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Parasuram August 28, 2001

**HANDOUT E.17 - EXAMPLES ON BODE PLOTS OF FIRST AND SECOND ORDER SYSTEMS
**

Example 1 Obtain the Bode plot of the system given by the transfer function G( s) = 1 . 2s + 1

We convert the transfer function in the following format by substituting s = jω G ( jω ) = 1 . 2 jω + 1 1 , the break point. So for 2 (1)

We call ω =

ω <<

1 , i.e., for small values of ω 2 G ( jω ) ≈ 1.

Therefore taking the log magnitude of the transfer function for very small values of ω, we get 20 log G ( jω ) = 20 log(1) = 0. Hence we see that below the break point the magnitude curve is approximately a constant. For, 1 ω >> , i.e., for very large values of ω 2 1 G ( jω ) ≈ . 2 jω Similarly taking the log magnitude of the transfer function for very large values of ω, we have 1 1 = 20 log = 20 log(1) − 20 log(2ω ) = −20 log(2ω ). 2 jω 2ω So we see that, above the break point the magnitude curve is linear in nature with a slope of –20 dB per decade. The two asymptotes meet at the break point. The asymptotic bode magnitude plot is shown below. 20 log G ( jω ) = 20 log

1

e. The Bode plot of the above transfer function is obtained using MATLAB by following the sequence of command given.5 0 ω Slope of –20 dB per decade The phase of the transfer function given by equation (1) is given by φ = 0 − tan −1 (2ω ) = − tan −1 (2ω ). So for small values of ω.e. ω ≈ 0 .. the phase tends to –90 degrees.den). 2 . ω → ∞ . 2001 0. num = 1.. i. For very large values of ω.MEEN 364 Lecture 17. bode(sys) The plot given below shows the actual curve. we get φ ≈ 0. To obtain the actual curve. sys = tf(num. grid. the magnitude is calculated at the break points and joining them with a smooth curve. den = [2 1].18 20 log G ( jω ) Parasuram August 28. i.

18 Parasuram August 28. we get G ( jω ) = 4 . In this case the break point is ω = ω n . Therefore for 3 .MEEN 364 Lecture 17. it can be concluded that ω n = 2. we get G ( jω ) = 1 jω ω + 2ζ n 2 jω ω +1 n = 1 jω jω + 0. s +s+4 2 Substituting s = jω in the above transfer function. ( jω ) + jω + 4 2 From the above transfer function. 2001 Example 2 Obtain the bode plot of the system given by the transfer function G (s) = 4 .5 +1 2 2 2 . so therefore reducing the above transfer function by dividing both the numerator and denominator by ωn.

2001 ω << ω n . The asymptotic plot is as shown below. for small values of ω.. we get 2 1 ω ω ω 20 log G ( jω ) = 20 log = −40 log .e. Therefore the magnitude is approximately a constant below the break point.MEEN 364 Lecture 17. i. For larger values of ω i. Taking the log magnitude.. 20 log G ( jω ) 2 0 ω Slope of –40 dB per decade The transfer function can be rewritten as G (s) = 1 .e. = 20 log(1) − 20 log = −40 log 2 ω 2 ωn ω n ωn From the above relation. where ‘a’ and ‘b’ are the roots of the denominator. it can be concluded that the magnitude plot is linear in nature with a slope of –40 dB per decade. we get 20 log G ( jω ) = 20 log(1) = 0. we get G ( jω ) ≈ 1 jω ω n 2 = 1 jω 2 2 . ( s + a )( s + b) 4 . Taking the log magnitude. for ω >> ω n .18 Parasuram August 28. G ( jω ) ≈ 1.

2001 The phase of the above transfer function is given as ω ω φ = 0 − tan −1 ( ) − tan −1 ( ). ( jω + a)( jω + b) Parasuram August 28.e. grid bode(sys) The plot is attached below. den = [1 1 4]. For very large values of ω.MEEN 364 Lecture 17. sys = tf(num. a b So therefore for ω ≈ 0 . ω → ∞ .. num = 4. The actual bode plot is obtained by following the given MATLAB sequence. the phase tends to –180 degrees. 5 .den). i.18 Substituting s = jω . we get φ ≈ 0. we get G ( jω ) = 1 .

Step 3: We obtain the remainder of asymptotes as shown in the figure. the low frequency asymptote is defined by the first term: G ( jω ) = 2 . Finally.5) Step 2: We note that the term in jω is first order and in the denominator.18 Example 3 Plot the Bode magnitude and phase for the system with transfer function G( s) = 2000( s + 0. we draw a –2 slope line that intersects the previous –1 slope at ω = 50.5) . Therefore. 2 -90°.5 . jω This asymptote is valid for ω < 0.5. Then we draw a –1 slope line that intersects the previous one at ω = 10.5.7 (-3 dB) below the asymptote at ω = 10 and ω = 50 break points. Note that the composite curve approaches each individual term. We see that the actual curve is approximately tangential to the asymptotes when far away from the break points and are a factor of 1.1 because the lowest break point is at ω = 0.5 break point and a factor of 0. First we draw a line with 0 slope that intersects the original –1 slope at ω = 0. s ( s + 10)( s + 50) Parasuram August 28. so n = -1. Step 5: Since the phase of is frequencies.MEEN 364 Lecture 17.4 ( + 3 dB) above the asymptote at ω = 0.5. the phase curve starts at -90° at the lowest jω 6 . The magnitude plot of this term has a slope of –1 or –20 dB per decade. G ( jω ) = = jω ( jω + 10)( jω + 50) jω jω jω + 1 + 1 10 50 2000( jω + 0. We locate the magnitude by passing through the value 2 at ω = 1 even though the composite curve will not go through this point because of the break point at ω = 0. Step 6: The individual phase curves are shown in the form of dashed line. Step 4: We then sketch the actual curve by calculating the value of the magnitude at the break points and joining those points by a smooth curve. 2001 Step 1: We convert the function to the form given below by substituting s = jω jω + 1 2 0.

2001 The following plots depict the bode magnitude plot of the individual terms in the transfer function.18 Parasuram August 28.5 ω Bode plot of transfer function 20 log G ( jω ) 10 0 ω Slope of –20 dB per decade Bode plot of transfer function 1 jω + 1 10 20 log G ( jω ) 50 0 ω Slope of –20 dB per decade Bode plot of transfer function 1 jω + 1 50 7 . 20 log G ( jω ) Slope of + 20 dB per decade 0 0.MEEN 364 Lecture 17.5 jω + 1 0.

20 log G ( jω ) Slope of –20 dB per decade Slope of –20 dB per decade 50 ω Slope of –40 dB per decade 0 0.18 20 log G ( jω ) 20log(2) 0 1. 8 .0 ω Parasuram August 28.5 10 The actual bode magnitude curve is obtained by evaluating the actual magnitude at the break points and joining these points with a smooth curve. 2001 Slope of –20 dB per decade 2 jω Bode plot of transfer function Combining the above bode diagrams.MEEN 364 Lecture 17. the composite asymptotic curve is as shown below. The actual bode plot is shown below. Similar procedure is adopted to plot the phase curve.

s ( s + 0. we get G ( jω ) = 10 4 1 jω jω jω + 1 + 0.18 Parasuram August 28.2 2 2 2 . 9 . 2001 Example 4 Draw the frequency response of the system given by the transfer function G (s) = 10 .MEEN 364 Lecture 17.4s + 4) 2 Rewrite the above transfer function as G (s) = 10 1 . 2 4 s s s + 0.2 + 1 4 2 Substituting s = jω in the above transfer function.

The composite actual curve is as shown below. The similar procedure is adopted to obtain the phase curve for the system.MEEN 364 Lecture 17. 2001 The breakpoint for the above transfer function is at ω = 2. Following the same procedure as in example 3. the composite asymptotic bode magnitude curve is as shown below. 10 .18 Parasuram August 28. 20 log G ( jω ) Slope of –20 dB per decade 2 0 ω Slope of –40 dB per decade The actual bode magnitude plot is obtained by evaluating the magnitude of the transfer function at the break point and joining it with a smooth curve.

s ( s + 40) 1 G( s) = . Recommended Assignment “Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems” 4th Edition. Compare your sketches with the plots obtained using the ‘bode’ command in MATLAB. ( s + 1)( s 2 + s + 4) 10( s + 4) G( s) = . by Gene F. a) b) c) 4000 .MEEN 364 Lecture 17.al –problem 6. Franklin et. 11 . 2001 Draw the bode plot for each of the following systems. s ( s + 1)( s 2 + 25 + 5) G(s) = Recommended Reading “Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems” 4th Edition.al – pp 366 389.18 Assignment Parasuram August 28. by Gene F.3. Franklin et.

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