5

Scope of Business Functions

Device Reading
Device reading is performed either at regular intervals as part of periodic billing or at irregular intervals as, for example, in the case of control readings, and readings for device replacement, removal, or disconnection, or at the request of the customer. The scheduled dates and the meter reading type are defined in Scheduling. However, you can override this scheduling and create an order for a meter reader instead of a meter reading by the customer. In the case of irregular, or aperiodic, meter readings, you can manually prescribe the scheduled dates. To prepare for a device reading, you first create a meter reading order. If the meter reading results are relevant to billing, you also create a billing order that contains control data for billing. You cannot perform billing without this billing order. Depending on how it is entered, the meter reading order is either printed out in the form of meter reading documents or downloaded to an external entry system. Similarly, the meter reading results are either entered manually or uploaded, validated, and corrected if necessary. Finally, they are passed on to Contract Billing.

Fig. 5-12: Execution of a Device Reading

Meter Reading Organization
Street Route
You use meter reading organization to define the sequence in which the devices are read. This allows you to optimize the route that the meter reader must cover. You can set up a combined street route for more than meter reading unit.

5-20

Scope of Business Functions

5

A street route is defined within a meter reading unit on the basis of the following criteria: u City u Street u House number (connection object) u Device location u Device

Fig. 5-13: Street Route

Meter Reading Orders
A meter reading order contains register-specific data and information on the planned meter reading, such as target reading date and meter reader. For each register, you create one meter reading order for a utility company meter reader, for an external meter reading company, or for a reading by the customer. You can reverse meter reading orders. If meter reading results have already been obtained when the order is reversed, you can either delete them or save them and then use them with a new meter-reading order. You can create meter-reading orders as u Individual orders Individual orders are generally created for billings at irregular intervals, such as for interim and control billings or if a meter reading unit is transferred to another utility company. However, you can also create individual orders for periodic billings, such as if a single order has to be created again due to an error. u Mass orders In the case of periodic meter readings, mass orders allow you to create orders for more than one meter reading unit simultaneously.

Period Consumption

Order Creation

5-21

u Individual entry You can enter meter reading results individually in such cases as: r Control readings r Interim readings r Interim readings with billing r Service territory transfers with billing r Final readings (for move-out) r Periodic readings r Readings taken by customers 5-22 .5 Scope of Business Functions You do not create a meter reading order for flat-rate installations. or you can print it using external print systems. Entry Meter reading results are either entered manually or uploaded to IS-U/CCS from an external entry system. you can transfer the meter reading order to external entry systems. A Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI) is also available for importing meter reading results. just a billing order. The upload is handled by direct input via an intermediate document interface or IDoc. IDocs are used in electronic data interchange (EDI) between different computers and systems. Both the meter reading result and the method used to obtain the reading are stored. r Fast entry with correction If implausible meter reading results are encountered. the clerk can call up a correction screen. Manual entry can be subdivided as follows: u Fast entry Fast entry is used to enter the large volumes of data that occur with periodic meter readings. u The customer takes the reading and reports it to the utility company. because flat-rate installations do not contain meters counting consumption. such as mobile data entry (MDE) devices and document readers (downloaded). Fast entry can also be subdivided as follows: r Fast entry without immediate correction Follow-up correction and release of implausible readings may be necessary. Meter Reading Results You can obtain the meter reading result by a variety of methods: u A meter reader from the utility company or from an external meter reading company records the result on a meter reading order or enters it into the external entry system. u The system estimates the result. Order Output You can output the meter reading order in the following ways: u Print the meter reading documents using the print workbench u Make it available at a raw data interface (RDI) Using the raw data interface.

Validation Fig. that the previous meter reading was plausible or that no consumption is recorded for inactive installations.Scope of Business Functions 5 Every meter reading result is subject to validation. u Absolute. Fixed validation checks. You can define your variable validation in Customizing. The consumption must fall within a specific interval. u Usage hours compared with a previous period or a fixed value u Maximum or minimum approved contract demand limit u Meter overflow Validation checks whether the meter reading is less than the previous reading. There are two types of validation: fixed and variable. The system supports the following types of variable validation: u Zero consumption u Repeated readings by customers or estimates This allows you to limit the number of meter readings taken by customers and the number of automated estimates. Fixed validation is mandatory and is performed automatically. regardless of whether it is entered manually or uploaded. for example. 5-14: Validation and Correction 5-23 . relative. floating tolerance limits This allows you to compare current consumption with a comparison period.

the meter reading result can be used in billing or submitted for correction. u Weighting with absolute linear portions Unlike mixed weighting. A meter reading result can be extrapolated for a predefined date based on the following information: u Meter reading results Meter reading results are given the highest priority with regard to extrapolation because they best reflect the consumption pattern of customers. 5-24 . In some cases. Depending on the outcome of validation. you can calculate the meter reading results using by means of automated mass estimation. which is assigned to the register operands of the rate. You define the representative period in the rate in relation to the length of the period. the meter reading or consumption result is compared with an extrapolated expected value. make subsequent changes to it if. known as a rereading order. They are determined by the weighting procedure. u Reference value If neither meter reading results nor period consumption exist. you create a new meter reading order. with updated data. the system extrapolates using the reference value stored in the rate. To calculate the degree to which meter readings are representative of a period. The representative period can be as little as one month or as much as one year. The period for which the customer’s meter reading results exist must be representative. However. meter reading results have to be checked on site. there is a change in the consumption pattern of the customer. This allows you to take a minimum consumption as a basis each month. Weighting Procedures You may use any of the following common weighting procedures: u Linear weighting u Weighting of energy feeding u Weighting of degree days u General weighting u Mixed weighting Mixed weighting entails adding a total of fixed or percentage portions of linear weightings to the current weighting procedure. the system extrapolates from the period consumption. this type of weighting allows you to define a time period in addition to a fixed value.5 Scope of Business Functions Extrapolation of Meter Reading Results In some cases of validation. you consider the weighting portions valid for the time period (see below). u Period consumption If no previous meter readings exist or if the time period is not representative. of course. you can also correct plausible results. You can store the period consumption on device installation or customer move-in per register in a device and. Estimation If meter readings and consumption are either missing or implausible. Where this is the case. for example. Correction The result of validation determines the status of the individual meterreading results.

Interval data must be supplied to systems that process the data further. and entry. Meter reading data is assigned a unique code within the company. or billable meter reading results. Meter Reading Warehouse (MRW) The meter reading warehouse manages not only traditional meter readings but also interval data. implausible. a “delivery point ID. but can be programmed for any period in a day. especially industrial and service enterprises. are starting to meter consumption with electronic.” to ensure correct allocation. According to delivery point or period. Since this process creates a large volume of data. limit the display to specific business partners. The delivery point is usually the customer’s point of receipt or a power plant’s point of delivery for the grid. billing. the traditional mechanical meters or first-generation programmable meters are gradually being replaced by interval meters. The IS-U/CCS System is being continuously developed to cover the functional scope outlined in the following. However. The data is stored via the delivery point ID. time periods. meter reading units. different units and intervals can be defined and stored. Starting with large industrial customers. of course.Scope of Business Functions 5 Monitoring You can monitor the status of meter reading. the interval data can be forwarded to other internal systems (such as billing systems). An interval is typically 5 minutes to 1 hour. Alternatively. This allows you to check the number of entered. IS-U development news and release notes contain more detailed information about release dates. the interval data can be transmitted to third parties via electronic data exchange.” Such time series of energy consumption readings are also referred to as a load profile. programmable meters called interval meters. the descriptions below have been kept general. These new requirements have been taken into account in the ongoing development of the ISU/CCS System. AMR systems store the meter reading data as “interval data. The delivery point can also be the interchange tie point between grids. 5-25 . since development is ongoing. it is important to use a data management system that optimizes storage space. Utility companies today. Depending on the company’s role. You can. These meters measure different units (such as kW or kVAr) in time intervals. and so on. SAP AG reserves the right to change the functional scope at any time. Interval meters are read by Automated Meter Reading (AMR) systems using different transmission methods. Outlook The liberalization of the energy market as well as the development of new metering technology have led to new requirements for the utilities industry.

In this way. such as addition. such as the addition of plausible data when data is missing. Load profiles with a certain error tolerance can also be stored for a large number of customers using only a small amount of storage space. it can be stored in the MRW. Forecasted interval data can also be aggregated in order to forecast the total consumption of a chain of branches. maximum. The MRW is used predominantly for data processing. correction of meter reading data u Alteration of stored interval data. If new interval data is created during processing. This is accomplished by assigning the load profile data category to the delivery point ID and by means of a usage factor. The MRW offers the following processing functions: u Validation and. The MRW not only stores the load profiles. u Provision of interval data created as above or of interval data analyses in a certain format defined by the company requesting the data (export function of the MRW). for example. For example. u Aggregation of metered interval data in different ways. load profiles can be used for residential customers as well. or weekdays and months according to season) can be stored instead of realtime interval data. The aggregation of interval data in different ways allows for statistical analyses or load profile forecasts of different types. Automated meter reading systems retrieve the interval data from local interval meters. The AMR systems forward the interval data directly to the MRW without making changes to the data. MRW Processing Function 5-26 . minimum or average demand — according to the specifications of the company requesting the analysis. u Conversion of meter readings into billable quantities (energy or demand) for electricity and gas u Creation of new interval data. weekdays. if necessary. The method used to create the new interval data can be indicated. It is currently possible to transfer meter readings from traditional meters (see the section on Meter Reading). Processed data can either be sent to another component of IS-U/CCS or be exported to an external system via electronic data exchange (such as EDIFACT).5 Scope of Business Functions Categorized load profile data for relative periods (such as working days. u Analysis of interval data of all types according to typical criteria such as total consumption. The origin of the added data can be indicated. or averaging. MRW Import Function The import function allows meter readings to be transferred from other systems. The usage factor is relative deviation of metered consumption from predefined consumption according to interval data category. interval data added together may serve as a basis for billing a chain of branches of a major customer. These analyses and forecasts can be carried out dynamically and provided to the requesting units or they can be stored in the MRW with an indicator of creation method. in order to derive interval data for a future period using metered interval data. it can also import and store data from external systems or export the data to other systems. The MRW stores the interval data with the appropriate delivery point ID. subtraction.

u Billing of RTP (real-time pricing) contracts. Further Processing of Interval Data The interval data managed in the MRW is processed further by other IS-U/CCS components or by external systems. r Load forecasting to aid energy procurement or simulation of grid load or capacity r Calculating transmission losses u Forwarding of interval data to end customers for purposes of information or demand side management Support of the business processes in energy trading by managing and processing the various load profiles required during those trading processes 5-27 . entire sets of interval data are requested from the MRW. Such interval data might contain load schedules or information about maximum or minimum consumption. r Analyzing interval data for optimization of rates and prices or for costs analyses. The check is carried out based on authorization criteria stored in the MRW for the particular company.Scope of Business Functions 5 u Check to ensure that the company has authorization to access the data requested. The following additional functions use data from the MRW. The conditions of the evaluations may change from interval to interval. When billing RTP contracts. aggregated or derived data. A set of data may contain metered interval data from one delivery point. to determine consumption patters of certain customer groups (market segment analyses) or customer in certain grid areas. Interval data may be used for describing billing conditions. u Use of standard electronic data exchange formats (such as EDIFACT) for transmission of data as already described to the requesting unit. at this time SAP cannot confirm that these functions will been implemented as further IS-U components. which are then used during settlement. RTP contracts require interval-specific evaluation of consumption values for the billing period. Interval data is processed predominantly by the IS-U billing component. The billing component requests the billing-related consumption data in a certain format from the MRW. However. u Analysis of interval data for: r Calculating statistics r Marketing. such as those prices determined manually or using the spot price defined by a power pool. for example. The MRW provides the billing component with the requested meter reading or interval data via export functions. This especially applies to prices that can be defined for each interval.

The input and output parameters for the variant programs are the operands. Variant programs define how billing-related quantities (such as measured consumption or demand) are to be processed and valuated. IS-U/CCS also provides a range of procedures with a variety of selection and control options for billing contracts. This allows you to run comparison bills. you can create customized variant programs. The rate type is generally stored in the installation structure because it defines the rate allocation of the registers. When defining a rate. 5-28 . This master data stores the rate structures that contain the your company’s billing rules and the contractual provisions. such as prices or demand. including: u Multiply or divide with factors u Valuate demand or quantities with a price u Discounts on prices u IF conditions u Flat-rate billing u Rental price billing In addition. you select the appropriate variant programs and specify the sequence in which they are to run. The billing rate is obtained through rate determination and is a combination of rate category and rate type. You can also arrive at more than one rate by combining rate category and rate type in rate determination. Billing Master Data Billing master data controls contract billing. Many predefined variant programs are available to you. The most important element of billing is the rate. the following section discusses only the basics of billing. the rate type can also be stored in the rate category or the installation in the case of flat-rate installations. It allows you to perform billing for your company’s utility services and other services. The functional scope and flexibility of IS-U/CCS enable you to bill nonresidential and residential customer contracts in a single system. The system processes a variant program for each rate step. You can use those rates to execute best-rate billing or comparative billing. However.5 Scope of Business Functions Contract Billing Contract billing is the core of IS-U/CCS. The rate category is stored in the installation. Examples include: u Annual consumption billing and periodic monthly billing cycles u Billing for different divisions u Numerous bill forms u Simulation of billing u Validation of billing documents and bills Due to the complexity involved. are assigned to the operands at billing program runtime. Values. which contains one or more rate steps.

Rate steps are processed in a particular sequence. You define that sequence in the billing schema. you only have to enter one new rate category for the installation.Scope of Business Functions 5 This method of indirect rate allocation using a rate type offers a number of advantages: u When you want to access new rates using an installation’s rate types. Benefits of Indirect Rate Allocation Fig. u In the case of mass changes. You do not have to make time-consuming changes to the rate types for each individual register. The results of a rate step can be passed through operands to the next rate steps to be processed. 5-15: Master Data in Contract Billing You define the billing master data described above in Customizing under rate structure. you only have to change the rate determination – not the rate data for the installations in question. Other types of billing master data include the following: 5-29 .

for rental of devices and meters r Flat rates For any of the prices. for example. prices. This factor is multiplied by the basic price or added to the basic price to arrive at the current price. you can adapt the blocks to the billing period. factors. u Rates Among other things. You can also define blocks or scales for quantity-based and time-based prices. or flat rates agreed on between the utility company and customers).5 Scope of Business Functions u Prices Prices are allocated to the following four price categories: r Quantity-based prices r Time-based prices r Rental prices. and variables are included in the calculation r The general ledger accounts to which the results of the calculations (billing line items) are posted r How the billing line items are handled statistically r How the time portions of the periods to be billed are calculated (to the day or month-related) r The divisions and billing classes to which the rate is allocated. you can override data by making individual entries in the installation. In the case of quantity-based prices. u Rate categories Rate categories contain data that controls billing for multiple rates. Rate categories: r Define which billing schema is used r Control period-end billing and floating backbilling r Define the outsorting checks r May contain additional data relevant to billing (such as quantities. 5-30 . rates define: r How meter reading results and consumption values are extrapolated and prorated r Which reference values are billed r Which prices are used r Which constants. demand values. you can specify special rounding rules and price adjustment clauses that control the price adjustment factor. In some cases.

a price. provisions of this kind can also be agreed on a multiple-territory basis for the installations of a company in the service territories of several energy distribution companies. All discounts and surcharges appear as separate billing line items in the document and can therefore – given an appropriate bill form layout – appear separately on the bill. For example.51 and Later) Companies that have concluded several contracts with a utility company for installations in their local branches are interested in conditions that account for the total quantity of demand sold and calculate the relevant discount. or you can structure them individually for individual contracts. 5-16: Discounts and Surcharges Multiple-Contract Billing (Release 4. in these territories one energy dealer meets the total energy requirements and concludes corresponding transmission service contracts with the distribution companies. Later releases will contain even more procedures for granting discounts. As a result of deregulation.Scope of Business Functions 5 You can define discounts and surcharges as percentages or as absolute values. a demand. and they will be implemented beginning with Release 4. These calculations can be made either as each individual contract is billed or as applied to all contracts jointly (as a collective bill). Various procedures are available for determining discounts: r Combined blocking or scaling of consumption r Analysis of the billing documents for the contracts in question with calculation of the discount using a customer report SAP is researching other requirements in this area. Discounts and Surcharges Fig. for one rate). 5-31 . You have flexible control over the application of surcharges and the granting of discounts. They can relate to a quantity.51. or an amount. Discounts and surcharges can apply to several contracts (for example.

online billing is also possible with Release 4. Basic Principle of Billing Automatic billing comprises the following stages: 1. you can regenerate the billing order and bill it again. Data collection and analysis All data required for billing is collected and prepared for valuation. In the event of a reversal. are taken into account. for example. Simulation. 5-32 . u Billing simulation Billing simulation allows you to give customers information about the expected amount of their bills. 5. which is deleted following successful billing. Quantity conversion Billable quantities are determined from the quantities read. is used in invoicing to produce the bill. transformer factors and conversions for thermal gas billing. and Testing Fig. Rates with their variant programs are processed based on the billing schema. 4. Specifically. a contract can only be billed either automatically or manually within any given period. If no meter reading results exist for the period in question. However. Manual.5 Scope of Business Functions Automatic Billing and Simulation In standard cases. you have the following options: u Billing To execute billing. Proration If changes are made during a billing period to duties. You can reverse or change all forms of billing on the basis of manual credit memos or backbilling. together with other documents. a billing document is created that. 2. the quantities relevant to billing (such as consumption) must be prorated starting from the date on which the data was changed. Validation of the billing results After valuation. you can also simulate and test them. Register factors. the system automatically executes billing as a background task. In all cases. prices. u Simulation You can run a simulation for any given period without a billing order. or taxes. the system extrapolates them. Quantity valuation Quantity valuation is the actual contract billing. The prerequisites for a billing simulation are a billing order and existing meter reading results. the billing results are checked for plausibility. Billing. 3. you must have a billing order.51. 5-17: Basic Principle of Billing Not only can you perform automatic billing for contracts.

This cycle generally covers one year. a service territory transfer. and so on) u Division u Company code With the individual bill function. You can also simulate this individual bill. service territory transfer. but may also be for two. You select the contracts based on a variety of criteria. or six months. u Interim billing Interim billing is not subject to the scheduling function. such as: u Contract accounts u Portions u Billing procedure (periodic billing. or annually. you can not only execute billing for individual contracts. three. four.Scope of Business Functions 5 u Overall check Overall checks examine billing in a way similar to simulation. The subsequent periodic billing begins at the time of the interim billing. four. and print or display the bill at the same time. If necessary. You can run mass billing and mass overall checks in the background overnight. Those errors are collected in a log to be used in a comprehensive status analysis. an overall check ignores minor errors. You can initiate it at any time in response to a customer inquiry. every two. for example. u Floating backbilling Floating backbilling is a form of monthly periodic billing. Extrapolations and Forecasting Billing Procedures 5-33 . period-end billing. u Final billing Final billing is initiated for a customer move-out. The past months of a billing year are recalculated month for month and backbilled with a current value. or manually when requested. u Period-end billing Period-end billing is performed separately following the end of a billing cycle. result in premature termination of an overall check. execute these functions not only for individual contracts but also for a large number of contracts. the system recalculates periodic billings and performs backbilling. you can also perform invoicing. of course. Serious errors. Unlike the other procedures. this can be every month. You can. Simulations allow you to perform the following extrapolations and forecasts: u Extrapolation of billing with existing meter reading results u Extrapolation of billing with the meter reading result estimated automatically u Forecast of billing for a different rate structure (later release) The following billing procedures are supported: u Periodic billing Periodic billing is consumption billing that is performed on a regular basis. or six months. Interim billing is not possible for floating backbilling or period-end billing. three. on the other hand.

5 Scope of Business Functions Billing Periods The billing period for which the utility company bills the customer for a service can be calculated for an exact number of days or on a month-related basis. The calendar contains the daily or monthly lighting duration of the lights. 5-34 . you can bill for an exact number of days even with month-related procedures. or pricing quantities u Billing using seasonal values u Billing using seasonal variant programs u Decision variants Functions for Individual Divisions Billing supports the following divisions with special functions: u Electricity u Gas (see section on Special Functions) u Water or waste water u District heating u Public lighting (electricity or gas) The following functions apply to public lighting: r Mass management or individual management of the lights r Variable connection loads depending on operation type r Billing using energy prices You can measure or calculate lighting consumption. You can therefore use the following approaches to billing – with some restrictions – in all divisions: u Billing using energy prices u Billing using demand prices u Billing using basic and service prices u Billing using rental prices u Billing of usage hours u Best-rate billing u Billing using block prices. Functions of Billing Multiple-Division Billing Functions There are certain common aspects in billing regardless of the division concerned. scale prices. the system distinguishes between the following procedures: u Month-based using a key date u Month-based using an interval In the case of a move-in or move-out. You can use a burning-hour calendar for calculation. r Billing using demand prices You can calculate demand from the connection loads of the lights and then use it for valuation. In the case of month-based periods. you can control whether leap days are taken into account. In addition.

there exist a number of smaller providers. Other requirements for calculations based on actual collections. for example: u Installation of a service connection u Maintenance and repair of technical equipment u Sales To process these additional services. In addition to billing. By including the billing documents. Sales and Distribution. such as water. many utility companies offer their customers other services. for example. and Service Management components of the standard R/3 System.2 or 4.Scope of Business Functions 5 IS-U/CCS supports the flat-rate procedure for billing household waste disposal charges (Release 1. and the amounts can be assigned to cost centers for company-internal cost allocation. You create bills for energy purchases the same way as you create bills for energy supply. For more information. Those producers are subsumed under the name of small power producers. The basis for the calculation is the container. For a more detailed description. IS-U/CCS uses the Materials Management. or solar plants. Both types of consumption can be billed. or free quantities. Waste Management Flat-Rate Example Other Services Other Billing Functions Convergent Billing 5-35 .51 at earliest) The utility service consumed by a utility can be divided into plant consumption and company consumption. IS-U/CCS provides a number of additional billing functions: u Consideration of register relationships u Consideration of duties and charges in variant programs u Employee billing Employees can be billed on favorable conditions. or fill level are modeled in Service Management. flat rates. you can invoice the additional services in IS-U/CCS together with the utility services (Release 4. x $/year per container). which is emptied by a waste disposal company either periodically or on request. please see the section on Contract Accounts Receivable and Payable. Flat-rate charge for a given period: A flat rate is charged for a specific period regardless of the actual quantity of waste and the actual number of collections (for example. to prices. In addition to their standard services. the system supports the following functions: u Service orders for the collection of containers to order u Route planning with dispatching and scheduling systems This area is described in greater detail in the section Waste Management. u Small power producers or cogenerators Alongside the large utility service providers. weight. These favorable conditions may apply. please refer to the sections on Work Management and Business Processes. u Plant and company consumption (Release 4. Energy purchases by a utility company are billed according to criteria similar to those that apply to energy supply.51). wind. IS-U/CCS allows you to perform convergent billing and intercompany billing.51).

as specified in DVWG sheet G 685 for Germany and the AGA standards for the US). as defined in national standards. u Volumetric The measured operating cubic meters are billed directly. This is done by allocating to every register of an installed gas meter a procedure defining how the assessment is made. u Thermal The measured operating cubic meters are converted to a heat quantity using the gas volume correction factor and the calorific value. It can be predetermined for a device or calculated using pressure and temperature. The volume correction factor procedure takes into account the following factors: u Temperature r Fixed temperature m Arithmetic annual average m Weighted annual average m Arithmetic average for the billing period m Weighted average for the billing period u Air pressure r Annual air pressure r Air pressure recorded monthly m Arithmetic average air pressure for the billing period m Weighted average air pressure for the billing period u Gas law deviation factor The gas law deviation factor is the quotient of the real gas factors in operating conditions and in normal conditions. and it calculates the calorific value with a calorific value procedure. The following gas billing types are supported: u Standard cubic meters The measured operating cubic meters are converted to standard cubic meters using the gas volume correction factor. for billing gases in specific states (for example.5 Scope of Business Functions Special Functions Gas Billing In gas billing. the measured operating volume of a gas is assessed to determine the actual billing quantity. 5-36 . Note With these gas billing types. This procedure is similar to the supercompressibility factor used in North America. IS-U/CCS supports the major standard procedures. The system calculates the gas volume correction factor with a volume correction factor procedure.

Billing uses the franchise contract to calculate the franchise fee to be paid. in the process. In exchange. In billing. Credit Memo and Backbilling Manual credit memos and backbillings are carried out as additions to automatic or manual billing. You can enter as many credit memos and backbillings as you want for any given contract. you can suppress the calculation of time-based quantities for periods of disconnection relevant to billing. you want to override automatic rate determination. for example. and price changes. Examples include backbilling as a result of an incorrect meter reading or a credit memo because of a water pipe break. They allow you to correct billings in cases where a reversal is not possible or where no bill exists. separate bill. A franchise contract specifies the fees that a utility company must pay to a political entity. fee. Disconnection Periods Franchise Contract Manual Billing (Release 4. Manual billing is supported by automatic price determination. You can either include credit memos or backbilling in the next consumption billing – in which case the amount is included in the amount of the bill – or you can create a distinct. the utility company is given the right to supply customers in the area of that municipality directly and. 5-37 . The calorific value to be billed for a specific calorific value procedure is maintained manually for billing.Scope of Business Functions 5 The calorific value can be calculated using the following averaging types: u Weighted monthly average u Arithmetic monthly average u Weighted annual average u Arithmetic annual average u Arithmetic average for the billing period u Weighted average for the billing period. consideration of franchise fees or prorations as a result of tax. to use public traffic routes for laying and operating power lines.51) Manual billing is an alternative option to automatic billing if.

you can outsort billing documents or orders for bill printout from automatic processing. This is useful if more than one billing document is included in the invoicing document and only one of those billing documents needs to be reversed. You can use adjustment reversal to bill invoiced billing documents again without canceling the invoicing. 5-18: Automatic Outsorting and Manual Release You can outsort billing documents and print orders as a result of the following validations: u Amount check for the net amount u Absolute deviation from the budget billing amount u Percentage deviation from the budget billing amount u Estimation u Existing billing line items u User-defined validations Billing Reversal You can reverse any form of billing with the billing reversal function. 5-38 . Fig. The adjustment reversal thereby allows you to create a type of correction bill for a bill that already exists. You can select the documents you want to reverse based on a number of different criteria.5 Scope of Business Functions Outsorting Following billing and invoicing. Reasons for using billing reversal include an incorrect meter reading or a defective meter. Outsorted billing documents and print automatically initiates outsorting.

Invoicing: u Creates accounting documents for bill receivables or credit memos from billing documents u Settles accounting documents against down payments received.2 and from non-SAP billing systems as of Release 4. credit memos. Invoicing. and Contract Accounts Receivable and Payable 5-39 . 5-19: Interaction of Billing. You can also use documents from billing in the Sales and Distribution application component as of Release 1. Invoicing then sends accounting documents and budget billing plans to the Contract Accounts Receivable and Payable component. backbillings. Fig. in particular budget billing payments u Formats the data for bill printout u Creates new budget billing plans u Supports the calculation of taxes Billing sends billing documents.Scope of Business Functions 5 Invoicing Invoicing links contract billing with the Contract Accounts Receivable and Payable component.51. which reports open items back to invoicing. and the basis for budget billing plans to invoicing.

(They share a common budget billing plan. the contracts of a residential customer for electricity. 5-20: Joint Invoicing Budget Billing When budget billing payments are requested. Fig. You can combine the contracts that belong to a contract account to form invoicing units according to the following criteria: u Contracts whose documents must be invoiced together. you create bills for the contracts of a contract account. gas and water). 5-40 .5 Scope of Business Functions Invoicing Execution Invoicing Units In invoicing execution. u Contracts whose documents must be invoiced individually or for which budget billing payments are requested on separate bills. or you can process budget billing payments that have no effect in the general ledger (statistical postings). You either invoice the billing documents of selected contracts or create bills for budget billing amounts (debit entries).) The billings for these contracts should always appear together on a single bill (for example. you can create debit entries in Contract Accounts Receivable and Payable. The goal is to create a bill that includes as many of the customer’s contracts as possible. u Contracts whose documents can be invoiced together and for which budget billing payments can be requested together.

During bill creation. for example. dog tax) Billing documents that qualify for joint invoicing are transferred in an accounting document to the Contract Accounts Receivable and Payable component. you can use other data (such as business partner. installation. or the transfer of the data for external print systems to a raw data interface is handled by the Print Workbench (FI-CA-BF-PW) component. u Municipal tax u Other taxes (for example. where data from the individual billing documents is summarized according to fixed criteria for that component and other controls defined by the company (such as account determination. For North America. you can also specify those taxes with jurisdiction codes. the billing line items are transferred to the layout. Simulation Calculation of Taxes Transfer to Contract Accounts Receivable and Payable Reversal 5-41 . The system also supports third-party tax modules that are authorized by SAP. Bill Creation and Printout You can select bills for printout according to a number of different criteria. there are changes during the course of a billing period. forming blocks for each contract) u The sequence of the bill items and how they are to be represented u The calculation of taxes and fees In addition. You can initiate a bill simulation (simulation of invoicing) on the basis of a posted billing or a simulated billing. however. You can control the following: u The formation of logical bill blocks (for example. The actual printout. The system calculates legally mandated taxes during billing. The bill items can be settled during invoicing against other line items in the customer account and cleared. transaction determination). If the customer still has a credit after settlement. you can either pay out that credit or settle it against other receivables. Full reversal – of both billing and invoicing – is possible. contract.Scope of Business Functions 5 When billing documents are invoiced. If. IS-U/CCS supports the calculation and levying of the following taxes: u Value-added tax u Consumption and sales tax This type of tax is applicable in the US. budget billing payments that have been made or budget billing requests are taken into account for each contract and settled against the receivables from the billing documents. and budget billing plan) in bill creation. the system takes those changes into account in invoicing and includes them in the bill. which you can design yourself.