The Caliphs of Umayyad reign

Muawiyah I
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the discussion on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until the dispute is resolved. (October 2009)

Muawiyah I
Reign Full name Born Died Predecessor Successor Dynasty Father Mother 661 ± 680 Mu 602 May 6, 680 Ali ibn Abi Talib Yazid I Umayyad Abu Sufyan ibn Harb Hind bint Utbah w ya ibn Ab Sufy n

Muawiyah I (Arabic: ; Transliteration: Mu w ya ibn Ab Sufy n); (602±680) is the first Caliph in the Ummayad Dynasty. In Sunni Islam he is perceived as having two main parts to his life which are of major historical note. The first part was as one of the staunchest enemies of Mohammad and of Islam; indeed Muawiya was after the Battle of Badr the heir-apparent to the pagan throne of Mecca which was occupied in effect by his father Abu Sofyan and mother Hinda.[1] After the defeat of his family following the fall of Mecca in 8 AH

Muawiya said that he was then a Muslim and hence is regarded within Sunni Islam as a Sahabi (companion) of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. Also he was Katib Al-wa i (inspiration writer)[2] ± he later became a member of the Umayyad caliphate in Damascus.[1] Shia Muslims refuse to recognise the sincerity of his conversion, and cite as evidence his allegedly being cursed by Mohammad (see section on physical appearances below) and Muawiya's waging of continual civil war against the caliphate led by Ali, al-Hassan and many of the early companions.[1] He engaged in a major civil war against the fourth and fifth (final) Rashidun (Rightly Guided Caliphs), Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib) (Muhammad's son-in-law) and Muhammad's eldest grandson Al-Hassan, and Mu'awiya met with considerable military success, including the seizure of Egypt. He assumed the caliphate after Ali's assassination and forcing the abdication of al-Hassan by threatening further bloodshed in 661 and led until 680. Because of his involvement in the Battle of Siffin against Ali, whom the Shia Muslims believe was Muhammad's true successor (see Succession to Muhammad), the belief that he broke the treaty he made with Hasan ibn Ali by appointing his son Yazid as ruler and the belief that he was responsible for the deaths of various companions, Mu'awiyah has been hated and reviled by generations of Shi'a and is not regarded as a rightly guided caliph by some Sunni Muslims.[citation

y y y y y y y y y y y y y

1 Early life 2 His wives 3 Governor of Syria 4 Conflict with Ali 5 Rule 6 Mu'awiya and Mawalis 7 Appearance and habits 8 Legacy 9 Sunni View 10 Shi'a View 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

[edit] Early life

Umayyad Mosque, established during Muawiyah's era. Mu'awiyah ibn Abi-Sufyan was born in 602 C.E. into a powerful clan, the Banu Umayya, of the Quraysh tribe. The Quraysh controlled the city of Mecca, in what is now western Saudi Arabia, and the Banu Abd-Shams were among the most influential of its citizens.Like Abu Sufyan, Mu'awiya was a staunch follower of the pre-Islamic polytheism that was Abu Sufyan, opposed Muhammad before becoming a Muslim after Muhammad conquered Mecca. In 630 CE, Muhammad and his followers conquered Mecca, and most of the Meccans, including the Abd-Shams, formally submitted to Muhammad and accepted Islam. General consensus among early Islamic historians is that Mu'awiyah, along with his father Abu Sufyan, became Muslims at the conquest of Mecca when further resistance to Muslims became an impossibility.[3][4] Some scholars hold the view that Mu'awiya was the second of the two to convert, with Abu Sufyan convincing him to do it. Muhammad welcomed his former opponents, enrolled them in his army and gave them important posts in what was to become the Caliphate. After Muhammad's death in 632, he served in the Islamic army sent against the Byzantine forces in Syria. He held a high rank in the army which was led by his brother Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan.

[edit] His wives
This article does not cite any references or sources.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2009)

Historian recorded that Muawiyah had many wives, one of them is Maysun bint Jandal a Christian poetess and singer from Bani Kalb in south Syria. She gave birth to Yazid I in 645 when Muawiyah was a governor of Syria pointed by Umar ibn al-Khattab. However, he divorced her later and she took Yazid her only son back to her tribe.

citing rebel infiltration of the Muslim ranks. Fakhinah's sister. Muawiyah had built a Syrian army strong enough to repel a Byzantine attack and. and transported the bronze scrap on the backs of 900 camels to his home.[5] The city of Basrah went over to them but they were defeated in battle by Ali. The buyer had the statue broken down. He had 2 sons with her: Abdullah and Abdulrahman. Umar appointed Muawiyah as governor of Syria when his brother died in an outbreak of plague. Talhah (Talha ibn Ubayd-Allah) and Al-Zubayr (Abu µAbd Allah Zubayr ibn al-Awwam) were all in agreement with Muawiyah that those who assassinated Uthman should be brought to justice. instilling remarkable personal loyalty among his troops and the people of the region.[when?] Na'ilah was married to Habib al-Nu'man ibn al-Bashir al-Ansari. By 647. where Mu'awiyah was in open opposition. The third wife was Katwah bin Qarzhah. to take the offensive against the Byzantines in campaigns that resulted in the capture of Cyprus (649) and Rhodes (654) and a devastating defeat of the Byzantine navy off the coast of Lycia (655). in subsequent years. Ali pardoned Aisha and had her escorted back to Medina.Another wife was Fakhinah bint Qarzhah from the clan of Abdumanaf. Ali refused to apprehend and punish Uthman's murderers. All these campaigns came to a halt with the accession of Ali to the caliphate. However. Abdullah was dumb and was nicknamed "Abu al-Khayr". after being found along the caravan route. Pieces continued to turn up for sale for years. When Muawiyah invaded Cyprus he took her with him and she died there.[citation needed] Abdulrahman died when he was young. According to the chronicler Theophanes the Confessor. Muawiyah gradually gained mastery over the other areas of Syria. Aisha (Aisha bint Abu Bakr) (Muhammad's widow). Talhah and Al-Zubayr against Ali that ended in the Battle of the Camel. when a new and decisive phase of Muawiyah's career began. At the same time. He marched to the Euphrates and engaged Mu'awiyah's troops at the famous Battle of Siffin (657). allegedly seeking justice for the assassinated caliph Uthman Ibn Affan. In the year 640. Muawiyah I. Talhah and Al-Zubayr were killed. after capturing Rhodes sold the remains of the Colossus of Rhodes to a traveling salesman from Edessa. Accounts of the . Ali then turned towards Syria. Muawiyah periodically dispatched land expeditions into Anatolia. resulting in Muawiyah's refusal to acknowledge Ali's caliphate. He divorced her after a while. [edit] Governor of Syria Caliph Umar (Umar ibn al-Khattab) had appointed Muawiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan as governor of Syria. [edit] Conflict with Ali Muawiyah fought a protracted campaign against Ali. Muawiyah did not participate in the campaign by Aisha. The fourth wife was Na'ilah bint Ammarah from the same tribe as Maysun.

. it would seem that neither side had won a victory. Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was killed under Mu'awiyah's orders and stuffed into a donkey. we may mention what Ibn Katheer reports in his history book Al-Bidayah wal-Nihayah. he said: In the war. especially in Syria itself. Mu'awiyah governed the geographically and politically disparate Caliphate. When Al was assassinated in 661. To have an insight into Mu¶awiyah¶s character. When we met people of Al-Sham. unrest was brewing in Egypt. . by strengthening the power of his allies in the newly conquered territories. ²Al-Sharif al-Radi. The employment of Christians was part of a broader policy of religious tolerance that was necessitated by the presence of large Christian populations in the conquered provinces. Ali set out to quell the Kharijites. and we have nothing to do with it. Qais. Mu'awiyah. some of whom belonged to families that had served in Byzantine governments. later known as Kharijites. Mu'awiyah instituted several Byzantine-style bureaucracies. felt that Ali had betrayed them by entering into negotiations. only about Uthman's death"[2]. It is said that Aisha never ate meat again in her life after this act. dissension broke out in Ali's camp where some of his former supporters. our prophet is the same. Prominent positions in the emerging governmental structures were held by Christians. and no one is more of a believer than the other about believing in Allah. called divans. Early Arabic sources credit two diwans in particular to Mu'awiyah: the Diwan al-Khatam (Chancellery) and the Barid (Postal Service). and Ali had him replaced with Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr (the brother of Aisha and the son of Islam's first caliph Abu Bakr). [7] [edit] Rule After being granted the title Amir al-Mu'minin (Commander of the Faithful) in the year 661. The misunderstandings were about Uthman's blood. was recalled. it seemed that our god is one. since the Syrians called for arbitration to settle the matter. our calling is the same. Mu'awiyah ordered 'Amr ibn al-'As to invade Egypt and 'Amr did so successfully. That was attested by Al-Sharif al-Radi in his book Nahj al-Balagha. arguing that continuing civil war would embolden the Byzantines. In the meantime. Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr's rule resulted in widespread rebellion in Egypt. Ali's son Hasan ibn Ali signed a truce and retired to private life in Medina. as commander of the largest force in the Muslim Empire. to aid him in the governance and the centralization of the Caliphate and the empire.. which now spread from Egypt in the west to Iran in the east.clash vary ± however.[6] There are several conflicting accounts of the arbitrations. or the prophet. The governor of Egypt. both of which greatly improved communications within the empire. This policy also boosted his popularity and solidified Syria as his power base. had the strongest claim to the Caliphate. Muawiyah said later: "I never fought against Ali. At about the same time.

for he had begun the system of Mawalis (non-Arab converts to Islam who became clients of Arabs / token Arabs with their own taxation system and exclusion from certain jobs).the discriminatory treatment of non-Arab Muslims by the victorious Umayyad forces are documented by both Sunni and Shia sources as in the example below concerning Mu'awiya's commands to his governor Ziyad ibn Abih[10][11][12] Mu'awiyah. by appointing him to the Governorship of Syria . As far as possible they are to be given lesser pensions and lowly jobs."At the height of tension when fighting was about to erupt at Siffin between Imam Ali and Mu¶awiyah. 680. and slaves. He wrote to him. the then governor of Iraq. Umar had also rehabilitated Mu'awiya within the power structure of the Islamic state after his ostracisation during the time of Muhammad. Mu'awiya favoured his Arab subjects over non-Arab Muslims (the Mawalis) .' The Byzantine Emperor was scared off and abandoned his plans" However. or that . allegedly from a stroke brought on by his weight. [edit] Mu'awiya and Mawalis It was in the time of Umar that discrimination was made amongst Muslims on the basis of race. if you do not stop your designs and go back to your place. In accordance with the ways of Empire. but they have no right to marry Arab women. Umar had said that Mu'awiya would be the Caesar of the Arabs.[13] (The following is unclear as no specific hadith is mentioned)It has been argued that in the Arabic culture and language the expression is a colloquialism which means a wish that the person's belly be so full of blessings of Allah (in the form of food) that his belly cannot take anymore. wrote: Be watchful of Iranian Muslims and never treat them as equals of Arabs. a reference to his imperial ambitions.[9] This unpopular system was restored by Muawiya[citation needed]. [edit] Appearance and habits There are conflicting reports regarding his appearance. he was handsome and athletic and a proud horseman and warrior. but they cannot inherit from an Arab. However Mu'awiyah's attempt to start a dynasty failed because both Yazid and then his grandson Muawiya II died prematurely. According to certain sources. in a famous letter addressed to Ziyad ibn Abih.[8] Mu'awiyah died May 6. Arabs are entitled to inherit their legacy. through personal allegiances. giving him a very clear warning. gold. Mu'awiyah had held the expanding empire together by force of his personality. The caliphate eventually went to Marwan I a descendant of another branch of Mu'awiya's clan. other scholars contend that he simply placated the Byzantine emperor with offers of land. until I make the earth too tight for you.Syria became Muawiya's powerbase. Arabs have a right to take in marriage their women. in the style of a traditional Arab sheikh. Mu¶awiyah was informed that the Byzantine Emperor raised a very large army and was drawing very close to the borders of the Muslim state. He was succeeded by his son Yazid I. I will end my dispute with my cousin and will drive you out of the entire land you rule. 'By God.

this was a clear violation of the treaty he made with Hasan ibn Ali. by designating his son Yezid as his successor. a sadist and a hedonist. often cruelly murdering them.he wishes the persons blessings to be without an end. and though Ali defeated Muawiyah in battle Muawiya continued to raise the banner of war and civil strife against Ali's legitimate successor Al-Hassan. the Imam Nisa'i was murdered when he recited this Hadith in the presence of pro-Muawiya Arab-speaking Syrians as it was perceived as a curse of Mu'awiya. However. the two pre-eminent Masters of Sunni Hadith. According to Shi'a doctrine. while refusing to adopt the negativity of Shia sentiment to Muawiya nevertheless quietly withhold according him religious status owing to his rebellions against Ali and al-Hassan. and hence worthy of respect for this reason. and many Sunnis Muslims indeed revere him. in which Muawiyah said he would not make his son his successor. though the Byzantines drove him back and he was unable to hold any territory in Anatolia.[19] However other Sunni Muslims. he was the instigator of the civil war. taking great issue with the Shia criticism and vilification of him. He expanded the frontiers of the empire.[8] One of Muawiyah's most controversial and enduring legacies was his decision to designate his son Yazid as his successor. and developed a court to rival that of Constantinople. [edit] Legacy Mu'awiyah greatly beautified Damascus likening it to Rome. causing great bloodshed and slaying many highly regarded companions of Muhammad who took the side of Ali over many years. who are regarded as pious rulers. and weakened the Muslim nation and divided the Ummah. Finally Muawiyah transformed the caliphate from an elective monarchy with some emphasis on religious qualification into a hereditary one with no such stringent requirement. Shia Muslims charge that if anything.[15] Shias often question why there are no reliable precise accounts of Mu'awiya actually participating in any battles after his conversion to Islam . Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim. Muawiyah being regarded as a wordly king of dubious sincerity. This is similar to the English saying of a father saying to his son in a soccer match to "Break a leg". Sunni Muslims credit him with saving the fledgling Muslim nation from post civil war names of enemies he personally defeated in combat are known. and Imam Muslim indeed places the Hadith-e-Muawiya in the Chapter of those Cursed by Mohammad. have rejected absolutely the latter apology for Mu'awiya. Sunnis believe that the imperial legacy of Muawiyah was overshadowed by his materialistic ambition for personal power and materialistic dominion . which debases the unreferenced suggestion that the term was a form of praise and not condemnation.he fought against Ali. and in many accounts his beliefs hovered between polytheism and atheism[18] [edit] Sunni View Many Sunni historians view Muawiyah as a companion of Muhammad. . Yazid was regarded by many Muslims of the time as a moral degenerate. fabricating self-aggrandizing heresies[16] and slander against the Prophet's family[17] and even selling his Muslim critics into slavery in the Byzantine empire.[14] Further. reaching the very gates of Constantinople at one point. However.

Page 484. or mere hypocrisy.[26] and the Sahaba deemed his killer to be cursed[27]) and Abd alRahman bin Hasaan (buried alive for his support of Ali). ultimately found the egalitarian Shia creed more palatable than the oppressive.Muawiyah who was really the best of the two men said to him. His reign opened the door to unparalleled disaster. they say. Arab-supremacist tribal rule of Mu'awiya."[20] Sunni scholars interpret Hasan's willingness to abandon his claims in favor of Mu'awiyah as proof that Al-Hasan. A few historical figures killed by Mu'awiya include: the Sahaba Amr bin al-Hamiq. "Go to this man (i. Some Sunni Muslims say Hasan entered into the treaty simply to prevent further civil war and bloodshed. did not go so far as to view Muawiyah an apostate. renegade and hypocrite. and a number of Iran's greatest contributors to Persian literature . Muhammad's eldest grandson.[24] Hujr ibn Adi[25] (to which the families of Abu Bakr and Umar condemned Mu'awiyah for. whereas the Umayyads are remembered in Persian history for squashing them. Published by Aloom AlMuhammed. due to his lust for power. Ali was noted for upholding the rights of non-Arab Muslims.. who would be left with me for their children?" Then Muawiya sent two Quraishi men from the tribe of 'Abd-i-Shams called 'Abdur Rahman bin Sumura and Abdullah bin 'Amir bin Kuraiz to Al-Hasan saying to them. number B12 Shadbagh. 1 January 1963.e. the rightful Imam. who would be left with me for the jobs of the public. not Mu'awiyah. did so for the sake of peace and ending the civil war.. .[28] y Kokab wa Rifi Fazal-e-Ali Karam Allah Wajhu.both Shias like Ferdowsi and Sunnis like Sa'di .[21] and unlawful imprisonment of his supporters. [edit] Shi'a View The Shi'a view Mu'awiyah as a tyrant. Mu'awiya is alleged to have killed many of Muhammad's companions (Sahaba). marked by the persecution of Ali. His supposed conversion to Islam before the conquest of Mecca is dismissed as a fable. "O 'Amr! If these killed those and those killed these. Urdu translation by Syed Sharif Hussein Sherwani Sabzawari. who despite being ruled by Sunni Arabs and their vassals for centuries. thereby proving himself untrustworthy. who would be left with me for their women. Lahore. He was also widely regarded as a tyrant and usurper by both Shia Arabs and Persians. either in battle or by poison. usurper and murderer. By Syed Mohammed Subh-eKashaf AlTirmidhi.A Sunni hadith says: "." So. The Umayyads suppressed Persian culture and language. Al-Hasan.Muhammad ibn abu bakr[23] Malik al-Ashtar.[22] which only worsened when Yazid come into power and the Battle of Karbala ensued. Mu'awiya opposed Ali. Al-Hasan) and negotiate peace with him and talk and appeal to him. out of sheer greed for power and wealth.took the side of Ali. slaughtering of his followers. they went to Al-Hasan and talked and appealed to him to accept peace. Pro-Alid Sunnis also say as Shias do that Al-Hassan aimed to show the Muslim world that the Umayyads should not be entrusted with responsibility for protecting the religion founded by Al-Hassan's grandfather since Muawiya would violate all the terms of the treaty. He is also described as a manipulator and liar who usurped Islam purely for political and material gain..

by Agha Hashim Sialkoti. So he set out to reach them. April 1924/ 1346 H</ref> Mu'awiyah was also responsible for instigating the Battle of Siffin. the bloodiest battle in Islam's history. Hadoiqa Sanai. arguing such a practice would today be condemned by Sunni Muslims just as much as Shia Muslims.[30] This sort of act is widely regarded as blasphemy and desecration of God's word.] Then he [i. Mu'awiyah] was informed that Ubaidullah had two infant sons. but never verified.[and] he ordered to kill them. Page 65-67. Unfortunately he was unable to do this as he was fatally poisoned on Mu'awiyah's orders.[31] [.Pages 66±67 Tazkarah Tul-Aikram Tarikh-e-Khulafa Arab-Wa-Islam by Syed Shah Mohamed Kabir Abu Alalaiyi Dana Puri.they had two (tender) forelocks like pearls ."[29] When the tide of the battle was turning in Ali's favor. Published Le Kishwar Press. a frail old man of 95 at the time of his murder.000 people (among them many of the last surviving companions of the Prophet Muhammad) were killed. by Hakim Sanai (Died 525 Hijri. 1939 . Alama JarulAllah Zamik (530 Hijri). Imam Hasan ibn Ali did not sign the treaty with Mu'awiya because he liked him. he did so to prevent even worse bloodshed than had already happened at Siffin. Volume 1. Published Lahore. according to remour. and when he found them . at Ghazni). The killing of the two children of Ubaydullah ibn Abbas can also be found in Sunni and Shi'a texts. the Prophet's family (as per the terms of the treaty). Namoos Islam.y y y y Habib Alseer Rabiyah AlAbrar. Lakhnow..e.. in which over 70. Notable among the Companions who were killed by Mu'awiyah's forces was Ammar bin Yasir. ^ a b c History of Tabari . and Shia scholars condemn Mu'awiyah for it.[32] From the Shia point of view. Mu'awiyah stalled Ali's troops by raising the Qur'an on the tip of a bloody spear as a sort of "holy book shield" against attack by Muslims.[citation needed] [editSee also y Second Fitna [edit] References 1. rather. Shi'i Muslims see his being killed at the hands of Mu'awiyah's army as significant because of a wellknown hadith narrated by Abu Hurayrah in which the Prophet is recorded to have said: "Rejoice Ammar! The transgressing party shall kill you. Hasan's intention was to preserve the Muslim Ummah and eventually restore the Caliphate to its rightful heirs.

Al Wafat Al Ayan Imam. pg. o Hadoiqa Sanai. Volume IX. Tarikh Asim Kufi. by Agha Hashim Sialkoti. ^ "Tarikh e Qum". Book of those Cursed by Mohammad but were not deserving 642.answering-ansar. 4. ^ Nahj al-Balagha (3/648). The Last Years of the Prophet. 22. Volume 3 page 225 . under the biography of Nisa'i. o . death of Amro bin al-Hamiq al-Khazai. Volume 8 page 52 . ^ a b * Musharriful Mahbubin by Hazrat Khuwaja Mehboob Qasim Chishti Mushrrafi Qadri ra. 11. Alama JarulAllah Zamik (530 Hijri). ^ Leader of the Jundallah Movemement. ^ a b (Arabic) [1] ^ The History of al-Tabari. p32. Ibn Hisham. o Habib Alseer Rabiyah AlAbrar. 50 H.gif Pages 216-218 o Kokab wa Rifi Fazal-e-Ali Karam Allah Wajhu. Published Lahore. Tarikh Yaqubi. 3. Urdu translation by Syed Sharif Hussein Sherwani Sabzawari. 6. 19. Lahore. Page 484. by Hakim Sanai (Died 525 Hijri. Dar al Taqwa Ltd. 5. Albert. October 17. ^ Tarikh Tabri Volume 18 page 201 . o Namoos Islam. ^ http://www. p597 (Urdu) ^ The Early Caliphate. Volume 8 page 52. p254-6. A History of the Arab People 10. Published by Aloom AlMuhammed.ratedesi. SUNY Press ^ Life of Muhammad. volume 2 page 200. By Syed Mohammed Subh-e-Kashaf AlTirmidhi. ^ "Ansab al Ashraf" or "Futuh al-Buldan" by Baladhuri. Mu'awiyah: Restorer of the Muslim Faith. Al Bidayah wal Nihayah. Translation No. at Ghazni). 1 page 846.html 14. by Al-Sharif al-Radi 8. 1 January 1963. ^ http://www. Tarikh Ibn Asakir. item 867 21. section dealing with his murder 16. Volume 1 page 113. ^ http://www. April 1924/ 1346 H 9. Maulana Muhammad Ali. 2002. Volume 1. Al-Jadda Printers.php 18. Abd Al-Malek Al-Rigi: We Train Fighters in the Mountains and Send Them into Iran. 22. Busar bin Irtat.417. 1939 . 2008 20. 1983 ^ Aisha Bewley.php. ^ Muhammad Muhsin Khan "The Translation of the Meanings of Salih al-Bukhari. ^ IBn Khallikan. Page 65-67. volume 3" 1984 ISBN 81-7151-016-7.2. al Istiab. 169-206.php 17.Pages 66-67 Tazkarah Tul-Aikram Tarikh-e-Khulafa Arab-Wa-Islam by Syed Shah Mohamed Kabir Abu Alalaiyi Dana Puri. Dhikr Umro bin Hamiq.php/t-180678. ^ http://forums. ^ Hourani. 1 page 289. Chapter: Busar. Published Le Kishwar Press. p. Volume 1 page 49.answering-ansar. p82 12. page 308. al Isaba Volume. ^ al Bidaya wa al Nihaya. 7. pg. Asadul Ghaba. 13.answering-ansar. Topic: Busar bin Irtat. ^ "Tarikh-i Sistan". number B12 Shadbagh. ^ Sahih Muslim. Volume 2. Asad'ul Ghaba

Tarikh ibn Khaldun. page 64 Dhikr 58 Hijri. Tarikh ibn Asakir. Volume 3 page 13 Dhikr 51 Hijri. Volume 1 page 49. page 127 . Translation No. Chapter: Busar. Tarikh Taabari (English translation) Volume 18 pages 207-208 . English translation Volume 18 pages 144-146 . Volume 6 page 25 . Volume 3 page 468-470 Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi. Volume 8 page 55 . Mustadrak al Hakim. Tabaqat al Kubra. History of Tabari. al Isaba. ^ al Bidaya wa al Nihaya. Dhikr 50 Hijri. Tarikh ibn Asakir. Volume 8 page 52 . Shadharat ul Dhahab. Volume 3 page 249 Dhikr 51 Hijri. Volume 3 page 240 Dhikr 51 Hijri. Volume 2 page 219 26. Tarikh Tabari. Tarikh ibn Khaldun. ^ Sunan Tirmidhi. Asadul Ghaba. Volume 12 page 227 Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi. al Maarif. Volume 18 page 137 24. Amr bin al-Hamiq al-Khazai. Tabaqat al Kubra. Volume 3 page 12 . Volume 1 page 97. al Isaba. Volume 3 page 12 Dhikr 53 Hijri. ^ Bidayah wal Nihayah. Volume 3 page 194 Dhikr 40 Hijri. Asad'ul Ghaba Volume 1 page 213 Dhikr Busar. ^ al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya. Risala Abu Bakr 31. Volume 8 page 48. Volume 1 page 846. Volume 3 page 88 . Tarikh ibn Khaldun. ^ Qadhi Abi Bakar al-Arabi. Volume 3 page 420 . Volume 2 page 187. Shia: 21:6 Secrets of Mu'awiyah from Al-Amali: The Dictations of Sheikh al-Mufid 32. ^ Tadhirathul Khawwas. page 64 . page 166 Dhikr 51 Hijri. Muruj al Dhahab. Volume 1 page 244 Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi. Volume 8 page 53 Dhikr 51 Hijri. 5822 . ^ al Bidaya wa al Nihaya. Volume 3 page 12 . Tarikh al Islam by Dhahabi Volume 2 page 217 . Volume 6 page 213 25. History of Tabari. Volume 10 page 146 . Volume 1 page 363 . Volume 1 page 57 Dhikr 51 Hijri. ^ Sunni: Tarikh Kamil. page 355 Dhikr Hujr. Volume 3 page 30 . Tarikh Kamil. Tarikh Kamil. al Isaba. 27.23. Murujh al Dhahab. al Istiab. Volume 2 page 191 . Tarikh Islam by Dhahabi. al-Istiab. Muruj al Dhahab. Volume 3 page 179 . page 122 . Volume 18 page 151. Tarikh Kamil. Volume 4 page 623. page 186 Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi. Asad'ul Ghaba. Tarikh Kamil. Tabaqat al Kubra. Habib al Sayyar. al Istiab. 29. Volume 1 page 313 Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi. Volume 1 page 72 . Kanz al Ummal. ^ Shia: 21:6 Secrets of Mu'awiyah from Al-Amali: The Dictations of Sheikh al-Mufid Muawiyah I Banu Umayya Sunni Islam titlesPreceded by Hasan ibn AliIslam Caliph 661 ± 680Succeeded by Ibn Al-ZubayrRegnal titlesPreceded by noneUmayyad Caliph 661 ± 680Succeeded by Yazid IRegnal titlesPreceded by . Allamah Muhibuddin alKhateeb 28.ezsoftech. Volume 3 page 245 . Akhbar al Tawaal. 'Awasim min al Qawasim' p.341 . Hadith #3800 30. Tarikh Yaqubi. Tarikh ibn Khaldun. ^ http://www. Tarikh Abu'l Fida. Shadharath al Dhahab. Volume 6 page 217 Dhikr Hujr ibn Adi.

Please do not remove this message until the dispute is resolved. (November 2008) Please help improve this article by expanding it. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. Further information might be found on the talk page.683). search This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. WikiProject Islam or the Islam Portal may be able to help recruit one.Yazid ibn Abi SufyanGovernor of Al-Sham 640 ± 656under direct control of Muawiya I Yazid I From Wikipedia. (January 2008) The neutrality of this article is disputed. was the second Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate (and the first . (June 2009) Yazid I Caliphs of the Umayyad Caliphate Reign Full name Born Died Predecessor Successor Dynasty Father Mother 680 ± 683 Yaz d ibn Muµ w yati ibn Ab Sufy ni 645 683 Mu'awiya I Mu'awiya II Umayyad Mu'awiya I Maysun Yaz d ibn Muµ wiyata ibn Ab Sufy n Arabic: (July 23. 645 . commonly known as Yazid I. Please see the discussion on the talk page.

especially Shia Muslims. So Husayn had to cut short his plan and performed Umrah instead of Hajj. He first went to Makkah with an intention to perform Hajj. During this period. the Muslim forces suffered losses in North Africa. ruling for three years from 680 CE until his death in 683 CE. Husayn ibn Ali received many letters from the Kufans expressing their offer of support if he claimed the caliphate. Yazid asked Governors of all provinces to take the oath of allegiance to him. Muslims also saw the spoliation and profanation of the holy cities of Makkah and Madinah by the Yazidi army. a garrison town in what is now Iraq. They were also trying to restore Kufa's power against Damascus. the Umayyad capital. The period of Yazid's rule was a great disaster for the Muslims and his rule is still remembered by many. Contents [hide] y y y y y y y y 1 Oath of Allegiance of Yazid 2 Husayn ibn Ali and Ibn az-Zubair 3 Setbacks 4 Death 5 Sunni view of Yazid 6 Shi'a and Sunni view of Yazid 7 References 8 See also [edit] Oath of Allegiance of Yazid Muawiyah I was succeeded by his son Yazid I. had been Caliph µAl 's capital and many of his supporters lived there. As it was common in Arabia at those time. but Yazid considered him a threat to his rule and ordered his governor either to take oath from Husayn by any mean or execute him. . Kufa. He was living in Madina with his family. Husayn ibn Ali refused this demand and hence was pushed to a limit that he finally decided to leave Madina. His period witnessed the tragedy of Kerbala. their supremacy at sea was lost.hereditary one). The necessary oath was secured from all parts of the country except from Husain and Abdullah ibn Zubayr [1][2] [edit] Husayn ibn Ali and Ibn az-Zubair Main article: Battle of Karbala Main article: Ibn al-Zubair's revolt Husayn ibn Ali did not give his oath of allegiance to Yazid. But even at this holy place he couldn't do it with peace as Yazid conspired to kill him in the Kaaba during Hajj.

He ruled for 3 years. [edit] Sunni view of Yazid Main article: Sunni view of Yazid I Ahmad ibn Hanbal was reputedly asked by his son about Yazid . Yazid I was succeeded by his son Muawiyah II[6]. where he reached the Atlantic coast. Husayn departed towards Kufa despite many warnings and during the trip. At the same time Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad. the heartland of Islam. and then marched eastwards through the Atlas Mountains. Abdullah ibn Zubayr opposed Yazid's position as Caliph. and he is said to have replied with a reference to the Qur'an and said it was in reference to the murder of Husayn: .[3] From there Uqba marched on thousands of miles westward towards tangier.Abd-Allah ibn Abbas and Abdullah ibn Zubayr held a meeting with Husayn in Mecca to advise him to refuse to travel to Iraq. He launched an insurgency in the Hejaz. Uqba won battles against the Berbers and Byzantines. Yazid sent armies against him in 683. In 682 AD Yazid restored Uqba ibn Nafi as the governor of North Africa. he proceeded towards biskra where he was ambushed by a Berber force under kaisala. he and many members of his family were killed or captured at the Battle of Karbala. executed one of Husayn's messengers and then addressed the people and warned them to avoid the insurgency. Uqba and all his men died fighting. After the Battle of al-Harrah. The siege ended when Yazid died suddenly in 683 CE.[5] This was a major setback for the Muslims. and had to abandon the islands of Rhodes and Crete. Husayn corresponded with nobles of Basrah and asked them to support him.[4] With a cavalry of about 300 horsemen. because of this they lost supremacy at sea. Meanwhile. Medina was recaptured and Mecca was also besieged. the Kaµbah was damaged. The most prominent among these resistors was Abdullah ibn Zubayr. Major tribes of Basrah gathered and prepared for the fight against Yazid I. where Mecca and Medina are. The complications of Yazid's accession to the Caliphate didn't end there. [edit] Setbacks During the caliphate of Yazid Muslims suffered a great deal of setbacks. governor of Basrah. The berbers launched an attack and drove Muslims from north Africa for a period. Many Sahaba and fellow Muslims refused to give their oath of allegiance to Yazid simply because they saw it as usurpation of power and not the proper way of choosing a Caliph by the Shura or Council. [edit] Death Yazid I died at the age of 38. During the siege.

´[11] Abdul Mugheeth was also not in favor of cursing Yazid or declaring him to be a disbeliever. then we would have to ask. many Islamic scholars also believe that Yazid should not be cursed. by what evidence this conclusion was drawn that Yazid had no justice or knowledge. spread disorder in the land and sever your ties of Kinship? These are they whom God has cursed and made them deaf from the truth and made their eyes blind. it was said to him to curse Yazid bin Muawiyah. While most Sunni and Shi'i scholars consider Yazid to be a villain of Islamic history on account of his hatred towards the household of Muhammad.[9] y Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabi Maliki another scholar did not hold permissible the cursing and abusing of Yazid nor declaring him to be a disbeliever.[8] This First Arab siege of Constantinople was a naval assault lasting through the years 670-677. So on the day of Ashuraa he sat on the minbar to admonish the people. Abu Ayyub al-Ansari was also among the notables accompanying Yazid. a number of forces. He replied. do they not have any shame?´ ± meaning where are the evidences for these accusations. This journey marks an important event in the life of young Yazid (27 at that time). ³If it is said justice and knowledge are from the conditions of Caliphate and Yazid neither had justice nor knowledge. including one under Yazid attacked Constantinople.[Qur'an 47:22][7] y Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari records under the year 49 Hijri (or 669-670 CE) during the reign of Muawiyah I. rather he authored a biography of Yazid with the titles Fadhal Yazid and Fadhal Yazid bin Muawiyah .Do you then have the sign that if you get the authority.Ibn Kathir said about Abdu l-Mughith that. ³He was but an Imam Mujtahid. ³He was from the righteous Hanbali¶s who the common folk referred to.´[13] y Ibn Salah was also not in favor of cursing Yazid or saying he was a disbeliever. I have seen in his Fatwa that when he was asked concerning the individual who would only curse Yazid ³ ´ . ³Ibn Salah who is from our jurists and scholars of Hadith.[10] y y Abdul Mughith Hanbali has the unique distinction of being one of the earliest known biographers of Yazid .[12] Ibn Kathir reported on Allamah Abu l-Khayr Qazwini: ³After he left Qazwain he went to Baghdad where he became a teacher in Madrassa Nizamia and he would admonish and deliver lectures to the people. However Yazid was not in the first army that attacked constantinople and it was the 7th attack in which Yazid participated. the first attack being in 42 Hijri. Ibn Hajr the Meccan writes.´ [10] ³Where are those historians who wrote against Yazid in mentioning alcohol and open sinning.

222)) .(ref books: Minhaaj as-Sunnah anNabawiyyah Fee Naqdh Kalaam ash-Shee¶ah Wal-Qadariyyah (2/252).[17] however they differ on the definition. y Ibn Taymiyyah was neither in favor of cursing Yazid nor declaring him to be a disbeliever. and could also withhold their rights.. it was his father Mu'awiya[14] during the reign of Caliph Uthman [15] therefore this verse did not apply at all to Yazid. And the Hadith compiled by Bukhari states the first army to wage Jihad against Constantinople is forgiven and it is clear that their commander Yazid ibn Muawiyah was a member of this army and is included in this forgiveness. all Shia's believe that God commanded the Muslim community to have intense love (Al-Muwadata) and kindness for them. according to us Yazid ordering the death of Hussain is not a correct report and cursing and abusing Yazid is not the sign of a believer.[16] [edit] Shi'a and Sunni view of Yazid For Shi'a and Sunni Muslims.}} . al-Muntaqa alMinhaj al-I¶tidaal fi Naqdh Kalaam ar-Rafdh wa l-i¶tizaal (pg. this Hadith clearly did not refer to Yazid as he did not take part in the first battle of Constantinople[8]. All Muslims believe that God had purified the household of Muhammad (ahl al-bayt). Then in answer to this he said.´.. it is in this context that we can understand that he was the khalifah and king. Firstly: that he was an open sinner and an oppressor and therefore prove he really was an open sinner and an oppressor as allowing him to be cursed needs to be proven that he continued this open sinning and oppression to the end up until his death. show their stand on his nature even through Sunni texts: y Ibn Taymiyyah. In fact according to the scholar Ibn Khaldun Yazid was unwillingly to take part in the 1st 7 Jihads against Constantinople. and was eventually forced to attend the 8th by his father. as discussed above. However. He had the power to reward his subjects with the contents of the treasury. Secondly: Then after this they must prove that it is permissible to curse specific people like Yazid. . Issues such as ³ ´ . He had the power to punish criminals.290). "May the Curse of God be upon the oppressors" is a general verse like the verses concerning punishment.. Yazid is viewed as a tyrant for killing Husayn. and his family.. and the verse.{{quote³And the people who curse Yazid and other such people like him then it is upon them to bring evidence. while very vocal in their views towards Yazid.(as-Sawaa¶iq al-Meharqah (pg.[18] Shi'a scholars. Furthermore.because he ordered the death of Husayn. the grandson of Prophet Mohammad. a Sunni scholar stated the following concerning the nature of Yazid's position: ³Yazid had the sword and hence he had the power to deal with anyone that opposed him.

has stated the following regarding the manner in which Yazid came to power: ³The army that Yazid had sent to Madinah comprised of 60. he stated the following in his inaugural address with regards to his father and his grandfather (Muawiyah I).Yazid's piety or lack of it. listen to music. Muslim bin Uqba forced people to give allegiance to Yazid in such a manner that people were enslaved and Yazid could sell them as he pleased. bears and monkeys fight. kept dogs. no Sahaba who were [with the Prophet] at Hudaibiya were spared. sister and daughters. himself reports on the character of Yazid: ³Traditions inform us that Yazid loved worldly vices.´ ³ ´ [20] y Ibn Kathir a famously renowned Sunni Islamic scholar. kept the company of boys with no facial hair.´ ³ [22] ´ y After Yazid's death. Every morning he used be intoxicated.000 foot soldiers. ³Tabaqat Al-Kubra´ regarding the nature of Yazid: ³Abdullah bin Hanzala the Sahaba stated. or his honesty or lack of it. 'By Allah we opposed Yazid at the point when we feared that stones would reign down on us from the skies. 1000 women were raped and 700 named Quraysh and Ansar were killed. He was a Fasiq who copulated with his mother. there is no dispute amongst the people of Islam on this matter. as recorded by Ibn Hajr al-Haythami another scholar of the Ahl usSunnah: . an Indian Sunni scholar. is another matter.´ [19] y Shaykh al-hadith Muhammad Zakaria. Ten thousand women and children were made slaves. made frogs. when Muawiyah II (Yazid's son) was made to be the caliph. played drums. For three days they shed blood freely. would drink. In all of his actions Yazid was not just. writes in his book. and he used to bind monkeys with the saddle of a horse and make the horse run. who drank alcohol and did not offer Salaat.´ ³ [21] ´ y Ibn Sa'd.000 horsemen and 15. another Sunni scholar.

the curse of Allah.´ [Muawiyah II] then proceeded to cry. is the Islamic calendar date on which the Battle of Karbala occurred and is commemorated as a day of mourning by Shia Muslims around the world. and he is suffering in his grave for that. and set fire to the Ka'ba. as recorded by Ibn Kathir: ³Rasulullah said." [edit] References Yazid I Banu Umayya Regnal titles Preceded by Umayyad Caliph Succeeded by 680 ± 683 Muawiyah I Muawiyah II 1. My grandfather fought for khilafat against an individual who was more entitled to it. Husayn ibn Ali and is suffering in the grave on account of his sins. whoever perpetuates injustice and frightens the residents of Madinah. Leaders of the 1979 Iranian Revolution that overthrew the Pahlavi government frequently drew such comparisons. ³It is a terrible thing that we are fully aware of Yazid's bad deeds: he slaughtered the family of the Prophet. that being Ali.[24] ´ The events at Karbala figure as fundamental in Shi'a thought.³ When Yazid's son came to power he gave the speech: ³Khilafat is from Allah. Yazid is cursed even according to the definitions of Muhammad.´ ´ [23] y Although many Sunni Muslims are against the cursing of Yazid. He (Mu'awiya I) performed actions that you are all aware of. He fought the cousin of Rasulullah .´ ³ . Shi'as and sunnis around the world refer to Yazid as "the tyrant. ^ The arabs by philip k hitti 2. Then my father Yazid became the khalifah even though he was not deserving of khilafat. The 10th of Muharram (also known as Ashura). and many Islamist movements liken their causes to Husayn ibn Ali's struggle against Yazid. ^ History of Islam by Prof Masudul Hasan . he deemed alcohol Halal. Rituals on Ashura' usually involve public processions during which the Shi'as reject Yazid's caliphate and recite poems commemorating Husayn ibn Ali and his death. His Angels and all people is on such a person.

5 pg.8 pg. 31 December 2007) 10. 21. p48 15. ^ .(ref book: Au Khanar al Masalik vol. 2004. ^ a b al-Awasim Minal Qawasim (pg. 6. This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ The shade of swords: Jihad and the conflict between Islam and Christianity by M. Sowell. ^ Hidaayatul A¶arifin Asma' al-Mu¶allifeen Wa Athar Musannifin (5/623). a publication now in the public domain.450).132) 14. al-Bidayah Wan-Nihaayah (12/328) 13. Qadi Abu Ya'la in Mu'tamad al-Usool. ^ The Arab world: an illustrated history by Kirk H. ^ . p.1169) 22.66) 23. 434 Imam Barzanji in al-Isha'at.Masudul Hasan ^ The Empire of the Arabs by sir John Glubb ^ The History Of Arabs by Philip. ^ a b al-Bidaayah Wan-Nihaayah 9.1147) 3.(ref book: Minhaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah ) 20. p48 16.(ref book: Sawaiq al Muhriqa pg. '^ . ibn al-Jawzi 8. ^ (ref book: al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah vol. Risaalah al-Mustarfah Lee-Bayaan Mashoor Kitaab as-Sunnah al-Musharfah (pg. ^ [Quran chapter 33.(ref book: al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah vol.3 pg. ^ Zakir Naik (MUMBAI. ^ .org/wiki/Yazid_I" Categories: Umayyad caliphs | 645 births | 683 deaths | 7th-century caliphs Hidden categories: Islam articles needing expert attention | Articles needing expert attention from November 2008 | All articles needing expert attention | Articles to be expanded from January 2008 | All articles to be expanded | NPOV disputes from June 2009 | All NPOV disputes | Articles containing Arabic language text | Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica Views . 8.wikipedia. ^ al-Bidaayah Wan-Nihaayah (12/328) 12. [edit] See also y y y Battle of Karbala Umayyads Islamic empires Retrieved from "http://en. Akbar.^ History of the Arab by Philip k hitti ^ History of Islam by prof. ^ .134) 24. 5. ^ al-Bidaayah Wan-Nihaayah (9/13).8 pg. verse 23 19.K.222) 11. verse 33] 18.Hitti ^ Ibn Hajar Makki in al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqa page 333. ^ Tarikh Ibn Khaldun 17. Eleventh Edition.(ref book: Tabaqat Al-Kubra vol. 4. J. 2002. ^ Al-Qurba. Tafsir Mazhari v. Quran chapter 42. 7.

y y y y Article Discussion Edit this page History Personal tools y y Try Beta Log in / create account Navigation y y y y y Search Spec ial:Searc h Go Searc h Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Interaction y y y y y y Toolbox y y y y y y y About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Donate to Wikipedia Help What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Printable version Permanent link Cite this page Languages y y y Català Deutsch .

Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. Contact us Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Muawiya II From Wikipedia. Inc. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. a non-profit organization. additional terms may apply. search This article does not cite any references or sources. See Terms of Use for details. (December 2009) Muawiya II . the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Français Galego Bahasa Indonesia Italiano Kurdî / Magyar Bahasa Melayu Nederlands Polski Svenska Türkçe y y y y y y This page was last modified on 26 December 2009 at 04:28.

Contents [hide] y y y y y y y 1 Birth and early years 2 Accession 3 Personality and family 4 Government acts 5 Conflict with Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr 6 Shia view of his abdication and death 7 See also [edit] Birth and early years Muawiya II was born on the 28th March 661 and was the son of Yazid I of the Ummayyad dynasty and on his mother's side a descendent of the Quraysh tribe in the Hejaz. His mother's father. When Mu'awiya I became Caliph in 661.684) was an Umayyad caliph for about four months after the death of his father Yaz d. 661 .Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty Reign Full name Born Died Predecessor Successor Dynasty Father 683 ± 684 Mu' wiyah ibn Yaz d 661 684 Yazid I Marwan I Umayyad Yazid I Muawiyah II or Mu' wiyya ibn Yaz d ( . it is said that on his day of accession he heard the news that his son had given birth to a son. Abu Hashim ibn Utbah ibn Rabi'ah was appointed Governor of Basra and his mother married Yazid I in 660. The empire he inherited was in a state of disarray with Abdullah bin Zubayr claiming to be the true caliph and holding the Hejaz as well as other areas. The account is related in Al Nasab (890-949) in his History of the Wars: . out of six brothers and many (uncounted) daughters. Mu'awiya was the eldest son to be born.

"Surely this is a blessing from God and a sure sign. for they didn't know anything about him as he had been kept away in the home of the Caliphs. We shall become friends and allies again. For when there is war here. that the first who was given scholars and teachers of his own was Mu'awiya bin Yazid. This means Muawiya must have been born in 671 when Yazid I his father was 25 years old. Mu'awiya was the first prince of the Ummayyads to grow up entirely at the court of the Caliph. The latter war. Yazid I died soon afterwards in 683 and his son succeeded him. when Mu'awiyya declared that a truce would be made. even some supporting Ibn alZubayr. his grandfather had met with the Islamic Elders (i. [edit] Accession The accession of Mu'awiyya II was met first with indifference and trepidation by Muslims." And the child was named Mua'wiya in his honour. For I shall establish a dynasty that shall be well-remembered.e. Lewis Joseph in his article "Islamic Historiography during the Ummayyad period 661-750". He is said to have declared: For this is the City of God. He was the first to be given private scholars and teachers as is recorded in Al-Habah (854-905)'s Court of the Righteous Caliphs: It is said. of both East and the West. the Shura) and when he heard that he had a grandson he said. . and the angels scatter for protection. was even more unpopular. This growing unpopularity became worse with the campaigns against Husayn ibn Ali and Ibn alZubair. I shall not have blood shed here and there shall be no war. leading to the capture of Medina and the siege of Mecca. My son shall follow me. Fortunately for the Arab Empire. Mu'awiya II declared that the war in Medina and Mecca had been foolish and blasphemous and that the damage to the Ka'aba was sacrilege. The fact that Mu'awiya was not sent to Mecca and Medina was also unpopular with Muslims. there are earthquakes in heaven.At the same time as the birth (of Mua'wiya II). being kept there to protect him from potential assassins of both Husayn bin Ali and Ibn alZubair. For as is related by the scholars of the past. Yet. According to al-Tabari. if there is any. Muawiya II was 13 years old when he died. for it had ended the war in the Holy Places. the previous Caliphs had learnt with the companions as equals in the schools of the faith. that I am the true Caliph. and the community of the faithful shall be restored. grandson of that Mu'awiya who turned the Successors of the Prophet (may God protect him) into a dynasty of despots. But the followers of Ibn al-Zubayr urged the rebel to break the truce and declare war. nevertheless argues that this was a later tradition created at a time when the Ummayyad dynasty was facing extinction. it was met with almost universal acclamation. by many sources. and his son shall follow him. These words made him popular with those Muslims tired by war.

declaring that Medina and Mecca were sacred. Mu'awiya turned to domestic affairs. These laws were removed once he had died. to extend the power of the Caliphate. Mu'awiyya II's reign is usually passed over quickly. Yet it is said that his courtiers persuaded him to remain Caliph as he was kind and would do some virtuous deeds. and thus restore the non-hereditary traditions of the Caliphate. Once a truce had been made in 683. having two wives but he divorced both by 682 for providing no children. and as soon as Yazid had died. Mu'awiyya did but his wife died in 677. Yazid now forced him to marry a fourth wife in 683. afraid to fight. Some say they did this to prolong their own power or because it was ungrateful for Mu'awiya to give back the power given to him by God. He then married again in 678 and 680. that this is the news he dreaded for now he was Caliph and did not wish to be. Firstly. Mu'awiyya was even prepared to summon the Shura and call on them to choose a Caliph of their own. he said that the rights of women should be protected. a foreign princess. [edit] Conflict with Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr By the beginning of 684. [edit] Government acts Traditionally. and so easy to defeat.stating that the Caliph was a beardless boy and a coward. even when fighting continued and when the truce had obviously been broken in all but name. The caliph is portrayed as being weak-willed but with a good-nature. He rejected any attempts to launch an attack. perhaps with justification. Yet the truce held officially for many months. though there was sporadic fighting in Mecca. not all of them true. Many stories have been written in the sources of Mu'awiyya's weak but good-willed nature. secondly that no man should be put to death because of a crime. Mu'awiya is shown to have had no interest in politics. He did not involve himself for many months with Zubayr. Muawiya II reigned only 40 days before he died. the problem of Ibn al-Zubayr had worsened. she was divorced. and thirdly that the charity tax should be made compulsory. The marriage of Mu'awiyya was deemed contentious and problematic. and Mu'awiya was forced to turn his attention back to southern Arabia. .His grandfather Mu'awiyya I wished him to marry into another tribe and thus strengthen the power of the dynasty. He is said to have declared when news came of his father's death. It is said that Mu'awiyya despised this woman. This. Mu'awiyya passed three laws which he said were necessary. According to al-Tabari. He is said to have claimed that only by mistake of the hereditary principle was he Caliph and under no other means would he have ever been chosen. [edit] Personality and family In the primary sources and modern histories.

. Mu'awiya declared he would abdicate. When a farewell feast was held. that Ibn al-Zubayr could be his heir.. Two weeks before his death. in the East and the West. [edit] Shia view of his abdication and death In June 684. It is recorded that Zubayr knew of this but he was unfairly blamed by the successor Marwan. By this they mean that he considered his forefathers to be the murderers of the Ahl ul-Bayt (the household of prophet Muhammad). According to Al Nasab (890-949): When news of this came. Mu'awiya wept openly. for though the Caliph had no sons... "I shall not be a nursemaid"." [edit] See also y Battle of Karbala Muawiya II Banu Umayya Regnal titles Preceded by Umayyad Caliph Succeeded by 683 ± 684 Yazid I Marwan I . "Oh. Another source. Shia Muslims believe that he converted to Shi'ism and abdicated.... The embassy was imprisoned and Ibn al-Zubayr continued the conflict. his cousin was eager to be Caliph.Instead he sent an embassy to Ibn al-Zubayr and declared that as he himself had no son.. if his life be spared. saying he would rather lose his life than have many lose their lives for him in a civil war. Zubayr rejected this for he knew that Mu'awiya was young and could have many children. by saying that he could "smell the blood of Ahl ul-Bayt" from the throne. the fragments of Al-Nisba (800-845?) records a tradition: "When his courtiers heard he intended to abdicate as soon as Ibn al-Zubayr had entered the city. and Mu'awiyya died from the poison... they were struck by fear for they knew they would die. Three times three they pleaded with the Caliph to be strong but he rejected their pleas. So a conspiracy was made. Mu'awiyya abdicated.. I shall not preside over civil war!" And he sent another embassy saying that he would abdicate and make Ibn al-Zubayr Caliph. Ibn al-Zubayr is said to have answered. It is generally believed that he abdicated and died a month later. and in Heaven! I shall not be remembered as a Caliph with blood on my hands. that there should be peace in the Holy Places. It seems this embassy was rejected as well. (fragmentary).." Categories: Umayyad caliphs | 661 births | 684 deaths | 7th-century caliphs Hidden categories: Articles lacking sources from December 2009 | All articles lacking sources | Articles containing Arabic language text Views y y y y Article Discussion Edit this page History Personal tools y y Try Beta Log in / create account Navigation y y y y y Search Spec i l S earc h Go Searc h Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Interaction y y y y y y Toolbox y y y y y y ¡  About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Donate to Wikipedia Help What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Printable version Permanent link .Retrieved from "http://en.

. Contact us Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Marwan I From Wikipedia. Inc.y Cite this page Languages y y y y y y y y y y y y y Català Deutsch Français Galego Bahasa Indonesia Magyar Bahasa Melayu Türkçe y y y y y y This page was last modified on 16 December 2009 at 23:26. a non-profit organization. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. search Marwan I Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty . Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.

Marwan was able to win the Umayyad civil war. resulting in his death. Egypt and parts of Syria. During the "Battle of the Camel" Marwan ibn al-Hakam is said to have shot his general Talha with an arrow to the thigh. Marwan killed Talha in revenge for Talha's alleged betrayal of the third Caliph Uthman: He was removed from this position by Ali.685) (Arabic: ) was the fourth Umayyad Caliph. He was also able to recapture Egypt and Syria from Abdullah. From here. 685 Muawiya II Abd al-Malik Umayyad Hakam ibn Wa'il Marwan ibn al-Hakam (623 . who took over the dynasty after Muawiya II abdicated in 684. Hakam was a first cousin of Uthman ibn Affan. Marwan went to Damascus. only to be reappointed by Muawiya I. Marwan was eventually removed from the city when Abdullah ibn Zubayr rebelled against Yazid I. 623 May 7. the result of which was a new Marwanid line of Umayyad caliphs. Iraq.Reign Full name Born Died Predecessor Successor Dynasty Father 684 ± 685 Marwan ibn al-Hakam March 28. but was not able to completely defeat him. Shi'a hold that none of the Umayyad caliphs were legitimate. See Succession to Muhammad for more details. both of whom were grandsons of Umayya (for whom the Umayyad dynasty is named). Marwan's ascension pointed to a shift in the lineage of the Umayyad dynasty from descendants of Abu Sufyan to those of Hakam. where he was made the caliph after Muawiya II abdicated. Marwan I Banu Umayya Regnal titles Preceded by Umayyad Caliph Succeeded by 684 ± 685 Muawiyah II Abd al-Malik [edit] References . Marwan's short reign was marked by a civil war among the Umayyads as well as a war against Abdullah ibn Zubayr who continued to rule over the Hejaz.

and for the first time a special currency for the Muslim world was minted. Abd al-Malik was a well-educated man and capable ruler. search For other uses. .wikipedia. He followed in the footsteps of `Umar Ibn Al-Khattab. despite the many political problems that impeded his rule. which led to war with the Byzantine Empire under Justinian II. Ibn Khaldun states: ³Abdul Malik Ibn Marwan is one of the greatest Arab and Muslim Retrieved from "http://en. in regulating state affairs.[edit] External links y http://www. He was born in Mecca and grew up in Medinah ( both are cities in modern day Saudi Arabia ).´ In his reign. Abd al-Malik Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty Reign Full name Born Died Predecessor Successor Dynasty Father 685 ± 705 Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan 646 Mecca 705 Marwan I Al-Walid I Umayyad Marwan I Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (646-705) (Arabic: ) was the 5th Umayyad" Categories: Umayyad caliphs | 623 births | 685 deaths | 7th-century caliphs Hidden categories: Articles containing Arabic language text Abd al-Malik From Wikipedia. The Islamic currency was then made the only currency exchange in the Muslim world. see Abd al-Malik (disambiguation). the Commander of the Believers.dartabligh. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. The Byzantines were led by Leontios at the Battle of Sebastopolis in 692 in Asia Minor and were decisively defeated by the Caliph after the defection of a large contingent of Slavs. all important records were translated into Arabic.

Abd al-malik was a capable ruler. he sent a courier to ask Abd al-Malik for reinforcements and also for permission to take Mecca by force. Hajjaj. and organized a regular postal service[1]. among them two of Abdullah Ibn al-Zubair 's sons. He advanced unopposed as far as his native Taif. quelled religious disturbances. Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr with a few loyal followers. Hajjaj first defeated the governor of Basra and then led his forces into Hejaz. including his youngest son. where Ibn Zubayr was killed . including the rebellion launched by Salih ibn Musarrih and continued after Salih's death by Shabib. and thereupon bombarded the Holy City using catapults from the mountain of Abu Qubays. These rebels repeatedly defeated more . The bombardment continued during the Pilgrimage or Hajj. Within a few years. After the siege had lasted for seven months and 10. he dispatched armies. but on no account to let the affair result in bloodshed in the Holy City. which he took without any fighting and used as a base. had gone over to al-Hajjaj.Also. if the opposition continued. He received both. to starve him out by siege. Hajjaj arrived when there were many deserters in Basra and Kufa. on a campaign to reassert Umayyad control over the Islamic empire.ending his short claim to the caliphate.The Siege of Mecca in 692CE started with Hajjaj at the head of about 12000 (most of those 12000 men were natives of Arabia but settled earlier in Syria) he set out against Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr. but. the caliph of Hejaz at Mecca.000 men. Contents [hide] y y y y y y y 1 Campaigns in Iraq and Hejaz 2 Campaigns in North Africa 3 Reforms 4 Art and Architecture 5 Death 6 References 7 Bibliography [edit] Campaigns in Iraq and Hejaz Abd al-Malik became caliph after the death of his father Marwan I in 685. after years of serious fighting. many reforms happened in his time as regards agriculture and commerce. He promptly and forcefully impelled them to return to combat. who consolidated Muslim rule and extended it. Since the negotiations failed and al-Hajjaj lost patience. were killed in the fighting around the Kaaba (Jumadah I 73/October 692) Hajjaj's success led Abd al-Malik to assign him the role of governor of Iraq and give him free rein in the territories he controlled. The caliph had charged him first to negotiate with Abd-Allah ibn alZubayr and to assure him of freedom from punishment if he capitulated. under al-Hajjaj bin Yousef. made Arabic the state language.

on the Qairawan plain. A Byzantine fleet arrived.Now with a large army and the support of the settled population of North Africa. He pacified much of North Africa. in 702 Abd al-Malik strongly reinforced him. expansion and reorganization of postal service. He decisively defeated the Zenata in a battle at Tabarka. repairing the damaged Kaaba and beginning the tradition of weaving a silk cover for the Kaaba in Damascus. Hasan met trouble from the Zenata tribe of Berbers under al-Kahina. again achieved through Abd al-Malik's dispatch of Syrian reinforcements to Hajjaj. Around 705 Musa ibn Nusayr replaced Hasan. However. Abd al-Rahman rebelled following Hajjaj's repeated orders to push further into the lands of Zundil. and re-took Ifriqiya and its capital Kairouan. After his defeat in Iraq. [edit] Art and Architecture He also built the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. Later. These victories paved the way for greater expansions under Abd al-Malik's son Al-marvan. The Byzantines withdrew from all of Africa except Ceuta. In Maghreb (western North Africa) in 686 CE a force led by Zuhayr ibn Qais won the Battle of Mamma over Byzantines and Berbers led by Kusaila. Arab armies put down the revolt of Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn al-Ash'ath in Iraq from 699 to 701 CE. In 695 Hasan ibn al-Nu'man captured Carthage and advanced into the Atlas Mountains. Abd al-Malik's Syrian reinforcements enabled Hajjaj to turn the tide. Abd ar Rahman died and Zundil sent his head to Hajjaj who sent it to Abd al-Malik. They inflicted a serious defeat on him and drove him back to Barqa. instituting a mint that produced a uniform set of aniconic currency. though he failed to take Ceuta. Abd ar Rahman returned east. and also took most of Turkestan. Hasan pushed forward. However. The Muslim scholar al-Wasiti reports this incidence: . [edit] Campaigns in North Africa Caliph Abd al-Malik was effective in increasing the size of the empire. retook Carthage but in 698 Hasan ibn al-Nu'man returned and defeated Tiberios III at the Battle of Carthage. 85 miles west of Carthage. [edit] Reforms Abd al-Malik instituted many reforms such as: making Arabic the official language of government across the entire empire. Under Hajjaj. There one city closed its gates to him and in another he was seized.numerous forces and at their height entered Kufah. He then developed the village of Tunis ten miles from the destroyed Carthage. However. Zundil's army arrived and secured his release. but parts of that city were also destroyed when Abd al-Malik's armies put down an uprising there.

it was marked for him in the sahn of the masjid. but they declined. He offered the money to them as a reward. so enchantingly fair. "May Allah permit the completion of this enterprise.Dome of the Rock. al-Maqdisi reported that seven times the revenue of Egypt was used to build the Dome. In his Book of the Geography. But before he starts he wants to know his subjects' opinion. a Jerusalemite." With their approval. He wrote. He then ordered the building of the treasury (bayt al-mal) to the east of the Rock. as are the Church of the Holy ´ ." They wrote him that a hundred thousand dinars was left from the budget he allocated. So. and may He count the building of the dome and the masjid a good deed for Abd al-Malik and his predecessors. Abd al-Malik orders the gold coins to be melted and cast on the Dome's exterior. They said to him "There is nothing in the building that leaves room for criticism. they wrote to Abd al-Malik to inform him that they had completed the construction of the dome and al-Masjid al-Aqsa. Verily he was right. indicating that they had already been generously compensated." He then gathered craftsmen from all his dominions and asked them to provide him with the description and form of the planned dome before he engaged in its construction. and he was prompted to a worthy work. the deputies wrote back. He then returned to Damascus. During a discussion with his uncle on why the Caliph spent lavishly on building the mosques in Jerusalem and Damascus. which is on the edge of the Rock. and he noted there are beautiful churches still belonging to them. and Raja' ibn Hayweh. and filled it with money. he came from Damascus to Jerusalem. "Abd al-Malik intends to build a dome (qubba) over the Rock to house the Muslims from cold and heat. al-Maqdisi writes: ³ O my little son. which at the time had a strong glitter that no eye could look straight at it. and to construct the masjid.[2][3] ´ The two engineers Yazid ibn Salam. from Baysan. thou has no understanding. were ordered to spend generously on the construction. When the two men satisfactorily completed the house. He then appointed Raja' ibn Hayweh and Yazid ibn Salam to supervise the construction and ordered them to spend generously on its construction. and so renowned for their splendour. Constructed by Abd al-Malik ³ When Abd al-Malik intended to construct the Dome of the Rock. For he beheld Syria to be a country that had long been occupied by the Christians.

SUNY. Essays in Honor of Oleg Grabar. 66-75. 1967) pp." transl. The Dome of the Rock Rvisited: Some Remarks on al-Wasiti's Accounts. 1990. Abd al-Malik then had his sons al-Walid and Sulayman. Michael Fishbein.[4] [edit] Death The last years of his reign were generally peaceful. in that order.Sepulchre. London. Abd al-Aziz died before Abd al-Malik. pp. pp. Albany." transl. 2nd ed. and the churches of Lydda and Edessa.Gunebam 2. 3. John Bagot Glubb The Empire of the Arabs. In the event. Abd al-Malik wanted his son al-Walid I to succeed him. 21 "The Victory of the Marwanids. [edit] References 1. 23 "The Zenith of the Marwanid House. Everett K. 10. Abd al-Malik accepted advice not to create disturbances by carrying out this design. 80-81. ^ Nasser Rabbat. Muqaranas. To history. ^ Shams al-Din al-Maqdisi. Hodder and Stoughton. So he sought to build for the Muslims a mosque that should be unique and a wonder to the world. 1989. ignoring his father's decree that Abd al-Malik should be succeeded by his brother.22 "The Marwanid Restoration. 1993 4. 159-171. And in like manner is it not evident that Caliph Abd al-Malik. SUNY. SUNY. 1990. Vol. ^ Classical Islam G. (Leiden. Abd al-Malik is known as the "Father of Kings": his four sons succeded him as the caliph one after another[5]. Rowson. Ahsan al-Taqasim fi Mar'rifat al-Aqalim. seeing the greatness of the martyrium of the Holy Sepulchre and its magnificence was moved lest it should dazzle the minds of Muslims and hence erected above the Rock the dome which is now seen there. accepted as heirs to the throne. History of Islam [edit] Bibliography y y Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari v. Fada'il Bayt al-Maqdis. 5. Martin Hinds. ^ Masudul Hasa. ^ Abu-Bakr al-Wasiti. v. However. vol 136. Abd al-Aziz. v. Albany. Albany." transl. 1963 Abd al-Malik Banu Umayya Sunni Islam titles Preceded by Ibn Al-Zubayr Islam Caliph 692 ± 705 Succeeded by Al-Walid I .

search This article relies largely or entirely upon a single source.wikipedia. the free encyclopedia Jump to:" Categories: Umayyad caliphs | Tabiµun | 646 births | 705 deaths | 7th-century caliphs | 8thcentury caliphs Hidden categories: Articles containing Arabic language text Al-Walid I From Wikipedia.Regnal titles Preceded by Marwan I Umayyad Caliph 685 ± 705 Succeeded by Al-Walid I Retrieved from "http://en. (November 2008) Al-Walid I Reign Full name Born Died Predecessor Successor Royal House Dynasty Father 705 ± 715 Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik 668 715 Abd al-Malik Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik Banu Abd Shams Umayyad Abd al-Malik . Please help improve this article by introducing appropriate citations of additional sources.

He continued the expansion of the Islamic empire that was sparked by his father. and was an effective ruler. Al-Walid also began the first great buiilding projects of Islam.715. the caliphate empire stretched from Spain to India. however. particularly since Islam was so closely connected with being Arab. they were stopped in their expansion into Europe south of Tours. the Visigoths of Spain had been defeated and Spain was under Muslim control. in 711. Al-Walid I (705-715 AD/86-96 AH). Expansion under the Prophet Mohammad. His father Abd al-Malik had taken the oath of allegiance for Walid I during his lifetime [1]. many people did convert for religious and non-religious reasons. of course. since non-believers had to pay an extra tax and were not technically citizens. it was this tactic that supported the ultimate expansion to Spain. it was a tribal identity based on kinship and descent. France). 632-661 Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate. He reconquered parts of Egypt from the Byzantine Empire and moved on into Carthage and across to the west of North Africa. It was also Al-Walid that coupled islamicization with arabicization.715) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 705 . began the Islamic conquests and took the early Islamic empire to its farthest extents. artists and writers begin to develop a new.[unreliable source?].The Arab Empire in its greatest extent. the most famous of which is the mosque at Damascus. Being Arab. however. As more and more Muslims were non-Arabs. With the caliph as a patron. partly secular culture based on Islamic ideas. AlHajjaj bin Yousef played a crucial role in the organization and selection of military commanders. Islamic armies made it as far as the Indus River in 710²under Al-Walid. was more than an ethnic identity. His reign was marked by endless successions of conquests east and west. 661-750 Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (Arabic: ) or Al-Walid I (668 . By 716. building the strongest navy in Ummayad era. This would be the farthest extent of Islamic control of Europe (in 736. Then. Muslim armies crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and began to conquer Spain using North African Berber armies. The long history of Islamic architecture really begins with al-Walid. His reign is considered as the apex of Islamic power. Conversion was not forced on conquered peoples. This is also the period. the status of Arabs and their culture . As such the succession of AlWalid I was not contested. Al-Walid paid great attention to the expansion of an organized military. This created several problems. in which Islamic court culture begins to germinate. 622-632 Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate. In the east.

al-Walid instituted Arabic as the only official language of the empire. 23) Al-Tabari records how al-Hajjaj tortured Yazid ibn al-Muhallab. 23. Yazid escaped and made his way to al-Walid's brother Suleiman ibn Abd al-Malik who granted him refuge. and was well known from his own successful campaign against Ibn Zubayr during the reign of Al-Walid's father. The name "Valladolid" is linked with the Arabic name for the city meaning The City of Al. educational institutions and measures for the appreciation of art. He decreed that all administration was to be done only in Arabic. Like his father. AlWalid accepted this and told al-Hajjaj to desist. In particular. advanced against the Byzantines and into Adharbayjan. Valladolid is an industrial city and it is a municipality in north-central Spain. years of this reign. such as al-Walid's brother Salamah.Walid. therefore is part of the historical region of Castile. Suleiman had his own son approach al-Walid chained to Yazid and speak in favour of Yazid's safety. led forces extending the caliphate to the east. large numbers of Coptic-speaking (Egypt) and Persianspeaking Muslims threatened the primacy of the very language that Islam is based on. . Musa ibn Nusayr and his retainer Tariq ibn Ziyad conquered Al-Andalus. In part to alleviate that threat. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari describes how Qutaibah bin Muslim. It was this move that would cement the primacy of Arabic language and culture in the Islamic world. Al-Hajjaj pressed al-Walid about this and al-Walid commanded Suleiman to send him Yazid in chains. It is the capital of the province of Valladolid and of the autonomous community of Castile and Leon. (v. and his trust in AlHajjaj paid off with the successful conquests of Transoxiana and Sindh. p. Qutaibah campaigned in most. (v. Al-Walid continued to allow Al-Hajjaj bin Yousef free rein. conquering Samarqand.became threatened. advancing into Farghana and sending envoys to China. Khurasan's governor. he developed a welfare system. 156f) Umayyad Mosque built by Al-Walid Al-Walid himself continued the effective rule that was characteristic of his father. if not all. upon the Rio Pisuerga and within the Ribera del Duero region. built hospitals. Others. Al-Hajjaj was responsible for picking the generals who led the successful eastern campaigns.

[73] It was under Umayyad rule of Al-Walid and his father Abd al-Malik that Christians and Jews were granted the official title of "Peoples of the Book" to underline the common monotheistic roots they shared with Islam. The head was supposedly found during the excavations for the building of the mosque. he demolished the Christian Basilica of St. is one of the largest and oldest mosques in the world. He also improved mountain passes and wells in Hijaz (al-Tabari v." . honoured as a prophet by Muslims and Christians alike. In addition. The Grand Mosque of Damascus. Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan ordered that the Dome of the Rock be built on the site where the Islamic Prophet Muhammad begun his journey to heaven (Meraj) on the Temple Mount. John the Baptist to build a great mosque. transl. it is of great architectural importance. 144). primarily to visit the relics of John the Baptist. In an article titled ³Syria: Crossroads of the Levant´. Richard Moore reports that ³the highlight to the Old City was the Umayyad Mosque. p. Al-Walid himself was an enthusiast of architecture and he repaired and refurbished Masjid al Nabawi in Medina.Dome of the Rock built by Walid In 691. also known as the Umayyad Mosque (Arabic: . The tomb of Saladin stands in a small garden adjoining the north wall of the mosque. The mosque holds a shrine which is said to contain the head of John the Baptist. featured on Syria¶s Ministry of Tourism website [1]. Located in one of the holiest sites in the old city of Damascus. About a decade afterward. It was the first time a pope paid a visit to a mosque. m' Ban 'Umayyah al-Kab r). Caliph Al-Walid I ordered the building of Al-Aqsa Mosque. now known as the Great Mosque of Damascus or simply the Umayyad Mosque (John the Baptist is considered a Prophet of Islam and is known as Yahya). 23. In 2001 Pope John Paul II visited the mosque.

Al-Walid was succeeded by his brother Suleiman. and many stories tell of his continual reciting of the Qur'an and the large feasts he hosted for those fasting during Ramadan.Initially. but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. as the building was shared by Muslim and Christian worshippers. (April 2009)" Categories: Umayyad caliphs | 668 births | 715 deaths | 8th-century caliphs Hidden categories: Articles lacking reliable references from November 2008 | All articles lacking sources | Articles containing Arabic language text | All articles lacking reliable references | Articles lacking reliable references from September 2009 | Articles lacking in-text citations from April 2009 | All articles lacking in-text citations Views y y y y Article Discussion Edit this page History . Albany. Al-Walid I himself initiated the demolition by driving a golden spike into the church. SUNY. It remained a church although the Muslims built a mud brick structure against the southern wall so that they could pray. v. Martin Hinds. related reading or external links. however. [edit] Bibliography Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari.wikipedia. According to the legend. At that point in time. He was also known for his own personal piety. 1990 [edit] References This article includes a list of references. the Muslim conquest of Damascus in 636 did not affect the church. the church was demolished and between 706 and 715 the current mosque built in its place. 23 "The Zenith of the Marwanid House. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. Under the Umayyad caliph Al-Walid I." transl. ^ Muhammad and conquests of Islam by Francesco Gabreili Preceded by Abd al-Malik Caliph 705±715 Succeeded by Suleiman Retrieved from "http://en. Damascus was one of the most important cities in the Middle East and would later become the capital of the Umayyad caliphate. He was married to Umm Banin bint Abdul Aziz ibn Marwan ibn Hakam.

Personal tools y y Try Beta Log in / create account Navigation y y y y y Search Spec ial:Searc h Go Searc h Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Interaction y y y y y y Toolbox y y y y y y y About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Donate to Wikipedia Help What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Printable version Permanent link Cite this page Languages y y y y y y y y Català Deutsch Español Français Galego Bahasa Indonesia .

the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Suleiman of Umayyad) Jump to: navigation. See Terms of Use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. a non-profit organization. Inc..y y y y y y y y y y y y Italiano Magyar Bahasa Melayu Nederlands Polski Türkçe y y y y y y This page was last modified on 18 November 2009 at 07:03. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. additional terms may apply. search Sulayman Reign Full name Born Died Predecessor Successor 715 ± 717 Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik 674 717 Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz . Contact us Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik From Wikipedia.

Royal House Dynasty Father Banu Abd Shams Umayyad Abd al-Malik Part of a series on .VODP Beliefs Allah · Oneness of God Muhammad · Other prophets Practices Profession of faith · Prayer Fasting · Charity · Pilgrimage Texts and laws Qur'an · Sunnah · Hadith Fiqh · Sharia · Kalam · Sufism History and leadership Timeline · Spread of Islam Ahl al-Bayt · Sahaba Sunni · Shi'a Rashidun · Caliphate Imamate Culture and society .

Academics · Animals · Art Calendar · Children Demographics · Festivals Mosques · Philosophy Science · Women Politics · Dawah Islam and other religions Christianity · Judaism Hinduism · Sikhism · Jainism See also Criticism · Islamophobia Glossary of Islamic terms Islam portal v‡d‡e Sulayman bin Abd al-Malik (Arabic: . c.717) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 715 until 717. Contents [hide] y y y y y y y 1 Early years 2 Assumption of power as caliph and his appointments 3 Policies as caliph 4 Naming of his successor 5 Death 6 References 7 Sources [edit] Early years . al-Walid I. and he was a younger brother of the previous caliph. 674 . His father was Abd al-Malik.

with Qutaibah's renunciation of allegiance to Sulayman. he had wells built in Mecca for pilgrims. but rather he remained in Ramla in Palestine. if the envoy saw Sulayman favouring Yazid. Salih was also instructed to arrest and execute the family of al-Hajjaj. He appointed Yazid ibn al-Muhallab governor of Mesopotamia (Iraq) and Salih ibn Abd al-Rahman financial administrator there. finally. In the tribal politics of the Near East at that time he allied himself to the Yamani grouping. Yazid was happy to escape the financial strictness of Salih ibn Abd al-Rahman in Mesopotamia (Iraq). one of two prominent leaders (the other was Qutaibah bin Muslim} who had supported the succession of al-Walid's son Yazid. killed him and sent his head to Sulayman[1] Sulayman appointed Yazid ibn al-Muhallab governor of Khurasan. Qutaibah had already attempted to rebel. Al-Hajjaj pressed al-Walid about this and the caliph commanded Sulayman to send him Yazid in chains. In the domestic scene. the day al-Walid died. and organized enforcement of prayers. Sulayman also sent a large army under Maslama ibn Abdul-Malik to attack the Byzantine capital. [edit] Naming of his successor . When Yazid ibn al-Muhallab escaped from al-Hajjaj. Al-Hajjaj had predeceased al-Walid. Suleiman did not move to Damascus on becoming Caliph. Sulayman granted him refuge. This was a determined attack that lasted through the winter. 715. The caliph's armies also advanced beyond Byzantine territory and took a Slavic stronghold[2]. His Khurasani governor Yazid continued expansion into mountainous parts of Iran such as Tabaristan. Al-Walid accepted this and so informed al-Hajjaj. It ultimately proved to be unsuccessful. urging Sulayman not to replace Qutaibah as governor of Khurasan with Yazid ibn al-Muhallab and. Qutaibah's troops rejected his appeal to revolt. rather than Sulayman. [edit] Policies as caliph As he remained close to the Yamanis. Suleiman was known for his exceptional oratory skills and was fondly remembered[3]. Qutaibah was considerably alarmed at the ascension of Sulayman to the throne. He first sent an envoy to the caliph with letters asserting his loyalty as he was loyal to previous caliphs. he made his way to Sulayman in Palestine. The siege of Constantinople occasioned hunger inside the city and among the besiegers.Under the rule of his brother al-walid ( ) he had been the governor of Palestine. Sulayman had his own son chained to Yazid approach al-Walid and present Sulayman's forcefully written letter insisting on sanctuary for Yazid. so he was no longer alive to pose a threat. However. Constantinople. [edit] Assumption of power as caliph and his appointments Sulayman was hailed as caliph on February 23. Sulayman sent the envoy back with a confirmation of Qutaibah's governorship. Suleiman was on his way to attack the Byzantine border when he died in 717.

[edit] Death Sulayman donned an impressive green robe and turban and seeing himself in the mirror commented on how he looked to be in the prime of life. p. Political Thought of Ibn Taymiya (1st ed. transl. Umar had a reputation as being one of the most wise. he passed these over. page 169 5. 4. 717. ^ Ibn Hazm.H. and he asked. al-Tabari v.).. Suny. Bassam (in Arabic). p. ^ v. 42 ^ al-Tabari v. transl. "How do you like what you see?" She recited: You are the best object of delight--if only you would last. 3. head 30 ^ al-Tabari v. v./ But man does not possess immortality. [edit] References 1. 24 p. 24. Amman: Yaqut. capable and pious persons of that era. 63 [edit] Sources Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. 62 ^ Atyya. Al-Tabari[6] records the following anecdote: "According to 'Ali--Suhaym b. 24 The Empire in Transition.In A. 24 pp 5±25. I do not know of any blemish in you/ that other people have. Albany." Categories: 674 births | 717 deaths | Umayyad caliphs | 8th-century caliphs . 23 The Zenith of the Marwanid House. page 28 6. He died on either September 22 or October 1. A week later he was dead. However. Martin Hinds.wikipedia. Suny. Al-fasl fil al-Milal wal-Nihal (in Arabic). p. although it technically fulfils the Sunni Islamic method of appointing a successor. However. 169. 1989 Preceded by Al-Walid I Caliph 715±717 Succeeded by Umar II Retrieved from "http://en. Albany. 1990. broke with tradition by not maintaining a hereditary dynasty and appointed Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz as his successor. 98 (716-717) Sulayman named his son Ayyub heir to the throne. 2. whereas hereditary succession does not[4] [5]. Sulayman considered naming a son to replace him. Ayyub died that same year. Hafs: A slave girl belonging to Sulayman looked at him one day. 24. he received advice that it was uncertain the son fighting at Constantinople was still alive and others were too young. except that you will pass away. v. This appointment is rare. ^ re Qutaibah. David Stephan Powers.

search Umar II Reign Full name Born Died Predecessor Successor Royal House Dynasty Father Mother 717-720 Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz 682 720 Suleiman ibn Abd al-Malik Yazid bin Abd al-Malik Banu Abd Shams Umayyad Abd al-Aziz ibn Marwan Umm Asim bint Asim Part of a series on .Hidden categories: Articles containing Arabic language text Umar ibn AbdulAziz From Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz) Jump to: navigation.

.VODP Beliefs Allah · Oneness of God Muhammad · Other prophets Practices Profession of faith · Prayer Fasting · Charity · Pilgrimage Texts and laws Qur'an · Sunnah · Hadith Fiqh · Sharia · Kalam · Sufism History and leadership Timeline · Spread of Islam Ahl al-Bayt · Sahaba Sunni · Shi'a Rashidun · Caliphate Imamate Culture and society .

Unlike previous Umayyad caliphs.2 715 715: Al-Walid I's era o 2. Contents [hide] y y 1 Lineage 2 Biography o 2.1 682 715: Early Life o 2. He was also a cousin of the former caliph. Umar bin Al-Khattab.February. 682 . but was elected.3 715 717: Sulayman's era . being the son of Abd al-Malik's younger brother.Academics · Animals · Art Calendar · Children Demographics · Festivals Mosques · Philosophy Science · Women Politics · Dawah Islam and other religions Christianity · Judaism Hinduism · Sikhism · Jainism See also Criticism · Islamophobia Glossary of Islamic terms Islam portal v d e Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (c. he was not a hereditary successor to the former caliph. He was also a greatgrandson of the companion of the Prophet Muhammad. 720) [1] (Arabic: ) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 717 to 720. Abd al-Aziz.

y y y y

2.4 717 720: His own era  2.4.1 Disdainful of luxuries  2.4.2 Halt to the cursing of Ali  2.4.3 Sharia  2.4.4 Military  2.4.5 Death o 2.5 Quote 3 Legacy o 3.1 Views 4 Bibliography 5 See also 6 References

[edit] Lineage
Umar was born around 682. Some traditions state that he was born in Medina while others claim that he was born in Egypt. According to a Sunni Muslim tradition, Umar's lineage to Umar ibn al-Khattab stems from a famous event during the second Caliph's rule. During one of his frequent disguised journeys to survey the condition of his people, Umar overheard a milkmaid refusing to obey her mother's orders to sell adulterated milk. He sent an officer to purchase milk from the girl the next day and learned that she had kept her resolve; the milk was unadulterated. Umar summoned the girl and her mother to his court and told them what he had heard. As a reward, he offered to marry the girl to his son Asim. She accepted, and from this union was born a girl named Layla that would in due course become the mother of Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz.

[edit] Biography
[edit] 682 ± 715: Early Life
Umar would grow up in Medina and live there until the death of his father, after which he was summoned to Damascus by Abd al-Malik and married to his daughter Fatima. His father-in-law would die soon after, and he would serve as governor of Medina under his cousin Al-Walid I.

[edit] 715 ± 715: Al-Walid I's era
Unlike most rulers of that era, Umar formed a council with which he administered the province. His time in Medina was so notable that official grievances sent to Damascus all but ceased. In addition, many people emigrated to Medina from Iraq seeking refuge from their harsh governor, Al-Hajjaj bin Yousef. This angered Al-Hajjaj, and he pressed al-Walid to remove Umar. Much to the dismay of the people of Medina, al-Walid bowed to Hajjaj's pressure and dismissed Umar from his post. By this time, Umar had developed an impeccable reputation across the Islamic empire.

[edit] 715 ± 717: Sulayman's era
Umar continued to live in Medina through the remainder of al-Walid's reign and that of Walid's brother Suleiman. Suleiman, who was Umar's cousin and had always admired him, ignored his own brothers and son when it came time to appoint his successor and instead nominated Umar. Umar reluctantly accepted the position after trying unsuccessfully to dissuade Suleiman, and he approached it unlike any other Ummayad caliph before him.

[edit] 717 ± 720: His own era
[edit] Disdainful of luxuries

Umar was extremely pious and disdainful of worldly luxuries. He preferred simplicity to the extravagance that had become a hallmark of the Umayyad lifestyle, depositing all assets and finery meant for the caliph into the public treasury. He abandoned the caliphate palace to the family of Suleiman and instead preferred to live in modest dwellings. He wore rough linens instead of royal robes, and often went unrecognized. According to a Muslim tradition, a female visitor once came to Umar's house seeking charity and saw a raggedly-dressed man patching holes in the building's walls. Assuming that the man was a servant of the caliph, she asked Umar's wife, "Don't you fear God? Why don't you veil in the presence of this man?" The woman was shocked to learn that the "servant" was in fact the caliph himself. Though he had the people's overwhelming support, he publicly encouraged them to elect someone else if they were not satisfied with him (an offer no one ever took him up on). Umar confiscated the estates seized by Ummayad officials and redistributed them to the people, while making it a personal goal to attend to the needs of every person in his empire. Fearful of being tempted into bribery, he rarely accepted gifts, and when he did; he promptly deposited them in the public treasury. He even encouraged his own wife²who had been daughter, sister and wife to three caliphs in their turn²to donate her jewelry to the public treasury. At one point he almost ordered the Great Umayyad Mosque in Damascus to be stripped of its precious stones and expensive fixtures in favor of the treasury, but he desisted on learning that the Mosque was a source of envy to his Byzantine rivals in Constantinople. These moves made him unpopular with the Umayyad court, but endeared him to the masses, so much so that the court could not move against him in the open.
[edit] Halt to the cursing of Ali

Umar made a number of important religious reforms. He abolished the long-standing Umayyad and Khawaarij custom of cursing Ali ibn Abi Talib (the fourth Caliph), at the end of Friday sermons and ordered the following Qu'ranic verse be recited instead: - Surely God enjoins justice, doing of good and giving to kinsfolk.

[edit] Sharia

In addition, Umar was keen to enforce the Sharia, pushing to end drinking and bathhouses where men and women would mix freely. He continued the welfare programs of the last few Umayyad caliphs, expanding them and including special programs for orphans and the destitute. He would also abolish the Jizya tax for converts to Islam, who were former dhimmis, who used to be taxed even after they had converted under other Umayyad rulers. Generally, Umar II is credited with having ordered the first collection of hadith material in an official manner, fearing that some of it might be lost. Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Hazm and Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, are among those who compiled hadiths at `Umar II¶s behest. [2].
[edit] Military

Though Umar did not place as much an emphasis on expanding the Empire's borders as his predecessors had, he was not passive. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari states that he sent Ibn Hatim ibn al-Nu'man to repel Turks invading Azerbaijan (v. 24 pp. 74±75). He faced Kharijite uprising and preferred negotiations to armed conflict, personally holding talks with two Kharijite envoys shortly before his death (v. 24, p. 77-78). He recalled the troops besieging Constantinople (p. 74). These were led by his cousin Maslama. This Second Arab siege of Constantinople had failed to take the city and was sustaining heavy losses at the hands of allied Byzantine and Bulgarian forces. Its defeat was a serious blow to Umayyad prestige.
[edit] Death

His reforms in favor of the people greatly angered the nobility of the Umayyads, and they would eventually bribe a servant into poisoning his food. Umar learned of this on his death bed and pardoned the culprit, collecting the punitive payments he was entitled to under Islamic Law but depositing them in the public treasury. He died in February, 720, probably the 10th and probably forty years old (v. 24, pp. 91±92) in Aleppo. He was succeeded by his cousin Yazid II.

[edit] Quote
Rulers usually appoint people to watch over their subjects. I appoint you a watcher over me and my behaviour. If you find me at fault in word or action guide me and stop me from doing it.

-Umar Ibn Abd al-Aziz

[edit] Legacy
While Umar's reign was very short (three years), he is very highly regarded in Muslim memory.

wikipedia. The Mujadid of the 2nd century was Imam of Ahlul Sunnah Muhammad Idrees Shaafi the Mujadid of the 3rd century was Imam of Ahlul Sunnah Abu Hasan Ashari the Mujadid of the 4th century was Abu Abdullah Hakim Nishapuri. second only to the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs.htm 3. transl.Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2. ^ Izalat al-Khafa p. 24. Albany. [edit] See also y Pact of Umar Preceded by Suleiman Caliph 717 720 Succeeded by Yazid II [edit] References 1. The Empire in Transition. Shah Waliullah. v.uncw. ^ Umar II . [edit] Bibliography Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. 1989. a 18th century Sunni Islamic scholar stated [3]: A Mujadid appears at the end of every century: The Mujtahid of the 1st century was Imam of Ahlul Sunnah. David Stephan Powers. 77 part 7 Retrieved from "http://en. he is affectionately referred to as the Fifth and the last Rightly Guided Caliph. In fact. ^ http://people. Umar bin Abdul Aziz. in some circles.[edit] Views He is considered one of the finest rulers in Muslim" Categories: Umayyad caliphs | 720 deaths | Year of birth uncertain | 8th-century caliphs Hidden categories: Articles containing Arabic language text Yazid II .

24. Philadelphia. The Chronicle of Theophanes.H. An anecdote told of Yazid is that his wife Sudah learning he was pining for an expensive slave girl. 24. 102 (720-721) in Ifriqiyah. 196). 104 (722-723). 1982 . p. The caliph accepted this and confirmed Muhammad ibn Yazid as governor of Ifriqiyah. 720 (v. the harsh governor Yazid ibn Muslim was overthrown and Muhammad ibn Yazid.H." transl. Numerous civil wars began to break out in different parts of the empire such as in the Al Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula). This woman's name was Hababah and she predeceased Yazid (at Tabari v. 24. 93) states that a wizard advised Yazid that he would reign for forty years. That same year Yazid's governor in Medina. Yazid II died in 724 of tuberculosis. search Yazid bin Abd al-Malik or Yazid II (687 . restored to power. There he was much supported. pushed into the Caucuses. History v. Yazid's governor in Armenia and Azerbaijan. ) was an Umayyad Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari states Yazid came to power on the death of Umar II on February 10. 180f). Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Dahhak.H. but died the same year he issued his iconoclastic decree. He was succeeded by his brother Hisham.From Wikipedia. She appealed to Yazid who replaced Abd al-Rahman with Abd al-Walid ibn Abdallah (at Tabari v. AlTabari records that Abbasids were promoting their cause in A. They were already building a power base that they would later use to topple the Umayyads in CE 750. if he opposed Christian icons. p. His forces engaged in battle the Kharijites with whom Umar had been negotiating. He refused to acknowledge Yazid II as caliph and led a very serious uprising. Anti-Umayyad groups began to gain power among the disaffected. 91) . 24 "The Empire in Transition. Yazid ibn al-Muhallab had escaped confinement on the death of Umar. transl. University of Pennsylvania Press. Initially successful. taking Balanjar in A. Yazid did so. He made his way to Iraq. After initial setbacks. SUNY. Al-Djarrah ibn Abdullah. David Stephan Powers. purchased this slave girl and presented her to Yazid as a gift. p. the former governor. 102 (720-721). he was defeated and killed by the forces of Maslamah ibn Abd al-Malik. Theophanes the Confessor. In A. [edit] Bibliography Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Albany. 1989. North Africa and in the east. Theophanes the Confessor (p. Harry Turtledove. incurred the caliph's displeasure because the governor was exerting undue pressure trying to force a woman to marry him. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. Yazid's troops prevailed and the Kharijite leader Shawdhab was killed.724) (Arabic: caliph who ruled from 720 until his death in 724.

For the hadith narrator. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. search "Hisham" redirects here.wikipedia. Part of a series on . see Hisham ibn" Categories: 687 births | 724 deaths | Umayyad caliphs | Deaths from tuberculosis | 8th-century caliphs Hidden categories: Articles containing Arabic language text Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik From Wikipedia.Preceded by Umar II Caliph 720±724 Succeeded by Hisham Retrieved from "http://en.VODP Beliefs Allah · Oneness of God Muhammad · Other prophets Practices Profession of faith · Prayer Fasting · Charity · Pilgrimage Texts and laws Qur'an · Sunnah · Hadith Fiqh · Sharia · Kalam · Sufism .

. Inheriting the caliphate from his brother Yazid II. however. Hisham was ruling an empire with many different problems. When he was born in 691 his mother named him after her father. His long rule was an effective one. He would. be effective in attending to these problems.History and leadership Timeline · Spread of Islam Ahl al-Bayt · Sahaba Sunni · Shi'a Rashidun · Caliphate Imamate Culture and society Academics · Animals · Art Calendar · Children Demographics · Festivals Mosques · Philosophy Science · Women Politics · Dawah Islam and other religions Christianity · Judaism Hinduism · Sikhism · Jainism See also Criticism · Islamophobia Glossary of Islamic terms Islam portal v‡d‡e Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (691±6 February 743) (Arabic: ) 10th Umayyad caliph who ruled from 723 until his death in 743. and in allowing the Umayyad empire to continue as an entity. and it saw a rebirth of reforms that were originated by Umar bin Abd al-Aziz.

while Abdallah al-Battal took a Byzantine commander prisoner. This allowed the Umayyads to reassert their rule over some portions of their provinces in India. He also encouraged the growth of education by building more schools. On the military front his empire suffered a series of setbacks. In A. 119 (737) al Walid ibn al Qa'qa alAbsi led the raid against the Byzantines. killing thousands and re-establishing Umayyad rule. even upon his own family. He records that internal Byzantine strife facilitated Arab raids by Sulayman in 741-742 (p.H. and he again encouraged arts in the empire. 110 he took the fort of Samalu in Cilicia. 68) In North Africa. the internal conflicts of the years past were ended. At Tabari refers to the same raid. 110 he fought for a month against the Khaqan there and defeated him. and perhaps most importantly. He had been initially favoured by Hisham. The next year Sulayman captured Sindirah (Sideroun). In A.H. assembled a large army that went into France. This marked the limit of Arabic conquest in Western Europe. Mu'awiyah raided the Byzantine Empire in A.H. In 740 A large Berber force surrounded a loyal army at Wadi Sherif. In 742 Handhala ibn Safwan began successfully.H.H. His ability to stand up to the Umayyad clan may have been an important factor in his success. but soon was besieged in Qairawan. 121 (738-739) Maslamah captured some of Cappadocia and also raided the Avars. He returned to a stricter interpretation of the Sharia as Umar had. Zayd had faced litigation. 26. 113 (731-732). The next year Mu'awiyah thrust left and Sa'id ibn Hisham right. including in Transoxiana.000 Syrians.Like his brother al-Walid I. Kharijite teachings combined with natural local restlessness to produce a significant Berber revolt. In A. This was destroyed in 741. Kufans encouraged Zayd to revolt. 103) states that while some Arabs raided successfully in 739 and returned home safely. grandson of Husayn bin Ali. 107 (725-726) and the next year captured Caesarea Mazaca. Abd ar Rahman ibn Abdallah. He led a desperate sortie from the city that scattered the Berbers. and was successful when the Hindu ruler Jai Singh was killed. In A. (v. The next year he captured Aqrun (Akroinos). The wave was halted at the Battle of Tours by Charles Martel who inflicted a crushing defeat to the Arabs. Hisham sent armies to end the Hindu rebellion in Sindh. 112 Mu'awiyah captured Kharsianon in Cappadocia. by overseeing the translation of numerous literary and scientific masterpieces into Arabic. 116. and Hisham's governor. and enforced it. He fought the Byzantines in A. He besieged Bordeaux and pushed to the Loire.H. He also opposed Turks in the Caucasus. One regular commander of Arab forces was the redoubtable Maslamah. p. though the caliph was displeased by Zayd's suggestions that Zayd was superior. others were soundly defeated. Mu'awiyah ibn Hisham was another Arab commander in the almost annual raids against the Byzantine Empire. Under Hisham's rule.H. See Battle of Akroinon. Hisham was a great patron of the arts. Theophanes the Confessor (p. 106) that resulted in many Byzantines made Arab captives.H. 115. In addition there was also a sea raid. and may point to why his brother Yazid was ineffective. Hisham's brother. Mu'awiyah raided Byzantium in A. Zayd was ordered to leave Kufah and though he appeared to set out . 117 and 118. In Spain. regular raids against the Byzantines continued. In A. Hisham also faced a revolt by the armies of Zayd bin Ali. Hisham dispatched a force of 27. which was however easily put down. The loyalists fought to the death.

learned of the plot. He was conscientious in administering the finances of the empire. Iraq's governor. 743. Zayd with some troops fought his way to the mosque and called on people to come out. February 6. 105-120 by Jere L. building power bases in Khurasan and Iraq. He wore the same green cloak he had worn since before becoming caliph. but was felled by an arrow. Bacharach and Khalid Y. [edit] Bibliography The End of Expansion: The Caliphate of Hisham A. He dwelt in the desert to avoid plague. Blankinship. SUNY Press.for Mecca. the Abbasids continued to gain power. Although his body was initially buried. commanded the people to gather at the great mosque. Yusuf ibn Umar. he did not draw the military stipend. He then pushed back Yusuf's troops. Some of them were caught. punished or executed by eastern governors. Hisham died of diphtheria on Wednesday.wikipedia. locked them inside and began a search for Zayd. 1989. He demonstrated he knew how to make bread and to milk a goat. Albany. 724-738/A. Despite Hisham's successes. unless actually on campaign. Preceded by Yazid II Caliph 724±743 Succeeded by Walid II Retrieved from "http://en. the spot was pointed out and it was extracted. he returned and dwelt secretly in Kufah moving from house to house and receiving the allegiance of many people. they would not prove strong enough to make a move yet. As all the Marwanids. beheaded and the head sent to Hisham and later to Medina. the free encyclopedia .H." Categories: Deaths from diphtheria | 691 births | 743 deaths | 8th-century caliphs | Umayyad caliphs Hidden categories: Articles containing Arabic language text Al-Walid II From Wikipedia. Hisham was succeeded by his nephew al-Walid ibn Yazid ibn Abd al-Malik Walid II.D. He impressed others with his simplicity and honesty. Near the Byzantine site of al-Rusafah he built two castles.

bearing in mind the essential nature of Islamic unity. Hearing of the plot. [edit] Bibliography y y Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari History. He was succeeded by his cousin Yazid III. Yusuf tortured and killed Khalid. one more promising for the stability of the state and the preservation of the Umayyad house. The Empire of the Arabs. The upright Yazid ibn al-Walid spoke against the new ruler's moral laxity. However. When approached. The caliph was besieged in a castle outside the city. 1989 Glubb. in modern Jordan. singing and immorality aroused considerable opposition. At Tabari also quotes a number of al-Walid's poems. 1963 Caliph Succeeded by Preceded by . to succeed him in that order.Jump to: navigation. A group began plotting his assassination. Yahya chose another path and after initial victory was slain. Carole Hillenbrand. He succeeded his uncle. Hisham became more displeased with him and even urged him to step aside in favour of Hisham's son. 743. There's an eloquent letter on this theme dated May 21. Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik. Nasr urged him to present himself to the caliph. As heir. 744. Al-Walid succeeded to the throne on the death of Hisham on February 6. he was defeated and killed by the forces of Sulayman ibn Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik. he took special care of the crippled and blind. Hisham spoke to al-Walid about his drinking and living a dissolute life. However. 744) (Arabic: ) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 743 until 744. As al-Walid grew older. al-Walid was known for his open handedness. Such a deed. Al-Walid put Sulayman ibn Hisham in prison. Al-Walid was fond of versifying and he arranged horse races. v. Sir John. SUNY. The caliph commanded al-Walid to send away his best drinking companion. Yahya ibn Zayd was found in Khurasan. search Walid ibn Yazid or Walid II (died April 16. Khalid ibn Abdallah declined to join in and even cautioned al-Walid. al-Hakam and Uthman. his vague warning aroused the ire of al-Walid who imprisoned Khalid and then gave him to Yusuf ibn Umar for an offer of fifty million dirhams. Hodder and Stoughton. Albany. However. He also cut off funds to the heir and strongly encouraged him to be more respectful in matters religious. Al-Walid at first confirmed Nasr ibn Sayyar as governor of Khurasan. This intensely angered many of al-Walid's own relatives. 106±115). but on April 16. the caliph dismissed Nasr. Al-Aghdaf. as well as his reputed drinking. He fought well. This was disregarded and many armed men moved into Damascus. Al-Walid also appointed his uncle Yusuf ibn Muhammad governor of Medina. He increased the stipend. He named his two sons. 26 "The Waning of the Umayyad Caliphate. london. bribed by Yusuf ibn Umar. 743 in at Tabari (pp. Marwan ibn Muhammad wrote from Armenia urging a more prudent course of action." transl. When he became caliph.

he would eschew discrimination and would make his . 744. and that this entailed ensuring that the strong not prey upon the weak. Caesar was my grandsire and my grandsire was Khaqan. Yazid sent 'Abd al-Aziz ibn al-Hajjaj to meet Walid at alBakhra'. Yazid then imprisoned Walid's sons 'Uthman and Hakam.[7] Yazid had Walid's head hoisted "on a lance and paraded around Damascus". the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.Hisham 743±744 Yazid III Retrieved from "http://en. search Yazid ibn al-Walid ibn 'Abd al-Malik or Yazid III (701 .wikipedia. Yazid spoke out against Walid's "immorality" which included discrimination on behalf of the Banu Qays Arabs against Yemenis and non-Arab Muslims.[1] Al-Tabari quotes a couplet of Yazid's on his own ancestry:[2] I am the son of Choesroes.[6] 'Abd al-Aziz offered to set up a shura to decide on the future of the realm. Yazid explained that he had rebelled on behalf of the Book of Allah and the Sunna of His Prophet.[8] whom Walid had designated as his heirs. He promised "to engage in no building works. squander no money on wives or children. and Yazid received further support from the Qadariya and Murji'iya (believers in human free will).[5] According to Yazid's own account. my ancestor was Marwan. Yazid was the son of a Persian princess who had been gifted as a concubine to Caliph al-Walid" Categories: 744 deaths | Umayyad caliphs | Military personnel killed in action | 8th-century caliphs Hidden categories: Articles containing Arabic language text Yazid III From Wikipedia.[9] On accession. by which action he lost his life. He reigned for six months.[3] Tabari further records descriptions of Yazid as tall and handsome During the reign of his cousin al-Walid II. from April 15 to October 3 or 4. instead. and not to overtax the ahl al-dhimma. transfer no money from one province to another" without reason.[4] Yazid slipped into Damascus and deposed Walid in a coup.744) (Arabic: ) was an Umayyad caliph. Walid rejected this offer and attacked. following this up with a disbursement of funds from the treasury. and died in that office. "keep no troops on the field too long".

^ Theophilus apud Hoyland. 1986). 5. God's Caliph (Cambridge U Press. 68. 4. 127 8. It supports the Umayyad dynasty up to but not including "the enemy of Allah" alWalid II.[15] Yusuf ibn 'Umar was subsequently imprisoned and later killed by the son of Khalid ibn 'Abd Allah. Sir John Glubb. Yazid fell ill of a brain tumour. Ibrahim duly succeeded him. 660 6. governor of Armenia. Islamic popular tradition. and held in principle to al-amr shura . comments that Yazid would go himself into the marketplace. 350: appendix I. Yazid named his brother Ibrahim as his successor. 3. ^ David Cook. The Empire of the Arabs. but Nasr refused to accept this. Encyclopedia of Islam 2nd Ed. "Kadar". 661 1. Mansur attempted to dismiss the Khurasani governor Nasr ibn Sayyar. ^ Theophilus. for his reduction in military annuities by 10%[11]. ^ Theophilus and Muslim sources apud Hoyland. 1234 and Muslim sources dispute over whether Walid was there all along or whether he had fled there. 2. ^ 1234 Chronicle apud Hoyland confirms this. 7. Yazid appointed Mansur ibn Jumhur to replace Yusuf ibn 'Umar as governor of Iraq. it was a fortress near Palmyra. where his predecessor had promised a raise.payments on time. 243 ^ transl. He promised abdication if he failed to meet these goals. Seeing Islam as Others Saw It (Darwin Press. ^ God's Caliph 124-5 10. at which point it lays out Yazid's version of the event at al-Bakhra'. 660. In May 15. 660-1 9. [edit] Bibliography ^ Philip Khuri Hitti. History Of Syria (Gorgias Press LLC. 489 ^ Tabari. Nasr invited al-Harith to return from his thirteen year stay in Turkish territory. ^ God's Caliph. had initially supported Walid and on that one's death entered Iraq to avenge an elected caliphate. Studies in Muslim Apocalyptic. Quoted Robert Hoyland. 107 11.[10] Tabari records Yazid's nickname "the Diminisher (Naqis)". Al-Harith arrived wearing a fine suit of armour the Khaqan had given him and gaining the support of many people in Khurasan. 12 a 13. 478 12. 661 14. At the end. ^ 1234 Chronicle apud Hoyland. and there were several other dissident movements against him. preserved from oral sources in al-Mada'ini (reproduced in Tabari) and in alBaladhuri. III. 1998). 2004). .[13] Another cousin Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan. 200 ^ von Ess. ^ Philip Khuri Hitti. ^ Patricia Crone. Facing opposition from al-Kirmani.[14] Marwan eventually rallied around Yazid. Tabari's rendition has Yazid exhorting the Iraqis to follow Mansur ibn Jumhur. 744. recorded in apocalyptic.[12] The city of Hims refused allegiance to Yazid.[16] He died on October 3 or 4. Yazid wrote a letter.

Albany. 13) does record that Ibrahim as caliph did confirm the appointment of Abdallah ibn Umar as governor of Iraq. v. 1989. p. 661 n 193 y y Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari History. and even though he later gave allegiance to Yazid. [edit] Bibliography Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari History v. 1963 Caliph 744 Succeeded by Ibrahim Preceded by Al-Walid II Retrieved from "http://en." transl. 1989 Sir John Glubb. 27 "The Abbasid Revolution. However. 26." Categories: Umayyad caliphs | 701 births | 744 deaths | 8th-century caliphs Hidden categories: Articles containing Arabic language text Ibrahim ibn al-Walid From Wikipedia. The shortness of this time and his incomplete acceptance led Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari to state that he did not succeed in becoming caliph (v. Carole Hillenbrand. ^ God's Caliph. Albany. John Alden Williams." transl. search ) was an Umayyad caliph." transl. v. and went into hiding out of fear of his political opponents. Carole Hillenbrand.wikipedia. He travelled with Marwan to former Caliph Hisham's residence at Rusafah in Syria. 126f 16. Hodder and Stoughton. Marwan continued his own ambitions. The Empire of the Arabs. 1985 Preceded by Caliph Succeeded by . 26 "The Waning of the Umayyad Caliphate. 13) Ibrahim was named heir apparent by his brother Yazid III. (v. p.15. SUNY. ^ Dionysius of Telmahre apud Hoyland. He Ibrahim ibn Al-Walid (Arabic: only ruled for a short time in 744 before he abdicated. 247). at Tabari (p. Marwan II decided to oppose Yazid III. London. Ibrahim requested and was granted Marwan's assurance of personal safety. the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Ibrahim of Ummayyad) Jump to: navigation. on the early death of that caliph. SUNY. 26 "The Waning of the Umayyad Caliphate. SUNY. 27.

In A. Shepherd.Yazid III 744 Marwan II This biographical article about a person notable in connection with Islam is a stub. 117 (735-736) Marwan took three fortresses of the Alans and made peace with .H. Retrieved from "http://en. 114 (732-733) Caliph Hisham appointed Marwan governor of Armenia and Azerbaijan.H. 1923 Courtesy of The General Libraries. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. search The Califate in 750 From The Historical Atlas by William R. He was the last Umayyad ruler to rule from Damascus.wikipedia. In" Categories: Umayyad caliphs | 8th-century caliphs | Islamic biography stubs Hidden categories: Articles containing Arabic language text Marwan II From Wikipedia. The University of Texas at Austin Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan or Marwan al-Himaar (688-750) (Arabic: ) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.

Sulayman ibn Hisham turned against Marwan. Almost the entire Umayyad dynasty was killed. taken and held captive. Al-Dahhak led a Kharijite rebellion. was bested. where he was caught and killed on August 6. In A. In Khurasan there was internal discord with the Umayyad governor Nasr ibn Sayyar facing opposition from al-Harith and al-Kirmani. Fighting continued throughout Khurasan with the Abbasids gaining increasing ascendency. anti-Umayyad feeling was very prevalent. Marwan fled. At this battle alone. Marwan suffered a decisive defeat by Abu al-'Abbas alSaffah on the banks of the Zab River called Battle of the Zab. 750. Marwan's reign as caliph was almost entirely devoted to trying to keep the Umayyad empire together. His heirs Ubaydallah and Abdallah escaped to Ethiopia. Jordan and Palestine and reaching Egypt. then requested Marwan give him assurances of personal safety. During Ramadan 747 (May 16-June 14). However. They also fought each other. Ibrahim initially hid. Marwan's death signalled the end of Umayyad fortunes in the East. He appointed governors and proceeded to assert his authority by force. Yazid. ignored Yazid's named successor Ibrahim and became caliph. The Abbasids achieved success in the Hijaz. In addition Abbasid envoys arrived. Nasr sent his retainer Yazid against them. then rendered allegiance to him. and was followed by the mass-killing of Umayyads by the Abbasids. The Abbasids had gained much support. he and those with him fell in fighting in the camp. However. leaving Damascus. Marwan named his two sons Ubaydallah and Abdallah heirs. He was impressed by the Abbasids and when released told Nasr he wanted to join them. especially in Iran and Iraq. Marwan pursued him and Sulayman to Mosul and besieged them there for six months. except for the talented prince Abd ar-Rahman who escaped to Spain and founded an Umayyad dynasty there. This Marwan granted and Ibrahim even accompanied the new caliph to Hisham's residence of Rusafah. Shayban fled to Bahrayn where he was killed. . Shayban succeeded him. He defeated Syrian forces and took Kufa. As such. Nasr fell sick and died at Rayy on November 9.H. The Kharijites advanced on Mosul and were defeated. He urged them to harmoniously preserve the stability and well being of the Umayyad house.H. Finally. There had long been religious fervour and a kind of messianic expectation of Abbasid ascendency. over 300 members of the Umayyad family died. Sulayman sailed to India. but his obligations to Nasr brought him back.Tumanshah. 126 on hearing news of the plotting to overthrow al-Walid II Marwan wrote to his relatives from Armenia strongly discouraging such an act. however. Marwan renewed his ambitions. On Yazid's early death. Ubaydallah died in fighting there. Sulayman joined them. 748 at the age of eighty five. When Yazid III persisted in overthrowing al-Walid II. they unfurled the standards of their revolt. 121 he launched further raids and obtained tribute. Al-Dahhak's successor al-Khaybari was initially successful in pushing back Marwan's centre and even took the caliph's camp and sat on his carpet. but suffered a severe defeat. In A. Then reinforced the caliph drove them out. Marwan took Hims (Emesa) after a bitter ten month siege. Marwan at first opposed him.

Hodder and Stoughton. London. 26 "The Waning of the Umayyad Caliphate. 1989.[edit] Bibliography y y Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari History v. SUNY. Albany.wikipedia. John Alden Williams. Albany. 1985 Sir John Glubb." transl. Albany. Khalid Yahya Blankinship. SUNY." Categories: Umayyad caliphs | Khazar military history | 688 births | 750 deaths | 8th-century caliphs . The Empire of the Arabs. v. 1963 Marwan II Banu Umayyah Sunni Islam titles Preceded by Ibrahim I Islam Caliph 744 ± 750 Regnal titles Preceded by Ibrahim I Umayyad Caliph 744 ± 750 Umayyad Caliphate abolished and Umamayyad Emirate established Abd ar-Rahman I in 756 Succeeded by As-Saffah Retrieved from "http://en. Carole Hillenbrand. 1989." transl." transl. SUNY. 27 "The Abbasid Revolution. 25 "The End of Expansion.