Journal of Sound and Vibration (1995) 184(3), 503–528

MODELLING OF A HYDR AULIC ENGINE MOUNT
FOCUSING ON R ESPONSE TO SINUSOIDAL AND
COMPOSITE EXCITATIONS
J. E. Coic:1r, C.-T. Cn:Nc, Y.-C. Cnioi, W. K. Lii :Nb L. M. Krrr
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston,
Illinois 60208, U.S.A.
(Received 14 June 1993, and in final form 24 June 1994)
Frequency response characteristics of a hydraulic engine mount are investigated.
The mount studied is highly non-linear due to an amplitude-limited floating piston (the
‘‘decoupler’’) which enables the response to large amplitude (typically road-induced)
excitations to differ markedly from the response to small amplitude (typically engine-
induced) excitations. The effect of the decoupler on frequency response as well as
composite-input (sum of two sinusoids) response is considered.
New experimental data for a production mount and several specially prepared mounts
are presented and discussed. Two linear models, one for large amplitude excitations
and one for small amplitude excitations, are developed and shown to be effective over a
5–200 Hz frequency range. The latter model explains a moderately high frequency
(0120 Hz) resonance which is often observed in the data, but which has not previously
been described in physical terms.
A piecewise linear simulation and an equivalent linearization technique are used to
explain the amplitude-dependence of frequency response, as well as the composite-input
response. The applicability of equivalent linearization is justified by demonstrating that
high order harmonics contribute very little to the transmitted force. Moreover, this
technique is found to be computationally efficient and to provide insight into decoupler
dynamics.
7 1995 Academic Press Limited
1. INTRODUCTION
Engine mounts serve two principal functions: vibration isolation and engine support.
In the past decade, the automotive industry’s shift to small, four cylinder engines and
transversely mounted front-wheel-drive powertrains has made these two functions increas-
ingly incompatible. For instance, the lower firing frequencies of four cylinder engines
coupled with lower engine inertia tend to excite higher amplitude vibrations. To avoid
significant chassis vibration and passenger compartment noise, softer mounts become
necessary—it is not uncommon for the elastic rate (stiffness) of a mount in a front-wheel-
drive automobile to be 20 times less than that of a rear-wheel-drive automobile [1]. Engine
mounts, however, must also limit or ‘‘control’’ engine excursions caused by rough roads,
idle shake, vehicle accelerations and wheel torque reaction (which is especially an issue in
front-wheel-drive). To provide control, it is important that the engine mounts be stiff and
heavily damped. This growing disparity between isolation characteristics and control
characteristics has profoundly changed the way in which the industry approaches mount
design.
503
0022–460X/95/280503 +26 $12.00/0 7 1995 Academic Press Limited
¡. r. coic:1r r1 :i. 504
Figure 1. A schematic of a hydraulic engine mount.
Change has also been forced by an increased market emphasis on passenger comfort.
Comfort encompasses interior noise and vibration as well as the feel of the vehicle on rough
roads and under extreme acceleration. This serves only to heighten the conflicts that arise
in design.
To meet the conflicting requirements of isolation and control, the automotive industry
has turned increasingly to hydraulic engine mounts. A typical hydraulic mount is
illustrated in Figure 1. To provide a basis for the design and analysis of such a mount,
good models are essential. Toward this end, a variety of articles presenting mathematical
models as well as design procedures has been published in the past decade [2–15].
An excellent review is provided by Singh et al. [11]. It should be noted that, while this
paper focuses on passive engine mounts, a number of recent studies have explored
semi-active or adaptive engine mounts as well [3, 10, 16–18].
Until recently, most attempts to model hydraulic mounts assumed linearity and were
restricted to rather limited sets of operating conditions (usually corresponding to test
conditions). Unfortunately, production hydraulic mounts exhibit a variety of non-linear
characteristics and, in application, are subject to a broad range of excitations. The
investigation of non-linear behavior appears to have begun with Ushijima and Dan [13],
who used numerical simulation to investigate nonlinear flow characteristics. More recently,
Kim and Singh [19, 20] began a systematic study of hydraulic mount non-linearities.
Among the effects they have considered are non-linear compliance, non-linear flow
characteristics, cavitation and ‘‘decoupling’’.
This paper contributes further to the understanding of mount non-linearity associated
with the ‘‘decoupler’’. The decoupler, shown in Figure 1, is essentially an amplitude-
dependent switch which is intended to improve the performance trade-off between
vibration isolation and control of engine excursion.
Other contributions of this paper include the presentation of new experimental data
describing the response of a hydraulic mount to composite, dual frequency excitations, as
well as the presentation of a novel ‘‘small amplitude linear model’’. This linear model,
developed as a preliminary to non-linear models, is the first in the literature to capture an
important resonance associated with decoupler inertia. All models presented in this paper
consider single axis excitation only, though extension to multiple axes is possible.
n.br:iiic rNciNr xoiN1 505
2. HYDRAULIC ENGINE MOUNT CHARACTERISTICS
2.1. in.sic:i cn:r:c1rris1ics
In Figure 1, x
e
(t) and x
c
(t) represent the displacement of the engine and the
chassis, respectively. The relative displacement, x
0
(t) =x
e
(t) −x
c
(t), is referred to as
the ‘‘excitation’’ of the moment. Physical components which contribute significantly to the
dynamics of the mount include the following. The primary rubber (1) is a rubber cone that
serves several purposes. It support the static load of the engine, it contributes (significantly)
to the elastic rate and (modestly) to the damping of the mount and it serves as a piston
to pump fluid through the rest of the mount. The bulge rate of the primary rubber (ratio
of pressure change to volume change) is also an important design parameter. The
secondary rubber (2) is a rubber septum that serves principally to contain the fluid. It also
contributes modestly to the elastic rate. The orifice plate (3) is a metal plate (actually a
sandwich of two plates) that separates the ‘‘upper chamber’’ (enclosed by the primary
rubber) and the ‘‘lower chamber’’ (enclosed by the secondary rubber). Cast in the orifice
plate are the ‘‘inertia track’’ and ‘‘decoupler orifice.’’ The inertia track (4) is a lengthy spiral
channel that enables fluid to pass from the upper chamber to the lower chamber. The fluid
inertia in this channel is significant, and is usually selected so that it experiences resonance
at the natural frequency of the engine/mount system. The damping of the track is also
significant. Thus, the inertia track acts as a tuned damper, and is introduced for the
purpose of control. The decoupler (5) is a plastic plate which acts as an amplitude-limited
floating piston that provides a low resistance path between the upper and lower chambers.
Thus, for small amplitude excitation, most of the fluid transport between chambers is via
the decoupler orifice, which effectively short-circuits the inertia track. For larger amplitude
excitations, the decoupler ‘‘bottoms out’’ and most of the fluid flow is forced through the
inertia track. The inertia of the decoupler is also important at high frequencies, a point
which will be highlighted in this paper. The fluid (6), ethylene glycol, completely fills the
interior of the mount.
2.2. rrrqirNc. rrsioNsr cn:r:c1rris1ics
The behavior of an engine mount is usually reported in terms of its frequency response
for different amplitude excitations. Frequency/amplitude ranges of greatest interest
include [6, 11, 14]: (1) 5–15 Hz, 0.5–5.0 mm—these excitations are in the range of engine
resonance and large enough to require significant damping; (2) 25–250 Hz, 0.05–0.5 mm—
these excitations can cause noise and vibration, and require good isolation. Even higher
frequency excitations, which may result from combustion noise [14], have received
attention recently, but are beyond the scope of this paper. Interest has also arisen in the
extent to which hydraulic mounts can provide control and isolation simultaneously [14].
This may be important, for instance, while driving on rough surfaces, or during extreme
accelerations on smooth surfaces. Thus, the response to composite inputs is of interest, and
will be considered in this paper.
The frequency response is typically evaluated with a conventional servo-controlled
hydraulic test rig. The chassis bracket is fixed to an inertially grounded force sensor, while
the engine bracket is sinusoidally excited at a fixed amplitude. Force and displacement
records are collected at a series of frequencies and each record is transformed to the
frequency domain via a discrete Fourier transform. For this study, time domain records
all consist of 8192 points collected at a sample interval of 0·0005 s. To analyze high
frequency behavior (5–200 Hz increments), each record is broken into four contiguous
sections which are independently windowed (Hanning window) and transformed. The four
transforms are then ensemble-averaged to obtain estimates of the Fourier transform
¡. r. coic:1r r1 :i. 506
and coherence. To analyze low frequency behavior (1–40 Hz in 1 Hz increments), each
record is broken into eight interleaved sections (each with an effective sample rate of
0.004 s), which are independently windowed and transformed, then ensemble-averaged.†
In all cases, only those data corresponding to the excitation frequency, v, are retained.
Coherences obtained in this way are not reported because they are in all cases extremely
close to unity. The Fourier transforms, F(jv) and X
0
(jv), correspond to the fundamental
harmonics of force and displacement. The ratio of these transforms, known as the
‘‘dynamic stiffness’’ is the principal quantity of interest:
K
dyn
(jv) =F(jv)/X
0
(jv) =K(v) +jvB(v). (1)
The real part of the dynamic stiffness, K(v), is termed the ‘‘elastic rate’’, while the
imaginary part divided by frequency, B(v), is termed the ‘‘damping’’. In comparing these
data with others in the literature, it should be noted that dynamic stiffness is often
presented in terms of the magnitude (‘‘dynamic rate’’) and phase (‘‘loss angle’’).
Figure 2 shows representative data corresponding to the two classes of excitation
considered above. The two curves correspond to 0.1 and 1.0 mm excitations. These data,
as all comparable data in this paper, have been normalized by the stiffness and damping
of the primary rubber (which are assumed to be amplitude and frequency-independent).
It is clear that the response of the hydraulic mount is strongly amplitude-dependent.
Figure 2. (a) Normalized elastic rate and (b) damping of a production hydraulic mount for small amplitude
(—w—, 0·1 mm) and large amplitude (—— E , 1·0 mm) excitations.
† Computational details are given in reference [21].
n.br:iiic rNciNr xoiN1 507
Figure 3. (a) Normalized elastic rate and (b) damping of a production hydraulic mount for various amplitudes:
—q—, 0·05 mm; —— E , 0·1 mm; —+—, 0·2 mm; ——, 0·4 mm; ——, 0·6 mm; ––––, 0·8 mm; –·–·–·–, 1·0 mm.
The following points are also noteworthy: (1) the peak in the damping for large amplitude
excitation (015 Hz) has been ‘‘tuned’’ so that it corresponds to the natural frequency
of engine bounce, thus, for large amplitude inputs, the mount serves as a tuned damper;
(2) for frequencies less than 050 Hz, both the elastic rate and damping are much less for
small amplitude inputs, resulting in superior vibration isolation; (3) the peak in damping
for small amplitude excitation (0120 Hz) and the corresponding increase in elastic rate
are the result of decoupler inertia, and are undesirable effects.
For this study, a more extensive set of data has been collected. These data are plotted
in Figures 3–5. Figure 3 shows the response of the mount to different amplitude excitations.
It is evident that, with increasing amplitude, the behavior shifts from the prototypical
‘‘small amplitude’’ response to the prototypical ‘‘large amplitude’’ response. The develop-
ment of a model which captures this shift is a principal objective of this work.
Figure 4 displays frequency responses of three specially prepared engine mounts. The
first is a mount from which the fluid was drained, leaving the primary rubber solely
responsible for the dynamic behavior. The data show that the assumption of amplitude
independence is very good, while the assumption of frequency independence is reasonable,
but will introduce a certain degree of systematic error. The second specialty mount was
assembled without a decoupler. The behavior is, not surprisingly, quite similar to the small
amplitude response of a production mount. The third specialty mount had the decoupler
fixed in place. The behavior resembles the large amplitude response of a production mount.
These data are particularly useful in identifying model parameters.
¡. r. coic:1r r1 :i. 508
Figure 4. (a) Normalized elastic rate and (b) damping of three specially prepared engine mounts: —q—,
mount with no decoupler, 0·05 mm; —— W , mount with fixed decoupler, 1·0 mm; —— E , mount with no fluid,
0·05 mm; —+—, mount with no fluid, 1·0 mm.
Figure 5 displays frequency response of a production mount excited by composite
waveforms:
x
0
(t) =x
b
(t) +x
s
(t), (2)
where
x
b
(t) =1·0 sin (2pv
b
t) mm, and x
s
(t) =0·1 sin (2pv
s
t) mm.
The ‘‘base frequency’’, v
b
of the large amplitude component is fixed for a given data set
at 5, 10 or 15 Hz. The frequency, v
s
, of the small amplitude component is swept from 20 to
200 Hz. These data have been collected to assess the mount’s capacity to provide isolation
in the presence of a large amplitude disturbance. Toward this end, the relationship between
the small amplitude input and the force is of particular interest.
The two frequencies, v
b
and v
s
, are generated by separate analog instruments,
and therefore may be considered independent and uncorrelated [22]. This allows the
computation of transfer functions relating each of these inputs to the output force:
K
b
dyn
(jv) =F(jv)/X
b
(jv), K
s
dyn
(jv) =F(jv)/X
s
(jv). (3)
F(jv), X
b
(jv) and X
s
(jv) are Fourier transforms of their respective time domain
records. It can be shown that transfer functions computed in this way are optimum
n.br:iiic rNciNr xoiN1 509
Figure 5. (a) Normalized elastic rate and (b) damping of a production mount excited by composite input
consisting of a 1·0 mm sinusoid at a base frequency (5, 10, 15 Hz) and a 0·1 mm sinusoid (frequency on horizontal
axis): —q—, 5 Hz base; —+—, 10 Hz base; —w—, 15 Hz base; —— E , 0·1 mm single frequency response; —— Q ,
1·0 mm single frequency response.
linear approximations to the underlying non-linear system [22]. Because we are interested
specifically in the response to small amplitude inputs, only the value of K
s
dyn
(jv)
corresponding to the excitation frequency v
s
is retained. The coherence associated with
this value approaches unity.
The results are quite interesting. They indicate that K
s
dyn
(jv) measured in the presence
of a large amplitude disturbance bears a strong resemblance to the mount’s large amplitude
response (Figure 2). This implies that the mount’s capacity to provide isolation from
small amplitude, high frequency inputs is significantly degraded by the simultaneous
presence of a large amplitude, low frequency disturbance. A similar conclusion was reached
by Ushijima et al. [14] who performed a similar experiment.
2.3. xobri rrqiirrxrN1s
The data described above give a more complete picture of hydraulic mount behavior
than previously available. Based on them, it seems reasonable to assert that a good
mount model should be able to capture: the low frequency, large amplitude resonance
(which describes the mount’s performance as a tuned damper); the high frequency, small
amplitude resonance (which, though undesirable, figures prominently in the mount’s
performance as an isolator); the amplitude dependence of elastic rate and damping; and
¡. r. coic:1r r1 :i. 510
the mount’s response to composite inputs (which measures the mount’s ability to provide
simultaneous isolation and control).
The next section introduces two linear models. These models embody our basic physical
understanding of the hydraulic mount, and are sufficient to capture the two resonances.
Section 4 presents two approaches to estimating non-linear frequency responses, a
piecewise linear simulation and an equivalent linearization analysis. These techniques are
also extended to predict the mount’s response to composite inputs. Section 5 presents a
summary discussion.
3. LARGE AND SMALL AMPLITUDE LINEAR MODELS
In this section, two linear models are introduced. The first is tailored to large ampli-
tude sinusoidal excitation (q0·5 mm), and makes the assumption that the decoupler
is ‘‘bottomed out’’ at all times. The second is tailored to small amplitude excitation
(Q0·5 mm), and makes the assumption that the decoupler never bottoms out. Both models
assume that all other important physical effects may be represented by lumped, linear
time-invariant elements.
3.1. i:rcr :xiii1ibr xobri
The principal physical effects are taken to be those associated with the primary rubber
(shear stiffness and damping; bulge stiffness; piston area) and with the inertia track (fluid
inertia and damping). The stiffness of the secondary rubber is small enough that it can be
ignored (reducing the requisite state dimension by one).† The fluid is assumed incompress-
ible (the bulge compliance of the primary rubber is much greater), and the fluid inertia
and damping in the upper chamber are ignored (inertia and damping in the track are much
greater). The interconnection of these elements is straightforward—both bond graph
[23, 24] and mechanical equivalent models are shown in Figure 6. Similar models have
been presented in references [2, 5, 7, 11, 14].
State equations and an output equation for the reaction force may be derived from the
bond graph. They are
&

r
V
b
Q
t'
=
&
0
0
0
0
0
K
b
/I
t
0
−1
−B
t
/I
t'&
x
r
V
b
Q
t'
+
&
1
A
p
0
'

0
, (4)
F=[K
r
A
p
K
b
0]
&
x
r
V
b
Q
t'
+[B
r
]x˙
0
.
The states are shear displacement of the primary rubber (x
r
), bulge displacement of the
primary rubber (V
b
) and volumetric flow in the inertia track (Q
t
).
Parameter values were obtained as follows. A
p
, the ‘‘piston area’’ of the primary rubber,
is equal to the area of the orifice plate top surface, which is easily measured. Initial
estimates of bulge stiffness, K
b
, track inertia, I
t
, and track damping, B
t
, were made using
the analytical formulas given in Singh et al. [11]. These formulas, however, are necessarily
† This may be understood by comparing the response of the mount without fluid to the responses of the
fluid-filled mounts. At low frequency, both rubber shear stiffness and secondary rubber stiffness should contribute
to the elastic rate of the latter class; yet, these mounts exhibit nearly the same values as the dry mount (Figure
4). Measurements of primary rubber bulge compliance and secondary rubber compliance presented by Kim and
Singh [20] also indicate that the latter is at least an order of magnitude greater.
n.br:iiic rNciNr xoiN1 511
Figure 6. The large amplitude model.
based on idealized geometries, such as straight inertia track and a hemispherical upper
chamber. Also idealized are the assumptions of laminar and fully developed flow through
the inertia track. Finally, even such basic assumptions as the absence of leakage paths
tend to short-circuit the inertia track may be questionable. Thus, analytically determined
parameters must generally be considered no better than order-of-magnitude estimates.
In this study, more accurate estimates of K
b
, I
t
and B
t
, as well as primary rubber shear
stiffness, K
r
, and damping, B
r
, were obtained from the frequency responses of the specialty
mounts.
The specialty mount containing no fluid gives a direct measure of K
r
and B
r
. Though
these parameters vary somewhat with frequency and excitation amplitude (Figure 4),
representative values are selected and used in all models. These values are also used to
normalize the elastic rate and damping plots.
The specialty mount with fixed decoupler should behave very much as the large
amplitude model would predict; thus, it is useful for estimating K
b
, I
t
and B
t
. These
estimates are obtained by relating characteristics of the frequency response measurements
to model predictions. The transfer function associated with the large amplitude model
(equation (4)) is:
K
dyn
(s) =
F(s)
X(s)
=K
r
+B
r
s +A
2
p
K
b
I
t
s
2
+B
t
s
I
t
s
2
+B
t
s +K
b
. (5)
It is convenient to define a natural frequency and damping ratio associated with the fluid
part of the system:
v
n
=zK
b
/I
t
, z =B
t
/2 zK
b
I
t
. (6)
¡. r. coic:1r r1 :i. 512
The frequency response may then be written in terms of real (elastic rate) and imaginary
(damping) parts:
K
dyn
(jv) =
$
K
r
+A
2
p
K
b
v
2
(v
2
−v
2
n
) +4z
2
v
2
n
v
2
(v
2
−v
2
n
)
2
+4z
2
v
2
n
v
2
%
+jv
$
B
r
+A
2
p
K
b
2zv
3
n
(v
2
−v
2
n
)
2
+4z
2
v
2
n
v
2
%
, (7)
At frequencies well above v
n
(q30 Hz), the elastic rate approaches K
r
+A
2
p
K
b
. Because
K
r
and A
p
are known, this measure of elastic rate may be used to estimate bulge stiffness.
In addition to the high frequency elastic rate, salient and reproducible features of the data
are the resonant frequency, v
r1
, at which the peak in damping occurs, and the slope of
the elastic rate curve at resonance, m
r1
(see also Figure 7). These measures may be used
to estimate z and v
n
, from which I
t
and B
t
can be determined. An expression for v
r1
is
found by maximizing the damping term in equation (7):
v
2
r1
=v
2
n
(1 −2z
2
). (8)
An expression for m
r1
is found by differentiating the elastic rate term in equation (7), and
evaluating at v=v
r1
:
m
r1
=(A
2
p
K
b
/2v
r1
)((1 −2z
2
)/z
2
(1 −z
2
)). (9)
Figure 7. (a) Normalized elastic rate and (b) damping of large amplitude model versus data: ——, large
amplitude model; –—–, mount with fixed decoupler, 1·0 mm.
n.br:iiic rNciNr xoiN1 513
Figure 8. Relative errors of large amplitude and small amplitude linear models: ——, large amplitude, ––––,
small amplitude. (a) Elastic rate; (b) damping.
Given measurements of v
r1
and m
r1
, equation (9) may be used to estimate z: subsequently,
equation (8) may be used to estimate v
n
. Determination of I
t
and B
t
is then straight-
forward, completing the parameter identification process. The frequency response of the
identified large amplitude model is shown in Figure 7.
A quantitative measure of model performance is the frequency-dependent relative error,
which for elastic rate will be defined as
e
K
(v) =[K (v) −K(v)]/max
v
(K(v)), (10)
where K(v) is the measured elastic rate and K (v) is the predicted elastic rate. The relative
error in damping is defined analogously. These quantities are plotted in Figure 8 (along
with those for the small amplitude model). Relative errors in elastic rate are generally less
than 10%, while those in damping are less than 20%.
3.2. sx:ii :xiii1ibr xobri
The principal physical effects are taken to be those incorporated in the large amplitude
model, plus those associated with the decoupler orifice (orifice inertia and damping).
Figure 9 illustrates the model of decoupler orifice dynamics which is used. The decoupler
itself and surrounding fluid are treated as a lumped inertia, I
0
, while the fluid shear layer
between this inertia and the orifice plate is treated as a lumped damper, B
0
. The pressure
drop between upper and lower chambers (K
b
V
b
, where V
b
is the bulge displacement of the
Figure 9. The orifice plate model.
¡. r. coic:1r r1 :i. 514
primary rubber) drives the orifice flow, Q
0
. A pressure balance gives
K
b
V
b
=I
0
Q
0
+B
0
(Q
0
−A
d

c
). (11)
A
d
is the cross-sectional area of the orifice, and x
c
is the displacement of the chassis, to
which the orifice plate is fixed.
An expression for the force transmitted to the chassis can also be derived with the
assistance of Figure 9. Contributions are the forces transmitted via rubber shear, the
normal forces on the orifice plate due to pressure, and the shear forces due to drag:
F=K
r
(x
e
−x
c
) +B
r
(x˙
e
−x˙
c
) +(A
p
−A
d
)K
b
V
b
+(A
2
d
B
0
)(Q
0
/A
d
−x˙
c
), (12)
where x
e
is the displacement of the engine.
The effect of orifice dynamics, as represented in equations (11) and (12), can be added
to the large amplitude model by recognizing that the pressure drop across the inertia track
is the same as that across the decoupler orifice. A complete small amplitude model is shown
in Figure 10. A mechanical equivalent to this bond graph can be found, but is quite
non-intuitive.
One interesting aspect of the small amplitude model is that it requires two inputs (x
e
and
x
c
) rather than a single input (x
0
=x
e
−x
c
). The relative displacement is an appropriate
input only in instances when either the engine or the chassis serves as an inertial ground
and therefore a proper reference for the orifice inertia.† While no such instance occurs in
an automobile, it does occur in the test fixture described in section 2.2 which fixes the
chassis bracket to ground (x
c
=0). In this case, state and output equations are
G
G
G
K
k

r
V
b
Q
t
Q
0
G
G
G
L
l
=G
G
G
K
k
0
0
0
0
0
0
K
b
/I
t
K
b
/I
0
0
−1
−B
t
/I
t
0
0
−1
0
−B
0
/I
0
G
G
G
L
l
G
G
G
K
k
x
r
V
b
Q
t
Q
0
G
G
G
L
l
+G
G
G
K
k
1
A
p
0
0
G
G
G
L
l

0
, (13)
F=[K
r
(A
p
−A
d
)K
b
0 A
d
B
0
]G
G
G
K
k
x
r
V
b
Q
t
Q
0
G
G
G
L
l
+[B
r
]x˙
0
.
All variables retain previous definitions. The only parameters which did not appear in the
large amplitude model re A
d
, I
0
and B
0
.
The decoupler cross-sectional area is easily measured. Orifice inertia and damping can
be estimated by a procedure similar to that used to find track inertia and damping. To
simplify the analysis, it is first assumed that, at the frequency of orifice resonance
(v
2
1120 Hz), flow through the inertia track can be neglected. This simplification gives
the dynamic stiffness of the small amplitude model a form very similar to equation (5):
K
dyn
(s) =
F(s)
X(s)
=K
r
+B
r
s +A
2
p
K
b
(1 −e)I
0
s
2
+B
0
s
I
0
s
2
+B
0
s +K
b
, (14)
where e =A
d
/A
p
. Equation (14) may be used to develop expressions for the resonant
frequency (v
r2
) and slope of the elastic rate plot at resonance (m
r2
). These expressions
may be equated to values measured using the speciality mount with no decoupler, and
solved to yield estimates of I
0
and B
0
. This process is similar to that used to estimate
† This is not an issue with the track inertia because flow in the track is perpendicular to the assumed axis of
motion.
n.br:iiic rNciNr xoiN1 515
Figure 10. The small amplitude model.
I
t
and B
t
, but somewhat more involved due to the presence of e. Details are given in
Appendix A.
The frequency response of the fully identified small amplitude model is shown in
Figure 11. Relative errors are shown in Figure 8, and are comparable to those of the large
Figure 11. (a) Normalized elastic rate and (b) damping of small amplitude model versus data: ——, small
amplitude model: ––––, mount with no decoupler, 0·05 mm.
¡. r. coic:1r r1 :i. 516
magnitude model. Although the linear models successfully capture the two resonances,
they cannot represent in any greater detail the amplitude dependence of the mount’s
response. To meet this objective, two non-linear models are introduced.
4. NON-LINEAR MODELLING
A variety of non-linear effects contributes significantly to the behavior of a production
hydraulic mount [20]. These include, for instance, entrance and exit effects in the inertia
track flow, and amplitude-dependent softening of the primary rubber. In this paper,
however, attention will be focused on the decoupler, which is principally responsible for
the amplitude dependence.
4.1. iircrvisr iiNr:r xobri
A direct approach to incorporating decoupler behavior is via a piecewise linear model
[19, 25]. In essence, the piecewise linear model reduces to the small amplitude linear model
(augmented with a state for decoupler position, x
d
) whenever the decoupler is not
bottomed out, and to the large amplitude model when the decoupler is bottomed out. The
behavior of the model can be investigated using numerical integration. The model
developed in reference [25] uses the following scheme for switching during a time domain
integration (d is half the gap width):
If the previous step was integrated with the small amplitude model: if =x
d
= Qd,
integrate small amplitude state equations; if =x
d
= ed and sign (V
b
) =sign (x
d
), set Q
0
=0,
set x
d
=sign (x
d
)d, and integrate large amplitude state equations.
If the previous step was integrated with the large amplitude model: if sign (V
b
) =sign
(x
d
), integrate large amplitude state equations; if sign (V
b
) $sign (x
d
), integrate small
amplitude state equations.
Note that V
b
is linearly related to the pressure in the upper chamber, which determines
whether a decoupler at the limits of its travel will remain bottomed out or not.
A piecewise linear model has several attractive features. No new dynamic elements need
be introduced to account for bottoming out, nor do the (possibly very fast) dynamics of
the bottoming out process need to be directly considered. Moreover, the linear continuous
state equations can be directly mapped to difference equations which are guaranteed stable
[26], so that an efficient simulation can be performed. Finally, excitations of arbitrary shape
are easily accommodated.
A significant disadvantage, however, is that a tremendous amount of time domain
simulation data must be generated to produce a modest amount of frequency domain data.
Frequency responses have been computed as follows. A sinusoidal excitation of amplitude
X
0
and frequency v is assumed. A simulation time increment of 2p/v/64 seconds is picked,
and time domain records of approximately 1150 points are computed. Records include
position input and force output information. The beginning of each record is cut off to
remove the transient response, leaving a record of 1024 points. This record is broken into
three overlapping sections of 512 points each, which are Hanning windowed and
transformed with an FFT. A complex transfer function is computed at the frequency of
excitation.
Results are shown in Figure 12 (which may be compared with Figure 3), and relative
errors in Figure 13. Generally speaking, the simulation is quite accurate. Relative errors
in elastic rate and damping are typically less than 20%. The greatest errors occur in the
vicinity of the high frequency resonance, due both to noise in the measured values and
to poorness of fit. It is suspected that the poor fit near resonance is due to the lack of an
appropriate model of the bottoming out process. This is addressed further below, but it
n.br:iiic rNciNr xoiN1 517
Figure 12. (a) Normalized elastic rate and (b) damping of piecewise linear model for various amplitude
excitations. Compare with Figure 3: —q—, 0·05 mm; —— E , 0·1 mm; —— Q , 0·2 mm; ——, 0·4 mm; ––––, 0·6 mm;
–·–·–·–, 0·8 mm; – – – –, 1·0 mm.
should be noted here that limited insight into bottoming out is a significant weakness of
the piecewise linear model.
4.2. rqiiv:irN1 iiNr:riz:1ioN
An alternative approach to non-linear modelling, equivalent linearization,
provides roughly comparable results (to piecewise linear modelling) at a greatly reduced
computational cost, and with the added benefit of improved physical insight. Equiv-
alent linearization techniques have been applied to similar problems with considerable
success (see, for instance, Dubowsky and Freudenstein [27] and Comparin and Singh
[28]). To introduce the technique, the simplified mechanical system in Figure 14 will first
be considered. Note that the mass representing decoupler inertia is constrained by a
‘‘cage’’.
The idea of equivalent linearization is, given a prescribed excitation (e.g., x
0
(t)=
X
0
sin vt), to replace the cage with a linear element or elements that would yield the
same motion, at least up to the fundamental of the Fourier series describing that motion.
The equivalent linear element(s) are then, in effect, parameterized by the amplitude and
frequency of excitation.
The specific approach taken here is illustrated in Figure 15. As the figure indicates, only
one element, the viscous damper, is affected by equivalent linearization. There is some
physical justification for this model. First, there is no physical reason to associate
¡. r. coic:1r r1 :i. 518
Figure 13. Relative errors for piecewise linear model: —q—, 0·05 mm; —— E , 0·1 mm; —— Q , 0·2 mm; ——,
0·4 mm; ----, 0·6 mm; –·–·–·–, 0·8 mm; – – – –, 1·0 mm. (a) Elastic rate; (b) damping.
significant energy storage (potential or kinetic) with bottoming out. Second, the decoupler
is immersed in a fluid which must be displaced as the cage boundaries are approached.
Thus, a squeeze film [29] is developed. It is well-known that the squeeze film between
parallel plates produces a damping force which varies as the inverse cube of the gap
[29, 30]:
F
sq
=g(h /h
3
) (15)
Here, h is the gap thickness and g is a geometric parameter. For simple geometries,
equation (15) is readily derived from the Reynolds equation for viscous flow [30].
The geometry of decoupler/cage interaction is not simple, but it has been assumed that
the inverse cube form holds nonetheless. The implications of this assumption will be
reassessed below. Because the cage in Figure 14 has two sides, the appropriate damping
Figure 14. The simplified model.
n.br:iiic rNciNr xoiN1 519
Figure 15. The model which treats the decoupler cage as an amplitude-dependent dissipator.
relation is
F
sq
(x
d
, x˙
d
) =g
$
1
(d −x
d
)
3
+
1
(d +x
d
)
3
%

d
, F
sq
(x¯, x¯
.
) =bd
$
1 +3x¯
2
(1 +x¯
2
)
3
%

.
, (16a, b)
where b is a geometric constant with units of damping and x¯ =x
d
/d.
The non-linear damping relation of equation (16b) may be converted to an equivalent
linear damping via a procedure outlined by Gibson [31]. To begin, assume that
x¯ =a sin vt. Then the force that results from equation (16b) can be represented by a
Fourier series:
F
sq
(a sin vt, av cos vt) =F
0
+K
eq
da sin vt +B
eq
dav cos vt+higher harmonics. (17)
It is easily shown that the constant term (F
0
) and in-phase component of the fundamental
(K
eq
da) are zero. Ignoring higher order harmonics, the equivalent behavior is that of a
viscous damper with an amplitude-dependent coefficient,
B
eq
(a) =
b
p
g
2p
0
cos
2
u(1 +3a
2
sin
2
u)
(1 −a
2
sin
2
u)
3
du, (18)
where u =vt. It is interesting to note that this amount of viscous damping would
ensure precisely as much energy dissipation per cycle as the squeeze film damper, assuming
the same sinusoidal form for x¯. This function is plotted in Figure 16. Note that
Figure 16. Equivalent damping as a function of normalized decoupler amplitude (equation (18)): ––––. Effect
of equivalent damping on normalized decoupler amplitude, assuming fixed excitation amplitude (equation (19)):
—— E , v=0·2; —— Q , v=0·6; —e—, v=1·0; —— W , v=1·4; —q—, v=1·8; where v is normalized frequency.
Simplified form of Beq (a) ———.
¡. r. coic:1r r1 :i. 520
the equivalent damping approaches infinity as the normalized decoupler amplitude, a,
approaches 1.
If B
0
f(x) in Figure 15 is replaced with B
eq
, a transfer function may be found relating
X(jv) to X
0
(jv). The magnitude of this transfer function can be considered an expression
for the normalized decoupler amplitude in terms of equivalent damping, excitation
amplitude and frequency:
a(B
eq
, X
0
, v) =
X
d
=
K
b
z(K
b
−I
0
v
2
)
2
+(B
eq
v)
2
X
0
d
. (19)
This relation has been plotted in Figure 16 for a single value of X
0
and several frequencies.
Given specific values for X
0
and v, equations (18) and (19) may be considered simultaneous
equations to be solved for a and B
eq
. This solution corresponds to a point of intersection
in Figure 16. It is evident that, at each frequency, only one intersection will be found; thus,
a uniquely defined frequency response will be computed (the uniqueness of the result can
be proven rigorously [32]). The result is shown in Figure 17.
This same technique has been used to compute the frequency response of the
hydraulic mount at various amplitudes. The linear orifice damping of the small amplitude
model is replaced by the squeeze film damping of equation (16), with b =B
0
(thus, for
an infinitesimal excitation, the non-linear model reduces to the small amplitude linear
model).
Figure 17. Frequency response —— of the system in Figure 14 treating the cage as an amplitude-dependent
dissipator (Figure 15). Small amplitude (linear) frequency response ––––. (a) Elastic rate; (b) damping.
n.br:iiic rNciNr xoiN1 521
Figure 18. Normalized elastic rate and damping of equivalent linear model for various amplitude excitations.
Compare with Figure 3: —q—, 0·05 mm; —— E , 0·1 mm; —— Q , 0·2 mm; ——, 0·4 mm; ----, 0·6 mm; –·–·–·–,
0·8 mm; — — —, 1·0 mm. (a) Elastic rate; (b) damping.
The results are shown in Figure 18 (compare with Figure 3), and the relative errors
in Figure 19. Equivalent linearization proves, in fact, to be superior to the piecewise
linear model for high frequency inputs, but poorer for low frequency, large amplitude
inputs. The former point is expected, because equivalent linearization treats the bottoming
out process in a more physically meaningful way and because, at high frequency, the
assumption of sinusoidal decoupler motion is qiute reasonable. By the same token,
the latter point may be understood: for large amplitude, low frequency inputs, the
decoupler motion is nearly a square wave, and the force generated by the squeeze film is
dominated by pulses which occur as the decoupler approaches and departs the cage limits.
Indeed, most of the energy of the force signal is then found in the fifth and higher
harmonics.
4.3. 1nr rrrrc1 or nicnrr n:rxoNics
Given the amount of spectral information which is lost, it may be surprising that
the equivalent linearization technique works as well as it does. This is in part because
comparison is being made to experimental data which has been analyzed in a similar way,
ignoring higher harmonics in the force data. A second reason of importance, however, may
be that the measured force is affected principally by the pressure in the upper chamber,
¡. r. coic:1r r1 :i. 522
Figure 19. Relative errors of equivalent linear model: —q—, 0·05 mm; —— E , 0·1 mm; —— Q , 0·2 mm; ——,
0·4 mm; ––––, 0·6 mm; –·–·–·–, 0·8 mm; — — —, 1·0 mm. (a) Elastic rate; (b) damping.
not the pressure in the squeeze film; moreover, while higher harmonics may contribute
significantly to the latter, they do not to the former.†
To illustrate these points, the various effects contributing to measured force may be
estimated and compared. The greatest effect, in response to low frequency, large amplitude
excitations, is upper chamber bulge caused by the imposed displacement. The magnitude
of this effect is
F
1
1A
2
p
K
b
X
0
. (20)
This force is purely sinusoidal, contributing no harmonics. There are two effects associated
with the decoupler. The first is associated with the amount of upper chamber bulge caused
by decoupler motion. At low frequency the decoupler motion will approximate a rectangle
wave; therefore, the associated force will exhibit harmonics. The magnitude of the nth
harmonic will be approximately proportional to 1/n for the first few harmonics. Higher
harmonics will be even smaller because the decoupler motion is smooth rather than truly
rectangular. The force contributed by a lower harmonic will be, approximately,
F
2
1A
p
K
b
(A
d
(d/n)). (21)
The magnitude of this effect is much smaller than F
1
. For the fundamental, F
2
/F
1
10·1,
given a 1 mm excitation amplitude.
† Shear force in the rubber contributes heavily to the measured force as well, but is relatively simple to describe
and not particularly interesting in the present discussion.
n.br:iiic rNciNr xoiN1 523
The second force term is associated with decoupler inertia. This term is simply decoupler
mass times acceleration, which, for the nth harmonic, is of the order
F
3
1(I
0
A
2
d
)(d/n)(nv)
2
1A
2
p
K
b
e
2
nd(v/v
r2
)
2
. (22)
For n =5 and v=30 Hz, F
3
/F
1
15 ×10
−4
. Thus, because the inertia of the decoupler is
very small, contributions of squeeze film pressure pulses to the measured force are very
small.
4.4. sixiiirirb rorx or rqiiv:irN1 b:xiiNc
The point was made early in section 4.2 that no particularly compelling reason exists
to assume that the squeeze film relation applies to a hydraulic mount. Results of the
equivalent linearization analysis, however, support the idea that a reasonable physical
picture of bottoming out includes amplitude-dependent damping. With this in mind,
a simplified form of B
eq
(a), shown in Figure 16, was investigated. Here, the equivalent
damping is set to B
0
unless the decoupler amplitude is observed to exceed its physical limits.
In such a case, an equivalent damping is selected which is precisely large enough to ensure
that the decoupler motion remains within limits. The results (not shown) are very similar
to those obtained with squeeze film damping. This similarity suggests that the precise form
of equivalent damping relation is not very important, as long as it conforms to the general
shape seen in Figure 16.
4.5. coxiosi1r rxci1:1ioNs
A final objective of this work has been to predict the hydraulic mount’s response to
composite excitations of the form given in equation (2). This is straightforward with the
piecewise linear model, but less so via equivalent linearization.
The use of the piecewise linear model remains exactly the same as with a single
frequency, except that the input changes to that given in equation (2). As with the
experimental data, the transfer function is computed at v
s
, the frequency of the small
amplitude component, only. This focuses attention on the capacity of the mount to provide
isolation in the presence of low frequency disturbances.
As in the experimental measurements, it is necessary to ensure that the two components
of the excitation may be treated as statistically independent. Because the amplitude and
frequency of each component are fixed, the phase angles must be independent. This will
not be the case if the two sinusoids are harmonically related. Thus, in performing a
simulation it is important to pick v
b
and v
s
carefully so that, to within machine precision,
no harmonic relationship exists.
Results are presented in Figure 20, which has the same format as Figure 5. Both
simulation and experiment suggest that the response to small amplitude inputs in the
presence of a low frequency, large amplitude disturbance is roughly comparable to
the response one would expect for large amplitude single frequency inputs (which of
course cannot be readily generated at such high frequencies). It is not surprising that the
piecewise linear simulation would predict this because it employs the large amplitude
model whenever the decoupler is bottomed out; moreover, the large amplitude component
of the excitation ensures that the decoupler is bottomed out a significant percentage of
the time.
¡. r. coic:1r r1 :i. 524
Figure 20. Response to composite excitations predicted by piecewise linear model. Compare with Figure 5.
—q—, 5 Hz base; —+—, 10 Hz base; —w—, 15 Hz base; —— E , 0·1 mm single frequency response; —— W ,
1·0 mm single frequency response. (a) Elastic rate; (b) damping.
It is also instructive to use the equivalent linearization approach, which begins with the
assumed decoupler motion (normalized)
x¯ =a
b
sin (v
b
t +f
b
) +a
s
sin (v
s
t +f
s
), (23)
where a
b
+a
s
Q1. The equivalent linear behavior can be found using a double Fourier
series [33], which has the form
6F
sq
= s
a
m=0
s
a
n =−a(m$0)
n =0(m=0)
[P
mn
sin (mu
b
+nu
s
) +Q
mn
cos (mu
b
+nu
s
)], (24)
where u
b
=v
b
t +f
b
, u
s
=v
s
t +f
s
. Note that many frequencies other than har-
monics appear in the Fourier series. For instance, output frequencies of v
s
2v
b
,
v
s
22v
b
,..., 2v
s
2v
b
, 2v
s
22v
b
,... can be expected. These terms are often called
‘‘combination tones’’ [34]. If the ratio of v
s
to v
b
is rational, then an infinite number of
combination tones will occur at the frequencies of excitation. Thus, it is once again
necessary to ensure that a harmonic relationship does not exist between the two sinusoidal
components. Even so, combination tones will exist at frequencies close to excitation, and
it is necessary to assume that they have minimal effect on the response. This assumption
is supported in part by the reasoning presented in section 4.3.
n.br:iiic rNciNr xoiN1 525
It is readily shown that Q
00
, P
10
and P
01
are all zero, while Q
10
and Q
01
are non-zero and
are related to the equivalent damping at v
b
and v
s
, respectively:
B
b
(a
b
, a
s
) =
Q
10
a
b
v
b
=
1
2p
2
g
p
−p
g
p
−p
(cos u
b
+
a
s
v
s
a
b
v
b
cos u
s
)
×
1 +3(a
b
sin u
b
+a
s
sin u
s
)
2
(1 −(a
b
sin u
b
+a
s
sin u
s
)
2
)
3
cos u
b
du
b
du
s
=
1
2p
2
g
p
−p
g
p
−p
cos
2
u
b
(1 +3(a
b
sin u
b
+a
s
sin u
s
)
2
(1 −(a
b
sin u
b
+a
s
sin u
s
)
2
)
3
du
b
du
s
, (25)
B
s
(a
b
, a
s
) =
Q
01
a
s
v
s
=
1
2p
2
g
p
−p
g
p
−p
0
a
b
v
b
a
s
v
s
cos u
b
+cos u
s
1
×
1 +3(a
b
sin u
b
+a
s
sin u
s
)
2
(1 −(a
b
sin u
b
+a
s
sin u
s
)
2
)
3
cos u
s
du
b
du
s
=
1
2p
2
g
p
−p
g
p
−p
cos
2
u
s
(1 +3(a
b
sin u
b
+a
s
sin u
s
)
2
(1 −(a
b
sin u
b
+a
s
sin u
s
)
2
)
3
du
b
du
s
. (26)
These equations may be used, together with two transfer function relations similar to
equation (19) (one at each frequency) to yield a set of four non-linear equations in four
unknowns (B
b
, B
s
, a
b
, a
s
).
A very useful result can be obtained, however, without solving any sets of equations.
It is readily shown by direct computation that B
s
qB
b
whenever a
b
qa
s
. Clearly, we
can expect that the latter condition holds because the excitation amplitude at the base
frequency is ten times larger than that at the higher frequency. Moreover, the equivalent
damping at the base frequency, B
b
, must be large enough to limit the decoupler motion. As
seen in the single frequency analysis, this ensures that the frequency response approaches
that of the large amplitude model. The inequality in equivalent damping values then
implies that the response at the higher frequency, v
s
, also approaches that of the large
amplitude model. This is in agreement with the behaviors seen in Figures 5 and 20.
5. CONCLUSIONS
Novel experimental data and mathematical models describing a hydraulic engine mount
have been presented. Piecewise linear and equivalent linear models have been shown to
represent hydraulic mount behavior over a broader range of excitations than previously
possible. While these results provide an excellent basis for hydraulic engine mount analysis
and design, they also suggest a number of topics for future research.
For instance, while the large amplitude and small amplitude linear models fit the data
remarkably well, the incorporation of certain additional effects, such as lower chamber
compliance, upper chamber bulge damping and leakage past the decoupler, can lead to
moderately improved fits [25]. More importantly, it is possible that some of these effects
could be enhanced to improve the performance of future mount designs. For instance, a
significant increase in upper chamber damping can be used to eliminate the high frequency
resonant peak (with the cost, however, of higher damping at frequencies above resonance).
Along similar lines, an interesting adaptive hydraulic mount was recently proposed by Kim
and Singh [17]. This concept uses intake manifold vacuum and an electronic controller to
switch the upper chamber compliance between high and low values according to vehicle
operating conditions.
¡. r. coic:1r r1 :i. 526
Non-linearities other than those associated with the decoupler, such as entrance and exit
effects in the inertia track, may also exert a significant influence on the mount’s behavior
[20]. For instance, the over-estimation of damping at frequencies less than 10 Hz (Figure 7)
is probably a consequence of having ignored such effects. Thus, future models should
incorporate other non-linear effects.
The piecewise linear model presented here was particularly adept at capturing low
frequency amplitude dependence while the equivalent linearization technique was adept at
higher frequency. This was because the former did not incorporate a meaningful model
of bottoming out, while the latter was incapable of representing substantially non-sinu-
soidal signals. A valuable contribution would be the development of a computationally
efficient model combining the best characteristics of each. This is a challenge because
higher order equivalent linearization techniques generally require the solution of sets of
non-linear equations, while a simulation which represents bottoming out explicitly will be
stiff.
The two models substantiated experimental results obtained with composite waveforms.
The equivalent linearization technique, however, left open the tantalizing possibility that
the mount’s ability to provide simultaneous control and isolation could be improved with
some other decoupler characteristic. This possibility has also been raised by Ushijima et al.
[14], who argue that a rubber membrane decoupler gives better performance than a rigid
plate decoupler, as considered here.
Finally, it would be inappropriate to close a discussion of hydraulic engine mounts
without recalling the greater context. Engine mounts are but one contribution to the
noise, vibration and harshness characteristics of an automobile. Hydraulic mounts, in
particular, are designed for significant energetic interaction with the engine and chassis
(as an example, the ‘‘apparent inertia’’ of the inertia track, A
2
p
I
t
, is comparable to the engine
mass). It is reasonable to expect, therefore, that the performance of a hydraulic mount
will be sensitive to the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle in which it is
placed. Moreover, performance must ultimately be considered a matter of subjective
(passenger) impression. These factors have to date, and will for the foreseeable future,
necessitate a rather lengthy cycle of design, testing and redesign. Thus, it is not simply the
hydraulic mount itself, but its role in this broader context which must be the subject of
future studies.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors would like to thank Jim Frye, Tony Villanueva and Bill Resh of Chrysler
Corporation for their support of this research. The authors would also like to thank
Ed Probst and his staff at Delco Products for their assistance in supplying and testing
hydraulic engine mounts.
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APPENDIX A: ORIFICE PROPERTIES
A method of estimating orifice inertia, I
0
, and damping, B
0
, based on resonant
frequency, v
r2
, and slope of the elastic rate plot at resonance, m
r2
, is presented. The starting
¡. r. coic:1r r1 :i. 528
point is equation (14), which provides an approximate expression for dynamic stiffness.
It is convenient to define a natural frequency and damping ratio as
v
n
=zK
b
/I
0
, z =B
0
/2zK
b
I
0
. (A1)
The frequency response may then be written in terms of real (elastic rate) and imaginary
(damping) parts,
K
dyn
(jv) =
$
K
r
+A
2
p
K
b
av
4
+(4z
2
−a)v
2
n
v
2
(v
2
−v
2
n
)
2
+4z
2
v
2
n
v
2
%
+jv
$
B
r
+A
2
p
K
b
2zv
n
2zv
2
n
−(1 −a)v
2
(v
2
−v
2
n
)
2
+4z
2
v
2
n
v
2
%
, (A2)
where a =1 −A
d
/A
p
. An expression for v
r2
is found by maximizing the damping term in
equation (A2) with respect to frequency:
v
2
r2
=v
2
n
[1 −z4(1 −a)z
2
+a
2
]/(1 −a). (A3)
It is now helpful to define b as
b =[1 −z4(1 −a)z
2
+a
2
]/(1 −a). (A4)
An expression for m
r2
is found by differentiating the elastic rate term in equation (A2) with
respect to frequency, and evaluating at v=v
r1
:
m
r2
=
2A
2
p
K
b
v
r2
×
$
(2ab
2
+b(4z
2
−a))((1 −b)
2
+4z
2
b) −2(b
2
−b(2z
2
−1))(ab
2
+b(4z
2
−a))
((1 −b)
2
+4z
2
b)
2
%
.
(A5)
Equation (A5) may be solved for z using a Newton–Raphson technique; subsequently,
equation (A3) may be solved for v
n
. Determination of I
0
and B
0
is then straightforward
using equations (A1).

504

. .    .

Figure 1. A schematic of a hydraulic engine mount.

Change has also been forced by an increased market emphasis on passenger comfort. Comfort encompasses interior noise and vibration as well as the feel of the vehicle on rough roads and under extreme acceleration. This serves only to heighten the conflicts that arise in design. To meet the conflicting requirements of isolation and control, the automotive industry has turned increasingly to hydraulic engine mounts. A typical hydraulic mount is illustrated in Figure 1. To provide a basis for the design and analysis of such a mount, good models are essential. Toward this end, a variety of articles presenting mathematical models as well as design procedures has been published in the past decade [2–15]. An excellent review is provided by Singh et al. [11]. It should be noted that, while this paper focuses on passive engine mounts, a number of recent studies have explored semi-active or adaptive engine mounts as well [3, 10, 16–18]. Until recently, most attempts to model hydraulic mounts assumed linearity and were restricted to rather limited sets of operating conditions (usually corresponding to test conditions). Unfortunately, production hydraulic mounts exhibit a variety of non-linear characteristics and, in application, are subject to a broad range of excitations. The investigation of non-linear behavior appears to have begun with Ushijima and Dan [13], who used numerical simulation to investigate nonlinear flow characteristics. More recently, Kim and Singh [19, 20] began a systematic study of hydraulic mount non-linearities. Among the effects they have considered are non-linear compliance, non-linear flow characteristics, cavitation and ‘‘decoupling’’. This paper contributes further to the understanding of mount non-linearity associated with the ‘‘decoupler’’. The decoupler, shown in Figure 1, is essentially an amplitudedependent switch which is intended to improve the performance trade-off between vibration isolation and control of engine excursion. Other contributions of this paper include the presentation of new experimental data describing the response of a hydraulic mount to composite, dual frequency excitations, as well as the presentation of a novel ‘‘small amplitude linear model’’. This linear model, developed as a preliminary to non-linear models, is the first in the literature to capture an important resonance associated with decoupler inertia. All models presented in this paper consider single axis excitation only, though extension to multiple axes is possible.

Frequency/amplitude ranges of greatest interest include [6. For larger amplitude excitations. and is introduced for the purpose of control. Force and displacement records are collected at a series of frequencies and each record is transformed to the frequency domain via a discrete Fourier transform.’’ The inertia track (4) is a lengthy spiral channel that enables fluid to pass from the upper chamber to the lower chamber. the decoupler ‘‘bottoms out’’ and most of the fluid flow is forced through the inertia track. The inertia of the decoupler is also important at high frequencies. The secondary rubber (2) is a rubber septum that serves principally to contain the fluid. or during extreme accelerations on smooth surfaces. respectively. a point which will be highlighted in this paper. The orifice plate (3) is a metal plate (actually a sandwich of two plates) that separates the ‘‘upper chamber’’ (enclosed by the primary rubber) and the ‘‘lower chamber’’ (enclosed by the secondary rubber). The frequency response is typically evaluated with a conventional servo-controlled hydraulic test rig. xe (t) and xc (t) represent the displacement of the engine and the chassis. ethylene glycol. HYDRAULIC ENGINE MOUNT CHARACTERISTICS 505 2. and require good isolation. The decoupler (5) is a plastic plate which acts as an amplitude-limited floating piston that provides a low resistance path between the upper and lower chambers.   2. while driving on rough surfaces. but are beyond the scope of this paper. the inertia track acts as a tuned damper. have received attention recently. while the engine bracket is sinusoidally excited at a fixed amplitude. 0.05–0. Interest has also arisen in the extent to which hydraulic mounts can provide control and isolation simultaneously [14]. x0 (t) = xe (t) − xc (t). for small amplitude excitation. is referred to as the ‘‘excitation’’ of the moment. The fluid inertia in this channel is significant.    The behavior of an engine mount is usually reported in terms of its frequency response for different amplitude excitations. and will be considered in this paper. The relative displacement. (2) 25–250 Hz. 0. Cast in the orifice plate are the ‘‘inertia track’’ and ‘‘decoupler orifice. It also contributes modestly to the elastic rate. Thus. and is usually selected so that it experiences resonance at the natural frequency of the engine/mount system. 2. completely fills the interior of the mount.5–5. The fluid (6). which effectively short-circuits the inertia track. To analyze high frequency behavior (5–200 Hz increments). time domain records all consist of 8192 points collected at a sample interval of 0·0005 s. For this study.2. This may be important.   In Figure 1. which may result from combustion noise [14]. for instance. The four transforms are then ensemble-averaged to obtain estimates of the Fourier transform . 14]: (1) 5–15 Hz.1. The bulge rate of the primary rubber (ratio of pressure change to volume change) is also an important design parameter. Thus. it contributes (significantly) to the elastic rate and (modestly) to the damping of the mount and it serves as a piston to pump fluid through the rest of the mount. It support the static load of the engine. most of the fluid transport between chambers is via the decoupler orifice. The chassis bracket is fixed to an inertially grounded force sensor.5 mm— these excitations can cause noise and vibration. The primary rubber (1) is a rubber cone that serves several purposes. the response to composite inputs is of interest. Physical components which contribute significantly to the dynamics of the mount include the following. The damping of the track is also significant. 11. Even higher frequency excitations. each record is broken into four contiguous sections which are independently windowed (Hanning window) and transformed. Thus.0 mm—these excitations are in the range of engine resonance and large enough to require significant damping.

. K(v). and coherence. 0·1 mm) and large amplitude (—— .   . is termed the ‘‘elastic rate’’. then ensemble-averaged. To analyze low frequency behavior (1–40 Hz in 1 Hz increments). Figure 2. correspond to the fundamental harmonics of force and displacement. E † Computational details are given in reference [21].506 . while the imaginary part divided by frequency.1 and 1. is termed the ‘‘damping’’. known as the ‘‘dynamic stiffness’’ is the principal quantity of interest: Kdyn (jv) = F(jv)/X0 (jv) = K(v) + jvB(v). as all comparable data in this paper. it should be noted that dynamic stiffness is often presented in terms of the magnitude (‘‘dynamic rate’’) and phase (‘‘loss angle’’). have been normalized by the stiffness and damping of the primary rubber (which are assumed to be amplitude and frequency-independent). v. 1·0 mm) excitations. (1) The real part of the dynamic stiffness. (a) Normalized elastic rate and (b) damping of a production hydraulic mount for small amplitude (—w—. . only those data corresponding to the excitation frequency.0 mm excitations. These data. Coherences obtained in this way are not reported because they are in all cases extremely close to unity. The ratio of these transforms. Figure 2 shows representative data corresponding to the two classes of excitation considered above. In comparing these data with others in the literature. B(v). The Fourier transforms. It is clear that the response of the hydraulic mount is strongly amplitude-dependent.† In all cases. which are independently windowed and transformed. The two curves correspond to 0. F(jv) and X0 (jv). are retained. each record is broken into eight interleaved sections (each with an effective sample rate of 0.004 s).

E The following points are also noteworthy: (1) the peak in the damping for large amplitude excitation (015 Hz) has been ‘‘tuned’’ so that it corresponds to the natural frequency of engine bounce. the behavior shifts from the prototypical ‘‘small amplitude’’ response to the prototypical ‘‘large amplitude’’ response. the mount serves as a tuned damper. –·–·–·–. Figure 4 displays frequency responses of three specially prepared engine mounts. with increasing amplitude. 0·8 mm. The development of a model which captures this shift is a principal objective of this work. (2) for frequencies less than 050 Hz. but will introduce a certain degree of systematic error.   507 Figure 3. quite similar to the small amplitude response of a production mount. ——. 0·6 mm. The second specialty mount was assembled without a decoupler. —+—. The behavior resembles the large amplitude response of a production mount. 0·05 mm. For this study. (3) the peak in damping for small amplitude excitation (0120 Hz) and the corresponding increase in elastic rate are the result of decoupler inertia. thus. The data show that the assumption of amplitude independence is very good. —— . a more extensive set of data has been collected. It is evident that. The first is a mount from which the fluid was drained. resulting in superior vibration isolation. . while the assumption of frequency independence is reasonable. not surprisingly. These data are particularly useful in identifying model parameters. The behavior is. The third specialty mount had the decoupler fixed in place. ——. 1·0 mm. leaving the primary rubber solely responsible for the dynamic behavior. 0·2 mm. for large amplitude inputs. These data are plotted in Figures 3–5. and are undesirable effects. ––––. both the elastic rate and damping are much less for small amplitude inputs. 0·4 mm. (a) Normalized elastic rate and (b) damping of a production hydraulic mount for various amplitudes: —q—. 0·1 mm. Figure 3 shows the response of the mount to different amplitude excitations.

It can be shown that transfer functions computed in this way are optimum . s Kdyn (jv) = F(jv)/Xs (jv). Figure 4. the relationship between the small amplitude input and the force is of particular interest. are generated by separate analog instruments. This allows the computation of transfer functions relating each of these inputs to the output force: b Kdyn (jv) = F(jv)/Xb (jv). mount with no fluid. 10 or 15 Hz. . Xb (jv) and Xs (jv) are Fourier transforms of their respective time domain records. (a) Normalized elastic rate and (b) damping of three specially prepared engine mounts: —q—. —— . mount with fixed decoupler. 1·0 mm.    . —— . Toward this end. The two frequencies. These data have been collected to assess the mount’s capacity to provide isolation in the presence of a large amplitude disturbance. 0·05 mm. The frequency. vb of the large amplitude component is fixed for a given data set at 5. where xb (t) = 1·0 sin (2pvb t) mm. — + —.508 . Figure 5 displays frequency response of a production mount excited by composite waveforms: x0 (t) = xb (t) + xs (t). and xs (t) = 0·1 sin (2pvs t) mm. of the small amplitude component is swept from 20 to 200 Hz. (3) F(jv). vb and vs . mount with no decoupler. vs . (2) The ‘‘base frequency’’. mount with no fluid. 1·0 mm. and therefore may be considered independent and uncorrelated [22]. W E 0·05 mm.

low frequency disturbance. high frequency inputs is significantly degraded by the simultaneous presence of a large amplitude. 2. E Q 1·0 mm single frequency response. small amplitude resonance (which. 15 Hz) and a 0·1 mm sinusoid (frequency on horizontal axis): —q—. 5 Hz base. figures prominently in the mount’s performance as an isolator). large amplitude resonance (which describes the mount’s performance as a tuned damper). only the value of Kdyn (jv) corresponding to the excitation frequency vs is retained. The coherence associated with this value approaches unity. 10 Hz base. —— . [14] who performed a similar experiment. 15 Hz base. linear approximations to the underlying non-linear system [22].   The data described above give a more complete picture of hydraulic mount behavior than previously available. Based on them. A similar conclusion was reached by Ushijima et al. the high frequency.   509 Figure 5. 0·1 mm single frequency response. and . (a) Normalized elastic rate and (b) damping of a production mount excited by composite input consisting of a 1·0 mm sinusoid at a base frequency (5. They indicate that Kdyn (jv) measured in the presence of a large amplitude disturbance bears a strong resemblance to the mount’s large amplitude response (Figure 2). —+—. it seems reasonable to assert that a good mount model should be able to capture: the low frequency. 10. This implies that the mount’s capacity to provide isolation from small amplitude. —w—. s The results are quite interesting.3. though undesirable. the amplitude dependence of elastic rate and damping. —— . Because we are interested s specifically in the response to small amplitude inputs.

and the fluid inertia and damping in the upper chamber are ignored (inertia and damping in the track are much greater). State equations and an output equation for the reaction force may be derived from the bond graph. and makes the assumption that the decoupler is ‘‘bottomed out’’ at all times. The interconnection of these elements is straightforward—both bond graph [23. linear time-invariant elements. LARGE AND SMALL AMPLITUDE LINEAR MODELS In this section. 7.    The principal physical effects are taken to be those associated with the primary rubber (shear stiffness and damping. The stiffness of the secondary rubber is small enough that it can be ignored (reducing the requisite state dimension by one). . 24] and mechanical equivalent models are shown in Figure 6. 5. These models embody our basic physical understanding of the hydraulic mount. Both models assume that all other important physical effects may be represented by lumped. Section 4 presents two approaches to estimating non-linear frequency responses. 3. bulge stiffness. and makes the assumption that the decoupler never bottoms out. The first is tailored to large amplitude sinusoidal excitation (q0·5 mm). 3. Similar models have been presented in references [2. The second is tailored to small amplitude excitation (Q0·5 mm). a piecewise linear simulation and an equivalent linearization analysis. The next section introduces two linear models. Section 5 presents a summary discussion. 11. two linear models are introduced.† The fluid is assumed incompressible (the bulge compliance of the primary rubber is much greater). These techniques are also extended to predict the mount’s response to composite inputs. the mount’s response to composite inputs (which measures the mount’s ability to provide simultaneous isolation and control).1. and are sufficient to capture the two resonances. piston area) and with the inertia track (fluid inertia and damping). They are &' & xr ˙ 0 Vb = 0 .    .510 . 14].

Qt .

Parameter values were obtained as follows. Bt . It . These formulas. which is easily measured. both rubber shear stiffness and secondary rubber stiffness should contribute to the elastic rate of the latter class. Measurements of primary rubber bulge compliance and secondary rubber compliance presented by Kim and Singh [20] also indicate that the latter is at least an order of magnitude greater. Kb . track inertia. however. the ‘‘piston area’’ of the primary rubber. '& ' & ' &' xr 1 Vb + Ap x0 . At low frequency. Initial estimates of bulge stiffness. Ap . is equal to the area of the orifice plate top surface. ˙ Qt 0 (4) . and track damping. bulge displacement of the primary rubber (Vb ) and volumetric flow in the inertia track (Qt ). [11]. ˙ Qt The states are shear displacement of the primary rubber (xr ). yet. were made using the analytical formulas given in Singh et al. are necessarily † This may be understood by comparing the response of the mount without fluid to the responses of the fluid-filled mounts. 0 0 0 Kb /It 0 −1 −Bt /It F = [Kr Ap Kb xr 0] Vb + [Br ]x0 . these mounts exhibit nearly the same values as the dry mount (Figure 4).

I t s + Bt s + Kb X(s) (5) It is convenient to define a natural frequency and damping ratio associated with the fluid part of the system: vn = zKb /It . (6) . even such basic assumptions as the absence of leakage paths tend to short-circuit the inertia track may be questionable.   511 Figure 6. The specialty mount with fixed decoupler should behave very much as the large amplitude model would predict. z = Bt /2 zKb It . It and Bt . representative values are selected and used in all models. In this study. such as straight inertia track and a hemispherical upper chamber. more accurate estimates of Kb . Finally. analytically determined parameters must generally be considered no better than order-of-magnitude estimates. as well as primary rubber shear stiffness. These estimates are obtained by relating characteristics of the frequency response measurements to model predictions. based on idealized geometries. Thus. Br . These values are also used to normalize the elastic rate and damping plots. The large amplitude model. Also idealized are the assumptions of laminar and fully developed flow through the inertia track. Though these parameters vary somewhat with frequency and excitation amplitude (Figure 4). Kr . it is useful for estimating Kb . The transfer function associated with the large amplitude model (equation (4)) is: Kdyn (s) = I s 2 + Bt s F(s) 2 = Kr + Br s + Ap Kb 2 t . were obtained from the frequency responses of the specialty mounts. thus. The specialty mount containing no fluid gives a direct measure of Kr and Br . and damping. It and Bt .

. (9) Figure 7. and the slope of the elastic rate curve at resonance. 1·0 mm. 2 (v − v ) + 4z 2vn v 2 2 2 2 n (8) An expression for mr1 is found by differentiating the elastic rate term in equation (7). In addition to the high frequency elastic rate. .512 . salient and reproducible features of the data are the resonant frequency. from which It and Bt can be determined. These measures may be used to estimate z and vn . Because Kr and Ap are known. mount with fixed decoupler. $ 3 2zvn .   . vr1 . An expression for vr1 is found by maximizing the damping term in equation (7): 2 2 vr1 = vn (1 − 2z 2 ). (a) Normalized elastic rate and (b) damping of large amplitude model versus data: ——. and evaluating at v = vr1 : 2 mr1 = (Ap Kb /2vr1 )((1 − 2z 2 )/z 2(1 − z 2 )). at which the peak in damping occurs. The frequency response may then be written in terms of real (elastic rate) and imaginary (damping) parts: 2 Kdyn (jv) = Kr + Ap Kb $ 2 2 v 2(v 2 − vn ) + 4z 2vn v 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (v − vn ) + 4z vn v % % (7) 2 +jv Br + Ap Kb 2 At frequencies well above vn (q30 Hz). –—–. large amplitude model. mr1 (see also Figure 7). the elastic rate approaches Kr + Ap Kb . this measure of elastic rate may be used to estimate bulge stiffness.

while the fluid shear layer between this inertia and the orifice plate is treated as a lumped damper. v (10) where K(v) is the measured elastic rate and K (v) is the predicted elastic rate. . I0 . equation (9) may be used to estimate z: subsequently.   513 Figure 8. completing the parameter identification process. while those in damping are less than 20%.2. The relative error in damping is defined analogously. Relative errors of large amplitude and small amplitude linear models: ——. Determination of It and Bt is then straightforward. The pressure drop between upper and lower chambers (Kb Vb . The decoupler itself and surrounding fluid are treated as a lumped inertia. 3. Figure 9 illustrates the model of decoupler orifice dynamics which is used. These quantities are plotted in Figure 8 (along with those for the small amplitude model). Relative errors in elastic rate are generally less than 10%. B0 . A quantitative measure of model performance is the frequency-dependent relative error. (a) Elastic rate. The frequency response of the identified large amplitude model is shown in Figure 7. large amplitude. which for elastic rate will be defined as eK (v) = [K (v) − K(v)]/max (K(v)).    The principal physical effects are taken to be those incorporated in the large amplitude model. plus those associated with the decoupler orifice (orifice inertia and damping). ––––. The orifice plate model. small amplitude. (b) damping. equation (8) may be used to estimate vn . Given measurements of vr1 and mr1 . where Vb is the bulge displacement of the Figure 9.

  .514 . . primary rubber) drives the orifice flow. . Q0 . A pressure balance gives Kb Vb = I0 Q0 + B0 (Q0 − Ad xc ).

In this case. state and output equations are ˙ 0 0 K xr L K0 0 LK xr L K 1 L GV G G0 GGV G GA G 0 −1 .2 which fixes the chassis bracket to ground (xc = 0). The effect of orifice dynamics. to which the orifice plate is fixed. ˙ (11) Ad is the cross-sectional area of the orifice. and the shear forces due to drag: 2 F = Kr (xe − xc ) + Br (xe − xc ) + (Ap − Ad )Kb Vb + (Ad B0 )(Q0 /Ad − xc ). but is quite non-intuitive. as represented in equations (11) and (12). it does occur in the test fixture described in section 2. One interesting aspect of the small amplitude model is that it requires two inputs (xe and xc ) rather than a single input (x0 = xe − xc ). A mechanical equivalent to this bond graph can be found. The relative displacement is an appropriate input only in instances when either the engine or the chassis serves as an inertial ground and therefore a proper reference for the orifice inertia. Contributions are the forces transmitted via rubber shear. can be added to the large amplitude model by recognizing that the pressure drop across the inertia track is the same as that across the decoupler orifice. the normal forces on the orifice plate due to pressure.† While no such instance occurs in an automobile. An expression for the force transmitted to the chassis can also be derived with the assistance of Figure 9. ˙ ˙ ˙ (12) where xe is the displacement of the engine. A complete small amplitude model is shown in Figure 10. and xc is the displacement of the chassis.

b −1 G Q G= G0 K /I −B /I GG QbG+ G 0p x0 . G˙ .

0 t t GQ t G G0 K b /I t GGQ t G G 0 G k .

These expressions may be equated to values measured using the speciality mount with no decoupler. 0l k 0 −B0 /I0lk 0l k l b 0 (13) F = [Kr (Ap − Ad )Kb K xr L GV G 0 Ad B0 ]G bG+ [Br ]x0 . X(s) I 0 s 2 + B 0 s + Kb (14) where e = Ad /Ap . it is first assumed that. ˙ G Qt G kQ0l All variables retain previous definitions. The decoupler cross-sectional area is easily measured. This simplification gives the dynamic stiffness of the small amplitude model a form very similar to equation (5): Kdyn (s) = F(s) (1 − e)I0 s 2 + B0 s 2 = Kr + Br s + Ap Kb . Orifice inertia and damping can be estimated by a procedure similar to that used to find track inertia and damping. I0 and B0 . Equation (14) may be used to develop expressions for the resonant frequency (vr2 ) and slope of the elastic rate plot at resonance (mr2 ). flow through the inertia track can be neglected. . The only parameters which did not appear in the large amplitude model re Ad . This process is similar to that used to estimate † This is not an issue with the track inertia because flow in the track is perpendicular to the assumed axis of motion. To simplify the analysis. and solved to yield estimates of I0 and B0 . at the frequency of orifice resonance (v2 1 120 Hz).

Details are given in Appendix A. mount with no decoupler. but somewhat more involved due to the presence of e. The small amplitude model. and are comparable to those of the large Figure 11. 0·05 mm. Relative errors are shown in Figure 8. . The frequency response of the fully identified small amplitude model is shown in Figure 11. It and Bt . (a) Normalized elastic rate and (b) damping of small amplitude model versus data: ——. small amplitude model: ––––.   515 Figure 10.

nor do the (possibly very fast) dynamics of the bottoming out process need to be directly considered. This is addressed further below. attention will be focused on the decoupler. excitations of arbitrary shape are easily accommodated. due both to noise in the measured values and to poorness of fit. Note that Vb is linearly related to the pressure in the upper chamber. integrate small amplitude state equations. leaving a record of 1024 points.1. two non-linear models are introduced. Frequency responses have been computed as follows. NON-LINEAR MODELLING A variety of non-linear effects contributes significantly to the behavior of a production hydraulic mount [20]. however. The beginning of each record is cut off to remove the transient response.516 . A simulation time increment of 2p/v/64 seconds is picked. Records include position input and force output information. In this paper. A significant disadvantage. xd ) whenever the decoupler is not bottomed out. integrate small amplitude state equations. A complex transfer function is computed at the frequency of excitation. if =xd = e d and sign (Vb ) = sign (xd ). which is principally responsible for the amplitude dependence. Results are shown in Figure 12 (which may be compared with Figure 3). The model developed in reference [25] uses the following scheme for switching during a time domain integration (d is half the gap width): If the previous step was integrated with the small amplitude model: if =xd = Q d. they cannot represent in any greater detail the amplitude dependence of the mount’s response. so that an efficient simulation can be performed. set Q0 = 0. if sign (Vb ) $ sign (xd ). which are Hanning windowed and transformed with an FFT. 4. the simulation is quite accurate. magnitude model. which determines whether a decoupler at the limits of its travel will remain bottomed out or not. These include. The behavior of the model can be investigated using numerical integration. Generally speaking. set xd = sign (xd )d. and relative errors in Figure 13. entrance and exit effects in the inertia track flow. Although the linear models successfully capture the two resonances. No new dynamic elements need be introduced to account for bottoming out. 25]. To meet this objective. It is suspected that the poor fit near resonance is due to the lack of an appropriate model of the bottoming out process.    A direct approach to incorporating decoupler behavior is via a piecewise linear model [19. If the previous step was integrated with the large amplitude model: if sign (Vb ) = sign (xd ). but it . and integrate large amplitude state equations. A sinusoidal excitation of amplitude X0 and frequency v is assumed. however. and to the large amplitude model when the decoupler is bottomed out. the piecewise linear model reduces to the small amplitude linear model (augmented with a state for decoupler position.   . and amplitude-dependent softening of the primary rubber. A piecewise linear model has several attractive features. the linear continuous state equations can be directly mapped to difference equations which are guaranteed stable [26]. Moreover. In essence. . Finally. 4. Relative errors in elastic rate and damping are typically less than 20%. for instance. integrate large amplitude state equations. The greatest errors occur in the vicinity of the high frequency resonance. This record is broken into three overlapping sections of 512 points each. and time domain records of approximately 1150 points are computed. is that a tremendous amount of time domain simulation data must be generated to produce a modest amount of frequency domain data.

in effect. – – – –. There is some physical justification for this model. 0·4 mm. The equivalent linear element(s) are then. The idea of equivalent linearization is. the viscous damper. Equivalent linearization techniques have been applied to similar problems with considerable success (see. —— . 4. Compare with Figure 3: —q—. there is no physical reason to associate . only one element. the simplified mechanical system in Figure 14 will first be considered. The specific approach taken here is illustrated in Figure 15. 0·8 mm. and with the added benefit of improved physical insight. provides roughly comparable results (to piecewise linear modelling) at a greatly reduced computational cost. ––––. 0·1 mm. ——. x0 (t)= X0 sin vt). As the figure indicates. 0·05 mm. 0·6 mm. E Q –·–·–·–.   517 Figure 12. equivalent linearization. 0·2 mm. to replace the cage with a linear element or elements that would yield the same motion.2. given a prescribed excitation (e.g.. Note that the mass representing decoupler inertia is constrained by a ‘‘cage’’. —— . (a) Normalized elastic rate and (b) damping of piecewise linear model for various amplitude excitations. is affected by equivalent linearization. for instance. First. should be noted here that limited insight into bottoming out is a significant weakness of the piecewise linear model. Dubowsky and Freudenstein [27] and Comparin and Singh [28]). parameterized by the amplitude and frequency of excitation.   An alternative approach to non-linear modelling. 1·0 mm. at least up to the fundamental of the Fourier series describing that motion. To introduce the technique.

0·2 mm. Figure 13. ——. – – – –. 0·05 mm.   . It is well-known that the squeeze film between parallel plates produces a damping force which varies as the inverse cube of the gap [29. Relative errors for piecewise linear model: —q—. –·–·–·–. Second. 0·8 mm. (a) Elastic rate. 1·0 mm. —— . E Q 0·4 mm. Thus. 0·6 mm. the decoupler is immersed in a fluid which must be displaced as the cage boundaries are approached. . (b) damping. significant energy storage (potential or kinetic) with bottoming out. 0·1 mm.518 . 30]: Fsq = g(h /h 3 ) . a squeeze film [29] is developed. ----. —— .

h is the gap thickness and g is a geometric parameter. The implications of this assumption will be reassessed below. The geometry of decoupler/cage interaction is not simple. Because the cage in Figure 14 has two sides. the appropriate damping Figure 14. The simplified model. For simple geometries. equation (15) is readily derived from the Reynolds equation for viscous flow [30]. (15) Here. . but it has been assumed that the inverse cube form holds nonetheless.

Equivalent damping as a function of normalized decoupler amplitude (equation (18)): ––––. Note that ¯ g 2p 0 cos2 u(1 + 3a 2 sin2 u) du. (1 − a 2 sin2 u)3 (18) Figure 16. E Q W Simplified form of Beq (a) ———. v=0·2. v=1·0. ¯ (1 + x 2 )3 ¯ % (16a. —— . where v is normalized frequency. $ 1 + 3x 2 . ¯ x. Then the force that results from equation (16b) can be represented by a ¯ Fourier series: Fsq (a sin vt. xd ) = g where b is a geometric constant with units of damping and x = xd /d. v=1·8. relation is ˙ Fsq (xd . assuming the same sinusoidal form for x . ˙ (d − xd )3 (d + xd )3 d % Fsq (x . . To begin. x) = bd ¯ ¯ . b) It is easily shown that the constant term (F0 ) and in-phase component of the fundamental (Keq da) are zero. —e—. assuming fixed excitation amplitude (equation (19)): —— . Ignoring higher order harmonics. av cos vt) = F0 + Keq da sin vt + Beq dav cos vt+higher harmonics. (17) $ 1 1 + x. It is interesting to note that this amount of viscous damping would ensure precisely as much energy dissipation per cycle as the squeeze film damper. —q—.   519 Figure 15. assume that x = a sin vt. Effect of equivalent damping on normalized decoupler amplitude. The model which treats the decoupler cage as an amplitude-dependent dissipator. —— . ¯ The non-linear damping relation of equation (16b) may be converted to an equivalent linear damping via a procedure outlined by Gibson [31]. This function is plotted in Figure 16. the equivalent behavior is that of a viscous damper with an amplitude-dependent coefficient. Beq (a) = b p where u = vt. v=1·4. v=0·6.

If B0 f(x) in Figure 15 is replaced with Beq . Figure 17. d z(K − I v 2 )2 + (B v)2 d b 0 eq (19) This relation has been plotted in Figure 16 for a single value of X0 and several frequencies. (b) damping. . v) = X Kb X0 = . only one intersection will be found. The linear orifice damping of the small amplitude model is replaced by the squeeze film damping of equation (16). for an infinitesimal excitation. Frequency response —— of the system in Figure 14 treating the cage as an amplitude-dependent dissipator (Figure 15).   . excitation amplitude and frequency: a(Beq . This solution corresponds to a point of intersection in Figure 16. the non-linear model reduces to the small amplitude linear model).520 . Given specific values for X0 and v. at each frequency. The magnitude of this transfer function can be considered an expression for the normalized decoupler amplitude in terms of equivalent damping. It is evident that. X0 . (a) Elastic rate. equations (18) and (19) may be considered simultaneous equations to be solved for a and Beq . a transfer function may be found relating X(jv) to X0 (jv). approaches 1. a uniquely defined frequency response will be computed (the uniqueness of the result can be proven rigorously [32]). thus. . Small amplitude (linear) frequency response ––––. the equivalent damping approaches infinity as the normalized decoupler amplitude. a. with b = B0 (thus. The result is shown in Figure 17. This same technique has been used to compute the frequency response of the hydraulic mount at various amplitudes.

in fact. because equivalent linearization treats the bottoming out process in a more physically meaningful way and because. low frequency inputs.   521 Figure 18. most of the energy of the force signal is then found in the fifth and higher harmonics. (b) damping. 0·4 mm. 0·2 mm. large amplitude inputs. Normalized elastic rate and damping of equivalent linear model for various amplitude excitations. Compare with Figure 3: —q—. (a) Elastic rate. —— . 4.3. at high frequency. The results are shown in Figure 18 (compare with Figure 3). ----. — — —. to be superior to the piecewise linear model for high frequency inputs. and the force generated by the squeeze film is dominated by pulses which occur as the decoupler approaches and departs the cage limits. A second reason of importance.      Given the amount of spectral information which is lost. —— . the latter point may be understood: for large amplitude. ignoring higher harmonics in the force data. . the assumption of sinusoidal decoupler motion is qiute reasonable. The former point is expected. 0·05 mm. 0·6 mm. may be that the measured force is affected principally by the pressure in the upper chamber. Equivalent linearization proves. 0·1 mm. By the same token. and the relative errors in Figure 19. but poorer for low frequency. This is in part because comparison is being made to experimental data which has been analyzed in a similar way. the decoupler motion is nearly a square wave. –·–·–·–. 1·0 mm. E Q 0·8 mm. ——. Indeed. it may be surprising that the equivalent linearization technique works as well as it does. however.

given a 1 mm excitation amplitude. moreover. E Q 0·4 mm. † Shear force in the rubber contributes heavily to the measured force as well. Relative errors of equivalent linear model: —q—. For the fundamental. 0·2 mm. Figure 19. while higher harmonics may contribute significantly to the latter. At low frequency the decoupler motion will approximate a rectangle wave. (20) This force is purely sinusoidal. in response to low frequency. There are two effects associated with the decoupler. 0·1 mm. . contributing no harmonics. Higher harmonics will be even smaller because the decoupler motion is smooth rather than truly rectangular. The greatest effect. is upper chamber bulge caused by the imposed displacement. ——. not the pressure in the squeeze film. the associated force will exhibit harmonics. therefore. approximately. The magnitude of this effect is 2 F1 1 Ap Kb X0 . 1·0 mm. they do not to the former. The magnitude of the nth harmonic will be approximately proportional to 1/n for the first few harmonics. F2 /F1 1 0·1. —— . —— .   .522 . the various effects contributing to measured force may be estimated and compared. . but is relatively simple to describe and not particularly interesting in the present discussion. (21) The magnitude of this effect is much smaller than F1 . F2 1 Ap Kb (Ad (d/n)). 0·6 mm. (b) damping. 0·05 mm. –·–·–·–. — — —.† To illustrate these points. The first is associated with the amount of upper chamber bulge caused by decoupler motion. 0·8 mm. (a) Elastic rate. large amplitude excitations. ––––. The force contributed by a lower harmonic will be.

−4 (22) For n = 5 and v = 30 Hz. 4. as long as it conforms to the general shape seen in Figure 16. With this in mind. This is straightforward with the piecewise linear model. Thus. F3 /F1 1 5 × 10 . The results (not shown) are very similar to those obtained with squeeze film damping. but less so via equivalent linearization. This focuses attention on the capacity of the mount to provide isolation in the presence of low frequency disturbances. Both simulation and experiment suggest that the response to small amplitude inputs in the presence of a low frequency. shown in Figure 16. As in the experimental measurements. it is necessary to ensure that the two components of the excitation may be treated as statistically independent. This will not be the case if the two sinusoids are harmonically related. The use of the piecewise linear model remains exactly the same as with a single frequency. Here.   A final objective of this work has been to predict the hydraulic mount’s response to composite excitations of the form given in equation (2). was investigated. In such a case. the large amplitude component of the excitation ensures that the decoupler is bottomed out a significant percentage of the time. however. the transfer function is computed at vs .5. to within machine precision.2 that no particularly compelling reason exists to assume that the squeeze film relation applies to a hydraulic mount. only. is of the order 2 2 F3 1 (I0 Ad )(d/n)(nv)2 1 Ap Kb e 2nd(v/vr2 )2. support the idea that a reasonable physical picture of bottoming out includes amplitude-dependent damping. Results of the equivalent linearization analysis. because the inertia of the decoupler is very small. It is not surprising that the piecewise linear simulation would predict this because it employs the large amplitude model whenever the decoupler is bottomed out. the equivalent damping is set to B0 unless the decoupler amplitude is observed to exceed its physical limits. Thus. 4. which. .      The point was made early in section 4.   523 The second force term is associated with decoupler inertia. a simplified form of Beq (a). an equivalent damping is selected which is precisely large enough to ensure that the decoupler motion remains within limits. no harmonic relationship exists. except that the input changes to that given in equation (2). moreover. As with the experimental data. the phase angles must be independent.4. Results are presented in Figure 20. in performing a simulation it is important to pick vb and vs carefully so that. contributions of squeeze film pressure pulses to the measured force are very small. for the nth harmonic. large amplitude disturbance is roughly comparable to the response one would expect for large amplitude single frequency inputs (which of course cannot be readily generated at such high frequencies). which has the same format as Figure 5. This term is simply decoupler mass times acceleration. the frequency of the small amplitude component. This similarity suggests that the precise form of equivalent damping relation is not very important. Because the amplitude and frequency of each component are fixed.

Compare with Figure 5.. —w—. The equivalent linear behavior can be found using a double Fourier series [33]. (24) m = 0 n = −a(m $ 0) n = 0(m = 0) where ub = vb t + fb . 2vs 2 2vb . can be expected. it is once again necessary to ensure that a harmonic relationship does not exist between the two sinusoidal components. Response to composite excitations predicted by piecewise linear model. —— . Figure 20. E W 1·0 mm single frequency response. It is also instructive to use the equivalent linearization approach. and it is necessary to assume that they have minimal effect on the response. vs 2 2vb .3.. —+—. 15 Hz base. 10 Hz base.. (b) damping... 0·1 mm single frequency response. . Even so.. Note that many frequencies other than harmonics appear in the Fourier series. If the ratio of vs to vb is rational. then an infinite number of combination tones will occur at the frequencies of excitation. —q—. which begins with the assumed decoupler motion (normalized) x = ab sin (vb t + fb ) + as sin (vs t + fs ). For instance. Thus. These terms are often called ‘‘combination tones’’ [34]. . which has the form 6Fsq = s a s a [Pmn sin (mub + nus ) + Qmn cos (mub + nus )]. —— .   . 5 Hz base. This assumption is supported in part by the reasoning presented in section 4. us = vs t + fs . output frequencies of vs 2 vb .. (a) Elastic rate. ¯ (23) where ab + as Q 1. combination tones will exist at frequencies close to excitation. 2vs 2 vb .524 .

Clearly. such as lower chamber compliance. an interesting adaptive hydraulic mount was recently proposed by Kim and Singh [17]. Bs . this ensures that the frequency response approaches that of the large amplitude model. the incorporation of certain additional effects. Moreover. can lead to moderately improved fits [25]. P10 and P01 are all zero. must be large enough to limit the decoupler motion. also approaches that of the large amplitude model. This is in agreement with the behaviors seen in Figures 5 and 20. .   525 It is readily shown that Q00 . we can expect that the latter condition holds because the excitation amplitude at the base frequency is ten times larger than that at the higher frequency. A very useful result can be obtained. The inequality in equivalent damping values then implies that the response at the higher frequency. Piecewise linear and equivalent linear models have been shown to represent hydraulic mount behavior over a broader range of excitations than previously possible. Bb . More importantly. however. however. (1 − (ab sin ub + as sin us )2 )3 b s These equations may be used. (1 − (ab sin ub + as sin us )2 )3 b s ab vb cos ub + cos us as vs (25) Q01 1 = as vs 2p 2 gg0 −p −p 1 (26) × = 1 + 3(ab sin ub + as sin us )2 cos us dub dus (1 − (ab sin ub + as sin us )2 )3 1 2p 2 gg p −p p cos2 us −p (1 + 3(ab sin ub + as sin us )2 du du . while the large amplitude and small amplitude linear models fit the data remarkably well. as ) = Q10 1 = ab vb 2p 2 gg p −p p (cos ub + −p a s vs cos us ) ab vb 1 + 3(ab sin ub + as sin us )2 cos ub dub dus × (1 − (ab sin ub + as sin us )2 )3 = Bs (ab . respectively: Bb (ab . While these results provide an excellent basis for hydraulic engine mount analysis and design. upper chamber bulge damping and leakage past the decoupler. 5. ab . It is readily shown by direct computation that Bs q Bb whenever ab q as . as ). vs . while Q10 and Q01 are non-zero and are related to the equivalent damping at vb and vs . As seen in the single frequency analysis. without solving any sets of equations. together with two transfer function relations similar to equation (19) (one at each frequency) to yield a set of four non-linear equations in four unknowns (Bb . CONCLUSIONS Novel experimental data and mathematical models describing a hydraulic engine mount have been presented. they also suggest a number of topics for future research. For instance. For instance. a significant increase in upper chamber damping can be used to eliminate the high frequency resonant peak (with the cost. of higher damping at frequencies above resonance). it is possible that some of these effects could be enhanced to improve the performance of future mount designs. as ) = 1 2p 2 gg p −p p cos2 ub p p −p (1 + 3(ab sin ub + as sin us )2 du du . This concept uses intake manifold vacuum and an electronic controller to switch the upper chamber compliance between high and low values according to vehicle operating conditions. the equivalent damping at the base frequency. Along similar lines.

This possibility has also been raised by Ushijima et al. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to thank Jim Frye. Personal communication. B and A. S. The equivalent linearization technique. necessitate a rather lengthy cycle of design. R. Hydraulic engine mount isolation. while a simulation which represents bottoming out explicitly will be stiff. the ‘‘apparent inertia’’ of the inertia track. G. REFERENCES 1. The piecewise linear model presented here was particularly adept at capturing low frequency amplitude dependence while the equivalent linearization technique was adept at higher frequency. E. the over-estimation of damping at frequencies less than 10 Hz (Figure 7) is probably a consequence of having ignored such effects.526 . testing and redesign. such as entrance and exit effects in the inertia track. This was because the former did not incorporate a meaningful model of bottoming out. These factors have to date. H 1993 SAE Paper 931321. 3. K and P. B. it is not simply the hydraulic mount itself. left open the tantalizing possibility that the mount’s ability to provide simultaneous control and isolation could be improved with some other decoupler characteristic. 6. but its role in this broader context which must be the subject of future studies. P. R. Tony Villanueva and Bill Resh of Chrysler Corporation for their support of this research.-H. Engine mounts are but one contribution to the noise. that the performance of a hydraulic mount will be sensitive to the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle in which it is placed. are designed for significant energetic interaction with the engine and chassis 2 (as an example. . R 1994 Chrysler Corporation. W. as considered here. who argue that a rubber membrane decoupler gives better performance than a rigid plate decoupler. For instance. 4. Finally. This is a challenge because higher order equivalent linearization techniques generally require the solution of sets of non-linear equations. B 1984 SAE Paper 840259. and will for the foreseeable future. S. C and G. A valuable contribution would be the development of a computationally efficient model combining the best characteristics of each. 5. T 1984 SAE Paper 840407. Ap It . . The two models substantiated experimental results obtained with composite waveforms. M. performance must ultimately be considered a matter of subjective (passenger) impression. Moreover. Thus. M. The authors would also like to thank Ed Probst and his staff at Delco Products for their assistance in supplying and testing hydraulic engine mounts. Thus. It is reasonable to expect. On the dynamic response of hydraulic engine mounts. Non-linearities other than those associated with the decoupler. therefore. M. T. may also exert a significant influence on the mount’s behavior [20]. Optimal tuning of adaptive hydraulic engine mounts. while the latter was incapable of representing substantially non-sinusoidal signals. is comparable to the engine mass). it would be inappropriate to close a discussion of hydraulic engine mounts without recalling the greater context.   . [14]. C 1985 SAE Paper 851650. vibration and harshness characteristics of an automobile. however. Hydraulic engine mount characteristics. Hydraulic mounts. in particular. future models should incorporate other non-linear effects. 2. A new generation of engine mounts. S 1989 SAE Paper 891160.

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. . subsequently. and evaluating at v = vr1 : mr2 = 2 2Ap Kb vr2 × $ (2ab 2 + b(4z 2 − a))((1 − b)2 + 4z 2b) − 2(b 2 − b(2z 2 − 1))(ab 2 + b(4z 2 − a)) . $ 2 2zvn − (1 − a)v 2 . point is equation (14).528 . which provides an approximate expression for dynamic stiffness. (A1) The frequency response may then be written in terms of real (elastic rate) and imaginary (damping) parts. 2 Kdyn (jv) = Kr + Ap Kb $ 2 av 4 + (4z 2 − a)vn v 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (v − vn ) + 4z vn v % % (A2) 2 +jv Br + Ap Kb 2zvn where a = 1 − Ad /Ap . equation (A3) may be solved for vn . z = B0 /2zKb I0 . (A4) An expression for mr2 is found by differentiating the elastic rate term in equation (A2) with respect to frequency. ((1 − b)2 + 4z 2b)2 (A5) % Equation (A5) may be solved for z using a Newton–Raphson technique. 2 2 2 (v − vn )2 + 4z 2vn v 2 (A3) It is now helpful to define b as b = [1 − z4(1 − a)z 2 + a 2 ]/(1 − a).   . Determination of I0 and B0 is then straightforward using equations (A1). It is convenient to define a natural frequency and damping ratio as vn = zKb /I0 . An expression for vr2 is found by maximizing the damping term in equation (A2) with respect to frequency: 2 2 vr2 = vn [1 − z4(1 − a)z 2 + a 2 ]/(1 − a).

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