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Parasuram August 28, 2001

**HANDOUT E.17 - EXAMPLES ON BODE PLOTS OF FIRST AND SECOND ORDER SYSTEMS
**

Example 1 Obtain the Bode plot of the system given by the transfer function G( s) = 1 . 2s + 1

We convert the transfer function in the following format by substituting s = jω G ( jω ) = 1 . 2 jω + 1 1 , the break point. So for 2 (1)

We call ω =

ω <<

1 , i.e., for small values of ω 2 G ( jω ) ≈ 1.

Therefore taking the log magnitude of the transfer function for very small values of ω, we get 20 log G ( jω ) = 20 log(1) = 0. Hence we see that below the break point the magnitude curve is approximately a constant. For, 1 ω >> , i.e., for very large values of ω 2 1 G ( jω ) ≈ . 2 jω Similarly taking the log magnitude of the transfer function for very large values of ω, we have 1 1 = 20 log = 20 log(1) − 20 log(2ω ) = −20 log(2ω ). 2 jω 2ω So we see that, above the break point the magnitude curve is linear in nature with a slope of –20 dB per decade. The two asymptotes meet at the break point. The asymptotic bode magnitude plot is shown below. 20 log G ( jω ) = 20 log

1

i. we get φ ≈ 0.e. For very large values of ω. ω → ∞ .. sys = tf(num. the phase tends to –90 degrees. ω ≈ 0 . grid.5 0 ω Slope of –20 dB per decade The phase of the transfer function given by equation (1) is given by φ = 0 − tan −1 (2ω ) = − tan −1 (2ω ). 2 . num = 1. The Bode plot of the above transfer function is obtained using MATLAB by following the sequence of command given. 2001 0.den).e.MEEN 364 Lecture 17.18 20 log G ( jω ) Parasuram August 28. bode(sys) The plot given below shows the actual curve.. To obtain the actual curve. So for small values of ω. the magnitude is calculated at the break points and joining them with a smooth curve. i. den = [2 1].

we get G ( jω ) = 4 . we get G ( jω ) = 1 jω ω + 2ζ n 2 jω ω +1 n = 1 jω jω + 0. ( jω ) + jω + 4 2 From the above transfer function.5 +1 2 2 2 .18 Parasuram August 28. so therefore reducing the above transfer function by dividing both the numerator and denominator by ωn. In this case the break point is ω = ω n .MEEN 364 Lecture 17. Therefore for 3 . s +s+4 2 Substituting s = jω in the above transfer function. it can be concluded that ω n = 2. 2001 Example 2 Obtain the bode plot of the system given by the transfer function G (s) = 4 .

e.e. Taking the log magnitude. Taking the log magnitude. The asymptotic plot is as shown below. G ( jω ) ≈ 1. for ω >> ω n . where ‘a’ and ‘b’ are the roots of the denominator. we get G ( jω ) ≈ 1 jω ω n 2 = 1 jω 2 2 .MEEN 364 Lecture 17. = 20 log(1) − 20 log = −40 log 2 ω 2 ωn ω n ωn From the above relation. we get 2 1 ω ω ω 20 log G ( jω ) = 20 log = −40 log . ( s + a )( s + b) 4 . For larger values of ω i... 20 log G ( jω ) 2 0 ω Slope of –40 dB per decade The transfer function can be rewritten as G (s) = 1 . Therefore the magnitude is approximately a constant below the break point. i.18 Parasuram August 28. 2001 ω << ω n . for small values of ω. it can be concluded that the magnitude plot is linear in nature with a slope of –40 dB per decade. we get 20 log G ( jω ) = 20 log(1) = 0.

5 . num = 4. den = [1 1 4]. 2001 The phase of the above transfer function is given as ω ω φ = 0 − tan −1 ( ) − tan −1 ( ). For very large values of ω.den). sys = tf(num. i. The actual bode plot is obtained by following the given MATLAB sequence. we get G ( jω ) = 1 . ω → ∞ .. ( jω + a)( jω + b) Parasuram August 28.e. we get φ ≈ 0. grid bode(sys) The plot is attached below.MEEN 364 Lecture 17. a b So therefore for ω ≈ 0 .18 Substituting s = jω . the phase tends to –180 degrees.

Step 3: We obtain the remainder of asymptotes as shown in the figure.5.MEEN 364 Lecture 17.4 ( + 3 dB) above the asymptote at ω = 0. Finally. We locate the magnitude by passing through the value 2 at ω = 1 even though the composite curve will not go through this point because of the break point at ω = 0. We see that the actual curve is approximately tangential to the asymptotes when far away from the break points and are a factor of 1.5 break point and a factor of 0. Then we draw a –1 slope line that intersects the previous one at ω = 10.5.5 .5. 2001 Step 1: We convert the function to the form given below by substituting s = jω jω + 1 2 0. jω This asymptote is valid for ω < 0. the low frequency asymptote is defined by the first term: G ( jω ) = 2 . 2 -90°.1 because the lowest break point is at ω = 0.5) Step 2: We note that the term in jω is first order and in the denominator.7 (-3 dB) below the asymptote at ω = 10 and ω = 50 break points. s ( s + 10)( s + 50) Parasuram August 28. Note that the composite curve approaches each individual term. so n = -1. Therefore. Step 5: Since the phase of is frequencies. G ( jω ) = = jω ( jω + 10)( jω + 50) jω jω jω + 1 + 1 10 50 2000( jω + 0.18 Example 3 Plot the Bode magnitude and phase for the system with transfer function G( s) = 2000( s + 0. First we draw a line with 0 slope that intersects the original –1 slope at ω = 0. the phase curve starts at -90° at the lowest jω 6 . The magnitude plot of this term has a slope of –1 or –20 dB per decade. Step 6: The individual phase curves are shown in the form of dashed line.5) . Step 4: We then sketch the actual curve by calculating the value of the magnitude at the break points and joining those points by a smooth curve. we draw a –2 slope line that intersects the previous –1 slope at ω = 50.

2001 The following plots depict the bode magnitude plot of the individual terms in the transfer function.5 ω Bode plot of transfer function 20 log G ( jω ) 10 0 ω Slope of –20 dB per decade Bode plot of transfer function 1 jω + 1 10 20 log G ( jω ) 50 0 ω Slope of –20 dB per decade Bode plot of transfer function 1 jω + 1 50 7 .5 jω + 1 0.18 Parasuram August 28. 20 log G ( jω ) Slope of + 20 dB per decade 0 0.MEEN 364 Lecture 17.

2001 Slope of –20 dB per decade 2 jω Bode plot of transfer function Combining the above bode diagrams. 8 .0 ω Parasuram August 28. The actual bode plot is shown below. 20 log G ( jω ) Slope of –20 dB per decade Slope of –20 dB per decade 50 ω Slope of –40 dB per decade 0 0. Similar procedure is adopted to plot the phase curve.MEEN 364 Lecture 17.18 20 log G ( jω ) 20log(2) 0 1.5 10 The actual bode magnitude curve is obtained by evaluating the actual magnitude at the break points and joining these points with a smooth curve. the composite asymptotic curve is as shown below.

s ( s + 0.18 Parasuram August 28.2 2 2 2 .2 + 1 4 2 Substituting s = jω in the above transfer function. we get G ( jω ) = 10 4 1 jω jω jω + 1 + 0. 9 . 2001 Example 4 Draw the frequency response of the system given by the transfer function G (s) = 10 .4s + 4) 2 Rewrite the above transfer function as G (s) = 10 1 . 2 4 s s s + 0.MEEN 364 Lecture 17.

10 . The composite actual curve is as shown below. the composite asymptotic bode magnitude curve is as shown below.18 Parasuram August 28. Following the same procedure as in example 3. 20 log G ( jω ) Slope of –20 dB per decade 2 0 ω Slope of –40 dB per decade The actual bode magnitude plot is obtained by evaluating the magnitude of the transfer function at the break point and joining it with a smooth curve. The similar procedure is adopted to obtain the phase curve for the system. 2001 The breakpoint for the above transfer function is at ω = 2.MEEN 364 Lecture 17.

a) b) c) 4000 . Franklin et. s ( s + 40) 1 G( s) = . 2001 Draw the bode plot for each of the following systems. s ( s + 1)( s 2 + 25 + 5) G(s) = Recommended Reading “Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems” 4th Edition. Franklin et. Compare your sketches with the plots obtained using the ‘bode’ command in MATLAB.al – pp 366 389.3.al –problem 6. by Gene F.18 Assignment Parasuram August 28. Recommended Assignment “Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems” 4th Edition.MEEN 364 Lecture 17. 11 . ( s + 1)( s 2 + s + 4) 10( s + 4) G( s) = . by Gene F.

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