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CH.UMAKALYANI Department of Electrical and Communication Engineering Ramachandra College of Engineering, Eluru.
Aerospace telemetry is the “science of transmission of information from air space vehicles to an accessible location”. Aerospace telemetry and the reception of flight test data are key components to flight test in ascertaining positional data for further analysis. Data gathered by a telemetry system is critical to the success of every aeronautical research project and reliable equipment is needed to keep the telemetry system, from the aircraft to the ground, transmitting and receiving every moment data is needed. This research paper introduces and defines telemetry and aerospace telemetry, provides a brief history of how telemetry came about, briefly captures some telemetry applications, introduces the telemetry equipment requirements necessary for telemetry to occur, such as signal conditioning and subcarrier oscillator equipment, outlines some telemetry concerns, such as noise and errors, and presents ways to minimize these errors using transducer, data system, and physical end-to-end calibrations.
This paper will provide an understanding of the many aspects of aerospace telemetry. The next few sections define telemetry and aerospace telemetry, provide a brief history of telemetry, and further emphasize key telemetry aspects using a few telemetry application examples.
1.1 Aerospace Telemetry: Telemetry is a “technology that allows the remote measurement and reporting of information of interest to the system designer or operator”. Information, in this case, is data that is organized as a result of processing or manipulation, which adds to the knowledge of the receiver. The Greek root tele means remote and metron means to measure. Other sources define telemetry as “the science of the use of the telemeter” 14, and further define telemeter as “an instrument for determining distance of an object, such as the distance target in gunnery”. One early example of this science existed in Italy in t he early 17th century. An Italian astronomer named Porro used a quick measurement technique called tachymetry to determine distances. Porro used an optical method with fixed stadia hairs in a focal plane and a variable length graduated horizontal base at a remote location where the distance was observed. Telemetry can also be considered as the science of transmission of inaccessible data to accessible locations. Aerospace telemetry further defines telemetry as the science of “transmission of information from air and space vehicles to accessible locations”. This definition extended the conventional notion for telemetry. For example, although receiving stations are generally located on Earth, they may also be located within air and space vehicles remote from the vehicles containing the transmitting stations.
The voltage generated was a function of the quantity of telemetry to be measured and occurred at the transmitting end of the circuit. In the pulse-type TM.) in 1885. If there was no leakage in the line. Following World War I (WWI). Pulse-type wired telemetry was also developed during the 1920s. especially in the area of flight testing of aircraft and munitions. due to the expansion of public utilities. Telemetry equipment was used on a limited basis by aircraft manufacturers before World War II (WWII). “Data stations” transmit back real time to a base station and identify the major parameters needed to make good “cropgrowing” decisions. During WWI. At the receiving end. and transmitted data on its several electric power generating plants to a central control station. such as air temperature. These early TM systems were used by the electric power companies to monitor the distribution and use of electricity. This method allowed the information to be transmitted without serious loss of fidelity through circuits that were “less than perfect”.S. precipitation and leaf wetness data for disease prediction models. wind speed. Timing of the pulse-type wired TM systems were often mechanically generated using a ratchet like device. 2. The current type system involved using a “balanced system” in which a current in the circuit connecting the point of measurement to the point of display and applied force to an armature. IL. the variable was transmitted as a function of electrical pulse timings rather than voltage or current.2 History of Aerospace Telemetry: One of the earliest documented uses of telemetry (TM) occurred in the United States (U. the TM data was transmitted using the electric power lines themselves. wildlife study and management. however. the balancing occurred at the receiving end. most modern telemetry systems use radio transmissions to span substantial distances. a U. In that year.S. patent was granted for a telemetry system as a result of the invention of the telegraph and later the telephone. solar radiation. Instant data allows the . wired telemetry systems were just starting to become more prolific in the U. In 1912. defense. one of the twentieth century’s first TM systems was installed in Chicago. TELEMETRY APPLICATIONS Telemetry applications and its usage are highly visible in the areas of agriculture. and water management.S. the postwar WWII years and the advent of the missile age have resulted in a phenomenal increase in TM usage. relative humidity.1. This voltage was connected to a line. The first TM systems were extensively voltage or current type systems only and didn’t involve radio frequency (RF) usage. 2.1 Agriculture and Telemetry Usage: Growing crops today is a very hightech competitive business. TM data was transmitted by the electric power lines themselves. space. Although electrical telemetry systems are still in use. as compared to voltage or current-type systems. the line current was reduced to zero by a self-balancing instrument that generated a voltage to “buck out” the current in the line. The timely availability of weather and soil data plays a crucial role in most activities related to healthy crop stations plays a major role in disease prevention and precision irrigation. Following WWI. and resource exploration systems. retail businesses. and were called supervisory systems because of their monitoring abilities. This TM system transmitted the data using the city’s existing telephone line network10. The voltage system also worked on a “balanced” method. the bucking voltage was equal to the transmitted voltage within the sensitivity of the balancing instrument like combination. However. and soil moisture. medicine.
These patients are outfitted with measuring. The left portion of the block diagram depicts the block diagram components required to transmit the link while the right side of the . Space agencies such as National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) use telemetry to collect data from operating spacecraft and satellites. to global positioning system (GPS) packages. and resource exploration systems in the U. and use equipment surveillance for leak detection in distributed pipeline networks. 2. and spacecraft because TM allows automatic monitoring. In 2005. However.3 Telemetry Usage in Medicine: Medical applications for telemetry include the use of biotelemetry in coronary care units for patients at risk due to abnormal heart activity. and a ground station1 as shown in Figure 1. efficient operations. recording and transmitting devices and a diagnostic data log of the patient's condition that is generated with the transmitted device. subcarrier oscillator equipment. such as in hydrometry. active RFID tags are available that periodically transmit telemetry to a particular base station. 2. and is the enabling technology for large complex systems such as missiles. and water quality. 2. chemical plants. groundwater monitoring. This telemetry data eliminated the need for excessive trips by vending machine service drivers to see what items needed to be restocked before bringing the inventory inside.S. oil rigs. Without telemetry. 2. REQUIRED TELEMETRY EQUIPMENT The minimum equipment required for a radio telemetry system consists of signal conditioning equipment. Real time satellite telemetry data provides continuous monitoring for military activities. Most of these RFID tags passively respond to RFID readers and send data to the cashier. satellites and aircraft because the system might be destroyed after or during the missile test. these data parameters would often be unavailable to the engineer. 2.5 Wildlife Management and Telemetry: Wildlife monitoring utilizes animal telemetry.. Water management applications use telemetry for automatic meter reading. the monitoring of rainfall. and record-keeping necessary for safe. groundwater characteristics. alerting. some retail businesses used telemetry equipment to communicate vending machine sales and inventory data to a route truck and headquarters. 3.6 Telemetry and Water Management: Telemetry remains indispensable in water management applications. Biotelemetric devices are also used by nurses to monitor the patient’s acute or dangerous condition. monitoring species at the individual level. with transceivers to provide position and other basic information to scientists and stewards. The ability to have realtime data allows quick reaction responses in the field. Engineers need critical system parameters in order to analyze and improve the performance and safety of the system. Telemetry systems provide vital data in the development phase of missiles.4 Telemetry Usage in Defense: Telemetry data systems enable defense. space. an RF link. Animals under study may be fitted with instruments ranging from simple tags to cameras.agriculturalist to understand the progress of water into the soil and towards the roots.2 Telemetry Usage in Retail Business: Retailers make use of radio frequency identification (RFID) tags to track inventory and prevent shoplifting.
3. converters. The reactance-controlled oscillator uses variable reactance type transducers. depicts block diagram components for a basic preamplifier. If system calibrations become a problem. altitude. and phase-sensitive Figure 3: Telemetry Receiving Block diagram Figure 1: Telemetry Link Block Diagram The below figure depicts block diagram components for a basic signal source. and aircraft positioning to be measured. Commonly used signal conditioning equipment includes DC amplifiers. and transmission circuitry. utilizing VCOs and resistancecontrolled oscillators where needed. causes the oscillator frequency to drift accordingly. signal conversion and multiplexing. 3. where one or more of the arms of the bridge changes resistance. data synchronizer. with a transducer designed into the oscillator circuit itself.diagram depicts the block diagram components for the ground station. regardless of the transducer output signal characteristics. telemetry receiver. strain gages can be still be excited with a DC voltage and the outputs can be used to modulate voltagecontrolled oscillators (VCO). A resistancecontrolled oscillator used in a strain gage bridge circuit. Based upon test and datagathering requirements. Transducers of this type are installed commonly in flight test operations requiring pressure. Any change in inductance within the transducer will cause a proportional change effect in the oscillator frequency. Figure 2: Telemetry Transmitting System Block Diagram Figure 3. demodulators. analog magnetic recorder. is one way to eliminate the use of signal conditioners. and data display.1 Signal Conditioning Equipment: A signal conditioner device converts the output of the transducer into a more suitable form for modulating the sub-carrier oscillator. flow meter .2 Sub-Carrier Oscillator Equipment: A sub-carrier oscillator. AC amplifiers. The proper RF link to communicate with the test article and data collection stations determines component selection. the TM engineer determines the necessary TM-measuring system. signal conditioning circuitry. The VCOs are available in numerous types of modulating equipment and come in many customizable configurations for both vacuum tube and transistor variants.
which are considered a class of electromagnetic waves . 3. or an antenna system. 3. the outputs from the oscillators must be combined into a composite signal. frequency mixers.3.3 Radio Frequency (RF) Link: When a particular type of sub-carrier oscillator is used in an FM/FM type telemetry system. multi-couplers. including air. For a FM transmitter. radar. the two main TM concerns for engineers are noise and errors. This particular type of telemetry system is extensively used for industrial applications. are required to provide adequate signal strength at the receiving station throughout the flight path of the test . a cable installation provides the multiplexed output of the sub-carrier oscillators directly to the inputs of the discriminators. As mentioned earlier. RF amplifiers. space. the multiplexed signals are usually recorded on one track of the magnetic tape recorder for flight test to perform subsequent data reduction. and is often called crystal controlled modulation. demodulators. called the sub-carrier multiplex. the modulation is accomplished by shifting the carrier frequency. Antennas are used in systems such as radio. such as transmitting and receiving. preamplifiers. Antennas transmit and receive RF via numerous mediums. The RF link in an aerospace telemetry system also requires transmitters. these industrial telemetry systems often use a power line carrier. which is generated within the transmitter. a free space path to radiate. and receivers to make the RF link complete. are used to modulate the transmitter itself. The receiver output. wireless local area network (LAN). routs the information to a set of sub-carrier discriminators and to a magnetic tape recorder in the telemetry station itself. Television broadcasting. After the RF link has been established. intermediate amplifiers. if the distance between the transmitting station and the receiving station is too great for direct cable linkage. Power line and wire line carriers cannot be used for aerospace telemetry because of telemetry distance limitations. which is the recovered sub-carrier multiplex. However. PM transmitter modulation is accomplished by performing a phase shift of the transmitter frequency. soil.5 Antennas: An antenna is a transducer designed to transmit or receive telemetry radio waves. The signals of interest are then separated at this time by the discriminators and then reconverted to the form in which they appear at the output of the transducers in an airborne system. and space exploration. specific antennas. the composite signal from the output of the sub-carrier oscillators and from the output of the mixer amplifier. however. which is then able to modulate the transmitter carrier signal. point-to-point radio communication. If an airborne TM system is in relatively close proximity to a particular receiving station. microwave systems may be used. The modulated carrier signal transmits to a receiving radio station. wire line carrier. for short distances. at specific frequencies.Antennas convert radio frequency electrical currents into electromagnetic waves and vice versa. water. such as in power distribution systems and pipeline systems. and microwave systems. These antennas.4 Transmitters: One of the most important components in the RF link for aerospace telemetry is the use of transmitters. In addition. This FM-type transmitter is called a crystal stabilized transmitter because a crystal is used to determine the necessary frequency and stabilize it. Most of the transmitters are either frequency modulated (FM) or phase modulated (PM). or rock.
and have self-regulating power supplies. If only one receiver is required. Each output of the multi-coupler routes to an FM-type receiver. or may be more complex. Preamplifiers are required when acquiring telemetry data due to a large attenuation in the telemetry signal through free space itself. through the use of frequency-discriminating network and filter circuitry.7 Preamplifiers: A preamplifier is an electronic amplifier which precedes another amplifier to prepare an electronic signal for further amplification or processing6. . at or near the receiving antenna. The envelope detector may be in the form of a single diode. is used to amplify the antenna output signal and overcome excessive cable losses. Preamplifiers configured for this purpose usually mounts in some type of weatherproof enclosure.vehicle. a very simple method of demodulation. which is modulated (modified) with the input signal for the purpose of conveying information to be transmitted. For instance. The receiving antenna output signal expects high enough power to overcome any degradation due to signal attenuation or signal loss between the antenna and the receiver itself. The pre-amplifier maintains certain signal strength and signal level compatibility. 3. At least two methods are used to demodulate AM signals: (1) use an envelope detector or (2) use a product detector. The sub-carrier composite signal is a replica of the signal which was used to modulate the transmitter in the telemetry package. all within the receiver itself. The amplitude modulated (AM) signal encodes the information onto the carrier wave by varying its amplitude in direct sympathy with the signal to be sent. such as voice or data. The preamplifier can provide amplification of the antenna output signal before there is any signal loss generated in the cable itself. The telemetry signal is amplified and the sub-carrier composite signal is separated from the detected carrier signal. This type of FM receiver requires the selection of an appropriate crystal to tune the incoming telemetry signal. usually a sinusoidal waveform. such as navigationalposition information8. 3. Another type of FM receiver is the crystalcontrolled FM receiver. the preamplifier installs in very close proximity to the antenna. The carrier wave or carrier.8 Demodulators: A demodulator is an electronic circuit used to recover the information content from the carrier wave of a signal. is a waveform. Long cables running between the receiver and the antenna cause large losses to receiving systems. The main advantage of using this particular preamplifier configuration is that it provides a higher signal-to-noise ratio. The carrier wave functions at a much higher frequency than the baseband (information containing) modulating signal. If the intent is to overcome only cable losses. based on receiver input requirements. The envelope detector. A modem device uses both a modulator and a demodulator. The FM receiver is usually a continuous-tunable unit that can be tuned to any frequency within the telemetry band being utilized. 3. the signal is ready to be transmitted from one test vehicle to a receiving station only after the modulated carrier achieves sufficient amplification. A preamplifier installation. the use of a multi-coupler would not be necessary. consists of using anything that will pass current in one direction only and this current is considered to be rectified. controlled from within the receiving station itself.6 Receiver: A receiver is an electronic device or circuit that receives telemetry signals from an antenna and converts these signals into meaningful data.
The results of a measurement may then be “corrected” in accordance with the calibration. test requirements. Random errors result from the superposition of unrelated events.Many natural substances exhibited this rectification behavior. as with any measurement process. shown on the following page. when employing telemetry applications involving aircraft and missiles. This method will decode both AM and singlesideband (SSB). they may be corrected for by performing frequent automatic or manual calibrations. There are many possible telemetry ground station configurations and the particular configuration really depends on how many data sources you choose to monitor. Eglin AFB. 4. such as monitoring F-16D aircraft operational flight programs (OFP). such as the interference between irregularities in bearing surfaces. When telemetry ground stations are used for missile or munitions test programs. Systematic errors are those errors that can be eliminated by some calibration procedure or other form of compensation. FL. The product detector multiplies the incoming signal by the signal of a local oscillator with the same frequency and phase as the carrier of the incoming signal. it is necessary to incorporate an automatic calibration procedure into the telemetry process. Figure 4. 3. which helps explain why it was the earliest modulation and demodulation technique used in radio. a more complex setup is required. it’s not practical to . The crystal set. exploits the simplicity of the modulation to produce an AM receiver while using very few parts. Errors are inherently present to a greater or lesser degree. preamplifiers. or the shot effect of electrons in vacuum tubes. uses these particular type telemetry ground stations to support the Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) program. Telemetry calibration is discussed in the next section in more detail. and available funding. to name a few. However. this station must contain sufficient equipment to process and display those data signals required for realtime monitoring. If these “drifts” are slow enough. in many cases. Notional Telemetry Ground Station. although if the phase cannot be determined. such as an RF calibration test.9 Telemetry Ground Station: The telemetry ground station contains the RF equipment necessary to receive the telemetry data (receivers. In radio telemetry. TM CONCERNS: NOISE AND ERRORS One of the main concerns when using telemetry data is the possibility of introducing excessive noise and errors into the TM data stream itself. the stations are usually minimally configuration with rack-mounted test equipment at a remote location near the intended target. In many cases there are “zero drifts” due to things such as temperature changes. receiving antenna. Systematic errors may be calibrated out by suitable methods. mentioned earlier. depicts a notional ground telemetry station setup. The test station usually monitors and simulates “weapon fly out” data. and other processing and recording equipment to monitor telemetry data. safety. This station only serves to receive the composite telemetry signal from the receiver and stores TM data on a magnetic tape for further processing at another subsequent location. These telemetry ground stations are usually configured in prefabricated trailers are built using rackmounted equipment for easy equipment access. If the ground station is used for aircraft telemetry programs.). etc. the thermal motion of electrons in conductors. These errors may be classified as either systematic or random. After filtering the original audio signal will result.
If this calibration bridge circuit is designed properly and the precise location of the bridge elements is known. The reason this isn’t possible is because all physical systems have . In this case. by averaging processes. It’s impractical to load the member by a known amount during flight. or noise. so the calibration is frequently achieved by disconnecting the output of the strain-gage bridge using a relay. Random errors. can also be reduced by good design. drifts in zero and sensitivity of the subsequent remaining parts of the system will become more detectable and easier to correct. or using wide-band modulation methods. A good example of this technique is the use of a strain-gage bridge used to measure bending in a structural member. drifts in zero and sensitivity of the bridge become more unlikely. but can’t be eliminated the same way that systematic errors can be eliminated. In this case. a calibration variable is inserted at the first subsequent feasible point in the system.vary the physical variable at the input of a particular channel by a known amount Fig 4: National Telemetry Ground Station during flight test. but doesn’t give information on changes in the bridge circuit. and then inserting known fractions of the bridgedriving voltage into the system at this point. The resulting calibration is used to correct zero drifts and changes in sensitivity of the subsequent parts of the system.
or physical end-to-end calibration. For instance. heat flux. In either case. such as photographic emulsions. strain. adjust. Other temperature effects may be considered random effects. and phase angle. the engineer subjects the telemetry system to a carefully conducted end-to-end calibration checks just before. and friction in pickup instruments. If manufacturing performance deviations are present. flow. or other effects such as the granular nature of electric currents. video. or other combinations. to name a few. temperature changes. velocity. acoustics. displacement. during. electro-optical methods. angular rate. 5. Many engineers stop after performing a transducer calibration and then combine the . Engineers test and calibrate individual components in a suitable laboratory before installing the system to ensure that data is of the highest possible quality. environmental errors and inherent equipment errors. For example. techniques. the engineer should then perform an in-house calibration on the individual transducer to verify the accuracy of the manufacturer’s transfer function. transducer calibration. humidity.” A telemetry system measurement “begins with the sensing of the item to be measured using a transducer located either on a test vehicle or at a remote test site. Each of these measurements may require a different calibration technique. certain temperature effects on a piece of equipment can be compensated for or calibrated out. Additionally.1 Calibration Types: For illustrative purposes. As such. reset the device to conform to the original transfer function. these errors are divided into two broad groups. the engineer may end up defining a new transfer function for that unit. position. Environmental errors are as difficult to cope with as inherent equipment errors. pressure.” This section introduces instrumentation engineering guidance on how to address general calibration methodologies. Inherent equipment errors are caused by such factors as noise in the RF radio link. crosstalk in multi-channel systems. direct wiring. Telemetry systems can be interconnected by radio links. or in some cases. dry friction. The transducer manufacturer usually performs a unit calibration in their laboratory. Environmental errors are errors that arise when a particular piece of equipment is subjected to acceleration. The calibration ends at a data storage or display device located at a receiving test site. to name a few. frequency. corrosion. such as the relative expansion of components in sliding contact with each other. and immediately after the actual test.performance limited by random effects. or standardize systematically the graduations of a quantitative measuring instrument. and other environmental factors. images. calibration is defined as one of three different types. and cases. shaft power. 5. time. The instrumentation engineer should become very familiar with the piece of equipment and the techniques used by the manufacturer to prevent “unnecessary calibration errors”. the instrumentation engineer uses many types of transducers to make many physical measurements of acceleration.2 Transducer Calibration: Transducer calibration focuses on the transducer input output relationship. torque. temperature. TELEMETRY CALIBRATIONS To calibrate means “to check. drifts in zeros and gains. After manufacturing equipment and calibration techniques are known. data system calibration. and are the result of dry friction. Many environmental errors are also systematic. 5. successive calibrations may indicate upcoming failures.
allows the engineer to identify and correct any potential problems early in test. The end-to-end calibration checks the measurement system. 19 An end-to-end mechanical calibration means a full calibration of the instrumentation from the actual physical input. and is the best method to ensure the collection of valid data. It should be noted that relying solely on transducer calibration is too risky for collection of valid data on an experiment or test. including wiring and connectors installed on the test article. although this configuration is not always feasible.transducer’s transfer function mathematically with the data system signal conditioner’s transfer functions. where the analog or digital signal will normally be analyzed. As stated earlier. This method provides a calibration estimate under the assumption that the engineer precisely knows all the transfer characteristics of the wiring and other signal conditioning between the transducer and the data storage system. Data system calibration simulates the desired item to be measured. to the transducer. Installation constraints. often mean that a data system calibration is the best that an instrumentation engineer can achieve to ensure the acquisition of valid data. It is highly recommended that end-to-end calibrations be performed before the test experiment. . 5. by using a shunt calibration resistor to simulate a change in resistance of the strain gage. also called mechanical end-to-end calibration. This can be accomplished by simulating an excitation of the transducer. 5. but one bad connection invalidates the data. Manufacturer usually performs a unit calibration in their laboratory. such as inaccessible or glued transducers. an instrumentation engineer should become very familiar with the piece of equipment and the techniques used by the manufacturer to prevent “unnecessary calibration errors”. An end-to-end calibration verifies the measurement system characteristics and is per-formed by engineers after installing the measurement system in the test article. and before the instrumentation system is removed. such as phase and wiring errors. Inserting a simulated transducer signal into the system verifies all signal conditioning transfer function predictions and simulates transducer excitation by its physical input. such as is often accomplished for strain gages. rather than physically stimulating the transducer’s sensing device. A minimum data system calibration should then be performed after mounting the transducer on the test article. The transducer should be calibrated while connected to the same signal conditioning equipment in the laboratory as it would be used on the actual test article. The most important consideration for making valid engineering measurements is to determine how the transducer operates in the actual test environment with all signal conditioning attached. A calibration source stimulates the transducer and the instrumentation engineer monitors the signal entering the data collection unit to ensure the calculated value matches the actual system transfer function. to the output. after the test experiment is completed. The engineer assumes that all wiring and signal conditioning will function as designed.3 Data System Calibration: Data system calibration simulates or models the input of the entire measurement system. focuses on the relationship between the physical input and measured output throughout the entire measurement system.4 Physical end-to-end Calibration: Physical end-to-end calibration.
000 PPS 1 ms IRIG-B: 100 PPS 10 ms IRIG-D: 1 PPM 1 minute IRIG-E: 10 PPM 0.000 PPM 0. data system. It also discussed signal conditioning and sub-carrier oscillator equipment. Serial formatted time codes are used to efficiently interface a timing system output with the user system.1 ms IRIG-H: 1 PPS 1 second 6. These serial formatted time codes have the following rate and count interval: IRIG-Type Rate Count Interval IRIG-A: 1.org/wiki/Hydrometry. and the count interval. and IRIG-H. and other data handling systems.1 second IRIG-G: 10. 7. For instance. Flight Test Engineer. and supportability of that particular IRIG standard when performing tests. .edu/kewlcontent/cdoutput/T R502/page21. missile tracking systems. These digital codes are typically amplitude modulated on an audio sine wave carrier or transmitted as fast rise-time TTL signals. one or ten pulses per minute for a rate is usually too slow for many applications and 1. retrieved from http://cbdd. The main difference between each IRIG format is the rate. Standardization of time codes is necessary to ensure system compatibility among the various ranges. the six IRIG formats currently available are IRIG-A. IRIG-B is primarily chosen as the “format of choice” because of its 100 PPS rate and 10 ms count interval.wikipedia. data reduction facilities. 8 References  Types of Modulation. Sr.  Lalik. and represents the rate at which data is correlated. and presented ways to minimize these errors using transducer. Jay M. ground tracking networks. or minutes. IRIG-D. Eglin AFB. Also. “modern electronic systems such as communication systems. which is usually in seconds.6. IRIG-B. the fidelity of data being analyzed.wsu.htm. and international cooperative projects. CONCLUSION This paper presented telemetry and provided a brief history of how telemetry came about. such as noise and errors. It gave some telemetry applications and introduced the telemetry equipment requirements. and outlined some telemetry concerns. WHY USE DIFFEENT IRIG FORMATS? Today. spacecraft and missile projects. require time-of-day and year information to properly correlate data with time. millisecond. The IRIG-B serial time code is primarily used because many instrumentation applications can sufficiently use the 100 PPS rate and usually a count interval of 10 ms is more than enough to accurately analyze the telemetry data.  Hydrometry-Wikipedia. The choice as to which IRIG serial time code to use is based on the user’s needs. IRIG-E. IRIG-G. the most commonly used IRIG format used today is the IRIG-B serial time code format. FL. and physical end-to-end calibrations.000 PPS rates are usually overkill for most applications. usually in pulse per second (PPS) or pulse per minute (PPM).2 IRIG B: The Choice Standard: Although the six standardized time codes have been in existence for quite some time. retrieved from http://en.1 Summary of Different IRIG Formats: There are mainly six different IRIG formats that standard test range areas readily support.000 or 10.. (2007) 46th Test Wing.” 6.
Harry L. John Wiley & Sons. RCC OnLine Documents. Inc. Document 120-01. RCC OnLine Documents. NY and London.. Aerospace Telemetry-Equipment Telemetry Applications Requirements. Vol 2.  Pacific Missile Test Center. Inc.. (1956) John Wiley & Sons. Myron H. Englewood Cliffs. RCC OnLine Documents. Volume 2.  White Sands Missile Range. Prentice Hall Publishing. Prentice-Hall.  Stiltz.mil/rcc/ manuals/118v2/ind ex118vol2. Handbook. Harry L.army. NJ.. NJ  Stiltz. Document 121-06. Inc. Prentice-Hall. retrieved fromhttps://wsmrc2vger..  White Sands Missile Range. Nichols. California. and Rauch. . Englewood lifts. Lawrence L. Prentice Hall Publishing. Instrumentation Engineers Handbook. (1961). Radio Telemetry. Test Methods for Telemetry for Telemetry RF Subsystems.wsmr. Point Mugu. (1961). Test Methods for Telemetry Systems and Subsystems. Document 118-02.  White Sands Missile Range. Aerospace Telemetry.htm. Telemetry Systems Radiofrequency (RF) Handbook. Inc.
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