Let Us C

Fifth Edition

Yashavant P. Kanetkar

Dedicated to baba Who couldn’t be here to see this day...

About the Author
Destiny drew Yashavant Kanetkar towards computers when the IT industry was just making a beginning in India. Having completed his education from VJTI Mumbai and IIT Kanpur in Mechanical Engineering he started his training company in Nagpur. Yashavant has a passion for writing and is an author of several books in C, C++, VC++, C#, .NET, DirectX and COM programming. He is a much sought after speaker on various technology subjects and is a regular columnist for Express Computers and Developer 2.0. His current affiliations include being a Director of KICIT, a training company and DCube Software Technologies, a software development company. In recognition to his contribution Microsoft awarded him the prestigious “Best .NET Technical Contributor” award recently. He can be reached at kanetkar@kicit.com.

Preface to the Fifth Edition
It is mid 2004. World has left behind the DOTCOM bust, 9/11 tragedy, the economic downturn, etc. and moved on. Countless Indians have relentlessly worked for close to two decades to successfully establish “India” as a software brand. At times I take secret pleasure in seeing that a book that I have been part of, has contributed in its own little way in shaping so many budding careers that have made the “India” brand acceptable. Computing and the way people use C for doing it keeps changing as years go by. So overwhelming has been the response to all the previous editions of “Let Us C” that I have now decided that each year I would come up with a new edition of it so that I can keep the readers abreast with the way C is being used at that point in time. There are two phases in every C programmer’s life. In the first phase he is a learner trying to understand the language elements and their nuances. At this stage he wants a simple learning environment that helps him to master the language. In my opinion, even today there isn’t any learning environment that can beat Turbo C/C++ for simplicity. Hence the first fifteen chapters are written keeping this environment in mind, though a majority of these programs in these chapters would work with any C compiler. Armed with the knowledge of language elements the C programmer enters the second phase. Here he wishes to use all that he has learnt to create programs that match the ability of programs that he see in today’s world. I am pointing towards programs in Windows and Linux world. Chapters 16 to 21 are devoted to this. I would like to your attention the fact that if you want to program Windows or Linux you need to have a very good grasp over the programming model used by each of these OS. Windows messaging architecture and Linux signaling mechanism are the cases in point. Once you understand these thoroughly rest is just a

matter of time. Chapters 16 to 21 have been written with this motive. In Linux programming the basic hurdle is in choosing the Linux distribution, compiler, editor, shell, libraries, etc. To get a headstart you can follow the choices that I found most reasonable and simple. They have been mentioned in Chapter 20 and Appendix H. Once you are comfortable you can explore other choices. In fourth edition of Let Us C there were chapters on ‘Disk Basics’, ‘VDU Basics’, ‘Graphics’, ‘Mouse Programming’, ‘C and Assembly’. Though I used to like these chapters a lot I had to take a decision to drop them since most of them were DOS-centric and would not be so useful in modern-day programming. Modern counterparts of all of these have been covered in Chapters 16 to 21. However, if you still need the chapters from previous edition they are available at www.kicit.com/books/letusc/fourthedition. Also, all the programs present in the book are available in source code form at www.kicit.com/books/letusc/sourcecode. You are free to download them, improve them, change them, do whatever with them. If you wish to get solutions for the Exercises in the book they are available in another book titled ‘Let Us C Solutions’. ‘Let Us C’ is as much your book as it is mine. So if you feel that I could have done certain job better than what I have, or you have any suggestions about what you would like to see in the next edition, please drop a line to letuscsuggestions@kicit.com. All the best and happy programming!

Contents
1. Getting Started What is C Getting Started with C The C Character Set Constants, Variables and Keywords Types of C Constants Rules for Constructing Integer Constants Rules for Constructing Real Constants Rules for Constructing Character Constants Types of C Variables Rules for Constructing Variable Names C Keywords The First C Program Compilation and Execution Receiving Input C Instructions Type Declaration Instruction Arithmetic Instruction Integer and Float Conversions Type Conversion in Assignments Hierarchy of Operations Associativity of Operators Control Instructions in C Summary Exercise 2. The Decision Control Structure Decisions! Decisions! The if Statement The Real Thing Multiple Statements within if The if-else Statement 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 11 12 13 19 21 23 24 25 29 29 31 34 37 37 38

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Nested if-elses Forms of if Use of Logical Operators The else if Clause The ! Operator Hierarchy of Operators Revisited A Word of Caution The Conditional Operators Summary Exercise 3. The Loop Control Structure Loops The while Loop Tips and Traps More Operators The for Loop Nesting of Loops Multiple Initialisations in the for Loop The Odd Loop The break Statement The continue Statement The do-while Loop Summary Exercise 4. The Case Control Structure Decisions Using switch The Tips and Traps switch Versus if-else Ladder The goto Keyword Summary Exercise

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5. Functions & Pointers What is a Function Why Use Functions Passing Values between Functions Scope Rule of Functions Calling Convention One Dicey Issue Advanced Features of Functions Function Declaration and Prototypes Call by Value and Call by Reference An Introduction to Pointers Pointer Notation Back to Function Calls Conclusions Recursion Recursion and Stack Adding Functions to the Library Summary Exercise 6. Data Types Revisited Integers, long and short Integers, signed and unsigned Chars, signed and unsigned Floats and Doubles A Few More Issues… Storage Classes in C Automatic Storage Class Register Storage Class Static Storage Class External Storage Class Which to Use When Summary Exercise

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7. The C Preprocessor Features of C Preprocessor Macro Expansion Macros with Arguments Macros versus Functions File Inclusion Conditional Compilation #if and #elif Directives Miscellaneous Directives #undef Directive #pragma Directive Summary Exercise 8. Arrays What are Arrays A Simple Program Using Array More on Arrays Array Initialization Bounds Checking Passing Array Elements to a Function Pointers and Arrays Passing an Entire Array to a Function The Real Thing Two Dimensional Arrays Initializing a 2-Dimensional Array Memory Map of a 2-Dimensional Array Pointers and 2-Dimensional Arrays Pointer to an Array Passing 2-D array to a Function Array of Pointers Three Dimensional Array Summary

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Exercise 9. Puppetting On Strings What are Strings More about Strings Pointers and Strings Standard Library String Functions strlen( ) strcpy( ) strcat( ) strcmp( ) Two-Dimensional Array of Characters Array of Pointers to Strings Limitation of Array of Pointers to Strings Solution Summary Exercise 10. Structures Why Use Structures Declaring a Structure Accessing Structure Elements How Structure Elements are Stored Array of Structures Additional Features of Structures Uses of Structures Summary Exercise 11. Console Input/Output Types of I/O Console I/O Functions Formatted Console I/O Functions

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sprintf( ) and sscanf( ) Functions Unformatted Console I/O Functions Summary Exercise 12. File Input/Output Data Organization File Operations Opening a File Reading from a File Trouble in Opening a File Closing the File Counting Characters, Tabs, Spaces, … A File-copy Program Writing to a File File Opening Modes String (line) I/O in Files The Awkward Newline Record I/O in Files Text Files and Binary Files Record I/O Revisited Database Management Low Level Disk I/O A Low Level File-copy Program I/O Under Windows Summary Exercise 13. More Issues In Input/Output Using argc and argv Detecting Errors in Reading/Writing Standard I/O Devices I/O Redirection Redirecting the Output xiii

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Redirecting the Input Both Ways at Once Summary Exercise 14. Operations On Bits Bitwise Operators One’s Complement Operator Right Shift Operator Left Shift Operator Bitwise AND Operator Bitwise OR Operator Bitwise XOR Operator The showbits( ) Function Summary Exercise 15. Miscellaneous Features Enumerated Data Type Uses of Enumerated Data Type Renaming Data Types with typedef Typecasting Bit Fields Pointers to Functions Functions Returning Pointers Functions with Variable Number of Arguments Unions Union of Structures Summary Exercise

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16. C Under Windows Which Windows… Integers The Use of typedef Pointers in the 32-bit World Memory Management Device Access DOS Programming Model Windows Programming Model Event Driven Model Windows Programming, a Closer Look The First Windows Program Hungarian Notation Summary Exercise 17. Windows Programming The Role of a Message Box Here Comes the window… More Windows A Real-World Window Creation and Displaying of Window Interaction with Window Reacting to Messages Program Instances Summary Exercise 18. Graphics Under Windows Graphics as of Now Device Independent Drawing

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Hello Windows Drawing Shapes Types of Pens Types of Brushes Code and Resources Freehand Drawing, the Paintbrush Style Capturing the Mouse Device Context, a Closer Look Displaying a Bitmap Animation at Work WM_CREATE and OnCreate( ) WM_TIMER and OnTimer( ) A Few More Points… Windows, the Endless World… Summary Exercise 19. Interaction With Hardware Hardware Interaction Hardware Interaction, DOS Perspective Hardware Interaction, Windows Perspective Communication with Storage Devices The ReadSector( ) Function Accessing Other Storage Devices Communication with Keyboard Dynamic Linking Windows Hooks Caps Locked, Permanently Did You Press It TTwwiiccee…… Mangling Keys KeyLogger Where is This Leading Summary Exercise

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C Under Linux What is Linux C Programming Under Linux The ‘Hello Linux’ Program Processes Parent and Child Processes More Processes Zombies and Orphans One Interesting Fact Summary Exercise 21.20. More Linux Programming Communication using Signals Handling Multiple Signals Registering a Common Handler Blocking Signals Event Driven Programming Where Do You Go From Here Summary Exercise Appendix A – Precedence Table Appendix B – Standard Library Functions Appendix C – Chasing the Bugs Appendix D – Hexadecimal Numbering Appendix E – ASCII Chart Appendix F – Helper.h File Appendix G – Boot Parameters Appendix H – Linux Installation Index 649 650 651 652 653 655 659 660 663 664 664 667 668 671 673 675 678 684 684 685 687 691 701 713 719 725 729 735 739 xvii .

1 Getting Started • What is C • Getting Started with C The C Character Set Constants. Variables and Keywords Types of C Constants Rules for Constructing Integer Constants Rules for Constructing Real Constants Rules for Constructing Character Constants Types of C Variables Rules for Constructing Variable Names C Keywords • The First C Program • Compilation and Execution • Receiving Input • C Instructions Type Declaration Instruction Arithmetic Instruction Integer and Float Conversions Hierarchy of Operations Associativity Of Operators • Control Instruction in C • Summary • Exercise 1 .

Possibly why C seems so popular is because it is reliable. Four important aspects of any language are the way it stores data. In the late seventies C began to replace the more familiar languages of that time like PL/I.2 Let Us C efore we can begin to write serious programs in C. that's what happened. It was designed and written by a man named Dennis Ritchie. Moreover. tools and technologies emerge and vanish day in and day out. An opinion that is often heard today is – “C has been already superceded by languages like C++. Thus. how it came into existence and how does it compare with other computer languages. it would be interesting to find out what really is C. so why bother to . the way it operates upon this data. No one pushed C. We would discuss the first three of these building blocks in this chapter. or the newer ones like Pascal and APL. It wasn’t made the ‘official’ Bell Labs language. C# and Java. without any advertisement C’s reputation spread and its pool of users grew. in an industry where newer languages. etc. simple and easy to use. But. how it accomplishes input and output and how it lets you control the sequence of execution of instructions in a program. In this chapter we would briefly outline these issues. a language that has survived for more than 3 decades has to be really good. Ritchie seems to have been rather surprised that so many programmers preferred C to older languages like FORTRAN or PL/I. ALGOL. B What is C C is a programming language developed at AT & T’s Bell Laboratories of USA in 1972.

But even while using this organizing principle you would still need a good hold over the language elements of C and the basic programming skills. inheritance. Learning these complicated concepts when you are not even comfortable with the basic language elements is like putting the cart before the horse. (b) C++. exception handling. This is because while learning these languages you have things like classes. Moreover. objects. do deal with apart from knowing the actual language elements. . but at the end of it you will definitely find it worth the trouble. C# or Java. (c) Though many C++ and Java based programming tools and frameworks have evolved over the years the importance of C is still unchallenged because knowingly or unknowingly while using these frameworks and tools you would be still required to use the core C language elements—another good reason why one should learn C before C++. Linux is still written in C. references. polymorphism. These programs are exclusively written in C. Hence one should first learn all the language elements very thoroughly using C language before migrating to C++.Chapter 1: Getting Started 3 learn C today”. UNIX. This organizing principle has lots of advantages to offer. C# or Java make use of a principle called Object Oriented Programming (OOP) to organize the program. I seriously beg to differ with this opinion. if one is to extend the operating system to work with new devices one needs to write device driver programs. Though this two step learning process may take more time. etc. There are several reasons for this: (a) I believe that nobody can learn C++ or Java directly. C# or Java. templates. This is because even today when it comes to performance (speed of execution) nothing beats C. (d) Major parts of popular operating systems like Windows.

which immediately rules out English as the language of communication with computer. However. With these constraints on time and space. The essence of all such games is speed. Many popular gaming frameworks have been built using C language. Getting Started with C Communicating with a computer involves speaking the language the computer understands. an operating system and a program embedded in this devices. (g) At times one is required to very closely interact with the hardware devices. washing machines and digital cameras are getting smarter by the day. such games won't become popular if they takes a long time to move the spaceship or to fire a bullet. Since C provides several language elements that make this interaction feasible without compromising the performance it is the preferred choice of the programmer.4 Let Us C (e) Mobile devices like cellular phones and palmtops are becoming increasingly popular. These programs not only have to run fast but also have to work in limited amount of memory. I hope that these are very convincing reasons why one should adopt C as the first and the very important step in your quest for learning programming languages. common consumer devices like microwave oven. Also. To match the expectations of the player the game has to react fast to the user inputs. No wonder that such programs are written in C. there is . C is the language of choice while building such operating systems and programs. (f) You must have seen several professional 3D computer games where the user navigates some object. This is where C language scores over other languages. Needless to say. like say a spaceship and fires bullets at the invaders. This smartness comes from a microprocessor.

we must first know what alphabets. numbers and special symbols allowed in C.2 shows the valid alphabets. A group of instructions would be combined later on to form a program.1.1 The C Character Set A character denotes any alphabet. numbers and special symbols are used in C. which in turn are combined to form sentences and sentences are combined to form paragraphs. then learn to combine these alphabets to form words. This is illustrated in the Figure 1. Learning C is similar and easier. variables and keywords are constructed.Chapter 1: Getting Started 5 a close analogy between learning English language and learning C language. Figure 1. The classical method of learning English is to first learn the alphabets used in the language. Steps in learning English language: Alphabets Words Sentences Paragraphs Steps in learning C: Alphabets Digits Special symbols Constants Variables Keywords Instructions Program Figure 1. digit or special symbol used to represent information. . and finally how are these combined to form an instruction. Instead of straight-away learning how to write programs. then how using them constants.

. 8.2 Constants. "'<>. numbers and special symbols when properly combined form constants. y. Like human memory the computer memory also consists of millions of cells. This is shown in Figure 1. Z a. ……. 4. 5. This would overwrite the earlier value 3. Variables and Keywords The alphabets. A constant is an entity that doesn’t change whereas a variable is an entity that may change. 1. The calculated values are stored in these memory cells.. variables and keywords.?/ Figure 1. To make the retrieval and usage of these values easy these memory cells (also called memory locations) are given names. Let us see what are ‘constants’ and ‘variables’ in C. 6. 7. 3.. 2. 9 ~‘!@# %^&*()_-+=|\{} []:. Consider the following example.3. Y. . b. Here 3 is stored in a memory location and a name x is given to it. Since the value stored in each location may change the names given to these locations are called variable names. In any program we typically do lots of calculations. z Digits Special symbols 0. The results of these calculations are stored in computers memory.6 Let Us C Alphabets A. …. Then we are assigning a new value 5 to the same memory location x. B. since a memory location can hold only one value at a time.

.4. Types of C Constants C constants can be divided into two major categories: (a) Primary Constants (b) Secondary Constants These constants are further categorized as shown in Figure 1.Chapter 1: Getting Started 7 x 3 x=3 x 5 x=5 Figure 1. 3 or 5 do not change. As against this. hence are known as constants.3 Since the location whose name is x can hold different values at different times x is known as a variable.

For constructing these different types of constants certain rules have been laid down. etc. For a 16-bit compiler like Turbo C or Turbo C++ the . Let us see the details of each of these constants. (e) No commas or blanks are allowed within an integer constant. If no sign precedes an integer constant it is assumed to be positive. These rules are as under: Rules for Constructing Integer Constants An integer constant must have at least one digit. Integer. namely. It can be either positive or negative.8 Let Us C C Constants Primary Constants Integer Constant Real Constant Character Constant Secondary Constants Array Pointer Structure Union Enum.4 At this stage we would restrict our discussion to only Primary Constants. Real and Character constants. (f) The allowable range for integer constants is -32768 to 32767. It must not have a decimal point. (a) (b) (c) (d) Truly speaking the range of an Integer constant depends upon the compiler. Figure 1.

. Ex. Till that time it would be assumed that we are working with a 16-bit compiler.76 -48.34 426. No commas or blanks are allowed within a real constant.5792 The exponential form of representation of real constants is usually used if the value of the constant is either too small or too large. It could be either positive or negative.Chapter 1: Getting Started 9 range is –32768 to 32767. It must have a decimal point. Default sign is positive. The real constants could be written in two forms—Fractional form and Exponential form.0 -32. Question like what exactly do you mean by a 16bit or a 32-bit compiler.: +325. It however doesn’t restrict us in any way from using exponential form of representation for other real constants. For a 32-bit compiler the range would be even greater. what range of an Integer constant has to do with the type of compiler and such questions are discussed in detail in Chapter 16.: 426 +782 -8000 -7605 Rules for Constructing Real Constants Real constants are often called Floating Point constants. Following rules must be observed while constructing real constants expressed in fractional form: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) A real constant must have at least one digit. Ex.

’A’ is a valid character constant whereas ‘A’ is not.: +3. Default sign is positive. The part appearing before ‘e’ is called mantissa. Both the inverted commas should point to the left. whereas the part following ‘e’ is called exponent. a single digit or a single special symbol enclosed within single inverted commas.2e+3 -3. The exponent must have at least one digit. Ex. the real constant is represented in two parts.2e-5 4. The mantissa part may have a positive or negative sign. Following rules must be observed while constructing real constants expressed in exponential form: (a) The mantissa part and the exponential part should be (b) (c) (d) (e) separated by a letter e. which must be a positive or negative integer. Range of real constants expressed in exponential form is -3.: 'A' 'I' '5' '=' .4e38 to 3. Default sign of mantissa part is positive.4e38.2e-5 Rules for Constructing Character Constants (a) A character constant is a single alphabet. For example. Ex.10 Let Us C In exponential form of representation.1e8 -0. (b) The maximum length of a character constant can be 1 character.

the question follows. However. Rules for Constructing Variable Names (a) A variable name is any combination of 1 to 31 alphabets. (b) The first character in the variable name must be an alphabet or underscore. Do not create unnecessarily long variable names as it adds to your typing effort. real or character constants..Chapter 1: Getting Started 11 Types of C Variables As we saw earlier. For example. how is C able to differentiate between these variables? This is a rather simple . Naturally. Ex.. the types of variables that it can support depend on the types of constants that it can handle. a real variable can hold only a real constant and a character variable can hold only a character constant. an integer variable can hold only an integer constant. (d) No special symbol other than an underscore (as in gross_sal) can be used in a variable name. This is because a particular type of variable can hold only the same type of constant. The rules for constructing different types of constants are different. Still. Some compilers allow variable names whose length could be up to 247 characters.: si_int m_hra pop_e_89 These rules remain same for all the types of primary and secondary variables. (c) No commas or blanks are allowed within a variable name. for constructing variable names of all types the same set of rules apply. Variable names are names given to locations in memory. digits or underscores. These locations can contain integer. an entity that may vary during program execution is called a variable. In any language. it would be safer to stick to the rule of 31 characters. These rules are given below.

it is always advisable to construct meaningful variable names like prin. A detailed discussion of each of these keywords would be taken up in later chapters wherever their use is relevant. Since. c. There are only 32 keywords available in C. It is a good practice to exploit this enormous choice in naming variables by using meaningful variable names. Following are the examples of type declaration statements: Ex.5 gives a list of these keywords for your ready reference. roi. an enormous number of variable names can be constructed using the above-mentioned rules. Rate of interest and Number of years rather than using the variables a. . C compiler is able to distinguish between the variable names by making it compulsory for you to declare the type of any variable name that you wish to use in a program. the maximum allowable length of a variable name is 31 characters. it would be safer not to mix up the variable names and the keywords. The keywords cannot be used as variable names because if we do so we are trying to assign a new meaning to the keyword. char code . noy to represent Principle. b. which is not allowed by the computer. C Keywords Keywords are the words whose meaning has already been explained to the C compiler (or in a broad sense to the computer). However. Some C compilers allow you to construct variable names that exactly resemble the keywords. Figure 1.: int si. This type declaration is done at the beginning of the program. m_hra . if we want to calculate simple interest. The keywords are also called ‘Reserved words’. float bassal .12 Let Us C matter. Thus.

constants & keywords the next logical step is to combine them to form instructions. Before we begin with our first C program do remember the following rules that are applicable to all C programs: (a) Each instruction in a C program is written as a separate statement. etc. Borland. instead of this.) provide their own keywords apart from the ones mentioned above. asm. However. . far. not every vendor follows this rule. The First C Program Armed with the knowledge about the types of variables. These include extended keywords like near. etc.5 Note that compiler vendors (like Microsoft. Once we have done that we would see in detail the instructions that it made use of. Therefore a complete C program would comprise of a series of statements. we would write our first C program now.Chapter 1: Getting Started 13 auto break case char const continue default do double else enum extern float for goto if int long register return short signed sizeof static struct switch typedef union unsigned void volatile while Figure 1. Though it has been suggested by the ANSI committee that every such compiler specific keyword should be preceded by two underscores (as in __asm ).

That’s why it is often called a free-form language. acts as a statement terminator. (d) All statements are entered in small case letters. It would simply calculate simple interest for a set of values representing principle. /* Calculation of simple interest */ /* Author gekay Date: 25/05/2004 */ main( ) { int p. /* formula for simple interest */ si = p * n * r / 100 . Let us now write down our first C program. si ) . r = 8. n .5 . no blank spaces are allowed within a variable. which is out of sequence. constant or keyword. (e) C has no specific rules for the position at which a statement is to be written. printf ( "%f" . Thus . (c) Blank spaces may be inserted between two words to improve the readability of the statement. (f) Every C statement must end with a . p = 1000 . . number of years and rate of interest. float r. si . unless of course the logic of the problem demands a deliberate ‘jump’ or transfer of control to a statement.14 Let Us C (b) The statements in a program must appear in the same order in which we wish them to be executed. n=3.. However.

At such times it is worthwhile mentioning the purpose of the statement (or a set of statements) using a comment. the first two statements in our program are comments. its author and the date on which the program was written. a comment can be written before the statement. after the statement or within the statement as shown below: /* formula */ si = p * n * r / 100 . it is a good practice to begin a program with a comment indicating the purpose of the program. . /* formula */ si = p * n * r / /* formula */ 100 . Though comments are not necessary. For example.Chapter 1: Getting Started } 15 Now a few useful tips about the program. Any number of comments can be written at any place in the program. For example. For example: /* formula for simple interest */ si = p * n * r / 100 . − − − Sometimes it is not so obvious as to what a particular statement in a program accomplishes. − Often programmers seem to ignore writing of comments. But when a team is building big software well commented code is almost essential for other team members to understand it.. − Comment about the program should be enclosed within /* */. si = p * n * r / 100 ..

This is because the comments are solely given for the understanding of the programmer or the fellow programmers and are completely ignored by the compiler. main( ) { statement 1 . */. This name has to be main( ). Thus we can type this text in small case. as in. Comments cannot be nested. /* Cal of SI /* Author sam date 01/01/2002 */ */ − − is invalid. An adequate number of comments can save hours of misery and suffering when you later try to figure out what the program does. − main( ) is a collective name given to a set of statements. − A comment can be split over more than one line. For example. . The normal language rules do not apply to text written within /* . capital or a combination. it cannot be anything else. statement 2 .. /* This is a jazzy comment */ Such a comment is often called a multi-line comment. it is usually the case that programmers tend to use too few comments rather than too many. All statements that belong to main( ) are enclosed within a pair of braces { } as shown below.16 − Let Us C Although a lot of comments are probably not necessary in this program.

− In the statement. For example. } 17 − Technically speaking main( ) is a function. Any variable used in the program must be declared before using it.Chapter 1: Getting Started statement 3 . r = 8. One such . which can be forgiven considering the fact that C has been developed by an individual. si . * and / are the arithmetic operators. We would discuss functions and their working in great detail in Chapter 5. There are about 45 operators available in C. Unlike other languages. int p. float r. C does not contain any instruction to display output on the screen. Surprisingly there is no operator for exponentiation.5 . The arithmetic operators available in C are +. si .. not by a committee. − Once the value of si is calculated it needs to be displayed on the screen. * and /. a slip. Every function has a pair of parentheses ( ) associated with it. n . -. float r. C is very rich in operators.. si = p * n * r / 100 . All output to screen is achieved using readymade library functions. − − Any C statement always ends with a . For example.

Following are some examples of usage of printf( ) function: printf ( "%f". printf ( "Simple interest = Rs. Therefore. all that we can say is ‘\n’ comes in .. p. These characters are printed as they are when the printf( ) is executed. si ) . %d and %c the format string may also contain any other characters. p. %f".18 Let Us C function is printf( ). We have used it display on the screen the value contained in si. printf ( "Prin = %d \nRate = %f". The output of the last statement would look like this. <list of variables> ) . si ) . printf ( "<format string>".. <format string> can contain. These are discussed in detail in Chapter 11. you get the output split over two lines. printf ( "%d %d %f %f". si ) . n. %f for printing real values %d for printing integer values %c for printing character values In addition to format specifiers like %f. The general form of printf( ) function is. r. Right now. Prin = 1000 Rate = 8. ‘\n’ is one of the several Escape Sequences available in C. r ) .5 What is ‘\n’ doing in this statement? It is called newline and it takes the cursor to the next line.

Chapter 1: Getting Started 19 handy when we want to format the output properly on separate lines. variables and operators. Once the program has been typed it needs to be converted to machine language (0s and 1s) before the machine can execute it. c. whereas gcc compiler works under Linux. To type your C program you need another program called Editor. Turbo C++ and Microsoft C are some of the popular compilers that work under MS-DOS. printf( ) can not only print values of variables. The results of these expressions can be printed as shown below: printf ( "%d %d %d %d". c and a + b * c – d all are valid expressions. Compiler vendors provide an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) which consists of an Editor as well as the Compiler. Most of the . it can also print the result of an expression. 3. 3 + 2. Note that Turbo C++. Microsoft C++ and Borland C++ software also contain a C compiler bundled with them. Note that 3 and c also represent valid expressions. There are several such IDEs available in the market targeted towards different operating systems. For example. Visual C++ and Borland C++ are the compilers that work under Windows. Once you have mastered the language elements you can then switch over to more sophisticated compilers like Visual C++ under Windows or gcc under Linux. 3 + 2. Turbo C. 3. Compilation and Execution Once you have written the program you need to type it and instruct the machine to execute it. a + b * c – d ) . If you are a beginner you would be better off using a simple compiler like Turbo C or Turbo C++. To carry out this conversion we need another program called Compiler. An expression is nothing but a valid combination of constants. Thus.

(b) Select New from the File menu. In the dialog box that pops up. If we copy this file to another machine we can execute it there without being required to recompile it.20 Let Us C programs in this book would work with all the compilers. In fact the other machine need not even have a compiler to be able to execute the file. To get rid of this error. Wherever there is a deviation I would point it out that time. (a) Select ‘Options’ menu and then select ‘Compiler | C++ Options’. (c) Type the program. This file is called an executable file. Note that on compiling the program its machine language equivalent is stored as an EXE file (Program1. perform the following steps and then recompile the program. Assuming that you are using a Turbo C or Turbo C++ compiler here are the steps that you need to follow to compile and execute your first C program… (a) Start the compiler at C> prompt. select ‘CPP always’ in the ‘Use C++ Compiler’ options.EXE is usually present in C:\TC\BIN directory). you may get an error — “The function printf should have a prototype”.EXE) on the disk. (f) Use Alt + F5 to view the output. A word of caution! If you run this program in Turbo C++ compiler. (b) Again select ‘Options’ menu and then select ‘Environment | Editor’.c). The compiler (TC. . Make sure that the default extension is ‘C’ rather than ‘CPP’. (e) Use Ctrl + F9 to compile and execute the program. (d) Save the program using F2 under a proper name (say Program1.

printf ( "%f" . n . This is illustrated in the program shown below. Hence it is a good practice to create a program that is general enough to work for any set of values. &r ) . /* Calculation of simple interest */ /* Author gekay Date 25/05/2004 */ main( ) { int p. n and r through the keyboard during execution. If we want to calculate simple interest for some other set of values then we are required to make the relevant change in the program. 3 and 8. &n. printf ( "Enter values of p. float r. si = p * n * r / 100 . n. Every time we run the program we would get the same value for simple interest. Thus the program is not general enough to calculate simple interest for any set of values without being required to make a change in the program.5. if you distribute the EXE file of this program to somebody he would not even be able to make changes in the program. r" ) . scanf ( "%d %d %f". and again compile and execute it. &p. printf( ) outputs the values to the screen whereas scanf( ) receives them from the keyboard. This can be achieved using a function called scanf( ). To make the program general the program itself should ask the user to supply the values of p. } . Moreover. si ) . n and r to be 1000. This function is a counter-part of the printf( ) function.Chapter 1: Getting Started 21 Receiving Input In the program discussed above we assumed the values of p. si .

How about another program to give you a feel of things. 1000 5 1000 5 15. Note that a blank. we are telling scanf( ) at which memory location should it store the value supplied by the user from the keyboard.5 Ex. It gives the location number used by the variable in memory.. Here we have not used any expression in printf( ) which means that using expressions in printf( ) is optional. n.: The three values separated by newline. r’ on the screen.5 Ex.: The three values separated by tab. This is shown below: Ex. & is an ‘Address of’ operator. /* Just for fun.5 15. a tab or a new line must separate the values supplied to scanf( ).22 Let Us C The first printf( ) outputs the message ‘Enter values of p.. The detailed working of the & operator would be taken up in Chapter 5. When we say &a. So much for the tips. Author: Bozo */ main( ) { int num . tab using the Tab key and new line using the Enter key. .: The three values separated by blank 1000 5 15. Note that the ampersand (&) before the variables in the scanf( ) function is a must. printf ( "Enter a number" ) . Note that a blank is creating using a spacebar.

(b) Arithmetic instruction − (c) Control instruction − Since. printf ( "You have just entered the number %d".. To control the sequence of execution of various statements in a C program.Chapter 1: Getting Started scanf ( "%d". printf ( "Now I am letting you on a secret. } 23 C Instructions Now that we have written a few programs let us look at the instructions that we used in these programs. num ) . The other types of instructions would be discussed in detail in the subsequent chapters. There are basically three types of instructions in C: (a) Type Declaration Instruction (b) Arithmetic Instruction (c) Control Instruction The purpose of each of these instructions is given below: (a) Type declaration instruction − To declare the type of variables used in a C program. we would discuss only these two instructions at this stage. To perform arithmetic operations between constants and variables. ." ) .. &num ) . the elementary C programs would usually contain only the type declaration and the arithmetic instructions.

5. float rs. The type declaration statement is written at the beginning of main( ) function. but float b = a + 3.5. float a = 1. There are several subtle variations of the type declaration instruction. Any variable used in the program must be declared before using it in any statement. int i = 10. However. code . j = 25 . grosssal .1 .24 Type Declaration Instruction Let Us C This instruction is used to declare the type of variables being used in the program. b = a + 3.4 * 1. char name. is alright. j = 25 .: int bas . a = 1.44 . int i = 10.5 . Ex.1. b = 1. is same as int j = 25. For example. These are discussed below: (a) While declaring the type of variable we can also initialize it as shown below. . (b) The order in which we define the variables is sometimes important sometimes not. j = 10 . float a = 1.99 + 2.

This is because here we are trying to use a even before defining it. ad is an integer variable. deta = alpha * beta / gamma + 3. alpha. d . the following statement would not work int a = b = c = d = 10 . ad = 3200 . *. Here. beta. -.0056 are real constants. Arithmetic Instruction A C arithmetic instruction consists of a variable name on the left hand side of = and variable names & constants on the right hand side of =.0056 . .2 * 2 / 5 . 5 and 3200 are integer constants. Once again we are trying to use b (to assign to a) before defining it. gamma are real variables. 2.: int ad . 3. = is the assignment operator. a = b = c = 10 . /. float kot. deta. kot = 0. deta. alpha. (c) The following statements would work int a. b.Chapter 1: Getting Started 25 is not. beta. However. *. kot. c. and /. -. gamma . Ex. The variables and constants appearing on the right hand side of = are connected by arithmetic operators like +.2 and 0. + are the arithmetic operators.

0 .26 Let Us C The variables and constants together are called ‘operands’ that are operated upon by the ‘arithmetic operators’ and the result is assigned. i=i+1. It is very important to understand how the execution of an arithmetic statement takes place. Firstly. anoy. num . int a. antink. A C arithmetic statement could be of three types.0 . Ex. . si = prin * anoy * roi / 100.5 * 0. avg . si. Ex. the right hand side is evaluated using constants and the numerical values stored in the variable names. king. Ex. issac.: float si.This is an arithmetic statement in which all operands are either real constants or real variables.This is an arithmetic statement in which all operands are either integer variables or integer constants. (c) Mixed mode arithmetic statement .This is an arithmetic statement in which some of the operands are integers and some of the operands are real.: float qbee. si = prin * anoy * roi / 100. anoy. king = issac * 234 + noteit .3442 . This value is then assigned to the variable on the left-hand side. prin.123 / 4.7689 . to the variable on lefthand side. (b) Real mode arithmetic statement . noteit .: int i. b. prin. qbee = antink + 23. using the assignment operator. avg = ( a + b + c + num ) / 4 . These are as follows: (a) Integer mode arithmetic statement . c. roi . roi.

Let us take a closer look at these statements. Note the following points carefully. d = '+' . b = 'G' . That is.Chapter 1: Getting Started 27 Though Arithmetic instructions look simple to use one often commits mistakes in writing them. whereas k * l = z is illegal. d . x = 'a' . . (b) In addition to the division operator C also provides a modular division operator. (a) C allows only one variable on left-hand side of =. z = k * l is legal. This operator returns the remainder on dividing one integer with another. z=x+y. y = 'b' . When we do this the ASCII values of the characters are stored in the variables. Note that the modulus operator (%) cannot be applied on a float. Thus the expression 10 / 2 yields 5. char x. int z . (c) An arithmetic instruction is often used for storing character constants in character variables. char a. Thus the statements. 10 % 2 yields 0. 5 % -2 yields 1. y . (d) Arithmetic operations can be performed on ints. b. whereas. The ASCII values of ‘F’ and ‘G’ are 70 and 71 (refer the ASCII Table in Appendix E). ASCII values are used to represent any character in memory. whereas. Thus –5 % 2 yields –1. a = 'F' . Also note that on using % the sign of the remainder is always same as the sign of the numerator. floats and chars.

2 ) . b=3^2. In the following example.h> is a preprocessor directive. The ASCII values of ‘a’ and ‘b’ are 97 and 98. a = pow ( 3. since the addition is performed on the ASCII values of the characters and not on characters themselves. It is being used to raise 3 to the power of 2. Thus following statements are invalid. We would learn more about standard library functions in Chapter 5 and about preprocessor in Chapter 7.h> main( ) { int a . It must be written explicitly.28 Let Us C are perfectly valid. and hence can definitely be added. (e) No operator is assumed to be present. It is being used here to ensure that the pow( ) function works correctly.b(xy) b=c*d*b*(x*y) usual arithmetic statement C statement (f) Unlike other high level languages. . #include <math. the multiplication operator after b must be explicitly written. there is no operator for performing exponentiation operation. printf ( “%d”. } Here pow( ) function is a standard library function. a = c.d. a = 3 ** 2 . a ) . If we want to do the exponentiation we can get it done this way: #include <math.

These are mentioned below.0 / 2. Operation 5/2 5.4 0.6 Type Conversion in Assignments It may so happen that the type of the expression and the type of the variable on the left-hand side of the assignment operator may not be same.5 2.4 Figure 1.0 2. Note them carefully.0 Result 2 2. Hence the result is real. (c) An operation between an integer and real always yields a real result. In such a case the value of the expression is promoted or .0 / 5 2 / 5.Chapter 1: Getting Started 29 Integer and Float Conversions In order to effectively develop C programs.5 Operation 2/5 2.0 5. (b) An operation between a real and real always yields a real result.4 0. I think a few practical examples shown in the following figure would put the issue beyond doubt.5 2.0 / 2 5 / 2. In this operation the integer is first promoted to a real and then the operation is performed.0 / 5. it will be necessary to understand the rules that are used for the implicit conversion of floating point and integer values in C. (a) An arithmetic operation between an integer and integer always yields an integer result.0 Result 0 0.

For example. Exactly opposite happens in the next statement. since b being a float variable cannot hold anything except a float value. consider the following program fragment.5 . still the same rules apply. . consider the following assignment statements. Hence what gets stored in i is 3. Instead of a simple expression used in the above examples if a complex expression occurs. Observe the results of the arithmetic statements shown in Figure 1. It has been assumed that k is an integer variable and a is a real variable. Here in the first assignment statement though the expression’s value is a float (3. Here. As we know.000000 and then stored in b. during evaluation of the expression the ints would be promoted to floats and the result of the expression would be a float. 30 is promoted to 30.3 * 1. float b . in the assignment statement some operands are ints whereas others are floats. float a. i = 3. int i . b.5) it cannot be stored in i since it is an int. In such a case the float is demoted to an int and then its value is stored.7. b = 30 . But when this float value is assigned to s it is again demoted to an int and then stored in s.30 Let Us C demoted depending on the type of the variable on left-hand side of =. For example.1 . s = a * b * c / 100 + 32 / 4 . Here. c . int s .

k being an int.0 k=9/2 k = 9. does the expression 2 * x . However. i.0 / 9 a = 2 / 9. The priority or precedence in which the operations in .0 / 2. k = 2.5 4.0 k = 2.e. the results are obtained differently.0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 4 a=2/9 a = 2.2222 4.2222 0.3 * y correspond to (2x)-(3y) or to 2(x-3y)? Similarly. For example.5 Figure 1. 0.222222.2222 0. Hierarchy of Operations While executing an arithmetic statement.0 0.0 and then the division is performed.0 0.5 4.0 / 9. we may have some problems as to how exactly does it get executed. In the second statement 9 is promoted to 9.0 / 2 k = 9 / 2. the result is an integer. does A / B * C correspond to A / (B * C) or to (A / B) * C? To answer these questions satisfactorily one has to understand the ‘hierarchy’ of operations.0 a=9/2 a = 9.0 4.0 a = 9.0 / 2. which has two or more operators.Chapter 1: Getting Started 31 Arithmetic Instruction Result Arithmetic Instruction Result k=2/9 k = 2. k=2/9.0 / 9.0 a = 2. this cannot be stored in k. Hence it gets demoted to 0 and then stored in k.7 Note that though the following statements give the same result.0 / 2 a = 9 / 2. since both 2 and 9 are integers.0 k = 9. In the first statement. This 0 is then assigned to k. Division yields 0.0 / 9 .0 / 9 k = 2 / 9. 0.

8 Now a few tips about usage of operators in general. Priority 1 2nd 3rd st Operators */% += Description multiplication. the operations within the innermost parentheses would be performed first. The hierarchy of commonly used operators is shown in Figure 1.11 is operative. A few examples would clarify the issue further. Example 1. Best way to avoid this error is to type ( ) and then type an expression inside it.32 Let Us C an arithmetic statement are performed is called the hierarchy of operations. Also. followed by the operations within the second innermost pair and so on. modular division addition.1: Determine the hierarchy of operations and evaluate the following expression: i=2*3/4+4/4+8-2+5/8 Stepwise evaluation of this expression is shown below: i=2*3/4+4/4+8-2+5/8 . A careless imbalance of the right and left parentheses is a common error. (b) We must always remember to use pairs of parentheses. subtraction assignment Figure 1.8. (a) Within parentheses the same hierarchy as mentioned in Figure 1. if there are more than one set of parentheses. division.

Example 1. We have not . again for the same reason mentioned in the previous example.5. Unfortunately. And mind you there are as many as 45 odd operators in C.2 + 5 / 8 i=1+1+8-2+0 i=2+8-2+0 i = 10 . This so happens because 6 and 4 both are integers and therefore would evaluate to only an integer constant. All operators in C are ranked according to their precedence. Similarly 5 / 8 evaluates to zero.2 + 0 i=8+0 i=8 operation: * operation: / operation: / operation: / operation: + operation: + operation : operation: + 33 Note that 6 / 4 gives 1 and not 1.2: Determine the hierarchy of operations and evaluate the following expression: kk = 3 / 2 * 4 + 3 / 8 + 3 Stepwise evaluation of this expression is shown below: kk = 3 / 2 * 4 + 3 / 8 + 3 kk = 1 * 4 + 3 / 8 + 3 kk = 4 + 3 / 8 + 3 kk = 4 + 0 + 3 kk = 4 + 3 kk = 7 operation: / operation: * operation: / operation: + operation: + Note that 3 / 8 gives zero. there are no simple rules that one can follow.Chapter 1: Getting Started i=6/4+4/4+8-2+5/8 i=1+4/4+8-2+5/8 i = 1 + 1+ 8 . and these can affect the evaluation of an expression in subtle and unexpected ways if we aren't careful. such as “BODMAS” that tells algebra students in which order does an expression evaluate. since 5 and 8 are integer constants and hence must return an integer value.

Left to Right associativity means that the left operand must be . C can handle any complex expression with ease. Associativity can be of two types—Left to Right or Right to Left. But our knowledge would be incomplete unless we know how to convert a general arithmetic statement to a C statement. it becomes more palatable.34 Let Us C encountered many out of these 45 operators. This may sound daunting. it can be realized at this stage that it would be almost impossible to remember the precedence of all these operators. So far we have seen how the computer evaluates an arithmetic statement written in C. So a full-fledged list of all operators and their precedence is given in Appendix A. so we won’t pursue the subject of precedence any further here. Algebric Expression C Expression axb–cxd (m + n) (a + b) 3x2 + 2x + 5 a+b+c d+e a*b–c*d (m + n) * (a + b) 3*x*x+2*x+ 5 (a+b+c)/(d+e) 2 * b * y / ( d + 1 ) – x / 3 * ( z + y ) ⎡ 2 BY x ⎤ ⎢ d + 1 − 3( z + y ) ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ Figure 1. However.9. Some of the examples of C expressions are shown in Figure 1.9 Associativity of Operators When an expression contains two operators of equal priority the tie between them is settled using the associativity of the operators. but when its contents are absorbed in small bites.

Chapter 1: Getting Started 35 unambiguous. . Operator Left / * 3 3 / 2 or 2 Right Remark 2 or 2 * Left operand is 5 unambiguous. Unambiguous in what sense? It must not be involved in evaluation of any other sub-expression. Let us understand this with an example. But both enjoy Left to Right associativity. that is between / and *. in case of Right to Left associativity the right operand must be unambiguous. Figure 1. Consider one more expression a=b=3. Right is not 5 Right operand is unambiguous. Here there is a tie between operators of same priority. Similarly. This tie is settled using the associativity of / and *. Consider the expression a=3/2*5 . Here both assignment operators have the same priority and same associativity (Right to Left).10 shows for each operator which operand is unambiguous and which is not. Figure 1.11 shows for each operator which operand is unambiguous and which is not.10 Since both / and * have L to R associativity and only / has unambiguous left operand (necessary condition for L to R associativity) it is performed earlier. Left is not Figure 1.

Consider yet another expression z=a*b+c/d.12 shows for each operator which operand is unambiguous and which is not. Figure 1.11 Since both = have R to L associativity and only the second = has unambiguous right operand (necessary condition for R to L associativity) the second = is performed earlier. Right is not 3 Right operand is unambiguous.12 a c Right Remark b d Both operands are unambiguous Both operands are unambiguous Here since left operands for both operators are unambiguous Compiler is free to perform * or / operation as per its convenience . Operator Left * / Figure 1.36 Let Us C Operator Left = a Right Remark b or b = Left operand is 3 unambiguous. Left is not = b or a = b Figure 1. Here * and / enjoys same priority and same associativity (Left to Right).

There are four types of control instructions in C. Summary (a) The three primary constants and variable types in C are integer. In other words the control instructions determine the ‘flow of control’ in a program. . (b) A variable name can be of maximum 31 characters. float and character. The Loop control instruction helps computer to execute a group of statements repeatedly. Try your hand at the Exercise presented on the following pages before proceeding to the next chapter. Control Instructions in C As the name suggests the ‘Control Instructions’ enable us to specify the order in which the various instructions in a program are to be executed by the computer.Chapter 1: Getting Started 37 since no matter which is performed earlier the result would be same. In the following chapters we are going to learn these instructions in detail. Decision and Case control instructions allow the computer to take a decision as to which instruction is to be executed next. Appendix A gives the associativity of all the operators available in C. which discusses the decision control instruction. (c) Do not use a keyword as a variable name. They are: (a) (b) (c) (d) Sequence Control Instruction Selection or Decision Control Instruction Repetition or Loop Control Instruction Case Control Instruction The Sequence control instruction ensures that the instructions are executed in the same order in which they appear in the program.

(e) Operators having equal precedence are evaluated using associativity. Exercise [A] Which of the following are invalid variable names and why? BASICSALARY #MEAN population in 2006 FLOAT team’svictory _basic group. if any. (g) Input/output in C can be achieved using scanf( ) and printf( ) functions.562 * 150 . (f) Left to right associativity means that the left operand of a operator must be unambiguous whereas right to left associativity means that the right operand of a operator must be unambiguous. (e) k = ( a * b ) ( c + ( 2. 2015_DDay [B] Point out the errors. (d) 3. variables and operators. .14 * r * r * h = vol_of_cyl . over time hELLO Plot # 3 basic-hra 422 mindovermatter queue. (c) varchar = ‘3’ . (b) name = ‘Ajay’ . (f) m_inst = rate of interest * amount in rs . in the following C statements: (a) int = 314.38 Let Us C (d) An expression may contain any sequence of constants.5a + b ) ( d + e ) .

(a = 4. assume on to be an int) (c) s = qui * add / 4 .6 / 2 + 2 / 3 * 6 / god . (ink = 4.5. (h) area = 3. (abc = 2. (a) g = big / 2 + big * 4 / big .6 / 2 + 2 / 3 * 6 / g . assume s to be an int) [D] Fill the following table for the expressions given below and then evaluate the result.5 * a + b ) .2. god = 2.14 * r ^ 2 * h . assume g to be a float) (b) on = ink * act / 2 + 3 / 2 * act + 2 + tig . (j) k = ( (a * b ) + c ) ( 2. (k) a = b = 3 = 4 . (qui = 4. act = 1. . (m) date = '2 Mar 04' . (l) count = count + 1 . add = 2. big = 2. (i) volume = 3.14 * r ** 2 . A sample entry has been filled in the table for expression (a). tig = 3. assume s to be an int) (d) s = 1 / 3 * a / 4 .Chapter 1: Getting Started (g) si = principal * rateofinterest * numberofyears / 100 . g = 3. 39 [C] Evaluate the following expressions and show their hierarchy.big + abc / 3 .

.0.0... (a) Z= X= R= A= 8.5 + 2 a / ( q + r ) ( a + b ) * (1 / m ) . Right is not .8 + 2b ( x + a ) (1 / y ) (b) (c) (d) [F] What would be the output of the following programs: (a) main( ) { .8 ( a + b ) 2 / c .7b ( xy + a ) / c . . [E] Convert the following equations into corresponding C statements. (a) g = 10 / 5 /2 / 1 . . (c) a = b = c = 3 + 4 ..22 ( c + d ) g+v 7. . (b) b = 3 / 2 + 5 * 4 / 3 .b + ( b * b ) + 2 4ac 2a 2v + 6.40 Let Us C Operator / Left 10 Right Remark 5 or 5 / 2 Left operand is /1 unambiguous.

a. l . int c . l=j/i*i. } . printf ( "a = %d b = %d". b ) . printf ( "Enter values of a and b" ) . float a.3 ) .( . printf( "%d %d %f %f". b ) . l. b . &a. a=i/j*j. } 41 (d) main( ) { printf ( "nn \n\n nn\n" ) . printf ( "nn /n/n nn/n" ) . b=j/i*i.. } (b) main( ) { int a. printf ( "%d". b . c ) .Chapter 1: Getting Started int i = 2.. b . k. c=a%b. b = 2 . b = -3 . a. b ) .3 . } (e) main( ) { int a. a. &b ) . a = -3 . k=i/j*j. } (c) main( ) { float a = 5. printf ( "a = %d b = %d". scanf ( " %d %d ". j = 3. k.

q ) . q ) . printf ( "p = %d q =%d". } Let Us C [G] Pick up the correct alternative for each of the following questions: (a) C language has been developed by (1) Ken Thompson (2) Dennis Ritchie (3) Peter Norton (4) Martin Richards (b) C can be used on (1) Only MS-DOS operating system (2) Only Linux operating system (3) Only Windows operating system (4) All the above (c) C programs are converted into machine language with the help of (1) An Editor (2) A compiler (3) An operating system (4) None of the above (d) The real constant in C can be expressed in which of the following forms (1) Fractional form only (2) Exponential form only (3) ASCII form only .42 (f) main( ) { int p. printf ( "Enter values of p and q" ) . q . scanf ( " %d %d ". p. p.

(3) this = 'T' * 20 . (2) con = 'T' * 'A' . 43 . N.Chapter 1: Getting Started (4) Both fractional and exponential forms (e) A character variable can at a time store (1) 1 character (2) 8 characters (3) 254 characters (4) None of the above (f) The statement char ch = ‘Z’ would store in ch (1) The character Z (2) ASCII value of Z (3) Z along with the single inverted commas (4) Both (1) and (2) (g) Which of the following is NOT a character constant (1) ‘Thank You’ (2) ‘Enter values of P. (4) 3 + a = b .7014e+38 (4) –1. R’ (3) ‘23.7014e+38 (i) A C variable cannot start with (1) An alphabet (2) A number (3) A special symbol other than underscore (4) Both (2) & (3) above (j) Which of the following statement is wrong (1) mes = 123.56E-03’ (4) All the above (h) The maximum value that an integer constant can have is (1) -32767 (2) 32767 (3) 1.56 .

.6 / a (2) a + 2 (3) 2 * n (4) Depends upon compiler (m) Which of the following is allowed in a C Arithmetic instruction (1) [ ] (2) { } (3) ( ) (4) None of the above (n) Which of the following statements is false (1) Each new C instruction has to be written on a separate line (2) Usually all C statements are entered in small case letters (3) Blank spaces may be inserted between two words in a C statement (4) Blank spaces cannot be inserted within a variable name (o) If a is an integer variable. + or (2) **. which operation will be performed first? (1) 6. (3) **. +.44 Let Us C (k) Which of the following shows the correct hierarchy of arithmetic operators in C (1) **. *. /.14 + 2 ) * 3 / 5 . (4) / or *. evaluates to . /.6 / a + 2 * n .or + (l) In b = 6.5 (2) 3 (3) 2 (4) 0 (p) The expression. *. * or /. will return a value (1) 2. +. a = 7 / 22 * ( 3. a = 5 / 2 .

28 6.14 0 45 (q) The expression.28 3. evaluates to (1) 32768 (2) -32768 (3) 113040 (4) 0 (r) The expression x = 4 + 2 % .8 evaluates to (1) -6 (2) 6 (3) 4 (4) None of the above (s) Hierarchy decides which operator (1) is most important (2) is used first (3) is fastest (4) operates on largest numbers (t) An integer constant in C must have: (1) At least one digit (2) Atleast one decimal point (3) A comma along with digits (4) Digits separated by commas (u) A character variable can never store more than (1) 32 characters (2) 8 characters (3) 254 characters (4) 1 character (v) In C a variable cannot contain (1) Blank spaces . a = 30 * 1000 + 2768 .Chapter 1: Getting Started (1) (2) (3) (4) 8.

/ + (3) + ./ * (4) * / + (z) What will be the value of d if d is a float after the operation d = 2 / 7.0? (1) 0 (2) 0. . Arithmetic instruction cannot contain (1) variables (2) constants (3) variable names on right side of = (4) constants on left side of = Let Us C (y) Which of the following shows the correct hierarchy of arithmetic operations in C (1) / + * (2) * .46 (2) Hyphen (3) Decimal point (4) All the above (w) Which of the following is FALSE in C (1) Keywords can be used as variable names (2) Variable names can contain a digit (3) Variable names do not contain a blank space (4) Capital letters can be used in variable names (x) In C. and house rent allowance is 20% of basic salary. His dearness allowance is 40% of basic salary.2857 (3) Cannot be determined (4) None of the above [H] Write C programs for the following: (a) Ramesh’s basic salary is input through the keyboard. Write a program to calculate his gross salary.

Write a program to calculate the area & perimeter of the rectangle. write a program to reverse the number. (c) If the marks obtained by a student in five different subjects are input through the keyboard. If total percentage of literate men is 35 of the total population.Chapter 1: Getting Started 47 (b) The distance between two cities (in km. write a program to obtain the sum of the first and last digit of this number. feet. Write a program to convert and print this distance in meters. (e) The length & breadth of a rectangle and radius of a circle are input through the keyboard. Write a program to interchange the contents of C and D. write a program to calculate the sum of its digits. (f) Two numbers are input through the keyboard into two locations C and D. (g) If a five-digit number is input through the keyboard. Write a program to convert this temperature into Centigrade degrees. (Hint: Use the modulus operator ‘%’) (h) If a five-digit number is input through the keyboard. find out the aggregate marks and percentage marks obtained by the student. (d) Temperature of a city in Fahrenheit degrees is input through the keyboard. Assume that the maximum marks that can be obtained by a student in each subject is 100. write a program to find the total number . (i) If a four-digit number is input through the keyboard. the percentage of men is 52. and the area & circumference of the circle. The percentage of total literacy is 48. inches and centimeters. (j) In a town.) is input through the keyboard.

If the amount to be withdrawn is input through the keyboard in hundreds. For example if the number that is input is 12391 then the output should be displayed as 23402. . find the total number of currency notes of each denomination the cashier will have to give to the withdrawer. 50 and 100. (l) If the total selling price of 15 items and the total profit earned on them is input through the keyboard.48 Let Us C of illiterate men and women if the population of the town is 80.000. (m) If a five-digit number is input through the keyboard. write a program to find the cost price of one item. write a program to print a new number by adding one to each of its digits. (k) A cashier has currency notes of denominations 10.

2 The Decision Control Structure • Decisions! Decisions! • The if Statement The Real Thing Multiple Statements within if • The if-else Statement Nested if-elses Forms of if • Use of Logical Operators The else if Clause The ! Operator Hierarchy of Operators Revisited • A Word of Caution • The Conditional Operators • Summary • Exercise 49 .

I would write the next edition. If the weather is fine. By default the instructions in a program are executed sequentially. in serious programming situations.50 Let Us C e all need to alter our actions in the face of changing circumstances. a decision control instruction can be implemented in C using: (a) The if statement (b) The if-else statement (c) The conditional operators . we don’t have to do anything at all. C language too must be able to perform different sets of actions depending on the circumstances. If you like this book. W Decisions! Decisions! In the programs written in Chapter 1 we have used sequence control structure in which the various steps are executed sequentially. You can notice that all these decisions depend on some condition being met. As mentioned earlier. in the same order in which they appear in the program. This kind of situation is dealt in C programs using a decision control instruction. A fourth. we would win the match. and an entirely different set of instructions to be executed in another situation. However. In fact to execute the instructions sequentially. If the pitch takes spin.e. and the switch statement. If the highway is busy I would take a diversion. I would look elsewhere. somewhat less important structure is the one that uses conditional operators. seldom do we want the instructions to be executed sequentially. then I will go for a stroll. i. C has three major decision making instructions—the if statement. Many a times. later) in which a C program can react to changing circumstances. we want a set of instructions to be executed in one situation. If she says no. In this chapter we will explore all these ways (except switch. In fact this is what makes it worth its salt. which has a separate chapter devoted to it. the if-else statement.

The condition following the keyword if is always enclosed within a pair of parentheses. If the condition. then the statement is executed. The keyword if tells the compiler that what follows is a decision control instruction.Chapter 2: The Decision Control Structure Now let us learn each of these and their variations in turn. C uses the keyword if to implement the decision control instruction. But how do we express the condition itself in C? And how do we evaluate its truth or falsity? As a general rule. 51 The if Statement Like most languages. is true. The general form of if statement looks like this: if ( this condition is true ) execute this statement .1 . If the condition is not true then the statement is not executed. Here’s how they look and how they are evaluated in C. whatever it is. unequal. The relational operators allow us to compare two values to see whether they are equal to each other. we express a condition using C’s ‘relational’ operators. or whether one is greater than the other. this expression x == y x != y x<y x>y x <= y x >= y is true if x is equal to y x is not equal to y x is less than y x is greater than y x is less than or equal to y x is greater than or equal to y Figure 2. instead the program skips past it.

scanf ( "%d". . } On execution of this program. Note that = is used for assignment. which demonstrates the use of if and the relational operators. The following flowchart would help you understand the flow of control in the program. whereas.52 Let Us C The relational operators should be familiar to you except for the equality operator == and the inequality operator !=. if you type a number less than or equal to 10. if ( num <= 10 ) printf ( "What an obedient servant you are !" ) . printf ( "Enter a number less than 10 " ) . &num ) . /* Demonstration of if statement */ main( ) { int num . you get a message on the screen through printf( ). == is used for comparison of two quantities. Here is a simple program. If you type some other number the program doesn’t do anything.

the program is accompanied by an appropriate flowchart.Chapter 2: The Decision Control Structure START PRINT enter a num less than 10 INPUT num is num > 10 53 no yes PRINT What an obedient servant you are ! STOP Figure 2. a discount of 10% is offered if the quantity purchased is more than 1000. To help you understand it easily.2 To make you comfortable with the decision control instruction one more example has been given below.1: While purchasing certain items. Study it carefully before reading further. write a program to calculate the total expenses. If quantity and price per item are input through the keyboard. . Example 2.

float rate.3 /* Calculation of total expenses */ main( ) { int qty. if ( qty > 1000 ) dis = 10 . scanf ( "%d %f". . rate is qty > 1000 yes Let Us C no dis = 10 tot = qty * rate – qty * rate * dis / 100 PRINT tot STOP Figure 2. tot .54 START dis = 0 INPUT qty. &rate) . dis = 0 . printf ( "Enter quantity and rate " ) . &qty.

50 Total expenses = Rs. The Real Thing We mentioned earlier that the general form of the if statement is as follows if ( condition ) statement .( qty * rate * dis / 100 ) . Using this new value total expenses are calculated and printed. remains 0. 16740. which was earlier set to 0. the condition evaluates to true. since in C.000000 In the first run of the program. thereby offering no discount.Chapter 2: The Decision Control Structure tot = ( qty * rate ) . dis. printf ( "Total expenses = Rs. tot ) . Is the statement dis = 0 necessary? The answer is yes. a variable if not specifically initialized contains some unpredictable value (garbage value). } 55 Here is some sample interaction with the program. 3100. Thus. now gets a new value 10. Truly speaking the general form is as follows: .50 Total expenses = Rs. In the second run the condition evaluates to false. Therefore. Enter quantity and rate 1200 15. %f". and hence the expression after the minus sign evaluates to zero. the variable dis.000000 Enter quantity and rate 200 15. as 200 (the value of qty) isn’t greater than 1000. as 1200 (value of qty) is greater than 1000. which is earlier set to 0.

56 if ( expression ) statement . the expression evaluates to 5 and since 5 is non-zero it is considered to be true. if ( a = 10 ) printf ( "Even this works" ) . hence true. Since 10 is non-zero. Multiple Statements within if It may so happen that in a program we want more than one statement to be executed if the expression following if is satisfied. In the first if. whereas a 0 is considered to be false. -5 is a non-zero number. In the second if. Issue is whether it is zero or non-zero. Hence the printf( ) gets executed. if ( -5 ) printf ( "Surprisingly even this works" ) . 10 gets assigned to a so the if is now reduced to if ( a ) or if ( 10 ). For example all the following if statements are valid if ( 3 + 2 % 5 ) printf ( "This works" ) . or whether it is positive or negative. So the issue is not whether the number is integer or float. If such multiple statements are to be executed then they must be . Note that in C a non-zero value is considered to be true. Let Us C Here the expression can be any valid expression including a relational expression.14 were used it would be considered to be true. In the third if. So again printf( ) goes to work. it is true hence again printf( ) goes to work. In place of -5 even if a float like 3. We can even use arithmetic expressions in the if statement.

yoj . yoj.Chapter 2: The Decision Control Structure 57 placed within a pair of braces as illustrated in the following example. In other words we can say that the default scope of the if statement is the immediately next statement after it.2: The current year and the year in which the employee joined the organization are entered through the keyboard. Example 2. &yoj ) . printf ( "Bonus = Rs. printf ( "Enter current year and year of joining " ) . &cy. bonus ) . yr_of_ser = cy . then the program should do nothing. /* Calculation of bonus */ main( ) { int bonus. yr_of_ser . . %d". } } Observe that here the two statements to be executed on satisfaction of the condition have been enclosed within a pair of braces. If a pair of braces is not used then the C compiler assumes that the programmer wants only the immediately next statement after the if to be executed on satisfaction of the condition. cy. scanf ( "%d %d". If the number of years for which the employee has served the organization is greater than 3 then a bonus of Rs. If the years of service are not greater than 3. if ( yr_of_ser > 3 ) { bonus = 2500 . 2500/is given to the employee.

58 START INPUT cy. It does nothing when the expression evaluates to false. yoj Let Us C yr_of_ser = cy .3: In a company an employee is paid as under: .4 The if-else Statement The if statement by itself will execute a single statement. or a group of statements. when the expression following if evaluates to true. Can we execute one group of statements if the expression evaluates to true and another group of statements if the expression evaluates to false? Of course! This is what is the purpose of the else statement that is demonstrated in the following example: Example 2.yoj no yr_of_ser > 3 yes bonus = 2500 PRINT bonus STOP Figure 2.

%f". hra . gs. da = bs * 90 / 100 . printf ( "gross salary = Rs. da = bs * 98 / 100 . then HRA = Rs. 500 and DA = 98% of basic salary. } gs = bs + hra + da . } . &bs ) .Chapter 2: The Decision Control Structure 59 If his basic salary is less than Rs. gs ) . If the employee's salary is input through the keyboard write a program to find his gross salary. printf ( "Enter basic salary " ) . 1500. then HRA = 10% of basic salary and DA = 90% of basic salary. scanf ( "%f". if ( bs < 1500 ) { hra = bs * 10 / 100 . } else { hra = 500 . If his salary is either equal to or above Rs. /* Calculation of gross salary */ main( ) { float bs. 1500. da.

Similarly.5 Figure 2.. The statements in the if block and those in the else block have been indented to the right.60 Let Us C START INPUT bs is bs < 1500 hra = 500 da = bs * 98 / 100 hra = bs * 10 / 100 da = bs * 90 / 100 gs = bs + hra + da PRINT gs STOP Figure 2. (b) Notice that the else is written exactly below the if. This formatting convention is . the statements after the else form the ‘else block’.5 A few points worth noting. (a) The group of statements after the if upto and not including the else is called an ‘if block’..

(d) As with the if statement. } } . &i ) . (c) Had there been only one statement to be executed in the if block and only one statement in the else block we could have dropped the pair of braces. /* A quick demo of nested if-else */ main( ) { int i . scanf ( "%d". This is called ‘nesting’of ifs. Nested if-elses It is perfectly all right if we write an entire if-else construct within either the body of the if statement or the body of an else statement.Chapter 2: The Decision Control Structure 61 followed throughout the book to enable you to understand the working of the program better. printf ( "Enter either 1 or 2 " ) . else printf ( "How about mother earth !" ) . if ( i == 1 ) printf ( "You would go to heaven !" ) . To override this default scope a pair of braces as shown in the above example must be used. the default scope of else is also the statement immediately after the else. else { if ( i == 2 ) printf ( "Hell was created with you in mind" ) . This is shown in the following program.

If it is false as well. then the final else statement is executed. Forms of if The if statement can take any of the following forms: (a) if ( condition ) do this . } (c) if ( condition ) do this . (d) if ( condition ) { do this . in some other program an if-else may occur in the if block as well. There is no limit on how deeply the ifs and the elses can be nested. then the condition in the second if statement is checked. it is also indented to add clarity to the program. In the above program an if-else occurs within the else block of the first if statement. (b) if ( condition ) { do this . and this . . If the condition in the first if statement is false. else do this . Similarly. otherwise you would end up writing programs which nobody (you included) can understand easily at a later date.62 Let Us C Note that the second if-else construct is nested in the first else statement. Inculcate this habit of indentation. You can see in the program how each time a if-else construct is nested within another if-else construct.

else { if ( condition ) do this . else { do this . } (e) if ( condition ) do this . } else { do this . 63 . } } (f) if ( condition ) { if ( condition ) do this . } } else do this . and this . else { do this .Chapter 2: The Decision Control Structure and this . and this . and this .

These methods are given below. Let us see how they are used in a program. printf ( "Enter marks in five subjects " ) . per . Don’t use the single symbol | and &. &m1. The student gets a division as per the following rules: Percentage above or equal to 60 .4: The marks obtained by a student in 5 different subjects are input through the keyboard. &m5 ) . &&. &m4. m4. The first two operators.First division Percentage between 50 and 59 . They are bitwise operators. These single symbols also have a meaning.Fail Write a program to calculate the division obtained by the student. && and ||. . scanf ( "%d %d %d %d %d". namely. There are several things to note about these logical operators. Consider the following example. &m3.Third division Percentage less than 40 . There are two ways in which we can write a program for this example. allow two or more conditions to be combined in an if statement. || and !. &m2. m5. per = ( m1 + m2 + m3 + m4 + m5 ) / 5 . two of them are composed of double symbols: || and &&.64 Use of Logical Operators Let Us C C allows usage of three logical operators.Second division Percentage between 40 and 49 . Example 2. m2. /* Method – I */ main( ) { int m1. which we would examine in Chapter 14. Most obviously. These are to be read as ‘AND’ ‘OR’ and ‘NOT’ respectively. m3.

else { if ( per >= 50 ) printf ( "Second division" ) . printf ( "Enter marks in five subjects " ) . } } } 65 This is a straight forward program. As a result the whole program creeps to the right. &m5 ) . m5. per = ( m1 + m2 + m3 + m4 + m5 ) / 5 . Observe that the program uses nested if-elses. m2. m4. &m2. The following program illustrates this. &m4. (c) Care needs to be exercised to match the corresponding pair of braces. else printf ( "Fail" ) . else { if ( per >= 40 ) printf ( "Third division" ) . m3. per . This leads to three disadvantages: (a) As the number of conditions go on increasing the level of indentation also goes on increasing. . All these three problems can be eliminated by usage of ‘Logical operators’. &m1. &m3. (b) Care needs to be exercised to match the corresponding ifs and elses. /* Method – II */ main( ) { int m1.Chapter 2: The Decision Control Structure if ( per >= 60 ) printf ( "First division ") . scanf ( "%d %d %d %d %d".

(b) In spite of using several conditions.4. the program doesn't creep to the right. ‘Second division’ gets printed if both the conditions evaluate to true. The else if Clause There is one more way in which we can write program for Example 2. if ( ( per >= 40 ) && ( per < 50 ) ) printf ( "Third division" ) . Two distinct advantages can be cited in favour of this program: (a) The matching (or do I say mismatching) of the ifs with their corresponding elses gets avoided. If one of the conditions evaluate to false then the whole thing is treated as false. In the previous program the statements went on creeping to the right. if ( per < 40 ) printf ( "Fail" ) . the && operator is used to combine two conditions. This involves usage of else if blocks as shown below: . This effect becomes more pronounced as the number of conditions go on increasing. } Let Us C As can be seen from the second if statement. if ( ( per >= 50 ) && ( per < 60 ) ) printf ( "Second division" ) . since there are no elses in this program.66 if ( per >= 60 ) printf ( "First division" ) . This would make the task of matching the ifs with their corresponding elses and matching of opening and closing braces that much more difficult.

per . else if ( per >= 40 ) printf ( "Third division" ) . } 67 You can note that this program reduces the indentation of the statements. m4. } if ( i == 2 ) printf ( "With you…" ) . In this case every else is associated with its previous if. else { if ( j == 2 ) printf ( "…All the time" ) . m3. Note that the else if clause is nothing different. else if ( j == 2 ) printf ( "…All the time " ) . Another place where logical operators are useful is when we want to write programs for complicated logics that ultimately boil down .Chapter 2: The Decision Control Structure /* else if ladder demo */ main( ) { int m1. else printf ( "fail" ) . else if ( per >= 50 ) printf ( "Second division" ) . This would be evident if you look at the following code: if ( i == 2 ) printf ( "With you…" ) . It is just a way of rearranging the else with the if that follows it. m2. The last else goes to work only if all the conditions fail. if ( per >= 60 ) printf ( "First division" ) . Even in else if ladder the last else is optional. m5. per = ( m1+ m2 + m3 + m4+ m5 ) / per .

printf ( "Enter age. since these are the only two outcomes this problem can be solved using logical operators. ms . But before we do that let us write a program that does not make use of logical operators. Here after checking a complicated set of instructions the final output of the program would be one of the two—Either the driver should be ensured or the driver should not be ensured. If the driver is unmarried. &ms ) . int age . For example. else { if ( sex == 'M' ) { . If the marital status. male & above 30 years of age. &sex. If the driver is unmarried. marital status " ) . scanf ( "%d %c %c".5: A company insures its drivers in the following cases: − − − If the driver is married. sex and age of the driver are the inputs. female & above 25 years of age. As mentioned above.68 Let Us C to only two answers. /* Insurance of driver . sex.without using logical operators */ main( ) { char sex. write a program to determine whether the driver is to be insured or not. consider the following example: Example 2. In all other cases the driver is not insured. if ( ms == 'M' ) printf ( "Driver is insured" ) . &age.

else printf ( "Driver is not insured" ) .Chapter 2: The Decision Control Structure if ( age > 30 ) printf ( "Driver is insured" ) . . As mentioned above. (c) Driver is an unmarried female above 25 years of age. In a more real-life situation there would be more conditions to check leading to the program creeping to the right. ms . in this example we expect the answer to be either ‘Driver is insured’ or ‘Driver is not insured’. } else { if ( age > 25 ) printf ( "Driver is insured" ) . If we list down all those cases in which the driver is insured. then they would be: (a) Driver is married. Let us now see how to avoid these problems by using logical operators.using logical operators */ main( ) { char sex. (b) Driver is an unmarried male above 30 years of age. } } } 69 From the program it is evident that we are required to match several ifs and elses and several pairs of braces. else printf ( "Driver is not insured" ) . they can be combined together using && and || as shown in the program below: /* Insurance of driver . Since all these cases lead to the driver being insured.

} Let Us C In this program it is important to note that: − − The driver will be insured only if one of the conditions enclosed in parentheses evaluates to true. then the whole of the second parentheses evaluates to false. if ( ( ms == 'M') || ( ms == 'U' && sex == 'M' && age > 30 ) || ( ms == 'U' && sex == 'F' && age > 25 ) ) printf ( "Driver is insured" ) . . (b) When after testing several conditions the outcome is only one of the two answers (This problem is often called yes/no problem). printf ( "Enter age. − − Thus we can conclude that the && and || are useful in the following programming situations: (a) When it is to be tested whether a value falls within a particular range or not. Even if one of the conditions in the second parentheses evaluates to false. each condition in the parentheses separated by && must evaluate to true. &ms ) .70 int age . else printf ( "Driver is not insured" ) . For the second pair of parentheses to evaluate to true. scanf ( "%d %c %c" &age. The last two of the above arguments apply to third pair of parentheses as well. &sex. sex. marital status " ) .

&qual ) .Chapter 2: The Decision Control Structure 71 There can be one more situation other than checking ranges or yes/no problem where you might find logical operators useful. &yos. if ( g == 'm' && yos >= 10 && qual == 1 ) sal = 15000 .6: Write a program to calculate the salary as per the following table: Gender Male Years of Service >= 10 >= 10 < 10 < 10 Qualifications Post-Graduate Graduate Post-Graduate Graduate Post-Graduate Graduate Post-Graduate Graduate Salary 15000 10000 10000 7000 12000 9000 10000 6000 Female >= 10 >= 10 < 10 < 10 Figure 2. scanf ( "%c%d%d". Example 2. The following program demonstrates it. qual. 1 = PG ):" ) . &g. int yos. sal . . Years of Service and Qualifications ( 0 = G.6 main( ) { char g . else if ( ( g == 'm' && yos >= 10 && qual == 0 ) || ( g == 'm' && yos < 10 && qual == 1 ) ) sal = 10000 . printf ( "Enter Gender.

else if ( g == 'f' && yos < 10 && qual == 1 ) sal = 10000 . else if ( g == 'f' && yos < 10 && qual == 0 ) sal = 6000 . if the expression evaluates to a non-zero value. as in the expression if ( ! flag ) . else if ( g == 'f' && yos >= 10 && qual == 0 ) sal = 9000 . We can express the same condition as ( y >= 10 ).72 else if ( g == 'm' && yos < 10 && qual == 0 ) sal = 7000 . then applying ! operator to it results into a 0. This operator reverses the result of the expression it operates on. printf ( "\nSalary of Employee = %d". Vice versa. a non-zero value. The NOT operator is often used to reverse the logical value of a single variable. else if ( g == 'f' && yos >= 10 && qual == 1 ) sal = 12000 . The final result (after applying !) 0 or 1 is considered to be false or true respectively. Here is an example of the NOT operator applied to a relational expression. ! ( y < 10 ) This means “not y less than 10”. if y is less than 10. In other words. For example. written as !. } Let Us C The ! Operator So far we have used only the logical operators && and ||. the expression will be false. The third logical operator is the NOT operator. if the expression evaluates to zero then on applying ! operator to it makes it 1. since ( y < 10 ) is true. sal ) .

higher is its priority.) Operators ! * / % + < > <= >= == != && || = Type Logical NOT Arithmetic and modulus Arithmetic Relational Relational Logical AND Logical OR Assignment Figure 2.7 summarizes the operators we have seen so far. Figure 2. as the same thing can be achieved without using the NOT operator.7 A Word of Caution What will be the output of the following program: . The higher the position of an operator is in the table. it is time to review these operators and their priorities. (A full-fledged precedence table of operators is given in Appendix A. Hierarchy of Operators Revisited Since we have now added the logical operators to the list of operators we know.Chapter 2: The Decision Control Structure This is another way of saying if ( flag == 0 ) 73 Does the NOT operator sound confusing? Avoid it if you want.

as shown below: main( ) { int i . Therefore. Enter value of i 200 You entered 5 Enter value of i 9999 You entered 5 Surprising? You have entered 200 and 9999.) after the condition. Another common mistake while using the if statement is to write a semicolon (. if ( i = 5 ) printf ( "You entered 5" ) . printf ( "Enter value of i " ) . We have used the assignment operator = instead of the relational operator ==. whereas ‘falsity’ is always zero. the condition gets reduced to if ( 5 ). scanf ( "%d". And remember that in C ‘truth’ is always nonzero. . irrespective of what you supply as the value of i. else printf ( "You entered something other than 5" ) . printf ( "Enter value of i " ) .. &i ) . and still you find in either case the output is ‘You entered 5’. &i ) . } Let Us C And here is the output of two runs of this program.74 main( ) { int i . if ( 5 ) always evaluates to true and hence the result. As a result. scanf ( "%d".. This is because we have written the condition wrongly.

If the condition fails then straightaway the printf( ) gets executed. irrespective of whether the condition evaluates to true or false the printf( ) is bound to get executed. which does nothing on execution) gets executed. Operands x 0 0 non-zero non-zero y 0 non-zero 0 non-zero !x 1 1 0 0 !y 1 0 1 0 Results x && y 0 0 0 1 x || y 0 0 1 1 Figure 2. makes the compiler to interpret the statement as if you have written it in following manner: if ( i == 5 ) . following which the printf( ) gets executed. Thus. beware of such pitfalls.8 . Remember that the compiler would not point out this as an error. Moral is. since as far as the syntax is concerned nothing has gone wrong.Chapter 2: The Decision Control Structure if ( i == 5 ) . if the condition evaluates to true the . The following figure summarizes the working of all the three logical operators. printf ( "You entered 5" ) . } 75 The . Here. (null statement. printf ( "You entered 5" ) . but the logic has certainly gone awry.

&x ) . expression 1 ? expression 2 : expression 3 What this expression says is: “if expression 1 is true (that is. else y=4. scanf ( "%d". y = ( a >= 65 && a <= 90 ? 1 : 0 ) . Here 1 would be assigned to y if a >=65 && a <=90 evaluates to true. (b) char a . int y . if its value is non-zero). otherwise 0 would be assigned. This statement will store 3 in y if x is greater than 5. if ( x > 5 ) y=3. y=(x>5?3:4). Their general form is. The following points may be noted about the conditional operators: . In fact. &a ) . then the value returned will be expression 2. y . scanf ( "%c". otherwise it will store 4 in y. The equivalent if statement will be. otherwise the value returned will be expression 3”. they form a kind of foreshortened if-then-else.76 The Conditional Operators Let Us C The conditional operators ? and : are sometimes called ternary operators since they take three arguments. Let us understand this with the help of a few examples: (a) int x.

a. scanf ( "%d". In practice rarely is this the requirement. ( i == 1 ? printf ( "Amit" ) : printf ( "All and sundry" ) ) . First way is to use the if-else statement.: int i . This is illustrated in the following examples: Ex. The error can be overcome by enclosing the statement in the : part within a pair of parenthesis. Hence it reports an error. c . big = ( a > b ? ( a > c ? 3: 4 ) : ( b > c ? 6: 8 ) ) . ( a >= 'a' ? a : '!' ) ) . int big. printf ( "%c" . In absence of parentheses the compiler believes that b is being assigned to the result of the expression to the left of second =. second way is to use the . in serious C programming conditional operators aren’t as frequently used as the if-else. char a = 'z' . This will give you an error ‘Lvalue Required’. &i ) . b.Chapter 2: The Decision Control Structure 77 (a) It’s not necessary that the conditional operators should be used only in arithmetic statements. Summary (a) There are three ways for taking decisions in a program.: (b) The conditional operators can be nested as shown below. This is shown below: a>b?g=a:(g=b). Therefore. Ex. (c) Check out the following conditional expression: a>b?g=a:g=b. The limitation of the conditional operators is that after the ? or after the : only one C statement can occur.

In C every test expression is evaluated in terms of zero and non-zero values. b. Assignment statements used with conditional operators must be enclosed within a pair of parenthesis. if ( a >= 400 ) . whereas. && and || are binary operators. } (b) main( ) { int a = 500. printf ( "\n%d %d". c . c = 200 . c . to execute more than one statement they must be written in a pair of braces. So. An if block need not always be associated with an else block. A zero value is considered to be false and a non-zero value is considered to be true. (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Exercise if. c ) . However. ! is a unary operator. b. b. if ( a >= 400 ) b = 300 . If the outcome of an if-else ladder is only one of two answers then the ladder should be replaced either with an else-if clause or by logical operators.78 Let Us C conditional operators and third way is to use the switch statement. an else block is always associated with an if statement. if-else. Nested if-elses [A] What would be the output of the following programs: (a) main( ) { int a = 300. The default scope of the if statement is only the next statement.

printf ( "\nx = %d y = %d z = %d". y. if ( x == y ) . printf ( "\n%d". z = x < 10 . (f) } main( ) { int x = 3. y = x = 10 . y = 20 . y = 5 . y. if ( x == 3 ) printf ( "\n%d". z . } . } (e) main( ) { int x = 3 . b. float y = 3. x. x ) . printf ( "\n%d %d". if ( x == y ) printf ( "\nx and y are equal" ) . z ) . c ) . c = 200 . y ) . } 79 (d) main( ) { int x = 3.0 . x. printf ( "\n%d %d". else . else printf ( "\nx and y are not equal" ) . } (c) main( ) { int x = 10.Chapter 2: The Decision Control Structure b = 300 . y ) .

x < 30 ) . printf ( "\n%d %d %d". } Let Us C (j) [B] Point out the errors. c ) . in the following programs: (a) main( ) { float a = 12. b. if ( a = b ) printf ( "\na and b are equal" ) . else printf( "C is a headache" ) .52 . b = a = 15 . c . c = a < 15 .25. if any. x = 20. } (h) main( ) { int i = 65 . if ( i == j ) printf ( “C is WOW” ) . k == 35. k > 40 ) . printf ( "\n%d %d %d". b. char j = ‘A’ . x != 15. a. } (i) main( ) { int a = 5. printf ( "\na = %d b = %d c = %d". b = 12.80 (g) main( ) { int k = 35 . } main( ) { int x = 15 . k = 50. .

x ) . k = 12 .Chapter 2: The Decision Control Structure } (b) main( ) { int j = 10. j=k. if ( x >= 2 ) then printf ( "\n%d". } 81 (d) main( ) { int x = 10 . y = 15 . } (e) main( ) { int x = 10 . } } } (c) main( ) { if ( 'X' < 'x' ) printf ( "\nascii value of X is smaller than that of x" ) . if x >= 2 printf ( "\n%d". if ( x % 2 = y % 3 ) . } (f) main( ) { int x = 10. x ) . if ( k >= j ) { { k=j.

if ( x >= 2 ) then printf ( "\n%d". write a program to determine whether the seller has made profit or incurred loss. else printf ( "You have to play it" ) . x ) . } (h) main( ) { int x = 10 . } (g) main( ) { int x = 30 . Also determine how much profit he made or loss he incurred. elseif ( x > y ) printf( "x is greater than y" ) . b . b ) . y = 40 . } (i) main( ) { int a. . if ( x == y ) printf( "x is equal to y" ) . if ( a > b ) . elseif ( x < y ) printf( "x is less than y" ) . scanf ( "%d %d". printf ( "This is a game" ) .82 printf ( "\nCarpathians" ) .a. } Let Us C [C] Attempt the following: (a) If cost price and selling price of an item is input through the keyboard.

it was Monday on the date 01/01/1900. (e) A five-digit number is entered through the keyboard. (h) Find the absolute value of a number entered through the keyboard. (x2. (g) Write a program to check whether a triangle is valid or not. Shyam and Ajay are input through the keyboard. write a program to determine the youngest of the three. when the three angles of the triangle are entered through the keyboard. y2) and (x3. Write a program to determine whether the year is a leap year or not. write a program to find whether the area of the rectangle is greater than its perimeter. Write a program to obtain the reversed number and to determine whether the original and reversed numbers are equal or not. (i) Given the length and breadth of a rectangle. Write a program to find out whether it is an odd number or even number. y1). (j) . If any year is input through the keyboard write a program to find out what is the day on 1st January of this year. y3). (f) If the ages of Ram. write a program to check if all the three points fall on one straight line. the area of the rectangle with length = 5 and breadth = 4 is greater than its perimeter.Chapter 2: The Decision Control Structure 83 (b) Any integer is input through the keyboard. (Hint: Use the % (modulus) operator) (d) According to the Gregorian calendar. (c) Any year is input through the keyboard. For example. A triangle is valid if the sum of all the three angles is equal to 180 degrees. Given three points (x1.

c = 0. else printf ( "\nDosa" ) . viz. (k) Given the coordinates (x. b = 12. if ( i = 5 || z > 50 ) printf ( "\nDean of students affairs" ) . (Hint: Use sqrt( ) and pow( ) functions) (l) Given a point (x. z = 12 . z = 12 .84 Let Us C write a program which will determine whether a point lies inside the circle. write a program to find out if it lies on the x-axis. y) of a center of a circle and it’s radius. 0). Logical Operators If a = 10. (0. on the circle or outside the circle. find the values of the expressions in the following table: Expression a != 6 && b > 5 a == 9 || b < 3 ! ( a < 10 ) ! ( a > 5 && c ) 5 && c != 8 || !c Value 1 [D] What would be the output of the following programs: (a) main( ) { int i = 4. y). } (b) main( ) { int i = 4. y-axis or at the origin. .

y. z = i + 5 || j + 1 && k + 2 . y. k = 0. else printf ( "\nWish C was free !" ) . z ) . } (c) main( ) { int i = 4. z = i && j || k . x = i && j && k . w. z . if ( a > 40 && a < 45 ) printf ( "a is greater than 40 and less than 45" ) . w. } 85 (d) main( ) { int i = 4. j = -1. x. } (f) main( ) { int a = 40 . y. z ) . j = 3 . k = 0. j = -1. printf ( "\ny = %d z = %d". . printf ( "\nw = %d x = %d y = %d z = %d".Chapter 2: The Decision Control Structure if ( i = 5 && z > 5 ) printf ( "\nLet us C" ) . y = i + 5 && j + 1 || k + 2 . z . y = i || j && k . else printf ( "\nBennarivo" ) . x. w = i || j || k . if ( !i + !j * 1 ) printf ( "\nMassaro" ) . } (e) main( ) { int i = -3. y.

86 else printf ( "%d".l . a ) . j ) . if ( p == 5 && q > 5 ) printf ( "\nWhy not C" ) . k = i && j . k . else if ( z > x && z > y ) printf( "z is big" ) . y = 40 . } (g) main( ) { int p = 8. I. i. Let Us C (j) . } (i) main( ) { int x = 20 . j ) . q = 20 . l = !i || j . else if ( y > x && y > z ) printf( "y is big" ) . else printf ( "\nDefinitely C !" ) . } (h) main( ) { int i = -1. printf ( "%d %d". } main( ) { int i = -1. j = 1. l = i || j . k = !i && j . printf ( "%d %d". if ( x > y && x > z ) printf( "x is big" ) . k . z = 45 . j = 1.l .

if ( code == 1 & flag == 0 ) printf ( "\nThe eagle has landed" ) . } 87 [E] Point out the errors. j = 5 . } (d) main( ) { . in the following programs: (a) /* This program /* is an example of /* using Logical operators */ main( ) { int i = 2. } (c) main( ) { char spy = 'a'. if ( i == 2 && j == 5 ) printf ( "\nSatisfied at last" ) . if ( spy == 'a' or password == 'z' ) printf ( "\nAll the birds are safe in the nest" ) . } (b) main( ) { int code. k . password = 'z' . flag . printf ( "\nk = %d".Chapter 2: The Decision Control Structure } (k) main( ) { int j = 4. k ) . if any. k = !5 && j .

} (c) main( ) { int x = 2. if ( i = 5 ) && if ( j = 10 ) printf ( "\nHave a nice day" ) . if ( i && j == 10) printf ( "\nHave a nice day" ) . x ) . if ( a == 1 & b == 0 ) printf ( "\nGod is Great" ) . if ( x == 2 && x != 0 ) . j = 20 . if ( x >= 2 and y <=50 ) printf ( "\n%d". } Let Us C (d) main( ) { int i = 10. y = 20. { printf ( "\nHi" ) . } (a) main( ) { int x = 10 . } (b) main( ) { int a. } else printf( "Bye" ) . printf( "\nHello" ) . b . } . j = 10 .88 int i = 10.

64. (3) If a person’s health is poor and the person is between 25 and 35 years of age and lives in a village and is a male .127 (c) An Insurance company follows following rules to calculate premium. The following table shows the range of ASCII values for various characters.96. write a program to determine whether the character entered is a capital letter. Characters A–Z a–z 0–9 special symbols ASCII Values 65 – 90 97 – 122 48 – 57 0 . a digit or a special symbol. (b) Any character is entered through the keyboard. (2) If a person satisfies all the above conditions except that the sex is female then the premium is Rs. a small case letter.47. 58 . (1) If a person’s health is excellent and the person is between 25 and 35 years of age and lives in a city and is a male then the premium is Rs. 1 lakh. 91 . write a program to determine whether the year is leap or not. 4 per thousand and his policy amount cannot exceed Rs. Use the logical operators && and ||. 123 . 2 lakhs.Chapter 2: The Decision Control Structure 89 [F] Attempt the following: (a) Any year is entered through the keyboard. 3 per thousand and her policy amount cannot exceed Rs.

(4) In all other cases the person is not insured. Write a program to output whether the person should be insured or not. for 6-10 days fine is one rupee and above 10 days fine is 5 rupees.90 Let Us C then the premium is Rs. If you return the book after 30 days your membership will be cancelled. 10. which will require the user to give values of hardness. For first 5 days the fine is 50 paise. . his/her premium rate and maximum amount for which he/she can be insured. carbon content and tensile strength of the steel under consideration and output the grade of the steel. (e) A library charges a fine for every book returned late.7 (iii) Tensile strength must be greater than 5600 The grades are as follows: Grade is 10 if all three conditions are met Grade is 9 if conditions (i) and (ii) are met Grade is 8 if conditions (ii) and (iii) are met Grade is 7 if conditions (i) and (iii) are met Grade is 6 if only one condition is met Grade is 5 if none of the conditions are met Write a program. Write a program to accept the number of days the member is late to return the book and display the fine or the appropriate message. (d) A certain grade of steel is graded according to the following conditions: (i) Hardness must be greater than 50 (ii) Carbon content must be less than 0. 6 per thousand and his policy cannot exceed Rs.000.

(b) If he gets than 55 percent in A he should get 55 percent or more in B. Write a program to receive marks in A and B and Output whether the student has passed. If the time taken by the worker is input through the keyboard. If the time taken is between 4 – 5 hours. then the worker is said to be highly efficient. find the efficiency of the worker. (h) In a company. (c) If he gets less than 45 percent in B and 65 percent or more in A he is allowed to reappear in an examination in B to qualify. write a program to check whether the triangle is isosceles. and if the time taken by the worker is more than 5 hours. scalene or right angled triangle. the worker is given training to improve his speed. he should get at least 45 percent in A. (i) A university has the following rules for a student to qualify for a degree with A as the main subject and B as the subsidiary subject: (a) He should get 55 percent or more in A and 45 percent or more in B.Chapter 2: The Decision Control Structure (f) 91 If the three sides of a triangle are entered through the keyboard. (g) If the three sides of a triangle are entered through the keyboard. write a program to check whether the triangle is valid or not. . then the worker has to leave the company. (d) In all other cases he is declared to have failed. However. worker efficiency is determined on the basis of the time required for a worker to complete a particular job. failed or is allowed to reappear in B. then the worker is ordered to improve speed. The triangle is valid if the sum of two sides is greater than the largest of the three sides. If the time taken by the worker is between 2 – 3 hours. equilateral. If the time required by the worker is between 3 – 4 hours.

j = ( num < 0 ? 0 : num * num ) . (c) If has credit is Ok but the item in stock is less than has order. supply what is in stock. } (b) main( ) { int k. . Conditional operators [G] What would be the output of the following programs: (a) main( ) { int i = -4. Write a C program to implement the company policy. num . num ) . (b) If has credit is not OK do not supply. ( !j != 1 ? printf ( "\nWelcome") : printf ( "\nGood Bye") ) . j ) . Send him intimation. Intimate to him data the balance will be shipped. j. supply has requirement. printf ( "\n%d". k = ( num > 5 ? ( num <= 10 ? 100 : 200 ) : 500 ) .92 (j) Let Us C The policy followed by a company to process customer orders is given by the following rules: (a) If a customer order is less than or equal to that in stock and has credit is OK. num = 30 . printf ( "\n%d". } (c) main( ) { int j = 4 .

j . } (e) main( ) { int n = 9 . b = 6 . printf ( "\n%d %d". j ) . i. ( a == b ? printf( "%d". } . ( n == 9 ? printf( "You are correct" ) . ji ) . if any. printf ( "\nji >= 65 ? %d : %c". } (c) main( ) { int i = 10. } 93 (d) main( ) { int a = 5 .a) ) . else printf ( "\nHello Hi !!" ) . in the following programs: (a) main( ) { int tag = 0. code = 1 . : printf( "You are wrong" ) . i >= 5 ? ( j = 10 ) : ( j = 15 ) .Chapter 2: The Decision Control Structure } [H] Point out the errors. if ( tag == 0 ) ( code > 1 ? printf ( "\nHello" ) ? printf ( "\nHi" ) ) . } (b) main( ) { int ji = 65 .) .

else if ( code < 1 ) printf ( "\nEddie" ) . else min = x . min. max .ll . (a) main( ) { int x. ll = ( kk == 65 : printf ( "\n kk is equal to 65" ) : printf ( "\n kk is not equal to 65" ) ) . } [I] Rewrite the following programs using conditional operators. &code ) . &x ) . else printf ( "\nC Brain" ) . x == 20 && y != 10 ? printf( "True" ) : printf( "False" ) . scanf ( "%d". scanf ( "\n%d %d". &max. } (b) main( ) { int code . printf( "%d". } (g) main( ) { int x = 10. ll ) . if ( code > 1 ) printf ( "\nJerusalem" ) . y = 20 . if ( x > max ) max = x . } .94 (f) Let Us C main( ) { int kk = 65 .

printf ("Enter the salary" ) . scanf ( "%f". } 95 [J] Attempt the following: (a) Using conditional operators determine: (1) Whether the character entered through the keyboard is a lower case alphabet or not.Chapter 2: The Decision Control Structure (c) main( ) { float sal . else printf ( "Clerk" ) . . if ( sal < 40000 && sal > 25000 ) printf ( "Manager" ) . (c) Write a program to find the greatest of the three numbers entered through the keyboard using conditional operators. (b) Write a program using conditional operators to determine whether a year entered through the keyboard is a leap year or not. else if ( sal < 25000 && sal > 15000 ) printf ( "Accountant" ) . (2) Whether a character entered through the keyboard is a special symbol or not. &sal ) .

96 Let Us C .

• Loops • The while Loop Tips and Traps More Operators • The for Loop Nesting of Loops Multiple Initialisations in the for Loop • The Odd Loop • The break Statement The continue Statement • The do-while Loop • Summary • Exercise T he programs that we have developed so far used either a sequential or a decision control instruction. the calculations were carried out in a fixed order. In the first one. an appropriate set of instructions were executed depending upon the outcome of the condition being tested (or a logical decision being taken). while in the second. 97 .

This involves repeating some portion of the program either a specified number of times or until a particular condition is being satisfied. which meets this need.98 Let Us C These programs were of limited nature. The while Loop It is often the case in programming that you want to do something a fixed number of times. Perhaps you want to calculate gross salaries of ten different persons. exactly once. They are: (a) Using a for statement (b) Using a while statement (c) Using a do-while statement Each of these methods is discussed in the following pages. Programming is the same. they always performed the same series of actions. we frequently need to perform an action over and over. The mechanism. Loops The versatility of the computer lies in its ability to perform a set of instructions repeatedly. Almost always. There are three methods by way of which we can repeat a part of a program. is the ‘loop’. You can probably think of several examples of this from real life. because when executed. in the same way. such as eating a good dinner or going for a movie. . This repetitive operation is done through a loop control instruction. if something is worth doing. and loops are the subject of this chapter. often with variations in the details each time. or you want to convert temperatures from centigrade to fahrenheit for 15 different cities. it’s worth doing more than once.

r si = p * n * r / 100 PRINT si count = count + 1 Figure 3. float r. si . which uses a while loop. . n. n. The flowchart shown below would help you to understand the operation of the while loop. n and r */ main( ) { int p. Let us look at a simple example.1 /* Calculation of simple interest for 3 sets of p. START count = 1 is count <= 3 Yes No STOP INPUT p. count .Chapter 3: The Loop Control Structure 99 The while loop is ideally suited for such cases. count = 1 .

The variable count is many a times called either a ‘loop counter’ or an ‘index variable’.000000 Enter values of p.5 Simple interest = Rs. So long as this condition remains true all statements within the body of the while loop keep getting executed repeatedly. n and r 2000 5 13.000000 Enter values of p. These statements form what is called the ‘body’ of the while loop. n and r " ) . 675. &p.5 Simple interest = Rs. } } Let Us C And here are a few sample runs. The operation of the while loop is illustrated in the following figure. &n. si ) . To begin with the variable count is initialized to 1 and every time the simple interest logic is executed the value of count is incremented by one. count = count + 1 . si = p * n * r / 100 . scanf ( "%d %d %f".100 while ( count <= 3 ) { printf ( "\nEnter values of p. &r ) . n and r 3500 5 3. 1350. printf ( "Simple interest = Rs.5 Simple interest = Rs. The logic for calculating the simple interest is written within a pair of braces immediately after the while keyword.500000 The program executes all statements after the while 3 times. . %f".. Enter values of p. The parentheses after the while contain a condition.. 612. n and r 1000 5 13.

and this . while ( test loop counter using a condition ) { do this . − The statements within the while loop would keep on getting executed till the condition being tested remains true. When the .Chapter 3: The Loop Control Structure 101 START initialise test True body of loop False STOP increment Figure 3. } Note the following points about while.2 Tips and Traps The general form of while is as shown below: initialise loop counter .. increment loop counter ..

So long as the expression evaluates to a non-zero value the statements within the loop would get executed. main( ) { int i = 1 . − The condition being tested may use relational or logical operators as shown in the following examples: while ( i <= 10 ) while ( i >= 10 && j <= 15 ) while ( j > 10 && ( b < 15 || c < 20 ) ) − The statements within the loop may be a single line or a block of statements. otherwise the loop would be executed forever. the control passes to the first statement that follows the body of the while loop. is same as while ( i <= 10 ) { i=i+1. indefinitely. In place of the condition there can be any other valid expression. while ( i <= 10 ) i=i+1. For example. In the first case the parentheses are optional. while ( i <= 10 ) printf ( "%d\n".102 Let Us C condition becomes false. } − As a rule the while must test a condition that will eventually become false. } . i ) .

The correct form would be as under: main( ) { int i = 1 . } } − Instead of incrementing a loop counter.1 .. This is shown below: main( ) { int i = 5 . a = a + 0. while ( a <= 10. It can even be a float.Chapter 3: The Loop Control Structure 103 This is an indefinite loop.. i=i+1.0 . } } − It is not necessary that a loop counter must only be an int. while ( i >= 1 ) { printf ( "\nMake the computer literate!" ) . while ( i <= 10 ) { printf ( "%d\n". main( ) { float a = 10. i=i-1.and whiskers on kittens" ) . . since i remains equal to 1 forever. we can even decrement it and still manage to get the body of the loop executed repeatedly." ) . i ) ..5 ) { printf ( "\nRaindrops on roses. printf ( "..

104 } } Let Us C − Even floating point loop counters can be decremented. so it goes to other side and becomes -32768 which would certainly satisfy the condition in the while. This process goes on indefinitely. It’s an indefinite loop. i=i+1. What do you think would be the output of the following program? main( ) { int i = 1 . After that value of i is incremented by 1. not necessarily 1. i ) . To begin with. Once again the increment and decrement could be by any value. − What will be the output of the following program? main( ) { int i = 1 . it doesn’t print numbers from 1 to 32767. { printf ( "%d\n". while ( i <= 10 ) . while ( i <= 32767 ) { printf ( "%d\n". it prints out numbers from 1 to 32767. } } No. which falls outside the valid integer range. therefore it tries to become 32768. i ) . } } . i=i+1.

More Operators There are variety of operators which are frequently used with while. The reason is. and it doesn’t give any output at all. after the while. while ( i <= 10 ) { printf ( "%d\n".. Note that enclosing printf( ) and i = i +1 within a pair of braces is not an error.Chapter 3: The Loop Control Structure 105 This is another indefinite loop. This would make the loop work like this. we have carelessly given a . i=i+1. i=i+1. { printf ( "%d\n". To illustrate their usage let us consider a problem wherein numbers from 1 to 10 are to be printed on the screen. i ) . while ( i <= 10 ) . eternally. In fact we can put a pair of braces around any individual statement or set of statements without affecting the execution of the program. The program for performing this task can be written using while in the following different ways: (a) main( ) { int i = 1 . } } . i ) . } Since the value of i is not getting incremented the control would keep rotating within the loop..

*=. / = and %=. every time the statement i++ gets executed. Similarly. Other compound assignment operators are -=. i++ . while ( i <= 10 ) { printf ( "%d\n". while ( i <= 10 ) { printf ( "%d\n". since C doesn’t recognize the operator +++. j = j + 10 can also be written as j += 10. while ( i++ < 10 ) . i ) . never use n+++ to increment the value of n by 2. However.106 (b) main( ) { int i = 1 . Similarly. It increments the value of i by 1. i ) . (c) main( ) { int i = 1 . to reduce the value of a variable by 1 a decrement operator -. (d) main( ) { int i = 0 .is also available. } } Let Us C Note that the increment operator ++ increments the value of i by 1. } } Note that += is a compound assignment operator. i += 1 .

} In the statement while ( ++i <= 10 ). (b) Testing the loop counter to determine whether its value has reached the number of repetitions desired. here the ++ operator is called a post-incrementation operator. firstly the comparison of value of i with 10 is performed. Since the incrementation of i happens before its usage. The for Loop Perhaps one reason why few programmers use while is that they are too busy using the for. then the comparison of value of i with 10 is performed. which is probably the most popular looping instruction. while ( ++i <= 10 ) printf ( "%d\n". i has already been incremented. } 107 In the statement while ( i++ < 10 ). When the control reaches printf( ).Chapter 3: The Loop Control Structure printf ( "%d\n". (e) main( ) { int i = 0 . . The for allows us to specify three things about a loop in a single line: (a) Setting a loop counter to an initial value. and then the incrementation of i takes place. firstly incrementation of i takes place. i ) . here the ++ operator is called a pre-incrementation operator. hence i must be initialized to 0. i ) . Since the incrementation of i happens after its usage. (c) Increasing the value of loop counter each time the program segment within the loop has been executed.

108 The general form of for statement is as under: for ( initialise counter . The flowchart is also given below for a better understanding. test counter . } Let Us C Let us write down the simple interest program using for. and this . and this . increment counter ) { do this . . which we wrote using while. Compare this program with the one.

n. and r " ) . n. float r. printf ( "Simple Interest = Rs.Chapter 3: The Loop Control Structure 109 START count INPU =1 T bs count = count + 1 is count <= 3 Yes INPUT p. } } . n and r */ main ( ) { int p. r No STOP si = p * n * r / 100 PRINT si Figure 3. n. si ) . count = count + 1 ) { printf ( "Enter values of p. scanf ( "%d %d %f". si = p * n * r / 100 . for ( count = 1 . si . &r ) . count <= 3 . &n.3 /* Calculation of simple interest for 3 sets of p. &p. count .%f\n".

Let us now examine how the for statement gets executed: − − When the for statement is executed for the first time. where the value of count gets incremented by 1. Since count is 1 the condition is satisfied and the body of the loop is executed for the first time. If the value of count is still within the range 1 to 3. Again the test is performed to check whether the new value of count exceeds 3. Upon reaching the closing brace of for. Now the condition count <= 3 is tested. The body of the for loop continues to get executed till count doesn’t exceed the final value 3. testing and incrementation—required for the loop construct have now been incorporated in the for statement. the value of count is set to an initial value 1. the statements within the braces of for are executed again. control is sent back to the for statement. When count reaches the value 4 the control exits from the loop and is transferred to the statement (if any) immediately after the body of for.110 Let Us C If this program is compared with the one written using while. . − − − − − The following figure would help in further clarifying the concept of execution of the for loop. it can be seen that the three steps—initialization.

Let us now write down the program to print numbers from 1 to 10 in different ways.i++ ) . j = 5 . for ( i < 4 . i ) . i ) . &i ) . for ( i = 10 .Chapter 3: The Loop Control Structure 111 START initialise test True body of loop False STOP increment Figure 3. i .) printf ( "%d". Thus the following for loops are perfectly ok. printf ( "%d". i ) . . testing and incrementation part of a for loop can be replaced by any valid expression. i <= 10 . i <=10 . for ( i = 1.4 It is important to note that the initialization. for ( scanf ( "%d". i++ ) printf ( "%d". i -. This time we would use a for loop instead of a while loop. j = 0 ) printf ( "%d".

the pair of braces have been dropped. for ( i = 1 . i <= 10 . } . (b) main( ) { int i . the statements i++ or i += 1 can also be used. Instead of i = i + 1. } } Here. for ( . } Let Us C Note that the initialisation. ) { printf ( "%d\n". the default scope of for is the immediately next statement after for. i ) . Since there is only one statement in the body of the for loop. i=i+1. testing and incrementation of loop counter is done in the for statement itself.112 (a) main( ) { int i . i = i + 1 ) printf ( "%d\n". i ) . the incrementation is done within the body of the for loop and not in the for statement. i = i + 1 ) printf ( "%d\n". i ) . for ( i = 1 . i <= 10 . Note that inspite of this the semicolon after the condition is necessary. i <= 10 . As with the while. (c) main( ) { int i = 1 .

) { printf ( "%d\n". i ) . but still the two semicolons are necessary. ++i <= 10 . ) printf ( "%d\n". but still the semicolon before the condition is necessary. for ( . neither the initialisation. (f) main( ) { int i .Chapter 3: The Loop Control Structure 113 Here the initialisation is done in the declaration statement itself. nor the incrementation is done in the for statement. } } Here. i++ < 10 . followed by incrementation. ) printf ( "%d\n". (e) main( ) { int i . i=i+1. } . i++ < 10. } Here. i ) . for ( i = 0 . Since the ++ operator comes after i firstly comparison is done. i <= 10 . for ( i = 0 . (d) main( ) { int i = 1 . the comparison as well as the incrementation is done through the same statement. Note that it is necessary to initialize i to 0. i ) .

c++ ) /* inner loop */ { sum = r + c . look at the program given below: /* Demonstration of nested loops */ main( ) { int r.114 Let Us C Here. sum . for ( r = 1 . the comparison and the incrementation is done through the same statement. with the variable c taking values from 1 to 2. To understand how nested loops work. Nesting of Loops The way if statements can be nested. followed by comparison. } } } When you run this program you will get the following output: r = 1 c = 1 sum = 2 r = 1 c = 2 sum = 3 r = 2 c = 1 sum = 3 r = 2 c = 2 sum = 4 r = 3 c = 1 sum = 4 r = 3 c = 2 sum = 5 Here. sum ) . r <= 3 . Note that it is necessary to initialize i to 0. r++ ) /* outer loop */ { for ( c = 1 . Since ++ precedes i firstly incrementation is done. for each value of r the inner loop is cycled through twice. c <= 2 . both. similarly whiles and fors can also be nested. c. r. printf ( "r = %d c = %d sum = %d\n". ++i <= 10. c. The inner loop .

only one expression is allowed in the test expression. Use of multiple statements in the initialisation expression also demonstrates why semicolons are used to separate the three expressions in the for loop. or a while within a for. j <= 10 . j = 2 . Not only this. one to calculate sum and another to print it out.Chapter 3: The Loop Control Structure 115 terminates when the value of c exceeds 2. two while loops can also be nested. without confusing the compiler. you can increment (or decrement) two or more variables at the same time. similarly. r + c ) . Instead of using two statements. and the body of the inner for loop is further indented. . For example. the body of the outer for loop is indented. However. j++ ) Multiple statements can also be used in the incrementation expression of for loop. This expression may contain several conditions linked together using logical operators. i. for ( i = 1. As you can see.. Multiple Initialisations in the for Loop The initialisation expression of the for loop can contain more than one statement separated by a comma. we can compact this into one single statement by saying: printf ( "r = %d c = %d sum = %d\n".e. and the outer loop terminates when the value of r exceeds 3. a for loop can occur within a while loop. If commas had been used. they could not also have been used to separate multiple statements in the initialisation expression. The way for loops have been nested here. These multiple indentations make the program easier to understand. c. r.

num * num ) ... Note that this loop ensures that statements within it are executed at least once even if n is supplied first time itself. do { printf ( "Enter a number " ) . Enter a number 5 square of 5 is 25 Want to enter another number y/n y Enter a number 7 square of 7 is 49 Want to enter another number y/n n In this program the do-while loop would keep getting executed till the user continues to answer y. } while ( another == 'y' ) .116 The Odd Loop Let Us C The loops that we have used so far executed the statements within them a finite number of times. printf ( "\nWant to enter another number y/n " ) . } And here is the sample output. . printf ( "square of %d is %d". However. num. scanf ( "%d". scanf ( " %c". the loop terminates. This situation can be programmed as shown below: /* Execution of a loop an unknown number of times */ main( ) { char another . &num ) . in real life programming one comes across a situation when it is not known beforehand how many times the statements in the loop are to be executed. int num . &another ) . since the condition ( another == 'y' ) fails. The moment he answers n.

for ( . &num ) . another == 'y' . scanf ( " %c". &another ) . ) { printf ( "Enter a number " ) . scanf ( "%d". num * num ) . scanf ( " %c". the same functionality if required. printf ( "\nWant to enter another number y/n " ) . num. int num . num * num ) . printf ( "\nWant to enter another number y/n " ) . printf ( "square of %d is %d". &another ) . int num . printf ( "square of %d is %d". while ( another == 'y' ) { printf ( "Enter a number " ) . } } /* odd loop using a while loop */ main( ) { char another = 'y' . scanf ( "%d". &num ) . num. can also be accomplished using for and while loops as shown below: /* odd loop using a for loop */ main( ) { char another = 'y' .Chapter 3: The Loop Control Structure 117 Though it is simpler to program such a requirement using a dowhile loop. } } .

printf ( "Enter a number " ) . let’s consider the following example.1 ) { if ( num % i == 0 ) { printf ( "Not a prime number" ) . A break is usually associated with an if. If remainder of any of these divisions is zero. Example: Write a program to determine whether a number is prime or not. If no division yields a zero then the number is a prime number. break . } i++ . A prime number is one. &num ) . control automatically passes to the first statement after the loop. which is divisible only by 1 or itself. scanf ( "%d". When break is encountered inside any loop. main( ) { int num. All we have to do to test whether a number is prime or not. the number is not a prime. while ( i <= num . } . is to divide it successively by all numbers from 2 to one less than itself. i . As an example. Following program implements this logic. without waiting to get back to the conditional test.118 The break Statement Let Us C We often come across situations where we want to jump out of a loop instantly. The keyword break allows us to do this. i=2.

e. Why does the program require the if statement after the while loop at all? Well. else printf ( "%d %d\n". The keyword break.Chapter 3: The Loop Control Structure if ( i == num ) printf ( "Prime number" ) . num is indeed a prime. i.1 that could exactly divide num. num is exactly divisible by i) the message “Not a prime number” is printed and the control breaks out of the while loop. That is. j ) . breaks the control only from the while in which it is placed. } 119 In this program the moment num % i turns out to be zero. If this is true. the program should print out the message “Prime number”. which illustrates this fact. while ( i++ <= 100 ) { while ( j++ <= 200 ) { if ( j == 150 ) break . When the loop terminates in the second case. Consider the following program. } . (b) The loop came to an end because the value of i became equal to num. j = 1 . there are two ways the control could have reached outside the while loop: (a) It jumped out because the number proved to be not a prime. main( ) { int i = 1 . (i. it means that there was no number between 2 to num .

which have not yet been executed. j ) .. j . When continue is encountered inside any loop. } } } The output of the above program would be. i++ ) { for ( j = 1 . j <= 2 . since it is placed inside the inner while. j++ ) { if ( i == j ) continue . The continue Statement In some programming situations we want to take the control to the beginning of the loop. A continue is usually associated with an if. main( ) { int i..120 } } Let Us C In this program when j equals 150. 12 21 . The keyword continue allows us to do this. let's consider the following program. As an example. for ( i = 1 . control automatically passes to the beginning of the loop. break takes the control outside the inner while only. printf ( "\n%d %d\n". bypassing the statements inside the loop. i <= 2 . i.

and this . The do-while Loop The do-while loop looks like this: do { this . As against this. the continue statement takes the control to the for loop (inner) bypassing rest of the statements pending execution in the for loop (inner). There is a minor difference between the working of while and dowhile loops. The while tests the condition before executing any of the statements within the while loop. } while ( this condition is true ) .Chapter 3: The Loop Control Structure 121 Note that when the value of i equals that of j. the do-while tests the condition after having executed the statements within the loop. and this . and this .5 would clarify the execution of do-while loop still further. This difference is the place where the condition is tested. . Figure 3.

main( ) { while ( 4 < 1 ) printf ( "Hello there \n") .5 This means that do-while would execute its statements at least once. This difference is brought about more clearly by the following program. on the other hand will not execute its statements if the condition fails for the first time.122 Let Us C START initialise body of loop increment True test False STOP Figure 3. The while. } . even if the condition fails for the first time.

Let's now write the same program using a do-while loop. } In this program the printf( ) would be executed once. A break takes you out of the do-while bypassing the conditional test. This is illustrated in the following example: break and continue are used with do-while just as they would be in a while or a for loop. since the condition fails the first time itself. . A continue sends you straight to the test at the end of the loop. There are some occasions when we want to execute a loop at least once no matter what. since first the body of the loop is executed and then the condition is tested. } while ( 4 < 1 ) . main( ) { do { printf ( "Hello there \n") .Chapter 3: The Loop Control Structure 123 Here. the printf( ) will not get executed at all.

(b) A break statement takes the execution control out of the loop. (d) A do-while loop is used to ensure that the statements within the loop are executed at least once. %= are compound assignment operators. while. (f) The operators +=. -=. while ( i <= 10 ) . i ) . They modify the value of the operand to the left of them. whereas. *=. (c) A continue statement skips the execution of the statements after it and takes the control to the beginning of the loop. while ( j <= 10 ) { printf ( "\n%d". { printf ( "\n%d". and dowhile. j ) . Exercise while Loop [A] What would be the output of the following programs: (a) main( ) { int j . . j=j+1. /=. } } (b) main( ) { int i = 1 .124 Summary Let Us C (a) The three type of loops available in C are for. (e) The ++ operator increments the operand by 1. the -operator decrements it by 1.

Chapter 3: The Loop Control Structure i++ . } (f) main( ) { char x . } } (e) main( ) { int x = 1 . x ) . j ) . } } 125 (c) main( ) { int j . x ) . printf ( "\n%d". j=j+1. while ( j <= 10 ) { printf ( "\n%d". while ( x == 1 ) x=x-1. printf ( "\n%d". } } (d) main( ) { int x = 1 . . while ( x == 1 ) { x=x-1.

126 while ( x = 0 . z = x-. y. y. x. x++ ) printf ( "\nAscii value %d Character %c". x.-y . while ( i = 10 ) { Let Us C (j) (k) . x. y. z . z ) . printf ( "\n%d %d %d". y = --x . printf ( "\n%d %d %d". y = 3. z . } (g) main( ) { int x = 4. } (h) main( ) { int x = 4. z ) . x <= 255 .. } main( ) { int i . while ( i = 20 ) printf ( "\nA computer buff!" ) . } main( ) { int i = 10 . } (i) main( ) { while ( 'a' < 'b' ) printf ( "\nmalyalam is a palindrome" ) . z = x-. x ) .

} (o) main( ) { int x = 4. x++ ) printf ( "\nAscii value %d Character %c". for ( x = 0 .Chapter 3: The Loop Control Structure printf ( "\n%d". if ( x == y ) . } (n) main( ) { char x . } } 127 (l) main( ) { float x = 1. } } (m) main( ) { while ( '1' < '2' ) printf ( "\nIn while loop" ) . i ) . x = x – 0.1 . while ( x == 1.. x <= 255 . y = 0. i=i+1.1 ) { printf ( "\n%f". x. x ) . while ( x >= 0 ) { x-. x ) . y++ .1 . z .

(d) Write a program to print all the ASCII values and their equivalent characters using a while loop. 12. Write a program to find the value of one number raised to the power of another. (b) Write a program to find the factorial value of any number entered through the keyboard. y = 0. x.. .128 continue . else printf ( “\n%d %d”.00 per hour for every hour worked above 40 hours. y ) . x. z . The ASCII values vary from 0 to 255. y ) . } } (p) main( ) { int x = 4. (c) Two numbers are entered through the keyboard. while ( x >= 0 ) { if ( x == y ) break . y++ . Overtime is paid at the rate of Rs. Assume that employees do not work for fractional part of an hour. x-. } } [B] Attempt the following: Let Us C (a) Write a program to calculate overtime pay of 10 employees. else printf ( “\n%d %d”.

continue. for ( . 3. After the person picks. Your program should ensure that the computer always wins. for.Chapter 3: The Loop Control Structure 129 (e) Write a program to print out all Armstrong numbers between 1 and 500. the computer does its picking. break. If sum of cubes of each digit of the number is equal to the number itself. 153 = ( 1 * 1 * 1 ) + ( 5 * 5 *5)+(3*3*3) (f) Write a program for a matchstick game being played between the computer and a user. For example. i . (i) Write a program to find the range of a set of numbers. then the number is called an Armstrong number. ) . (g) Write a program to enter the numbers till the user wants and at the end it should display the count of positive. Whoever is forced to pick up the last matchstick loses the game. (h) Write a program to find the octal equivalent of the entered number. Rules for the game are as follows: − − − − There are 21 matchsticks. Range is the difference between the smallest and biggest number in the list. do-while [C] What would be the output of the following programs: (a) main( ) { int i = 0 . The computer asks the player to pick 1. 2. or 4 matchsticks. negative and zeros entered.

i ) ) . i <= 5 . i++ . printf ( "\n%c". } [D] Answer the following: (a) The three parts of the loop expression in the for loop are: the i____________ expression the t____________ expression the i____________ expression . for ( . else j += i . j = 1 . . ) { if ( i > 5 ) break . printf ( "\n%d". for ( i = 1 . for ( i = 1 . } } Let Us C (d) main( ) { int i . } (b) main( ) { int i .130 printf ( "\nHere is some mail for you" ) . i++ . j ) . 65 ) ) . i <= 5 . i += j . printf ( "\n%d". } (c) main( ) { int i = 1.

In the absence of parentheses. relational (c) The break statement is used to exit from: 1. 4. an if statement a for loop a program the main( ) function (d) A do-while loop is useful when we want that the statements within the loop must be executed: 1. 2. testing Initialization. execution of body None of the above Which of the following is not an infinite loop. 3. int i = 1 . testing Execution of body. assignment assignment. 4. 4. and arithmetic operators. 1. 3. initialization. arithmetic. execution of body. 3. assignment. (f) Initialization. . assignment relational. testing and execution of body is done in a do-while loop 1. 4. } 2. 2. ) .Chapter 3: The Loop Control Structure 131 (b) An expression contains relational operators. arithmetic arithmetic. arithmetic. they will be evaluated in which of the following order: 1. 2. . for ( . while ( 1 ) { i++ . relational. relational. 2. assignment operators. Only once At least once More than once None of the above (e) In what sequence the initialization. testing. 3.

false . 3. int True = 0. exit break continue None of the above [E] Attempt the following: (a) Write a program to print all prime numbers from 1 to 300. 2. (e) According to a study. break and continue) (b) Write a program to fill the entire screen with a smiling face.5 x ) . the approximate level of intelligence of a person can be calculated using the following formula: i = 2 + ( y + 0. do { y=x.132 Let Us C 3. (g) Which of the following statement is used to take the control to the beginning of the loop? 1. (c) Write a program to add first seven terms of the following series using a for loop: 1 1! 2 2! 3 3! …… (d) Write a program to generate all combinations of 1. } while ( x == 0 ) . while ( True ) { False = 1 . int y. (Hint: Use nested loops. } 4. x = 0 . 4. 2 and 3 using for loop. The smiling face has an ASCII value 1.

for each value of y.Chapter 3: The Loop Control Structure 133 Write a program. (h) Write a program to print the multiplication table of the number entered by the user.5 in steps of 0. which will produce a table of values of i.5. and. y and x.5 to 12. 29 * 1 = 29 29 * 2 = 58 … (i) Write a program to produce the following output: 1 2 4 7 8 5 9 3 6 10 . (f) Write a program to produce the following output: A A A A A A A B B B B B B C C C C C D E F G F E D D E F F E D D E E D D D C C C C C B B B B B B A A A A A A A (g) Write a program to fill the entire screen with diamond and heart alternatively. The table should get displayed in the following form. where y varies from 1 to 6. x varies from 5. The ASCII value for heart is 3 and that of diamond is 4.

134 (j) Let Us C Write a program to produce the following output: 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 6 2 3 4 1 1 1 1 (k) A machine is purchased which will produce earning of Rs. 2⎝ x ⎠ 2⎝ x ⎠ 2⎝ x ⎠ x 2 3 4 If x is input through the keyboard. x −1 1 ⎛ x −1 ⎞ 1 ⎛ x −1⎞ 1 ⎛ x −1⎞ + ⎜ ⎟+ ⎜ ⎟+ ⎜ ⎟ + . r. write a program to calculate the sum of first seven terms of this series.. 2000 when it is condemned. 1000 per year while it lasts.. the principle p compounds to an amount a as per the following formula a = p ( 1 + r / q ) nq Write a program to read 10 sets of p. If 12 percent per annum can be earned on alternate investments what would be the minimum life of the machine to make it a more attractive investment compared to alternative investment? (l) When interest compounds q times per year at an annual rate of r % for n years.. . 6000 and will have a salvage of Rs. The machine costs Rs. n & q and calculate the corresponding as. (m) The natural logarithm can be approximated by the following series.

4 The Case Control Structure • Decisions Using switch The Tips and Traps • switch Versus if-else Ladder • The goto Keyword • Summary • Exercise 135 .

rather than using a series of if statements. or an expression that evaluates to an . They most often appear as follows: switch ( integer expression ) { case constant 1 : do this . For example. 2 or 3. and understand why we should avoid its usage in C programming. or more correctly a switchcase-default. It could be an integer constant like 1.136 Let Us C n real life we are often faced with situations where we are required to make a choice between a number of alternatives rather than only one or two. since these three keywords go together to make up the control statement. } The integer expression following the keyword switch is any C expression that will yield an integer value. Towards the end of the chapter we would also study a keyword called goto. default : do this . case constant 2 : do this . case constant 3 : do this . This control instruction is in fact the topic of this chapter. I Decisions Using switch The control statement that allows us to make a decision from the number of choices is called a switch. Serious C programming is same. C provides a special control statement that allows us to handle such cases effectively. which school to join or which hotel to visit or still harder which girl to marry (you almost always end up making a wrong decision is a different matter altogether!). the choice we are asked to make is more complicated than merely selecting between two alternatives.

the integer expression following the keyword switch is evaluated. only the statements following the default are executed. the program executes the statements following that case. The keyword case is followed by an integer or a character constant. against the constant values that follow the case statements. one by one. A few examples will show how this control structure works. default : printf ( "I am in default \n" ) . case 2 : printf ( "I am in case 2 \n" ) . switch ( i ) { case 1 : printf ( "I am in case 1 \n" ) . } } The output of this program would be: I am in case 2 . and all subsequent case and default statements as well. If no match is found with any of the case statements. What happens when we run a program containing a switch? First.Chapter 4: The Case Control Structure 137 integer. The “do this” lines in the above form of switch represent any valid C statement. Consider the following program: main( ) { int i = 2 . When a match is found. Each constant in each case must be different from all the others. The value it gives is then matched. case 3 : printf ( "I am in case 3 \n" ) .

case 3 : printf ( "I am in case 3 \n" ) . default : printf ( "I am in default \n" ) . If you want that only case 2 should get executed. it is upto you to get out of the switch then and there by using a break statement. The program prints case 2 and 3 and the default case. since the control comes out of the switch anyway. Note that there is no need for a break statement after the default. The following example shows how this is done. } } The output of this program would be: I am in case 2 . We said the switch executes the case where a match is found and all the subsequent cases and the default as well. break . switch ( i ) { case 1 : printf ( "I am in case 1 \n" ) . yes. break .138 I am in case 3 I am in default Let Us C The output is definitely not what we expected! We didn’t expect the second and third line in the above output. Well. case 2 : printf ( "I am in case 2 \n" ) . break . main( ) { int i = 2 .

1 . START Yes case 1 No case 2 No case 3 No case 4 No statement 1 Yes statement 2 Yes statement 3 Yes statement 4 STOP switch ( choice ) { case 1 : statement 1 . } Figure 4. case 4 : statement 4 . break . case 3 : statement 3 .Chapter 4: The Case Control Structure 139 The operation of switch is shown below in the form of a flowchart for a better understanding. break . case 2 : statement 2 . break .

case 22 : printf ( "I am in case 22 \n" ) . } } The output of this program would be: I am in case 22 (b) You are also allowed to use char values in case and switch as shown in the following program: main( ) . case 7 : printf ( "I am in case 7 \n" ) . 2.140 The Tips and Traps Let Us C A few useful tips about the usage of switch and a few pitfalls to be avoided: (a) The earlier program that used switch may give you the wrong impression that you can use only cases arranged in ascending order. break . break . default : printf ( "I am in default \n" ) . You can in fact put the cases in any order you please. break . 1. switch ( i ) { case 121 : printf ( "I am in case 121 \n" ) . 3 and default. Here is an example of scrambled case order: main( ) { int i = 22 .

break . switch ( c ) { case 'v' : printf ( "I am in case v \n" ) . &ch ) . or c " ) . default : printf ( "I am in default \n" ) . scanf ( "%c". ‘a’. break .Chapter 4: The Case Control Structure { char c = 'x' . main( ) { char ch . ‘x’ they are actually replaced by the ASCII values (118. . (c) At times we may want to execute a common set of statements for multiple cases. case 'x' : printf ( "I am in case x \n" ) . break . b. } } 141 The output of this program would be: I am in case x In fact here when we use ‘v’. 120) of these character constants. 97. printf ( "Enter any of the alphabet a. case 'a' : printf ( "I am in case a \n" ) . How this can be done is shown in the following example.

break . in the following program the printf( ) never goes to work.e. the statement would never get executed. we are making use of the fact that once a case is satisfied the control simply falls through the case till it doesn’t encounter a break statement. break .142 switch ( ch ) { case 'a' : case 'A' : printf ( "a as in ashar" ) . and else). . That is why if an alphabet a is entered the case ‘a’ is satisfied and since there are no statements to be executed in this case the control automatically reaches the next case i. break . If a statement doesn’t belong to any case the compiler won’t report an error. } } Let Us C Here. default : printf ( "wish you knew what are alphabets" ) . For example. (e) Every statement in a switch must belong to some case or the other. (d) Even if there are multiple statements to be executed in each case there is no need to enclose them within a pair of braces (unlike if. However. case 'c' : case 'C' : printf ( "c as in cookie" ) . case 'b' : case 'B' : printf ( "b as in brain" ) . case ‘A’ and executes all the statements in this case.

) that follows the closing brace of switch. case 2 : j = 20 . } } 143 (f) If we have no default case. Yes. printf ( "Enter value of i" ) . .Chapter 4: The Case Control Structure main( ) { int i. and no because in certain situations we are left with no choice but to use if. (g) Is switch a replacement for if? Yes and no. case 1 : j = 10 . The disadvantage of switch is that one cannot have a case in a switch which looks like: case i <= 20 : All that we can have after the case is an int constant or a char constant or an expression that evaluates to one of these constants. Even a float is not allowed. because it offers a better way of writing programs as compared to if. &i ) . j . break . scanf ( "%d”. switch ( i ) { printf ( "Hello" ) . The advantage of switch over if is that it leads to a more structured program and the level of indentation is manageable. then the program simply falls through the entire switch and continues with the next instruction (if any. break .

However. This aspect of switch is discussed in the exercise at the end of this chapter. Such statements would be called nested switch statements. case a + b is incorrect. (k) The switch statement is very useful while writing menu driven programs. Thus the following switch is illegal: . a switch may occur within another. switch Versus if-else Ladder There are some things that you simply cannot do with a switch. (j) In principle. however. These are: (a) A float expression cannot be tested using a switch (b) Cases can never have variable expressions (for example it is wrong to say case a +3 : ) (c) Multiple cases cannot use same expressions.144 Let Us C more so if there are multiple statements within each case of a switch. Thus the following switch statements are legal. Thus case 3 + 7 is correct. (i) The break statement when used in a switch takes the control outside the switch. but in practice it is rarely done. (h) We can check the value of any expression in a switch. switch ( i + j * k ) switch ( 23 + 45 % 4 * k ) switch ( a < 4 && b > 7 ) Expressions can also be used in cases provided they are constant expressions. use of continue will not take the control to the beginning of switch as one is likely to believe.

during execution it simply refers the jump table to decide which case should be executed.. a switch with 2 cases would work slower than if-else ladder. especially since there weren’t any such limitations with if-else. which makes it slow. you as a programmer should take a decision which of the two should be used when. Also. As a result. There is seldom a legitimate reason for using goto. Thus. Note that a lookup in the jump table is faster than evaluation of a condition. Why? If the 10th case is satisfied then jump table would be referred and statements for the 10th case would be executed. Then why use a switch at all? For speed—switch works faster than an equivalent if-else ladder. If on the other hand the conditions in the if-else were simple and less in number then if-else would work out faster than the lookup mechanism of a switch. (b) and (c) above may lead you to believe that these are obvious disadvantages with a switch. especially if the condition is complex. if-elses are slower because they are evaluated at execution time.. case 1 + 2 : .. As against this. Hence a switch with two cases would work slower than an equivalent if-else. The goto Keyword Avoid goto keyword! They make a C programmer’s life miserable. How come? This is because the compiler generates a jump table for a switch during compilation. rather than actually checking which case is satisfied. A switch with 10 cases would work faster than an equivalent if-else ladder. and its use is . in an if-else ladder 10 conditions would be evaluated at execution time.. } 145 (a).Chapter 4: The Case Control Structure switch ( a ) { case 3 : . As against this.

However. exit( ) . printf ( "Enter the number of goals scored against India" ) . printf ( "and said goodbye! adieu! to soccer" ) . if ( goals <= 5 ) goto sos . main( ) { int goals . else { printf ( "About time soccer players learnt C\n" ) . and hard to debug. You can always get the job done without them. In a difficult programming situation it seems so easy to use a goto to take the control where you want. with good programming skills goto can always be avoided. These constructs are far more logical and easy to understand. Trust me. unreadable. &goals ) . . for sake of completeness of the book. And yet many programmers find goto seductive. almost always. This is the first and last time that we are going to use goto in this book.146 Let Us C one of the reasons that programs become unreliable. /* terminates program execution */ } sos : printf ( "To err is human!" ) . there is a more elegant way of writing the same program using if. for. The big problem with gotos is that when we do use them we can never be sure how we got to a certain point in our code. while and switch. They obscure the flow of control. So as far as possible skip them. the following program shows how to use goto. However. scanf ( "%d".

− If the condition is satisfied the goto statement transfers control to the label ‘sos’. as in.. − The only programming situation in favour of using goto is when we want to take the control out of the loop that is contained in several other loops..Chapter 4: The Case Control Structure } 147 And here are two sample runs of the program. It is necessary to use this function since we don't want the statement printf ( "To err is human!" ) to get executed after execution of the else block. sos : printf ( "To err is human!" ) . The exit( ) function is a standard library function which terminates the execution of the program. The label can be on a separate line or on the same line as the statement following it. The following program illustrates this. . Enter the number of goals scored against India 3 To err is human! Enter the number of goals scored against India 7 About time soccer players learnt C and said goodbye! adieu! to soccer A few remarks about the program would make the things clearer. − − − Any number of gotos can take the control to the same label. causing printf( ) following sos to be executed.

(c) The case keyword is followed by an integer or a character constant. j. } } } out : printf ( "Out of the loop at last!" ) . . k . else printf ( "%d %d %d\n". a switch statement is used. } Let Us C Go through the program carefully and find out how it works.148 main( ) { int i. k ) . for ( i = 1 . (d) The control falls through all the cases unless the break statement is given. j. i. k <= 3 . j++ ) { for ( k = 1 . j <= 3 . k++ ) { if ( i == 3 && j == 3 && k == 3 ) goto out . Also write down the same program without using goto. (e) The usage of the goto keyword should be avoided as it usually violets the normal flow of execution. i <= 3 . i++ ) { for ( j = 1 . Summary (a) When we need to choose one among number of alternatives. (b) The switch keyword is followed by an integer or an expression that evaluates to an integer.

default : printf ( "I am in default \n" ) . case 3 : printf ( "I am in case 3 \n" ) . } . case 12 : printf ( "I am in case 12 \n" ) . } printf ( "\nI thought one wears a suite" ) . case 2 : printf ( "\nSpade" ) . switch ( suite ) { case 1 : printf ( "\nDiamond" ) . break . break .Chapter 4: The Case Control Structure 149 Exercise [A] What would be the output of the following programs: (a) main( ) { char suite = 3 . break . default : printf ( "\nHeart") . } (b) main( ) { int c = 3 . switch ( c ) { case 'v' : printf ( "I am in case v \n" ) .

0 . } } Let Us C (d) main( ) { int i = 0 .150 } (c) main( ) { int k. case 3 : printf ( "\nAt least employees are good" ) . switch ( k = j + 1 ) { case 0 : printf ( "\nTailor") . case 2 : printf ( "\nInvestors are moody" ) . j = 2 . } } (e) main( ) { int k . case 1 : printf ( "\nMarkets are pricey" ) . float j = 2. case 2 : printf ( "\nTramp") . switch ( i ) { case 0 : printf ( "\nCustomers are dicey" ) . default : printf ( "\nPure Simple Egghead!" ) . case 1 : printf ( "\nTutor") . .

case 'A' : printf ( "\na as in ashar" ) .Chapter 4: The Case Control Structure switch ( k = j + 1 ) { case 3 : printf ( "\nTrapped" ) . } } 151 (g) main( ) { int i = 1 .2 ) { case -1 : printf ( "\nFeeding fish" ) . default : printf ( "\nJust to survive" ) . case 0 : printf ( "\nWeeding grass" ) . break . case 1 : printf ( "\nmending roof" ) . . switch ( ch ) { case 'a' : case 'b' : printf ( "\nYou entered b" ) . case 'b' + 'a' : printf ( "\nYou entered a and b" ) . switch ( i . } } (f) main( ) { int ch = 'a' + 'b' . default : printf ( "\nCaught!" ) .

switch ( a ) . case 1 . case ( temp > 20 && temp <= 30 ) : printf ( "\nRain rain here again!" ) . switch ( temp ) { case ( temp <= 20 ) : printf ( "\nOoooooohhhh! Damn cool!" ) . printf ( "\nClub" ) . switch ( suite ) . } } (b) main( ) { int temp . { case 0 . default : printf ( "\nGood old nagpur weather" ) .152 } } Let Us C [B] Point out the errors. if any. &temp ) .5 . printf ( "\nDiamond" ) . scanf ( "%d". } } (c) main( ) { float a = 3. in the following programs: (a) main( ) { int suite = 1 . case ( temp > 30 && temp <= 40 ) : printf ( "\nWish I am on Everest" ) .

5 : printf ( "\nSee through C" ) .5 : printf ( "\nSimply c" ) . break . case 1. c . 2.5 : printf ( "\nThe spirit of C" ) . Factorial of a number.5 : printf ( "\nThe art of C" ) . } } 153 (d) main( ) { int a = 3. 4. break . 3. c=b–a. case a || b : printf ( "God give me an opportunity to run my show" ) . } } [C] Write a menu driven program which has following options: 1. break . Prime or not Odd or even Exit . case 2. switch ( c ) { case 1 || 2 : printf ( "God give me an opportunity to change things" ) . case 3.Chapter 4: The Case Control Structure { case 0. break . break . b = 4.

scanf ( "%d". printf ( "\n2. while ( 1 ) { printf ( "\n1. Odd/Even" ) . Factorial" ) . } } } Let Us C Note: . The outline of this program is given below: /* A menu driven program */ main( ) { int choice . &choice ) . case 4 : exit( ) .154 Make use of switch statement. switch ( choice ) { case 1 : /* logic for factorial of a number */ break . printf ( "\nYour choice? " ) . printf ( "\n3. printf ( "\n4. Prime" ) . case 2 : /* logic for deciding prime number */ break . case 3 : /* logic for odd/even */ break . Exit" ) .

[D] Write a program which to find the grace marks for a student using switch. then he does not get any grace. If the student gets third class and the number of subjects he failed in is greater than 1. If the student gets second class and the number of subjects he failed in is greater than 2. − If the student gets first class and the number of subjects he failed in is greater than 3. then he does not get any grace. This is necessary since the menu must keep reappearing on the screen once an item is selected and an appropriate action taken.Chapter 4: The Case Control Structure 155 The statement while ( 1 ) puts the entire logic in an infinite loop. If the number of subjects he failed in is equal to 1 then the grace is of 5 marks per subject − − . The user should enter the class obtained by the student and the number of subjects he has failed in. If the number of subjects he failed in is less than or equal to 3 then the grace is of 5 marks per subject. If the number of subjects he failed in is less than or equal to 2 then the grace is of 4 marks per subject. then he does not get any grace.

156 Let Us C .

5 Functions & Pointers • What is a Function Why Use Functions • Passing Values between Functions • Scope Rule of Functions • Calling Convention • One Dicey Issue • Advanced Features of Functions Function Declaration and Prototypes Call by Value and Call by Reference An Introduction to Pointers Pointer Notation Back to Function Calls Conclusions Recursion • Adding Functions to the Library • Summary • Exercise 157 .

or rely on a store to supply you groceries every month. Suppose you have a task that is always performed exactly in the same way—say a bimonthly servicing of your motorbike. we will be looking at two things—a function that calls or activates the function and the function itself. What is a Function A function is a self-contained block of statements that perform a coherent task of some kind. You don’t need to give instructions. You don’t need to be told when the job is done. but still cannot perform all of life’s tasks all alone. Actually. do it now”. hire a gardener to mow your lawn. starting with the simplest one and then working towards those that demonstrate the power of C functions. using a function is something like hiring a person to do a specific job for you. because the mechanic knows his job. “It’s time. You may call a mechanic to fix up your bike. Man is an intelligent species. sometimes it’s complex. A computer program (except for the simplest one) finds itself in a similar situation. As we noted earlier. He has to rely on others. it requests other program like entities—called ‘functions’ in C—to get its tasks done. Instead. It cannot handle all the tasks by itself. In this chapter we will study these functions. . When you want it to be done. We will look at a variety of features of these functions. You assume the bike would be serviced in the usual way.158 Let Us C K nowingly or unknowingly we rely on so many persons for so many things. Let us now look at a simple C function that operates in much the same way as the mechanic. Every C program can be thought of as a collection of these functions. you go to the service station and say. the mechanic does it and that’s that. Sometimes the interaction with this person is very simple.

Cry... printf ( "\nCry.. it falls asleep while the message( ) function wakes up and goes to work." ) . main( ) itself is a function and through it we are calling the function message( ). the control returns to main( ). What do we mean when we say that main( ) ‘calls’ the function message( )? We mean that the control passes to the function message( ). and you stop the monotony!" ) . and the world smiles with you. main( ) becomes the ‘calling’ function. brazil( ) . and the world smiles with you. The activity of main( ) is temporarily suspended. If you have grasped the concept of ‘calling’ a function you are prepared for a call to more than one function. } message( ) { printf ( "\nSmile. and you stop the monotony! Here. } . which comes to life again and begins executing its code at the exact point where it left off. Thus. Smile.... } 159 And here’s the output. argentina( ) .Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers main( ) { message( ) . When the message( ) function runs out of statements to execute. italy( ) . Consider the following example: main( ) { printf ( "\nI am in main" ) . whereas message( ) becomes the ‘called’ function.

160 italy( ) { printf ( "\nI am in italy" ) . − − . If a program contains only one function. There is no limit on the number of functions that might be present in a C program. } brazil( ) { printf ( "\nI am in brazil" ) . then one (and only one) of these functions must be main( ). because program execution always begins with main( ). Each function in a program is called in the sequence specified by the function calls in main( ). } argentina( ) { printf ( "\nI am in argentina" ) . } Let Us C The output of the above program when executed would be as under: I am in main I am in italy I am in brazil I am in argentina From this program a number of conclusions can be drawn: − − − Any C program contains at least one function. If a C program contains more than one function. it must be main( ).

. no priorities. } argentina( ) { printf ( "\nI am in argentina" ) . } And the output would look like. let’s illustrate with an example. nobody is nobody’s boss.Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers − 161 After each function has done its thing. printf ( "\nI am finally back in main" ) . argentina( ) . No precedence. printf ( "\nI am back in italy" ) .. Except for this fact all C functions enjoy a state of perfect equality. One function can call another function it has already called but has in the meantime left temporarily in order to call a third function which will sometime later call the function that has called it.When main( ) runs out of function calls. main( ) { printf ( "\nI am in main" ) . italy( ) . } brazil( ) { printf ( "\nI am in brazil" ) . . As we have noted earlier the program execution always begins with main( ). } italy( ) { printf ( "\nI am in italy" ) . brazil( ) . if you understand what I mean. No? Well. the program ends. control returns to main( ).

(a) C program is a collection of one or more functions. For example. main( ) { argentina( ) . the main( ) function drives other functions. Let us now summarize what we have learnt so far.162 I am in main I am in italy I am in brazil I am in argentina I am back in italy I am finally back in main Let Us C Here. In other words. Since the compiler always begins the program execution with main( ). argentina( ) { statement 1 . } . For example. } (c) A function is defined when function name is followed by a pair of braces in which one or more statements may be present. (b) A function gets called when the function name is followed by a semicolon. main( ) calls other functions. statement 2 . Trace carefully the way control passes from one function to another. every function in a program must be called directly or indirectly by main( ). statement 3 . which in turn call still other functions.

main( ) { message( ) . For example. main( ) . message( ) . } message( ) { printf ( "\nJewel Thief!!" ) . . main( ) { message1( ) . message2( ) . } message2( ) { printf ( "\nBut the butter was bitter" ) . For example. main( ) { message( ) . } message( ) { printf ( "\nCan't imagine life without C" ) .Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers 163 (d) Any function can be called from any other function. } (e) A function can be called any number of times. For example. } (f) The order in which the functions are defined in a program and the order in which they get called need not necessarily be same. Even main( ) can be called from other functions.

but a function cannot be defined in another function. } } (i) There are basically two types of functions: Library functions Ex. User-defined functions Ex. printf( ). it is advisable to define the functions in the same order in which they are called. still. the following program code would be wrong. brazil( ) etc. main( ) { printf ( "\nI am in main" ) . main( ). message1( ) has been defined after message2( ). scanf( ) etc. Thus. } Let Us C Here. As the name suggests.164 } message1( ) { printf ( "\nMary bought some butter" ) . since argentina( ) is being defined inside another function. library functions are nothing but commonly required functions grouped together and stored in . However. (h) A function can be called from other function. Such a process is called ‘recursion’. (g) A function can call itself. argentina( ) { printf ( "\nI am in argentina" ) . We would discuss this aspect of C functions later in this chapter. even though message1( ) is getting called before message2( ). argentina( ). This makes the program easier to understand.

Instead. and each activity placed in a different function. If the operation of a program can be divided into separate activities. you would prefer to jump to a ‘section of code’ that calculates area and then jump back to the place from where you left off. This section of code is nothing but a function. main( )? Two reasons: (a) Writing functions avoids rewriting the same code over and over. Suppose you have a section of code in your program that calculates area of a triangle. Instead. Why Use Functions Why write separate functions at all? Why not squeeze the entire logic into one function. This library of functions is present on the disk and is written for us by people who write compilers for us. What is the moral of the story? Don’t try to cram the entire logic in one function. Don’t hesitate to write functions that are called only once. It is a very bad style of programming. The procedure of calling both types of functions is exactly same. then each could be written and checked more or less independently. Separating the code into modular functions also makes the program easier to design and understand. What is important is that these functions perform some logically isolated task. break a program into small units and write functions for each of these isolated subdivisions. (b) Using functions it becomes easier to write programs and keep track of what they are doing. If later in the program you want to calculate the area of a different triangle. . Almost always a compiler comes with a library of standard functions.Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers 165 what is called a Library. you won’t like it if you are required to write the same instructions all over again.

In this program. /* Sending and receiving values between functions */ main( ) { int a. b and c. b and c through the keyboard and then output the sum of a. then we must pass on these values to calsum( ). “Also change the engine oil. in main( ) we receive the values of a. Like our mechanic who always services the motorbike in exactly the same way. The arguments are sometimes also called ‘parameters’. now we want to communicate between the ‘calling’ and the ‘called’ functions. Consider the following program. You have unknowingly used the arguments in the printf( ) and scanf( ) functions. sum = calsum ( a. If sum is to be calculated in calsum( ) and values of a. b. However. b and c are received in main( ). c ) . b. the format string and the list of variables used inside the parentheses in these functions are arguments. The mechanism used to convey information to the function is the ‘argument’. I am going for an outing”. printf ( "\nEnter any three numbers " ) . c. In short. .166 Passing Values between Functions Let Us C The functions that we have used so far haven’t been very flexible. &a. and once calsum( ) calculates the sum we must return it from calsum( ) back to main( ). It would be nice to have a little more control over what functions do. in the same way it would be nice to be able to tell the mechanic. sum . We call them and they do what they are designed to do. &b. &c ) . the calculation of sum is done in a different function called calsum( ). scanf ( "%d %d %d". we haven’t been able to influence the functions in the way they carry out their tasks.

y and z: calsum ( x. y. . y.. order and number of the actual and formal arguments must always be same. b and c are called ‘actual arguments’. (b) The variables a. by making a call to the function calsum( ) and mentioning a. sum ) . } 167 And here is the output. { int d . z .Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers printf ( "\nSum = %d". However. } calsum ( x. z . b and c are passed on to the function calsum( ). Any number of arguments can be passed to a function being called. c ) . y and z are called ‘formal arguments’. b. d=x+y+z. b and c in the parentheses: sum = calsum ( a.. from the function main( ) the values of a. y. return ( d ) . z ) int x. the type. Enter any three numbers 10 20 30 Sum = 60 There are a number of things to note about this program: (a) In this program. In the calsum( ) function these values get collected in three variables x. whereas the variables x. z ) int x. y.

z ) int x. . y. But the compiler would still treat them as different variables since they are in different functions. Another method is.168 Let Us C Instead of using different variable names x. (d) In the earlier programs the moment closing brace ( } ) of the called function was encountered the control returned to the calling function. z . to th3e calling program. The one that we have used in our program is known as Kernighan and Ritchie (or just K & R) method. however. y and z. Therefore. No separate return statement was necessary to send back the control. The return statement serves two purposes: (1) On executing the return statement it immediately transfers the control back to the calling program. (2) It returns the value present in the parentheses after return. int z ) This method is called ANSI method and is more commonly used these days. In the above program the value of sum of three numbers is being returned. it is necessary to use the return statement. y and z. b and c. (c) There are two methods of declaring the formal arguments. we want to return the sum of x. we could have used the same variable names a. int y. y. In the above program. This approach is fine if the called function is not going to return any meaningful value to the calling function. calsum ( x. calsum ( int x.

(f) Whenever the control returns from a function some value is definitely returned. if ( ch >= 65 && ch <= 90 ) return ( ch ) . return ( a ) . else return ( ch + 32 ) . (g) All the following are valid return statements. return ( 23 ) .Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers 169 (e) There is no restriction on the number of return statements that may be present in a function. For example. scanf ( "%c". The following program illustrates these facts. return . &ch ) . printf ( "\nEnter any alphabet " ) . fun( ) { char ch . return ( 12. b. sum = calsum ( a. Also. the return statement need not always be present at the end of the called function. If a meaningful value is returned then it should be accepted in the calling program by equating the called function to some variable. . } In this function different return statements will be executed depending on whether ch is capital or not. c ) .34 ) .

. printf ( "\n%d". Thus. (j) If the value of a formal argument is changed in the called function. main( ) { int a = 30 . we must mention so by using the keyword void as shown below.170 Let Us C In the last statement a garbage value is returned to the calling function since we are not returning any specific value. There is a way to get around this limitation. the corresponding change does not take place in the calling function. Note that in this case the parentheses after return are dropped. } (i) A function can return only one value at a time. a ) . void display( ) { printf ( "\nHeads I win. the following statements are invalid. return ( x. in that case. return ( a. fun ( a ) . 12 ) . printf ( "\nTails you lose" ) . which would be discussed later in this chapter when we learn pointers. For example. . } fun ( int b ) { b = 60 ." ) . b ) .. (h) If we want that a called function should not return any value.

This means that when values are passed to a called function the values present in actual arguments are not physically moved to the formal arguments. just a photocopy of values in actual argument is made into formal arguments. b ) . printf ( "\n%d". } 171 The output of the above program would be: 60 30 Thus. even though the value of b is changed in fun( ). Scope Rule of Functions Look at the following program main( ) { int i = 20 . Because by default the scope of a variable is local to the function in which it is defined. k ) .Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers printf ( "\n%d". display ( i ) . The presence . } display ( int j ) { int k = 35 . } In this program is it necessary to pass the value of the variable i to the function display( )? Will it not become automatically available to the function display( )? No. printf ( "\n%d". the value of a in main( ) remains unchanged. j ) .

Calling Convention Calling convention indicates the order in which arguments are passed to a function when a function call is encountered. in some function call the order of passing arguments becomes an important consideration. d ) . it outputs 3 3 1. However. This however is not the case. It appears that this printf( ) would output 1 2 3. a++ ) . Similarly. Surprisingly. a. printf ( "%d %d %d". the variable k is local to the function display( ) and hence it is not available to main( ). That is why to make the value of i available to display( ) we have to explicitly pass it to display( ). b. C language follows the second order. Likewise. That is. In this call it doesn’t matter whether the arguments are passed from left to right or from right to left. There are two possibilities here: (a) Arguments might be passed from left to right. firstly . if we want k to be available to main( ) we will have to return it to main( ) using the return statement. This is because C’s calling convention is from right to left. In general we can say that the scope of a variable is local to the function in which it is defined. Consider the following function call: fun (a.172 Let Us C of i is known only to the function main( ) and not to any other function. c. ++a. For example: int a = 1 . (b) Arguments might be passed from right to left.

Then result of ++a is passed.e. These files contain the prototypes of library functions. Hence when the library of functions is provided a set of ‘. latest value of a. Thus 3 3 1 gets printed. prototypes of all mathematical functions are provided in the file ‘math. 20 ) . For example. is passed. prototypes of all input/output functions are provided in the file ‘stdio. That is. Finally.h’. ch = getch ( a ) . etc. 3 get passed. But why multiple files? Because the library functions are divided into different groups and one file is provided for each group.h’ files is also provided. You can even open this file and look at the prototypes. This helps the compiler in checking whether the values being passed and returned are as per the prototype declaration. a is incremented to 3 and then passed. One Dicey Issue Consider the following function calls: #include <conio.Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers 173 1 is passed through the expression a++ and then a is incremented to 2. 3. Here we are calling three standard library functions. Thus in right to left order 1.h> clrscr ( ) . i. They would appear as shown below: . Whenever we call the library functions we must write their prototype before making the call. Once printf( ) collects them it prints them in the order in which we have asked it to get them printed (and not the order in which they were passed). On compilation of the above code the compiler reports all errors due to the mismatch between parameters in function call and their corresponding prototypes declared in the file ‘conio.h’. gotoxy ( 10. 3.h’. But since we don’t define the library functions (we merely call them) we may not know the prototypes of library functions.

h’. i. j ) . since there is no variable matching with the last specifier %d. i. sometimes 3 arguments. and even with the mismatch above the call still matches with the prototype of printf( ) present in ‘stdio.). . int ) . Following advanced topics would be considered here. j = 20 . printf ( "%d". let us now get into their intricacies. (a) Function Declaration and Prototypes (b) Calling functions by value or by reference (c) Recursion Let us understand these features one by one. a garbage integer gets printed. void gotoxy ( int.174 void clrscr( ) . Advanced Features of Functions With a sound basis of the preliminaries of C functions. etc. Let Us C Now consider the following function calls: #include <stdio. int getch( ) . printf ( "%d %d %d ". Similarly. j ) . This is because printf( ) accepts variable number of arguments (sometimes 2 arguments. The above functions get successfully compiled even though there is a mismatch in the format specifiers and the variables in the list.h> int i = 10. in the second printf( ) since the format specifier for j has not been mentioned its value does not get printed. At run-time when the first printf( ) is executed.

5 is 6. If we desire that a function should return a value other than an int.. y=x*x.. b = square ( a ) . b . } And here are three sample runs of this program. &a ) . return ( y ) . This is how this simple program would look like: main( ) { float a. printf ( "\nSquare of %f is %f". then it is necessary to explicitly mention so in the calling function as well as in the called function.000000 Enter any number 2.Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers 175 Function Declaration and Prototypes Any C function by default returns an int value. whenever a call is made to a function.5 Square of 1.5 Square of 2. scanf ( "%f".000000 . } square ( float x ) { float y . b ) . More specifically. printf ( "\nEnter any number " ) . Suppose we want to find out square of a number using a function.5 is 2.000000 Enter any number 1. the compiler assumes that this function would return a value of the type int. a. Enter any number 3 Square of 3 is 9.

250000 Enter any number 2. even though the function square( ) calculates the square of 1. by default. } float square ( float x ) { float y . } And here is the output. This happened because any C function. printf ( "\nEnter any number " ) . square( ) is not capable of returning a float value. &a ) . a. return ( y ) .5 Square of 1..5 is 2. float a. How do we overcome this? The following program segment illustrates how to make square( ) capable of returning a float value. printf ( "\nSquare of %f is %f".5 as 2.176 Let Us C The first of these answers is correct.5 is 6.5.25 is to be returned to main( ).25.5 Square of 2. Enter any number 1. b = square ( a ) . Therefore..250000 . main( ) { float square ( float ) .5 is definitely not 2. the problem crops up when this 2. b . always returns an integer value. Neither is 6 a square of 2. But square of 1. b ) . y=x*x. scanf ( "%f".

in such a case we would make only one declaration outside all the functions at the beginning of the program." ) . We have done the prototype declaration in main( ) because we have called it from main( ). In some programming situations we want that a called function should not return any value.Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers 177 Now the expected answers i.25 are obtained. but just in case you are required to.." ) .. This is illustrated in the following program. In practice you may seldom be required to return a value other than an int.. printf ( "\nwhen you least expect. main( ) { void gospel( ) .25 and 6. There is a possibility that we may call square( ) from several other functions other than main( ). Does this mean that we would need prototype declaration of square( ) in all these functions.. gospel( ) ." ) . Note that the function square( ) must be declared in main( ) as float square ( float ) . employ the above method. This is made possible by using the keyword void. No. printf ( "\nand chunks of bytes. } void gospel( ) { printf ( "\nViruses are electronic bandits. What it means is square( ) is a function that receives a float and returns a float.e... This statement is often called the prototype declaration of the square( ) function. printf ( "\nwho eat nuggets of information.." ) .. 2. } .

And why not? It is C’s clever use of pointers that makes it the excellent language it is. Other languages have pointers but few use them so frequently as C does. This feature of C functions needs at least an elementary knowledge of a concept called ‘pointers’. Such function calls are called ‘calls by value’. So let us first acquire the basics of pointers after which we would take up this topic once again. c ) . Therefore. whenever we called a function and passed something to it we have always passed the ‘values’ of variables to the called function. But. . means it would return nothing. Call by Value and Call by Reference By now we are well familiar with how to call functions. b. An Introduction to Pointers Which feature of C do beginners find most difficult to understand? The answer is easy: pointers. if you observe carefully. the gospel( ) function has been defined to return void. What purpose a ‘call by reference’ serves we would find out a little later. We have also learnt that variables are stored somewhere in memory. it would just flash the four messages about viruses and return the control back to the main( ) function. By this what we mean is.178 Let Us C Here. So instead of passing the value of a variable. f = factr ( a ) . on calling a function we are passing values of variables to it. The examples of call by value are shown below: sum = calsum ( a. can we not pass the location number (also called address) of the variable to a function? If we were able to do so it would become a ‘call by reference’. First we must equip ourselves with knowledge of how to make a ‘call by reference’.

(b) Associate the name i with this memory location. or in a certain direction.1 . In our discussion of C pointers. i 3 65524 location name value at location location number Figure 5. we will try to avoid this difficulty by explaining pointers in terms of programming concepts we already understand. This declaration tells the C compiler to: (a) Reserve space in memory to hold the integer value. Pointer Notation Consider the declaration. when a C programmer says that a certain variable is a “pointer”. int i = 3 . It is hard to get a grip on pointers just by listening to programmer’s jargon.Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers 179 The difficulty beginners have with pointers has much to do with C’s pointer terminology than the actual concept. what does that mean? It is hard to see how a variable can point to something. We may represent i’s location in memory by the following memory map. The first thing we want to do is explain the rationale of C’s pointer notation. therefore. For instance. (c) Store the value 3 at this location.

Hence it is printed out using %u. printf ( "\nValue of i = %d".180 Let Us C We see that the computer has selected memory location 65524 as the place to store the value 3. Since 65524 represents an address. called ‘value at address’ operator. The important point is. because some other time the computer may choose a different location for storing the value 3. We have been using the ‘&’ operator all the time in the scanf( ) statement. Observe carefully the output of the following program: . The expression &i returns the address of the variable i. i ) . which is a format specifier for printing an unsigned integer. printf ( "\nAddress of i = %u". The other pointer operator available in C is ‘*’. i’s address in memory is a number. We can print this address number through the following program: main( ) { int i = 3 . ‘&’ used in this statement is C’s ‘address of’ operator. which in this case happens to be 65524. there is no question of a sign being associated with it. } The output of the above program would be: Address of i = 65524 Value of i = 3 Look at the first printf( ) statement carefully. It gives the value stored at a particular address. &i ) . The location number 65524 is not a number to be relied upon. The ‘value at address’ operator is also called ‘indirection’ operator.

Once again. the following memory map would illustrate the contents of i and j. Since j is a variable the compiler must provide it space in the memory. } 181 The output of the above program would be: Address of i = 65524 Value of i = 3 Value of i = 3 Note that printing the value of *( &i ) is same as printing the value of i. i ) . printf ( "\nAddress of i = %u". &i ) . This address can be collected in a variable. The expression &i gives the address of the variable i. printf ( "\nValue of i = %d". *( &i ) ) . i 3 65524 j 65524 65522 Figure 5. by saying.2 . It is a variable that contains the address of other variable (i in this case).Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers main( ) { int i = 3 . j = &i . But remember that j is not an ordinary variable like any other integer variable. printf ( "\nValue of i = %d".

Thus. int *j . printf ( "\nValue of i = %d". &j ) . printf ( "\nValue of j = %u". Here is a program that demonstrates the relationships we have been discussing. } The output of the above program would be: . the value at the address contained in j is an int. printf ( "\nAddress of i = %u". Let us go by the meaning of *. printf ( "\nAddress of i = %u". This declaration tells the compiler that j will be used to store the address of an integer value. j ) . j ) . int *j would mean. And since j is a variable that contains the address of i. But wait. main( ) { int i = 3 . it is declared as. It stands for ‘value at address’. int *j . *( &i ) ) . int *j . printf ( "\nValue of i = %d".182 Let Us C As you can see. i ) . In other words j points to an integer. i’s value is 3 and j’s value is i’s address. printf ( "\nValue of i = %d". How do we justify the usage of * in the declaration. &i ) . we can’t use j in a program without declaring it. *j ) . j = &i . printf ( "\nAddress of j = %u".

e. s is going to contain the address of a floating-point value. int *alpha . char *ch . Everything we say about C pointers from here onwards will depend on your understanding these expressions thoroughly. or the meanings of &i. pointers would always contain whole numbers. the value at address stored in ch is going to be a char. re-read the last few pages. i. char *ch means that ch is going to contain the address of a char value. Or in other words. taking help of the memory locations of i and j shown earlier. Similarly. ch and s are declared as pointer variables. float *s . . addresses (location nos. What it means is.) are always going to be whole numbers. Here. alpha. If you don’t understand the program’s output. The declaration float *s does not mean that s is going to contain a floating-point value. Remember that. and since addresses are always whole numbers. *j and *( &i ). Now we can put these two facts together and say—pointers are variables that contain addresses. therefore pointers always contain whole numbers. This program summarizes everything that we have discussed so far. variables capable of holding addresses.Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers Address of i = 65524 Address of i = 65524 Address of j = 65522 Value of j = 65524 Value of i = 3 Value of i = 3 Value of i = 3 183 Work through the above program carefully. Look at the following declarations. &j.

printf ( "\nValue of k = %u". The following example should make this point clear. *k ) . *j ) . j ) . &k ) . k ) . &i ) . printf ( "\nValue of i = %d". k = &j . we know is a variable that contains address of another variable. k ) . printf ( "\nAddress of i = %u". j ) . **k ) .184 Let Us C The concept of pointers can be further extended. printf ( "\nAddress of i = %u". **k . Now this variable itself might be another pointer. Pointer. main( ) { int i = 3. printf ( "\nValue of j = %u". printf ( "\nValue of i = %d". i ) . Thus. printf ( "\nAddress of k = %u". printf ( "\nAddress of i = %u". j = &i . printf ( "\nAddress of j = %u". &j ) . we now have a pointer that contains another pointer’s address. * ( &i ) ) . printf ( "\nValue of i = %d". printf ( "\nAddress of j = %u". printf ( "\nValue of i = %d". *j. } The output of the above program would be: Address of i = 65524 Address of i = 65524 Address of i = 65524 Address of j = 65522 Address of j = 65522 Address of k = 65520 Value of j = 65524 Value of k = 65522 .

3 would help you in tracing out how the program prints the above output. int i. Possibly. Remember that when you run this program the addresses that get printed might turn out to be something different than the ones shown in the figure. Beyond this one rarely requires to extend the definition of a pointer. Here. But just in case. However. i is an ordinary int. j is a pointer to an int (often called an integer pointer).Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers Value of i Value of i Value of i Value of i =3 =3 =3 =3 185 Figure 5. with these addresses too the relationship between i. i 3 65524 j 65524 65522 k 65522 65520 Figure 5. In principle. And that point of comprehension is usually a pointer to a pointer. whereas k is a pointer to an integer pointer.. **k .. .3 Observe how the variables j and k have been declared. j and k can be easily established. There is no limit on how far can we go on extending this definition. We can extend the above program still further by creating a pointer to a pointer to an integer pointer. you would agree that likewise there could exist a pointer to a pointer to a pointer to a pointer to a pointer. *j. till the point we can comprehend it.

x. printf ( "\nx = %d y = %d".186 Back to Function Calls Let Us C Having had the first tryst with pointers let us now get back to what we had originally set out to learn—the two types of function calls—call by value and call by reference. y ) . x=y. } swapv ( int x. y=t. Arguments can generally be passed to functions in one of the two ways: (a) sending the values of the arguments (b) sending the addresses of the arguments In the first method the ‘value’ of each of the actual arguments in the calling function is copied into corresponding formal arguments of the called function. b ) . a. main( ) { int a = 10. With this method the changes made to the formal arguments in the called function have no effect on the values of actual arguments in the calling function. } The output of the above program would be: . printf ( "\na = %d b = %d". int y ) { int t . b = 20 . The following program illustrates the ‘Call by Value’. swapv ( a. t=x. b ) .

int *y ) { int t . } The output of the above program would be: a = 20 b = 10 Note that this program manages to exchange the values of a and b using their addresses stored in x and y. b = 20 . This means that using these addresses we would have an access to the actual arguments and hence we would be able to manipulate them. The following program illustrates this fact. printf ( "\na = %d b = %d". main( ) { int a = 10. . In the second method (call by reference) the addresses of actual arguments in the calling function are copied into formal arguments of the called function. *x = *y . *y = t . b ) . t = *x . &b ) . } swapr( int *x.Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers x = 20 y = 10 a = 10 b = 20 187 Note that values of a and b remain unchanged even after exchanging the values of x and y. swapr ( &a. a.

area ) . float *a. printf ( "Area = %f". } And here is the output. which is not possible ordinarily. &perimeter ) . we are passing the value of radius but. *p = 2 * 3. printf ( "\nEnter radius of a circle " ) . Using a call by reference intelligently we can make a function return more than one value at a time.. This is shown in the program given below. scanf ( "%d". float *p ) { *a = 3. addresses of area and perimeter. main( ) { int radius . float area.500000 Perimeter = 31. &radius ) .. would make . any change that we make in values stored at addresses contained in the variables a and p. we are making a mixed call.14 * r . areaperi ( radius. This means that in general you cannot alter the actual arguments. perimeter ) . &area. it can always be achieved through a call by reference. And since we are passing the addresses. Enter radius of a circle 5 Area = 78. in the sense.14 * r * r . } areaperi ( int r. But if desired. perimeter . printf ( "\nPerimeter = %f".400000 Here.188 Let Us C Usually in C programming we make a call by value.

and hence. (b) If we want that the value of an actual argument should get changed in the function being called. recursion is thus the process of defining something in terms of itself. pass the actual argument by reference. it is possible for the functions to call themselves. A function is called ‘recursive’ if a statement within the body of a function calls the same function. Suppose we want to calculate the factorial value of an integer. have overcome the limitation of the return statement. Conclusions From the programs that we discussed here we can draw the following conclusions: (a) If we want that the value of an actual argument should not get changed in the function being called. which can return only one value from a function at a time. the . we have been able to indirectly return two values from a called function. Thus. As we know. That is why when the control returns from the function areaperi( ) we are able to output the values of area and perimeter. (c) If a function is to be made to return more than one value at a time then return these values indirectly by using a call by reference. Sometimes called ‘circular definition’. Recursion In C.Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers 189 the change effective in main( ). pass the actual argument by value. Let us now see a simple example of recursion.

&a ) . before we try to write a recursive function for calculating factorial let us take a look at the non-recursive function for calculating the factorial value of an integer.. However. Thus factorial of a number can be expressed in the form of itself. for ( i = x . For example. } factorial ( int x ) { int f = 1. scanf ( "%d".. printf ( "\nEnter any number " ) .190 Let Us C factorial of a number is the product of all the integers between 1 and that number. return ( f ) . } And here is the output. printf ( "Factorial value = %d". i-. Hence this can be programmed using recursion. fact . i >= 1 . fact = factorial ( a ) . fact ) .) f=f*i. main( ) { int a. 4 factorial is 4 * 3 * 2 * 1. i . This can also be expressed as 4! = 4 * 3! where ‘!’ stands for factorial. Enter any number 3 Factorial value = 6 .

scanf ( "%d". printf ( "Factorial value = %d". Recursive factorial function can be understood only if you are thorough with the above logic. fact = rec ( a ) . if ( x == 1 ) return ( 1 ) . Following is the recursive version of the function to calculate the factorial value. } rec ( int x ) { int f . fact . &a ) .1 ) . fact ) . printf ( "\nEnter any number " ) .Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers 191 Work through the above program carefully. else f = x * rec ( x . till you understand the logic of the program properly. main( ) { int a. } And here is the output for four runs of the program Enter any number 1 Factorial value = 1 Enter any number 2 Factorial value = 2 Enter any number 3 . return ( f ) .

or simply 2.192 Factorial value = 6 Enter any number 5 Factorial value = 120 Let Us C Let us understand this recursive factorial function thoroughly. How do we handle the expression x * rec ( x . Since the current value of x is 2. Since x turns out to be 1 the condition if ( x == 1 ) is satisfied and hence 1 (which indeed is the value of 1 factorial) is returned through the return statement. We know that the value returned by rec ( 1 ) is 1. so we reach the statement. it is same as saying that we must calculate the value (2 * rec ( 1 )). f = x * rec ( x . When the number entered through scanf( ) is 2. where it is duly printed as Factorial value = 2 Now perhaps you can see what would happen if the value of a is 3. The value of a (i. It is possible for the rec( ) that has just been . which is stored in the variable f. main( ) would call rec( ) with 5 as its actual argument. so the expression reduces to (2 * 1). But before sending the computed value.1 ). Thus the statement. And here is where we meet recursion. In case the value of a is 5.e.1 ) . 5 and so on. evaluates to 2. rec( ) calls rec( ) and waits for a value to be returned.1 )? We multiply x by rec ( x . x * rec ( x . 1) is copied into x. In the first run when the number entered through scanf( ) is 1. let us see what action does rec( ) take. and rec( ) will send back the computed value. and is returned to main( ). 4.1 ) . the ( x == 1 ) test fails.

Let it be clear that while executing the program there do not exist so many copies of the function rec( ). which returns ( 1 ) ) ) ) ) Foxed? Well. which returns ( 2 times rec ( 1 ).e. We speak of this series of calls to rec( ) as being different invocations of rec( ). Assume that the number entered through scanf( ) is 3. x collects 3. The first time when rec( ) is called from main( ). From here. since x is not equal to 1. Possibly Figure 5. These have been shown in the figure just to . and finally 6 is returned to main( ). The sequence would be grasped better by following the arrows shown in Figure 5. and f is evaluated as 2. i. These successive invocations of the same function are possible because the C compiler keeps track of which invocation calls which. Using Figure 5.4 would make things a bit clearer.4. 2. This is a recursive call. the argument x being decreased in value by 1 for each of these recursive calls. which returns ( 3 times rec ( 2 ). which returns ( 4 times rec ( 3 ). rec ( 5 ) returns ( 5 times rec ( 4 ). that is recursion for you in its simplest garbs.1).Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers 193 called to call yet another rec( ). Go through the figure carefully. with argument (2 . control goes back to previous rec( ) with the value 1. the if block is skipped and rec( ) is called again with the argument ( x – 1 ). I hope you agree that it’s difficult to visualize how the control flows from one function call to another. This time as x is 1. each rec( ) evaluates its f from the returned value. Since x is still not equal to 1. So we might say what happens is. which the preceding invocation of rec( ) now uses to calculate its own f value and so on up the ladder. These recursive invocations end finally when the last invocation gets an argument value of 1.4 let’s visualize what exactly happens when the recursive function rec( ) gets called. Similarly. rec( ) is called yet another time.

return ( f ) .4 Recursion may seem strange and complicated at first glance. For example. an array. else else f = x * rec ( x – 1 ) . the clearest way of doing so. } to main( ) } return ( f ) . and once you are familiar with recursion. . rec ( int x ) { int f . All these different ways of organizing the data are known as data structures. return ( 1 ) . if you are to store five numbers then we can store them in five different variables. f = x * rec ( x – 1 ) . a binary tree. } if (x == 1) if (x == 1) return ( 1 ) . etc. return ( f ) . if (x == 1) return ( 1 ) . a linked list. rec ( int x ) { int f . Recursion and Stack There are different ways in which data can be organized. The compiler uses one such data structure called stack for implementing normal as well as recursive function calls. but it is often the most direct way to code an algorithm.194 Let Us C help you keep track of how the control flows during successive recursive calls. Figure 5. from main( ) rec ( int x ) { int f . else f = x * rec ( x – 1 ) .

In fun( ) the values of a and b that were pushed on the stack are referred as i and j. c ) . b ) . printf ( "sum = %d". c = add ( a. Using this address the control returns to the printf( ) statement in main( ). Following this the address of the statement printf( ) is pushed on the stack and the control is transferred to fun( ). int j ) { int sum . When value of sum is returned sum is popped up from the stack. main( ) { int a = 5. b = 2. } In this program before transferring the execution control to the function fun( ) the values of parameters a and b are pushed onto the stack. Now let us see how the stack works in case of the following program. It is necessary to push this address on the stack. c . Before execution of printf( ) begins the two integers that were earlier pushed on the stack are now popped off. sum = i + j . } add ( int i. This means that the last item to get stored on the stack (often called Push operation) is the first one to get out of it (often called as Pop operation). How the values are being pushed and popped even though we didn’t write any code to do so? Simple—the compiler on . In fun( ) the local variable sum gets pushed on the stack. Next the address of the statement where the control should be returned is popped up from the stack.Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers 195 A stack is a Last In First Out (LIFO) data structure. return sum . You can compare this to the stack of plates in a cafeteria—the last plate that goes on the stack is the first one to get out of it.

When it is done this way it is known as ‘CDecl Calling Convention’.196 Let Us C encountering the function call would generate code to push parameters and the address.5 Note that in this program popping of sum and address is done by fun( ). Copy of a Copy of b Empty stack 5 2 When call to fun( ) is met Address of printf( ) Copy of a Copy of b xxxx 5 2 Before transfering control to fun( ) sum Address i j 7 xxxx 5 2 After control reaches fun( ) xxxx 5 2 On returning control While returning from fun( ) control from fun( ) Figure 5. it would generate code to clear the stack when the control returns back from fun( ). whereas popping of the two integers is done by main( ). fun( ) itself clears the two integers. Similarly. There are other calling conventions as well where instead of main( ). The standard calling convention always uses the right-to-left .5 shows the contents of the stack at different stages of execution. The calling convention also decides whether the parameters being passed to the function are pushed on the stack in left-to-right or right-to-left order. Figure 5.

When we use these functions (by calling them) we save on their compilation time as they are available in the library in the compiled form. Thus during the call to fun( ) firstly value of b is pushed to the stack. Thus during every recursive function call we are working with a fresh set of parameters. Turbo C/C++ . Let us now see how to add user-defined functions to the library. Also. Adding Functions to the Library Most of the times we either use the functions present in the standard library or we define our own functions and use them. Whenever we make a recursive call the parameters and the return address gets pushed on the stack. Different compilers provide different utilities to add/delete/modify functions in the standard library. Can we not add our functions to the standard library? And would it make any sense in doing so? We can add user-defined functions to the library. My advice is to use printf( ) statement liberally during the development of recursive function. For example. It makes sense in doing so as the functions that are to be added to the library are first compiled and then added. you will fall in an indefinite loop. Soon the stack would become full and you would get a run-time error indicating that the stack has become full. followed by the value of a.Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers 197 order. note that while writing recursive functions you must have an if statement somewhere in the recursive function to force the function to return without recursive call being executed. The stack gets unwound when the control returns from the called function. and the stack will keep on getting filled with parameters and the return address each time there is a call. so that you can watch what is going on and can abort execution if you see that you have made a mistake. The recursive calls are no different. This is a very common error while writing recursive functions. If you don’t do this and you call the function.

i <= num .obj Here.obj’ would get created containing the compiled code in machine language. i++ ) f=f*i. Let us use this utility to add a function factorial( ) to the library. (e) To use the function present inside the library.obj’ file. say ‘fact.h’.c’ file using Alt F9.c’.lib’ is a library filename. for ( i = 1 . return ( f ) .exe’ (Turbo Librarian). int factorial ( int num ) { int i. This file should be included while calling the function.h" main( ) . Given below are the steps to do so: (a) Write the function definition of factorial( ) in some file. which means we want to add new function to library and ‘c:\fact. (d) Declare the prototype of the factorial( ) function in the header file.lib + c:\fact. (c) Add the function to the library by issuing the command C:\>tlib math. f = 1 . say ‘fact. + is a switch. create a program as shown below: #include "c:\\fact.198 Let Us C compilers provide a utility called ‘tlib. A new file called ‘fact. ‘math.obj’ is the path of the ‘. } (b) Compile the ‘fact.

where n is the number passed to it. say ‘myfuncs. As their names suggest. prime( ) reports whether the number passed to it is a prime number or not and fibonacci( ) prints the first n terms of the Fibonacci series. (c) From the Options menu select the menu-item ‘Application’. Here are the steps that need to be carried out to create this library. Let us assume that we wish to create a library containing the functions factorial( ).Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers { int f . prime( ) and fibonacci( ).h’ and declare the prototypes of factorial( ). (b) Create a file ‘myfuncs.) switch. From the dialog that pops us select the option ‘Library’. prime( ) and fibonacci( ) in a file. (a) Define the functions factorial( ). Let’s see how to do this. Note that these steps are specific to Turbo C/C++ compiler and would vary for other compilers. f ) . If we wish we can delete the existing functions present in the library using the minus ( . Instead of modifying the existing libraries we can create our own library. Select OK. void fibonacci ( int ) . factorial( ) calculates and returns the factorial value of the integer passed to it. f = factorial ( 5 ) . prime( ) and fibonacci( ) in it as shown below: int factorial ( int ) . Do not define main( ) in this file. } 199 (f) Compile and execute the program using Ctrl F9. . printf ( "%d".c’. int prime ( int ) .

result = prime ( 13 ) . say ‘sample. Select the file ‘sample.lib’. If not. . f. Here is how it can be done. #include "myfuncs.c’ and then select ‘Add’.c’ and type the following code in it. (c) From the ‘Project’ menu select ‘Add Item’. f = factorial ( 5 ) . On doing so a dialog would pop up.h’ mention the appropriate path. say ‘sample. Now we have to use the functions defined in this library. Give the name of the project. then while including ‘myfuncs. This would create the library file called ‘myfuncs.h" main( ) { int f. printf ( "\n%d %d".prj’ and select OK.200 Let Us C (d) Compile the program using Alt F9.c’. result ) . The library now stands created. result . That’s it. } Note that the file ‘myfuncs. (d) Compile and execute the project using Ctrl F9.h’ should be in the same directory as the file ‘sample. (a) Create a file. On doing so a file dialog would appear. (b) Go to the ‘Project’ menu and select ‘Open Project…’ option.lib’ in the same manner. Finally select ‘Done’. Also add the file ‘myfuncs. fibonacci ( 6 ) .

Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers 201 Summary (a) To avoid repetition of code and bulky programs functionally related statements are isolated into a function. (i) Adding too many functions and calling them frequently may slow down the program execution. main( ) . display( ) . (g) Pointers can be used to make a function return more than one value simultaneously. } . (c) Function definition defines the body of the function. Passing values between functions [A] What would be the output of the following programs: (a) main( ) { printf ( "\nOnly stupids use C?" ) . } display( ) { printf ( "\nFools too use C!" ) . (h) Recursion is difficult to understand. (d) Variables declared in a function are not available to other functions in a program. (f) A function can be called either by value or by reference. So. Exercise Simple functions. (e) Pointers are variables which hold addresses of other variables. but in some cases offer a better solution than loops. there won’t be any clash even if we give same name to the variables declared in different functions. (b) Function declaration specifies what is the return type of the function and the types of parameters it accepts.

c ) . else return ( 10 * 10 ) . c = check ( i ) . c . } (c) main( ) { int i = 45. } Let Us C (d) main( ) { int i = 45. if any.202 (b) main( ) { printf ( "\nC to it that C survives" ) . printf ( "\n%d". c ) . c = multiply ( i * 1000 ) . } [B] Point out the errors. in the following programs: (a) main( ) { . main( ) . printf ( "\n%d". c . else return ( 10 ) . } check ( int ch ) { if ( ch >= 45 ) return ( 100 ) . } check ( int ch ) { if ( ch >= 40000 ) return ( ch / 10 ) .

int jj ) { int kk. j ) . printit ( a. ch ) { printf ( "\n%f %c". l = addmult ( i. } addmult ( int ii. l . k. return . printf ( "\n%d %d". } message( ) { printf ( "\nViruses are written in C" ) . j ) . ll = ii * jj . char ch = 'C' . j = 4. return ( kk. k. k = addmult ( i. } 203 (d) main( ) { message( ) .5 . a. } (c) main( ) { float a = 15. kk = ii + jj . ll ) . } (b) main( ) { int a . a = message( ) . . l ) . ch ) . ch ) . } printit ( a.Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers int i = 3. ll .

{ return ( a * a ) . printf ( "\nOthers are of course no match !" ) . } } (f) main( ) { message( message ( ) ) . } (e) main( ) { let_us_c( ) { printf ( "\nC is a Cimple minded language !" ) . } Let Us C [C] Answer the following: (a) Is this a correctly written function: sqr ( a ) . } message( ) . } void message( ) { printf ( "\nPraise worthy and C worthy are synonyms" ) .204 message( ) . { printf ( "\nPraise worthy and C worthy are synonyms" ) . int a . } (b) State whether the following statements are True or False: .

Every called function must contain a return statement. A function may be called more than once from any other function. to calculate the value of a raised to b. b ). 10. The same variable names can be used in different functions without any conflict. 7. It is necessary for a function to return some value. To return the control back to the calling function we must use the keyword return. 5. 3. . 4. The variables commonly used in C functions are available to all the functions in a program.Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers 205 1. Each return statement in a function may return a different value. A function can still be useful even if you don’t pass any arguments to it and the function doesn’t return any value back. [D] Answer the following: (a) Write a function to calculate the factorial value of any integer entered through the keyboard. 2. 6. A function may contain more than one return statements. Same names can be used for different functions without any conflict. (b) Write a function power ( a. 8. 9.

(e) A positive integer is entered through the keyboard. whereas prime factors of 35 are 5 and 7. Call by Value/Reference. Write a function to obtain the prime factors of this number. } circle ( int r ) . printf ( "\n%f". 2 and 3. area = circle ( radius ) . Write a function to determine whether the year is a leap year or not. prime factors of 24 are 2. Pointers [E] What would be the output of the following programs: (a) main( ) { float area . Function Prototypes. The following table shows the roman equivalents of decimal numbers: Decimal 1 5 10 50 Roman i v x l Decimal 100 500 1000 Roman c d m Example: Roman equivalent of 1988 is mdcccclxxxviii Roman equivalent of 1525 is mdxxv (d) Any year is entered through the keyboard. For example.206 Let Us C (c) Write a general-purpose function to convert any given year into its roman equivalent. area ) . 2. int radius = 1 .

c ) . printf ( "\n%d". a = 3. return ( a ) . . } [F] Answer the following: 207 (a) Write a function which receives a float and an int from main( ). average and standard deviation of these numbers. (b) Write a function that receives 5 integers and returns the sum. } void slogan( ) { printf ( "\nOnly He men use C!" ) . Call this function from main( ) and print the results in main( ). int c = 5 . (c) Write a function that receives marks received by a student in 3 subjects and returns the average and percentage of these marks. c = slogan( ) .Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers { float a . finds the product of these two and returns the product which is printed through main( ). Call this function from main( ) and print the results in main( ). j = 2 . } (b) main( ) { void slogan( ) . [G] What would be the output of the following programs: (a) main( ) { int i = 5.14 * r * r .

i. printf ( "\n%d %d". int j ) { i=i*i. printf ( "\n%d %d". } junk ( int *i. int j ) { *i = *i * *i . j = 2 . &j ) . j ) . junk ( &i. *c . printf ( "\n%d %d". j ) . } junk ( int i. i. j ) . i.5 . j=j*j. } Let Us C (d) main( ) { float a = 13.208 junk ( i. junk ( &i. float *b. j = 2 . } (b) main( ) { int i = 5. /* suppose address of a is 1006 */ . j ) . j ) . } (c) main( ) { int i = 4. int *j ) { *i = *i * *i . *j = *j * *j . b = &a . j=j*j. } junk ( int *i.

} pass ( int j. int b ) int c . in the following programs: (a) main( ) { int i = 135. *c ) . a. z . printf ( "\n%d". a = 135. &a. *(&a). z = check ( k ) . printf ( "\n%f %f %f %f %f". } [H] Point out the errors. z ) . { c=j+b. g=g+g. f ) . c ) . } (c) main( ) { int k = 35. k ) . jiaayjo ( &p. printf ( "\n%d %d". *&a. a ) .Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers c=b. b. return ( c ) . printf ( "\n%u %u %u". k = pass ( i. k . printf ( "\n%d". } (b) main( ) { int p = 23. } 209 . if any. p. f = 24 . int g ) { q=q+q. } jiaayjo ( int q. &f ) . *b.

. main( ) . if ( i <= 5 ) { printf ( "\nC adds wings to your thoughts" ) . printf ( "\n%d". } Let Us C [I] What would be the output of the following programs: (a) main( ) { int i = 0 . *z . } } (b) main( ) { static int i = 0 .210 check ( m ) { int m . z = function ( &i ) . } function ( int *m ) { return ( m + 2 ) . exit( ) . else return ( 0 ) . if ( m > 40 ) return ( 1 ) . z ) . } (d) main( ) { int i = 35. i++ . i++ .

main( ) . In a Fibonacci sequence the sum of two successive terms gives the third term. (e) Write a recursive function to obtain the running sum of first 25 natural numbers. Modify the function suitably to obtain the prime factors recursively. write a function to find the binary equivalent of this number using recursion. } [J] Attempt the following: 211 (a) A 5-digit positive integer is entered through the keyboard... } else exit( ) . write a function to calculate sum of digits of the 5-digit number: (1) Without using recursion (2) Using recursion (b) A positive integer is entered through the keyboard. write a program to obtain the prime factors of the number. Following are the first few terms of the Fibonacci sequence: 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89. i ) . (d) A positive integer is entered through the keyboard. (f) Write a C function to evaluate the series sin( x) = x − ( x 3 / 3!) + ( x 5 / 5!) − ( x 7 / 7!) + L . (c) Write a recursive function to obtain the first 25 numbers of a Fibonacci sequence.Chapter 5: Functions & Pointers if ( i <= 5 ) { printf ( "\n%d".

z = 8 and x = 10. and C(x3. z write a function to circularly shift their values to right. (k) Write a function to compute the greatest common divisor given by Euclid’s algorithm. . c to circularly shift values. y = 8. x =10 after circular shift y = 5. y2). (i) If the lengths of the sides of a triangle are denoted by a. Let Us C (g) Given three variables x. b. (h) Write a function to find the binary equivalent of a given decimal integer and display it. Call the function with variables a. y) lines inside the triangle ABC. Use these functions to develop a function which returns a value 1 if the point (x. z = 8. otherwise a value 0. y. S = ( a + b + c ) / 2 (j) Write a function to compute the distance between two points and use it to develop another function that will compute the area of the triangle whose vertices are A(x1.212 to five significant digits. and c. exemplified for J = 1980. K = 1617 as follows: 1980 – 1 * 1617 = 363 1980 / 1617 = 1 1617 / 363 = 4 1617 – 4 * 363 = 165 363 / 165 = 2 363 – 2 * 165 = 33 5 / 33 = 5 165 – 5 * 33 = 0 Thus. y1). In other words if x = 5. y3). B(x2. the greatest common divisor is 33. b. then area of triangle is given by area = S ( S − a )( S − b)( S − c) where. z = 10 after circular shift y = 5.

6 Data Types Revisited • • • • • • Integers. signed and unsigned Floats and Doubles A Few More Issues… Storage Classes in C Automatic Storage Class Register Storage Class Static Storage Class External Storage Class Which to Use When • Summary • Exercise 213 . signed and unsigned Chars. long and short Integers.

A Not only this. and float. how C programmers manage with such a tiny set of data types. For example. the number of data types that can be derived in C. In fact. the primary data types themselves could be of several types.214 Let Us C s seen in the first chapter the primary data types could be of three varieties—char. For a 32-bit compiler the range would be –2147483648 to +2147483647. unlimited. Note that this does not mean that a program compiled using Turbo C would not work on 32-bit processor. int. As against this. It may seem odd to many. A C programmer can always invent whatever data type he needs. Integers. In this chapter we would be exploring the different storage classes and their relevance in C programming. is in principle. Sufficiently confusing? Well. Or an int could be a short int or a long int. the C programmers aren’t really deprived. Fact is. It would run successfully but at that time the 32-bit processor would work as if it were a 16-bit processor. For a 16-bit compiler like Turbo C or Turbo C++ the range is –32768 to 32767. They can derive many data types from these three types. a char could be an unsigned char or a signed char. a 32-bit compiler like VC++ generates machine language code that is targeted towards a 32-bit microprocessor like Intel Pentium. Here a 16-bit compiler means that when it compiles a C program it generates machine language code that is targeted towards working on a 16-bit microprocessor like Intel 8086/8088. This happens because a 32-bit processor provides support for programs compiled using 16-bit compilers. To fully define a variable one needs to mention not only its type but also its storage class. let us take a closer look at these variations of primary data types in this chapter. If this backward compatibility support is not provided the 16-bit program . long and short We had seen earlier that the range of an Integer constant depends upon the compiler.

as in. Compiler 16-bit (Turbo C/C++) 32-bit (Visual C++) short 2 2 int 2 4 long 4 4 Figure 6.1 shows the sizes of different integers based upon the OS used. short and long integers would usually occupy two and four bytes respectively. Each compiler can decide appropriate sizes depending on the operating system and hardware for which it is being written. which have withdrawn support for 16-bit code. Though not a rule. the highest bit (16th/32nd bit) is used to store the sign of the integer. This is precisely what happens on the new Intel Itanium processors. . This bit is 1 if the number is negative. The intention of providing these variations is to provide integers with different ranges wherever possible. subject to the following rules: (a) (b) (c) (d) shorts are at least 2 bytes big longs are at least 4 bytes big shorts are never bigger than ints ints are never bigger than longs Figure 6. C offers a variation of the integer data type that provides what are called short and long integer values.1 long variables which hold long integers are declared using the keyword long. and 0 if the number is positive.Chapter 6: Data Types Revisited 215 would not run on it. Remember that out of the two/four bytes used to store an integer.

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long int i ; long int abc ;

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long integers cause the program to run a bit slower, but the range of values that we can use is expanded tremendously. The value of a long integer typically can vary from -2147483648 to +2147483647. More than this you should not need unless you are taking a world census. If there are such things as longs, symmetry requires shorts as well—integers that need less space in memory and thus help speed up program execution. short integer variables are declared as,
short int j ; short int height ;

C allows the abbreviation of short int to short and of long int to long. So the declarations made above can be written as,
long i ; long abc ; short j ; short height ;

Naturally, most C programmers prefer this short-cut. Sometimes we come across situations where the constant is small enough to be an int, but still we want to give it as much storage as a long. In such cases we add the suffix ‘L’ or ‘l’ at the end of the number, as in 23L.

Integers, signed and unsigned
Sometimes, we know in advance that the value stored in a given integer variable will always be positive—when it is being used to

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only count things, for example. In such a case we can declare the variable to be unsigned, as in,
unsigned int num_students ;

With such a declaration, the range of permissible integer values (for a 16-bit OS) will shift from the range -32768 to +32767 to the range 0 to 65535. Thus, declaring an integer as unsigned almost doubles the size of the largest possible value that it can otherwise take. This so happens because on declaring the integer as unsigned, the left-most bit is now free and is not used to store the sign of the number. Note that an unsigned integer still occupies two bytes. This is how an unsigned integer can be declared:
unsigned int i ; unsigned i ;

Like an unsigned int, there also exists a short unsigned int and a long unsigned int. By default a short int is a signed short int and a long int is a signed long int.

Chars, signed and unsigned
Parallel to signed and unsigned ints (either short or long), similarly there also exist signed and unsigned chars, both occupying one byte each, but having different ranges. To begin with it might appear strange as to how a char can have a sign. Consider the statement
char ch = 'A' ;

Here what gets stored in ch is the binary equivalent of the ASCII value of ‘A’ (i.e. binary of 65). And if 65’s binary can be stored, then -54’s binary can also be stored (in a signed char).

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A signed char is same as an ordinary char and has a range from -128 to +127; whereas, an unsigned char has a range from 0 to 255. Let us now see a program that illustrates this range:
main( ) { char ch = 291 ; printf ( "\n%d %c", ch, ch ) ; }

What output do you expect from this program? Possibly, 291 and the character corresponding to it. Well, not really. Surprised? The reason is that ch has been defined as a char, and a char cannot take a value bigger than +127. Hence when value of ch exceeds +127, an appropriate value from the other side of the range is picked up and stored in ch. This value in our case happens to be 35, hence 35 and its corresponding character #, gets printed out. Here is another program that would make the concept clearer.
main( ) { char ch ; for ( ch = 0 ; ch <= 255 ; ch++ ) printf ( "\n%d %c", ch, ch ) ; }

This program should output ASCII values and their corresponding characters. Well, No! This is an indefinite loop. The reason is that ch has been defined as a char, and a char cannot take values bigger than +127. Hence when value of ch is +127 and we perform ch++ it becomes -128 instead of +128. -128 is less than 255 hence the condition is still satisfied. Here onwards ch would take values like -127, -126, -125, .... -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, ... +127, -128, -127, etc. Thus the value of ch would keep oscillating between -128 to +127, thereby ensuring that the loop never gets terminated. How do you

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overcome this difficulty? Would declaring ch as an unsigned char solve the problem? Even this would not serve the purpose since when ch reaches a value 255, ch++ would try to make it 256 which cannot be stored in an unsigned char. Thus the only alternative is to declare ch as an int. However, if we are bent upon writing the program using unsigned char, it can be done as shown below. The program is definitely less elegant, but workable all the same.
main( ) { unsigned char ch ; for ( ch = 0 ; ch <= 254 ; ch++ ) printf ( "\n%d %c", ch, ch ) ; printf ( "\n%d %c", ch, ch ) ; }

Floats and Doubles
A float occupies four bytes in memory and can range from -3.4e38 to +3.4e38. If this is insufficient then C offers a double data type that occupies 8 bytes in memory and has a range from -1.7e308 to +1.7e308. A variable of type double can be declared as,
double a, population ;

If the situation demands usage of real numbers that lie even beyond the range offered by double data type, then there exists a long double that can range from -1.7e4932 to +1.7e4932. A long double occupies 10 bytes in memory. You would see that most of the times in C programming one is required to use either chars or ints and cases where floats, doubles or long doubles would be used are indeed rare.

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Let us now write a program that puts to use all the data types that we have learnt in this chapter. Go through the following program carefully, which shows how to use these different data types. Note the format specifiers used to input and output these data types.
main( ) { char c ; unsigned char d ; int i ; unsigned int j ; short int k ; unsigned short int l ; long int m ; unsigned long int n ; float x ; double y ; long double z ; /* char */ scanf ( "%c %c", &c, &d ) ; printf ( "%c %c", c, d ) ; /* int */ scanf ( "%d %u", &i, &j ) ; printf ( "%d %u", i, j ) ; /* short int */ scanf ( "%d %u", &k, &l ) ; printf ( "%d %u", k, l ) ; /* long int */ scanf ( "%ld %lu", &m, &n ) ; printf ( "%ld %lu", m, n ) ; /* float, double, long double */ scanf ( "%f %lf %Lf", &x, &y, &z ) ; printf ( "%f %lf %Lf", x, y, z ) ;

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The essence of all the data types that we have learnt so far has been captured in Figure 6.2.

Data Type signed char unsigned char short signed int short unsigned int signed int unsigned int long signed int long unsigned int float double long double

Range -128 to + 127 0 to 255 -32768 to +32767 0 to 65535 -32768 to +32767 0 to 65535
-2147483648 to +2147483647

Bytes 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 8 10

Format %c %c %d %u %d %u %ld %lu %f %lf %Lf

0 to 4294967295 -3.4e38 to +3.4e38 -1.7e308 to +1.7e308 -1.7e4932 to +1.7e4932

Note: The sizes and ranges of int, short and long are compiler dependent. Sizes in this figure are for 16-bit compiler.

Figure 6.2

A Few More Issues…
Having seen all the variations of the primary types let us take a look at some more related issues. (a) We saw earlier that size of an integer is compiler dependent. This is even true in case of chars and floats. Also, depending upon the microprocessor for which the compiler targets its code the accuracy of floating point calculations may change. For example, the result of 22.0/7.0 would be reported more

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accurately by VC++ compiler as compared to TC/TC++ compilers. This is because TC/TC++ targets its compiled code to 8088/8086 (16-bit) microprocessors. Since these microprocessors do not offer floating point support, TC/TC++ performs all float operations using a software piece called Floating Point Emulator. This emulator has limitations and hence produces less accurate results. Also, this emulator becomes part of the EXE file, thereby increasing its size. In addition to this increased size there is a performance penalty since this bigger code would take more time to execute. (b) If you look at ranges of chars and ints there seems to be one extra number on the negative side. This is because a negative number is always stored as 2’s compliment of its binary. For example, let us see how -128 is stored. Firstly, binary of 128 is calculated (10000000), then its 1’s compliment is obtained (01111111). A 1’s compliment is obtained by changing all 0s to 1s and 1s to 0s. Finally, 2’s compliment of this number, i.e. 10000000, gets stored. A 2’s compliment is obtained by adding 1 to the 1’s compliment. Thus, for -128, 10000000 gets stored. This is an 8-bit number and it can be easily accommodated in a char. As against this, +128 cannot be stored in a char because its binary 010000000 (left-most 0 is for positive sign) is a 9-bit number. However +127 can be stored as its binary 01111111 turns out to be a 8-bit number. (c) What happens when we attempt to store +128 in a char? The first number on the negative side, i.e. -128 gets stored. This is because from the 9-bit binary of +128, 010000000, only the right-most 8 bits get stored. But when 10000000 is stored the left-most bit is 1 and it is treated as a sign bit. Thus the value of the number becomes -128 since it is indeed the binary of -128, as can be understood from (b) above. Similarly, you can verify that an attempt to store +129 in a char results in storing -127 in it. In general, if we exceed the range from positive side we end up on the negative side. Vice versa is

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also true. If we exceed the range from negative side we end up on positive side.

Storage Classes in C
We have already said all that needs to be said about constants, but we are not finished with variables. To fully define a variable one needs to mention not only its ‘type’ but also its ‘storage class’. In other words, not only do all variables have a data type, they also have a ‘storage class’. We have not mentioned storage classes yet, though we have written several programs in C. We were able to get away with this because storage classes have defaults. If we don’t specify the storage class of a variable in its declaration, the compiler will assume a storage class depending on the context in which the variable is used. Thus, variables have certain default storage classes. From C compiler’s point of view, a variable name identifies some physical location within the computer where the string of bits representing the variable’s value is stored. There are basically two kinds of locations in a computer where such a value may be kept— Memory and CPU registers. It is the variable’s storage class that determines in which of these two locations the value is stored. Moreover, a variable’s storage class tells us: (a) Where the variable would be stored. (b) What will be the initial value of the variable, if initial value is not specifically assigned.(i.e. the default initial value). (c) What is the scope of the variable; i.e. in which functions the value of the variable would be available. (d) What is the life of the variable; i.e. how long would the variable exist.

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There are four storage classes in C: (a) (b) (c) (d) Automatic storage class Register storage class Static storage class External storage class

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Let us examine these storage classes one by one.

Automatic Storage Class
The features of a variable defined to have an automatic storage class are as under: Storage Default initial value Scope Life − − Memory. An unpredictable value, which is often called a garbage value. − Local to the block in which the variable is defined. − Till the control remains within the block in which the variable is defined.

Following program shows how an automatic storage class variable is declared, and the fact that if the variable is not initialized it contains a garbage value.
main( ) { auto int i, j ; printf ( "\n%d %d", i, j ) ; }

The output of the above program could be...
1211 221

where, 1211 and 221 are garbage values of i and j. When you run this program you may get different values, since garbage values

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are unpredictable. So always make it a point that you initialize the automatic variables properly, otherwise you are likely to get unexpected results. Note that the keyword for this storage class is auto, and not automatic. Scope and life of an automatic variable is illustrated in the following program.
main( ) { auto int i = 1 ; { { { printf ( "\n%d ", i ) ; } printf ( "%d ", i ) ; } printf ( "%d", i ) ; } }

The output of the above program is:
111

This is because, all printf( ) statements occur within the outermost block (a block is all statements enclosed within a pair of braces) in which i has been defined. It means the scope of i is local to the block in which it is defined. The moment the control comes out of the block in which the variable is defined, the variable and its value is irretrievably lost. To catch my point, go through the following program.
main( ) { auto int i = 1 ; {

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auto int i = 2 ; { auto int i = 3 ; printf ( "\n%d ", i ) ; } printf ( "%d ", i ) ; } printf ( "%d", i ) ; }

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The output of the above program would be:
321

Note that the Compiler treats the three i’s as totally different variables, since they are defined in different blocks. Once the control comes out of the innermost block the variable i with value 3 is lost, and hence the i in the second printf( ) refers to i with value 2. Similarly, when the control comes out of the next innermost block, the third printf( ) refers to the i with value 1. Understand the concept of life and scope of an automatic storage class variable thoroughly before proceeding with the next storage class.

Register Storage Class
The features of a variable defined to be of register storage class are as under: Storage Default initial value Scope Life
-

CPU registers. Garbage value. Local to the block in which the variable is defined. Till the control remains within the block in which the variable is defined.

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A value stored in a CPU register can always be accessed faster than the one that is stored in memory. Therefore, if a variable is used at many places in a program it is better to declare its storage class as register. A good example of frequently used variables is loop counters. We can name their storage class as register.
main( ) { register int i ; for ( i = 1 ; i <= 10 ; i++ ) printf ( "\n%d", i ) ; }

Here, even though we have declared the storage class of i as register, we cannot say for sure that the value of i would be stored in a CPU register. Why? Because the number of CPU registers are limited, and they may be busy doing some other task. What happens in such an event... the variable works as if its storage class is auto. Not every type of variable can be stored in a CPU register. For example, if the microprocessor has 16-bit registers then they cannot hold a float value or a double value, which require 4 and 8 bytes respectively. However, if you use the register storage class for a float or a double variable you won’t get any error messages. All that would happen is the compiler would treat the variables to be of auto storage class.

Static Storage Class
The features of a variable defined to have a static storage class are as under: Storage Default initial value − − Memory. Zero.

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Scope Life −

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Local to the block in which the variable is defined. − Value of the variable persists between different function calls.

Compare the two programs and their output given in Figure 6.3 to understand the difference between the automatic and static storage classes.
main( ) { increment( ) ; increment( ) ; increment( ) ; } main( ) { increment( ) ; increment( ) ; increment( ) ; }

increment( ) increment( ) { { auto int i = 1 ; static int i = 1 ; printf ( "%d\n", i ) ; printf ( "%d\n", i ) ; i=i+1; i=i+1; } } The output of the above programs would be: 1 1 1 1 2 3

Figure 6.3 The programs above consist of two functions main( ) and increment( ). The function increment( ) gets called from main( ) thrice. Each time it increments the value of i and prints it. The only difference in the two programs is that one uses an auto storage class for variable i, whereas the other uses static storage class.

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Like auto variables, static variables are also local to the block in which they are declared. The difference between them is that static variables don’t disappear when the function is no longer active. Their values persist. If the control comes back to the same function again the static variables have the same values they had last time around. In the above example, when variable i is auto, each time increment( ) is called it is re-initialized to one. When the function terminates, i vanishes and its new value of 2 is lost. The result: no matter how many times we call increment( ), i is initialized to 1 every time. On the other hand, if i is static, it is initialized to 1 only once. It is never initialized again. During the first call to increment( ), i is incremented to 2. Because i is static, this value persists. The next time increment( ) is called, i is not re-initialized to 1; on the contrary its old value 2 is still available. This current value of i (i.e. 2) gets printed and then i = i + 1 adds 1 to i to get a value of 3. When increment( ) is called the third time, the current value of i (i.e. 3) gets printed and once again i is incremented. In short, if the storage class is static then the statement static int i = 1 is executed only once, irrespective of how many times the same function is called. Consider one more program.
main( ) { int *j ; int * fun( ) ; j = fun( ) ; printf ( "\n%d", *j ) ; } int *fun( ) {

External Storage Class The features of a variable whose storage class has been defined as external are as follows: Storage Default initial value Scope Life − − − − Memory. Global. Thus j becomes pointer to k. As long as the program’s execution doesn’t come to an end. which means they take up space in memory that could otherwise be used by other variables. This time printf( ) prints a garbage value. Why does this happen? In the first case. Then using this pointer we are printing the value of k. the stack is now changed. when the control returned from fun( ) though k went dead it was still left on the stack. Now try calling any function (even printf( ) ) immediately after the call to fun( ). Zero. . We then accessed this value using its address that was collected in j. All this having been said. If we want to get the correct value each time then we must declare k as static. return ( &k ) . k would not die. hence we get the garbage value. Because their values are kept in memory when the variables are not active. } Let Us C Here we are returning an address of k from fun( ) and collecting it in j. a word of advice—avoid using static variables unless you really need them. This correctly prints out 35.230 int k = 35 . By doing this when the control returns from fun( ). But when we precede the call to printf( ) by a call to any other function.

Here is an example to illustrate this fact. increment( ) . int i . printf ( "\non decrementing i = %d". i ) . i ) . } decrement( ) { i=i-1. not local. decrement( ) . main( ) { printf ( "\ni = %d". printf ( "\non incrementing i = %d".Chapter 6: Data Types Revisited 231 External variables differ from those we have already discussed in that their scope is global. } The output would be: i=0 on incrementing i = 1 on incrementing i = 2 on decrementing i = 1 on decrementing i = 0 . increment( ) . i ) . decrement( ) . } increment( ) { i=i+1. yet are available to all functions that care to use them. External variables are declared outside all functions.

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As is obvious from the above output, the value of i is available to the functions increment( ) and decrement( ) since i has been declared outside all functions. Look at the following program.
int x = 21 ; main( ) { extern int y ; printf ( "\n%d %d", x, y ) ; } int y = 31 ;

Here, x and y both are global variables. Since both of them have been defined outside all the functions both enjoy external storage class. Note the difference between the following:
extern int y ; int y = 31 ;

Here the first statement is a declaration, whereas the second is the definition. When we declare a variable no space is reserved for it, whereas, when we define it space gets reserved for it in memory. We had to declare y since it is being used in printf( ) before it’s definition is encountered. There was no need to declare x since its definition is done before its usage. Also remember that a variable can be declared several times but can be defined only once. Another small issue—what will be the output of the following program?
int x = 10 ; main( ) { int x = 20 ; printf ( "\n%d", x ) ;

Chapter 6: Data Types Revisited
display( ) ; } display( ) { printf ( "\n%d", x ) ; }

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Here x is defined at two places, once outside main( ) and once inside it. When the control reaches the printf( ) in main( ) which x gets printed? Whenever such a conflict arises, it’s the local variable that gets preference over the global variable. Hence the printf( ) outputs 20. When display( ) is called and control reaches the printf( ) there is no such conflict. Hence this time the value of the global x, i.e. 10 gets printed. One last thing—a static variable can also be declared outside all the functions. For all practical purposes it will be treated as an extern variable. However, the scope of this variable is limited to the same file in which it is declared. This means that the variable would not be available to any function that is defined in a file other than the file in which the variable is defined.

Which to Use When
Dennis Ritchie has made available to the C programmer a number of storage classes with varying features, believing that the programmer is in a best position to decide which one of these storage classes is to be used when. We can make a few ground rules for usage of different storage classes in different programming situations with a view to: (a) economise the memory space consumed by the variables (b) improve the speed of execution of the program The rules are as under:

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Use static storage class only if you want the value of a variable to persist between different function calls. Use register storage class for only those variables that are being used very often in a program. Reason is, there are very few CPU registers at our disposal and many of them might be busy doing something else. Make careful utilization of the scarce resources. A typical application of register storage class is loop counters, which get used a number of times in a program. Use extern storage class for only those variables that are being used by almost all the functions in the program. This would avoid unnecessary passing of these variables as arguments when making a function call. Declaring all the variables as extern would amount to a lot of wastage of memory space because these variables would remain active throughout the life of the program. If you don’t have any of the express needs mentioned above, then use the auto storage class. In fact most of the times we end up using the auto variables, because often it so happens that once we have used the variables in a function we don’t mind loosing them.

Summary
(a) We can use different variations of the primary data types, namely signed and unsigned char, long and short int, float, double and long double. There are different format specifications for all these data types when they are used in scanf( ) and printf( ) functions. (b) The maximum value a variable can hold depends upon the number of bytes it occupies in memory. (c) By default all the variables are signed. We can declare a variable as unsigned to accommodate greater value without increasing the bytes occupied.

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(d) We can make use of proper storage classes like auto, register, static and extern to control four properties of the variable—storage, default initial value, scope and life.

Exercise
[A] What would be the output of the following programs: (a) main( ) { int i ; for ( i = 0 ; i <= 50000 ; i++ ) printf ( "\n%d", i ) ; } (b) main( ) { float a = 13.5 ; double b = 13.5 ; printf ( "\n%f %lf", a, b ) ; } (c) int i = 0 ; main( ) { printf ( "\nmain's i = %d", i ) ; i++ ; val( ) ; printf ( "\nmain's i = %d", i ) ; val( ) ; } val( ) { i = 100 ; printf ( "\nval's i = %d", i ) ; i++ ; }

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(d) main( ) { int x, y, s = 2 ; s *= 3 ; y=f(s); x=g(s); printf ( "\n%d %d %d", s, y, x ) ; } int t = 8 ; f ( int a ) { a += -5 ; t -= 4 ; return ( a + t ) ; } g ( int a ) { a=1; t += a ; return ( a + t ) ; } (e) main( ) { static int count = 5 ; printf ( "\ncount = %d", count-- ) ; if ( count != 0 ) main( ) ; } (f) main( ) { int i, j ; for ( i = 1 ; i < 5 ; i++ ) { j=g(i); printf ( "\n%d", j ) ; }

Let Us C

Chapter 6: Data Types Revisited
} g ( int x ) { static int v = 1 ; int b = 3 ; v += x ; return ( v + x + b ) ; } (g) float x = 4.5 ; main( ) { float y, float f ( float ) ; x *= 2.0 ; y=f(x); printf ( "\n%f %f", x, y ) ; } float f ( float a ) { a += 1.3 ; x -= 4.5 ; return ( a + x ) ; } (h) main( ) { func( ) ; func( ) ; } func( ) { auto int i = 0 ; register int j = 0 ; static int k = 0 ; i++ ; j++ ; k++ ; printf ( "\n %d % d %d", i, j, k ) ; }

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(i) int x = 10 ; main( ) { int x = 20 ; { int x = 30 ; printf ( "\n%d", x ) ; } printf ("\n%d", x ) ; }

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[B] Point out the errors, if any, in the following programs: (a) main( ) { long num ; num = 2 ; printf ( "\n%ld", num ) ; } (b) main( ) { char ch = 200 ; printf ( "\n%d", ch ) ; } (c) main( ) { unsigned a = 25 ; long unsigned b = 25l ; printf ( "\n%lu %u", a, b ) ; }

(d) main( ) { long float a = 25.345e454 ; unsigned double b = 25 ; printf ( "\n%lf %d", a, b ) ;

Chapter 6: Data Types Revisited
} (e) main( ) { float a = 25.345 ; float *b ; b = &a ; printf ( "\n%f %u", a, b ) ; } (f) static int y ; main( ) { static int z ; printf ("%d %d", y, z ) ; }

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[C] State whether the following statements are True or False:

(a) Storage for a register storage class variable is allocated each time the control reaches the block in which it is present. (b) An extern storage class variable is not available to the functions that precede its definition, unless the variable is explicitly declared in these functions. (c) The value of an automatic storage class variable persists between various function invocations. (d) If the CPU registers are not available, the register storage class variables are treated as static storage class variables. (e) The register storage class variables cannot hold float values. (f) If we try to use register storage class for a float variable the compiler will flash an error message.

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(g) If the variable x is defined as extern and a variable x is also defined as a local variable of some function, then the global variable gets preference over the local variable. (h) The default value for automatic variable is zero. (i) The life of static variable is till the control remains within the block in which it is defined. (j) If a global variable is to be defined, then the extern keyword is necessary in its declaration. (k) The address of register variable is not accessible.
[D] Following program calculates the sum of digits of the number 12345. Go through it and find out why is it necessary to declare the storage class of the variable sum as static. main( ) { int a ; a = sumdig ( 12345 ) ; printf ( "\n%d", a ) ; } sumdig ( int num ) { static int sum ; int a, b ; a = num % 10 ; b = ( num - a ) / 10 ; sum = sum + a ; if ( b != 0 ) sumdig ( b ) ; else return ( sum ) ; }

7

The C Preprocessor
• Features of C Preprocessor • Macro Expansion Macros with Arguments Macros versus Functions • File Inclusion • Conditional Compilation • #if and #elif Directives • Miscellaneous Directives #undef Directive #pragma Directive • Summary • Exercise

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T

he C preprocessor is exactly what its name implies. It is a program that processes our source program before it is passed to the compiler. Preprocessor commands (often known as directives) form what can almost be considered a language within C language. We can certainly write C programs without knowing anything about the preprocessor or its facilities. But preprocessor is such a great convenience that virtually all C programmers rely on it. This chapter explores the preprocessor directives and discusses the pros and cons of using them in programs.

Features of C Preprocessor
There are several steps involved from the stage of writing a C program to the stage of getting it executed. Figure 7.1 shows these different steps along with the files created during each stage. You can observe from the figure that our program passes through several processors before it is ready to be executed. The input and output to each of these processors is shown in Figure 7.2. Note that if the source code is stored in a file PR1.C then the expanded source code gets stored in a file PR1.I. When this expanded source code is compiled the object code gets stored in PR1.OBJ. When this object code is linked with the object code of library functions the resultant executable code gets stored in PR1.EXE. The preprocessor offers several features called preprocessor directives. Each of these preprocessor directives begin with a # symbol. The directives can be placed anywhere in a program but are most often placed at the beginning of a program, before the first function definition. We would learn the following preprocessor directives here: (a) Macro expansion (b) File inclusion

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Hand written program Text editor C Source code (PR1.C) Preprocessor Expanded source code (PR1.I) Compiler Object code (PR1.OBJ) Linker Executable code (PR1.EXE)

Figure 7.1
Processor Editor Input Program typed from keyboard C source code file Output C source code containing program and preprocessor commands Source code file with the preprocessing commands properly sorted out Relocatable object code

Preprocessor Compiler

Source code file with preprocessing commands sorted out Relocatable object code and the standard C library functions

Linker

Executable code in machine language

Figure 7.2

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(c) Conditional Compilation (d) Miscellaneous directives

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Let us understand these features of preprocessor one by one.

Macro Expansion
Have a look at the following program.
#define UPPER 25 main( ) { int i ; for ( i = 1 ; i <= UPPER ; i++ ) printf ( "\n%d", i ) ; }

In this program instead of writing 25 in the for loop we are writing it in the form of UPPER, which has already been defined before main( ) through the statement,
#define UPPER 25

This statement is called ‘macro definition’ or more commonly, just a ‘macro’. What purpose does it serve? During preprocessing, the preprocessor replaces every occurrence of UPPER in the program with 25. Here is another example of macro definition.
#define PI 3.1415 main( ) { float r = 6.25 ; float area ; area = PI * r * r ; printf ( "\nArea of circle = %f", area ) ; }

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UPPER and PI in the above programs are often called ‘macro templates’, whereas, 25 and 3.1415 are called their corresponding ‘macro expansions’. When we compile the program, before the source code passes to the compiler it is examined by the C preprocessor for any macro definitions. When it sees the #define directive, it goes through the entire program in search of the macro templates; wherever it finds one, it replaces the macro template with the appropriate macro expansion. Only after this procedure has been completed is the program handed over to the compiler. In C programming it is customary to use capital letters for macro template. This makes it easy for programmers to pick out all the macro templates when reading through the program. Note that a macro template and its macro expansion are separated by blanks or tabs. A space between # and define is optional. Remember that a macro definition is never to be terminated by a semicolon. And now a million dollar question... why use #define in the above programs? What have we gained by substituting PI for 3.1415 in our program? Probably, we have made the program easier to read. Even though 3.1415 is such a common constant that it is easily recognizable, there are many instances where a constant doesn’t reveal its purpose so readily. For example, if the phrase “\x1B[2J” causes the screen to clear. But which would you find easier to understand in the middle of your program “\x1B[2J” or “CLEARSCREEN”? Thus, we would use the macro definition
#define CLEARSCREEN "\x1B[2J"

Then wherever CLEARSCREEN appears in the program it would automatically be replaced by “\x1B[2J” before compilation begins.

it is nice to know that you would be able to change values of a constant at all the places in the program by just making a change in the #define directive. using a variable for what is really a constant encourages sloppy thinking and makes the program more difficult to understand: if something never changes. it is hard to imagine it as a variable. This value may have to be changed some day to 3. since the compiler can generate faster and more compact code for constants than it can for variables.1415 appears many times in your program. It’s true that a variable can be used in this way.141592.141592 Beyond this the change will be made automatically to all occurrences of PI before the beginning of compilation. but with large programs macro definitions are almost indispensable. Secondly. there is always a danger that the variable may inadvertently get altered somewhere in the program. . it is inefficient. in the #define directive itself: #define PI 3. Firstly. if you have defined PI in a #define directive. In short. Suppose a constant like 3. However. you only need to make one change. Ordinarily.246 Let Us C There is perhaps a more important reason for using macro definition than mere readability. But the same purpose could have been served had we used a variable pi instead of a macro template PI. you would need to go through the program and manually change each occurrence of the constant. A variable could also have provided a meaningful name for a constant and permitted one change to effect many occurrences of the constant. This convenience may not matter for small programs shown above. So it’s no longer a constant that you think it is. Then. And thirdly. why not use it? For three reasons it’s a bad idea.

} A #define directive could be used even to replace a condition. else printf ( "\nIn front of the maintenance man" ) . as you will see in many programs in this book. as shown below. if ( ARANGE ) printf ( "within range" ) . using #define can produce more efficient and more easily understandable programs. if ( ( f < 5 ) AND ( x <= 20 OR y <= 45 ) ) printf ( "\nYour PC will always work fine.. This directive is used extensively by C programmers. Following three examples show places where a #define directive is popularly used by C programmers.. y = 90 . A #define directive is many a times used to define operators as shown below." ) . } . #define AND && #define ARANGE ( a > 25 AND a < 50 ) main( ) { int a = 30 . else printf ( "out of range" ) . #define AND && #define OR || main( ) { int f = 1. x = 4.Chapter 7: The C Preprocessor 247 Thus.

a ) .625000 .5. a = AREA ( r2 ) . This is shown below. a = AREA ( r1 ) .25. a ) . as yet !" ) . } Macros with Arguments The macros that we have used so far are called simple macros. main( ) { char signature .248 Let Us C A #define directive could be used to replace even an entire C statement. } Here’s the output of the program.656250 Area of circle = 19.. just as functions can. r2 = 2. Macros can have arguments. #define FOUND printf ( "The Yankee Doodle Virus" ) . Here is an example that illustrates this fact.14 * x * x ) main( ) { float r1 = 6... printf ( "\nArea of circle = %f".. Area of circle = 122. #define AREA(x) ( 3. if ( signature == 'Y' ) FOUND else printf ( "Safe. printf ( "\nArea of circle = %f". a .

The x in the macro template AREA(x) is an argument that matches the x in the macro expansion ( 3. a . scanf ( "%c". a = 3. printf ( "Area of circle = %f\n". The statement AREA(r1) in the program causes the variable r1 to be substituted for x. if ( ISDIGIT ( ch ) ) printf ( "\nYou entered a digit" ) . that’s not all that it does. r2 = 2. a ) . a ) . However. } Here is another example of macros with arguments: #define ISDIGIT(y) ( y >= 48 && y <= 57 ) main( ) { char ch . a = 3.25. Thus the statement AREA(r1) is equivalent to: ( 3.14 * x * x ). else printf ( "\nIllegal input" ) .5.14 * x * x ). what the compiler gets to work on will be this: main( ) { float r1 = 6.14 * r1 * r1 ) After the above source code has passed through the preprocessor. &ch ) . printf ( "Enter any digit " ) .Chapter 7: The C Preprocessor 249 In this program wherever the preprocessor finds the phrase AREA(x) it expands it into the statement ( 3.14 * r1 *r1 . printf ( "Area of circle = %f". .14 *r2 * r2 .

j ) . j = 64 / SQUARE ( 4 ) . which we certainly don’t want. What would happen is.14 * x * x ) If we were to write AREA (x) instead of AREA(x). #define SQUARE(n) n * n main( ) { int j . Here is an example of what would happen if we fail to enclose the macro expansion within parentheses.14 * r1 * r1 ) which won’t run. } The output of the above program would be: j = 64 whereas. Not at all what we wanted. For example. (b) The entire macro expansion should be enclosed within parentheses. the template would be expanded to ( r1 ) ( 3.250 } Let Us C Here are some important points to remember while writing macros with arguments: (a) Be careful not to leave a blank between the macro template and its argument while defining the macro. what we expected was j = 4. . #define AREA(x) ( 3. there should be no blank between AREA and (x) in the definition. the (x) would become a part of macro expansion. printf ( "j = %d".

251 which yielded 64. clrscr( ) . } This program draws a vertical and a horizontal line in the center of the screen. 12 ) . 196 ) . y++ ) VLINE ( 39. i < 79 . (d) If for any reason you are unable to debug a macro then you should view the expanded code of the program to see how the macros are getting expanded. y < 25 . with a ‘\’ (back slash) present at the end of each line. gotoxy ( 1. HLINE for ( y = 1 . i++ ) \ printf ( "%c".Chapter 7: The C Preprocessor What went wrong? The macro was expanded into j = 64 / 4 * 4 . \ } main( ) { int i. (c) Macros can be split into multiple lines. Y ) . \ printf ( "%c". #define VLINE( X. #define HLINE for ( i = 0 . y . If your source code is present in the file PR1. y ) . Following program shows how we can define and use multiple line macros. 179 ) .C then the expanded source code would be stored . Y ) {\ gotoxy ( X.

whereas functions make the program smaller and compact. If we use a macro hundred times in a program.I. Though macro calls are ‘like’ function calls. As we know. Macros versus Functions In the above example a macro was used to calculate the area of the circle. in a stupid.I. You can now open this file and see the expanded source code. On the other hand.c Here CPP stands for C PreProcessor. even a function can be written to calculate the area of the circle. they are not really the same things. then even if it is called from hundred different places in . the macro expansion goes into our source code at hundred different places. thus increasing the program size. unthinking. in a function call the control is passed to a function along with certain arguments. This brings us to a question: when is it best to use macros with arguments and when is it better to use a function? Usually macros make the program run faster but increase the program size. Note that the file PR1. if a function is used. You need to generate this file at the command prompt by saying: cpp pr1.252 Let Us C in PR1. literal way. It generates the expanded source code and stores it in a file called PR1.I gets generated in C:\TC\BIN directory. some calculations are performed in the function and a useful value is returned back from the function. Then what is the difference between the two? In a macro call the preprocessor replaces the macro template with its macro expansion. The procedure for generating expanded source code for compilers other than Turbo C/C++ might be a little different. As against this.

Moral of the story is—if the macro is simple and sweet like in our examples. File Inclusion The second preprocessor directive we’ll explore in this chapter is file inclusion. These files are #included at the beginning of main program file. It is a good programming practice to keep different sections of a large program separate. each containing a set of related functions. On the other hand.Chapter 7: The C Preprocessor 253 the program. the code is best divided into several different files. it would take the same amount of space in the program. perhaps we ought to replace it with a function. Of course this presumes that the file being included is existing. When and why this feature is used? It can be used in two cases: (a) If we have a very large program. (b) There are some functions and some macro definitions that we need almost in all programs that we write. But passing arguments to a function and getting back the returned value does take time and would therefore slow down the program. The preprocessor command for file inclusion looks like this: #include "filename" and it simply causes the entire contents of filename to be inserted into the source code at that point in the program. This directive causes one file to be included in another. These commonly . it makes nice shorthand and avoids the overheads associated with function calls. if we have a fairly large macro and it is used fairly often. This gets avoided with macros since they have already been expanded and placed in the source code before compilation.

h’. and so on. #include <goto. This command would look for the file goto.c in the specified list of directories only. It is common for the files that are to be included to have a . These are: #include "filename" #include <filename> The meaning of each of these forms is given below: #include "goto. Actually there exist two ways to write #include statement. Different C compilers let you set the search path in different manners. For example prototypes of all mathematics related functions are stored in the header file ‘math. which would add all the statements in this file to our program as if we have typed them in. prototypes of console input/output functions are stored in the header file ‘conio.c" This command would look for the file goto.c> The include search path is nothing but a list of directories that would be searched for the file being included.h extension.254 Let Us C needed functions and macro definitions can be stored in a file.h’. possibly because it contains statements which when included go to the head of your program. If you are using Turbo C/C++ compiler then the search path can be set up by selecting ‘Directories’ from the ‘Options’ menu. On doing this . and that file can be included in every program we write. This extension stands for ‘header file’. The prototypes of all the library functions are grouped into different categories and then stored in different header files.c in the current directory as well as the specified list of directories as mentioned in the include search path that might have been set up.

statement 2 . Where would #ifdef be useful? When would you like to compile only a part of your program? In three cases: (a) To “comment out” obsolete lines of code. d:\libfiles The path can contain maximum of 127 characters. have the compiler skip over part of a source code by inserting the preprocessing commands #ifdef and #endif. if we want.’ (semicolon) as shown below: c:\tc\lib . For example ‘. This involves rewriting some part of source code to the client’s satisfaction and deleting the old code. We can also specify multiple include paths separated by ‘. Conditional Compilation We can. statement 3 . c:\mylib . otherwise not. #endif If macroname has been #defined.Chapter 7: The C Preprocessor 255 a dialog box appears. Both relative and absolute paths are valid. But veteran programmers are familiar with the clients who change their mind and want the old code back again just the way it was. which have the general form: #ifdef macroname statement 1 .. . the block of code will be processed as usual. It often happens that a program is changed at the last minute to satisfy a client. In this dialog box against ‘Include Directories’ we can specify the search path.\dir\incfiles’ is a valid path.

256 Let Us C Now you would definitely not like to retype the deleted code again. } Here. main( ) { #ifdef OKAY statement 1 . /* specific to stone virus */ #endif statement 5 . statement 2 . i. statement 4 . Obviously. But we might have already written a comment in the code that we are about to “comment out”. At a later date. to make them work on two totally different computers. this solution won’t work since we can’t nest comments in C. statements 1. statement 6 . This would mean we end up with nested comments. /* detects virus */ statement 3 .e. 3 and 4 would get compiled only if the macro OKAY has been defined. and we have purposefully omitted the definition of the macro OKAY. Suppose an organization has two . Therefore the solution is to use conditional compilation as shown below. One solution in such a situation is to put the old code within a pair of /* */ combination. if we want that these statements should also get compiled all that we are required to do is to delete the #ifdef and #endif statements. (b) A more sophisticated use of #ifdef has to do with making the programs portable. statement 7 . 2.

would look like this: main( ) { #ifndef INTEL code suitable for a Intel PC #else code suitable for a Motorola PC .Chapter 7: The C Preprocessor 257 different types of computers and you are expected to write a program that works on both the machines. For example: main( ) { #ifdef INTEL code suitable for a Intel PC #else code suitable for a Motorola PC #endif code common to both the computers } When you compile this program it would compile only the code suitable for a Intel PC and the common code. This is because the macro INTEL has not been defined. just add a statement at the top saying. The above example if written using #ifndef.#else .#endif is similar to the ordinary if else control instruction of C. If you want to run your program on a Motorola PC. instead of #ifdef the #ifndef directive is used. Note that the working of #ifdef . The #ifndef (which means ‘if not defined’) works exactly opposite to #ifdef. You can do so by isolating the lines of code that must be different for each machine by marking them off with #ifdef. #define INTEL Sometimes.

h’ the compiler flashes an error ‘Multiple declaration for myfunc’.h’. If it has not been then it gets defined and the rest of the code gets included. Now in your program file if you #include both ‘myfile.h’ gets included the preprocessor checks whether a macro called __myfile_h has been defined or not. Next time we attempt to include the same file.h’ and ‘myfile1.h’ which is #included in a file ‘myfile1.h’ gets included twice. /* myfile. #elif or #endif are compiled. To avoid this we can write following code in the header file.h */ #ifndef __myfile_h #define __myfile_h myfunc( ) { /* some code */ } #endif First time the file ‘myfile. the inclusion is prevented since __myfile_h already stands defined. This is because the same file ‘myfile. #if and #elif Directives The #if directive can be used to test whether an expression evaluates to a nonzero value or not. then subsequent lines upto a #else.258 #endif code common to both the computers } Let Us C (c) Suppose a function myfunc( ) is defined in a file ‘myfile. otherwise they are skipped. . Note that there is nothing special about __myfile_h. If the result of the expression is nonzero. In its place we can use any other macro as well.

An example that uses such directives is shown below. TEST <= 5 evaluates to true then statements 1. #endif } 259 If the expression. statement 6 .Chapter 7: The C Preprocessor A simple example of #if directive is shown below: main( ) { #if TEST <= 5 statement 1 . statement 5 . statement 3 . . If we so desire we can have nested conditional compilation directives. statement 2 . The same program using this directive can be rewritten as shown below. #if ADAPTER == VGA code for video graphics array #else #if ADAPTER == SVGA code for super video graphics array #else code for extended graphics adapter #endif #endif The above program segment can be made more compact by using another conditional compilation directive called #elif. #else statement 4 . 2 and 3 are compiled otherwise statements 4. 5 and 6 are compiled. In place of the expression TEST <= 5 other expressions like ( LEVEL == HIGH || LEVEL == LOW ) or ADAPTER == CGA can also be used.

. #if ADAPTER == VGA code for video graphics array #elif ADAPTER == SVGA code for super video graphics array #else code for extended graphics adapter #endif Miscellaneous Directives There are two more preprocessor directives available. In practice seldom are you required to undefine a macro. but for some reason if you are required to. though they are not very commonly used. then you know that there is something to fall back upon. All subsequent #ifdef PENTIUM statements would evaluate to false. They are: (a) #undef (b) #pragma #undef Directive On some occasions it may be desirable to cause a defined name to become ‘undefined’. the directive. In order to undefine a macro that has been earlier #defined. Thus the statement. #undef macro template can be used. This can be accomplished by means of the #undef directive.260 Let Us C Observe that by using the #elif directives the number of #endifs used in the program get reduced. #undef PENTIUM would cause the definition of PENTIUM to be removed from the system.

Turbo C/C++ compiler has got a pragma that allows you to suppress warnings generated by the compiler. } void fun1( ) { printf ( "\nInside fun1" ) . } . Some of these pragmas are discussed below. #pragma startup fun1 #pragma exit fun2 main( ) { printf ( "\nInside maim" ) . There are certain pragmas available with Microsoft C compiler that deal with formatting source listings and placing comments in the object file generated by the compiler. } void fun2( ) { printf ( "\nInside fun2" ) . Pragmas vary from one compiler to another. (a) #pragma startup and #pragma exit: These directives allow us to specify functions that are called upon program startup (before main( )) or program exit (just before the program terminates). Their usage is as follows: void fun1( ) . void fun2( ) .Chapter 7: The C Preprocessor 261 #pragma Directive This directive is another special-purpose directive that you can use to turn on or off certain features.

(b) #pragma warn: This directive tells the compiler whether or not we want to suppress a specific warning. Usage of this pragma is shown below. x++ . } void f2 ( int x ) { printf ( "\nInside f2" ) . } int f3( ) { int x = 6 .262 And here is the output of the program. } void main( ) . #pragma warn –rvl /* return value */ #pragma warn –par /* parameter not used */ #pragma warn –rch /* unreachable code */ int f1( ) { int a = 5 . If we want two functions to get executed at startup then their pragmas should be defined in the reverse order in which you want to get them called. Inside fun1 Inside main Inside fun2 Let Us C Note that the functions fun1( ) and fun2( ) should neither receive nor return any value. return x .

If we replace the ‘–’ sign with a ‘+’ then these warnings would be flashed on compilation. modify and transport to a different computer system. then to begin with you are more interested in locating the errors. at times it becomes useful to suppress them. f3( ) . read. . f1( ) doesn’t return a value. At such times you may suppress the warnings. These are: (a) Though promised. } 263 If you go through the program you can notice three problems immediately. (b) The parameter x that is passed to f2( ) is not being used anywhere in f2( ). (c) The control can never reach x++ in f3( ). then you may turn on the warnings and sort them out. Summary (a) The preprocessor directives enable the programmer to write programs that are easy to develop. rather than the warnings. if you have written a huge program and are trying to compile it. f2 ( 7 ) . For example. Though it is a bad practice to suppress warnings. However. this does not happen since we have suppressed the warnings using the #pragma directives. If we compile the program we should expect warnings indicating the above problems. Once you have located all errors.Chapter 7: The C Preprocessor { f1( ) .

#endif. 4. Nested macros are allowed. After preprocessing when the program is sent for compilation the macros are removed from the expanded source code. 2. 2. 5.264 Let Us C (b) We can make use of various preprocessor directives such as #define. (c) The directives like #undef and #pragma are also useful although they are seldom used. #include. . 6. #if and #elif in our program. Macros with arguments are not allowed. In a macro call the control is passed to the macro.#else . 4. a message from compiler to the programmer a message from compiler to the linker a message from programmer to the preprocessor a message from programmer to the microprocessor (b) Which of the following are correctly formed #define statements: #define #define #define #define INCH PER FEET 12 SQR (X) ( X * X ) SQR(X) X * X SQR(X) ( X * X ) (c) State True or False: 1. A macro should always be accomodated in a single line. 3. #ifdef . Exercise [A] Answer the following: (a) What is a preprocessor directive 1. 3. A macro must always be written in capital letters.

#if #elseif #undef #pragma (h) All macro substitutions in a program are done 1.Chapter 7: The C Preprocessor 265 (d) How many #include directives can be there in a given program file? (e) What is the difference between the following two #include directives: #include "conio.defined functions A file that is present in current working directory (g) Which of the following is not a preprocessor directive 1.h> (f) A header file is: 1. 3. 2. 3. 4. 2. 3. 2. 2.h" #include <conio. A file that contains standard library functions A file that contains definitions and macros A file that contains user . 4. Before compilation of the program After compilation During execution None of the above (i) In a program the statement: #include "filename" is replaced by the contents of the file “filename” 1. 4. 3. Before compilation After Compilation During execution None of the above . 4.

#else printf ( "\n%d". j = PRODUCT( i + 1 ) . j . } (d) # define SEMI . k = PRODUCT ( ++i ) . } (c) #define PRODUCT(x) ( x * x ) main( ) { int i = 3. printf ( "%d".266 (a) main( ) { int i = 2 . k ) . main() { int p = 3 SEMI . #ifdef DEF i *= i . j. printf ( "\n%d %d". j ) . i ) . p ) SEMI } Let Us C [B] What would be the output of the following program: . j. k . printf ( "\n%d". j = PRODUCT( i++ ) . #endif } (b) #define PRODUCT(x) ( x * x ) main( ) { int i = 3.

Chapter 7: The C Preprocessor [C] Attempt the following: 267 (a) Write down macro definitions for the following: 1.h”. (d) Write macro definitions with arguments for calculation of Simple Interest and Amount. 4. 2. (b) Write macro definitions with arguments for calculation of area and perimeter of a triangle. Store these macro definitions in a file called “interest. To obtain the bigger of two numbers. To test whether a character entered is a upper case letter or not. To find arithmetic mean of two numbers. Include this file in your program. and use the macro definitions for calculating simple interest and amount. Include this file in your program. 4. To test whether a character entered is a small case letter or not. 3. 3. To test whether a character is an alphabet or not. . 2. Make use of the macros you defined in (1) and (2) above. To find absolute value of a number. Store these macro definitions in a file called “areaperi. To obtain the bigger of two numbers. (c) Write down macro definitions for the following: 1.h”. triangles and circles. a square and a circle. and call the macro definitions for calculating area and perimeter for different squares. To convert a uppercase alphabet to lowercase.

268 Let Us C .

8 Arrays • What are Arrays A Simple Program Using Array • More on Arrays Array Initialisation Bounds Checking Passing Array Elements to a Function • Pointers and Arrays Passing an Entire Array to a Function The Real Thing • Two Dimensional Arrays Initialising a 2-Dimensional Array Memory Map of a 2-Dimensional Array Pointers and 2-Dimensional Arrays Pointer to an Array Passing 2-D Array to a Function • Array of Pointers • Three-Dimensional Array • Summary • Exercise 269 .

This chapter describes how arrays can be created and manipulated in C. For example. is lost. } No doubt. ordinary variables (the ones which we have used so far) are capable of holding only one value at a time (as in the above example). x = 10 . called array. What are Arrays For understanding the arrays properly. Hence it is all too relevant to study them together rather than as isolated topics. This is because pointers and arrays are so closely related that discussing arrays without discussing pointers would make the discussion incomplete and wanting. In fact all arrays make use of pointers internally. this program will print the value of x as 10. in many C books and courses arrays and pointers are taught separately. I feel it is worthwhile to deal with these topics together. let us consider the following program: main( ) { int x . T We should note that. suppose we wish to arrange the percentage marks obtained by 100 students in ascending order. x ) . x=5.270 Let Us C he C language provides a capability that enables the user to design a set of similar data types. the earlier value of x. Why so? Because when a value 10 is assigned to x. i. Thus. However. there are situations in which we would want to store more than one value at a time in a single variable. In such a case we have two options to store these marks in memory: . printf ( "\nx = %d".e. 5.

What is important is that the quantities must be ‘similar’. or all floats. 3. or 4. Usually. or ages of 50 employees. These similar elements could be all ints. However. there are certain logics that cannot be dealt with. Thus. in this example per[3] refers to 23 and per[4] refers to 96. For example. the second alternative is better. the fourth number is referred as per[3].e. Now a formal definition of an array—An array is a collective name given to a group of ‘similar quantities’. Similarly. In general. These similar quantities could be percentage marks of 100 students. or all chars. 2. This is because in C the counting of elements begins with 0 and not with 1. an array is a collection of similar elements. without the use of an array. 23. etc. 34. whereas an array of ints or floats is called simply an array. 96 } If we want to refer to the second number of the group. Remember that all elements of . i can take a value 0. the fourth number of the group is referred as per4. i. it would be much easier to handle one variable than handling 100 different variables. assume the following group of numbers.Chapter 8: Arrays 271 (a) Construct 100 variables to store percentage marks obtained by 100 different students. the notation would be per[i]. Thus. 88. the usual notation used is per2. the array of characters is called a ‘string’. or salaries of 300 employees. each variable containing one student’s marks. Obviously. whereas i is its subscript. 1. Moreover. Here per is the subscripted variable (array). A simple reason for this is. depending on the position of the element being referred. per = { 48. (b) Construct one variable (called array or subscripted variable) capable of storing or holding all the hundred values. where. in C. Each member in the group is referred to by its position in the group. which represent percentage marks obtained by five students.

In our program we have done this with the statement: . i. /* store data in array */ } for ( i = 0 . i <= 29 . Array Declaration To begin with. scanf ( "%d". /* array declaration */ for ( i = 0 . main( ) { int avg. i <= 29 . so let us take it apart slowly.e. i++ ) sum = sum + marks[i] . of which 5 are ints and 5 are floats. &marks[i] ) . int i . i++ ) { printf ( "\nEnter marks " ) . printf ( "\nAverage marks = %d". sum = 0 . avg ) . A Simple Program Using Array Let us try to write a program to find average marks obtained by a class of 30 students in a test.272 Let Us C any given array must be of the same type. we cannot have an array of 10 numbers. /* read data from an array*/ avg = sum / 30 . } There is a lot of new material in this program. int marks[30] . like other variables an array needs to be declared so that the compiler will know what kind of an array and how large an array we want.

so the scanf( ) function will cause the value typed to be stored in the array element marks[0]. Accessing Elements of an Array Once an array is declared. scanf ( "%d". i <= 29 . just as it does with ordinary variables and the word marks specifies the name of the variable. This number specifies the element’s position in the array. This ability to use variables as subscripts is what makes arrays so useful. All the array elements are numbered. starting with 0. the number in the brackets following the array name. The [30] however is new. The first time through the loop. This is done with subscript. Entering Data into an Array Here is the section of code that places data into an array: for ( i = 0 .Chapter 8: Arrays int marks[30] . This process will be repeated until i . but the third. } The for loop causes the process of asking for and receiving a student’s marks from the user to be repeated 30 times. i has a value 0. i++ ) { printf ( "\nEnter marks " ) . Thus. The number 30 tells how many elements of the type int will be in our array. In our program we are using the variable i as a subscript to refer to various elements of the array. let us see how individual elements in the array can be referred. the first element of the array. This variable can take different values and hence can refer to the different elements in the array in turn. int specifies the type of the variable. 273 Here. marks[2] is not the second element of the array. The bracket ( [ ] ) tells the compiler that we are dealing with an array. &marks[i] ) . This number is often called the ‘dimension’ of the array.

(c) An array is also known as a subscripted variable. (e) However big an array its elements are always stored in contiguous memory locations. the result is divided by 30. In scanf( ) function. i <= 29 . The for loop is much the same. just as we have used it earlier on other variables (&rate. let us revise whatever we have learnt about arrays: (a) An array is a collection of similar elements. for ( i = 0 . so the last element is 1 less than the size of the array.274 Let Us C becomes 29. Reading Data from an Array The balance of the program reads the data back out of the array and uses it to calculate the average. we are passing the address of this particular array element to the scanf( ) function. When all the marks have been added up. the number of students. which is a good thing. i++ ) sum = sum + marks[i] . This is last time through the loop. avg ) . because there is no array element like marks[30]. printf ( "\nAverage marks = %d". (d) Before using an array its type and dimension must be declared. avg = sum / 30 . which is what scanf( ) requires. In so doing. . for example). to get the average. To fix our ideas. but now the body of the loop causes each student’s marks to be added to a running total stored in a variable called sum. rather than its value. we have used the “address of” operator (&) on the element marks[i] of the array. This is a very important point which we would discuss in more detail later on. (b) The first element in the array is numbered 0.

12. float press[ ] = { 12. 5.4. 45. they are supposed to contain garbage values. The features which make arrays so convenient to program would be discussed below. 2 bytes each for the 8 integers (under Windows/Linux the array would occupy 32 bytes . This is because of the convenience with which arrays lend themselves to programming. mentioning the dimension of the array is optional as in the 2nd example above. 5 } . -11. Note the following points carefully: (a) Till the array elements are not given any specific values. Array Elements in Memory Consider the following array declaration: int arr[8] .3 } . int num[6] = { 2. 4. What happens in memory when we make this declaration? 16 bytes get immediately reserved in memory. 45. 12. 5. int n[ ] = { 2. We managed to store values in them during program execution. 34.3. Following are a few examples that demonstrate this. Array Initialisation So far we have used arrays that did not have any values in them to begin with. 4. Let us now see how to initialize an array while declaring it. 5 } .2 -23. along with the possible pitfalls in using them. (b) If the array is initialised where it is declared.Chapter 8: Arrays 275 More on Arrays Array is a very popular data type with C programmers.

1. Whatever be the initial values. This arrangement of array elements in memory is shown in Figure 8.276 Let Us C as each integer would occupy 4 bytes). And since the array is not being initialized. This will lead to unpredictable results. If the storage class is declared to be static then all the array elements would have a default initial value as zero. probably on top of other data. i <= 100 . 12 34 66 -45 23 346 77 90 65508 65510 65512 65514 65516 65518 65520 65522 Figure 8. main( ) { int num[40]. i . for ( i = 0 . i++ ) num[i] = i . In some cases the computer may just hang. or on the program itself. } . all eight values present in it would be garbage values. the following program may turn out to be suicidal.1 Bounds Checking In C there is no check to see if the subscript used for an array exceeds the size of the array. Thus. Data entered with a subscript exceeding the array size will simply be placed in memory outside the array. and there will be no error message to warn you that you are going beyond the array size. all the array elements would always be present in contiguous memory locations. This so happens because the storage class of this array is assumed to be auto. to say the least.

65. 78. to see to it that we do not reach beyond the array size is entirely the programmer’s botheration and not the compiler’s. 56. we are passing an individual array element at a time to the function display( ) and getting it printed in the function display( ). Note that since at a time only one element is being passed.. 55 65 75 56 78 78 90 Here. These two calls are illustrated below: /* Demonstration of call by value */ main( ) { int i . i <= 6 . In the call by value we pass values of array elements to the function. . int marks[ ] = { 55. or by reference.. in the function display( ). } And here’s the output. And now the call by reference. this element is collected in an ordinary integer variable m. } display ( int m ) { printf ( "%d ".Chapter 8: Arrays 277 Thus. 90 } . Passing Array Elements to a Function Array elements can be passed to a function by calling the function by value. m ) . 75. 78. for ( i = 0 . i++ ) display ( marks[i] ) . whereas in the call by reference we pass addresses of array elements to the function.

i++ ) disp ( &marks[i] ) . *n ) . The purpose of the function disp( ) is just to display the array elements on the screen. 78.. i <= 6 . i++ ) disp ( &marks[i] ) . 65. int marks[ ] = { 55. the variable in which this address is collected (n) is declared as a pointer variable. 65. for ( i = 0 . 75. main( ) { int i . Hence. 90 } . i <= 6 ..278 /* Demonstration of call by reference */ main( ) { int i . And since n contains the address of array element. 78. to print out the array element we are using the ‘value at address’ operator (*). 78. we are passing addresses of individual array elements to the function display( ). 56. 55 65 75 56 78 78 90 Here. 78. 75. Try your hand at it. The program is only partly complete. 90 } . You are required to write the function show( ) on your own. 56. for ( i = 0 . } Let Us C And here’s the output. . Read the following program carefully. int marks[ ] = { 55. } disp ( int *n ) { printf ( "%d ".

x ) . printf ( "\nOriginal address in x = %u". z = &k . j ) . . *z . let us first learn some pointer arithmetic. y = &j . } Here is the output of the program. x = &i . x ) . x++ . Consider the following example: main( ) { int i = 3. printf ( "\nOriginal address in z = %u". *y . printf ( "\nValue of j = %f". y ) . printf ( "\nNew address in x = %u". printf ( "\nOriginal address in y = %u". *x . z ) . k ) . y++ . z++ . printf ( "\nNew address in z = %u". y ) . printf ( "\nValue of i = %d". char k = 'c'. z ) . i ) .5. } 279 Pointers and Arrays To be able to see what pointers have got to do with arrays.Chapter 8: Arrays } disp ( int *n ) { show ( &n ) . printf ( "\nNew address in y = %u". float j = 1. printf ( "\nValue of k = %c".

Similarly. Thus. it points to an address two locations after the current location. This so happens because every time a pointer is incremented it points to the immediately next location of its type. it can be decremented as well. *k . For example. 65526 is original value in x plus 2.280 Value of i = 3 Value of j = 1. . For example. the following operations can be performed on a pointer: (a) Addition of a number to a pointer. k=j+3. j=j+9. That is why. This is a very important result and can be effectively used while passing the entire array to a function. and 65520 is original value in z plus 1. to point to earlier locations.500000 Value of k = c Original address in x = 65524 Original address in y = 65520 Original address in z = 65519 New address in x = 65526 New address in y = 65524 New address in z = 65520 Let Us C Observe the last three lines of the output. *j. j = &i . when the integer pointer x is incremented. j=j+1. since an int is always 2 bytes long (under Windows/Linux since int is 4 bytes long. int i = 4. 65524 is original value in y plus 4. y points to an address 4 locations after the current location and z points 1 location after the current location. new value of x would be 65528). The way a pointer can be incremented. (b) Subtraction of a number from a pointer.

*i ) . since each integer in the array occupies two bytes in memory. The expression j . *j. The resulting value indicates the number of bytes separating the corresponding array elements. One pointer variable can be subtracted from another provided both variables point to elements of the same array. 20. Suppose the array begins at location 65502. main( ) { int arr[ ] = { 10. then the elements arr[1] and arr[5] would be present at locations 65504 and 65512 respectively. 45. What would be the result of the expression *j . *j .*i? 36. *j . i = &arr[1] .i.Chapter 8: Arrays int i = 4. printf ( "%d %d". j = &arr[5] . k=j-6. j . This is illustrated in the following program. j = &i . j=j-5. j=j-2. 30. } Here i and j have been declared as integer pointers holding addresses of first and fifth element of the array respectively. int *i.i would print a value 4 and not 8. 281 (c) Subtraction of one pointer from another. 56. This is because j and i are pointing to locations that are 4 integers apart. *k . 67. (d) Comparison of two pointer variables . since *j and *i return the values present at addresses contained in the pointers j and i. 74 } .

.. 45. (b) A pointer when incremented always points to an immediately next location of its type. Such comparisons can be useful when both pointer variables point to elements of the same array. if ( j == k ) printf ( "The two pointers point to the same location" ) . j = &arr [ 4 ] . *k . 72. k = ( arr + 4 ) . Moreover. (a) Addition of two pointers (b) Multiplication of a pointer with a constant (c) Division of a pointer with a constant Now we will try to correlate the following two facts. 20. } A word of caution! Do not attempt the following operations on pointers. The comparison can test for either equality or inequality.282 Let Us C Pointer variables can be compared provided both variables point to objects of the same data type. which we have learnt above: (a) Array elements are always stored in contiguous memory locations. main( ) { int arr[ ] = { 10. they would never work out. The following program illustrates how the comparison is carried out. int *j. 36. . a pointer variable can be compared with zero (usually expressed as NULL). 36 } . else printf ( "The two pointers do not point to the same location" ) .

each element occupying two bytes.2 Here is a program that prints out the memory locations in which the elements of this array are stored. since it is an integer .Chapter 8: Arrays 283 Suppose we have an array num[ ] = { 24. 3 address = 65518 element no. 56. 12. 17 } . main( ) { int num[ ] = { 24. 34. i++ ) { printf ( "\nelement no. 1 address = 65514 element no. 44. i <= 5 . %d ". printf ( "address = %u". } } The output of this program would look like this: element no. 12. &num[i] ) . 0 address = 65512 element no. 24 65512 34 65514 12 44 56 65520 17 65516 65518 65522 Figure 8. 56. 34. 44. int i . 5 address = 65522 Note that the array elements are stored in contiguous memory locations. i ) . for ( i = 0 . 2 address = 65516 element no. 4 address = 65520 element no. 17 }. The following figure shows how this array is located in memory.

17 } . main( ) { int num[ ] = { 24. } } The output of this program would be: address = 65512 element = 24 address = 65514 element = 34 address = 65516 element = 12 address = 65518 element = 44 address = 65520 element = 56 address = 65522 element = 17 This method of accessing array elements by using subscripted variables is already known to us. i++ ) { printf ( "\naddress = %u ". 34. This method has in fact been given here for easy comparison with the next method. num[i] ) . i <= 5 . but what is certain is that each subsequent address would be 2 bytes (4 bytes under Windows/Linux) greater than its immediate predecessor. main( ) { int num[ ] = { 24. printf ( "element = %d". 12. for ( i = 0 . you may get different addresses. When you run this program. 44.284 Let Us C array. 56. which accesses the array elements using pointers. Our next two programs show ways in which we can access the elements of this array. int i . 44. &num[i] ) . . 34. 56. 17 } . 12.

printf ( "element = %d". j ) . i <= 5 . 65514). *j ) . But location no. j contains the address 65512. j = &num[0] . j ) . These are printed using the statements. and the value at this address is 24. j++ . 65514 contains the second element of the array. /* increment pointer to point to next location */ } } 285 The output of this program would be: address = 65512 element = 24 address = 65514 element = 34 address = 65516 element = 12 address = 65518 element = 44 address = 65520 element = 56 address = 65522 element = 17 In this program. /* assign address of zeroth element */ for ( i = 0 . to begin with we have collected the base address of the array (address of the 0th element) in the variable j using the statement. j = &num[0] . therefore when the printf( ) . printf ( "element = %d". On incrementing j it points to the next memory location of its type (that is location no. *j . i++ ) { printf ( "\naddress = %u ". printf ( "\naddress = %u ". /* assigns address 65512 to j */ When we are inside the loop for the first time. *j ) .Chapter 8: Arrays int i.

Consider the following example: /* Demonstration of passing an entire array to a function */ main( ) { int num[ ] = { 24. dislpay ( &num[0]. Passing an Entire Array to a Function In the previous section we saw two programs—one in which we passed individual elements of an array to a function. 17 } . 6 ) . 56. a question arises as to which of the above two methods should be used when? Accessing array elements by pointers is always faster than accessing them by subscripts. or from end to beginning. in this case also. or every alternate element or any such definite logic. 34.e. 34 and 65514). } display ( int *j. int n ) { . Let us now see how to pass an entire array to a function rather than its individual elements.. 12.286 Let Us C statements are executed for the second time they print out the second element of the array and its address (i. it would be easier to access the elements using a subscript if there is no fixed logic in accessing the elements. from the point of view of convenience in programming we should observe the following: Array elements should be accessed using pointers if the elements are to be accessed in a fixed order. Instead. 44. and another in which we passed addresses of individual elements to a function. accessing the elements by pointers would work faster than subscripts.. Obviously. say from beginning to end. However. However. and so on till the last element of the array has been printed.

i <= n . Thus. Note that the address of the zeroth element is being passed to the display( ) function. It is also necessary to pass the total number of elements in the array. 6 ) .Chapter 8: Arrays int i . Once again consider the following array.1 . The Real Thing If you have grasped the concept of storage of array elements in memory and the arithmetic of pointers. display ( num. Thus.3 . 24 65512 34 65514 12 65516 44 65518 56 65520 17 65522 Figure 8. *j ) . for ( i = 0 . Note that the address of the zeroth element (many a times called the base address) can also be passed by just passing the name of the array. /* increment pointer to point to next element */ } } 287 Here. i++ ) { printf ( "\nelement = %d". the following two function calls are same: display ( &num[0]. The for loop is same as the one used in the earlier program to access the array elements using pointers. j++ . otherwise the display( ) function would not know when to terminate the for loop. just passing the address of the zeroth element of the array to a function is as good as passing the entire array to the function. here is some real food for thought. 6 ) . the display( ) function is used to print out the array elements.

by saying *( num + 1 ) we can refer the first element of the array. num[i]. *( num + i ) ) . i <= 5 . for ( i = 0 . Thus. In fact. 44. 12. that is. i[num] ) . that is. i++ ) { printf ( "\naddress = %u ". } } The output of this program would be: . printf ( "element = %d %d ". int i . Similarly. &num[i] ) . 17 } . 12. When we say. by saying *num we would be able to refer to the zeroth element of the array. One can easily see that *num and *( num + 0 ) both refer to 24. *( i + num ). this is what the C compiler does internally. int num[ ] = { 24. 24. This means that all the following notations are same: num[i] *( num + i ) *( i + num ) i[num] And here is a program to prove my point. 34. 34. 34. Let Us C We also know that on mentioning the name of the array we get its base address. 56.288 This is how we would declare the above array in C. 17 } . the C compiler internally converts it to *( num + i ). num[i]. 56. printf ( "%d %d". /* Accessing array elements in different ways */ main( ) { int num[ ] = { 24. 44.

and marks. main( ) { int stud[4][2] . Here is a sample program that stores roll number and marks obtained by a student side by side in a matrix. j . &stud[i][1] ) . i <= 3 . Look at the scanf( ) statement used in the first for loop: scanf ( "%d %d". The twodimensional array is also called a matrix. } for ( i = 0 . i++ ) printf ( "\n%d %d". i <= 3 . &stud[i][0]. &stud[i][0]. . It is also possible for arrays to have two or more dimensions. } There are two parts to the program—in the first part through a for loop we read in the values of roll no. whereas. stud[i][0]. &stud[i][1] ) . int i. scanf ( "%d %d". stud[i][1] ) .Chapter 8: Arrays address = 65512 element = 24 24 24 24 address = 65514 element = 34 34 34 34 address = 65516 element = 12 12 12 12 address = 65518 element = 44 44 44 44 address = 65520 element = 56 56 56 56 address = 65522 element = 17 17 17 17 289 Two Dimensional Arrays So far we have explored arrays with only one dimension. and marks" ) . i++ ) { printf ( "\n Enter roll no. in second part through another for loop we print out these values. for ( i = 0 .

0 row no. Traditionally. 1234 is stored in stud[0][0]. 56 is stored in stud[0][1] and so on. you can access the array elements columnwise as well. Initialising a 2-Dimensional Array How do we initialize a two-dimensional array? As simple as this. no. However. or the first column which contains the marks. no. 2 row no. The above arrangement highlights the fact that a twodimensional array is nothing but a collection of a number of onedimensional arrays placed one below the other. Remember the counting of rows and columns begin with zero.4 Thus. The second subscript tells which of the two columns are we talking about—the zeroth column which contains the roll no.. The complete array arrangement is shown below. 1 56 33 80 78 Figure 8. 1 row no. col. the array elements are being stored and accessed rowwise. 0 row no. . 3 1234 1212 1434 1312 col.. In our sample program the array elements have been stored rowwise and accessed rowwise. is row number which changes for every student.290 Let Us C In stud[i][0] and stud[i][1] the first subscript of the variable stud. therefore we would also stick to the same strategy.

int stud[4][2] = { 1234. 45 } . int arr[ ][ ] = { 12. 45. 23. 78 } . 56. of course with a corresponding loss in readability. 45 } . int arr[2][ ] = { 12. 56 }. 34.. 45 } . which contains roll nos. would never work. whereas the first dimension (row) is optional. 34. 33 }. { 1312. are perfectly acceptable. 291 or even this would work. 1312.. 34. 45 } . whereas. . 80 }. 23. { 1434. 1434. { 1212. Thus the declarations. 45. 56. int arr[2][3] = { 12. 78 } }. It is important to remember that while initializing a 2-D array it is necessary to mention the second (column) dimension. 80. 56. 23. 56. 45. 33. int arr[ ][3] = { 12. in one column and the marks in the other. 56. 45.Chapter 8: Arrays int stud[4][2] = { { 1234. 1212. 23. Memory Map of a 2-Dimensional Array Let us reiterate the arrangement of array elements in a twodimensional array of students. 34.

More specifically.. each row of a two-dimensional array can be thought of as a one-dimensional array.4 is only conceptually true. Only the procedure is slightly difficult to understand. Pointers and 2-Dimensional Arrays The C language embodies an unusual but powerful capability—it can treat parts of arrays as arrays. int s[5][2] . Thus. This is because memory doesn’t contain rows and columns. Can we not refer the same element using pointer notation. stud[2][1] ) . So.292 Let Us C The array arrangement shown in Figure 8.. the way we did in one-dimensional arrays? Answer is yes. In memory whether it is a one-dimensional or a two-dimensional array the array elements are stored in one continuous chain. . The arrangement of array elements of a two-dimensional array in memory is shown below: s[0][0] s[0][1] s[1][0] s[1][1] s[2][0] s[2][1] s[3][0] s[3][1] 1234 65508 56 65510 1212 65512 33 65514 1434 65516 80 65518 1312 65520 78 65522 Figure 8. This is a very important fact if we wish to access array elements of a two-dimensional array using pointers. read on. the declaration.5 We can easily refer to the marks obtained by the third student using the subscript notation as shown below: printf ( "Marks of third student = %d".

. i++ ) printf ( "\nAddress of %d th 1-D array = %u". More specifically. { 1312. 78 } }. 56 }. The compiler knows that s is an array containing 4 one-dimensional arrays. These one-dimensional arrays are placed linearly (zeroth 1-D array followed by first 1-D array. if we can imagine s to be a one-dimensional array then we can refer to its zeroth element as s[0]. Similarly. } And here is the output.). Address of 0 th 1-D array = 65508 Address of 1 th 1-D array = 65512 Address of 2 th 1-D array = 65516 Address of 3 th 1-D array = 65520 Let’s figure out how the program works. This fact can be demonstrated by the following program. each of which is a one-dimensional array containing 2 integers. Hence . for ( i = 0 . s[i] ) . 80 }. etc. Each one-dimensional array occupies 4 bytes (two bytes for each integer). the next element as s[1] and so on. int i . 33 }. each containing 2 integers. i <= 3 . s[1] gives the address of the first onedimensional array and so on. i. /* Demo: 2-D array is an array of arrays */ main( ) { int s[4][2] = { { 1234. We refer to an element of a one-dimensional array using a single subscript. { 1212.Chapter 8: Arrays 293 can be thought of as setting up an array of 5 elements. s[0] gives the address of the zeroth one-dimensional array.. { 1434.

we have been able to reach each one-dimensional array. Suppose we want to refer to the element s[2][1] using pointers. But. From Figure 8. *( s[2] + 1 ) is same as. the address of the second one-dimensional array. saying *( s[2] + 1 ). *( *( s + 2 ) + 1 ). Thus.294 Let Us C each one-dimensional arrays starts 4 bytes further along than the last one. We know (from the above program) that s[2] would give the address 65516. Similarly.6 these addresses turn out to be 65508 and 65512. s[2][1] * ( s[2] + 1 ) *(*(s+2)+1) . And the value at this address can be obtained by using the value at address operator. s[0][0] s[0][1] s[1][0] s[1][1] s[2][0] s[2][1] s[3][0] s[3][1] 1234 65508 56 65510 1212 65512 33 65514 1434 65516 80 65518 1312 65520 78 65522 Figure 8.6 We know that the expressions s[0] and s[1] would yield the addresses of the zeroth and first one-dimensional array respectively. we have already studied while learning one-dimensional arrays that num[i] is same as *( num + i ). all the following expressions refer to the same element. What remains is to be able to refer to individual elements of a onedimensional array. Now. Or ( s[2] + 1 ) would give the address 65518. as can be seen in the memory map of the array shown below. Obviously ( 65516 + 1 ) would give the address 65518.

78 } }. j++ ) printf ( "%d ". The following program shows how to build and use it. j <= 1 . a pointer to a char. a pointer to a float. 56 }.. *( *( s + i ) + j ) ) . { 1312. j . /* Pointer notation to access 2-D array elements */ main( ) { int s[4][2] = { { 1234. } } And here is the output. 33 }. i++ ) { printf ( "\n" ) . for ( j = 0 . { 1434. .. i <= 3 . int i. 1234 1212 1434 1312 56 33 80 78 Pointer to an Array If we can have a pointer to an integer. for ( i = 0 . then can we not have a pointer to an array? We certainly can.Chapter 8: Arrays 295 Using these concepts the following program prints out each element of a two-dimensional array using pointer notation. { 1212. 80 }.

Array of pointers is covered in a later section in this chapter. 78 } }. int ( *p )[2] . 1234 1212 1434 1312 56 33 80 78 Here p is a pointer to an array of two integers. Note that the parentheses in the declaration of p are necessary. j <= 1 . j. { 1434. j++ ) printf ( "%d ". { 1212. int i. for ( i = 0 . { 1312. i <= 3 . for ( j = 0 . In the outer for loop each time we store the address of a new one-dimensional array. *( pint + j ) ) . i++ ) { p = &s[i] . in the inner for loop using the pointer pint we . 33 }. printf ( "\n" ) .. Lastly. Absence of them would make p an array of 2 integer pointers. This address is then assigned to an integer pointer pint. Thus first time through this loop p would contain the address of the zeroth 1-D array. *pint ..296 /* Usage of pointer to an array */ main( ) { int s[5][2] = { { 1234. } } Let Us C And here is the output. 56 }. pint = p . 80 }.

int row. 0. This is discussed in the next section. /* Three ways of accessing a 2-D array */ main( ) { int a[3][4] = { 1. Is there any situation where we can appreciate its usage better? The entity pointer to an array is immensely useful when we need to pass a 2-D array to a function. clrscr( ) . 2. print ( a. display ( a. j . 9. 3. But why should we use a pointer to an array to print elements of a 2-D array. 6. i++ ) { for ( j = 0 . i < row . j < col . 4 ) . 3. 7. 4. * ( q + i * col + j ) ) . 1. 3. 4 ) .Chapter 8: Arrays 297 have printed the individual elements of the 1-D array to which p is pointing. 4 ) . show ( a. int col ) { int i. 8. . Passing 2-D Array to a Function There are three ways in which we can pass a 2-D array to a function. These are illustrated in the following program. j++ ) printf ( "%d ". for ( i = 0 . 3. 5. } display ( int *q. 6 }.

* ( p + j ) ) . int col ) { int i. j++ ) printf ( "%d ". for ( i = 0 . int *p . i < row . for ( j = 0 . i < row . q[i][j] ) . i++ ) { p=q+i. printf ( "\n" ) . } printf ("\n" ) . for ( i = 0 . j .298 printf ( "\n" ) . int row. } Let Us C And here is the output… 1234 5678 . j < col . } printf ( "\n" ) . i++ ) { for ( j = 0 . printf ( "\n" ) . j < col . } show ( int ( *q )[4]. } print ( int q[ ][4]. int row. j . int col ) { int i. } printf ( "\n" ) . j++ ) printf ( "%d ".

Let us see whether the expression * ( q + i * col + j ) does give this element or not. then we wish to reach the element a[2][3]. * no.7 The expression * ( q + i * col + j ) becomes * ( 65502 + 2 * 4 + 3). This turns out to be * (65502 + 11 ). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 6 65502 …04 …06 …08 …10 …12 …14 …16 …18 …20 …22 …24 Figure 8. Since 65502 is address of an integer. Value at this address is 6. * ( 65502 + 11 ) turns out to be * (65524).Chapter 8: Arrays 9016 1234 5678 9016 1234 5678 9016 299 In the display( ) function we have collected the base address of the 2-D array being passed to it in an ordinary int pointer. of columns + column no. ) In the show( ) function we have defined q to be a pointer to an array of 4 integers through the declaration: . Refer Figure 8. A more general formula for accessing each array element would be: * ( base address + row no. Suppose i is equal to 2 and j is equal to 3. This is indeed same as a[2][3]. Then through the two for loops using the expression * ( q + i * col + j ) we have reached the appropriate element in the array.7 to understand this.

e. In the third function print( ). Next time through the loop when i takes a value 1. and using it all elements of the next 1-D array are accessed. an int pointer. i. This address is then assigned to p.7). q is a pointer to zeroth 1-D array and adding 1 to it would give us the address of the next 1-D array. an array of pointers would be nothing but a collection of addresses. All rules that apply to an ordinary array apply to the array of pointers as well. similarly there can be an array of pointers. the declaration of q looks like this: int q[ ][4] . This address is once again assigned to p. the expression q + i fetches the address of the first 1-D array. where q is pointer to an array of 4 integers. We could have used the same expression in show( ) as well.300 int ( *q )[4] . Let Us C To begin with. /* array of integer pointers */ . and then using this pointer all elements of the zeroth 1D array are accessed. q holds the base address of the zeroth 1-D array. 4001 (refer Figure 8. The only advantage is that we can now use the more familiar expression q[i][j] to access array elements. I think a program would clarify the concept. This is because. This is same as int ( *q )[4]. main( ) { int *arr[4] . Array of Pointers The way there can be an array of ints or an array of floats. The addresses present in the array of pointers can be addresses of isolated variables or addresses of array elements or any other addresses. Since a pointer variable always contains an address.

As you can observe. main( ) { static int a[ ] = { 0. m++ ) printf ( "%d ". . 3. arr[1] = &j . 2. The for loop in the program picks up the addresses present in arr and prints the values present at these addresses.8 An array of pointers can even contain the addresses of other arrays. arr[3] = &l .Chapter 8: Arrays int i = 31. m <= 3 . The following program would justify this. m . j = 5. * ( arr[m] ) ) . 1. i 31 65516 arr[0] 65516 65518 j 5 65514 arr[1] 65514 65520 k 19 65512 arr[2] 65512 65522 arr[3] 65510 65524 l` 71 65510 Figure 8. 4 } . arr[0] = &i . arr contains addresses of isolated int variables i. arr[2] = &k . k and l. k = 19. } 301 Figure 8. j.8 shows the contents and the arrangement of the array of pointers in memory. l = 71. for ( m = 0 .

1 }. } Let Us C I would leave it for you to figure out the output of this program. { 3. { 7. However. 4 }. a + 4 } . { 3. printf ( "\n%u %u %d". 3 } }. } }. * ( *p ) ) . 6 }. { 5. a + 3. 4 }. an example of initializing a three-dimensional array will consolidate your understanding of subscripts: int arr[3][4][2] = { { { 2. 4 }. 4 }. The outer array has three elements. 2 }. a + 1. { 7. { { 7. A three-dimensional array can be thought of as an array of arrays of arrays. 8 }. one rarely uses this array. a + 2. in practice. 3 }.302 int *p[ ] = { a. p. { 3. { 5. { { 8. 9 }. { 2. Three-Dimensional Array We aren’t going to show a programming example that uses a threedimensional array. 6 } }. *p. { 5. each of which is a . This is because.

2nd 2-D Array 1 2-D Array 0 2-D Array th st 8 7 2 7 3 5 4 8 4 6 6 4 3 3 9 2 4 1 Figure 8. In memory the same array elements are stored linearly as shown in Figure 8. each of which contains two integers. Then.9 Again remember that the arrangement shown above is only conceptually true.9 would possibly help you in visualising the situation better. 0th 2-D Array 1st 2-D Array 2nd 2-D Array 2 4 7 8 3 4 5 6 7 6 3 4 5 3 2 3 8 9 7 2 3 4 5 1 65478 65494 65510 Figure 8. In other words. three such twodimensional arrays are placed one behind the other to yield a threedimensional array containing three 2-dimensional arrays. a one-dimensional array of two elements is constructed first. In the array declaration note how the commas have been given. Figure 8.10.Chapter 8: Arrays 303 two-dimensional array of four one-dimensional arrays.10 . Then four such onedimensional arrays are placed one below the other to give a twodimensional array containing four rows.

In a 1-D array. zeroth element is a single value. the second subscript should be [3] since the element is in fourth row of the two-dimensional array. (c) The array variable acts as a pointer to the zeroth element of the array. (e) Array elements are stored in contiguous memory locations and so they can be accessed using pointers. the following two expressions refer to the same element in the 3-D array: arr[2][3][1] *( *( *( arr + 2 ) + 3 ) + 1 ) Summary (a) An array is similar to an ordinary variable except that it can store multiple elements of similar type. We can therefore say that the element 1 can be referred as arr[2][3][1]. in a 2-D array this element is a 1-D array. For example. yes. Can we not refer to this element using pointer notation? Of course. (f) Only limited arithmetic can be done on pointers. since the element is in third twodimensional array. whereas. (d) On incrementing a pointer it points to the next location of its type. (b) Compiler doesn’t perform bounds checking on an array. Exercise Simple arrays [A] What would be the output of the following programs: (a) main( ) .304 Let Us C How would you refer to the array element 1 in the above array? The first subscript should be [2]. and the third subscript should be [1] since the element is in second position in the one-dimensional array. It may be noted here that the counting of array elements even for a 3-D array begins with zero.

in the following program segments: (a) /* mixed has some char and some int values */ int char mixed[100] . } } (c) main( ) { int sub[50]. array[i] ) . if any. main( ) { int a[10].Chapter 8: Arrays { int num[26]. . i++ ) { array[i] = 'A' + i . for ( i = 0 . num[25] ) . } (b) main( ) { int array[26]. num[25] = 200 . num[0] = 100 . sub[i] ) . i . i . temp = num[25] . i <= 25 . printf ( "\n%d %c". num[0] = temp . printf ( "\n%d". array[i]. printf ( "\n%d %d". temp . } } 305 [B] Point out the errors. i++ ) . i <= 48 . num[0]. { sub[i] = i . i . for ( i = 0 . num[25] = num[0] .

2. i++ ) { scanf ( "%d". a[i] ) . scanf ( "%d". 4. i++ ) { scanf ( "%d". printf ( "%d".306 for ( i = 1 . int arr[ 2 + 3 ] . different data types scattered throughout memory the same data type scattered throughout memory the same data type placed next to each other in memory different data types placed next to each other in memory . a[i] ) . &size ) . i <= 10 . printf ( "\n%d". arr[i] ) . 3. } } (c) main( ) { int i. for ( i = 1 . i <= size . b = 3 . i < a+b . printf ( "%d". } } [C] Answer the following: Let Us C (a) An array is a collection of 1. for ( i = 0 . arr[i] ) . a = 2. int arr[size] . &arr[i] ) . i++ ) { scanf ( "%d". arr[i] ) . } } (b) main( ) { int size .

Write a program to find if the number to be searched is present in the array and if it is present. 3. 1. b[size] . second is particular element first is particular element. 4. 2. The number to be searched is entered through the keyboard by the user. int size = 10. int c = {0. second is type first is array size. The expression num[27] designates the twenty-eighth element in the array. The expression num[1] designates the first element in the array 3. The array int num[26] has twenty-six elements. second is array size both specify array size (e) State whether the following statements are True or False: 1. It is necessary to initialize the array at the time of declaration. num[5] = 11 .Chapter 8: Arrays (b) Are the following array declarations correct? int a (25) . 4. first is particular element. display the number of times it appears in the array.2} .1. 307 (c) Which element of the array does this expression reference? num[4] (d) What is the difference between the 5’s in these two expressions? (Select the correct answer) int num[5] . . 2. [D] Attempt the following: (a) Twenty-five numbers are entered from the keyboard into an array.

11 (a) . how many are negative. (Refer Figure 8.11 for the logic of the algorithms) − − − Selection sort Bubble Sort Insertion Sort Selection Sort Iteration 1 0 1 2 3 4 44 33 55 22 11 33 44 55 22 11 33 44 55 22 11 22 44 55 33 11 0 11 1 44 2 55 3 33 4 22 Iteration 2 0 1 2 3 4 11 44 55 33 22 0 11 1 33 2 55 3 44 4 22 Iteration 3 0 11 1 22 2 55 3 44 4 33 0 1 2 3 4 11 22 44 55 33 0 1 2 3 4 Iteration 4 Result 11 22 33 55 44 0 1 2 3 4 11 22 33 44 55 Figure 8. how many are even and how many odd.308 Let Us C (b) Twenty-five numbers are entered from the keyboard into an array. (c) Implement the Selection Sort. Write a program to find out how many of them are positive. Bubble Sort and Insertion sort algorithms on a set of 25 numbers.

Chapter 8: Arrays 309 Bubble Sort Iteration 1 Iteration 2 0 44 1 33 2 55 3 22 4 11 33 44 55 22 11 33 44 55 22 11 33 44 22 55 11 0 1 2 3 4 33 44 22 11 55 0 33 1 44 2 22 3 11 4 55 0 33 1 22 2 44 3 11 4 55 Iteration 3 0 33 1 22 2 11 3 44 4 55 0 22 1 33 2 11 3 44 4 55 0 1 2 3 4 Iteration 4 Result 22 11 33 44 55 0 11 1 22 2 33 3 44 4 55 Figure 8.11 (c) .11 (b) Insertion Sort Iteration 1 44 33 55 22 11 Iteration 2 33 44 55 22 11 Iteration 3 33 44 55 22 11 Iteration 4 22 33 44 55 11 Result 0 1 2 3 4 11 22 33 44 55 Figure 8.

} (b) main( ) { int b[ ] = { 0. i <= 4 . so print out these numbers. set all its multiples to zero. 30. k=b. More on arrays. 0. This procedure is called sieve of Eratosthenes. *k . 50 } . 40. int i . for ( i = 0 . 20. 5 } . step 1 step 2 step 3 step 4 step 5 Fill an array num[100] with numbers from 1 to 100 Starting with the second entry in the array. i <= 4 . int i. for ( i = 0 . all the non-zero entries left in the array would be prime numbers. i++ ) printf ( "\n%d" *( b + i ) ) . Arrays and pointers [E] What would be the output of the following programs: (a) main( ) { int b[ ] = { 10. i++ ) { printf ( "\n%d" *k ) . 20. Repeat step 3 till you have set up the multiples of all the non-zero elements to zero At the conclusion of step 4.310 Let Us C (d) Implement the following procedure to generate prime numbers from 1 to 100 into a program. Proceed to the next non-zero element and set all its multiples to zero. 40. .

b ) . i++ ) printf ( "\n%d". for ( i = 0 . b ) . } change ( int *b. i < 5 . i++ ) printf( "\n%d". i++ ) *( b + i ) = *( b + i ) + 5 . i < n . i++ ) a[i] = 2 * i . i < 5 . int n ) { int i . i. y += 2 . } f ( int *x. for ( i = 0 . 10 } . i <= 4 . a[i] ) . i < 5 . printf( "\n%d". for ( i = 0 . int y ) { int i .Chapter 8: Arrays k++ . f ( a. 4. for ( i = 0 . i++ ) *( x + i ) += 2 . } } (c) main( ) { int a[ ] = { 2. a[i] ) . change ( a. } . 8. for ( i = 0 . int i . 5 ) . 6. } 311 (d) main( ) { int a[5]. b = 16 .

in the following programs: (a) main( ) { int array[6] = { 1. m . array[i] ) . 5. i++ ) printf ( "\n%d". m = a[i++] . int i . for ( i = 0 . i++ ) { sub[i] = i . i++ ) printf ( "\n%d". for ( i = 1 . 4. } Let Us C [F] Point out the errors. 1. printf ( "\n%d %d %d". i <= 50 . if any. 20. i . j. int i . int i. 25 } . k = 1. j. for ( i = 0 . 3. m ) . 15. i = ++a[1] . } (b) main( ) { int sub[50]. j = a[1]++ . i <= 25 .312 (e) main( ) { static int a[5] . } (f) main( ) { int a[5] = { 5. sub[i] ) . 2. i <= 4 . a[i] ) . i. } } . 6 } . printf ( "\n%d" .

*k . } (e) main( ) { float a[ ] = { 13.5. i++ ) scanf ( "%f". float arr[max] . 5. j=a.5. } (f) main( ) { int max = 5 . k=a+4. int j .5 } . j = a . 50 } . 3.4. printf ( "\n%d %d". 1. a[4] ) . } . printf ( "\n%d" *j ) . 40. i < max . 5.24. k=k/2. *k ) . j=j*2. for ( i = 0 . j=j+4. *j. 1. float *j. 1. j=a.5. 3. 1. 20. /* store the address of zeroth element */ j=j+3. j.5. 30. &arr[i] ) .24.5 } .4. float *j . } 313 (d) main( ) { float a[ ] = { 13.Chapter 8: Arrays (c) main( ) { int a[ ] = { 10. *j. printf ( "\n%d %d %d".

nothing possible system malfunction error message from the compiler other data may be overwritten (b) In an array int arr[12] the word arr represents the a_________ of the array (c) What would happen if you put too few elements in an array when you initialize it? 1. 4. 4. 3. address of the array values of the elements of the array address of the first element of the array number of elements of the array . what actually gets passed? 1. 4. 3.314 [G] Answer the following: Let Us C (a) What would happen if you try to put so many values into an array when you initialize it that the size of the array is exceeded? 1. the element will be set to 0 nothing. 2. 2. 3. 4. nothing possible system malfunction error message from the compiler unused elements will be filled with 0’s or garbage (d) What would happen if you assign a value to an element of an array whose subscript exceeds the size of the array? 1. it’s done all the time other data may be overwritten error message from the compiler (e) When you pass an array as an argument to a function. 2. 3. 2.

None of the above (c) Add the missing statement for the following program to print 35. 4. printf ( "\n%d". 4.Chapter 8: Arrays (f) Which of these are reasons for using pointers? 1. 6. } . *ptr . 3. *ptr = 35 . 0 an undetermined value a floating point number the character constant '\0' [H] State True or False: (a) Address of a floating-point variable is always a whole number. To manipulate parts of an array To refer to keywords such as for and if To return more than one value from a function To refer to particular programs more conveniently 315 (g) If you don’t initialize a static array. 3. j ) . what would be the elements set to? 1. 7. 8. (b) Which of the following is the correct way of declaring a float pointer: 5. 2. main( ) { int j. *float ptr . float ptr . float *ptr . 2.

which of the following refers to the third element in the array? 9. (d) Write a program which performs the following tasks: − − − − initialize an integer array of 10 elements in main( ) pass the entire array to a function modify( ) in modify( ) multiply each element of array by 3 return the control to main( ) and print the new array elements in main( ) (e) The screen is divided into 25 rows and 80 columns. 12. the ASCII value of the character present on zeroth row and zeroth column on the screen is stored at . *( s + 2 ) *( s + 3 ) s+3 s+2 [I] Attempt the following: (a) Write a program to copy the contents of one array into another in the reverse order. For example.316 Let Us C (d) if int s[5] is a one-dimensional array of integers. then write a program to check if arr[0] = arr[n-1]. (b) If an array arr contains n elements. The first of these bytes contains the ASCII value of the character being displayed. arr[1] = arr[n-2] and so on. 10. the second byte contains the colour in which the character is displayed. whereas. 11. The characters that are displayed on the screen are stored in a special memory called VDU memory (not to be confused with ordinary memory). (c) Find the smallest number in an array using pointers. Each character displayed on the screen occupies two bytes in VDU memory.

1 }. } (b) main( ) { int n[3][3] = { 2. This is an activity of a rampant Virus called Dancing Dolls. 3. int i. 5. With this knowledge write a program which when executed would keep converting every capital letter on the screen to small case letter and every small case letter to capital letter. 5. (For monochrome adapter. 4. printf ( "\n%d %d %d". 8. 3. *ptr . 1 }. 5. *n. n[2][2] ) . Therefore the colour of this character would be present at location number 0xB8000000 + 1. 5. 6. Similarly ASCII value of character in row 0. and its colour at 0xB8000000 + 3. More than one dimension [J] What would be the output of the following programs: (a) main( ) { int n[3][3] = { 2. 3. 6. The procedure should stop the moment the user hits a key from the keyboard. use 0xB0000000 instead of 0xB8000000).Chapter 8: Arrays 317 location number 0xB8000000. 3. n[3][3]. . 8. 4. col 1 will be at location 0xB8000000 + 2.

printf ( "\n%d". 2. j++ ) printf ( "\n%d %d". 2. 3. 4. 6. if any. 8. i++ ) printf ( "\n%d". } Let Us C [K] Point out the errors. 4. 6. 3 . 4. twod ) . int i. for ( i = 0 . three[1][1] ) . *( ptr + i ) ) . 5. 5. 3. *( *( n + i ) + j ) ) . i++ ) for ( j = 0 . 8. } (b) main( ) { int three[3][ ] = { 2. j . n[i][j]. 1 }. for ( i = 0 .1 }. i <= 2 . 6. i <= 8 . 8 }. printf ( "\n%d". 3. .318 ptr = n . j <= 2 . in the following programs: (a) main( ) { int twod[ ][ ] = { 2. } (c) main( ) { int n[3][3] = { 2.

A possible arrangement of these pieces is shown below: 1 8 14 12 4 10 3 9 15 2 6 5 7 11 13 Figure 8. Implement the following procedure through a program: . The transpose of a matrix is obtained by exchanging the elements of each row with the elements of the corresponding column.Chapter 8: Arrays } [L] Attempt the following: 319 (a) How will you initialize a three-dimensional array threed[3][2][3]? How will you refer the first and last element in this array? (b) Write a program to pick up the largest number from any 5 row by 5 column matrix. (c) Write a program to obtain transpose of a 4 x 4 matrix. (d) Very often in fairs we come across a puzzle that contains 15 numbered square pieces mounted on a frame.12 As you can see there is a blank at bottom right corner. These pieces can be moved horizontally or vertically.

The user would continue hitting the arrow keys till the numbers aren’t arranged in ascending order. left. It would return the scan code of the arrow key being hit. Use the following function in your program. If left arrow key or up arrow key is hit then no action should be taken. How do we tackle the arrow keys? We cannot receive them using scanf( ) function.320 Let Us C Draw the boxes as shown above. if down arrow key is hit. Arrow keys are special keys which are identified by their ‘scan codes’. The user who manages it in minimum number of moves is the one who wins. Keep track of the number of moves in which the user manages to arrange the numbers in ascending order. right arrow key then the piece with a number 5 should move to the right and blank should replace the original position of 5. o . . or right). The scan codes for the arrow keys are: up arrow key – 72 down arrow key – 80 left arrow key – 75 right arrow key – 77 /* Returns scan code of the key that has been hit */ #include "dos. Display the numbers in the above order. If user hits say. then 13 should move down and blank should replace the original position of 13. down. Don’t worry about how this function is written. We are going to deal with it later. Allow the user to hit any of the arrow keys (up.h" getkey( ) { union REGS i. Similarly.

b. return ( o. i. (1) (2) (3) (4) Write a program to add two 6 x 6 matrices.h. ……. 1. Write a program to multiply any two 3 x 3 matrices. 3. j. } 321 (e) Those readers who are from an Engineering/Science background may try writing programs for following problems. Write a program to sort all the elements of a 4 x 4 matrix.Chapter 8: Arrays while ( !kbhit( ) ) . *pi = i + j Each integer quantity occupies 2 bytes of memory. 2. *pj = & j. 4. &i &j pj *pj a. The value assigned to i begin at (hexadecimal) address F9C and the value assigned to j begins at address F9E. c. …….ah = 0 . (f) Match the following with reference to the following program segment: int i. Write a program to obtain the determinant value of a 5 x 5 matrix. &o ) . = 25. pj = pj . 30 F9E 35 FA2 . d. j = *pj + 5 . *pj = j + 5. int *pi.ah ) . Match the value represented by left hand side quantities with the right. &i. /* more lines of program */ …….h. int86 ( 22.

4. 5. 6. 8. 13 c.322 5. 9. 75. j. 8. F9C 67 unspecified 65 F9E F9E FAO F9D Let Us C (g) Match the following with reference to the following segment: int x[3][5] = { { 1. 20. *n = &x . 2. 9 b. 9. f. } s[ ] = { 10. 4 d. { 6. { 11. k. 10. 25. g. 3. 6. 8 k. 7. 12 g. 3 e. 12. 6. 2 }. 3. 4. i=s. 5 l. i pi *pi ( pi + 2 ) (*pi + 2) * ( pi + 2 ) e. 5 }. 7 i. 7. 2. 10 m. int *i . 13. i. 14. 10. y. 15 } }. 1 j. 1. *( *( x + 2 ) + 1) *( *x + 2 ) + 5 *( *( x + 1) ) *( *( x ) + 2 ) + 1 * ( *( x + 1 ) + 3 ) *n *( n +2 ) (*(n + 3 ) + 1 *(n + 5)+1 ++*n . a. 6 (h) Match the following with reference to the following program segment: struct { int x. h. 8. 15. l. 9. 14 h. 2 f. 10 }. 7. 8.

f. j. 10. h. j. *( i + 3 ) s[i[7]]. 7. 16. c. f. 5 }. h. 9. **arr **arr < *( *arr + 2 ) *( arr + 2 ) / ( *( *arr + 1 ) > **arr ) *( arr[1] + 1 ) | arr[1][2] *( arr[0] ) | *( arr[2] ) arr[1][1] < arr[0][1] arr[2][[1] & arr[2][0] arr[2][2] | arr[0][1] arr[0][1] ^ arr[0][2] ++**arr + --arr[1][1] a.y + 10 ( *(s + *( i + 1) / *i ) ). 4. 1. c.y] ( s + 1 )->x + 5 *( 1 +i )**( i + 4 ) / *i s[i[0] – i[4]]. 2. k. (k) Write a program to find if a square matrix is symmetric. 64. g. 5. 85 2 6 7 16 15 25 8 1 100 10 20 323 (i) Match the following with reference to the following program segment: unsigned int arr[3][3] = { 2. 9. 8. 6. . 10. l. l. e. d. 5. 4. b.x + 2 ++i[i[6]] a. 8. 4.y i[i[1]-i[2]] i[s[3].Chapter 8: Arrays 1. k. 6. b. 64 18 6 3 0 16 1 11 20 2 5 4 (j) Write a program that interchanges the odd and even components of an array. 6. 3. 9. i. e. i. g. 10. d.x s[ (s + 2)->y / 3[I]]. 1. 7. 2. 3.

9. Thus. write a program to find their area and determine which is largest. (n) A 6 x 6 matrix is entered through the keyboard and stored in a 2-dimensional array mat[7][7].62 97. p[1] = 19. write a function to shift it circularly left by two positions. Plot No. p[2] = 61.2 149. 10. p[1]= 30.35 . (m) Given an array p[5]. -9. -6.78 0. The norm is defined as the square root of the sum of squares of all elements in the matrix. Area = (1 / 2 ) ab sin ( angle ) Given the following 6 triangular pieces of land. -10. 11. 1 2 3 a 137. p[3] = 15 and p[4] = 30. -6. (o) For the following set of sample data. p[2] = 28. (p) The area of a triangle can be computed by the sine law when 2 sides of the triangle and the angle between them are known. p[3]= 19 and p[4] = 61 then after the shift p[0] = 28. 11.93 angle 0. 2 The formula for standard deviation is ( xi − x ) 2 n where xi is the data item and x is the mean.89 1. 8.324 Let Us C (l) Write a function to find the norm of a matrix. 2.4 155.9 92. Call this function for a (4 x 5 ) matrix and get its rows left shifted. compute the standard deviation and the mean. 13.3 b 80. if p[0] = 15. 7. 6. -12. Write a program to obtain the Determinant values of this matrix.

0 __ __ and [ n ∑ x 2 − (∑ x ) 2 ] y 1.23 40.Chapter 8: Arrays 4 5 6 160.6 149.43 100.25 68. compute the correlation coefficient r.93 97.25 1.07 97.43 97.29 54.59 94.32 100.15 y 102.08 91.81 98.7 100.32 98.87 41.0 9.0 155.75 325 (q) For the following set of n data points (x. y) fit a straight line given by y = a + bx where.06 53.65 (r) For the following set of point given by (x.95 120.22 39.5 n∑ yx − ∑ x ∑ y .12 40.85 94.85 43.29 53. given by r= ∑ xy − ∑ x∑ y [n∑ x − ( ∑ x ) ] [n∑ y − ( ∑ y ) 2 2 2 2 ] x 34.71 55. y). a = y − bx b= x 3.00 1.14 49.

0 Let Us C (s) The X and Y coordinates of 10 different points are entered through the keyboard.0 7. .5 5. Write a program to find the distance of last point from the first point (sum of distance between consecutive points).5 5.5 7.5 6.0 14.0 3.0 2.0 6.5 8.5 10.0 9.5 12.326 4.5 8.0 9.0 10.5 9.

9 Puppetting On Strings • • • • What are Strings More about Strings Pointers and Strings Standard Library String Functions strlen( ) strcpy( ) strcat( ) strcmp( ) Two-Dimensional Array of Characters Array of Pointers to Strings Limitation of Array of Pointers to Strings Solution Summary Exercise • • • • • 327 .

Note that ‘\0’ and ‘0’ are not same. '\0' } . The terminating null (‘\0’) is important. 'E'. and how pointers are related to strings are going to be the topics of discussion in this chapter. What are Strings The way a group of integers can be stored in an integer array. how to initialize arrays. etc. . And strings. but it is actually only one character. Figure 9. the ways to manipulate them. Note that the elements of the character array are stored in contiguous memory locations. simply put.1 shows the way a character array is stored in memory. With this knowledge under your belt. Many languages internally treat strings as character arrays. a string not terminated by a ‘\0’ is not really a string. because it is the only way the functions that work with a string can know where the string ends. Character arrays are many a time also called strings. 'L'. you should be ready to handle strings.328 Let Us C I n the last chapter you learnt how to define arrays of differing sizes and dimensions. A string constant is a one-dimensional array of characters terminated by a null ( ‘\0’ ). In fact. a special kind of array. which are. 'S'. with the \ indicating that what follows it is something special. Character arrays or strings are used by programming languages to manipulate text such as words and sentences. What character is this? It looks like two characters. but merely a collection of characters. ASCII value of ‘\0’ is 0. char name[ ] = { 'H'. whereas ASCII value of ‘0’ is 48. 'A'. 'E'. For example. ‘\0’ is called null character. but somehow conceal this fact from the programmer. similarly a group of characters can be stored in a character array. 'R'. Each character in the array occupies one byte of memory and the last character is always ‘\0’. how to pass arrays to a function.

More about Strings In what way are character arrays different than numeric arrays? Can elements in a character array be accessed in the same way as the elements of a numeric array? Do I need to take any special care of ‘\0’? Why numeric arrays don’t end with a ‘\0’? Declaring strings is okay. while ( i <= 7 ) { printf ( "%c". i++ . the string used above can also be initialized as. For example.Chapter 9: Puppetting On Strings 329 H A E S L E R \0 65518 65519 65520 65521 65522 65523 65524 65525 Figure 9. let us settle some of these issues right away with the help of sample programs. in this declaration ‘\0’ is not necessary. } . C inserts the null character automatically. but how do I manipulate them? Questions galore!! Well. Note that. int i = 0 . /* Program to demonstrate printing of a string */ main( ) { char name[ ] = "Klinsman" . char name[ ] = "HAESLER" .1 C concedes the fact that you would use strings very often and hence provides a shortcut for initializing strings. name[i] ) .

Can we write the while loop without using the final value 7? We can. main( ) { char name[ ] = "Klinsman" .. . Following program illustrates this. We have initialized a character array.. while ( name[i] != `\0' ) { printf ( "%c". Klinsman No big deal. this one uses a pointer to access the array elements. int i = 0 .. i++ . } } And here is the output. char *ptr . because we know that each character array always ends with a ‘\0’. Klinsman This program doesn’t rely on the length of the string (number of characters in it) to print out its contents and hence is definitely more general than the earlier one.. Here is another version of the same program. name[i] ) .330 } Let Us C And here is the output. main( ) { char name[ ] = "Klinsman" . and then printed out the elements of this array within a while loop.

all the following notations refer to the same element: name[i] *( name + i ) *( i + name ) i[name] . ptr = name . /* store base address of string */ while ( *ptr != `\0' ) { printf ( "%c". ptr++ . *ptr ) . Once the base address is obtained in ptr. *ptr ) .Chapter 9: Puppetting On Strings ptr = name . } } 331 As with the integer array. This derives from two facts: array elements are stored in contiguous memory locations and on incrementing a pointer it points to the immediately next location of its type. In fact. ‘\0’. by mentioning the name of the array we get the base address (address of the zeroth element) of the array. ptr is incremented to point to the next character in the string. Then. that is. *ptr would yield the value at this address. the character array elements can be accessed exactly in the same way as the elements of an integer array. Thus. This process is carried out till ptr doesn’t point to the last character in the string. which gets printed promptly through. printf ( "%c". This base address is stored in the variable ptr using.

scanf ( "%s". scanf( ) places a ‘\0’ in the array. whereas the scanf( ) function fills in the characters typed at keyboard into this array until the enter key is hit. Enter your name Debashish Hello Debashish! Note that the declaration char name[25] sets aside 25 bytes under the array name[ ]. The same specification can be used to receive a string from the keyboard. } And here is a sample run of the program. . Note that printf( ) doesn’t print the ‘\0’. main( ) { char name[25] . as shown below.332 Let Us C Even though there are so many ways (as shown above) to refer to the elements of a character array.. Naturally. } The %s used in printf( ) is a format specification for printing out a string. as shown below. rarely is any one of them used. name ) . main( ) { char name[ ] = "Klinsman" . we should pass the base address of the array to the scanf( ) function. name ) . name ) .. printf ( "Hello %s!". printf ( "Enter your name " ) . printf ( "%s". This is because printf( ) function has got a sweet and simple way of doing it. Once enter is hit.

. gets ( name ) . and in that event. (b) scanf( ) is not capable of receiving multi-word strings. } And here is the output. Also.. unlike printf( ). main( ) { char name[25] .Chapter 9: Puppetting On Strings 333 While entering the string using scanf( ) we must be cautious about two things: (a) The length of the string should not exceed the dimension of the character array. Though gets( ) is capable of receiving only . on displaying a string. puts ( name ) . printf ( "Enter your full name " ) . Therefore names such as ‘Debashish Roy’ would be unacceptable. Enter your name Debashish Roy Hello! Debashish Roy The program and the output are self-explanatory except for the fact that. Hence. The way to get around this limitation is by using the function gets( ). puts ( "Hello!" ) . The usage of functions gets( ) and its counterpart puts( ) is shown below. This is because the C compiler doesn’t perform bounds checking on character arrays. puts( ) places the cursor on the next line. you would have nobody to blame but yourselves. if you carelessly exceed the bounds there is always a danger of overwriting something important. puts( ) can display only one string at a time (hence the use of two puts( ) in the program above).

We may either store it in a string or we may ask the C compiler to store it at some location in memory and assign the address of the string in a char pointer. the plus point with gets( ) is that it can receive a multi-word string. printf ( "Enter your full name " ) . we can assign a char pointer to another char pointer. we cannot assign a string to another. If we are prepared to take the trouble we can make scanf( ) accept multi-word strings by writing it in this manner: char name[25] . . char *s = "Good Morning" . This is shown in the following program. Pointers and Strings Suppose we wish to store “Hello”. char *q . There is a subtle difference in usage of these two forms. main( ) { char str1[ ] = "Hello" . This is shown below: char str[ ] = "Hello" . whereas. name ) . char *p = "Hello" . For example.334 Let Us C one string at a time. char str2[10] . scanf ( "%[^\n]s". you would agree. Though workable this is the best of the ways to call a function.

/* error */ q = s . str1 = "Bye" . char *p = "Hello" .Chapter 9: Puppetting On Strings str2 = str1 . /* works */ } Standard Library String Functions With every C compiler a large set of useful string handling library functions are provided. /* works */ } 335 Also. main( ) { char str1[ ] = "Hello" .2 lists the more commonly used functions along with their purpose. once a string has been defined it cannot be initialized to another set of characters. Function strlen strlwr strupr strcat strncat Use Finds length of a string Converts a string to lowercase Converts a string to uppercase Appends one string at the end of another Appends first n characters of a string at the end of another . Unlike strings. Figure 9. such an operation is perfectly valid with char pointers. /* error */ p = "Bye" .

Its usage is illustrated in the following program. Let us study these functions one by one.2 Out of the above list we shall discuss the functions strlen( ).336 strcpy strncpy strcmp strncmp strcmpi stricmp strnicmp strdup strchr strrchr strstr strset strnset strrev Let Us C Copies a string into another Copies first n characters of one string into another Compares two strings Compares first n characters of two strings Compares two strings without regard to case ("i" denotes that this function ignores case) Compares two strings without regard to case (identical to strcmpi) Compares first n characters of two strings without regard to case Duplicates a string Finds first occurrence of a given character in a string Finds last occurrence of a given character in a string Finds first occurrence of a given string in another string Sets all characters of string to a given character Sets first n characters of a string to a given character Reverses string Figure 9. strlen( ) This function counts the number of characters present in a string. int len1. strcpy( ). main( ) { char arr[ ] = "Bamboozled" . . since these are the most commonly used functions. len2 . This will also illustrate how the library functions in general handle strings. strcat( ) and strcmp( ).

/* A look-alike of the function strlen( ) */ main( ) { char arr[ ] = "Bamboozled" . int len1. printf ( "\nstring = %s length = %d". len2 = strlen ( "Humpty Dumpty" ) . printf ( "\nstring = %s length = %d". len2 = strlen ( "Humpty Dumpty" ) . } 337 The output would be. Even in the second call.. len2 ) . we are passing the base address of the string. len1 ) . "Humpty Dumpty". len1 ) . what gets passed to strlen( ) is the address of the string and not the string itself.Chapter 9: Puppetting On Strings len1 = strlen ( arr ) . len2 = xstrlen ( "Humpty Dumpty" ) . len1 = xstrlen ( arr ) . printf ( "\nstring = %s length = %d". Can we not write a function xstrlen( ) which imitates the standard library function strlen( )? Let us give it a try. arr. printf ( "\nstring = %s length = %d".. arr... string = Bamboozled length = 10 string = Humpty Dumpty length = 13 Note that in the first call to the function strlen( ). len2 . } . "Humpty Dumpty". and the function in turn returns the length of the string. While calculating the length it doesn’t count ‘\0’. len2 ) .

} Let Us C The output would be. The base addresses of the source and target strings should be supplied to this function. Or in other words keep counting characters till the pointer s doesn’t point to ‘\0’. main( ) { char source[ ] = "Sayonara" .. .. string = Bamboozled length = 10 string = Humpty Dumpty length = 13 The function xstrlen( ) is fairly simple. strcpy( ) This function copies the contents of one string into another.338 xstrlen ( char *s ) { int length = 0 . } return ( length ) . All that it does is keep counting the characters till the end of string is not met.. Here is an example of strcpy( ) in action. s++ . while ( *s != '\0' ) { length++ ..

via our own string copy function. printf ( "\ntarget string = %s". main( ) { char source[ ] = "Sayonara" . s++ .. } xstrcpy ( char *t. character by character. printf ( "\ntarget string = %s". source ) . Let us now attempt to mimic strcpy( ). char target[20] . xstrcpy ( target. char *s ) { while ( *s != '\0' ) { *t = *s . source string = Sayonara target string = Sayonara On supplying the base addresses. piece-meal. It is our responsibility to see to it that the target string’s dimension is big enough to hold the string being copied into it.. source ) . .Chapter 9: Puppetting On Strings char target[20] . } 339 And here is the output. There is no short cut for this. target ) . which we will call xstrcpy( ). printf ( "\nsource string = %s". source ) . Thus. printf ( "\nsource string = %s". strcpy( ) goes on copying the characters in source string into the target string till it doesn't encounter the end of source string (‘\0’). source ) . a string gets copied into another. strcpy ( target. target ) .

it is necessary to place a ‘\0’ into the target string. it looks like this… strcpy ( char *t.. So what is the need of the const qualifier? What would happen if we add the following lines beyond the last statement of xstrcpy( )?.340 t++ . We didn’t use the keyword const in our version of xstrcpy( ) and still our function worked correctly. s=s-8.. by changing the definition as follows: void xstrcpy ( char *t. *s = 'K' . const char *s ) { while ( *s != '\0' ) { . If you look at the prototype of strcpy( ) standard library function. } Let Us C The output of the program would be. source string = Sayonara target string = Sayonara Note that having copied the entire source string into the target string. This would change the source string to “Kayonara”. } *t = '\0' . Can we not ensure that the source string doesn’t change even accidentally in xstrcpy( )? We can. to mark its end. const char *s ) .

Chapter 9: Puppetting On Strings *t = *s . /* works */ t = "Bye" . t++ . /* works */ char const *s = "Hello" . /* works */ p = "Bye" . /* error */ q = "Bye" . s++ . /* string is fixed pointer is not */ *s = 'M' . /* pointer is fixed string is not */ *t = 'M' . /* works */ const char *q = "Hello" . /* error */ u = "Bye" . We can use const in several situations. so is string */ *p = 'M' . /* pointer is variable. /* error */ . /* error */ const char * const u = "Hello" . /* string is fixed so is pointer */ *u = 'M' . Thus the const qualifier ensures that your program does not inadvertently alter a variable that you intended to be a constant. char *p = "Hello" . It also reminds anybody reading the program listing that the variable is not intended to change. /* error */ s = "Bye" . /* works */ char * const t = "Hello" . } 341 By declaring char *s as const we are declaring that the source string should remain constant (should not change). The following code fragment would help you to fix your ideas about const further. /* string is fixed pointer is not */ *q = 'M' . } *t = '\0' .

printf ( "\nArea of circle = %f". main( ) { char source[ ] = "Folks!" . etc.. a = pi * r * r . &r ) . source string = Folks! target string = HelloFolks! . target ) . char target[30] = "Hello" . “Bombay” and “Nagpur” on concatenation would result into a string “BombayNagpur”. The following program shows how this can be done.14 . scanf ( "%f". a ) . source ) . Here is an example of strcat( ) at work. For example. printf ( "\ntarget string = %s".. source ) . main( ) { float r. float.342 Let Us C The keyword const can be used in context of ordinary variables like int. const float pi = 3. } strcat( ) This function concatenates the source string at the end of the target string. strcat ( target. printf ( "\nsource string = %s". a . } And here is the output. printf ( "\nEnter radius of circle " ) .

it returns the numeric difference between the ASCII values of the first non-matching pairs of characters. "Jerry" ) . k . which is the numeric . k ) . main( ) { char string1[ ] = "Jerry" . int i.Chapter 9: Puppetting On Strings 343 Note that the target string has been made big enough to hold the final string. k = strcmp ( string1.. i = strcmp ( string1. char string2[ ] = "Ferry" . printf ( "\n%d %d %d". strcmp( ) This is a function which compares two strings to find out whether they are same or different. In the second call. If they’re not. I leave it to you to develop your own xstrcat( ) on lines of xstrlen( ) and xstrcpy( ). the two strings are identical—“Jerry” and “Jerry”—and the value returned by strcmp( ) is zero. whichever occurs first. The two strings are compared character by character until there is a mismatch or end of one of the strings is reached. 0 4 -32 In the first call to strcmp( ). j. Here is a program which puts strcmp( ) in action. j.. "Jerry boy" ) . strcmp( ) returns a value zero. i. } And here is the output. j = strcmp ( string1. If the two strings are identical. the first character of “Jerry” doesn't match with the first character of “Ferry” and the result is 4. string2 ) .

.e. #define FOUND 1 #define NOTFOUND 0 main( ) { char masterlist[6][10] = { "akshay". . ‘\0’ minus ‘ ’. "parag". When you do so. a negative value is returned. "gopal". but one dealing with characters. a positive value is returned.. because the null character at the end of “Jerry” doesn’t match the blank in “Jerry boy”. "srinivas". if it isn’t. which is equal to -32. which is the value of null character minus the ASCII value of space. Try to implement this procedure into a function xstrcmp( ). If it is. In the third call to strcmp( ) “Jerry” doesn’t match with “Jerry boy”. int i. Let’s now look at a similar entity. All we usually want to know is whether or not the first string is alphabetically before the second string. "rajesh" }. Here’s the program.344 Let Us C difference between ASCII value of ‘J’ and ASCII value of ‘F’. a . Two-Dimensional Array of Characters In the last chapter we saw several examples of 2-dimensional integer arrays. The value returned is -32. The exact value of mismatch will rarely concern us.. flag. Any non-zero value means there is a mismatch. Our example program asks you to type your name. it checks your name against a master list to see if you are worthy of entry to the palace. "raman". char yourname[10] . i.

The order of the subscripts in the array declaration is important. flag = NOTFOUND . had these names been supplied from the keyboard. yourname ) . break . . i <= 5 . Enter your name dinesh Sorry. &masterlist[i][0] ) .. yourname ) . } 345 And here is the output for two sample runs of this program. flag = FOUND . Instead of initializing names.. i++ ) scanf ( "%s". if ( a == 0 ) { printf ( "Welcome. for ( i = 0 . you can enter the palace Notice how the two-dimensional character array has been initialized. you can enter the palace" ) .. } } if ( flag == NOTFOUND ) printf ( "Sorry. i <= 5 . while the second subscript gives the length of each item in the array. you are a trespasser Enter your name raman Welcome. i++ ) { a = strcmp ( &masterlist[i][0]. for ( i = 0 . The first subscript gives the number of names in the array..Chapter 9: Puppetting On Strings printf ( "\nEnter your name " ) . the program segment would have looked like this. scanf ( "%s". you are a trespasser" ) .

note that the addresses of the strings are being passed to strcmp( ). strcmp( ) would return a value 0.3. Later through the loop if the names match.3 . if flag is still set to NOTFOUND. flag is set to FOUND. The arrangement as you can appreciate is similar to that of a two-dimensional numeric array. The names would be stored in the memory as shown in Figure 9. otherwise it would return a non-zero value. we set flag to NOTFOUND. if the two strings match. Note that each string ends with a ‘\0’. The variable flag is used to keep a record of whether the control did reach inside the if or not. As seen in the last section. When the control reaches beyond the for loop. To begin with. 65454 65464 65474 65484 65494 65504 a p r s g r k a a r o a s r i p j h a n a e a g n i l s y \0 \0 v \0 h \0 m a a \0 s \0 65513 (last location) Figure 9. it means none of the names in the masterlist[ ][ ] matched with the one supplied from the keyboard.346 Let Us C While comparing the strings through strcmp( ).

65464. even though 10 bytes are reserved for storing the name “akshay”. it occupies only 7 bytes. it can be. Therefore.Chapter 9: Puppetting On Strings 347 Here. for each name there is some amount of wastage. It contains base addresses of respective names.. char *names[ ] = { "akshay". etc. "gopal". . Similarly. base address of “parag” is stored in names[1] and so on. by using what is called an ‘array of pointers’. "raman". "srinivas". base address of “akshay” is stored in names[0]. That is. 65454. Let us see how the names in the earlier example can be stored in the array of pointers. Thus. 3 bytes go waste. Array of Pointers to Strings As we know. 65474. "rajesh" }.. This is depicted in Figure 9. In this declaration names[ ] is an array of pointers. As seen from the above pattern some of the names do not occupy all the bytes reserved for them. Can this not be avoided? Yes. which is our next topic of discussion. In fact. a pointer variable always contains an address. "parag". if we construct an array of pointers it would contain a number of addresses.4. more would be the wastage. more the number of names. For example. are the base addresses of successive names.

The first one uses a two-dimensional array of characters to store the names. the strings occupy only 41 bytes—a net saving of 19 bytes. whereas the second uses an array of pointers to strings. /* Exchange names using 2-D array of characters */ main( ) { char names[ ][10] = { . one reason to store strings in an array of pointers is to make a more efficient use of available memory. in array of pointers. As against this. Thus. This is shown by the following programs. Another reason to use an array of pointers to store strings is to obtain greater ease in manipulation of the strings. the strings occupied 60 bytes. We want to exchange the position of the names “raman” and “srinivas”. A substantial saving. But realize that actually 19 bytes are not saved. you would agree.348 akshay\0 182 gopal\0 210 raman\0 195 rajesh\0 216 names[ ] 182 65514 189 65516 195 65518 201 65520 210 Let Us C srinivas\0 201 parag\0 189 216 65524 65522 Figure 9. since 12 bytes are sacrificed for storing the addresses in the array names[ ].4 In the two-dimensional array of characters. The purpose of both the programs is very simple.

. "srinivas". } printf ( "\nNew: %s %s". names[2][i] = names[3][i] . char t . 10 exchanges are needed to interchange two names. In effect. i <= 9 .Chapter 9: Puppetting On Strings "akshay". i++ ) { t = names[2][i] . main( ) { char *names[ ] = { . Original: raman srinivas New: srinivas raman Note that in this program to exchange the names we are required to exchange corresponding characters of the two names. Let us see. } 349 And here is the output.. &names[2][0]. "gopal". &names[3][0] ) . for ( i = 0 . Here is the program. &names[2][0].. &names[3][0] ) . "rajesh" }. "parag". printf ( "\nOriginal: %s %s". "raman".. int i . names[3][i] = t . if the number of exchanges can be reduced by using an array of pointers to strings.

"srinivas". from the point of view of efficient memory usage and ease of programming. That is why.. which is more commonly used. Thus. names[2]. even though in principle strings can be stored and handled through a twodimensional array of characters. by effecting just one exchange we are able to interchange names. "parag". names[2] = names[3] . } Let Us C And here is the output. char *temp . "raman". Thus. an array of pointers to strings definitely scores over a two-dimensional character array. temp = names[2] . printf ( "\nNew: %s %s". "gopal". names[2]. Original: raman srinivas New: srinivas raman The output is same as the earlier program. "rajesh" }.350 "akshay". rather than the names themselves. names[3] = temp .. names[3] ) . . names[3] ) . This makes handling strings very convenient. in actual practice it is the array of pointers to strings. printf ( "Original: %s %s". In this program all that we are required to do is exchange the addresses (of the names) stored in the array of pointers.

} } The program doesn’t work because. And it would be definitely wrong to send these garbage values to scanf( ) as the addresses where it should keep the strings received from the keyboard. Solution If we are bent upon receiving the strings from keyboard using scanf( ) and then storing their addresses in an array of pointers to strings we can do it in a slightly round about manner as shown below. scanf ( "%s". when we are using an array of pointers to strings we can initialize the strings at the place where we are declaring the array. int i . main( ) { char *names[6] . names[i] ) . Thus. However.h" main( ) . #include "alloc. for ( i = 0 . but we cannot receive the strings from keyboard using scanf( ).Chapter 9: Puppetting On Strings 351 Limitation of Array of Pointers to Strings When we are using a two-dimensional array of characters we are at liberty to either initialize the strings where we are declaring the array. when we are declaring the array it is containing garbage values. or receive the strings using scanf( ) function. the following program would never work out. i++ ) { printf ( "\nEnter name " ) . i <= 5 .

Hence it has been converted into char * using a feature called typecasting. . there is no way to increase or decrease the array size during execution of the program. scanf ( "%s". int len.352 { char *names[6] . This function requires the number of bytes to be allocated and returns the base address of the chunk of memory that it allocates. names[i] = p . Moreover. Then we have found out its length using strlen( ) and allocated space for making a copy of this name. n ) . This memory allocation has been done using a standard library function called malloc( ). names[i] ) . In other words.h’. But why did we not use array to allocate memory? This is because with arrays we have to commit to the size of the array at the time of writing the program. n ) . i <= 5 . i . p = malloc ( len + 1 ) . } for ( i = 0 . char n[50] . strcpy ( p. when we use arrays static memory allocation takes place. i <= 5 . Hence we have #included this file. } Let Us C Here we have first received a name using scanf( ) in a string n[ ]. i++ ) { printf ( "\nEnter name " ) . char *p . i++ ) printf ( "\n%s". for ( i = 0 . The prototype of this function has been declared in the file ‘alloc. The address returned by this function is always of the type void *. Typecasting is discussed in detail in Chapter 15. len = strlen ( n ) .

using malloc( ) we can allocate memory dynamically. Exercise Simple strings . Summary (a) A string is nothing but an array of characters terminated by ‘\0’.Chapter 9: Puppetting On Strings 353 Unlike this. (d) Both printf( ) and puts( ) can handle multi-word strings. (c) Though scanf( ) can be used to receive multi-word strings. strcat( ) and strcmp( ) which can manipulate strings. (g) malloc( ) function can be used to allocate space in memory on the fly during execution of the program. gets( ) can do the same job in a cleaner way. (e) Strings can be operated upon using several standard library functions like strlen( ). (b) Being an array. Once we have allocated the memory using malloc( ) we have copied the name received through the keyboard into this allocated space and finally stored the address of the allocated chunk in the appropriate element of names[ ]. the array of pointers to strings. all the characters of a string are stored in contiguous memory locations. The argument that we pass to malloc( ) can be a variable whose value can change during execution. This solution suffers in performance because we need to allocate memory and then do the copying of string for each name received through the keyboard. in practice an array of pointers to strings is preferred since it takes less space and is efficient in processing strings. (f) Though in principle a 2-D array can be used to handle several strings. during execution. More importantly we imitated some of these functions to learn how these standard library functions are written. strcpy( ).

ss = s . char t[25] .354 Let Us C [A] What would be the output of the following programs: (a) main( ) { char c[2] = "A" . &s ) . printf ( "\n%s". printf ( "\n%s". printf ( "\n%c". printf ( "\n%s". &s[2] ) . c ) . i[s]. i++ . while ( s[i] != 0 ) { printf ( "\n%c %c". s[i]. int i = 0 . printf ( "\n%s". *( i + s ) ) . . } (b) main( ) { char s[ ] = "Get organised! learn C!!" . printf ( "\n%c %c". } (c) main( ) { char s[ ] = "No two viruses work similarly" . char *ss. *tt . s[2] ) . } } (d) main( ) { char s[ ] = "Churchgate: no church no gate" . *( s + i ) ) . while ( *ss != '\0' ) *ss++ = *tt++ . printf ( "\n%c". c[0] ) . s ) .

sizeof ( 3 ) ) . } (g) main( ) { printf ( "%c". printf ( "\n%s". char *str3 . } [B] Point out the errors. ‘e’. ‘l’. str1 ) . } 355 (e) main( ) { char str1[ ] = { ‘H’. char *str2 = "Front" . ‘l’. "abcdefgh"[4] ) . sizeof ( ‘3’ ). str3 ) . str2 ) . } (f) main( ) { printf ( 5 + "Good Morning " ) . t ) . if any. printf ( "\n%s". } (h) main( ) { printf ( "\n%d%d". str2 ) . ‘o’ } .Chapter 9: Puppetting On Strings printf ( "\n%s". } (b) main( ) { . str3 = strcat ( str1. char str2[ ] = "Hello" . sizeof ( "3" ). printf ( "\n%s". in the following programs: (a) main( ) { char *str1 = "United" .

i++ ) printf ( "\n%d". int i . for ( i = 0 . for ( i = 0 . ‘D’ } . ‘B’. int i . which is written as ______. (d) The array elements are always stored in _________ memory locations. (b) A string is terminated by a ______ character. arr[i] ) . str2. } Let Us C (c) main( ) { char arr[8] = "Rhombus" . } [C] Fill in the blanks: (a) "A" is a ___________ while ’A’ is a ____________. str3. arr++ . i <= 3 . ‘C’. [D] Attempt the following: (a) Which is more appropriate for reading in a multi-word string? gets( ) printf( ) scanf( ) puts( ) (b) If the string "Alice in wonder land" is fed to the following scanf( ) statement. str1. str2. i++ ) printf ( "\n%d". str4 ) . what will be the contents of the arrays str1. str3 and str4? scanf ( "%s%s%s%s%s". i <= 7 . *arr ) . (c) The array char name[10] can consist of a maximum of ______ characters. .356 int arr[ ] = { ‘A’.

Chapter 9: Puppetting On Strings 357 (c) Write a program that converts all lowercase characters in a given string to its equivalent uppercase character. . (e) Write a program that converts a string like "124" to an integer 124. if they are stored in a two-dimensional character array? char *mess[ ] = { "Hammer and tongs". (d) Write a program that extracts part of the given string from the specified position. (f) Write a program that replaces two or more consecutive blanks in a string by a single blank. if the input is Grim return to the planet of apes!! the output should be Grim return to the planet of apes!! Two-dimensional array. For example. For example. Moreover. if the sting is "Working with strings is fun". "Tooth and nail". then if from position 4. if the position from where the string is to be extracted is given and the number of characters to be extracted is 0 then the program should extract entire string from the specified position. 4 characters are to be extracted then the program should return string as "king". Array of pointers to strings [E] Answer the following: (a) How many bytes in memory would be occupied by the following array of pointers to strings? How many bytes would be required to store the same strings.

(c) Write a program to reverse the strings stored in the following array of pointers to strings: char *s[ ] = { "To err is human. (b) Write a program to sort a set of names stored in an array in alphabetical order.all through C!" }...". why not? [F] Attempt the following: (a) Write a program that uses an array of pointers to strings str[ ].".. "You and C" }...". . "Make a million". "One needs to know C!!" }. Let Us C (b) Can an array of pointers to strings be used to collect strings from the keyboard? If not.. If str1 is found. "But to really mess things up. "Level a building". char *str[ ] = { "We will teach you how to.. ". Receive two strings str1 and str2 and check if str1 is embedded in any of the strings in str[ ]. "Move a mountain".358 "Spit and polish". "Erase the past". For example if str1 contains "mountain" and str2 contains "car".. then replace it with str2. then the second string in str should get changed to "Move a car".

(e) Modify the above program suitably so that once the calendar for a particular month and year has been displayed on the . With this as the base the calendar should be generated. September 2004 Mon 6 13 20 27 Tue 7 14 21 28 Wed 1 8 15 22 29 Thu 2 9 16 23 30 Fri 3 10 17 24 Sat 4 11 18 25 Sun 5 12 19 26 Note that according to the Gregorian calendar 01/01/1900 was Monday. (d) Develop a program that receives the month and year from the keyboard as integers and prints the calendar in the following format. Call this function for reversing each string stored in s.Chapter 9: Puppetting On Strings 359 Hint: Write a function xstrrev ( string ) which should reverse the contents of one string.

previous month If the escape key is hit then the procedure should stop. insert right. Hint: Use the getkey( ) function discussed in Chapter 8. left and right) are needed in this simulation. same month : Same year. (i) Write a program that will read a line and delete from it all occurrences of the word ‘the’. retrieve right. . Using an array simulate a dequeue of characters and the operations retrieve left. next month : Same year. An inventory table is updated for each division and for each product as they are received. Two pointers (namely. problem number [L](c).360 Let Us C screen. There are three independent suppliers of products to the factory: (a) Design a data format to represent each transaction. same month : Previous year. Exceptional conditions such as dequeue full or empty should be indicated. insert left. (h) Write a program to delete all vowels from a sentence. (c) If the cost per item is also given write a program to calculate the total inventory values. Assume that the sentence is not more than 80 characters long. (g) A dequeue is an ordered set of elements in which elements may be inserted or retrieved from either end. (f) A factory has 3 division and stocks 4 categories of products. then using arrow keys the user must be able to change the calendar in the following manner: Up arrow key Down arrow key Right arrow key Left arrow key : Next year. (b) Write a program to take a transaction and update the inventory.

ea. (k) Write a program to count the number of occurrences of any two vowels in succession in a line of text. For example. middle and other names except the last name by their first letter. . ui.Chapter 9: Puppetting On Strings 361 (j) Write a program that takes a set of names of individuals and abbreviates the first. in the sentence “Pleases read this application and give me gratuity” such occurrences are ea.

10 Structures • Why Use Structures Declaring a Structure Accessing Structure Elements How Structure Elements are Stored • Array of Structures • Additional Features of Structures • Uses of Structures • Summary • Exercise 363 .

These two data types can handle a great variety of situations. then we can follow two approaches: (a) Construct individual arrays. Instead we deal with entities that are collections of things. just as the entity we call a ‘book’ is a collection of things such as title. In fact when we handle real world data. But quite often we deal with entities that are collection of dissimilar data types. one for storing names. C provides a data type called ‘structure’. each thing having its own attributes. suppose you want to store data about a book.364 Let Us C W hich mechanic is good enough who knows how to repair only one type of vehicle? None. author. or all floats or all chars at a time. date of publication. For the sake of programming convenience assume that the names of books would . publisher. we don’t usually deal with little atoms of information by themselves—things like integers. different atoms of information that comprise a given entity. (b) Use a structure variable. another for storing prices and still another for storing number of pages. Let us examine these two approaches one by one. characters and such. For dealing with such collections. etc. You might want to store its name (a string). Same thing is true about C language. whereas number of pages is an integer. It wouldn’t have been so popular had it been able to handle only all ints. If data about say 3 such books is to be stored. for example author is a string. For example. its price (a float) and number of pages in it (an int). A structure gathers together. call number. As you can see all this data is dissimilar. And structure is the topic of this chapter. number of pages. Why Use Structures We have seen earlier how ordinary variables can hold one piece of information and how arrays can hold a number of pieces of information of the same data type.

&pages[i] ).700000 512 This approach no doubt allows you to store names. i <= 2 . main( ) { char name[3] .000000 354 C 256. Enter names. . i++ ) scanf ( "%c %f %d". of pages of 3 books A 100. Let us begin with a program that uses arrays..70 512 And this is what you entered A 100. prices and no. name[i]. for ( i = 0 .. } And here is the sample run.Chapter 10: Structures 365 be single character long.00 354 C 256. int pages[3]. for ( i = 0 . But as you must have realized. &name[i]. of pages of 3 books\n" ) . &price[i]. it is an unwieldy approach that obscures the fact that you are dealing with a group of characteristics related to a single entity—the book. float price[3] .500000 682 F 233. i++ ) printf ( "%c %f %d\n". printf ( "\nEnter names. i . prices and number of pages. i <= 2 . pages[i] ). price[i]. printf ( "\nAnd this is what you entered\n" ) . prices and no.50 682 F 233.

&b2.50 682 F 233. printf ( "\nAnd this is what you entered" ) . struct book b1. &b3. &b1.price.name. b2. prices & no.name. etc.price. scanf ( "%c %f %d". of pages of 3 books A 100. main( ) { struct book { char name . of pages of 3 books\n" ) . we would be required to use a number of arrays. scanf ( "%c %f %d". &b2. printf ( "\nEnter names. printf ( "\n%c %f %d".pages ) .pages ) . Enter names.pages ) .name. b2. b1. printf ( "\n%c %f %d". &b1.pages ) .name.price. b2.. if we also decide to store name of the publisher.price.70 512 . To solve this problem. &b3. &b1. b3. printf ( "\n%c %f %d".pages ) . } And here is the output. b1. These data types may or may not be of the same type. prices and no. The following example illustrates the use of this data type. b1. b3. &b2.name. float price .. b3.366 Let Us C The program becomes more difficult to handle as the number of items relating to the book go on increasing. &b3. C provides a special data type—the structure. b3 .pages ) . int pages . b2. scanf ( "%c %f %d". A structure contains a number of data types grouped together.name. date of purchase of book.00 354 C 256. }.price.price. For example.

Declaring a Structure In our example program.500000 682 F 233... float price . Each variable of this data type will consist of a character variable called name.700000 512 367 This program demonstrates two fundamental aspects of structures: (a) declaration of a structure (b) accessing of structure elements Let us now look at these concepts one by one..000000 354 C 256.. the following statement declares the structure type: struct book { char name . structure element 2 . . ..Chapter 10: Structures And this is what you entered A 100.. . int pages . a float variable called price and an integer variable called pages.. }. This statement defines a new data type called struct book.. The general form of a structure declaration statement is given below: struct <structure name> { structure element 1 ... structure element 3 .

four for price and two for pages. If we so desire. It makes available space to hold all the elements in the structure—in this case. b3 .. b2. int pages . is same as.. } b1. or even.. This statement sets aside space in memory. struct book b1. Let Us C Once the new structure data type has been defined one or more variables can be declared to be of that type. struct book { char name . b2. b3 . For example the variables b1. struct . struct book { char name . b2. int pages . b3 .368 }. }. b3 can be declared to be of the type struct book. struct book b1. b2. float price . 7 bytes—one for name.. For example. as. These bytes are always in adjacent memory locations. float price . we can combine the declaration of the structure type and the structure variables in one statement.

and the file is included (using the preprocessor directive #include) in whichever program we want to use this structure type. }. 369 Like primary variables and arrays. struct book { char name[10] . The format used is quite similar to that used to initiate arrays.Chapter 10: Structures { char name . 800 } . structure variables can also be initialized where they are declared. b2. it defines the ‘form’ of the structure. } b1. (c) Usually structure type declaration appears at the top of the source code file. Note the following points while declaring a structure type: (a) The closing brace in the structure type declaration must be followed by a semicolon. int pages . 150. All a structure declaration does is. struct book b2 = { "Physics". (b) It is important to understand that a structure type declaration does not tell the compiler to reserve any space in memory. struct book b1 = { "Basic". In very large programs they are usually put in a separate header file. float price .00. before any variables or functions are defined. 130. . float price . 550 } .80. int pages . b3 .

370 Accessing Structure Elements Let Us C Having declared the structure type and the structure variables. How Structure Elements are Stored Whatever be the elements of a structure. In arrays we can access individual elements of an array using a subscript. b1. }. they are always stored in contiguous memory locations. They use a dot (.pages Similarly. let us see how the elements of the structure can be accessed. b1. &b1.name ) . Structures use a different scheme. int pages . float price .) operator. The following program would illustrate this: /* Memory map of structure elements */ main( ) { struct book { char name . 550 } . So to refer to pages of the structure defined in our sample program we have to use.price Note that before the dot there must always be a structure variable and after the dot there must always be a structure element. to refer to price we would use. 130. printf ( "\nAddress of name = %u". struct book b1 = { 'B'. .00.

printf ( "\nAddress of pages = %u". to store data of 100 books we would be required to use 100 different structure variables from b1 to b100. But that’s all we intended to do anyway.. .1 Array of Structures Our sample program showing usage of structure is rather simple minded. In our sample program. All it does is..price 130.pages 550 65523 Figure 10. how structure variables are declared and how individual elements of a structure variable are referenced.1. Following program shows how to use an array of structures.pages ) .Chapter 10: Structures printf ( "\nAddress of price = %u". it receives values into various structure elements and output these values.name ‘B’ 65518 65519 b1. b1.. which is definitely not very convenient.price ) . Address of name = 65518 Address of price = 65519 Address of pages = 65523 Actually the structure elements are stored in memory as shown in the Figure 10. A better approach would be to use an array of structures. &b1. } 371 Here is the output of the program.00 b1. &b1. show how structure types are created..

int i .372 /* Usage of an array of structures */ main( ) { struct book { char name . *b .. /* cause emulator to be linked */ a = *b .price.price. scanf ( "%c %f %d". /* suppress the warning . float price . i++ ) printf ( "\n%c %f %d".. } linkfloat( ) { float a = 0. int pages . i <= 99 .name. b[i]. Let Us C for ( i = 0 . &b[i]. } for ( i = 0 . &b[i].name. b[i]. price and pages " ) . struct book b[100] . i <= 99 . b[i].variable not used */ } Now a few comments about the program: (a) Notice how the array of structures is declared. i++ ) { printf ( "\nEnter name. b = &a . &b[i]. . }.pages ) . struct book b[100] .pages ) .

Chapter 10: Structures 373 This provides space in memory for 100 structures of the type struct book. an array of similar data types which themselves are a collection of dissimilar data types. price and pages in memory would be immediately followed by b[1]’s name. (e) What is the function linkfloat( ) doing here? If you don’t define it you are bound to get the error "Floating Point Formats Not Linked" with majority of C Compilers. (c) It should be appreciated what careful thought Dennis Ritchie has put into C language.price. it sets a flag to have the linker link in the floating-point emulator. In our example. then realized that dissimilar data types that are often found in real life cannot be handled using arrays. Hats off to the genius! (d) In an array of structures all elements of the array are stored in adjacent memory locations. But even using structures programming convenience could not be achieved. For example. A floating point emulator is used to manipulate floating point numbers in runtime library functions like . therefore created a new data type called structure. What causes this error to occur? When parsing our source file. b[0]’s name. price and pages. we refer first book’s pages as b[1].pages. Therefore he allowed us to create an array of structures. Since each element of this array is a structure. because a lot of variables (b1 to b100 for storing data about hundred books) needed to be handled. we refer to zeroth book’s price as b[0]. Similarly. (b) The syntax we use to reference each element of the array b is similar to the syntax used for arrays of ints and chars. He first defined array as a collection of similar elements. and since all structure elements are always stored in adjacent locations you can very well visualise the arrangement of array of structures in memory. if the compiler encounters a reference to the address of a float. and so on.

e2. There is no need to call this function.50 } .name ) .name. It forces linking of the floating-point emulator into an application. It is not necessary to copy the structure elements piece-meal. int age . just define it anywhere in your program. e3 . There are some cases in which the reference to the float is a bit obscure and the compiler does not detect the need for the emulator. The most common is using scanf( ) to read a float in an array of structures as shown in our program. main( ) { struct employee { char name[10] . . programmers prefer assignment to piece-meal copying. Additional Features of Structures Let us now explore the intricacies of structures with a view of programming convenience. e1.age .age = e1. This is shown in the following example. We would highlight these intricacies with suitable examples: (a) The values of a structure variable can be assigned to another structure variable of the same type using the assignment operator. struct employee e2. 30. 5500. float salary .374 Let Us C scanf( ) and atof( ). Obviously. How can we force the formats to be linked? That’s where the linkfloat( ) function comes in. /* piece-meal copying */ strcpy ( e2. }. struct employee e1 = { "Sanjay".

The following program shows nested structures at work. printf ( "\n%s %d %f". e3. printf ( "\n%s %d %f". Sanjay 30 5500. e1. we would have been required to copy structure variables element by element.Chapter 10: Structures e2.salary ) . main( ) { struct address . And who knows. This copying of all structure elements at one go has been possible only because the structure elements are stored in contiguous memory locations.salary = e1. had this been so.name.salary ) . e1. Using this facility complex data types can be created. Had this not been so..salary . } 375 The output of the program would be. e3.name..500000 Sanjay 30 5500. e1.500000 Ability to copy the contents of all structure elements of one variable into the corresponding elements of another structure variable is rather surprising. (b) One structure can be nested within another structure. printf ( "\n%s %d %f". for copying arrays we have to copy the contents of the array element by element.salary ) . since C does not allow assigning the contents of one array to another just by equating the two.age.name.age. e2. /* copying all elements at one go */ e3 = e2 . As we saw earlier. e3.age.500000 Sanjay 30 5500. e2. e2. structures would not have become popular at all.

For this the dot operator is used twice.pin ) . e. e.bolt. struct emp e = { "jeru".city.city Of course. the nesting process need not stop at this level. char city[25] . e.a. Such construction however gives rise to variable names that can be surprisingly self descriptive.. "nagpur". name = jeru phone = 531046 city = nagpur pin = 10 Notice the method used to access the element of a structure that is part of another structure.a. struct address a . We can nest a structure within a structure.phone ) .name. "531046". printf ( "\ncity = %s pin = %d". as in the expression. e.engine.pin or e. Let Us C printf ( "\nname = %s phone = %s". }. } And here is the output. }. till the time we can comprehend the structure ourselves.a.. within another structure. int pin ...large.376 { char phone[15] . for example: maruti. which is in still another structure and so on.qty .a.a. struct emp { char name[25] . e. 10 }.

n ) . int callno . b1.author. display ( b1. . /* Passing individual structure elements */ main( ) { struct book { char name[25] . name and author have been declared as arrays.callno ) . Let us examine both the approaches one by one using suitable programs. struct book b1 = { "Let us C". s.name. char *t.Chapter 10: Structures 377 This clearly signifies that we are referring to the quantity of large sized bolts that fit on an engine of a maruti car. b1. 101 } .. Therefore. b1.callno ) .name. } display ( char *s. (c) Like an ordinary variable. Let us C YPK 101 Observe that in the declaration of the structure. int n ) { printf ( "\n%s %s %d". display ( b1. when we call the function display( ) using. b1.. t.author. We may either pass individual structure elements or the entire structure variable at one go. } And here is the output. "YPK". char author[25] . }. a structure variable can also be passed to a function.

Let us C YPK 101 Note that here the calling of function display( ) becomes quite compact. but the value stored in callno.callno ) . A better way would be to pass the entire structure variable at a time. main( ) { struct book b1 = { "Let us C". int callno . char author[25] . } And here is the output. display ( b1 ) .. b. } display ( struct book b ) { printf ( "\n%s %s %d". b. 101 } . b. Thus.378 Let Us C we are passing the base addresses of the arrays name and author. "YPK".name.. display ( b1 ) . }. struct book { char name[25] . this is a mixed call—a call by reference as well as a call by value. This method is shown in the following program.author. It can be immediately realized that to pass individual elements would become more tedious as the number of structure elements go on increasing. .

int callno . b1. Such pointers are known as ‘structure pointers’. struct book *ptr . printf ( "\n%s %s %d". b1. "YPK".callno ) . ptr->callno ) . We cannot say. because the data type struct book is not known to the function display( ). so that it becomes known to all functions in the program. struct book b1 = { "Let us C". 101 } . Therefore. struct book b1 .Chapter 10: Structures 379 Having collected what is being passed to the display( ) function.callno because ptr is not a structure variable but a pointer to a structure. We can’t use ptr. } The first printf( ) is as usual. (d) The way we can have a pointer pointing to an int. and the dot . b1. how do we define the formal arguments in the function. or a pointer pointing to a char. similarly we can have a pointer pointing to a struct. ptr->name. Let us look at a program that demonstrates the usage of a structure pointer. main( ) { struct book { char name[25] . the question comes. char author[25] .name. it becomes necessary to define the structure type struct book outside main( ). ptr = &b1 . }.name or ptr.author. printf ( "\n%s %s %d". ptr->author. The second printf( ) however is peculiar.

101 } .2 Can we not pass the address of a structure variable to a function? We can. The arrangement of the structure variable and pointer to structure in memory is shown in the Figure 10. there must always be a structure variable. called an arrow operator to refer to the structure elements.’ structure operator. .2. int callno . }. b1.author YPK 65497 ptr 65472 65524 b1.callno 101 65522 Figure 10. /* Passing address of a structure variable */ struct book { char name[25] . display ( &b1 ) . char author[25] . whereas on the left hand side of the ‘->’ operator there must always be a pointer to a structure. The following program demonstrates this.name Let Us C 65472 b1.380 Let Us C operator requires a structure variable on its left. Remember that on the left hand side of the ‘. main( ) { struct book b1 = { "Let us C". "YPK". In such cases C provides an operator ->.

(e) Consider the following code snippet: struct emp { int a . float s . b->name. printf ( "%u %u %u". Let us C YPK 101 Again note that to access the structure elements using pointer to a structure we have to use the ‘->’ operator. If we execute this program using TC/TC++ compiler we get the addresses as: 65518 65520 65521 As expected. char ch .. &e. b->author. the structure struct book should be declared outside main( ) such that this data type is available to display( ) while declaring pointer to the structure.ch.Chapter 10: Structures } display ( struct book *b ) { printf ( "\n%s %s %d".s ) . . } 381 And here is the output. Also. }.a. &e. &e.. b->callno ) . struct emp e . in memory the char begins immediately after the int and float begins immediately after the char.

For this the byte arrangement of the structure elements must match the arrangement of various fields in the boot sector of the disk. . if we run the same program using VC++ compiler then the output turns out to be: 1245044 1245048 1245052 It can be observed from this output that the float doesn’t get stored immediately after the char. For example. The #pragma pack directive offers a way to fulfill this requirement. The following code shows how to use this directive. VC++ compiler does. Hence the VC++ compiler aligns every element of a structure at an address that is multiple of four. suppose we wish to read the contents of the boot sector (first sector on the floppy/hard disk) into a structure. some programs need to exercise precise control over the memory areas where data is placed. VC++ is a 32-bit compiler targeted to generate code for a 32-bit microprocessor. This directive specifies packing alignment for structure members. The pragma takes effect at the first structure declaration after the pragma is seen.382 Let Us C However. which is a multiple of four much faster than the data present at any other address. #pragma pack(1) struct emp { int a . The architecture of this microprocessor is such that it is able to fetch the data that is present at an address. char ch . Let us understand the reason for this. }. That’s the reason why there were three holes created between the char and the float. However. In fact there is a hole of three bytes after the char. float s . Turbo C/C++ compiler doesn’t support this feature.

#pragma pack ( 1 ) lets each structure element to begin on a 1-byte boundary as justified by the output of the program given below: 1245044 1245048 1245049 Uses of Structures Where are structures useful? The immediate application that comes to the mind is Database Management. 383 Here. But mind you.s ) . use of structures stretches much beyond database management. &e. That is. items in a store.Chapter 10: Structures #pragma pack( ) struct emp e .ch.a. &e. &e. to maintain data about employees in an organization. financial accounting transactions in a company etc. books in a library. They can be used for a variety of purposes like: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) Changing the size of the cursor Clearing the contents of the screen Placing the cursor at an appropriate position on screen Drawing any graphics shape on the screen Receiving a key from the keyboard Checking the memory size of the computer Finding out the list of equipment attached to the computer Formatting a floppy Hiding a file from the directory Displaying the directory of a disk Sending the output to printer Interacting with the mouse And that is certainly a very impressive list! At least impressive enough to make you realize how important a data type a structure is and to be thorough with it if you intend to program any of the . printf ( "%u %u %u".

mess1.mess2. m. Summary (a) A structure is usually used when we wish to store dissimilar data together. &m.mess2 ) . Some of these applications would be discussed in Chapters 16 to 19.) operator. (c) Structure elements can be accessed through a pointer to a structure using the arrow (->) operator. char mess1[50] . strcpy ( m.mess1. char mess2[50] .num. m.384 Let Us C above applications. Exercise [A] What would be the output of the following programs: (a) main( ) { struct gospel { int num . "If all that you have is hammer" ) . } . (e) It is possible to pass a structure variable to a function either by value or by address. /* assume that the strucure is located at address 1004 */ printf ( "\n%u %u %u". }m.num = 1 . (b) Structure elements can be accessed through a structure variable using a dot (. m. (f) It is possible to create an array of structures. (d) All elements of one structure variable can be assigned to another structure variable using the assignment (=) operator. strcpy ( m. "Everything looks like a nail" ) .

e. strcpy ( e. m3. char mess1[50] . age ) . m1. } (b) main( ) { struct { char name[25] .name. }. "If you are driven by success". age = 25 . } m1 = { 2. struct employee e . float bs . printf ( "\n%d %s %s".mess2 ) . . int age . printf ( "\n%s %d". m2. "Hacker" ) . } 385 [B] Point out the errors. char mess2[50] .name. main( ) { struct gospel m2. m3 .Chapter 10: Structures (b) struct gospel { int num . if any. m2 = m1 .num. "make sure that it is a quality drive" }.mess1. in the following programs: (a) main( ) { struct employee { char name[25] . m3 = m2 .

55 } . printf ( "\n%s %d".signature. } (d) struct s { char ch . float a . struct employee e = { "Hacker". int i . for ( i = 0 . char status[20] . e. }. 1795 }. } (c) struct virus { char signature[25] . e. i <=1 . v.status ) . v -> a ) . } Let Us C . main( ) { int i . int size . } v[2] = { "Yankee Doodle". 100. v. "C" } .language ) . 1813. i++ ) printf ( "\n%s %s".386 char language[10] . v -> i. } f ( struct s v ) { printf ( "\n%c %d %f". }. 12. "Dark Avenger". "Deadly". v -> ch. "Killer". main( ) { struct s var = { 'C'. g ( &var ) .name. f ( var ) .

All structure elements are stored in contiguous memory locations. struct s *p . an array or a structure? (b) Given the statement. var2 . var1. printf ( "\n%d %d". structure bolts is nested within structure engine structure engine is nested within structure maruti structure maruti is nested within structure engine structure maruti is nested within structure bolts (c) State True or False: 1. v. What would you prefer.ch. v. v.p = &var1 . . var2. 2.i. var2.p -> i ) . 4. which of the following is True? 1.bolts = 25 .p = &var2 .i = 200 .Chapter 10: Structures g ( struct s *v ) { printf ( "\n%c %d %f".a ) . var1. var2. }. 3. } (e) struct s { int i . main( ) { struct s var1. maruti. var1.p -> i.i = 100 . } [C] Answer the following: 387 (a) Ten floats are to be stored in memory.engine.

. (b) Write a function to print the data of a student whose roll number is given. 3. Course. int minutes . struct time *tt . An array should be used to store dissimilar elements.seconds 3. time. tt -> seconds [D] Attempt the following: (a) Create a structure to specify data on students given below: Roll number. Name. but the elements of individual structures are also stored in contiguous locations. In an array of structures. not only are all structures stored in contiguous memory locations. ( *tt ).seconds 2. tt = &t . and a structure to store similar elements. tt. (a) Write a function to print names of all students who joined in a particular year. which of the following refers to seconds correctly: 1.t 4. int seconds . Department. }t. Year of joining Assume that there are not more than 450 students in the collage. Looking at the above declarations. (d) struct time { int hours .388 Let Us C 2.

100. “The balance is insufficient for the specified withdrawal”. (b) If a customer request for withdrawal or deposit. (c) An automobile company has serial number for engine parts starting from AA0 to FF9. (a) Specify a structure to store information corresponding to a part. (f) Write a menu driven program that depicts the working of a library. The menu options should be: . Balance in account. name. date of joining. Create an array of structure to hold records of 20 such cricketer and then write a program to read these records and arrange them in ascending order by average runs. (e) There is a structure called employee that holds information like employee code. 0 for withdrawal) Write a program to give a message. (a) Write a function to print the Account number and name of each customer with balance below Rs. Use the qusort( ) standard library function.Chapter 10: Structures 389 (b) Create a structure to specify data of customers in a bank. Assume maximum of 200 customers in the bank. number of test matches that he has played and the average runs that he has scored in each test match. Then ask the user to enter current date. (b) Write a program to retrieve information on parts with serial numbers between BB1 and CC6. Write a program to create an array of the structure and enter some data into it. The data to be stored is: Account number. it is given in the form: Acct. Display the names of those employees whose tenure is 3 or more than 3 years according to the given current date. no. (d) A record contains name of cricketer. The other characteristics of parts to be specified in a structure are: Year of manufacture. material and quantity manufactured. amount. code (1 for deposit. his age. Name.

The order of the elements is maintained by explicit links between them. 6. a linked list is a collection of elements called nodes. (i) A stack is a data structure in which addition of new element or deletion of existing element always takes place at the same . author name. i. While the elements of an array occupy contiguous memory locations.e. Write a program to build a linked list by adding new nodes at the beginning. (g) Write a program that compares two given dates. 4. price of the book. 2. Add book information Display book information List all books of given author List the title of specified book List the count of books in the library List the books in the order of accession number Exit Let Us C Create a structure called library to hold accession number. month and year. rather like a family dispersed. The individual elements are stored “somewhere” in memory. 7. 3.. If the dates are equal then display message as "Equal" otherwise "Unequal". 5. Thus. those of a linked list are not constrained to be stored in adjacent location. and flag indicating whether book is issued or not. a pointer or an address that indicates explicitly the location of the node containing the successor of this list element.390 1. and a link. (h) Linked list is a very common data structure often used to store similar data in memory. Also write a function display( ) which display all the nodes present in the linked list. To store date use structure say date that contains three members namely date. but still bound together. each of which stores two item of information—an element of the list. title of the book. at the end or in the middle of the linked list.

etc. This situation can be compared to a stack of plates in a cafeteria where every new plate taken off the stack is also from the ‘top’ of the stack. (j) Unlike a stack. recursion. There are several application where stack can be put to use. Write a program to implement a queue using a linked list. This end is often known as ‘top’ of stack. For example. evaluation of expressions.Chapter 10: Structures 391 end. in a queue the addition of new element takes place at the end (called ‘rear’ of queue) whereas deletion takes place at the other end (called ‘front’ of queue). . Write a program to implement a stack using a linked list. keeping track of function calls.

392 Let Us C .

11 Console Input/Output • Types of I/O • Console I/O Functions Formatted Console I/O Functions sprintf( ) and sscanf( ) Functions Unformatted Console I/O Functions • Summary • Exercise 393 .

These libraries are available with all C compilers. The developers of C Compilers do just that. Similarly. and how is it that we were we able to use printf( ) and scanf( ) if C has nothing to offer for I/O? This is what we intend to explore in this chapter. Whichever C compiler you are using it’s almost certain that you have access to a library of I/O functions. A Types of I/O Though C has no provision for I/O.). Dennis Ritchie wanted C to remain compact. Thus. C simply has no provision for receiving data from any of the input devices (like say keyboard. For example. They write several standard I/O functions and put them in libraries. In keeping with this intention he deliberately omitted everything related with Input/Output (I/O) from his definition of the language. disk. disk. Then how do we manage I/O. the standard library function printf( ) for DOS-based C compiler has been written keeping in mind the way DOS outputs characters to screen. Thus. Do understand that the I/O facilities with different operating systems would be different. it of course has to be dealt with at some point or the other. or for sending data to the output devices (like say VDU. the printf( ) function for a Unixbased compiler has been written keeping in mind the way Unix outputs characters to screen. We should just use printf( ) and it would take care of the rest of the . We as programmers do not have to bother about which printf( ) has been written in what manner. etc. Each Operating System has its own facility for inputting and outputting data from and to the files and devices. the way one OS displays output on screen may be different than the way another OS does it. There is not much use writing a program that spends all its time telling itself a secret. It’s a simple matter for a system programmer to write a few small programs that would link the C compiler for particular Operating system’s I/O facilities.394 Let Us C s mentioned in the first chapter.). etc.

Console I/O functions can be further classified into two categories— formatted and unformatted console I/O functions. . how many spaces would be present between the two values. There are numerous library functions available for I/O. For example. if values of average marks and percentage marks are to be displayed on the screen. then the details like where this output would appear on the screen. (b) File I/O functions In this chapter we would be discussing only Console I/O functions. Console I/O Functions The screen and keyboard together are called a console. File I/O functions would be discussed in Chapter 12. Now let us discuss these console I/O functions in detail. . etc. The functions available under each of these two categories are shown in Figure 11.Functions to perform I/O operations on a floppy disk or hard disk. Same is true about all other standard library functions available for I/O. The basic difference between them is that the formatted functions allow the input read from the keyboard or the output displayed on the VDU to be formatted as per our requirements. can be controlled using formatted functions.Functions to receive input from keyboard and write output to VDU.1. These can be classified into three broad categories: (a) Console I/O functions . the number of places after the decimal points.Chapter 11: Console Input/Output 395 details that are OS dependent.

but without having introduced it formally. used it regularly. list of variables ) . and scanf( ) fall under the category of formatted console I/O functions. Well. better late than never. Let us discuss these functions one by one.1 the functions printf( ). printf ( "format string".396 Console Input/Output functions Let Us C Formatted functions Type char Input scanf( ) Output printf( ) Unformatted functions Type char Input getch( ) getche( ) getchar( ) gets( ) Output putch( ) putchar( ) puts( ) int float string scanf( ) scanf( ) scanf( ) printf( ) printf( ) printf( ) int float string Figure 11.1 Formatted Console I/O Functions As can be seen from Figure 11. Its general form looks like this.. The format string can contain: (a) Characters that are simply printed as they are (b) Conversion specifications that begin with a % sign .. We have talked a lot about printf( ). These functions allow us to supply the input in a fixed format and let us obtain the output in the specified form.

So long as it doesn’t come across either a % or a \ it continues to dump the characters that it encounters. } 397 The output of the program would be. For this it examines the format string from left to right. Average = 346 Percentage = 69. the moment \n is met it places the cursor at the beginning of the next line.. In this example. float per = 69. In this example. Format Specifications The %d and %f used in the printf( ) are called format specifiers. . They tell printf( ) to print the value of avg as a decimal integer and the value of per as a float.Chapter 11: Console Input/Output (c) Escape sequences that begin with a \ sign For example. on to the screen. Following is the list of format specifiers that can be used with the printf( ) function. The moment it comes across a conversion specification in the format string it picks up the first variable in the list of variables and prints its value in the specified format. look at the following program: main( ) { int avg = 346 .. the moment %d is met the variable avg is picked up and its value is printed. printf ( "Average = %d\nPercentage = %f". Similarly. This process continues till the end of format string is not reached. avg.200000 How does printf( ) function interpret the contents of the format string. per ) . In this example Average = is dumped on the screen.2 . when an escape sequence is met it takes the appropriate action.

Description Digits specifying field width Decimal point separating field width from precision (precision stands for the number of places after the decimal point) Digits specifying precision Minus sign for left justifying the output in the specified field width dd - Figure 11.398 Let Us C Data type Integer short signed short unsigned long singed long unsigned unsigned hexadecimal unsigned octal Real Character String float double signed character unsigned character Format specifier %d or %I %u %ld %lu %x %o %f %lf %c %c %s Figure 11.2 We can provide following optional specifiers in the format specifications.3 . Specifier dd .

printf ( "\nweight is %4d kg". printf ( "\nweight is %6d kg".5. “print the variable as a decimal integer in a field of 10 columns”. For example. printf ( "\nweight is %-6d kg". If we include the minus sign in format specifier (as in %-10d).Chapter 11: Console Input/Output 399 Now a short explanation about these optional format specifiers.. %10d says. this means left justification is desired and the value will be padded with blanks on the right. weight ) . 5. Here is an example that should make this point clear. weight ) . The field-width specifier tells printf( ) how many columns on screen should be used while printing a value. the value is right justified and is padded with blanks on the left. as the following program demonstrates.. printf ( "\nweight is %d kg". weight ) . Columns 0123456789012345678901234567890 weight is 63 kg weight is 63 kg weight is 63 kg weight is 63 kg weight is 63 kg Specifying the field width can be useful in creating tables of numeric values.0. printf ( "\nweight is %2d kg". weight ) . 13. weight ) . main( ) { printf ( "\n%f %f %f". 133.9 ) . } The output of the program would look like this . . If the value to be printed happens not to fill up the entire field. main( ) { int weight = 63 .

3 The format specifiers could be used even while displaying a string of characters.900000 305.9.0.9.1f %10.0 1200.1f %10.0. } This results into a much better output.500000 133. surname2 ) .3 ) .9 ) .5 133. main( ) { printf ( "\n%10.. printf ( "\n%10.3 ). 305.0.1f %10..900000 3005.400 printf ( "\n%f %f %f". 3005. 305. } Let Us C And here is the output. 13.0 13.. 1200. printf ( "\n%20s%20s".1f %10. firstname1.000000 1200.1f". A better way would be something like this. 01234567890123456789012345678901 5. surname1 ) . char firstname2[ ] = "AjayKumar" . printf ( "\n%20s%20s". .000000 13.9 3005. 3005. the numbers have not been lined up properly and hence are hard to read.9 305.. 5. 5..300000 Even though the numbers have been printed. char surname2[ ] = "Gurubaxani" . The following program would clarify this point: /* Formatting strings with printf( ) */ main( ) { char firstname1[ ] = "Sandy" .5. 1200. char surname1[ ] = "Malya" . firstname2..1f". 133.

A 80-column screen usually has 10 tab stops. main( ) { printf ( "You\tmust\tbe\tcrazy\nto\thate\tthis\tbook" ) . so that the next character is recognized as one having a special meaning. the format %-20s would have left justified the string. Printing a tab takes the cursor to the beginning of next printing zone.. A \t moves the cursor to the next tab stop. called ‘tab’. if cursor is positioned in column 5.. The newline character is an ‘escape sequence’. when inserted in a printf( )’s format string. so called because the backslash symbol (\) is considered as an ‘escape’ character—it causes an escape from the normal interpretation of a string. The following example shows usage of \n and a new escape sequence \t. } . then printing a tab takes it to column 8. the screen is divided into 10 zones of 8 columns each. This helps lining up names of different lengths properly. Escape Sequences We saw earlier how the newline character. Obviously. 012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 Sandy Malya AjayKumar Gurubaxani The format specifier %20s reserves 20 columns for printing a string and then prints the string in these 20 columns with right justification. For example. \n.Chapter 11: Console Input/Output } 401 And here’s the output. In other words. takes the cursor to the beginning of the next line.

Seq. Esc. the statement. \t \r \a \” Purpose Tab Carriage return Alert Double quote Figure 11. \r takes the cursor to the beginning of the line in which it is currently placed..4 shows a complete list of these escape sequences..4 The first few of these escape sequences are more or less selfexplanatory. Form feed advances the computer stationery attached to the printer to the top of the next page. Characters that are ordinarily used as delimiters. \b moves the cursor one position to the left of its current position.. \n \b \f \’ \\ Purpose New line Backspace Form feed Single quote Backslash Esc. Seq. the single quote. \"Let's do it!\"" ) . Figure 11. The tab and newline are probably the most commonly used escape sequences. \a alerts the user by sounding the speaker inside the computer. printf ( "He said. . 1 2 3 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 You must be crazy to hate this book Let Us C The \n character causes a new line to begin following ‘crazy’. double quote.. Thus. but there are others as well. and the backslash can be printed by preceding them with the backslash.402 And here’s the output.

printf( ) uses the specification that we mention and attempts to perform the specified conversion. as in the case we ask printf( ) to print ASCII value of a character using %d. } And here’s the output . only %c for a char.i. only %s for a string and so on.Chapter 11: Console Input/Output will print. Sometimes the result is nonsensical. He said.. a ) . i ) . some sensible. char s[ ] = "hello there !" . as in case when we ask it to print a string using %d.000000 } 125 -9362831782501783000000000000000000000000000. printf ( "\n%c %d %f". and does its best to produce a proper result.. The following program shows a few of these conversions. Sometimes the result is useful. s ) . ch ) . float a = 12. This is not true at all. In fact.000000 .. s. main( ) { char ch = 'z' . printf ( "\n%f %d\n". ch. some weird. int i = 125 . Sometimes the result is disastrous and the entire program blows up. z 122 -9362831782501783000000000000000000000000000.i .55 . a.. printf ( "\n%s %d %f".000000 hello there ! 3280 9362831782501783000000000000000000000000000. printf ( "\n%c %d %f". "Let's do it!" 403 So far we have been describing printf( )’s specification as if we are forced to use only %d for an integer. s. ch.

Note that we are sending addresses of variables (addresses are obtained by using ‘&’ the ‘address of’ operator) to scanf( ) function. &ch ) . sprintf( ) and sscanf( ) Functions The sprintf( ) function works similar to the printf( ) function except for one small difference. or newline(s). scanf( ) allows us to enter data from keyboard that will be formatted in a certain way. this function writes the output to an array of characters. tab(s). &a. Do not include these escape sequences in the format string.550000 0 Let Us C I would leave it to you to analyze the results by yourselves. Instead of sending the output to the screen as printf( ) does.404 12. The following program illustrates this. All the format specifications that we learnt in printf( ) function are applicable to scanf( ) function as well. Let us now turn our attention to scanf( ). &c. For example: scanf ( "%d %f %c". The general form of scanf( ) statement is as follows: scanf ( "format string". list of addresses of variables ) . Some of the conversions you would find are quite sensible. The values that are supplied through the keyboard must be separated by either blank(s). main( ) { . This is necessary because the values received from keyboard must be dropped into variables corresponding to these addresses.

a ) . The counterpart of sprintf( ) is the sscanf( ) function. printf ( "\n%s". You may find it convenient to read in strings from a file and then extract values from a string by using sscanf( ). The usage of sscanf( ) is same as scanf( ). its contents can be displayed on the screen. For openers let us look at those which handle one character at a time. str ) . ch and a on the screen. Unformatted Console I/O Functions There are several standard library functions available under this category—those that can deal with a single character and those that can deal with a string of characters. } 405 In this program the printf( ) prints out the values of i. ch. printf ( "\n%d %c %f". char str[20] . sprintf ( str. whereas sprintf( ) stores these values in the character array str. Once str has been built. i. ch. for some situations the scanf( ) function has one glaring weakness.14 .Chapter 11: Console Input/Output int i = 10 . i. It allows us to read characters from a string and to convert and store them in C variables according to specified formats. except that the first argument is the string from which reading is to take place. float a = 3. a ) . The sscanf( ) function comes in handy for in-memory conversion of characters to values.. char ch = 'A' .. However. you need to hit the Enter key before the function can . "%d %c %f". Since the string str is present in memory what is written into str using sprintf( ) doesn’t get displayed on the screen. In our program this was achieved by the second printf( ) statement. So far for input we have consistently used the scanf( ) function.

As against this getch( ) just returns the character that you typed without echoing it on the screen.. /* will echo the character typed */ printf ( "\nType any character" ) . The difference between getchar( ) and fgetchar( ) is that the former is a macro whereas the latter is a function.406 Let Us C digest what you have typed. The ‘e’ in getche( ) function means it echoes (displays) the character that you typed to the screen. we often want a function that will read a single character the instant it is typed without waiting for the Enter key to be hit. Press any key to continue Type any character B Type any character W Continue Y/N Y . /* will echo character. ch = getche( ) . /* will not echo the character */ printf ( "\nType any character" ) . fgetchar( ) . must be followed by enter key */ } And here is a sample run of this program. getch( ) and getche( ) are two functions which serve this purpose.. These functions return the character that has been most recently typed. getchar( ) works similarly and echo’s the character that you typed on the screen. but unfortunately requires Enter key to be typed following the character that you typed. getch( ) . getchar( ) . printf ( "\nPress any key to continue" ) . However. /* will echo character. must be followed by enter key */ printf ( "\nContinue Y/N" ) . main( ) { char ch . Here is a sample program that illustrates the use of these functions.

gets( ) and puts( ) gets( ) receives a string from the keyboard. putchar ( 'Z' ) . printf ( "%s". .Chapter 11: Console Input/Output 407 putch( ) and putchar( ) form the other side of the coin. main( ) { char name[50] . putchar( ) and fputchar( ) is that they can output only one character at a time. } And here is the output. printf ( "\nEnter name " ) . as the following example illustrates. They print a character on the screen. scanf ( "%s". putch ( 'Z' ) . name ) . The following program illustrates this.. Why is it needed? Because scanf( ) function has some limitations while receiving string of characters. AAAZZZ The limitation of putch( ). putchar ( ch ) ... putch ( ch ) .. main( ) { char ch = 'A' . name ) . fputchar ( ch ) . As far as the working of putch( ) putchar( ) and fputchar( ) is concerned it’s exactly same. fputchar ( 'Z' ) .

It outputs a string to the screen.. The solution to this problem is to use gets( ) function. Here is a program which illustrates the usage of these functions: main( ) { char footballer[40] . it gets a string from the keyboard. puts ( footballer ) . As said earlier. Enter name Jonty Rhodes Jonty Surprised? Where did “Rhodes” go? It never got stored in the array name[ ]. Thus. } Following is the sample output: Enter name . It is terminated when an Enter key is hit. puts ( "Enter name" ) . /* sends base address of array */ puts ( "Happy footballing!" ) . gets( ) gets a newline (\n) terminated string of characters from the keyboard and replaces the \n with a \0. More exactly. because the moment the blank was typed after “Jonty” scanf( ) assumed that the name being entered has ended. spaces and tabs are perfectly acceptable as part of the input string. The result is that there is no way (at least not without a lot of trouble on the programmer’s part) to enter a multi-word string into a single variable (name in this case) using scanf( ). gets ( footballer ) .408 } Let Us C And here is the output.. The puts( ) function works exactly opposite to gets( ) function.

Exercise [A] What would be the output of the following programs: (a) main( ) { char ch . (e) There are several format specifiers and escape sequences available to format input and output. puts( ) can output only one string at a time. Summary (a) There is no keyword available in C for doing input/output. if ( islower ( ch ) ) putchar ( toupper ( ch ) ) . (f) Unformatted console I/O functions work faster since they do not have the overheads of formatting the input or output. If we attempt to print two strings using puts( ). only the first one gets printed. gets( ) can be used to read only one string at a time. (c) There are several functions available for performing console input/output. ch = getchar( ) . unlike scanf( ). (d) The formatted console I/O functions can force the user to receive the input in a fixed format and display the output in a fixed format. (b) All I/O in C is done using standard library functions.Chapter 11: Console Input/Output Jonty Rhodes Happy footballing! Jonty Rhodes 409 Why did we use two puts( ) functions to print “Happy footballing!” and “Jonty Rhodes”? Because. else putchar ( tolower ( ch ) ) . . unlike printf( ). Similarly.

i. } } .3f\t%4s". while ( p[i] != '\0' ) { putch ( p[i] ) . while ( a != '\0' ) { printf ( "%c".5367 . char str[ ] = "Life is like that" . str ) . *a ) . printf ( "\n%4d\t%3. } } [B] Point out the errors. main( ) { int i = 0 . in the following programs: (a) main( ) { int i . i++ . f. a++ . } (c) main( ) { printf ( "More often than \b\b not \rthe person who \ wins is the one who thinks he can!" ) . float f = 2.410 } (b) main( ) { int i = 2 . } Let Us C (d) char p[ ] = "The sixth sick sheikh's sixth ship is sick" . char a[ ] = "Hello" . if any.

3. 12. printf ( "\nDouble Value = %lf". printf ( "\n%s". scanf ( "%d\n". } 411 (d) main( ) { char *mess[5] . dd. yy ) . text ) . mess[i] ) .Chapter 11: Console Input/Output (b) main( ) { double dval . dval ) . printf ( "The date is: %d . &yy ) . i++ ) scanf ( "%s". printf ( "\nEnter day. printf ( "\nInteger Value = %d". i < 5 . . for ( i = 0 .%d". scanf ( "%f".452.%d . ival ) . month and year\n" ) . sprintf ( text. } (e) main( ) { int dd.2f\n%s". mm. &dval ) . yy . &n ) . "%4d\t%2. &dd. scanf ( "%d%*c%d%*c%d". &mm. } (c) main( ) { int ival . "Merry Go Round" ) . } (g) main( ) { char buffer[50] . } (f) main( ) { char text . mm.

&val. printf ( "\n%s". 4. getche ( str ) . buffer ) . which function would you use? 1. gets ( str ) . (b) Which function would you use if a single key were to be received through the keyboard? 1. no. } [C] Answer the following: Let Us C (a) To receive the string "We have got the guts. val. "%4d %2.2lf %s". scanf ( "%s". printf ( "\n%s". no. printf ( "\n%d %lf %s". val. 3. sprintf ( buffer. fgetchar ( str ) . 3. name ) . 4. sscanf ( buffer. double val = 2. 3. &no. scanf( ) gets( ) getche( ) getchar( ) (c) If an integer is to be entered through the keyboard. buffer ) . name ) .34174 . 2. scanf( ) gets( ) getche( ) getchar( ) . name ) . str ) .412 int no = 97. you get the glory!!" in an array char str[100] which of the following functions would you use? 1. 2. 2. 4. char name[10] = "Shweta" . "%d %lf %s".

2. A sample usage of getint( ) is shown below: main( ) { int a . 3. integers and escape sequences Inverted commas. Characters. integers and floats Strings. gets( ) (e) What is the difference between getchar( ). Controls the margins of the program listing Specifies the maximum value of a number Controls the size of type used to print numbers Specifies how many columns will be used to print the number [D] Answer the following: (a) Write down two functions xgets( ) and xputs( ) which work similar to the standard library functions gets( ) and puts( ). (b) Write down a function getint( ). 4. scanf( ) 2. . convert it to an integer number and return the integer to the calling function. 2. fgetchar( ). which would receive a numeric string from the keyboard. 3. getch( ) and getche( )? (f) The format string of a printf( ) function can contain: 1.Chapter 11: Console Input/Output 413 (d) If a character string is to be received through the keyboard which function would work faster? 1. format specifications and escape sequences Character. percentage sign and backslash character (g) A field-width specifier in a printf( ) function: 1. 4.

a ) } Let Us C .414 a = getint( ) . printf ( "you entered %d".

… • A File-copy Program Writing to a File • File Opening Modes • String (line) I/O in Files The Awkward Newline • Record I/O in Files • Text Files and Binary Files • Record I/O Revisited • Database Management • Low Level Disk I/O A Low Level File-copy Program • I/O Under Windows • Summary • Exercise 415 . Spaces. Tabs.12 File Input/Output • Data Organization • File Operations Opening a File Reading from a File Trouble in Opening a File Closing the File • Counting Characters.

Memory is volatile and its contents would be lost once the program is terminated.1 . This is illustrated in Figure 12. This medium is usually a ‘file’ on the disk. Our program C Library functions OS Disk Figure 12. This is because if the data is large. Obviously both these operations would be tedious. only a limited amount of it can be stored in memory and only a limited amount of it can be displayed on the screen. O Data Organization Before we start doing file input/output let us first find out how data is organized on the disk. This chapter discusses how file I/O operations can be performed. However. How this binary data is stored on the disk varies from one OS to another. this does not affect the C programmer since he has to use only the library functions written for the particular OS to be able to perform input/output. It is the compiler vendor’s responsibility to correctly implement these library functions by taking the help of OS. So if we need the same data again it would have to be either entered through the keyboard again or would have to be regenerated programmatically. It would be inappropriate to store this data in memory for one more reason. At such times it becomes necessary to store the data in a manner that can be later retrieved and displayed either in part or in whole. All data stored on the disk is in binary form.1.416 Let Us C ften it is not enough to just display the data on the screen.

while ( 1 ) { ch = fgetc ( fp ) . These are: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Creation of a new file Opening an existing file Reading from a file Writing to a file Moving to a specific location in a file (seeking) Closing a file Let us now write a program to read a file and display its contents on the screen.h" main( ) { FILE *fp . We will first list the program and show what it does.Chapter 12: File Input/Output 417 File Operations There are different operations that can be carried out on a file. and then dissect it line by line. printf ( "%c". */ # include "stdio. Here is the listing… /* Display contents of a file on screen. fp = fopen ( "PR1. } . "r" ) . ch ) . char ch .C". if ( ch == EOF ) break . } fclose ( fp ) .

It would open a file “PR1. it would take a long time to complete the reading operation. It would be more sensible to read the contents of the file into the buffer while opening the file and then read the file character by character from the buffer rather than from the disk. Every time we read something from a disk. . it takes some time for the disk drive to position the read/write head correctly. the drive motor has to actually start rotating the disk from a standstill position every time the disk is accessed. On a floppy disk system. Why do we need a buffer at all? Imagine how inefficient it would be to actually access the disk every time we want to read a character from it. (c) It sets up a character pointer that points to the first character of the buffer. In fact fopen( ) performs three important tasks when you open the file in “r” mode: (a) Firstly it searches on the disk the file to be opened.418 Let Us C On execution of this program it displays the contents of the file ‘PR1. Opening a File Before we can read (or write) information from (to) a file on a disk we must open the file. (b) Then it loads the file from the disk into a place in memory called buffer. This is shown in Figure 12. Let us now understand how it does the same. which tells the C compiler that we would be reading the contents of the file.2.C” in ‘read’ mode. Note that “r” is a string and not a character. hence the double quotes and not single quotes.C’ on the screen. This is where a buffer comes in. If this were to be done for every character we read from the disk. To open the file we have called the function fopen( ).

Since all this information is inter-related. has to be maintained. Instead of writing characters in the file on the disk one character at a time it would be more efficient to write characters in a buffer and then finally transfer the contents from the buffer to the disk. etc. which we have collected in the structure pointer called fp. We have declared fp as FILE *fp .2 Same argument also applies to writing information in a file. . all of it is gathered together by fopen( ) in a structure called FILE.Chapter 12: File Input/Output 419 PR1. fopen( ) returns the address of this structure. To be able to successfully read from a file information like mode of opening. place in the file from where the next read operation would be performed.C Memory 40 DISK Buffer fp 40 Figure 12. size of file.

and returns the character that is read.h”.2). Therefore. The EOF macro has been defined in the file “stdio. when it is created.. the moment we reach the end of file. This has been used in our program as. which we collected in the variable ch. instead of returning the character that it has read. it returns the macro EOF. We have used the function fgetc( ) within an indefinite while loop. Note that once the file has been opened. but through the file pointer fp. whose ASCII value is 26. This pointer is one of the elements of the structure to which fp is pointing (refer Figure 12. . as we have seen. There has to be a way to break out of this while. the file’s contents are brought into buffer (partly or wholly) and a pointer is set up that points to the first character in the buffer. when fgetc( ) encounters this special character.420 Let Us C The FILE structure has been defined in the header file “stdio. signifies end of file. In place of the function fgetc( ) we could have as well used the macro getc( ) with the same effect. advances the pointer position so that it now points to the next character. Reading from a File Once the file has been opened for reading using fopen( ). it is necessary to #include this file. But what is end of file? A special character. When shall we break out. To read the file’s contents from memory there exists a function called fgetc( ). This character is inserted beyond the last character in the file. fgetc( ) reads the character from the current pointer position. we no longer refer to the file by its name. ch = fgetc ( fp ) ..h” (standing for standard input/output header file). While reading from the file.

we close the file.h" main( ) { FILE *fp . if ( fp == NULL ) { puts ( "cannot open file" ) . Once out of the loop. "r" ) .h” as #define NULL 0). fp = fopen ( "PR1. this may happen because the file being opened may not be present on the disk at all. Trouble in Opening a File There is a possibility that when we try to open a file using the function fopen( ). As each character is read we display it on the screen. like. the fopen( ) function returns a value NULL (defined in “stdio. While opening the file in “r” mode. disk space may be insufficient to open a new file. or the disk may be write protected or the disk is damaged and so on.C". Here is how this can be handled in a program. #include "stdio.. while opening the file for writing. exit( ) . the file may not be opened. Crux of the matter is that it is important for any program that accesses disk files to check whether a file has been opened successfully before trying to read or write to the file. And you obviously cannot read a file that doesn’t exist.. Similarly. } } . If the file opening fails due to any of the several reasons mentioned above. fopen( ) may fail due to a number of reasons.Chapter 12: File Input/Output 421 In our program we go on reading each character from the file till end of file is not met.

fclose ( fp ) . In this program we have opened the file for reading. All this buffer management is done for us by the library functions. we need to close it. Let us write a program that will read a file and count how many characters. When we close this file using fclose( ) three operations would be performed: (a) The characters in the buffer would be written to the file on the disk. Tabs. Here is the program… . In such a case the buffer’s contents would be written to the disk the moment it becomes full.422 Closing the File Let Us C When we have finished reading from the file. spaces. Suppose we open a file with an intention to write characters into it. (c) The buffer would be eliminated from memory. When we attempt to write characters into this file using fputc( ) the characters would get written to the buffer. tabs and newlines are present in it. Counting Characters. You can imagine a possibility when the buffer may become full before we close the file. Note that to close the file we don’t use the filename but the file pointer fp. This is done using the function fclose( ) through the statement. Spaces. On closing the file the buffer associated with the file is removed from memory. (b) At the end of file a character with ASCII value 26 would get written. Once we close the file we can no longer read from it using getc( ) unless we reopen the file. This time too a buffer would get associated with it. … Having understood the first file I/O program in detail let us now try our hand at one more.

nob ) . printf ( "\nNumber of characters = %d". if ( ch == '\t' ) not++ . tabs and newlines in a file */ # include "stdio. nob = 0. fp = fopen ( "PR1. if ( ch == '\n' ) nol++ .Chapter 12: File Input/Output /* Count chars. while ( 1 ) { ch = fgetc ( fp ) . not = 0.h" main( ) { FILE *fp . int nol = 0. noc = 0 . } fclose ( fp ) . char ch . spaces. printf ( "\nNumber of tabs = %d". not ) . nol ) . noc++ . noc ) . "r" ) . if ( ch == EOF ) break . if ( ch == ' ' ) nob++ .C". } 423 . printf ( "\nNumber of blanks = %d". printf ( "\nNumber of lines = %d".

. Its counterpart is a function called fputc( ) which writes characters to a file. which I had on my disk. Let us now try a program that needs to open a file for writing. I believe the program is self-explanatory. Number of characters = 125 Number of blanks = 25 Number of tabs = 13 Number of lines = 22 Let Us C The above statistics are true for a file “PR1. As a practical use of these character I/O functions we can copy the contents of one file into another. A File-copy Program We have already used the function fgetc( ) which reads characters from a file. char ch . fs = fopen ( "pr1. You may give any other filename and obtain different results..c". "r" ) . if ( fs == NULL ) { puts ( "Cannot open source file" ) .h" main( ) { FILE *fs. exit( ) . #include "stdio.424 Here is a sample run.C”. character by character. This program takes the contents of a file and copies them into another file.. as demonstrated in the following program. In this program too we have opened the file for reading and then read it character by character. *ft .

following which the while loop terminates. whereas. } while ( 1 ) { ch = fgetc ( fs ) . } fclose ( fs ) . else fputc ( ch. Which file? The file signified by ft. fputc( ) writes to the file. exit( ) . ft ) . fclose ( fs ) . What is new is only the function fputc( ).c". } 425 I hope most of the stuff in the program can be easily understood. The writing process continues till all characters from the source file have been written to the target file. since it has already been dealt with in the earlier section. However. Writing to a File The fputc( ) function is similar to the putch( ) function. putch( ) function always writes to the VDU. if ( ft == NULL ) { puts ( "Cannot open target file" ) . fclose ( ft ) . . if ( ch == EOF ) break . "w" ) .Chapter 12: File Input/Output } ft = fopen ( "pr2. Let us see how it works. in the sense that both output characters.

Operations possible – reading from the file. Returns NULL. . Returns NULL. If the file is opened successfully fopen( ) loads it into memory and sets up a pointer which points to the first character in it. "a" Searches file. "r+" Searches file. “r” is but one of the several modes in which we can open a file. a new file is created. if unable to open the file. If is opened successfully fopen( ) loads it into memory and sets up a pointer which points to the first character in it. if unable to open file. If the file is opened successfully fopen( ) loads it into memory and sets up a pointer that points to the last character in it. its contents are overwritten. a topic that would be dealt with in sufficient detail in a later section. "w" Searches file.426 Let Us C Note that our sample file-copy program is capable of copying only text files.EXE or . Operations possible – writing to the file. Operations possible . If the file doesn’t exist. However. The tasks performed by fopen( ) when a file is opened in each of these modes are also mentioned. a new file is created.adding new contents at the end of file. If the file cannot be opened fopen( ) returns NULL. "r" Searches file. we need to open the files in binary mode. If the file doesn’t exist. File Opening Modes In our first program on disk I/O we have opened the file in read (“r”) mode.COM. if unable to open file. If the file exists. Returns NULL. To copy files with extension . Following is a list of all possible modes in which a file can be opened.

Operations possible . /* Receives strings from keyboard and writes them to file */ #include "stdio. writing new contents. Returns NULL. . If the file exists. If the file doesn’t exist. its contents are overwritten.reading existing contents. Reading or writing strings of characters from and to files is as easy as reading and writing individual characters. Here is a program that writes strings to a file using the function fputs( ). char s[80] . if unable to open file. appending new contents to end of file. modifying existing contents of the file. If the file is opened successfully fopen( ) loads it into memory and sets up a pointer which points to the first character in it.reading existing contents. character I/O is just what is needed. "a+" Searches file. if unable to open file.Chapter 12: File Input/Output 427 Operations possible . a new file is created. However. Cannot modify existing contents. Operations possible . in some situations the usage of functions that read or write entire strings might turn out to be more efficient. String (line) I/O in Files For many purposes. reading them back and modifying existing contents of the file. Returns NULL. "w+" Searches file. If the file doesn’t exist a new file is created.writing new contents.h" main( ) { FILE *fp .

exit( ) . Enter a few lines of text: Shining and bright. while ( strlen ( gets ( s ) ) > 0 ) { fputs ( s. they are forever. Since fputs( ) does not automatically add a newline character to the end of the string. } printf ( "\nEnter a few lines of text:\n" ) .. . This creates a string of zero length.428 fp = fopen ( "POEM. especially yours ! Note that each string is terminated by hitting enter. fp ) . To terminate the execution of the program.. the fputs( ) function then writes the contents of the array to the disk. fputs ( "\n".TXT". more so of memories. hit enter at the beginning of a line. we must do this explicitly to make it easier to read the string back from the file. so true about diamonds. fp ) . which the program recognizes as the signal to close the file and exit. } Let Us C And here is a sample run of the program. We have set up a character array to receive the string. } fclose ( fp ) . Here is a program that reads strings from a disk file. "w" ) . if ( fp == NULL ) { puts ( "Cannot open file" ) .

if ( fp == NULL ) { puts ( "Cannot open file" ) . 79.. This argument prevents fgets( ) from reading in too long a string and overflowing the array.h" main( ) { FILE *fp . Shining and bright. fp ) != NULL ) printf ( "%s" . and the second is the maximum length of the string. fp = fopen ( "POEM. so true about diamonds. is the pointer to the structure FILE. } 429 And here is the output. s ) .TXT". "r" ) . as usual. The third argument. in which case fgets( ) returns a NULL.. fclose ( fp ) . we attempt to read one more line. . char s[80] . The first is the address where the string is stored. } while ( fgets ( s. more so of memories. especially yours ! The function fgets( ) takes three arguments.Chapter 12: File Input/Output /* Reads strings from the file and displays them on screen */ #include "stdio. When all the lines from the file have been read. they are forever. exit( ) .

would be reported to contain 105 characters.\n\0 Thus conversion of \n to \r\n during writing and \r\n conversion to \n during reading is a feature of the standard library functions and not that of the OS.430 The Awkward Newline Let Us C We had earlier written a program that counts the total number of characters present in a file. what if we desire to read/write a combination of characters. If we read the same line back using fgets( ) the reverse conversion happens. This discrepancy occurs because when we attempt to write a “\n” to the file using fputs( ). Here \r stands for carriage return and \n for linefeed. fputs( ) converts the \n to \r\n combination. therefore there is a discrepancy of four characters (105 . the array contains Shining and bright. What if we want to read or write numbers from/to file? Furthermore.\r\n When the same line is read back into the array s[ ] using fgets( ). they are forever. Hence the OS counts \r and \n as separate characters. If we use that program to count the number of characters present in the above poem (stored in the file “POEM.TXT”). it would give us the character count as 101. Thus when we write the first line of the poem and a “\n” using two calls to fputs( ). they are forever. Record I/O in Files So far we have dealt with reading and writing only characters and strings. what gets written to the file is Shining and bright. strings and numbers? For this first we would organize this dissimilar data together in a structure and then use fprintf( ) . The same file if seen in the directory.101). In our poem there are four lines.

exit( ) . fp = fopen ( "EMPLOYEE. e. age and basic salary: " ) .h" main( ) { FILE *fp . printf ( "Add another record (Y/N) " ) . } while ( another == 'Y' ) { printf ( "\nEnter name. }. "w" ) . &e.age.name. e. "%s %d %f\n". scanf ( "%s %d %f". } fclose ( fp ) . struct emp { char name[40] . fflush ( stdin ) . another = getche( ) . char another = 'Y' . /* Writes records to a file using structure */ #include "stdio.Chapter 12: File Input/Output 431 and fscanf( ) library functions to read/write data from/to file.bs ) .bs ) . e.name. Following program illustrates the use of structures for writing records of employees. int age . struct emp e .age. float bs . . if ( fp == NULL ) { puts ( "Cannot open file" ) . e. fprintf ( fp. &e.DAT".

50 Add another record (Y/N) Y Enter name. The procedure ends when the user supplies ‘N’ for the question ‘Add another record (Y/N)’. which means buffer related with standard input device—keyboard. Perhaps you are wondering what for have we used the function fflush( ). by using fprintf( ). Here we have used ‘stdin’. To avoid this problem we use the function fflush( ). age and basic salary: Sunil 34 1250. So when it’s time to supply Y or N for the question ‘Another employee (Y/N)’.50 Add another record (Y/N) Y Enter name. As in printf( ).55 Add another record (Y/N) N In this program we are just reading the data into a structure variable using scanf( ). After supplying data for one employee. The key to this program is the function fprintf( ). age and basic salary: Sameer 21 1300. except that a FILE pointer is included as the first argument. Enter name. getch( ) will read the enter key from the buffer thinking that user has entered the enter key. This function is similar to printf( ). and then dumping it into a disk file using fprintf( ). The reason is to get rid of a peculiarity of scanf( ). age and salary to appropriate variables and keeps the enter key unread in the keyboard buffer. which writes the values in the structure variable to the file. It is designed to remove or ‘flush out’ any data remaining in the buffer.. age and basic salary: Rahul 34 1400. we would hit the enter key. .. we can format the data in a variety of ways.432 } Let Us C And here is the output of the program. The user can input as many records as he desires. In fact all the format conventions of printf( ) function work with fprintf( ) as well. What scanf( ) does is it assigns name. The argument to fflush( ) must be the buffer which we want to flush out.

h" main( ) { FILE *fp .name. fp = fopen ( "EMPLOYEE. "%s %d %f".DAT".. exit( ) . &e. Sunil 34 1250.500000 . float bs . if ( fp == NULL ) { puts ( "Cannot open file" ) . struct emp { char name[40] . "r" ) . /* Read records from a file using structure */ #include "stdio. struct emp e . } And here is the output of the program..age.bs ) != EOF ) printf ( "\n%s %d %f". Here is how it can be done.. e. e. e.age.500000 Sameer 21 1300. int age .name.Chapter 12: File Input/Output 433 Let us now write a program that reads the employee records created by the above program.500000 Rahul 34 1400. }. fclose ( fp ) . &e.bs ) . e. } while ( fscanf ( fp..

fs = fopen ( "pr1. the program cannot copy binary files successfully. A text file contains only textual information like alphabets. "wb" ) . } ft = fopen ( "newpr1. If on opening the file you can make out what is displayed then it is a text file. digits and special symbols. exit( ) .434 Text Files and Binary Files Let Us C All the programs that we wrote in this chapter so far worked on text files.EXE). As against this. or music data stored in a wave file or a picture stored in a graphic file. As mentioned while explaining the file-copy program. #include "stdio.exe". "rb" ) . . otherwise it is a binary file.C. say PR1. This collection might be a compiled version of a C program (say PR1. We can improve the same program to make it capable of copying text as well as binary files as shown below. a binary file is merely a collection of bytes. if ( fs == NULL ) { puts ( "Cannot open source file" ) . A very easy way to find out whether a file is a text file or a binary file is to open that file in Turbo C/C++. A good example of a text file is any C program.exe".h" main( ) { FILE *fs. Some of them would not work correctly on binary files. In actuality the ASCII codes of these characters are stored in text files. *ft . int ch .

fclose ( ft ) . These are: (a) Handling of newlines (b) Representation of end of file (c) Storage of numbers Let us explore these three differences. From the programming angle there are three main areas where text and binary mode files are different. ft ) . else fputc ( ch. Note that here we have opened the source and target files in “rb” and “wb” modes respectively. if ( ch == EOF ) break . but since text mode is the default mode we usually drop the ‘t’.Chapter 12: File Input/Output if ( ft == NULL ) { puts ( "Cannot open target file" ) . } 435 Using this program we can comfortably copy text as well as binary files. } while ( 1 ) { ch = fgetc ( fs ) . . } fclose ( fs ) . exit( ) . fclose ( fs ) . While opening the file in text mode we can use either “r” or “rt”.

if a file is opened in binary mode.436 Text versus Binary Mode: Newlines Let Us C We have already seen that. there is no such special character present in the binary mode files to mark the end of file. whose ASCII value is 26. it is important that binary mode only be used for reading the numbers back. Similarly. Text versus Binary Mode: End of File The second difference between text and binary modes is in the way the end-of-file is detected. The binary mode files keep track of the end of file from the number of characters present in the directory entry of the file. in text mode. since one of the numbers we store might well be the number 26 (hexadecimal 1A). If a file stores numbers in binary mode. . In text mode. Thus the two modes are not compatible. is inserted after the last character in the file to mark the end of file. the carriage return-linefeed combination on the disk is converted back into a newline when the file is read by a C program. reading would be terminated prematurely at that point. See to it that the file that has been written in text mode is read back only in text mode. these conversions will not take place. a newline character is converted into the carriage return-linefeed combination before being written to the disk. a special character. If this character is detected at any point in the file. Likewise. the file that has been written in binary mode must be read back only in binary mode. There is a moral to be derived from the end of file marker of text mode files. As against this. If this number is detected while we are reading the file by opening it in text mode. However. as opposed to text mode. the read function would return the EOF signal to the program.

using text mode may turn out to be inefficient. Hence if large amount of numerical data is to be stored in a disk file. since the file has been opened in text mode. Are numbers stored as they are in memory. writing structures . four bytes for a float. one byte per character. as we would expect. It is important to understand how numerical data is stored on the disk by fprintf( ). Record I/O Revisited The record I/O program that we did in an earlier section has two disadvantages: (a) The numbers (basic salary) would occupy more number of bytes.56 would occupy 7 bytes on disk. by adding address. It means each number would occupy same number of bytes on disk as it occupies in memory. house rent allowance etc. when transferred to the disk using fprintf( ). Thus. Similarly. two bytes for an integer. the floating-point number 1234. Text and characters are stored one character per byte. and so on? No. Thus. This is because when the file is opened in text mode. The solution is to open the file in binary mode and use those functions (fread( ) and fwrite( ) which are discussed later) which store the numbers in binary format.Chapter 12: File Input/Output Text versus Binary Mode: Storage of Numbers 437 The only function that is available for storing numbers in a disk file is the fprintf( ) function. (b) If the number of fields in the structure increase (say. even though it occupies two bytes in memory. each number is stored as a character string. 1234. would occupy four bytes. numbers with more digits would require more disk space. Numbers are stored as strings of characters.).

&e.age. struct emp { char name[40] . Let us now see a more efficient way of reading/writing records (structures). fp ) . float bs . This makes use of two functions fread( ) and fwrite( ).name. scanf ( "%s %d %f". fwrite ( &e. first one would write records to the file and the second would read these records from the file and display them on the screen. /* Receives records from keyboard and writes them to a file in binary mode */ #include "stdio. int age . e. printf ( "Add another record (Y/N) " ) . We will write two programs.DAT". sizeof ( e ).bs ) . &e. becomes quite clumsy. "wb" ) . } while ( another == 'Y' ) { printf ( "\nEnter name.438 Let Us C using fprintf( ). age and basic salary: " ) . or reading them using fscanf( ). exit( ) . }. struct emp e . char another = 'Y' . if ( fp == NULL ) { puts ( "Cannot open file" ) . fp = fopen ( "EMP. . 1.h" main( ) { FILE *fp .

Note.50 Add another record (Y/N) Y Enter name. The information obtained from the keyboard about the employee is placed in the structure variable e. that the file “EMP. This keeps the program unchanged in event of change in the elements of the structure. Instead of counting the bytes occupied by the structure ourselves.DAT” has now been opened in binary mode. Enter name. age and basic salary: Ranjan 21 1300.70 Add another record (Y/N) N Most of this program is similar to the one that we wrote earlier. age and basic salary: Harish 28 1400. which used fprintf( ) instead of fwrite( ).60 Add another record (Y/N) Y Enter name. } 439 And here is the output. The second argument is the size of the structure in bytes. however. we let the program do it for us by using the sizeof( ) operator. The sizeof( ) operator gives the size of the variable in bytes. another = getche( ) . . the first argument is the address of the structure to be written to the disk.Chapter 12: File Input/Output fflush ( stdin ) . age and basic salary: Suresh 24 1250. 1.. the following statement writes the structure to the file: fwrite ( &e. Here. sizeof ( e ). fp ) .. Then. } fclose ( fp ) .

we might have wanted to write the entire array at once. Had we had an array of structures. for example. sizeof ( e ). In this case. int age .DAT". } . The last argument is the pointer to the file we want to write to. 1.440 Let Us C The third argument is the number of such structures that we want to write at one time.bs ) . fclose ( fp ) . } while ( fread ( &e. Now. e. e.h" main( ) { FILE *fp . float bs . /* Reads records from binary file and displays them on VDU */ #include "stdio.age.name. "rb" ) . let us write a program to read back the records written to the disk by the previous program. we want to write only one structure at a time. struct emp { char name[40] . fp = fopen ( "EMP. exit( ) . }. fp ) == 1 ) printf ( "\n%s %d %f". if ( fp == NULL ) { puts ( "Cannot open file" ) . e. struct emp e .

Modify. List and Delete records. the operations that are imperative in any database management. we know when to stop reading. this should correspond to the third argument.Chapter 12: File Input/Output 441 Here. the format of fread( ) and fwrite( ) remains same. As you can now appreciate. first we must ask the user which record he intends to modify. since fread( ) cannot read anything. much in the same way you would add new records in a register manually. Naturally. Following comments would help you in understanding the program easily: − Addition of records must always take place at the end of existing records in the file.. we will have to combine all that we have learnt in a proper manner to make sense. it returns a 0. the fread( ) function causes the data read from the disk to be placed in the structure variable e. If we have reached the end of file. There is a provision to Add. However.. any database management application in C must make use of fread( ) and fwrite( ) functions. While modifying records. Ordinarily. By testing for this situation. Listing records means displaying the existing records on the screen. since they store numbers more efficiently. I have attempted to do this in the following menu driven program. Instead of asking the record − − . in any serious database management application. the number of records we asked for. Database Management So far we have learnt record I/O in bits and pieces. and make writing/reading of structures quite easy. Note that even if the number of elements belonging to the structure increases. records should be listed from first record to last record. The function fread( ) returns the number of records read. The format of fread( ) is same as that of fwrite( ). 1 in this case.

and if this fails (the first time you run this program it would certainly fail. because that time the file is not existing). int age . Note that the file is being opened only once and closed only once. It is imperative that the file should be opened in binary mode. struct emp { char name[40] . float bs . rest of the records must first be written to a temporary file. The parameters passed to gotoxy( ) are column number followed by row number. which is quite logical. for writing and reading. the existing record gets overwritten by the new record. *ft . }. . clrscr( ) function clears the contents of the screen and gotoxy( ) places the cursor at appropriate position on the screen. it would be more meaningful to ask for the name of the employee whose record is to be modified.442 Let Us C number to be modified.h" main( ) { FILE *fp. /* A menu-driven program for elementary database management */ #include "stdio. choice . char another. and the temporary file must be renamed back to original. Observe carefully the way the file has been opened. then the original file must be deleted. first for reading & writing. − − − Given below is the complete listing of the program. On modifying the record. except for the record to be deleted. − In deleting records.

Exit" ) . printf ( "2. gotoxy ( 30. while ( 1 ) { clrscr( ) . fflush ( stdin ) . 10 ) . gotoxy ( 30. gotoxy ( 30. List Records" ) . long int recsize . if ( fp == NULL ) { puts ( "Cannot open file" ) . printf ( "Your choice" ) . char empname[40] . gotoxy ( 30. printf ( "1. exit( ) . "rb+" ) .Chapter 12: File Input/Output struct emp e . } } recsize = sizeof ( e ) . 16 ) . 443 . "wb+" ) . 12 ) . 20 ) . printf ( "0.DAT". gotoxy ( 30. if ( fp == NULL ) { fp = fopen ( "EMP. printf ( "4. choice = getche( ) . fp = fopen ( "EMP. gotoxy ( 30. Add Records" ) . 18 ) . Delete Records" ) . printf ( "3. Modify Records" ) .DAT". 14 ) .

e. 1. 1. empname ) . scanf ( "%s %d %f". age and basic sal.age. while ( fread ( &e. &e.444 switch ( choice ) { case '1' : fseek ( fp. rewind ( fp ) . &e. 0 . e. break . Let Us C while ( another == 'Y' ) { printf ( "\nEnter name. e. fflush ( stdin ) . case '2' : rewind ( fp ) . fp ) . while ( another == 'Y' ) { printf ( "\nEnter name of employee to modify " ) . } break .name. SEEK_END ) . e. fp ) == 1 ) printf ( "\n%s %d %f". " ) .age. recsize. recsize. fp ) == 1 ) .bs ) . another = 'Y' . while ( fread ( &e.bs ) . case '3' : another = 'Y' . 1. fwrite ( &e.name. another = getche( ) . recsize. scanf ( "%s". printf ( "\nAdd another Record (Y/N) " ) .

age & bs" ) .DAT". while ( fread ( &e. fwrite ( &e. ft ) .bs ) . fseek ( fp. empname ) == 0 ) { printf ( "\nEnter new name.name. empname ) . 1. fp ) == 1 ) { if ( strcmp ( e. } } printf ( "\nModify another Record (Y/N) " ) .name. &e. while ( another == 'Y' ) { printf ( "\nEnter name of employee to delete " ) . "wb" ) . empname ) != 0 ) fwrite ( &e.name. recsize. fp ) . 1. scanf ( "%s %d %f". } fclose ( fp ) . SEEK_CUR ) . . . break . fclose ( ft ) . recsize. 1. another = getche( ) . &e. scanf ( "%s".recsize.Chapter 12: File Input/Output { 445 if ( strcmp ( e. recsize. e. ft = fopen ( "TEMP. } break .age. rewind ( fp ) . case '4' : another = 'Y' . fflush ( stdin ) .

DAT". "EMP. On opening a file a pointer is set up which points to the first record in the file. The rewind( ) function places the pointer to the beginning of the file. On closing a file the pointer is deactivated. the pointer moves to the beginning of the next record. to move the pointer to the previous record from its current position. case '0' : fclose ( fp ) . The fseek( ) function lets us move the pointer from one record to another.DAT" ) . "rb+" ) . irrespective of where it is present right now. . fflush ( stdin ) .DAT". exit( ) .DAT" ) . you need to be familiar with the concept of pointers.446 remove ( "EMP. To be precise this pointer is present in the structure to which the file pointer returned by fopen( ) points to. } break . A pointer is initiated whenever we open a file. rename ( "TEMP. fwrite( ) always writes the record where the pointer is currently placed. Similarly. printf ( "Delete another Record (Y/N) " ) . another = getche( ) . fp = fopen ( "EMP. On using the functions fread( ) or fwrite( ). Note that the pointer movement is of utmost importance since fread( ) always reads that record where the pointer is currently placed. we used the function. } } } Let Us C To understand how this program works. In the program above.

SEEK_CUR or SEEK_SET. 0. data cannot be written as individual characters. SEEK_CUR is a macro defined in “stdio. or as strings or as formatted data. -recsize moves the pointer back by recsize bytes from the current position. -recsize. A sample call to ftell( ) is shown below: position = ftell ( fp ) . There is only one way data can be written or read in low level disk I/O functions—as a buffer full of bytes. SEEK_END means move the pointer from the end of the file. the following fseek( ) would place the pointer beyond the last record in the file. The value returned by ftell( ) can be used in subsequent calls to fseek( ). Similarly. If we wish to know where the pointer is positioned right now. All these act as a reference from which the pointer should be offset. It returns this position as a long int which is an offset from the beginning of the file. . where position is a long int. 447 Here. Low Level Disk I/O In low level disk I/O. fseek ( fp.Chapter 12: File Input/Output fseek ( fp.h”. we can use the function ftell( ). SEEK_CUR means move the pointer with reference to its current position and SEEK_SET means move the pointer with reference to the beginning of the file. SEEK_CUR ) . SEEK_END ) . In fact -recsize or 0 are just the offsets that tell the compiler by how many bytes should the pointer be moved from a particular position. The third argument could be SEEK_END.

Here is a program which shows how this can be done.com and . rather than being invisible as in high level disk I/O functions. unlike fwrite( ). /* File-copy program which copies text. Instead of performing the I/O on a character by character basis we can read a chunk of bytes from the source file and then write this chunk into the target file.exe files */ #include "fcntl. While doing so the chunk would be read into the buffer and would be written to the file from the buffer. In that program we had read the file character by character using fgetc( ). However. Let us now write a program that uses low level disk input/output functions.h" #include "types. A Low Level File-copy Program Earlier we had written a program to copy the contents of one file to another. rather than relying on the library functions to do so. place the appropriate values in it before writing. they are more efficient than the high level disk I/O functions.448 Let Us C Writing a buffer full of data resembles the fwrite( ) function. low level I/O functions operate faster than their high level counterparts. This is what is low-level about this program. the buffer in the low level I/O functions is very much a part of the program. (b) Since there are fewer layers of routines to go through. Thus. and take them out after writing. Low level disk I/O functions offer following advantages: (a) Since these functions parallel the methods that the OS uses to write to the disk. .h" /* if present in sys directory use . While doing so we would manage the buffer ourselves. the programmer must set up the buffer for the data. Each character that was read was written into the target file using fputc( ).

} printf ( "\nEnter target file name" ) . bytes ) . printf ( "\nEnter source file name" ) . int inhandle. O_RDONLY | O_BINARY ) .h" */ #include "stat. if ( inhandle == -1 ) { puts ( "Cannot open file" ) . buffer. S_IWRITE ) . else 449 . outhandle. close ( inhandle ) . gets ( target ) . target [ 128 ] . 512 ) .Chapter 12: File Input/Output "c:tc\\include\\sys\\types. exit( ) . inhandle = open ( source. if ( bytes > 0 ) write ( outhandle. if ( inhandle == -1 ) { puts ( "Cannot open file" ) . } while ( 1 ) { bytes = read ( inhandle. O_CREAT | O_BINARY | O_WRONLY. gets ( source ) . source [ 128 ]. outhandle = open ( target. bytes . exit( ) .h" /* if present in sys directory use "c:\\tc\\include\\sys\\stat. buffer. char *argv[ ] ) { char buffer[ 512 ].h" */ main ( int argc.

} close ( inhandle ) . } Let Us C Declaring the Buffer The first difference that you will notice in this program is that we declare a character buffer. the file must be opened before we can access it. we have to supply to open( ). close ( outhandle ) . This is done using the statement. This is the buffer in which the data read from the disk will be placed. O_RDONLY | O_BINARY ) . Opening a File We have opened two files in our program. The possible file opening modes are given below: O_APPEND . We open the file for the same reason as we did earlier—to establish communication with operating system about the file. As usual. char buffer[512] . inhandle = open ( source. Depending on the operating system.450 break . The size of this buffer is important for efficient operation. one is the source file from which we read the information.Opens a file for appending . As in high level disk I/O. and the other is the target file into which we write the information read from the source file. buffers of certain sizes are handled more efficiently than others. the filename and the mode in which we want to open the file.

Writing to the file permitted . and since we want to write to the file and not read from it.Creates a file in binary mode .Creates a file in text mode These ‘O-flags’ are defined in the file “fcntl. So this file must be included in the program while usng low level disk I/O. Note that since the target file is not existing when it is being opened we have used the O_CREAT flag.Creates a file for both reading and writing . another argument must be added to open( ) function to indicate the read/write status of the file to be created.h”. This argument is called ‘permission argument’. And finally. Whenever O_CREAT flag is used.Creates a new file for writing (has no effect if file already exists) .Creates a file for writing only .Chapter 12: File Input/Output O_CREAT O_RDONLY O_RDWR O_WRONLY O_BINARY O_TEXT 451 . therefore we have used O_WRONLY.Creates a new file for reading only . Chapter 14 discusses bitwise operators in detail. Permission arguments could be any of the following: S_IWRITE S_IREAD . The other statement used in our program to open the file is. Note that the file “stdio. When two or more O-flags are used together.h” is not necessary for low level disk I/O. O_CREAT | O_BINARY | O_WRONLY.Reading from the file permitted . since we want to open the file in binary mode we have used O_BINARY. S_IWRITE ) . they are combined using the bitwise OR operator ( | ). outhandle = open ( target.

Interaction between Buffer and File The following statement reads the file or as much of it as will fit into the buffer: bytes = read ( inhandle. This is an important number. The read( ) function takes three arguments. The variable bytes therefore is used to tell write( ). the second is the address of the buffer and the third is the maximum number of bytes we want to read. This value will be equal to the buffer size (512 bytes) until the end of file. we must use both the read( ) and the write( ) functions in a while loop. in low level disk I/O. The read( ) function returns the number of bytes actually read. and we will need to know just how full the buffer is before we can do anything with its contents. it means that the file couldn’t be successfully opened. as to how many bytes to write from the buffer to the target file. . buffer.h” must be #included in the program alongwith “fcntl. since it may very well be less than the buffer size (512 bytes). The read( ) function returns the number of bytes actually read. when the buffer will only be partially full.452 Let Us C To use these permissions. both the files “types. This is a number assigned to a particular file. which is used thereafter to refer to the file. open( ) returns an integer value called ‘file handle’. If open( ) returns a value of -1. The first argument is the file handle.h”. For copying the file. This is assigned to the variable bytes. File Handles Instead of returning a FILE pointer as fopen( ) did. 512 ) .h” and “stat. In our program we have assigned this number to the variable bytes.

I/O Under Windows As said earlier I/O in C is carried out using functions present in the library that comes with the C compiler targeted for a specific OS. fread( ). (c) File I/O is done using a buffer to improve the efficiency. sscanf( ) work exactly same under Windows as well. To avoid such situations Windows has completely abandoned console I/O functions. (e) Library functions convert \n to \r\n or vice versa while writing/reading to/from a file. reading from a file. still functions like fprintf( ). writing to a file. Hence there is a possibility that what is written by one application to the console may get overwritten by the output sent by another application to the console. (b) Different operations that can be performed on a file are— creation of a new file. Though under Windows console I/O functions are not used. fwrite( ). It uses a separate mechanism to send output to a window representing an application. Summary (a) File I/O can be performed on a character by character basis.Chapter 12: File Input/Output 453 Note that when large buffers are used they must be made global variables otherwise stack overflow occurs. moving to a specific location in a file (seeking) and closing a file. (d) A file can be a text file or a binary file depending upon its contents. . opening an existing file. a line by line basis. The details of this mechanism are discussed in Chapter 17. a record by record basis or a chunk by chunk basis. Windows permits several applications to use the same screen simultaneously. sprintf( ). fscanf( ).

} while ( ( c = getc ( fp ) ) != EOF ) putch ( c ) . "r" ) . Exercise [A] Point out the errors. thereby using more space on disk. FILE **f ) { *f = fopen ( fn. if ( fp == null ) { puts ( "Cannot open file" ) . fclose ( fp ) . This can be avoided using functions fread( ) and fwrite( ).h" main( ) { FILE *fp . exit( ) . in the following programs: (a) #include "stdio.454 Let Us C (f) Many library functions convert a number to a numeric string before writing it to a file. char c .h" main( ) { FILE *fp . (g) In low level file I/O we can do the buffer management ourselves. fp = fopen ( "TRY. } (b) #include "stdio. fp ) . if any. if ( fp == NULL ) printf ( "Unable to open file…" ) . . } openfile ( char *fn.C" ."r") .txt". openfile ( "Myfile.

ch ) . fp ) != EOF ) fputs ( str ) . FILE *fp .C". int age . char str[80] . "r" ) . fp = fopen ( "TRY. fp = fopen ( "trial". FILE *fp . if ( fp == NULL ) printf ( "\nUnable to open file. fp = fopen ( fname. fclose ( fp ) ." ) . char name[25] . "tr" ) . fp = fopen ( "YOURS".. } (e) #include "stdio. } (f) main( ) { FILE *fp . fclose ( fp ) .h" { unsigned char . . 80. while ( fgets ( str. "r" ) .. while ( ( ch = getc ( fp ) ) != EOF ) printf ( "%c".Chapter 12: File Input/Output } (c) main( ) { char fname[ ] = "c:\\students.dat" . } 455 (d) main( ) { FILE *fp . "r" ) .

int i . "r" ) . char name[20] = "Ajay" . fp ) . for ( i = 0 . fp = open ( "pr22. name. close ( fp ) . } (g) main( ) { FILE *fp . i <= 10 . int i . 1. fp = fopen ( "students.456 while ( fscanf ( fp. Let Us C .c". 1. sizeof ( name ). fwrite ( name. fp = fopen ( "students. "%s %d". i <= 10 . fp ) . for ( i = 0 . "r" ) . } close ( fp ) .c".h" main( ) { int fp .c" . "wb" ) . size of ( name ). i++ ) fwrite ( name. else close ( fp ) . } (h) main( ) { FILE *fp . char names[20] . if ( fp == -1 ) puts ( "cannot open file" ) . i++ ) { puts ( "\nEnter name " ) . } (i) #include "fcntl. gets ( name ) . &age ) != NULL ) fclose ( fp ) .

4. . if ( fp == -1 ) puts ( "cannot open file" ) . If a file is opened for reading it is necessary that the file must exist. stdlib. else close ( fp ) . 2. The disadvantage of High Level Disk I/O functions is that the programmer has to manage the buffers.Chapter 12: File Input/Output } (j) main( ) { int fp . fp = fopen ( "students.c". I am a boy\r\n\0 I am a boy\r\0 I am a boy\n\0 I am a boy (c) State True or False: 1. 4. 3. If a file opened for writing already exists its contents would be overwritten.c io. READ | BINARY ) .h stdio. } 457 [B] Answer the following: (a) The macro FILE is defined in which of the following files: 1. 3.h (b) If a file contains the line “I am a boy\r\n” then on reading this line into the array str[ ] using fgets( ) what would str[ ] contain? 1. 3. 2.h stdio. 2.

The disk is searched for existence of the file. − − ‘myfile. fp = fopen ( "myfile. 4. For opening a file in append mode it is necessary that the file should exist. what happens if.c’. 3.458 Let Us C 4. what happens if. ‘myfile.c’ exists on the disk (j) A floating-point array contains percentage marks obtained by students in an examination. (d) On opening a file for reading which of the following activities are performed: 1.c". (g) While using the statement. To store these marks in a file ‘marks. fp = fopen ( "myfile. "r" ) . The file is brought into memory. All the above. (e) Is it necessary that a file created in text mode must always be opened in text mode for subsequent operations? (f) State True or False: A file opened in binary mode and read using fgetc( ) would report the same number of characters in the file as reported by DOS’s DIR command.c’ exists on the disk (h) What is the purpose of the library function fflush( )? (i) While using the statement.c". 2. A pointer is set up which points to the first character in the file. in which mode would you open the file and why? .c’ does not exist on the disk ‘myfile. − − ‘myfile.c’ does not exist on the disk. "wb" ) .

(e) Write a program to copy one file to another. When a key is hit.Chapter 12: File Input/Output [C] Attempt the following: 459 (a) Write a program to read a file and display contents with its line numbers. the next page’s contents should be displayed.. If one file has less number of lines than the other. Display the name of the file whose contents are being displayed. Make following provisions: Display the contents inside a box drawn with opposite corner co-ordinates being ( 0. Write a program to read these records and display them in sorted order by name. and so on till the end of file. and the page numbers in the zeroth row. (g) Write a program to display the contents of a text file on the screen. While doing so replace all lowercase characters to their equivalent uppercase characters. the remaining lines from the larger file should be simply copied into the target file. 23 ). 1 ) and ( 79. (d) Suppose a file contains student’s records with each record containing name and age of a student. The moment one screenful of file has been displayed.’ in 24th row. (h) Write a program to encrypt/decrypt a file using: . (c) Write a program to add the contents of one file at the end of another. flash a message ‘Press any key. (b) Write a program to find the size of a text file without traversing it character by character. (f) Write a program that merges lines alternately from two files and writes the results to new file..

and then writing the new character to the target file. }. char trans_type . .DAT’ there are 100 records with the following structure: struct customer { int accno . if character read from the source file is ‘A’. For example. then a ‘!’ would be written to the target file in place of every ‘A’ Similarly. then convert this into a new character by offsetting ‘A’ by a fixed value. char name[30] . For example.460 Let Us C (1) An offset cipher: In an offset cipher each character from the source file is offset with a fixed value and then written to the target file. and if we have decided that every ‘A’ is to be substituted by ‘!’. (2) A substitution cipher: In this each character read from the source file is substituted by a corresponding predetermined character and this character is written to the target file. (i) In the file ‘CUSTOMER. say 128. every ‘B’ would be substituted by ‘5’ and so on. if character ‘A’ is read from the source file.DAT’ there are several records with the following structure: struct trans { int accno . float balance . In another file ‘TRANSACTIONS.

e. i. float salary . struct date join_date . m. 461 The parameter trans_type contains D/W indicating deposit or withdrawal of amount. i. (j) There are 100 records present in a file with the following structure: struct date { int d. }. y .e. (k) A hospital keeps a file of blood donors in which each record has the format: Name: 20 Columns Address: 40 Columns . at least 100 Rs. }. if trans_type is ‘W’ then subtract the amount from balance. if the trans_type is ‘D’ then update the balance of ‘CUSTOMER. Similarly.DAT’ file. }. Should remain in the account. char empname[20] . Write a program to read these records.Chapter 12: File Input/Output float amount . arrange them in ascending order of join_date and write them in to a target file. However. struct employee { int empcode[6] . while subtracting the amount make sure that the amount should not get overdrawn. Write a program to update ‘CUSTOMER.DAT’ by adding amount to balance for the corresponding accno.

write a program to create another text file deleting the words “a”. If more employees join. delete the record by making gross salary 0. Roll no. 3 or 4) Let Us C Write a program to read the file and print a list of all blood donors whose age is below 25 and blood is type 2. (l) Given a list of names of students in a class. 2. Make a provision to display the nth name in the list (n is data to be read) and to display all names starting with S. sex. The updated file should also be in ascending order by roll numbers. Write a program to implement the above operations. (n) In a small firm employee numbers are given in serial numerical order. write a program to store the names in a file on disk. 2. A Transaction file contains the roll numbers and an appropriate code to add or delete a student. gross salary. If some employee’s gross salary increases. Assume that the Master file and the Transaction file are arranged in ascending order by roll numbers. (m) Assume that a Master file contains two fields. At the end of the year. If an employee with serial number 25 (say) leaves. retrieve the record and update the salary. (o) Given a text file. append their data to the file. etc. . − − − − Create a file of employee data with following information: employee number. 3.462 Age: 2 Columns Blood Type: 1 Column (Type 1. and name of the student. Write a program to create another file that contains the updated list of names and roll numbers. “the”. that is 1. “an” and replacing each one of them with a blank space. name. a set of students join the class and another set leaves.

empno.TXT” consisting of a maximum of 50 lines of text. sort the words in alphabetical order and display them one word per line.DAT with the following record structure: struct employee { int empno . char name[30] . It is intended to check whether there are missing employee numbers. comma or a full-stop followed by one or more spaces or a newline character. grade . Assume that the end of a word may be a space. Records are entered into the data file in ascending order of employee number. Every employee has a unique empno and there are supposed to be no gaps between employee numbers. Count and display the number of words contained in the file. int basic. Output format should be: Total Number of words in the list is _______ Alphabetical listing of words is: ----------- . (q) Write a program to carry out the following: − − − To read a text file “TRIAL. each line with a maximum of 80 characters. Write a program segment to read the data file records sequentially and display the list of missing employee numbers.Chapter 12: File Input/Output 463 (p) You are given a data file EMPLOYEE. (r) Write a program to read a list of words. }. Also give the total number of words in the list. Display the total number of four letter words in the text file.

(t) Write a C program to read a large text file ‘NOTES. introducing page breaks at the end of every 50 lines and a pause message on the screen at the end of every page for the user to change the paper. Input: INDIA IS MY COUNTRY Output: AIDNI SI YM YRTNUOC Assume that each word length is maximum of 10 characters and each word is separated by newline/blank characters.TXT’ (b) Print each word in reverse order Example. (s) Write a program to carry out the following: (a) Read a text file ‘INPUT.TXT’ and print it on the printer in cut-sheets.464 ------ Let Us C Assume the end of the list is indicated by ZZZZZZ and there are maximum in 25 words in the Text file. .

13 More Issues In Input/Output • • • • Using argc and argv Detecting Errors in Reading/Writing Standard I/O Devices I/O Redirection Redirecting the Output Redirecting the Input Both Ways at Once • Summary • Exercise 465 .

Under Unix this is not required since in Unix every time we compile a program we always get an executable file. PR1. In MS-DOS. The second improvement is possible by passing the source filename and target filename to the function main( ).466 Let Us C n Chapters 11 and 12 we saw how Console I/O and File I/O are done in C. the executable file (the one which can be executed at command prompt and has an extension . There are still some more issues related with input/output that remain to be understood. The first improvement is simple. This is illustrated below: .EXE) can be created in Turbo C/C++ by using the key F9 to compile the program.C is the target filename. in the form: filecopy PR1. and then execute it. It means the program must be executable at command prompt (A> or C> if you are using MS-DOS. This program can be improved in two ways: (a) There should be no need to compile the program every time to use the file-copy utility. Start | Run dialog if you are using Windows and $ prompt if you are using Unix). we must be able to supply them at command prompt. I Using argc and argv To execute the file-copy programs that we saw in Chapter 12 we are required to first type the program. These issues help in making the I/O operations more elegant. In VC++ compiler under Windows same can be done by using F7 to compile the program. compile it. (b) Instead of the program prompting us to enter the source and target filenames.C is the source filename and PR2.C PR2.C where.

} fs = fopen ( argv[1]. *ft . } while ( 1 ) { ch = fgetc ( fs ) . fclose ( fs ) . ft ) . if ( argc != 3 ) { puts ( "Improper number of arguments" ) . "r" ) . "w" ) . exit( ) . exit( ) . else fputc ( ch. } ft = fopen ( argv[2]. if ( fs == NULL ) { puts ( "Cannot open source file" ) . char *argv[ ] ) { FILE *fs.Chapter 13: More Issues In Input/Output #include "stdio.h" main ( int argc. if ( ft == NULL ) { puts ( "Cannot open target file" ) . } 467 . char ch . exit( ) . if ( ch == EOF ) break .

C then. The argument argc is set to the number of strings given on the command line.C” Whenever we pass arguments to main( ). it is a good habit to check whether the correct number of arguments have been passed on to main( ) or not. if at the command prompt we give.C” argv[2] would contain base address of the string “PR2. traditionally named as argc and argv. address of the second string is stored in argv[1] and so on. In our program this has been done through. exit( ) .C PR2. if ( argc != 3 ) { printf ( "Improper number of arguments" ) . For example. More precisely. fclose ( ft ) . When the program is executed. } Let Us C The arguments that we pass on to main( ) at the command prompt are called command line arguments. the strings at the command line are stored in memory and address of the first string is stored in argv[0]. } . argc would contain 3 argv[0] would contain base address of the string “filecopy” argv[1] would contain base address of the string “PR1. filecopy PR1. argv is an array of pointers to strings and argc is an int whose value is equal to the number of strings to which argv points. Out of these. the strings on the command line are passed to main( ). The function main( ) can have two arguments.468 fclose ( fs ) . in our sample program.

It can be executed at command prompt. When the end of file is reached feof( ) returns a non-zero . first fgetc ( fs ) gets the character from the file. (b) We are able to pass source file name and target file name to main( ). Remember that it is necessary to put the expression ch = fgetc ( fs ) within a pair of parentheses. so that first the character read is assigned to variable ch and then it is compared with EOF. ft ) .Chapter 13: More Issues In Input/Output 469 Rest of the program is same as the earlier file-copy program. feof( ) is a macro which returns a 0 if end of file is not reached. One final comment. This program is better than the earlier file-copy program on two counts: (a) There is no need to recompile the program every time we want to use this utility.. This avoids the usage of an indefinite loop and a break statement to come out of this loop. ft ) . } Here.. It is shown below: while ( !feof ( fs ) ) { ch = fgetc ( fs ) . and utilize them in main( ). as shown below: while ( ( ch = fgetc ( fs ) ) != EOF ) fputc ( ch. and then ch is compared against EOF. fputc ( ch. the while loop that we have used in our program can be written in a more compact form. Here. assigns it to the variable ch. Hence we use the ! operator to negate this 0 to the truth value. There is one more way of writing the while loop.

while ( !feof ( fp ) ) { ch = fgetc ( fp ) . since in each one of them. if ( ferror( ) ) { . fs = fopen ( argv[1] . Note that in each one of them the following three methods for opening a file are same. #include "stdio. "r" ) . ! makes it 0 and since now the condition evaluates to false the while loop gets terminated. fp = fopen ( "TRIAL". The following program illustrates the usage of ferror( ). The standard library function ferror( ) reports any error that might have occurred during a read/write operation on a file.C" . "r" ) . "w" ) . fs = fopen ( "PR1.470 Let Us C value.h" main( ) { FILE *fp . It returns a zero if the read/write is successful and a non-zero value in case of a failure. Detecting Errors in Reading/Writing Not at all times when we perform a read or write operation on a file are we successful in doing so. "r" ) . fs = fopen ( filename. essentially a base address of the string (pointer to a string) is being passed to fopen( ). char ch . Naturally there must be a provision to test whether our attempt to read/write was successful or not.

. Thus in the above program the perror( ) function can be used as shown below. Instead of printing the error message using printf( ) we can use the standard library function perror( ) which prints the error message specified by the compiler.Chapter 13: More Issues In Input/Output printf ( "Error in reading file" ) . break . whereas fgetc( ) is attempting to read from the file. } Note that when the error occurs the error message that is displayed is: TRIAL: Permission denied This means we can precede the system error message with any message of our choice. } fclose ( fp ) . ch ) . The moment the error occurs ferror( ) returns a non-zero value and the if block gets executed. } else printf ( "%c". if ( ferror( ) ) { perror ( "TRIAL" ) . break . } 471 In this program the fgetc( ) function would obviously fail first time around since the file has been opened for writing. In our program we have just displayed the filename in place of the error message.

char ch . They stand for standard printing device and standard auxiliary device (serial port).1 Thus the statement ch = fgetc ( stdin ) would read a character from the keyboard rather than from a file. It reads a file from the disk and prints it on the printer.1 Standard File pointer stdin stdout stderr Description standard input device (Keyboard) standard output device (VDU) standard error device (VDU) Figure 13. Most OSs also predefine pointers for three standard files.472 Standard I/O Devices Let Us C To perform reading or writing operations on a file we need to use the function fopen( ). We can use this statement without any need to use fopen( ) or fclose( ) function calls. /* Prints file contents on printer */ #include "stdio. . The following program shows how to use the standard file pointers. To access these pointers we need not use fopen( ).h" main( ) { FILE *fp . which sets up a file pointer to refer to this file. These standard file pointers are shown in Figure 13. Note that under MS-DOS two more standard file pointers are available—stdprn and stdaux.

Note that although we opened the file on the disk we didn’t open stdprn. Note that these standard file pointers have been defined in the file “stdio. } while ( ( ch = fgetc ( fp ) ) != EOF ) fputc ( ch. This is done through a process called ‘redirection’. stdprn ) writes a character read from the file to the printer. the printer.h”.txt". Standard files and their use in redirection have been dealt with in more details in the next section. In other words. if ( fp == NULL ) { printf ( "Cannot open file" ) . stdprn ) . } 473 The statement fputc ( ch. which is assumed to be the VDU. even when such a capability has not been incorporated in the program. it is necessary to include this file in the program that uses these standard file pointers. exit( ) . and sends its output to the standard output device. which is assumed to be the keyboard.Chapter 13: More Issues In Input/Output fp = fopen ( "poem. "r" ) . Normally a C program receives its input from the standard input device. I/O Redirection Most operating systems incorporate a powerful feature that allows a program to read and write files. the OS makes certain assumptions about where input . Therefore. fclose ( fp ) .

stdout ) . until we don’t type Ctrl-Z. using redirection the output of the program that normally goes to the VDU can be sent to the disk or the printer without really making a provision for it in the program. as . instead of receiving the input from keyboard. We’ll start by considering the simple program shown below: /* File name: util. Normally.EXE. from the screen to a file. at which point the program will terminate. } On compiling this program we would get an executable file UTIL.474 Let Us C should come from and where output should go. This is often a more convenient and flexible approach than providing a separate function in the program to write to the disk or printer. Let us understand this process with the help of a program. when we execute this file. Redirecting the Output Let’s see how we can redirect the output of a program.c */ #include "stdio. inserting the redirection symbols at appropriate places.h"<+> main( ) { char ch . while ( ( ch = getc ( stdin ) ) != EOF ) putc ( ch. Similarly. the putc( ) function will cause whatever we type to be printed on screen. For example. To use redirection facility is to execute the program from the command prompt. Redirection permits us to change these assumptions. redirection can be used to read information from disk file directly into a program.

Chapter 13: More Issues In Input/Output 475 shown in the following sample run. but somewhere in my wicked miserable past. causes any output intended for the screen to be written to the file whose name follows the operator. by using the TYPE command as follows: C>TYPE POEM.EXE > POEM. The redirection operator. using redirection: C>UTIL. As an example consider the following program for generating the ASCII table on screen: . but somewhere in my wicked miserable past. Note that the data to be redirected to a file doesn’t need to be typed by a user at the keyboard. perhaps I had a miserable youth. Can we prove that this the output has indeed gone to the file POEM. C>UTIL. there must have been a moment of truth C> There’s the result of our typing sitting in the file. perhaps I had a miserable youth.TXT. the program itself can generate it. Any output normally sent to the screen can be redirected to a disk file.EXE perhaps I had a wicked childhood.TXT perhaps I had a wicked childhood. there must have been a moment of truth ^Z C> Now let’s see what happens when we invoke this program from in a different way.TXT C> Here we are causing the output to be redirected to the file POEM. ‘>’. The Ctrl-Z character is often called end of file character.TXT? Yes.

ch. ch ) . rather than displaying it on the screen. we need to have a file containing something to be displayed. for ( ch = 0 . instead of reading a character from the keyboard.c*/ main( ) { int ch . ch <= 255 .TXT containing the following lines: . Suppose we use a file called NEWPOEM. ch++ ) printf ( "\n%d %c".EXE > PRN the ASCII table will be printed on the printer. Let us now see how this can be done.EXE > TABLE. Redirecting the Input We can also redirect input to a program so that.TXT the output is written to the file. } Let Us C When this program is compiled and then executed at command prompt using the redirection operator. To redirect the input. This can be a useful capability any time you want to capture the output in a file. Output can be redirected to the printer by using this filename.476 /* File name: ascii.exe” program this way: C>ASCII. For example. if you invoke the “ascii. DOS predefines a number of filenames for its own use. One of these names in PRN. a program reads it from a file. C>ASCII. which stands for the printer.

TXT and instead of sending the output to the screen it would redirect it to the file POETRY.TXT Let's start at the very beginning.EXE < NEWPOEM.TXT. at the same time its output can be redirected to a file.C perform the work of the TYPE command.TXT > PRN While using such multiple redirections don’t try to send output to the same file from which you are receiving input.TXT. The following command demonstrates this process. Similarly to send the contents of the file NEWPOEM. we use the input redirection operator ‘<’ before the file. This is because .Chapter 13: More Issues In Input/Output Let's start at the very beginning. A very good place to start! 477 We’ll assume that using some text editor these lines have been placed in the file NEWPOEM. A very good place to start! C> The lines are printed on the screen with no further effort on our part.TXT to the printer we can use the following command: C>UTIL < NEWPOEM. Both Ways at Once Redirection of input and output can be used together. Using redirection we’ve made our program UTIL.TXT In this case our program receives the redirected input from the file NEWPOEM. Now. C>UTIL < NEWPOEM. Such a program is called a filter.TXT > POETRY. as shown below: C>UTIL. the input for a program can come from a file via redirection.

Another OS operator can be used to relate two programs directly. Redirection can be a powerful tool for developing utility programs to examine or alter data in files. So by the time we manage to receive the input from a file it is already erased. redirection is used to establish a relationship between a program and a file. called pipe. Thus. Exercise [A] Answer the following: (a) How will you use the following program to − − − Copy the contents of one file into another. Print a file on the printer. (b) The command line argument argv contains values passed to the program. Create a new file and add some text to it. . with no files involved. (e) We can use the standard file pointers stdprn and stdaux to interact with printer and auxiliary devices respectively. so that the output of one is fed directly into another. whereas. This is called ‘piping’. Summary (a) We can pass parameters to a program at command line using the concept of ‘command line arguments’. We won’t pursue this topic. (g) The operators < and > are called redirection operators. and is done using the operator ‘|’.478 Let Us C the output file is erased before it’s written to. (f) Redirection allows a program to read from or write to files at command prompt. (c) We can use the standard file pointer stdin to take input from standard input device such as keyboard. argc contains number of arguments. (d) We can use the standard file pointer stdout to send output to the standard output device such as a monitor. but you can read about it in the OS help/manual.

while ( ( ch = getc ( stdin ) ) != -1 ) putc ( ch. (c) Point out the errors. ac ) . Using stdaux we can send output to the printer if printer is attached to the serial port. 479 #include "stdio. 4. To use standard file pointers we don’t need to open the file using fopen( ). if any. We can send arguments at command line even if we define main( ) function without parameters. av[0] ) . } (b) State True or False: 1. The zeroth element of the argv array is always the name of the exe file. char ( * ) av[ ] ) { printf ( "\n%d".Chapter 13: More Issues In Input/Output − Display the contents of an existing file. 2.h" main( ) { char ch. in the following program main ( int ac. 3. stdout ) . str[10] . } [B] Attempt the following: (a) Write a program to carry out the following: (a) Read a text file provided at command prompt (b) Print each word in reverse order For example if the file contains INDIA IS MY COUNTRY Output should be . printf ( "\n%s".

The usage of the program is shown below. If arithmetic operator is supplied. n and m are two integer operands.480 AIDNI SI YM YRTNUOC Let Us C (b) Write a program using command line arguments to search for a word in a file and replace it with the specified word. C> change <old word> <new word> <filename> (c) Write a program that can be used at command prompt as a calculating utility. . The usage of the program is shown below. switch can be any one of the arithmetic or comparison operators. C> calc <switch> <n> <m> Where. If comparison operator is supplied then the output should be True or False. the output should be the result of the operation.

14 Operations On Bits • Bitwise Operators One’s Complement Operator Right Shift Operator Left Shift Operator Bitwise AND Operator Bitwise OR Operator Bitwise XOR Operator • The showbits( ) Function • Summary • Exercise 481 .

bit by bit. The various Bitwise Operators available in C are shown in Figure 14. and we operated on it by making use of the data type char. Operator ~ >> << & | ^ Meaning One’s complement Right shift Left shift Bitwise AND Bitwise OR Bitwise XOR(Exclusive OR) Figure 14. integers. S Bitwise Operators One of C’s powerful features is a set of bit manipulation operators.1.482 Let Us C o far we have dealt with characters. However. This is because.1 These operators can operate upon ints and chars but not on floats and doubles. Being able to operate on a bit level. floats and their variations. whereas hardware tends to be bit oriented. we haven’t attempted to look within these data types to see how they are constructed out of individual bits. These permit the programmer to access and manipulate individual bits within a piece of data. can be very important in programming.. especially when a program must interact directly with the hardware. Let us now delve inside the byte and see how it is constructed and how it can be manipulated effectively. the programming languages are byte oriented. let . So let us take apart the byte.. The smallest element in memory on which we are able to operate as yet is a byte. Before moving on to the details of the operators. and how these bits can be manipulated.

/* Print binary equivalent of integers using showbits( ) function */ main( ) { int j . for ( j = 0 . } . showbits ( j ) . but we are not going to show you the details of the function immediately. increasing from right to left as shown below: 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Character 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 16-bit Integer Figure 14. The task of showbits( ) is to display the binary representation of any integer or character value. Bits are numbered from zero onwards. j <<= 5 .Chapter 14: Operations On Bits 483 us first take a look at the bit numbering scheme in integers and characters. j ) . j++ ) { printf ( "\nDecimal %d is same as binary ". We begin with a plain-jane example with showbits( ) in action.2 Throughout this discussion of bitwise operators we are going to use a function called showbits( ).

j++ ) { printf ( "\nDecimal %d is same as binary ".484 } Let Us C And here is the output.. Following program shows one’s complement operator in action. . showbits ( j ) . Thus. one’s complement of 65 means one’s complement of 0000 0000 0100 0001. Note that here when we talk of a number we are talking of binary equivalent of the number. Similarly.. k . which is binary equivalent of 65. Decimal 0 is same as binary 0000000000000000 Decimal 1 is same as binary 0000000000000001 Decimal 2 is same as binary 0000000000000010 Decimal 3 is same as binary 0000000000000011 Decimal 4 is same as binary 0000000000000100 Decimal 5 is same as binary 0000000000000101 Let us now explore the various bitwise operators one by one. j <= 3 . For example one’s complement of 1010 is 0101. main( ) { int j. k = ~j . all 1’s present in the number are changed to 0’s and all 0’s are changed to 1’s. One’s complement of 65 therefore would be. One’s complement operator is represented by the symbol ~. j ) . 1111 1111 1011 1110. j ) . printf ( "\nOne’s complement of %d is ". One’s Complement Operator On taking one’s complement of a number. for ( j = 0 . one’s complement of 1111 is 0000.

. char ch . Decimal 0 is same as binary 0000000000000000 One’s complement of 0 is 1111111111111111 Decimal 1 is same as binary 0000000000000001 One’s complement of 1 is 1111111111111110 Decimal 2 is same as binary 0000000000000010 One’s complement of 2 is 1111111111111101 Decimal 3 is same as binary 0000000000000011 One’s complement of 3 is 1111111111111100 In real-world situations where could the one’s complement operator be useful? Since it changes the original number beyond recognition.C". "r" ) .Chapter 14: Operations On Bits showbits ( k ) . fs = fopen ( "SOURCE.C”. } encrypt( ) { FILE *fs. /* encrypted file */ if ( fs == NULL || ft == NULL ) { . *ft . one potential place where it can be effectively used is in development of a file encryption utility as shown below: /* File encryption utility */ #include "stdio. } } 485 And here is the output of the above program. "w" ) .h" main( ) { encrypt( ) . /* normal file */ ft = fopen ( "TARGET..

For example.486 printf ( "\nFile opening error!" ) . It needs two operands. fclose ( fs ) . It shifts each bit in its left operand to the right. exit ( 1 ) . The following program demonstrates the effect of right shift operator. Right Shift Operator The right shift operator is represented by >>. } Let Us C How would you write the corresponding decrypt function? Would there be any problem in tackling the end of file marker? It may be recalled here that the end of file in text files is indicated by a character whose ASCII value is 26. The number of places the bits are shifted depends on the number following the operator (i. ch >> 5 would shift all bits 5 places to the right. main( ) { .e. Note that as the bits are shifted to the right. blanks are created on the left. They are always filled with zeros. its right operand). then. if the variable ch contains the bit pattern 11010111. ch >> 3 would shift all bits in ch three places to the right. These blanks must be filled somehow. Thus. ft ) . } while ( ( ch = getc ( fs ) ) != EOF ) putc ( ~ch. ch >> 1 would give 01101011 and ch >> 2 would give 00110101. Similarly. fclose ( ft ) .

Decimal 5225 is same as binary 0001010001101001 5225 right shift 0 gives 0001010001101001 5225 right shift 1 gives 0000101000110100 5225 right shift 2 gives 0000010100011010 5225 right shift 3 gives 0000001010001101 5225 right shift 4 gives 0000000101000110 5225 right shift 5 gives 0000000010100011 Note that if the operand is a multiple of 2 then shifting the operand one bit to right is same as dividing it by 2 and ignoring the remainder. j <= 5 .Chapter 14: Operations On Bits int i = 5225. for ( j = 0 . i. k . i ) . . j++ ) { k = i >>j .. Thus. 64 >> 1 gives 32 64 >> 2 gives 16 128 >> 2 gives 32 but. printf ( "\n%d right shift %d gives ". showbits ( i ) . showbits ( k ) .. } } 487 The output of the above program would be. printf ( "\nDecimal %d is same as binary ". j. 27 >> 1 is 13 49 >> 1 is 24 . j ) .

488 A Word of Caution Let Us C In the explanation a >> b if b is negative the result is unpredictable. However. a 0 is added to the right of the number. Left Shift Operator This is similar to the right shift operator. if a contains -1. on the machine on which we executed this expression the result turns out to be 1111111111111111. showbits ( i ) . and for each bit shifted. On some computer right shifting a would result in extending the sign bit. k . j ) . printf ( "\n%d left shift %d gives ". Decimal 5225 is same as binary 0001010001101001 . printf ( "\nDecimal %d is same as ". for ( j = 0 .. the only difference being that the bits are shifted to the left. j. i ) . If a is negative than its left most bit (sign bit) would be 1. } } The output of the above program would be. Without sign extension. its binary representation would be 1111111111111111. showbits ( k ) .. i. j++ ) { k = i <<j . the operation a >> 4 would be 0000111111111111. main( ) { int i = 5225. j <= 4 . Thus the sign bit 1 continues to get extended. The following program should clarify my point. For example.

and year) of file creation as a 8 byte string.3 DOS/Windows converts the actual date into a 2-byte value using the following formula: date = 512 * ( year . Similarly. date = 512 * ( 1990 .Chapter 14: Operations On Bits 5225 left shift 0 gives 0001010001101001 5225 left shift 1 gives 0010100011010010 5225 left shift 2 gives 0101000110100100 5225 left shift 3 gives 1010001101001000 5225 left shift 4 gives 0100011010010000 489 Having acquainted ourselves with the left shift and right shift operators. In DOS/Windows the date on which a file is created (or modified) is stored as a 2-byte entry in the 32 byte directory entry of that file. month and date in the 2-byte entry is shown in Figure 14.1980 ) + 32 * 3 + 9 = 5225 . let us now find out the practical utility of these operators.3. Remember that DOS/Windows doesn’t store the date (day. month.1980 ) + 32 * month + day Suppose 09/03/1990 is the date. a 2-byte entry is made of the time of creation or modification of the file. but as a codified 2 byte entry. 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 Y Y Y Y Y Y year Y 8 M 7 6 5 4 3 D 2 D day 1 D 0 D M M M D month Figure 14. thereby saving 6 bytes for each file entry in the directory. The bitwise distribution of year. then on conversion the date will be.

we see that the year.490 Let Us C The binary equivalent of 5225 is 0001 0100 0110 1001. . Separating each of them is a matter of applying the bitwise operators.4 Just to verify this bit distribution.4 depicting the bit pattern of the 2. let us take the bits representing the month. 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 0 0 0 1 year 0 1 0 8 0 7 0 6 1 5 1 4 0 3 1 2 0 day 1 0 0 1 month Figure 14. the file’s date is again presented on the screen in the usual date format of mm/dd/yy. When we take a look at Figure 14. how. month = 0011 =1*2+1*1 =3 Similarly.byte date field. to get year as a separate entity from the two bytes entry we right shift the entry by 9 to get the year. For example. using left shift and right shift operators. Just see. the year and the day can also be verified. When we issue the command DIR or use Windows Explorer to list the files. This binary value is placed in the date field in the directory entry of the file as shown below... How does this integer to date conversion take place? Obviously. month and day exist as a bunch of bits in contiguous locations.

left shifting by 7. followed by right shifting by 12 yields month.5 On similar lines.Chapter 14: Operations On Bits 491 5 1 4 0 3 1 2 0 day 1 0 0 1 15 14 13 12 11 10 0 0 0 1 year Right shifting by 9 gives 15 14 13 12 11 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 9 0 8 0 7 0 6 1 month 9 0 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 1 2 0 1 1 0 0 year Figure 14. .

15 14 13 12 11 10 0 0 1 1 0 1 9 8 7 0 6 1 5 1 4 0 3 1 2 0 day 1 0 0 1 month 9 8 0 day 0 7 1 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 1 2 0 1 1 0 0 month Right shifting by 12 gives. Left shifting by 11 gives 0100100000000000. month. day. date = ( y . left shift date by 11 and then right shift the result by 11. date ) . This entire logic can be put into a program as shown below: /* Decoding date field in directory entry using bitwise operators */ main( ) { unsigned int d = 9. printf ( "\nDate = %u". y = 1990. Right shifting by 11 gives 0000000000001001.1980 ) * 512 + m * 32 + d .492 Let Us C 15 14 13 12 11 10 0 0 year Left shifting by 7 gives. date . for obtaining the day. m = 3. year.6 Finally. 15 14 13 12 11 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 8 7 0 0 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 1 0 1 month Figure 14. .

7 . The & operator operates on two operands.. While operating upon these two operands they are compared on a bit-by-bit basis.. Remember it is different than &&. the logical AND operator. } 493 And here is the output. day = ( (date << 11 ) >> 11 ) . year ) . month ) . month = ( (date << 7 ) >> 12 ) . Hence both the operands must be of the same type (either char or int). printf ( "\nYear = %u ". The rules that decide the value of the resultant bit are shown below: First bit 0 0 1 1 Second bit 0 1 0 1 First bit & Second bit 0 0 0 1 Figure 14. The & operator operates on a pair of bits to yield a resultant bit. Date = 5225 Year = 1990 Month = 3 Day = 9 Bitwise AND Operator This operator is represented as &. day ) . printf ( "Day = %u". printf ( "Month = %u ".Chapter 14: Operations On Bits year = 1980 + ( date >> 9 ) . The second operand is often called an AND mask.

The rules given in the Figure 14.8 are applied to each pair of bits one by one.9 Work through the Truth Table and confirm that the result obtained is really correct. it must be clear that the operation is being performed on individual bits.8 The example given below shows more clearly what happens while ANDing one operand with another. & 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 Figure 14.8. and the operation performed on one pair of bits is . Thus.494 Let Us C This can be represented in a more understandable form as a ‘Truth Table’ shown in Figure 14. 7 1 7 1 6 0 6 1 5 1 5 0 4 0 4 0 3 1 3 0 2 0 2 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 With this operand yields This operand when ANDed bitwise 7 1 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 this result Figure 14.

If the bit is ON (1). the resulting value turns out to be a non-zero value which is equal to the value of second operand. Thus. The result turned out to be 8 since the third bit of the first operand was ON. the second operand for the AND operation should be 1 * 23. Had it been OFF. i.Chapter 14: Operations On Bits 495 completely independent of the operation performed on the other pairs. This operand can be represented bitwise as 00001000. the bit number 3 in the resulting bit pattern would have evaluated to 0 and the complete bit pattern would have been 00000000.e the value of the second operand. The following program puts this logic into action. /* To test whether a bit in a number is ON or OFF */ main( ) { . Then the ANDing operation would be. 10101101 00001000 -------------00001000 Original bit pattern AND mask Resulting bit pattern The resulting value we get in this case is 8. from the bit pattern 10101101 of an operand. we want to check whether bit number 3 is ON (1) or OFF (0). Since we want to check the bit number 3. depending upon the bit number to be checked in the first operand we decide the second operand. Suppose. and on ANDing these two operands the result decides whether the bit was ON or OFF. Probably. and if the bit is OFF (0) the result is zero as seen above. the best use of the AND operator is to check whether a particular bit of an operand is ON or OFF. This is explained in the following example. which is equal to 8.

496 int i = 65. The status of a file is governed by the value of individual bits in this attribute byte. j = i & 64 . if ( j == 0 ) printf ( "\nwhereas its sixth bit is off" ) . . there is an attribute byte... The meaning of each bit in the attribute byte is shown in Figure 14. Value of i = 65 and its fifth bit is off whereas its sixth bit is on In every file entry present in the directory. else printf ( "\nwhereas its sixth bit is on" ) . else printf ( "\nand its fifth bit is on" ) . if ( j == 0 ) printf ( "\nand its fifth bit is off" ) . printf ( "\nvalue of i = %d". i ) . } Let Us C And here is the output. j = i & 32 . j . The AND operator can be used to check the status of the bits of this attribute byte.10.

1 6 . . 4 . . . we only need to check whether bit number 1 is ON or OFF. . 1 . . 2 . . The second. .Chapter 14: Operations On Bits 497 Bit numbers 7 . . whether the file is read-only file or not.10 Now. . . . . 1 . and equally important use of the AND operator is in changing the status of the bit. . which is never shown in the directory. . . . From the above bit classification of attribute byte. . . . Meaning Read only Hidden System Volume label entry Sub-directory entry Archive bit Unused Unused Figure 14. . . 1 . . 1 . . . . . . . it can be checked whether the file is a system file or not. . . as discussed earlier. 5 . . . . . A hidden file is one. 1 . and so on. So. . 1 . . 3 . . . . or more precisely to switch OFF a particular bit. whereas the second operand is the 1 * 21 = 2. . . 0 1 . Similarly. suppose we want to check whether a file is a hidden file or not. our first operand in this case becomes the attribute byte of the file in question. 1 . . even though it exists on the disk. .

498 Let Us C If the first operand happens to be 00000111. The rules that govern the value of the resulting bit obtained after ORing of two bits is shown in the truth table below. our AND mask bit pattern should be 11111101. | 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 Figure 14. Therefore.11 . Let’s summarize the uses of bitwise AND operator: (a) It is used to check whether a particular bit in a number is ON or OFF. we get. irrespective of whether the first bit is ON or OFF previously. then to switch OFF bit number 1. At the same time the value 1 provided in all the other bits of the AND mask (second operand) keeps the bit values of the other bits in the first operand unaltered. (b) It is used to turn OFF a particular bit in a number. Bitwise OR Operator Another important bitwise operator is the OR operator which is represented as |. On applying this mask. 00000111 11111101 -------------00000101 Original bit pattern AND mask Resulting bit pattern Here in the AND mask we keep the value of all other bits as 1 except the one which is to be switched OFF (which is purposefully kept as 0). it is switched OFF.

whereas XOR returns 1 only if one of the two bits is 1. If we want to put ON bit number 3. The truth table for the XOR operator is given below.Chapter 14: Operations On Bits 499 Using the Truth table confirm the result obtained on ORing the two operands as shown below. . Note that all the other bits in the mask are set to 0 and only the bit. This is shown in the following program. then the OR mask to be used would be 00001000. which we want to set ON in the resulting value is set to 1. 11010000 00000111 ------------11010111 Original bit pattern OR mask Resulting bit pattern Bitwise OR operator is usually used to put ON a particular bit in a number. A number XORed with another number twice gives the original number. Bitwise XOR Operator The XOR operator is represented as ^ and is also called an Exclusive OR Operator. The OR operator returns 1. when any one of the two bits or both the bits are 1. ^ 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 Figure 14.12 XOR operator is used to toggle a bit ON or OFF. Let us consider the bit pattern 11000011.

andmask . k. i >= 0 . Now we have sufficient knowledge of bitwise operators and hence are in a position to understand it.500 main( ) { int b = 50 . for ( i = 15 . b ) . printf ( "\n%d". the variable andmask will contain the value 1000000000000000. showbits ( int n ) { int i. First time through the loop.) { andmask = 1 << i . The function is given below followed by a brief explanation. printf ( "\n%d". b = b ^ 12 . b ) . /* this will print 50 */ } Let Us C The showbits( ) Function We have used this function quite often in this chapter. i-. If the bit is OFF we print a 0 otherwise we print a 1. } } All that is being done in this function is using an AND operator and a variable andmask we are checking the status of individual bits. . /* this will print 62 */ b = b ^ 12 . k = n & andmask . which is obtained by left-shifting 1. k == 0 ? printf ( "0" ) : printf ( "1" ) .

If the variable n’s most significant bit is 0. each represent 7 colors of a rainbow. The same operation is repeated for all bits in the number. On the second go-around of the loop. bitwise AND. right-shift. otherwise it would contain a non-zero value. If k contains 0 then printf( ) will print out 0 otherwise it will print out 1. 1 represents . the value of i is decremented and hence the value of andmask changes. Summary (a) To help manipulate hardware oriented data—individual bits rather than bytes a set of bitwise operators are used. (f) The bitwise OR operator is used to turn on a particular bit. then k would contain a value 0. i. (c) The one’s complement converts all zeros in its operand to 1s and all 1s to 0s. and XOR. (b) The bitwise operators include operators like one’s complement. Exercise [A] Answer the following: (a) The information about colors is to be stored in bits of a char variable called color.e.Chapter 14: Operations On Bits 501 fifteen places. left-shift. which will now be 0100000000000000. (d) The right-shift and left-shift operators are useful in eliminating bits from a number—either from the left or from the right. (e) The bitwise AND operators is useful in testing whether a bit is on/off and in putting off a particular bit. and prints it out accordingly. This checks whether the next most significant bit is 1 or 0. OR. bit 0 represents violet. (g) The XOR operator works almost same as the OR operator except one minor variation. The bit number 0 to 6.

supplement. hockey. The college . and stores the information in an array of integers. Write a program that asks the user to enter a number and based on this number it reports which colors in the rainbow does the number represents. The bit-wise information to be stored in an integer is given below: Bit Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Information Upper class Middle class Lower class English Hindi Regional Language Daily Supplement Tabloid At the end give the statistical data for number of persons who read English daily. the economic status (upper. Write a program. The information regarding the games won by a particular college is stored in bit numbers 0. (b) A company planning to launch a new newspaper in market conducts a survey. various sports and games are played between different colleges like cricket. basketball. 4. 6. Regional language) and category of paper (daily. 3. (c) In an inter-college competition. and lower class) the languages readers prefer (English. tabloid). lawn tennis. 1. 2. 7 and 8 respectively of an integer variable called game. which reads data of 10 respondents through keyboard.502 Let Us C indigo. football. middle. 5. Hindi. and so on. number of upper class people who read tabloid and number of regional language readers. table tennis. The various parameters considered in the survey were. carom and chess.

Bit number 4 of the variable type stores the information about whether the animal is Carnivore or Herbivore. etc. etc. feline. int type . a feline (cat. etc. 18 } . Distribution of different bits which account for hours. (d) An animal could be either a canine (dog. fox. minutes and seconds is given below.) or a marsupial (koala. cetacean. narwhal. For the following animal. The information whether a particular animal is canine. 2 and 3 respectively of a integer variable called type.). etc. lynx. Write a function which would receive the two-byte time entry and return to the calling function. complete the program to determine whether the animal is a herbivore or a carnivore. feline. jaguar. along with the names of the games won by the college.).). . wolf. 1. a cetacean (whale. minutes and seconds. then write a program to find out whether the college won the Champion of the Champions trophy or not. (e) The time field in the directory entry is 2 bytes long. cetacean or a marsupial. wombat. struct animal { char name[30] .Chapter 14: Operations On Bits 503 that wins in 5 or more than 5 games is awarded the Champion of Champions trophy. or marsupial is stored in bit number 0. } struct animal a = { "OCELOT". the hours. If a number is entered through the keyboard. Also determine whether the animal is a canine.

o = j << 2 . The bit number 4 to 7 stores stream Mechanical. n. Based on the given data. } . 548. p = i >> 5 . (g) What will be the output of the following program: main( ) { int i = 32. bit number 1 to 3 stores IInd year.13 (f) In order to save disk space information about student is stored in an integer variable. m = i & j . p . 786. m. k = i | 35 .504 Let Us C 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 S 2 S 1 0 H H H H H M M M M M M S S S Figure 14. printf ( "\nn = %d o = %d p = %d". int data[ ] = { 273. write a program that asks for the room number and displays the information about the student. n = j ^ 32 . k. m ) . l. printf ( "\nk = %d l = %d m = %d". Electronics and IT. if its data exists in the array. l = ~k . IIIrd year and IVth year student respectively. Chemical. j = 65. p ) . The contents of array are. n. Rest of the bits store room number. l. o. If bit number 0 is on then it indicates Ist year student. 1096 } . k. o.

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a Closer Look The First Windows Program Hungarian Notation Summary Exercise 535 .16 C Under Windows • • • • • • • • • • • Which Windows… Integers The Use of typedef Pointers in the 32-bit World Memory Management Device Access DOS Programming Model Windows Programming Model Event Driven Model Windows Programming.

Now it is time to move on to more serious stuff. Architecturally there are huge differences amongst them. In today’s commercial world 16-bit operating environments like DOS are more or less dead. 16-bit compilers offer a very simple environment that a novice can master quickly. That raises a very important question—is it futile to learn C programming using 16bit compiler like Turbo C/C++? Absolutely not! The typical 32-bit environment offers so many features that the beginner is likely to feel lost.98. Now that the C fundamentals are out of the way and you are confident about the language features it is time for us to delve into the modern 32-bit operating environments. XP. ME. But the truth is much farther than that. To make a beginning one has to take a very important decision— should we attempt to build programs that are targeted towards 16bit environments like MS-DOS or 32-bit environments like Windows/Linux. Obviously we should choose the 32-bit platform because that is what is in commercial use today and would remain so until 64-bit environment takes over in future. programs menu etc. operator and instruction available in C.536 Let Us C S o far we have learnt every single keyword. 2000. We did all this learning by compiling our programs using a 16-bit compiler like Turbo C/C++. Which Windows… To a common user the differences amongst various versions of Windows like Windows 95. Chapters 20 & 21 are devoted to exploring C under Linux. Windows . desktop. So many are the differences that Microsoft categorizes the different versions under two major heads—Consumer Windows and Windows NT Family. task bar. shape of the buttons. More and more software is being created for 32-bit environments like Windows and Linux. NT. In this chapter we would explore how C programming is done under Windows. Server 2003 is limited to only visual appearances—things like color of the title bar. Contrasted with this. Thus we are through with the language elements that were there to learn.

But what if we wish to store the age of a person in an integer? It would be improper to sacrifice a 4-byte integer when we know that the number to be stored in it is hardly going to exceed hundred. whereas Windows NT. As against this. Hence in this book we would concentrate only on NT Family Windows. The Use of typedef Take a look at the following declarations: COLORREF color . BOOL b . Thus there is no difference between an int and a long int. LPARAM l . In such as case it would be more sensible to use a short int since it is only 2 bytes long. under 32-bit environment an integer is of 4 bytes. Integers Under 16-bit environment the size of integer is of 2 bytes. 2000. Hence its range is -2147483648 to +2147483647. Consumer Windows was targeted towards the home or small office users. unless explicitly specified. . 98. Before we start writing C programs under Windows let us first see some of the changes that have happened under Windows environment. whereas NT family was targeted towards business users. WPARAM w . Server 2003 fall under the Windows NT Family. HANDLE h . ME fall under the Consumer Windows. Microsoft no longer provides support for Consumer Windows.Chapter 16: C Under Windows 537 95. So in the rest of this book whenever I refer to Windows I mean Windows NT family. XP.

This can be done using a structure. perform operations over the network apart from normal data processing tasks. For example a program may print documents. play sound files. typedef struct rect* PRECT . send mails. . A typical C under Windows program would contain several such typedefs. This can be avoided by using typedef as shown below: struct rect { int top . manage multiple threads of execution. }. HANDLE. But when we define any structure variable we are required to precede it with the keyword struct. draw in a window. Naturally a program that carries out so many tasks would be very big in size.538 Let Us C Are COLORREF. There are two reasons why Windows-based C programs heavily make use of typedefs. int bottom . (b) At several places in Windows programming we are required to gather and work with dissimilar but inter-related data. In such a program if we start using the normal integer data type to represent variables that hold different entities we would soon lose track of what that integer value actually represents. perform file I/O. These are: (a) A typical Windows program is required to perform several complex tasks. int left . int right . typedef struct rect RECT . This can be overcome by suitably typedefining the integer as shown above. They are merely typedef’s of the normal integer datatype. new datatypes that have been added in C under Windows compiler? Not at all. etc.

To avoid this chaos Microsoft has done several typedefs for commonly required entities in Windows programming. int i . 539 What have we achieved out of this? It makes user-defined data types like structures look. Imagine a situation where each programmer typedefs the integer to represent a color in different ways. typedef int COLOUR . If we were to run another program we were required to terminate the first one before launching the second. are more logical than struct RECT r . All these have been stored in header files. floats. typedef int COLORREF . act and behave similar to standard data types like integers. typedef int COLOR . You would agree that the following declarations RECT r . Pointers in the 32-bit World In a 16-bit world (like MS-DOS) we could run only one application at a time. As only one program (task) could run at a time this environment was .Chapter 16: C Under Windows RECT r . int i . PRECT pr . These header files are provided as part of 32-bit compiler like Visual C++. etc. Some of these could be as follows: typedef int COL .

To prevent this. To channelize the access without resulting into conflict between applications several new mechanisms were created in the Microprocessor & OS. modern day applications have to contend with these demands and provide several features in them. This means that we can store 232 unique addresses in the registers at different times. Whenever we store a value at a memory location the address of this memory location has to be stored in the CPU register at some point in time. This had a direct bearing on the way the application programs are created. This is not a Windows OS book. The maximum allowable memory—1 MB—that was used in 16-bit environment was just too small for this. .540 Let Us C called single-tasking environment. To add to this. As pointers store addresses. These topics are ‘Memory Management and Device Access’. every pointer under 32-bit environment also became a 4-byte entity. Under 32bit environment like Windows several programs reside and work in memory at the same time. we can access 4 GB of memory locations using 32-bit registers. But the moment there are multiple programs running in memory there is a possibility of conflict if two programs simultaneously access the machine resources. Hence Windows had to evolve a new memory management model. to C programming. under Windows several such applications run in memory simultaneously. Hence it is known as a multi-tasking environment. Windows does not permit any application direct access to any machine resource. Since Windows runs on 32-bit microprocessors each CPU register is 32-bit long. Memory Management Since users have become more demanding. So we would restrict our discussion about the new mechanisms that have been introduced in Windows to topics that are related. Since only one program could run at any given time entire resources of the machine like memory and hardware devices were accessible to this program. Thus a 32-bit address can be stored in these registers. As a result.

Chapter 16: C Under Windows 541 However. It always holds a virtual address of that location. Thus memory management is demand based. then some of the existing programs (or their parts) would be transferred to the disk in order to free the physical memory to accommodate the new program. Note that programs cannot execute straight-away from hard disk. Now imagine how the paging operations would affect our programming. Here page stands for a block of memory (usually of size 4096 bytes). If this page gets paged out and is later paged in to a different physical location then the pointer would obviously have a wrong address. A few more facts that you must note about paging are as follows: (a) Part of the program that is currently executing might also be paged out to the disk. When that part of the program that was paged out is needed it is brought back into memory (called page-in operation) and some other programs (or their parts) are paged out. If this new program needs more memory than what is available right now. What is this virtual address? At . This operation is often called page-out operation. Be aware that this balance memory is simulated as and when the need to do so arises. (b) When the program is paged in (from disk to memory) there is no guarantee that it would be brought back to the same physical location where it was before it was paged out. Suppose there are multiple programs already in memory and a new program starts executing. Suppose we have a pointer pointing to some data present in a page. Hence under Windows the pointer never holds the physical address of any memory location. if we decide to install 4 GB memory it would cost a lot. Hence Windows uses a memory model which makes use of as much of physical memory (say 128 MB) as has been installed and simulates the balance amount of memory (4 GB – 128 MB) on the hard disk. They have to be first brought into physical memory before they can get executed. This keeps on happening without a common user’s knowledge all the time while working with Windows.

The value present at this index is the starting address of the physical page in memory. Page Dir. which contains three parts.1. The left part of the 32-bit virtual address holds the index into the Page Directory Table. The value present at this index is the starting address of the Page Table.1 The CR3 register holds the physical location of Page Directory Table. These parts when used in conjunction with a CPU register called CR3 and contents of two tables called Page Directory Table and Page Table leads to the actual physical address.542 Let Us C its name suggests it is certainly not a real address. This is shown in Figure 16. The right part of the 32-bit virtual address holds the byte . Index Page Table Index Page Byte Offset 31 Page Directory PT0 PT1 21 Page Table P0 P1 … Page Frames 11 Target Page PFN n 0 PT n Page Directory Register Pn … PFN 0 Physical Memory Figure 16. It is a number. The middle part of the 32bit virtual address holds the index into the Page Table.

This standard way of communication is discussed in detail in Chapter 17. There is a standard way in which an application can communicate with the device driver.Chapter 16: C Under Windows 543 offset (from the start of the page) of the physical memory location to be accessed. If you assume some input data you can easily walk through the program from beginning to end. The operating system simply loads and executes the program and then waits for it to finish. Hence an application can never directly reach a physical address. It is device driver’s responsibility to ensure that multiple requests coming from different applications are handled without causing any conflict. The path along which the control flows from start to finish may vary during each execution depending on the input that the program receives or the conditions under which it is run. the path remains fairly predictable. DOS Programming Model Typical 16-bit environments like DOS use a sequential programming model. The access to a device is routed through a device driver program. which finally accesses the device. C programs written in this model begin execution with main( ) (often called entry point) and then call other functions present in the program. as the paging activity is going on the OS would suitably keep updating the values in the two tables. Note that the CR3 register is not accessible from an application. If the program wishes it can take help of the OS to carry . In this model programs are executed from top to bottom in an orderly fashion. In this programming model it is the program and not the operating system that determines which function gets called and when. However. Also. Hence no program is permitted a direct access to any of the devices. Device Access All devices under Windows are shared amongst all the running programs.

. or if they are there their reach is limited. etc. Figure 16. file I/O. printing. Unfortunately the DOS functions and the BIOS functions do not have any names. Moreover. This is a messy affair since the programmer has to remember interrupt numbers for calling different functions. DOS functions either call BIOS functions or directly access the hardware. Hence to call them the program had to use a mechanism called interrupts. This has to be done because either there are no DOS/BIOS functions to do this. At times the programs are needed to directly interact with the hardware. carrying out serial communication. communication with these functions has to be done using CPU registers. For other operations like generating graphics. To an extent these difficulties are reduced by providing library functions that in turn call the DOS/BIOS functions using interrupts. This lead to lot of difficulties since different functions use different registers for communication.544 Let Us C out jobs like console I/O. etc.2 captures the essence of the DOS programming model. the program has to call another set of functions called ROM-BIOS functions. But the library doesn’t have a parallel function for every DOS/BIOS function.

. } fun( ) { … … } On execution transfer control to program Interrupt & CPU Registers Interrupt & CPU Registers DOS OS DOS Functions BIOS Function Hardware Sequentially Executing DOS program Figure 16.Chapter 16: C Under Windows 545 main( ) { fun( ) . Thus the same functions get replicated in several EXE files. thereby wasting precious disk space.EXE) for that program. These have been listed below: No True Reuse The library functions that are called from each program become part of the executable file (.2 From the above discussion you can gather that there are several limitations in the DOS programming model.

Wordstar offered different types of menus. As the look and feel of all DOS based programs is different. For example.546 Inconsistent Look and Feel Let Us C Every DOS program has a different user interface that the user has to get used to before he can start getting work out of the program. . This is because for every new piece of hardware introduced there are new interrupt numbers and new register details. the user takes a lot of time in learning how to interact with the program Messy Calling Mechanism It is difficult to remember interrupt numbers and the registers that are to be used for communication with DOS/BIOS functions. Hardware Dependency DOS programs are always required to bother about the details of the hardware on which they are running. For example. Hence DOS programmers are under the constant fear that if the hardware on which the programs are running changes then the program may crash. successful DOS-based software like Lotus 1-2-3. Foxpro. This happened because DOS/BIOS doesn’t provide any functions for creating user interface elements like menus. if we are to position the cursor on the screen using a BIOS function we are required to remember the following details: Interrupt number – 16 CPU Registers to be used: AH – 2 (service number) DH – Row number where cursor is to be positioned DL – Column number where cursor is to be positioned While using these interrupt numbers and registers there is always a chance of error.

Windows Programming Model From the perspective of the user the shift from MS-DOS to Windows OS involves switching over to a Graphical User Interface from the typical Text Interface that MS-DOS offers. Mastering this new GUI environment and getting comfortable with the multitasking feature is at the most a matter of a week or so. the programmer has to understand a lot of technical details of the hardware. from the programmer’s point of view programming for Windows is a whole new ball game! Windows programming model is designed with a view to: (a) (b) (c) (d) Eliminate the messy calling mechanism of DOS Permit true reuse of commonly used functions Provide consistent look and feel for all applications Eliminate hardware dependency Let us discuss how Windows programming model achieves this. However. Not only does this make the program lengthy. These functions are called API (Application Programming Interface) functions. As a result the programmer has to spend more time in understanding the hardware than in the actual application programming. There are literally hundreds of . switching effortlessly from one to another by pointing at windows and clicking them with the mouse. Another change that the user may feel and appreciate is the ability of Windows OS to execute several programs simultaneously.Chapter 16: C Under Windows 547 Moreover the DOS programmer has to write lot of code to detect the hardware on which his program is running and suitably make use of the relevant interrupts and registers. Better Calling Mechanism Instead of calling functions using Interrupt numbers and registers Windows provides functions within itself which can be called using names.

They help an application to perform various tasks such as creating a window. Imagine how much disk space would have been wasted had each of these functions become part of the EXE file of each program. performing file input/output. drawing a line. True Reuse A C under Windows program calls several API functions during course of its execution. It is also possible to create your own DLLs.3 lists these filenames along with purpose of each. These functions can also be shared between several applications running in Windows. (b) Breaking an application into component parts to provide a way to easily upgrade application’s components. To avoid this. The Windows API functions come in three DLL files. the API functions are stored in special files that have an extension . DLL stands for Dynamic Link Libraries. . As a result. Since linking is done dynamically the functions do not become part of the executable file. etc. The functions present in DLLs can be linked during execution. You would like to do this for two reasons: (a) Sharing common code between different executable files. A DLL is a binary file that provides a library of functions. the size of EXE files does not go out of hand. Figure 16.548 Let Us C API functions available.DLL.

user doesn’t have to spend long periods of time mastering a new program.DLL Figure 16. This dialog box looks the same (or very similar) in many different Windows programs. including menus. Contains functions for graphics drawing and painting Contains functions to handle memory management. communications. you’re in a good position to easily learn another.DLL KERNEL32. using the mouse is often easier for many chores. and it is almost always invoked from the same menu option. It opens a file. The display of information too large to fit on a single screen can be viewed using scroll bars.Chapter 16: C Under Windows 549 DLL USER32. Some menu items invoke dialog boxes. threading. A window is identified by a title bar. One dialog box is found in almost every Windows program. timer etc. into which the user enters additional information.3 Consistent Look and Feel Consistent look and feel means that each program offers a consistent and similar user interface. Once you know how to use one Windows program. GDI32. The menus and dialog boxes allow user to experiment with a new program and explore its features. cursors. . Although most functions of Windows programs can be controlled through the keyboard. Most Windows programs have both a keyboard interface and a mouse interface. etc. Every program occupies a window—a rectangular area on the screen. As a result. Most program functions are initiated through the program’s menu.DLL Description Contains functions that are responsible for window management.

The occurrence of this event is sensed by the keyboard or mouse device driver. This API function in turn communicates with the device driver of the graphics card (that drives the screen) to display the string. Sooner or later the user would press the key or click the mouse to select the menu-item. This is shown in Figure 16. Hardware Independent Programming As we saw earlier a Windows program can always call Windows API functions. The device driver would now inform Windows about it.550 Let Us C From the programmer’s perspective. the consistent user interface results from using the Windows API functions for constructing menus and dialog boxes. All menus have the same keyboard and mouse interfaces because Windows—rather than the application program—handles this job. . The menu item can be selected either using the keyboard or using the mouse. Thus there is a two-way communication between the OS and the application. Thus the OS has communicated with the application. Suppose we have written a program that contains a menu item. This notification is known as a ‘message’. When the application receives the message it communicates back with the OS by calling a Windows API function to display the string “Hello World” in the window. Windows would in turn notify the application about the occurrence of this event. Thus an application can easily communicate with OS. On executing this program it will perform the initializations and then wait for the user input. Let us understand why it does so with the help of an example. This key-press or mouse-click is known as an ‘event’. which on selection is supposed to display a string “Hello World” in the window. What is new in Windows is that the OS can also communicate with application.4.

Chapter 16: C Under Windows 551 Application API Call Message Windows OS Device Driver Hardware Figure 16. and hence the order of messages.4 Suppose the keyboard and the mouse are now replaced with a new keyboard and mouse. if the screen or the graphics card is replaced no change would be required in the program. also becomes unpredictable. For each event a message is sent to the program and the program reacts to it. Since the order in which the user would interact with the user-interface elements of the program cannot be predicted the order of occurrence of events. but never a change in the application. Similarly. As a result. Any differences that may be there in the new set of mouse and keyboard would be handled the device driver and not by the application program. the order of . This is because at no time does the application carry out any direct communication with the devices. In short hardware independence at work! At times a change of device may necessitate a change in the device driver program. Doing so would not affect the application at all. Event Driven Model When a user interacts with a Windows program a lot of events occur.

Not only this. In addition to this some events may occur without any user interaction. Just when that time is. Windows Programming. The OS retrieves this message finds out with regard to which application the message has been sent. which is common for all applications. occurrence of one event may trigger a few more events. Such queues are called ‘Application Message Queues’. Next it posts a message into the . when the window’s contents are to be drawn. Order is brought to this chaos by putting all the messages that reach the application into a ‘Queue’. That’s really all that is there to event-driven programming. Hence this programming model is called ‘Event Driven Programming Model’. For example. a question comes—in which order would these messages get processed by the application. Thus literally hundreds of messages may be sent to an application thereby creating a chaos. events occur when we create a window. There is one queue. a Closer Look There can be hundreds of ways in which the user may interact with an application. This queue is known as ‘System Message Queue’. ready to execute at the appropriate time. The messages in the queue are processed in First In First Out (FIFO) order. Your job is to anticipate what users are likely to do with your application’s user interface objects and have a function waiting. In fact the OS maintains several such queues. Let us understand the need for maintaining so many queues. In addition there is one queue per application.552 Let Us C calling the functions in the program (that react to different messages) is dictated by the order of occurrence of events. Naturally. no one except the user can really say. When we click a mouse and an event occurs the device driver posts a message into the System Message Queue. etc.

System Msg.Chapter 16: C Under Windows 553 Application Message Queue of the application in which the mouse was clicked. Event Device Driver Msg. Here we go… . Queue Application2 Figure 16. Queue Application2 Msg.5 I think now we have covered enough ground to be able to actually start C under Windows programming. Refer Figure 16. Queue Other Mess OS Other Messa Application1 Application1 Msg. Event Device Driver Msg.5.

The VC++ IDE window will get displayed.h> int _stdcall WinMain ( HINSTANCE hInstance. ‘sample1’. say. Select ‘An empty project’ option and click ‘Finish’ button. 0 ) . Here is the program… #include <windows. “Title”. “Hello!”. and give a project name. (d) The ‘Win32 Application-Step 1 of 1’ window will appear.554 The First Windows Program Let Us C To keep things simple we would begin with a program that merely displays a “Hello” message in a message box.6 Let us now look at the steps that one needs to carry to create and execute this program: (a) Start VC++ from ‘Start | Programs | Microsoft Visual C++ 6. LPSTR lpszCmdline. . int nCmdShow ) { MessageBox ( 0. HINSTANCE hPrevInstance. select ‘Win32 Application’. Click on OK. (c) From the File | New menu. and give a suitable file name. Click on OK. Firstly take a look at the output that it produces.0’. (b) From the File | New menu. ‘sample1’. Here it is… Figure 16. select ‘C++ Source File’. } Naturally a question would come to your mind—how do I create and run this program and what output does it produce. say. return ( 0 ) .

It indicates the calling convention used by the WinMain( ) function. The way every C under DOS program begins its execution with main( ). (h) Save this file using ‘Save’ option from the File menu.c’ file that gets opened in the VC++ IDE.exe’ from the Build menu. All . Close it by clicking on OK. whereas in case of __stdcall the stack is cleaned up by the called function. (g) Type the program in the ‘sample1. Calling Conventions indicate two things: (a) The order (left to right or right to left) in which the arguments are pushed onto the stack when a function call is made. Thus WinMain( ) becomes the entry point for a Windows program. Out of the different calling conventions available most commonly used conventions are __cdecl and __stdcall .Chapter 16: C Under Windows 555 (e) A ‘New Project Information’ dialog will appear. Let us now try to understand the program. Both these calling conventions pass arguments to functions from right to left.exe’. select ‘Build sample1. (f) Again select ‘File | New | C++ Source File’. every C under Windows program begins its execution with WinMain( ). Give the file name as ‘sample1. int nCmdShow ) Note the __stdcall before WinMain( ). Click on OK. select ‘Execute sample1. (b) Assuming that no errors were reported in the program. (b) Whether the caller function or called function removes the arguments from the stack at the end of the call. HINSTANCE hPrevInstance.c’. LPSTR lpszCmdLine. A typical WinMain( ) looks like this: int __stdcall WinMain ( HINSTANCE hInstance. To execute the program follow the steps mentioned below: (a) From the Build menu. In __cdecl the stack is cleaned up by the calling function.

a file. HINSTANCE and LPSTR are nothing but typedefs. . Windows creates this ID number when the application starts. Now it always contains a value 0. a bitmap. argc parameters passed to main( ) in a DOS program. In place of these we can use i. a brush. j. A handle is simply a 32-bit number that refers to an entity. − WinMain( ) receives four parameters which are as under: hInstance: This is the ‘instance handle’ for the running application.h’. The entity could be an application. hInstance.556 Let Us C API functions use __stdcall calling convention. What is important is that there is a unique handle for each entity and we can refer and reach the entity only using its handle. hPrevInstance. lpszCmdLine and nCmdShow are simple variable names. but the Windows module that gives your program the handle knows how to use it to refer to an entity. This is similar to the argv. If not mentioned. Let us now understand the meaning of these parameters as well as the rest of the program. We will use this value in many Windows functions to identify an application’s data. a window. It is being persisted with only to ensure backward compatibility. a cursor. lpszCmdLine: This is a pointer to a character string containing the command line arguments passed to the program. The first is an unsigned int and the second is a pointer to a char. k and l respectively. The actual value of the handle is unimportant to your programs. These macros are defined in ‘windows. an icon. This header file must always be included while writing a C program under Windows. __cdecl calling convention is assumed by the compiler. a device or any such entity. hPrevInstance: This parameter is a remnant of earlier versions of Windows and is no longer significant.

Chapter 16: C Under Windows 557 nCmdShow: This is an integer value that is passed to the function. whereas. This string can be printed using the following statement: MessageBox ( 0.7 Note from Figure 16. whereas. Returning 0 from WinMain( ) indicates success. or maximized when it is displayed for the first time. Figure 16. ‘abc ijk xyz’ represents command line arguments. − − − The MessageBox( ) function pops up a message box whose title is ‘Title’ and which contains a message ‘Hello!’. "Title".exe’ is the name of our application. . Instead of printing ‘Hello!’ in the message box we can print the command line arguments that the user may supply while executing the program. returning a nonzero value indicates failure. This integer tells the program whether the window that it creates should appear minimized. as an icon. normal. The command line arguments can be supplied to the program by executing it from Start | Run as shown in Figure 16. 0 ) . If the entire command line including the filename is to be retrieved we can use the GetCommandLine( ) function.7. The parameter lpszCmdline points to the string “abc ijk xyz”. lpszCmdline.7 that ‘myapp.

(b) Under Windows a pointer is four bytes long. (e) Entry point of every Windows program is a function called WinMain( ). According to this convention the variable name begins with a lower case letter or letters that denotes the data type of the variable. For example. the prefix n in nCmdShow stands for int. (c) Windows programming involves a heavy usage of typedefs. suppose the 16-bit code used 2-byte and 4-byte integer variables called wParam and lParam. the sz prefix in szCmdLine stands for ‘string terminated by zero’. Hence the usage of this convention is nowadays discouraged. the prefix h in hInstance stands for ‘handle’. You would agree that if we follow the Hungarian notation then we would have to make a whole lot of changes in the variable names when we port the code to a 32-bit or a 64-bit environment. To use a twobyte integer pre-qualify it with short. When this code is ported to a 32-bit environment wParam had to be changed to lParam since in this environment every integer is 4 bytes long. . where w indicated a 16-bit integer (word) and a 32-bit integer (long) respectively. Windows uses an Event Driven Programming Model. For example. Prefixes are often combined to form other prefixes. Though basically this notation is a good idea nowadays its usage is discouraged.558 Hungarian Notation Let Us C Hungarian Notation is a variable-naming convention so called in the honor of the legendary Microsoft programmer Charles Simonyi. whereas. Summary (a) Under Windows an integer is four bytes long. (d) DOS uses a Sequential Programming Model. as lpsz in lpszCmdLine stands for ‘long pointer to a zero terminated string’. This is because when a transition happens from say a 16-bit code to 32-bit code then a whole lot of variable names have to be changed.

(c) API functions under Windows do not have names. (h) Under Windows there is two-way communication between the program and the OS.Chapter 16: C Under Windows 559 (f) Windows does not permit direct access to memory or hardware devices. (i) Windows maintains a system message queue common for all applications. Exercise [A] State True or False: (a) MS-DOS uses a procedural programming model. (m) Hungarian notation though good its usage is not recommended any more. (k) Calling convention decides the order in which the parameters are passed to a function and whether the calling function or the called function clears the stack. (g) Windows uses a Demand-based Virtual Memory Model to manage memory. (b) A Windows program can directly call a device driver program for a device. (h) One of the parameters of WinMain( ) called hPrevInstance is no longer relevant. (f) Size of a pointer under Windows depends upon whether it is near or far. (e) Windows uses a 4 GB virtual memory space. (d) DOS functions are called using an interrupt mechanism. (j) Windows maintains an application message queue per running application. (g) Under Windows the address stored in a pointer is a virtual address and not a physical address. (l) Commonly used calling conventions are __cdecl and __stdcall. .

(b) Write a program that displays three buttons ‘Yes’. (d) Write a program that displays command line arguments including file name in a message box. ‘No’ ‘Cancel’ in the message box.560 [B] Answer the following: Let Us C (a) Why is Event-driven Programming Model better than the Sequential Programming Model? (b) What is the meaning of different parts of the address stored in a pointer under Windows environment? (c) Why Windows does not permit direct access to hardware? (d) What is the difference between an event and a message? (e) Why Windows maintains a different message queue for each application? (f) In which different situations messages get posted into an application message queue? [C] Attempt the following: (a) Write a program that prints the value of hInstance in a message box. . (c) Write a program that receives a number as a command line argument and prints its factorial value in a message box.

17 Windows Programming • • • • The Role of a Message Box Here comes the window… More Windows A Real-World Window Creation and Displaying of Window Interaction with Window Reacting to Messages • Program Instances • Summary • Exercise 561 .

This is what this chapter intends to do. It can be dismissed either by clicking the ‘close button’ in its title bar or by clicking the OK button present in it. There are numerous variations that you can try with the MessageBox( ). button. However this change would be bolstered by writing event driven programs.562 Let Us C E event driven programming requires a change in mind set. “icon is all about style”. MessageBox ( 0. etc. Some of these are given below MessageBox ( 0. The Role of a Message Box Often we are required to display certain results on the screen during the course of execution of a program. “Caption”. MessageBox ( 0. MB_OK | MB_ICONINFORMATION ) . We do this to ascertain whether we are getting the results as per our expectations. “Caption”. You can put the above statements within WinMain( ) and see the results for yourself. I hope Chapter 16 has been able to bring about this change. “Are you sure”. I am hopeful that by the time you reach the end of this chapter you would be so comfortable with it as if you have been using it all your life. icons. Using it we can display intermediate results during the course of execution of a program. This would . “Print to the Printer”. there is a limit to which you can stretch them. Under Windows screen is a shared resource. So you can imagine what chaos would it create if all running applications are permitted to write to the screen. Though the above message boxes give you flexibility in displaying results. In a sequential DOS based program we can easily achieve this using printf( ) statements. You would not be able to make out which output is of what application. That’s where a message box enters the scene. What if we want to draw a free hand drawing or display an image. “Caption”. MB_YESNO CANCEL) . Hence no Windows program is permitted to write anything directly to the screen. in the message box. MB_YESNO ) .

the maximize box. To achieve this we need to create a full-fledged window. Let us now create a simple program that creates a window on the screen. Minimize Box Close Butt on Caption Bar Icon Menu Vertical Client Area Scrol Horizontal Scroll Figure 17.1.1 Note that every window drawn on the screen need not necessarily have every element shown in the above figure. These are shown in Figure 17. a window may not contain the minimize box. the scroll bars and the menu. The next section discusses how this can be done. Here Comes the window… Before we proceed with the actual creation of a window it would be a good idea to identify the various elements of it. Here is the program… #include <windows.h> . For example.Chapter 17: Windows Programming 563 not be possible.

“Waiting”. WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW. } Here is the output of the program… Figure 17. There are several predefined window classes. 10. Windows insists that a window class should be registered with it before we attempt to create windows of that type. return 0 . Each of these windows would enjoy the same properties that have been registered through the window class. 10. shape of cursor. EDIT. nCmdShow ) . etc. 0. HINSTANCE hPrevInstance. Every window enjoys certain properties—background color. i. The meaning of ‘class’ here is ‘type’. MB_OK ) . 100. h = CreateWindow ( “BUTTON”. ShowWindow ( h. MessageBox ( 0. 0. 150.2 Let us now understand the program. int nCmdShow ) { HWND h . LISTBOX. etc. . All these properties taken together are known as ‘window class’.564 Let Us C int _stdcall WinMain ( HINSTANCE hInstance. LPSTR lpszCmdLine. shape of icon. “Hi!”. 0 ) . Some of these are BUTTON. Our program has created one such window using the predefined BUTTON class. “Hit Me”. Once a window class is registered we can create several windows of that type.

We have passed nCmdShow as the second parameter.Chapter 17: Windows Programming 565 To actually create a window we need to call the API function CreateWindow( ). Our program uses this handle to refer to the window while calling ShowWindow( ). If the value of this parameter is SW_SHOWNORMAL we get a normal sized window. The next three parameters specify the handles to the parent window. The third parameter specifies the window style. This variable contains SW_SHOWNORMAL by default.0 product. This can be done using the ShowWindow( ) API function.microsoft. CreateWindow( ) returns handle of the created window. But don’t get scared of it. Note that CreateWindow( ) merely creates the window in memory. WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW is a commonly used style. We can easily devote a section of this book to CreateWindow( ) and its parameters. It is also available on the net at http://www. The next four parameters specify the window’s initial position and size—the x and y screen coordinates of the window’s top left corner and the window’s width and height in pixels. the menu and the application instance respectively. You can always use MSDN (Microsoft Developer Network) help to understand the minute details of each parameter. This function requires several parameters starting with the window class. Nobody is supposed to remember all the parameters. The second parameter passed to ShowWindow( ) signifies whether the window would appear minimized. The second parameter indicates the text that is going to appear on the button surface. Hence our program displays a normal sized window. The last parameter is the pointer to the window-creation data.msdn. their meaning and their order. . We still are to display it on the screen. maximized or normal.com/library. This help is available as part of VC++ 6. if it is SW_SHOWMINIMIZED we get a minimized window and if it is SW_SHOWMINIMIZED we get a maximized window.

On executing this program a window and a message box appears on the screen as shown in the Figure 17. LPSTR lpszCmdLine. You can try to remove the call to MessageBox( ) and see the result. HINSTANCE hPrevInstance.2. x <= 9 .566 Let Us C The WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW style is a collection of the following styles: WS_OVERLAPPED | WS_CAPTION | WS_SYSMENU | WS_THICKFRAME | WS_MINIMIZEBOX | WS_MAXIMIZEBOX As you can make out from these macros they essentially control the look and feel of the window being created. More Windows Now that we know how to create a window let us create several windows on the screen. int x . #include <windows. int nCmdShow ) { HWND h[10] . This is because on doing so execution of WinMain( ) comes to an end and moreover we have made no provision to interact with the window. You would observe that no sooner does the window appear it disappears. The program to do this is given below. x++ ) { . Thus a call to MessageBox( ) serves the similar purpose as getch( ) does in sequential programming.h> int _stdcall WinMain ( HINSTANCE hInstance. The window and the message box disappear as soon as we click on OK. for ( x = 0 .h’ header file. All these macros are #defined in the ‘Windows.

You may experiment a bit by changing the name of the window class to EDIT and see the result. For creating such a window there is no standard window class available. Hence we would have to create our own window class.3 Note that each window created in this program is assigned a different handle. 0. 100. "Waiting". A Real-World Window Suppose we wish to create a window and draw a few shapes in it. register it with Windows OS and then create a window on the basis of it. l ) . 0 ) . return 0 .Chapter 17: Windows Programming h[x] = CreateWindow ( "BUTTON". 150. Instead of straightway jumping to a program that draws . ShowWindow ( h[x]. x * 20. "Hi!". i. "Press Me". } MessageBox ( 0. x * 20. 0. 0 ) . } 567 Figure 17. WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW.

/* message loop */ while ( GetMessage ( &m. int nCmdShow ) { MSG m . wParam. int __stdcall WinMain ( HINSTANCE hInstance.568 Let Us C shapes in a window let us first write a program that creates a window using our window class and lets us interact with it. LPARAM lParam ) { switch ( message ) { case WM_DESTROY : OnDestroy ( hWnd ) . WPARAM wParam. return 0 . 0 ) ) DispatchMessage ( &m ) . nCmdShow. Here is the program… #include <windows. default : return DefWindowProc ( hWnd. } return 0 . LPSTR lpszCmdline. } LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc ( HWND hWnd. 0. /* perform application initialization */ InitInstance ( hInstance. "title" ) . message. HINSTANCE hPrevInstance. } . lParam ) . break . 0.h" void OnDestroy ( HWND ) .h> #include "helper. UINT message.

4 appears on the screen. Registering the window class with the OS. This structure contains several . Creation and Displaying of Window Creating and displaying a window on the screen is a 4-step process. we can close the window by clicking on the close window button in the title bar. These steps are: (a) (b) (c) (d) Creation of a window class. Creation of a window class involves setting up of elements of a structure called WNDCLASSEX. Creation of a window based on the registered class. Finally.Chapter 17: Windows Programming void OnDestroy ( HWND hWnd ) { PostQuitMessage ( 0 ) . We can use minimize and the maximize button it its title bar to minimize and maximize the window. } 569 On execution of this program the window shown in Figure 17. We can stretch its size by dragging its boundaries. Figure 17. Displaying the window on the screen.4 Let us now try to understand this program step by step.

com/books/letusc/sourcecode/helper.h’.kicit. Since all the 4 steps mentioned above would be required in almost every program in this chapter I have written this code in a user-defined function called InitInstance( ) in the file ‘helper. Our application should now pick them up from the message queue and process them. Interaction with Window As and when the user interacts with the window—by stretching its boundaries or clicking the buttons in the title bar. Once the window has been created and displayed let us see how we can interact with it.h As expected WinMain( ) starts off by calling the function InitInstance( ) present in ‘helper. Alternatively you can download it from the following link: www. Though writing code in a header file goes against the convention I have still done so to achieve simplicity. This file has been #included at the beginning of the program. a mouse click message would contain additional information like handle to the window with which the user has interacted. a suitable message is posted into the message queue of our application. Registration of a window class. A message contains a message id and some other additional information about the message. Remember to copy this file to your project directory—the directory in which you are going to create this program. creation of a window and displaying of a window involves calling of API functions RegisterClassEx( ). CreateWindow( ) and ShowWindow( ) respectively.h’ file is available in Appendix F. For example.h’ file.570 Let Us C elements. the coordinates of . The complete listing of ‘helper. etc. They govern the properties of the window.

(c) From the window class structure it obtains the address of a function called WndProc( ) (short for window procedure). Now the control comes out of the loop and WinMain( ) comes to an end. Hence calls to GetMesage( ) and DispatchMessage( ) have been made in a while loop in WinMain( ). (d) Using this address it calls the function WndProc( ). GetMessage( ) would pick the message info from the message queue and place it in the structure variable passed to it. DisplayMessage( ) extracts the handle of the window for which this message is meant for. The first parameter passed to this function is the address of the MSG structure variable. Don’t bother about the other parameters right now. When GetMessage( ) encounters a message with id WM_QUIT it returns a 0. Well I didn’t tell you earlier that in InitInstance( ) while filling the WNDCLASSEX structure one of the elements has been set up with the address of a user-defined function called WndProc( ). The message id and the additional information are stored in a structure called MSG. Since it is difficult to memorize the message ids they have been suitably #defined in ‘windows. This function does several activities.Chapter 17: Windows Programming 571 mouse cursor and the status of mouse buttons. (b) From the handle it figures out the window class based on which the window has been created. These are as follows: (a) From the MSG structure that we pass to it. After picking up the message from the message queue we need to process it. . Since several messages get posted into the message queue picking of the message and processing it should be done repeatedly.h’. This is done by calling the DispatchMessage( ) API function. In WinMain( ) this MSG structure is retrieved from the message queue by calling the API function GetMessage( ).

This function posts a WM_QUIT message into the message queue.572 Reacting to Messages Let Us C As we saw in the previous section. Here we have simply made a call to DefWindowProc( ) API function. This function is shown below: LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc ( HWND hWnd. For all messages other than WM_DESTROY the control lands in the default clause of switch. CALLBACK indicates that the WndProc function has been registered with Windows (through WNDCLASSEX structure in InitInstance( ) ) with an intention that Windows would call this back (through DispatchMessage( ) function). The second parameter is the message id. WPARAM wParam. In the WndProc( ) function we have checked the message id using a switch. the third and fourth parameters contain additional information about the message. LPARAM lParam ) This function always receives four parameters. This function does the default . for every message picked up from the message queue the control is transferred to the WndProc( ) function. UINT message. This typedef has been done in ‘windows. In OnDestroy( ) function we have called the API function PostQuitMessage( ). The first parameter is the handle to the window for which the message has been received. As we saw earlier. when this message is picked up the message loop and WinMain( ) is terminated. If the id is WM_DESTROY then we have called the function OnDestroy( ). whereas. This message is posted to the message queue when the user clicks on the ‘Close Window’ button in the title bar. LRESULT is a typedef of a long int and represents the return value of this function.h’. CALLBACK is a typedef of __stdcall.

in WndProc( ) we have made the provision to terminate the application on encountering WM_DESTROY. Actually speaking when we close the window a WM_CLOSE message is posted into the message queue. . The default processing for different message would be different. For example on double clicking the title bar DefWindowProc( ) maximizes the window.5. As discussed earlier.Chapter 17: Windows Programming 573 processing of the message that we have decided not to tackle. The DefWindowProc( ) function destroys the window and places a WM_DESTROY message in the message queue. That brings us to the end of a lonnngggg explanation! You can now heave a sigh of relief. A very clear understanding of it would help you make a good Windows programmer. For your convenience I have given a flowchart of the entire working in Figure 17. I would urge you to go through the above explanation till the time you are absolutely sure that you have understood every detail of it. Since we have not handled this message the DefWindowProc( ) function gets called to tackle this message.

574 START Execution Call InitInstance( ) Let Us C Fill WNDCLASSEX structure to define window class Call RegisterCallEx( ) to register the window class with OS Call CreateWindow( ) to create window in memory Call ShowWindow( ) to display window on screen Pick message from message queue – GetMessage( ) Is the message WM_QUIT No Process the message – DispatchMessage( ) Yes STOP Call Window Procedure Is the message WM_DESTROY Yes Post WM_QUIT – PostQuitMessage( ) No Do default processing of message – DefWindowProc( ) Figure 17.5 .

(f) A ‘window class’ specifies various properties of the window that we are creating.Chapter 17: Windows Programming 575 Program Instances Windows allows you to run more than one copy of a program at a time. but will have separate memory areas to hold the text data being edited. The difference between handling of the code and the data is logical. (b) Message boxes are often used to ascertain the flow of a program. (e) The window that is created in memory is displayed using the ShowWindow( ) API function. It shares a single copy of the program’s code between all running instances. (c) Appearance of a message box can be customized. This is handy for cutting and pasting between two copies of Notepad or when running more than one terminal session with a terminal emulator program. (d) The CreateWindow( ) API function creates the window in memory. as each instance of Notepad might edit a different file. All three instances share the same code. The program logic to edit the files is the same for every instance. Each running copy of a program is called a ‘program instance’. there will only be one copy of Notepad’s code in memory. so there is no reason why a single copy of Notepad’s code cannot be shared. so the data must be unique to each instance. For example. . if you get three instances of Notepad running. Windows performs an interesting memory optimization trick. Summary (a) A message box can be displayed by calling the MessageBox( ) API function. (g) The header file ‘Windows.h’ contains declaration of several macros used in Windows programming.

[B] Answer the following: (a) Outline the steps that a typical Windows program follows during execution. . messages are generated and posted in the application message queue. (d) The ShowWindow( ) function can display only the maximized window. (b) Calling the MessageBox( ) function displays the specified string in console window. (c) The CreateWindow( ) function creates and displays the window on the screen.576 Let Us C (h) When the user clicks in a window. or moves mouse pointer on the window. (h) The style WS_OVERLAPPED | WS_CAPTION | WS_MINIMIZEBOX will create a window with caption bar and minimize box only. (e) Every window has to be created using pre-registered window class. (g) We can use the pre-defined window classes but cannot create our own. Exercise [A] State True or False: (a) MessageBox( ) is an API function. (k) If we don’t handle a message received by our application then the DefWindowProc( ) function is called to do the default processing. (j) The GetMessage( )-DispatchMessage( ) loop breaks when GetMessage( ) encounters the WM_QUIT message. (i) A message contains the message id and additional information about the message. (i) To be able to interact with a window it is necessary to implement the message loop. (f) Window classes are similar to classes in C++.

creates a button window. (h) Try to display a window with different combinations of window styles and observer the results. which receives an integer as a command line argument. (e) Explain the need of RegisterClassEx( ) function.Chapter 17: Windows Programming 577 (b) Run any Windows based program and see whether you can identify all the elements of the application window. (f) What is the difference between GetMessage( ) and DispatchMessage( ) function? (g) Write a program. . (c) How would you minimize a window programmatically? (d) What would happen if we do not place WM_QUIT message in the message queue when the user tries to close the window. and based on the value of the integer displays button window as maximized / minimized / normal.

578 Let Us C .

A Closer Look Displaying a Bitmap Animation at Work WM_CREATE and OnCreate( ) WM_TIMER and OnTimer( ) A Few More Points… Windows. the Endless World… Summary Exercise • • • 579 . the Paintbrush Style Capturing the mouse Device Context.18 Graphics Under Windows • • • • • • • • • • • Graphics as of Now Device Independent Drawing Hello Windows Drawing Shapes Types of Pens Types of Brushes Code and Resources Freehand Drawing.

Device Independent Drawing Windows allow programmers to write programs to display text or graphics on the screen without concern over the specifics of the video hardware. . with the whole lot of Windows API functions to support graphics activity there is so much that can be achieved in a graphics program under Windows. and how using the device context keeps our programs from interfering with each other on the screen. icons. The key to this ‘device independence’ is Windows’ use of a ‘device context’. A Windows program that works on a VGA display will work without modification on an SVGA or on a XGA display that Windows supports. bitmaps. Today we are living in a world of 1024 x 768 resolution offering 16. Moreover. wave files and animations are the order of the day. Graphical menus. Otherwise people would have still been using the character oriented interfaces of MS-DOS or Unix. Once you get a hang of how to draw inside a window it would open up immense possibilities that you never thought were possible.580 Let Us C ince times immemorial colors and shapes have fascinated mankind like nothing else. I am sure that this chapter will help you understand and appreciate these new capabilities. We will explore how the device context can be used for both text and graphics output. So much so that a 16-color graphics program built using Turbo C working on a poor resolution almost hurts the eye.7 million colors. S Graphics as of Now World has progressed much beyond 16 colors and 640 x 480 resolution graphics that Turbo C/C++ compilers offered under MS-DOS environment. colored cursors. In fact the graphical ability of Windows has played a very important role in its success story.

regardless of where the physical output is showing up. a screen DC is associated with a screen.DLL and is stored in the Windows System directory. The output data is sent to the screen/printer using its DC. or Graphics Device Interface. Windows programs do not send data directly to the screen or printer. However. Any drawing that we do using the screen DC is directed to the screen. it does not know how it would be sent there. This standard way uses an entity called Device Context. or simply a DC. video display. keyboards and printers without modification to the program. Different DC’s are associated with different devices. The GDI is a program file called GDI32. The part of Windows that converts the Windows graphics function calls to the actual commands sent to the hardware is the GDI. A windows program obtains a handle (ID value) for the screen or printer’s DC. the only thing that changes from drawing to screen and drawing to printer is the DC that is used. you will recognize device independence as a huge advantage for the developer. A Windows program knows where (screen/printer) its output is being sent. For example. Device independence means that the same program should be able to work using different screens. This is because Windows uses a standard and consistent way to send the output to screen/printer. and then Windows and the Device Driver for the device takes care of sending it to the real hardware. any drawing done using the printer DC is directed to the printer.Chapter 18: Graphics Under Windows 581 During the original design of Windows. Similarly. one of the goals was to provide ‘device independence’. plotter. allowing the programmer to concentrate on the program itself. If you have ever had to update the code of an MS-DOS program for the latest printer. a printer DC is associated with a printer. neither does it need to bother to know this. The . The advantage of using the DC is that the graphics and text commands that we send using the DC are always the same. Windows takes care of the hardware. Thus. etc. or keyboard.

/* Perform application initialization */ InitInstance ( hInstance.DLL into memory when it is needed for graphical output. Windows also loads a ‘device driver’ program if the hardware conversions are not part of GDI32.h> # include "helper.SYS for VGA video screen and HPPLC. "Text" ) . Thus GDI provides all the basic drawing functionality for Windows.DLL. HINSTANCE hPrevInstance. The GDI provides this insulation by calling the appropriate device driver in response to windows graphics function calls. the device context represents the device providing a layer of abstraction that insulates your applications from the trouble of drawing directly to the hardware. LPSTR lpszCmdline.h" void OnPaint ( HWND ) . int __stdcall WinMain ( HINSTANCE hInstance.582 Let Us C Windows environment loads GDI32. Drivers are just programs that assist the GDI in converting Windows graphics commands to hardware commands. nCmdShow. void OnDestroy ( HWND ) .SYS for the HP LaserJet printer. Note that though we are displaying text under Windows even text gets drawn graphically in the window. Hello Windows We would begin our tryst with graphics programming under windows by displaying a message “Hello Windows” in different fonts. Common examples are VGA. int nCmdShow ) { MSG m . # include <windows. First take a look at the program given below before we set out to understand it. .

break . WPARAM wParam. UINT message. PAINTSTRUCT ps . HFONT hfont . return 0 . . "Comic Sans MS" } . "Times New Roman". LPARAM lParam ) { switch ( message ) { case WM_DESTROY : OnDestroy ( hWnd ) . default : return DefWindowProc ( hWnd. } void OnDestroy ( HWND hWnd ) { PostQuitMessage ( 0 ) . 0. wParam. NULL. char *fonts[ ] = { "Arial". } 583 LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc ( HWND hWnd. } void OnPaint ( HWND hWnd ) { HDC hdc . HGDIOBJ holdfont . 0 ) ) DispatchMessage(&m). case WM_PAINT : OnPaint ( hWnd ) .Chapter 18: Graphics Under Windows /* Main message loop */ while ( GetMessage ( &m. LOGFONT f = { 0 } . int i . } return 0 . message. break . lParam ) .

} EndPaint ( hWnd.lfHeight = 40 * ( i + 1 ) . holdfont = SelectObject ( hdc. 10. Figure 18. DeleteObject ( hfont ) . for ( i = 0 . /* font height */ f. &ps ) . /* copy font name */ f. "Hello Windows". 0. &ps ) . 70 * i. RGB ( 0.1 appears. 255 ) ) . } Let Us C On execution of this program the window shown in Figure 18.lfFaceName. /* italic */ hfont = CreateFontIndirect ( &f ) . fonts[ i ] ) . 13 ) .1 . holdfont ) . SetTextColor ( hdc. hfont ) .584 hdc = BeginPaint ( hWnd. i++ ) { strcpy ( f. i < 3 . TextOut ( hdc.lfItalic = 1 . SelectObject ( hdc.

(d) When the size of the window changes on stretching its boundaries. When the switch-case structure inside WndProc( ) finds that the message ID passed to WndProc( ) is WM_PAINT. After obtaining the device context handle. (e) When the window is dragged out of the screen and then brought back into the screen. (b) When the window is minimized and then maximized. This message is generated whenever the client area of the window needs to be redrawn. it calls the function OnPaint( ). This redrawing would be required in the following situations: (a) When the Window is displayed for the first time. The properties that we have not setup in the loop are all initialized to 0. etc. This function obtains a handle to the device context. . This structure is used to indicate the font properties like font name. Lastly it removes WM_PAINT from the message queue. Would a WM_PAINT message be generated when the cursor is dragged in the window? No. Inside the loop we have displayed “Hello Windows” in three different fonts. italic or normal. Additionally it also fills the PAINTSTRUCT structure with information about the area of the window which needs to be repainted. Note that in addition to these there are other font properties that may be setup. the control enters a loop. (c) When some portion of the window is overlapped by another window and the overlapped window is dismissed. Each time through the loop we have setup a LOGFONT structure f. Within OnPaint( ) we have called the API function BeginPaint( ). In this case the window saves the area overlapped by the cursor and restores it when the cursor moves to another position. font height.Chapter 18: Graphics Under Windows 585 Drawing to a window involves handling the WM_PAINT message. Once the font properties have been setup we have called the CreateFontIndirect( ) API function to create the font.

position where the text is to be displayed. In place of TextOut( ) we can also use the DrawText( ) API function. because the device context structure would remain in memory but we would not be able access it. which is preserved in holdfont variable. Hence before associating another font with it we have deleted the existing font using the DeleteObject( ) API function. This function permits finer control over the way the text is displayed. The rest of the program is same as in the previous section. CreateFontIndirect( ) returns the handle to the font created in memory. Next we have used the SetTextColor( ) API function to set the color of the text to be displayed through TextOut( ). Here onwards I would be showing only the OnPaint( ) handler unless otherwise required. To TextOut( ) we have to pass the handle to the DC. Once outside the loop we have called the EndPaint( ) API function to release the DC handle. Then using the information in the font file and the font properties setup in the LOGFONT structure it creates a font in memory. You can explore this function on your own. the text to be displayed and its length. The RGB( ) macro uses the red. Note that each color component can take a value from 0 to 255. Instead of showing the entire program given below is the listing of OnPaint( ). Drawing Shapes If text is so near can graphics be far behind? Now that we know how to draw text in a window let us now create a simple program that displays different shapes in a window. This function returns the handle to the existing font in the DC. If not released we would be wasting precious memory. With hfont only one font can be associated at a time. This handle is then passed to the SelectObject( ) API function to get the font into the DC. green and blue component values to generate a 32-bit color value. .586 Let Us C This function loads the relevant font file.

5 ) . MoveToEx ( hdc. 300. hbr ) . HGDIOBJ holdbr . 350. 190 } . hbr = CreateSolidBrush ( RGB ( 255. Polygon ( hdc. 10 ) . } On execution of this program the window shown in Figure 18. 110. 10. 200. LineTo ( hdc. DeleteObject ( hbr ) . hdc = BeginPaint ( hWnd.Chapter 18: Graphics Under Windows 587 void OnPaint ( HWND hWnd ) { HDC hdc . 10. 10 ) . NULL ) . Rectangle ( hdc. pt. HBRUSH hbr .2 appears. 10. 320. 250. 300. 350. 340 ) . 120. 150. SelectObject ( hdc. 100 ) . holdbr ) . &ps ) . 300. 200. 250. 0. 350. 10. &ps ) . Ellipse ( hdc. POINT pt[5] = { 250. PAINTSTRUCT ps . 10. 20. 220. EndPaint ( hWnd. 10. 0 ) ) . 200. RoundRect ( hdc. 240. 200. Pie ( hdc. 110. . 20 ) . holdbr = SelectObject ( hdc. 350. 20. 400.

588 Let Us C Figure 18. we begin by obtaining a handle to the DC using BeginPaint( ) function. As before. The default pen is a solid pen of black color and the default brush is white in color.2 For drawing any shape we need a pen to draw its boundary and a brush to paint the area enclosed by it. For creating a solid colored brush we need to call the CreateSolidBrush( ) API function. The function returns the handle of the brush which we have preserved . The second parameter of this function specifies the color of the brush. The DC contains a default pen and brush. In this program we have used the default pen and a blue colored solid brush for drawing the shapes.

of the bounding rectangle. In RoundRect ( x1. y1 and x2. y1 up to x2-1. y2. Parameters of Ellipse( ) specify coordinates of bounding rectangle of the ellipse. y4 specify the x and y-coordinates of the arc’s starting point and ending point respectively. y3. x2. Next we have selected this brush in the DC. x2. y4 ). y3 specify the width and height of the ellipse used to draw the rounded corners. For drawing the line we have used MoveToEx( ) and LineTo( ) API functions. y1. lpPoints points to an array of points that specifies the vertices of the polygon. y2-1. y2. The system closes the polygon automatically. y2 specify the x and y-coordinates of the upper left corner and bottom right corner respectively. y1. x2. x3. if necessary. x3. x1. x1. In Polygon ( lpPoints. x3. y1 and x2. Likewise. The center of the arc is the center of the bounding rectangle specified by x1. y2. y3 and x4. . Similarly for drawing a rectangle we have used the Rectangle( ) function. by drawing a line from the last vertex to the first. Once we have selected the brush into the DC we are ready to draw the shapes. The RoundRect( ) function draws a rectangle with rounded corners. x3. y1 represents the x and y-coordinates of the upper-left corner of the rectangle. The handle of the default brush in DC is collected in the holdbr variable. y2 represent coordinates of the bottom right corner of the rectangle. In Pie( x1. Note that rectangle and the rounded rectangle are drawn from x1. The Pie( ) function draws a pie-shaped wedge by drawing an elliptical arc whose center and two endpoints are joined by lines. y3 ). x4. nCount ). Each point in the array is a POINT structure.Chapter 18: Graphics Under Windows 589 in the hbr variable. nCount specifies the number of vertices stored in the array.

NULL ) . DeleteObject ( hpen ) . hpen ) . holdpen = SelectObject ( hdc. holdpen ) . 60 ) . 0. 10. holdpen = SelectObject ( hdc. DeleteObject ( hpen ) . 0 ) ) . RGB ( 255. 10. PAINTSTRUCT ps . MoveToEx ( hdc. color and thickness to do our drawing. void OnPaint ( HWND hWnd ) { HDC hdc . holdpen ) .590 Let Us C Once we are through with drawing the shapes the old brush is selected back in the DC and then the brush created by us is deleted using DeleteObject( ) function. 500. Types of Pens In the previous program we have used the default solid black pen of thickness 1 pixel. The following OnPaint( ) handler shows how this can be achieved. We can create pens of different style. 1. MoveToEx ( hdc. hpen = CreatePen ( PS_DASH. hpen ) . 0. SelectObject ( hdc. RGB ( 255. &ps ) . 10 ) . 1. LineTo ( hdc. HPEN hpen . LineTo ( hdc. 0 ) ) . 60. HGDIOBJ holdpen . hdc = BeginPaint ( hWnd. NULL ) . SelectObject ( hdc. 10. 500. . hpen = CreatePen ( PS_DOT.

RGB ( 255. 10. 0. holdpen ) . 110. SelectObject ( hdc. hpen ) . NULL ) .3 appears. DeleteObject ( hpen ) . RGB ( 255. LineTo ( hdc. hpen = CreatePen ( PS_DASHDOTDOT. 500. 0 ) ) . } 591 On execution of this program the window shown in Figure 18. 0 ) ) . LineTo ( hdc. 0. 500. 10. DeleteObject ( hpen ) . holdpen = SelectObject ( hdc. 0 ) ) . 10. 1. NULL ) . hpen = CreatePen ( PS_SOLID. 210 ) . holdpen ) . DeleteObject ( hpen ) .Chapter 18: Graphics Under Windows hpen = CreatePen ( PS_DASHDOT. hpen ) . holdpen ) . &ps ) . 160 ) . 500. MoveToEx ( hdc. 10. SelectObject ( hdc. RGB ( 255. 160. 110 ) . LineTo ( hdc. holdpen = SelectObject ( hdc. 1. MoveToEx ( hdc. NULL ) . . hpen ) . MoveToEx ( hdc. 0. holdpen = SelectObject ( hdc. EndPaint ( hWnd. SelectObject ( hdc. 210.

Different macros like PS_SOLID. PS_DOT.h’ to represent different pen styles. PAINTSTRUCT ps .3 A new pen can be created using the CreatePen( ) API function. etc. HBRUSH hbr .592 Let Us C Figure 18. we can also create three different types of brushes. . This function needs three parameters—pen style. Note that for pen styles other than PS_SOLID the pen thickness has to be 1 pixel. void OnPaint ( HWND hWnd ) { HDC hdc . Let us now write a program that shows how to build these brushes and then use them to fill rectangles. have been defined in ‘windows. Here is the OnPaint( ) handler which achieves this. pen thickness and pen color. These are—solid brush. Types of Brushes The way we can create different types of pens. hatch brush and pattern brush.

5. SelectObject ( hdc. hbr = CreateSolidBrush ( RGB (255. DeleteObject ( hbr ) . 100 ) . 225. MAKEINTRESOURCE ( IDB_BITMAP1 ) ) . Rectangle ( hdc. 345. SelectObject ( hdc. DeleteObject ( hbr ) . &ps ) . holdbr ) . holdbr = SelectObject ( hdc. DeleteObject ( hbr ) . holdbr = SelectObject ( hdc. hbr = CreatePatternBrush ( hbmp ) . 245. SelectObject ( hdc. 5. RGB ( 255. holdbr = SelectObject ( hdc. 593 hbmp = LoadBitmap ( hInst. hbr ) . EndPaint ( hWnd. 105. 0 ) ) . &ps ) . 0 ) ) . 125. hbr ) . 100 ) . hbr ) . hdc = BeginPaint ( hWnd. 0. Rectangle ( hdc. DeleteObject ( hbr ) . holdbr ) . 100 ) . 5. hbr = CreateHatchBrush ( HS_CROSS. DeleteObject ( hbmp ) . HBITMAP hbmp . holdbr ) . } .Chapter 18: Graphics Under Windows HGDIOBJ holdbr . 5. 0. Rectangle ( hdc.

0 select the ‘Resource’ option.h’ that you can experiment with.4 In the OnPaint( ) handler we have drawn three rectangles—first using a solid brush. For creating a pattern brush we need to first create a bitmap (pattern). Instead of creating this pattern. . cursors that a Windows program may use are its resources. We simply have to make calls to CreateSolidBrush( ) and CreateHatchBrush( ) respectively. There are several other styles defined in ‘windows.4 appears. second using a hatched brush and third using a pattern brush. Instead we need to carry out the steps mentioned below to add a bitmap file to the project. When the compile such a program we usually want these resources to become a part of our EXE file. To be able to use a resource (bitmap file in our case) it is not enough to just copy it in the project directory. icons.594 Let Us C On execution of this program the window shown in Figure 18. For the hatch brush we have used the style HS_CROSS. If so done we do not have to ship these resources separately. You can use any other bitmap file present on your hard disk. Bitmaps. Figure 18. menus. Creating and using a solid brush and hatched brush is simple. (a) From the ‘Insert’ menu option of VC++ 6. we have used a readymade bitmap file.

h’. (e) Add the ‘Script1.rc’ file to the project using the Project | Add to Project | Files option.h’ also gets created. When we select ‘Save’ one more file called ‘resource. This string is created from the resource id using the MAKEINTRESOURCE macro. (c) Select the suitable . . While doing the clean up firstly the brush is deleted followed by the bitmap. The id is #defined in the file ‘resource. We have done this using the LoadBitmap( ) API function.bmp file on the disk. Note that if the size of the bitmap is bigger than the rectangle being drawn then the bitmap is suitably clipped. We need to include the ‘resource. This handle is then passed to the CreatePatternBrush( ) function. While using the bitmap in the program it is always referred using an id. Somewhere information has to be stored linking the id with the actual .rc). The first parameter passed to this function is the handle to the instance of the program.Chapter 18: Graphics Under Windows 595 (b) From the dialog that pops up select ‘bitmap’ followed by the import button. (d) From the ‘File’ menu select the save option to save the generated resource script file (Script1.h’ file in the program. To create the pattern brush we first need to load the bitmap in memory. This brush is then selected into the DC and then a rectangle is drawn using it. When InitInstance( ) function is called from WinMain( ) it stores the instance handle in a global variable hInst. The LoadBitmap( ) function returns the handle to the bitmap.bmp file. The second parameter passed to it is a string representing the bitmap. We have passed this hInst to LoadBitmap( ). This is done in the ‘Script1. On the other hand if the bitmap is smaller than the rectangle it is suitably replicated.rc’ file.

and they only had to write a ‘Resource compiler’ to create the resources that Windows programs use. Let us now see how these messages are tackled for drawing freehand. It provides a facility to draw a freehand drawing using mouse. or simply ‘Resources’. while a designer works on how the program looks. Then as we move the mouse on the table with the left mouse button depressed the freehand drawing should get drawn in the window.596 Code and Resources Let Us C A program consists of both instructions and static data. The mouse input comes in the form of messages. Static data is that portion of the program which is not executed as machine instructions and which does not change as the program executes. We can indicate where the freehand drawing begins by clicking the left mouse button. For free hand drawing we need to tackle three mouse messages— WM_LBUTTONDOWN for left button click. WM_MOUSEMOVE for mouse movement and WM_LBUTTONUP for releasing the left mouse button. It also means that a programmer can work on a program’s logic. The designers of Windows wisely decided that static data should be handled separately from the program code. Static data are character strings. The . The Windows term for static data is ‘Resource data’. This drawing should continue till we do not release the left mouse button. Separating the code from the resource data has other advantages like reducing memory demands and making programs more portable. bitmaps. etc. Let us see if we too can achieve this. the Paintbrush Style Even if you are knee high in computers I am sure you must have used PaintBrush. Freehand Drawing. By separating static data from the program code the creators of Windows were able to use a standard C/C++ compiler to create the code portion of the finished Windows program. data to create fonts.

x1 = x . break . message. HIWORD ( lParam ) ) . case WM_LBUTTONDOWN : OnLButtonDown ( hWnd. } void OnLButtonDown ( HWND hWnd. int x. . wParam. UINT message. WPARAM wParam. } return 0 . LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc ( HWND hWnd. break . LOWORD ( lParam ).Chapter 18: Graphics Under Windows 597 WndProc( ) function and the message handlers that perform this task are given below int x1. break . case WM_MOUSEMOVE : OnMouseMove ( hWnd. x2. LOWORD ( lParam ). default: return DefWindowProc ( hWnd. y2 . LPARAM lParam ) { switch ( message ) { case WM_DESTROY : OnDestroy ( hWnd ) . int y ) { SetCapture ( hWnd ) . case WM_LBUTTONUP : OnLButtonUp( ) . lParam ) . wParam. HIWORD ( lParam ) ) . y1. break .

We can now click the left mouse button with mouse pointer placed anywhere in the window. x1. if ( flags == MK_LBUTTON ) /* is left mouse button depressed */ { hdc = GetDC ( hWnd ) . x2. The freehand drawing would continue till we do not release the left mouse button. int x.598 y1 = y . } On execution of this program the window shown in Figure 18. y2 = y . int flags. NULL ) . y2 ) . } Let Us C void OnMouseMove ( HWND hWnd. y1 = y2 . ReleaseDC ( hWnd. MoveToEx ( hdc.5 appears. y1. } } void OnLButtonUp( ) { ReleaseCapture( ) . LineTo ( hdc. x1 = x2 . . We can then drag the mouse on the table to draw the freehand. hdc ) . int y ) { HDC hdc . x2 = x .

These lines are so small is size that you would not even recognize that the freehand has been drawn by connecting these small lines. This is what has been done in our program. However. if we do so the freehand would be broken at several places. A solution to this problem is to construct the freehand using small little line segments.5 It appears that for drawing the freehand we should simply receive the mouse coordinates as it is moved and then highlight the pixels at these coordinates using the SetPixel( ) API function.Chapter 18: Graphics Under Windows 599 Figure 18. . This is because usually the mouse is dragged pretty fast whereas the mouse move messages won’t arrive so fast.

The LOWORD and HIWORD macros have been used to separate out these x and y . y2 are stored in x1. When OnMouseMove( ) gets called it checks whether the left mouse button stands depressed. the handle obtained using GetDC( ) should be released using a call to ReleaseDC( ) function. y2.coordinate of the mouse whereas the high order 16 bits contain the y coordinate. Can you draw any conclusions? Capturing the Mouse If in the process of drawing the freehand the mouse cursor goes outside the client area then the window below our window would . This is because we are carrying out the drawing activity in reaction to a message other than WM_PAINT. y1.coordinates from lParam. When the WM_LBUTTONDOWN message arrives the WndProc( ) function calls the handler OnLButtonDown( ). Also. These coordinates are obtained in lParam in WndProc( ). Next time around x2. A line is then drawn between x1. Note that here we have obtained the DC handle using the API function GetDC( ). If it stands depressed then the flags variable contains MK_LBUTTON. You can try using BeginPaint( ) / EndPaint( ) in mouse handlers and GetDC( ) / ReleaseDC( ) in OnPaint( ). y1 and x2. If it does. Hence the current values of x2. y2 using the functions MoveToEx( ) and LineTo( ). y2 should become the starting of the next line.600 Let Us C Let us now discuss each mouse handler. In lParam the low order 16 bits contain the current x . While doing so. then the current mouse coordinates are set up in the global variables x2. we have passed the mouse coordinates where the click occurred. In OnLButtonDown( ) we have preserved the starting point of freehand in global variables x1 and y1.

If this has to be avoided then we should ensure that our window continues to receive mouse messages even when the cursor goes out of the client area of our window. pen and brush into the DC. A screen DC and its working is shown in Figure 18. a Closer Look Now that we have written a few programs and are comfortable with idea of selecting objects like font. pen. it is time for us to understand how Windows achieves the device independent drawing using the concept of DC. etc.6. As a result. In fact a DC is nothing but a structure that holds handles of various drawing objects like font. The process of doing this is known as mouse capturing. the program continues to respond to mouse events during freehand drawing even if the mouse is moved outside the client area. .Chapter 18: Graphics Under Windows 601 start getting mouse messages. So our window would not receive any messages. Device Context. brush. We have captured the mouse in OnLButtonDown( ) handler by calling the API function SetCapture( ). In the OnLButtonUp( ) handler we have released the captured mouse by calling the ReleaseCapture( ) API function.

It merely holds their handles. . etc. (c) Default objects like black pen. . brush. white brush. Other Info Drawing Object Arial HFONT = 700 Screen O/P Device Let Us C App2 Screen DC HPEN 900 HBRUSH 1000 HBITMAP 600 HFONT 800 .6: (a) The DC doesn’t hold the drawing objects like pen. Other Info Drawing Object Red Pen 900 Blue Brush 1000 Black Pen 200 Mono. . Bitmap 600 White Brush 400 Font 800 Default Drawing Objects Figure 18. . are shared by different DCs in same or different applications. etc.6 You can make following observations from Figure 18.602 App1 Screen DC HPEN 200 HBRUSH 400 HBITMAP 600 HFONT 700 . . (b) With each DC a default monochrome bitmap of size 1 pixel x 1 pixel is associated.

(e) Two different applications would need two different DCs even though both would be used to draw to the same screen. In other words with one screen multiple DCs can exist. This is shown in Figure 18. Displaying a Bitmap We are familiar with drawing normal shapes on screen using a device context. Thus if we attempt to draw a line using a memory DC it would end up on the 1 x 1 pixel bitmap. Hence we need to expand the size and color capability of this bitmap. (Truly speaking the request comes from GDI functions that our application calls).Chapter 18: Graphics Under Windows 603 (d) The drawing objects that an application explicitly creates can be shared within DCs of the same application. (Note that this handle was of little use In case of screen/printer DC). You would agree 1 x 1 is too small a place to draw even a small line. (f) A common Device Driver would serve the drawing requests coming from different applications. . anything drawn using a printer DC goes to a printer.7. just replace the handle of the 1 x 1 bitmap with the handle of a bigger and colored bitmap object. but what purpose would a memory DC serve? Well. Screen and printer DC is OK. similarly anything drawn using a memory DC goes to memory (RAM). To account for such possibilities while displaying a bitmap Windows uses a different mechanism—a ‘Memory DC’ The way anything drawn using a screen DC goes to screen. How about drawing images on the screen? Windows does not permit displaying a bitmap image directly using a screen DC. How can this be done? Simple. This is because there might be color variations in the screen on which the bitmap was created and the screen on which it is being displayed. But where in RAM—in the 1 x 1 pixel bitmap whose handle is present in memory DC. but is never shared between different applications. that is what the next program would explain.

Here making compatible means making certain adjustments in the contents of the memory DC structure. Looking at these values the screen device driver would suitably adjust the colors when the pixels in . . Other Info Black Pen 200 New O/P Device White Brush 400 Font 800 40000 190x220 24 –color bitmap Figure 18. .604 Default Memory DC HPEN HBRUSH HBITMAP HFONT 200 400 405 800 .7 What purpose would just increasing the bitmap size/color would serve? Whatever we draw here would get drawn on the bitmap but would still not be visible. . . Other Info Black Pen 200 Default O/P Device 405 1x1 Monochrome bitmap 800 Let Us C White Brush 400 Font Default Drawing Objects Memory DC after selecting bitmap HPEN 200 HBRUSH 400 HBITMAP 40000 HFONT 800 . Before transferring the image to the screen DC we need to make the memory DC compatible with the screen DC. We can make it visible by simply copying the bitmap image (including what has been drawn on it) to the screen DC by using the API function BitBlt( ).

220. BitBlt ( hdc. 10. &ps ) . EndPaint ( hWnd. PAINTSTRUCT ps . The program merely displays the image of a vulture in a window. DeleteDC ( hmemdc ) . Here is the code… void OnPaint ( HWND hWnd ) { HDC hdc . DeleteObject ( hbmp ) . SRCCOPY ) . hmemdc = CreateCompatibleDC ( hdc ) . 0. &ps ) . hmemdc. 190. holdbmp ) . MAKEINTRESOURCE ( IDB_BITMAP1 ) ) . } On executing the program we get the window shown in Figure 18. holdbmp = SelectObject ( hmemdc. HBITMAP hbmp .7. hbmp ) . SelectObject ( hmemdc. hdc = BeginPaint ( hWnd. HDC hmemdc . 0. HGDIOBJ holdbmp . hbmp = LoadBitmap ( hInst. 20. . Let us now take a look at the program that puts all these concepts in action.Chapter 18: Graphics Under Windows 605 the bitmap of memory DC is transferred to screen DC using BitBlt( ) function.

Note that we have passed the handle to the screen DC to this function. 0. To do this we have called the API function CreateCompatibleDC( ). After this we have selected the loaded bitmap into the memory DC.606 Let Us C Figure 18. we have performed a bit block transfer (a bit by bit copy) from memory DC to screen DC using the function BitBlt( ). 190. hmemdc. 220. As a result of this the vulture now appears in the window. Its usage is similar to what we saw while creating a pattern brush in an earlier section of this chapter. 20. . Then we have created a memory device context and made its properties compatible with that of the screen DC. 0. SRCCOPY ) . Lastly.7 As usual we begin our drawing activity in OnPaint( ) by first getting the screen DC using the BeginPaint( ) function. 10. Next we have loaded the vulture bitmap image in memory by calling the LoadBitmap( ) function. We have made the call to BitBlt( ) as shown below: BitBlt ( hdc. The function in turn returns the handle to the memory DC.

So having the ability to display a bitmap in a window is fine. SRCCOPY means that the pixel color of source should be copied onto the destination pixel of the target. So let us now see how to achieve this animation and sound effect. 20 to bottom right corner of the bitmap would get blitted. but if we can add movement and sound to it then nothing like it.Chapter 18: Graphics Under Windows Let us now understand its parameters. Let us now write a program that on execution makes a red colored ball move in the window. (b) Prepare the image for later display. As the ball strikes the walls of the . 220 – Width and height of bitmap being blitted 607 0. 0 – Top left corner of the source image. These are as under: hdc – Handle to target DC where the bitmap is to be blitted 10. SRCCOPY – Specifies one of the raster-operation codes. Animation at Work Speed is the essence of life. 20 – Position where the bitmap is to be blitted 190. (d) Check for collisions while displaying the prepared image. If we are to animate an object in the window we need to carry out the following steps: (a) Create an image that is to be animated as a resource. 20 then the image from 10. If we give 10. These codes define how the color data for the source rectangle is to be combined with the color data for the destination rectangle to achieve the final color. (c) Repeatedly display this prepared image at suitable places in the window taking care that when the next image is displayed the previous image is erased.

hdc = GetDC ( hWnd ) . Note that the width and height of the redcolored ball is 22 pixels. HDC hmemdc . lParam ) . default : return DefWindowProc ( hWnd. case WM_CREATE : OnCreate ( hWnd ) . y . UINT message. MAKEINTRESOURCE ( IDB_BITMAP1 ) ) . WPARAM wParam. case WM_TIMER : OnTimer ( hWnd ) . break . break . LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc ( HWND hWnd. HBITMAP hbmp . wParam. HGDIOBJ holdbmp . int x. HDC hdc .608 Let Us C window a noise occurs. } void OnCreate ( HWND hWnd ) { RECT r . Given below is the WndProc( ) function and the various message handlers that help achieve animation and sound effect. hbmp = LoadBitmap ( hInst. break . message. LPARAM lParam ) { switch ( message ) { case WM_DESTROY : OnDestroy ( hWnd ) . } return 0 . .

DeleteObject ( hbmp ) . y = rand( ) % r. wd.22 . hdc ) . &r ) . ht. &r ) . x = rand( ) % r. GetClientRect ( hWnd. 1 ) . BitBlt ( hdc. hbmp ) . SetTimer ( hWnd. static int dx = 10. holdbmp ) . } void OnTimer ( HWND hWnd ) { HDC hdc . GetClientRect ( hWnd. const int wd = 22. 0. x. NULL ) . hmemdc. ReleaseDC ( hWnd. 50. PostQuitMessage ( 0 ) . RECT r . holdbmp = SelectObject ( hmemdc. } void OnDestroy ( HWND hWnd ) { KillTimer ( hWnd. ht = 22 . 0. x += dx . y. DeleteDC ( hmemdc ) . srand ( time ( NULL ) ) . SelectObject ( hmemdc.right . dy = 10 . WHITENESS ) .bottom .22 .Chapter 18: Graphics Under Windows hmemdc = CreateCompatibleDC ( hdc ) . if ( x < 0 ) { 609 . 1. hdc = GetDC ( hWnd ) .

} y += dy . dy = -10 . SND_FILENAME | SND_ASYNC ) .bottom .right . PlaySound ("chord. NULL. if ( y < 0 ) { y=0.wav".wav". dx = 10 . dx = -10 . 0.wav".610 Let Us C x=0.ht . ht. For these messages we have called the handlers OnCreate( ) and OnTimer( ) respectively. NULL. PlaySound ("chord.ht ) ) { y = r. Let us now understand these handlers one by one WM_CREATE and OnCreate( ) . wd.wd ) ) { x = r.bottom . NULL. SRCCOPY ) . hmemdc. } BitBlt ( hdc. ReleaseDC ( hWnd. } From the WndProc( ) function you can observe that we have handled two new messages here—WM_CREATE and WM_TIMER. PlaySound ( "chord.right . SND_FILENAME | SND_ASYNC ). SND_FILENAME | SND_ASYNC ) . SND_FILENAME | SND_ASYNC ) . PlaySound ("chord. dy = 10 . } else if ( y > ( r. NULL.wav". } else if ( x > ( r. y. 0. hdc ) .wd . x.

WM_TIMER and OnTimer( ) If we are to perform an activity at regular intervals we have two choices: (a) Use a loop and monitor within the loop when is it time to perform that activity. Apart from preparing the image for blitting we have also done some intialialisations like setting up values in some variables to indicate the initial position of the ball. That is. However. This mechanism when used posts a WM_TIMER message at regular intervals to our application. If the control is within the loop and a new message arrives the message would not get processed unless the control goes out of the loop. To do this it would be necessary to blit the ball image several times. creating a memory DC. we need to load the image only once. whenever WM_TIMER arrives . Since usually a window is created only once. In our program to make the ball move we need to display it at different places at different times.Chapter 18: Graphics Under Windows 611 The WM_CREATE message arrives whenever a new window is created. making it compatible with screen DC and selecting the bitmap in the memory DC. The first method would seriously hamper the responsiveness of the program. (b) Use a Windows mechanism of timer. We have also called the SetTimer( ) function. The second choice is better because it makes the program event driven. This function tells Windows to post a message WM_TIMER into the message queue of our application every 50 milliseconds. the one-time activity that is to be carried out in a program is usually done in OnCreate( ) handler. As this is a one-time activity it has been done in the handler function OnCreate( ). You are already familiar with the steps involved in preparing the image for blitting—loading the bitmap.

At other times the application is free to handle other messages that come to its queue.612 Let Us C that time its handler does the job that we want to get executed periodically. Each time it would pass the timer id as additional information about the message. In our case we have specified the id as 1. When we use this code the color values of the source pixels get ignored. (b) For multiple timers Windows would post multiple WM_TIMER messages. All that we have done in the OnTimer( ) handler is erase the ball from previous position and draw it at a new position. While erasing we have used the raster operation code WHITENESS. A Few More Points… A few more points worth noting before we close our discussion on animation… (a) One application can set up multiple timers to do different jobs at different intervals. this function doesn’t . If so we have played a sound file using the PlaySound( ) API function and then changed the direction of the ball. Hence we need to pass the id of the timer that we want to set up to the SetTimer( ) function. To ensure this we have generated its initial x. (d) The size of client area of the window can be obtained using the GetClientRect( ) API function. y coordinates using the standard library function rand( ). However. (c) For drawing as well as erasing the ball we have used the same function—BitBlt( ). (e) We want that every time we run the application the initial position of the ball should be different. We have also checked if the ball has hit the boundaries of the window. Thus red colored pixels of ball would get ignored leading to erasure of the ball in the window.

Chapter 18: Graphics Under Windows 613 generate true random numbers. (g) In the call to the PlaySound( ) function the first parameter is the name of the wave file that is to be played. The third parameter is a set of flags. Similarly for time( ) function to work include the file ‘time. We have further passed this time to the srand( ) function. For this we have called the KillTimer( ) API function passing to it the ID of the timer. On selection of this item a dialog pops up. (f) To be able to use rand( ) and srand( ) functions include the file ‘stdlib. This has been achieved by making the call srand ( time ( NULL ) ) . Windows.h’. (i) When the application terminates we have to instruct Windows not to send WM_TIMER messages to our application any more. the Endless World… The biggest hurdle in Windows programming is a sound understanding of its programming model. This is done by using ‘Project | Settings’ menu item. SND_FILENAME indicates that the first parameter is the filename. If first parameter is filename then the second has to be NULL. Here time( ) is function that returns the time.h’.lib’ in the ‘Object / Library modules’ edit box. somehow we need to tie the random number generation with time.lib’. (h) To be able to use the PlaySound( ) function we need to link the library ‘winmm. To ensure that we do get true random numbers. as time of each execution of our program would be different. In the ‘Link’ tab of this dialog mention the name ‘winmm. In this chapter and in the . whereas SND_ASYNC indicates that the sound should be played in the background.

it draws to the logical display surface using device context. Windowing. Telephony. screen resolution. The intention of this chapter was to unveil before you. color palettes. or when it is moved or resized OnPaint( ) handler gets called. Shell programming. Internet programming.614 Let Us C last two I have tried to catch the essence of Windows’ Event Driven Programming model. . (b) A Windows program cannot draw directly on an output device like screen or printer. Once you have understood it thoroughly rest is just a matter of understanding and calling the suitable API functions to get your job done. Instead. The information includes color of pen and brush. Database programming. Good luck and happy fishing! Summary (a) In DOS. rest is for you to explore. It covers areas like Networking. Drawing and Printing. The intention all along was not to catch fish for you but to show you how to catch fish so that you can do fishing all your life. Having made a sound beginning. (j) A device context is a structure containing information required to draw on a display surface. to name a few. (e) To draw using a new pen or brush it is necessary to select them into the device context. several still remain to be written. The programs that we have written have merely scratched the surface. Messaging. In Windows. etc. the code once written works on any video adapter. Multimedia. No matter how many programs that we write under Windows. (d) It is necessary to obtain the device context before drawing text or graphics in the client area. Imaging. Windows API is truly an endless world. to give you the first glimpse of what is possible under Windows. programmers had to write separate graphics code for every new video adapter. (c) When the window is displayed for the first time. Device I/O.

255. (d) The default pen in the DC is a solid pen of white color. RGB ( 0. (e) The pen thickness for the pen style other than PS_SOLID has to be 1 pixel. [B] Answer the following: (a) What is meant by Device Independent Drawing and how it is achieved? . 10) to (110. 100).Chapter 18: Graphics Under Windows 615 (f) If we don’t select any brush or pen into the device context then the drawing drawn in the client area would be drawn with the default pen (black pen) and default brush (white brush). whereas. (j) The WM_CREATE message arrives whenever a window is displayed. (b) The WM_PAINT message is generated whenever the client area of the window needs to be redrawn. (g) If we drag the mouse from (10. 100 WM_MOUSEMOVE messages would be posted into the message queue. 255 ) gives white color. (c) The API function EndPaint( ) is used to release the DC. (f) BeginPaint( ) and GetDC( ) can be used interchangeably. (i) With each DC a default monochrome bitmap of size 1 pixel x 1 pixel is associated. 0. (h) Animation involves repeatedly drawing the same image at successive positions. (h) WM_PAINT message is raised when the window contents are scrolled. RGB ( 255. keyboards and printers without modifications to the program. (g) RGB is a macro representing the Red. 0 ) gives black color. Exercise [A] State True or False: (a) Device independence means the same program is able to work using different screens. Green and Blue elements of a color.

which displays "hello" at any place in the window where you click the left mouse button. [C] Attempt the following: (a) Write a program. (f) Write a program that displays different text in different colors and fonts at different places after every 10 seconds. (c) Write a program to gradient fill the entire client area with shades of blue color. Let Us C (c) How Windows manages the code and various resources of a program? (d) Explain the Windows mechanism of timer. If you click the right mouse button the color of subsequent hellos should change. (e) Write a program that displays only the upper half of a bitmap of size 40 x 40.616 (b) Explain the significance of WM_PAINT message. (e) What do you mean by capturing a mouse? (f) Write down the steps that need to be carried out to animate an object. . (d) Write a program to create chessboard like boxes (8 X 8) in the client area. (b) Write a program that would draw a line by joining the new point where you have clicked the left mouse button with the last point where you clicked the left mouse button. If the window is resized the boxes should also get resized so that all the 64 boxes are visible at all times.

DOS Perspective Hardware Interaction. Mangling Keys KeyLogger Where is This Leading Summary Exercise 617 . Windows Perspective Communication with Storage Devices The ReadSector( ) Function Accessing Other Storage Devices Communication with Keyboard Dynamic Linking Windows Hooks Caps Locked.19 Interaction With Hardware • • • • • • • • • • • • • Hardware Interaction Hardware Interaction. Permanently Did You Press It TTwwiiccee….

They are the real power users of Windows. if the user presses a key or clicks the mouse button then our program may do something. For example. (c) Explicit communication from a program without the occurrence of an event. The focus here would be restricted to mechanisms that are involved in interaction with the hardware under the Windows world.618 Let Us C T here are two types of Windows programmers those who are happy in knowing the things the way they are under Windows and those who wish to know why the things are the way they are. During this interaction one or more of the following activities may be performed: (a) Reacting to events that occur because of user’s interaction with the hardware. However. its reach is not limited to interaction with peripherals. This chapter is for the second breed of programmers. interaction with hardware would mean interaction with any chip other than the microprocessor. For example. on ticking of a timer our program may want to do something. The interaction may also involve communicating with chips present on the motherboard. Read on and I am sure you would be on your path to become a powerful Windows programmer. Hardware Interaction Primarily interaction with hardware suggests interaction with peripheral devices. Thus more correctly. or a program may want to read/write the contents of a sector from the hard disk. (b) Reacting to events that do not need explicit user’s interaction. . a program may want to send a character to the printer. Because it is they who first understand the default working of different mechanisms that Windows uses and then are able to make those mechanisms work to their advantage. For example.

For different events there are different interrupts. Depending upon which interrupt has occurred the Microprocessor picks the address of the appropriate BIOS routine from IVT and transfers execution control to it. Once the control reaches the BIOS routine.Chapter 19: Interaction With Hardware 619 Let us now see how this interaction is done under different platforms. DOS Perspective Under DOS whenever an external event (like pressing a key or ticking of timer) occurs a signal called hardware interrupt gets generated. IVT is present in memory. It is populated with addresses of different BIOS routines during booting. the code in the BIOS routine interacts with the hardware. for different interrupts different BIOS routines are called. As a reaction to the occurrence of an interrupt a table called Interrupt Vector Table (IVT) is looked up. . Naturally. Refer Figure 19. Since these routines serve the interrupts they are often called ‘Interrupt Service Routines’ or simply ISRs. Hardware Interaction.1 to understand this mechanism.

These are shown in Figure 19. .1 If we want that instead of the default ISR our routine should get called then it is necessary to store the address of this routine in IVT. we may register our ISR in IVT to gain finer control over the way key-hits from the keyboard are tackled. Explicit communication with the hardware can be done in four different ways.2. For example. This finer control may involve changing codes of keys or handling hitting of multiple keys simultaneously. Once this is done whenever a hardware interrupt occurs our routine’s address from IVT is picked up and the control is transferred to our routine.620 Let Us C Key hit / Mouse click generates an interrupt Microprocessor Microprocessor looks up IVT Suitable ISR is called ISR1 Address of ISR1 IVT Address of ISR2 ISR2 BIOS Routines Figure 19.

how to use them.Chapter 19: Interaction With Hardware 621 C Program BIOS Functions DOS Functions Library Functions Direct Interaction Hardware Figure 19. which one to use when. This is difficult since the programmer has to remember interrupt service numbers for calling different DOS functions. (b) Calling BIOS Functions . (a) Calling DOS Functions To interact with the hardware a program can call DOS functions. communication with these functions has to be done using CPU registers.2 Let us now discuss the pros and cons of using these different methods to interact with the hardware. This leads to lot of difficulties since different functions use different registers for communication. etc. the programmer is not required to know all the hardware details to be able to interact with it. However. These functions can either directly interact with the hardware or they may call BIOS functions which in turn interact with the hardware. since DOS functions do not have names they have to be called through the mechanism of interrupts. As a result. So one has to know details of different CPU registers. Moreover.

However. not every technical detail about how the hardware from a particular manufacturer works is well documented. BIOS functions suffer from the same difficulty as DOS functions—they do not have names. (c) Calling Library Functions We can call library functions which in turn can call DOS/BIOS functions to carry out the interaction with hardware. direct interaction with the hardware is difficult because one has to have good knowledge of technical details of the chip to be able to do so. But the library doesn’t have a parallel function for every DOS/BIOS function. or if they are there their reach is limited. For other operations like generating graphics. Good examples of these functions are printf( ) / scanf( ) / getch( ) for interaction with console. Note that there are some functions in ROM-BIOS that do same jobs as equivalent DOS functions. . (d) Directly interacting with the hardware At times the programs are needed to directly interact with the hardware. carrying out serial communication. printing. The library functions as well as the DOS/BIOS functions are unable to do this. etc. This has to be done because either there are no library functions or DOS/BIOS functions to do this.622 Let Us C DOS functions can carry out jobs like console I/O. bioscom( ) for interaction with serial port. etc. while writing good video games one is required to watch the status of multiple keys simultaneously. the program has to call another set of functions called ROM-BIOS functions. At such times we have to interact with the keyboard controller chip directly. For example. Moreover. file I/O. absread( ) / abswrite( ) for interaction with disk. Hence they have to be called using interrupts and involve heavy usage of registers. Hence at some point of time one has to learn how to call DOS/BIOS functions. etc.

then the mechanism . Hence the new code to interact with the device is written in a separate program called device driver. This is practically impossible. With every new piece of hardware a new device driver is provided. This device driver is an extension of the OS itself. One of goals of Windows NT family was to keep the other components of OS and the device drivers portable across different microprocessor architectures. If the processor architecture changes then the kernel is bound to change. it in turn calls the ISR present in the appropriate device driver. Two questions may now occur to you: (a) Why the kernel routine does not interact with the hardware directly? (b) Why the ISR of the device driver not registered directly in the IDT? Let us find answer to the first question. Every piece of hardware works differently than the other. Unlike DOS the IDT contains addresses of various kernel routines (instead of BIOS routines). This ISR interacts with the hardware. Windows Perspective Like DOS.Chapter 19: Interaction With Hardware 623 Hardware Interaction. These routines are part of the Windows OS itself. had registration of the device driver’s ISR in IDT been allowed. As a reaction to this signal a table called Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT) is looked up and a corresponding routine for the interrupt gets called. under Windows too a hardware interrupt gets generated whenever an external event occurs. As new pieces of hardware come into existence new code has to be written to be able to interact with them. All processor architectures may not use IDT for the registration and lookup mechanism. When the kernel routine is called. So. Out of the several components of Windows OS a component called kernel is tightly integrated with the processor architecture. If this code is written in the kernel then the kernel would have to be rewritten and recompiled every time a new hardware comes into existence. Let us now answer the second question.

624 Let Us C would fail on processors which do not use IDT.3 If we are to gain finer control while reacting to interrupts we would be required to write a device driver containing a new ISR to do so. Under Windows explicit communication with hardware is much different than the way it was done under DOS. Refer Figure 19. This is primarily because under Windows every device is shared amongst multiple applications running in memory.3 for understanding the interrupt handling mechanism under Windows. To avoid conflict between different programs accessing the same device simultaneously . thereby compromising portability of device drivers. Key hit / Mouse click generates an interrupt Microprocessor Microprocessor looks up IDT Suitable ISR is called ISR Device Driver Suitable ISR is called ISR Device Driver Address of ISR1 Address of ISR2 Suitable Kernel routine is Kernel called routine1 IDT Kernel routine2 Figure 19.

In the sections to follow we would see how to communicate with the device driver to be able to interact with the hardware.Chapter 19: Interaction With Hardware 625 Windows does not permit an application program to directly access any of the devices. The API functions that we would need to interact with this new device driver would remain same. Instead it provides several API functions to carry out the interaction. It is the device driver program that finally accesses the device. All that would change is the device driver program for the new device. One last question—won’t the API change if a new device comes into existence? No it won’t. When we call an API function to interact with a device.4 C Program Windows API Device Driver Hardware Figure 19. These functions have names so calling them is much easier than calling DOS/BIOS functions. There is a standard way in which an application can communicate with the device driver. It is device driver’s responsibility to ensure that multiple requests coming from different applications are handled without causing any conflict.4 . That is the beauty of the Windows architecture. it in turn accesses the device driver program for the device. This is shown in Figure 19.

name. File Allocation Table (FAT). That is.5 shows the four logical parts of a 1. Each floppy disk consists of four logical parts—Boot Sector. namely the floppy disk. Rather than the physical structure of the floppy disk it is the way the stored information is laid out and managed that concerns programmers most.44 MB disk. . etc. Directory and Data space. Let us begin with the one that interacts with the simplest storage device. how many tracks are there on each side. how many bytes are there per sector. size. The files and the directories are stored in the Data Space. how many sectors are there per track. The FAT contains information about where the files and directories are stored in the data space. We would illustrate this with the help of several programs. the Boot Sector contains information about how the disk is organized.626 Communication with Storage Devices Let Us C Since DOS is commercially dead the rest of the chapter would focus on communication with the devices under Windows platform. Figure 19. how many sides does it contain. etc. Let us understand how the information is laid out on a floppy disk. The Directory contains information about the files like its attributes. Of these.

Second copy of FAT DS .h> # pragma pack ( 1 ) struct boot { BYTE jump [ 3 ] . Track 1 F1 . Track 0 BS .h> # include <stdio.Data space D D 6 5 Side 0. that’s what all Windows-based Antiviral softwares do when they scan for boot sector viruses.h> # include <conio.Chapter 19: Interaction With Hardware 627 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 F2 F2 F1 14 15 16 12 D F2 11 17 F2 D F2 18 10 D 9 8 7 D D D 13 15 16 DS 17 DS F2 18 D 1 D D 2 D 3 4 F2 F2 F2 DS D D DS DS F1 F1 BS 1 F1 F1 F1 2 F1 F1 F1 3 7 4 6 5 Side 0. But why on earth would we ever like to do this? Well.h> # include <windows.5 With the logical structure of the floppy disk behind us let us now write a program that reads the boot sector of a floppy disk and displays its contents on the screen.First copy of FAT D . .Boot Sector F2 .Root directory structure Figure 19. A good enough reason for us to add the capability to read a boot sector to our knowledge! Here is the program… # include <stdafx.

\\A:". printf ( "Bytes per Sector: %d\n". SetFilePointer ( h. BYTE copiesFAT . WORD sectorsperTrack . WORD sectorsreservedarea . int num. b. Let Us C printf ( "Boot Sector name: %s\n". void* buff ) { HANDLE h . FILE_SHARE_READ. WORD totalSectors . b. void ReadSector ( char*src. NULL. &br.628 char bsOemName [ 8 ] . int ss.bps ) . char reserve [ 480 ] . 0. 0. 0 ) . &b ) . 0. BYTE sectorspercluster . WORD sectorsperFAT . b. FILE_BEGIN ) . WORD bytesperSector . buff. NULL ) ) CloseHandle ( h ) . int num.spc ) . . WORD hiddenSectors . GENERIC_READ. int ss. printf ( "Sectors per Cluster: %d\n". WORD maxrootdirentries . void* buff ) . WORD sides .id ) . /* rest of the statements can be written by referring Figure 19. 512 * num. ReadFile ( h. BYTE mediaDescriptor . ( ss * 512 ). OPEN_EXISTING. 1.6 and Appendix G*/ } void ReadSector ( char *src. }. ReadSector ( "\\\\. h = CreateFile ( src. unsigned int br . void main( ) { struct boot b .

Description Jump instruction OEM name Bytes per sector Sectors per cluster Reserved sectors Number of FAT copies Max.1 512 1 1 2 224 2880 F0 9 18 2 0 0 0 0 41 349778522 ICIT FAT12 Figure 19.6 shows the break up of the boot parameters for a floppy disk. Root directory entries Total sectors Media descriptor Sectors per FAT Sectors per track No. The Boot Parameters are useful while performing read/write operations on the disk.6 . Of sides Hidden sectors Huge sectors BIOS drive number Reserved sectors Boot signature Volume ID Volume label File system type Length 3 8 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 4 4 1 1 1 4 11 8 Typical Values EB3C90 MSWIN4. Figure 19.Chapter 19: Interaction With Hardware } 629 The boot sector contains two parts—‘Boot Parameters’ and ‘Disk Bootstrap Program’.

A console application always begins with main( ) rather than WinMain( ). The third parameter is the number of sectors that we wish to read. The syntax for this string is \\machine-name\storagedevice name. To actually read the contents of boot sector of the floppy disk the program makes a call to a user-defined function called ReadSector( ). A ‘.\\A:. Remember that our aim is to interact with the floppy.’ means the same machine on which the program is executing.’ for the machine name. Only difference is that it is built as a ‘Win32 Console Application’ using VC++. we have used ‘. The second parameter is the logical sector number. This is because we want to display the boot sector contents on the screen rather than in a window. In \\. We have specified this as 0 which means the boot sector in case of a floppy disk. As a result. and not in drawing and painting in a window. Notice the usage of #pragma pack to ensure that all elements of the structure are aligned on a 1byte boundary. The first parameter passed to ReadSector( ) is a string that indicates the storage device from where the reading has to take place. rather than the default 4-byte boundary. This parameter is specified as 1 since the boot sector occupies only a single sector. A: refers to the floppy drive.630 Let Us C Using the breakup of bytes shown in Figure 19. This has been done only for the sake of simplicity.6 our program has first created a structure called boot. So the program is still a Windows application. If you wish you can of course adapt this program to display the same contents in a window. The last parameter is the address of a buffer/variable that would collect the data that is read from the floppy. Then comes the surprise—there is no WinMain( ) in the program. Here we have passed the address of the boot structure variable b. . The ReadSector( ) function is quite similar to the absread( ) library function available in Turbo C/C++ under DOS. the structure variable would be setup with the contents of the boot sector data at the end of the function call. Needless to say.

0. By specifying the GENERIC_READ flag we have indicated that we just wish to read from the file (device). The fourth parameter indicates security access for the file (device). This function begins by making a call to the CreateFile( ) API function as shown below: h = CreateFile ( src. In general while interacting with any hardware the sharing flag for the file (device) must always be set to this value since every piece of hardware is shared amongst all the running applications. the ReadSector( ) function. The second parameter is a set of flags that are used to specify the desired access to the file (representing the device) about to be opened. The CreateFile( ) API function is very versatile. The fifth parameter specifies what action to take if . The first parameter is the string specifying the device to be opened. 0 ) . OPEN_EXISTING. Anytime we are to communicate with a device we have to firstly call this API function. GENERIC_READ. i. If you wish you can print the rest of the contents as well. The ReadSector( ) Function With the preliminaries over let us now concentrate on the real stuff in this program.e. Since we are not concerned with security here we have specified the value as 0. The CreateFile( ) function opens the specified device as a file. Windows treats all devices just like files on disk.Chapter 19: Interaction With Hardware 631 Once the contents of the boot sector have been read into the structure variable b we have displayed the first few of them on the screen using printf( ). Reading from this file means reading from the device. 0. The CreateFile( ) API function takes several parameters. The third parameter specifies the sharing access for the file (device). Since floppy drive is a shared resource across all the running applications we have specified the FILE_SHARE_READ flag. FILE_SHARE_READ.

The first parameter is the handle of the file (device). Its name is WriteFile( ). Lastly. the second parameter is the address of a buffer where the read contents should be dumped. When using CreateFile( ) for device access we must always specify this parameter as OPEN_EXISTING. once our work with the device is over we should close the file (device) using the CloseHandle( ) API function. there does exist a counterpart of the ReadFile( ) function.632 Let Us C the file already exists. We have specified the value as 512 * num so as to read num sectors. Since the floppy disk file was already opened by the OS a long time back during the booting. If the call to CreateFile( ) succeeds then we obtain a handle to the file (device). Though ReadSector( ) doesn’t need it. The remaining two parameters are not used when using CreateFile( ) API function for device access. The second parameter is the byte offset from where the reading is to begin. This second parameter is relative to the third parameter. Since every sector is 512 bytes long. The fourth parameter to ReadFile( ) is the address of an unsigned int variable which is set up with the count of bytes that the function was successfully able to read. The parameters of WriteFile( ) are same as that of ReadFile( ). Note . to read from the nth sector we need to set the file pointer to the 512 * n bytes from the start of the file. Hence we have passed a 0 value for them. The device file mechanism allows us to read from the file (device) by setting the file pointer using the SetFilePointer( ) API function and then reading the file using the ReadFile( ) API function. We have specified the third parameter as FILE_BEGIN which means the byte offset is relative to the start of the file. The third parameter is the count of bytes that have to be read. This API function can be used to write to the file (device). To actually read from the device file we have made a call to the ReadFile( ) API function. The first parameter to SetFilePointer( ) is the handle of the device file that we obtained by calling the CreateFile( ) function. The ReadFile( ) function is very easy to use.

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that when WriteFile( ) is to be used we need to specify the GENERIC_WRITE flag in the call to CreateFile( ) API function. Given below is the code of WriteSector( ) function that works exactly opposite to the ReadSector( ) function.
void WriteSector ( char *src, int ss, int num, void* buff ) { HANDLE h ; unsigned int br ; h = CreateFile ( src, GENERIC_WRITE, FILE_SHARE_WRITE, 0, OPEN_EXISTING, 0, 0 ) ; SetFilePointer ( h, ( ss * 512 ), NULL, FILE_BEGIN ) ; WriteFile ( h, buff, 512 * num, &br, NULL ) ) CloseHandle ( h ) ; }

Accessing Other Storage Devices
Note that the mechanism of reading from or writing to any device remains standard under Windows. We simply need to change the string that specifies the device. Here are some sample calls for reading/writing from/to various devices:
ReadSector ( "\\\\.\\a:", 0, 1, &b ) ; /* reading from 2nd floppy drive */ ReadSector ( "\\\\.\\d:", 0, 1, buffer ) ; /* reading from a CD-ROM drive */ WriteSector ( "\\\\.\\c:", 0, 1, &b ) ; /* writing to a hard disk */ ReadSector ( "\\\\.\\physicaldrive0", 0, 1, &b ) ; /* reading partition table */

Here are a few interesting points that you must note. (a) If we are to read from the second floppy drive we should replace A: with B: while calling ReadSector( ). (b) To read from storage devices like hard disk drive or CD-ROM or ZIP drive, etc. use the string with appropriate drive letter. The string can be in the range \\.\C: to \\.\Z:.

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(c) To read from the CD-ROM just specify the drive letter of the drive. Note that CD-ROMs follow a different storage organization known as CD File System (CDFS). (d) The hard disk is often divided into multiple partitions. Details like the place at which each partition begins and ends, the size of each partition, whether it is a bootable partition or not, etc. are stored in a table on the disk. This table is often called ‘Partition Table’. If we are to read the partition table contents we can do so by using the string \\.\physicaldrive0. (e) Using \\.\physicaldrive0 we can also read contents of any other parts of the disk. Here 0 represents the first hard disk in the system. If we are to read from the second hard disk we need to use 1 in place of 0.

Communication with Keyboard
Like mouse messages there also exist messages for keyboard. These are WM_KEYDOWN, WM_KEYUP and WM_CHAR. Of these, WM_KEYDOWN and WM_KEYUP are sent to an application (which has the input focus) whenever the key is pressed and released respectively. The additional information in case of these messages is the code of the key being pressed or released. When we tackle WM_KEYDOWN or WM_KEYUP we need to ourselves check the status of toggle keys like NumLock and CapsLock and shift keys like Ctrl, Alt and Shift. If we wish to avoid all this checking we can tackle the WM_CHAR message instead. What is mentioned above is the normal procedure followed by most Windows applications. However, if we wish to go a step further and deal with the keyboard we need to tackle it differently. For example, suppose we are to perform one of the following jobs: (a) Once you hit any key CapsLock should become on. Once it becomes on it should remain permanently on.

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(b) If we hit a key once it should appear twice on the screen. (c) If we hit a key A then B should appear on the screen, if we hit a B then C should occur and so on. Note that all these effects should work on a system-wide basis for all Win32 applications. To be able to achieve these effect we need understand two important mechanisms—‘Dynamic Linking’ and ‘Windows Hooks’. Let us understand these mechanisms one by one.

Dynamic Linking
As we saw in Chapter 16, Windows permits linking of libraries stored in a .DLL file during execution. A .DLL file is a binary file that cannot execute on its own. It contains functions that can be shared between several applications running in memory.

Windows Hooks
As the name suggests, the hook mechanism permits us to intercept and alter the flow of messages in the OS before they reach the application. Since hooks are used to alter the messaging mechanism on a system-wide basis the code for hooking has to be written in a DLL. The hooking mechanism involves writing a hook procedure in a DLL file and registering this procedure with the OS. Since the DLL cannot execute on its own we need a separate program that would load and execute the DLL. For different messages there are different types of hooks. For example, for keyboard messages there is a keyboard hook, for mouse messages there is mouse hook, etc. You can refer MSDN for nearly a dozen more types of hooks. Here we would restrict our discussion only to the keyboard hook.

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Before we proceed to write our own hook procedure let us understand the normal working of the keyboard messages. This is illustrated in Figure 19.7.

Interrupt Kernel Routine Obtain key code by interacting with KB controller

Device Driver ISR Place key code in System Msg. queue by calling keybd_event( )

System Msg. queue

OS

Application1

Application1 Msg. Queue

Application2 Msg. Queue

Application2

Figure 19.7 With reference to Figure 19.7 here is a list of steps that are carried out when we press a key from the keyboard:

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(a) On pressing a key an interrupt occurs and the corresponding kernel routine gets called. (b) The kernel routine calls the ISR of the keyboard device driver. (c) The ISR communicates with the keyboard controller and obtains the code of the key pressed. (d) The ISR calls a OS function keybd_event( ) to post the key code to the System Message Queue. (e) The OS retrieves the message from the System Message Queue and posts it into the message queue of the application with regard to which the key has been pressed. Let us now see what needs to be done if we are to alter this procedure. We simply need to register our hook procedure with the OS. As a result, our hook procedure would receive the message before it is dispatched to the appropriate Application Message Queue. Since our hook procedure gets a first shot at the message it can now alter the working in the following three ways: (a) It can suppress the message altogether (b) It can change the message (c) It can post more messages into the System Message Queue using the keybd_event( ) function. Let us now put all this theory into practice by writing a few programs.

Caps Locked, Permanently
Let us now write a program that keeps the CapsLock permanently on. This effect would come into being when the first key is hit subsequent to the execution of our program. In fact there would be two programs: (a) A DLL containing a hook procedure that achieves the CapsLock effect. (b) An application EXE which loads the DLL in memory. Given below is the source code of the DLL program.

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/* hook.c */ # include <windows.h> static HHOOK hkb = NULL ; HANDLE h ;

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BOOL __stdcall DllMain ( HANDLE hModule, DWORD ul_reason_for_call, LPVOID lpReserved ) { h = hModule ; return TRUE ; } BOOL __declspec ( dllexport ) installhook( ) { hkb = SetWindowsHookEx ( WH_KEYBOARD, ( HOOKPROC ) KeyboardProc, ( HINSTANCE ) h, 0 ) ; if ( hkb == NULL ) return FALSE ; return TRUE ; } LRESULT __declspec ( dllexport ) __stdcall KeyboardProc ( int nCode, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam ) { short int state ; if ( nCode < 0 ) return CallNextHookEx ( hkb, nCode, wParam, lParam ) ; if ( ( nCode == HC_ACTION ) && ( ( DWORD ) lParam & 0x40000000 ) ) { state = GetKeyState ( VK_CAPITAL ) ; if ( (state & 1 )== 0) /* if off */

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keybd_event ( VK_CAPITAL , 0, KEYEVENTF_EXTENDEDKEY, 0 ) ; keybd_event ( VK_CAPITAL , 0, KEYEVENTF_EXTENDEDKEY | KEYEVENTF_KEYUP, 0 ) ; } } return CallNextHookEx ( hkb, nCode, wParam, lParam ) ; } BOOL __declspec ( dllexport ) removehook( ) { return UnhookWindowsHookEx ( hkb ) ; }

Follow the steps mentioned below to create this program: (a) Select ‘File | New’ option to start a new project in VC++. (b) From the ‘Project’ tab select ‘Win32 Dynamic-Link Library’ and click on the ‘Next’ button. (c) In the ‘Win32 Dynamic-link Library Step 1 of 1’ select “An empty DLL project” and click on the ‘Finish’ button. (d) Select ‘File | New’ option. (e) From the ‘File’ tab select ‘C++ source file’ and give the file name as ‘hook.c’. Type the code listed above in this file. (f) Compile the program to generate the .DLL file. Note that this program doesn’t contain WinMain( ) since the program on compilation should not execute on its own. It has been replaced by a function called DllMain( ). This function acts as entry point of the DLL program. It gets called when the DLL is loaded or unloaded. When the application loads the DLL the DllMain( ) function would be called. In this function we have merely stored the handle to the DLL that has been loaded in memory into a global variable h for later use.

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Those functions in a DLL that can be called from outside it are called exported functions. Our DLL contains three such functions—installhook( ), removehook( ) and KeyboardProc( ). To indicate to the compiler that a function in a DLL is an exported function we have to pre-qualify it with __declspec ( dllexport ). These functions would be called from the second program. This second program is a normal GUI application created in the same way that we did applications in Chapters 17 and 18. The handlers for messages WM_CREATE and WM_DESTROY are given below:
/* capslocked.c */ HINSTANCE h ; void OnCreate ( HWND hWnd ) { BOOL ( CALLBACK *p )( ) ; h = LoadLibrary ( "hook.dll" ) ; if ( h != NULL ) { p = GetProcAddress ( h, "installhook" ) ; ( *p )( ) ; /* calls installhoook( ) function */ } } void OnDestroy ( HWND hWnd ) { BOOL ( CALLBACK *p )( ) ; p = GetProcAddress ( h, "removehook" ) ; ( *p )( ) ; /* calls removehoook( ) function */ FreeLibrary ( h ) ; PostQuitMessage ( 0 ) ; }

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As we know, the OnCreate( ) and OnDestroy( ) handlers would be called when the WM_CREATE and WM_DESTROY messages arrive respectively. In OnCreate( ) we have loaded the DLL containing the hook procedure. To do this we have called the LoadLibrary( ) API function. Once the DLL is loaded we have obtained the address of the exported function installhook( ) using the GetProcAddress( ) API function. The returned address is stored in p, where p is a pointer to the installhook( ) function. Using this pointer we have then called the installhook( ) function. In the installhook( ) function we have called the API function SetWindowsHookEx( ) to register our hook procedure with the OS as shown below:
hkb = SetWindowsHookEx ( WH_KEYBOARD, ( HOOKPROC ) KeyboardProc, ( HINSTANCE ) h, 0 ) ;

Here the first parameter is the type of hook that we wish to register, whereas the second parameter is the address of our hook procedure KeyboardProc( ). hkb stores the handle of the hook installed. From now on whenever a keyboard message is retrieved by the OS from the System Message Queue the message is firstly passed to our hook procedure, i.e. to KeyboardProc( ) function. Inside this function we have written code to ensure that the CapsLock always remains on. To begin with we have checked whether nCode parameter is less than 0. If it so then it necessary to call the next hook procedure. The MSDN documentation suggests that “if code is less than zero, the hook procedure must pass the message to the CallNextHookEx( ) function without further processing and should return the value returned by CallNextHookEx( )”. Note that there can be several hook procedures installed by different programs, thus forming a chain of hook procedures. These hook procedures always get called in an order that is

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opposite to their order of installation. This means the last hook procedure installed is the first one to get called. If the nCode parameter contains a value HC_ACTION it means that the message that was just removed form the system message queue was a keyboard message. If it is so, then we have checked the previous state of the key before the message was sent. If the state of the key was ‘depressed’ (30th bit of lParam is 1) then we have obtained the state of the CapsLock key by calling the GetKeyState( ) API function. If it is off (0th bit of state variable is 0) then we have turned on the CapsLock by simulating a keypress. For this simulation we have called the function keybd_event( ) twice—first call is for pressing the CapsLock and second is for releasing it. Note that keybd_event( ) creates a keyboard message from the parameters that we pass to it and posts it into the system message queue. The parameter VK_CAPITAL represents the code for the CapsLock key. A word of caution! When we use keybd_event( ) to post keyboard message for a simulated CapsLock keypress, once again our hook procedure would be called when these messages are retrieved from the system message queue. But this time the CapsLock would be on so we would end up passing control to the next hook procedure through a call to CallNextHookEx( ). When we close the application window as usual the OnDestroy( ) would be called. In this handler we have obtained the address of the removehook( ) exported function and called it. In the removehook( ) function we have unregistered our hook procedure by calling the UnhookWindowsHookEx( ) API function. Note that to this function we have passed the handle to our hook. As a result our hook procedure is now removed from the hook chain. Hereafter the CapsLock would behave normally. Having unhooked our hook procedure the control would return to OnDestroy( ) handler where we have promptly unload the DLL from memory by calling the FreeLibrary( ) API function.

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One last point about this program—the ‘hook.dll’ file should be copied into the directory of the application’s EXE before executing the EXE.

Did You Press It TTwwiiccee….
With the power of windows hooks below your belt you are into the league of power programmers of Windows. So how about tasting the power some bit more. How about writing a program that would make every key pressed in any Windows application appear twice. Here is the code for the hook procedure.
LRESULT __declspec ( dllexport ) __stdcall KeyboardProc ( int nCode, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam ) { static BYTE key ; static BOOL flag = FALSE ; if ( nCode < 0 ) return CallNextHookEx ( hkb, nCode, wParam, lParam ) ; if ( ( nCode == HC_ACTION ) && ( ( DWORD ) lParam & 0x80000000 ) == 0 ) { if ( flag == FALSE ) { key = wParam ; keybd_event ( key , 0, KEYEVENTF_EXTENDEDKEY, 0 ) ; flag = TRUE ; } else { if ( key == ( BYTE ) wParam ) flag = FALSE ; } } return CallNextHookEx ( hkb, nCode, wParam, lParam ) ;

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In this hook procedure once again we have checked if the nCode parameter contains a value HC_ACTION. If it does then we have checked the present state of the key in question. If the present state of the key is ‘pressed’ (31th bit of lParam is 0) then we have posted the message for the same key into the system message queue by calling the keybd_event( ). However, this may lead to a serious problem. Can you imagine which? The message that we post, once retrieved, would again bring the control to our hook procedure. Once again the conditions would become true and we would post the same message again. This would go on and on. This can be prevented by using a using a simple flag variable as shown in the code. Note that the rest of the functions in the DLL file are exactly same as in the previous program. So also is the application program.

Mangling Keys
How about one more program to bolster your confidence? Let us try one that would mangle every key that is pressed. That is, convert an A to a B, B to C, C to D, etc. This would be fairly straight-forward. We simply have to increment the key code before posting it into the system message queue. Also, further processing of key has to be prevented. This can be achieved by simply returning a non-zero value from the hook procedure (thus bypassing the call to CallNextHookEx( )). This is shown in the following hook procedure.
LRESULT __declspec ( dllexport ) __stdcall KeyboardProc ( int nCode, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam ) { static BYTE key ; static BOOL flag = FALSE ;

Chapter 19: Interaction With Hardware
if ( nCode < 0 ) return CallNextHookEx ( hkb, nCode, wParam, lParam ) ;

645

if ( ( nCode == HC_ACTION ) && ( ( DWORD ) lParam & 0x80000000 ) == 0 ) { if ( flag == FALSE ) { key = wParam ; key ++ ; keybd_event ( key , 0, KEYEVENTF_EXTENDEDKEY, 0 ) ; flag = TRUE ; return 1 ; } else { if ( key == ( BYTE ) wParam ) flag = FALSE ; } } return CallNextHookEx ( hkb, nCode, wParam, lParam ) ; }

KeyLogger
There are several malicious programs that are floating on the net that steal away your passwords. These programs keep a log of every key that is pressed while entering passwords or credit card numbers. These programs make use of windows hooks to trap every key that is pressed. With the knowledge that you have gained from the past three programs this may not be a big deal. However, such key logger programs deviate from the ones that we developed in three fundamental ways: (a) They do not pop any window on the screen; otherwise the program’s presence would get detected.

646

Let Us C

(b) These programs also hide themselves from the Task Manager so that the user cannot terminate them. (c) The logged keys are secretly sent over the net to the malicious users who write such programs. Once the logged keys are known it would be possible to break into the system.

Where is This Leading
Even for a moment do not create an impression in you mind that Windows Hooks are only for notorious activities. There are many good things that they can be put to use for. These activities include: (a) Multimedia keyboards have special key like Cut, Copy, Paste, etc. Such keyboards also come with special programs which when installed know how to tackle these special keys. On pressing these keys these programs use the hook mechanism to place the simulated keys in the system message queue. (b) Many demo programs once executed automatically move the mouse pointer to a menu or a toolbar or any such item to demonstrate some feature of the software. To manage these actions a windows hook called Journal hook is used. (c) For physically impaired persons a keyboard can be simulated on the screen and the mouse clicks on this keyboard can be communicated to Windows as actual key hits. This again can be achieved using mouse and keyboard hook. There can be many more such examples. But the above three I believe would be ample to prove to you the constructive side of the powerful mechanism called Windows Hooks.

. DOS/BIOS routines or by directly interacting with the hardware. In Windows the same thing is done by the device driver’s ISR. (d) Under Windows to gain finer control over the hardware we are required to write a device driver program. WriteFile( ) and CloseHandle( ). (c) Under Windows an application can interact with the hardware by directly calling its device driver’s routines. ReadFile( ). (f) Different strings have to be passed to the CreateFile( ) functions for interacting with different devices. (g) Windows provides a powerful mechanism called hooks that can alter the flow of messages before they reach the application. Exercise [A] State True or False: (a) In MS-DOS on occurrence of an interrupt values from IDT are used to call the appropriate kernel routine. In Windows the same thing can be done by using API functions. (b) Under Windows on occurrence of an interrupt the kernel routine calls the appropriate device driver’s ISR. (b) In DOS when the user interacts with the hardware an ISR gets called which interacts with the hardware.Chapter 19: Interaction With Hardware 647 Summary (a) Hardware interaction can happen in two ways: (1) When the user interacts with the hardware and the program reacts to it. (2) When the program interacts with the hardware without any user intervention. (h) Windows hook procedures should be written in a DLL since they work on a system wide basis. (c) In DOS when the program has to interact with the hardware it can do so by using library functions. (e) Interaction with the any device can be done using API functions like CreateFile( ). (i) Windows hooks can be put to many good uses.

(g) Write a program that closes any window just by placing the cursor on the ‘Close’ button in the title bar of it. (f) While reading a sector from the disk the CreateFile( ) function creates a file on the disk.648 Let Us C (d) Under Windows we can write device drivers to extend the OS itself. (h) The ReadFile( ) and WriteFile( ) API functions can only perform reading or writing from/to a disk file. [B] Answer the following: (a) How is hardware interaction under Windows different that that under DOS? (b) What is the advantage of writing code in a DLL? (c) Explain the Windows hooks mechanism. Refer Appendix G for details about the contents of the boot sector. (e) ReadSector( ) and WriteSector( ) are API functions. (g) The Windows API function to stop communication with a device is CloseFile( ). . (d) What is the standard way of communicating with a device under Windows? (e) Write a program to read the contents of Boot Sector of a 32bit FAT file system and print them on the screen. (f) Write a program that ensures that the key ‘A’ is completely disabled across all applications.

20 C Under Linux • • • • • • • • • • What is Linux C Programming Under Linux The ‘Hello Linux’ Program Processes Parent and Child Processes More Processes Zombies and Orphans One Interesting Fact Summary Exercise 649 .

programs. with a precondition that the changed kernel can be distributed only in the source code form. What is Linux Linux is a clone of the Unix operating system. SUSE. Each of them contain the same kernel . The last 4 chapters concentrated on Windows programming. How big and committed is this community is one of the hottest debates that is raging in all parts of the world. frameworks. Caldera. Hence many organizations have come forward to make this job easy. Since its humble beginning about a decade ago. Without any further discussions let us now set out on the Linux voyage.650 Let Us C T oday the programming world is divided into two major camps—the Windows world and the Linux world. Linux is available completely free of cost. It has all the features you would expect in a modern OS. Moreover. Some of the popular distributions are RedHat. You can look at the hot discussions and the flame wars on this issue on numerous sites on the internet. Linux has steadily drawn the attention of programmers across the globe and has successfully created a community of its own. Its kernel was written from scratch by Linus Torvalds with assistance from a loosely-knit team of programmers across the world on Internet. Debian. Slackware. The kernel of Linux is available in source code form. they also provide installation scripts for easy installations of the Linux OS and applications. Anybody is free to change it to suit his requirement. A common user may not want the headaches of downloading the kernel. going through the complicated compilation process. Moreover. Before you decide to join the Windows or the Linux camp you should first get familiar with both of them. etc. utilities and frameworks on a common media. I hope you find the journey interesting and exciting. utilities have been built around the Linux kernel. They distribute the precompiled kernel. then downloading the frameworks. unlike Windows or Unix. programs and utilities. Mandrake. This and the next one would deal with Linux programming. Several programs.

Motorola 68000 machines (like Atari ST and Amiga).KWrite Compiler . but the way it is defined is likely to be different for different OSs. Intel Itanium. etc. linkers. it is same as well as different.1-10 Editor .GNU C and C++ compiler (gcc) We would be using and discussing these in the sections to follow. SuperH. ARM. etc. installation scripts. For example. debuggers. editors. These days it also runs on Compaq Alpha AXP. control instructions and the overall syntax. MIPS. C Programming Under Linux How is C under Linux any different than C under DOS or C under Windows? Well. Linux was first developed for x86-based PCs (386 or higher). utilities. frameworks. The usage of standard library functions is also same even though the implementation of each might be different under different OS. It is same to the extent of using language elements like data types. Thus Linux works on literally every conceivable microprocessor architecture. PowerPC. etc. Under Linux one is faced with simply too many choices of Linux distributions. .BASH Graphical Shell .Chapter 19: Interaction With Hardware 651 but may contain different application programs. Which one is better than the other is only a matter of taste. compilers. For simplicity (in my opinion) I have chosen the following combination: Linux Distribution . The programmer however doesn’t suffer because of this since he can continue to call printf( ) the same way no matter how it is implemented. a printf( ) would work under all OSs.0 Console Shell .KDE 3. Sun SPARC. libraries.Red Hat Linux 9. graphical shells and managers.

This is because it is a very simple yet elegant .. For example. we have preferred to use the editor called ‘KWrite’. reporting a mouse click. Hence naturally the program that achieves the same task under different OS would have to be different. Here is the source code. The ‘Hello Linux’ Program As with any new platform we would begin our journey in the Linux world by creating a ‘hello world’ program. if we are to write a C program that would create a Window and display a message “hello” at the point where the user clicks the left mouse button. compiling and executing the program are discussed below. etc. } The program is exactly same as compared to a console program under DOS/Windows.652 Let Us C But there the similarity ends. displaying the message. int main( ) { printf ( "Hello Linux\n" ) . closing the window. The steps for typing. It begins with main( ) and uses printf( ) standard library function to produce its output. The architecture of this program would be very closely tied with the OS under which it is being built. This is because the mechanisms for creating a window... So what is the difference? The difference is in the way programs are typed. are very closely tied with the OS for which the program is being built. Though any editor can be used to do so. compiled and executed. If we are to build programs that utilize the features offered by the OS then things are bound to be different across OSs. handling a mouse click. return 0 . In short the programming architecture (better known as programming model) for each OS is different. The first hurdle to cross is the typing of this program.

This file contains the machine code of the program which can now be executed.Chapter 19: Interaction With Hardware 653 editor compared to other editors like ‘vi’ or ‘emacs’. Today the modern OSs like Windows and . Assuming that you have been able to start KWrite successfully. Installation of Linux and KDE is discussed in Appendix H.out (f) Now you should be able to see the output ‘Hello Linux’ on the screen. carry out the following steps: (a) Type the program and save it under the name ‘hello. Having created a Hello Linux program and gone through the editcompile-execute cycle once let us now turn our attention to Linux specific programming./a. We will begin with processes. Processes Gone are the days when only one job (task) could be executed in memory at any time.c’. # .out’.c’ using the cd command. (e) Execute the program using the following command. Once KDE is started select the following command from the desktop panel to start KWrite: K Menu | Accessories | More Accessories | KWrite If you face any difficulty in starting the KWrite editor please refer Appendix H.c (d) On successful compilation gcc produces a file named ‘a. Note that KWrite is a text editor and is a part of K Desktop environment (KDE). (c) Now compile the program using the gcc compiler as shown below: # gcc hello. (b) At the command prompt switch to the directory containing ‘hello.

What happens is that the microprocessor divides the execution time equally among all the running processes. Note that Linux uses preemptive scheduling. Before switching over to the next thread it stores the information about the current process. This scheduler program is fairly complex. no matter whether the process has completed its job or not. Even though it may appear that several processes are being executed by the microprocessor simultaneously. It is very simple to print the PID of a running process programmatically. in actuality it is not so. meaning thereby that the context switch is performed as soon as the time slot allocated to the process is over. etc. This process of shifting over from one thread to another is often called a Context Switch. Kernel assigns each process running in memory a unique ID to distinguish it from other running processes. Hence these OSs are aptly called ‘Multitasking’ OSs. The scheduling of processes is done by a program called ‘Scheduler’ which is a vital component of the Linux OS. Thus at any given moment if we take the snapshot of memory only one process is being executed by the microprocessor. Here is the program that achieves this… . Once the time-slice allocated for a process expires the operation that it is currently executing is put on hold and the microprocessor now directs its attention to the next process. This ID is often known as processes ID or simply PID. Thus each process gets the microprocessor’s attention in a round robin manner. This includes current values of CPU registers. In Linux each running task is known as a ‘process’. contents of System Stack and Application Stack. When this process again gets the time slot these values are restored.654 Let Us C Linux permit execution of several tasks simultaneously. The switching of processes happens so fast that we get a false impression that the processor is executing several processes simultaneously.

The way to achieve this is by using a library function called fork( ). the existing one is known as parent and the new process is known as child. fork( ) . This function splits the running process into two processes. } 655 Here getpid( ) is a library function which returns the process ID of the calling process. Every time we run the program a new process is created. Here is a program that demonstrates this… # include <sys/types. When the execution of the program comes to an end the process stands terminated. Parent and Child Processes As we know.h> int main( ) { printf ( "Before Forking\n" ) . our running program is a process. This can be verified by executing the program several times—each time it would produce a different output. From this process we can create another process. } Here is the output of the program… Before Forking After Forking After Forking .Chapter 19: Interaction With Hardware int main( ) { printf ( "Process ID = %d". There is a parent-child relationship between the two processes. Hence the kernel assigns a new ID to the process each time. getpid( ) ) . printf ( "After Forking\n" ) .

if ( pid == 0 ) { printf ( "In child process\n" ) . Let me give you an example. Once the copying is over the playing of the GIF file should be stopped.656 Let Us C Watch the output of the program. Note that the issue here is to show how to perform two different but inter-related jobs simultaneously. /* code to play animated GIF file */ . Also. Since these jobs may be inter-related we may not want to create two different programs to perform them. # include <sys/types. pid = fork( ) . Suppose we want perform two jobs—copy contents of source file to target file and display an animated GIF file indicating that the file copy is in progress.h> int main( ) { int pid . At such times we would want to use fork( ) to create a child process and then write the program in such a manner that file copy is done by the parent and displaying of animated GIF file is done by the child process. The following program shows how this can be achieved. they cannot be performed one after another. Both jobs should be performed simultaneously. But why on earth would we like to do this? At times we want our program to perform two jobs simultaneously. Hence I have skipped the actual code for file copying and playing the animated GIF file. You can notice that all the statements after the fork( ) are executed twice—once by the parent process and second time by the child process. The GIF file should continue to play till file copy is taking place. Since both these jobs are inter-related they cannot be performed in two different programs. In other words fork( ) has managed to split our process into two.

h> int main( ) { int pid . There onwards the execution of the fork( ) function continues in both the processes. In the parent process the ‘else block’ would get executed. Here is the program… # include <sys/types. We have done this in our program using an if statement. This program would use the fork( ) call to create a child process. even though it is actually called only once. This can be exploited by our program to segregate the code that we want to execute in the parent process from the code that we want to execute in the child process. if ( pid == 0 ) . Thus the duplication code inside fork( ) is executed once. whereas the remaining code inside it is executed in both the parent as well as the child process. Let us now write one more program. fork( ) creates a child process and duplicates the code of the parent process in the child process. When control returns from fork( ) of the parent process it returns the PID of the child process.Chapter 19: Interaction With Hardware } else { printf ( "In parent process\n" ) . whereas in the parent process we would print the PID of the parent and its child. In the child process we would print the PID of child and its parent. pid = fork( ) . Hence control would come back from fork( ) twice. whereas in the child process the ‘if block’ would get executed. whereas when control returns from fork( ) of the child process it always returns a 0. /* code to copy file */ } } 657 As we know.

. } else { printf ( "Parent : Hello I am the parent process\n" ) . So make sure that you understand it thoroughly. printf ( "Parent : Parent’s PID: %d\n”. As the name suggests.658 { printf ( "Child : Hello I am the child process\n" ) . You can tally the PIDs from the output and convince yourself that you have understood the fork( ) function well. Thus there is a inverted tree like structure of all the processes running in memory. printf ( "Child : Parent’s PID: %d\n”. getpid( ) ) . Note that even Linux internally uses fork( ) to create new child processes. printf ( "Child : Child’s PID: %d\n". A lot of things that follow use the fork( ) function. this function returns the PID of the parent of the calling process. printf ( "Parent : Child’s PID: %d\n". The father of all these processes is a process called init. getppid( ) ) . } } Let Us C Given below is the output of the program: Child : Hello I am the child process Child : Child's PID: 4706 Child : Parent's PID: 4705 Parent : Hello I am the Parent process Parent : Parent's PID: 4705 Parent : Child's PID: 4706 In addition to getpid( ) there is another related function that we have used in this program—getppid( ). If we want to get a list of all the running processes in memory we can do so using the ps command as shown below. getpid( ) ) . pid ) .

each basically does the same job but with a minor variation. More Processes Suppose we want to execute a program on the disk as part of a child process.h> int main( ) { int pid . } else printf ( "Parent process\n" ) . For example. if ( pid == 0 ) { execl ( "/bin/ls". } . execl( ) function permits us to pass a list of command line arguments to the program to be executed. Note that there is a family of exec library functions. pid = fork( ) .Chapter 19: Interaction With Hardware # ps –A 659 Here the switch –A indicates that we want to list all the running processes. NULL ) . Let us now see a program that uses execl( ) to run a new program in the child process. # include <unistd. execv( ) also does the same job as execl( ) except that the command line arguments can be passed to it in the form of an array of pointers to strings. For this first we should create a child process using fork( ) and then from within the child process we should call an exec function to execute the program on the disk as part of a child process. There also exist other variations like execle( ) and execvp( )."-al". printf ( "Child: After exec( )\n") . "/etc".

all the contents of the /etc directory are listed on the screen. The first parameter to execl( ) is the absolute path of the program to be executed. Apart from other information the process table contains an entry of ‘exit code’ of the process. Hence the call to printf( ) did not materialize. In our case the child process’s memory was overwritten by the code and data of the ls program. Zombies and Orphans We know that the ps –A command lists all the running processes. This table is called ‘Process Table’. This function accepts variable number of arguments. This is because a child would not get created and execl( ) would simply overwrite the main process itself. It would make little sense in calling execl( ) before fork( ). The last parameter is an end of argument marker which must always be NULL. As a result. Note that the printf( ) below the call to execl( ) function is not executed.660 Let Us C After forking a child process we have called the execl( ) function. This act of querying . This is because the exec family functions overwrite the image of the calling process with the code and data of the program that is to be executed. The remaining parameters describe the command line arguments for the program to be executed. Even though the process comes to an end its entry would remain in the process table until such time that the parent of the terminated process queries the exit code. Hence fork( ) and execl( ) usually go hand in hand. Linux maintains a table containing information about all the processes. But from where does the ps program get this information? Well. Thus in our case the we have called upon the execl( ) function to execute the ls program as shown below ls -al /etc As a result. no statement beyond the call to execl( ) would ever get executed. This integer value indicates the reason why the process was terminated.

Thus. Thus a proper cleanup happens for the parent process. Note that in this case the child process does not become a zombie. or in plain simple Hindi a ‘Bhoot’. Immediately the init process would adopt it and when its execution is over init would query the process table to clean up the entry for the child process.Chapter 19: Interaction With Hardware 661 deletes the entry of the terminated process from the process table and returns the exit code to the parent that raised the query. What if the parent terminates without querying. (b) Parent terminates earlier than the child Since every parent process is launched from the Linux shell. Zombie means ghost. the shell queries the process table. Such a process in Linux terminology is known as a ‘Zombie’ process. (a) Child terminates earlier than the parent In this case till the time parent does not query the exit code of the terminated child the entry of the child process would continue to exist. a parent process should query the process table immediately after the child process has terminated. Moral is. the child process which is still running is left orphaned. In such a case the zombie child process is treated as an ‘Orphan’ process. This would prevent a zombie. When we fork a new child process and the parent and the child continue to execute there are two possibilities—either the child process ends first or the parent process ends first. Immediately. Let us discuss both these possibilities. However. Next. When our parent process terminates. as a responsible parent init queries the process table as a result of which the child process entry is eliminated from the process table. when a zombie or an orphan gets created the OS takes over and ensures that a proper cleanup of the relevant process table . the parent of the parent is the shell process. the father of all processes—init—adopts the orphaned process.

status . &status. This function makes the parent process wait . It is because.h> int main( ) { unsigned int i = 0 . Why is it important to get the exit code of the terminated process. The following program shows how this can be done. as a good programming practice our program should get the exit code of the terminated process and thereby ensure a proper cleanup. if ( pid == 0 ) { while ( i < 4294967295U ) i++ . } else { waitpid ( pid. 0 ) . else printf ( "Parent: Child terminated abnormally\n" ) . int pid.h> # include <sys/types. This loop ensures that the child does not terminate immediately. Note that here cleanup is important (it happens anyway). if ( WIFEXITED ( status ) ) printf ( "Parent: Child terminated normally\n" ) . pid = fork( ) . # include <unistd. it is the exit code that would give indication about whether the job assigned to the process was completed successfully or not.662 Let Us C entry happens. } In this program we have applied a big loop in the child process. } return 0 . From within the parent process we have made a call to the waitpid( ) function. However. printf ( "The child is now terminating\n" ) .

The first parameter of waitpid( ) function is the pid of the child process for which the wait has to be performed. Instead a new copy of the variable is made for the process that is attempting to change it. The second parameter is the address of an integer variable which is set up with the exit status code of the child process. We have not used this parameter and hence we have passed a 0. As a result of querying. Even this is not so. As against this. One Interesting Fact When we use fork( ) to create a child process the child process does not contain the entire data and code of the parent process.Chapter 19: Interaction With Hardware 663 till the time the execution of the child process does not come to an end. Once the child process. terminates the waitpid( ) function queries its exit code and returns back to the parent. Next we have made use of the WIFEXITED( ) macro to test if the child process exited normally or not. In actuality the code never gets duplicated. This ensures that the child process never becomes orphaned. some data is shared. the child process does not become a zombie. The third parameter is used to specify some options to control the behavior of the wait operation. This not only ensures data integrity but also saves precious memory. Then does it mean that the child process contains the data and code below the fork( ) call. some is not. if any of the processes (either child or parent) attempt to change the value of a variable it is no longer shared. . Linux internally manages to intelligently share it. However. Using this macro the parent suitably prints a message to report the status (normal/abnormal) termination of its child process. Till the time both the processes do not change the value of the variables they keep getting shared. This macro takes the status value as a parameter and returns a non-zero value if the process terminated normally.

(b) A Linux distribution consists of the kernel with source code along with a large collection of applications. (c) C programs under Linux can be compiled using the popular gcc compiler. (b) All distributions of Linux contain the same collection of applications. (h) execl( ) function overwrites the image (code and data) of the calling process. libraries and installation scripts.664 Summary Let Us C (a) Linux is a free OS whose kernel was built by Linus Trovalds and friends. (f) Init process is the father of all processes. (n) Orphaned processes are adopted by init process automatically. libraries. (k) kill command can be used to terminate a process. (m) An ‘Orphan’ is a child process whose parent has terminated. (c) Basic scheduling unit in Linux is a file. (l) A ‘Zombie’ is a child process that has terminated but its parent is running and has not called a function to get the exit code of the child process. Processes are scheduled by a special program called ‘Scheduler’. scripts. (e) fork( ) library function can be used to create child processes. (d) Basic scheduling unit in Linux is a ‘Process’.. etc. (o) A parent process can avoid creation of a Zombie and Orphan processes using waitpid( ) function. . (g) execl( ) library function is used to execute another program from within a running program. (j) ps command can be used to get a list of all processes. Exercise [A] State True or False: (a) We can modify the kernel of Linux OS. (i) execl( ) and fork( ) usually go hand in hand.

Do you observe any change in the output of the program? (f) How does waitpid( ) prevent creation of Zombie or Orphan processes? . (j) Every zombie process is essentially an orphan process. getpppid( ) serve? (e) Rewrite the program in the section ‘Zombies and Orphans’ replacing the while loop with a call to the sleep( ) function. (h) fork( ) overwrites the image (code and data) of the calling process. each doing basically the same job but with minor variations. (g) fork( ) completely duplicates the code and data of the parent process into the child process. What would be the output of the program if the command line argument is * ? (d) What purpose do the functions getpid( ). (i) fork( ) is called twice but returns once. (e) The scheduler process is the father of all processes. [B] Answer the following: (a) If a program contains four calls to fork( ) one after the other how many total processes would get created? (b) What is the difference between a zombie process and an orphan process? (c) Write a program that prints the command line arguments that it receives. getppid( ). (f) A family of fork( ) and exec( ) functions are available.Chapter 19: Interaction With Hardware 665 (d) execl( ) library function can be used to create a new child process. (k) Every orphan process is essentially an orphan process.

666 Let Us C .

21 More Linux Programming • • • • • • • • Communication using Signals Handling Multiple Signals Registering a Common Handler Blocking Signals Event driven programming Where Do You Go From Here Summary Exercise 667 .

int main( ) { while ( 1 ) printf ( "Pogram Running\n" ) . The reverse communication—from the OS to the program—is achieved using a mechanism called ‘Signal’. Let us now write a simple program that would help you experience the signal mechanism. Thus the direction of communication was from the program to the OS. In Chapters 16 and 17 we saw how a Windows based program communicates with Windows. Communication using Signals In the last chapter we used fork( ) and exec( ) library function to create a child process and to execute a new program respectively. Since we have done nothing to handle this signal the default signal handler gets called. } The program is fairly straightforward. These library functions got the job done by communication with the Linux OS. In this chapter let us explore how this communication happens under Linux. In this . When we press Ctrl + C the keyboard device driver informs the Linux kernel about pressing of this special key combination. A worthwhile program has to communicate with the outside world in general and with the OS in particular. When the program is running we can terminate it by pressing the Ctrl + C. In today’s world a program that runs in isolation is of little use. The kernel reacts to this by sending a signal to our program. return 0 . This is true in real life as well as in programming.668 Let Us C C ommunication is the essence of all progress. All that we have done here is we have used an infinite while loop to print the message "Program Running" on the screen.

A unique number is associated with each signal. return 0 . It is precisely this default signal handler for SIGINT that got called when we pressed Ctrl + C when the above program was executed. INT in SIGINT stands for interrupt. This is shown in the following program: # include <signal. There are several signals that can be sent to a program. it is simple.h’. SIGKILL. } int main( ) { signal ( SIGINT.h> void sighandler ( int signum ) { printf ( "SIGINT received. Inside sighandler\n" ) . } In this program we have registered a signal handler for the SIGINT signal by using the signal( ) library function. SIGCONT.function pointer’ pairs indicating for which signal which function should be called. in the file ‘signal. The first parameter . If we do not decide to handle a signal then against that signal ID the address of the default signal handler function is present. they have been defined as macros like SIGINT. But how on earth would the default signal handler get called. ( void* ) sighandler ) . Every process contains several ‘signal ID . Well.Chapter 21: More Linux Programming 669 default signal handler there is code to terminate the program. Hence on pressing Ctrl + C the program gets terminated. etc. while ( 1 ) printf ( "Program Running\n" ) . Let us know see how can we prevent the termination of our program even after hitting Ctrl + C. To avoid remembering these numbers.

This address has to be typecasted to a void * before passing it to the signal( ) function. Now when we press Ctrl + C the registered handler. That is. our handler does not terminate the execution of our program. In your case the terminal name and the process id might be a different number. Next do a ps –a to obtain the list of processes running at all the command prompts that we have launched. when a signal is received no matter what our program is doing. This function would display the message ‘SIGINT received. If we wish we can abort the execution of the program in the signal handler itself by using the exit ( 0 ) beyond the printf( ).out was tty1 and its process id turned out to be 3276. The second parameter is the address of a function that should get called whenever the signal is received by our program. So only way to terminate it is to kill the running process from a different terminal. How to start a new instace of command prompt is discussed in Appendix H. Inside sighandler’ and return the control back to main( ).out’ process by saying # kill 3276 In my case the terminal on which I executed a. For this we need to open a new instance of command prompt (terminal). sighandler( ) would get called. Finally kill ‘a.out.670 Let Us C of this function specifies the ID of the signal that we wish to register. . Note down the process id of a. Once the execution of the signal handler is over the execution of the program is resumed from the point where it left off when the signal was received. the signal handler would immediately get called. Note that unlike the default handler. namely. Note that signals work asynchronously.

signal ( SIGTERM. } void termhandler ( int signum ) { printf ( "\nSIGTERM Received\n" ) . } void conthandler ( int signum ) { printf ( "\nSIGCONT Received\n" ) . signal ( SIGCONT.Chapter 21: More Linux Programming 671 Handling Multiple Signals Now that we know how to handle one signal.h> void inthandler ( int signum ) { printf ( "\nSIGINT Received\n" ) . termhandler ) .h> # include <sys/types. inthandler ) . Here is the program to do this… # include <unistd. return 0 . conthandler ) .h> # include <signal. } . let us try to handle multiple signals. while ( 1 ) printf ( "\rProgram Running" ) . } int main( ) { signal ( SIGINT.

here too. when we press Ctrl + C the handler for the SIGINT i. A SIGKILL signal terminates the program. Most signals may be caught by the process.672 Let Us C In this program apart from SIGINT we have additionally registered two new signals. After registering the signals we enter a infinite while loop to print the ‘Program running’ message on the screen. when we try to kill the program from the second terminal using the kill command the program does not terminate. This is because when the kill command is used it sends the running program a SIGTERM signal. The signal( ) function is called thrice to register a different handler for each of the three signals. but there are a few signals that the process cannot catch. Note that even if a process attempts to handle the SIGKILL signal by registering a handler for it still the control would always land in the default SIGKILL handler which would terminate the program. Such signals are often known as un-catchable signals.e. namely. As a result the printf( ) statement in the termhandler( ) function gets executed and the message ‘SIGTERM Received’ gets displayed on the screen. Use the following command from the another terminal: kill –SIGKILL 3276 As the command indicates. inthandler( ) is called. . we are trying to send a SIGKILL signal to our program. the handler for SIGTERM i. The default handler for the message terminates the program. Since we have handled this signal ourselves. Then how are we supposed to terminate the program? Simple. SIGTERM and SIGCONT.e. However. and they cause the process to terminate. As in the previous program. The SIGKILL signal is an un-catchable signal that forcibly terminates the execution of a process. Once the execution of termhandler( ) function is over the program resumes its execution and continues to print ‘Program Running’. termhandler( ) gets called.

after the grace period is over it forcibly terminates all the remaining processes using the SIGKILL signal. One such process that makes uses of this signal is a system shutdown process. To resume the execution of the suspended process we can make use of the fg (foreground) command. Registering a Common Handler Instead of registering a separate handler for each signal we may decide to handle all signals using a common signal handler. waits for a while. That leaves only one question—when does a process receive the SIGCONT signal? Let me try to answer this question.h> # include <signal. This gives rise to the un-catchable SIGSTOP signal. As a result of which the suspended program resumes its execution and receives the SIGCONT signal (CONT means continue execution). However. The process is stopped but is not terminated. This is shown in the following program: # include <unistd.e. i.Chapter 21: More Linux Programming 673 The SIGKILL signal is to be used as a last resort to terminate a program that gets out of control.h> void sighandler ( int signum ) { switch ( signum ) { case SIGINT : . It first sends a SIGTERM signal to all processes.h> # include <sys/types. A process under Linux can be suspended using the Ctrl + Z command. thus giving a ‘grace period’ to all the running processes. it is suspended.

Note that we can easily afford to mix the two methods of registering signals in a program. while ( 1 ) printf ( "\rProgram running" ) . In our program we have made use of the switch-case construct to print a different message for each of the three signals. That is. case SIGTERM : printf ( "SIGTERM Received\n" ) . } } int main( ) { signal ( SIGINT. break . signal ( SIGTERM. return 0 . signal ( SIGCONT.674 printf ( "SIGINT Received\n" ) . break . sighandler ) . sighandler ) . break . we can register separate signal handlers for some of the signals and a common handler for . sighandler ) . } Let Us C In this program during each call to the signal( ) function we have specified the address of a common signal handler named sighandler( ). case SIGCONT : printf ( "SIGCONT Received\n" ) . Thus the same signal handler function would get called when one of the three signals are received. This does not lead to a problem since the sighandler( ) we can figure out inside the signal ID using the first parameter of the function.

h> # include <signal. Blocking Signals Sometimes we may want that flow of execution of a critical/timecritical portion of the program should not be hampered by the occurrence of one or more signals.h> void sighandler ( int signum ) { switch ( signum ) { case SIGTERM : printf ( "SIGTERM Received\n" ) . break . it is preferable to block the signals for the moment and deliver them some time later.h> # include <stdio. case SIGINT : printf ( "SIGINT Received\n" ) .h> # include <sys/types.Chapter 21: More Linux Programming 675 some other signals. break . When the signals are unblocked the process immediately receives all the pending signals one after another. Note that if a signal arrives when it is blocked it is simply queued into a signal queue. Thus blocking of signals defers the delivery of signals to a process till the execution of some critical/time-critical code is over. Instead of completely ignoring the signals or letting the signals interrupt the execution. Registering a common handler makes sense if we want to react to different signals in exactly the same way. Here is the program… # include <unistd. Let us now write a program to understand signal blocking. In such a case we may decide to block the signal. Once we are through with the critical/timecritical code we can unblock the signals(s). .

} sigprocmask ( SIG_UNBLOCK. sigaddset ( &block. NULL ) . sigprocmask ( SIG_BLOCK. sigset_t block . sigaddset ( &block. signal ( SIGTERM. while ( strcmp ( buffer. puts ( buffer ) . sighandler ) .676 case SIGCONT : printf ( "SIGCONT Received\n" ) . gets ( buffer ) . NULL ) . sigemptyset ( &block ) ."n" ) != 0 ) { printf ( "Enter a String: " ) . } Let Us C In this program we have registered a common handler for the SIGINT. signal ( SIGINT. return 0 . &block. Next we want to . SIGTERM and SIGCONT signals. sighandler ) . SIGINT ) . &block. sighandler ) . SIGTERM ) . while ( 1 ) printf ( "\rProgram Running" ) . break . signal ( SIGCONT. } } int main( ) { char buffer [ 80 ] = "\0” .

The sigemptyset( ) empties a sigset_t variable so that it does not refer to any signals. we want that this activity of receiving input should not be interrupted by the SIGINT or the SIGTERM signals. Once we are through with the loop we must unblock these signals. Once the user enters ‘n’ from the keyboard the execution comes out of the while loop and unblocks . a SIGCONT should be permitted. The last parameter can be either NULL or the address of sigset_t type variable which would be set up with the existing set of signals before blocking/unblocking signals. However. So before we proceed with the loop we must block the SIGINT and SIGTERM signals. To block the SIGINT and SIGTERM we have to add the signals to the empty set of signals. The only parameter that this function accepts is the address of the sigset_t variable. The first parameter of sigaddset( ) is the address of the sigset_t variable and the second parameter is the ID of the signal that we wish to add to the existing set of signals.Chapter 21: More Linux Programming 677 repeatedly accept strings in a buffer and display them on the screen till the time the user does not enter an ‘n’ from the keyboard. This can be achieved using the sigaddset( ) library function. This blocking and unblocking of signals can be achieved using the sigprocmask( ) library function. This is done so that we can easily check that till the time the loop that receives input is not over the program cannot be terminated using Ctrl + C or kill command since the signals are blocked. Additionally. We have used this function to quickly initialize the sigset_t variable block to a known empty state. After the loop we have also used an infinite while loop to print the ‘Program running’ message. The first parameter of the sigprocmask( ) function specifies whether we want to block/unblock a set of signals. There are library functions that help us to populate the sigset_t structure. The next parameter is the address of a structure (typedefed as sigset_t) that describes a set of signals that we want to block/unblock.

} . gtk_main( ) . &argv ) .h> int main ( int argc. g_signal_connect ( p. gtk_main_quit. etc. As you know.678 Let Us C the signals. 300 ) . type a character.c */ # include <gtk/gtk. gtk_widget_show ( p ) . /* mywindow. Once we are through with the loop the signal handlers would be called. GTK stands for Gimp’s Tool Kit. in a GUI program events occur typically when we click on the window. 300. So if we press Ctrl + C or use the kill command when the execution of the loop that receives input is not over these signals would be kept pending. p = gtk_window_new ( GTK_WINDOW_TOPLEVEL ) . Given below is the first program that uses this toolkit to create a window on the screen. are immediately delivered to the program. gtk_window_set_title ( p . We have chosen the GTK library version 2. Event Driven programming Having understood the mechanism of signal processing let us now see how signaling is used by Linux – based libraries to create event driven GUI programs. pending signals. Here. Refer Appendix H for installation of this toolkit. repaint the window. "destroy". gtk_init ( &argc. As a result.0 to create the GUI applications. if any. char *argv[ ] ) { GtkWidget *p . NULL ) . "Sample Window" ) . gtk_widget_set_size_request ( p. close the window. return 0 .

1 The GTK library provides a large number of functions that makes it very easy for us to create GUI programs.Chapter 21: More Linux Programming We need to compile this program as follows: gcc mywindow. Every window under GTK is known as a widget.-libs` 679 Here we are compiling the program ‘mywindow.0 .c’ and then linking it with the necessary libraries from GTK toolkit.-cflags . Note the quotes that we have used in the command. To create a simple window we have to carry out the following steps: .c `pkg-config gtk+-2. Here is the output of the program… Figure 21.

(d) Register a signal handler for the destroy signal. This function requires the addresses of the command line arguments received in main( ). The second parameter is a string describing the text to be displayed in the title of the window. call the gtk_window_new( ) function to create a top level window. The destroy signal is received whenever we try to close the window. The first parameter of this function is a pointer to the GtkWidget structure representing the window for which the title has to be set. The widget object is a structure (GtkWidget) variable that stores lots of information including the attributes of window it represents. The second and the . (c) Set the title for the window by making a call to gtk_window_set_title( ) function. The third parameter is the address of the signal handler routine. The second parameter is a string that specifies the name of the signal. The first parameter of this function is the pointer to the widget for which destroy signal handler has to be registered. (b) Next. The only parameter this function takes is the type of windows to be created. We have not used the fourth parameter. GTK provides a ready-made function called gtk_main_quit( ) that does this job. We have collected this pointer in a GtkWidget structure pointer called p. This call creates a window in memory and returns a pointer to the widget object. We only need to associate this function with the destroy signal. The handler for the destroy signal should perform clean up activities and then shutdown the application. This can be achieved using the g_signal_connect( ) function. A top level window can be created by specifying the GTK_WINDOW_TOPLEVEL value.680 Let Us C (a) Initialize the GTK library with a call to gtk_init( ) function. (e) Resize the window to the desired size using the gtk_widget_set_size_request( ) function.

p. 350. TRUE. -2880*2 ) . 300. p. gdk_draw_line ( widget -> window. 200. 200. 190 } . gdk_draw_arc ( widget -> window. 5 ) . (g) Wait in a loop to receive events for the window. 150. } int main( int argc. TRUE . 2880. 320. GdkPoint arr [ 5] = { 250. 10 ) . 300. arr. 10. 10. 250. How about another program that draws a few shapes in the window? Here is the program… /* myshapes. 200. 20. . gdk_draw_rectangle ( widget -> window. gdk_gc_unref ( p ) . 300. 10.Chapter 21: More Linux Programming 681 third parameters specify the height and the width of the window respectively. This can be accomplished using the gtk_main( ) function.c */ # include <gtk/gtk. 200.h> int expose_event ( GtkWidget *widget. 200. p. p. 10. gdk_draw_polygon ( widget -> window. &argv ) . (f) Display the window on the screen using the function gtk_widget_show( ). 400. return TRUE . char *argv[ ] ) { GtkWidget *p . GdkEventExpose *event ) { GdkGC* p . gtk_init ( &argc. TRUE. p = gdk_gc_new ( widget -> window ) . 100 ) .

682 Let Us C p = gtk_window_new ( GTK_WINDOW_TOPLEVEL ) . gtk_widget_set_size_request ( p. . expose_event. return 0 . g_signal_connect ( p. gtk_window_set_title ( p. gtk_widget_show ( p ) . NULL ) . "expose_event". gtk_main_quit. NULL ) . "Sample Window" ) . g_signal_connect ( p . 500 ) . } Given below is the output of the program. 500. gtk_main( ) . "destroy".

By writing the code for drawing shapes in the handler for this signal we are assured that the drawing would never vanish if the windows is dragged outside the screen and then brought back in.Chapter 21: More Linux Programming 683 Figure 21. This signal is sent to our process whenever the window needs to be redrawn.2 This program is similar to the first one. This is . The only difference is that in addition to the destroy signal we have registered a signal handler for the expose_event using the g_signal_connect( ) function. or some other window uncovers a portion of our window which was previously overlapped. and so on.

Complete Linux programming deserves a book on its own. With that knowledge under your belt you are now capable of exploring the vast world of Linux on your own. Good luck! Summary (a) Programs can communicate with the Linux OS using library functions. (c) The interrupt signal (SIGINT) is sent by the kernel to our program when we press Ctrl + C. (e) A process cannot handle an un-catchable signal. . This function returns a pointer to the graphics context structure. gdk_draw_arc( ). gdk_draw_rectangle(). (b) The Linux OS communicates with a program by means of signals. Where Do You Go From Here You have now understood signal processing. etc. gdk_draw_polygon( ). In order to draw in the window we need to obtain a graphics context for the window using the gdk_gc_new( ) function. the heart of programming under Linux. under Linux we have a graphics context. I am sure that if you have taken a good look at it you can try the rest yourselves. Once we are through with drawing we should release the graphics context using the gdk_gc_unref( ) function. The way in Windows we have a device context. Idea here was to raise the hood and show you what lies underneath it. (d) A term signal (SIGTERM) is sent to the program when we use the kill command. (f) The kill –SIGKILL variation of the kill command generates an un-catchable SIGKILL signal that terminates a process. This pointer must be passed to the drawing functions like gdk_draw_line( ).684 Let Us C because a expose_event signal would be sent to our application which would immediately redraw the shapes in our window.

(l) A process receives the SIGCONT signal when it resumes execution. Exercise [A] State True or False: (a) All signals registered signals must have a separate signal handler. (h) The sigprocmask( ) function can block as well as unblock signals. (m) In GTK. (b) Blocked signals are ignored by a process. (k) A suspended process can be resumed using the fg command. (g) Multiple signals can be registered at a time using a single call to signal( ) function. (e) If our signal handler gets called the default signal handler automatically gets called. [B] Answer the following: (a) How does the Linux OS know if we have registered a signal or not? (b) What happens when we register a handler for a signal? . (f) gtk_main( ) function makes uses of a loop to prevent the termination of the program. (h) Blocked signals are delivered to the process when the signals are unblocked. (i) A SIGSTOP signal is generated when we press Ctrl + Z.Chapter 21: More Linux Programming 685 (g) A process can block a signal or a set of signals using the sigprocmask( ) function. (j) A SIGSTOP signal is un-catchable signal. (c) Only one signal can be blocked at a time. the g_signal_connect( ) function can be used to connect a function with an event. (d) Blocked signals are ignored once the signals are unblocked.

From inside the handler for SIGINT signal write an infinite loop to print the message ‘Processing Signal’. Run the program once again and press Ctrl + C once then use the kill command. (d) Write a program to handle the SIGINT and SIGTERM signals. . What are your observations? (e) Write a program that blocks the SIGTERM signal during execution of the SIGINT signal. Run the program and make use of Ctrl + C more than once.686 Let Us C (c) Write a program to verify that SIGSTOP and SIGKILL signals are un-catchable signals.

A Precedence Table 687 .

++ ~ ! & * ( type ) sizeof * / % + << >> < <= > >= == != -- Let Us C Associativity Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Right to left Right to Left Right to left Right to Left Right to left Right to left Right to left Right to left Left to right Left to right Left to right Left to right Left to right Left to right Left to right Left to right Left to right Left to right Left to right Left to right Left to right Continued… .688 Description Function expression Array Expression Structure operator Structure operator Unary minus Increment/Decrement One’s compliment Negation Address of Value of address Type cast Size in bytes Multiplication Division Modulus Addition Subtraction Left shift Right shift Less than Less than or equal to Greater than Greater than or equal to Equal to Not equal to Operator () [] -> .

Appendix A: Precedence Table Continued… Description Bitwise AND Bitwise exclusive OR Bitwise inclusive OR Logical AND Logical OR Conditional Assignment Operator & ^ | && || ? : = *= += ^= <<= Comma . /= -= |= >>= %= &= 689 Associativity Left to right Left to right Left to right Left to right Left to right Right to left Right to left Right to left Right to left Right to left Right to left Right to left Figure A1.1 .

690 Let Us C .

B Standard Library Functions • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Standard Library Functions Arithmetic Functions Data Conversion Functions Character Classification Functions String Manipulation Functions Searching and Sorting Functions I/O Functions File Handling Functions Directory Control Functions Buffer Manipulation Functions Disk I/O Functions Memory Allocation Functions Process Control Functions Graphics Functions Time Related Functions Miscellaneous Functions DOS Interface Functions 691 .

An excellent book dedicated totally to standard library functions is Waite group’s. written by Nabjyoti Barkakti. this book would be incomplete if it has nothing to say about standard library functions. Following is the list of selected standard library functions. Arithmetic Functions Function abs cos cosh exp fabs floor fmod hypot log log10 modf pow sin sinh sqrt tan tanh Use Returns the absolute value of an integer Calculates cosine Calculates hyperbolic cosine Raises the exponential e to the xth power Finds absolute value Finds largest integer less than or equal to argument Finds floating-point remainder Calculates hypotenuse of right triangle Calculates natural logarithm Calculates base 10 logarithm Breaks down argument into integer and fractional parts Calculates a value raised to a power Calculates sine Calculates hyperbolic sine Finds square root Calculates tangent Calculates hyperbolic tangent . However. Turbo C Bible. even a complete list of these functions would occupy scores of pages.692 Let Us C L et alone discussing each standard library function in detail. The functions have been classified into broad categories. I have tried to reach a compromise and have given a list of standard library functions that are more popularly used so that you know what to search for in the manual.

Appendix B: Standard Library Functions 693 Data Conversion Functions Function atof atoi atol ecvt fcvt gcvt itoa ltoa strtod strtol strtoul ultoa Use Converts string to float Converts string to int Converts string to long Converts double to string Converts double to string Converts double to string Converts int to string Converts long to string Converts string to double Converts string to long integer Converts string to an unsigned long integer Converts unsigned long to string Character classification Functions Function isalnum isalpha isdigit islower isspace isupper isxdigit tolower toupper Use Tests for alphanumeric character Tests for alphabetic character Tests for decimal digit Tests for lowercase character Tests for white space character Tests for uppercase character Tests for hexadecimal digit Tests character and converts to lowercase if uppercase Tests character and converts to uppercase if lowercase .

694 String Manipulation Functions Function strcat strchr strcmp strcmpi strcpy strdup stricmp strlen strlwr strncat strncmp strncpy strnicmp strrchr strrev strset strstr strupr Use Let Us C Appends one string to another Finds first occurrence of a given character in a string Compares two strings Compares two strings without regard to case Copies one string to another Duplicates a string Compares two strings without regard to case (identical to strcmpi) Finds length of a string Converts a string to lowercase Appends a portion of one string to another Compares a portion of one string with portion of another string Copies a given number of characters of one string to another Compares a portion of one string with a portion of another without regard to case Finds last occurrence of a given character in a string Reverses a string Sets all characters in a string to a given character Finds first occurrence of a given string in another string Converts a string to uppercase Searching and Sorting Functions Function bsearch lfind qsort Use Performs binary search Performs linear search for a given value Performs quick sort .

Appendix B: Standard Library Functions 695 I/O Functions Function Close fclose feof fgetc fgetchar fgets fopen fprintf fputc fputchar fputs fscanf fseek ftell getc getch getche getchar gets inport inportb kbhit lseek open outport outportb printf putc putch putchar puts read Use Closes a file Closes a file Detects end-of-file Reads a character from a file Reads a character from keyboard (function version) Reads a string from a file Opens a file Writes formatted data to a file Writes a character to a file Writes a character to screen (function version) Writes a string to a file Reads formatted data from a file Repositions file pointer to given location Gets current file pointer position Reads a character from a file (macro version) Reads a character from the keyboard Reads a character from keyboard and echoes it Reads a character from keyboard (macro version) Reads a line from keyboard Reads a two-byte word from the specified I/O port Reads one byte from the specified I/O port Checks for a keystroke at the keyboard Repositions file pointer to a given location Opens a file Writes a two-byte word to the specified I/O port Writes one byte to the specified I/O port Writes formatted data to screen Writes a character to a file (macro version) Writes a character to the screen Writes a character to screen (macro version) Writes a line to file Reads data from a file .

within a specified number of characters.696 rewind scanf sscanf sprintf tell write Repositions file pointer to beginning of a file Reads formatted data from keyboard Reads formatted input from a string Writes formatted output to a string Gets current file pointer position Writes data to a file Let Us C File Handling Functions Function remove rename unlink Use Deletes file Renames file Deletes file Directory Control Functions Function chdir getcwd fnsplit findfirst findnext mkdir rmdir Use Changes current working directory Gets current working directory Splits a full path name into its components Searches a disk directory Continues findfirst search Makes a new directory Removes a directory Buffer Manipulation Functions Function memchr memcmp Use Returns a pointer to the first occurrence. of a given character in the buffer Compares a specified number of characters from two buffers .

Appendix B: Standard Library Functions memcpy memicmp memmove memset 697 Copies a specified number of characters from one buffer to another Compares a specified number of characters from two buffers without regard to the case of the characters Copies a specified number of characters from one buffer to another Uses a given character to initialize a specified number of bytes in the buffer Disk I/O Functions Function absread abswrite biosdisk getdisk setdisk Use Reads absolute disk sectors Writes absolute disk sectors Performs BIOS disk services Gets current drive number Sets current disk drive Memory Allocation Functions Function calloc farmalloc farfree free malloc realloc Use Allocates a block of memory Allocates memory from far heap Frees a block from far heap Frees a block allocated with malloc Allocates a block of memory Reallocates a block of memory Process Control Functions Function abort atexit Use Aborts a process Executes function at program termination .

698 execl exit spawnl spawnlp system Let Us C Executes child process with argument list Terminates the process Executes child process with argument list Executes child process using PATH variable and argument list Executes an MS-DOS command Graphics Functions Function arc ellipse floodfill getimage getlinestyle getpixel lineto moveto pieslice putimage rectangle setcolor setlinestyle putpixel setviewport Use Draws an arc Draws an ellipse Fills an area of the screen with the current color Stores a screen image in memory Obtains the current line style Obtains the pixel’s value Draws a line from the current graphic output position to the specified point Moves the current graphic output position to a specified point Draws a pie-slice-shaped figure Retrieves an image from memory and displays it Draws a rectangle Sets the current color Sets the current line style Plots a pixel at a specified point Limits graphic output and positions the logical origin within the limited area Time Related Functions Function clock difftime Use Returns the elapsed CPU time for a process Computes the difference between two times .

Appendix B: Standard Library Functions ftime strdate strtime time setdate getdate Gets current system time as structure Returns the current system date as a string Returns the current system time as a string Gets current system time as long integer Sets DOS date Gets system date 699 Miscellaneous Functions Function delay getenv getpsp perror putenv random randomize sound nosound Use Suspends execution for an interval (milliseconds) Gets value of environment variable Gets the Program Segment Prefix Prints error message Adds or modifies value of environment variable Generates random numbers Initializes random number generation with a random value based on time Turns PC speaker on at specified frequency Turns PC speaker off DOS Interface Functions Function FP_OFF FP_SEG getvect keep int86 int86x intdos intdosx MK_FP Use Returns offset portion of a far pointer Returns segment portion of a far pointer Gets the current value of the specified interrupt vector Installs terminate-and-stay-resident (TSR) programs Issues interrupts Issues interrupts with segment register values Issues interrupt 21h using registers other than DX and AL Issues interrupt 21h using segment register values Makes a far pointer .

700 segread setvect Let Us C Returns current values of segment registers Sets the current value of the specified interrupt vector .

C Chasing The Bugs 701 .

int choice . scanf ( " %d ". the & before the variable choice is missing. But as you would realize surely a great help! [1] Omitting the ampersand before the variables used in scanf( ). . For example. They are not arranged in any particular order. Note that this is not a mistake. the correct form would be. Thus. int choice . blue face and a pile of crumpled printouts and dozens of reference books all over the floor. choice ) . I thought if I make a list of more common programming mistakes it might be of help. this is going to cause trouble. A typical C programmer’s ‘morning after’ is red eyes. No sure-shot way for that. choice ) .702 Let Us C C programmers are great innovators of our times. Safety is in eliminating the blanks. And one hears again and again about programs that had to be rewritten all over again because the bugs present in it could not be located. &choice ) . Here. among their most enduring accomplishments are several new techniques for wasting time. But how do we chase them away. int choice . Unhappily. scanf ( "%d". Bugs are C programmer's birthright. Another common mistake with scanf( ) is to give blanks either just before the format string or immediately after the format string as in. scanf ( "%d". but till you don't understand scanf( ) thoroughly. There is no shortage of horror stories about programs that took twenty times to ‘debug’ as they did to ‘write’.

j++ . } } At first glance it appears the message will be printed once and the control will come out of the loop since i becomes 11. } } . actually we have fallen in an indefinite loop. 703 What do you think will be the output of the following program: main( ) { int i = 10 . [3] Ending a loop with a semicolon. main( ) { int j = 1 . and since i is non-zero the condition is satisfied and the body of the loop is executed over and over again. i++ . { printf ( "\nCompguard" ) . But. Observe the following program.Appendix C: Chasing The Bugs [2] Using the operator = instead of the operator = =. while ( i = 10 ) { printf ( "got to get out" ) . This is because the = used in the condition always assigns the value 10 to i. while ( j <= 100 ) .

Especially. this sometimes turns out to be a blessing in disguise. switch ( ch ) { case 1 : printf ( "\nGoodbye" ) . However. main( ) { int ch = 1 . } } Here. case 2 : printf ( "\nLieutenant" ) . This is an indefinite loop since j never gets incremented and hence eternally remains less that 100. then execution will continue into the next case. Remember that if a break is not included at the end of a case. in cases when we are checking whether the value of a variable equals a capital letter or a small case . the control runs into case 2 and executes the second printf( ) as well.704 Let Us C Inadvertently. [4] Omitting the break statement at the end of a case in a switch statement. This in effect makes the compiler feel that you wanted the loop to work in the following manner: while ( j <= 100 ) . Cause is the semicolon after while. we have fallen in an indefinite loop. since the break has not been given after the printf( ) in case 1.

type and order of actual and formal arguments. care should be taken to make it capable of returning a floating point value. A careless mismatch might give strange results. If we make the following function call. [7] Omitting provisions for returning a non-integer value from a function. three arguments in the order int. 'm' ) . never with a switch. Here. similarly the keyword continue can also be used with them. [5] Using continue in a switch. Note that unless otherwise mentioned the compiler would assume that this function returns a value of the type int.Appendix C: Chasing The Bugs 705 letter. 1000. It is a common error to believe that the way the keyword break is used with loops and a switch. This example has been succinctly explained in Chapter 4.5 ) . . When romanise( ) receives these arguments into formal arguments they must be received in the same order. area = area_circle ( 1. [8] Inserting a semicolon at the end of a macro definition. [6] A mismatch in the number. Remember that continue works only with loops. then while defining area_circle( ) function later in the program. yr = romanise ( year. int and char are being passed to romanise( ).

printf ( "\n%d". However. #define SQR(x) x * x main( ) { int a . } In this example we expect the value of a to be 1. a ) . #define UPPER 25 . the if statement would take the form if ( counter == 25 ) [9] Omitting parentheses around a macro expansion. For example. a semicolon at the end of a macro definition might create a problem. This usually happens because a C programmer becomes habitual to ending all statements with a semicolon.706 Let Us C How do you recognize a C programmer? Ask him to write a paragraph in English and watch whether he ends each sentence with a semicolon. This so happens because on preprocessing the arithmetic statement takes the following form: a = 25 / 5 * 5 . would lead to a syntax error if used in an expression such as if ( counter == UPPER ) This is because on preprocessing. whereas it turns out to be 25. . a = 25 / SQR ( 5 ) .

the macro would be expanded to. [12] Confusing a character constant and a character string. w ) . In the statement ch = 'z' . If you are wanting to first get sum of 5 and 5 and then increment b to 6. w = ( b++ ) + ( b++ ) . } On preprocessing. In the statement . w = SUM( b++ ) . that would not happen using the above macro definition. #define ABS (a) ( a = 0 ? a : -a ) Here.Appendix C: Chasing The Bugs 707 [10] Leaving a blank space between the macro template and the macro expansion. the space between ABS and (a) makes the preprocessor believe that you want to expand ABS into (a). which is certainly not what you want. b = 5 . [11] Using an expression that has side effects in a macro call. printf ( "\n%d". a single character is assigned to ch. #define SUM ( a ) ( a + a ) main( ) { int w.

} Here. Note that in the first case. Compiler would not give a warning if our program exceeds the bounds. whereas in the second case it would be. If not taken care of. Remember each character array ends with a ‘\0’. for ( i = 1 . . [13] Forgetting the bounds of an array. Let Us C a pointer to the character string “a” is assigned to ch. [14] Forgetting to reserve an extra location in a character array for the null terminator. i <= 50 . the declaration of ch would be. since array counting begins with 0 and not 1. in extreme cases the above code might even hang the computer. main( ) { int num[50]. char ch . i . char *ch . in the array num there is no such element as num[50]. i++ ) num[i] = i * i . therefore its dimension should be declared big enough to hold the normal characters as well as the ‘\0’.708 ch = "z" .

fclose ( fp ) . FILE *fp . only a structure variable can occur. fp = fopen ( "text. } Here. whereas on the left of the operator -> only a pointer to a structure can occur.c". main( ) { char ch . while ( ( ch = getc ( fp ) ) != EOF ) putch ( ch ) . [16] Confusing the operator -> with the operator . while ( ch = getc ( fp ) != EOF ) putch ( ch ) . Following example demonstrates this. [15] Confusing the precedences of the various operators. the value returned by getc( ) will be first compared with EOF. since != has a higher priority than =.Appendix C: Chasing The Bugs 709 For example. As a result. and 0 otherwise. while referring to a structure element. "r" ) . the value that is assigned to ch will be the true/false result of the test—1 if the value returned by getc( ) is not equal to EOF. The correct form of the above while would be. the dimension of the array word[ ] should be 9 if a string “Jamboree” is to be stored in it. main( ) . Remember. on the left of the operator .

*s ) . [18] Exceeding the range of integers and chars. 40 } . s = 0x413 . since the address that we are storing in s (0x413) is a address of location present in BIOS Data Area. . Thus. int age . ee = &e . ee->>age ) . printf ( "\n%d". main( ) { unsigned int *s . The far pointers are 4-byte pointers and are specific to DOS.710 { struct emp { char name[35] . unsigned int far *s . struct emp *ee . the correct declaration would look like. which is far away from the data segment. Under Windows every pointer is 4-byte pointer. printf ( "\n%d". e.age ) . printf ( "\n%d". struct emp e = { "Dubhashi". }. } Let Us C [17] Forgetting to use the far keyword for referring memory locations beyond the data segment. it is necessary to use the keyword far in the declaration of variable s. } Here.

ch++ ) printf ( "\n%c %d". -128. a closer look would confirm it. the value of character range is exceeded. Reason is. Naturally the condition is satisfied and the control remains within the loop externally. gets assigned to ch. therefore the first number from the negative side of the range. } 711 Can you believe that this is an indefinite loop? Probably. ch. . the moment ch tries to become 128 (through ch++). for ( ch = 0 . ch ) .Appendix C: Chasing The Bugs main( ) { char ch . Hence. ch <= 255 . ch has been declared as a char and the valid range of char constant is -128 to +127.

712 Let Us C .

C Creating Libraries 701 .

say ‘myfuncs. prime( ) reports whether the number passed to it is a prime number or not and fibonacci( ) prints the first n terms of the Fibonacci series. Here are the steps that need to be carried out to create this library. That’s it. #include "myfuncs. Here we would assume that we wish to create a library containing the functions factorial( ). (d) Compile the program using Alt F9.lib’. int prime ( int ) .c’. This would create the library file called ‘myfuncs. (a) Define the functions factorial( ).c’ and type the following code in it. Here is how it can be done. The library now stands created. Select OK. As their names suggest. say ‘sample. From the dialog that pops us select the option ‘Library’. where n is the number passed to it. void fibonacci ( int ) . Now we have to use the functions defined in this library. prime( ) and fibonacci( ) in it as shown below: int factorial ( int ) .h’ and declare the prototypes of factorial( ). (a) Create a file. prime( ) and fibonacci( ).h" main( ) . factorial( ) calculates and returns the factorial value of the integer passed to it. (b) Create a file ‘myfuncs. Note that these steps are specific to Turbo C/C++ compiler and would vary for other compilers. (c) From the Options menu select the menu-item ‘Application’.702 Let Us C I n Chapter 5 we saw how to add/delete functions to/from existing libraries. At times we may want to create our own library of functions. Do not define main( ) in this file. prime( ) and fibonacci( ) in a file.

(c) From the ‘Project’ menu select ‘Add Item’. f = factorial ( 5 ) . result = prime ( 13 ) . On doing so a dialog would pop up. If not.c’ and then select ‘Add’.h’ mention the appropriate path. Also add the file ‘myfuncs. result .Appendix C: Creating Libraries { int f. Select the file ‘sample. say ‘sample. On doing so a file dialog would appear.h’ should be in the same directory as the file ‘sample.c’.prj’ and select OK. fibonacci ( 6 ) . f. (d) Compile and execute the project using Ctrl F9. . } 703 Note that the file ‘myfuncs. printf ( "\n%d %d". then while including ‘myfuncs. (b) Go to the ‘Project’ menu and select ‘Open Project…’ option. Give the name of the project.lib’ in the same manner. Finally select ‘Done’. result ) .

704 Let Us C .

D Hexadecimal Numbering • Numbering Systems • Relation Between Binary and Hex 713 .

we run out of digits.the ten’s column . What in fact is the ‘base’ of the numbering system? Base represents number of digits you can use before you run out of digits. as shown below: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 last available digit 10 start using a new column 11 12 13 .and start again in the one’s column with 0. in decimal numbering system. That’s the time we put a 1 in the column to the left . The reason for this is— everything a computer does is based on binary numbers. why computers use binary numbering system. binary numbering system has base 2 and hexadecimal numbering system has base 16.714 Let Us C W hile working with computers we are often required to use hexadecimal numbers. just the way decimal numbering system has base 10. how binary and hexadecimal numbering systems are related and how to use hexadecimal numbering system in everyday life. Before justifying this statement let us first discuss what numbering systems are. For example. when we have used digits from 0 to 9. Numbering Systems When we talk about different numbering systems we are really talking about the base of the numbering system. For example. and hexadecimal notation is a convenient way of expressing binary numbers.

. if we wanted to use base 8 or octal numbering system. 715 Since decimal numbering system is a base 10 numbering system any number in it is constructed using some combination of digits 0 to 9. which uses only eight digits (0 to 7). . here’s how the counting would look like: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 last available digit 10 start using a new column 11 12 .. Similarly. It is very easy to use other bases as well. but lowercase letters are also perfectly acceptable... In hex notation. . the choice of 10 as a base is quite arbitrary.. This seems perfectly natural.Appendix D: Hexadecimal Numbering 14 . For example. However... The hex digits A to F are usually written in capitals. having its origin possibly in the fact that man has 10 fingers. ten through fifteen. Here is how the counting in hex would look like: 0 1 .. the ten digits 0 through 9 are used to represent the values zero through nine. a hexadecimal numbering system has a base 16. and the remaining six values. are represented by symbols A to F.

the number of inches in a foot and so on. Let Us C Many other numbering systems can also be imagined. if we use number 342 as a hex number. we mean. we mean.716 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F last available digit 10 start using a new column 11 . . The moral is that any base can be used in a numbering system. for measuring minutes and seconds. 3 times 100 (square of 10) + 4 times 10 + 2 times 1 Similarly.. For example. although some bases are convenient than others.. 3 times 256 (square of 16) .. From the base 12 system we retain our 12 hour system for time. The hex numbers are built out of hex digits in much the same way the decimal numbers are built out of decimal digits.. For example. we use a base 60 numbering system. when we write the decimal number 342.

Thus.Appendix D: Hexadecimal Numbering + 4 times 16 + 2 times 1 717 Relation Between Binary and Hex As it turns out. binary numbering system corresponds nicely with the circuits in the computer—0 means off. This means you can’t count very far before you need to start using the next column: 0 1 last available digit 10 start using a new column 11 ... there are only two digits 0 and 1. Every hex digit represents four bits of binary information (Refer Figure D. Binary numbering system is a natural system for computers because each of the thousands of electronic circuits in the computer can be in one of the two states—on or off. In binary numbering system 4 bits taken at a time can give rise to sixteen different numbers. so the only way to represent each of these sixteen 4-bit binary numbers in a simple and short way is to use a base sixteen numbering system.1). One way is to find it decimal equivalent by multiplying each binary digit with an appropriate power of 2 as shown below: . .. 0 and 1 are called bits. computers are more comfortable with binary numbering system.. Hex numbers are used primarily as shorthand for binary numbers that the computers work with. In a binary system. Suppose we want to represent a binary number 11000101 in a short way. and 1 means on. a short-form of binary digits.

it’s fairly easy to memorize the binary equivalent of each one. Soon you will be talking hexadecimal as if you had known it all your life. From it find out the hex digits for the two four-bit sets (1100 and 0101). what’s binary 1100 in hex? That’s right C. These happen to be C and 5. learning hexadecimal requires a little practice. Therefore. As it happens with many unfamiliar subjects.1 Another method is much simpler. With a little practice it is easy to translate even long numbers into hex. Hex 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Hex 8 9 A B C D E F Binary 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Figure D.1. since there are only 16 hex digits. the binary number’s hex equivalent is C5. . You would agree this is a easier way to represent the binary number than to find its decimal equivalent.718 Let Us C 1 * 2 7 + 1 * 2 6 + 0 * 2 5 + 0 * 2 4 + 0 * 2 3 + 1 * 2 2 + 0 * 21 + 1 * 2 0 which is equal to 197. Try your hand at converting some binary numbers and vice versa. In fact. 1100 0101 0011 1010 binary is C53A hex. Quick now. You are already getting the feel of it. In this method neither multiplication nor addition is needed. Just look at Figure D. Thus.

E ASCII Chart 719 .

the first 128 are often called ASCII characters and the next 128 as Extended ASCII characters. Each ASCII character has a unique appearance. . } This chart is shown on the following page. ch <<= 255 . For convenience these characters are shown in Figure E.720 Let Us C here are 256 distinct characters used by IBM compatible family of microcomputers.2. The following simple program can generate the ASCII chart: main( ) { int ch . of Characters 26 26 10 32 34 128 256 Figure E. Out of the 128 graphic characters (Extended ASCII characters). Their values range from 0 to 255. These can be grouped as under: T Character Type Capital letters Small-case Letters Digits Special Symbols Control Character Graphics Character Total No. ch++ ) printf ( "%d %c\n". ch ) .1 Out of the 256 character set. ch. there are characters that are used for drawing single line and double line boxes in text mode. for ( ch = 0 .

Appendix E: ASCII Chart

721

┌ ─ ┬
179 195├

218 129

194

191


180 ┤

╔ ═ ╦
186

201 205

203

187

╗ ╣185

└ ╒ 213
198 ╞

192

212

Figure E.2

─ ┼
197 193

═ ╠204 ╚ ╓
200


206 202

┴ ╤

┘ ╕184

217

╩ ╥
210

╝188 ╖183 ╢182

209

214


216

╡181 ╛196

╟ 199


215

190

211

208

189

722
Value 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Char ☺ ☻ ♥ ♦ ♣ ♠ ● ◘ ○ ◙ ♂ ♀ ♪ ♫ ☼ ► ◄ ↕ ‼ ¶ § Value 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 Char ▬ ↕ ↑ ↓ → ← ⌐ ↔ ▲ ▼ ! " # $ % & ’ ( ) * + Value 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 Char , . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ? @ A Value 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 Char B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Value 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 Char X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a b c d e f g h i j k l m Value 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131

Let Us C
Char n o p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ~ м н Ç ü é â

Appendix E: ASCII Chart
Value 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 Char ä à å ç ê ë è ï î ì Ä Å É æ Æ ô ö ò û ù ÿ Ö Value 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 Char Ü ¢ £ ¥ ₧ ƒ á í ó ú ñ Ñ ¿ ⌐ ¬ ½ ¼ ¡ « » Value 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 Char ░ ▒ ▓ │ ┤ ╡ ╢ ╖ ╕ ╣ ║ ╗ ╝ ╜ ╛ ┐ └ ┴ ┬ ├ ─ ┼ Value 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 Char ╞ ╟ ╚ ╔ ╩ ╦ ╠ ═ ╬ ╧ ╨ ╤ ╥ ╙ ╘ ╒ ╓ ╫ ╪ ┘ ┌ █ Value 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 Char ▄ ▌ ▐ ▀ α β Г π Σ σ µ τ Φ θ Ω δ ∞ ø Є ∩ ≡ ± Value 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255

723
Char ≥ ≤ ⌠ ⌡ ÷ ≈ ° • · √ η ² ■

ª º

724

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F

Helper.h File

725

726

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LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc ( HWND, UINT, WPARAM, LPARAM ) ; HINSTANCE hInst ; // current instance /* FUNCTION: InitInstance ( HANDLE, int PURPOSE: Saves instance handle and creates main window COMMENTS: In this function, we save the instance handle in a global variable and create and display the main program window. */ BOOL InitInstance ( HINSTANCE hInstance, int nCmdShow, char* pTitle ) { char classname[ ] = "MyWindowClass" ; HWND hWnd ; WNDCLASSEX wcex ; wcex.cbSize = sizeof ( WNDCLASSEX ) ; wcex.style = CS_HREDRAW | CS_VREDRAW ; wcex.lpfnWndProc = ( WNDPROC ) WndProc ; wcex.cbClsExtra =0; wcex.cbWndExtra =0; wcex.hInstance = hInstance ; wcex.hIcon = NULL ; wcex.hCursor = LoadCursor ( NULL, IDC_ARROW ) ; wcex.hbrBackground = ( HBRUSH )( COLOR_WINDOW + 1 ) ; wcex.lpszMenuName = NULL ; wcex.lpszClassName = classname ; wcex.hIconSm = NULL ; if ( !RegisterClassEx ( &wcex ) ) return FALSE ; hInst = hInstance ; // Store instance handle in our global variable hWnd = CreateWindow ( classname, pTitle, WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW, CW_USEDEFAULT, 0, CW_USEDEFAULT, 0, NULL, NULL, hInstance, NULL ) ; if ( !hWnd )

Appendix F: Helper.h
return FALSE ; ShowWindow ( hWnd, nCmdShow ) ; UpdateWindow ( hWnd ) ; return TRUE ; }

727

728

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G

Boot Parameters

729

730

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T

he disk drives in DOS and Windows are organized as zerobased drives. That is, drive A is drive number 0, drive B is drive number 1, drive C is drive number 2, etc. The hard disk drive can be further partitioned into logical partitions. Each drive consists of four logical parts—Boot Sector, File Allocation Table (FAT), Directory and Data space. When a file/directory is created on the disk, instead of allocating a sector for it, a group of sectors is allocated. This group of sectors is often known as a cluster. How many sectors together form one cluster depends upon the capacity of the disk. As the capacity goes on increasing, so also does the maximum cluster number. Accordingly, we have 12-bit, 16-bit or 32-bit FAT. In a 12-bit FAT each entry is of 12 bits. Since each entry in FAT represents a cluster number, the maximum cluster number possible in a 12-bit FAT is 212 (4096). Similarly, in case of a 16-bit FAT the maximum cluster number is 216 (65536). Also, for a 32-bit FAT the maximum cluster number is 228 (268435456. Only 28 of the 32 bits are used in this FAT). All FAT systems are not supported by all versions of DOS and Windows. For example, the 32-bit FAT system is supported only in Win 95 OSR2 version or later. There are differences in the organization of contents of Boot Sector, FAT and Directory in FAT12/FAT16 system on one hand and FAT32 on the other. In Chapter 19 Figure 19.6 we saw the breakup of the contents of the boot sector of a 12-bit FAT. Given below are the contents of a boot sector of 16-bit FAT and a 32-bit FAT.

Appendix G: Boot Parameters

731
Typical Values EB3C90 MSWIN4.1 512 64 1 2 512 0 F8 256 63 255 63 4192902 128 1 41 4084677574 ICIT FAT16

Description Jump instruction OEM name Bytes per sector Sectors per cluster Reserved sectors Number of FAT copies Max. Root directory entries Total sectors Media descriptor Sectors per FAT Sectors per track No. of sides Hidden sectors Huge sectors BIOS drive number Reserved sectors Boot signature Volume ID Volume label File system type

Length 3 8 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 4 4 1 1 1 4 11 8

Figure G.1 Let us now take a look at the 32-bit FAT system’s boot sector contents. These are shown in Figure G.2.

732
Description Jump instruction OEM name Bytes per sector Sectors per cluster Reserved sectors Number of FAT copies Root directory entries Total sectors Media descriptor Sectors per FAT Sectors per track No. of sides Hidden sectors High word of hidden sectors Huge sectors High word of huge sectors Sectors per FAT High word of sectors per FAT Drive description flag File system version Root directory starting cluster High word of root directory starting cluster File system information sector Back up boot sector Reserved Length 3 8 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 6

Let Us C

Typical Values EB5890 MSWIN4.1 512 8 51 2 0 0 F8 0 63 255 63 63 4192902 4192902 4095 4095 0 0 2 2 1 6 0 continued…

Appendix G: Boot Parameters
…continued BIOS drive number Reserved Boot signature Volume ID Volume label File system type 1 1 1 4 11 8 128 0 41 649825316 ICIT FAT32

733

Figure G.2 There are significant changes in the contents of the boo t sector of a 32-bit FAT system. The entries ‘Number of hidden sectors’ and ‘Huge sectors’ have now been made 4-byte entries. The first two bytes contain the low word of the value, whereas, the next two bytes contain the high word value. The number of sectors per FAT in a 32-bit file system is likely to exceed what can be accommodated in two bytes. Hence the entry ‘Sectors per FAT’ for a disk with a 32-bit file system would typically have a value 0. The value of ‘Sectors per FAT’ is now stored as a 4-byte entity, with the similar arrangement of low word and high word as discussed earlier. The boot sector of a 32-bit FAT system also has new entries like ‘Drive description flag’, ‘File system version’ ‘Starting cluster number of the root directory’, ‘Sector number of the file system information sector’, and the sector number of the ‘Backup boot sector’. The ‘Drive description flag’ is a two-byte entity. Bit 8 of this flag indicates whether or not the information written to the active FAT will be written to all copies of the FAT. The low four bits of this entry contains the 0-based FAT number of the active FAT. These bits are meaningful only if bit 8 is set.

734

Let Us C

In the entry ‘File system version number’ the high byte contains the major version number, whereas, the low byte contains the minor version number. The entry ‘File system information sector’ contains a value indicating the sector number where the file system information is present. This file system information consists of the fields shown in Figure G.3.

Description File system signature Total number of free clusters Sector number of the next free cluster Reserved

Length 4 4 4 6

Figure G.3 The entry ‘File information sector’ contains a value OFFFFh if there is no such sector. The entry ‘Backup boot sector’ contains a value 0FFFFh is there is no backup boot sector. Otherwise this value is any non-zero value less than the reserved sector count.

H Linux Installation 735 .

Click on the ‘Next’ button in the ‘Language selection’ screen. Ignore any warnings generated by clicking on the ‘OK’ button. Click on the ‘Next’ button in the ‘additional language support’ screen. Click on the ‘Next’ button in the ‘Disk Partitioning Setup’ screen. Click on the ‘Next’ button in the ‘Mouse Configuration’ screen. Configure the system to boot from CDROM drive. Click on the ‘Next’ button in the ‘Welcome’ screen. Click on the ‘Next’ button in the ‘Firewall configuration’ screen. Click on the ‘Next’ button in the ‘Authentication configuration’ screen. Select the ‘Skip’ option in the "CD Found" dialog box. Insert the first CD in the drive and boot the system from it. Type a password for the root account in the ‘Set root password’ screen and then click on the ‘Next’ button. Select a suitable option in the ‘Time zone offset’ screen and click on the ‘Next’ button. Click on the ‘Next’ button in the ‘Boot loader configuration’ screen. Select the ‘Custom’ option in the ‘Installation Type’ screen and then click on the ‘Next’ button.0. Hit ‘Enter’ key when the ‘boot’ prompt appears.736 Let Us C T (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) his appendix gives the steps that are to be carried out for installing Red Hat Linux 9. (l) (m) (n) (o) (p) (q) (r) . In addition I have also indicated a few commands that are necessary to compile and execute the programs given in Chapters 20 and 21. Click on the ‘Next’ button in the ‘Keyboard’ screen. Click on the ‘Next’ button in the ‘Network configuration’ screen. Select the ‘Keep all partitions and use existing free space’ option in the ‘Automatic Partitioning’ screen and then click on the ‘Next’ button. Follow the steps mentioned below to carry out the installation.

You can launch another instance of the command prompt by repeating the step mentioned above. Now you can type the program and save it. to start typing the program use the following menu options: KMenu | Run Command A dialog would now pop up. Once you have logged in. KMenu | System Tools | Terminal Once at the command prompt you can use the gcc compiler to compile and execute your programs. K desktop environment. (v) Click on the ‘Next’ button in the ‘Monitor configuration’ screen. This can be done using the following menu option. GNOME software development and then click on the ‘Next’ button. . To compile the program you need to go the command prompt. (w) In the ‘Customize graphical configuration’ screen select the ‘Graphical’ option and then click on ‘Next’ button. (x) Once the system restarts configure the system to boot from Hard Disk.Appendix H: Linux Installation 737 (s) In the ‘Package group selection’ screen make sure that you select the following options—X window system. Development tools. In this dialog in the command edit box type KWrite and then click on the Ok button. (t) Select ‘No’ option in the ‘Boot diskette creation’ screen (u) Click on the ‘Next’ button in the ‘Graphical Interface (x) configuration’ screen. Using Red Hat Linux For logging into the system enter the username and password and select the session as KDE (K Desktop Environment).

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