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# 114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems

Author: Sagar Sonker

Table of Contents

ℵ Numbers ℵ H.C.F & L.C.M of Numbers ℵ Surds & Indices ℵ Percentage ℵ Profit & Loss ℵ Ratio & Proportion ℵ Partnership ℵ Chain Rule ℵ Time & Work ℵ Pipes & Cisterns ℵ Time And Distance ℵ Trains ℵ Boats & Streams ℵ Alligation or Mixture ℵ Simple Interest ℵ Compound Interest ℵ Logarithms ℵ Area ℵ Volume & Surface Area ℵ Stocks & Shares ℵ True Discount ℵ Banker’s Discount ℵ Copyright Notice

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1)d] nth term. ar3.com . … … …. An Arithmetic Progression (A.b)2= 4ab 10. [(a + d)]. P. if the number formed by its last three digits is divisible by 8 5. (a + b)2 8. 2. A number is divisible by 9. A number is divisible by 4. A number is divisible by 3. Results on Division: Dividend = Quotient × Divisor + Remainder 15.b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 = a2 . 4.) with first term ‘a’ and Common Ratio ‘r’ is given by: a. if the sum of its digits is divisible by 9 6. Tn = arn-1 Sum of first ‘n’ terms Sn = [a(1 .sonker.rn)] / [1 . A number is divisible by 8.ab + b2) = (a . if its unit’s place digit is 0. A Geometric Progression (G. (a .b)2 = 2(a2 + b2) 11. (a2 – b2) 12.) with first term ‘a’ and Common Difference ‘d’ is given by: [a]. (a + b)2 + (a . if. starting from the RHS. … … …. ar. if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3 3. (13 + 23 + 33 + … … … + n3) = [n(n + 1)] / 2 = [n(n + 1)(2n + 1)] / 6 = [n2(n + 1)2] / 4 Page 2 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www.b)(a2 + ab + b2) 14. or 8 2. arn-1 nth term.1)d Sum of first ‘n’ terms. (a3 + b3) 13. Tn = a + (n .r] 17. (12 + 22 + 32 + … … … + n2) 19. (Sum of its digits at the odd place) – (Sum of its digits at even place) is equal to 0 or 11x 7. A number is divisible by 11. ar2. A number is divisible by 2. [a + (n . P. (1 + 2 + 3 + … … … + n) 18. Sn = n/2 (First Term + Last Term) 16. if the number formed by its last two digits is divisible by 4 4.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Numbers 1.(a .b) = (a + b)(a2 .2ab + b2 9. [(a + 2d)]. (a + b)2 . (a3 – b3) = (a + b)(a .

n) = a mb m = an / bn =1 = a1/n = (a1/n)n =a = = )m = = Percentage 32. ( 31. If the population of a town is ‘P’ in a year. am / an 23. .M of Numbers 20.R] } % 36. = a(m + n) = a(m . a0 26. If ‘A’ is R% more than ‘B’. If ‘A’ is R% less than ‘B’.C. 30. am × an 22. not to increase the expenditure is {100R / [100 + R] } % 35.C. then ‘B’ is more than ‘A’ by OR If the price of a commodity decreases by R%. (ab)m 24. × Their L.sonker. M. we have a / b = (a / b × 100) % 34. Product of two numbers = Their H. 27. 29. To express x% as a fraction. then the increase in consumption. C. To express a / b as a percent.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker H. not to increase the expenditure is {100R / [100 .com / 28. then the reduction in consumption. Surds & Indices 21. F. then its population after ‘N’ years is P (1 + R/100)N Page 3 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. C. (a / b)m 25.F & L. then ‘B’ is less than ‘A’ by OR If the price of a commodity increases by R%. we have x% = x / 100 33.

b) / b = (c . which is called the componendo & dividendo. the first and fourth terms are known as extremes. b.d) / d. 52. If the population of a town is ‘P’ in a year.p.R/100)N] 40. then its value after ‘N’ years at a depreciation of ‘R’ p. c.a is P / [(1 . a2 : b2 is a duplicate ratio of a : b 46. The equality of two ratios is called a proportion.a is P (1 .c. which is called the componendo. while the second and third are known as means. Page 4 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. If a / b = c / d. Variation: We say that x is directly proportional to y if x = ky for some constant k and we write. then. 42. we write a : b :: c : d and we say that a.p. d are in proportion. (a + b) / b = (c + d) / d. : is a sub-duplicate ration of a : b 47.d). The compounded ratio of the ratios (a : b). (c : d). then.b) = (c + d) / (c . Product of extremes = Product of means 43. (a + b) / (a .R/100)N 39. If a : b = c : d. If the value of a machine is ‘P’ in a year. we say that x is inversely proportional to y if x = k / y for some constant k and we write x α 1 / y. Mean proportion between a and b is 44. 50. (e : f) is (ace : bdf) 45. If a / b = c / d. a1/3 : b1/3 is a sub-triplicate ratio of a : b 49. 53. x α y. Also. then its value ‘N’ years ago at a depreciation of ‘R’ p. then. If a / b = c / d.Loss%) × Cost Price] / 100 Ratio & Proportion 41. (a . 51.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker 37. then its population ‘N’ years ago is P / [(1 + R/100)N] Profit & Loss 38. In a proportion.sonker. If the value of a machine is ‘P’ in a year. a3 : b3 is a triplicate ratio of a : b 48. Selling Price = [(100 + Gain%) × Cost Price] / 100 = [(100 . which is called the dividendo.com .c.

then A’s 1 day’s work = 1/n. u > v) in the same direction. The work done is directly proportional to the number of men working at it. then the time taken y the over-taker train to cross the slower train is [(x + y) / (u .sonker. Suppose a man covers a distance at ‘x’ kmph and an equal distance at ‘y’ kmph. then Share Of Partner = (Total_Profit × Part_Share / Total_Share) Chain Rule 55. If A is thrice as good a workman as B. If A can do a piece of work in n days. then average speed during his whole journey is [2xy / (x + y)] kmph Trains 64. If a pipe can fill a tank in ‘x’ hours and another pipe can empty the full tank in ‘y’ hours (where y > x). Page 5 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www.v)] hrs 65. the net part of the tank filled in 1 hour is (1/x – 1/y) Time And Distance 63. If two trains start at the same time from two points A and B towards each other and after crossing they take a and b hours in reaching B and A respectively. 60. The cost of articles is directly proportional to the number of articles. Time taken to cross each other is [(x + y) / (u + v)] hrs 66. Time taken to cover a distance is inversely proportional to the speed of the car. The time (number of days) required to complete a job is inversely proportional to the number of hours per day allocated to the job. 56. If A’s 1 day’s work = 1/n. moving at ‘u’ kmph and ‘v’ kmph (where. Ratio of times taken by A & B to finish a work = 1 : 3 Pipes & Cisterns 62. Lengths of trains are ‘x’ km and ‘y’ km. If a number of partners have invested in a business and it has a profit. then: Ratio of work done by A and B = 3 : 1.com .114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Partnership 54. 58. then A can finish the work in n days. 57. then on opening both the pipes. Time & Work 59. 61.

73.I. then: Speed downstream = (u + v) km/hr. Page 6 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. Then. P R T = ( P × R × T ) / 100 = ( 100 × S. = ( 100 × S.m) : (m .com . b.: (Cheaper quantity) : (Dearer quantity) = (d .sonker. We represent the above formula as under: 75. 74. ) / ( R × T ). = ( 100 × S. a.I. x kmph = (x × 5/18) m/sec. Rate = R% per annum and Time = T years. Rule of Alligation: If two ingredients are mixed. ) / ( P × T ). Mean Price: The cost price of a quantity of the mixture is called the mean price. Alligation: It is the rule that enables us to find the ratio in which two or more ingredients at the given price must be mixed to produce a mixture at a given price. y metres/sec = (y × 18/5) km/hr. Boats & Streams 69. ) / ( P × R ). 72. A’s speed : B’s speed = ( 67. d. . S. If the speed downstream is a km/hr and the speed upstream is b km/hr.b) km/hr. Alligation or Mixture 71. 70.v) km/hr. If the speed of a boat in still water is u km/hr and the speed of the stream is v hm/hr.c) Simple Interest 76. then: Speed in still water = ½ (a + b) km/hr. 68.I. then: : ). c. Speed upstream = (u . Let Principle = P. Rate of stream = ½ (a .I.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Then.

Then. Rate = R% per annum and Time = T years. loga (xp) f. Then. Present worth of Rs. loga (x/y) c. Amount = P (1 + R/100)3 × (1 + ⅞R/100) 79. When interest is compounded Annually. other than 1 and am = x. Page 7 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. and 3rd year respectively.sonker. loga x g. then we write m = loga x and say that the value of log x to the base a is m. Then. Amount = P (1 + R/100)N II. R3% for 1st. When Rates are different for different years. but the time is in fraction. The integral part is known as characteristic and the decimal part is known as mantissa. Log of 1 to any base is 0) = p loga x = 1 / logx a = logb x / logb a = log x / log a (Change of base rule) d. When interest is compounded Half-yearly: Amount = P (1 + R/2/100)2N III. say 3⅞ years. x due n years hence is given by: Present Worth = x / (1 + R/100)n Logarithms 81. I.e. loga (xy) b. Amount = P (1 + R1/100) (1 + R2/100) (1 + R3/100) 80.e.com .114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Compound Interest 77. say R1%. namely characteristic and mantissa. The logarithm of a number contains two parts. R2%. loga x h. logx x = loga x + loga y = loga x . loga 1 e. When interest is compounded Quarterly: Amount = P (1 + R/4/100)4N 78. Logarithms to the base 10 are known as common logarithms j.loga y = 1 (i. Logarithm: If a is a positive real number. Properties of Logarithms: a. 82. When base is not mentioned. Let Principle = P. Log of any number to its own base is 1) = 0 (i. it is taken as 10 i. When interest is compounded Annually. 2nd.

Area of a parallelogram = Base × Height Page 8 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. Square: a. Radius of incircle of an equilateral triangle of side a = a / 2 e. c are the sides of the triangle c. Area of a triangle = . Area of a square = ½ (diagonal)2 85.com . e. Area of 4 walls of a room = 2 (length + breadth) × height 86.0234 0.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker I. where s = ½ (a + b + c).234 0.sonker. Number 234. II.34 0. then antilog y = x. Antilog: If log x = y. In this case. Case 2: When the number is less than 1. we look through the log table. IV.56 23. Triangle: a.00234 III. the characteristic is one less than the number of digits in the left of decimal point in the given number. In this case. Area of square = (side)2 b. and a. Area of a triangle = ½ × base × height b. b. Area 83. Case 1: When the number is greater than 1. Area of an equilateral triangle = / 4 × (side)2 d. Area of a rectangle = (length × breadth) b. Characteristic 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 For mantissa. Perimeter of a rectangle = 2 (length + breadth) 84.456 2. the characteristic is one more than the number of zeroes between the decimal point and the first significant digit of the number and it is negative. Rectangle: a. Parallelogram/Rhombus/Trapezium: a.g. Radius of circumcircle of an equilateral triangle of side a = a / 87.

Cylinder: Let radius of base = r & height (or length) = h. Length of an arc = Ө/360 × 2πR = ½ (arc × R) = Ө/360 × πR2 Volume & Surface Area 89. = ½ × (sum of parallel sides) × (distance between them) d. Area of a rhombus c. where R is the radius of the circle: a. a. breadth = b & height = h units Then. = ½ × (Product of diagonals) The halves of diagonals and a side of a rhombus form a right angled triangle with side as the hypotenuse. Curved Surface Area = (2πrh) sq. a.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker b. Cuboid: Let length = l. Page 9 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. 92.com Total Surface Area = 2πr(r + h) sq. Then. Circumference of a circle = 2πR c. Cube: Let each edge of a cube be of length a. units . Surface Area c. units =( × a) units Diagonal = (l × b × h) cu units = 2 (lb + bh + hl) sq. Diagonal = a3 cu units = 6a2 sq. Circle/Arc/Sector. Volume b.sonker. Area of a circle = πR2 b. units b. Then. Volume = (πr2h) cu. a. Then. Volume b. Area of trapezium 88. Surface Area c. units = units d. Area of a sector 91. 90. Cone: Let radius of base = r & height = h. units c.

D. units Curved Surface Area = (πrl) sq. Suppose a man has to pay Rs. units = (4/3 πr3) cu. Volume c. at par. brokerage is added to the cost price. = units = (⅓ πr2h) cu. Hemi-sphere: Let the radius of the sphere be r. 156 due 4 years hence. 100 stock is said to be: a. Curved Surface Area = (2πr2) sq. Volume = (2/3 πr3) cu. above par (or at premium). Clearly. units d. When stock is purchased. 97. 100. is more than Rs.W. 100 stock is Rs. we mean a stock whose face value is Rs. Volume b. units c. is less than Rs. is Rs. 156 due 4 years hence. 100 at 14% will amount to Rs.) = Rs. if S. (156 . We say that: Sum due = Rs.P. units 93.P. Sphere: Let the radius of the sphere be r. 100. Surface Area 94. So. l b. Slant height. if S.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker a. 95. Then. 156 after 4 years and the rate of interest is 14% per annum. Then. below par (or at discount). True Discount 100. the payment of Rs. 800. units b. 156 in 4 years.W.P. Rs.) Page 10 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www. True Discount (T. Present Worth (P. annual interest is 9% of the face value and the market price of a Rs. b. When the stock is sold. 99. The selling price of a Rs. 9% stock at 95’. Total Surface Area = (3πr2) sq. 100 now will clear off the debt of Rs. 98.com . a. 96. 100 exactly. 100.sonker. By ‘a Rs. a. units Stocks & Shares 95.) = Rs. if S. units = (4πr2) sq. Brokerage: The broker’s charge is called brokerage. Total Surface Area = πr(r + l) sq. 800.100) = (Sum due) – (P. brokerage is subtracted from the selling price. c.

) × R × T / 100 = ([Amount] × R × T) / (100 + [R × T]) = ([S. T.D. Be sure to read the copyright information and terms of use of the documents at http://www.I. a.D. = (T.D.D. P. = S. on the face value for the period from the date on which the bill was discounted and the legally due date.D. Interest is reckoned on R.W. Sum = (100 × Amount) / (100 + [R × T]) = (100 × T. Copyright Notice: Feel free to share.D. Make sure to preserve this copyright notice alongwith the header and footer with the copyright note of www.sonker.G.) / (R × T) = (P.I.) for the unexpired time 107. Banker’s Gain (B.D. = Amount / (1 + R/100)T Banker’s Discount 105.I. (S. When the sum is put at compound interest. e.sonker.I. 111. grace days are not to be added 108. T. b.D. – T.D. 102. Banker’s Discount (B. 112. copy. B.com.D. 113. 106. and true discount is reckoned on the amount 104. on T.I.D.W.W. 109.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker 101.W.W.D. = (P. print.sonker.) / (B. Amount 114.D.]) / ([S.D. T.] × [T.D.) – (T. distribute this document for free. T. distribute this document.D. × 100) / (Rate × Time) 110. c. on T. B.D.] – [T.) = S. Then. B.com . T.) – (T. copy.htm before you share.I. = = (Amount × Rate × Time) / 100 = (Amount × Rate × Time) / (100 + [Rate × Time]) = (B.D.D. × T.D. Let rate = R% per annum & time = T years.G.) = (B.) – (T.) is the S. When the date of the bill is not given.) + (T.W.G.]) d.) = (B.W.D.D.) 103. print. then P.com/sagar/Copyright. on bill for unexpired time = (B.)2 / P.D. Amount = Interest on P.D.) = S. Page 11 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www.I.

com/sagar.com or submit your feedback at www.sonker.com .sonker. Do you have any more information to add to this document? Write to me at sagar@sonker. Page 12 of 12 Copyright © 2006 www.com the full authority to take a legal action.114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude Problems Author: Sagar Sonker Illegal reproduction of this document without the prior permission of the author and/or removal of this copyright notice and/or the header/footer gives www.sonker.