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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﻣﺒﺎﻧﻲ )‪( IT‬‬

‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺑﺸﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﺯ ﺳﺮﮔﺮﻡ ﺍﻣﻮﺭﻱ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﺵ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺍﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺰ ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻨﻮﻋﺎﻥ ﺧـﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﮊﻩ ) ﺍﺷﻴﺎﺀ ( ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺩﻻﻟﺖ ﺑﺮ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﮔﻮﺳﻔﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﻳﻚ ﮔﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻥ ﻳﻚ ﻛﻮﺩﻙ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻳﻚ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﺕ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻃﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺧـﺮﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺧﺸﻜﺴﺎﻟﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺷﺪﺕ ﻳﻚ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﻟﺮﺯﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻛﻠﻤﻪ ﻱ ‪ Computer‬ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﻓﻬﺎ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ :‬ﻣﺤﺎﺳـﺒﻪ ﻛـﺮﺩﻥ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﺨﻤـــﻴﻦ ﺯﺩﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺣـــﺴﺎﺏ ﻛـــﺮﺩﻥ ﻭ ﻣـــﺎ ‪ Computer‬ﺭﺍ ﺑـــﻪ ﻧـــﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﺷـــﻴﻦ ﻣﺤﺎﺳـــﺒﻪ ﮔـــﺮ ﻣـــﻲ ﺧـــﻮﺍﻧﻴﻢ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺯﻧﺠﻴﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺣﻠﻘﻪ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﮔﺮ ﻭ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﭼﻴﺰﻱ ﻛﻪ ﻛـﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﮕـﺮ ﻣﺎﺷـﻴﻨﻬﺎﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺤﺎﺳـــﺒﻪ ﮔـــﺮ ﺟـــﺪﺍ ﻛـــﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳـــﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﻗـــﻊ ﺳـــﺮﻋﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻗـــﺖ ﻭ ﺍﻃﻤﻴﻨـــﺎﻥ ﺑـــﺎﻻ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺠـــﺎﻡ ﻛﺎﺭﻫﺎﺳـــﺖ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻣﻴﻠﻴﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ‪ .‬ﻫﺮ ﭼﻨﺪ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﺭﻭﺷﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺁﺭﺍﻳﺶ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻃﻲ ﺳﻪ ﭼﻬﺎﺭ ﺩﻫﻪ‬
‫ﺍﺧﻴـــﺮ ) ﻛـــﻪ ﻣﻌـــﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﺳـــﺖ ﺑـــﺎ ﻛـــﻞ ﺗـــﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫـــﺎﻱ ﺗﺠـــﺎﺭﻱ ( ﺑـــﻪ ﻭﻗـــﻮﻉ ﭘﻴﻮﺳـــﺘﻪ ﺍﺳـــﺖ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻱ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﻮﭼﻜﺘﺮ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﺣﺘﻲ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻳﻚ ﻣﻴﺰ ﺟﺎ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ ‪ .‬ﭼﻴﺰﻱ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺒﻼ ﻳﻚ ﺍﺗﺎﻕ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﺭﺍ‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﺷﻐﺎﻝ ﻣﻲ ﻛﺮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﺟﻌﺒﻪ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺟﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻋﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻛﻪ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻱ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺎﻳﻲ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬
‫ﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ‪.‬‬

‫ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻨﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺳﻪ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻴﺪﻫﺪ ‪:‬‬

‫‪ .١‬ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻱ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻴﭙﺬﻳﺮﺩ‬

‫‪ .٢‬ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﻃﺒﻖ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﺯ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻱ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﻣﻴﮑﻨﺪ‬

‫‪ .٣‬ﻭ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﻣﻴﺪﻫﺪ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ورودی‬ ‫ﺧﺮوﺟﯽ‬
‫ﭘﺮدازش‬

‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ‪ :‬ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺧﺎﻣﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻣﻌﻨﺎ ﻭ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﺗﺎ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬

‫ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ‪ :‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‬

‫ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻲ ‪ :‬ﺑﻪ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‬

‫ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ‬

‫ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﮔﺮﻭﻫﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﻲ ﺩﺳﺘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻫﺮ ﭼﻨﺪ ﻣﺮﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﺮﻭﻫﻬﺎ ﻫﻤﻴﺸﻪ ﻛﺎﻣﻼ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻧﺒﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻃﻴﻔﻲ‬
‫ﻳﺎ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺠﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻮﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻃﻴﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ‪ Main Frame‬ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺯ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﻭ ﮔﺮﺍﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺖ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺮﻛﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎﻱ ﺩﻭﻟﺘﻲ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ – ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺗﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﺩﺭ ‪ ٢٤‬ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﺭﻭﺯ ﻭ ‪ ٣٦٥‬ﺭﻭﺯ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺎﻳﻲ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻋﻈﻴﻤﻲ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻭ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻃﻴﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺁﺷﻨﺎ ﻫﺴﺘﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﺨﺼﻲ ﻳﺎ ‪ PC‬ﻣﻲ ﻧﺎﻣﻨﺪ‬
‫ﻛﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﻗﺒﻼ ﺑﺎ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﺪﻧﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺯ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ‪ Frame Main‬ﺍﺭﺯﺍﻥ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺗﻨﻮﻉ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻭ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ‪ ، PC‬ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﻭﻣﻴﺰﻱ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﻭﻣﻴﺰﻱ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺣﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﻱ ﺟﺪﺍﮔﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻳﻚ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻚ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﻭ ﻳﻚ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻛﻠﻴﺪ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﺩﻳﮕـﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﺨﺼﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻟﭗ ﺗﺎﭖ ‪ Lap-Top Notebook‬ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺟﺎﺑﻪ ﺟﺎ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻳﻚ ﺻـﻔﺤﻪ‬
‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﺗﺨﺖ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻛﺮﻳﺴﺘﺎﻝ ﻣﺎﻳﻊ ﻳﺎ ‪ LCD‬ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻛﻠﻴﺪ ﻭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻟﻮﻻ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻋﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻟﭗ ﺗﺎﭖ ﻗﺪﺭﻱ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺘﺰ ﺍﺯ ‪ PC‬ﻫﺎ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺩﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﻃﻴﻔﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺳﺘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻴﻨﻲ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ ‪:‬‬
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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫‪ -١‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺮﻛﺘﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬


‫‪ -٢‬ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺷﻲ ﺑﺎﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎﻥ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ‪ PC‬ﻫﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ ‪:‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ) ﺳﺮﻭﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ( ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻳﻚ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻣﻨﻴﺘﻲ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺖ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬
‫‪ .‬ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺍﻥ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ) ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻱ ( ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺮﻭﺭ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﮔﺬﺷـﺘﻪ ﺍﻳـﻦ‬
‫ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺍﻥ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﺯ ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮔﻨﮓ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻛﺮﺩﻧﺪ ‪ ،‬ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮔﻨﮓ ﻭﺳﺎﻳﻠﻲ ) ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻳﻚ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﻭ ﻳﻚ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻛﻠﻴﺪ ( ﺑﻮﺩﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑـﻪ‬
‫ﺳﺎﺩﮔﻲ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﻣﻲ ﺩﺍﺩﻧﺪ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﻭ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺗﻮﺳـﻂ ﻛـﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻭﺭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ‪.‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺍﻥ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﺍﺯ ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻫﻮﺷﻤﻨﺪ ﺳﻮﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺟﻮﻳﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻫﻮﺷﻤﻨﺪ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻧـﻮﻉ ‪PC‬‬
‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﻭ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﺤﻠﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺳﻮﭘﺮ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ‪ ،‬ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ‬
‫ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻮﭘﺮ ﻣﻴﻨﻲ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻴﻨﻲ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﺴﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺭﻳﺰ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎ ﺭﺩﻩ ﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﻣﻴﮑﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ‬


‫‪ .١‬ﺍﺑﺮ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ‬
‫‪ .٢‬ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ‬
‫‪ .٣‬ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﻮﭼﮏ‬
‫‪ .٤‬ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﺨﺼﻲ‬

‫ﺍﺑﺮ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ‬

‫ﺳﻮﭘﺮ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﺴﺖ ﺍﺯ ﻳﮏ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻩ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﻭ ﮔﺮﺍﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ ﻭ ﭘﻴﺸﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻴﮕﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻣﻴﺘﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﺑﻲ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺭﺳﻢ ﻭ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻔﻴﻨﻪ ﻓﻀﺎﻳﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻳـﮏ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﮎ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺑﺮ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻱ ﭼﻮﻥ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺑﻴﻨﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻫﻮﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﻝ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻭ ﺷﺒﻴﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻭ ﮐﺸﻒ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻧﻔﺘـﻲ ﻭ‬
‫‪ ....‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻴﮕﻴﺮﺩ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺷﺨﺼﻲ‬

‫ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺷﺨﺼﻲ ) ‪ ، ( Personal Computer‬ﺑﺎ ﻋﻼﻣﺖ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭﻱ ‪ PC‬ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻃﺮﺍﺣـﻲ ﺷـﺪﻩ ﺍﺳـﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﺨﺼﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﮎ ﮔﺬﺍﺭﻱ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺷﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻭ ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮ ﺑﺎ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻓﮑﺮ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺷﺨـﺼﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺑﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﺁﺯﺍﺩ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺍﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺍﹰ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺷﻮﻧﺪﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﻭ ﮐﻮﭼﮏ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻼﹰ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺎ ﺷﺮﮐﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻱ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻼ ﻣﻨﺎﺯﻉ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﻮﺩﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣـﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗـﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻴﺪﺍﺩﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ Laptop‬ﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺗﻲ ﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﻧﻈﻴـﺮ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫـﺎﻱ‬
‫ﺷﺨﺼﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ" ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﺣﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻭ ﺑـﺼﻮﺭﺕ‬
‫ﻓﺮﺍﻣﮑﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﺮﺩ ‪.‬ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ‪ ،Laptop‬ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﮐﻮﭼﮏ ﻭ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺣﻤﻞ ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﺴﻄﺢ ﻭ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐـﻪ‬
‫ﺭﻭﻱ ﻫﻢ ﺗﺎ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﻧﺪ ‪ .‬ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ Laptop‬ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺎﺗﺮﻱ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻣﻴﮑﻨﻨﺪ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻳﮏ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ‪ ) LCD‬ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺸﮕﺮ ﮐﺮﻳﺴﺘﺎﻝ ﻣﺎﻳﻊ ( ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﻀﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﻟﻬﺎ ﻣﻴﺘﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻳﮏ ﺍﻳﺴﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺟﻔﺖ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺭﻭﻣﻴﺰﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻓﺘﺮ ﻋﻤﻞ ﮐﻨﻨـﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺑﻌـﻀﻲ ﺍﺯ ﮐـﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻫـﺎﻱ‬
‫‪ Laptop‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻱ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺩﺭ ‪ ROM‬ﺗﻌﺒﻴﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺁﻧﺎﻟﻮﮒ‬

‫ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺁﻧﺎﻟﻮﮒ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺠﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﮐﺪ ﺩﻫﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺭﻗﻤﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺍﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﻱ ﺩﻭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻭ‬
‫ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻴﺪﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﺠﻴﺘﺎﻟﻲ ) ﺭﻗﻤﻲ ( ﻣﻘﺎﺩﻳﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻴﮕﻨﺎﻟﻬﺎﻱ ﮔﺴﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻴﮑﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺭﻳـﺰ‬
‫ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻳﺠﻴﺘﺎﻟﻲ ) ﺭﻗﻤﻲ ( ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﻣﺎ ﻣﻴﺘﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﺎ ﮐﻤﮏ ﻳﮏ ﻣﺒﺪﻝ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻗﻤﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﺎ ﮐﻤـﮏ ﻳـﮏ‬
‫ﻣﺒﺪﻝ ﺭﻗﻤﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ ‪،‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺭﻗﻤﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ‬

‫‪ .٣‬ﻣﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ‬ ‫‪ .٢‬ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ‬ ‫‪ .١‬ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ‬

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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ‬

‫ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﺴﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮑﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﻣﻴﺪﻫﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺸﮕﺮ ) ﻣﻮﻧﻴﺘﻮﺭ (‪ ،‬ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ‪ ،‬ﮐﺎﺑﻠﻬﺎ ﻭ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮﻩ ‪ .‬ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻭﻇﺎﻳﻒ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻣﻴﮑﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩﻱ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﺩ ﮐـﻪ ﻫـﺮ‬
‫ﮐﺪﺍﻡ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ ‪ :‬ﺑﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﻪ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻣﮑﺎﻧﻴﮑﻲ ﮐﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻤﺲ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ‬

‫ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ‬

‫ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻭﺟﻪ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻤﺲ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪ .‬ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻳﻚ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎ ) ﻛـﻪ ﺧـﻮﺩ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋـﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ( ﺍﻃﻼﻕ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﺭﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻴﻜﻪ ﺳﺨﻦ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺻﻔﺮ ﻭ ﻳﻚ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻥ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻳﻚ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻧﻮﻳﺲ ﻻﺯﻡ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﺁﺷﻨﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺷﻤﺎ ﻫﻢ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺷﻨﻴﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ)‬
‫ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ‪ . ( C‬ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﻫﺮ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺳﺨﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺁﺳﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨـﺪ ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺧـﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻧـﺮﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ) ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﻤﺒﻠﻲ (‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﻠﻲ ﻫﺮ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭ ﺩﺳﺘﻪ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻲ ﻭ‬
‫ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻱ ﺗﻌﻠﻖ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ‪.‬ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ )‪ ( Soft ware‬ﻳﺎ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﮐﺎﺭ ﮐـﺮﺩﻥ ﺳـﺨﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ )‪ (Hardware‬ﻣﻴﺸﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ) ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ( ﮐﻪ ﮐﺎﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺭﺍ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﻴﮑﻨﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻱ ﻣﺎﻧﻨـﺪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣـﻪ‬
‫ﻫﺎﻱ ﻭﺍﮊﻩ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻱ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﭘﺎﻳﮕﺎﻩ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﮐﻪ ﻭﻇﺎﻳﻒ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺍﻥ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻴﺪﻫﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻧﺮﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﺷﺒﮑﻪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﮔﺮﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻫﺎ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ‬
‫ﻧﻮﻳﺴﺎﻥ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻴﺪﻫﺪ ﺩﻭ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ‪:‬‬


‫‪ .۱‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻲ )ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻫﺎ(‬
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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫‪ .۲‬ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻱ ) … ‪( word , excel , powerpoint , Access , photoshop ,‬‬

‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ‬

‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺷﮏ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻢ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﮐﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻧﻴﺰ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ‬
‫ﮐﻪ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﺪﻫﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﻭ ﻫﺪﻓﻤﻨﺪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﻪ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺪﺭﺳﺘﻲ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﺳﺘﺎ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻧـﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌـﺪﺩ ﻭ‬
‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﻴﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻼ" ﺍﺟـﺎﻕ ﻫـﺎﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻳﮑﺮﻭﻭﻳﻮ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺷﭙﺰﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫـﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻱ ﻭ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻧﻈﻴـﺮ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ﻭ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺸﮕﺮﻫﺎﻱ ‪ ، LCD‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﮔﺬﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﺍﺟﺎﻕ ﮔﺎﺯ ﻣﺎﻳﮑﺮﻭﻭﻳﻮ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﻭ‬
‫ﻣﺨﺘﺼﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻳﮏ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩﻱ ﺑﻤﺮﺍﺗﺐ‬
‫ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ ﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺟﺎﻕ ﮔﺎﺯ ﻣﺎﻳﮑﺮﻭﻭﻳﻮ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﮐﺎﺭﺁﺋﻲ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻭ ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻣﺮ ﭘﻴﺎﺩﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ‬
‫ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﺨﺼﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﻨﺪﻭﺯ ﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻟﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻋﺎﻣـﻞ ﺍﺳـﺖ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻮﻧﻴﮑﺲ ﻳﮑﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺻﺪﻫﺎ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﺎﮐﻨﻮﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﻭ ﻋﺮﺿـﻪ‬
‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺨﺘﺺ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﻭﺑﻮﺗﻴﮏ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻟﻲ ﺑﻼﺩﺭﻧﮓ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﺋﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﻣﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺩﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ‪:‬‬

‫‪ - ١‬ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﻳﮏ ﺳِﺴﺘﻢ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﻋﻬﺪﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﺎﻱ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬
‫‪ - ٢‬ﺭﻭﺷﻲ ﭘﺎﻳﺪﺍﺭ ﻭ ﻳﮑﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺩﺳﺘﻴﺎﺑﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﺑﺪﻭ ﻥ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺍﺯ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﻫﺮ ﻳﮏ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ‬

‫ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﻭ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺩﺳﺘﻴﺎﺑﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺳـﺨﺖ ﺍﻓـﺰﺍﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻧﻈﻴﺮ‪ :‬ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎﻱ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻱ ﻭ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺭﻗﺎﺑﺘﻲ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺷﺮﮐﺖ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻳﮏ ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﻋﺎﺩﻝ ﻭ ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻦ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻨـﺎﺑﻊ ﻣﻮﺟـﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ ﻫـﺮ ﻳـﮏ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣـﻪ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﮐـﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﻓـﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣـﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨـﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﻪ ﺩﻭﻡ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺭﺍﺑﻂ ) ‪ ( Interface‬ﻳﮑﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﻴﺶ‬
‫ﺍﺯ ﻳﮏ ﻧﻮﻉ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻧـﻲ ﺧﺎﺻـﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻬـﺖ‬
‫ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‪ ،‬ﭼﺮﺍﮐﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻴﺎﻧﺠﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﻭ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓـﺰﺍﺭ ﺍﻳﻔـﺎﻱ ﻭﻇﻴﻔـﻪ ﮐـﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺖ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻱ ﺳﭙﺮﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﺎﻥ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻘﺶ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴﺎﻧﺠﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺮﺍﺣﺘﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﻭ ﭘﻴﺎﺩﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻧﻲ‬
‫ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ ‪ ) .‬ﺣﺘﻲ ﺍﮔﺮ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ ( ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﮑﻪ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻳﮏ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﻘﺎﺀ ﻳﺎﺑـﺪ‪،‬‬

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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮐﺮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﺍﺷﮑﺎﻝ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺣﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ ﺩﻫـﻲ ﺧـﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﺷـﻨﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺖ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺑﺮﻋﻬﺪﻩ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻧﻪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺭﺗﻘﺎﻱ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻳـﮏ‬
‫ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺖ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﺳﺘﺎ ﺍﻭﻟﻮﻳﺖ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ) ‪ ( Operating System‬ﺑﺎ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﺧﺘـﺼﺎﺭﻱ ‪ OS‬ﻧـﺮﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻝ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻭ ﺑﮑﺎﺭ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﻣﺮﮐﺰﻱ ) ‪ (CPU‬ﻓﻀﺎﻱ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻭ‬
‫ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻱ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻭﺍﮊﻩ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻱ ﻭ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳـﺎﺱ ﺁﻥ‬
‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻟﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﺎ ﮐﻨﻮﻥ ‪ Unix, Windows, OS/2 Mac OS, MS-DOS‬ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻱ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻧﻘﺶ ﺭﺍﺑﻂ ﺑﻴﻦ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮ ﻭ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻳﻔﺎ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﻪ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﺑـﻪ‬
‫ﮐﻤﮏ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﮐﺮﺩ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻱ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ‬

‫ﻣﺪﺕ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻳﻚ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﻱ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺷﮕﺮ ‪ Processor‬ﻛـﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﺳـﺖ ‪.‬‬
‫ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺷﮕﺮ ﻳﻚ ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﻜﻲ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﺩﺭ ﻗﻠﺐ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﮕﺎﻫﺮﺗﺰ ‪ MHz‬ﺳﻨﺠﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ‪ .‬ﻫﺮ ﭼﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻳـﻦ‬
‫ﭘﺎﺭﺍﻣﺘﺮ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪ ،‬ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺷﮕﺮ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺘﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﻫﺪ ‪ .‬ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺷﮕﺮ‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻳﻚ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺪﺭﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻛﺎﺭﺁﻳﻲ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﻱ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﻧﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻳﺎﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ‪ .‬ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺷﮕﺮ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﻜﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ ﻳﺎ‬
‫‪ CPU‬ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﻣﺮﮐﺰﻱ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭﻱ ‪ Central Processing Unit- CPU‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺗﻲ ﻭ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻟـﻲ‬
‫ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﻣﻴﮑﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﻭ ﻣﻴﻨﻲ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻗﺪﻳﻤﻲ ﺑﺮﺩﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﭘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺠﺘﻤـﻊ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺍﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﻣﺮﮐﺰﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﻣﺮﮐﺰﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺭﻳﺰ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﻧﺎﻣﻴـﺪﻩ ﻣﻴـﺸﻮﻧﺪ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﺨﺼﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻳﺴﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﺭﻱ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻴﺴﺮ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﻋﺎﻣﻴﺎﻧﻪ ‪ CPU‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻐﺰ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺷﮕﺮ‬

‫ﻣﺪﺕ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻳﮏ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﻱ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺁﻧﻬـﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺳـﺮﻋﺖ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺷـﮕﺮ ) ‪ (Processor‬ﮐـﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺷﮕﺮ ﻳﮏ ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻗﻠﺐ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺮ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﮕﺎﻫﺮﺗﺰ )‪ ( MHz‬ﺳﻨﺠﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻫﺮ ﭼﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬

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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﺎﺭﺍﻣﺘﺮ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺷﮕﺮ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺘﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺛﺎﻧﻴـﻪ ﺍﻧﺠـﺎﻡ ﺩﻫـﺪ‪ .‬ﺳـﺮﻋﺖ‬
‫ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺷﮕﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻳﮏ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺪﺭﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﮐﺎﺭﺍﻳﻲ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻﹰ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﻱ ﺗـﺸﮑﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﻧﺎﻡ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻳﺎﺩ ﻣﻴﮑﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺷﮕﺮ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﻱ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺁﻧﺮﺍ ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻴﮑﻨﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﹰ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﻣﺮﮐﺰﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺎ ‪ CPU‬ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ‬

‫ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ) ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﻗﺖ ( ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﻲ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺩﺭﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ‪.‬‬
‫‪RAM‬‬
‫‪ROM‬‬
‫‪Cache‬‬
‫‪Dynamic RAM‬‬
‫‪Static RAM‬‬
‫‪Flash Memory‬‬
‫‪Memory Virtual‬‬
‫‪Video Memory‬‬
‫‪BIOS‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺻﺮﻓﺎ" ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﺨﺼﻲ ﻧﺒﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﻲ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ‪ :‬ﺗﻠﻔﻦ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻠﻮﻟﻲ‪ ، PDA ،‬ﺭﺍﺩﻳﻮﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺗﻮﻣﺒﻴﻞ‬
‫‪ ، VCR ،‬ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺰﻳﻮﻥ ﻭ ‪ ...‬ﻧﻴﺰ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻭﺳﻴﻌﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ‪.‬ﻫﺮ ﻳﮏ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﺪﻝ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬
‫ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﮊﻩ " ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ " ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﻫﺮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑﻲ ﺍﻃﻼﻕ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺍﮊﻩ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ ﻣـﺸﺨﺺ ﻧﻤـﻮﺩﻥ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺑﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻣﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﮑﻪ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﻣﺠﺒﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﺎﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴـﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺧﻮﺩ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﻄﻌﺎ" ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ) ﺑﺎ ﺁﻥ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺎﻻ( ﮐﻨﺪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑـﻪ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺩﺳﺘﻴﺎﺑﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ‬
‫ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﻱ ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﻣﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﺯﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ‪ .‬ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﻪ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺒﻲ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺩﺳﺘﻴﺎﺑﻲ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﻲ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻧﻈﻴـﺮ ﺻـﻔﺤﻪ‬
‫ﮐﻠﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ‪ RAM‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ‪ Cache‬ﻭ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﺧﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺟﻴﺴﺘﺮﻫﺎ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ) ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻭ ‪ (...‬ﻭ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ) ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻭ‪(...‬‬
‫ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﻳﮏ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﺑﮑﻤﮏ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﻭﻇﺎﻳﻒ ﻣﺤﻮﻟﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺷﮏ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ " ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ " ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺎﻫﻲ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺯ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﺗﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ‪ ،‬ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻼﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ‬
‫ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ) ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ‪ (POST‬ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ‪ ROM‬ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺳﺎﻟﻢ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‬
‫) ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ( ‪.‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ‪ BIOS‬ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯﻃﺮﻳﻖ ‪ ROM‬ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ BIOS .‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﻭ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺩﺭ‬

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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎﻱ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﺩﺭﺍﻳﻮﻱ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﺑﻮﺕ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﺠﺎ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﻨﻴﺖ ﻭ ‪ ...‬ﺭﺍ ﻣـﺸﺨﺺ ﻣـﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳـﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ‪ RAM‬ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﻳﺎﻓﺖ ‪ .‬ﺑﺨﺶ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻬﻢ ﻭ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻣﺎﻧﺪﮔﺎﺭ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﻭ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ‪ RAM‬ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬
‫ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻳﮏ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻭ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ ﺩﻫﻲ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺕ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻓﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺣﻴﺎﺕ ﻳﮏ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺧﺎﺗﻤﻪ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ )‪ (Close‬ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻳﮏ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﺮ‬
‫ﺭﻭﻱ ﻳﮏ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﻪ ﺫﺧﻴـﺮﻩ ﺳـﺎﺯﻱ ﺩﺍﺋـﻢ ﺫﺧﻴـﺮﻩ ﻭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺘـﺎ" ﺣﺎﻓﻈـﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺟـﻮﺩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣـﻪ ﻭ ﻓﺎﻳـﻞ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﻣـﺮﺗﺒﻂ ‪ ،‬ﭘﺎﮐـﺴﺎﺯﻱ ! ﻣـﻲ ﮔـﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻤﺎﻧﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﺭﺧﻮﺍﺳﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ‪ RAM‬ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﺗﺎ‬
‫ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﭼﺮﺧﻪ ﺩﺭﺧﻮﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ‪ RAM‬ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﮑﻞ ﮐﺎﻣﻼ" ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎ ﺳﻴﮑﻞ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﻣﻴﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻫﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻪ ﺗﮑﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺗﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻴﮕﻴﺮﺩ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻫﺎ ﺩﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﺘـﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺣﺎﻓﻈـﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺩﻭ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ :‬ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻧﻲ )‪ (ROM‬ﻭ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﻲ ﺗﺼﺎﺩﻓﻲ )‪(RAM‬‬

‫‪RAM‬‬
‫ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ )‪ RAM(Random Access Memory‬ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻧﻴﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﺵ ﺩﺳﺘﻴﺎﺑﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻓﻈـﻪ‬
‫ﻫﺎ ﺗﺼﺎﺩﻓﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﭼﻮﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻫـﺮ ﺳـﻠﻮﻝ ﺣﺎﻓﻈـﻪ ﻣـﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎ" ﺩﺳـﺘﻴﺎﺑﻲ ﭘﻴـﺪﺍ ﮐـﺮﺩ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑـﻞ ﺣﺎﻓﻈـﻪ ﻫـﺎﻱ ‪ ، RAM‬ﺣﺎﻓﻈـﻪ‬
‫ﻫﺎﻱ)‪ SAM(Serial Access Memory‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ SAM‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻠﻮﻝ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺣﺎﻓﻈـﻪ ﺫﺧﻴـﺮﻩ ﻭ‬
‫ﺻﺮﻓﺎ" ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺩﺳﺘﻴﺎﺑﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‪ ) .‬ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﻧﻮﺍﺭ ﮐﺎﺳﺖ ( ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﮑﻪ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺟﺎﺭﻱ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ ﻫﺮ‬
‫ﻳﮏ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻠﻮﻝ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﺎ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ SAM‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻳﮑﻪ ﭘـﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫـﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣـﺎ"‬
‫ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﻲ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ) ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﮐﺎﺭﺕ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﮏ (‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ‪ RAM‬ﺑﺎ ﻫﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻭﻟﻮﻳﺖ ﺩﻟﺨﻮﺍﻩ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺩﺳﺘﻴﺎﺑﻲ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪RAM‬‬

‫ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ‪ ، RAM‬ﻳﮏ ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ )‪ (IC‬ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻴﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﻧﺰﻳﺴﺘﻮﺭ ﻭ ﺧﺎﺯﻥ ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻭ‬
‫ﺑﮑﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻳﮏ ﺧﺎﺯﻥ ﻭ ﻳﮏ ﺗﺮﺍﻧﺰﻳﺴﺘﻮﺭ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻠﻮﻝ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺳﻠﻮﻝ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﻳﮏ ﺑﻴـﺖ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫـﺪ ﺑـﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺧـﺎﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺭﺍ ﮐﻪ ﻳﮏ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮐﺮﺩ‪.‬ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﺗﺮﺍﻧﺰﻳﺴﺘﻮﺭ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻮﻳﻴﭻ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﮐﻨﺘـﺮﻝ‬
‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻥ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺧﺎﺯﻥ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣـﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳـﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ ‪ RAM:‬ﺳﺮ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ )‪ ( Random Access Memory‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺳﺘﻴﺎﺑﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻳﺎ ﺩﺳﺘﻴﺎﺑﻲ ﺗﺼﺎﺩﻓﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐـﻪ‬
‫ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻄﻮﺭﻱ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎﹰ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﻣﺮﮐﺰﻱ )‪ (CPU‬ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺩﺳـﺘﻴﺎﺑﻲ ﺑﺎﺷـﻨﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ RAM‬ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻧﻲ ‪ /‬ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻨﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺫﮐﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻗﻄﻊ ﻧﺎﮔﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﺮﻕ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺭﻓﺖ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫‪ RAM‬ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺩﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ :‬ﺍﻳﺴﺘﺎ ﻭ ﭘﻮﻳﺎ ‪ .‬ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻟﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺯﺍﻧﺘﺮﻳﻦ ‪ RAM‬ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻧﻮﻋﻲ ﺧﺎﺯﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻴﺘﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺷﺎﺭﮊ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺧـﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﻳﮏ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺘﺎﺳﻔﺎﻧﻪ ﺧﺎﺯﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﺕ ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻫﻲ ﻣﻴﺘﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺷﺎﺭﮊ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺣﻔﻆ ﮐﻨـﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻳـﺪ‬
‫ﺑﻄﻮﺭ ﻣﺮﺗﺐ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺗﺶ ﺗﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ‪ RAM‬ﻣﺒﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺭﺍ )‪ RAM‬ﭘﻮﻳﺎ ( ﻳﺎ " ‪ " DRAM‬ﻣﻴﮕﻮﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻧﻤﻮﻧـﻪ ﺳـﺮﻳﻌﺘﺮ ﻭ‬
‫ﮔﺮﺍﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺖ ﺗﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ‪ RAM‬ﻧﻴﺰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺯ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﮐﻮﭼﮑﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻓﻠﻴﭗ ﻓﻼﭖ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ﻫﺎ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ‬
‫ﭘﺎﻳﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺗﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻣﻴﺘﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻳﮏ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪RAM .‬‬
‫ﻣﺒﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ ) ‪ RAM‬ﺍﻳﺴﺘﺎ ( ﻳﺎ " ‪ " SRAM‬ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ‪RAM‬‬

‫‪ (Static random access memory)SRAM‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺍﻧﺰﻳﺴﺘﻮﺭ ) ﭼﻬﺎﺭ ﺗﺎ ﺷﺶ ( ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻫﺮ ﺳﻠﻮﻝ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬
‫ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻫﺮ ﺳـﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﺯ ﺧـﺎﺯﻥ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤـﻲ ﮔـﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳـﻦ ﻧـﻮﻉ ﺣﺎﻓﻈـﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺑﺘـﺪﺍ ﺑﻤﻨﻈـﻮﺭ ‪ cache‬ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣـﻲ ﺷـﺪﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (Dynamic random access memory)DRAM‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺳﻠﻮﻝ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻳـﮏ ﺯﻭﺝ ﺗﺮﺍﻧﺰﻳـﺴﺘﻮﺭﻭ ﺧـﺎﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ‪dynamic random access memory)FPM DRAM (Fast page mode‬ﺷﮑﻞ ﺍﻭﻟﻴـﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻓﻈـﻪ ﻫـﺎﻱ‬
‫‪ DRAM‬ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪.‬ﺩﺭ ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﺍﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺗﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺗﮑﻤﻴﻞ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻳﮏ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺳﻄﺮ ﻭ ﺳﺘﻮﻥ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻳـﺴﺖ ﻣﻨﺘﻈـﺮ ﻭ ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ ).‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ( ‪.‬ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺑـﻪ ‪ L2 cache‬ﻣﻌـﺎﺩﻝ‬
‫‪ ( ١٧٦‬ﻣﮕﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪memory)EDO DRAM Extended data-out dynamic random access.‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ‬
‫ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ ﺗﮑﻤﻴﻞ ﻭ ﺍﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺑﻴﺖ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺑﻼﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ‬
‫ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﺁﺩﺭﺱ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺑﻴﺖ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ ‪ EDO DRAM‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺴﺘﺠﻮ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺳﺮﻋﺖ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻮﻕ ﭘﻨﺞ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺘﺮ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ FPM‬ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺑﻪ ‪ L2 cache‬ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ ‪ ١٧٦‬ﻣﮕﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ‬
‫(ﺍﺳﺖ ‪Synchronous dynamic random access memory)SDRM.‬ﺍﺯ ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻲ "ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ " ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻭ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﮐﺎﺭﺍﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ ‪.‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﺳﻄﺮ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺳﺘﻮﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻭ ﺑﻼﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ‪،‬ﺁﻥ‬
‫ﺭﺍ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪ‪ SDRAM .‬ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﭘﻨﺞ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ EDO‬ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫـﺎ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣـﻲ‬
‫‪ L2‬ﻣﻌــــﺎﺩﻝ ‪ ٥٢٨‬ﻣﮕﺎﺑﺎﻳــــﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴــــﻪ ﺍﺳــــﺖ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﮔــــﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬ﺣــــﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﺳــــﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﺭﺳــــﺎﻝ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺑــــﻪ ‪cache‬‬
‫‪ (Rambus dynamic random access memory )RDRAM‬ﻳﮏ ﺭﻭﻳﮑﺮﺩ ﮐﺎﻣﻼ" ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻗﺒﻠﻲ ‪ DRAM‬ﺍﺳـﺖ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ )‪ RIMM (Rambus in-line memory module‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻟﺤﺎﻅ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﻭ ﭘﻴﮑﺮﺑﻨـﺪﻱ ﻣـﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻳـﮏ‬
‫‪ DIMM‬ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻭﺟﻪ ﺗﻤﺎﻳﺰ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻳﮏ ﮔﺬﺭﮔﺎﻩ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺎﻡ "ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ‪ " Rambus‬ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ‬
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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﺣﺎﻓﻈــﻪ ‪ RDRAM‬ﺑــﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﻣــﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﮐــﺎﺭ ﮐــﺮﺩﻩ ﺗــﺎ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﻨــﺪ ﺑــﻪ ﺳــﺮﻋﺖ ‪ ٨٠٠‬ﻣﮕــﺎﻫﺮﺗﺰ ﺩﺳــﺖ ﭘﻴــﺪﺍ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨــﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ Credit card memory‬ﻳﮏ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﮐﺎﻣﻼ" ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪﮐﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺎﮊﻭﻝ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ DRAM‬ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭﻳﮏ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﺎﺹ‬
‫ـﺮﺩﺩ ‪.‬‬
‫ـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣــــــــ ـﻲ ﮔـــــــــ‬
‫ـﺎﻱ ‪ noteBook‬ﺍﺳـــــــــ‬
‫ـﻼﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫـــــــــ‬
‫ﺍﺳـــــــــ‬
‫‪. PCMCIA memory card‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺷـﺎﻣﻞ ﻣـﺎﮊﻭﻝ ﻫـﺎﻱ ‪ DRAM‬ﺑـﻮﺩﻩ ﮐـﻪ ﺩﺭ ‪ notebook‬ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣـﻲ ﺷـﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ FlashRam‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﮐﻢ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺗﻠﻮﻳﺰﻳﻮﻥ‪ VCR ،‬ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈـﻮﺭ ﻧﮕﻬـﺪﺍﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻧـﺪﮐﻲ ﺑـﺮﻕ ﻣـﺼﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻭ ‪ ...‬ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣـﻲ ﮔـﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (VideoRam)VRAM‬ﻳﮏ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ RAM‬ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ‪ :‬ﺁﺩﺍﭘﺘﻮﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻭﻳﺪﺋﻮ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺷﺘﺎﺏ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺳﻪ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎ )‪ MPDRAM (multiport dynamic random access memory‬ﻧﻴﺰ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣـﻲ‬
‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬ﻋﻠﺖ ﻧﺎﻣﮕﺬﺍﺭﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺩﺳﺘﻴﺎﺑﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺗﺼﺎﺩﻓﻲ ﻭ ﺳﺮﻳﺎﻝ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ VRAM‬ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﮐﺎﺭﺕ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﮏ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻓﺮﻣﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﻲ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ‪ " :‬ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ " ﻭ‬
‫" ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﺭﻧﮓ ﻫﺎ " ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪ROM‬‬

‫ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ‪ ROM‬ﻳﮏ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ )‪ (IC‬ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﺋﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺑﺮ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﺨﺼﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ ROM‬ﺍﺯ ﻟﺤﺎﻅ ﺗﮑﻨﻮﻟﻮﮊﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪:‬‬
‫‪EEPROM‬‬ ‫‪ROM‬‬
‫‪Flash Memory‬‬ ‫‪PROM‬‬
‫‪EPROM‬‬
‫ﻫﺮ ﻳﮏ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﻝ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻨﺤﺼﺮﺑﻔﺮﺩ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﻳﺮﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻲ ﻣـﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻣـﻲ ﺑﺎﺷـﻨﺪ‪:‬‬
‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﻫﺎ " ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﺮﺍﺭ " ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺩﻫﻨـﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻧﻬـﺎ ﻣـﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﺍﻧﺠـﺎﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﺻـﻲ ﺍﺳـﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ‪PROM‬‬

‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ ROM‬ﻣﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﺻﺮﻑ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻭ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺑﺎﻻﺋﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﮐﻪ‬
‫‪ (PROM )Programmable Read-Only Memory‬ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺧـﺎﻟﻲ ﺑـﺎ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻫﺮ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎﻱ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﮐﻪ ‪ Programmer‬ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺭﻳـﺰﻱ‬
‫ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ‪ ROM‬ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﻫﺮ ﺳﻄﺮ ﻭ ﺳﺘﻮﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻳﮏ ﻓﻴـﻮﺯ) ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺗـﺼﺎﻝ ﺑـﻪ‬
‫ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ( ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﮏ ﺷﺎﺭﮊ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻳﮏ ﺳﺘﻮﻥ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻓﻴﻮﺯ ﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻠﻮﻝ ﭘﺎﺱ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ‬
‫ﺳﻄﺮ ‪ Grounded‬ﮐﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﮕﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ "ﻳﮏ" ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺳﻠﻮﻝ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻳﮏ ﻓﻴﻮﺯ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ‬
‫) ﺧﺎﻟﻲ (‪ ،‬ﻳﮏ ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ‪ PROM‬ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ " ﻳﮏ" ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻠﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﻳﮏ ‪ Programmer‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺭﺳـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻳﮏ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻠﻮﻝ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ ﺑﺎﻻ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺳﻄﺮ ﻭ ﺳﺘﻮﻥ )ﺳﻮﺧﺘﻦ ﻓﻴﻮﺯ( ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨـﺪ‬

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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﻓﻮﻕ ﺭﺍ " ‪ " Burning the PROM‬ﻣﻲ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ PROM‬ﺻﺮﻓﺎ" ﻳﮏ ﺑﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺭﻳﺰﻱ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑـﻪ‬
‫‪ RAM‬ﺷﮑﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺗﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻳﮏ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﺴﻴﺘﻪ ﺳﺎﮐﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺳﻮﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻓﻴﻮﺯ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻳﮏ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ) ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ( ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺍﻱ ‪ PROM‬ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻗﻴﻤﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻳﮏ ‪ ، ROM‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺭﻳﺰﻱ‬
‫ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﮐﺎﺭﺁﺋﻲ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺑﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ‪ EProm‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ ROM‬ﻭ ‪ PROM‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺗﻐﻴﻴـﺮﺍﺕ ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﺳﺖ ) ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺕ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺍﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﺮﻑ ﻫﺰﻳﻨـﻪ ﺑـﺎﻻﺋﻲ ﻣﻨﺠـﺮ ﮔـﺮﺩﺩ(ﺣﺎﻓﻈـﻪ‬
‫ﻫﺎﻱ‪ (EPROM)Erasable programmable read-only memory‬ﭘﺎﺳﺨﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ) ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻋﻤـﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ( ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ EPROM‬ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻪ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﭘﺎﮎ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻳﮏ ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ‪ EPROM‬ﻣﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺳﺎﻃﻊ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﻳﮏ ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻣﺎﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺑﻨﻔﺶ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ..‬ﭘﻴﮑﺮﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻳـﮏ‬
‫‪ Programmer‬ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﻉ ‪ EPROM‬ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻳﮏ ﻭﻟﺘﺎﮊ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ ) ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﻉ ‪ EPROM‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ( ﺍﻳـﻦ‬
‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻴﺰ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺷﺒﮑﻪ ﺍﻱ ﻣﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻄﺮ ﻭ ﺳﺘﻮﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ‪ EPROM‬ﺳﻠﻮﻝ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﺳﻄﺮ ﻭ ﺳﺘﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ‬
‫ﺩﻭ ﺗﺮﺍﻧﺰﻳﺴﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬ﺗﺮﺍﻧﺰﻳﺴﺘﻮﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻳﮏ ﻻﻳﻪ ﻧﺎﺯﮎ ﺍﮐﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺟﺪﺍ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻳﮑـﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﺍﻧﺰﻳـﺴﺘﻮﺭﻫﺎ ‪ Floating Gate‬ﻭ‬
‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻱ ‪ Control Gate‬ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ Floating gate .‬ﺻﺮﻓﺎ" ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ‪ Control gate‬ﺑﻪ ﺳـﻄﺮ ﻣـﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺍﺳـﺖ‪ .‬ﻣﺎﺩﺍﻣﻴﮑـﻪ ﻟﻴﻨـﮏ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻗﺮﺍﺭﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺳﻠﻮﻝ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻳﮏ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪﻱ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺎﻡ ‪ Fowler-Nordheim tunneling‬ﻧﻴﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ ‪ Tunneling.‬ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ Floating gate‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬ﻳﮏ ﺷﺎﺭﮊ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ ١٠‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ١٣‬ﻭﻟﺖ ﺑـﻪ‬
‫‪ floating gate‬ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬ﺷﺎﺭﮊ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺘﻮﻥ ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﻭ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺑﻪ ‪ floating gate‬ﺩﺭ ‪ ground‬ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺷﺎﺭﮊ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ‬
‫ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺗﺮﺍﻧﺰﻳﺴﺘﻮﺭ ‪ floating gate‬ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ "ﭘﺨﺶ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ " ﺭﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺎﺯﺍﺩ ﻓﺸﺮﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻤﺖ ﺩﻳﮕـﺮ‬
‫ﻻﻳﻪ ﺍﮐﺴﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻓﺘﺎﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻳﮏ ﺷﺎﺭﮊ ﻣﻨﻔﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﺎﺭﮊ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﻨﻔﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﮏ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻋﺎﻳﻖ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ control gate‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ floating gate‬ﺭﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺎﻡ ‪ Cell sensor‬ﺳﻄﺢ ﺷﺎﺭﮊ ﭘﺎﺱ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ‪ floating gate‬ﺭﺍ ﻣﻮﻧﻴﺘـﻮﺭ ﺧﻮﺍﻫـﺪ‬
‫ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﮑﻪ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﮔﻴﺖ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ‪ ٥٠‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺷﺎﺭﮊ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ "ﻳﮏ" ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺍ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﺷﺎﺭﮊ ﭘﺎﺱ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ‪٥٠‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺁﺳﺘﺎﻧﻪ ﻋﺪﻭﻝ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﻪ "ﺻﻔﺮ" ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮐﺮﺩ‪.‬ﻳﮏ ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ‪ EPROM‬ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﮔﻴﺖ ﻫﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺯ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻫـﺮ‬
‫ﺳﻠﻮﻝ ﺁﻥ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻳﮏ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺍ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﻳﮏ ‪ EPROM‬ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺁﻥ ﭘﺎﮎ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﭘﺎﮎ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ‬
‫ﻳﮏ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺷﮑﺴﺘﻦ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻨﻔﻲ ‪ gate Floating‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﺮﺩ‪.‬ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ‪ EPROM‬ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪،‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﺷﻌﻪ ﻣﺎﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺑﻨﻔﺶ ﺑﺎ ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲ ‪ ٧/٢٥٣‬ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺩﺭ ‪ EPROM‬ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﻲ ﻧﺒﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺁﻥ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬
‫ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻳﮏ ‪ EPROM‬ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﻠﻲ ﮐﻪ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺟﺪﺍ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﺕ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﺷﻌﻪ ﻣﺎﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺑﻨﻔﺶ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ‬
‫‪Flash‬‬ ‫ﭘــــــﺎﮎ ﮐﻨﻨــــــﺪﻩ ‪ EPROM‬ﻗــــــﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﺣﺎﻓﻈــــــﻪ ﻫــــــﺎﻱ ‪ EEPROM‬ﻭ ‪Memory‬‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺍﻱ ‪ EPROM‬ﻳﮏ ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ PROM‬ﺍﺯ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﻭﻟـﻲ ﮐﻤﺎﮐـﺎﻥ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻣﻨـﺪ‬
‫ﺑﮑﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻭ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﺴﺘﻪ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻭ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺷﺎﺭﮊ ﻧﻴـﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺿﻤﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ‪ EPROM‬ﻧﻤﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﻭ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺗﺼﺎﻋﺪﻱ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﺩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ﻣـﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻳــﺴﺖ ﺗﻤــﺎﻡ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳــﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ ﭘــﺎﮎ ﻧﻤــﻮﺩ‪.‬ﺣﺎﻓﻈــﻪ ﻫــﺎﻱ ‪Read Only Electrically Erasable Programmable‬‬
‫‪ (Memory)EEOPROM‬ﭘﺎﺳﺨﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ EEPROM‬ﺗـﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﺯﻳـﺮ ﺍﺭﺍﺋـﻪ ﻣـﻲ ﮔـﺮﺩﺩ‪:‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﺎﺯﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺑﺨﺸﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﭘﺎﮎ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫــﺪ ﺑــﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻋﻤــﺎﻝ ﺗﻐﻴﻴــﺮﺍﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳــﻦ ﻧــﻮﻉ ﺗﺮﺍﺷــﻪ ﻫــﺎ ﻣــﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﺑﮑــﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻳــﮏ ﺩﺳــﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﺧﺘــﺼﺎﺻﻲ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫــﺪ ﺑــﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻋﻮﺽ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺷﻌﻪ ﻣﺎﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺑﻨﻔﺶ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻫﺮ ﺳﻠﻮﻝ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻳﮏ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﺤﻠﻲ ﻭ ﺑﮑﻤﮏ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﺑـﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺑﺮﮔﺮﺩﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺳﻠﻮﻝ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺠﺪﺩﺍ" ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﺯﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪.‬ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻫﺮ ﻟﺤﻈﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﮐﻨﺪ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻱ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﺎ ﺳـﺮﻋﺖ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴــــﺮ ﻳﺎﺑﻨــــﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺳــــﺮﻋﺖ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺪﺍﺷــــﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﭼــــﺎﻟﺶ ﻫــــﺎﻱ ﺧــــﺎﺹ ﺧــــﻮﺩ ﻣــــﻲ ﺑﺎﺷــــﻨﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪﮐﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ‪ Flash Memory‬ﮐﻪ ﻳﮏ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ EEPROM‬ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻳﺖ ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﭘﺎﺳـﺦ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺭﺍ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ‪.‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ‪ Flash‬ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﺯ ﻗﺒﻞ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺑﻴﻨﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ) ﺑﮑﻤﮏ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴـﺪﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ(‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﺭﺍ ﮐﻪ " ﺑﻼﮎ " ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍ ﺣﺬﻑ ﮐﺮﺩ‪.‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ‬
‫ﺑﻪ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ EEPROM‬ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﭼﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﻼﮎ ﻫﺎﺋﻲ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ" ‪ ٥١٢‬ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ) ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﻱ ﻳﮏ ﺑﺎﻳـﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻫـﺮ‬
‫ﻟﺤﻈﻪ ( ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺷﮑﻞ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ‪ BIOS‬ﺭﺍ ﮐﻪ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ‪ ROM‬ﻣﺪﻝ ‪ Flash memory‬ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻧـﺸﺎﻥ ﻣـﻲ ﺩﻫـﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ EPROM‬ﺳﺮ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ )‪ ( Programmable Read Only Memory Erasable‬ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻧﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ‬
‫ﺭﻳﺰﻱ ﻧﻴﺰ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﺩ‪ EPROM .‬ﻫﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﺮﺍﺭ ) ﭘﺎﻳﺪﺍﺭ ( ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺭﻳﺰﻱ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﻳـﻦ ﻧـﻮﻉ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ‪ ، PROM‬ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﭘﺎﮎ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﺁﻥ ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺷﻌﻪ ﻣﺎﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺑﻨﻔﺶ ﻗﻮﻱ ﻣﻴﺘﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻟﻬﺎﻱ ﻗﻄﻊ‬
‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﺮﺍﺷﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺩﻭﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﺮﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﭼﻪ ﻗﻴﻤﺖ ‪ EPROM‬ﻫﺎ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ‪ DROM‬ﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺭﻳﺰﻱ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬
‫ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ EPROM ،‬ﻣﻘﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﺼﺮﻓﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ ROM.‬ﺳﺮﻧﺎﻡ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ )‪ ( Read Only Memory‬ﻳﺎ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻧﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺑـﺮ‬
‫ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﻧﻴﻤﻪ ﻫﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻫﺎ ﻳﺎ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻥ ﻭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺟﺎﻱ ﻣﻴﺪﻫﺪ‪ ROM .‬ﺑﺨﺸﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻭﻟﻴـﻪ‬
‫ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺗﺶ ﺭﺍ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻧﻤﻴﺪﻫﺪ ﻭ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﺍﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻧــﺪﺍﺯﻱ ﺩﺭ ‪ ROM‬ﻧﮕﻬــﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﻣﻴــﺸﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻫﻨﮕــﺎﻡ ﺭﻭﺷــﻦ ﮐــﺮﺩﻥ ﮐــﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﮐــﺎﺭ ﺭﺍﻩ ﺍﻧــﺪﺍﺯﻱ ﺳﻴــﺴﺘﻢ ﺑــﻪ ﻋﻬــﺪﻩ ﺁﻧﻬــﺎ ﺍﺳــﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺑﻴﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬

‫ﺍﮔﺮ ﺗﺎﮐﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺣﺘﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﺕ ﭘﻨﺞ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ ﺑﻴﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺷﻤﺎ ﮐﻠﻤﺎﺗﻲ ﻏﺮﻳﺐ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼﭘﻲ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻫﺎ ﻭ‪ ...‬ﺑﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻫﺎ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻫﺎ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﻳﮏ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﻳﮏ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺑﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺗﻲ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ‪ " :‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻳﮏ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ‪ ٣٢‬ﺑﻴﺘﻲ‬
‫ﭘﻨﺘﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ‪ ٢٥٦‬ﻣﮕﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﻭ ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﺑﺎ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ‪ ١٠,٢‬ﮔﻴﮕﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ " ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺍﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﻲ‬
‫ﻫـــﺮ ﻳـــﮏ ﺍﺯ ﻣـــﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺘـــﻪ ﺗـــﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳـــﻦ ﺭﻫﮕـــﺬﺭ ﺷـــﻨﺎﺧﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳـــﺒﻲ ﻧـــﺴﺒﺖ ﺑـــﻪ ﺁﻧﻬـــﺎ ﺑﻮﺟـــﻮﺩ ﺁﻳـــﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺩﻫﺪﻫﻲ ‪ :‬ﺳﺎﺩﻩ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺖ ﺑﻴﺖ ﻫﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺎ " ﺍﺭﻗﺎﻡ " ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﻳﮏ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻣﺤﻠﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﻳﺮ ﻋﺪﺩﻱ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺗﺎ ﻧﻪ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺍﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺎ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﻭ ﺍﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻭﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻼ" ﻋﺪﺩ ‪ ١٠٠٦١٨‬ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺷﺶ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻫـﺮ ﺭﻗـﻢ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ‬
‫ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﻲ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻼ" ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ٨‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺎﻩ ) ﺭﺗﺒﻪ ﻳﮑﺎﻥ ( ﻭ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ١‬ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭﻣﻴﻦ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺎﻩ ) ﺭﺗﺒﻪ ﺩﻫﮕﺎﻥ ( ﻭ ﺭﻗﻢ ‪ ٦‬ﺩﺭ ﺳﻮﻣﻴﻦ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺎﻩ‬
‫) ﺭﺗﺒﻪ ﺻﺪﮔﺎﻥ( ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺭﻭﺵ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﻣﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺩﻫﺪﻫﻲ ﺭﻭﺯﺍﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻩ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻋـﺪﺩ‬
‫ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﺒﻨﺎ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ‪ :‬ﻣﺒﻨﺎﻱ ﻫﺸﺖ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﻧﺰﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﻭ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻋـﺪﺩ ﻧﻮﻳـﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻄﻌﺎ" ﺩﻻﻳﻞ ﻗﺎﻧﻊ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻱ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻴﺖ ‪ :‬ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﻱ ﺩﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺭﺍ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﻨﺮﻱ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﻣﺒﻨﺎﻱ ﺩﻭ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺖ ﺩﺭ ﭘﻴﺎﺩﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺗﮑﻨﻮﻟﻮﮊﻱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮏ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﺋﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺳـﺎﺧﺖ ﮐـﻪ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﻣﺒﻨﺎﻱ ﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ ﻭﻟﻲ ﻗﻄﻌﺎ" ﻗﻴﻤﺖ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻘﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﺼﺮﻓﻪ ﻧﺒﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﻱ ﺩﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻌﺪ ﭘﻴﺎﺩﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻨـﺎ" ﻣﻘـﺮﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺑﺼﺮﻓﻪ ﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﻫﺎﻱ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﻱ ﺩﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻳﻨﺮﻱ ) ﺻﻔﺮ ﻭ ﻳﮏ ( ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﮐﻠﻤﻪ " ﺑﻴﺖ " ﺍﺯ ﮐﻠﻤﺎﺕ ‪Binary‬‬
‫‪ digIT‬ﺍﻗﺘﺒﺎﺱ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﻱ ﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻩ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﻱ ﺩﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺑﻤﻨﻈـﻮﺭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴـﺪ ﺍﻋـﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﻳﮏ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺑﺎﻳﻨﺮﻱ ﺻﺮﻓﺎ" ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺻﻔﺮ ﻭ ﻳﮏ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻋﺪﺩ ‪ ١٠١١‬ﺍﺯ ﭼﻪ ﺭﻭﺷﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ؟ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬
‫ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﻱ ﺩﻭ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﺭﻭﺷﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻋﺪﺩ ‪ ١٠٠٦١٨‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﻱ ﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺩﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﻱ ﺩﻭ ﻫﺮ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺩﻭ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺗﺼﺎﻋﺪﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺴﺎﺩﮔﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﮏ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺑﺎﻳﻨﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺷـﻤﺎﺭﺵ‬
‫ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪ ١ ) .‬ﻭ ‪ ٢‬ﻭ ‪ ٤‬ﻭ ‪ ٨‬ﻭ ‪ ١٦‬ﻭ ‪ ٣٢‬ﻭ ‪ ٦٤‬ﻭ ‪ ١٢٨‬ﻭ ‪ ٢٥٦‬ﻭ ‪ . ( ...‬ﻣﺜﻼ" ﻋـﺪﺩ ‪ ١٠٠١‬ﺷـﺎﻣﻞ ‪ ٨ + ١‬ﺑـﻮﺩﻩ ﮐـﻪ ﻋـﺪﺩ ‪ ٩‬ﺭﺍ ﻧـﺸﺎﻥ ﺧﻮﺍﻫـﺪ ﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ‪ :‬ﻫﺮ ﺑﻴﺖ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺻﺮﻓﺎ" ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺻﻔﺮ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻳﮏ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ) .‬ﺍﺯ ﻟﺤﺎﻅ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻳﺖ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﮑﻤﮏ‬
‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺩﻭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺩﺍﺩ (‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﻫﺸﺖ ﺑﻴﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻳﮏ ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﭼﺮﺍ ﻫﺸﺖ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ ؟ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺸﺖ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ‪ ٢٥٦‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ) ﺻﻔﺮ ﺗﺎ ‪ ( ٢٥٥‬ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﮐﺎﺭﺍﮐﺘﺮﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﻣﺒﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺘﻦ ) ‪ (Text‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﺍﮐﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﮑﻲ )‪ (ASCII‬ﻫﺮ ﻳﮏ‬
‫ﺍﺯ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﻳﺮ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺗﺎ ‪ ١٢٧‬ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻳﮏ ﮐﺎﺭﺍﮐﺘﺮ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﺳﮑﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ ‪ ٢٥٦‬ﮐﺎﺭﺍﮐﺘﺮ ﺑﻄﻮﺭ‬
‫ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬ﺍﺯ ‪ ١٢٨‬ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﮐﺎﺭﺍﮐﺘﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣـﻲ‬
‫ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﻨﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﮐﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ) ﺍﺳﮑﻲ ( ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻼ" ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ‪ NotePad‬ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻭﻳﻨﺪﻭﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻳﮏ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻣﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ " ‪ "Four Seven‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺎﻡ ‪ Test.txt‬ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﻧﻤﺎﺋﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ‬
‫ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻭ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎﺕ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻫﺎ ﻣﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻴﺪ ﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪ ١٠‬ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ ) .‬ﻳﮏ‬

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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻫﺮ ﺣﺮﻑ ( ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﮑﻪ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺩﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺠﺎﻱ ﻫﺮ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻳﮏ ﻋﺪﺩ ) ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﮐﺪ ﺍﺳﮑﻲ (‬
‫ﺭﺍ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﮐﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﺳﮑﻲ ﻭ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﺁﻥ ﻣﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻴﺪ ﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻳﮏ ﻧﺘﺎﻇﺮ ﻳﮏ ﺑﻪ ﻳـﮏ ﺑـﻴﻦ ﮐـﺪﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻣﻌـﺎﺩﻝ ﺣﺮﻓـﻲ ﺁﻧﻬـﺎ ﻭﺟـﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﺮﺍﻭﺍﻥ ! ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻭ ‪ ...‬ﮐﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﺮﺍﻭﺍﻧﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺍﻱ " ﭘﻴﺸﻮﻧﺪ" ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺯ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ ) .‬ﮐﻴﻠﻮ‪ ،‬ﻣﮕﺎ ‪ ،‬ﮔﻴﮕﺎ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﺯﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﻴﺸﻮﻧﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ( ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﭘﻴﺸﻮﻧﺪﻫﺎ ﺑﻬﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﻫﺮ ﻳﮏ‬
‫ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺨﻔﻒ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻡ‬


‫‪2^10 = 1,024‬‬ ‫‪K Kilo‬‬
‫‪2^20 = 1,048,576‬‬ ‫‪M Mega‬‬
‫‪2^30 = 1,073,741,824‬‬ ‫‪G Giga‬‬
‫‪2^40 = 1,099,511,627,776‬‬ ‫‪T Tera‬‬
‫‪2^50 = 1,125,899,906,842,624‬‬ ‫‪P Peta‬‬
‫‪2^60 = 1,152,921,504,606,846,976‬‬ ‫‪E‬‬ ‫‪Exa‬‬
‫‪2^70 = 1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424‬‬ ‫‪Z Zetta‬‬
‫‪2^80 = 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176‬‬ ‫‪Y Yotta‬‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﮐﺮﺩ ﮐﻪ ‪ :‬ﮐﻴﻠﻮ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ" ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﻫﺰﺍﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻣﮕﺎ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﺒﺎ" ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﻣﻴﻠﻴﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﮔﻴﮕﺎ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﻣﻴﻠﻴـﺎﺭﺩ ﻭ ‪...‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﺷﺨﺼﻲ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮑﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﺩﻭ ﮔﻴﮕﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻱ ﺳﺨﻦ ﻭﻱ ﺍﻳﻨﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ ‪" :‬‬
‫ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻭﻱ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺩﻭ ﮔﻴﮕﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺎ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒـﺎ" ﺩﻭ ﻣﻴﻠﻴـﺎﺭﺩ ﺑﺎﻳـﺖ ﻭ ﻳـﺎ ﺩﻗﻴﻘـﺎ" ‪ ٢،١٤٧،٤٨٣،٦٤٨‬ﺑﺎﻳـﺖ ﺍﺳـﺖ ‪".‬‬
‫ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺑﺎ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺭﺍﻳﺞ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻣﺎ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﻧﮏ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻻ ) ﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺍﺑﺎﻳﺖ ( ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﻫﺴﺘﻴﻢ ‪ .‬ﺑﻴﺖ ﺷﮑﻞ ﺧﻼﺻﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ )‪ ( Binary Digital‬ﻭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻳﮏ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋـﺪﺩﻱ ﺩﻭﺩﻭﻳـﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﻭ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﺖ ﮐﻮﭼﮑﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻴﺪﻫﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻄﻮﺭ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮑـﻲ ﺑﻮﺳـﻴﻠﻪ‬
‫ﭘﺎﻟﺴﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻣﻴﮕﺮﺩﺩ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺷﮑﻞ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﮐﻮﭼﮑﻲ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﮐﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻳﮏ ﻳﺎ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﺨﺺ‬
‫ﻣﻴﺸﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﮐﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﻣﻴﮑﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻫﺸﺖ ﺗﺎﻳﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﻣﻴﺪﻫﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺍﺭﺍﺋـﻪ‬
‫ـﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ـﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻴﮕﻴﺮﻧــ‬
‫ـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗــ‬
‫ـﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳــ‬
‫ـﻪ ﻣــ‬
‫ـﺎ ﻧــ‬
‫ـﻔﺮ ﺗــ‬
‫ـﺎﻱ ﺻــ‬
‫ـﺎ ﻭ ﺭﻗﻤﻬــ‬
‫ـﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﺒــ‬
‫ـﻪ ﺣــ‬
‫ـﺎﺕ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠــ‬
‫ـﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻃﻼﻋــ‬
‫ـﺎﻡ ﺍﻧــ‬
‫ﺗﻤــ‬
‫ﻫﺮ ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻫﺸﺖ ﺑﻴﺖ ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ ‪ .‬ﻫﺮ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻴﺘﻮﺍﻧﻴﺪ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻮﺋﻴﭻ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺩﻭ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ‪ ON‬ﻳﺎ ‪ OFF‬ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻳﮏ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺑﺎﻳﻨﺮﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﻱ‬
‫‪ ٢‬ﺑﺎ ﺩﻭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ ٠‬ﻳﺎ ‪ ١‬ﺗﺼﻮﺭ ﮐﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ ‪:‬‬

‫‪ . ١‬ﺳﺨﺖ‬

‫‪ .٢‬ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻧﻮﺭﻱ‬ ‫‪ .١‬ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ‬

‫‪ .٢‬ﻧﺮﻡ‬

‫ﺩﻳﺴﻚ‬

‫ﮔﺴﺘﺮﻩ ﻭﺳﻴﻌﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺳﺎﻳﻞ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎﻳﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﺣﺘﻲ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺑﮑﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻱ‬
‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻥ ﺍﻣﻨﻴﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺭﻓﺘﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺧﺮﺍﺏ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻗﺖ ﺭﻓﺘﻦ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻼﭘﻲ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ‪- Floppy Disk‬‬

‫ﺩﻳﺴﮑﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﮐﻮﭼﮑﻲ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻴﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻫﺎ ﻧﻮﻋﺎﹰ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ‪ ١/٤‬ﻣﮕﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺧـﻮﺩ ﻧﮕﻬـﺪﺍﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻣﻴﮑﻨﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﻚ‬

‫ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻫﺮ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻳﮏ ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﻳﮏ ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳـﺴﮏ‬
‫ﻳﮏ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ ‪ .‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﻳﺠﻴﺘﺎﻝ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﺑﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺘـﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺩﺍﺋﻢ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﮐﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ‬

‫ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻳﮏ ‪ ) Platter‬ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ( ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﻳﮏ ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﻧﻮﺍﺭ ﮐﺎﺳﺖ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﻳﮏ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻳﮑﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻭﻧﻮﺍﺭ ﮐﺎﺳﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﻳﮑـﺴﺎﻧﻲ‬
‫ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬ﺩﺭ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻱ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺴﺎﺩﮔﻲ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺠﺪﺩﺍ" ﺑﺎﺯﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻫـﺮ‬

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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﻳﮏ ﺍﺯ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﻟﻴﺎﻥ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﻣﺎﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻴﺮﻏﻢ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺷﺒﺎﻫﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺭﺳﺎﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻱ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺎ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﻻﻳﻪ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻳﮏ ﻧﻮﺍﺭ ﮐﺎﺳﺖ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻄﺢ ﭘﻼﺳﺘﻴﮑﻲ ﻧﺎﺯﮎ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻻﻳﻪ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ﺑـﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻳـﮏ‬
‫ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﺷﻴﺸﻪ ﺍﻱ ﻭﻳﺎ ﻳـﮏ ﺁﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴـﻮﻡ ﺍﺷـﺒﺎﻉ ﺷـﺪﻩ ﻗـﺮﺍﺭ ﺧﻮﺍﻫـﺪ ﮔﺮﻓـﺖ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣـﻪ ﺳـﻄﺢ ﺁﻧﻬـﺎ ﺑﺨـﻮﺑﻲ ﺻـﻴﻘﻞ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻣـﻲ ﺷـﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺩﺭ ﻧﻮﺍﺭ ﮐﺎﺳﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺮ ﻳﮏ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻳﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﻲ ) ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﻲ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺎﻻ( ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﺗﺎ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ) ﺷﻨﻴﺪﻥ ( ﺁﻳﺘﻢ ﺩﻟﺨﻮﺍﻩ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻫﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺩﻟﺨﻮﺍﻩ ﻣـﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ) ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻥ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ( ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﻧﻮﺍﺭ ﮐﺎﺳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻫﺪ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻥ ‪ /‬ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻧﻮﺍﺭ ﺭﺍ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎ" ﻟﻤﺲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻫﺪ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻥ ﻭ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﺑﻪ ﭘﺮﻭﺍﺯ ﺩﺭ ﻣـﻲ ﺁﻳـﺪ! ) ﻫﺮﮔـﺰ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻟﻤـﺲ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫـﺪ ﮐـﺮﺩ (‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﻧﻮﺍﺭ ﮐﺎﺳﺖ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ‪ ٢‬ﺍﻳﻨﭻ ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﮔﺮﺩﺍﻧﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻫﺪ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ‪ ٣٠٠٠‬ﺍﻳﻨﭻ ﺑﻪ ﭼﺮﺧﺶ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ ‪.‬ﻳﮏ ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﭘﻴﺸﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻻﺋﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻧﺪﮎ ﻭ ﺑﺎﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺮﺭﻭﻱ ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻫﺎ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻧـﺎﻣﻲ‬
‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻨﻮﻋﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻢ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻮﺍﺳـﺖ‬
‫ﻓــﺎﻳﻠﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺷــﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪ ،‬ﻫــﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳــﺴﮏ ﺍﻃﻼﻋــﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﺯﻳــﺎﺑﻲ ﻭ ﺁﻧﻬــﺎ ﺑــﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺳــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧــﺪﻩ ﺍﺭﺳــﺎﻝ ﺧﻮﺍﻫــﺪ ﮐــﺮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ـﺮﺩﺩ‪:‬‬
‫ـﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳـــﺴﮏ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻋﻤـــﺪﻩ ﺍﺳـــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣـــﻲ ﮔـــ‬
‫ﺑـــﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻧـــﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﮔﻴـــﺮﻱ ﮐـــﺎﺭﺁﺋﻲ ﻳـــﮏ ﻫـــ‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ )‪ . (Data rate‬ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻟﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ ٥‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ٤٠‬ﻣﮕﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺍﺱ‬
‫‪ -٥‬ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺟﺴﺘﺠﻮ )‪ . (Seek Time‬ﻣﺪﺕ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺩﺭﺧﻮﺍﺳﺖ ﻳﮏ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﺗﺎ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ‬
‫ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻫﺮ ﻳﮏ ﺍﺯ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﻫﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺳﮑﺘﻮﺭ ﻭ ﺷﻴﺎﺭ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﻣـﻲ‬
‫ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺷﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺩﻭﺍﻳﺮﻣﺘﺤﺪﺍﻟﻤﺮﮐﺰﻱ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ) ﻧﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺯﺭﺩ( ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻫﺮ ﻳﮏ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻱ ﺳﮑﺘﻮﺭ)ﻧﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺁﺑﻲ ( ﺑﺎ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﺑـﻴﻦ‬
‫‪ ٥١٢ ، ٢٥٦‬ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺳﮑﺘﻮﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﻭ ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺑـﺎ ﻧـﺎﻡ " ﮐﻼﺳـﺘﺮ "‬
‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﺪﻫﻲ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺩﺭﺍﻳﻮ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺎﻡ ‪ Low level format‬ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺷﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺳﮑﺘﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻧـﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﻭ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﺩﺭﺍﻳﻮ ‪ High level format‬ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻭ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩﻱ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭﻫﺎﺋﻲ ﻧﻈﻴـﺮ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺁﺩﺭﺱ ﺩﻫﻲ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻫﺎ ﻭ‪ ...‬ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎ ﺑﺴﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺳـﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻓﺎﻳـﻞ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺗﻲ ﻓـﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﮔـﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﻳﺴﮑﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ ) ‪ ( Hard Disk‬ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻮﻋﺎﹰ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺘﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﭼﻨﺪ ﮔﻴﮕﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺗﺎ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺩﻩ ﮔﻴﮕﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪CD Player‬‬

‫‪ CD Player‬ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺖ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻦ ﻭ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻥ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻳﮏ ‪ CD‬ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﻋﻬﺪﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﮏ ‪ CD drive‬ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺳﻪ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺍﺳﺎﺳـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ :‬ﻳﮏ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﭼﺮﺧﺶ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﭼﺮﺧﺶ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪ ٢٠٠‬ﻭ ‪ ٥٠٠‬ﺩﻭﺭ ﺩﺭﺩﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﺧﻮﺍﻧـﺪﻩ‬
‫ﺷـــﻮﺩ‪.‬ﻳـــﮏ ﻟﻴـــﺰﺭ ﻭ ﻳـــﮏ ﺳﻴـــﺴﺘﻢ ﻟﻨـــﺰ ﮐـــﻪ ﺑﺮﺁﻣـــﺪﮔﻲ ﻫـــﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟـــﻮﺩ ﺑـــﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ‪ CD‬ﺭﺍ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨـــﺪ ﺧﻮﺍﻧـــﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳــﮏ ﻣﮑــﺎﻧﻴﺰﻡ ﺭﺩﻳــﺎﺑﻲ ﺑﻤﻨﻈــﻮﺭ ﺣﺮﮐــﺖ ﻟﻴــﺰﺭ ﺑﮕﻮﻧــﻪ ﺍﻱ ﮐــﻪ ﭘﺮﺗــﻮ ﻧــﻮﺭ ﻗــﺎﺩﺭ ﺑــﻪ ﺩﻧﺒــﺎﻝ ﻧﻤــﻮﺩﻥ ﺷــﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﻠﺰﻭﻧــﻲ ﺑﺎﺷــﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ CD Player‬ﻳﮏ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﻦ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺷﮑﻞ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻭ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ‬
‫ﺑﻼﮎ ﻫﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﮑﻞ ﺩﻫﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻳﮏ ﻣﺒﺪﻝ ﺩﻳﺠﻴﺘﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻧﺎﻟﻮﮒ ) ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ‪ Cd‬ﺻﻮﺗﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ( ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻳﮏ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ) ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺩﺭﺍﻳـﻮ‬
‫‪ CD-ROM‬ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ( ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ) ﺑﺮﺁﻣﺪﮔﻲ ﻫﺎ (‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺯﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻳﮏ ﭼﺸﻢ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑـﻲ‬
‫‪١٧‬‬
‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﮑﻪ ﺑﺎﺯﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺎ" ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﭼﺸﻢ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﻳﮏ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﮑﻪ ﺑﺎﺯﺗﺎﺑﺶ‬
‫ﻧﻮﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﺒﻖ ﺑﺮ ﭼﺸﻢ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑﻲ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻓﻮﻕ ) ﺻﻔﺮ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻳﮏ ( ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺳﻴﮕﻨﺎ ﻟﻬﺎﻱ‬
‫ﺩﻳﺠﻴﺘﺎﻝ ﺷﮑﻞ ﺩﻫﻲ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺳﻴﮕﻨﺎﻝ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻳﮏ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ ‪ .‬ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺳﻴﮕﻨﺎﻟﻬﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﺠﻴﺘﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻧﺎﻟﻮﮒ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ‪ CD‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺣﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺻﻮﺗﻲ ) ﻣﻮﺯﻳﮏ ( ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺳﻴﮕﻨﺎﻝ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻧﺎﻟﻮﮒ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻳـﮏ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻮﻳﺖ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺁﻧﺎﻟﻮﮒ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻘﻮﻳﺖ ﺳﻴﮕﻨﺎﻝ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺷﻨﻴﺪﻥ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﻠﻨﺪﮔﻮﻱ ﮐـﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺑﻮﺟـﻮﺩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫـﺪ ﺁﻣـﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﻪ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ‪ CD player‬ﺗﻤﺮﮐﺰ ﻟﻴﺰﺭ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺷﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺎﻭﻱ ﺑﺮﺁﻣﺪﮔﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﭘﺮﺗﻮﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻻﻳﻪ ﭘﻠﻲ ﮐﺮﺑﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬
‫ﻻﻳﻪ ﺁﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻢ ﺑﺎﺯﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﻳﮏ ﭼﺸﻢ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑﻲ ) ‪ ( Opto-electronic‬ﺍﺯ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺷﺖ ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮﺁﻣﺪﮔﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺯﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﻧﻮﺭ ﻣﻨﻌﮑﺲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﻣـﺸﺨﺺ ﻭﭼـﺸﻢ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑـﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﻌﮑﺎﺱ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮏ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺭﺍﻳﻮ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻧﻮﺭ ﻣﻨﻌﮑﺲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻥ ﺑﻴـﺖ ﻫـﺎ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺸﮑﻞ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﭘﺮﺗﻮ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﺷﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﺮ ﻋﻬﺪﻩ "ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺭﺩﻳﺎﺏ" ﻣﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪.‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﺎﺩﺍﻣﻴﮑﻪ ‪ CD‬ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻟﻴﺰﺭ ﺭﺍﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻭ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﺍﺕ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ‬
‫ﺧﻄﻲ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ )‪ (Spindle motor‬ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ‪ CD‬ﺭﺍ ﮐﺎﻫﺶ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺗﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﺎ ﻳﮏ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻩ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ Disk Read Only Memory CD-ROM - Compact‬ﺭﺳﺎﻧﻪ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻧﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ‬
‫ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ‪ ٦٥٠‬ﻣﮕﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﻨﻔﺮﺩ )‪ ( X١‬ﺩﺭ ﮔﺮﺩﺍﻧﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ 150 ،CD-ROM‬ﮐﻴﻠﻮ ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﭼـﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫـﺎ ﺗﻮﺳـﻂ‬
‫ﮔﺮﺩﺍﻧﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ CD-ROM‬ﻣﺒﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﺮ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻴﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﭼﺮﺧﺎﻧﺪﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﮔﺮﺩﺍﻧﻨﺪﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺧﻄﻲ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻥ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺩﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻳﮏ ﮔﺮﺩﺍﻧﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ٢٤‬ﺳﺎﻋﺘﻪ )‪ ( X٢٤‬ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ‪ ٦/٣‬ﻣﮕﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ) ‪ (kb/s١٥٠*٢٤‬ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺳﺎﻳﻞ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ‬

‫ﻫﺮ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﺍﻱ ﮐﻪ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ) ‪ ( Case‬ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻪ ﻭﺳـﻴﻠﻪ‬
‫ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﻣﻮﺳﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ )‪ ، (Keyboard‬ﻣﺎﻭﺱ ) ‪ ( Mouse‬ﻭ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ )‪ (Monitor‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺎﻭﺱ ‪-Mouse‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺱ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ١٩٨٤‬ﻭ ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻲ ﻣﮑﻴﻨﺘﺎﺵ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻣﻮﺱ ‪ ،‬ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺍﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻢ ﻭ‬
‫ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺖ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺷﺪﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﻣﻮﺱ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺎﻩ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﻣﻮﺱ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻭ ﮐﻠﻴـﮏ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻻﺯﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺗﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻮﺱ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ ‪:‬‬

‫‪١٨‬‬
‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫‪ .١‬ﻏﻠﺘﮑﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‬
‫‪Track ball .٢‬‬
‫‪ .٣‬ﻧﻮﺭﻱ ) ‪( Optic‬‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻛﻠﻴﺪ‬

‫ﺻــﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴــﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘــﺪﺍﻭﻟﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺳــﻴﻠﻪ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺍﻃﻼﻋــﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﮐــﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﺳــﺖ ‪.‬ﻋﻤﻠﮑــﺮﺩ ﺻــﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴــﺪ ﻣــﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻳــﮏ ﮐــﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﺳــﺖ!‬
‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻮﻳﻴﭻ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺭﻳﺰﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺭﻳﺰﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﻫﺮ ﺳﻮﺋﻴﭻ ﺭﺍ ﻫﻤﺎﻫﻨﮓ ﻭ ﻭﺍﮐﻨﺶ‬
‫ﻻﺯﻡ ﺩﺭ ﺧﺼﻮﺹ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻮﺋﻴﭻ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺪﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﮐﻨﻮﻥ ﮐﻤﺘﺮ ﺩﺳﺘﺨﻮﺵ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺗﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺑـﺎ ﺻـﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴـﺪ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻓﺰﻭﺩﻥ ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎﺋﻲ ﺧﺎﺹ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺧﻮﺍﺳﺘﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻟﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ ‪:‬‬

‫‪١٩‬‬
‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ﭘﻴﺸﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺑﺎ ‪ ١٠١‬ﮐﻠﻴﺪ‬


‫‪ -‬ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ﻭﻳﻨﺪﻭﺯﺑﺎ ‪ ١٠٤‬ﮐﻠﻴﺪ‬
‫‪ -‬ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﭘﻞ ﺑﺎ ‪ ٨٢‬ﮐﻠﻴﺪ‬
‫‪ -‬ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ﭘﻴﺸﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﭘﻞ ﺑﺎ ‪ ١٠٨‬ﮐﻠﻴﺪ‬

‫ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ‪ laptop‬ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﺺ ﺑﺨﻮﺩ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﮐﻪ ﺁﺭﺍﻳﺶ ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﭼﻬﺎﺭ ﻧـﻮﻉ‬
‫ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪:‬‬

‫ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺎﻳﭗ‬


‫ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺍﻋﺪﺍﺩ )‪(Numeric keypad‬‬
‫ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﺍﺑﻊ ) ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ( ﺧﺎﺹ‬
‫ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻟﻲ‬

‫ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺎﻳﭗ ﺑﺨﺸﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ﺭﺍ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﮑﻤﮏ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﺒﺎﺋﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺎﻳﭗ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺁﺭﺍﻳﺶ ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎﻱ ﺗﺎﻳﭗ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺕ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻋﺪﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻭﺭ ‪ Numeric keypad‬ﺩﺭ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ ‪ .‬ﺑـﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﺋﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻳﮏ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺑﺎ ‪ ١٧‬ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺁﺭﺍﻳﺶ ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﺮ‬
‫ﺭﻭﻱ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ١٩٨٦‬ﺷﺮﮐﺖ ‪ IBM‬ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻭ ﮐﻠﻴـﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺎﺗﻲ ﻭ‬
‫ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻟﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻄﺮ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ‬
‫ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻱ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﻳﮏ ﺍﺯ ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺘﻲ ﺭﺍ ﻭﺍﮔﺬﺍﺭ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻟﻲ ﺑﺎﻋـﺚ ﮐﻨﺘـﺮﻝ ﻣﮑـﺎﻥ ﻧﻤـﺎ‬
‫)‪ (Cursor‬ﻭ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺸﮕﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﺳﺘﺎ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻬﺎﺭ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ) ﺑﺎ ﻓﺮﻣﺖ ﻣﻌﮑﻮﺱ ﺣﺮﻑ ‪ ( T‬ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﺺ ﺗﺎﻳﭗ ﻭ‬
‫ﺑﺨﺶ ﻋﺪﺩﻱ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺍﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﻧﻤﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺸﮕﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻟﻲ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺍﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﭘﺮﺵ ﻫﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﺎ ﮔﺎﻡ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﻠﻨﺪ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪:‬‬

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‫‪Alternate‬‬ ‫‪-Alt‬‬ ‫‪PageUp‬‬ ‫‪End‬‬
‫‪Escape‬‬ ‫‪PageDown‬‬ ‫‪Insert‬‬
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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫‪-Esc‬‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ﻭﻳﻨﺪﻭﺯ‪ ،‬ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻲ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎﻱ ‪ Windows‬ﻳﺎ ‪ Start‬ﻭ ﻳﮏ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ‪ Application‬ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻫـﺎﺋﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳـﻦ‬
‫ـﺎﺵ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ـﺎﻱ ﻣﮑﻴﻨﺘـــ‬
‫ـﺴﺘﻢ ﻫـــ‬
‫ـﻪ ﺳﻴـــ‬
‫ـﺼﺎﺹ ﺑـــ‬
‫ـﻞ " ﺍﺧﺘـــ‬
‫ـﺪﻫﺎﻱ " ﺍﭘـــ‬
‫ـﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴـــ‬
‫ـﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺻـــ‬
‫ـﻪ ﻣــ ـﻲ ﺑﺎﺷـــ‬
‫ﺯﻣﻴﻨـــ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ﻳﺎ ‪ Keyboard‬ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ﻫﺎﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﭼﻴﺪﻣﺎﻥ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﺗﺎﻳﭗ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺷـﻤﺎ ) ﮐـﺎﺭﺑﺮ ( ﺭﺍ ﻗـﺎﺩﺭ ﻣﻴـﺴﺎﺯﺩ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻓﺮﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎﻱ ﺩﻟﺨﻮﺍﻩ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‪ Keyboard .‬ﻧﻴﺰ ﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺳﺎﻳﻞ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻤﺎﺭ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻣﺎﻧﻴﺘﻮﺭ ‪ ) Monitor‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﻲ ﺁﮔﺎﻫﻲ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ( ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﭼﺮﺍ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺁﮔﺎﻫﻲ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻦ ﺍﺯ ﻭﻗﺎﻳﻌﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﮐـﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ‬
‫ﺷﻤﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻭﻗﻮﻉ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻴﮑﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺎﻧﻴﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺳﺎﻳﻞ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻲ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮ ﻳﺎ ‪ ، Printer‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻲ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺘﻦ ﻳﺎ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﮐﺎﻏﺬ ) ﻳﺎ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‬
‫( ﭘﻴﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻴﮑﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻨﺒﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻟﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺿﺮﺑﻪ ﺍﻱ ﻳﺎ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺿﺮﺑﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺑـﻮﺩﻥ ﺁﻧﻬﺎﺳـﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺿﺮﺑﻪ ﺍﻱ ﻫﺮ ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮ ﺑﺎ ﮐﺎﻏﺬ ﺗﻤﺎﺱ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮑﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺎﺗﺮﻳﺴﻲ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺍﻱ ﻭ ﭼﺮﺥ ﻭ ﻓﻠﮑﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺿﺮﺑﻪ ﺍﻱ‬
‫ﻫﺮ ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮ ﺑﺎ ﮐﺎﻏﺬ ﺗﻤﺎﺱ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻴﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻟﻴﺰﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﺍﻓﺸﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻲ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺑﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮ ﻟﻴﺰﺭﻱ‬

‫ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻟﻴﺰﺭﻱ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻨﺤﺼﺮﺑﻔﺮﺩ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻃﻲ ﺳﺎﻟﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﺧﻴﺮ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻝ ﻋﻤﻮﻡ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺍﻥ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺮﺍﺳﺮ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺷـﺪﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺷﺮﮐﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎ ﺧﻮﺍﺳﺘﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻭ ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﭘﻴﺸﺮﻓﺖ ﺗﮑﻨﻮﻟﻮﮊﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﻝ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧـﻮﻉ‬
‫ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻟﻴﺰﺭﻱ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﺴﻴﺘﻪ ﺳﺎﮐﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺗﮑﻨﻮﻟﻮﮊﻱ ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻟﻴﺰﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺻﻮﻝ ﻣﻬﻢ ﻭ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﺴﻴﺘﻪ ﺳﺎﮐﻦ ﻳﮏ ﺷﺎﺭﮊ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻋﺎﻳﻖ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻥ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﺴﻴﺘﻪ ﺳﺎﮐﻦ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺮﮊﻱ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ‬

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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﺴﻴﺘﻪ ﺳﺎﮐﻦ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ ) .‬ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﻟﺒﺎﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻳﮏ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﺧﺸﮏ ﮐﻦ (‪ .‬ﺭﻋﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺮﻕ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﻳﮏ ﺍﺑـﺮ‬
‫ﺻـــﺎﻋﻘﻪ ﺩﺍﺭ ﻧﻴـــﺰ ﺣﺎﻣـــﻞ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳـــﺴﻴﺘﻪ ﺳـــﺎﮐﻦ ﺑـــﻮﺩﻩ ﮐـــﻪ ﻣـــﺴﻴﺮ ﺍﺑـــﺮ ﺗـــﺎ ﺯﻣـــﻴﻦ ﺭﺍ ﻃـــﻲ ﺧﻮﺍﻫـــﺪ ﮐـــﺮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮ ﻟﻴﺰﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﮏ ﻧﻮﻉ " ﭼﺴﺐ ﻣﻮﻗﺖ " ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﺴﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻓـﻮﻕ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺳـﺘﮕﺎﻫﻲ ﺑـﺎ ﻧـﺎﻡ " ﻧﻮﺭﭘـﺬﻳﺮ"‬
‫)‪ (Photoreceptor‬ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺖ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮑﻲ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻓﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻳﮏ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﻠﻨﺪﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻫﺎﺩﻱ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﮐـﻪ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﮐﻮﺍﻧﺘﻮﻡ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺷﺎﺭﮊ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﻢ ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ )‪ ، (Corona Wire‬ﭘﻴﺪﺍ‬
‫ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﭼﺮﺧﺶ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺍﻧﻪ ‪ ،‬ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮ ﻳﮏ ﭘﺮﺗﻮ ﻧﻮﺭ ﻟﻴﺰﺭﻱ ﻧﺎﺯﮎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲ ﺗﺎﺑﺎﻧﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﻟﻴﺰﺭ ﺣﺮﻭﻑ ﻭ ﺗﺼﺎﻳﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﻧﻮﺷﺖ ‪ ).‬ﻳﮏ ﺍﻟﮕﻮ ﺍﺯ ﺷﺎﺭﮊ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ( ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺷﺎﺭﮊ ﻣﻌﮑﻮﺱ ﻫﻢ ﮐﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻳـﮏ ﺷـﺎﺭﮊ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﺍﺳـﺘﺎﺗﻴﮏ ﻣﺜﺒـﺖ ﺑـﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻳـﮏ ﺷـﺎﺭﮊ ﻣﻨﻔـﻲ ﺑﻌﻨـﻮﺍﻥ ﺯﻣﻴﻨـﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈـﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘـﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫـﺪ ﺷـﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﮕﻮﻱ ﻣﻮﺭﺩﻧﻈﺮ ‪ ،‬ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﮔﺮﺩ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ) ﭘﻮﺩﺭ ﻣﺸﮑﻲ ﺭﻧﮓ ﺑﺎ ﮐﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ( ﺷﺎﺭﮊ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲ ﭘﻮﺷﺎﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑـﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﭘﻮﺩﺭ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺷﺎﺭﮊ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﻧﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪ ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺍﻧﻪ ) ﺑﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻔﻲ ( ﭼﺴﺒﺎﻧﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ ).‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺷﺎﺭﮊ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ‬
‫ﻣﺜﺒــﺖ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫــﺪ ﺷــﺪ ( ‪ .‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴــﺎﺕ ﻓــﻮﻕ ﻣــﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﺷــﺘﻦ ﺑــﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺳــﻮﺩﺍ ﻭ ﭼــﺴﺒﺎﻧﺪﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺑــﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺳــﻄﺢ ﻣــﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈــﺮ ﺍﺳــﺖ ‪.‬‬
‫ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﭼﺴﺒﺎﻧﺪﻥ ﭘﻮﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻳﮏ ﮐﺎﻏﺬ ﻣﻲ ﭼﺮﺧﺪ ‪.‬ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﮐﺎﻏﺬ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻳﮏ ﺷﺎﺭﮊ ﻣﻨﻔﻲ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺳـﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﻲ ‪ Corona‬ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺷﺎﺭﮊ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﻤﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﻗﻮﻳﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺷﺎﺭﮊ ﻣﻨﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﺍﺳﺘﺎﺗﻴﮏ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﮐﺎﻏﺬ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻫﺎ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ‬
‫ﭘﻮﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﮐﺎﻏﺬ )ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺍﻧﻪ( ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﮐﺎﻏﺬ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﺩﺭﺝ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻣﻤﺎﻧﻌﺖ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﭼﺴﺒﻴﺪﻥ ﮐﺎﻏﺬ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺍﻧﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻼﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺭﺝ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﺨﻠﻴـﻪ ﺷـﺎﺭﮊ ﺗﻮﺳـﻂ ﻳـﮏ ﺳـﻴﻢ ‪ Detac corona‬ﺍﻧﺠـﺎﻡ ﺧﻮﺍﻫـﺪ ﺷـﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮ ﮐﺎﻏﺬ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻳﮏ ‪ ) Fuser‬ﻳﮏ ﺯﻭﺝ ﻏﻠﺘﮏ ﮔﺮﻡ ( ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﻓﻮﻕ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﺩﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﭘﺎﺷﻴﺪﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﻏﺬ ﺗﻨﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻏﻠﺘﮏ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﮐﺎﻏﺬ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﺖ ﺳﻴﻨﻲ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻲ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ Fuser .‬ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﮔﺮﻡ ﺷﺪﻥ ﮐﺎﻏﺬ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ ﺑﻬﻤﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﮐﺎﻏﺬ ﺍﺯ ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﻍ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﭼﻪ ﻋﺎﻣﻠﻲ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﮐﺎﻏﺬ ﺳﻮﺯﺍﻧﺪﻩ ﻧﮕﺮﺩﺩ؟ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺍﺳـﺖ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳــﺮﻋﺖ ﺣﺮﮐــﺖ ﮐﺎﻏــﺬ ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ ﻏﻠﺘــﮏ ﻫــﺎ ﺑﮕﻮﻧــﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺧﻮﺍﻫــﺪ ﺑــﻮﺩ ﮐــﻪ ﺑﺎﻋــﺚ ﻋــﺪﻡ ﺳــﻮﺧﺘﮕﻲ ﮐﺎﻏــﺬ ﺧﻮﺍﻫــﺪ ﺷــﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻳﺨﺘﻦ ﭘﻮﺩﺭ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﮐﺎﻏﺬ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﻳﮏ ﻻﻣﭗ ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻻﻣﭗ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺳﻄﺢ "ﻧﻮﺭ ﭘﺬﻳﺮ" ﺍﺳـﺘﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﺭﺍ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ﺭﺍ ﭘﺎﮎ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺳﻴﻢ ﺷﺎﺭﮊ‪ Corona‬ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﺷﺎﺭﮊ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ‬
‫ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎﻱ ﻳﮏ ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮ ﻟﻴﺰﺭﻱ‬

‫ﻣﻬﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎﻱ ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻟﻴﺰﺭﻱ ‪ :‬ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻗﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻘﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﺼﺮﻓﻪ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﻳﮏ ﻟﻴﺰﺭ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ‬
‫ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻤﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﻮﻫﺮ ﺍﻓﺸﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻟﻴﺰﺭﻱ ﺑﻤﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﺘﺮ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﻮﻫﺮﺍﻓﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷـﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﭘﻮﺩﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻓﻲ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﮔﺮﺍﻥ ﻧﺒﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﻧﮕﻲ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻟﻴﺰﺭﻱ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺗﮏ ﺭﻧﮓ ) ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﺭﻧﮓ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺳﻔﻴﺪ ﺭﻧﮓ ﮐﺎﻏﺬ ( ﺑﻮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻟﻴﺰﺭﻱ ﺭﻧﮕﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻭ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪﮐﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﻧﮕﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺳﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻫﺎﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻤﺪﻩ ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﻧﮕﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺳﻔﻴﺪ ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﭼﺎﭖ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺖ ﺭﻧﮕﻲ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﻧﮕﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻬﺎﺭ ﻓﺎﺯ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﻓﺎﺯ ﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻧﮓ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻴﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﺍﻱ ) ﺁﺑﻲ ( ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﺧﺎﺑﻲ ) ﻗﺮﻣﺰ ( ‪ ،‬ﺯﺭﺩ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ‬
‫ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﭼﻬﺎﺭ ﺭﻧﮓ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺍﻱ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻧﮓ ﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﭼﻬـﺎﺭ ﺗـﻮﻧﺮ ﻭ ‪developer unit‬‬
‫ﻣﺠﺰﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻳﮏ ﭼﺮﺥ ﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﺯ ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻫﺮ ﻳﮏ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻧﮓ ﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻟﻴﺰﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﻭ ﺗﻮﻧﺮ ﻣﺠﺰﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ‬
‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺩﻡ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﮑﻪ ﻫﻢ ﺍﮐﻨﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﺰﻝ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺤﻞ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻄﻠﺐ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺷـﻤﺎ ﮔﺬﺍﺷـﺘﻪ‬
‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﮊﻩ " ﻣﻮﺩﻡ " ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﮐﻠﻤﺎﺕ "‪ "modulator-demodulator‬ﺍﻗﺘﺒﺎﺱ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﺠﻴﺘﺎﻝ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺗﻠﻔﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻭﻟﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﮕﻨﺎﻝ ﻫﺎﺋﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺧﻄـﻮﻁ ﺗﻠﻔـﻦ‬
‫ﺳﺎﺯﮔﺎﺭ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ " ﺩﻱ ﻣﺪﻭﻟﻪ " ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﺳﻴﮕﻨﺎﻝ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺩﻳﺠﻴﺘﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺠــﺎﻡ ﻣــﻲ ﺩﻫــﺪ‪ .‬ﻣــﻮﺩﻡ ﻫــﺎﻱ ﺑــﺪﻭﻥ ﮐﺎﺑــﻞ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫــﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﺠﻴﺘــﺎﻝ ﺭﺍ ﺑــﻪ ﺍﻣــﻮﺍﺝ ﺭﺍﺩﻳــﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﺒــﺪﻳﻞ ﻣــﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨــﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﺍﺯﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ١٩٦٠‬ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻭ ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨﺎﻝ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺮﮐﺰﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬
‫ﺍﺳــــﺖ ‪.‬ﺷــــﮑﻞ ﺯﻳــــﺮ ﻧﺤــــﻮﻩ ﺍﺭﺗﺒــــﺎﻁ ﻓــــﻮﻕ ﺩﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫــــﺎﻱ ﺑــــﺰﺭﮒ ﺭﺍ ﻧــــﺸﺎﻥ ﻣــــﻲ ﺩﻫــــﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ١٩٦٠‬ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ‪ ٣٠٠‬ﺑﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ )‪ (bps‬ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻳﮏ ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨﺎﻝ ) ﻳﮏ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺸﮕﺮ( ﻗـﺎﺩﺭ ﺑـﻪ‬
‫ﺗﻤﺎﺱ ﺗﻠﻔﻨﻲ ﺑﺎ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻣﺮﮐﺰﻱ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻓﺮﺍﻣﻮﺵ ﻧﮑﻨﻴﻢ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﻗﺖ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﮐﻲ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﻭ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺑﺎ ﺧﺮﻳﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺧﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻭﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻭﺭﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻮﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻳﺎﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﺮﮐﺰﻱ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺘﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ ‪ ٣٠٠‬ﺑﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪.‬ﺩﺭ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻲ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑـﻪ‬
‫ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨﺎﻝ ﮐﺎﺭﺍﮐﺘﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺎﻳﭗ ﻣﻲ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﮐﺪ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﮐﺎﺭﺍﮐﺘﺮ ﺗﺎﻳﭗ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﮑﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻣﺮﮐﺰﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻳﮑﻪ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻣﺮﮐﺰﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨﺎﻝ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻣﻲ ﮐﺮﺩﺩ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻳـﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﺨﺼﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ١٩٧٠‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﻮﻟﺘﻨﻲ)‪ BBS(Bulletin board system‬ﻣﻄـﺮﺡ ﮔﺮﺩﻳـﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻮﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯﻳﮏ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﭼﻨﺪ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ‪ ، BBS‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺭﺍ ﭘﻴﮑﺮﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺍﻥ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺑﺎ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻤﺎﺱ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﻮﻟﺘﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻱ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺷﺒﻴﻪ ﺳﺎﺯ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺧـﻮﺩ‬

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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﺍﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨﺎﻝ ﺭﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﻮﻟﺘﻨﻲ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻉ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣـﻲ‬
‫ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ‪ ٣٠٠‬ﺑﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ‪ ٣٠‬ﺣﺮﻑ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺴﺖ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﮔـﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺗـﺎ‬
‫ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺍﻥ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﺋﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻧﻤﻲ ﮐﺮﺩﻧﺪ ﻣﺸﮑﻼﺕ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﭼﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺩ ﻧﺒﻮﺩ ﻭﻟﻲ ﺑﻤﺤﺾ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ‬
‫ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺎ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﻮﻟﺘﻨﻲ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎ ﺕ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ‪ ٣٠٠‬ﺑﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﭘﺎﺳﺨﮕﻮ ﻧﺒـﻮﺩ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻼﺵ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﺮﺍﻭﺍﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻫﺎ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ ‪ .‬ﻣﺎﺣﺼﻞ ﺗﻼﺵ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻧﺮﺥ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﺩ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ١٩٦٠‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ١٩٨٣‬ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ‪ ٣٠٠‬ﺑﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ‬


‫‪ -‬ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ١٩٨٤‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ١٩٨٥‬ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ‪ ١٢٠٠‬ﺑﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ١٩٨٦‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ١٩٨٩‬ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ‪ ٢٤٠٠‬ﺑﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ١٩٩٠‬ﺗﺎ ﺍﻭﺍﻳﻞ ‪ ٩٦٠٠ ١٩٩١‬ﺑﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ‪ ٢/١٩‬ﮐﻴﻠﻮ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ‬


‫‪ -‬ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ‪ ٨/٢٨‬ﮐﻴﻠﻮ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ‬
‫‪ -‬ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ‪ ٦/٣٣‬ﮐﻴﻠﻮ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ‬
‫‪ -‬ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ‪ ٥٦‬ﮐﻴﻠﻮ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ) ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ١٩٩٨‬ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ (‬
‫‪ -‬ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ‪ ADSL‬ﺑﺎ ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ‪ ٨‬ﻣﮕﺎﺑﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ) ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ١٩٩٩‬ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ (‬
‫‪ -‬ﻣﻮﺩ ﻣﻬﺎﻱ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ‪ ٣٠٠‬ﺑﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ‬

‫ﺩﺭ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ‪ ٣٠٠‬ﺑﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ ‪ .‬ﻃﺮﺯ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣـﻮﺩﻡ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﻓـﻮﻕ ﺍﺯ ﻳـﮏ‬
‫‪ Frequency shift keying FSK‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﻳﺠﻴﺘﺎﻝ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺗﻠﻔﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮐﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ‪ FSK‬ﺍﺯ ﻳﮏ ﻓﺮﮐـﺎﻧﺲ )‬
‫‪ (tone‬ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﻴﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨﺎﻝ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺗﻤﺎﺱ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﻓـﺖ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨﺎﻝ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ‪ originate ،‬ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ" ﺻﻔﺮ" ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲ ‪ ١٠٧٠‬ﻫﺮﺗﺰ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ" ﻳﮏ"‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲ‬
‫‪ ١٢٧٠‬ﻫﺮﺗﺰ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ‪ Answer‬ﻣﻲ ﻧﺎﻣﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ" ﺻﻔﺮ" ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲ ‪٢٠٢٥‬‬
‫ﻫﺮﺗﺰ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ" ﻳﮏ" ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲ ‪ ٢٢٢٥‬ﻫﺮﺗﺰ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻣﻲ ﮐﺮﺩ‪.‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﺮﺳﺘﻨﺪﻩ ﻭ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﺮﮐﺎﻧﺲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮐﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻂ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪ Full-duplex‬ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻫﺎﺋﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺻـﺮﻓﺎ" ﻗـﺎﺩﺭ ﺑـﻪ ﺍﺭﺳـﺎﻝ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻳـﮏ ﺟﻬـﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻫـﺮ ﻟﺤﻈـﻪ ﻣـﻲ ﺑﺎﺷـﻨﺪ ‪ half-duplex‬ﻧﺎﻣﻴـﺪﻩ ﻣـﻲ ﺷـﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺮﺽ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ ﺩﻭ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﻭ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮ ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨﺎﻝ ) ﻓﺮﺳﺘﻨﺪﻩ ( ﺣﺮﻑ ‪ a‬ﺭﺍ ﺗﺎﻳﭗ ﻧﻤﺎﺋﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﮐﺪ ﺍﺳﮑﻲ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪ ٩٧‬ﺩﻫﺪﻫﻲ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ‪ ٠١١٠٠٠٠١‬ﺑﺎﻳﻨﺮﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻫﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺎﻡ ‪ UART‬ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻳﺖ ﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻭ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﭘﻮﺭﺕ ﺳﺮﻳﺎﻝ )‪ (RS-232 Port‬ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﻟﺤﻈﻪ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻣﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﭘﻮﺭﺕ ﺳﺮﻳﺎﻝ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﻟﺤﻈﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﻣﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺧـﻂ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻔﻦ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺘﺮﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﻮﺩﻣﻬﺎﻱ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺘﺮ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻣﺠﺒﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺘﺮﻱ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ‬
‫‪ FSK‬ﺑﻮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺑﺘـﺪﺍ ﺍﺯ‪ Phase-Shift Keying PSK‬ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣـﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵ ‪(Quadrature amplitude modulation)QAM‬‬

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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﺷﻬﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﺋﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻧﺪﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﻨﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ " ﺗﻨﺰﻝ‬
‫ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺠﻲ " ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺪﺍﻥ ﻣﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﺳـﺖ ﮐـﻪ ﺁﻧﻬـﺎ ﻗـﺎﺩﺭ ﺑـﻪ ﺗـﺴﺖ ﺧـﻂ ﺗﻠﻔـﻦ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻈـﻴﻢ ﺳـﺮﻋﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳـﺐ ﻣـﻲ ﺑﺎﺷـﻨﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺗﺤﻮﻻﺕ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ (Asymmetric digital subscriber line)ADSL‬ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﻣﺪﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﻭﺍﮊﻩ "ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺭﻥ"‬
‫ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﭼﻮﻥ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻫﺎﻱ‬
‫‪ ADSL‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻫﺮ ﻣﻨﺰﻝ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺤﻞ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻳﮏ ﮐﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺴﻲ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻭ ﺷﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﺨﺎﺑﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺧﻂ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺣﻤﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺑﺎﻻﺋﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﮕﻨﺎﻝ ‪ ٣٠٠٠‬ﻫﺮﺗﺰﻱ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺻﻮﺗﻲ ﺗﻠﻔﻦ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬
‫‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﮑﻪ ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﺗﻠﻔﻦ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺰﻝ ﻭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﮐﺎﺭ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ ADSL‬ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺧﻂ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺨﺸﻲ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﺴﻲ‬
‫ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻨﺰﻝ ﻭ ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﺗﻠﻔﻦ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﮏ ﮐﺎﻧﺎﻝ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﻳﺠﻴﺘﺎﻝ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺪ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻳﮏ‬
‫ﻣﻴﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﺑﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻨﺰﻝ ﻭ ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﺗﻠﻔﻦ )‪ (UpStream‬ﻭ ﻫﺸﺖ ﻣﮕﺎﺑﻴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﺗﻠﻔﻦ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺰﻝ )‪ (Downstream‬ﺗﺤﺖ ﺷـﺮﺍﻳﻂ‬
‫ﺍﻳﺪﻩ ﺁﻝ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺑـﺎ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻳـﮏ ﺧـﻂ ﻣـﻲ ﺗـﻮﺍﻥ ﺑـﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﻫﻤﺰﻣـﺎﻥ ﻣﮑﺎﻟﻤـﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﻔﻨـﻲ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﺠﻴﺘـﺎﻝ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺭﺳـﺎﻝ ﮐـﺮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﻭﻳﮑﺮﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ ADSL‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﺻﻮﻝ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﻱ ﺗﺒﻌﻴﺖ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﭘﻬﻨﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﻧﺪ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ﺗﻠﻔﻦ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ ٢٤٠٠٠‬ﻫﺮﺗﺰ ﻭ ‪ ١١٠٠٠٠٠‬ﻫﺮﺗﺰ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻧﺪﻫﺎﻱ ‪ ٤٠٠٠‬ﻫﺮﺗﺰﻱ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬ﻭ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻣﺠﺎﺯﻱ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻫﺮ ﺑﺎﻧﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻫﺮ ﻳﮏ ﺍﺯ ‪ ٢٤٩‬ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻣﺠﺎﺯﻱ ﺑﺎﻧﺪ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺴﺖ ﻭ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ ‪.‬ﺑﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ‪ ٢٤٩‬ﻣﻮﺩﻡ ﻣﺠﺎﺯﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻉ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﮐﺎﻧـﺎﻝ ﺧﻮﺍﻫـﺪ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪Multi Media‬‬

‫ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻴﺘﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺭﺍ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﻣﻮﺯﻳﮑﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﺳﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﮎ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ‬
‫ﻭﻳﺪﺋﻮﻳﻲ ﻭ ﮔﻔﺘﺎﺭﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺩﺳﺘﮑﺎﺭﻱ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺷﺪ ﻭ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻱ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﻱ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐـﻪ ﺑـﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺳﻄﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻴﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺘﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﻭﻳﺪﺋﻮﻳﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺳﺮﮔﺮﻣﻲ ﺗﺮﮐﻴﺐ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻴﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﮔﻔﺖ ‪ :‬ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﻣﺘﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﻭﻳﺪﺋﻮﻳﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻴﻤﻴﺸﻦ ﻭ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﺨـﺘﻠﻂ ﭼﻨـﺪ ﺭﺳـﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻱ ﻳـﺎ ‪Multi‬‬
‫‪ Media‬ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮ ‪ ،‬ﮐﺎﺭﺕ ﺻﻮﺗﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﻨﺪ ﮔﻮ ﻭ ﻣﻴﮑﺮﻭﻓﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮ ﻃﻲ ﺳﺎﻟﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﺧﻴﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺍﺳـﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻣـﺪﻝ ﻫـﺎ ﻱ ﻣﺘﻔـﺎﻭﺗﻲ ﻣـﻲ ﺑﺎﺷـﻨﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺴﻄﺢ ‪ :‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﻣﻴﺰﻱ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﺮﺍﻭﺍﻧﻲ ﺑـﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺘـﺪﺍﻭﻟﺘﺮﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ -.‬ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎﻱ ‪ : Sheet-fed‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﻳﮏ ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺣﻤﻞ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻫﺪ‬
‫ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻋﻮﺽ ﺳﻨﺪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﮑﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮐﺮﺩ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎﻱ ‪ : Handheld‬ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﺯ ﺗﮑﻨﻮﻟﻮﮊﻱ ﺑﮑﺎﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺴﻄﺢ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻓـﻮﻕ ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻋﻮﺽ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪٢٥‬‬
‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﺍﻱ ‪ :‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺍﮐﺰ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍﺗﻲ ﻣﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻭ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﮐﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻭ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺍﺳﮑﻦ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻳﺪﻩ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻲ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻳﮏ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺴﻄﺢ ﮐـﻪ‬
‫ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻟﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺖ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎ‬

‫ﻳﮏ ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮ ﻣﺴﻄﺢ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪:‬‬


‫‪CCD-Charge-Coupled device Array -١‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﺁﻳﻨﻪ ﻫﺎ‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﻫﺪ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﮑﻦ‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﺷﻴﺸﻪ ﺍﻱ‬
‫‪ -٥‬ﻻﻣﭗ‬
‫‪ -٦‬ﻟﻨﺰ‬
‫‪ -٧‬ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮﻫﺎ‬
‫‪ -٨‬ﺭﻭﮐﺶ‬
‫‪ -٩‬ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ ‪Stepper‬‬
‫‪ -١٠‬ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ‪Stablizer -‬‬
‫‪ -١١‬ﺗﺴﻤﻪ‬
‫‪ -١٢‬ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺗﻐﺬﻳﻪ‬
‫‪ -١٣‬ﭘﻮﺭﺕ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻳﻨﺘﺮﻓﻴﺲ‬
‫‪ -١٤‬ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ‬

‫ﻫﺴﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻳﮏ ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮ ‪ CCD‬ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ CCD .‬ﺭﺍﻳﺞ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺗﮑﻨﻮﻟﻮﮊﻱ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺧﺬ ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳـﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﺳـﺖ ‪ CCD .‬ﺷـﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋـﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺩﻳﻮﺩﻫﺎﻱ ﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﻧﻮﺭﻱ ﻧﺎﺯﮎ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﮐﻪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ) ﻧﻮﺭ ( ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻥ ﻫﺎ ) ﺷﺎﺭﮊ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻳﮑﻲ ( ﺭﺍ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫـﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﻳﻮﺩﻫـﺎﻱ ﻓـﻮﻕ‬
‫‪ Photosites،‬ﻧﺎﻣﻴـــﺪﻩ ﻣـــﻲ ﺷـــﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻫـــﺮ ﻳـــﮏ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﻮﺩﻫـــﺎﻱ ﻓـــﻮﻕ ﺣـــﺴﺎﺱ ﺑـــﻪ ﻧـــﻮﺭ ﻣـــﻲ ﺑﺎﺷـــﻨﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﺳﮑﻦ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻳﻨﻪ ﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻟﻨﺰﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ‪ CCD‬ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺭﺳﻴﺪ ﭘﻴﮑﺮﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻳﮑﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﺤـــﻮﻩ ﺍﺳـــﮑﻦ ﺗـــﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـــﺎﺕ ﺯﻳـــﺮ ﻣﺮﺍﺣـــﻞ ﺍﺳـــﮑﻦ ﻧﻤـــﻮﺩﻥ ﻳـــﮏ ﺗـــﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻮﺿـــﻴﺢ ﻣـــﻲ ﺩﻫـــﺪ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻣﺘﻦ ) ﺳﻨﺪ ( ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺳﻴﻨﻲ ﺷﻴﺸﻪ ﺍﻱ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺭﻭﮐﺶ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺁﻥ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﻫﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﺭﻭﮐﺶ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎ ﺳﻔﻴﺪ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺳﻴﺎﻩ ﺭﻧﮓ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﮐﺶ ﻳﮏ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﻳﮑﺴﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﺗﺎ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻳﮏ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ‬
‫‪٢٦‬‬
‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺳﻨﺪﻱ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺳﮑﻦ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺭﻭﮐﺶ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﮑﻦ ﻳﮏ ﺷﻲ ﺣﺠﻴﻢ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﻳﮏ ﮐﺘﺎﺏ ﻗﻄﻮﺭ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﮑﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻋﻤﻼ" ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﮐﻨﺎﺭ ﮔﺬﺍﺷﺖ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﻳﮏ ﻻﻣﭗ ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ) ﻧﻮﺭﺍﻧﻲ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ ( ﺳﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻗﺪﻳﻤﻲ ﻻﻣﭗ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﺯ ﻧـﻮﻉ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳـﻨﺖ ﺑـﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺳـــﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﺪﻳـــﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻻﻣـــﭗ ﻫـــﺎﻱ ﺯﻧـــﻮﻥ ﻭ ﻳـــﺎ ﻻﻣـــﭗ ﻫـــﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﺗـــﺪﻱ ﻓﻠﻮﺭﺳـــﻨﺖ ﺍﺳـــﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣـــﻲ ﮔـــﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﻣﮑﺎﻧﻴﺰﻡ ) ﺁﻳﻨﻪ ﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻨﺰﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮ ﻭ ‪ (CCD‬ﻫﺪ ﺍﺳﮑﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﺪ ﺍﺳﮑﻦ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻳﮏ ﺗﺴﻤﻪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭ‪ Stepper‬ﻣﺘﺼﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺁﺭﺍﻣﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺳﻨﺪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﮑﻦ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻫﺪ ﺍﺳﮑﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴﻠﻪ " ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ " )‪ (Stabilizer‬ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﺗﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎﻥ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﻳﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﮑﻦ ﻫﺪ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﺗﮑﺎﻥ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺧﻮﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻪ ﺑﻄﻮﺭ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﺳﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﮑﻦ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ﻋﻤﻼ" ﻳﮏ ‪Pass‬‬
‫) ﻓﺎﺯ ( ﺳﭙﺮﻱ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ - .‬ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺳﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻳﮏ ﺁﻳﻨﻪ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻳﻨﻪ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﻨﻌﮑﺲ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎ ﺻﺮﻓﺎ" ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺩﻭ ﺁﻳﻨﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻪ ﺁﻳﻨﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﺮ ﻳﮏ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻳﻨﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺧﻤﻴﺪﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﺎ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺗﻤﺮﮐﺰ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻧﻌﮑﺎﺱ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ‪ -.‬ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺁﻳﻴﻨﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻳﮏ ﻟﻨﺰ ﻣﻨﻌﮑﺲ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻟﻨﺰ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻳﮏ ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺗـﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺩﺭ‬
‫‪ CCD‬ﻣﺘﻤﺮﮐﺰ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﺪﻫﻲ ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮ ﻭ ﻟﻨﺰﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﮑﻦ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻪ‬
‫ﻓﺎﺯ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﻓﺎﺯ ﺍﺯ ﻳﮏ ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ) ﻗﺮﻣﺰ ‪ ،‬ﺳﺒﺰ ‪ ،‬ﺁﺑﻲ ( ﺑﻴﻦ ﻟﻨﺰ ﻭ ‪ CCD‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃـﻪ‬
‫ﻧﺘــﺎﻳﺞ ﺑﺪﺳــﺖ ﺁﻣــﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻫــﺮ ﻓــﺎﺯ ﺭﺍ ﺑــﺎ ﻳﮑــﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺗﺮﮐﻴــﺐ ﺗــﺎ ﺗــﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺗﻤــﺎﻡ ﺭﻧﮕــﻲ ﻧﻬــﺎﺋﻲ ﺑﻮﺟــﻮﺩ ﺁﻳــﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﺍﺳﮑﻨﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﻓﺎﺯ ﺍﺳﮑﻦ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻟﻨﺰ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ) ﺳﻨﺪ ( ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻪ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﺮ‬
‫ﻳﮏ ﺍﺯﺑﺨﺶ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻳﮏ ﻓﻴﻠﺘﺮ ) ﻗﺮﻣﺰ ‪ ،‬ﺁﺑﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺳﺒﺰ ( ﺍﺳﮑﻦ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪ ﻣﺠﺰﺍ ﺩﺭ ‪ CCD‬ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺍﺳـﮑﻨﺮ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ‬
‫ﻫـــﺎﻱ ﻫـــﺮ ﺑﺨـــﺶ ﺭﺍ ﺑـــﺎ ﻳﮑـــﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺗﺮﮐﻴـــﺐ ﻭ ﺗـــﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺗﻤـــﺎﻡ ﺭﻧﮕـــﻲ ﻧﻬـــﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻳﺠـــﺎﺩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫـــﺪ ﺷـــﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﮑﺘﻪ ‪ :‬ﮐﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﭼﺎﭘﮕﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ‪ DPI‬ﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ‬

‫ﺩﻭﺭﺑﻴﻦ ﺩﻳﺠﻴﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬

‫ﺩﻭﺭﺑﻴﻦ ‪Web‬‬

‫ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭﺑﻴﻦ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻭﺏ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻭ ﻭﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻳﮏ ﺩﻭﺭﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ ﮐـﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ‬
‫ﺧﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺳﺎﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﻭﺭﺑﻴﻦ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻭﺏ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻣﺪﻝ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ ﺗﺎ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ ﻣـﻲ ﺑﺎﺷـﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺩﻭﺭﺑﻴﻦ ﺻﺮﻓﺎ" ﺑﻪ ﻭﺏ ﺧﺘﻢ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﺑﮑﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭﺑﻴﻦ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ‪ :‬ﺗﺮﺍﻓﻴﮏ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺷﺨـﺼﻲ ﻭ‬
‫ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﻢ ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻳﮏ ﺩﻭﺭﺑﻴﻦ ﻭﺏ ﺩﺭ ﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻓـﻮﻕ ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ ﻋﻼﻗـﻪ ﻣﻨـﺪﺍﻥ ﻓـﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣـﻲ ﮔـﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﮏ ﺩﻭﺭﺑﻴﻦ ﻭﺏ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻳﮏ ﺩﻭﺭﺑﻴﻦ ﺩﻳﺠﻴﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺩﻭﺭﺑﻴﻦ ﻫﺎ ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻋﻤـﺪﺗﺎ" ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﭘﻮﺭﺕ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ USB‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪ ).‬ﺩﻭﺭﺑﻴﻦ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻳﮏ ﮐﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﻲ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﭘﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﺪﻧﺪ( ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮑﻲ ﻳﮏ ﺩﻭﺭﺑﻴﻦ ﻭﺏ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺍﻳﻮﺭ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ ) ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺍﻳﻮﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﻧﺼﺐ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ( ‪ .‬ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﮑﻲ ﻭ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭﺑﻴﻦ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ‬
‫ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻱ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻧﺼﺐ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪ ،‬ﺑـﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺗﮑـﺮﺍﺭﻱ ﺗـﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮﻱ ) ﻓـﺮﻳﻢ ( ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭﺑـﻴﻦ ﺍﺧـﺬ ﺧﻮﺍﻫـﺪ ﮐـﺮﺩ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭﺑﻴﻦ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻭﺏ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺍﻳﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ ‪:‬ﻳﮏ ﺩﻭﺭﺑﻴﻦ ﮐﻪ ﺑـﻪ ﮐـﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻣﺘـﺼﻞ ﺷـﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷـﺪ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﻳـــﮏ ﻧـــﺮﻡ ﺍﻓـــﺰﺍﺭ ﮐـــﻪ ﻗـــﺎﺩﺭ ﺑـــﻪ ﺗـــﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﻓﺮﻳﻤﻬـــﺎ ﺑـــﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﺩﻭﺍﺭﻱ ) ﺗﮑـــﺮﺍﺭﻱ( ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺭﺑـــﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﺷـــﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳــــﮏ ﺧــــﻂ ﺑــــﺎ ﭘﻬﻨــــﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﻧــــﺪ ﻗﺎﺑــــﻞ ﻗﺒــــﻮﻝ ﺑــــﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺗــــﺼﺎﻝ ﮐــــﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺑــــﻪ ﺍﻳﻨﺘﺮﻧــــﺖ‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﮑﻪ ﭘﻬﻨﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﻧﺪ ﺧﻂ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳـﺐ ﻧﺒﺎﺷـﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺗـﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﻗـﺎﺩﺭ ﺑـﻪ ﺑـﺎﺯﺧﻮﺍﻧﻲ ‪ /‬ﺑﺎﺯﻧﻮﻳـﺴﻲ ﻣﺠـﺪﺩ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﻨـﺪ ﺑـﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺴﺎﻳﻞ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎ ﺩﻭﺭﺑﻴﻦ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻭﺏ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ) ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻳﮏ ﮐﺎﺑﻞ ‪ ،( USB‬ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻳﺖ ﻃﻮﻝ ﮐﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺣﺪﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﻃﻮﻝ‬
‫ﮐﺎﺑﻞ ﭘﻨﺞ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ..‬ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺣﻞ ﻣﺸﮑﻞ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯﺩﻭﺭﺑﻴﻦ ﻫﺎﺋﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻳﮏ ﮐﺎﻧﮑﺘﻮﺭ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻭﻳﺪﺋﻮﻳﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬
‫ﮐﺮﺩ‪.‬ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﺩﻭﺭﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﺠﻴﺘﺎﻝ ﻳﺎ ‪ WebCam‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺎﹰ ﺷﺒﻴﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭﺭﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻝ ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ ﻋﮑﺎﺳـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺩﻳﺠﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺩﻭﺭﺑﻴﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺩﻭﺭﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﻭﺟـﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﻠﻨﺪﮔﻮﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺑﻠﻨﺪﮔﻮ ﻫﺎ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺨﺸﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ) ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎﹰ ( ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﭘﺨﺶ ﻣﻮﺳﻴﻘﻲ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺻﺪﺍ ﻫﺎ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻴﮕﻴﺮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻓﻦ‬

‫‪٢٨‬‬
‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻱ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻴﺘﻮﺍﻧﻴﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻓﺮﺍﻣﻴﻦ ﮔﻔﺘﺎﺭﻱ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺟـﺎﻱ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﮐـﺮﺩﻥ ﻳـﮏ ﻓﺮﻣـﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳـﻖ‬
‫ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺗﻲ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﺪ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺎﻭﺱ ﮐﺎﻓﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ‬

‫ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻱ‬

‫‪ ، Application Program Interface‬ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ‪ API‬ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻩ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﻧﺪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻲ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺗﻮﺍﺑﻊ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺱ ﻳﮏ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻱ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ) ﺗﻮﺍﺑﻌﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻱ ﻣﻴﺘﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻭﻇﺎﻳﻔﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﭘﺮﻭﻧﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ( ﻭ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯﺁﻥ ﺗﻮﺍﺑﻊ ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ‪ API .‬ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﻋﺎﻣﻠﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺭﺍﺑﻂ ﮔﺮﺍﻓﻴﮏ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮ‬
‫ﺭﺍ ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ ﺗﻮﺍﺑﻌﻲ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﭘﻨﺠﺮﻩ ﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺷﮑﻠﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﮔﺰﻳﻨﺸﻲ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻱ ) ‪ ( Pull Down‬ﻭ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﻱ ﺭﺍﺑﻂ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬
‫ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺠﺎﺯ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻮﻱ ﻓﺮﺩ ﻳﺎ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ﻣﺠﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺮﻳﺪﺍﺭ ﻓﺮﻭﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻭ ﺧﺮﻳﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬
‫ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﺍﻳﮕﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻴﮕﻴﺮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻﹰ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻧﺮﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺟﺎﺯﻩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﻴﺪﻫﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﻓﺮﻭﺷﻨﮕﺎﻥ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺠﺎﺯ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺷﻤﺮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻫﺎﻱ‪Share Ware‬‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻧﻮﻋﺎﹰ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻴﮕﻴﺮﻧﺪ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮ ﻣﻴﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺗﻤﺎﻳﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻧﺪﮐﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻣﺠﻮﺯ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺖ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺍﻧﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﺭﺍ‬
‫ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺖ ﻣﻴﻨﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺘﻴﺎﺑﻲ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ ﻭ ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﻭﺯ ﺁﻣﺪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﻣﻨﺪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﻣﻲ ﮐﻪ ﻫﻨﻮﺯ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﻴﮕﻮﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫‪Back Up‬‬

‫ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﭙﻲ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻫﺎ ﻳﺎ ﻓﺎﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺭﻋﺎﻳﺖ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻁ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻳﮏ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﻪ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻳﺎ ﻧﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﮕـﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﻣﺸﮑﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﺧﻴﺎﻝ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻣﻦ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺭﺍﺣﺖ ﻣﻴﮑﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺳﻬﺎﻱ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ‬

‫ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺮﺍﺭﺁﻣﻴﺰ ﻭ ﻣﺮﻣﻮﺯ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻧﻴﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺍﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺨﻮﺩ ﺟﻠﺐ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ‬
‫ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺑﺨﻮﺑﻲ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺁﺳﻴﺐ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﻣﺒﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﺮ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻳﮏ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻣﺪﺭﻥ ﻭ ﭘﻴـﺸﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﺁﺳﻴﺐ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﻼ" ﻏﻴﺮﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺑﻴﻨﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻼ" ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻣﻠﻴﺰﺍ )‪ ، (Melissa‬ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ١٩٩٩‬ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﮔﺮﺩﻳـﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﭼﻨﺎﻥ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺑﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺷﺮﮐﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺰﺭﮔﻲ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﻣﺂﻳﮑﺮﻭﺳﺎﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺷﺮﮐﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺠﺒﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﻣﻮﺵ ﻧﻤـﻮﺩﻥ ﮐﺎﻣـﻞ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﭘﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑﻲ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ "‪ ، "ILOVEYOU‬ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ٢٠٠٠‬ﺭﺍﻳﺞ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺁﺳﻴﺐ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﺮﺍﻭﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻭ ﺷﺒﮑﻪ‬
‫ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ‪.‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﻋﻤﺪﻩ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺍﻭﻝ ﺭﺍ "ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻨﺘﻲ " ﻭ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺩﻭﻡ ﺭﺍ "ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ‬
‫ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺒﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﺮ ﭘﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑﻲ " ﻣﻲ ﻧﺎﻣﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﻭ ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻴﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺮ ﻳﮏ ﺍﺯ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﺳـﺘﺎ‬
‫ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺧﺼﻮﺹ ﺭﺍ ﮐﺴﺐ ﮐﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ـﺪ ﺍﺯ ‪:‬‬
‫ـﺪﺍﻭﻟﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻣـﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺁﻟـﻮﺩﮔﻲ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑـﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻨـ‬
‫ﺍﻧـﻮﺍﻉ ﺁﻟـﻮﺩﮔﻲ ﺁﻟـﻮﺩﮔﻲ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑـﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺍﺷـﮑﺎﻝ ﻣﻨﺘﻔـﺎﻭﺗﻲ ﺍﺳـﺖ ‪ .‬ﻣﺘـ‬
‫‪ -١‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ‪ :‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻳﮏ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﮐﻮﭼﮏ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺩﻭﺵ ﻳﮏ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﺣﻤﻞ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻼ" ﻳﮏ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑـﻪ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺍﻱ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﮊﻩ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ) ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻕ ( ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﺮ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻭﺍﮊﻩ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﺮﺻﺖ ) ﺷﺎﻧﺲ (‬
‫ﺭﺍ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﮐﺮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺠﺪﺩﺍ" ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ) ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻕ ﻳﮏ ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎ ( ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻳﮏ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﻲ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﮔـﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٢‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺒﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﺮ ﭘﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑﻲ ‪ :‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﭘﻴﺎﻡ ﻫﺎﻱ ﭘﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑﻲ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ‬
‫ﻫﺎ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺧﻮﺩﮐﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ‪ ،‬ﭘﺴﺖ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﮔﺰﻳﻨﺶ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑـﻲ ﺑـﺮ ﺍﺳـﺎﺱ ﺩﻓﺘﺮﭼـﻪ ﺁﺩﺭﺱ ﭘـﺴﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‬

‫‪ -٣‬ﮐﺮﻡ ﻫﺎ ‪ :‬ﻳﮏ ﮐﺮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﮐﻮﭼﮑﻲ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺷﺒﮑﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﻭ ﺣﻔﺮﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻣﻨﻴﺘﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺗﮑﺜﻴـﺮ‬
‫ﺧﻮﺩ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ "ﮐﺮﻡ " ‪ ،‬ﺷﺒﮑﻪ ﺭﺍ ﭘﻴﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﺗﺎ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺒﮑﻪ ﺭﺍ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺣﻔﺮﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻣﻨﻴﺘﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ‬
‫ﻭ ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺗﮑﺜﻴﺮ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﮐﺮﻡ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺣﻔﺮﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻣﻨﻴﺘﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﮑﺜﻴـﺮ ﻣـﻲ‬
‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٤‬ﺍﺳﺐ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺮﺍﻭﺍ‪ :‬ﻳﮏ ﺍﺳﺐ ﺗﺮﺍﻭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺩﻋﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻳﮏ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ) ﻣﺜﻼ" ﺍﺩﻋﺎﻱ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻳﮏ ﺑﺎﺯﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ (‪ .‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﺮﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﻱ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻧﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﺜﺒﺘﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺩﺍﺩ ﺑﻠﮑﻪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﺁﺳﻴﺐ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﺪﻱ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ ) .‬ﻣﺜﻼ" ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳـﺖ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻮﺟــﻮﺩ ﺑــﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻫــﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳــﺴﮏ ﺭﺍ ﺣــﺬﻑ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨــﺪ( ‪ .‬ﺍﺳــﺐ ﻫــﺎﻱ ﺗــﺮﺍﻭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺭﻭﺷــﻲ ﺑــﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﮑﺜﻴــﺮ ﺧــﻮﺩ ﻧﻤــﻲ ﺑﺎﺷــﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪٣٠‬‬
‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﭼﻴﺴﺖ ؟‬

‫ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ ‪ ،‬ﭼﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﮎ ﺑﺎ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺯﻳﺴﺖ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻳﮏ‬
‫ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻋﺒﻮﺭ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺎ" ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺯﻳﺴﺖ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺷﺨﺼﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻱ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﺯﻳﺴﺖ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﺑﺨﺸﻲ ﺍﺯ ‪ DNA‬ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻳﮏ ﺭﻭﮐﺶ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺘﻲ ﻗـﺮﺍﺭ ﻣـﻲ ﮔﻴـﺮﺩ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﺑﺮ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺳﻠﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺗﮑﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ) .‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺣﻴﺎﺕ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ( ‪.‬ﻳﮏ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﺯﻳﺴﺖ‬
‫ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ‪ DNA‬ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻠﻮﻝ ﺗﺰﺭﻳﻖ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ DNA .‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺳﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺳﻠﻮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺗﮑﺜﻴﺮ ﺧﻮﺩ‬
‫ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻠﻮﻝ ﺑﺎ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺳﻲ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩ ﺗﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﺳﻠﻮﻝ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺭﻫﺎ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺩﻳﮕـﺮ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻳــﺮﻭﺱ ﺟﺪﻳــﺪ ﺑﺎﻋــﺚ ﻋــﺪﻡ ﺭﺷــﺪ ﺳــﻠﻮﻝ ﺩﺭ ﻫــﺮ ﻟﺤﻈــﻪ ﺷــﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺳــﻠﻮﻝ ﻫﻤﭽﻨــﺎﻥ ﺯﻧــﺪﻩ ﺑــﺎﻗﻲ ﺧﻮﺍﻫــﺪ ﻣﺎﻧــﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻭﺟﻮﻩ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﮎ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻳﮏ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﺑﺮ ﺩﻭﺵ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﻗـﺮﺍﺭ‬
‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺗﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﺁﻥ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﻳﮏ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ‪ ،‬ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﮐﺮﻡ ﭼﻴﺴﺖ ؟ﮐﺮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻳﮏ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﺗﮑﺜﻴﺮ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻨﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺍ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺷﺒﮑﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ‬
‫ﺑﺴﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﮐﺮﻣﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺒﮑﻪ ﺭﺍ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻭﺭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺷﺒﮑﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐـﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ‪،‬‬
‫ﮐﺮﻣﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺗﮑﺜﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻭﺭﻧﮑﺮﺩﻧﻲ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳﺮﻉ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻼ" ﮐﺮﻡ "‪ ، "Code Red‬ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ٢٠٠١‬ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺗﮑﺜﻴـﺮ‬
‫ﺧﻮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ‪ ٢٥٠,٠٠٠‬ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﺕ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻧﻪ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﮐﺮﻣﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺗﮑﺜﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻭ ﭘﻬﻨﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﻧﺪ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨـﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﮐﺮﻡ ‪ ، Code Red‬ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺗﮑﺜﻴﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺗﺮﺍﻓﻴﮏ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺍﻳﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺭﺍ ﮐﻨﺪ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻫﺮ ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺮﻡ ﻓﻮﻕ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﭘﻴﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﺍﻳﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻦ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﻭﻳﻨﺪﻭﺯ ‪ NT‬ﻭ ﻳﺎ ‪ ٢٠٠٠‬ﺭﺍ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﻣﻲ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻫﺮ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﮐﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﻧﺎﺍﻣﻦ ) ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ‬
‫ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﻱ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻣﻨﻴﺘﻲ ﻣﺎﻳﮑﺮﻭﺳﺎﻓﺖ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺑﻮﺩﻧﺪ ( ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ ‪ ،‬ﮐﺮﻡ ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑـﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﺗﮑﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻲ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﭘﻴﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻦ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﺍﻣﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻳﮏ ﮐﺮﻡ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺻﺪﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻫﺰﺍﺭﺍﻥ ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﺗﮑﺜﻴﺮ ﺑﻪ ﭼﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ ؟‬

‫ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﮐﺪﻫﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﻳﮏ ﺑﺎﺯﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻳﮏ ﻭﺍﮊﻩ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺤـﺎﻕ ﻣـﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪﻧـﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻳﮏ ﺑﺎﺯﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻳﮏ ‪ BBS‬ﺍﺧﺬ ﻭ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪. .‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺨﺶ ﮐﻮﭼﮑﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﮐﻪ ﺑـﻪ ﻳـﮏ‬

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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﻱ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻮﺩﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﻠﺖ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺷـﺮﺍﻳﻂ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺪﺭﻭﻥ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺑﺪﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻦ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﮑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪﻧﺪ ‪ ،‬ﮐﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣـﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ ﺭﺍ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻣﻲ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﺁﮔﺎﻩ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﺳﺘﺎ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺪﺍﺷـﺖ‪ .‬ﻣﺘﺎﺳـﻔﺎﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ‪ ،‬ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺗﮑﺜﻴﺮ ﻭ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺩﻭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﻻﺯﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻫـﺮ ﻳـﮏ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣـــﻪ ﻫـــﺎﻱ ﻓـــﻮﻕ ﺳـــﺎﻳﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣـــﻪ ﻫـــﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺁﻟـــﻮﺩﻩ ﮐـــﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﻳـــﻦ ﺭﻭﻧـــﺪ ﺗﮑـــﺮﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﺩﺍﻣـــﻪ ﻣـــﻲ ﻳﺎﺑـــﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﮑﻪ ﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺩﻳﺴﮑﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻳﮏ ‪ BBS‬ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺳﺮﻭﻳﺲ‬
‫ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﺗﮑﺜﻴﺮ ﻳﮏ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﮑﺜﻴﺮ ﻭ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻳﮏ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﻼ" ﻣﻮﺍﻧﻊ ﺟﺪﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺗﮑﺜﻴﺮ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ‬
‫ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺖ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ ‪ ،‬ﮐﺎﺭ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ ﺍﻱ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﮑـﻲ ﺩﻳﮕـﺮ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻬﻢ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﺣﻤﻼﺕ ﻣﺨﺮﺏ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺁﺳﻴﺐ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﺪﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺣﻤﻼﺕ ﻣﺨﺮﺏ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ" ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﭼﺎﺷﻨﻲ ) ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﻣﺎﺷﻪ ﺍﺳﻠﺤﻪ ( ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻲ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻧﻮﻉ ﺣﻤﻼﺕ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﻳﮏ ﭘﻴﺎﻡ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ ﺗﺎ ﭘﺎﮎ ﻧﻤـﻮﺩﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺎﺷﻪ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻳﮏ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﮑﺜﻴﺮ ﺷﺪﻩ‬
‫ﺍﺯ ﻳﮏ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻼ" ﻳﮏ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻳﮑﺼﺪ ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺣﻤﻼﺕ ﻣﺨﺮﺏ ﺭﺍ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ‬
‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩﻱ ﺁﮔﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺣﻘﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺣﻘﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺧﺼﻮﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﺷﻴﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ) ﻣﺎﺩﺍﻣﻴﮑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺗﮑﺜﻴﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺑﺘﺮﻱ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﮑﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺣﻘﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩ ﮐﺮﺩﻥ " ﺑﻮﺕ‬
‫ﺳﮑﺘﻮﺭ " ﻓﻼﭘﻲ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻮﺕ ﺳﮑﺘﻮﺭ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻳﮏ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﮐﻮﭼﮏ ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺎﻣـﻞ ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻮﺕ ﺳﮑﺘﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻦ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ ) .‬ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺟـﺮﺍﻱ ﺁﻧﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ(‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻳﮏ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﺑﻼﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﻭ ﺗﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﻣﺨﺮﺏ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ ﺍﺩﺍﻣـﻪ‬
‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺩﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﻮﺕ ﺳﮑﺘﻮﺭ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺑﻮﺕ ﺳﮑﺘﻮﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻼﭘﻲ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭﺩﺭﺍﻳﻮ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ‬
‫ﮔﺮﻓﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﺋﻲ ﮐﻪ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﮎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ) ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﻫﺎ ( ‪ ،‬ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﮑﺜﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺁﻣﺪ ) ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﻳﮏ ﺁﺗﺶ ﺳـﻮﺯﻱ ﺑـﺰﺭﮒ ﺑـﻮﺩﻩ ﮐـﻪ ﺑـﺴﺮﻋﺖ ﻫﻤـﻪ ﭼﻴـﺰ ﺭﺍ ﻧـﺎﺑﻮﺩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫـﺪ ﮐـﺮﺩ (‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻭ ﺑﻮﺕ ﺳﮑﺘﻮﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺗﻬﺪﻳﺪﻱ ﺟﺪﻱ ﺗﻠﻘﻲ ﻧﻤﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﻬﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺻﺤﺖ ﺍﺩﻋﺎﻱ ﻓـﻮﻕ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺠـﻴﻢ ﺷـﺪﻥ‬
‫ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﺸﺮﺩﻩ )‪ (CD‬ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺿـﻴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﺸﺮﺩﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ" ﺁﻟﻮﺩﮔﻲ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﻏﻴـﺮﻣﻤﮑﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻼﭘﻲ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻭﺍﺳﻂ ‪ ١٩٨٠‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻳـﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻴـﺖ‬
‫ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻋﺎﻣﻠﻲ ﻣﻮﺛﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﻭ ﺧـﺼﻮﺻﺎ" ﻭﻳـﺮﻭﺱ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺑـﻮﺕ ﺳـﮑﺘﻮﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺷـﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻮﺕ ﺳﮑﺘﻮﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﺎﻥ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺻﺮﻓﺎ" ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺳﻠﺐ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‬
‫‪ .‬ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺒﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﺮ ﻓﻼﭘﻲ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﻮﭼﮏ ﻭ ﺿﻌﻒ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﻣﻠﻤﻮﺱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻭﻳـﺮﻭﺱ‬
‫ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻫﻪ ‪ ٨٠‬ﻣﻴﺴﺮ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﭘﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑﻲ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺑﻪ " ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﭘﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑـﻲ " ﺍﺷـﺎﺭﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ "ﻣﻠﻴﺰﺍ " ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ١٩٩٩‬ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻳﺪﻧﻲ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﺕ ) ﺳﻨﺪﻫﺎ ( ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﻉ ‪ Word‬ﺷـﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﺎﻳﮑﺮﻭﺳـﺎﻓﺖ ‪،‬‬

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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﮔــﺴﺘﺮﺵ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺳــﻂ ﭘــﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑــﻲ ﺍﺭﺳــﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳــﻊ ﻣــﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻳــﺪ‪ .‬ﻋﻤﻠﮑــﺮﺩ ﻭﻳــﺮﻭﺱ ﻓــﻮﻕ ﺑــﺸﮑﻞ ﺯﻳــﺮ ﺑــﻮﺩ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻳﮏ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻨﺪ ‪ Word‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ " ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﺒﺮﻱ ﺍﻳﻨﺘﺮﻧﺖ " ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻣﻲ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﻫﺮ ﻓﺮﺩ‬
‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻱ ﮐﻪ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺧﺬ ﻭ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻣﻲ ﮐﺮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻭ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﺭﺍ ﻫﻢ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣﻲ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻳـﺮﻭﺱ ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻨﺪ ) ﺑﻬﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ( ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻳﮏ ﭘﻴﺎﻡ ﭘﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﭘﻨﺠﺎﻩ ﻧﻔﺮ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻓﺘﺮﭼﻪ ﺁﺩﺭﺱ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻣﻲ ﮐﺮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﭘﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑﻲ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻳﮏ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺩﻭﺳﺘﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﻬﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪﻩ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻫﻴﭽﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻧﻲ ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﺯﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﻲ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺍﺩﻣﻪ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ‪ ،‬ﭘﻨﺠﺎﻩ ﭘﻴﺎﻡ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪﻩ ﭘﻴﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻣﻲ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻣﻠﻴﺰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻌﺪ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ ﺗﺎﮐﻨﻮﻥ ﺑـﻮﺩﻩ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﺎﻧﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﻭ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺎﻭﺭﻧﮑﺮﺩﻧﻲ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺷﺮﮐﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﭘﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑﻲ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﻏﻴﺮﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ‪ ، ILOVEYOU‬ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ٢٠٠٠‬ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ ﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻣﻠﻴﺰﺍ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﮐﺪ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻱ ﺑﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﮏ ‪ ) Attachment‬ﺿﻤﻴﻤﻪ ( ﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﭘﻴﺎﻡ ﭘﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑﻲ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩﻳﮑﻪ ﭘﻴﺎﻡ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﻣﻲ ﮐﺮﺩﻧﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﺿﻤﻴﻤﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﺭﺍ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣﻲ ﮐﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﮐﺪ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ﻫﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ـﺮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ـﺎﻝ ﻣــ ـﻲ ﮐـــ‬
‫ـﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺳـــ‬
‫ـﻪ ﺁﺩﺭﺱ ﺑـــ‬
‫ـﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻓﺘﺮﭼـــ‬
‫ـﺎﻡ ﺁﻧﻬـــ‬
‫ـﻪ ﻧـــ‬
‫ـﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩﻳﮑـــ‬
‫ـﺮ ﻭ ﺑـــ‬
‫ـﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺗﮑﺜﻴـــ‬
‫ﺧـــ‬
‫ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻣﻠﻴﺰﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ‪ (VBA)Visual Basic for Application‬ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ‪ Ms Word‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬
‫ﻣﻲ ﮐﺮﺩ‪ VBA .‬ﻳﮏ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﮐﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﮐﻪ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﻱ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ‪ :‬ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﭘﻴﺎﻡ ﻫﺎﻱ ﭘﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑﻲ‬
‫ﺭﺍ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ‪ VBA .‬ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻳﮏ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻋﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺧﻄﺮﻧﺎﮎ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺎﻡ " ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﺧﻮﺩﮐﺎﺭ " ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﻳﮏ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻧﻮﻳﺲ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﺝ ﻳﮏ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻨﺪ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻼﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﺳﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﮐﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻣﻠﻴﺰﺍ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ‬
‫ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻫﺮ ﺷﺨﺺ ﮐﻪ ﺳﻨﺪ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻣﻠﻴﺰﺍ ﺭﺍ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻼﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ‬
‫ﻓﻮﻕ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ‪ ٥٠‬ﭘﻴﺎﻡ ﭘﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑﻲ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﻳﮏ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻣﺮﮐﺰﻱ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺎﻡ ‪ NORMAL.DOT‬ﺭﺍ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩ ﺗﺎ ﻫﺮ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻱ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻴﺰ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺎﻳﮑﺮﻭﺳﺎﻓﺖ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻳﮏ ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻲ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺎﻡ " ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﻣﺎﮐﺮﻭﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ‬
‫" ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﮐﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﺕ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻲ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ " ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﺧﻮﺩﮐﺎﺭ " ‪،‬‬
‫ﻏﻴﺮﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﮑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻨﺪ ﺳﻌﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﺧﻮﺩﮐﺎﺭ ﮐﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺳﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻳﮏ ﭘﻴﺎﻡ ﻫـﺸﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﺑـﺮﺭﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺸﮕﺮ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺘﺎﺳﻔﺎﻧﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺍﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺖ ﻻﺯﻡ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺎﮐﺮﻭﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻣﺎﮐﺮﻭﻫﺎﻱ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺳﻲ ﻧﺒﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻤﺤﺾ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﭘﻴﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻫﺸﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﭼﺸﻢ ﭘﻮﺷﻲ ﻭ ﺻﺮﻓﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﺑﺎ ﺧﻴﺎﻝ ﺁﺳﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﺯ ﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺘﻲ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺭﺍ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻧﺎﺁﮔﺎﻫﺎﻧﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻭ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ ﻭﻳـﺮﻭﺱ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﮐـﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﻧﻈﻴـﺮ ﻣﻠﻴـﺰﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺳـﻬﻴﻢ ﻣـﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻧـﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻴﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﺭﻋﺎﻳـﺖ ﭼﻨـﺪﻳﻦ ﻧﮑﺘـﻪ ﺳـﺎﺩﻩ ﻣـﻲ ﺗـﻮﺍﻥ ﻳـﮏ ﭘﻮﺷـﺶ ﻣﻨﺎﺳـﺐ ﺍﻳﻤﻨـﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑـﻞ ﻭﻳـﺮﻭﺱ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﮐـﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻳﺠـﺎﺩ ﮐـﺮﺩ ‪:‬‬
‫● ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻳﻤﻦ ﻭ ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻦ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ‪ :‬ﻳﻮﻧﻴﮑﺲ ﻭ ﻭﻳﻨﺪﻭﺯ ‪ NT‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺗﺎ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺘﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻨﺘﻲ ) ﻧﻘﻄـﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﭘﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑﻲ ( ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ ●.‬ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﮑﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻦ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻤﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ‬
‫ﻣﺴﻠﺢ ﺑﻪ ﻳﮏ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻤﺎﺋﻴﺪ‪ ●.‬ﺍﺯ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﺋﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻦ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﻣـﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻧـﺪ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎﺏ ﻭ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻦ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﻭ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻧﻤﺎﺋﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺑﻮﺕ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻓﻼﭘﻲ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ‬

‫‪٣٣‬‬
‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫‪ ، BIOS‬ﻏﻴﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻳﮏ ﺩﻳﺴﮑﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﺗﺼﺎﺩﻓﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺭﺍﻳﻮ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﻗـﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺘـﻪ‬
‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎﺏ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫● ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ "ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﻣﺎﮐﺮﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ " ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺎﻳﮑﺮﻭﺳﺎﻓﺖ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻫﺮﮔﺰ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺎﮐﺮﻭﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ‬
‫ﺳﻨﺪ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺎ ﺣﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮﺩ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻧﺪﻫﻴﺪ‪ ●.‬ﻫﺮﮔﺰ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺿﻤﺎﺋﻤﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻬﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﻳﮏ ﭘﻴﺎﻡ ﭘﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑﻲ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺷـﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺷـﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫ﮐﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﮐﻠﻴﮏ ﻧﻨﻤﺎﺋﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﺿﻤﺎﺋﻤﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺍﻧﺸﻌﺎﺏ ‪ ) DOC‬ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻫـﺎﻱ ‪ ، (word‬ﺍﻧـﺸﻌﺎﺏ ‪ )XLS‬ﺻـﻔﺤﻪ ﮔـﺴﺘﺮﺩﻩ ( ‪،‬‬
‫ﺗﺼﺎﻭﻳﺮ) ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻧﺸﻌﺎﺏ ‪ GIF‬ﻭ ﻳﺎ ‪ JPG‬ﻭ ‪ (...‬ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺻﺮﻓﺎ" ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺧﻄﺮﻧﺎﮎ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ ) ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺑـﺎ ﻓﺎﻳـﻞ ﻫـﺎﻱ‬
‫‪ word‬ﻭ ‪ Execl‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﻣﺎﮐﺮﻭ ﻭ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﺩﻗﺖ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ( ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻧﺸﻌﺎﺏ ‪ EXE,COM‬ﻭ ﻳﺎ ‪ VBS‬ﺍﺟﺮﺍﺋـﻲ ﺑـﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻓﺮﺍﻡ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻨـﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳـﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺟـﺮﺍﻱ‬
‫ﻫﺮﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﺋﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻬﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﭘﺴﺖ ﺍﻟﮑﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﮑﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ) ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ" ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻳﮑﻪ ﺁﺩﺭﺱ ﻓﺮﺳﺘﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺷﻤﺎ ﮔﻤﻨﺎﻡ ﻭ ﻧﺎﺷﻨﺎﺧﻨﻪ‬
‫ﺍﺱ ( ‪ ،‬ﺻﺮﻓﻨﻈﺮ ﻧﻤﺎﺋﻴﺪ‪.‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﺻﻮﻝ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻳﮏ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺍﻳﻤﻨﻲ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﻠﺖ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ‬

‫ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻧﻮﻳﺲ ﻣﺠﺒﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ﮐﺪ ﻻﺯﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺴﺖ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺁﻥ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻧﻮﻳﺲ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﺣﻤﻼﺕ ﻣﺨﺮﺏ ﺭﺍ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﻭ ﭘﻴﺎﺩﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ ) ﺗﺒﻴﻦ ﻭ ﭘﻴﺎﺩﻩ ﺳـﺎﺯﻱ‬
‫ـﺪ؟‬
‫ـﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﻣـﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻧـ‬
‫ـﺮﻭﺱ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﮐـ‬
‫ـﺎﻟﻖ ﻭﻳـ‬
‫ـﻴﻦ ﺍﻗـﺪﺍﻣﺎﺗﻲ ﺯﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺧـ‬
‫ـﻪ ﭼﻨـ‬
‫ـﺎ ﺩﺳـﺖ ﺑـ‬
‫ـﺴﺎﻥ ﻫـ‬
‫ـﺮﺏ(‪ .‬ﭼـﺮﺍ ﺍﻧـ‬
‫ـﻼﺕ ﻣﺨـ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳـﺖ ﺣﻤـ‬
‫ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻮﺍﻝ ﻓﻮﻕ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺳﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ‪:‬‬
‫● ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻻﻳﻞ ﺭﻭﺍﻧﻲ ﺑﺎ ﮔﺮﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﺨﺮﺏ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺻﺮﻓﺎ" ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﻴﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﻤـﻲ‬
‫ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﻼ" ﻓﺮﺩﻱ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺷﻴﺸﻪ ﺍﺗﻮﻣﺒﻴﻞ ﻓﺮﺩ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺷﮑﺴﺘﻪ ﺗﺎ ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻗﺖ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ﻭ ﭘﺎﺷﻴﻨﻦ ﺭﻧﮓ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺣﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻌﻤﺪﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﺟﻨﮕﻞ ﺯﻳﺒﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﺋﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺸﺮﻳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﻣﺒﺘﻼ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺎﺕ ﻓـﻮﻕ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻧﻮﻋﻲ ﻫﻴﺠﺎﻥ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﮑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺎﺋﻲ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐـﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺑﺎﺷـﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺗـﻮﺍﻥ ﻭ‬
‫ﭘﺘﺎﻧﺴﻴﻞ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺻﺮﻑ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺮﺏ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﮐﺮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫● ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺩﻭﻡ ‪ :‬ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺩﻭﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻴﺠﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﺑﺮﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻳﮏ ﺷﻴﻔﺘﮕﻲ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﺩﺛﻲ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺗﺼﺎﺩﻓﺎﺕ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻗﻄﻌﺎ" ﺩﺭ ﻣﺠﺎﻭﺭﺕ ﻣﻨﺰﻝ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩﻱ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻋﺎﺷﻖ ﻳﺎﺩﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻧﺤـﻮﻩ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺑﺎﺭﻭﺕ ) ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺗﺮﻗﻪ ( ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﻭﻧﺪ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﻭ ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺳﻦ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﻤﺎﻳﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺑﻤﺐ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺰﺭﮔﺘﺮ ﺭﺍ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺗﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻴﮑﻪ ﻓﺮﺩ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺧﺴﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺁﺳﻴﺒﻲ ﺑﺮﺳﺎﻧﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﻳﺎﻓﺖ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻳﮏ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﮐﻪ ﺑـﺴﺮﻋﺖ‬
‫ﺗﮑﺜﻴﺮ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩﻳﮑﻪ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻤﺒﻲ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻤﻮﺍﺯﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺻﺪﺍﻱ ﺍﻧﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺑﮕﻮﺵ ﻓﺮﺍ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺭﺳﻴﺪ‪.‬‬
‫● ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺳﻮﻡ ‪ :‬ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺳﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺲ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﺟﻠﻮﻩ ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﻭ ﻫﻴﺠﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺮﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ ) .‬ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺻﻌﻮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻗﻠﻪ ﺍﻭﺭﺳﺖ ( ﺍﻭﺭﺳـﺖ ﻣﻮﺟـﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻫﺮ ﻓﺮﺩ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻣﺪﻋﻲ ﺻﻌﻮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻴﮑﻪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﻳﮏ ﺣﻔﺮﻩ ﺍﻣﻨﻴﺘﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺭﺍ ﻣـﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺍﻣﮑـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺳﻮﺀﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺎ" ﺑﺪﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﺳﻮﺀﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﻓﻮﻕ )ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﺳﺎﻳﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎﮐﺎﻡ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﻭﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳـﻦ‬
‫ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ( ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺁﻣﺪ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﮕﺎﻩ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﭙﻬﺮ‬

‫ﻣﺘﺎﺳﻔﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﮐﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﻓﺮﺍﻣﻮﺵ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﻲ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ) ﻫـﻴﭻ‬
‫ﭼﻴﺰ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺭﻭﻳﺎ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ( ﺣﺬﻑ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻫﺎﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺴﮏ ﺍﺷﺨﺎﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻳﮏ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﮑﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ ﻭ ﻧﻪ ﺧﻴﺎﻟﻲ! ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬ﺻـﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﺷﺮﮐﺖ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﺮﻃﺮﻑ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﻓﺎﻳﻞ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻳﮏ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﮑﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ ﻭ ﻧﻪ ﺧﻴﺎﻟﻲ ! ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺣﺘﻲ ﺍﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻳـﮏ‬
‫ﭘﻴﺎﻡ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻲ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﺍ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺗﻠﻒ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻳﮏ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﺮﺍﺑﮑﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺧﻮﺷﺒﺨﺘﺎﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺳﮑﻮﺕ ﻧﮑﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳـﻦ ﺭﺍﺳـﺘﺎ‬
‫ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺐ ﻭ ﻣﺠﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻨﮕﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩﻳﮑﻪ ﻭﻳﺮﻭﺱ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮐـﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻳﺠـﺎﺩ ﻣـﻲ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨـﺪ ‪ ،‬ﭘـﻴﺶ ﺑﻴﻨـﻲ ﺷـﺪﻩ ﺍﺳـﺖ ‪.‬‬

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