibiting factor. a community cloud does not constitute an organization (though they share resources. The more organizations that are involved. This essentially provides two massive benefits: • The greater the number of companies involved. the more powerful the system becomes.the art of serViCe Community Cloud Since many different organizations may share in the development and operation of a community cloud. they also share in the cost of establishing it. such as software licensing. Software licenses are generally limited to specific or individual organizations. There are certain inhibitors in a community cloud however. • More investment funds directly translate into more hardware / software / virtualized resources.
Whether or not the community cloud model that currently exists will become the standard model for business / organizational computer networking remains to be seen. And there’s no disputing that this makes sense. If there are 10 healthcare organizations that are looking for cloud services it only makes sense to bundle them together. community clouds are yet another stepping stone toward a more perfect model for businesses and organizations to create. The community cloud model is however a significant advancement in terms of networking infrastructure. Doing so might even allow cloud managers to set up specific “public areas” within the community cloud that would allow everyone to access medical research and / or patient files. thereby more efficiently utilizing their resources. It is estimated / predicted that many cloud service providers will eventually begin marketing individual community clouds to organizations of similar type or design.the art of serViCe Community Cloud additional budgetary resources). if its inherent design scruples can be dealt with in a comprehensive manner it may offer businesses and organizations a completely streamlined way of running their operations. 100 . share and communicate both internally and externally. As with any other development in computer networking. at least from a logical perspective. but could be potentially bad for those organizations that are intensively involved in tech-related matters.
especially in cases of smaller offices which may only consist of around 2-5 terminals. There are several reasons why virtual private cloud computing is desirable over the public cloud model. In fact. but just what is it exactly? Think of a VPC (virtual private cloud) as a section of resources (that exist on an already established cloud network) that have been requisitioned or cordoned off for access by a limited number of individuals (in many cases just one person). this allows them to be much more efficient in their duties (when compared to security measures that are tasked with scanning much larger volumes of hardware and data). VPC’s often utilize their own individual intrusion detection and security systems. there is a way of achieving this dream without having to make any significant investments. The answer of course is virtual private cloud O wning a private cloud is a dream that many dedicated computing. These security measures are relegated to the VPN and are not responsible for any other portion of the larger community cloud structure. However. one of the more common reasons is security. it would seem that most people opting for VPC computing are lulled into it because of the added security benefits. 101 .Virtual Private Cloud Computing computing professionals aspire to. but the technology required and the expenses needed to establish such feat are far outside the means of most. Virtual private cloud computing is an excellent solution for smaller businesses as well. the security infrastructure of the parent cloud network and the security system of the VPN itself. For most VPC’s there are two security elements at play. hire your own IT team or learn to manage/operate/program new hardware/software.
most cloud computing providers allow for a wide range of options concerning the features of a virtual private cloud. This is truly the best part about VPC computing. for example). So independent or third party management tools can still be utilized to keep the VPC on track. relegating a VPC to a specific application(s) or a service is a fairly common practice. There are even some cloud providers exploring the possibility of using virtual private clouds for disaster recovery purposes only. this may be desired for a number of reasons not the least of which concerns data security or daily redundancy (back-up) procedures. you get access to the features and power of cloud computing but you don’t have to physically deal with 102 . this would also include scaling considerations and the number of gateways available at any given time. But these are not the only ways that virtual private clouds can be established or used. this would essentially give their clients (who operate on a public network) the ability to safely back-up their data on a separate VPN. virtual private clouds can be used in strictly supplemental capacities. they can also be used to solely requisition specific services or strictly in a supplemental capacity (when cloudbursting or overdrafting is necessary. this means that the VPC user/owner is not really responsible for managing (the infrastructure) or maintaining any hardware resources. And of course. Whoever is providing the VPC service still controls all of the elements of the infrastructure (which the virtualized private cloud is a part of ). And as stated earlier.the art of serViCe Virtual priVate Cloud Computing VPC’s are also just as flexible as other cloud computing network models. Virtual private clouds can also be completely isolated from internet.
VPC’s offer individuals and small groups the same features (and a comparable level of power) as the larger community cloud structures. Regardless of who may be utilizing them. these costs are well outside the range that individuals can afford to pay). But for individuals and smaller businesses. 103 . Many cloud service providers are moving toward marketing VPC computing toward individual consumers (that may operate outside of the realm of business). security and strength. choosing how to best utilize these VPC’s may be at the client’s sole discretion. the VPC computing model is certainly more than capable of delivering applicable levels of service. Many often opt to offer them to management or set them aside for use in delivering / storing company email. The main difference is simply the level of access and customization capacity of virtual private cloud computing. It should be noted that the service offered by VPC’s will be (in many ways) completely identical to the services offered by the larger cloud infrastructure(s). In cases such as this. there are of course larger cloud models that were designed to carry such loads. Virtual private cloud computing is simply not an option in cases of large scale deployment or usage by increasing numbers of individuals.the art of serViCe Virtual priVate Cloud Computing the technical aspects of running the system (the hardware required for running a cloud network can be quite expensive to maintain. but with the added benefit of personalized access and security. a cloud computing provider may offer their larger clients a series of VPC’s as part of their purchased package. Often times.
What Does APaaS Specifically Handle or Seek to Accomplish? In addition to data storage (data basing) and development tools. it is the middleware that individual users will actually see 104 . and do them well. It is also within this layer that overall portability (and the ability of an application to function alongside a bevy of other cloud applications as well as operating systems) is established. In fact. it makes sense that a great deal of attention is paid to it. APaaS or Application Platform as a Service is more or less a horizontal extension of the types of offerings put forth in PaaS. DBMS. APaaS is a type of service model that gives cloud software developers the power to actually do their jobs. Portals.Cloud APaaS a Closer look at the serViCe model that driVes Change and growth within the Cloud cloud computing along with PaaS style offerings. APaaS). the actual software architectures of applications are built and established. Since most of the actual developmental breakthroughs (both in terms of software and overall cloud usability) occur within the realms of the middleware (PaaS. Within the APaaS system. Messaging. ESB’s. APaaS are often confused for one another or used interchangeably. as well as others. While upper and lower end cloud architectures certainly serve their purposes. compro- A PaaS exists somewhere in the “middleware” section of mises the applications servers like BPM. PaaS or platform as a service.
APaaS gives software developers a solid chunk of platform that they can stand on. for those companies that want to run their IT and/or software development projects through an APaaS. What is the benefit here? Subscription is substantially cheaper than licensing and offers its own 105 . The true selling point of APaaS however is its ability to provide accurate feedback regarding the functionality and compatibility of applications that are still under development. APaaS makes sense from a prudent financial standpoint because it gives investors a greater shot at producing what’s often referred to as a “sure thing”. thereby increasing the potential of future returns on their investment. with its own impressive workbench of tools. who can take serious losses (in terms of both money and time spent) if they produce an application that simply won’t function in an environment. the platform itself offers them a much higher percentage outcome that the applications that they are developing (either directly or indirectly via financial contribution) will turn out as expected. while they are constructing and envisioning new possibilities.the art of serViCe Cloud apaas and interact with. they will also retain the highest level of visibility (with respect to cloud computing news as well as financial contributions). This is extremely important to software developers. behave as expected once deployed. and as a result. In other words. These are the principal reasons why businesses are intently pouring funds into APaaS right now. they need only pay subscription fees and not licensing fees. And of course. or function in a compatible manner with other elements in a cloud infrastructure.
Enterprise software (which is essentially business intensive software) is often hard to manage. one that seeks to provide yet another proprietary service aimed at delivering timely solutions to business software issues. Not only would this greatly increase the overall functionality of expensive enterprise business software. One particular area that could use the help is enterprise software. for example. And these packages often allow software development teams to integrate and share their ongoing work more smoothly as well as run an entire project from start to finish much faster than with other types of interfaces/systems. but it would also allow for a great range of customization.the art of serViCe Cloud apaas benefits when paired with cloud APaaS. Businesses in particular are extremely excited about the potential of cloud APaaS to provide them with next generation solutions to ongoing as well as future problems. The global emergence of APaaS will no doubt lead to the creation of a number of companies that will utilize the tools of APaaS to create their own business model. difficult to customize and frequently falls short in its functionalities. An obvious solution for dealing with enterprise software problems would be the deployment of an APaaS-style service. When you couple these shortcomings with the fact that it is often quite expensive. from problem identification to deployment of the supposed software solution. One unforeseen benefit of utilizing APaaS is its ability to greatly cut the amount of time required for software development. you have a serious problem. Most APaaS packages that are put together for designers are often much easier to use than most standardized design tools. as 106 .
the art of serViCe Cloud apaas well as the option for integrating it with other cloud services and / or networking opportunities. 107 . It is through the use of APaaS that many excellent next generation apps have been developed and many experts in the field of cloud computing agree that it is APaaS that will produce some of the upcoming “game changing” applications that will actually shape the future of cloud computing in general. APaaS was created to make the lives of software designers. developers and investors much easier.
the blossoming importance of cloud computing coupled with its myriad resources for businesses will push business management(s) toward reintegrating with IT elements in new / better ways. For cloud computing. Often times. This segregation of technological resources in a business is often unintentional and could be viewed as potentially harmful in many respects. panies utilizing individual cloud services / models like IaaS or PaaS within one particular department. businesses may see it fit to create a new management element that specifically interfaces with IT and tech. as more and more successes and savings are garnered through the use of cloud services and applications. this is a major problem. Two. One. the department that is utilizing these cloud services But the segregation between IT and individual departments is often not the only problem. However. but is a part of the executive 108 . There is also often an extremely wide divide between the resources and knowledge of an IT department and the analytical and decision making elements of a business.Cloud Computing for the Enterprise how indiVidual Cloud Computing serViCes are being independently implemented by Companies in a Variety of ways I t is common (in today’s world of cloud computing) to find com- are doing so outside of the knowledge and influence of their own IT department. there are two plausible outcomes that might very well lead toward a final reconciliation of sorts between these two elements.
they discover that all of their hard work is going to waste due to the fact that users in one sector have allowed full access to their private network to some outside vendor or organization unbeknownst to them. Technical Services Segregation and Integration Arguably the biggest reason to push toward fully integrating. Let us look at this from the perspective of the IT department. or at least making the IT department aware that individual departments are using a la carte cloud services is security. but you are also be giving the IT department the opportunity to determine if what you need is actually the best possible option. It is impossible for an IT department to make the proper preparations for daily and emergency protocols if there are rogue elements floating around that are operating outside of their knowledge. Before any new cloud services are established it should be imperative that these plans are first approved by the IT infrastructure that’s already in place.the art of serViCe Cloud Computing for the enterprise chain of command so to speak. It is extremely likely that the IT professionals 109 . you are not only avoiding potential security mishaps that might spring up. They are working toward creating a computing environment that is efficient. In doing so. Either way. performance-based and secure for users to do their work in. Suddenly. deploying. the high level of resources and possibilities offered by cloud computing provides enterprises with many new ways of conducting their operations as well as analyzing. organizing and utilizing their data.
the cost of the proposed added service(s) must be weighed by both the IT and business leaders to determine if it can truly offer what is being promised in a way that is better and cheaper than the resources of the current / local infrastructure. After a cloud service or service package has been decided upon. This is yet another reason why businesses need to establish a new organizational head that is well versed in IT / technological concerns as well as business ones. but would need to form a close personal relationship with a liaison that is a member of executive management. The ability of a proposed cloud service to keep data safe is very important. or to determine if such a thing is even possible in the first place. a knowledgeable IT manager should be more than capable of handling the technical tasks. Having an IT manager is simply answer to or report to this person is not a good idea and is insufficient for the scope 110 .the art of serViCe Cloud Computing for the enterprise working at your company might have an even better solution based on your original idea / recommendation(s). As it is. It would also be necessary to determine how to integrate these new types of services with the present infrastructure. Basically. and who will ensure that cloud-based services and on-site networks are working together to meet the demands/ needs of the business itself? This is yet another reason that an official position overseeing the realms of IT / business / cloud integration must be established. there is an additional problem to consider. Who is going to be in charge of this integration process. but so is its ability to offer a high level of availability as well as provide these things in a cost effective manner.
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Cloud Computing for the enterprise
of the integration process. They must form a partnership where a free exchange of ideas and information can take place. Many of the ideas that will be put forth will come from the IT department; it would then be up to the business management to decide how to best implement these ideas. If an IT manager is simply reporting their findings, the business people won’t have a clue as to best utilize the information. Another possible outside threat of cloud computing integration is the possibility that the cloud computing service provider(s) might merge with other elements or terminate their services permanently. If you have established your computing / networking infrastructures on a system that’s deployed by a company that goes out of business or drastically alters their operating procedures; well, you can see how that might be a problem. This kind of flub could severely interrupt the flow of business operations, perhaps in extreme cases, destroying a company by means of profit losses. How to avoid this situation? Make sure the service contracts include reparations / actions for these types of scenarios. Better yet, only do business with cloud vendors that are firmly established or are affiliated with larger megalithic institutions. For businesses, cloud computing can open doors to possibilities that will make their everyday operations much easier and more efficient. But it could also propel them forward by means of generating new ideas or through the use of additional applications that will either save or make money in as of yet, unforeseen ways. Once cloud computing process and management has been fully reconciled with those elements that are already in power, new avenues of business expression will open up.
Cloud Computing Security Concerns
a Closer look at the most pressing seCurity ConCerns in the world of Cloud Computing, as well as what serViCe proViders
need to be offering users
proportion. The truth is that any computer network whether it be cloud or grid-based could be at risk (in terms of security) given that certain protective measures are not put into place and established guidelines are not followed. However, security for cloud computing is implemented and managed in ways that may be unfamiliar (even to those that have handled network security before), this also causes people to develop apprehensions.
about cloud computing. The bad publicity that cloud computing has suffered has in some ways, (at worst) set its development back a number of years and (at best) caused a great deal of individuals to think twice about cloud computing. While cloud computing security concerns are certainly not unfounded, they have been blown out of
Unfortunately, there are many ways that an intruder or miscreant can undermine cloud network security. However, with emerging technologies coming online that are designed to essentially monitor all traffic and data exchanges occurring within a cloud, it is soon going to get a lot harder for people to compromise security standards.
the art of serViCe
Cloud Computing seCurity ConCerns
This leads us to the obvious question, what are the principal security concerns in the world of cloud computing right now? • Investigating purported breaches of security and illegal activity – Currently, it is somewhat challenging (or impossible in some cases) to investigate security breaches or other illegal activities. However, that does not mean that companies shouldn’t be able to sign a contract stating that they will go above and beyond in assisting any third parties should the need for further investigations be needed. This contract should also extend to include data collection as well as admission of said data as evidence in a court of law. • Enduring logistical / business presence – What happens to your data and service(s) if your cloud services provider suddenly goes out of business? Will you be able to replicate your current system? Can you obtain copies of your data if they go out of business or merge with another group? These questions are extremely relevant to the health of your business and are worth exploring further. It is also of equal importance that a cloud provider is able to remain on the cutting edge of technology with regards to cloud computing; failure to remain competitive in this way may affect the bottom line of your business. • Segregating data – It is fairly typical for providers to segregate data all over a cloud, though you data is encrypted it is still mixed in with the data of everyone else on that particular cloud network. There are two concerns that should be addressed regarding segregated data encryption:
the art of serViCe
Cloud Computing seCurity ConCerns
Study information regarding how a provider segregates their data; if there is an actual method behind it (as the level of encryption).
Find out who designed the encryption system as well as who was responsible for testing it and what their actual level of expertise is.
User access – Unquestionably, the single biggest area of cloud security that gets the most attention is user access. If a business is using the services of a cloud computing provider they have to know who has potential access to their resources. It is also extremely important that a user is able to trust their provider(s); vendors must be able to tell their customers who is in charge of maintenance and administration over their data. If a service provider cannot “name names” regarding who actually manages their data, you should look elsewhere.
Compliance with regulations and guidelines – It should go without saying that those service providers that are unable to meet with compliances and regulations regarding security and operation of a cloud infrastructure should not get your business. This is also important for legal reasons; for example, if your data is stored in a remote location or foreign country and your data security is breached, your provider may be able to circumvent the law based on the location of the hardware/data at the time of the incident. Make sure that your service provider is willing to sign a contract regarding privacy requirements and/or regulatory compliance(s).
Emergency / Recovery / Contingency plans – Disasters do
the art of serViCe
Cloud Computing seCurity ConCerns
not occur very often, but it is still imperative that you find out what will be done in the event of one, especially if it concerns the livelihood of your business. The only viable solution for disaster recovery and security is a service provider that actively copies data on a daily basis and stores it in another location on a separate system. In fact, many leading cloud providers create copies of data and spread them out across multiple networks, ensuring the absolute highest level of recoverability available (even beyond what is capable with grid computing). While security is still a touchy subject in cloud computing, the truth is that it is being dealt with. In fact, security probably gets the most attention from cloud developers apart from their obsession with operating systems. Every major (and minor) security concern will eventually be addressed and dealt with, in the mean time there are automated bots that crawl over the clouds, monitoring and recording information regarding user access for further analysis. All in all, cloud computing (in its current form) is still a viable and valuable commodity, despite its shortcomings in the security arena.
like those offered freely by Google for example (Gmail). a user often has a myriad of options at their disposal. aside from just email services. cloud email service is like a miniaturized version of a larger cloud networking structure. the concept of email (in any form) is essentially basic cloud M ost individuals are introduced to cloud comput- computing. Conventional email accounts are nothing more that an interface that allows a user to receive. Often times. virtualization and operating software along with a specialized interface. The difference being that cloud email only involves the deployment of email (along with other potential applications). whereas a true cloud computing service offers comprehensive hardware simulation. Through a cloud based email account. 116 .Cloud Email why Cloud email proViders (and their serViCes) are superior in nearly eVery regard ing via the various popular cloud based email services that are extremely prevalent. these cloud email addresses are part of a larger cloud-based account structure that offers users access to hundreds of different applications as well as specific features. Whether or not people realize it. In many ways. which is designed to interact with and provision the resources of cloud hardware. However. a true cloud email setup is much more versatile than a standard email setup. at least from a structural perspective. access and deploy messages from a remote server or servers.
Gmail (which is arguably the most popular and feature-laden cloud email service currently available) allows you to: • • • • • • • • • Use GPS via Mobile. cloud email accounts are quickly becoming sophisticated online PDA’s of sorts. Map any location on earth. with extremely competitive rates). Place calls (domestic and international. Search a highly developed database of scholarly articles for research and citations. Publish. 117 . For example. In fact. Get directions. Organize your own calendar. Cloud Email Applications The wealth of free cloud email applications offered by their providers is simply stunning. it is essentially a system for maintaining and operating a multi-purpose account that is designed around remotely accessing an email server. share and even edit documents remotely. Publish your own blog. but it is much less complex. cloud email is more geared toward software specific functions and applications.the art of serViCe Cloud email Cloud email acts (or behaves) in much the same manner as other cloud services. Whereas cloud computing hinges around accessing hardware specific functions. Organize your medical records.
which is perfectly understandable. And of course. And if all of that was not enough. Why so many applications? People like the flexibility of being able to do everything from one point of access. It is extremely inconvenient to have to log in to several different sites / locations just to access the tools that a person uses on a regular basis. Get instant access to up-to-the-minute financial data. especially if these tools are provided by the same company that provides their cloud email (or if they are partnered with them). 118 . Search for books related to specific topics. And once a user establishes their account. logging into several sites / applications / tools can lead to an inefficient use of system resources and even errors within the OS or browser. The full list of applications (in Gmail) is extremely extensive and they continue to add new services on a continuous basis. applications and even advertisements that are specific to their interests can be presented to them. their preferences and activities are logged so that materials. And many others….the art of serViCe Cloud email • • • • • Upload. Do translations. And of course once a cloud email service provider establishes a stable system of integration they can simply copy it and offer it to every user that signs up for their services. Gmail also provides support for accessing their cloud email accounts via mobile devices. Share and edit photos remotely. The obvious solution to this type of dilemma is full integration.
the art of serViCe Cloud email Cloud Email and Social Media / Networking Many cloud email providers have already integrated their services with nearly all of the popular social media outlets. and colleagues. where your presentation is. The best evidence concerning the benefits of using cloud email service(s) is apparent in the number of governmental bodies that (in recent years) have transitioned to cloud-based email systems. friends. And you can literally monitor their social networking activities via updates or even widget-like devices that are built into the email interface. Most cloud email systems have even integrated chat-style features into their accounts which allow connected users to quickly communicate with one another. organizer and remotely accessible personal / business data platform. A Personal and Business Capable Interface that Can Be Remotely Accessed from any Location The best feature or aspect of cloud email has to be its ability to act as a storage center. the list goes on and on… Cloud email completely streamlines the way we interface with people on both personal and professional levels. Using cloud email means that you no longer have to worry about where your files are. Here is a 119 . an invaluable tool for those that like to do business through their cloud email accounts. what that contact’s name was. This push toward integrating social networking with user end email features allows a person to keep track of all correspondences.
San Francisco As well as countless others that have already moved to the cloud or are considering it in the near future. 2. Since the use of cloud email systems are extremely inexpensive (especially when compared to the costs that an institution or governmental body must front to set up their own email servers). The features. for personal or business purposes. 120 . scalability. security and remote access features of cloud email make it an obvious choice for individuals and governments. the choice of moving to the cloud is an obvious one.the art of serViCe Cloud email partial list of (US) governmental bodies that are currently using cloud email: • NOAA 1. flexibility. availability. 3. • • • General Services Administration The Department of Agriculture Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Department of Labor Many Metropolitan Governments including: 1.
How is it possible to save money simply by utilizing a cloud enabled BPM platform? The costs of upgrading or deploying additional software and hardware can be astronomical. if a business is considering taking on these costs for an upcoming or in-development project they are taking a risk. By using a cloud enabled BPM platform to analyze / assess risks and potential benefits. it simply serves to compliment another The main purpose of employing cloud enabled BPM platform services seems to be saving money. analyzing and deploying business-related data / processes. (These two BPM examples are often confused for one another. These may include tools to manage / monitor business activity. In stark contrast. certain functions or processes can often be handled utilizing present 121 . information enabled and set up workflows among Cloud BPM platforms essentially exist to compliment an existing cloud networking service. that is to say. a BPM platform as a service (BPM PaaS) is a set of BPM management tools/ services that come with.) In addition to the possibilities for managing. the BPM platform itself is not intrinsically linked to any specific cloud platform / service. for businesses is the ability of some cloud services to execute business process management functions.Cloud-enabled BPM Platforms O ne of the most exciting features of cloud computing cloud networking package (which is usually a third party provider). cloud enabled BPM’s are also fully compatible with both private and public cloud models / networks. other analyze things. organizing. or can be added via a package offered by a cloud provider.
The concept of a cloud enabled business process management platform literally blurs the line between what is considered to be IT and what is considered to be Business Management / Operation. a cloud enabled BPM can give business owners a clear indication of their potential growth and / or loss in profits regarding their current development methods and use of technology / tools.the art of serViCe Cloud-enabled bpm platforms system resources. perhaps they decide to set up a customer service center that caters to both businesses? The entire setup can then be managed by a third party. with input from all / both organizations or solely by one entity alone. Business owners and managers are obviously seeking to position these new tools toward use by upper management while 122 . many organizations that participate in a shared BPM platform will often gain access to much improved standards and resources than they would if they were covering the costs all by themselves. in fact. This might be commonly found among businesses that inhabit the same industry. or at least a determination can be made regarding the validity / need for an upgrade and whether or not it will be cost effective in the long run. Another interesting way that businesses have been using cloud enabled BPM platforms involves sharing certain processes across a series of private clouds. individual businesses can save a lot of money while keeping their standards high (in terms of the service itself). In other words. By consolidating in this manner. This is clearly evidenced by 2010 Gartner surveys that indicate more businesses using their line of business budgets to fund the use of BPM platforms.
One of the most difficult aspects of utilizing a cloud enabled BPM platform is simply getting others within an organization to actively support it. but there aren’t that many companies that are providing these types of services. However. Before signing a contract or agreement with a BPM platform provider. The easiest way to help others overcome their uneasiness concerning a BPM platform is to recommend integrating it via the organizations current line of cloud services (directly from the provider).the art of serViCe Cloud-enabled bpm platforms limiting access (to the processes and collected data via BPM platforms) to IT personnel. In doing so you will be able to more clearly create an indication of the potential benefits offered and perhaps garner more support from management regarding use of a BPM platform. rules. in certain cases IT managers may be able to recommend certain changes or additional deployments that can greatly benefit a company’s bottom line. And of the companies that are providing BPM platforms (as either part of another established cloud networking service or as an add-on service that can be appended to a 123 . definitions and even dashboards / interfaces. you should be able to transfer nearly all elements of an established service from one provider to another in the event that you want to switch. explore your options in terms of flexibility. This is somewhat understandable considering that IT personnel are only responsible for functionality and are not to be actively involved in business-related decision making. The rules and potential applications for cloud enabled BPM platform technology is here. artifacts. This includes all models.
popularity) of cloud enabled BPM platforms will dramatically rise. 124 . since most of these same companies offer little to no options for customization. If companies are able to begin offering individual businesses options for customizing their service packages the usability (not to mention.the art of serViCe Cloud-enabled bpm platforms third party provider’s cloud networking services) the overall level of expertise concerning their operation is moderate to low. This is clearly the case.
they are actually with providing complete their cloud clients computing packages. infrastructure service companies seek to provide / connect users with cloud computing services while acting as middleman between the users and service providers. unlike cloud brokerages. A compute Conducting operations in this manner allows a dedicated compute infrastructure service company to run their operation without having to set up or maintain any actual cloud computing resources. fashion as that of most brokerages. So think of it this way. package definitions and service options which they in turn. a compute infrastructure service model is a great one for companies that are just starting off in the world of cloud computing but lack a 125 . compute infrastructure services is not simply connecting users to cloud service providers. However. storage and networking) and they offer them to another company that establishes their own infrastructure. access settings. So in effect. you have this company that is able to offer advanced cloud computing services and options that simply pays another group for both access to resources as well as maintenance of said resources. portal. In this way. hope to sell and market to individuals and other businesses. one company has all the resources (hardware. servers.Compute Infrastructure Services O cloud perating in a similar compute infrastructure service essentially utilizes a larger organization’s IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) offerings in order to sublet them out to their own clients or users.
but this is expected to change soon when CIS takes on a more global personality. Most compute infrastructure service companies are currently based in the US also. Arguably. the most prohibitive thing about widespread use of compute infrastructure services is the costs associated with it. just as it is in any other scenario where multiple groups all have access to a specific set of cloud resources.the art of serViCe Compute infrastruCture serViCes complete set of financial that would be necessary for establishing their own hardware and networking systems. Being able to limit and monitor access. 126 . However. Currently. there are security issues that must be considered and price driving issues that must be dealt with as well. Security issues will (of course) be dealt with as soon as a risk assessments and compliance guidelines have been thoroughly researched and established. When this happens. So the idea and deployment method of compute infrastructure perfectly compliments a scenario where funds are set aside for an eventual upgrade or the establishment of a private / public cloud network with its own large bank of resources. prices are rather high due to the fact that there simply are not enough companies / individuals involved to absorb the costs associated with the set up and maintenance of such systems. the costs for compute infrastructure services should fall by a significant amount (due to the competition between service providers that will likely ensue). while at the same time assuring that privacy guidelines are being met will solve many of the issues related to security in this field.
this is an elegant and affordable solution for software developers with regards to project development. This practice is bringing the usual activities of the web hosting market face to face with cloud computing (as well as new potentials and possibilities in the process). a compute infrastructure service may be the answer. • High performance computing – For users and/or businesses that desire access to a range of resources that afford them increased computing power and potential. a compute infrastructure service sets up a private access network or portal that might allow a user to provision increasing amounts of hardware resources. what better solution than to go with a compute infrastructure service? Since most compute infrastructure services are deployed on a pay-per-use basis. • Test & development infrastructure – Some companies might simply need an environment with which they can perform their software testing. The video gaming industry as well as those engaging in various types of scientific research could benefit greatly here. 127 . In this type of model.the art of serViCe Compute infrastruCture serViCes Utilizing Compute Infrastructure Services There are 4 major ways to utilize a compute infrastructure service: • Web Hosting – Utilizing a cloud provider’s resources to perform familiar web hosting activities is arguably the most prevalent use of compute infrastructure services.
the beneficial possibilities (for individuals and average businesses perhaps not technological intensive or angled) will increase dramatically. By and large. The ability of these services to automate tasks as well as offer powerful resources that can be leveraged in lieu of exorbitant expenditure continues to be a major selling point. as things progress and more competition enters into the equation.the art of serViCe Compute infrastruCture serViCes • Production infrastructure – Using a compute infrastructure service as a system / network for carrying out daily business operations is not outside of the realm of possibility. this type of setup would be a win – win situation for them. Since a company utilizing these services isn’t responsible for maintaining their own network or designing a system for utilizing it. 128 . their client’s). IT organizations will likely be the big purveyors of compute infrastructure services. These organizations will seek out these services at the behest of their parent organizations (or if they’re an outsourced IT company. However.
any type of cloud service model will have to employ a dedicated cloud DBMS in order to truly M ost DBMS or database management systems are sim- provide customers with excellent access to data and databases. it would likely be much more efficient in its duties and therefore cheaper in the long run (or providing more actual service for the cost of deployment). For one thing. cloudbased DBMS are extremely scalable. All DBMS.DBMS as a Cloud Service ply software packages that users can acquire to create. retrieve and organize data on hard drives and networks. Traditional DBMS’s are simply not set up or equipped to deal with the demands of cloud computing. However. Just what is a DBMS? The concept of the DBMS has been around since the beginning of commercial computing. despite whether traditional or cloud-based. since the introduction of cloud computing. essentially making it possible to scan. They are able to handle volumes of data and processes that would exhaust a typical DBMS. maintain or use a database. if DBMS was deployed as a service as part of a larger package provided. And of course. Despite 129 . such as the navigational DBMS of the1960’s. How is a cloud DBMS different a traditional one? For one thing. Database management systems are one of the oldest integral components of computing. DBMS has morphed into an entirely new type of (cloud) service with its own unique benefits and task specific advantages. are essentially communicators that function as middlemen between the operating system (OS) and the database (hardware / storage resources).
and works hand in hand with the data structure elements to maintain the integrity of information on a database. • Data query language – Specifically involved in the security of the DBMS. DBMS as a cloud service-type models seek to capitalize on the disparity between antiquated DBMS models and their lack of full cloud functionality. When a DBMS interacts with data. But while a stand-alone (non-cloud) DBMS can be used on a cloud infrastructure. it is data structures that allow it to do so without compromising the integrity of said data. they are: • • Modeling language – Provides definitions for implements used on each and every type of database that operates on a system. cloud DBMS are still somewhat lacking in their ability to scale up to extremely large processes. Data structures – Data structures are essentially the configurations of specific data that have been set up by administrators and/or users. access privileges. monitors login activity. the use of cloud DBMS’s are principally used in the testing and development of new cloud applications and processes. this is expected to be remedied in the coming months and years however. All DBMS (database management systems) utilize four key elements as part of their operation. most are not designed to take full advantage of cloud resources. • Communication apparatus – Aside from existing to ensure 130 .the art of serViCe dbms as a Cloud serViCe their scalability however (as of the time of this writing). Currently.
This strategy ultimately saves on the time spent developing cloud DBMS’s as well as enhances their overall effectiveness. This is most likely due to the various security issues that have yet to be dealt with. 131 . putting the entire system in jeopardy.the art of serViCe dbms as a Cloud serViCe that duplication of records doesn’t occur. Despite the benefits offered by cloud-based DBMS. for security purposes. since traditional modeling languages are more than adequate for handling data. In this type of situation a malicious person could potentially access pertinent data or cause serious harm to the integral structure of a database. many people still have apprehensions about them. Many organizations are exploring the option of utilizing pre-existing modeling languages as a basis for expansion in a cloud model. a communication apparatus also exists to prevent the exploitation of records and/ or the data itself. for example). These security issues stem from the fact that cloud DBMS are hard to monitor since they often span across multiple hardware stacks and/or servers. Security becomes a serious issue with cloud DBMS when there’s multiple Virtual Machines (which might be accessing databases via any number of applications) that might be able to access a database without being noticed or setting off any alerts. Cloud DBMS may utilize all of these components or may have devised new strategies that combine one or more elements (like combining data structures and the data query language.
The limitation of this method however. Arguably. where they are located as well as the specifics of their machine / hardware. especially suspicious database access.the art of serViCe dbms as a Cloud serViCe There is however a proposed method for dealing with these types of incongruence. This will provide those in charge of security with the information necessary to determine who is responsible. is that a network agent may be unable to handle extremely large and dense volumes of activity / traffic. This involves setting up a system that meticulously records. The emergence of a comprehensive solution for all cloud service models regarding database management will open the door to a new era of cloud computing. 132 . the best solution for dealing with security issues is to employ continuous database auditing. All information regarding these activities is logged and stored in an extremely remote and secure location with alerts being sent out to cloud management (or including any other individual(s) they might have designated to receive this information) in the event of a breach. analyze and report on all activities regarding database access. which rigorously monitor and defends all activities related to database access. While deployment of a dedicated and thorough cloud DBMS has not occurred yet. An obvious solution is the deployment of an autonomous network agent. it is certainly under development.
But just what are enterprise portals as A s cloud computing continues to grow (in terms of the they relate to cloud computing? Enterprise portals are often offered as a type of cloud-based service that can be added to existing cloud service packages (which would include various hardware and software packages as well as architectures). Employing the use of remote enterprise portals would not make sense in these types of cases. But given that utilizing them in this fashion often leads to troublesome upgrading. The enterprise portal is actually employing cloud services. just a solitary access point. one intriguing offering that many cloud service providers are beginning to explore is that of enterprise portals. Enterprise portals can be used to host certain cloud based applications however. Individuals seem to benefit the most from the use of enterprise portals as they are essentially gaining a single point of access to cloud-based applications.Enterprise Portals as a Service scope of services that it is capable of deploying). It makes no sense for groups to employ the use of enterprise portals as a service simply because most organizations (that utilize cloud computing) have their own networks which are located locally (as opposed to remotely). since the provisioning of assets can be performed in-house. other users. Why host something externally if it is right next 133 . and decreased flexibility / overall control it’s probably best that organizations avoid widespread use of enterprise portals as a service as they exist in their current configurations. but it is not actually a part of the cloud itself. as well as specific data.
intelligent widgets. Up until this point however. their ability to make full use of cloud assets have been fairly dismal at best. The emergence of new technologies (which promise to not only make better use of cloud resources. This might include adopting measures and applications packages that are suitable for business users (who might be interfacing 134 . However.the art of serViCe enterprise portals as a serViCe door? And for groups that may be utilizing cloud services from a provider. for individual users. Html5. an enterprise portal system would only further complicate the already present structures in place that govern user access. There is simply too much customizing needed for organizations to make effective use of current enterprise portal service models. management and data flow within the cloud. they simply lack the advanced structures necessary to give users a totally secure access point at this time. The ability of an enterprise portal to requisition cloud resources is a particularly interesting subject. This is largely because of problems related to privacy as well as management of an established cloud infrastructure. an enterprise portal is an excellent all encompassing solution that is more than capable of serving a variety of different roles. as well as sophisticated internet-based applications are pushing enterprise portals toward even greater heights. The idea that many are pushing for involves combining enterprise portal services with a host of useful applications included that are relevant to specific users’ interests. In their current configuration. but to also provide users with a more fully developed experience) like advanced browsers.
net technologies is paving the way toward greatly enhancing the capabilities of the basic enterprise portal model / service. most businesses and organizations are not using enterprise portals for cloud access. they are however. if you will to basic application architectural design. The goal of these organizations seems to be to provide a multipurpose platform that can easily integrate with the various existing technologies.the art of serViCe enterprise portals as a serViCe with customers) as well as recreational users (who might be using an enterprise portal for a variety of purposes). Emerging cloud computing companies are beginning to craft enterprise portal solutions that allow for much easier integration with third party applications. databases. integration of. The goal of utilizing enterprise portals in this fashion is to provide a system that can effectively assist the developer in creating a standard approach. but it will also eliminate incompatibility and integration errors to a certain extent as well. Support for all Java and . This will not only cut the time required to produce new applications down by a significant amount. as well as provide an outline for future technology integration. using them for creation of. These emerging enterprise development models are also able to accept and communicate in/with an extremely large (and ever-growing) series of 135 . And of course. deployment of and management of cloud apps. web content in addition to the various cloud computing tools that are out there. As stated earlier. the creation of a standardized architectural ‘modus operandi’ will no doubt translate into reduced budgetary expenditures to some extent.
The ultimate goal is to create an enterprise portal development platform that is virtually all-encompassing. IT professionals as well as service providers. 136 . each having access to their own unique set of applications and tools that can be deployed for their own unique purposes. The use of emerging enterprise portal services is leading to a more comprehensive integration of available web applications and protocols for use in cloud computing environments. In time. enterprise portals will be readily available for use by users.the art of serViCe enterprise portals as a serViCe programming languages and models. Widespread usage of enterprise portals as a service is currently relegated to individual users and development teams (that are producing applications and tools for cloud computing networks).
Since the idea of a divergent hybrid cloud is synonymous with the typical user that 137 . A hybrid cloud is essentially a network that uses some combination of private and public networks (cloud or grid• • Pure Hybrid Cloud – utilizes some combination of public and private clouds together simultaneously in any number of ways. However some individuals do not consider any type of networking which involves or utilizes a traditional grid network to be a true example of a hybrid cloud. the resources of each component network can be utilized in any number of ways.Hybrid Cloud Computing what defines the Various types of hybrid Clouds O ne of the newest concepts in cloud computing (and based) to fashion an entirely new entity. Divergent Hybrid Cloud – utilizes a combination of public and private clouds combined with one or more traditional gridbased networks. Within these two forms of hybrid clouds. it depends on who you talk to. Perhaps it would be best to simply define things more clearly for the purposes of this article: one that is sure to provide many individuals / companies with a way of transitioning into fullbore cloud computing) is the hybrid cloud.
An example: An individual or business pays for access to a public cloud and at some point decide to integrate private cloud networks. There are many different reasons as to why an individual or organization might want or need to set up a hybrid cloud. In fact. a company or individual owns or pays for access to a private cloud network and they want to expand their capabilities. This also allow them to keep critical data 138 .the art of serViCe hybrid Cloud Computing is just beginning to explore and integrate cloud computing. they can range from simply needing to extend the power/resources of their current cloud to more complex solutions designed to securely store consumer data. For example. many organizations that own and run their own private cloud networks frequently employ public clouds to increase their scalability whilst keeping costs low. so they decide to utilize the services of public cloud provider(s) in addition to their current resources. • Hybrid Cloud Type 2 – A public cloud provider forms an alliance with another party that provides one or more private cloud networks. we’ll shift our focus toward Pure Hybrid Clouds. The Pure Hybrid Cloud There are essentially two types of pure hybrid cloud networks: • Hybrid Cloud Type 1 – Any type of owned or provided private cloud network adds the resources of one or more public cloud networks. they can simply extend their current line of service or seek out one or more third parties to provide their private clouds.
hybrid clouds can be utilized to perform cloudbursting as well as joint security and management duties between more than one set of resources. settings. Most institutions that become involved in cloud computing will initially seek the services of a dedicated and well respected cloud provider. decide to build their own private cloud network or up their current level of service and resources. This is the best course of action for businesses. a business may elect to integrate additional private cloud services from a third party. Over time.the art of serViCe hybrid Cloud Computing secure on their own system while at the same time adding additional resources to their existing network. 139 . the flexibility of cloud computing itself will allow them to easily copy and transfer all data. the business in question will arrive at a juncture where they will have to either. applications and tools to their own hardware. it allows them to determine what they need in terms of additional resources without having to spend a lot of money in the process. not so much an option. And if they decide to eventually upgrade their own private cloud to compensate. an account will be established with its own perks and limitations. Hybrid clouds are quickly becoming the norm for many businesses. If they elect to not build a private cloud. If however a business does decide to build and maintain their own private cloud they will still most likely reach an impasse at some point which will force them to either add additional hardware resources or seek out another public cloud provider for additional resources. as an eventuality. Through this provider. In other words.
hybrid cloud computing is a step toward realizing this possibility. The real purpose of hybrid cloud computing is to provide the cloud computing industry at large with a method for consolidating the myriad types of networks and resources that are constantly emerging.the art of serViCe hybrid Cloud Computing The layers of security and management of a hybrid cloud are also extremely flexible. Online retailing is one of the first areas of commerce to really take advantage of the inherent potential of a hybrid cloud. while payment authenticity is verified by the private cloud. In the future. And what if they also decide that they need specialized data storage and security apart from their current service providers? What about other types of cloud services like payment processing? What is needed is a comprehensive method for integrating and managing any and all current and future cloud services. Portions of a hybrid cloud network are capable of being managed from one or more locations and internal and external data/resources can be arranged in any number of ways to provide or limit access to certain users based on a wide range of varying criteria. it is estimated that businesses will want to integrate specific services and features from many different cloud computing providers. 140 . for example). but want the power found in the resources of this other public provider. Maybe they like the features of this private network provider. this is evidenced in their use of advanced payment processing technology (which online consumers access via a public cloud.
it is true that some service providers offer virtual private cloud networks that function in a similar fashion as dedicated private cloud networks. There is also much debate concerning whether or not a private cloud network is truly a form of cloud computing as many attribute cloud computing to services offered by other organizations outside of their own data centers. But virtual private cloud computing is still lacking in one important way. Yes. computing” is often used describe computing scenarios. it isn’t really private (the vendor 141 .Private Cloud Computing what is a priVate Cloud and what elements might be needed to suCCessfully implement one? T to he term “Private different cloud cloud as well as others that might be on the same public cloud could potentially gain access to a virtual private cloud network because its resources are on the same hardware stacks as theirs). but in its truest meaning it should only refer to a cloud computing network that is built and maintained solely by the organization that will be using it. A good analogy would be a company that installs its own closed telephone network/system.
Automation is also very important in terms of security. There are so many disparate types of technology that must converge in order to produce a private cloud computing network. without standardization there would be inept chaos. • Cloud API’s – Aside from allowing programmers to build applications to be used in a cloud environment.the art of serViCe priVate Cloud Computing Private Cloud Computing Structure and Concerns Establishing a private cloud computing network is no easy undertaking. with its ability to scrawl the infrastructure on a continuous basis looking for errors and inappropriate access. there will need to be technical standards in place to assure proper operation(s). • Automation – All of the processes that occur within framework or infrastructure of a cloud computing network (which are needed for performance as well as functionality) cannot be performed in any other manner expect via automation. there are a great number of concerns that must be addressed before it should even be attempted. for example: • Virtualization management – There will be virtualized hardware in addition to processes that require a mechanism be in place to oversee or manage them. API’s are also crucial in allowing networks to request data and services 142 . • Standardization – With any computer network or system involving the use of software and hardware. This is to ensure that conflicts (software and access) are avoided or quickly remedied. Basically.
• Chargeback systems – A chargeback system is able to measure and assign a $ amount to all services used by all departments of an organization.the art of serViCe priVate Cloud Computing from outside sources. self service portals may also provide an organization with invaluable marketing info / angles. new methods for closing sales as well as function as “one in all” portal for customer support representatives. • Self-service portals – Why assign every task to an IT professional when you can implement self service portals which allow individual users on a private cloud network to do some of the work themselves? Aside from their ability to trim IT costs. So for example. thereby saving a lot of money in the process and limiting unnecessary expenditures and upgrades. a charge back system will identify how to best use the resources of the IT department. if your business wants to integrate a new a la carte cloud service from another organization to use on your private cloud computing network. you would need a Cloud API (application programming interface) to actually do this. It allows management to gain an accurate insight into what resources a company might be paying for that either no one is using or is simply redundant. Instead of getting excited over the wealth of technologies available for private cloud networks. For private cloud computing. try to build your private cloud based on your 143 .
“You have to learn to walk before you can take off running”. If every business deploys its own private cloud network. The actual creation of a private cloud computing system should be done slowly. It is all too easy to become swayed by the myriad options out there concerning various apps. but the truth is that it must first do the work that’s already being done via grid computing. it can move on to bigger and better things. and then once it has proven itself. The very term “cloud computing” implies remote access.the art of serViCe the 4th stage of Cloud deVelopment: actual requirements (from a business perspective). the principles behind cloud computing do seem to strongly suggest that the more centralized hardware resources are. This often necessitates the creation of a long term business plan which will also serve as the blueprint for your future private cloud computing network. according to a lot of industry experts. The first steps toward integration should involve only non-critical business processes. It matters not whether an organization is attached to a public cloud or is offering (or planning on offering) services to other groups or individuals. And they do have a point. the “cloud-like” a situation is. A lot of cloud computing purists and extremists probably want cloud computing to fulfill some far-reaching desire or purpose. so instead try to envision what your long term goals for your network might be. is it still cloud computing? If a business is running virtualization from hardware sources central to one location with a series of portals attached then it is indeed cloud computing. 144 . with more critical apps and processes being added to it after the integrity of the system has been firmly tested and established.
computing network development represents a key turning point for organizations that own their own private / public cloud. at this critical juncture it becomes possible to start creating one’s own customers. which seeks to make 145 . grows into a vast set of hardware resources. Keeping in line with the overall philosophy of cloud computing. It’s basically about outsourcing your growing resources to third party clients and using this as leverage for further expansion.THE 4TH STAGE OF CLOUD DEVELOPMENT: what it Consists of and how to reaCh it T he 4th stage of cloud continuous use of any and all available resources a majority of the time. eventually producing a steady stream of profits if managed correctly. Perhaps a cloud computing system starts off as an on premises business solution and over time. What’s so incredible about the 4th stage is that it represents a position whereupon a set of cloud computing resources actually begins to pay for itself. if possible. It is during this stage that many typically begin to start creating their own services and marketing them to others.
degree and number of ongoing processes present at stage 4 greatly surpass those of the previous 3 stages.the art of serViCe the 4th stage of Cloud deVelopment: Classic examples of Stage 4 Clouds: • • Public Cloud Platforms Service Provider Clouds Both of these examples demonstrate the level of sophistication and volume of resources that must be present to be considered stage 4. and technical expertise. technical experts at this stage cannot be overstated. as well as by whom. What is a chargeback? It is a pricing system for resources that ‘have been / are currently used’ by those entities utilizing a cloud computing network. The need for qualified. designed to allow cloud users to only pay for what they actually use (also can eliminate the need for bulky monthly fees). To even reach the 4th stage in the first place requires quite a lot of ingenuity. Use of Chargebacks Chargebacks are absolutely necessary at the 4th stage of development and serve their purpose by allowing an organization to specifically determine how their resources are being used. goal setting. at the 4th stage of development. However. the level. organizations will often use chargebacks to determine exactly how much of their potential resources are being used. In other words it is yet another “pay for use” system. This allows them 146 .
without the aid of automated processes. they also absorb the management workload that simply could not be met by human hands. Your ability to incorporate and rely on increasing levels of automation within your cloud infrastructure will mark the difference between complete and moderate success. 147 . running and maintaining a large cloud computing network would be virtually impossible. Starting Points As with any other type of cloud tool or resource that you plan on integrating. particularly those associated with cloud environment management. In fact. Automation The 4th stage is also crucial in that it marks the appearance of more useful automation processes. Automated processes not only ensure proper function of specific elements in the cloud.000 virtual machines! In fact. Just imagine trying to manage 10.the art of serViCe the 4th stage of Cloud deVelopment: to make more accurate predictions concerning future decision making as well as potential hardware / software purchases / expansions. The amount of time. money. all stage 4 elements should be first “tested” on what you consider to be non-critical processes. energy required to maintain a staff large enough to do the jobs of these automated machines would absorb all the profits brought in via services offered. any new elements added might be best tested by sticking them into an isolated section of the cloud and monitoring their activities over a significant amount of time.
Think of it this way. what you should be trying to avoid is any kind of bottleneck scenario whereupon resources are strained and/or limited. it is a level of achievement that allows them to continuously finance their entire operation (if set up and managed properly. 148 . the rewards will be spectacular. but if an organization can pull it off. newly integrated components may incur much larger expenditures. Cloud computing is not about providing concentrated services to a select few. Successfully navigating the potential pitfalls of the 4th stage will be difficult. This is increased by adding a great number of DIMM’s and/or NIC’s. that is).the art of serViCe the 4th stage of Cloud deVelopment: just to be sure. The power and flexibility of your network with regards to creating and running a higher number of virtual machines is actually linked to the amount of RAM available at any given time. The reason for the careful treading is due to the fact that more often than not. The 4th stage represents a critical turning point for most organizations. they can be slowly integrated into the rest of the cloud. but distributing all resources across the cloud as evenly as possible with regards to pricing and usage. Once the compliance and adaptability of these new components have been justified. you can cover more ground if you use a spray nozzle as opposed to a jet stream.
We are talking about unchaining you from any and all physical/geographical restrictions and/or reliance on specific hardware. many are used interchangeably) to be somewhat confusing. The essence of cloud computing is reflected in the concept of virtualization. social lists and perhaps even work related tasks are instantly accessible from nearly any terminal or device you encounter. The hype surrounding CC can however. links. without question. the real attraction here is what cloud computing is capable of. The terminology of cloud computing has been explored and put forth. titles and uses for certain concepts. ing. how it works and how it will impact our future. files. be somewhat confusing for those that are just discovering this breakthrough form of computing. activities. 149 .CLOUD COMPUTING what’s all the hype really about? O ne of the hottest topics on the net is cloud comput- eration of terms (of which. Initiates often find the conglom- But this is all beside the point. much more. but there are still grey areas concerning the exact meanings. media. Cloud computing is capable of this and much. applications. What cloud computing is capable of Just imagine a world where your information. When we talk about using software to simulate hardware.
storage. all software. software. and other hardware that is positioned in two locations. Since a large number of components in a cloud computing network are often virtualized. applications and all other resources are located at the source of the network. with the user and with the server stack. the fact of the matter is that most people’s individual computing systems are extremely overpowered for what they use them for. an OS. in a typical cloud computing setup. This allows a central cloud computing stack to accomplish (and provide) much more to individual users. which are extremely finicky and expensive. How it works In a grid computing model. For example. you have processing. it may be that virtualization is used to facilitate advanced processing by means of emulating hardware. applications. There is no need for personal processing or significant drive space in cloud computing. In the cloud computing model.the art of serViCe Cloud Computing we are really talking about virtualization. processing. Not only is this extremely wasteful (combined users on a single network are often only utilizing around 15 percent of their individual resources). 150 . it is possible to accommodate a larger number of users on an even smaller amount of energy / hardware resources than what is possible with grid networking / computing. as well as groups. This also makes a CC network much easier to maintain than a conventional network. everything is remotely accessed. storage.
an individual user pretty much has the ability to requisition near infinite resources. Then there’s the fact that cloud computing providers only to expect you to pay for what you actually use. A great example of a networking / computing solution that literally molds to each individual client. For businesses. Most of the packages that cloud computing providers have put together for businesses include lots of automated applications that allow them to gather. analysis and effective decision making by a significant amount. 151 . cloud computing offers opportunities to increase efficiency. How will cloud computing impact our future Once over 50 percent of mainstream businesses and organizations catch wind of the money that they can save by switching over to a cloud computing system or provider. it is only a matter of time before grid computing is a thing of the past. With the staggering number of governmental organizations that have switched over to cloud computing networks in the last few years.the art of serViCe Cloud Computing Because there is no user hardware limitation (as there is in grid computing). instead of the other way around. analyze and share pertinent data more quickly. That is right. you never run out of processing power. unlike the current standard which is based on fixed rates. All of the wasted space of grid computing gets redistributed among all users in the cloud computing model. everyone else will switch over as well.
One particular area of interest with regards to cloud computing is video games (which is a multi billion dollar industry). businesses as well as individuals can both greatly benefit. 152 . and these perks are not resigned to one group either. it would still be a type of technology worth exploring in its own right. These services offer access to the games themselves in addition to sophisticated sets of virtualized hardware to run them on.the art of serViCe Cloud Computing Many experts see cloud computing infiltrating every area of modern technology. Even if cloud computing never reaches the global takeover phase. from phones and mobile devices to computers and other entertainment devices. We’re already starting to see companies springing up offering cloud services for PC gaming. It is certainly better suited to certain tasks than grid computing will ever be.
there are no established rules. T he problem scenario: An IT department is faced with the to perform new processes and accomplish things that simply were not previously possible. In order to formulate a standardized system for these purposes large amounts of variable data must be collected and compiled. In other words. One of the main reasons why it is 153 . remedy itself over a longer period of time. professionals or experts in this area should be more than capable of dealing with any potential hindrances or roadblocks. IT departments and individuals is a complete lack of standardization. any type of cloud service integration procedure is more or less a “trial and error” process of adjustment. Currently. however. this situation will of course.CLOUD SERVICE INTEGRATION Cloud serViCe integration is unique in that it is both a problem. guidelines or boundaries that can dictate how actual cloud service integration should be performed. and a solution reality that they must integrate newly established cloud services with other existing services. T he solution scenario: Cloud service integration allows you The Problem The main stumbling block for clean and efficient cloud service integration for businesses.
which would allow one application to oversee another group of applications or the entire system. cloud service integration is a shining example of how certain cloud services can benefit businesses and/or IT departments at the ground level. Even in scenarios where one type of cloud service is being integrated with another type of cloud service. Once fully integrated. Right out of the gate so to speak. Some of these advantages or possible uses include: • Possible use of some type of remote access protocols. the benefits / possibilities will become more evident. This could also be set up 154 . applications and potential uses for these are still being developed and explored. productivity or communication.the art of serViCe Cloud serViCe integration currently impossible to establish a method for standardizing cloud service integration is the simple fact that the full range of cloud services. they offer opportunities for greater understanding. IT departments and cloud brokerages that employ some type of cloud service integration will see immediate benefits. The Solution On the other hand. storage. there are unexplored limitations and incompatibility issues that must be overcome if a true system of cloud service integration is to be established. security. When certain cloud services are seamlessly integrated. analysis.
component failure or even system errors. This is the very definition of efficient.the art of serViCe Cloud serViCe integration as a form of failsafe system. only cloud services / cloud to cloud services / cloud to pre-existing infrastructure). since time is money) to sort through. which could come in handy for protecting data in the event of security breach. However. which will speed up business process and help to clarify any ongoing work or misunderstandings. • Design / creation of a new type adapter technology which can be used to integrate with present systems and data. This is one of the most obvious ways that cloud service integration can directly impact an organization’s bottom line. disorganized communication streams in the workplace often requires even more time (and by extension money. Despite the supposed compatibility amongst various types of cloud services or applications there is 155 . use of cloud services integration in this area would most likely be resigned to setting up a “chain of command” among applications and programs connected to an entire system (eg. Just imagine being able to feed all business process / customer data into one application that outputs it into a format that allows said information to be instantly reintegrated into daily business proceedings. • Ability to instantly analyze and adapt any and all incoming business data into a format that allows management to make better decisions at a much faster pace. • Establishing a new type of safe and effective communication network. as well as navigate potential usability problems between existing cloud services or applications.
the parameters of cloud computing and the territories that specific applications within a cloud network inhabit will be fully laid out. they can be affiliated with a larger cloud provider or not. This will either build upon the current model of cloud service integration or make it obsolete.the art of serViCe Cloud serViCe integration still a disturbing lack of adaptation present in most instances. where customer order details are both automatically updated / sent out and one or more connected applications are able to share data so that there are no disputes or cross communications. there are companies beginning to offer third party solutions for cloud service integration. Some institutions are even employing new types of cloud service integration that are essentially a combination of service and software (arguably. More than likely all cloud service providers (at some point) will begin to standardize their applications into established levels which may allow for a much the 156 . in terms of both work flow and energy usage. As to be expected. • Creation of a new IT and data flow management system that is much more efficient. How cloud service integration is carried out Cloud service integration isn’t limited to one type of format. it can be offered as a service or via software. The Future of Cloud Service Integration In the very near future. A classic example here would be in online retail. the most thorough approach).
157 .the art of serViCe Cloud serViCe integration ability to simply “plug and play” / “mix and match” applications within any particular framework at a moment’s notice.
have a desperate need for large scale cloud storage solutions. it is also frequently geographically separated from the servers that are using it. retrieving data for businesses. software-agnostic. what characterizes it? Gartner states that cloud storage consists of or comprises the following characteristics: From the Gartner hype cycle: “….LOOkING AT CLOUD STORAGE detailing its speCifiC elements and funCtion(s) talking W hen we refer to cloud storage. Larger organizations in particular. reservation-less provisioning and provider-owned. While cloud storage for consumers is certainly important. it is the business side of cloud computing that is driving development forward. More often than not. gives way Specifics of cloud storage.pay-per-use model.” 158 . it is the promise of extensive storage capabilities that draws these larger companies into the cloud computing arena. which in turn. we are really about storing and to other possibilities for average consumers.
Reservationless provisioning simply implies that there is no finite limit defined to prevent a client from requisitioning new resources or provisioning new storage space. This allows for a “sliding scale” to be placed into effect. integrate and function with any type of operating system. This allows the provider to offer the client a more than adequate range of storage space in 159 .the art of serViCe looking at Cloud storage . clients actually pay for the amount(s) of data stored and/or transferred. We’re talking about top of the line cross platform capabilities here. it certainly gives off the impression that there’s nothing that can’t be done. companies can basically save a lot of money because they’re only paying for what they use. most cloud storage scenarios offer extreme versatility to its users.But what does this all mean exactly? Let’s break it down.. To put it simply. • Software agnostic – This term implies that the storage database will accept. their particular needs and contingencies will be calculated. In this model. • Pay-per-use model – As its name implies. cloud storage models are often built upon similar premises as other types of service models offered by cloud providers. Obviously. application or runtime software that the client seeks to use with it. One of the most recognizable and prominent among these models is the pay per use model. • Reservation-less provisioning – By now most are aware of the seemingly endless void of storage and resources that can be requisitioned via cloud computing. whenever a client signs up with a cloud storage provider.
most 160 . Most cloud storage is simply another set of resources that have been added to an existing SaaS or PaaS model. it is also worth mentioning that most cloud storage scenarios involve keeping the hardware used for storage completely separated (geographically) from the other cloud resources that interact with it. Not only is this a great concept in terms of safety and security. Canada for example. • Provider owned – This is a fairly straight forward term here. now and in the future Currently. but the technology itself also allows cloud computing providers to leverage potential resources from virtually anywhere on Earth! How cloud storage functions. in a variety of ways. cloud storage is frequently implemented as a security redundancy. or perhaps used to handle non critical processes and assets. with the data storage hardware being located in let’s say. So it’s entirely plausible that the central hardware stack for a cloud computing network could be located in the US.the art of serViCe looking at Cloud storage terms of both the low and high end of the data use spectrum. it implies that those companies that are providing cloud computing services are the ones that actually own and lease the cloud storage space. In addition to these characteristics. The simple fact that cloud computing is still more or less in its infancy is preventing components like cloud storage from being adapted and used more widely. Right now.
operating systems and/or runtime components. In the future. and the same can definitely be said about cloud storage as well. Using the current or existing models as a reference point. there may very well be a more comprehensive set of standards that will define the parameters of cloud storage.the art of serViCe looking at Cloud storage businesses are attracted to cloud storage because it offers them virtually limitless and cheap storage that is also secure and encrypted. 161 . Most people have yet to grasp a true understanding of what’s even possible in the world of cloud computing. Current vendors in the cloud storage market are seeking or employing ways of allowing clients to accurately calculate their proposed data usages so that even more competitive and affordable cloud storage can be experienced. The current limitation(s) regarding widespread usage of cloud storage is more a reflection of everyone’s viewpoint of cloud computing itself. Once (or perhaps if ) cloud computing makes the transition from fringe to mainstream. the clearly outlined benefits of cloud storage will become extremely obvious to everyone. it is unclear how well suited most cloud storage is to adaptation to increasingly complex and varied cloud applications.
present and perhaps future as well). Cloud / Web platforms as a magnet for web tech What is interesting. technologies and applications. businesses have the most to gain through use of cloud / web platforms. based off of typical.CLOUD / WEB PLATFORMS perfeCt for the indiVidual user as well as businesses that allows users to access a broad range of web-based tools. a platform gives businesses the ability to reach peripheral customers (sans any added investment in supplementary hosting infrastructure(s)). Cloud / web platforms also offer users more power along with more accessible and manageable storage space. or perhaps even those browsers that have been adapted for use in cloud computing. As with virtually every other facet of cloud computing. This all-inclusive style of 162 . The interface for a A cloud or web platform is a type of infrastructure cloud / web platform is more often than not. commonplace browser designs. It should also be noted that the terms “cloud platforms” and “web platforms” are used synonymously. is how most cloud / web platforms have routinely incorporated all interesting web technologies / developments (past. From online retailing to establishing a host of computing tools to help facilitate daily business operations.
the art of serViCe Cloud / web platforms development makes these types of user platforms extremely versatile and a powerful magnet for web technology of all varieties. cloud platforms are a form of first-tier integration and transition for the next generation of developments. or with other forms of cloud services. it should also follow logic that the importance or prevalence of web platforms will only increase over time. and/or maybe they offer a la carte’ services as well? If this fabulous company is not able to integrate the popular and important web platforms into their proposed service packages they are certainly not meeting with customer expectations. they are well respected and deliver a quality cloud computing networked service. The emergence of cloud / web platforms is altogether a necessary one as well. Let’s say that there is this cloud service provider company. One area where this is obvious and apparent is with the services offered by cloud computing providers. In a sense. 163 . if / when cloud computing finally takes over the globe. The ongoing merger Many of the independent resources offered via cloud / web platforms can be merged into. Perhaps they also include user customized lists of additional services that can be added to an existing package. it is through them that the greater part of the current usable infrastructure will be absorbed. Given that this is the current state of affairs.
The bottom line is that individual organizations often sink a lot of capital investment and energy into the development of these cloud / web platforms. If they’re not enabling use of extensive cloud networking capabilities they’re being utilized to facilitate wide social networking operations (Twitter is a great example of this). To say that cloud / web platforms are powerful is an understatement. cloud platforms are often the very first thing to be added to any businesses ongoing list of resources. Today’s businesses are more apt to take certain calculated risks than they were even 15 years ago. and this speaks volumes about the potential of cloud computing when governmental agencies and businesses are rushing in droves to integrate. and because of this they often perform their task(s) extremely well. wrong. these platforms exert power over individuals. It is through a cloud platform 164 .the art of serViCe Cloud / web platforms Power…. What does this have to do with cloud / web platforms you ask? Well. as opposed to individual consumers. It was originally thought that businesses would be the most apprehensive about adopting new / untested / unexplored technology than the user end consumer might be. social groups. and the technology of the web itself. So in many ways. Ability to solve complex business problems One of the more surprising developments in the early stages of cloud computing was the great number of businesses interested.
those who “get there first” stand to make the largest profit. 165 . In other words. and for many serious businesses.the art of serViCe Cloud / web platforms that most businesses gain the insight and motivation to explore other cloud avenues. getting into cloud computing may help turn their fairly successful mid-level organization(s) into the powerful empires of the future. once an organization begins to see the effectiveness of using certain web-based applications / websites to both. It should be noted that in the businesses world. promote their goods/services via social media as well as help further analyze important data (for decision making events). they often decide to jump into cloud computing head first.
would be greatly general. the effectiveness. However. which demands that each client has a pre—allocated set of resources available at all times. providers are able to save too. storage. It is this elastic ability that the service providers possess which allows them to offer their users access to cloud computing services at such reduced costs. the most important is certainly its elasticity. just what is elasticity as it pertains to cloud computing? Most people define the elasticity of a cloud as. adaptability and muscle of cloud computing undermined. Unlike a traditional grid network / setup. The really remarkable thing about cloud computing is the realtime infrastructure that actively responds to user requests for resources. Without the real-time monitoring and support behind this elasticity. cloud computing is able to balance and distribute its resources across the entire network in real time. its ability to amplify and instantly upgrade resources and/or capacities at a moments notice. But. This includes every facet of cloud computing as well. How often is everyone assigned to one network online at the same time? Why should all that potential 166 . Since users only pay for what they use (there are no fixed prices) they can save quite a bit of money.ELASTICITY it’s what makes Cloud Computing unique (as well as powerful) O f all the attributes possessed by cloud computing in processing and the scalability of applications are all elastic in the cloud.
the art of serViCe elastiCity power go to waste? The elastic abilities and functions of cloud computing addresses these questions. in another room. In this way. you have a group of 100 people using a cloud computing network. Elasticity offers you the same computing 167 . demand for cheap energy etc…). economic recession. Many in the scientific and economic world predict that the cost of energy will soon (or in the near future) begin to steadily rise. cloud computing is hands-down. and solves them by way of its ingenious design. Every one of these individuals has their own intensive hardware setup.25 percent of the total processing and storage power of their central cloud computing hardware stack. a much more efficient way to use energy. while leaving the door open for instant expansion opportunities should they desire it. What cloud computing is really offering is the ability for average users to retain their current standards and expectations. Their combined resource usage might add up to around 20 . of which only around 15 percent of them actually ever use 50 percent of their processing capacity. perhaps beyond the means of the average individual (this has been attributed to peak oil. What can elasticity accomplish? Just imagine that there are 100 people in a room and they’re all on the same traditional grid computing network (the current standard). The more resource intensive users get full access to the resources that were being wasted by the 85 percent in the grid computing model. rising populations. By comparison.
the elasticity offered by cloud computing is much more than just a neat way to distribute network resources. it is the best way to manage our energy consumption and keep it in check. • Establishing an “in office” communication and online networking infrastructure (for employees). • Using cloud computing to handle overdrafting / high volume data transfer periods and events. This allows an organization to keep their customer’s data safe from even their own employees. This can be something that is scheduled for an annual or bi-annual basis. or perhaps anticipate that they might lack needed functionalities.the art of serViCe elastiCity experience to which you are accustomed. To put it simply. The elastic capabilities offered by cloud computing makes it perfectly suited toward handling certain activities or processes. 168 . Some businesses only use cloud computing when they run out of their own resources. we get to “have our cake and eat it too”. • Assigning all customer data and transaction information to a cloud computing element. Setting up a system that allows those in your organization a cleaner and more efficient system for communicating and working often leads to greatly increased profits (it is certainly not going to hurt your business). with the added benefit of near limitless resources. designed to meet a seasonal demand for a particular product for example. what more could you ask for? Of course the best part is. Right now. a majority of businesses are adding cloud services to simply supplement their existing infrastructures.
and one that will no doubt come to influence every area of software and hardware development in the near future. Cloud computing providers tend to keep your information more securely backedup than most are even aware of.the art of serViCe elastiCity Utilizing a third party to handle all customer data can also pay off in the event of a catastrophic type event. 169 . elasticity is an entirely new concept. In the end. Elasticity essentially allows both user and provider to “do more with less”. In many ways. elasticity is a word that is intimately associated with cloud computing and also more of less defines what it is capable of.
Server virtualization is what makes it possible to establish VPN’s or virtual private networks. For those that aren’t aware of what server virtualization is it can be best explained as system of creating multiple copies of virtualized systems. OS. so 170 . you doubt be aware of why server virtualization is a long term cost effective implementation. may handle numerous copies of individual portals or the software. and hardware components that individual users interact with. these networks in turn.SERVER VIRTUALIzATION: WHAT’S YOUR ROI getting the most from a serVer Virtualization inVestment I f you are fairly experienced in the world of cloud computing should (by now) no networks / servers which can be run on one centralized hardware stack / server amalgamation. The cloud computing / server virtualization scenario allows you to append additional resources and easily copy and paste logistical and operational parameters onto the new hardware. or even entire What makes server virtualization so cost effective in the long run is its ability to simply add additional resources to the existing mainframes in a most painless manner. which often requires a radical (and costly) restructuring procedure. This flies in the face of current server / hardware augmentation.
As with any significant business investment. in other words the old method is extremely inflexible. before you jump on the bandwagon. you take the total amount you need / would like to invest in your new hardware / setup and compare it with the ongoing / current costs of your setup. cloud computing allows you to keep on adding hardware (including normally unusable hardware).the art of serViCe serVer Virtualization: what’s your roi downtime is kept to a minimum or entirely absent. All of these factors add up to one conclusion: cloud computing and server virtualization is much cheaper in the long run. uses an extraordinary amount of energy. Grid networking / computing basically requires you to upgrade on an annual basis. and requires a much larger staff to maintain its operational capacity. is inefficient in its distribution of power / resources. you should (definitely) calculate your long range ROI (return on investment) first. So. and creating an extremely powerful system that is capable of using all resources in the most efficient manner possible. to put things simply. How to do it On its face the essence of calculating ROI is simple. there are a few things to consider. In a traditional grid computing / networking scenario. entire hardware stacks have to be purged or cast out once they become obsolete. or rather. is quite wasteful. Next. you want to figure out how much capital investment is required for 171 . assigning various hardware components to new tasks.
It should be noted that software costs for cloud computing environments and applications tend to be 172 . Once you have compiled a spreadsheet for both models it should be easy to see which one offers the clear financial advantage over the other. any number of breakthroughs are likely to occur in the space of your proposed upgrade period which may make the software / hardware upgrades you thought necessary either rise or drop in overall price. Server hardware costs (current and proposed). So it is probably best to slowly upgrade or build your system so that you can both. Costs associated with the salaries of the maintenance teams needed for both instances. Additionally. Additional application software costs. It may be somewhat difficult to calculate the exact potential costs of certain elements. These calculated costs should include: • • • • • • • Virtual server software costs. IT infrastructure management software costs. All required software costs.the art of serViCe serVer Virtualization: what’s your roi a 5 year plan including both proposed setups. most likely with regards to software development. as the prices of software and hardware often fluctuate given the state of the economy. Hardware maintenance and upgrading costs. What’s the best course of action? Just use average figures. Also keep in mind that it is entirely feasible to assume that a technological leap in cloud computing can occur at any time. get the best prices and implement the best components as they are released.
the art of serViCe serVer Virtualization: what’s your roi more affordable. should you require the additional assistance. This means that a current build utilizing certain virtual server software might last quite a number of years longer than what could ever be expected of grid computing. both the efficiency and costs associated with its computing / IT department certainly won’t disappoint. If your business is realistic and sticks to making calculated decisions concerning its implementation of server virtualization and cloud computing. A cloud computing consultancy or expert should be able to identify and calculate specific ROI questions and concerns for you. and require less constant upgrading than the grid model. 173 .
this makes it very unique (along with SaaS and IaaS). PaaS is also a particular type of service that a provider can offer. PaaS inhabits the middle area between user end software structures and back- In addition to being recognized as another form or layer of technology existing within the big picture infrastructure of cloud computing. So. What are some of the specific components of PaaS? Here is a short list of examples of the types of components that fall under the heading of PaaS: • Database Management Systems – A database is only as good as the system that is used to manage it.PLATFORM AS A SERVICE (PAAS) the middle layer of Cloud Computing I n the typically accepted model used by cloud computing serv- ground hardware processes. ice providers. One could argue that some of the most crucial elements of cloud computing reside within the areas of the technology stack knows as PaaS. In cloud computing. Platform as a Service can be seen as both a set of technical components as well as a cloud computing offering in and of itself. a database management system will often act as a courier between the upper / middle tiers of a technology stack and the hardware 174 .
• Application Servers – In most cloud networking setups entire servers or hardware elements might be reserved for sole use of applications. 175 . organized and efficient manner.the art of serViCe platform as a serViCe (paas) elements. they exist in the middle layer. Applications can be designed to do virtually anything. and in cloud computing. • Applications / Data integration – As is the case with any other computer networking or processing solution. applications provide the activity and momentum needed to perform tasks and draw interest from users. Often times DBMS’s will include comprehensive security protocols or deploy (their own) bots for maintenance and organization roles. analyzed and then used to formulate or provide fuel for additional application intensive processes. then it can be better optimized and create less errors as well. The theory here is that if all activities on a particular system are the same. Businesses often use these to automate many of their internal processes as it is cheaper than using a human being and is less prone to errors as well. By the same token. • Business Process Management Suites – What are business process management suites? They are complex sets of tasks / applications that are compiled together in one format. The elements that are responsible for this are also located in the middle layer of the tech stack. any and all collected data that goes into a cloud computing system must be integrated into it in an economical.
The upper / software layer more or less floats on top of this middle layer as well. • Applications that assist in standard cloud operations – Any other type of application that currently exists or is yet to be created occupies (or will occupy) the middle layer of the cloud computing technology stack. Communication through a PaaS offering is a popular choice. Users will actually connect to cloud resources through a channel located in the middleware of the technology stack. a portal is an access point between a user and cloud resources. it might even allow an organization to subvert their customer service department or establish a more efficient form of inter-office communication. 176 . Businesses in particular seem to enjoy the benefits of PaaS and often choose to implement it to assist in decision making processes as well as daily operations. PaaS as another type of cloud provider offering Many cloud provider organizations are intent on giving users and/or business oriented clients that option of simply picking up or adding some form of PaaS offering to their current cloud network or traditional setup.the art of serViCe platform as a serViCe (paas) • Portals – Simply put. Additionally. there are tons of individual applications that might be pertinent to specific business industries and used / deployed on an individual basis (or perhaps as part of a larger package of service options).
This makes sense because it is impossible to truly define what comprises or completes a larger system without. If past trends are any indication. 177 . It is foreseeable that the prices will stabilize however. and establishing the most proper / efficient way(s) to utilize them.the art of serViCe platform as a serViCe (paas) Looking at the future of PaaS It could be said that the most successful companies that are or will be offering dedicated PaaS products. Many individuals today are solely focused on the sub components of PaaS and are apt to unintentionally avoid looking at the whole of PaaS as a single entity. both exploring all options for an intended system. especially once more standardized sets of cloud computing components have been officially explored and appointed. Consumers do not particularly like unstable pricing markets. so this is a problem. components and systems will be the ones that ultimately determine its future and direction. A potential problem to overcome is the cost or affordability of PaaS offerings. incorporating every new application oriented concept that emerges. The ongoing high cost of researching and developing PaaS components often leads a company to unexpectedly change the prices of their offerings. PaaS will likely continue to grow.
potential legal scruples. and steep learning curve attached to cloud computing and are not as satisfied. For many. Most of these cloud computing issues are either warnings for potential risks.WHAT CAN GO WRONG IN CLOUD COMPUTING? a Closer look at some potential unexpeCted (though unCommon) problems C loud computing has the same realities as any other technology. or something to do with integration and management. These individuals only want to promote the mind blowing potentials that cloud computing clearly offers. lack of support. the fact remains that it is still subject to Too often people try to politicize issues rather than looking at the problem(s) objectively. enjoyed what some might even call a “meteoric rise” to popularity in recent years. 178 . the world of cloud computing currently suffers in this regard. both groups are right (and wrong). In reality. cloud computing represents a continuation and evolvement of computing and networking. Still. Even with its ability to essentially “do more” with less energy. Despite all the wondrous things that cloud computing is capable of. people are extremely interested and intrigued by it. and provide nearly limitless resources to users. it still has its shortcomings. to make a long story short. others (some that might even hold cloud computing in high regard) see the security holes.
which is in truth. But does it really have to change the world to be great? Con Group • Cloud computing has its faults and widespread adoption of it without conducting the necessary preventative research could create a smorgasbord of loopholes for criminals to wreak havoc with. 179 . it is a clear advancement over the current model. Take into consideration the speed with which cloud computing is developing. or might not change the world. Focusing solely on either the positive or negative aspects of cloud computing is more than a little bit naïve. the most sensible place with which to reside. as well as a nod to the future. there are numerous clear benefits to cloud computing. and it’s entirely logical to assume that it will continue on its path of current growth and development. and no one can argue that on paper. it’s akin to a “horse that has blinders on either side of its head”.the art of serViCe what Can go wrong in Cloud Computing? Pro Group • Cloud computing is an incredible achievement and one that might. However. Most individuals probably fall somewhere in between these two groups.
For those that are used to engaging in a hands-on approach themselves. all is not lost. there are some usability issues that make cloud computing less than accommodating. This is a problem because often times. the overall level of user modification. once the rules and guidelines have been established. for example. interaction and manageability will undoubtedly sharply increase. this is almost like a step backwards.the art of serViCe what Can go wrong in Cloud Computing? What’s the Damage? Specifically speaking. some people have reported that it is quite difficult to control. may or may not be transferable. a business can become partly or entirely dependent on the activities or analysis of a specific application. However. is not exactly an intelligent move is it? Additionally. Hinging the entire success of your business on a few critical elements which. 180 . An underlying trend in cloud computing seems to push toward leaving most or all of the technical modifications and management to expertly skilled individuals. A perfect illustration concerning this lack of cooperation is evident in the fact that applications can’t be simply moved from service to service and/or provider to provider. One thing about cloud computing that is different from the grid model is the fact that ongoing maintenance and support may be needed to ensure that components (both hardware and software) continue “doing what they are supposed to be doing”. integrate or manage certain types of cloud applications.
and are not sanctioned or authorized by any oversight committee(s). there is no definite regulatory structure in place for cloud computing at all. Hey. This means that in the event of catastrophic loss of data or breach of security. The best course of action is to love the things about it that work and fix those that don’t. 181 . This is important because there may be different laws in place in foreign countries concerning digital or internet based data and exchanges that could affect your business. The good news is that there are a number of companies that are facing these issues head on and offer comprehensive plans / structures for dealing with unknown or outside threats. certain companies may need to be forced to reveal the location(s) of their hardware to their clientele. and those that see serious problems will either help fix them or keep on highlighting them until someone else does.the art of serViCe what Can go wrong in Cloud Computing? What cloud computing discussion covering potential pitfalls would be complete without covering any regulatory and / or legal aspects? The simple fact of the matter is that service license agreements for either apps or the packages offered by cloud computing providers are not comprehensive. it is at the discretion of the providing company to consider these potentialities. Currently. In fact. Those that see potentials in cloud computing will push it toward greater ends. Simple enough right? Accomplishing this task is going to require the participation from all involved groups and parties. By the same token. nobody’s perfect… Like it or not. cloud computing is not going away any time soon. there may be no one there to catch you.
perfectly illustrates the typical preventing from moving forward (in terms development dissemination) is the lack of public accord with regards to actually defines there cloud are computing. but that seems to have done little to stem the tide of discord. published research documents and reports (like those from Gartner for example) that A great example (which misunderstanding(s)). The loose description of virtualization would be something to the effect of. many of the most important and visible cloud computing terms are sometimes used interchangeably. even using it as a substitute for “cloud computing”.WHY CAN’T WE AGREE ON THE DEFINITION OF CLOUD COMPUTING? …will the Cloud Computing disCussion deVolVe into tireless rhetoriC? Can’t we all just get along? O of what ne of the biggest hindrances that could very well be cloud computing and public have put forth solid. The fact remains. which is disparaging. is the dual functioning term. esteemed Sure. because often times these terms have entirely different meanings. “running a virtual 182 . A large number of individuals have taken to applying a loose interpretation of this term. compelling definitions for cloud computing and its related terms. “virtualization” as it applies to cloud computing.
IaaS. • SaaS. virtualization actually refers to creating virtualized. PaaS – As a provider service – 3 SaaS – A complete cloud computing solution encompassing every possible layer. IaaS (infrastructure as a service). from the hardware running the network. as well as other critical function elements. On its face. this sounds exactly like what cloud computing does. 3 IaaS – This service level would provide the applications. server-based copies of hardware. 3 PaaS – Encompasses everything that’s considered to be hardware or network related. This disorientation is linked to the use of these terms via both “provider services” as well as “technology stack description”. virtualization is a number of individual processes. It may even be paired up with certain hardware elements that might be offered via a sole provider or a thirdparty vendor. There is also a great amount of confusion concerning the application of SaaS (software as a service). application or other software which are then fed to the user via the net.the art of serViCe why Can’t we agree on the definition of Cloud Computing? system from a remote location”. runtime environment. and PaaS (Platform as a Service). virtualization(s). and in some ways it is. Access to local hardware stack(s) and servers is what a company is usually 183 . In other words. not just an end result. operating system. to the software / applications running in the foreground. However.
Once this is done.The middle ground . 3 IaaS .Everything in the middle ground is there to ensure that communication between the foreground and background is seamless. PaaS – As a technology stack description – 3 SaaS – The foreground – The literal elements that the user interacts with and sometimes manually manipulates comprises what’s in the foreground of a cloud computing environment.The background – Without dedicated and expertly maintained hardware. programming and networking. you must have all of 184 . The hardware that runs a cloud network is what PaaS is all about.the art of serViCe why Can’t we agree on the definition of Cloud Computing? offering when they put together a PaaS package. It could be said that around every corner there is currently some kind of misunderstanding about a cloud computing term or terms. These are just a few examples of the divisiveness amongst the cloud computing crowd. cloud computing would be an afterthought. When working in a highly scientific environment like computing. • SaaS. 3 PaaS . IaaS. An official panel or congress needs to be held at some point in the near future to solidly define the terms and parameters of cloud computing once and for all. developers (as well as users) will be able to ensure cross compatibility / usability for everything that is produced hereafter. efficient and self-correcting.
future advancement is usually built upon the triumphs of the past. it will need to put a few triumphs under its belt first. 185 . As with any other scientific endeavor. So if cloud computing is to take the next step.the art of serViCe why Can’t we agree on the definition of Cloud Computing? your terminology clearly defined in order to progress.
part ii iVanka’s blog artiCles .
2 PEAS IN A POD.example: a lot of insurance companies are facing this issue at the moment because all policies and claims are scanned and stored electronically as images) you will have a choice: A) purchase an extra server or extra storage device? OR B) sign up for an external storage solution provider? The answer to the question will depend on T his morning I was thinking about my next article and whether it would be on IT Service Management (ITSM) or on Cloud Computing 188 . when it dawned on me: you can’t do one properly without the other! The reason for this is that as IT professional you will need to understand the services you deliver to your customers and end-users and have the ability to manage and control those services before you can even think about utilizing cloud computing services as part of your delivery model. Because that’s ultimately what Cloud Computing is (in my mind at least): just a different way of delivering the services to your customers en end-users. Currently you might store the information (data) on servers and disk arrays that you bought and manage yourself in the corporate data centre... Due to rapid increase in storage demand (for instance due to image storage .CLOUD COMPUTING AND ITSM .
Financial implications etc. no matter how you organise the delivery of your services to your customers and endusers! Food for thought for a lot of organizations because it begs the question: “how ready are we.. the SLA’s you have with them. your clients. the policies and corporate boundaries you have to work with. They still need to be able to access their data in line with their business needs and business requirements.iVanka’s blog artiCles Cloud Computing and itsm . So ITSM is important for every IT organisation. really?!” 189 .. What shouldn’t change after you’ve made the choice.2 peas in a pod... is the service to the customer and end-user.
You have Service Level Agreements for each Service in the Service Catalogue. You have a Service Catalogue which covers ALL current services in life operational use (including some services in transition).you probably have the following: • • • • • You have a Service Requirement Document (created by the customer) as input into your Service Pipeline. I started thinking about Service Level Management. What effect does Cloud computing (potentially) have on the process of Service Level Management? Do you still need SLM when you utilize services from the cloud? How important is SLM when you have external storage or processing services? Assume you have Service Level Management implemented in your organisation .SERVICE LEVEL MANAGEMENT FOR CLOUD COMPUTING T o continue on the subject of Cloud Computing and ITSM. You have a Service Level Manager who manages and organises the Service Level management Process. You have a Service Catalogue Manager who is accountable for 190 .
). 191 . When this is the paradigm you work in. I really don’t think Service Level Management changes that much when cloud computing services are used.the way you get to the solution as long as it is within the corporate core values and business boundaries.or is not concerned with .. • You have a regular review meeting with the clients to update them on the Service Level achievements and to listen to what is happening at the business side (input into demand management and Continual Service Improvement processes). The IT Group really should be managed as a business within a business. I know there is a lot more to Service Level Management. and as such needs to come up with solutions that are right for the customer (they add value . ) So the question is: will this change when you utilize Cloud Computing as part of your IT Service Offerings? And to be honest.. (Yes. I don’t think so. but these are the main components.at least enough value that the customers want to exchange this service for money). Deep down inside the customer probably does not care ..iVanka’s blog artiCles serViCe leVel management for Cloud Computing the creation and maintenance of the Service Catalogue (can be the same person who does the SLM manager role. • You have a system to monitor and measure the achievements of the IT organisation in relation to the guarantees that were given in the SLAs..
Service Level Management is probably MORE important in a scenario where cloud computing is utilized! there are so many new maturity levels and service improvement opportunities with cloud computing! Back to my thinking corner. At a technical level there will be many changes (e. The Security Chapter in the Service Level Agreement (as security issues become a lot more visible as part of the delivery is outside of the organisation). I know I am focusing on the IT to business alignment and I do this on purpose to stay out of the technical discussion... how to do proper performance measurement -capacity management . ..as input into Service Level Reporting) but that is an internal thing and should not impact the business at all! When you think of it.g...iVanka’s blog artiCles top 10 things to Consider when migrating to saas or hosted software solutions - What changes are probably the following: • • Service Catalogue (especially the technical catalogue). how can The Art of Service help you to leverage of this knowledge?! 192 .
- TOP 10 THINGS TO CONSIDER WHEN MIGRATING TO SAAS OR HOSTED SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS - Solution. without the help of the software solution. and you need to have a solid understanding of how your processes run internally (currently. Based on this assessment you can create a ‘wish list’ – what does the software need to do? What are the features that will create this benefit for you? Based on this analysis you can make a choice of the product. So here are my initial 10 thoughts: T oday somebody asked me what small to medium business owners need to consider when they wish to migrate to a hosted Software Migration issues in general: Choosing software or any type of IT solution has a reason: you want your business processes to run more effectively and/or efficiently: you want to be able to analyse information to do a gap analysis or to predict the future so you can strategically respond to what is happening in the market. Make sure you understand you reasoning for the solution. The next step is to consider to purchase the licenses and host the 193 .
• IT support .iVanka’s blog artiCles things to Consider when migrating to saas software internally on the server (if you have one!) or to opt for external hosting solutions.what are the expectations of the hosting provider? Do they expect you to be a technical genius? Or at least have an IT professional on staff to help with the day-to-day operational activities.) Small to medium enterprise specifically: • Before you sign any contract: Ask for the hosting agreement and SLA. Small business owners usually don’t have experience with these type of agreements and not viewing them might open up pandora’s box without you knowing it. Make sure you understand the agreements and what it means to your business processes. or are they able to communicate with you in plain 194 . When you already use the solution as a purchased license software solution and you want to move to a hosted version you need to think about the reasons why: • • • Do you lack the internal IT support? Do you lack the internal storage / processing power to run more concurrent users on the system? Do you want to spread the payment from an upfront lump-sum payment to a ‘pay as you go’ system? (Basically transferring the budget from capital purchases to operational expenses.
iVanka’s blog artiCles things to Consider when migrating to saas business English and explain what is needed without you having to up skill in IT qualifications. • When going through the SLA. A hosted Software solution that has an availability guarantee of “95% of the time we should be able to ping the server” is of absolute NO value to your business... • Search for availability guarantees and penalty clauses: does the availability fit in with your business model? Example: when you are based in the US.) • What do you need to do to receive the credits when the hosting provider failed to achieve the guaranteed service levels... are your business hours the same as what the provider has in mind? (you may run an internet based business that needs 24x7 support. but the hosting provider is based in Europe what does the term ‘business hours’ mean? Yours or theirs? And. Your staff will need to go through different steps to access the software (example: MS Dynamic CRM as a hosted solution has the outlook client and the web-client staff members need to understand how this works and how the 2 views fit together. Make sure you have TRAINING included in the initial setup. look for business impact. or do you need to ask for them in writing? Migrating to a SaaS or hosted Software solution is usually fairly easy: the hosting provider is keen to sell so they will help you with setting everything up and transferring the information to the hosted environment.) 195 . Are they automatically processes.
iVanka’s blog artiCles things to Consider when migrating to saas What is the exit strategy? How do you get the information back when you finish the hosting contract? 196 .
.what changes for the end-user?: What is different about the user experience? This all depends on how the hosted Software is organised.st/ and you’ll see what I mean).ho. It just doesn’t link to the server in the office. and this was mostly from a business owner 197 . WHAT CHANGES FOR THE END-USER? point of view. but to the server somewhere up in the cloud. It can go as far as completely virtual PC’s (have a look at http://g. The biggest difference is probably that it is browser driven.. But surely there will be tighter security? If all is well. Many articles about hosted environments and Y esterday. SaaS or Virtualization . This is a little bit tongue in cheek as I have had discussions with Chief Architects who were quick to support this argument. there should not be any different security requirements. SAAS OR VIRTUALIzATION. You can still have an icon on your desktop that connects to the application.CLOUD COMPUTING. I talked about the 10 things to consider when you migrate to a hosted solution. But what about the end-user?? Today I try to answer the question: Cloud Computing.
Are you able to access support when you need it? Most large hosting organisations will have local or timezone specific service desk services (follow the sun principle). what Changes for the end-user? cloud computing will focus on the security issues and how you need to have your data more secure because it is now hosted on somebody else’s infrastructure. Some hosting providers only provide super technical support and expect you to organise the generic IT support locally. But what does that say about your internal IT organisation?! The fact that you store the application and associated data internally. But the same goes for using Blackberries and iPhones in your organisation. where do I go to get support?” This is an interesting question. And of course you need to make sure that the data traffic is encrypted and secure. Most of the support can be done remotely and this is one of the reasons why I talked about the fact that you need to question the hosting provider what type of expertise they expect on the business side. “I don’t know anything about technology. Organizations like salesforce..iVanka’s blog artiCles Cloud Computing. doesn’t mean that you can leave it at a lesser security level! There will be however certain legislative rules and regulations around international data storage etc. 198 ..com are offering ‘localized’ support to their global client base. Usually you will have a support agreement with your hosted supplier (probably at an additional cost) and this is the reason why you need to look very closely at the service desk / support operating hours.com and rackspace. saas or Virtualization.
this will NOT be possible. This is possible in a hosted situation where there is the need for a local client application. Many SaaS providers give you the option to have offline access as well to make sure that you can continue to work even when you don’t have access to the internet. Make sure you check this option BEFORE you sign on to anything! (Especially when you travel a lot and offline access is important to you... It is almost fear of the unknown. com or Google docs when you’re offline. 199 . We all know what it is like to have all our applications on our desktop or laptop where you have access to it.) Hopefully this has given you more ‘food for thought’ about Cloud computing and what it means to end-users in the business. saas or Virtualization. you need to enable this in your settings). no matter where you are.iVanka’s blog artiCles Cloud Computing. which basically means that you can access your data on your laptop when you are offline and you synchronize with the database the moment you connect again. what Changes for the end-user? “But what happens when I don’t have an internet connection?” Another question that many people might struggle with. and what might keep them from starting to use cloud computing services. When you deal with Software as a Service / fully online offerings. For example: MS Dynamic CRM has the offline option. (sorry . (as long as you have power. For example – you won’t be able to access Microsoft’s live spaces or Salesforce.Google docs DOES have a setting that allows you offline access. I suppose).
in the future. Yes. So we end up with expensive boxes that are only used for approx.well.. • In times of economic instability you need low fixed cost ..traditional ways of doing demand management as input into a capacity plan that is to be used for Capital expenditure budgeting (wow . 15 . How about we use virtualization opportunities for the infrastructure we currently own and utilize services 200 . I agree that there is still the need for a strategic approach to the delivery of IT Services but with the opportunity to rent capacity on a ‘pay as you go’ basis makes all this a lot easier. Not quite a low fixed cost option.. currently we purchase servers and expensive infrastructure like we buy clothes for our kids: they are too big but “they’ll grow into it”..long sentence!!) is no longer sufficient. The business needs the benefits of the systems and they need it NOW.CLOUD COMPUTING kILLED THE CAPACITY STAR T he last couple of months I have been thinking about a subject for a presentation and it is about the fact that Capacity Management is going to be the obsolete process for many IT organizations.20% of their capacity. When businesses really embrace new concepts like Cloud Computing and Software as a Service do they still have a need for Capacity Management? These are some of the thoughts I have so far: • Businesses need to change faster and more often .
Changes in business focus. Based on our discussions with the business we can add ideas for new or changed services to our service pipeline to keep in mind for future service updates.Many of our business clients talk about IT Service in the same way as they would about electricity and light. and it is going to be quite difficult (I think) to be able to justify the expenditure on capacity management when this is the perception as the customer side. their pain points and business opportunities. • IT Service as a utility . Why would you create a capacity plan for electricity? You simply flick a switch and it is there. This way we can help and support the business now and in the future.. • Business Capacity Management is more important than ever From a strategic point of view we need to stay in touch with the business. This way we can manipulate the variable components of our budgets as needed and respond quicker to changes in the market. no capacity management needed.iVanka’s blog artiCles Cloud Computing killed the CapaCity star in the cloud on a ‘pay as you go’ basis to minimize the fixed capital expenditure. vision and strategy need to be aligned with what we are doing in our IT department... 201 . that is exactly what they expect from IT “I simply turn on the PC and all the applications I need are there and they work”. It’s quite simple really..
.my thoughts are not completely finished yet.. we still listen to the radio and not everybody watches MTV-music videos! 202 . we will be thinking about Capacity Management quite differently a few years from now.. and for different audiences. so I am not ready to put it in a presentation to attack the conference / speaking circuit but I am sure I am on to something!!!! Just like that song in the 1980’s “Video killed the radio Star”. After all.iVanka’s blog artiCles Cloud Computing killed the CapaCity star I know . there may still be a need for it but in a completely different way.
That morning Eric had explained how Nortel transitioned their IT strategy. This was needed partially due to the way the world is changing and turning towards hyperconnectivity.org/) and Eric Lauzon (CIO . In the afternoon there was a panel to T his was the discussion I had with Rob England (http://www. 203 .Asia for Nortel) during 1 ITIL® is a Registered Trade Mark of the Office of Government Commerce in the United Kingdom and other countries. Examples of hyperconnectivity he gave are the 4-fold increase of Internet commerce transactions. the amount of new Facebook registrations each day and NIKE wifi shoes.WILL ITIL®1 V5 STILL HAVE CAPACITY MANAGEMENT AS A PROCESS? OR IS IT REPLACED BY CLOUD MANAGEMENT? the networking cocktail party on Monday. itskeptic. Eric also discussed how Nortel implemented a unified communications strategy where the desktop is completely integrated with telephony (voip) and other cool things.
the outcomes of that service. And probably closely linked to supplier and vendor management as we 204 . measuring and analysing utilization and performance of individual components will probably not be as important anymore in the future..the routine activities of monitoring.this is what they are used to in the consumer technology market. what are the corporate objectives. All that stuff is dealt with at the supplier side. resource and cost.are we really going to need Capacity Management in the future? Clients want access to an IT service and they want it NOW . what type of service are they going to need in the future? So you will probably always need to do Business Capacity Management (the future looking part of the process). The internal IT shop will need to manage the performance of the web-based services -. and with the options of Cloud Computing... The ‘cloud’ . SaaS. The nitty gritty part of the process .. Anyway those were the triggers for the discussion. what is important to the bottom line of the company..iVanka’s blog artiCles are we really going to need CapaCity management in the future? discuss the balance between capacity.. so why bother with capacity management? Well .. you don’t control those components so you don’t need to perfomance manage them. virtualization and other web-based services we can pretty much deliver everything our clients want. within their expectations for timeframe. but also the change in customer demands and expectations . that is! So a much closer link to Service Level Management than we currently have.because you still need to have an idea of where the company is going. So with our rapidly changing industry and the fact that this change is not just the change in technology...
but the activities to be performed will change. So I don’t think the process will be eliminated or deleted from the framework.iVanka’s blog artiCles are we really going to need CapaCity management in the future? currently know it in outsourcing situations. You can’t stop the control activities but you can eliminate a lot of the operational activities. Interesting times coming our way! 205 .
I started thinking about the effects this has on our service delivery: • • • My husband’s laptop and Internet connection runs of the main power and can’t be used at the moment.THE BENEFITS OF CLOUD COMPUTING IN RELATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE. My laptop has internal mobile internet access so in theory should be able to work for at least 4 hours or so on the battery... When I just spoke to our security lady she mentioned that the ‘blackout’ could take up to 48 hours! After my initial shock ..and some quick calculations of the value of the content in our freezers that is now slowly defrosting.. 206 . So almost 20 hours and counting. T he title is a little ‘tongue in cheek’ but the message is still true: Yesterday we got hit by a massive storm and due to this we have not had any power in our house since 5pm yesterday afternoon (it is now 12pm). Our exchange server and file server in the office shut down during the storm as well so nobody in the office could get to their emails and server directories.
. you can go to any Internet cafe that still has power and access all your data from there! All your emails are stored offsite so your exchange server is not affected by this power outage at all because it is in a different area! OK. If only there was an easy solution to my defrosting meat issue... they are even speculating of a possible hurricane / cyclone to hit South East Queensland! What can we do to improve our Service delivery capability: • • • Purchase backup generators to ensure ongoing power during these blackouts.. And then it hit me: OR. we can use cloud computing as our solution! With cloud computing you don’t need to worry about your laptop or desktop. Not a good scenario really . I know that..you still need power to run a computer or laptop but you are not restricted by location. Barbecue anyone?! PS: when we follow ITIL Service Continuity Management processes we should have thought of all of this beforehand.... 207 ...and with the current climate change the experts are forecasting more of these storms to hit in the coming summer season. Purchase backup batteries to go into the laptops as a fail over system. but let’s say we decided NOT to put any countermeasures in place for a ‘once in 2 decade’ chance. you simply move to another one where this is power..iVanka’s blog artiCles the benefits of Cloud Computing in relation to Climate Change. Purchase another mobile Internet connection for the other laptop. It’s very simple really. When the power is out in one location... OK ..
GREEN IT . Many Software applications will be purchased (or rented) on a ‘pay per use’ basis through SaaS solutions. Reason for this is that cloud computing makes a lot of things easier to manage . Or that we can offer more services with the same floorspace. And additional storage space and temporary capacity will be added through Amazon S3 and similar offerings. What does this mean for the internal IT organisation? • Consolidation of internal datacentres means that there is less floor space needed for the servers etc. It means that rather than purchasing new servers who use electricity and need cooling. T he more I discuss the possibilities of Cloud Computing with people the more I am getting convinced that this will become an 208 . HEAD FOR THE CLOUDS! important ‘tool’ in the aim for Green IT. and because most people follow the path of least resistance...PIE IN THE SkY? NO. So what will happen? Organizations will consolidate their own internal datacentres and use virtualization techniques to achieve this. we utilize what we already have.sometimes even easier than when you have your IT internal.. the opportunities for Cloud Computing are almost without bound.
as long as you seriously consider Cloud Computing. Imagine the savings in airplane fuel and environmental impact this will have! • On demand storage means that rather than purchasing additional servers or mainframes that may only be used for a short period of time. Also .but only for as long as you need it. 209 ...iVanka’s blog artiCles green it . energy efficient and environment friendlier delivery mechanisms. head for the Clouds! • Software as a Service means that there are less requirements for servers to host the software and that leads to point 1. Overall there will be less demand on internal IT organizations and the external organizations that offer Cloud based Services will have the economy of scale to be able to focus their efforts on cost efficient.pie in the sky? no. you now use Amazon’s storage buckets .. So to me Green IT is not a pie in the sky.. or for a Small component of its possibilities.think about the fact that software vendors no longer need to package software or send software across the world.
......000 feet. Martin mentioned that he had a fantastic experience on his flight from New York to Los Angeles early December . at no point during the flights are they allowed to be turned on again”.Los Angeles flight but we ended up in Seattle..CLOUD COMPUTING OR RATHER. isn’t it cool?!”.. I know you booked a New York .. Sounds almost too good to be true. surprise. he flew with Virgin and they offered wireless Internet connection for $9. you can now send your emails and upload your photos at 30.. what does that mean for the Virgin flights? Is it more of an adventure when you fly Virgin? “Yes..99. COMPUTING IN THE CLOUD O n my flight back from Los Angeles to Sydney a few weeks ago I sat next to a lovely person named Martin.. As he is also working in the IT industry (surprise.) we started talking about mobile applications and cloud computing in general. Is this what will give us the ultimate technological edge?! And will the charges be part of your 210 . but it got me thinking.: Are we being ‘played’ by the airline industry? What happened to the old “please switch off all mobile phones and electronic devices with wireless connectivity.. We are led to believe that the wireless capability in your mobile phone (or furby) will interfere with the plane’s navigation system. Über Cloud Computing? Having wireless connectivity in a plane is Cloud Computing to the max! It really takes Cloud Computing to a new level. So.
write blogs... you cannot get connected to the Internet.. our clients and partners... So even though with my company we educate our clients on the benefits of hyperconnectivity.. we need time to recharge our business battery and to take a helicopter view on everything that is happening. And reading a trashy girly novel can give you some amazing business ideas.. cloud computing and IT Service Management in general. hence the girly novel!) As business people we all need time to reflect. Computing in the Cloud global roaming plan?? This will probably only be on domestic flights as I can’t imagine the legal battles you will have to fight in relation to sales taxes when you start offering this to international flights. but when there is the option of wireless Internet I know I will take it and I continue to answer emails.. time to completely distance ourselves from our business. I must admit that sometimes I feel that it is better that there are times where you cannot work on your laptop.. (and usually I don’t talk to the people who sit next to me on the plane. I can’t check my emails and I can read a girly novel without feeling guilty.iVanka’s blog artiCles Cloud Computing or rather.. and not be in touch with other people.. trust me! It is a great strategy to build your business.... I don’t have to do any business related activities and I can switch off my brain because I have an excuse! It is my ultimate relaxation. or would this be part of the on board duty free shopping?! Is switching off a bad thing? What will happen to our emotional state? I must admit that I enjoy the fact that in a plane I can’t log onto the Internet. (but that is a different blog entry altogether!!) 211 . articles etc..
What we discuss is that information has to be dealt with in a very cautious manner as there are a lot of potential legal implications when you don’t manage this correctly.ITIL INFORMATION SECURITY MANAGEMENT . you need to discuss with the Customers what their service level needs and requirements are and based on this. Availability of data and associated systems. service assets etc. A minimum level of security that will guarantee the levels of CIA required to deliver the IT Services to our clients as per the agreed service levels.THE FACEBOOk WAY acronym CIA: Confidentiality. With this in the back of my mind I am just amazed with the stunt that Facebook pulled last week: As per the 4th of February 2009 they W hen I teach my students about the ITIL process of Information security Management the biggest concept to teach is the 212 . Integrity. Think about breaching of privacy laws and regulations for instance. come up with a security baseline. This goes to the extent of sample data for test scripts: are you allowed to take a sample from the production database. or do you need to create a fictional sample due to the sensitivity of the information? In order to manage this properly.
Facebook is doing everything wrong when you compare it to the formal ITIL Framework of good IT Service practices.. Because: “When Facebook can do something like this. Platform as a Service.but not limited to. including . This includes information that are contained in (backups of ) closed accounts (strike 2) AND Facebook retains the right to do whatever they want with this material. So basically. Availability of content is not just about having it available. Including . what Facebook is doing is playing straight into the cards of everybody who is opposed to Cloud Computing practices.photos are owned by Facebook. Hosted Services and other cloud computing related service offerings has now been compromised... A great opportunity for better value for money in the form of Software as a Service.. You can just wait for the blogs to appear with titles like: “I told you so. cloud computing is NOT secure”. Companies who are ethical and have a high level of integrity and who WANT to offer cloud computing services to its clients will have a more difficult sales job to do because of the stunt that Facebook pulled this month.the faCebook way changed their Terms of Service (read SLA) without notifying the users in advance. what to say that you are not?!” So what can we do about this? well. nothing really: it’s a case of ‘too little too late’ as information on Facebook’s databases and 213 .but not limited to using your image AND name as part of advertising campaigns (strike 3). Also.iVanka’s blog artiCles itil information seCurity management . You should only be able to get to the information on a ‘need to know’ basis. (strike 1) The new TOS stipulates that ALL content placed on Facebook. it is just as much about keeping certain information UNavailable.
Why do I care? That was a question I asked myself this morning when I read a waterfall of twitter entries about the updated Facebook Terms of Services. any User Content you (i) Post on or in connection with the Facebook Service or the promotion thereof subject only to your (http://www. frame. non-exclusive. 214 . Even when you close your account and delete your information. including by offering a Share Link on your website and<strong> (b) to use your name. publicly perform or display. it may still be available on backups.the faCebook way backups can still be used at random. modify. create derivative works and distribute (through multiple tiers). stream. worldwide license (with the right to sublicense) to (a) use. scan. translate. Initially. copy.iVanka’s blog artiCles itil information seCurity management . excerpt. each of (a) and (b) on or in connection with the Facebook Service or the promotion thereof. likeness and image for any purpose. adapt. publish. You represent and warrant that you have all rights and permissions to grant the foregoing licenses. perpetual.facebook. transferable. including commercial or advertising. reformat. You hereby grant Facebook an irrevocable. fully paid. store. transmit.You are solely responsible for the User Content that you Post on or through the Facebook Service. retain.com/privacy/) or (ii) enable a user to Post. But I drew the line when I read the sentence that I made bold in the license paragraph taken from the Terms of Service: • Licenses . edit. I didn’t think much of it as I work on the principle that everything I put on the internet will end up somewhere and nothing is really private anyway.
. name and other personal information to be used for a marketing campaign or commercial or advertising without my explicit approval. this is where I draw the line...iVanka’s blog artiCles itil information seCurity management .the faCebook way I do not wish for my face. I mean: the chance of this actually happening is minuscule but still.. apart from removing all photos and lay low for a few years to let this blow over.. 215 .. maybe they use annual incremental backups so with a bit of luck I will be safe in about 18 months or so. I just don’t know what to do.
. The discussion really started when somebody asked about our experience with migrating from Exchange based email services to Google apps based services..au) about the effect Cloud Computing has and will have on this part of the IT industry. Ask yourself the question.com.. and set up IT systems for your business.. basic spreadsheets. And Scott made a valid point: the small IT support shop around the corner that services the Small Business segment will really feel the change in the market. word processing. etc? H ad an interesting discussion today at lunch with the owner of an IT support company in Brisbane (http://itleaders.IS THIS THE END OF AN ERA? WILL CLOUD COMPUTING SEPARATE THE “BOYS FROM THE MEN”? owner of a niche specialist IT provider for the retail industry (http:// www. if you had to start all over again. intranet pages. would you purchase proprietary software or would you start off with Google Apps for your email.com.au) and the 216 . seriously.retailcare.
. Your clients will want to stay with you . but what will it mean for the small IT shop?!?! The only way to succeed in this industry (imho) is to be amazing with your services.not for the money.iVanka’s blog artiCles is this the end of an era? I know what I would do. That could amount up to a massive cost saving for the small business owner.service is not. 217 . We did it a few months ago: we no longer use Microsoft Exchange Server. but for the unparalleled service which they can NOT get anywhere else! Technology is replaceable for something with the exact same features and benefits . We no longer need the IT support that goes with managing email ID’s etc.
efficiencies and as a result better value for money. the ITIL framework became very popular and offered lots of value to many IT organisations worldwide. broadening its reach into network support and application management and maintenance. It created improvements in service stability. connections could break. problems and downright failure. As such.. But then came the Client/Server delivery model and ITIL moved out of the datacenter into the generic IT realm. To this date I feel that many W here am I going with this? Well.I am starting to see the first lead indicators of a changing trend in the use of the ITIL framework.ITIL FRAMEWORk LIkE TIDE IN THE OCEAN? OR IS THIS START OF A TSUNAMI?! And I’ll tell you why: in the ‘80s and ‘90s ITIL came up from a mainframe / Datacenter centric IT delivery model and it worked really well. The desktop was a separate ‘organism’ and so much more than the terminals we had before. mechanical things could stop working and software was added that made the entire system quite vulnerable to issues. 218 . This type of IT infrastructure really thrived on the structure and disciplines offered by the ITIL framework. IT became more visible to the average business employee through the desktop interface. There where so many more things that could go wrong.. customer satisfaction.
. Am I saying that ITIL is no longer needed? NO ITIL is needed .iVanka’s blog artiCles itil framework like tide in the oCean? or is this start of a tsunami?! IT Professionals are still unclear on how exactly ITIL can help them in their daily tasks of maintaining a piece of equipment. All IT Services are consumed via thin client or Zero client appliances which look remarkably like a mobile version of the ‘old’ mainframe terminals. and I personally believe that this is true. infrastructure or software application. ITIL is needed more than ever because one simple mistake or oversight will 219 ..probably more so than ever. And that’s where theory and real life differ: the books say that ITIL touches all areas of the IT organisation. More and more organisations are using cloud based solutions for their IT Service delivery. We all know that ITIL is good for us .that we can only benefit from structures and discipline .but when you ask the average technical IT professional they can’t tell you exactly how ITIL will help them with their part of the job. But ITIL will retract into the dungeons of IT Service Delivery where the structure and disciplines are needed to consistently manage multi tenanted servers where the customer dependency is 1 to many. And then came cloud computing. and that is what I mean by the Tsunami in the title of this article. but in real life there are many areas where technical expertise and ad-hoc problem solving is needed on a day-to-day basis. Storage is in the cloud. Processing capability in the cloud and through server and desktop virtualization we have basically come full circle to a scenario where IT Service delivery is handled by specialist groups and companies that manage a large Datacenter.
it becomes a logical part of managing the services and because clients expect ‘always on’ IT Services the business case for ITIL Service Management is simple. an experience that matches exactly the description in the brochure based on which they purchased the service in the first place. while the consumers of IT Services enjoy a relaxing day at the beach.iVanka’s blog artiCles itil framework like tide in the oCean? or is this start of a tsunami?! have massive implications for multiple services delivered to multiple clients and their end users.. Let the experts deal with the technology while the business enjoys the experience.. Maybe Cloud Computing will be the saving grace for the ITIL framework because it is clear again what the value add is of the framework and the guidance. 220 . The tsunami happens in the datacenter and the IT groups. The interdependence between services becomes more important and as a result of this the need for ITIL processes.
no long term contracts. Well ... I wanted to improve our business processes to 221 . Because of the nature of our business I didn’t want software on the server in the office so we opted to sign up for a SaaS / hosted solution. really not that long ago. the company we signed up with didn’t realise or understand that when you provide hosted solutions. O nce upon a time.. Pay as you Go...LESSONS LEARNT FROM RUNNING CLOUD COMPUTING WITHOUT ITIL PROCESSES enable more streamlined customer interaction and more efficiency in account management. This seemed to be the best of both worlds: • • • No upfront large capital expenditure. The CRM software we used didn’t work the way we wanted it and after some research (mainly because we used Microsoft Exchange with Outlook as an email client) we looked to start using MS Dynamic CRM as our contact and account management software. Internet based.. approximately 3 years to be exact. so we have access to customer data no matter where we are in the world.not such a good story.. I’m afraid .
due to the business that I run I don’t accept mediocre service levels from anybody.... 222 . This company didn’t seem to have any of these disciplines in place.. They declined.. there was no upfront communication with clients on planned maintenance and on a regular basis we didn’t have access to our customer data on the weekend or came into the office on Monday morning to find out that the server upgrades or patches hadn’t worked on the weekend. I agree that I was probably a highly demanding client (those of you who know me personally are not surprised by this statement!) . I told them that my company specialises in IT Service Management education and that I’d be more than happy to come over to their office to give their IT staff an overview of ITIL and ITSM and how it could help them in their service levels and customer satisfaction.iVanka’s blog artiCles lessons learnt Software as a Service or ANY cloud based services....).. leaving us stranded as the offline version wasn’t configured properly with MS Vista (for whatever reason this seemed to be extremely difficult to do... And with the type of business that we are (and we discussed this with this provider prior to signing up with them) we really needed 24x6 availability because our workweek runs until Saturday afternoon around 3pm due to the US timezones. After the second issue.. I know things can be better and I expect to see clear improvement processes. Yes. So a planned unavailability on Friday evening or Saturday morning was quite disruptive to our business. Or at the very least your communication with the clients has to be exceptional. you really need to be very mature in your IT Service Management Processes.
Just imagine the implications and political fallout when this would have happened to a government department moving towards Cloud Based Services (and you know. NOW we realised that reputation and proven ability to provide availability of service was on the top of my selection list! (PS .. with servers crumbling. Raid arrays packing it in and corrupted data files.. maybe they no longer exist?) This is only one example of a small company terminating its contract with a cloud computing service provider. in the understanding and expectation that we would have access to our customer data when we needed it.isn’t that IT on demand? It culminated in a disastrous Server upgrade (which we were NOT notified about) that went horribly wrong.. dying. 223 . didn’t give me the confidence that my client data and contacts where in safe hands.. (and that is even without discussing the fact that we PAID for this service... To top it all off. whereas before a local presence and specialisation in hosted service was important.....iVanka’s blog artiCles lessons learnt As the client their service delivery came across as being very ad hoc and not well managed at all.. this company only did a full backup every 4 weeks and had to revert back to this backup to restore from. ) I mean .. As the ultimate control freak that I am.. Needless to say I terminated the contract and looked for another solution.. this sort of stuff ALWAYS happens in an election year). this didn’t sit very well with me.while I typed this I checked the company’s website. and it only seems to be a placeholder with no content anymore...
As client you are very concerned about privacy and security of your data and content.iVanka’s blog artiCles lessons learnt Lessons learnt: • • • • An IT Service mis-managed is an IT Service mis managed. ITSM will be the saving grace for many Cloud Based Service Delivery companies. ( I didn’t manage the project well enough.. NOT having ITIL or ITSM Processes will have a much bigger impact on business continuity because of the larger scale and exposure. • When you have a hosted or cloud based solution. I did NOT ask to see the SLA before signing up to the contract and it turned out that the service availability was defined as 95% ping to the server . • Be demanding as a client.what service approach do they use? 224 .. How does the company manage their continuity of services? What is their methodology... as the IT provider it is double important to manage expectations and placate nerves at the client site. try to have the offline version available to you (to mitigate the risk of not having access at all when the internet connection is unavailable).). whether the IT Service is delivered locally in house or via Cloud based technology. what is important to them? Even when you are a small client to this supplier .. what is their proven track record? Ask about the values and policies of the company.
we could call this ITIL V3.DOES ITIL STILL COVER ALL SERVICE MANAGEMENT ASPECTS WHEN YOU UTILIzE CLOUD COMPUTING? T his week I have been engaged in an email discussion on the subject of the limits of ITIL when it is used in a cloud computing environment.. just thought of this. just kidding!)..1 or ITIL V4. 225 .. but let me think about this a bit more…..idea. The question: where does ITIL fall short in a Cloud Computing environment? My initial response is: no-where... Following is the summary of some of the emails we exchanged as I thought that it might give some food for thought for other people who work in this space. Should there be an extension to ITIL specific for Cloud Computing environments? (hey .
All components of ITIL are of interest and importance as the SaaS is a service delivery to external customers so you need to consider all phases in the lifecycle from Strategy to Operation and CSI. you can also think about WHERE the ITIL framework is being utilized: at the delivery side of cloud computing services.iVanka’s blog artiCles does itil still CoVer all serViCe management aspeCts This is an interesting question as it links in to two (and probably more) factors: • • Do you see ITIL as an operational framework. Cloud computing is also Software as a Service. Platform as a Service and Storage as a Service. You will need to have controls and management structures in place to build a sustainable IT infrastructure that has the ability to deliver the 226 . Which areas of ITIL are not coherent with this delivery model? Myanswer is easy: NONE. or as a component of IT Service Management as a whole. or at the receiving side of cloud computing services? OK –first scenario: Let’s assume that we are part of an IT organisation that DELIVERS Cloud Computing Services (and SaaS in particular). Do you see cloud computing as a collection of various internet / virtual based IT services? Cloud computing is more than only desktop or server virtualization although most organisations are working with Cloud Computing concepts in this context. as well as Web based (hosted) database and application services. When you continue on this train of thought.
Capacity management and Configuration Management are extremely important as automated sniffing tools might have some issues with an accurate overview of the Configuration Items. Second scenario: Virtual server environment as part of a data centre that utilizes ITIL processes for Service Management controls. and there is a whole lot more to managing your IT Services in a consistent and quality way than to simply look at the ITIL books. So we absolutely agree on that point. you still need to manage their entire lifecycle. I fully agree with the fact that is only the process component of IT Service Management. but the point that I was trying to make is that it shouldn’t make a difference how and where you get your service components – the delivery management controls should stay the same! Mind you – I am not looking 227 . In fact – most ITIL implementations fail to deliver any value and measurable benefits because of the isolated focus on ITIL and not ITIL in the context of IT Service Management. ITIL is by no means the holy grail to fix all problems within the IT industry. The ‘boxes’ still have to fit in with the overall service offering. You probably need MORE controls because you always have the unknown factor of the ISP or internet connection to deal with.iVanka’s blog artiCles does itil still CoVer all serViCe management aspeCts Software Services as per the agreed Service Levels. I have attached the first few pages of one of our Cloud Computing publications – it might inspire you.
And I can tell you from personal experience that this is highly frustrating... but when you approach this question from a Service Management point of view it stays very much the same. I agree that at a technical level a lot of the activities will be (slightly) different. I am sure I will be writing about this more often. One of the reasons why I feel so strongly about the need for ITIL Service Management processes with appropriate levels of control and coordination is because I have been at the receiving end of a SaaS service provider who clearly didn’t have those controls. Even the RACI diagrams for most roles will be unaffected by the introduction of cloud computing services.. 228 .iVanka’s blog artiCles does itil still CoVer all serViCe management aspeCts at this from a technical point of view.
20% of your industry will be going to the cloud. storage and processing capabilities are flexible and 229 . I feel that we’re at a point in the maturity of the IT industry that businesses can truly leverage the promise of efficiency and effectiveness through IT Services. The interest is not so much from a technology point of view. OK then what software applications and in what market segment”? My answer: Hi Peter. but purely from a Service Management and business point of view. for the last 2 years I have been following this ‘cloud computing’ phenomena with a lot of interest.WHAT SOFTWARE APPLICATION DO COMPANIES WANT IN THE CLOUD? T he following question was posted in a Linkedin forum: “By 2012. Through the use of Saas. Paas and various hosted services. Mobile computing. according to Gartner. The thing that came to mind as an answer to your question is: Small to medium businesses will be the winners of the cloud computing solutions. small businesses can reap the benefits of economy of scale that they never had before.
I think of it more from a business impact point of view. Ivanka What do you think? 230 . or with multiple people in a number of geographical locations. in my business we use a lot of Cloud Computing services: Google Apps for email and calendar is one example of it.iVanka’s blog artiCles what software appliCation do Companies want in the Cloud? elastic and on demand for the business when they need it.do you remember Pegasus as an email application?) it is what you as a business person want to achieve. Major cost and frustration saving and increased user experience for our business. Software should be an extension of this need and desire. I will push towards the Cloud. Software is not important (to make a point . Personally. it goes beyond software applications . Everything that needs to be shared via mobile computing.
...it’s very easy to get to your google apps email on your smart W ant to know the first response we received in the office this morning? Well.. happening.STUPID CLOUD COMPUTING . Can’t get to it because we use gmail as our email application.WHY DON’T YOU WORk? . so we can’t connect to the internet. But lucky us .the internet is doing fine. And because we run most of our services in the cloud it required some adjustments in our processes and activities. Email. THE ART OF AVOIDING DISASTERS IN THE OFFICE THROUGH CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT... it’s just the server that has decided it is time to meet its maker. And you know why? Because the internet didn’t work! Well actually . there was a lot of grumbling and muttering 231 .
yes. Salesforce. Have a plan around the continuity of your business processes. or on their iPad and smart phone. ALWAYS make sure your staff have tasks that do not require internet connection.. Perfect time to do this now. Is our productivity down because we don’t have internet connection? Absolutely NOT! And that is the biggest lesson learnt from previous non connectivity experiences.. Lucky us. this application actually downloads your files onto your harddrive so you have offline access to all the files you need! No problemo..com. Well. The people who work with dropbox have offline access so they can continue their jobs. 232 .. but it works.. Dropbox. But no problem. For us this means for example: The Sales admin person still needed to update our pricelists and some sales collateral. this one is a bit tricky as we don’t have an offline version of the database and really rely on connectivity to access all our data.iVanka’s blog artiCles the art of aVoiding disasters phone! So the most critical client requirements can still be serviced via the phone. The only downside is the lack of collaboration opportunities while we can’t connect to the internet. people can work from home. It’s not pretty. It does illuminate the need to stop and think about the services you use and whether an offline option is required / needed / possible.. we can still work on the files and will upload the latest version when the server is up and running again. Usually this type of job is pushed to the bottom of the pile because direct client interaction seems more pressing.
What does this mean for your job. don’t get caught out. This helps with being independent of a particular internet connection and we can still communicate with our clients and students. All staff who must have access to email at all times have a smartphone as part of their employment package.. have a plan and think about the options you have if and when the internet connectivity is unavailable. your department or business?? 233 .. but changed the task list and works on the design of marketing and sales collateral instead. So I guess what I am trying to say is.iVanka’s blog artiCles the art of aVoiding disasters The graphic designer was planning on doing web design and PHP programming today.
. Purely because it would have been too expensive to purchase and too difficult to implement and maintain. which allows you to get access to product features that would have been out of reach with the ‘on site’ software applications. The subscription based service model also helps with the expenditure balance in your organisation. So the next step is that a decision is made to start a project for SaaS implementation because “how hard can it be?” S oftware as a Service has enormous benefits both to the IT organisation and the business community.. you shift money from the CAPEX budget to the OPEX budget on the initial engagement.. And as managers we like what we see and like what we hear about SaaS. The service is on a 234 . Further down the track it will most likely show that your ongoing maintenance requirements are less and your OPEX budget can come down as well..THREE THINGS PROjECT MANAGERS NEEDS TO kNOW TO MANAGE SUCCESSFUL SAAS IMPLEMENTATIONS subscription basis. All good news so far.
. this is NOT the only piece of software you use in your company. • Communication to engage with the business. Insist on their attendance and don’t take NO for an answer. You must have business people at all planning and requirements gathering workshops. but think about it.. You still need to design. build and test the integration and handover points between this new SaaS application and your remaining software. After all ... right? This is where the project manager and IT Service Manager need to make sure he or she covers at least the following 3 things as part of the project: • Communication to set expectations. Every SaaS application has configurable items and you’ll need to make decisions around customization or ‘out of the box’ adoption of the software. Yes. You can’t just flick a switch and expect things to happen magically.iVanka’s blog artiCles three things projeCt managers needs to know It’s only a service that we need so on day XXX we’ll flick the switch and start using the new product. you want to subscribe to a Software as a Service Product because you don’t want to do the development inhouse and you don’t want the ongoing responsibility of managing and maintaining the software. I know.it is these business people who will be using this Service once it’s implemented. Oh and don’t 235 .. • Follow a Software Development Lifecycle. You need to communicate to your IT Managers and Business Managers that it is important to still go through a plan and design phase for this project.
. test and go-live..iVanka’s blog artiCles three things projeCt managers needs to know forget to have all your architecture documentation in place at the end of the Design Lifecycle Phase or you’ll be chasing your tail for ever and ever once you get into build. Good luck! 236 . When you keep these 3 things in the forefront of your project focus you will be able to successfully implement SaaS services and gain the respect from both your IT Boss and Business Client.
. 237 . where 60% is needed to break even. it will get much worse! The resorts on the Big Island are at approx. And it is not getting better either. many restaurants. This will have a major impact on the overall economy of the state.. after all: it’s main source of income is tourism.in the next few months. Yes we like to complain about the economic situation and the fact that the interest rates are around the 8% at the moment but overall I think we’re still going strong! Why am I saying this? Well.IN TIMES OF ECONOMIC CRISIS... 15% capacity. bars and resorts have already shut their doors and the big story on the news this week is that most of the commercial rents will double – if not triple. I have spent the last 4 days in Hawaii and have experienced firsthand that the situation in the US is much worse than what is happening in Australia. DON’T STICk YOUR HEAD IN THE SAND BUT HEAD FOR THE CLOUD! I t has become apparent to me that Australia is still very much the lucky country.
we have a lot of resources in the ground and there is always somebody who finds it. So. I run my business with my husband and this morning over breakfast (CEO council :-) ) we were discussing how to prepare the company for things to come. not a lot at first glance and everything when you think about it. How? By finding coal (I think it was coal. which means more money in the government account to support the country etc. When offered professionally.. but really – it could have been anything) and selling it to China. 440 million dollars in personal wealth in the last 12-18 months... They offer IT products on a ‘pay per 238 . When we focus on the IT solutions: we still want it to be scalable and have the ability to support the company’s business processes – no matter where the business will take us! This led us to discuss cloud computing and Software as a Service solutions. SaaS solutions are probably the way to go in the near future. last week in the BRW young rich list the number 1 person is 32 years of age.. nice little ‘backyard operation’ which will result in a nice income tax bill no doubt.. the importance of cash in the bank at the moment and the ability to change gears and directions very quickly.. came from nowhere and has now accumulated approx.iVanka’s blog artiCles head for the Cloud! Australia is fairly sheltered. It also brought to light the importance of a ‘lean’ business model: outsourcing your noncore activities and avoid purchasing assets that don’t actively create revenue (example: IT systems and solutions). what does this have to do with Cloud Computing? Well.
7. What type of support does the provider offer? What happens if the software doesn’t work. However. 4. 5. 8.iVanka’s blog artiCles head for the Cloud! use’ basis without the upfront expenditure (and depreciation) of purchasing expensive software and IT assets. 3. I don’t think these are difficult questions to answer and it sure beats having a lot of your cash tied up in purchasing the software licenses upfront! You’re much better off spending that type of money at the things that you’re really good at: development of your products and services and making money with them! 239 . before doing this you will need understand WHY you need the IT solution in the first place and you need answers to the following questions: 1. 2. What is it supposed to do? Which business process is it supposed to support? How many people use this system and is the subscription per user or per concurrent user? What is the maximum number of users they support? What IT infrastructure is expected to be present in your offices to make the SaaS solution work best? What IT knowledge is expected to be available in your office. or doesn’t do what you expect it to do? All in all. 6.
This is the most visible side of cloud computing and impacts businesses and consumers alike. Online Applications. Online picture storage.com are examples of this (semi-) public cloud experience. Gmail and Salesforce. When you speak with non-IT Professionals most cloud computing ideas are formed around the concept of a public cloud. Based on the discussions I’ve had. there doesn’t seem to be a consensus on what it is and what the effect will be on the delivery of IT Services. and I have spent quite a bit of time talking to people about this phenomenon. The main thing is that the W hat is it about Cloud Computing that makes many IT professionals run for the hills? Why do people get so negative and dismissive 240 . Although many people TALK about Cloud Computing. Software as a Service.NO NEED TO FEAR .THE PRIVATE CLOUD IS HERE when the conversation topic moves to Cloud Computing? Is it the fear of the unknown? Or are most IT Professionals ‘one trick ponies’ so they can’t see beyond their current job tasks? These questions have been going through my mind in the past couple of months. I formed the following ideas: • Fear of the unknown.
Before you make up your mind about the positive and negative effects of cloud computing on your professional career and current job. This way you can use the public cloud sort of like a ‘bank overdraft’ which you only use when you need it . Unless.the priVate Cloud is here entire infrastructure is maintained and managed by a 3rd party. the public cloud is not the only form of cloud computing that is used.. while the external 3rd party is responsible for the upkeep and management of the external cloud service. With companies 241 . And the job continuity for internal IT staff is under scrutiny. However.iVanka’s blog artiCles no need to fear . However. In this scenario the internal IT staff are responsible for maintaining and managing the private infrastructure and the compatibility with the private cloud storage.. you will need to understand the type of cloud computing you’re talking about! Once you understand the concepts and implications you will understand where your skills. Questions remain unanswered around security and data ownership. this is also the type of Cloud Computing that is feared most by IT Professionals. • IT Professionals are a ‘one trick pony’. knowledge and experience can be utilized.and only for a short period of time. From an internal management point of view this seems to be the preferred option for business managers and Finance Managers for most IT Services. Most enterprises use a hybrid cloud where the critical processes and data run on an internal private network while the less critical data may be stored on a public cloud storage.. It really makes use of the on demand elasticity benefits of Cloud Computing.
are you surprised?!) Think about your own skills .it will be very 242 . Also . You’ll probably also need some document storage / file servers for business documentation.are you an “uber specialist” in one specific technology? Will the company still need this technology skill in a few years? Should you re-assess your career path? Maybe you need to change your speciality to include other technology skills. Or perhaps you need to research companies who will need your specific skill set in a few years. (and yes.the priVate Cloud is here choosing cloud based suppliers for their IT Services there will be less requirements internally for certain IT skills.iVanka’s blog artiCles no need to fear . You need these people to ensure your business can continue to function. No matter what is required today .. For these services there is no application support and maintenance team required.. Especially when the services are purchased from a Software as a Service provider. even when the Cloud Service is unavailable. What type of support is still required internally? Desktop and infrastructure support to ensure the SaaS applications can run on the machines on the business desks.what about compatibility with existing and remaining other IT services and applications? And who is negotiating the SLAs with the SaaS supplier? You will need people on staff who understand the business model and service requirements. You also need specialist on Availability Management and IT Service Continuity Management. it smells and sounds like IT Service Management.. These type of jobs will move to the SaaS provider. No Database administrators or Server/mainframe support teams. These are the ‘plan B’ people.
It is a compromise and mostly sold by IT specialists as a ‘more secure’ offering to the business. is it more secure for the business. there is also something called ‘the private cloud’ and many IT Professionals grab on to this ‘compromise’ with both hands! The private cloud is ideal for larger organisations. (makes you wonder... or the IT professional?) For now this private cloud offering seems to be the happy medium for business and IT Support teams but I’m not sure how long this will last .is it only delaying the inevitable?? 243 . It can offer the benefits of subscription based IT services and ‘on demand’ delivery of IT Services without having to go externally to an external Cloud Computing provider.before you get all depressed.grow your wings and learn to fly! • Hooray for the private Cloud: Now . This means that the IT organisation still needs all support.iVanka’s blog artiCles no need to fear .the priVate Cloud is here different in 5 years from now! Don’t become a Dodo . It also means that the business probably won’t achieve the full economic benefits and potential of Cloud Computing Services.. maintenance and management skills. The benefits are great for IT staff because they have a better chance of keeping their job in the current organisation.
. Public transport is not an option as there is not enough supply.. I think we can improve the way we do our capacity planning in a number of ways: A few days ago I wrote about the license plate based restriction on car use in São Paulo. The city grew way bigger than expected and so did the use of cars. However. sizing and modeling activities. So even WITH the restriction traffic is an absolute nightmare.WHAT SAO PAULO FORGOT TO DO . I spoke with one of the federal police people and he mentioned that São Paulo needs at least 450km of public transport lines (mainly metro. (FOLLOW ON FROM ITIL CAPACITY MANAGEMENT) like a good idea. So what can we learn from this as IT professionals? Well. tram. And you must agree that in theory this sounds 244 ..walking is not an option as it is too dangerous... train) and they currently have 125km!! This is part of the problem . what São Paulo forgot to do are the demand forecasting. So people use their car and the taxi system..
Reviewing your capacity plan every year may not be enough . business growth and business expectations. Once we have a solid understanding of the business processes and their patterns of business activity. or look into cloud computing options for capacity related flexibility.and sometimes they change rapidly. So we need to be able to move with the change and to quickly change direction so that we can continue to support the business. the quicker we need to be able to adjust. At the absolute minimum. we can adjust our capacity delivery to support this! Continual Service Improvement Things change . review your capacity plan every year. There might be outsourcing options. There are many ways we can deliver our services. Is our conventional way not working. so do we need to look at other ways of supporting our business..iVanka’s blog artiCles what sao paulo forgot to do Business focus Whatever we do in the IT department should be in line with business strategy. we have to be creative to make these delivery options sustainable! 245 . not able to respond quickly to changes in demand? Look for different options.. This can only happen when we have a structured approach to Service Improvement.you may want to do this every quarter! Out of the box Just like São Paulo really needs more public transport. The volatile our industry is.
iVanka’s blog artiCles what sao paulo forgot to do Again. but it’s certainly food for thought! After all. I probably make it sound easier than it is... a happy client pays the bills on time. and that is what we want to aim for as IT providers! (right?!) 246 .
lighter option is available and is much easier to work with. So invest in one good adapter to help you out of some sticky situations. heavy thing with you all the time. I wanted to share a few hints and tips for business travel: Pick your hotels carefully.8 BEST CLOUD COMPUTING ESSENTIAL TIPS FOR THE BUSINESS TRAVELLER A fter 4 weeks ‘on the road’. can be washed in the bathtub with hair shampoo! • • Sign up for a Frequent flyer account and/or a Lounge/VIP/Club membership. a desk for working and a good housekeeping & laundry service. Socks etc. Even though most hotels have multi power plugs in the rooms. • Invest in a universal adaptor. A smaller. the boardroom where you are going to present may not. • Not everybody speaks English! Especially in South America you would be surprised how limited the knowledge is of the 247 . You don’t want to have this big. It beats lounging around the departure hall and you safe a lot of money by NOT shopping tax free! • Have a light and practical laptop. You need a mini bar.
Have your presentations on your laptop.. Use Skype (or other VOIP services) for staying in touch with the office and cheap phonecalls. If you can’t do that hire a good translator! While traveling -backup your laptop! This is where cloud computing comes in handy. a usb-drive AND in the cloud! Cover all your bases so you never lose your information and don’t get into embarrassing situations. especially when you can’t access the server in the office (VPN). coming home is the best thing ever!!! :-) 248 . You can upload all your presentations. It sure beats the hotel phone bill! And best of all. picasa and other web-based applications.iVanka’s blog artiCles 8 best Cloud Computing essential tips for the business traVeller English language so invest some effort prior to your trip and learn some basic Spanish or Portuguese.. It is also a good idea to have some of your background information in cloud-based services. photos and other documents to google docs.
it will take on average about 10 years to find out if your idea for the new variety works or not..imagine this in the IT industry. FOREVER! We go the exact opposite: Cloud computing gives you the opportunity to test ideas immediately! You want to see how things work if we have 20 Terabytes in storage extra? Let’s add this to Amazon S3 and see what happens.4 years before it starts bearing fruit...DON’T COMPARE APPLES TO CLOUD COMPUTING fruit. Also consider budgeting and funding: how will you raise funds when the project will take 11 years O n the flight back from Honolulu I sat next to a man who is involved with the ‘design’ and development of new varieties of 249 . especially apples.. your client asks you to deliver a solution / system and your reply is: Sure.. like.. pears and cherries. it’s pretty instantaneously.) WOW . we will start a project and in 11 years we’ll know if it works or not!!! This is unimaginable in our industry. 11 years is. and especially at the time it takes from an idea to revenue stream! Because a tree must grow for about 3 . (does this apple really give the farmer more crops? Does this pear tree really resist frost during harvest etc. It was fascinating to hear about the projects he runs..
Imagine an 11 year project?! Nope . It’s a lot less risky and easier to manage. And projects that run for more than 18 months usually don’t deliver on the deliverables. At least the planning horizon is in this decade! 250 . we work on 3 .iVanka’s blog artiCles don’t Compare apples to Cloud Computing before it MAY give a return??? This long term planning and budgeting is foreign to most IT organizations. time-frame or allocated budget. Sure.2 year budgets.I’d stick with Cloud Computing storage and processing opportunities.5 year plans but usually on 1 .
Gmail was launched in April 2004 and I have used Gmail for a really long time now. (my oldest sent mail is from July 2004). Whether or not people realize it. What do you think of cloud based email? Has it changed the way you do business? Most individuals are introduced to cloud computing via the various popular cloud based email services that are extremely prevalent. the concept of email (in any form) is essentially basic cloud computing. now apple mail) as well as my phone and since 2009 we also use Gmail as our corporate email provider which has been a very positive experience so far. Please read the following article. Conventional 251 . at least from a structural perspective.WHAT DO YOU THINk OF CLOUD BASED EMAIL? I sourced an article this week about cloud based email services and while I was reading it. I was wondering what you think about these services? It would be fair to say I am biased toward the use of cloud based email services. like those offered freely by Google for example (Gmail). When Gmail came along it was like a breath of fresh air after my experiences with hotmail or yahoo mail. Gmail is integrated with my desktop email client (used to be outlook. and I look forward to your experiences and comments.
However.iVanka’s blog artiCles what do you think of Cloud based email? email accounts are nothing more than an interface that allows a user to receive. 252 . but it is much less complex. In many ways. cloud email is more geared toward software specific functions and applications. Whereas cloud computing hinges around accessing hardware specific functions. cloud email service is like a miniaturized version of a larger cloud networking structure. Through a cloud based email account. which is designed to interact with and provision the resources of cloud hardware. aside from just email services. The difference being that cloud email only involves the deployment of email (along with other potential applications). Often times. a user often has a myriad of options at their disposal. a true cloud email setup is much more versatile than a standard email setup. access and deploy messages from a remote server or servers. it’s essentially a system for maintaining and operating a multi-purpose account that’s designed around remotely accessing an email server. Cloud email acts (or behaves) in much the same manner as other cloud services. virtualization and operating software along with a specialized interface. these cloud email addresses are part of a larger cloud-based account structure that offers users access to hundreds of different applications as well as specific features. whereas a true cloud computing service offers comprehensive hardware simulation.
Share and edit photos remotely. Gmail (which is arguably the most popular and feature-laden cloud email service currently available) allows you to: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Use GPS via Mobile. In fact. Publish. share and even edit documents remotely. Search for books related to specific topics. with extremely competitive rates). Organize your medical records. 253 . And many others…. cloud email accounts are quickly becoming sophisticated online PDA’s of sorts.iVanka’s blog artiCles what do you think of Cloud based email? Cloud Email Applications The wealth of free cloud email applications offered by their providers is simply stunning. Get instant access to up-to-the-minute financial data. Get directions. Map any location on earth. Place calls (domestic and international. Search a highly developed database of scholarly articles for research and citations. Upload. For example. Organize your own calendar. Publish your own blog. Do translations.
The full list of applications (in Gmail) is extremely extensive and they continue to add new services on a continuous basis. And of course. especially if these tools are provided by the same company that provides their cloud email (or if they’re partnered with them). This push toward integrating social networking with user end email features allows a person to keep track of all correspondences. and colleagues. Gmail also provides support for accessing their cloud email accounts via mobile devices. And of course once a cloud email service provider establishes a stable system of integration they can simply copy it and offer it to every user that signs up for their services.iVanka’s blog artiCles what do you think of Cloud based email? And if all of that wasn’t enough. The obvious solution to this type of dilemma is full integration. applications and even advertisements that are specific to their interests can be presented to them. It is extremely inconvenient to have to log in to several different sites / locations just to access the tools that a person uses on a regular basis. which is perfectly understandable. And once a user establishes their account. Why so many applications? People like the flexibility of being able to do everything from one point of access. friends. logging into several sites / applications / tools can lead to an inefficient use of system resources and even errors within the OS or browser. their preferences and activities are logged so that materials. 254 . Cloud Email and Social Media / Networking Many cloud email providers have already integrated their services with nearly all of the popular social media outlets.
iVanka’s blog artiCles
what do you think of Cloud based email?
And you can literally monitor their social networking activities via updates or even widget-like devices that are built into the email interface. Most cloud email systems have even integrated chat-style features into their accounts which allow connected users to quickly communicate with one another; an invaluable tool for those that like to do business through their cloud email accounts.
A personal and business capable interface that can be remotely accessed from any location
The best feature or aspect of cloud email has to be its ability to act as a storage center, organizer and remotely accessible personal / business data platform. Using cloud email means that you no longer have to worry about where your files are, where your presentation is, what that contact’s name was; the list goes on and on… Cloud email completely streamlines the way we interface with people on both personal and professional levels. The best evidence concerning the benefits of using cloud email service(s) is apparent in the number of governmental bodies that (in recent years) have transitioned to cloud-based email systems.
iVanka’s blog artiCles
what do you think of Cloud based email?
Here is a partial list of (US) governmental bodies that are currently using cloud email: • • • • • • NOAA General Services Administration The Department of Agriculture Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Department of Labor Many Metropolitan Governments including: 3 3 San Francisco As well as countless others that have already moved to the cloud or are considering it in the near future… The features, availability, flexibility, scalability, security and remote access features of cloud email make it an obvious choice for individuals and governments, for personal or business purposes. Since the use of cloud email systems are extremely inexpensive (especially when compared to the costs that an institution or governmental body must front to set up their own email servers), the choice of moving to the cloud is an obvious one.
A ability 1, 19, 28, 31-2, 35-6, 45-6, 48, 53, 58, 63, 78, 104-6, 110, 134, 142-3, 166-7 adaptability 26, 28, 148, 166 amount 1, 39, 41, 43, 45, 87, 106, 143, 147-8, 159, 183, 203 APaaS 70, 104-7 applications 1, 8, 26, 40, 48-9, 51-3, 69-70, 82, 104-5, 116-18, 149-50, 154-6, 175-6, 180, 183, 254 apps 1, 3, 30, 35, 38, 144, 181 ART of SERVICE CLOUD COMPUTING 3, 5-6, 150, 152 B backups 8, 40-1, 213 brokers 55-6, 85-6, 88 browser 15, 65-7, 118, 162 business model 55, 57, 106, 238 businesses 8-12, 26-7, 30-2, 34-6, 40-3, 55-7, 61-3, 72-6, 85-6, 108, 110-11, 113-15, 121-2, 138-40, 164-5, 229-30 C capabilities 21, 77, 81, 87, 135, 138 capacity 44, 166, 192, 200, 204, 208, 227 capital 62, 92, 97, 99, 201 clients 6, 24, 26, 31, 35, 52-3, 55-6, 74, 102-3, 125, 128, 159, 161, 166, 219-20, 222 cloud 1, 12-14, 19-22, 24, 47-9, 52-3, 89-92, 120-4, 146-8, 162-6, 208-11, 225-6, 229-30, 237-9, 251-2 Cloud Application 69, 80, 104, 180 cloud brokerages 86, 88, 125, 154 cloud computing 7-10, 12-28, 31-3, 35-42, 44-6, 51-5, 61-5, 67-9, 79-83, 87-8, 10713, 144-5, 148-52, 158-75, 178-85 cloud computing model 34, 58, 150-1 cloud computing network 9-10, 39, 41, 53, 60, 136, 141-2, 145-6, 150-1, 160, 167
cloud computing providers 6, 31, 48, 60, 85, 103, 114, 140, 151, 160, 163, 169, 181 cloud computing service providers 5, 55-6, 111 cloud computing services 5, 26-9, 37, 47-50, 57, 116, 125, 160, 166, 228 cloud DBMS 129-32 cloud infrastructure 105, 114, 130, 147 cloud manager 66, 89-90, 100 cloud network 1-3, 10, 12-13, 34-5, 44-5, 49, 52-3, 58-9, 62, 69, 75, 77-9, 92, 96, 98, 103 cloud platforms 70, 121, 162-4 cloud providers 35, 55-6, 66, 77, 80, 85, 95, 102, 113, 115, 121, 159, 176 cloud resources 97, 126, 130, 134, 160, 176 cloud service providers 56, 100, 103, 125, 133, 156 cloud services iv, 26, 35, 55, 86-7, 94, 100, 107-8, 110, 117, 121, 123, 129-34, 140, 154-5, 163 cloudbursting 92-5, 102, 139 code 53, 79, 81, 86 companies 37-9, 42-4, 46, 52, 55, 89, 99, 105-6, 110-11, 123-8, 137-8, 159-60, 177, 181, 22930 components 15, 31, 93-4, 131, 150, 174, 177, 180, 201, 227 computers 22, 30, 58, 67, 72, 152 concept 86, 96, 116, 122, 129, 149, 160, 212 connect 7, 52-3, 66, 78, 176 consumers 16, 26, 30, 32, 57, 65, 82, 85-8, 158, 164, 177 contract 56-7, 87, 97, 113-14, 123 control 12, 48-9, 57, 79, 133, 180, 204, 228 costs 9, 31, 62, 68, 99, 103, 110, 120-2, 126, 129, 138, 143, 167, 170, 172-3, 177 creation 73, 106, 135, 144, 155-6 customers 6, 28-9, 37, 55-7, 95, 114, 129, 135, 145, 189 D database 3, 32, 117, 129-31, 135, 174, 212, 253 database management systems 129-30, 174
DBMS 104, 129-31, 175 department 10, 28, 74, 99, 108-9, 111, 143, 153-4, 173 deployment 74, 77, 87, 106, 116, 129, 132, 135 design 53, 57, 66, 68-9, 100, 155, 249 developers 66, 68, 82, 85, 87, 107, 135 developments 24, 28, 30, 39, 59, 66, 68, 70, 72, 77, 83, 87-8, 91, 99-100, 145-6, 162-4 devices 7-8, 15, 17, 19-21, 24, 52, 119, 149, 255 difference 68, 74, 92, 94, 103, 147, 227 download 54, 60, 64, 232 E effectiveness 66, 73, 131, 165-6, 229 email 7, 116, 216, 230-1, 251-2, 254 employees 9-10, 168, 218 energy 44-5, 147, 150, 164, 167, 171 enterprises iv, 63, 74-5, 77, 108-11, 241 environment iii, 43-6, 74, 78, 105, 127, 183, 195, 225 errors 40-1, 50, 82-3, 90, 142, 175 F failure 25, 28, 57, 113 for3 189-90, 209, 233, 241-2, 253-4, 256 function iii, 44, 51, 58-60, 65, 70, 80-1, 104-5, 117, 121, 129, 141, 143, 147, 158-9, 167 functionalities 48, 52, 77-8, 105-6, 123, 142, 168 G Gmail 48, 116-18, 251, 253-4 grid computing 115, 144, 151-2, 173 groups 11, 27, 68, 77-8, 83, 86-7, 96, 99, 103, 113, 125, 133-4, 144, 150, 152, 178-
229. 190. 77. 149. 5. 67-8. 52-3. 183-4 hardware resources 35. 252-6 It3 197. 17. 73. 111. 174. 22. 241. 109-10. 218. 62. 19. 66. 149-50. 162-3. 220. 235. 114. 188-9. 108. 31-2. 7-8. 27. 15. 173 individuals 1. 180. 47-50. 21-3. 227. 213. 11-13. 66-8. 58-61. 31. 77-8. 1323. 67-8. 198. 233. 175. 241-3. 155. 53. 22. 178 interfaces 21. 51-3. 171-2. 180-1. 147. 124. 108. 227. 35. 116. 79-81. 150 hardware stacks 2. 130. 132. 103. 125-6. 94. 85. 93-4. 181. 51-2. 233 L level 6. 28. 114. 255 internet 9. 210. 109. 79. 48. 88. 102. 13. 145. 78. 121. 103. 86-7. 67. 73. 249 information 20. 2185 integration 93. 183. 146. 86-7. 231-27 is3 183-4. 125-6. 41. 218. 99. 162. 216. 11. 183-4 implementation 21. 177-8 industry 122. 162 I IaaS 35. 152-3. 142. 60. 45-6. 102. 86. 91. 34. 52. 118. 192 limitations 15. 90-1. 144. 34-5. 135. 133-4. 63. 148. 119. 40-1. 93. 141 host 4. 212-13 infrastructure 35. 106. 46. 137. 102. 208. 208. 69. 94. 125. 104. 46-7. 123. 219. 24. 139 . 195. 218. 48-9. 243 ITIL 203. 6-8. 60. 225-8 J job 48. 47. 127. 132. 32. 67-8.H hardware 7.
72. 90. 19. 166 monitor 22. 123. 122. 140. 103. 180. 141. 150. 36. 108. 1703 O operating system (OS) iii. 218 money 45-6. 200. 137. 13. 139. 121. 103. 108. 99-100. 172. 40-1. 48. 142 organizations 2. 161 operations 57. 53. 114-15.locations 6. 67. 94. 73-4. 168 P PaaS v. 81. 181 pdf 39. 227. 110-11. 151. 87. 112. 44-5. 63. 118. 188. 175. 134-5. 125-6. 106. 119. 86-7. 123. 56. 74-5. 144. 52. 79. 124-5. 190-2. 47-8. 155. 203-4. 181. 30. 54. 138-9. 243 management 63. 109. 41. 183-4. 128. 119. 122-3. 83. 48. 125. 254-5 networks 2. 114. 24. 151. 39. 241-2 managers 73-4. 143-6. 104. 174-7. 131-2. 83. 72. 111. 47. 68. 121. 87. 59. 104. 91-2. 95-100. 77-80. 21-3. 241 market 30. 159. 58. 150. 254-5 M maintenance 31. 87-8. 122-3. 136. 4. 48-9. 111. 129. 255 N net 7. 127. 169. 96. 84. 60. 98. 147. 63. 62-3. 42. 105. 207. 77. 178. 113. 35. 80. 49-50. 61. 21. 65-8. 66. 132. 31. 133-5. 151. 74-5. 77. 74-5. 143. 117-19. 115. 174. 16. 235. 180. 178. 125 models 32. 128-9. 159. 181 parties 55. 67-8. 121-2. 159. 229 packages 89. 122. 149. 58. 64 . 114. 140. 13. 130. 86. 19. 47. 143. 183 networking 32-3. 155. 138. 96. 40.
164. 155 provider 5-6. 123. 87. 171 risks 4. 66-7. 142-4 private cloud networks 10-11. 27. 85. 176 power 19. 166-8. 147 programs 31. 78. 130-2. 125. 53. 63. 35. 101. 206 prices 11. 47-9. 126. 208 resources 13. 162. 113-14. 48-9. 174. 98. 140. 142-3. 26-7. 74. 138. 192-9. 47-8. 183 portals 22. 96-7. 143. 78. 81-3. 98. 162 reason 16. 137-41. 111. 177 private cloud vi. 126. 129-30. 122. 100-1. 112-13. 183-4. 103. 58. 159. 121 S SaaS 30-1. 138. 122. 104. 34. 127. 134. 48-9. 86-7. 168. 30-1. 142. 138. 92. 85-6. 63. 49-50. 140. 121-3. 51. 140. 74. 6. 180. 19. 115. 69-70. 159-60. 94. 58. 192 platform v. 166. 98. 92-3. 141. 164. 89. 154-5 security issues 9. 127. 229. 41. 108-10. 104. 143-4 processes 1. 139. 104-5. 159-60. 94-5. 238 scalability 1-3. 256 scenarios 5. 84. 34. 93. 53. 101. 138-9. 148. 172. 45. 146-8. 235. 240-3 private cloud computing network 9. 11. 52. 117. 127. 96. 57. 162. 31. 167. 125-8. 60. 111. 109-10. 143. 24. 77. 93. 74. 148. 31. 130. 73. 24. 146. 174. 242-3. 106.performance 10. 176 profits 39. 145. 131-2 . 67-8. 18. 82-4. 35. 154 security 4. 112. 47-50. 120. 137-41. 57. 102-3. 32. 171. 57. 68-9. 139. 39. 126. 78. 144. 254 R range 70.
37-8. 254 system resources 1. 94-5. 47-9. 104-5. 150. 86. 141. 15. 47. 127. 35. 201. 206. 31. 81. 162. 133. 89-92. 106. 73-5. 163 . 110. 59. 25. 45. 238 storage 30-1. 198. 81. 34-5. 161. 52-3. 46. 116. 143. 81. 189-92 setup 1. 149. 159. 170. 152. 136. 142-3. 49. 180. 139. 62. 133. 85. 58-9. 134-6. 15. 125. 208. 88-9. 118. 194-5. 112. 193-5. 106. 166 services 26-7. 162 strategy 74-5. 5-6. 35. 164. 175. 3. 123. 132 transition 14. 138-45. 135. 48. 59. 121-3. 242 technologies 12. 48-9. 122 T tasks 20.servers 1. 67. 108 support 28. 21-2. 112. 160. 225 service providers 57. 52. 89-91. 142. 131. 125-6. 42. 128-9. 113. 94. 198. 118. 66-7. 101. 203. 55. 242. 229 storage space 62. 19. 38-9. 101. 182-3 testing 89-91. 122-3. 174-7. 211 successes 13. 128. 30-1. 229-30 software development 38. 70. 209. 114. 154. 114-15. 181 team 10. 178. 92. 195. 56. 79. 60. 72-6. 166. 81. 29-32. 18. 153-4. 150. 31. 121-2. 97. 91. 86-7. 217-18 SERVICE 90-1. 130 tools 38-9. 164. 27-8. 62. 33. 122. 141-2. 79. 61. 77-8. 65. 27. 62. 79-81. 112. 252 software 2-3. 100. 174. 152. 89. 166. 136. 3. 28. 166. 137. 52. 195. 127. 166 traffic 58. 102-4. 125. 218. 105-6. 171-2. 85-7. 75. 65. 159-60. 159-60. 41. 13. 57-8. 217 terms 35. 139. 118. 83. 254 traditional grid network 33. 70. 172 solutions 1. 149. 72. 178. 129. 92.
176 U upgrades 7. 13. 49. 165. 47. 116. 143. 142. 90. 69-70. 65. 137-8. 127-33. 127. 152 visitors 8. 152-6. 48. 45. 104. 112. 170. 86. 166 V virtual machines 2. 118. 52. 115. 47-50. 85-8. 91-2. 126. 116. 38. 89-90. 116. 197-9 virtualized hardware 31. 59. 179 types 8. 36. 57. 93. 98-100. 139. 248 W website 8. 162-3. 149-50. 81. 175-6 users access 19. 61. 122. 78-80.truth 42. 71. 63. 214 . 147-8 virtualization 21-3. 133-4. 80. 78-9. 171-2 users 34-5. 144. 59. 24. 182-3. 109. 125. 162-3. 52. 84-5. 62. 174. 159. 59-60. 170. 90 VPN 101-2. 150-1. 86-7.
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