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Two related techniquesthe Seven Step Method and the Project Team Review Process-can help solve problems and educate managers.
by Marie Gaudard, Roland Coates, and Liz Freeman
up? PEOPLE INQillRE HOW WNG it will take America to catch up with the Japanese .... Does anyone suppose that the Japanese are going to sit still and waitfor someone to catch up? How can you catch up with someone that is all the time gaining speed?" -w. Edwards Deming, Out of the Crisis The need to improve quality has captured the attention of American industry. The need to accelerate the improvement process, however, is just now being realized, and ways to accelerate it are just beginning to be explored. The Seven Step Method and the Project Team Review Process are related techniques that, in the proper management setting, can accelerate process improvement. The Seven Step Method is a structured approach to problem solving and process improvement. It leads a team through a logical sequence of steps that force a thorough analysis of the problem, its potential causes, and possible solutions. The structure imposed by the Seven Step Method helps a team focus on the correct issues rather than diffuse its energy on tangential or even counterproductive undertakings. The Seven Step Method has been used successfully by U.S. and Japanese companies for several years. The Seven Step Method is most successful when accompanied by regular project reviews performed by managers with a vested interest in the project's outcome. In many organizations, project teams are not reviewed until a solution -or recommendation is to be presented-the notion of a status review is foreign. However, there is a formal review process in which peers and superiors guide, support, and monitor project teams while they are working on problems. This Project Team Review Process structures a session so that it becomes a productive meeting with positive consequences, thereby providing teams with support and focus. The Seven Step Method and Project Team Review Process were part of a program designed to help a small printing company, which will be called Sprinters, with its organizational change. When designing this program, we drew from our
own experience working with companies and from the Seven Step and Project Team Review models developed by Joiner Associates Inc,'- 2 These models emphasize interaction between the project team and a guidance team. Sprinters employs about 150 people, and its management group consists of 13people. In December 1989, we helped form the management group into three project teams, each with a loosely defined problem to solve. Each team was supplemented, as appropriate, by employees who were not part of the management group. The result was three teams, one of five members, one of six, and the third of seven members. Over the next eight months, these teams were trained in and practiced using. basic group process skills, the Seven Step Method, 'and the Project Team Review Process.
The seven Step Method
The value of the Seven Step Method lies in the discipline and logic that it imposes. The seven steps are briefly described in Table 1. Here is a simple case study that generally illustrates the use of the method: A restaurant caters to business travelers and has a self-service breakfast buffet. Interested in customer satisfaction, the manager constructs a survey, distributes it to customers over a three-month period, and summarizes the results in a Pareto chart (Figure 1). The Pareto chart indicates that the restaurant's major problem is that customers have to wait too long to be seated. A team of employees is formed to work on this problem. Step one: define the project. With the survey as the background, the team undertakes the first step. The problem is that customers wait too long to be seated. They should not have to wait at all. The problem is important because customers have complained, and this is supported by the Pareto chart constructed from the survey data. Most of the customers are business travelers who want either a speedy breakfast or a chance to conduct business during breakfast. Decreasing the wait to be seated will increase the restaurant's ability to respond to these key quality characteristics. ProgQuality Progress
Decide how you will exhibit these data on the run chart. Collect the data and summarize what you have -learned about the variables' effects on the problem. Step 6 Establish Future Plans 1. List the customer's key quality characteristics. Describe any deviations from the plan and what was learned. • Implement the strategy and check to see that it has been successful. 3. and who. 2. Step @ Standardize the Improvement 1. be applied elsewhere and plan for its implementation. Repeat substeps two through seven until there is no additional information that would be helpful at this time. • Collect more data on the baseline measure from step one. Determine whether the actions in step four were effective. Will there be a pilot project? Who will be responsible for the implementation? Who will train those involved? 4.) A run chart or control chart is usually used to exhibit baseline data. 7. Step Implement a Solution 1. (Sometimes historical data can be used for this purpose. providing any data you might have that supports this. and potential adverse consequences. If possible. State how closing the gap will benefit the customer in terms of these characteristics. to what extent. Design data collection instruments. 6. • Analyze the results. • Decide on most likely causes by checking against the data from step two and the experience of the people working in the process. Determine what data you will use to measure progress: • Decide what data you will use to provide a baseline against which improvement can be measured. Determine whether the improvement should. e 82 . how another project should be approached and who should be involved. 2. • Identify related problems that should be addressed 2. Institutionalize the improvement: • Develop a strategy for institutionalizing the improvement and assign responsibilities. Document why it is important to be working on this particular problem: • Explain now you know it is a problem. "Customers report an excessive number of errors. Step @) Analyze the Potential Causes 1. Provide any helpful sketches or visual aids. Decide which solutions should be tried: • Carefully assess the feasibility of each solution. 4. If so. • Construct cause-and-effect diagrams for these conditions of interest. Develop a list of solutions to be considered. Identify any variables that might have a bearing on the problem. • Collect any other data related to the conditions at the start that might be relevant. Implement the preferred solution. Determine your plans for the future: • Decide whether the gap should be narrowed further and. 2. the likelihood of success. 5. 3. Decide how you will label your axes. Determine potential causes of the current conditions: • Use the data collected in step two and the experience of the people who work in the process to identify conditions that might lead to the problem. Consider the variables of what. where. 3. Determine whether more data are needed.Step 0 Define the Project 1. Determine what additional information would be helpful at this time. Collect the baseline data and plot them. Step @ Check the Results _ 1. Determine how the preferred solution will be implemented. 2. 3.") 2. Define the problem in terms of a gap between what is and what should be. Be creative. • Develop any operational definitions you will need to collect the data. Repeat prior steps as necessary. (For example. repeat substeps two through seven of step two. Develop flowcharts of the processes. if so. . The team's objective is to reduce the number of errors. verify the causes through observation or by directly controlling variables. • . Step @ Study the Current Situation 1. Summarize what you learned about the project team experience and make recommendations for future project teams. • Clearly indicate why you are choosing a particular solution. Data will be gathered on these variables to localize the problem. 2. Determine whether the solution tested was effective.Quality Progress I October 1991 .
it would be easy for the team to jump to the solution of putting more staff on early in the week and during busy hours in the morning-but analyzing causes is not done until the next step. The team members feel that a floor diagram might be helpful. The team decides additional information is needed on why tables are"not available and how seating preferences affect waiting. it develops a flowchart of seating a party. is interesting. 11 .. reason for waiting. The team develops an operational definition of "waiting to be seated" to answer such questions as: When does the wait start? When does it end? How is it measured? Step two: study the current situation. A histogram of the number of people waiting by the time of the morning reveals nothing surprising: more people wait during the busy hours than during the slow hours (Figure 4). 1% MTWTF S SMTWTF S SMTWTF SS 3% 2% Day of Week (Sept. NON-SMOKING SECTION SECTION I. The variables they identify as potentially affecting the problem are: day of the week. however. it learns that tables are generally unavailable because they are not cleared (as opposed to being occupied) and that most of the people who have a seating preference wait for a table in the nonsmoking area. one minute to be seated.~I KITCHEN o HOSTESS STATION I .. This is reasonable.. The reason for waiting. with only a small percent waiting on weekends. Data relating to these" variables are collected.. Most people wait because a table is not available or because they have a seating preference (as opposed to the hostess not being around to seat customers or customers waiting for friends to join them). 1. The size of the party does not appear to be a factor. Step three: analyze the potential causes. At the same time. since the restaurant's clientele primarily consists of business travelers. and time of the morning. I o Quality Progress October 1991 I 83 . 1989) WINOOWS WINOOWS WINOOWS furap- ssed earn lture D " DO fJJM® OODO V o SMOKING '. At this point.Iuas Jas )vehas ap- ress can be measured by the percent of customers each day who have to wait in excess of. the team learns that the percent of people served who have to wait is higher early in the week and decreases during the week. size of the party. The team collects baseline data and plots them (Figure 2). From the baseline data. say. because parties of all sizes wait in approximately the same proportions.September 1989) 40 30 20 10 D Code A B C D E E BAH Reason Room too drafty Table not clean No dietetic sweetener provided Had to wait for seats Buffet table not well organized Missing utensil at place setting No ashtray on table Had to wait long time for coffee F C G F G H Percent Who Waited 9% 8% 7% 6% 5% 4% . so they produce one (Figure 3). After data are collected. A cause-and-effect diagram is constructed for "Why tables are not cleared quick- 70 60 50 (June .e e 1- sr n)e ..Oct.in et- 1m at .
it seems natural to ask how it and the Seven Step Method are related. The PDCA cycle. The team develops a list of possible solutions. This diagram. abandoning it. Since the team has not been able to verify the cause by controlling the variables. preferably on a small scale. and the "act" step consists of adopting the change. " The purpose of the seven steps The overall purpose of the Seven Step Method is to facilitate process improvement.Accelerating Improvement cont. Step five: check the results. the team analyzes the data collected in step four. Edwards Deming's thoughts on the PDCA cycle are presented in The Team Handbook? The "plan" step consists of planning a change or test aimed at improvement. the improvement is dramatic. No other changes are made. ly." with particular emphasis on identifying root causes (Figure 5). or repeating the cycle. however. The team continues to collect data on the percent of people waiting longer than one minute to be seated. The team decides that the next highest bar in the Pareto chart of customer complaints-buffet table not well organized-should be addressed. The Seven Step Method is appropriate when a deep understanding of the 6:30 7:00 7:30 8:00 8:30 9:00 9:30 10:00 Time of morning Not allowed to clear until entire party has left _" Takes too long to pay \ Credit card machine Jams Kitchen is far from tables 84 Quality Progress I October 1991 . It seems clear that much of the PDCA thinking is imbued in the Seven Step Method. leads the team to conclude that the most likely cause is the distance from the tables to the kitchen. After a month. Each step has a specific purpose. As Figure 6 shows. W. it chooses a solution that can be easily tested: set up temporary workstations in the nonsmoking area. together with the rest of the data the team has gathered. and these are given in Table 2. the "do" step consists of carrying out the change or test. Step seven: establish future plans. Step six: standardize the improvement. Since the plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle also has process improvement as its goal. the "check" step involves studying the results to understand what has been learned. The temporary workstations are replaced with permanent ones. particularly in the nonsmoking area. is a broad paradigm for process improvement that applies in situations where the Seven Step Method does not. Step four: implement a solution.
' In analytic situations." Once this hurdle was crossed. To decide whether to standardize the solution or return to an earlier step. Percent Who Waited 9% 8% 7% 6% 4% 3% 2% 5% 1% M TW T F S SM TW T F S SM TW T F S'S Day of Week (Oct. To promote the practice of continuous improvement in terms of organizational and team effectiveness. To determine whether the preferred solution is effective. Only in step four does the team formulate and implement a solution. Identification of these needs continues the PDCA cycle. To develop baseline data to be used to verify solutions. To narrow the focus in . an existing population is studied. perhaps because of the focus on data. and if appropriate. we felt that the team members learned a great deal about each other and about the organization during their struggles with various tasks and issues. the zorkthat )mer ~ ad- acilipose. an analytic study focuses on prediction. the method provides organization. as evidenced in steps two through five. those needs are addressed using the Seven Step Method. In addition to reflecting on its experience in terms of tasks. and thoroughness. Since organizations are usually interested in learning about the future. A number of people commented on how they were listening to each other more carefully and respecting each other's ideas more and on how. In addition. we viewed the benefits to the project team members in the same light and were impressed by what seemed to be a significant cultural change. ibued problem is needed to determine and plan an effective solution. which is comparable to the PDCA cycle's "check" step. in step seven the team identifies future needs. we asked them. and implement it (preferably on a small scale). The Seven Step Method helps solve analytic problems efficiently because it focuses on understanding causal relationships. 12. at a training session. The initial tendency was to frame a solution as a problem. Step @ Study the Current Situation To use data (rather than opinion) to narrow the focus and to refrain from jumping to possibly incorrect solutions or causes. To ensure that the problem stays fixed. They were impressed by the use of data instead of opinions. In these steps. To find the best possible solution. 23 . To determine whether more work needs to be done on this particular problem. plan its implementation. After checking. One team needed to agree on several operational definitions before it could even begin to formulate a problem statement.g out ieck" been ange. logic. Step @ Analyze the Potential Causes Step e Implement a Solution Step 0 Check the Results To find root causes (rather than symptoms) of the problem. the team either standardizes its findings (step six) or returns to a prior step to obtain an even deeper understanding of the problem or possible solutions-a process much like the "act" step of the PDCA cycle. In step five. In an enumerative study. almost all problems in industryand certainly the most important ones-are of an analytic nature. ocess t and ling's landr test . obtain the support of management. The Seven Step Method is directed at analytic rather than enumerative studies.Nov.ition 1the connger ana. The managers' perceptions concerning the method were also shaped by the group process skills they had been practicing and the project reviews they had undertaken. there were others. there had been a lowering of territorial fences and a promotion of cooperation and trust. The managers overwhelmingly found the method's focus and restraint to be difficult but valuable. . A team acquires this understanding through the data-based localization and cause analysis in steps two and three. group processes. To reach an agreement on how success will be measured.order to change the most fundamental causes that can be changed. the key is to learn about the cause systems that underlie the processes of interest to understand the effects of various conditions. This step is similar to the "plan" and "do" steps in the PDCA cycle. Another team kept revisiting its problem statement during the first four months before Step @ Standardize the Improvement Step 6 Establish Future Plans I October 1991 85 . and organizational issues.' The analog of this in the restaurant case study would be to state the problem as "There aren't enough tables" or "The waitresses and waiters need to work harder" instead of "The customers wait too long. " is a I situ1 Step )f the The method's value After the management group at Sprinters had been using the Seven Step Method in their project teams for about three months. The first was arriving at a problem statement. the team checks its results. the team is continually restrained from jumping to solutions. 1989) Step 0 Define the Project To show the importance of the project and to indicate why energy should be spent here (instead of elsewhere) in order to use resources efficiently. and motivate the team. to brainstorm what they had learned as a result of the method. Quality Progress Difficult issues The three project teams found several concepts in the first two steps extremely difficult. They also valued the way. As consultants.
• Brainstorm questions about the logic and data. Reviews were then conducted about every two months. and the "If I could ask you to do one more thing" suggestion. to keep the teams apprised of each other's progress. the presenting team was asked to reflect on its presentation. it would be . An outline of the review process appears in Table 3." 4. they resisted investigating the effects of variables that they felt were not causes. After this presentation. Run Chart of Percent of Customers Waiting in Excess of One Minute to be Seated Figure 3. Realizing that their own problems were not overwhelming but instead tractable through localization was an important achievement for the project teams. Preparation for Review • Brainstorm positive comments. It was much easier for the teams to justify the importance of the problem in terms of internal considerations rather than in terms of the customer's key quality characteristics. • suggestions in the form of "If there were one more thing we could ask you to do. Causes of the problem often crept into discussions where they did not belong. clarifying questions. The teams needed a significant amount of coaching in how to obtain information in a nonthreatening way (through interviews or surveys) from the people who work in the system. Since the individuals on the Sprinters management team would eventually be directing teams of their subordinates. we felt it critical that they should experience the value of team reviews and learn to perform productive reviews. several organizational challenges. Consequently. settling on one that was consistent with what the team was doing.Accelerating Improvement cont. we made three innovations: using it in a context where project teams reviewed each other. two clarifying questions (to which the presenting team responded). The teams had difficulty keeping an open mind about potential causes. For example. Meanwhile. choosing two to share. For our purposes. the presenting team reflects on its presentation. • Each reviewer asks two questions about logic and data. Presenting Team Reflects on Review • What were the main messages the team heard? • How did it feel to be reviewed? Figure 1. Pareto Chart of Complaints Figure 2.. Team Presentation 2. Restaurant Floor Plan Figure 4. the other two teams and a team of three consultants brainstormed independently to come up with: . they found it hard to internalize this in solving their own problems." and agree on one. The three Sprinters teams were reviewed during a four-hour meeting. 1. the presenting team members spent 15 minutes debriefing. There were other issues that proved difficult." choosing one to share. After the three teams had conducted their reviews. Localization is what makes a problem tractable. The review-consisting of positive feedback.and third-shift employees. Localization is usually achieved by stratifying data using Pareto charts with categorical data and run charts with continuous data. they brainstormed the main messages they had heard and discussed how it felt to be reviewed. We sensed that this occurred because the team members had not yet internalized the idea that improvement should be driven by customer requirements. and "one more thing" suggestions-was designed by Joiner Associates. We felt it best to introduce this process early to emphasize the value of communication among teams. but even they struggled. The teams had trouble understanding how baseline data would be used to validate a solution. 3.. Histogram of the Number of Customers Waiting in Excess of One Minute by the Time of Morning Figure 5. Seven minutes were allotted for each review. Run Chart of Percent of Customers Waiting in Excess of One Minute to be Seated The purpose of the review process Because most organizations conduct reviews after a solution is fuund. promote a supporting environment. so they resisted devising ways to accomplish this.. Project Team Review Process The Project Team Review Process was introduced to the teams when they had been working on their projects for only a month. • positive comments about the presenting team's efforts. and agree on two. and compressing the time for the review. • Each reviewer asks the team to do "one more thing. arranging meetings to accommodate second. and to promote a supporting environment. . they would be more sensitive to the needs of their employees 86 Quality Progress I October 1991 . In the debriefing. Although team members could see the value of localization in solving sample problems. The third team arrived at a problem statement relatively easily by comparison. Review of Team • Each reviewer gives two positive comments. and getting support from line workers who were to collect the data. Each reviewing team was given 15 minutes to select an individual to present that team's review and to prepare for it. In addition. The teams also faced. Each team was asked to make a IO-minute presentation of its progress. • clarifying questions about the presenting team's logic and data. teaching it after the teams had held only one or two meetings. it would be to. • Brainstorm ideas on the premise "If I could ask the team to do one more thing. the term "review" has a negative connotation. and agree on two. during which the reviewer shared the two positive comments.. such organizations fmd it difficult to accept that team reviews are conducted to stimulate communication. Some team members could not see the benefits of collecting data accurately and consistently.. While the reviewers are preparing. Localization-the process of focusing on smaller and smaller vital pieces of the problem-is another task that the teams found difficult. choosing two to share with the team. and keep teams focused and on track. Cause-and-Effect Diagram for "Why Tables Are Not Cleared Quickly" Figure 6. we felt that if they experienced reviewing and being reviewed. such as finding the time to work on their projects. not internal indicators.
only ) em:p the l suput evars in quesed by novaeach rtwo -hour . classical flowcharts. The managers continue to struggle toward that goal. The approach we used is very structured both in terms of time and content. the In the r had soluition. -shifr were o the . The rationale for limiting the time was to make the point that. The final suggestion allows the reviewers to direct the presenting team while acknowledging the considerable effort the team has already expended. almost all the examples were from the printing industry and Sprinters' data were used whenever possible. when teaching the teams how to review each other. As mentioned earlier. if reviewers often praise teams for resisting jumping to solutions. data that the teams had gathered for their projects were used whenever appropriate. misunderstandings. with discipline. At half-day monthly meetings. it is perceived as desirable behavior and thus an organizational value. These meetings also provided the teams with observations on their use of group process skills. which assumes that learning occurs when an individual interacts with the environment to construct his or her own knowledge. after one of the early review sessions. ewed. and making observations relevant to the task. Instructional considerations Our philosophy of training is that it should be given on a just-in-time basis. the teams do not view it as such. surveys. process stability. involving people who work in the process as resources. For example. thus. In formal teaching sessions that introduced new techniques. Team members are interested in the particular aspects of their work that the reviewers single out as worthy of praise.iculty mple. check sheets. and control charts.enta- when reviewing them in the future. hierarchical management.. The work on the projects was launched with a half-day introduction to the Seven Step Method during which 'the teams worked through steps one to three in the restaurant case study. especially sensitive ones. In another one-day program. special and common causes.. team. Although beginning the review with positive comments might be perceived by some onlookers as artificial. introduced the . the managers were territorial and defensive. While attending team meetings. Thus managers would view reviews as tractable and be willing to review projects frequently. oyees I 87 . in a positive and open context. localization. Thus. collecting data. and one suggestion was that it forced the team members to focus on the most vital issues. two clarifying questions. The clarifying questions help both the reviewers and the team being reviewed understand and clear up any ambiguities. participating in the group process. A better strategy would have been to refocus the presenting team's attention using a statement such as "Please explain again the logic of how you got from your data to your conclusion. on its ill . during an early review. Whenever appropriate. we modeled the behavior we were teaching. and the topics included meeting skills. The instructor is a facilitator who guides participants as they set their own pace. top-down flowcharts. two oondsug. The teams then discussed the question and concluded that it is important to frame questions. the review builds on the team's strengths. we covered only the methods and techniques the teams needed when they needed to use them. The review process was quite successful in promoting and communicating support among the three managementbased teams. This was especially valuable because the teams could relate to the revealed peculiarities of the data-gathering process. The review's value The teams' reactions to the review process have been and continue to be very positive. the review process surfaced difficulties from which the teams learned. This orientation stressed the value of process management vs.t= In such a model.' the teams were introduced to a process for brainstorming and consensus decision making. process stability. consistently growing in their shared values and support for each other. When the teams felt frustrated with their tasks. we addressed the needs common to all the teams. both the reviewers and the presenting team must acknowledge the good aspects of what the team has accomplished. "It sounds to me as if we [the people on the three project teams] have become a team!" Although overstated. The rationale for limiting a reviewing team to only two positive comments. In fact. T" -as accusatory. the teams were trained on a just-intime basis. or misconceptions. stratification. run charts. When the company began its quality improvement effort. Pedagogical approach The pedagogical approach we used is based on the constructivist perspective. the reviews gave them support and renewed their enthusiasm. Part of it was also due to the direction and guidance the reviews provided. born out of experiences on their own project teams. one they could use as a model when conducting their own reviews. We also regularly met with the teams individually to monitor their progress. that they shared with the team being reviewed. prod and :ment nates. because people learn methods and techniques better when they have an immediate application for them. and demonstrated the consequences of tampering with the process. an approach that is consistent with the constructivist perspective. Because learning results from resolving conflicts or fulfilling needs. dur- . The rationale for the structure was to give the managers exposure to a good process. Most of the examples were followed with exercises Quality Progress October 1991 e and thing ne to inor it. histograms. the individual or team builds on existing concepts.. a presenting team perceived one clarifying question. It that . 'team ition. this comment indicated a breakthrough in the managers' ability to envision themselves working as a teams lently forts. an influential manager said. Like any learning tool. asking questions. Our work with the teams began with a one-day introduction to the Deming management philosophy. the individual or team is the primary decision maker and is in charge of the progres_s. concept of process variability.. :y felt mt of g way irk in tional jects. In fact. For example. stem-and-leaf plots. the presenting team members revealed that this question dampened their enthusiasm for the rest of the review. interviews. and to give guidance. For example. to learn of any training needs (sometimes providing the training to meet a particular need). we often behaved as team members. This was partially due to the reviewers' understanding. a team review need not be a lengthy undertaking. deployment flowcharts. we became a reviewing team ourselves and participated in the review process alongside the other teams. In their reflection period. By beginning the review with positive comments. These positive comments generate a system of values within the organization. discussed the notion of operational definitions and the customer's key quality characteristics." Perhaps the greatest benefit of the review process to the three management-based teams at Sprinters was its influence in forming the managers into a team. Pareto charts. Half-day training sessions were then held at one-month intervals. and scatter plots. The reflection sessions were of great value in teaching managers what does and doesn't work well in a review and in helping them be more sensitive during a review."Aren't you jumping to conclusions by doing .
. including top managers' willingness to form the first project teams and receive training and coaching in group process and meeting skills. References 1.:.. The three managementbased teams are steadily making progress in solving their problems.. and the managers are applying what they have learned to other areas of their management responsibilities. Joan Ferrini-Mundy. The synergistic effect of the Seven Step Method and the Project Team Review Process has contributed value to both the project teams at Sprinters and to the educational goals we set for the company's top managers. Orange Empire SectionASQC FUTOn Aerospace Compents Div. Shore. 7.. . 1992 In Cooperation with "Orange Empire Section ASQC' Location: The Irvine Marriott... . thereby accelerating improvement. From what we have seen. •••• .. Irvine. Von Glasersfeld.. She received a master's degree in adult learning from Boston University in Boston. MA. "Learning as a Constructive Activity. Wood Host Committee Chair. "How Quality Is Taught Can Be as Important as What Is Taught...~ "'.--. t Barbara Adams Publicity Chair Colonial Rubber Works. MA: MIT Center for Advanced Engineering Study. =..e. Phone: (714) 540-4850 Circle #18 SPONSORS: ASQC HUMAN RESOURCE DWISIONm ORANGE EMPIRE SECTION ASQC ":"=~ 88 Quallly Progress October I 1991 . . Scholtes and other contributors. American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Peter R. E. these managers have developed a sound appreciation of the factors involved and will be able to make the transition to guiding project teams composed of their own subordinates with relative ease and success. .. 1985). . Liz Freeman is the vice president of Coates Freeman Associates in New Ipswich." in J...... She received a doctorate in statistics from the University of Massachusetts in Amherst._. Inc. 1982).. which bolsters commitment and elicits support and guidance. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Meeting of the North. 56-59. and Donovan Van Osdol. Inc.~ . Our primary objective was 'A•••• . A seven-step model that resembles the one developed by Joiner Associates is given in Hitoshi Kume. 4.. Vpl. WI. NH. California ::5f. Speeding the transition The goal in introducing the Seven Step Method and the Project Team Review Process at Sprinters was to speed the transition to a management culture that enabled employees to implement Deming's principles. Herscovics. ~ . £o/t Mary T. 5. Out of the Crisis (Cambridge. pp. " ..:. requiring the teams to apply the technique being learned to their own problems..saw .. The Team Handbook (Madison. ~ ••••• ' .. 5-31. Poole Registration Chair BellSouth Phone: (404) 249-3928 -:- Quality: A Drive for Excellence FOR MORE INFORMATION. CONTACT: Rickey Bowen Cooference Chair K. We were first exposed to the Seven Step Method and the review process through Joiner Associates. pp.-- . John Wayne/Orange County Airport. W. NH. a consulting firm in Madison.E. to provide them with a learning experience in team and problem-solving processes.... 2.. and by the Project Team Review Process.. We feel strongly that the progress of the teams and of the organizational change effort has been accelerated by the Seven Step Method." Quality Progress. 6. "' ~ " .. editors. ._. 1983. Marie Gaudard. . Roland Coates is the president of Coates Freeman Associates in New Ipswich.. The necessary infrastructure involved strong management commitment. Gergeron and N. Statistical Methods for Quality Improvement (Tokyo: Association for Overseas Technical Scholarship. 6.. . Invites lOu to Make Plans to Attend: .. WI: Joiner Associates. Products." •• '1 AQSC Quality Management Division . He received a bachelor's degree in psychology from Middlebury College in Middlebury. 1. 41-69. 1988). pp.. Phone: (901) 287-3671 Fax: (901) 287-3691 •••• Kate A. 3. Phone: (615) 325-9213 Fax: (615) 325-3620 Marie Gaudard is an associate professor in the Department of Mathematics at the University of New Hampshire in Durham. Samuel D. Joiner Associates is actively developing and promoting these powerful tools. which provides a road map for solving difficult problems. The 4th ANNUAL NATIONAL MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE FEBRUARY 5. January 1990. Gaudard is a member of ASQe. Coates is an ASQC member..Accelerating Improvement cont.. VT. Edwards Deming.
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