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BALASUBRAMANIAN.S.R.+, K,GANESAN.++

SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Kancheepuram (dist). Alagappa Chettiar College of Engineering and Technology, Karaikudi.

ABSTRACT

The paper discusses the dynamic analysis and design of the pylon of a cable stayed bridge for earthquake forces. A project has been programmed to check the adequacy of the solution a system with lumped mass and elasticity approach (referred to as Idealized system) for the problem. Because this method has some disadvantages that the contribution of the mass of pylon to the inertia forces cannot be accessed accurately and the effect of compressive forces, lateral forces to the vibration parameters cannot be included. Therefore a comparative study between the solutions of system with lumped mass and elasticity (Idealized system) and system with distributed mass and elasticity (referred to as Generalized system) has been carried out and the results are compared. For the evaluation of earthquake forces, response spectrum for the ground acceleration measured at ELCENTRO substation during Imperial Valley earthquake of May 18, 1940 has been prepared, from which the pseudo spectral accelerations are arrived. From the report, it is observed that the idealized system method have resulted in variations in comparing to the Generalized system method. In lateral direction the influence of idealization is much less when compared to the longitudinal direction. Further, the designed pylon is reported as “safe against ELCENTRO earthquake”.

INTRODUCTION Rameswaram is one of the places of tourism importance in Tamilnadu. It is an island situated between Tamilnadu and Srilanka. There is a meter gauge railway line and a plate girder bridge for a length of 2200m between Mandapam and Pamban, which connects Rameswaram island to the other parts of the country. When this meter gauge line has to be widened, a new bridge to carry the heavier loads that are anticipated for a broad gauge line should replace this existing bridge. So it is aimed to provide a fruitful solution for the problem by providing a cable stayed Bridge (refer Fig 1.).

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Lecturer, School of Architecture, SRM Institute of Science and Technology. Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, A C College of Engg. & Tech.

Cite the article: Balasubramanian S R and Ganesan K. (2005). “Seismic stability analysis of a cable stayed bridge pylon”. Proc. of Intl. Conf. on Recent Advances in Concrete and Construction Technology, 7-9 Dec, Chennai, TN, India. pp. 809-821.

809

Rotational moment of inertia would practically be negligible and so the rotational degrees of freedom are also condensed. Dynamic analysis of pylon has been carried out for two different directions namely Lateral and Longitudinal directions (degree of freedom in vertical direction is neglected) separately and the forces are superimposed in the third stage.). the check for stability of pylon for the evaluated earthquake forces. 3. Inertia forces due to the masses from deck are evaluated based on the response of pylon itself and not on the actual response of deck. 5. 1. of Intl. Conf. The second stage is the calculation of spatial distribution of effective earthquake forces based on the concept of Response Spectrum. pp. 2. The first being Modal analysis. on Recent Advances in Concrete and Construction Technology. In fact. Cite the article: Balasubramanian S R and Ganesan K. the inertia forces too. 4. Thus the approximation is justified. In fact. hence the degrees of freedom in the vertical direction are neglected. already we have given sufficient concentration for the forces in vertical direction. only a fraction of the actual inertial force generated in from the deck will be transferred to the pylon as the forces are to be transferred through cable stays and not by rigid members. which includes determination of natural frequencies. This paper mainly discusses the procedure adopted for the dynamic analysis and design of pylon for earthquake forces (Fig 2. However. And the third. (2005). The damping is assumed as viscous damping with damping ratio ζ = 5%.Further the reason for the proposal of cable stayed bridge for this reach may be justified as this type of bridges are proved to be economical and are broadly adopted in recent days for medium and long span. Axial Stiffness of the pylon is very high and so the natural frequencies in the vertical direction will be very high and the earthquake forces will be minimal. The first three assumptions are very common and the fourth assumption has been specially adopted for this particular case. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS Dynamic analysis of Pylon has been performed under three different stages. MODAL ANALYSIS The pylon is isolated from the whole structure and the modal analysis has been performed based on the following assumptions. Also this approximation is adopted for the modal analysis in lateral direction only. mode shapes and hence the participation factors and the spatial distribution of masses for each mode. The structure is symmetric about the lateral and longitudinal axes and so there will not be any torsional response of the structure. India. 7-9 Dec. 3). TN. Chennai. Proc. 2 . The natural frequency of the deck will be low when compared to the pylon and so the response of the deck will be comparatively be higher than that of the pylon and in the same way. isolation of pylon is possible only if such approximation is adopted (refer Fig. In the case of longitudinal direction the inertia forces will not be transferred to pylon as the cable can freely roll over the pulley arrangement made in the pylon. 809-821. “Seismic stability analysis of a cable stayed bridge pylon”. but this approximation would be slightly on the conservative side. Thus the complexity of the problem is reduced.

• The variation in the natural frequencies due to the presence of any axial or lateral loads can not be represented. For the lateral direction. 3 . Conf. [M] = [m] + [ms] (2) [m] = lumped mass from deck [ms] = mass of pylon [C] = Damping matrix [K] = Stiffness matrix The mass matrix has been arrived from the axial force on the pylon. The above limitations may not be interfering much in most of the problems and so the popular equation of motion. o All the loads from deck are transferred to the pylon and so the axial force will be concentrated much on the pylon. In the Cite the article: Balasubramanian S R and Ganesan K.1 and to quantify the variation with the actual values. for Generalized SDF system) is. Chennai. the same problem has been carried out based on the generalized system approach and the results are compared. of Intl. on Recent Advances in Concrete and Construction Technology. India. The free vibration equation for generalized MDF system (refer Fig 5. it includes the mass of pylon. • The inertia forces due to the mass of spring may either be neglected or over estimated as in the Eq. “Seismic stability analysis of a cable stayed bridge pylon”.Idealized System The free vibration equation for Idealized MDF system (refer Fig. [M*] {U”} + [C*] {U’} + [K*] {U} = 0 (3) where.1 is commonly used. But in the longitudinal direction. o The mass of the pylon is very high. Proc. pp. [M*] = ∫ m s ( x ) [ϕ ( x )] 2 dx + [m] 0 L [C*] = 2 ζ ω n [M*] [K*] = ∫ E I ( x ) [ϕ" ( x )] 2 dx − ∫ N [ϕ' ( x )] 2 dx 0 0 L L The mass matrix has been arrived from the axial force on the pylon. TN. 809-821. Thus it is required to check the adequacy of Eq. mass of deck and mass of train (of the heaviest combination) but not the axial force due to the initial prestress. it includes the mass of pylon. Generalized System The modal analysis based on idealized system approach has some limitations viz. But in the case of the pylon of a cable stayed bridge it may not be true because. 4.2. 7-9 Dec. For the lateral direction. mass of deck and mass of train (of the heaviest combination) but not the axial force due to the initial prestress. there would not be any transfer of inertia force from deck to pylon and so the mass matrix includes only the mass of pylon.) is [M] {U”} + [C] {U’} + [K] {U} = 0 (1) where. given in Eq. (2005).

The element mass. Proc.04) – (0. it includes only the mass of pylon. “Seismic stability analysis of a cable stayed bridge pylon”. 4 .48 αβ − 2.4α – 0. geometric stiffness matrices for the uniformly varying sections are arrived by using a generalized expression for breadth of individual element b(ξ) as shown in Eq.24αβ ) ξ⎤ = ⎢ ⎥ 12 ⎢+ (0. on Recent Advances in Concrete and Construction Technology.4β) ξ A(ξ) =A–Bξ Moment of Inertia. the chosen shape function is expected to give results with good degree of accuracy. pp. 6) is used. b(ξ) = α – β ξ (5) where. 7).4 α β − 0. In the Generalized MDF approach.longitudinal direction. 809-821. 4 and Fig. (2005). element stiffness and element geometric stiffness matrices are then reduced to the form as shown below. the element mass matrix 72 A ⎡208 A + 16 B ⎤ 35 5 35 ρL ⎢ ⎥ e [m s ] = ⎥ 16 ⎢ 72 A 208 A − 16 B⎥ ⎢ 35 35 5 ⎦ ⎣ Element stiffness matrix ⎡ 3 D+B − 3 D+B⎤ 5 E ⎢ 5 ⎥ e [K ] = 3 ⎢ ⎥ L ⎢− 3 D + B 3 D+B ⎥ 5 5 ⎣ ⎦ ] ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) Cite the article: Balasubramanian S R and Ganesan K. From which the generalized expression for area and moment of inertia are obtained. Area A(ξ) = b(ξ)2 –( b(ξ) -0. the axial force includes the effect of Prestress also. India.4 α β − 0. stiffness. α = breadth at mid section and β = double thechange of breadth per unit length of the element.24 αβ ) ξ + (0. But in the calculation of geometric stiffness. Although the section is not truly prismatic. Conf. 7-9 Dec. 1 H (ξ) = < H1 H 2 > = [ 2 − 3ξ + ξ3 2 + 3ξ − ξ3 ] 4 3 (4) H' (ξ) = [ − (1 − ξ 2 ) (1 − ξ 2 )] 4 3 H" (ξ) = [ − ξ ξ] 2 The elements of pylon are not truly prismatic so the mass.2)2 = (0.24 α 2 − 0. For our problem.5 (also refer Fig. TN. 1 I ( ξ) = b(ξ) 4 − (b(ξ) − 0.0016) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ [ [ ] I ( ξ) = 1 C ξ3 + Dξ 2 + Eξ + F 12 Thus. the Hermitian shape function (refer Eq.8 α 3 − 0. the choice of the shape function φ(x) plays a vital role. of Intl.8 β ) ξ + (2.2)4 12 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 ⎡(−0. Chennai.032 α − 0.

the participation factors of first and first three modes are 85. “Seismic stability analysis of a cable stayed bridge pylon”.03 mm and from generalized system Cite the article: Balasubramanian S R and Ganesan K.407 rad/sec respectively.substation. the constants adopted are taken from IS:1893-2002 and are as listed below.67% and 97. modeled in STAADPro and P-∆ analysis has been performed. It has been decided to use the N-S component of horizontal ground acceleration recorded at ELCENTRO . • The undamped maximum response corresponding to the fundamental mode evaluated from idealized system method is 228. The Time history analyses have been done based on numerical integration – linear interpolation method. • For idealized system. (2005). SUMMARY OF RESULTS In lateral direction.319g. unlike the Response Spectrum in the true sense. 809-821.36 (for zone III) Importance factor I = 1. 5 . 9) and the equivalent static forces due to earthquake have been evaluated. 7-9 Dec. on Recent Advances in Concrete and Construction Technology. Time History Analysis for various uncoupled SDF systems has been performed and their peak responses are plotted against their natural frequencies.421 rad/sec and 5.52% respectively. India. Proc. For this purpose the concept of response spectrum is employed.98% respectively. since it has a strong ground motion – a maximum acceleration of 0. and have lasted for about 32 sec.Element geometric stiffness matrix ⎡ 6 −6 ⎤ 5⎥ N⎢ 5 e [K G ] = ⎢ ⎥ L −6 ⎢ 5 65 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Transformation matrix 0⎤ ⎡C ⎥ [T ] e = ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ C⎦ ⎣0 EVALUATION OF EARTHQUAKE FORCES The next step is to assess the peak acceleration for each uncoupled SDF system. TN. • The fundamental frequency obtained for idealized system & generalized system are 5. pp.0 ANALYSIS FOR EARTHQUAKE LOAD AND DESIGN In this stage the earthquake forces evaluated are given to the pylon. of Intl. 8). which is referred as Response Spectrum here. 1940. Zoning factor Z = 0. And the same for generalized system are 85.5 Response reduction factor R = 5. Conf.09% and 97. Then from the response spectrum (Fig. Then the stress resultants calculated by the P-∆ analysis are checked against the capacities of the sections provided. the pseudo-acceleration spectrum (Fig. Chennai. And the stability of the pylon may be reported as ‘safe’ or ‘unsafe’ against ELCENTRO earthquake based on the results. For the evaluation of equivalent static forces. California during Imperial Valley earthquake of May 18.

5 mm.803 mm and 25. the values are 44. In longitudinal direction. But in the longitudinal direction the contribution to mass matrix is entirely due to the mass of the pylon only and so the variation of mass matrix between Idealized system and Generalized system methods influenced much on the natural frequencies.42 KN for undamped and damped systems respectively.95% respectively. pp. The same trend has been observed as far as the other natural frequencies are concerned.9 KN for undamped and damped systems respectively (Table 1). Whereas in the longitudinal direction it is vice versa and also the variation is much higher. And for the damped systems.22 mm. In both the directions.69 KN and 224. • The undamped maximum response corresponding to the fundamental mode evaluated from idealized system method is 204. Whereas by generalized system approach the base shear obtained are 498. 809-821. TN. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSION In lateral direction. “Seismic stability analysis of a cable stayed bridge pylon”. the participation factors of first and first three modes are 99.52 mm.3 mm. the spatial distribution of earthquake forces showed much variation. the values are 85. And for the damped systems. • For idealized system. India. • The fundamental frequency obtained for idealized system & generalized system are 13. This is because the major contribution for mass matrix in lateral direction is the mass from the deck and so the variation of mass matrix between the Idealized system and Generalized system methods has not showed much influence on the natural frequencies but the slight reduction in the values obtained by Generalized system method is due to the reduction in stiffness in the form of Geometric stiffness. Proc. the earthquake force obtained for the node ‘1’ is a high value.755 rad/sec respectively. of Intl. the base shear obtained is 1885 KN and 711. Whereas by generalized system approach the base shear obtained are 2005. 7-9 Dec.55 mm and 85. • By idealized system approach. In longitudinal direction by idealized system approach.97% respectively.method is 242. In the lateral direction.17% and 99.79 mm and from generalized system method is 56. And the same for generalized system are 99. the natural frequencies obtained for generalized system are comparatively higher than those obtained for idealized system. even Cite the article: Balasubramanian S R and Ganesan K. • The stress resultants on the pylon as a result of P-∆ analyses are found to be within the section capacities provided. (2005). the values of the natural frequencies for idealized and generalized system approaches are slightly varying and those of generalized system are on the lower side. And in the longitudinal direction.53% and 99.68 KN for undamped and damped systems (Table 2).56 rad/sec and 16. 6 .6KN for undamped and damped systems respectively. Chennai. the base shear obtained is 1852 KN and 404. on Recent Advances in Concrete and Construction Technology.7 KN and 686. the fundamental frequency obtained by Idealized system approach is slightly higher than the same obtained by generalized system approach. Conf. • By idealized system approach.

Conf..97 in lateral direction and in longitudinal direction.. It may be replaced by some other which would suit for the uniformly varying elements. [6] Walther R. This is because the whole mass of the legs of the pylon. Isler W.D..99. it is observed that the idealized system method have resulted in variations in comparing to the generalized system method. (1973) ‘Railway Engineering’ – Dhanpat Rai & Sons. Such anomalous values are not obtained by the generalized system method as it includes the mass of the pylon that is actually contributing inertia forces. (1997) ‘Introduction to Finite Element Analysis’ – Prentice hall of India Pvt. (1985) ‘Cable Stayed Bridges’ – Thomas Telford Ltd. Further. on Recent Advances in Concrete and Construction Technology. Proc. the designed pylon is reported as “safe against ELCENTRO earthquake”. Ltd. REFERENCES [1] Arora S. Chennai. In fact. Saxena S. New Delhi. (2005). New Delhi. The following are few studies to be included in further extension. pp. the damped system with ζ = 0. the first mode itself have reached about 0. neglecting the damping seems to be an over estimation.T. [3] Chopra A. and MoÏa P. However the exactness of the solution relies on the shape function chosen. [4] Mario Paz (1985) ‘Structural Dynamics’ – CBS Publishers & Distributors. • In this project. 809-821. [5] Ram Chandra (1971) ‘Design of Steel Structures’ – Standard Book House. Cite the article: Balasubramanian S R and Ganesan K. the Hermitian shape function for prismatic elements is used. London. of Intl. • Analytical solutions obtained in this project may be experimentally verified. • The stability check may be extended to few other.. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY For the actual implementation of the prescribed design. In lateral direction the influence of Idealization is much lesser when comparing to the longitudinal direction. the work done in this project is not sufficient and the analysis has to be extended. From the project work. 7-9 Dec.. Houriet B. India..more than the value obtained in lateral direction. TN..P. New Delhi.. the participation of first three modes have reached 0. [2] Chandrupatla R.05 showed much reduction in the earthquake forces.C. “Seismic stability analysis of a cable stayed bridge pylon”. undamped system is an ideal case and does not exist and so evaluation of response. New Delhi Vol. forces etc. Belegundu A. strong motion earthquakes or design spectrums may directly be employed.. I & II. In comparing to undamped system. This is mainly because the maximum responses have been reduced much for the damped systems and so the pseudo spectral accelerations and hence the forces too (refer Fig no 3 & 4).K. 7 . (2001) ‘Dynamics of Structures’ – Pearson Education (Singapore) Pte Ltd. Even though in this project contribution from all the 11 modes of vibration are considered.. assumed to be lumped at that node is very high when comparing to the lumped masses at the other nodes. New Delhi.

Proc.96 28.57 29.75 50.22 37.39 210.00 61.44 711.04 11.03 158.16 9.69 155.36 8.46 149.76 96.58 12.85 10.60 6.19 2005.77 49. of Intl.73 8.26 59.74 67.90 58.27 23.13 62.55 162. pp.73 43.Table 1 EFFECTIVE EARTHQUAKE FORCES IN LATERAL DIRECTION Node No.52 5. Chennai. 8 .67 14.42 4.14 404.75 67. (2005).28 48.13 6.78 52.89 5.96 15.81 144.64 4.68 Cite the article: Balasubramanian S R and Ganesan K.47 -40.45 49.39 3.18 154.67 7.82 498.79 7. Conf.87 26.6 GENERALIZED MDF SYSTEM UNDAMPED 5% DAMPED 503.03 26.89 1852. 7-9 Dec.83 183.64 32.51 1885. UNDAMPED 5% AMPED UNDAMPED 5% DAMPED 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1450. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 IDEALIZED MDF SYSTEM UNDAMPED 5% DAMPED 536.60 65.42 343.52 165.25 13.25 1.74 197. 809-821.96 317.57 14.30 16.24 224. TN.29 50.96 21.34 3.95 14.08 65.09 155.7 686.25 210. India.50 148.66 37.78 54.19 161.82 10. on Recent Advances in Concrete and Construction Technology.17 14.16 54.43 180.38 20.32 135.36 2.47 142.36 56.63 19.40 64.63 205. “Seismic stability analysis of a cable stayed bridge pylon”.01 59.79 9.59 9.74 212.37 63.27 11.96 Table 2 EFFECTIVE EARTHQUAKE FORCES IN LONGITUDINAL DIRECTION Node IDEALIZED MDF SYSTEM GENERALIZED MDF SYSTEM No.38 56.

Cite the article: Balasubramanian S R and Ganesan K. Chennai. “Seismic stability analysis of a cable stayed bridge pylon”. pp. India. ARIEL VIEW OF THE PROPOSED CABLE STAYED BRIDGE 9 . 1. (2005). Conf. 7-9 Dec. of Intl. Proc. Fig. 809-821. on Recent Advances in Concrete and Construction Technology. TN.

“Seismic stability analysis of a cable stayed bridge pylon”. QUADRUPED PYLON Cite the article: Balasubramanian S R and Ganesan K. 10 . pp. Conf. on Recent Advances in Concrete and Construction Technology. Proc. TN. India. of Intl. 7-9 Dec.Fig. Chennai. 2. (2005). 809-821.

Conf. on Recent Advances in Concrete and Construction Technology. pp. 7-9 Dec. of Intl. ISOLATED PYLON SHOWING THE DEGREES OF FREEDOM IN ONE DIRECTION Fig 4. India. “Seismic stability analysis of a cable stayed bridge pylon”. (2005). Chennai. EQUIVALENT MASSSPRING-DASHPOT DIAGRAM Fig. Proc. 3. 809-821.Fig. GENERALIZED SDF SYSTEM Cite the article: Balasubramanian S R and Ganesan K. TN. 11 . 5.

India.8 51.2 127.4 13.5 72. 8.4 790.0 160. VARIATION OF DISPLACEMENT AS PER HERMITIAN SHAPE FUNCTION Fig.6 204. Conf.4 37. PSEUDO ACCELERATION SPECTRUM Cite the article: Balasubramanian S R and Ganesan K.4 124.0 406. of Intl.4 790. VARIATION OF PROPERTIES WITH THE LENGTH OF THE ELEMENT 300 250 200 Max. pp.4 ζ = 5% NATURAL FREQUENCIES (in rad/sed) UNDAMPED 5% DAMPED Fig.7 251.4 13. on Recent Advances in Concrete and Construction Technology. Proc.6 94.4 13.6 94.8 633. Chennai.Fig.4 271.7 251. “Seismic stability analysis of a cable stayed bridge pylon”.5 72.4 37.4 13.5 323. 7-9 Dec.5 323.2 506. 9.8 51.4 271.2 71.2 506.6 204. 7.6 24.2 71. 6. Response (in mm) ζ=0 150 100 50 0 5. TN.4 124.3 187.3 187. (2005).0 406.8 633. RESPONSE SPECTRUM 40 Pseudo-Acceleration (in m/sec^2) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 5.6 24. 12 .2 127.0 990.0 160.0 990. 809-821.4 ζ=0 ζ = 5% NATURAL FREQUENCIES (in rad/sed) UNDAMPED 5% DAMPED Fig.

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