Circuit Analysis I With MATLAB Applications

# with MATLAB® Applications

Steven T. Karris

Circuit Analysis I

G=[35/50 −j*3/50; −1/5 1/10+j*1/10]; I=[1 0]'; V=G\I; Ix=5*V(2,1)/4; % Multiply Vc by 5 and divide by 4 to get current Ix magIx=abs(Ix); theta=angle(Ix)*180/pi; % Convert current Ix to polar form fprintf(' \n'); disp(' Ix = ' ); disp(Ix);... fprintf('magIx = %4.2f A \t', magIx); fprintf('theta = %4.2f deg \t', theta);... fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n');

Ix = 2.1176-1.7546i magIx = 2.75 A theta = -39.64 deg

Orchard Publications, Fremont, California www.orchardpublications.com

with MATLAB® Applications

Circuit Analysis I

Students and working professionals will find Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB® Applications to be a concise and easy-to-learn text. It provides complete, clear, and detailed explanations of the principal electrical engineering concepts, and these are illustrated with numerous practical examples.

This text includes the following chapters and appendices: • Basic Concepts and Definitions • Analysis of Simple Circuits • Nodal and Mesh Equations Circuit Theorems • Introduction to Operational Amplifiers • Inductance and Capacitance • Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis • Phasor Circuit Analysis • Average and RMS Values, Complex Power, and Instruments • Natural Response • Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits • Introduction to MATLAB • Review of Complex Numbers • Matrices and Determinants Each chapter contains numerous practical applications supplemented with detailed instructions for using MATLAB to obtain quick and accurate answers.

Steven T. Karris is the president and founder of Orchard Publications. He earned a bachelors degree in electrical engineering at Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee, a masters degree in electrical engineering at Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida, and has done post-master work at the latter. He is a registered professional engineer in California and Florida. He has over 30 years of professional engineering experience in industry. In addition, he has over 25 years of teaching experience that he acquired at several educational institutions as an adjunct professor. He is currently with UC Berkeley Extension.

Orchard Publications Visit us on the Internet www.orchardpublications.com or email us: info@orchardpublications.com

ISBN 0-9744239-3-9

$39.95 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB® Applications Steven T. Karris Orchard Publications www.orchardpublications.com Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB® Applications Copyright © 2004 Orchard Publications. All rights reserved. Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Direct all inquiries to Orchard Publications, 39510 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, California 94538, U.S.A. URL: http://www.orchardpublications.com Product and corporate names are trademarks or registered trademarks of the MathWorks®, Inc., and Microsoft® Corporation. They are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Library of Congress Control Number 2004093171 ISBN 0-9744239-3-9 Disclaimer The author has made every effort to make this text as complete and accurate as possible, but no warranty is implied. The author and publisher shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this text. This book was created electronically using Adobe Framemaker®. Preface This text is an introduction to the basic principles of electrical engineering. It is the outgrowth of lecture notes prepared by this author while teaching for the electrical engineering and computer engineering departments at San José State University, DeAnza college, and the College of San Mateo, all in California. Many of the examples and problems are based on the author’s industrial experience. It can be used as a primary text or supplementary text. It is also ideal for self-study. This book is intended for students of college grade, both community colleges and universities. It presumes knowledge of first year differential and integral calculus and physics. While some knowledge of differential equations would be helpful, it is not absolutely necessary. Chapters 9 and 10 include step-by-step procedures for the solutions of simple differential equations used in the derivation of the natural and forces responses. Appendices B and C provide a thorough review of complex numbers and matrices respectively. There are several textbooks on the subject that have been used for years. The material of this book is not new, and this author claims no originality of its content. This book was written to fit the needs of the average student. Moreover, it is not restricted to computer oriented circuit analysis. While it is true that there is a great demand for electrical and computer engineers, especially in the internet field, the demand also exists for power engineers to work in electric utility companies, and facility engineers to work in the industrial areas. Circuit analysis is comprised of numerous topics. It would be impractical to include all related topics in a single text. This book, Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB® Applications, contains the standard subject matter of electrical engineering. Accordingly, it is intended as a first course in circuits and the material can be covered in one semester or two quarters. A sequel, Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB® Applications, is intended for use in a subsequent semester or two subsequent quarters. It is not necessary that the reader has previous knowledge of MATLAB®. The material of this text can be learned without MATLAB. However, this author highly recommends that the reader studies this material in conjunction with the inexpensive MATLAB Student Version package that is available at most college and university bookstores. Appendix A of this text provides a practical introduction to MATLAB. As shown on the front cover, a system of equations with complex coefficients can be solved with MATLAB very accurately and rapidly. MATLAB will be invaluable in later studies such as the design of analog and digital filters. In addition to several problems provided at the end of each chapter, this text includes multiple-choice questions to test and enhance the reader’s knowledge of this subject. Moreover, answers to these questions and detailed solutions of all problems are provided at the end of each chapter. The rationale Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications Preface is to encourage the reader to solve all problems and check his effort for correct solutions and appropriate steps in obtaining the correct solution. And since this text was written to serve as a self-study or supplementary textbook, it provides the reader with a resource to test his knowledge. The author has accumulated many additional problems for homework assignment and these are available to those instructors who adopt this text either as primary or supplementary text, and prefer to assign problems without the solutions. He also has accumulated many sample exams. Like any other new book, this text may contain some grammar and typographical errors. Accordingly, all feedback for errors, advice and comments will be most welcomed and greatly appreciated. Orchard Publications Fremont, California Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications Contents Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions The Coulomb...................................................................................................................................................1-1 Electric Current and Ampere........................................................................................................................1-1 Two Terminal Devices...................................................................................................................................1-4 Voltage (Potential Difference) ......................................................................................................................1-5 Power and Energy...........................................................................................................................................1-8 Active and Passive Devices ........................................................................................................................ 1-12 Circuits and Networks................................................................................................................................. 1-12 Active and Passive Networks..................................................................................................................... 1-12 Necessary Conditions for Current Flow .................................................................................................. 1-12 International System of Units .................................................................................................................... 1-13 Sources of Energy........................................................................................................................................ 1-17 Summary........................................................................................................................................................ 1-18 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................ 1-21 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................... 1-25 Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Conventions.....................................................................................................................................................2-1 Ohm’s Law.......................................................................................................................................................2-1 Power Absorbed by a Resistor......................................................................................................................2-3 Energy Dissipated by a Resistor ...................................................................................................................2-4 Nodes, Branches, Loops and Meshes..........................................................................................................2-5 Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL)...................................................................................................................2-6 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)...................................................................................................................2-7 Analysis of Single Mesh (Loop) Series Circuits....................................................................................... 2-10 Analysis of Single Node-Pair Parallel Circuits......................................................................................... 2-14 Voltage and Current Source Combinations ............................................................................................. 2-16 Resistance and Conductance Combinations............................................................................................ 2-18 Voltage Division Expressions.................................................................................................................... 2-22 Current Division Expressions.................................................................................................................... 2-24 Standards for Electrical and Electronic Devices..................................................................................... 2-26 Resistor Color Code .................................................................................................................................... 2-27 Power Rating of Resistors .......................................................................................................................... 2-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications i Contents Temperature Coefficient of Resistance .................................................................................................... 2-29 Ampere Capacity of Wires.......................................................................................................................... 2-30 Current Ratings for Electronic Equipment ............................................................................................. 2-30 Copper Conductor Sizes for Interior Wiring........................................................................................... 2-33 Summary........................................................................................................................................................ 2-38 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................ 2-41 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................... 2-50 Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems Nodal, Mesh, and Loop Equations ............................................................................................................. 3-1 Analysis with Nodal Equations.................................................................................................................... 3-1 Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations ..................................................................................................... 3-8 Transformation between Voltage and Current Sources.........................................................................3-20 Thevenin’s Theorem....................................................................................................................................3-24 Norton’s Theorem .......................................................................................................................................3-35 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem ........................................................................................................3-38 Linearity.........................................................................................................................................................3-39 Superposition Principle ...............................................................................................................................3-41 Circuits with Non-Linear Devices.............................................................................................................3-45 Efficiency ......................................................................................................................................................3-47 Regulation .....................................................................................................................................................3-49 Summary........................................................................................................................................................3-49 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................3-52 Answers to Exercises...................................................................................................................................3-64 Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Signals .............................................................................................................................................................. 4-1 Amplifiers........................................................................................................................................................ 4-1 Decibels ........................................................................................................................................................... 4-2 Bandwidth and Frequency Response.......................................................................................................... 4-4 The Operational Amplifier ........................................................................................................................... 4-5 An Overview of the Op Amp...................................................................................................................... 4-5 Active Filters................................................................................................................................................. 4-13 Analysis of Op Amp Circuits ..................................................................................................................... 4-16 Input and Output Resistance ..................................................................................................................... 4-28 Summary........................................................................................................................................................ 4-32 ii Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications Contents Exercises ........................................................................................................................................................4-34 Answers to Exercises...................................................................................................................................4-43 Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance Energy Storage Devices................................................................................................................................. 5-1 Inductance ....................................................................................................................................................... 5-1 Power and Energy in an Inductor ............................................................................................................. 5-11 Combinations of Series and Parallel Inductors........................................................................................ 5-14 Capacitance.................................................................................................................................................... 5-17 Power and Energy in a Capacitor .............................................................................................................. 5-22 Capacitance Combinations ......................................................................................................................... 5-25 Nodal and Mesh Equations in General Terms........................................................................................ 5-28 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................ 5-29 Exercises ........................................................................................................................................................ 5-31 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................... 5-36 Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis Excitation Functions...................................................................................................................................... 6-1 Circuit Response to Sinusoidal Inputs ........................................................................................................ 6-1 The Complex Excitation Function.............................................................................................................. 6-3 Phasors in R , L , and C Circuits ................................................................................................................. 6-8 Impedance ..................................................................................................................................................... 6-14 Admittance .................................................................................................................................................... 6-17 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................ 6-21 Exercises ........................................................................................................................................................ 6-25 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................... 6-30 Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis Nodal Analysis ................................................................................................................................................ 7-1 Mesh Analysis ................................................................................................................................................. 7-5 Application of Superposition Principle.......................................................................................................7-7 Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems ...........................................................................................................7-8 Phasor Analysis in Amplifier Circuits .......................................................................................................7-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications iii Contents Phasor Diagrams .......................................................................................................................................... 7-15 Electric Filters............................................................................................................................................... 7-20 Basic Analog Filters ..................................................................................................................................... 7-21 Active Filter Analysis................................................................................................................................... 7-26 Summary........................................................................................................................................................ 7-28 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................ 7-29 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................... 7-37 Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values, Complex Power, and Instruments Periodic Time Functions............................................................................................................................... 8-1 Average Values ............................................................................................................................................... 8-2 Effective Values ............................................................................................................................................. 8-3 Effective (RMS) Value of Sinusoids ........................................................................................................... 8-5 RMS Values of Sinusoids with Different Frequencies............................................................................. 8-7 Average Power and Power Factor............................................................................................................... 8-9 Average Power in a Resistive Load ...........................................................................................................8-10 Average Power in Inductive and Capacitive Loads ................................................................................8-11 Average Power in Non-Sinusoidal Waveforms.......................................................................................8-14 Lagging and Leading Power Factors.........................................................................................................8-15 Complex Power - Power Triangle .............................................................................................................8-16 Power Factor Correction ............................................................................................................................8-18 Instruments ...................................................................................................................................................8-21 Summary........................................................................................................................................................8-30 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................8-33 Answers to Exercises...................................................................................................................................8-39 Chapter 9 Natural Response The Natural Response of a Series RL circuit............................................................................................. 9-1 The Natural Response of a Series RC Circuit ......................................................................................... 9-10 Summary........................................................................................................................................................ 9-17 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................ 9-19 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................... 9-25 iv Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications Contents Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits The Unit Step Function...............................................................................................................................10-1 The Unit Ramp Function............................................................................................................................10-6 The Delta Function......................................................................................................................................10-8 The Forced and Total Response in an RL Circuit ................................................................................10-14 The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit ................................................................................10-21 Summary ...................................................................................................................................................... 10-31 Exercises ...................................................................................................................................................... 10-33 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................. 10-41 Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® MATLAB® and Simulink® ........................................................................................................................ A-1 Command Window....................................................................................................................................... A-1 Roots of Polynomials.................................................................................................................................... A-3 Polynomial Construction from Known Roots ......................................................................................... A-4 Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values ....................................................................................... A-6 Rational Polynomials .................................................................................................................................... A-8 Using MATLAB to Make Plots ................................................................................................................ A-10 Subplots ........................................................................................................................................................ A-19 Multiplication, Division and Exponentiation.......................................................................................... A-20 Script and Function Files ........................................................................................................................... A-26 Display Formats .......................................................................................................................................... A-31 Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers Definition of a Complex Number ...............................................................................................................B-1 Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers......................................................................................B-2 Multiplication of Complex Numbers ..........................................................................................................B-3 Division of Complex Numbers....................................................................................................................B-4 Exponential and Polar Forms of Complex Numbers ..............................................................................B-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications v ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................C-2 Special Forms of Matrices ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. C-30 vi Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .... C-16 Gaussian Elimination Method .....................................C-5 Determinants ........................................................................................................................................................................................... C-21 The Inverse of a Matrix ........................................................................................... C-20 Singular and Non-Singular Matrices ... C-23 Exercises............................... C-12 Cramer’s Rule .......................................................................................................................................Contents Appendix C Matrices and Determinants Matrix Definition .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................C-1 Matrix Operations............................................................................. C-21 Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices.......................................................................C-9 Minors and Cofactors.................................... C-19 The Adjoint of a Matrix ................................................................................................... 1. Charge. and includes several practical examples to illustrate these concepts. repel each other with a force of 10 c 2 newton where c = velocity of light ≈ 3 × 10 m ⁄ s .1.1.2 Electric Current and Ampere Electric current i at a specified point and flowing in a specified direction is defined as the instantaneous rate at which net positive charge is moving past this point in that specified direction. 8 –7 q Vacuum 1m F = 10 c 2 N q=1 coulomb –7 q Figure 1. In other words. the unit and quantities used in circuit analysis. the charge of an electron is 1.6 × 10 C and one negative coulomb is equal to 6.24 × 10 positive or negative. that is. abbreviated as C . In terms of this unit. is the fundamental unit of charge. The definition of coulomb is illustrated in Figure 1. ---------------------------1 ampere = 1 coulomb 1 sec ond Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications (1. – 19 18 electrons.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions T his chapter begins with the basic definitions in electric circuit analysis. is denoted by the letter q or Q . 1.1) The unit of current is the ampere abbreviated as A and corresponds to charge q moving at the rate of one coulomb per second.2) 1-1 .1 The Coulomb Two identically charged (both positive or both negative) particles possess a charge of one coulomb when being separated by one meter in a vacuum. Definition of the coulomb The coulomb. It introduces the concepts and conventions used in introductory circuit analysis. ----i = dq = lim ∆q ----dt ∆t → 0 ∆t (1. t = 0 and t = 9 s i ( mA ) 30 20 10 0 −10 −20 −30 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 t (s) Figure 1.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions Note: Although it is known that current flow results from electron motion.1 For the waveform of current i shown in Figure 1. this is known as conventional current flow. To find an expression of the charge q in terms of the current i . Waveform for Example 1.3) Example 1. it is customary to think of current as the motion of positive charge. t = 0 and t = 3 s b. since ----i = dq dt the charge q is q t t0 = ∫ t i dt 0 t or q( t ) – q ( t0 ) = ∫t i dt 0 t or q(t) = ∫t i d t + q ( t 0 ) 0 t (1. let us consider the charge q transferred from some reference time t 0 to some future time t . compute the total charge q transferred between a.1 1-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2.2. Then. it is convenient to think or consider the instantaneous current. by calculating the areas. total charge = total area = 30 + 120 + 30 −7. if the current with the assumed direction turns out to be negative. area = 1 × 30 = 30 mC Therefore. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-3 .3. We will see later in Chapters 2 and 3 that in some circuits (to be defined shortly).5 mC.Electric Current and Ampere Solution: We know that q t t=0 = ∫0 i d t t = Area t 0 Then.5 = 172.5 mC. area = ½ × {1×(−15)} = −7. In the case of time-varying currents which change direction from time-to-time. the designation shown in Figure 1. the direction of the current which flows at some particular instant. we assume a direction with an arrow for said current i . In such a case. we observe that the slope of the straight line for t > 6 s is −30 mA / 2 s.3 indicates either a current of 2 A is flowing from left to right. area = ½ × (2 × 30 mA) = 30 mC For 2 < t < 6 s. As before. or that a current of – 2 A is moving from right to left. then. we conclude that the actual direction is opposite of that of the arrow. area = ½ × (2 × 30 mA) = 30 mC For 2 < t < 3 s. Obviously. Then. Therefore. For 0 < t < 2 s. the actual direction of the current cannot be determined by inspection. area = ½ × (2 × 30 mA) = 30 mC For 8 < t < 9 s. For 0 < t < 2 s. and if a negative value for the current i is obtained. for 8 < t < 9 s. we assume a direction by placing an arrow next to the device in which the current flows. we conclude that the actual direction of the current flow is opposite to the direction of the arrow. for 0 < t < 9 s. for 0 < t < 3 s. area = 4 × 30 = 120 mC For 6 < t < 8 s. 2A Device −2 A Figure 1.3. total charge = total area = 30 mC + 30 mC = 60 mC. we find that: a. Direction of conventional current flow Caution: The arrow may or may not indicate the actual conventional current flow. Convention: We denote the current i by placing an arrow with the numerical value of the current next to the device in which the current flows. For example. b. reversing the direction reverses the algebraic sign of the current as shown in Figure 1. or −15 mA / s. that is. i t t0 = 20 cos 100 πt 20 × 10 –3 –3 – 10 × 10 = 20 cos 100 π ( 20 × 10 ) – 20 cos 100 π ( – 10 × 10 ) –3 –3 = 20 cos 2π – 20 cos ( – π ) = 40 mA b. In a two-terminal device the current entering one terminal is the same as the current leaving the other terminal* as shown in Figure 1.2 = -----. 1-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2 In a two-terminal device. What is the current at t = 40 ms ? c. 7A 7A Two terminal device Terminal A Terminal B Figure 1. What is the charge q at t = 5 ms given that q ( 0 ) = 0 ? Solution: a.C 2 π π * We will see in Chapter 5 that a two terminal device known as capacitor is capable of storing energy. a.4 ms = 20 cos 40π = 20 mA –3 c. Current entering and leaving a two-terminal device Let us assume that a constant value current (commonly known as Direct Current and abbreviated as DC) enters terminal A and leaves the device through terminal B in Figure 1.– 0 = -----. This voltage across the terminals of the device is a measure of the work required to move the current (or charge) through the device.4 ms = 20 cos 100 πt 5 × 10 –3 t = 0. a current i ( t ) = 20 cos 100 π t mA enters the left (first) terminal.4.sin 100πt π 0.4. The passage of current (or charge) through the device requires some expenditure of energy.2 = -----.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions 1.2 π 0. Example 1. i t = 0.4. What is the amount of current which enters that terminal in the time interval – 10 ≤ t ≤ 20 ms ? b.sin -.3 Two Terminal Devices In this text we will only consider two-terminal devices. and thus we say that a potential difference or voltage exists “across” the device. q( t) = ∫0 i dt + q ( 0 ) = 5 × 10 0 –3 ∫0 5 × 10 20 cos 100 πt dt + 0 0. We must remember that reversing the reference polarity reverses the algebraic sign of the voltage as shown in Figure 1.5. we conclude that the actual polarity is opposite to that of the assumed reference polarity.6. The unit of voltage is the volt (abbreviated as V or v ) and it is defined as 1 joule 1 volt = ---------------------------1 coulomb (1. As before. and if a negative value of the voltage is obtained.5. in Figure 1. Illustration of voltage polarity for a two-terminal device Caution: The (+) and (−) pair may or may not indicate the actual voltage drop or voltage rise. if this reference polarity turns out to be negative.4 Voltage (Potential Difference) The voltage (potential difference) across a two-terminal device is defined as the work required to move a positive charge of one coulomb from one terminal of the device to the other terminal.4) Convention: We denote the voltage v by a plus (+) minus (−) pair. In the case of time-varying voltages which change (+) and (−) polarity from time-to-time. Alternate ways of denoting voltage polarity in a two-terminal device Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-5 .6. In such a case. A Two terminal device + 10 v B − Figure 1. this means that the potential at the (+) sign terminal is at a lower potential than the potential at the (−) sign terminal. again we assume a voltage reference polarity for the voltage. A + Two terminal device −12 v − B = A − Same device 12 v + B Figure 1. we say that terminal A is 10 V positive with respect to terminal B or there is a potential difference of 10 V between points A and B . in some circuits the actual polarity cannot be determined by inspection. we assume a voltage reference polarity by placing (+) and (−) polarity signs at the terminals of the device. that is. we can say that there is a voltage rise of 10 V in going from B to A . Alternately. it is convenient to think the instantaneous voltage.Voltage (Potential Difference) 1. We can also say that there is a voltage drop of 10 V in going from point A to point B . As in the case with the current. the voltage reference polarity at some particular instance. For example. 3 The i – v (current-voltage) relation of a non-linear electrical device is given by i ( t ) = 0. Natick.*sin(3.1: 10. t=0: 0. An introduction to MATLAB is given in Appendix A.5) a. xlabel('time in sec.com.1 ∫0 ( e t1 0. plot(t. Use MATLAB®* to sketch this function for the interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 10 s b.*t))−1).6) * MATLAB and SIMULINK are registered marks of The MathWorks.1.*(exp(0.7. Inc.') The plot for i ( t ) is shown in Figure 1. it=0.'). ylabel('current in amp. Figure 1. Use the MATLAB quad function to find the charge at t = 5 s given that q ( 0 ) = 0 Solution: a. 1-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .1 ( e 0. We use the following code to sketch i ( t ) .. grid. Plot of i ( t ) for Example 1.mathworks.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions Example 1.3 b.2 sin 3t – 1) (10.2 sin 3t – 1 ) dt (1. The charge q ( t ) is the integral of the current i ( t ) . MA.2. 3 Apple Hill Drive.7. that is.it). 01760. q(t) = ∫t t1 0 i ( t ) dt = 0. www. and a and b are the lower and upper limits of integration respectively. and we save it as CA_1_Ex_1_3. s=int(0.3.1*(exp(0. 10) We will use numerical integration with Simpson’s rule. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-7 . we need to create and save a function m-file.6). It has the syntax q=quad(‘f’. charge=quad('CA_1_Ex_1_3'. it returns a warning. it is understood to be the standard tolerance of 10 .m.2*sin(3*t))-1). and performs an integration to a relative error tol which we must specify. Note When MATLAB cannot find a solution. MATLAB returns the following message when integration is attempted with the symbolic expression of (1. MATLAB has two quadrature functions for performing numerical integration.m. .b. First. we will use the quad function.0.Voltage (Potential Difference) We will use the MATLAB int(f.1*(exp(0.10) When this code is executed. Orchard Publications. the reader may refer to Numerical Analysis Using MATLAB® and Spreadsheets by this author.b) integration function where f is a symbolic expression. this means that these methods can handle irregularities such as singularities. The string ‘f’ is the name of a user defined function. we write and execute the following code. For this example. For this example. Example 1.a.tol).0170 * For a detailed discussion on numerical analysis and the MATLAB functions quad and quad8.5) and MATLAB returns charge = 0. –3 With this file saved as CA_1_Ex_1_3. t=sym('t'). t = 0.t = 0. This is a mnemonic for Circuit Analysis I. We define it as shown below. the quad* and quad8. In C:\MATLAB 12\toolbox\symbolic\@sym\int.m at line 58 s = int(1/10*exp(1/5*sin(3*t))-1/10. When such irregularities occur.0.a. MATLAB displays a warning message but still provides an answer. Both of these functions use adaptive quadrature methods. The description of these can be seen by typing help quad or help quad8. and a and b are the lower and upper limits of integration respectively. ISBN 09709511-1-6. If tol is omitted. MATLAB displays the following message: Warning: Explicit integral could not be found. function t = fcn_example_1_3(t).2*sin(3*t))−1). 9. the numerical value of the product p = vi is negative.8) and 1 watt = 1 volt × 1 ampere (1. Examples where power is absorbed by a two-terminal device 1-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 Power and Energy Power p is the rate at which energy (or work) W is expended.= joul = watts coul sec sec (1. The passive sign convention is illustrated with the examples in Figures 1.8.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions 1. The unit of power is the watt . on the other hand.× ---------. A −2 A Two terminal device −12 v Power = p = (−12)(−2) = 24 w B − + = A 2A − Same device 12 v Power = p = (12)(2) = 24 w + B Figure 1. we say that the device delivers power to some other device.9) Passive Sign Convention: Consider the two-terminal device shown in Figure 1. Illustration of the passive sign convention In Figure 1. and if both the arrow and the sign pair are labeled with the appropriate algebraic quantities.8. we satisfy the passive sign convention and power = p = vi is said to be absorbed by the device. Then. A i Two terminal device v B + − Figure 1.8. the power absorbed or delivered to the device can be expressed as p = vi . That is. we say that the device is absorbing power which is equivalent to saying that power is delivered to the device.9 and 1. The passive sign convention states that if the arrow representing the current i and the (+) (−) pair are placed at the device terminals in such a way that the current enters the device terminal marked with the (+) sign. In this case.10. ------Power = p = dW dt (1. If.7) Absorbed power is proportional both to the current and the voltage needed to transfer one coulomb through the device. If the numerical value of this product is positive. terminal A is v volts positive with respect to terminal B and current i enters the device through the positive terminal A . joul coul --------Power = p = volts × amperes = vi = ---------. the total energy (in joules) supplied d. is connected to a battery charger to trickle charge it for the next 8 hours. the maximum power (in watts) absorbed by the battery c.4 It is assumed a 12-volt automotive battery is completely discharged and at some reference time t = 0 . Decaying exponential for Example 1.9.10.11.4 Then. the total charge delivered to the battery b. It is also assumed that the charging rate is ⎧ 8e – t ⁄ 3600 A i(t) = ⎨ ⎩0 0 ≤ t ≤ 8 hr otherwise For this 8-hour interval compute: a.10. the average power (in watts) absorbed by the battery Solution: The current entering the positive terminal of the battery is the decaying exponential shown in Figure 1.5sin10t w Figure 1. power is delivered to the device. i(t) (A) 8 i = 8e – t ⁄ 3600 t (s) 28800 Figure 1.Power and Energy A i=6cos3t Two terminal device 1 v=−18sin3t B − A i=−5sin5t − Two terminal device 2 v=cos5t B + + p = (−18sin3t)(6cos3t) = −54sin6t w p = (cos5t)(−5sin5t) = −2. whereas in Figure 1. Examples where power is delivered to a two-terminal device In Figure 1. power is absorbed by the device. Example 1. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-9 .11 where the time has been converted to seconds. = 12 w.4t p 9(e + 1 )(e – 1) p = vi.4t 2 – 1 ) dt = -----.4t 0.= -------------------------------------------------. W = ∫ p dt = ∫0 T 28800 vi dt = –8 ∫0 ∫0 28800 12 × 8e – t ⁄ 3600 96 . how much then.4t 9( e – 1) 0.4 2 0 = 7.16t 2 – 1 ) . 5 d. i = -.8 kC b.4t 3 0.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions a.4t 0. i max = 8 A (occurs at t=0) Therefore. q 15000 t=0 15000 28800 28800 0 = ∫0 i dt = ∫0 –8 8e – t ⁄ 3600 8 .5 The power absorbed by a non-linear device is p = 9 ( e charge goes through this device in two seconds? Solution: The power is 0.4t + 1 ) .e – 1 ⁄ 3600 28800 0 = 3.8 – 1 ) – 6 = 3. the charge for 2 seconds is q t t0 = ∫t t 0 i dt = 3 ∫0 ( e 2 0. 1 P ave = -T ∫0 1 p dt = -------------28800 28800 12 × 8e – t ⁄ 3600 345.= -----------------------------.e – 3t 0 0. These will not be discussed in this text.16t 2 0. 3 28.8 × 10 3 Example 1.19 C The two-terminal devices which we will be concerned with in this text are shown in Figure 1.e – 1 ⁄ 3600 = – 8 × 3600 ( e – 1 ) ≈ 28800 C or 28.4t v 3(e + 1) 3( e + 1) 0.6 KJ. A simple circuit with a diode is presented in Chapter 3. 1-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .– t ⁄ 3600 dt = --------------------. p max = vi max = 12 × 8 = 96 w c.= 3 ( e – 1 ) A 0.– t ⁄ 3600 dt = --------------------.456 × 10 ( 1 – e ) ≈ 345. Linear devices are those in which there is a linear relationship between the voltage across that device and the current that flows through that device. Diodes and Transistors are non-linear devices.5 ( e 0. their voltage-current relationship is non-linear. If v = 3 ( e 0.12. that is.6 × 10 dt = --------------------------. Its value is either constant (DC) or sinusoidal (AC). Dependent Voltage Source − Its value depends on another voltage or current elsewhere in the circuit. Dependent Current Source − Its value depends on another current or voltage elsewhere in the circuit. When denoted as k 1 v it is referred to as voltage controlled voltage source.12. Its value is either constant (DC) or sinusoidal (AC). Ideal Independent Current Source − Maintains same current regardless of the voltage that appears across its terminals. i or i(t) k 1 v or k 2 i k 3 i or k 4 v − + + − Linear Devices Resistance R iR vR R= sl ope Conductance G R iG iG p slo G= e G + vR − v R = Ri R Inductance L iL L iR + vG − i G = Gv G Capacitance C vG vL l op =s L e iC diL dt vC + C iC l op =s C e + vL − − diL vL = L dt dv iC = C C dt dvC dt Figure 1. k 1 is a constant and k 2 is a resistance as defined in linear devices below. Voltage and current sources and linear devices Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-11 . and when denoted as k 2 i it is referred to as current controlled voltage source.Power and Energy Independent and Dependent Sources v or v(t) Ideal Independent Voltage Source − Maintains same voltage regardless of the amount of current that flows through it.When denoted as k 3 i it is referred to as current controlled current source and when denoted as k 4 v it is referred to as voltage controlled current source. Here. k 3 is a constant and k 4 is a conductance as defined in linear devices below. Here. Passive Network is a network which does not contain any active device.13. they normally receive (absorb) power from an active device. vS R1 R2 L C + − Figure 1. These are: 1-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . R L C vS + − Figure 1.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions 1. 1. 1. A network but not a circuit A circuit is a network which contains at least one closed path.14.8 Active and Passive Networks Active Network is a network which contains at least one active device (voltage or current source).9 Necessary Conditions for Current Flow There are two conditions which are necessary to set up and maintain a flow of current in a network or circuit. An example is shown in Figure 1.7 Circuits and Networks A network is the interconnection of two or more simple devices as shown in Figure 1.13. Resistors. Thus every circuit is a network but not all networks are circuits. inductors and capacitors are passive devices. they normally (but not always) deliver power to some external device.14.6 Active and Passive Devices Independent and dependent voltage and current sources are active devices. A network and a circuit 1. 2. It is used extensively by the international scientific community. vS R L C + − Figure 1.15. A network in which there is no current flow Figure 1. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-13 . A circuit in which current flows 1.10 International System of Units The International System of Units (abbreviated SI in all languages) was adopted by the General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1960.15 through 1.17. A closed circuit in which there is no current flow Figure 1. There must be a voltage source (potential difference) present to provide the electrical work which will force current to flow.16 shows a closed circuit but there is no voltage present to provide the electrical work for current to flow. These conditions are illustrated in Figures 1.16. both conditions are satisfied and current will flow. The basic units of the SI system are listed in Table 1. R vS L C I + − Figure 1.17 shows a voltage source present and the circuit is closed.1.International System of Units 1. The circuit must be closed. current will not flow.17. R1 R2 R4 R3 Figure 1. It was formerly known as the Metric System. Figure 1.15 shows a network which contains a voltage source but it is not closed and therefore. Therefore. 3.1 SI Base Units Unit of Length Mass Time Electric Current Temperature Amount of Substance Luminous Intensity Plane Angle Solid Angle Name Metre Kilogram Second Ampere Degrees Kelvin Mole Candela Radian Steradian Abbreviation m kg s A °K mol cd rad sr The SI uses larger and smaller units by various powers of 10 known as standard prefixes.2 and the less frequently in Table 1.4 shows some conversion factors between the SI and the English system.6. Table 1.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions TABLE 1. Other units used in physical sciences and electronics are derived from the SI base units and the most common are listed in Table 1. The common prefixes are listed in Table 1.5 shows typical temperature values in degrees Fahrenheit and the equivalent temperature values in degrees Celsius and degrees Kelvin. Table 1. 1-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 8 x 10 –2 meter 4 mH (millihenries) = 4 × 10 –3 henry 6 µw (microwatts) = 6 × 10 –6 watt 2 ns (nanoseconds) = 2 × 10 –9 second 3 pF (picofarads) = 3 × 10 -12 Farad Mega 3 Kilo –2 centi –3 milli –6 micro –9 nano – 12 pico TABLE 1.2 KV (Kilovolts) = 13.2 × 10 3 volts 2.3 Less Frequently Used SI Prefixes Value 10 10 10 10 10 18 15 12 Prefix Exa Peta Tera femto atto Symbol E P T f a Example 1 Em (Exameter) = 10 18 meters 5 Pyrs (Petayears) = 5 × 10 15 years 3 T$ (Teradollars) = 3 × 10 12 dollars 7 fA (femtoamperes) = 7 x 10 –15 ampere 9 aC (attocoulombs) = 9 × 10 –18 coulomb – 15 – 18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-15 .International System of Units TABLE 1.2 Most Commonly Used SI Prefixes Value 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 Prefix Symbol Example Giga 6 G M K c m µ n p 12 GHz (Gigahertz) = 12 × 10 9 Hz 25 MΩ (Megaohms) = 25 × 10 6 Ω (ohms) 13.8 cm (centimeters) = 2.

(pound) 1 qt. (mile) 1 lb.4536 Kg (Kilograms) 946 cm3 (cubic centimeters) 0. (inch) 1 mi.5 Temperature Scale Equivalents °F –523.6 212 °C –273 0 –17.609 Km (Kilometers) 0.4 32 0 77 98.2046 lbs (pounds) 1.4 Conversion Factors 1 in. (inch) 0. (quart) 1 cm (centimeter) 1 Km (Kilometer) 1 Kg (Kilogram) 1 lt.2 298 310 373 1-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . (liter) = 1000 1 Å (Angstrom) 1 mm (micron) cm3 2.54 cm (centimeters) 1.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions TABLE 1.6214 mi. (mile) 2.8 25 37 100 °K 0 273 255.057 quarts 10 –10 meter 10 –6 meter TABLE 1.3937 in.

wind. natural gas. Example 1.Sources of Energy TABLE 1. etc. wood etc.) and from mechanical forms (water falls.6 SI Derived Units Unit of Force Pressure or Stress Work or Energy Power Voltage Resistance Conductance Capacitance Inductance Frequency Quantity of Electricity Magnetic Flux Magnetic Flux Density Luminous Flux Illuminance Radioactivity Radiation Dose Volume Name Newton ( N ) Pascal ( Pa ) Joule ( J ) Watt ( W ) Volt ( V ) Ohm ( Ω ) Siemens ( S ) or ( Ω ) Farad ( F ) Henry ( H ) Hertz ( Hz ) Coulomb ( C ) Weber ( Wb ) Tesla ( T ) Lumen ( lm ) Lux ( lx ) Becquerel ( Bq ) Gray ( Gy ) Litre ( L ) –1 Formula N = kg ⋅ m ⁄ s Pa = N ⁄ m J = N⋅m W = J⁄s V = W⁄A Ω = V⁄A S = A⁄V F = A⋅s⁄V H = V⋅s⁄A Hz = 1 ⁄ s C = A⋅s Wb = V ⋅ s T = Wb ⁄ m 2 2 2 lm = cd ⋅ sr lx = lm ⁄ m Bq = s –1 2 S = J ⁄ kg L = m 3 × 10 –3 1. fuel oil. and other peripherals absorbs an average power of 500 w gets its energy from that burned Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-17 . Suppose that a computer system that includes a monitor.000 BTUs from a pound (lb) of that wood when burned.6 A certain type of wood used in the generation of electric energy and we can get 12. a printer.11 Sources of Energy The principal sources of energy are from chemical processes (coal. Other sources include nuclear and solar energy.).

× --------------------------------------. dq i = ----.60 6 kw – hr 3.× ------------------------------. and also on the distance between the objects. Thus. the energy consumption during this 8-hour interval b.7376 --------------. the force is attractive. It is known that 1 BTU is equivalent to 778.3 ft-lb of energy. and 1 joule is equivalent to 0.× --------------------------.4 × 10 joules × 0.= 14. that is.4 × 10 = $0. Compute: a.15 per kw-hr c. Energy consumption for 8 hours is 3600 s Energy W = P ave t = 500 w × 8 hrs × --------------.= lim ∆q ----dt ∆ t → 0 ∆t 1-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . For any two charged bodies. repel each other with a force of 10 c 2 newton where c = velocity of light ≈ 3 × 10 m ⁄ s .$0. the so-called coulumb force is repulsive.6 × 10 joules 6 c.15 1 kw – hr 6 Cost = ----------------. • Electric current is defined as the instantaneous rate at which net positive charge is moving past 8 –7 this point in that specified direction.= 1.7376 ft-lb.12 Summary • Two identically charged (both positive or both negative) particles possess a charge of one coulomb when being separated by one meter in a vacuum.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions wood and it is turned on for 8 hours.3 f t – lb 12000 BTU 1. 1 lb f t – lb 1 BTU 6 14.4 Mjoules 1 hr b. If the polarities are the same (negative/ negative or positive/positive). Wood burned in 8 hours. Solution: a. if the polarities are opposite (negative/positive or positive/negative). the cost for this energy consumption if the rate is $0. the coulomb force decreases in proportion to the square of the distance between their charge centers. the force with which two electrically charged bodies attract or repel one another depends on the product of the charges (in coulombs) in both objects. Since 1 kilowatt – hour = 3.6 × 10 joules .× 14.137 lb joule 778. the amount of wood in lbs burned during this time interval. abbreviated as A. If the numerical value of this product is positive. the numerical value of the product p = vi is negative. on the other hand. and if both the arrow and the sign pair are labeled with the appropriate algebraic quantities. That is. • Ideal voltage and current sources are just mathematical models. and corresponds to charge q moving at the rate of one coulomb per second. • An ideal independent current source maintains the same current regardless of the amount of volt- age that appears across its terminals. ------Power = p = dW dt • Absorbed power is proportional both to the current and the voltage needed to transfer one cou- lomb through the device. If. • An ideal independent voltage source maintains the same voltage regardless of the amount of cur- rent that flows through it. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-19 . • The unit of voltage is the volt (abbreviated as V or v) and it is defined as 1 joule 1 volt = ---------------------------1 coulomb • Power p is the rate at which energy (or work) W is expended. • The value of an dependent voltage source depends on another voltage or current elsewhere in the circuit. We will discuss practical voltage and current sources in Chapter 3. • The value of an dependent current source depends on another current or voltage elsewhere in the circuit. • In a two-terminal device the current entering one terminal is the same as the current leaving the other terminal. we say that the device is absorbing power which is equivalent to saying that power is delivered to the device. The unit of power is the watt and 1 watt = 1 volt × 1 ampere • The passive sign convention states that if the arrow representing the current i and the plus (+) minus (−) pair are placed at the device terminals in such a way that the current enters the device terminal marked with the plus (+) sign.Summary • The unit of current is the ampere. we say that the device delivers power to some other device. the power absorbed or delivered to the device can be expressed as p = vi . • The voltage (potential difference) across a two-terminal device is defined as the work required to move a positive charge of one coulomb from one terminal of the device to the other terminal. ). fuel oil. wind. inductors.) and from mechanical forms (water falls. Other sources include nuclear and solar energy. they normally (but not always) deliver power to some external device. 1-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . wood etc. and capacitors are passive devices. • Resistors. • An active network is a network which contains at least one active device (voltage or current source). • A network is the interconnection of two or more simple devices. Thus every circuit is a network but not all networks are circuits. • The principal sources of energy are from chemical processes (coal. • Linear devices are those in which there is a linear relationship between the voltage across that device and the current that flows through that device. natural gas. • The International System of Units is used extensively by the international scientific community. they normally receive (absorb) power from an active device.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions • Independent and Dependent voltage and current sources are active devices. • To set up and maintain a flow of current in a network or circuit there must be a voltage source (potential difference) present to provide the electrical work which will force current to flow and the circuit must be closed. It was formerly known as the Metric System. • A passive network is a network which does not contain any active device. • A circuit is a network which contains at least one closed path. etc. ampere B. joule E. ampere B. coulomb C. the integral of energy Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-21 . coulomb E. watt D. The unit of electric power is the A. The unit of energy is the A.13 Exercises Multiple choice 1.Exercises 1. Power is A. none of the above 3. ampere B. none of the above 2. The unit of charge is the A. ampere B. The unit of current is the A. joule E. joule E. watt D. watt D. volt C. watt D. coulomb C. none of the above 5. none of the above 4. volt C. none of the above 9. always deliver power to other external devices B. Active voltage and current sources A. are just mathematical models E. none of the above 6. maintains the same current regardless of the voltage rating of that voltage source C. current times some constant k D. neither deliver or absorb power to or from other devices D. none of the above 8. maintains the same voltage regardless of the amount of current that flows through it B. kI where k is a capacitance value 1-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . is a source where both voltage and current can be variable E. normally deliver power to other external devices C. none of the above 7. maintains the same voltage regardless of the amount of current that flows through it B. kV where k is a conductance value B. maintains the same current regardless of the voltage that appears across its terminals C. An ideal independent current source A. kI where k is a resistance value C. kV where k is an inductance value D. always delivers the same amount of power to other devices D. always delivers the same amount of power to other devices D. An ideal independent voltage source A. the derivative of energy C. voltage times some constant k E.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions B. The value of a dependent voltage source can be denoted as A. is a source where both voltage and current can be variable E. Answers: 2.15 per kilowatt-hour? Answer:$65.9 × 10 18 electrons ⁄ s 3.5 V. An airplane. what average number of kilowatts would be generated? Answer: 1. kI where k is a resistance value C.5. – 2.18.75 and 6. a. Answer: 1.18 below. kV where k is an inductance value D. and the current through this device is i ( t ) = 2 cos 4000πt A . kI where k is a capacitance value E. Waveform for Problem 1 2. 1. Find the voltage across this device at t = 0. Answer: 3.5 V W (mJ) 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 t (ms) Figure 1.Exercises E. If this energy could be converted to electric energy with a conversion loss of 10%. If this energy were converted into electric energy during the period of 20 minutes. 450 Kw Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-23 . Compute the number of electrons per second that flow through this bulb when it is connected to a 120 volt source. A household light bulb is rated 75 watts at 120 volts. kV where k is a conductance value B. 736 MJ b.5 V. 0 V.808 feet in 20 minutes after takeoff. reaches a height of 32. none of the above 10.5 ms. none of the above Problems 1. 2. 4.5. The value of a dependent current source can be denoted as A. Compute the potential energy that the airplane has gained at this height. A two terminal device consumes energy as shown by the waveform of Figure 1. whose total mass is 50.10 c.000 metric tons. how much would this energy be worth at $0. The power input to a television station transmitter is 125 kw and the output is 100 kw which is transmitted as radio frequency power. The remaining 25 kw of power is converted into heat.56 × 10 ----------------------------------------sec. 1-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 234 BTU ⁄ hr b.8 J Answer: 85. How many BTUs per hour does this transmitter release as heat? 1 BTU = 1054. How many electron-volts per second is this heat equivalent to? 1 electron – volt = 1. a.6 × 10 – 19 23 electron – volts J Answer: 1.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions 4. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-25 . For the multiple-choice questions and problems that you are uncertain. look over your procedures for inconsistencies and computational errors.14 Answers to Exercises Dear Reader: The remaining pages on this chapter contain answers to the multiple-choice questions and solutions to the exercises. It is recommended that first you go through and answer those you feel that you know.Answers to Exercises 1. You should follow this practice with the multiple-choice and problems on all chapters of this book. Refer to the solutions as a last resort and rework those problems at a later date. review this chapter and try again. You must. make an honest effort to answer the multiple-choice questions and solve the problems without first looking at the solutions that follow. for your benefit. If your answers to the problems do not agree with those provided. D 2.5 V ------------–3 2A 2 cos 2π A 2 cos 4000π ( 0. 1-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= -------------------. slope v 5 ms 4 – 5 mJ = -------------. C 4.= – 5 J ⁄ s 1 ms t = 4. D 5.= 2. A 8.= 5 J ⁄ s = 2.5 ms = 0 = 0V -i c. B 10.= ---------------.75 ms –5 J ⁄ s –5 J ⁄ s –5 J ⁄ s –5 J ⁄ s = ----------------------------------------------------------------. p dW ⁄ dt slope v = -.75 × 10 ) A d.5 × 10 ) A 2 ms 1 b.5 ms 5 J⁄s 5 J⁄s = -------------------------------------------------------------.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions Multiple choice 1.= -----------------------. slope v 1 ms 0 5 mJ = ----------. A Problems 1. A 3. B 6.= 5 J ⁄ s 1 ms t = 0.= ------------i i i a. B 9.= --------------------------. slope v = 0 t = 1.5 V –3 2 cos 19π A 2 cos π A –2 A 2 cos 4000π ( 4. B 7.= ---------------. a.= ----.9 × 10 18 electrons ⁄ s 8 1C 3. 5 p 75 w i = -. 000 metric tons × -------------------------.C ⁄ s × ----------------------------------------------------. 0.= – 5 J ⁄ s = – 2.= -------------.= --------------------------.⎞ = 173.3048 m 33. 808 ft × ---------------------.mv 2 where m = mass in kg and v = velocity in meters ⁄ sec. 2 1 7 25 7 W p = W k = -.24 × 10 electrons 5 -. min 25 10.t 8 8 1 s 0 5 = -.A 8 v 120 V q = 1 s ∫t i dt 0 t q t=1 s = 18 ∫0 5 5 -.5 × 10 ) A 2. 000 m = 10 Km ft 60 sec.= 1.= -.5 ms –5 J ⁄ s –5 J ⁄ s = -------------------------------------------------------------. 1 2 W p = W k = -. 200 sec.m ⁄ s 3 1.= 5 × 10 Kg metric ton Then.= 10.( 5 × 10 ) ⎛ ----.dt = -.C ⁄ s 8 6.= 3. 000 m v = ------------------------.Answers to Exercises slope v 7 ms 6 = – 5 mJ = – 5 J ⁄ s -------------1 ms t = 6. 000 Kg 7 50.61 × 10 J ≈ 1. 20 minutes × ---------------.5 V ---------------–3 2A 2 cos 26π A 2 cos 4000π ( 6. 200 sec. 1. 736 MJ ⎝3 ⎠ 2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-27 . 10 Kw-hr c.9 = 482.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions b. 1 electron – volt = 1.6 × 10 watt -----------------------------------------.6 × 10 – 19 – 19 J – 19 J 1 electron – volt 1. a.6 × 10 sec. 600 sec. 23 electron – volts 25.45 Mw = 1450 Kw t 60 sec 20 min × -------------min 4. and with 10% conversion loss.15 Cost of Energy = --------------.= 482. 1 electron – volt ⁄ sec.8 J 1 joule ⁄ sec.× ---------------------. 234 BTU ⁄ hr 1 hr 1054. 000 w 3. 25. sec. 1 BTU.× -------------------.22 Kw-hr 1 joule 1.× 434 Kw-hr =$65.8 J watt b. the useful energy is 482.= 1.= --------------------------------------. 1 BTU = 1054. 736 × 10 J × ------------------------. 1. 1 joule = 1 watt-sec 1 watt-sec 1 Kw 1 hr 6 1.3600 sec.× -------------------.= 85.= 1.6 × 10 watt 1-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= 1.22 × 0.× ------------------------.56 × 10 ----------------------------------------– 19 sec.9 = 434 Kw-hr \$0.= -----------------------------. 736 MJ P ave = ---. W 1. 000 watts × --------------------------------------------------------. 000 watts × ------------------------------.22 × 0.

and loop analyses are introduced. Thus.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits T his chapter defines constant and instantaneous values. and p to denote instantaneous values of voltage. We will denote voltages as v ( t ) and i ( t ) whenever we wish to emphasize that these quantities are time dependent. and power respectively. Thus. and we will use subscripts to denote specific voltages. Combinations of voltage and current sources and resistance combinations are discussed. v S and i S will be used to denote voltage and current sources respectively. sinusoidal (AC) voltages and currents will be denoted as v ( t ) and i ( t ) respectively.1) This relation is known as Ohm’s law. to be inroduced in Chapter 6. will be represented with bold capital letters. The designations v AB or v 12 will be used to denote the voltage between point A or point 1 with respect to point B or 2 respectively.2) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-1 . Phasor quantities. and Kirchhoff ’s Current and Voltage laws. Ohm’s law. One ohm is the resistance of a conductor such that a constant current of one ampere through it produces a voltage of one volt between its ends. Series and parallel circuits are also defined and nodal. 1V 1 Ω = -------1A (2. 2. resistances. and the voltage and current division formulas are derived. Other notations like v A or v 1 will represent the voltage (potential difference) between point A or point 1 with respect to some arbitrarily chosen reference point taken as “zero” volts or “ground”. The unit of resistance is the Ohm and its symbol is the Greek capital letter Ω .2 Ohm’s Law We recall from Chapter 1 that resistance R is a constant that relates the voltage and the current as: v R = Ri R (2. etc. V for phasor voltage and I for phasor current. i . Notations like v R1 and i R2 will be used to denote the voltage across resistance R 1 and the current through resistance R 2 respectively. 2. current. For example. currents.1 Conventions We will use lower case letters such as v . mesh.

a resistor is a device that opposes current flow.5) Resistances (or conductances) are commonly used to define an “open circuit” or a “short circuit”. The current through an “open circuit” is always zero but the voltage across the open circuit terminals may or may not be zero. since G = --. The concepts of open and short circuits The fact that current does not flow through an open circuit and that zero voltage exists across the terminals of a short circuit. Then.1. say v G . A+ Open Circuit A+ R=∞ G=0 A + A+ i R=0 G=∞ i=0 B− i=0 B− v AB = i Circuit 0 Short B− v AB = 0 B− Figure 2. for a finite voltR age.4) –1 The unit of conductance is the siemens or mho (ohm spelled backwards) and its symbol is S or Ω Thus. can also be observed from the expressions v R = Ri R and i G = Gv G . and can be thought of as an “infinite resistance” or “zero conductance”.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Physically. infinite R means zero G and zero R means infinite G . Resistors are used as a current limiting devices and as voltage dividers. and an open circuit. In contrast. 1 That is..3) This is another form of Ohm’s law since by letting i G = i R and v G = v R . The open and short circuit concepts and their equivalent resistances or conductances are shown in Figure 2. –1 1Ω 1A = ------1V (2. In the previous chapter we defined conductance G as the constant that relates the current and the voltage as i G = Gv G (2. the voltage across a short circuit terminals is always zero but the current through it may or may not be zero. a short circuit is an adjective describing the connection of a pair of terminals by a piece of wire of “infinite conductance” or a piece of wire of “zero” resistance.1. 2-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Likewise. An open circuit is an adjective describing the “open space” between a pair of terminals. we get 1 G = -R (2.

and a short circuit.8) + vR Figure 2.7) Reminder: We must remember that the expressions v R = Ri R and i G = Gv G are true only when the passive sign convention is observed.Power Absorbed by a Resistor G→0 lim i G = lim Gv G = 0 G→0 (2.” as shown in (2.3. Voltage polarity and current direction in accordance to passive sign convention But if the voltage polarities and current directions are as shown in Figure 2.3 Power Absorbed by a Resistor A resistor.6) Likewise.3. Voltage polarity and current direction not in accordance to passive sign convention Note: “Negative resistance. being a passive device. for a finite current. vR = –R iR IR − R vR + R IR − (2.2. R→0 lim v R = lim Ri R = 0 R→0 (2.8). v R = Ri R and the power relation Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-3 . can be thought of as being a math model that supplies energy. This is consistent with our classification of R and G being passive devices and thus v R = Ri R implies the current direction and voltage polarity are as shown in Figure 2. say iR. This absorbed power can be found from Ohm’s law. then. that is. 2. IR R R − v + R IR + vR − Figure 2.2. absorbs power.

resistance and power relations are arranged in the pie chart shown in Figure 2. 2. current.9) The voltage. besides its resistance rating (ohms) has a power rating in watts commonly referred to as the wattage of the resistor. current. This topic will be discussed in Section 2. say from t 1 to t 2 . 5 watts and so on. dissipates energy in the form of heat. 2 watts. it never stores energy. by its own nature.⎞ = ---⎝ R⎠ R (2.10) 2-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .4 Energy Dissipated in a Resistor A resistor. Pie chart for showing relations among voltage. is given by the integral of the instantaneous power p R . T EN RR CU (W at ts) PO V2 I2R R P V V R I R P I2 W ER re pe m (A s) P V VI PR P⁄R Figure 2.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits pR = vR iR Then. and power Note: A resistor. 2 vR vR 2 p R = v R i R = ( Ri R ) i R = Ri R = v R ⎛ ---.4.Thus. Common resistor wattage values are ¼ watt. WR diss t2 1 = ∫t RE SI ST AN C E P I IR V2 P (O hm s) V I E AG LT VO ts) ol (V p R dt (2. ½ watt. The energy dissipated in a resistor during a time interval.4.16. 1 watt. resistance.

Definition of branch vS Definition 2.2 A branch is a simple path composed of one single device as shown in Figure 2. Branches. For instance in (2.5 Nodes. the energy is in joules when the power is in watts and the time is in seconds. Loops and Meshes If the power is constant. + − Node Figure 2.5.5.7 is a loop.11) above. the network shown in Figure 2. For example. Definition of node Definition 2. that is. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-5 .12) Reminder: When using all formulas.Nodes.6. then (2.10) reduces to WR diss = Pt (2. 2. + − R Node C Branch Figure 2. if the energy is known. pR = d W d t R diss (2. Branches. we must express the quantities involved in their primary units.6.11) Alternately. An example of a node is shown in Figure 2. say P .3 A loop is a closed path formed by the interconnection of simple devices.1 A node is the common point at which two or more devices (passive or active) are connected. Loops and Meshes Definition 2. we can find the power by taking the derivative of the energy.

in Figure 2. Then by KCL. Node to illustrate KCL (2.8. then by KCL.6 Kirchhoff ’s Current Law (KCL) KCL states that the algebraic sum of all currents leaving (or entering) a node is equal to zero. if we assign a plus (+) sign to the currents leaving the node.9. ABEF is both a loop and a mesh. – i1 – i2 + i3 + i4 = 0 i1 i3 Figure 2.13) i2 i4 But if we assign a plus (+) sign to the currents entering the node and minus (−) sign to the currents leaving the node.7.8. but ABCDEF is a loop but not a mesh. Example showing the difference between mesh and loop 2. For example.4 A mesh is a loop which does not enclose any other loops. For example. in the circuit shown in Figure 2. i1 + i2 – i3 – i4 = 0 (2.9. Definition of a loop Definition 2.14) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-6 .Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits vS R + − C L Figure 2. A B R1 C L vS C + − R2 F E D Figure 2. we must assign a minus (−) sign to the currents entering the node.

Circuit to illustrate KVL Now. we get: – v4 – v3 + v2 + v1 = 0 (2.7 Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law (KVL) KVL states that the algebraic sum of the voltage drops (voltages from + to −) or voltage rises (voltages from − to +) around any closed path (mesh or loop) in a circuit is equal to zero. Then.15) We observe that (2. For example. Then. we must assign a (−) sign to the voltage drops. v 2 .19) We observe that expressions (2.18) or going counterclockwise. v 3 . it does not matter which we choose as plus (+).16) through (2.13) and (2. 2. by KVL starting again at node A and going clockwise we get: v1 + v2 – v3 – v4 = 0 (2. therefore.Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) or – i1 – i2 + i3 + i4 = 0 (2.16) or going counterclockwise. and have the polarities shown. 2. Device 2 + v2 + + v 3 Device 3 Device 1 v 1 v4 − − − Device 4 + A − Figure 2.19) are the same.10. if we assign a (+) sign to the voltage drops. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-7 . and 4 respectively.10.15) are the same. voltages v 1 . if we assign a (+) sign to the voltage rises. in the circuit shown in Figure 2.17) Alternately. we must assign a (−) sign to the voltage rises. we get: v4 + v3 – v2 – v1 = 0 (2. and v 4 represent the voltages across devices 1. Convention: In our subsequent discussion we will assign plus (+) signs to the currents leaving the node. by KVL starting at node A and going clockwise we get: – v1 – v2 + v3 + v4 = 0 (2. 3.

the conductance.e. Definition 2. A simple parallel circuit Convention: In our subsequent discussion we will adopt the conventional current flow. if in Figure 2. the resistance. and the capacitance and therefore it is classified as a parallel circuit A iS G L A iS A A A C G L C B B B B B Figure 2. i. in the circuit of Figure 2. in the circuit of Figure 2.12. Device with established voltage polarity 2-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .13 we are given the indicated polarity. A simple series circuit Definition 2.11.5 Two or more devices are said to be connected in series if and only if the same current flows through them. For example.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Convention: In our subsequent discussion we will assign plus (+) signs to voltage drops. R + vR − Figure 2. the same current i flows through the voltage source. this is classified as a series circuit. For example.12.13. the inductance. the same voltage v AB exists across the current source. vS R + − C L Figure 2. the current that flows from a higher (+) to a lower (−) potential.. For example. Accordingly.11. the inductance and the capacitance.6 Two or more devices are said to be connected in parallel if and only if the same voltage exists across each of the devices.

we will assign a (+) sign at the terminal of the device at which the current enters.Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) then. iR R + vR − Figure 2. Thus with the voltage polarity as given in the circuit of Figure 2. Direction of conventional current flow produced by voltage sources Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-9 . R Figure 2. Voltage polarity in a device with established conventional current flow Note: Active devices. if we are given this designation a device in which the current direction has been established as shown in Figure 2.15. The current through and the voltage across these devices can easily be determined if these devices deliver power to the rest of the circuit.15. such as voltage and current sources. we assign a clockwise direction to the current as shown in Figure 2. Device with established conventional current direction then we assign (+) and (−) as shown in Figure 2. if current flows in an assumed specific direction through a device thus producing a voltage. Direction of conventional current flow in device with established voltage polarity Alternately.17.17 (a).17 (b). R vR − + Figure 2.14. the current arrow will be pointing to the right direction as shown in Figure 2.16. established as part of their notation. have their voltage polarity and current direction respectively. For example. This is consistent with the passive sign convention since we have assumed that the voltage source delivers power to the rest of the circuit. i vS + − Rest of the Circuit vS + − Rest of the Circuit (a) (b) Figure 2.14.16.

The current i which flows through each device b. The load may be a resistive.19.18 (a) below. Example 2. 2. + iS Rest of the Circuit iS v − (a) (b) Figure 2. we assign the voltage polarity shown in Figure 2.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Likewise. and assuming that this source delivers power to the rest of the circuit. we want to find: a. 2.18 (b) to be consistent with the passive sign convention.8 Single Mesh Circuit Analysis We will use the following example to develop a step-by-step procedure for analyzing (finding current. There are two conditions required to setup and maintain the flow of an electric current: 1. The voltage drop across each resistor c. There must be some voltage (potential difference) to provide the energy (work) which will force electric cur- rent to flow in a specific direction in accordance with the conventional current flow (from a higher to a lower potential). Voltage polarity across current sources Rest of the Circuit The following facts were discussed in the previous chapter but they are repeated here for emphasis. There must be a continuous (closed) external path for current to flow around this path (mesh or loop). voltage drops and power) in a circuit with a single mesh. in the circuit of Figure 2.1 For the series circuit shown in Figure 2. The power absorbed or delivered by each device 2-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . or a capacitive circuit.18. or a combination of these. an inductive. The external path is usually made of two parts: (a) the metallic wires and (b) the load to which the electric power is to be delivered in order to accomplish some useful purpose or effect. the direction of the current source is clockwise.

v R1 = R 1 i v R2 = R 2 i v R3 = R 3 i v R4 = R 4 i Then.20).19. by substitution of given values into (2. Circuit for Example 2.1 with assumed current direction Step 2: We assign (+) and (−) polarities at each resistor’s terminal in accordance with the established passive sign convention.1 Solution: a. 4Ω + − 64 V 6Ω v S1 + R − 1 − − v S2 + R − 2 v S3 + 200 V A + − 80 V i R4 + 10 Ω − R3 + 8Ω Figure 2.20) and by Ohm’s law. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-11 .20. we get * Henceforth. Step 3: By application of KVL and the adopted conventions. Circuit for Example 2. the current direction will be assumed to be that of the conventional current flow.20. starting at node A and going clockwise. Step 1: We do not know which voltage source(s) deliver power to the other sources. so let us assume that the current i flows in the clockwise direction* as shown in Figure 2. we get: – v S1 + v R1 + v S2 + v R2 + v S3 + v R3 + v R4 = 0 (2.Single Mesh Circuit Analysis + − 4Ω v S1 R1 v S2 64 V 6Ω R2 v S3 + 200 V − R4 10 Ω R3 8Ω + − 80 V Figure 2.

21.24). This means that this source delivers (supplies) 400 watts to the rest of the circuit.25) v R1 = R 1 i' 2-12 v R2 = R 2 i' v R3 = R 3 i' v R4 = R 4 i' Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . (2. the other two voltage sources receive (absorb) power from the 200 volt source.2 Repeat Example 2. Repeating Steps 2 and 3 of Example 2. by Ohm’s law.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits – 200 + 4i + 64 + 6i + 80 + 8i + 10i = 0 or 28i = 56 or i = 2A (2. Solution: We denote the current as i ' (i prime) for this example.22) c. Table 2.23) and the power delivered (or absorbed) by each voltage source is pV S1 = – 200 × 2 = – 400 w pV S2 = 64 × 2 = 128 w pV S3 = 80 × 2 = 160 w (2. we observe that the 200 volt source absorbs −400 watts of power.1 shows that the conservation of energy principle is satisfied since the total absorbed power is equal to the power delivered. starting at Node A and going counterclockwise.1 with the assumption that the current i flows counterclockwise. we get: v R4 + v R3 – v S3 + v R2 – v S2 + v R1 + v S1 = 0 Next. Knowing the current i from part (a). The power absorbed (or delivered) by each device can be found from the power relation p = vi .24) From (2.1.21) b. However. Example 2. v R1 = 4 × 2 = 8 V vR3 = 8 × 2 = 16 V v R2 = 6 × 2 = 12 V v R4 = 10 × 2 = 20 V (2. we can now compute the voltage drop across each resistor using Ohm’s law v = Ri . Then. the power absorbed by each resistor is p R1 = 8 × 2 = 16 w p R3 = 16 × 2 = 32 w p R2 = 12 × 2 = 24 w p R4 = 20 × 2 = 40 w (2. Then. the voltage drops across each resistor are as indicated in Figure 2.

19 Device 200 V Source 64 V Source 80 V Source 4 Ω Resistor 6 Ω Resistor 8 Ω Resistor 10 Ω Resistor Total Power Delivered (watts) 400 Power Absorbed (watts) 128 160 16 24 32 40 400 4Ω 64 V − 6Ω R2 + v S3 400 − v S1 R1 + i' v S2 + − + 200 V A − + + R3 8Ω − − 80 V + R4 − 10 Ω Figure 2. (2. Circuit for Example 2.Single Mesh Circuit Analysis TABLE 2. we get 200 + 4 i' – 64 + 6 i' – 80 + 8 i' + 10 i' = 0 or 28 i' = – 56 or i' = – 2 A Comparing (2.2 By substitution of given values.21.1 Power delivered or absorbed by each device on the circuit of Figure 2.21) with (2.26) we see that i' = – i as expected.26) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-13 .

the circuit of Figure 2. find: a. A iS G L C A A A A iS G L C B (a) B B (b) B B Figure 2.22 (b).22 (a).22. voltage drop and power) in a circuit with a single node-pair. Example 2. The current i which flows through each conductance c. The voltage drop across each device b. which is more conveniently shown as Figure 2. The power absorbed or delivered by each device I1 G1 12 A 4Ω –1 I2 G2 18 A 6Ω –1 I3 G3 24 A 8Ω –1 Figure 2. For example. Circuit with a single node-pair 2.3 2-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .23.9 Single Node-Pair Circuit Analysis We will use the following example to develop a step-by-step procedure for analyzing (finding currents.7 A single node-pair circuit is one in which any number of simple elements are connected between the same pair of nodes.3 For the parallel circuit shown in Figure 2. is a single node-pair circuit.23. Circuit for Example 2.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Definition 2.

27). It is important to observe that the same voltage (or potential difference) exists across each device. Circuit for Example 2.27) and since i G1 = G 1 v AB i G2 = G 2 v AB i G3 = G 3 v AB (2.28) by substitution into (2. G 2 . and G 3 in accordance with the conventional current flow. with plus (+) assigned to the currents leaving this node and with minus (−) entering this node we get –i S1 + i G1 + i S2 + i G2 – i S3 + i G3 = 0 (2. we get Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-15 . i G2 . Then.24. These currents are shown as i G1 . – i S1 + G 1 v AB + i S2 + G 2 v AB – i S3 + G 3 v AB = 0 (2.3 with assumed current directions Step 2: We assign currents through each of the conductances G 1 . we get i S1 – i S2 + i S3 v AB = ------------------------------G1 + G2 + G3 (2.24. Node B is chosen as our reference node and it is convenient to assume that this reference node is at zero potential (ground) as indicated by the symbol A A A A A A i S1 v AB 12 A B i G1 G1 –1 i S2 18 A B i G2 G2 6Ω –1 i S3 24 A B i G3 G3 8Ω –1 4Ω B B B Figure 2. Step 3: By application of KCL and in accordance with our established convention. we choose node A which is the plus (+) reference point and we form the algebraic sum of the currents leaving (or entering) this node.30) and by substitution of the given values. Step 1: We denote the single node-pair with the letters A and B as shown in Figure 2. and i G3 .Single Node-Pair Circuit Analysis Solution: a.29) Solving for v AB .

Two or more series aiding voltage sources may be replaced by an equivalent voltage source whose value is the algebraic sum of the individual voltage sources as shown in Figure 2. The 18 A source absorbs power.33) and we observe that with these values. (2.27) is satisfied.25.31) or v AB = 1 V (2. c. or when the minus (−) terminal of any one voltage source is connected to the plus (+) terminal of another.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 12 – 18 + 24 v AB = ----------------------------4+6+8 (2. the power absorbed by each conductance is p G1 = 1 × 4 = 4 w p G2 = 1 × 6 = 6 w p G3 = 1 × 8 = 8 w (2. i G1 = 4 i G2 = 6 i G3 = 8 (2. 2.35) From (2.28). Table 2.34) and the power delivered (or absorbed) by each current source is p I1 = 1 × ( – 12 ) = – 12 w p I2 = 1 × 18 = 18 w p I3 = 1 × ( – 24 ) = – 24 w (2. Then.35) we observe that the 12 A and 24 A current sources absorb – 12 w and – 24 w respectively.32) b. This means that these sources deliver (supply) a total of 36 w to the rest of the circuit. From (2. The power absorbed (or delivered) by each device can be found from the power relation p = vi .8 Two or more voltage sources connected in series are said to be series aiding when the plus (+) terminal of any one voltage source is connected to the minus (−) terminal of another.10 Voltage and Current Source Combinations Definition 2.2 shows that the conservation of energy principle is satisfied since the absorbed power is equal to the power delivered. 2-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

10 Two or more current sources connected in parallel are said to be parallel aiding when the arrows indicating the direction of the current flow have the same direction.23 Device 12 A Source 18 A Source 24 A Source 4Ω 6Ω 8Ω –1 –1 –1 Power Delivered (watts) 12 Power Absorbed (watts) 18 24 4 6 8 36 36 Conductance Conductance Conductance Total − + + + − − A 200 V v1 64 V 80 V v3 v2 v AB = v 1 + v 2 + v 3 B + 200 + 64 + 80 = 344 V − Figure 2.9 Two or more voltage sources connected in series are said to be series opposing when the plus (+) terminal of one voltage source is connected to the plus (+) terminal of the other voltage source or when the minus (−) of one voltage source is connected to the minus (−) terminal of the other voltage source.26.2 Power delivered or absorbed by each device of Figure 2. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-17 .25. Definition 2. Addition of voltage sources in series when all have same polarity A good example of combining voltage sources as series aiding is when we connect several AA size batteries each rated at 1. Definition 2. Two series opposing voltage sources may be replaced by an equivalent voltage source whose value is the algebraic difference of the individual voltage sources as shown in Figure 2.5 v to power up a hand calculator.27. or a small flashlight.Voltage and Current Source Combinations TABLE 2. They can be combined into a single current source as shown in Figure 2.

29 shows n resistors connected in series. resistors are connected in series or in parallel.28.26. Addition of voltage sources in series when they have different polarity i1 12 A i2 i3 iT = i1 + i2 + i3 iT 18 A 24 A 54 A Figure 2.11 Resistance and Conductance Combinations Often. They can be replaced by an equivalent current source whose value is the algebraic difference of the individual current sources as shown in Figure 2. Addition of current sources in parallel when all have same direction Definition 2. 2-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Addition of current sources in parallel when they have opposite direction 2.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits + + − − A 200 V v1 64 V v2 v AB = v 1 – v 2 B + 200 − 64 = 136 V − Figure 2. series or parallel. With either of these connections. i1 18 A i2 iT = –i1 + i2 iT 6A 24 A Figure 2. it is possible to replace these resistors by a single resistor to simplify the computations of the voltages and currents.11 Two or more current sources connected in parallel are said to be parallel opposing when the arrows indicating the direction of the current flow have opposite direction. Figure 2.27.28.

find the value of the current i after combining the voltage sources to a single voltage source and the resistances to a single resistor.36). and we apply Ohm’s law. Σv 200 – ( 64 + 80 ) i = ------.+ -----.+ … + ------i i i i i or R eq = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 + … + R n = For Resistors in Series k=1 ∑ RK n (2.4 For the circuit of Figure 2.= 56 = 2 A ----ΣR 28 28 (2. Addition of resistances in series The combined or equivalent resistance R eq is vR n v AB v R1 v R2 v R3 R eq = ------. R1 R2 R3 RN i B Rest of the circuit Figure 2.36) Example 2.. Then. Circuit for Example 2.4 Solution: We add the values of the voltage sources as indicated in Definitions 8 and 9.Resistance and Conductance Combinations A ..29. we add the resistances in accordance with (2..37) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-19 .30.= ------------------------------------. 4Ω v1 R1 v2 64 V 6Ω R2 v3 + − + − 200 V i R4 10 Ω R3 8Ω + − 80 V Figure 2.+ -----.30.= -----.

i1 i2 R2 Rn in v AB Figure 2. . Addition of resistances in parallel . . we consider thecase where n resistors are connected in parallel as shown in Figure 2.+ ----. R1 iT A .41) where the designation R 1 ||R 2 indicates that R1 and R2 are in parallel. iT = i1 + i2 + … + in (2.+ … + ------v AB v AB v AB v AB (2.31.= ----. then i ⁄ v = 1 ⁄ R and thus (2. we get in iT i1 i2 ------.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Next. iT B By KCL.+ ------.39) and since v ⁄ i = R . . dividing each term of (2.+ ----R eq R1 R2 or R1 ⋅ R2 R eq = R 1 ||R 2 = ----------------R1 + R2 (2.+ … + ----R AB R1 R2 Rn or 1 1 1 1 ------.= ------.38) by V AB .+ … + ----R eq R1 R2 Rn For Resistors in Parallel (2.31. .39) can be written as 1 1 1 1 -------.38) The same voltage exists across each resistor. (2.= ----.= ----. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-20 . . therefore.40) reduces to 1 1 1 ------.+ ----.40) For the special case of two parallel resistors.

R1 v AB 11 ----.A 6 Figure 2.Resistance and Conductance Combinations Also. a. Circuit for Example 2. Example 2. parallel conductances combine as series resistors do.32.5.= 3 Ω 12 + 4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-21 . Groups of parallel combinations for the circuit of Example 2.38).5 In the circuit of Figure 2. from (2.33.42) that is. 12 × 4 R 2 ||R 3 = -------------. Replace all resistors with a single equivalent resistance R eq b.33 and use (2. Then.32. We could use (2.41) instead.A 6 R1 3Ω R2 12 Ω R3 4Ω R4 20 Ω R5 5Ω Figure 2.5 3Ω R2 12 Ω R3 4Ω R4 20 Ω R5 5Ω i Solution: a. However. since G = 1 ⁄ R .40) to find the equivalent resistance R eq . i v AB 11 ----. G eq = G 1 + G 2 + … + G n = k=1 ∑ Gk n (2. Compute the voltage v AB across the current source. it is easier to form groups of two parallel resistors as shown in Figure 2.

R 1 .Ω 1.⋅ ----.= ----.34.5 Ω 3+3 Finally.43) 2.A 6 12 ----. v S . 20 × 5 R 4 ||R 5 = -------------. 3×3 3||3 = ----------. Partial reduction for the circuit of Example 2. i v AB 11 ----.= 2 V 6 11 (2.Ω 11 i Figure 2.5||4 = ---------------. Reduction of the circuit of Example 2.5 to its simplest form b.v AB = IR eq = ----.35 R eq v AB 11 ----.= 1.5 + 4 11 and the circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 2.36. 1.5 × 4 12 R eq = 1.5 Next. and R 2 are known.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Also.= 4 Ω 20 + 5 and the circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 2.A 6 R1 3Ω 3Ω 4Ω Figure 2.35.34.12 Voltage Division Expressions In the circuit of Figure 2. The voltage v AB across the current source is 11 12 . 2-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

Compute v R1 and v R2 if R 1 and R 2 are adjusted for 7 Ω and 5 Ω respectively.46) VOLTAGE DIVISION EXPRESSIONS Example 2.36.44) Also. the arrows indicate that resistors R 1 and R 2 are variable and that the power supply is set for 12 V . a. Circuit for the derivation of the voltage division expressions For the circuit of Figure 2.45) into (2.36.36 where i is the current flowing through i.v S R1 + R2 R1 + R2 These expressions enable us to obtain the voltage drops across the resistors in a series circuit simply by observation.Voltage Division Expressions vS R1 R2 + − Figure 2.44) we obtain the voltage division expressions below.45) and by substitution of (2. we get v R1 = R 1 i and v R2 = R 2 i (2.37. ( R 1 + R 2 )i = v S or vS i = ----------------R1 + R2 (2. we will derive the voltage division expressions which state that: R1 R2 v R1 = ----------------.v S R1 + R2 and R2 v R2 = ----------------. Derivation: By Ohm’s law in the circuit of Figure 2.v S R1 + R2 (2.6 In the network of Figure 2.v S and v R2 = ----------------. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-23 . R1 v R1 = ----------------.

and the voltage drops are proportional to the resistances. the voltage drops v R1 and v R2 will be 3 V and 9 V respectively. Network for Example 2.37. Circuit for the derivation of the current division expressions 2-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 2. v R2 = 9 V . R 1 + R 2 = 12 Ω .× 12 = 5 V R1 + R2 7+5 b.38. Using the voltage division expressions of (2.38.13 Current Division Expressions In the circuit shown in Figure 2. Since v R1 + v R2 = 3 + 9 = 12 V . i S .v S = ----------. and G 2 are known.× 12 = 7 V R1 + R2 7+5 and R2 5 v R2 = ----------------.6 Solution: a. we get R1 7 v R1 = ----------------. and R 1 + R 2 = 12 Ω ? + Power Supply (Voltage Source) − 12 V v R1 + − v R2 R1 + R2 − Figure 2. it follows that if we let R 1 = 3 Ω and R 2 = 9 Ω . G 1 . iS v i G1 G1 ( R1 ) i G2 G2 ( R2 ) Figure 2.v S = ----------.46). To what values should R 1 and R 2 be adjusted so that v R1 = 3 V .Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits b.

since 1 R 1 = ----G1 by substitution into (2.i S and i R2 = ----------------.i S R1 + R2 R1 + R2 CURRENT DIVISION EXPRESSIONS (2.49) we get R2 R1 i R1 = ----------------.i S G1 + G2 1 R 2 = ----G2 (2. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-25 .47) Also. we will derive the current division expressions which state that G1 i G1 = -----------------.48) into (2.50) Example 2.7 For the circuit of figure 2. Derivation: By Ohm’s law for conductances.39.40.i S G1 + G2 and G2 i G2 = -----------------. compute the voltage drop v Solution: The current source i S divides into currents i 1 and i 2 as shown in Figure 2.48) and by substitution of (2.i S G1 + G2 and G2 i G2 = -----------------.49) Also.i S G1 + G2 and these expressions enable us to obtain the currents through the conductances (or resistances) in a parallel circuit simply by observation.38.Current Division Expressions For the circuit of Figure 2.47) G1 i G1 = -----------------. we get i G1 = G 1 v and i G2 = G 2 v (2. ( G1 + G2 ) v = iS or iS v = -----------------G1 + G2 (2.

In the United States. Department of Defense or its agencies issue standards known 2-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Therefore. This is found by the current division expression as R2 + R3 + R4 4 + 5 + 20 87 i 1 = -----------------------------------------.A R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 12 + 4 + 5 + 20 41 and observing the passive sign convention.40. the voltage v is 87 1044 v = – i 1 R 1 = – ----.S. Also.39. we are only interested in current i 1 .V 41 41 or v = – 25.7 R2 4 Ω R3 5Ω i2 R 4 20 Ω + R1 v − 12 Ω i1 3A iS Figure 2.46 V 2. the Electronics Industries Association (EIA) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) have established and published several standards for electrical and electronic devices to provide interchangeability among similar products made by different manufacturers. the U.7 We observe that the voltage v is the voltage across the resistor R 1 . capacitors and diodes is carried out by various technical committees.⋅ i S = -----------------------------------.14 Standards for Electrical and Electronic Devices Standardization of electronic components such as resistors.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits R2 4 Ω R3 5Ω R 4 20 Ω + R1 v − 12 Ω 3A iS Figure 2. Application of current division expressions for the circuit of Example 2. Circuit for Example 2.⋅ 12 = – ----------.⋅ 3 = ----.

The failure rate is the percent probability of failure in a 1000-hour time interval. the third represents the multiplier. a single digit number can be represented by a particular color band as shown in Table 2. each color represents a single digit number. or conversely.3 that is based on MILSTD-1285A color code. 2. Resistor Color Code per MIL-STD-1285A In a color coded scheme. indicate the tolerance and failure rate respectively. Figures 2. Then the resistance value is found from the expression R = ( 10 × A + B ) ×10 C (2.51) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-27 . that is.42. or simply MIL-stds. Resistor Color Code per EIA Standard RS-279 Significant 1st Figures 2nd Multiplier Failure Rate Level on Established Reliability Levels Only Tolerance Figure 2. and the fourth and fifth bands. All of the aforementioned standards are updated periodically.42 show the color coding scheme per EIA Standard RS-279 and MIL-STD1285A respectively.15 Resistor Color Code The Resistor Color Code is used for marking and identifying pertinent data for standard resistors.41 and 2.42. the first and second bands designate the first and second significant digits respectively. The tolerance is the maximum deviation from the specified nominal value and it is given as a percentage. Let A and B represent the first and second significant digits and C represent the multiplier. As shown in Figure 2. Significant 1st 2nd Figures 3rd Tolerance Wider Space to Identify Direction of Reading Left to Right Multiplier Figure 2. The interested reader may find the latest revisions in the Internet or the local library.Resistor Color Code as Military Standards. if they exist. the number by which the first two digits are multiplied.41.

Blue.1% probability that this resistor will fail after 1000 hours of operation.000.1 0. Therefore. and common resistor wattage values are ¼ watt. Gold. Using the power relation p R = i R .25 0.6. What is the value. we find that the wattage of the 7 Ω and 2 2-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and Blue (multiplier) = 1.1 1 2 1 0. this resistor can have a value anywhere between 14. Red. the nominal value of this resistor is 15. 2.01 5 10 20 Multiplier (3rd Digit) 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 0. To appreciate the importance of the wattage of a resistor.75 MΩ. a resistor.8 The value of a resistor is coded with the following colored band code.000 Ohms or 15 MΩ. That is. ½ watt.000 × ±0. 2 watts. left to right: Brown. besides its resistance rating (ohms) has a power rating (watts) commonly referred to as the wattage of the resistor. Green (2nd significant digit) = 5.001 Tolerance (Percent) Fail Rate (Percent) Example 2. 1 watt.000. Figure 2. Since the 5th band is Red.25 MΩ and 15.000.37 where the current is 12 V ⁄ 12 Ω = 1 A .16 Power Rating of Resistors As it was mentioned in Section 2. let us refer to the voltage divider circuit of Example 2. 5 watts and so on. The 4th band is Gold indicating a ±5% tolerance meaning that the maximum deviation from the nominal value is 15. there is a 0.000.000 ±5% = 15.2. and probability of failure for that resistor? Solution: Table 2. tolerance.75 MΩ.05 = ±750.000.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits TABLE 2.000 Ohms or ±0. Green.1 0.01 0.5 0.3 yields the following data: Brown (1st significant digit) = 1.3 Resistor values per MIL-STD-1285A Color Code Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Gray White Gold Silver No Color 1st & 2nd Digits 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0.

66 Ω. Example 2. the resistance at 50 degrees Celsius is 48 + 5.9 The resistance of a long piece of copper wire is 48 Ω at 20 °C . down to about – 50 °C . a. For each degree that the temperature of a copper wire rises above 20 °C Celsius.1179 × 48 Ω in resistance or 5. Solution: a.393 = 11. Construct a curve showing the relation between resistance and temperature. In general.43.17 Temperature Coefficient of Resistance The resistance of any pure metal. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-29 . Similarly. up to about 200 °C .52) where R 20 is the resistance at 20 °C and α 20 is the temperature coefficient of resistance at 20 °C . What would the resistance be at 50°C ? b.393% for every degree rise.52) is an equation of a straight line with slope = R 20 α 20 .66 = 53. for each degree that the temperature drops below 20 °C . We could also divide the 12 volt source into two voltages of 7 V and 5 V using a 7 kΩ and a 5 kΩ resistor. This represents an increase of 0. the resistance of any pure metal at temperature T in degrees Celsius is given by R = R 20 [ 1 + α 20 ( T – 20 ) ] (2. Therefore. Therefore the resistance increases by 30 × 0. b.393 of 1 percent of what it was at 20 degrees Celsius. with this arrangement the current would be 12 V ⁄ 12 kΩ = 1 mA .79% .393 of 1 percent of what it was at 20 °C .66 Ω . such as copper. The relation of (2.Temperature Coefficient of Resistance 5 Ω resistors would be 7 watts and 5 watts respectively. the resistance decreases 0. The wattage of the 7 kΩ and 5 kΩ resistors would then be ( 10 ) × 7 × 10 = 7 × 10 –3 2 3 –3 W = 7 mW and ( 10 ) × 5 × 10 = 5 mW respectively. changes with temperature. This percentage of change in resistance is called the Temperature Coefficient of Resistance. This straight line is easily constructed with the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet shown in Figure 2. –3 2 3 2. Then.43. the resistance increases 0. The temperature rise is 50 – 20 = 30 degrees Celsius and the resistance increases 0. we observe that the resistance reaches zero value at approximately – 235 °C . From Figure 2.

18 Ampere Capacity of Wires For public safety. Spreadsheet for construction of equation (2. The ratings for aluminum wires are typically 84% of these values. Moreover. state and federal boards.52) 2. Since the area of a circle is proportional to the square of its diameter.84 -220 2. 2-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .7264 -210 4.4 are for copper wires. outlet boxes and appliances are governed by Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standards which approves consumer products such as motors.9328 -240 -1. Table 2. radios. the area of any circle in circular mils is the square of its diameter in mils. primarily on the National Electric Code (NEC) and the National Electric Safety Code. electric power supply (mains) wiring is controlled by local.0448 -150 15.6128 -200 6. fuses. are the circular mils and these denote the area of the cross section of each wire size. circuit breakers.5 provides recommended current ratings for copper wire based on 45°C ( 40°C for wires smaller than 22 AWG. Listed also. many products such as wire and cable. Also.272 -170 12. 2. these rating are for not more than three conductors in a cable with temperature 30°C or 86°F .3856 -180 10.1584 -160 14. and the area of a circle one mil in diameter is one circular mil.4992 -190 8.8176 Resistance of Copper Wire versus Temperature 100 80 Ohms 60 40 20 0 -250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 Degrees Celsius Figure 2.43.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Temp Resistance (deg C) (Ohms) -250 -2. television sets etc.19 Current Ratings for Electronic Equipment There are also standards for the internal wiring of electronic equipment and chassis. A circular mil is the area of a circle whose diameter is 1 mil (one-thousandth of an inch). Table 2.4 shows the NEC allowable current-carrying capacities for copper conductors based on the type of insulation. The NEC contains tables with correction factors at higher temperatures.9312 -140 17. The ratings in Table 2.0464 -230 0. A mil-foot wire is a wire whose length is one foot and has a cross-sectional area of one circular mil.

RHH. TW. FEPB.Current Ratings for Electronic Equipment TABLE 2.4 Current Carrying Capacities for Copper Conductors Copper Conductor Insulation RH. FEP. UF TFE‡ 14 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 0 00 000 0000 † Dry Locations Only 15 20 30 40 55 70 80 95 110 125 145 165 195 15 20 30 45 65 85 100 115 130 150 175 200 230 25 30 40 50 70 90 105 120 140 155 185 210 235 40 55 75 95 120 145 170 195 220 250 280 315 370 ‡ Nickel or nickel-coated copper only Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-31 . TBS. THWN. (14-2) THW. RUH. RHW. THHN XHHW† Size (AWG) RUH(14-2) T. SA. XHHW TA.

22 1624 2583 4107 6530 10380 16510 26250 41740 66370 83690 105500 133100 167800 211600 116 72 45.459 0.092 0.2 Wire in Free Air 0.53 Wire Confined in Insulation 0.32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 0 00 000 0000 100.059 0.7 6.4 22 13.4 10.2 2.83 1.5 159.117 0.2 28.15 3.5 10 13 17 23 33 46 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 225 The resistance of a wire of length l can be computed by the relation ρl R = ---2 d (2.5 5.074 0.151 0.185 0.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits TABLE 2.02 1.3 2.53) 2-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .4 2.5 Current Ratings for Electronic Equipment and Chassis Copper Wires Wire Size Nominal Resistance (Ohms/1000 ft) at 100 °C 188 Maximum Current (Amperes) AWG 32 Circular Mils 63.31 0.29 0.8 254.1 404 642.52 0.2 3.1 5 7.86 1.5 7 11 16 22 32 41 55 73 101 135 181 211 245 283 328 380 0.734 0.

10 Compute the resistance per mile of a copper conductor 1 ⁄ 8 inch in diameter given that the resistance per mil-foot of copper is 10. by (2. d = diameter of wire in mils. Solution: ( 1 ⁄ 8 ) in = 0. Correction factors must be applied to determine the resistance at other temperatures or for other materials.004 ( T – 100 ) ] (2. The wiring size in each section must be selected such that the current shall not exceed the current carrying capacities as defined by the NEC tables.20 Copper Conductor Sizes for Interior Wiring In the design of an interior electrical installation.125 in = 125 mils and from (2. and T is the desired temperature. Example 2.004 ( 30 – 100 ) ] = 1. the electrical contractor must accurately determine the current which each wire must carry and make a tentative selection of the size listed in Table 2.4 × 5280 ρl R = ---.11 Compute the resistance of 1000 ft of size AWG 12 copper wire at 30°C . the electrical contractor must consider two important factors: a.= 3.4 Ω at 20 °C . l = length of wire in feet.51 Ω 2 2 125 d Column 3 of Table 2. Solution: From Table 2.45 Ω 2.54).54) where R T is the resistance at the desired temperature. R 100 is the resistance at 100°C for copper.53) 10.Copper Conductor Sizes for Interior Wiring where ρ = resistance per mil-foot. and R is the resistance at 20 °C .5 we find that the resistance of 1000 ft of size AWG 12 copper wire at 100°C is 2. Example 2.02 [ 1 + 0.02 Ω .4.5 shows the copper wire resistance at 100°C .= ---------------------------. Then. Therefore. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-33 . the conversion equation is R T = R 100 [ 1 + 0. For copper. the resistance of the same wire at 30°C is R 30°C = 2.

46 indicate that we should not use a conductor less than size 6 AWG .45 and 2. The computations in Parts III through V of the spreadsheet of Figures 2.Copper Conductor Sizes for Interior Wiring A much higher voltage than the rated 120 V would cause these lamps to glow far above their rated candle power and would either burn them immediately. or shorten their life considerably. It is therefore necessary to install larger than 12 AWG main line. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-35 .

Temp Resistance of actual length of wire Voltage drop in each branch Number of wires in each main Total length of wire in main line 0 Resistance of 1000 ft 12 AWG wire at 100 C Resistance of 1000 ft 12 AWG wire at Spec.02 1.29 % Figure 2.41 0.45.4 ft Step 11 x Step 12 Table 2. smaller sizes have insufficient mechanical strength .74 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Distance from panel to load center Number of wires in each branch Total length of wire in each branch 0 Specified Temperature in C 0 Resistance of 1000 ft 14 AWG wire at 100 C Resistance of 1000 ft 14 AWG wire at Spec.5 Equation (2. of Branches from Panel Board Outlets per branch Outlet Voltage Rating Power drawn from each outlet Power required by each branch Current drawn by each branch Required wire size for branches * Current required by the main line Required wire size for main line Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Part II Check for Voltage Drops ft C Ω Ω Ω V ft Ω Ω Ω V V 12.54) (Step 20 x Step 22) /1000 Step 9 x Step 23 Step 18 + Step 24 (Step 25 / Step 4) x 100 0 Part I Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sizing in Accordance with NEC (Table 2.20 2. Parts I and II 60 2 120 25 3.73 14.57 12.2-36 Calculation Value 200 3 12 120 75 900 7.2) Description Meter to Panel Board Distance No.02 2 400 2.50 14 22.50 12 Units ft V w w A AWG Carries up to 15 A A AWG Carries up to 20 A Step 3 x Step 5 Step 6 / Step 4 Table 2. Spreadsheet for Example 2.24 0.5 Equation (2.269 2. Temp Resistance of actual length of wire Voltage drop in main line Voltage drop from meter to load center 26 Percent line drop Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications * No size smaller can be installed.54) (Step 13 x Step 16) / 1000 Step 7 x Step 17 Step 1 x Step 19 Table 2.12.4 Step 2 x Step 7 Table 2.

56 % (Step 32 / Step 4) x 100 AWG Carries up to 30 A Ω Ω Ω V V Table 2.53 % Table 2.5 Equation (2. Spreadsheet for Example 2.4 Table 2.54) (Step 20 x Step 36)/1000 Step 9 x Step 37 Step 18 + Step 38 (Step 39 / Step 4) x 100 8 0.4 Table 2.917 0.91 AWG Carries up to 55 A Ω Ω Ω V V 4.367 8. Temp Resistance of actual length of wire Voltage drop in main line Voltage drop from meter to load center 40 Percent line drop Figure 2. Temp Resistance of actual length of wire Voltage drop in main line Voltage drop from meter to load center Copper Conductor Sizes for Interior Wiring 47 Percent line drop 2-37 .09 % Part III Recalculation Using 10 AWG Conductor Size 27 28 29 30 31 32 Next larger conductor size for main line 0 Resistance of 1000 ft 10 AWG wire at 100 C Resistance of 1000 ft 10 AWG wire at Spec.129 2. and V Part V Recalculation Using 6 AWG Conductor Size 41 42 43 44 45 46 Next larger conductor size for main line 0 Resistance of 1000 ft 6 AWG wire at 100 C Resistance of 1000 ft 6 AWG wire at Spec. Parts III.310 0. Temp Resistance of actual length of wire Voltage drop in main line Voltage drop from meter to load center 33 Percent line drop Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Part IV Recalculation Using 8 AWG Conductor Size 34 35 36 37 38 39 Next larger conductor size for main line 0 Resistance of 1000 ft 8 AWG wire at 100 C Resistance of 1000 ft 8 AWG wire at Spec.4 Table 2.27 8.5 Equation (2.206 4.46.5 Equation (2.64 AWG Carries up to 40 A Ω Ω Ω V V 5.459 0.89 4. IV.54) (Step 20 x Step 29)/1000 Step 9 x Step 30 Step 18 + Step 24 10 1.734 0.62 6.321 0.Orchard Publications Table 2.12.25 10.54) (Step 20 x Step 43)/1000 Step 9 x Step 44 Step 18 + Step 45 (Step 46 / Step 4) x 100 6 0.514 0.

• If two or more resistors are connected in series. The voltage across the terminals of a short is always zero whereas the current may have a finite value or may be zero. • Open circuit refers to an open branch (defined below) in a network. • Kirchoff ’s Voltage Law (KVL) states that the algebraic sum of the voltage drops (or voltage rises) around a closed mesh or loop is zero. • Two or more devices are said to be connected in parallel if and only if the same voltage exists across their terminals. • A resistor does not store energy. • A node is a common point where one end of two or more devices are connected. • A resistor absorbs power. • Short circuit refers to a branch (defined below) in a network that contains no device between its terminals. The energy is dissipated in the form of heat. The voltage across the terminals of an open may have a finite value or may be zero whereas the current is always zero. they can be replaced by a single current source with the proper current direction. they can be replaced by a single voltage source with the proper polarity. • Kirchoff ’s Current Law (KCL) states that the algebraic sum of the currents entering (or leaving) a node is zero. • A mesh is a closed path that does not contain other closed paths • A loop contains two or more closed paths. a piece of wire with zero resistance.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 2. • A series circuit with a single mesh can be easily analyzed by KVL. • If two or more voltage sources are in series. • If two or more current sources are in parallel. that is. • A parallel circuit with a single node pair can be easily analyzed by KCL.21 Summary • Ohm’s Law states that the voltage across a device is proportional to the current through that device and the resistance is the constant of proportionality. they can be replaced by an equivalent resistance whose value is 2-38 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . It can be thought of as a resis- tor with infinite resistance (or zero conductance). • Two or more devices are said to be connected in series if and only if the same current flows through them. • A branch is part of a network that contains a device and its nodes.

• For the simple series circuit below vS R1 R2 + − the voltage division expressions state that: R1 R2 v R1 = ----------------.i S and i R2 = ----------------.+ ----.v S R1 + R2 R1 + R2 • For the simple parallel circuit below iS v i R1 R1 i R2 R2 the current division expressions state that: R2 R1 i R1 = ----------------.+ … + ----R1 R2 Rn R eq • For the special case of two parallel resistors.= ----.Summary R eq = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 + … + R n = k=1 ∑ RK n • If two or more resistors are connected in parallel. • Conductances connected in parallel combine as resistors in series do. the equivalent resistance is found from the relation R1 ⋅ R2 R eq = R 1 ||R 2 = ----------------R1 + R2 • Conductances connected in series combine as resistors in parallel do.v S and v R2 = ----------------.i S R1 + R2 R1 + R2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-39 . they can be replaced by an equivalent resis- tance whose value is 1 1 1 1 ------.

• The resistor color code is used for marking and identifying pertinent data for standard resistors. 2-40 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Two standards are the EIA Standard RS-279 and MIL-STD-1285A. • The current ratings for wires and electronic equipment are established by national standards and codes. resistors have a power rating.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits • In the United States. the Electronics Industries Association (EIA) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) have established and published several standards for electrical and electronic devices to provide interchangeability among similar products made by different manufacturers. • Besides their resistance value. • The resistance of a wire increases with increased temperature and decreases with decreased tem- perature.

For the three resistors connected as shown on the network of Figure 2. the sum of the resistances around a closed loop is zero E.47. the sum of the currents entering a node is equal to the sum of the currents leaving that node E. the resistance is the slope of the straight line in a voltage versus current plot C.Exercises 2. the voltage across a device is directly proportional to the current through that device B. the sum of the voltages across all the devices in a closed path is equal to the sum of the currents through all the devices D. the resistance is the sum of the voltages across all the devices in a closed path divided by the sum of the currents through all the devices in the closed path D. Ohm’s Law states that A. the sum of the currents in a closed path is zero B. the voltage across a device is inversely proportional to the current through that device C. R AB = B. the current that flows through a device is inversely proportional to the voltage across that device C. Kirchoff ’s Voltage Law (KCL) states that A. the equivalent resistance R AB is computed with the formula A. the sum of the currents through all the devices in a closed path is equal to the sum of the voltages across all the devices D. R AB = R1 + R2 + R3 R1 + R2 + R3 2 2 2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-41 . none of the above 2. the conductance is the reciprocal of resistance B. none of the above 4. Kirchoff ’s Current Law (KCL) states that A. the sum of the voltages in a node is equal to the sum of the currents at that node E.22 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. none of the above 3.

5 Ω 2-42 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .+ -----. the equivalent conductance G AB is computed with the formula A. none of the above A G1 G2 G AB G3 B Figure 2.48.= -----.47.48. none of the above A R1 R2 R AB R3 B Figure 2. R AB = R1 R2 R3 -----------------------------R1 + R2 + R3 E. Network for Question 5 6.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 1 2 3 C. Network for Question 4 5. --------. G AB = B.+ -----G AB E. For the three resistances connected as shown on the network of Figure 2. For the three conductances connected as shown on the network of Figure 2.49. the equivalent conductance G AB is A. 1. G AB = G1 + G2 + G3 G1 + G2 + G3 G G G G1 + G2 + G3 G1 G2 G3 2 2 2 1 2 3 C. R AB = ------------------------------ R R R R1 + R2 + R3 D. G AB = -------------------------------- 11 1 1 D. 21 Ω –1 –1 B.

– 6 V B. 16 V C. 6 V B. When R = 0 Ω . when R = 4 Ω . v R is A. 24 V C. none of the above A R1 G AB B Figure 2.50.Exercises C. 144 ⁄ 19 Ω E. The value of the voltage v X is A. Network for Question 7 R 8. 16 V E. In the network shown in Figure 2. i R = 2 A .49. none of the above iR + Rest of the Circuit vR − Figure 2. the voltage v R = 6 V . 10 V Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-43 . 2 ⁄ 3 Ω –1 –1 D. Network for Question 6 4Ω R2 12 Ω R3 3Ω 7.51 are relative to some reference node not shown. The node voltages shown in the partial network of Figure 2. 8 V D. When R = ∞ .50. 0 V D.

0 A C.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits E. – 2 V D.52. none of the above 4Ω + v − + 8V − Figure 2. none of the above 10 V 2A 2V 8Ω 3Ω 8V 2A 4Ω 20 V Figure 2.52 the value of the voltage v is A. For the circuit of Figure 2.53 the value of the current i is A. Network for Question 8 + − vX 6V 9. ∞ A D. none of the above 2-44 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 8 V B. For the network of Figure 2. – 8 V E.51. 2 V C. 2 A B. 1 A E. Network for Question 9 10.

24 A B D 6A + A 12 V − C + 60 V − + E − 36 V Figure 2.58. In the network of Figure 2.57. v LOAD Answer: 20 V c.5 w 5. Circuit for Problem 4 Answer: 62. Circuit for Problem 3 Answers: p A = 288 w . each resistor is 10 Ω. R1 2Ω R 3 10 Ω 10 A + 50 V − R2 6Ω iR 2 + − 5i R V 2 R4 10 Ω Figure 2. i LOAD Answer: 8 A b. p C = – 1800 w . compute the power delivered or absorbed by the dependent voltage source.56.56. Compute the equivalent resistance R eq . p E = 216 w 4. compute the power supplied or absorbed by each device. p LOAD Answer: 160 w 3.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Compute: a. p D = 144 w . For the circuit of Figure 2. p B = 1152 w .57. In the circuit of Figure 2. 2-46 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

use the voltage division expression to compute v X and v Y . reduce the circuit to a simple series circuit. Answer: 0. Circuit for Problem 5 Answer: 360 ⁄ 21 Ω 6. In the network of Figure 2.58.75 A 7. R 1 = 10 Ω and R 2 = 20 Ω .Exercises Req Figure 2. In the circuit of Figure 2.59. Compute the current i supplied by the 15 V source.60. Circuit for Problem 6 Hint: Start at the right end and by series and parallel combinations of the resistors.60. + 5Ω vX − 20 Ω 10 Ω + − 24 V − vY 40 Ω + 16 V − + Figure 2. Circuit for Problem 7 Answers: v X = 8 ⁄ 3 V .59. v Y = – 16 ⁄ 3 V Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-47 . This method is known as analysis by network reduction. R1 i R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 + − 15 V Figure 2.

In the circuit of Figure 2. Primary Coil Secondary Coil Iron Core Figure 2.32 Ω. After two hours of operation.61. it is found that the primary coil resistance has risen to 6. Circuit for Problem 9 Answer: 36°C 10. Each of these conductors must have insulation type THHN and must carry a maximum current of 220 A in a 20 °C temperature environment. A new facility is to be constructed at a site which is 1. for simplicity. The electrical contractor and the utility company have made load calculations. Compute the voltage drop on each of these conductors from the substation to the facility when they carry the maximum required current of 220 A in a 20 °C temperature environment. iX 16 A 5Ω iY 24 A 10 Ω 40 Ω 20 Ω Figure 2. use the current division expression to compute i X and i Y .5 miles away from the nearest electric utility company substation. Compute the temperature rise of this coil.62.61. Circuit for Problem 8 Answers: i X = – 16 ⁄ 3 V .Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 8. A transformer consists of two separate coils (inductors) wound around an iron core as shown in Figure 2. i Y = – 8 ⁄ 3 V 9.62.48 Ω at 20 degrees Celsius. only few are shown. a. It is known that the primary coil has a resistance of 5. Answer: 70 V 2-48 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and decided that the main lines from the substation to the facility will require several copper conductors in parallel. There are many turns in both the primary and secondary coils but.

Answer: 15.Exercises b. The power absorbed by each conductor under the conditions stated above.4 Kw c.02 w ⁄ cm 2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-49 . The power absorbed per square cm of the surface area of each conductor under the conditions stated above. Answer: 0.

0 – 1. when R = 0 Ω . A from the branch that contains the 3 Ω resistor. Also. we observe that the triangles abc and dbe 6 ---------------------------are similar. the voltage v R = 6 V . D 6. i R = 0 but v R has a finite value and it is denoted as v R = ∞ in the figure below.0 vR = ∞ vR = ∞ a vR ( V ) 6.= 2 or v A = 16 and v – 10 3 thus v X = – 6 + 16 = 10 V 2-50 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Therefore. E 4.and thus v R = ∞ = 24 V bc ac 2. D 3. i R = 6 ⁄ 4 = 1. i R = 2 A . Then. Now.23 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1. we observe that ---------------. Then be = de or 2. B When R = 4 Ω . B 2. E 5. D We denote the voltage at the common node as v A shown on the figure of the next page.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 2. When R = ∞ .0 iR ( A ) 8. and thus v R = 0 (short circuit).5 1.5 b 2.5 = ------------.5 A .0 d e 1. C 7.0 c 0.

the circuit is as shown below. A This is an open circuit and therefore no current flows through the resistor. Problems 1. a. the circuit is as shown below.× 120 = 50 V 2 70 + 50 Then. pR 2 vR 2 50 2 = ------. there is no voltage drop across the resistor and thus v = 8 V .Answers to Exercises 10 V 2A 2V 3Ω vA 2A 4Ω 20 V 8V + − 8Ω vX 6V 9. A The 12 Ω resistor is shorted out by the short on the right side of the circuit and thus the only resistance in the circuit is the 4 Ω resistor. vS 0Ω R1 R2 + − 120 V 50 Ω We observe that v R = v s = 120V 2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-51 .= 50 w R2 50 2 b. and R 2 = 50 Ω . Accordingly. With v S = 120 V and R 1 = 0 Ω . With v S = 120 V .= ------. 10. we get 50 v R = ----------------. R 1 = 70 Ω . 70 Ω vS R1 R2 + − 120 V 50 Ω Using the voltage division expression.

000 2 or vS = 10.= 200 w R2 2 or 120 ----------. Application of KCL at node A of the circuit below yields i LOAD = 3 + 5 = 8 A b. the circuit is as shown below.= 72 Ω 200 2 c. vS 0Ω R1 R2 + − 100 Ω Then. 000 = 100 V 2.= 200 w R2 2 or 120 R 2 = ----------. With R 1 = 0 Ω and R 2 = 100 Ω . a. Application of KVL around Mesh 1 yields – 75 + 3 ( 5 ) + v AB = 0 2-52 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= 100 w R2 2 or vS -------.= 100 w 100 2 or v S = 100 × 100 = 10. vS ----.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits and vR 2 ------.

We assign voltages and currents v R . v R .Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits p A = v A i A = 12 × 24 = 288 w ( absorbed ) p E = v E i E = 36 × 6 = 216 w ( absorbed ) p C = v C ( – i C ) = 60 × ( – 30 ) = – 1800 w ( supplied ) By KVL vA + vB = vC or v B = v C – v A = 60 – 12 = 48 V and thus p B = v B i B = 48 × 24 = 1152 w ( absorbed ) Also by KVL vD + vE = vC or v D = v C – v E = 60 – 36 = 24 V and thus p D = v D i D = 24 × 6 = 144 w ( absorbed ) Check: We must show that Power supplied = Power absorbed p C = p A + p B + p C + p D = 288 + 216 + 1152 + 144 = 1800 w 4. and i D as shown in the circuit below. i R . 2-54 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . v R = 50 – 2 × 10 = 30 V 2 and by Ohm’s law. Circuit for Exercise 4 By KVL. i R . 2 4 3 4 R1 2Ω R 3 10 Ω iR 3 X iR 4 10 A + 50 V − R2 6Ω − + vR iR 2 + 2 + R4 vR 4 − iD 10 Ω 5i R V − 2 Figure 2.63.

The simplification procedure starts with the resistors in parallel which are indicated below. 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 5 10 10 10 10 5 Req 10 Req 5 10 10 10 5 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-55 .5 = 2.5 A 3 4 with the indicated direction through the dependent source.5 A 4 10 R4 By KCL at Node X iD = iR – iR 3 4 where i R = 10 – i R = 10 – 5 = 5 A 3 2 and thus i D = i R – i R = 5 – 2.= 25 = 2. vR 4 ----i R = -----. the value of the dependent voltage source is 5i R = 5 × 5 = 25 V 2 and v R = 5i R = 25 V 4 2 Then.5 = 62. Therefore.Answers to Exercises vR 2 ----i R = ------. p D = 5i R i D = 25 × 2.5 w ( absorbed ) 2 5.= 30 = 5 A 2 6 R2 Therefore.

Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 10 5 10 15 5 10 6 Req 5 10 10 15 Req 5 10 6 5 16 180 ⁄ 21 Req 5 16 Req 180 ⁄ 21 Req 360 ⁄ 21 6. Finally. We start with the right side of the circuit where the last two resistors are in series as shown below. R 1 + R 1 = 10 + 10 = 20 Ω 20 || 20 = 10 Ω 10 + 10 = 20 Ω and so on. R1 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R1 + − 15 V i R2 Then. addition of the left most resistor with its series equivalent yields 10 + 10 = 20 Ω and thus i = 15 ⁄ 20 = 0. Next.75 A 2-56 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

8 4 v X = ----------.+ ----. + vX − 8Ω i 4Ω A + − 8V − vY + Now. 5 + 20 = 25 Ω and 10 + 40 = 50 Ω The current sources are in parallel opposing connection and they can be replaced by a single current source with value 24 – 16 = 8 A .× 8 = -.= 8 Ω 10 + 40 The voltage sources are in series opposing connection and they can be replaced by a single voltage source with value 24 – 16 = 8 V . The simplified circuit is shown below.V 3 4+8 or 16 v Y = – ----.V 3 Check: By application of KVL starting at point A and going counterclockwise. Thus. 5 × 20 5 || 20 = -------------. by the voltage division expression. Thus.× 8 = ----. we get 8 16 v X + ( – v Y ) – 8 = -.V 3 4+8 and 16 8 – v Y = ----------. We first simplify the given circuit by replacing the parallel resistors by their equivalents.– 8 = 0 3 3 8. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-57 .Answers to Exercises 7. The simplified circuit is shown below. We first simplify the given circuit by replacing the series resistors by their equivalents.= 4 Ω 5 + 20 and 10 × 40 10 || 40 = ----------------.

059 Ω ⁄ 1000 ft at 100°C .5 – 254.5 + T 20 234.48 R 20 10. Also.5 – 254. From Table 2.5 we find that the resistance of this conductor is 0. Then.= 0 .A 25 + 50 3 and 25 8 i Y = ----------------.5 = --------.5 + 20 + T X RX 234. the resistance of this conductor that is 1. We construct the resistance versus temperature plot shown below.= --------------------------------------.5 + T 20 + T X ------. a.3 3 9.32 ∆T = T X = ------.48 Ω 6.5 + 20 254.× 254. we get 16 8 8 + i X + i Y = 8 – ----.5 miles long is 2-58 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . from Table 2.× ( – 8 ) = – ----.= ------------------------------------. 50 16 i X = ----------------.= ------------------------234.× ( – 8 ) = – -. we get 254.4 we find that the cable size must be 0000 AWG and this can carry up to 235 A .5 R 20 or RX 6.5 + T X 234.32 Ω 20°C ∆T R (Ω) b RX R0 T 20 R 20 e TX d T ( °C ) c From the similar triangles acd and abe.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 8A iX 25 Ω iY 50 Ω By the current division expression.A 25 + 50 3 Check: By application of KCL starting at point A and going counterclockwise.– -.× 254.5 = 36°C 5. R 20 RX T 20 TX a −234.5 0 = = = = 5.

4673 Ω at 100°C 1000ft 1 mile To find the resistance of this cable at 20°C . the cross-section of this cable in cm is 5. we perform the following conversion: π π 2 2 –7 2 1 circular mil = -. The power absorbed by each conductor is p = vi = 70 × 220 = 15.600 circular mils.001 in .32 ) = 0.004 ( 20 – 100 ) ] = 0. R 20 = R 100 [ 1 + 0.= --------------------------------------.= 7.Answers to Exercises Ω 5280 0.5 we find that the cross section of a 0000 AWG cable is 211. Thus. Then. Table 2.035 = 3.851 × 10 cm 1 Km 1 mile 5 Then.5 miles = 0.× ----------------. the power absorbed per cm is p cm 2 2 2 Total power 15.072 = 1.× 1.059 --------------.5 miles × ----------------------.( 0.= 5.253 cm and the surface area of the cable is 1.d = -.072 cm circular mil –6 2 2 Therefore. the cable diameter in cm is d= 1.253 cm × 1.067 × 10 cm 2 211.609 Km 10 cm 5 2 Surface area = πdl = 3.= 1.035 cm The cross-section circumference of the cable is πd = π × 1.× --------------.001 ) = 7.854 × 10 –7 2 ( 2. 600 circular mils × ----------------------------------------.3178 = 70 V b.5 gives wire sizes in circular mils. We recall that a circular mil is the area of a circle whose diameter is 0.067 × 10 cm 2 in 2 From Table 2.54).4673 ( 1 – 0.4 Kw c. To find the diameter in cm. 400 w = 15.02 w ⁄ cm 2 5 2 cm 7.854 × 10 in 4 4 = 7.3178 Ω and the voltage drop on each of these conductors is v = iR = 220 × 0. 400 w = ------------------------------.54 cm ) –6 2 in × -------------------------. we use the relation of (2.851 × 10 cm Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-59 .= 0.

Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits NOTES 2-60 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

In this text. linearity. and regulation. v n – 1 . B = number of branches . …. superposition. we apply KCL and write a nodal equation for each of the node voltages v 1.1 Let N = number of nodes in a circuit . If the circuit does not contain any voltage sources between nodes. Other topics included in this chapter are the voltage-to-current source transformations and vice versa. These equations are obtained by setting the algebraic sum of the currents leaving each of the N – 1 nodes equal to zero. At each non-reference node we assign node voltages v 1. 3. loop and mesh equations and how they are applied to the solution of circuits containing two or more node-pairs and two or more loops or meshes. v 2. then L = M = B – N + 1 independent loop or mesh equations are required to completely describe that circuit.1 Nodal. we will only be concerned with the following two theorems. Mesh. 3. Theorem 3. 3. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-1 . These equations are obtained by setting the algebraic sum of the voltage drops around each of the L = M = B – N + 1 loops or meshes equal to zero.Circuit Theorems T his chapter begins with nodal. Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems. Theorem 3.e. and Loop Equations Network Topology is a branch of network theory concerned with the equations required to completely describe an electric circuit. v 2. For a circuit containing N nodes. v n – 1 where each of these voltages is measured with respect to the chosen reference node. the maximum power transfer theorem. i. then N – 1 independent nodal equations are required to completely describe that circuit.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .. efficiency. we perform the following steps: 1. ….2 Analysis with Nodal Equations In writing nodal equations. 2. N = number of nodes in a circuit.2 Let L = M = number of loops or meshes . we choose one of these as a reference node assumed to be zero volts or ground. ground.

then we relate the voltage source to the node variables v j and v k .1 For convenience. Circuit for Example 3. and G (for ground) as shown in v2 10 Ω i 10 6Ω i4 18 A i6 24 A Figure 3.2. the current that flows through the 4 Ω resistor is denoted as i 4 . the current through the 8 Ω resistor is denoted as i 8 . and so on. Verify your answers with Excel® or MATLAB®.1. Circuit for Example 3.1 Write nodal equations for the circuit shown in Figure 3. thus.2. 8Ω 10 Ω 4Ω 12 A 18 A 6Ω 24 A Figure 3. Example 3. we have denoted the currents with a subscript that corresponds to the resistor value through which it flows through. Please refer to Appendix A for discussion and examples. . v1 8Ω i8 4Ω 12 A G .1 Solution: We observe that there are 4 nodes and we denote these as Figure 3.Circuit Theorems 4. say nodes j and k denoted as node variables v j and v k . Cramer’s rule. or the substitution method.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . 3-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .1. If the circuit contains a voltage source between two nodes. v3 . we replace the voltage source with a short circuit thus forming a combined node and we write a nodal equation for this common node in terms of both v j and v k . and solve for the unknowns of these equations using matrix theory. We will follow this practice in the subsequent examples.

application of KCL at node or yields i 8 + i 10 + 18 = 0 i 8 + i 10 = – 18 (3.2) Next. . Expressing (3. and we assign voltages v 1. in equation (3. to assign a (+) sign to all currents leaving the node in which we apply KCL.+ --------------. Let us choose node G (ground) as our reference node. since G = 1/R. or even write the node equations by inspection. we need N – 1 = 4 – 1 = 3 nodal equations.1) for example. Of course. and from right to left in writing the nodal equation at Node 2.1) in terms of the node voltages. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-3 . Therefore. Now. * The direction of the current through the 8 Ω resistor from left to right in writing the nodal equation at Node 1. we denote the coefficients of v1 (1/4 and 1/8 siemens) as self conductances and the coefficient of v2 (−1/8) as mutual conductance. we assign plus (+) values to self conductances and minus (−) to mutual conductances.1) where i 8 is the current flowing from left to right. however.-. application of KCL at node yields i 4 + i 8 – 12 = 0 or i 4 + i 8 = 12 (3. v 2 . we get v1 v1 – v2 ---. and respectively. Likewise. we can write a nodal equation at a particular node by inspection. The advantage is that we can check. any assumptions made in writing the first equation need not be held in writing the second since the latter is independent of the first. these are to be measured with respect to the ground node G. Remember that we wrote independent node equations at independent nodes and. that is. we could have assumed that the current through the 8 Ω resistor flows in the same direction in both nodal equations. It is advantageous.3) the coefficients of v2 (1/8 and 1/10 siemens) are the self conductances and the coefficients of v1 (−1/8) and v3 (−1/10) are the mutual conductances.⎝ 4 8⎠ 1 8 2 or 3v 1 – v 2 = 96 (3. and v 3 at nodes . should not be confusing. therefore.3) where i 8 is the current flowing from right to left * and i 10 is the current that flows from left to right. With reference to the above circuit and equation (3.2.= 12 8 4 or ⎛ 1 + 1 ⎞ v – 1 v = 12 --.Analysis with Nodal Equations For the circuit of Figure 3.

-– ----.7) 3-4 ⎧ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Circuit Theorems Expressing (3.1– -. application of KCL at node or yields i 10 + i 6 – 24 = 0 i 10 + i 6 = 24 where i 10 is the current flowing from right to left.v 2 + ⎛ ----.4) Similarly.5) or 1 1.3) in terms of node voltages. in terms of node voltages.2).= – 18 8 10 or 1 1-.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . We write them in matrix form as follows: 3 –1 0 5 –9 4 0 1 –6 G v1 v2 v3 V = 96 720 – 240 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I (3. (3.= 24 6 10 (3. and (3.+ 1 ⎞ v 3 = 24 ⎝ 10 6 ⎠ 10 or – 3v 2 + 18v 3 = 720 or v 2 – 6 v3 = – 240 (3. we get v2 – v1 v2 – v3 --------------.+ ---.6) Equations (3.v 3 = – 18 ⎝ 8 10⎠ 8 10 or 5v 1 – 9v 2 + 4v 3 = 720 (3. v3 – v2 v3 --------------.v 1 + ⎛ 1 + -----⎞ v 2 – ----. Then.4).6) constitute a set of three simultaneous equations with three unknowns.+ --------------.

V=G\I.00 volts The spreadsheet of Figure 3..4. and v 3 = 30 V . Simultaneous solution yields v 1 = 12 V . fprintf('v1 = %5.7) for the unknowns.7) Example 3.7).. .033 12 7 -1 G = 0. V(2)).042 -0.2 For the circuit of Figure 3. 5 −9 4. 0 1 −6]. fprintf('v2 = %5. v 2 = – 60 V . I=[96 720 -240]'. With these values we can determine the current in each resistor. or Gauss’s elimination method.2f volts \t'. Cramer’s rule. V(1)). and the power absorbed or delivered by each device.025 -0. Spreadsheet for the solution of (3.00 volts v3 = 30.250 -0. and G (for ground) as shown in Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-5 . . the currents through and the power absorbed or delivered by each device. fprintf(' \n') v1 = 12. write nodal equations in matrix form and solve for the unknowns using matrix theory.150 -0.100 V= -60 8 0.417 -0. Verify your answers with Excel or MATLAB. Please refer to Appendix A for procedures and examples. Solution: We observe that there are 4 nodes and we denote these as Figure 3. Check with MATLAB®: G=[3 −1 0. . to solve (3.Analysis with Nodal Equations We can use Cramer’s rule or Gauss’s elimination method as discussed in Appendix A.. A B C D E F G H 1 Spreadsheet for Matrix Inversion and Matrix Multiplication 2 3 -1 0 96 3 G= 5 -9 4 I= 720 4 0 1 -6 -240 5 6 0. fprintf('v3 = %5. fprintf(' \n'). V(3))..3.2f volts \t'. The procedure is discussed in Appendix A.5.3 shows the solution of the equations of (3. Then construct a table showing the voltages across..183 30 9 Figure 3.2f volts'.050 -0. .00 volts Check with Excel®: v2 = -60.

v 1 = 12 V and thus our first equation is v 1 = 12 (3. one to the right. these are to be measured with respect to the ground node G .8) Next. our next nodal equation will contain three terms. and v 3 at nodes . To work around this problem. v 2 .5.Circuit Theorems 8Ω − + 10 V 6Ω + 12 V − 4Ω 18 A 24 A Figure 3. that is. . We observe that v 1 is a known voltage.2 v1 8Ω v2 − + 10 V 6Ω 18 A G v3 + 12 V − 4Ω 24 A Figure 3.6.4.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . we temporarily remove the 10 V voltage source and we replace it with a “short” thereby creating a combined node (or generalized node or supernode as some textbooks call it). we move to node where we observe that there are three currents flowing out of this node. we encounter a problem with the third term because we cannot express it as term representing the current flowing from node to node .2 with assigned nodes and voltages We assign voltages v 1. and for the 18 A source. however. Circuit for Example 3. We have no difficulty writing the term for the current flowing from node to node . and the circuit now looks as shown in Figure 3. one to the left. and respectively. and one down. 3-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Therefore. Circuit for Example 3.

8 6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-7 . at node 3.2 with a combined node Now. application of KCL at this combined node yields the equation i 8 + 18 + i 6 – 24 = 0 or i8 + i6 = 6 or v2 – v1 v3 --------------.v 2 + -.Analysis with Nodal Equations v1 8Ω i8 v2 v3 Combined Node − + 10 V 6Ω 18 A G + 12 V − 4Ω i6 24 A Removed and replaced by a short Figure 3.9) or 1 1 1 – -.10).10) and . In this example.8).11) To obtain the third equation.11) are * The combined node technique allows us to combine two nodal equations into one but requires that we use the proper node designations.+ ---. Then.6..= 6 * 8 6 (3. equations (3. (3. to retain the designation of node 2. Circuit for Example 3. we express the current i 8 as v2 – v1 v3 --------------. (3. we reinsert the 10 V source between nodes v 3 – v 2 = 10 In matrix form.v 1 + -. and (3.. we express the current i 6 as ---.v 3 = 6 8 6 8 or – 3v 1 + 3v 2 + 4v 3 = 144 (3. Likewise.

143 -0.1 shows that the power delivered is equal to the power absorbed. For a circuit containing M = L = B – N + 1 meshes (or loops). fprintf('v3 = %5. i n – 1 for each mesh or loop.00 volts ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ v3 = 30.000 12 7 G-1= 0. 2.Circuit Theorems 1 0 0 –3 3 4 0 –1 1 G v1 v2 v3 V = 12 144 10 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I (3.143 0. 3. V=G\I. . v 2 = 20 V .00 volts A B C D E F G H 1 Spreadsheet for Matrix Inversion and Matrix Multiplication 2 1 0 0 12 3 G= -3 3 4 I= 144 4 0 -1 1 10 5 6 1. 3-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Spreadsheet for the solution of (3.7.12) Table 3.12) Simultaneous solution yields v 1 = 12 V ..3 Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations In writing mesh or loop equations. V(3)). −3 3 4.429 0... If the circuit does not contain any current sources.000 0. V(2)). From these we can find the current through each device and the power absorbed or delivered by each device. V(1)). fprintf('v2 = %5.. fprintf('v1 = %5.. we assign a mesh or loop current i 1. 0 −1 1]. fprintf(' \n') v1 = 12.2f volts \t'. Check with MATLAB: G=[1 0 0.000 0. we follow these steps: 1.00 volts Check with Excel: v2 = 20.2f volts'. we apply KVL around each mesh or loop.571 V= 20 8 0.429 30 9 Figure 3. fprintf(' \n'). ….429 0. and v 3 = 30 V . i 2.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .2f volts \t'. I=[12 144 10]'.

we replace the current source with an open circuit thus forming a common mesh or loop. Then construct a table showing the voltages across.Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations TABLE 3. or Gauss’s elimination method. and we write a mesh or loop equation for this common mesh or loop in terms of both i j and i k . Cramer’s rule. If the circuit contains a current source between two meshes or loops.8. write mesh equations in matrix form and solve for the unknowns using matrix theory. we relate the current source to the mesh or loop variables i j and i k . Circuit for Example 3. say meshes or loops j and k denoted as mesh variables i j and i k . 2Ω 36 V 8Ω − + 12 V + − − 4Ω 6Ω 12 Ω Figure 3. and the power absorbed or delivered by each device. Please refer to Appendix A for procedures and examples.3 For the circuit of Figure 3. Then.8.1 Table for Example 3. Example 3.2 Device 12 V Source 10 V Source 18 A Source 24 A Source 4 Ω Resistor 6 Ω Resistor 8 Ω Resistor Total Voltage (volts) 12 10 20 30 12 30 8 Current (amps) 2 19 18 24 3 5 1 Power (watts) Delivered Absorbed 24 190 360 720 36 150 8 744 744 3. the currents through. Verify your answers with Excel or MATLAB.3 + 24 V − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-9 .

15) 3-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .13) Mesh #2: Starting with the lower end of the 4 Ω resistor. and i 3 all in a clockwise direction as shown in Figure 3. and observing the passive sign convention.9.9.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .14) Mesh #3: Starting with the lower end of the 6 Ω resistor. and observing the passive sign convention. 2Ω 36 V 8Ω − 10 Ω − − 12 V i1 + + 4Ω i2 6Ω i3 12 Ω Figure 3. going clockwise.Circuit Theorems Solution: For this circuit we need M = L = B – N + 1 = 9 – 7 + 1 = 3 mesh or loop equations and we arbitrarily assign currents i 1 . we get the equation for this mesh as 2i 1 + 4 ( i 1 – i 2 ) – 12 = 0 or 6i 1 – 4i 2 = 12 (3. going clockwise.3 + 24 V − Applying KVL around each mesh we get: Mesh #1: Starting with the left side of the 2 Ω resistor. we get the equation 4 ( i 2 – i 1 ) + 36 + 8i 2 + 6 ( i 2 – i 3 ) = 0 or – 4i 1 + 18i 2 – 6i 3 = – 36 (3. and observing the passive sign convention. i 2 . going clockwise. we get: 6 ( i 3 – i 2 ) + 10i 3 + 12i 3 + 24 = 0 or – 6i 2 + 28i 3 = – 24 (3. Circuit for Example 3.

– 4i 1 and – 6i 3 . In Mesh 2.13). This. the self resistances are the 4 Ω . 18. Their sum. 2. and the second and the third meshes respectively. was not mandatory. The advantage here is that we can check. It is advantageous.3593 . (3. We observe that current i 2 also flows through the 4 Ω resistor.13). we could have assigned any direction in any mesh.13) we have assumed that the upper end of this resistor has the plus (+) polarity. however. the voltage drops due to the mutual resistances in the second equation have a minus (-) sign.4271 . The signs of the coefficients of i 2 and i 3 in (3. of course. i. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ 3-11 .17) (3. Since i 2 enters the lower end of the 4 Ω resistor.Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations Note: For this example. With reference to the circuit of Figure 3.18) and in matrix form 3 –2 0 2 –9 3 0 3 – 14 R i1 i2 i3 I = 6 18 12 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V (3. and i 3 = – 1. 8 Ω .13).9 and equation (3.15) we get: 3i 1 – 2i 2 = 6 2i 1 – 9 i 2 + 3i 3 = 18 3i 2 – 14 i 3 = 12 (3.15) are similarly related to the self and mutual resistances in the third mesh. then in accordance with the passive sign convention. to assign the same direction to all currents. we see that current i 1 flows through the 2 Ω and 4 Ω resistors. is the coefficient of i 2 in equation (3.e.14).14) and (3. 2 + 4 = 6 is the coefficient of current i 1 in that equation. and in writing equation (3. 3. We call this resistance the mutual resistance between the first and the second mesh. Simplifying and rearranging (3. i. clockwise.e. We call these the self resistances of the first mesh. Accordingly.19) Simultaneous solution yields i 1 = 0. The 4 Ω and 6 Ω resistors are also the mutual resistances between the first and second.16) (3.3627 where the negative values for i 2 and i 3 indicate that the actual direction for these currents is counterclockwise. and 6 Ω resistors whose sum. i 2 = – 2. or even write the mesh equations by inspection. we assigned all three currents with the same direction.. the voltage drop due to current i 2 is – 4i 2 and this is the second term on the left side of (3.. This is best explained with the following observations: 1.e. i.

427 2.627 16..2f amps \t'.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .031 I= -2.359 1..427 2. 0 3 −14]. fprintf(' \n') i1 = 0. fprintf('i2 = %5. Spreadsheet for the solution of (3.10. V=[6 18 12]'.359 0. A B C D E F G H 1 Spreadsheet for Matrix Inversion and Matrix Multiplication 2 3 -2 0 6 3 R= 2 -9 3 V= 18 4 0 3 -14 12 5 6 0.142 -0.43 amps i2 = -2.144 18.365 30.363 1.124 84.3593 8 0.3627 9 Figure 3. I(2)).2f amps'. I(1)).760 3-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .031 -0.Circuit Theorems Check with MATLAB: R=[3 −2 0.712 0.020 0.363 Power (watts) Delivered Absorbed 5. fprintf('i3 = %5.36 amps Excel produces the same answers as shown in Figure 3..288 122.964 44..078 -1.976 13.020 -0.10.530 5.4271 7 R-1= 0.2 shows that the power delivered by the voltage sources is equal to the power absorbed by the resistors.3 Device 12 V Source 36 V Source 24 V Source 2 Ω Resistor 4 Ω Resistor 8 Ω Resistor 6 Ω Resistor 10 Ω Resistor 12 Ω Resistor Total Voltage (volts) 12.095 -0.924 32.996 1. I(3)).570 22. I=R\V. ..874 5. fprintf(' \n').36 amps i3 = -1. fprintf('i1 = %5.786 2.000 36.352 Current (amps) 0.2f amps \t'.095 -0. TABLE 3.19) Table 3.363 0.000 0. 2 −9 3.2 Table for Example 3.952 18.397 -0.854 11.000 24.669 122.

11. and i 3 .11. a 2Ω 36 V 8Ω 10 Ω c d b + 12 V h + − − i3 i2 i1 g 4Ω 6Ω e 12 Ω + 24 V − f Figure 3.4 with assigned loops Applying of KVL around each loop. i 2 . 2Ω 36 V 8Ω 10 Ω + 12 V + − − 4Ω 6Ω 12 Ω Figure 3. Cramer’s rule. Circuit for Example 3. all in a clockwise direction. Verify your answers with Excel or MATLAB. Then. and we assign currents i 1 . Circuit for Example 3.12.4 + 24 V − Solution: This is the same circuit as that of the previous example where we found that we need 3 mesh or loop equations.12. We choose our loops as shown in Figure 3. write loop equations in matrix form. we get: 2 ( i 1 + i 2 + i 3 ) + 4i 1 – 12 = 0 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-13 . we get: Loop 1 (abgh): Starting with the left side of the 2 Ω resistor and complying with the passive sign convention. or Gauss’s elimination method. Please refer to Appendix A for procedures and examples.Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations Example 3. construct a table showing the voltages across.4 For the circuit of Figure 3. the currents through and the power absorbed or delivered by each device. and solve for the unknowns using matrix theory.

Circuit Theorems or 6i 1 + 2i 2 + 2i 3 = 12 or 3i 1 + i 2 + i 3 = 6 (3. V=[6 −12 −24]'.. 1 8 5.2f amps \t'. we get: 2 ( i 1 + i 2 + i 3 ) + 36 + 8 ( i 2 + i 3 ) + 10i 3 + 12i 3 + 24 – 12 = 0 or or 2i 1 + 10i 2 + 32i 3 = – 48 i 1 + 5i 2 + 16i 3 = – 24 (3. starting with the left side of the 2 Ω resistor and complying with the passive sign convention. we get: 2 ( i 1 + i 2 + i 3 ) + 36 + 8 ( i 2 + i 3 ) + 6i 2 – 12 = 0 or 2i 1 + 16i 2 + 10i 3 = – 24 or i 1 + 8i 2 + 5i 3 = – 12 (3. ..20) Loop 2 (abcfgh): As before. fprintf('i2 = %5. 1 5 16].2f amps'. fprintf('i1 = %5.23) Solving with MATLAB we get: R=[3 1 1.21) Loop 3 (abcdefgh): Likewise. I=R\V.79 amps i2 = -1.. fprintf('i3 = %5.00 amps ⎧ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ i3 = -1.. I(2)). I(1)).36 amps 3-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2f amps \t'. I(3)). starting with the left side of the 2 Ω resistor and complying with the passive sign convention.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .22) and in matrix form 3 1 1 1 8 5 1 5 16 R i1 i2 i3 I = 6 – 12 – 24 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V (3.. fprintf(' \n') i1 = 2. fprintf(' \n').

13.Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations Excel produces the same answers. TABLE 3.146 18. or the substitution method.363 1.283 122.359 0.712 0. Verify your answers with Excel or MATLAB.997 1.13.4 Device 12 V Source 36 V Source 24 V Source 2 Ω Resistor 4 Ω Resistor 8 Ω Resistor 6 Ω Resistor 10 Ω Resistor 12 Ω Resistor Total Example 3. write mesh equations in matrix form and solve for the unknowns using matrix theory. Please refer to Appendix A for procedures and examples.982 13.5 Voltage (volts) 12.427 5.872 5.427 0. Table 3.5 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-15 .365 2.964 18.519 5. Circuit for Example 3.627 16.363 32.786 2.363 122.000 0.352 Power (watts) Current (amps) Delivered Absorbed 0.924 1.760 31.854 11.000 36.3 Table for Example 3.758 For the circuit of figure 3.3 shows that the power delivered by the voltage sources is equal to the power absorbed by the resistors and the values are approximately the same as those of the previous example. Cramer’s rule. 2Ω 36 V 8Ω − 10 Ω 12 V − − + + 4Ω 6Ω 12 Ω 5A Figure 3.359 84.053 44.574 22.124 2.000 24.

24) and – 4i 1 + 18i 2 – 6i 3 = – 36 or 2i 1 – 9 i 2 + 3i 3 = 18 (3. the equations are the same as in Example 3.14. i 2 . 3-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and we assign currents i 1 .Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . and i 3 all in a clockwise direction as shown in Figure 3.14. 2Ω 36 V 8Ω − 10 Ω 12 V − − i1 + + 4Ω i2 6Ω i3 5A 12 Ω Figure 3. As before. we need M = L = B – N + 1 = 9 – 7 + 1 = 3 mesh or loop equations. Circuit for Example 3.3 where we found them to be 6i 1 – 4i 2 = 12 or 3i 1 – 2i 2 = 6 (3.5 with assigned currents For Meshes 1 and 2.Circuit Theorems Solution: This is the same circuit as those of the two previous examples except that the 24 V voltage source has been replaced by a 5 A current source.25) For Mesh 3. we observe that the current i 3 is just the current of the 5 A current source and thus our third equation is simply i3 = 5 (3.26) and in matrix form.

we would be tempted to assign mesh currents as shown in Figure 3. fprintf('i2 = %5.2f amps \t'.6 Solution: Here. 2 −9 3. fprintf('i1 = %5. The currents i 3 and i 4 for Meshes 3 and 4 respectively present no problem. 0 0 1]. I(1)). 2Ω + 12 V 4Ω 6Ω 5A 10 Ω 16 Ω 12 Ω 18 Ω 24 V 20 Ω − + 12 V − Figure 3.6 i2 = 0..09 amps Example 3.2f amps'.13 amps ⎧ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ i3 = 5. V=[6 18 5]'. fprintf(' \n') i1 = 2.15.. However. ..00 amps Write mesh equations for the circuit of Figure 3. I=R\V.15 and solve for the unknowns using MATLAB or Excel. fprintf(' \n').. but for Meshes 1 and 2 we cannot write mesh equations for the currents i 1 and i 2 as shown because we cannot write a Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications + − + − 36 V 8Ω 3-17 . we will encounter a problem as explained below. Then.16. I(2)).. fprintf('i3 = %5. compute the voltage drop across the 5 A source. I(3)).2f amps \t'.Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations 3 –2 0 2 –9 3 0 0 1 R i1 i2 i3 I = 6 18 5 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V (3.27) Solving with MATLAB we get: R=[3 −2 0. Circuit for Example 3.

3-18 + − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . To work around this problem we temporarily remove (open) the 5 A current source and we form a “combined mesh” (or generalized mesh or supermesh as some textbooks call it) and the current that flows around this combined mesh is as shown in Figure 3.6 with erroneous current assignments 2Ω 36 V 8Ω 12 V + − Mesh − Combined 4Ω 6Ω + − 16 Ω 10 Ω + 12 V + − − i3 18 Ω 12 Ω i4 20 Ω 24 V Figure 3.17.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . 2Ω + 12 V 4Ω i1 i2 5A 10 Ω 16 Ω 12 Ω i4 + − 36 V 8Ω − 6Ω + 12 V − i3 18 Ω 20 Ω 24 V Figure 3.6 with correct current assignments Now.16. and we express the voltage drop across this resistor as 2i 1 since in Mesh 1 the current is essentially i 1 .17.Circuit Theorems term which represents the voltage across the 5 A current source. We start at the left end of the 2 Ω resistor. Circuit for Example 3. we apply KVL around this combined mesh. Circuit for Example 3.

30) and 16 ( i 4 – i 2 ) + 20i 4 – 24 + 12 ( i 4 – i 3 ) = 0 or 4i 2 + 3i 3 – 12 i 4 = – 6 (3. The voltage drops across the 16 Ω and 10 Ω resistors are expressed as in the previous examples and thus our first mesh equation is 2i 1 + 36 + 8i 2 + 6i 2 + 16 ( i 2 – i 4 ) + 10 ( i 1 – i 3 ) – 12 = 0 or 12i 1 + 30i 2 – 10 i 3 – 16 i 4 = – 24 or 6i 1 + 15i 2 – 5 i 3 – 8 i 4 = – 12 (3.Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations Continuing.28) Now.32) with the following MATLAB code. we reinsert the 5 A current source between Meshes 1 and 2 and we obtain our second equation as i1 – i2 = 5 (3. ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-19 . and the voltage drops across the 8 Ω and 6 Ω resistors are 8i 2 and 6i 2 respectively since in Mesh 2 the current now is really i 2 . The current now enters Mesh 2 where we encounter the 36 V drop due to the voltage source there.32) We find the solution of (3. the equations are 10 ( i 3 – i 1 ) + 12 ( i 3 – i 4 ) + 18i 3 – 12 = 0 or 5i 1 – 20 i 3 + 6i 4 = – 6 (3.31) and in matrix form 6 15 – 5 – 8 1 –1 0 0 5 0 – 20 6 0 4 3 – 12 R i1 i2 i3 i4 I = – 12 5 –6 –6 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V (3.29) For meshes 3 and 4. we observe that there is no voltage drop across the 4 Ω resistor since no current flows through it.

6025 ) – 36.18 (a). for instance. We also stated that a current source maintains a constant current regardless of the terminal voltage. This statement applies to an ideal current source which also does not exist. Likewise a practical current source has an internal conductance which is represented as a resistance R p (or conductance G p ) in parallel with the current source i S as shown in Figure 3.. does not exist. it is represented with an external resistance R S in series with the voltage source v S as shown in Figure 3.6025 amps i3=1. fprintf('i3 = %5.2737 amps Now.3975 + 1.3975 amps i2=-1. A practical voltage source has an internal resistance which. fprintf(' \n'). we can also compute the power delivered or absorbed by each of the voltage sources and the current source.2315 amps i4=0. 0 4 3 −12]. V=[−12 5 −6 −6]'. of course..6025 – 36 + 4 × ( 3.6025 ) + v 5A + 10 × ( 3.4 Transformation between Voltage and Current Sources In the previous chapter we stated that a voltage source maintains a constant voltage between its terminals regardless of the current that flows through it.2315 ) – 12 = 0 This yields v 5A = – 36. no voltage source can supply infinite current to a short circuit. 1 −1 0 0.6025 + 0.... 3-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .I(3)).2737 ) = 0 With these values.4f amps \t'.3975 – 1.4f amps'.. 5 0 −20 6.455 + 16 × ( 1.3975 + 4 × ( 3. for instance.. fprintf('i4 = %5. fprintf(' \n') i1=3. I=R\V. fprintf('i2 = %5..4f amps \t'.I(1)).Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .3975 + 1.18 (b).. fprintf('i1 = %5.455 We can verify this value by application of KVL around Mesh 2 where starting with the lower end of the 6 w resistor and going counterclockwise we get ( 6 + 8 ) × 1. we can find the voltage drop across the 5 A current source by application of KVL around Mesh 1 using the following relation: 2 × 3.Circuit Theorems R=[6 15 −5 −8. This statement applies to an ideal voltage source which. to be accounted for.4f amps \t'. 3.I(2)).I(4)). no current source can supply infinite voltage when its terminals are open-circuited.

18 (a).33) and vS i ab = -----------------RS + RL (3.18 (b) can be made equivalent to each other.34) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-21 . the load resistor R L is the same in both. a RS − − + i ab RP RL iS (b) a + v ab − b i ab RL + v ab − b vS (a) Figure 3. RL v ab = -----------------.v S RS + RL (3.18 (a) and 3. in Figure 3. Now. In the networks of Figures 3.Transformation between Voltage and Current Sources a RS − − (a) b iS (b) b a + vS Rp Figure 3. Equivalent sources From the circuit of Figure 3. Practical voltage and current sources In Figure 3.19. we will show that the networks of Figures 3. the voltage of the source will always be v S but the terminal voltage v ab will be v ab = v S – v R if a load is connected at points a and b .18.19 (b).19 (a). Likewise.19 (a) and 3.18 (b) the current of s the source will always be i S but the terminal current i ab will be i ab = i S – i RP if a load is connected at points a and b .

Then. from (3.19 (b).36) Since we want v ab to be the same in both circuits 3.v S = -----------------.37) Likewise.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . a current source i S in parallel with a resistance R p can be transformed to a voltage source v S whose value is equal to i S × R S .38) and for any R L .i S Rp + RL RS + RL (3. in series with a resistance whose value is the same as R p .= -----------------.35) and RP i ab = -----------------. Example 3.19 (a) and 3.i S Rp + RL (3. in parallel with a resistance R p whose value is the same as R S . from (3.40) Therefore. we want i ab to be the same in both circuits 3.38) vS = Rp iS (3.39) and Rp = RS (3.19 (b).33) and (3.20. 3-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Likewise. from (3.37) and (3.i S Rp + RL RS + RL (3. a voltage source v S in series with a resistance R S can be transformed to a current source i S whose value is equal to v S ⁄ R S .19 (b). The voltage-to-current source or current-to-voltage source transformation is not limited to a single resistance load.i S Rp + RL (3.36) we get: Rp vS i ab = -----------------. RP RL v ab = -----------------.Circuit Theorems From the circuit of Figure 3.34) and (3. it applies to any load no matter how complex.19 (a) and 3.7 Find the current i 10 through the 10 Ω resistor in the circuit of Figure 3.35) we get: RP RL RL v ab = -----------------.

i 10 0.75 Ω 2A –1 10 Ω Figure 3.22.5 Ω –1 i 10 10 Ω 0. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 3.22. Then. 8A 6A 0. Circuit for Example 3.7 where voltage sources have been transformed to current sources Combination of the two current sources and their conductances yields the circuit shown in Figure 3.7 Solution: This problem can be solved either by nodal or by mesh analysis.Transformation between Voltage and Current Sources 2Ω − − 32 V − + 4Ω i 10 10 Ω 12 V + Figure 3.21.23.21. Circuit for Example 3. We will treat the 10 Ω resistor as the load of this circuit so that we can compute the current i 10 through it.20. we will transform the voltage sources to current sources and we will replace the resistances with conductances except the 10 Ω resistor.7 after combinations of current sources and conductances Converting the 0.25 Ω –1 Figure 3. however.75 Ω conductance to a resistance and performing current-to-voltage source transformation. we get the circuit of Figure 3. –1 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-23 . Circuit for Example 3.

Circuit Theorems 4/3 Ω − + + − i 10 10 Ω 8/3 V Figure 3.24. the current through the 10 Ω resistor is –8 ⁄ 3 i 10 = ---------------------. especially in electronic circuits.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .24. Replacement of a network by its Thevenin’s equivalent The network of Figure 3. It states that we can replace a two terminal network by a voltage source v TH in series with a resistance R TH as shown in Figure 3.23. x × v xy × y (a) x × v xy Network to be replaced by a Thevenin equivalent circuit Load (Rest of the circuit) R TH Load (Rest of the circuit) + v TH − × y (b) Figure 3.24 (b) will be equivalent to the network of Figure 3. v TH = v xy Therefore.7 in its simplest form Thus. v TH = v xy open (3.24 (a) if the load is removed in which case both networks will have the same open circuit voltages v xy and consequently.5 Thevenin’s Theorem This theorem is perhaps the greatest time saver in circuit analysis.41) 3-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Circuit for Example 3.= – 4 ⁄ 17 A 10 + 4 ⁄ 3 3.

Example 3. first at terminals x and y and then at x' and y' as shown in Figure 3.Thevenin’s Theorem The Thevenin resistance R TH represents the equivalent resistance of the network being replaced by the Thevenin equivalent. 3Ω − − 12 V × x 3Ω 7Ω × x' + 6Ω 10 Ω v LOAD + i LOAD RLOAD v TH R TH x × + + y 5Ω × × − y' 8 Ω − y × Figure 3. 3Ω − − 12 V 3Ω 6Ω 10 Ω 5Ω 7Ω v LOAD + + i LOAD RLOAD − 8Ω Figure 3. and it is found from the relation v xy open v TH R TH = -------------------. we are left with the circuit shown in Figure 3. we can find the Thevenin resistance R TH by first shorting all (independent) voltage sources.= -------i xy short i SC (3.8 Use Thevenin’s theorem to find i LOAD and v LOAD for the circuit of Figure 3. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-25 .26. and calculating the resistance looking into the direction that is opposite to the load when it has been disconnected from the rest of the circuit at terminals x and y .25.25. Circuit for Example 3. opening all (independent) current sources.8 Solution: We will apply Thevenin’s theorem twice.27. First step in finding the Thevenin equivalent of the circuit of Example 3.26.8 Breaking the circuit at x – y . If the network to be replaced by a Thevenin equivalent contains independent sources only.42) where i SC stands for short-circuit current.

8 with first Thevenin equivalent 3-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .29.27. we get 6 v TH = v xy = -----------. R TH 2Ω v TH 8V 3Ω 7Ω × x′ + i LOAD RLOAD − − 5Ω + v LOAD 10 Ω y′ × − 8Ω Figure 3.= 2 Ω 3+6 (3.28.28.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .× 12 = 8 V 3+6 R TH V =0 s 3×6 = -----------. we attach the remaining part of the given circuit to the Thevenin equivalent of Figure 3.43) and thus the equivalent circuit to the left of points x and x is as shown in Figure 3.Circuit Theorems × x 6Ω R TH 3Ω + − 12 V ×y Figure 3.8 Applying Thevenin’s theorem at x and y and using the voltage division expression. Circuit for Example 3. R TH v TH 2Ω × x + − 8V × y Figure 3.8 Next.29.28. Second step in finding the Thevenin equivalent of the circuit of Example 3. First Thevenin equivalent for the circuit of Example 3. and the new circuit now is as shown in Figure 3.

This is illustrated with the two examples that follow.31. we must always look towards the network portion which remains after disconnectinf the load at the x and y terminals.2 A 12 + 8 It is imperative to remember that when we compute the Thevenin equivalent resistance. we apply Thevenin’s theorem at points x' and y' and we get the circuit of Figure 3.8 Using the voltage division expression. we get 10 v' TH = v x'y' = ----------------------------------. Applying Thevenin’s theorem at points x' and y' for the circuit for Example 3.30.31.8 simplified by Thevenin’s theorem The voltage v LOAD is found by application of the voltage division expression.30. Entire circuit of Example 3.Thevenin’s Theorem Now. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-27 . R' TH v' TH 12 Ω x′ + i LOAD RLOAD + 4V − − v LOAD − 8Ω y′ Figure 3.= 0. R TH 2Ω − − 8V 3Ω 7Ω 10 Ω v TH × x′ + 5Ω × y′ Figure 3. 8 v LOAD = -------------.× 4 = 1.6 V 12 + 8 4 i LOAD = -------------.× 8 = 4 V 2 + 3 + 10 + 5 R' TH v TH = 0 = [ ( 2 + 3 + 5 ) 10 ] + 7 = 12 Ω This Thevenin equivalent with the load resistor attached to it. is shown in Figure 3. and the current i LOAD by Ohm’s law as shown below.

33 (b). Thus. 150 × 250 R TH = ( 50 + 100 ) 250 = -----------------------.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . Thus. Computation of the Thevenin equivalent resistance when the load is to the right This network contains no dependent sources.33. we can find the Thevenin equivalent by shorting the 240 V voltage source.75 Ω 150 + 250 3-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .32. let us consider the network of Figure 3. 300 × 100 R TH = ( 250 + 50 ) 100 = -----------------------.= 93. 50 Ω 250 Ω × x 100 Ω Load Begin with this series combination Then. therefore. compute the equivalent resistance looking to the right of points x and y × x Load 250 Ω 50 Ω 100 Ω 240 V x × RTH 50 Ω 100 Ω 250 Ω + y × − (a) y× (b) Figure 3. Computation of the Thevenin equivalent resistance when the load is to the left This network contains no dependent sources. Begin with this series combination Then. and computing the equivalent resistance looking to the right of points x and y as indicated in Figure 3.32 (a). compute the equivalent resistance looking to the left of points x and y 50 Ω 250 Ω 100 Ω × x R TH + − 240 V y × (a) (b) × y Figure 3. and computing the equivalent resistance looking to the left of points x and y as indicated in Figure 3. we can find the Thevenin equivalent by shorting the 240 V voltage source. therefore.Circuit Theorems Let us consider the network of Figure 3.32 (b).= 75 Ω 300 + 100 Now.33 (a).

disconnecting the load resistor and applying Thevenin’s theorem at points x' and y' we get the circuit of Figure 3. we get the circuit of Figure 3. Circuit for Example 3.Thevenin’s Theorem We observe that.34. 10 v' TH = v x 'y ' = ----------------------------------.32 (a) and 3.9 with first Thevenin equivalent Next.× 8 – 24 = – 20 V 2 + 3 + 10 + 5 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-29 . the Thevenin voltage across the x' and y' points is the algebraic sum of the voltage drop across the 10 Ω resistor and the 24 V source.9 Use Thevenin’s theorem to find i LOAD and v LOAD for the circuit of Figure 3.34.36. By application of Thevenin’s theorem at points x and y as before. that is. the Thevenin resistance is different since it depends on the direction in which we look into (left or right).9 Solution: This is the same circuit as the previous example except that a voltage source of 24 V has been placed in series with the 7 Ω resistor. + − − RTH v TH 2Ω x × 24 V 3Ω 7Ω 10 Ω x′ × + i LOAD RLOAD 8Ω + − − 8V v LOAD y 5Ω × y′ × − Figure 3. Circuit for Example 3.33 (b) have the same values. and connecting the rest of the circuit. + − − 7Ω 10 Ω v LOAD 24 V 3Ω 3Ω 6Ω 5Ω + 12 V + i LOAD RLOAD − − − 8Ω Figure 3. therefore.35. Example 3. There is no current flow in the 7 Ω resistor. although the resistors in the networks of Figures 3.35.

= ------------------------------i SC i LOAD RL → 0 (3.39. × a + − 3Ω − − 12 V i1 3Ω 6Ω i2 5Ω 20i X 10 Ω i3 4Ω 7Ω + iX b × Figure 3.39.10 3Ω − − 12 V 3Ω iX 6Ω 5Ω 20i X 10 Ω 4Ω 7Ω × a + i LOAD RLOAD − 8Ω + + − v LOAD b × Figure 3. therefore. Application of Thevenin’s theorem for Example 3. we will find the Thevenin resistance from the relation v LOAD v OC RL → ∞ R TH = -------.40.38.Thevenin’s Theorem + − 3Ω − − 12 V 3Ω iX 6Ω 5Ω 20i X 10 Ω 4Ω 7Ω v LOAD + + i LOAD RLOAD − 8Ω Figure 3.44) To find the open circuit voltage v OC = v ab . Circuit for Example 3.10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-31 .10 For the circuit of Figure 3. Circuit for finding v OC = v ab of Example 3.40. we disconnect the load resistor and our circuit now is as shown in Figure 3. we cannot short the dependent source.

45) and after simplification and combination of like terms. we find that i 3 = – 3. we place a short across points a and b and the circuit now is as shown in Figure 3. Spreadsheet for Example 3.42 and we can find the short circuit current i SC from the circuit of Figure 3.41.Circuit Theorems We will use mesh analysis to find v OC which is the voltage across the 4 Ω resistor.118 0.353 E F G 4 H Spreadsheet for Matrix Inversion and Matrix Multiplication V= 0 0 0.165 -0. We chose mesh analysis since we only need three mesh equations whereas we would need five equations had we chosen nodal analysis. we write the three mesh equations for this network as 9i 1 – 6i 2 = 12 – 6i 1 + 24i 2 – 10i 3 = 0 20 ( i 1 – i 2 ) + 4i 3 + 10 ( i 3 – i 2 ) = 0 (3.341 -0. Observing that i X = i 1 – i 2 .41.42 I= -1.247 -0.10 Thus. the Thevenin voltage at points a and b is v TH = ( – 3.176 0. Accordingly.36 -3.53 Figure 3.294 D 0 5 7 0.106 R-1= -0.53 ) × 4 = – 14.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .882 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ C -2 -12 -15 -0. Please refer to Exercise 16 at the end of this chapter for a solution requiring nodal analysis. to find the Thevenin resistance R TH . we write them in matrix form as 3 –2 0 3 – 12 5 10 – 15 7 R I1 I2 I3 I = 4 0 0 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V (3. we must first compute the short circuit current I SC .53 A A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 B 3 R= 3 10 0.18 V Next.46) Using the spreadsheet of Figure 3.43 where i SC = i 4 3-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

10 The mesh equations for the circuit of Figure 3. Circuit for finding i SC = i ab in Example 3. we write them in matrix form as 3 –2 3 – 12 10 – 15 0 0 R 0 5 7 –4 0 0 –2 11 i1 i2 i3 i4 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I = 4 0 0 0 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V (3. Mesh equations for finding i SC = i ab in Example 3.Thevenin’s Theorem × a i SC + − 3Ω − − 12 V 3Ω 6Ω 20i X 10 Ω 4Ω 7Ω + iX 5Ω b × Figure 3.10 3Ω − − 12 V i1 3Ω 6Ω i2 5Ω 20i X 10 Ω i3 4Ω 7Ω i4 × a i SC + + iX − b × Figure 3.42.47) and after simplification and combination of like terms.43 are 9i 1 – 6i 2 = 12 – 6i 1 + 24i 2 – 10i 3 = 0 20 ( i 1 – i 2 ) + 4 ( i 3 – i 4 ) + 10 ( i 3 – i 2 ) = 0 – 4i 3 + 11i 4 = 0 (3.43.48) We will solve these using MATLAB as follows: ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-33 .

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
R=[3 −2 0 0; 3 −12 5 0; 10 −15 7 −2; 0 0 −4 11]; V=[4 0 0 0]'; I=R\V; fprintf(' \n');... fprintf('i1 = %3.4f A \t',I(1,1)); fprintf('i2 = %3.4f A \t',I(2,1));... fprintf('i3 = %3.4f A \t',I(3,1)); fprintf('i4 = %3.4f A \t',I(4,1));... fprintf(' \n');...fprintf(' \n')

i1 = 0.0173 A Therefore,

i2 = -1.9741 A

i3 = -4.7482 A

i4 = -1.7266 A

i SC = i 4 = – 1.727

and
v OC --------------R TH = -------- = – 14.18 = 8.2 Ω – 1.727 i SC

The Thevenin equivalent is as shown in Figure 3.44.
8.2 Ω a vTH RTH

×

+

− −14.18 V

×
Figure 3.44. Final form of Thevenin’s equivalent for the circuit of Example 3.10

b

Finally, with the load RLOAD attached to points a and b, the circuit is as shown in Figure 3.45.
8.2 Ω vTH RTH

× +

a

+

− −

−14.18 V

×
b Figure 3.45. Circuit for finding v LOAD and i LOAD in Example 3.10

Therefore, using the voltage division expression and Ohm’s law we get

3-34

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Norton’s Theorem
8 v LOAD = ---------------- × ( – 14.18 ) = – 7.00 V 8.2 + 8 – 14.18 i LOAD = ---------------- = – 0.875 A 8.2 + 8

3.6 Norton’s Theorem
This theorem is analogous to Thevenin’s theorem and states that we can replace everything, except the load, in a circuit by an equivalent circuit containing only an independent current source which we will denote as i N in parallel with a resistance which we will denote as R N , as shown in Figure 3.46.
x × v xy × y x ×

Network to be replaced by a Norton equivalent circuit (a)

+
iN

v xy RN (b) × y

Figure 3.46. Replacement of a network by its Norton equivalent

The current source i N has the value of the short circuit current which would flow if a short were connected between the terminals x and y, where the Norton equivalent is inserted, and the resistance R N is found from the relation
v OC R N = -------i SC

(3.49)

where v OC is the open circuit voltage which appears across the open terminals x and y. Like Thevenin’s, Norton’s theorem is most useful when a series of computations involves changing the load of a network while the rest of the circuit remains unchanged. Comparing the Thevenin’s and Norton’s equivalent circuits, we see that one can be derived from the other by replacing the Thevenin voltage and its series resistance with the Norton current source and its parallel resistance. Therefore, there is no need to perform separate computations for each of these equivalents; once we know Thevenin’s equivalent we can easily draw the Norton equivalent and vice versa.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-35

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
Example 3.11 Replace the network shown in Figure 3.47 by its Thevenin and Norton equivalents.
iX 3Ω 3Ω 6Ω

x

+
− 20i X V

y

Figure 3.47. Network for Example 3.11

Solution: We observe that no current flows through the 3 Ω resistor; Therefore, i X = 0 and the dependent current source is zero, i.e., a short circuit. Thus,
v TH = v OC = v xy = 0

and also
i SC = 0

This means that the given network is some mathematical model representing a resistance, but we cannot find this resistance from the expression
v OC R TH = R N = -------i SC

since this results in the indeterminate form 0 ⁄ 0 . In this type of situations, we connect an external source (voltage or current) across the terminals x and y. For this example, we arbitrarily choose to connect a 1 volt source as shown in Figure 3.48.
iX 3Ω 3Ω 6Ω

x
− − 1V

+
− 20i X V

+

y

i

Figure 3.48. Network for Example 3.11 with an external voltage source connected to it.

3-36

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Norton’s Theorem
In the circuit of Figure 3.48, the 1 V source represents the open circuit voltage v OC and the current i represents the short circuit current i SC . Therefore, the Thevenin (or Norton) resistance will be found from the expression
v OC R TH = R N = -------- = 1 V = 1 V --------------i iX i SC

(3.50) .

Now, we can find i from the circuit of Figure 3.49 by application of KCL at Node
v1 3Ω iX 3Ω 6Ω

x
− − 1V

+
− 20i X V

+

y

i

Figure 3.49. Circuit for finding i X in Example 3.11 v 1 – 20i X v 1 --------------------- + ---- + i X = 0 6 3

(3.51)

where
v1 – 1 i X = ------------3

(3.52)

Simultaneous solution of (3.51) and (3.52) yields v 1 = 34 ⁄ 25 and i X = 3 ⁄ 25 . Then, from (3.50),
1 R TH = R N = ------------ = 25 ----3 ⁄ 25 3

and the Thevenin and Norton equivalents are shown in Figure 3.50.
R TH v TH = 0

25/3 Ω

RN iN = 0

25/3 Ω

Figure 3.50. Thevenin’s and Norton’s equivalents for Example 3.11

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-37

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems 3.7 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
Consider the circuit shown in Figure 3.51. We want to find the value of R LOAD which will absorb maximum power from the voltage source v S whose internal resistance is R S .
RS − vS −

+

+

Figure 3.51. Circuit for computation of maximum power delivered to the load R LOAD

or
R LOAD - 2 p LOAD = ----------------------------------- v S 2 ( R S + R LOAD )

(3.53)

To find the value of R LOAD which will make p LOAD maximum, we differentiate (3.53) with respect to
R LOAD . Recalling that d d v (u) – u (v) d ⎛ u⎞ dx dx -- = --------------------------------------2 d x ⎝ v⎠ v

and differentiating (3.53), we get
( R S + R LOAD ) v S – v S R LOAD ( 2 ) ( R S + R LOAD ) dp LOAD = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 d R LOAD (R + R )

(3.54)

and (3.54) will be zero if the numerator is set equal to zero, that is,
( R S + R LOAD ) v S – v S R LOAD ( 2 ) ( R S + R LOAD ) = 0
2 2 2

or

or

3-38

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Linearity

(3.55)

Therefore, we conclude that a voltage source with internal series resistance R S or a current source with internal parallel resistance R P delivers maximum power to a load R LOAD when R LOAD = R S or
R LOAD = R P . For example, in the circuits of 3.52, the voltage source v S and current source i N

deliver maximum power to the adjustable* load when R LOAD = R S = R P = 5 Ω
RS 5 Ω

+

5Ω

+

RN iS

5Ω

Figure 3.52. Circuits where R LOAD is set to receive maximum power

We can use Excel or MATLAB to see that the load receives maximum power when it is set to the same value as that of the resistance of the source. Figure 3.53 shows a spreadsheet with various values of an adjustable resistive load. We observe that the power is maximum when R LOAD = 5 Ω . The condition of maximum power transfer is also referred to as resistance matching or impedance matching. We will define the term “impedance” in Chapter 6. The maximum power transfer theorem is of great importance in electronics and communications applications where it is desirable to receive maximum power from a given circuit and efficiency is not an important consideration. On the other hand, in power systems, this application is of no use since the intent is to supply a large amount of power to a given load by making the internal resistance R S as small as possible.

3.8 Linearity
A linear passive element is one in which there is a linear voltage-current relationship such as
v R = Ri R d vL = L iL dt d iC = C vC dt

(3.56)

*

An adjustable resistor is usually denoted with an arrow as shown in Figure 3.52.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-39

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems

RLOAD 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

PLOAD 0.00 2.78 4.69 4.94 5.00 4.96 4.86 4.73 4.59 4.44 4.15 4.01 3.88 3.75 3.63
Power (Watts)

Maximum Power Transfer 6 5
Power (Watts)

4.08

4 3 2 1 0
0 5 10 Resistance (Ohms) - Linear Scale 15 20

Maximum Power Transfer
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 10 Resistance (Ohms) - Log Scale 100

4.30

Figure 3.53. Spreadsheet to illustrate maximum power transfer to a resistive load

Definition 3.1
A linear dependent source is a dependent voltage or current source whose output voltage or current is proportional only to the first power of some voltage or current variable in the circuit or a linear combination (the sum or difference of such variables). For example, v xy = 2v1 – 3i 2 is a linear relationship but p = vi = Ri 2 = v 2 ⁄ R and i = I S e
v ⁄ nV T

are non-linear.

Definition 3.2
A linear circuit is a circuit which is composed entirely of independent sources, linear dependent sources and linear passive elements or a combination of these.

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Superposition Principle 3.9 Superposition Principle
The principle of superposition states that the response (a desired voltage or current) in any branch of a linear circuit having more than one independent source can be obtained as the sum of the responses caused by each independent source acting alone with all other independent voltage sources replaced by short circuits and all other independent current sources replaced by open circuits. Note: Dependent sources (voltage or current) must not be superimposed since their values depend on the voltage across or the current through some other branch of the circuit. Therefore, all dependent sources must always be left intact in the circuit while superposition is applied. Example 3.12 For the circuit of Figure 3.54, compute i 6 by application of the superposition principle.
2Ω 36 V 8Ω − 10 Ω

+
12 V

+

4Ω i6

6Ω

12 Ω

5A Figure 3.54. Circuit for Example 3.12

Solution: Let i' 6 represent the current due to the 12 V source acting alone, i'' 6 the current due to the 36 V source acting alone, and i''' 6 the current due to the 5 A source acting alone. Then, by the principle of superposition,
i 6 = i' 6 + i'' 6 + i''' 6

First, to find i' 6 we short the 36 V voltage source and open the 5 A current source. The circuit then reduces to that shown in Figure 3.55. Applying Thevenin’s theorem at points x and y of Figure 3.55, we obtain the circuit of Figure 3.56 and from it we get
4 × 12 v xy = v TH = -------------- = 8 V 2+4

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3-41

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
2Ω 8Ω x × 10 Ω

+
12 V

4Ω

6Ω i' 6 ×

12 Ω

y

Figure 3.55. Circuit for finding i' 6 in Example 3.12 2Ω 8Ω x ×

− − 12 V

+

4Ω

y

×

Figure 3.56. Circuit for computing the Thevenin voltage to find i' 6 in Example 3.12

Next, we will use the circuit of Figure 3.57 to find the Thevenin resistance. 2Ω 8Ω x
×

4Ω

RTH

y

×

Figure 3.57. Circuit for computing the Thevenin resistance to find i' 6 in Example 3.12 28 4×2 R TH = 8 + ------------ = ----- Ω 3 4+2

We find the current i' 6 from Figure 3.58.

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Superposition Principle
RTH vTH 10 Ω

+
8V

− i' 6

6Ω

12 Ω

Figure 3.58. Circuit for computing i' 6 in Example 3.12 12 8 i' 6 = ---------------------- = ----- A 23 28 ⁄ 3 + 6

(3.57)

Next, the current i'' 6 due to the 36 V source acting alone is found from the circuit of Figure 3.59.
2Ω 36 V 8Ω − 10 Ω

+

4Ω i'' 6

6Ω

12 Ω

Figure 3.59. Circuit for finding i'' 6 in Example 3.12

and after combination of the 2 Ω and 4 Ω parallel resistors to a single resistor, the circuit simplifies to that shown in Figure 3.60.
36 V 8Ω − 10 Ω

+

4 -- Ω 3 i'' 6

+
6Ω − 12 Ω

Figure 3.60. Simplification of the circuit of Figure 3.59 to compute i'' 6 for Example 3.12

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-43

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
From the circuit of Figure 3.60, we get
54 36 i'' 6 = – ----------------------------- = – ----- A 23 4⁄3+8+6

(3.58)

Finally, to find i''' 6 , we short the voltage sources, and with the 5 A current source acting alone the circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 3.61.
2Ω 8Ω 10 Ω

4Ω i''' 6

6Ω

12 Ω

5A Figure 3.61. Circuit for finding i''' 6 in Example 3.12

Replacing the 2 Ω , 4 Ω , and 8 Ω resistors by a single resistor, we get
28 2×4 ------------ + 8 = ----- Ω 3 2+4

and the circuit of Figure 3.61 reduces to that shown in Figure 3.62.
10 Ω 28 ----- Ω 3 i''' 6 6Ω 5A 12 Ω

Figure 3.62. Simplification of the circuit of Figure 3.59 to compute i''' 6 for Example 3.12

We will use the current division expression in the circuit of Figure 3.62 to find i''' 6 . Thus,
28 ⁄ 3 70 i''' 6 = ---------------------- × ( – 5 ) = – ----28 ⁄ 3 + 6 23

(3.59)

Therefore, from (3.57), (3.58), and (3.59) we get

3-44

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RTH vTH 1 KΩ Diode. and all the other devices are linear.----23 23 23 23 or i 6 = – 4.87 A (3.----. A detailed discussion of these is beyond the scope of this text. Example 3.13 For the circuit of Figure 3. for small signals (voltages or currents) these circuits can be represented by linear equivalent circuit models.64.v (current-voltage) relationships are non-linear.63.10 Circuits with Non-Linear Devices Most electronic circuits contain non-linear devices such as diodes and transistors whose i . The procedure is illustrated with the following example. If a circuit contains only one non-linear device. conducts current only in the indicated direction + 1V − − vD D iD Figure 3. Then. 3.13 Solution: The current i D through the diode is also the current through the resistor.Circuits with Non-Linear Devices 112 i 6 = i' 6 + i'' 6 + i''' 6 = 12 – 54 – 70 = – -----------. we can analyze the circuit using a graphical solution. we can apply Thevenin’s theorem to reduce the circuit to a Thevenin equivalent in series with the non-linear element. by KVL Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-45 . We wish to find the voltage v D across the diode and the current i D through this diode using a graphical solution. Then.60) and this is the same value as that of Example 3. Circuit for Example 3.5. such as a diode. the i – v characteristics of the diode D are shown in figure 3.63. however we will see how operational amplifiers can be represented by equivalent linear circuits in the next chapter. However.

5 0. Check: Since this is a series circuit.1 0.7 0.v D + -R R (3.64. the voltage drop v R across the resistor is v R = 1 kΩ × 0.61) is an equation of a straight line and the two points are obtained from it by first letting v D = 0 .0 vD (volts) Figure 3.335 V .Circuit Theorems 1. by KVL v R + v D = 0.0 0.665 = 1 V 3-46 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .65 which is plotted on the same graph as the given diode i – v characteristics.6 0.335 mA . Therefore.665V and i D = 0.2 0. i R = 0. then.335 + 0.61) We observe that (3.2 0.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .0 0.3 0.4 0. Diode i-v characteristics vR + vD = 1 V or Ri D = – v D + 1 or 1 1 i D = – -.6 0. We obtain the straight line shown in Figure 3. Then.335 mA also. The intersection of the non-linear curve and the straight line yields the voltage and the current of the diode where we find that v D = 0.4 0.8 0.0 0.335 mA = 0.2 i D (milliamps) 1.9 1. i D = 0 .8 0.4 1.

000 0.0 0.20 0.02 0.22 0.000 0.2 0.Efficiency Diode Voltage (Volts) 0.8 0.14 In a two-story industrial building. Thus. such as copper.00 0.4 0.7 0.1 0.000 0.62) Obviously.000 0.× 100 = -----------------------------------. a good efficiency should be close to 100% Example 3.6 0.18 0.30 Diode Current (milliamps) 0. The building receives its electric power from a 480 V source.0 0.000 0.000 0.8 0. In a long length of a conductive material.16 0.2 1. the total load on the first floor draws an average of 60 amperes during peak activity.000 0.24 0.4 1.4 0.000 0.04 0.5 0.26 0.000 1.000 0. we define efficiency η as Output Efficiency = η = Output = ---------------------------------------------------Input Output + Loss 2 2 2 The efficiency η is normally expressed as a percentage. while the total load of the second floor draws 40 amperes at the same time.9 1. Curves for determining voltage and current in a diode 3.08 0.2 0.65.0 0.6 0.0 ID=−(1/R)VD+1/R Diode I-V Relationship for Circuit of Example 3.000 0. this lost power is known as i R loss and thus the energy received by the load is equal to the energy transmitted minus the i R loss.000 0.000 0. Accordingly.13 ID (milliamps) VD (volts) Figure 3.28 0.× 100 Input Output + Loss (3.3 0.000 0.10 0. Output Output % Efficiency = % η = ----------------.000 0.12 0.000 0. Assuming that the total resistance of the Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-47 .11 Efficiency We have learned that the power absorbed by a resistor can be found from p R = i R and this power is transformed into heat.14 0.06 0.

66) Total power p L received by 1st and 2nd floor loads: p L = p S – p loss = 48.× 100 = -----------.56 = 6.6 kilowatts 2 2 (3.14 Power p S supplied by the source: p S = v S ( i 1 + i 2 ) = 480 × ( 60 + 40 ) = 48 kilowatts (3.66.63) Power loss between source and 1st floor load: p loss1 = i 1 ( 0.5 Ω 0.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .84 kilowatts Output 41. we draw a circuit that represents the electrical system of this building.00 – 6.8 Ω vS 480 V − − 0. This is shown in Figure 3.67) (3.6 Ω .60 + 2.64) Power loss between source and 2nd floor load: p loss2 = i 2 ( 0.16 kilowatts (3.6 = 2.8 Ω ) = 40 × 1.56 kilowatts 2 2 (3.5 Ω ) = 60 × 1 = 3.5 Ω 60 A 1st Floor Load i1 i2 40 A + 2nd Floor Load Figure 3.65) Total power loss: p loss = p loss1 + p loss2 = 3.8 Ω 0.17 % Input 48.00 (3.16 = 41. 0.84 % Efficiency = % η = ----------------.68) 3-48 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Solution: First.8 Ω + 0. Circuit for Example 3.5 Ω + 0. compute the efficiency of transmission.× 100 = 87.Circuit Theorems cables (copper conductors) on the first floor is 1 Ω and on the second floor is 1.66.

The value of v TH represents the open circuit voltage where the circuit is isolated from the load and R TH is the equivalent resistance of that part of the isolated circuit. If the circuit contains dependent sources. opening all independent current sources. If the circuit contains independent voltage and independent current sources only. • A linear circuit is composed entirely of independent voltage sources. linear dependent sources. • A practical voltage source v S in series with a resistance R S can be replaced by a current source i S whose value is v S ⁄ i S in parallel with a resistance R P whose value is the same as R S • A practical current source i S in parallel with a resistance R P can be replaced by a voltage source v S whose value is equal to i S × R S in series with a resistance R S whose value is the same as R P • Thevenin’s theorem states that in a two terminal network we can be replace everything except the load. the value of R TH can be found by first shorting all independent voltage sources. by a voltage source denoted as v TH in series with a resistance denoted as R TH . and linear passive devices such as resistors. inductors. • A practical current source has an internal conductance and it is represented by a current source whose value is the value of the ideal current source in parallel with a conductance whose value is the value of the internal conductance. and calculating the resistance looking into the direction which is opposite to the disconnected load. opening all independent current sources. the value of R N must be computed from the relation R N = v OC ⁄ i SC • The maximum power transfer theorem states that a voltage source with a series resistance R S or a current source with parallel resistance R S delivers maximum power to a load R LOAD when R LOAD = R S or R LOAD = R N • Linearity implies that there is a linear voltage−current relationship. independent current sources. the value of R TH must be computed from the relation R TH = v OC ⁄ i SC • Norton’s theorem states that in a two terminal network we can be replace everything except the load. by a current source denoted as i N in parallel with a resistance denoted as R N . and capacitors. 3-50 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . If the circuit contains dependent sources.Circuit Theorems • A practical voltage source has an internal resistance and it is represented by a voltage source whose value is the value of the ideal voltage source in series with a resistance whose value is the value of the internal resistance. If a given circuit contains independent voltage and independent current sources only. the value of R N can be found by first shorting all independent voltage sources.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . The value of i N represents the short circuit current where the circuit is isolated from the load and R N is the equivalent resistance of that part of the isolated circuit. and calculating the resistance looking into the direction which is opposite to the disconnected load.

Summary • The principle of superposition states that the response (a desired voltage or current) in any branch of a linear circuit having more than one independent source can be obtained as the sum of the responses caused by each independent source acting alone with all other independent voltage sources replaced by short circuits and all other independent current sources replaced by open circuits. • Efficiency is defined as the ratio of output to input and thus it is never greater than unity. It is normally expressed as a percentage. . Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-51 . • Regulation is defined as the ratio of v NL – v FL to v FL and ideally should be close to zero. It is normally expressed as a percentage.

67 is A. 4 A E. The current i in the circuit of Figure 3. Circuit for Question 2 3-52 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . – 2 A B.14 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. The voltage across the 2 Ω resistor in the circuit of Figure 3. 16 V C.Circuit Theorems 3. none of the above − 6V + 2Ω 8A + − 8A Figure 3. 32 V E. – 8 V D. Circuit for Question 1 2. 3 A D. 6 V B. none of the above + 2Ω − 10 V − 4V 2Ω 2Ω i 2Ω + Figure 3.68.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .67. 5 A C.68 is A.

Exercises 3. none of the above 6Ω 12 V 3Ω 6Ω 8A i 3Ω + − Figure 3. – 9 A D. – 8 A C.69 are relative to some reference node which is not shown. The node voltages shown in the partial network of Figure 3. – 6 A E. 8 ⁄ 3 A C. The value of the current i for the circuit of Figure 3. Circuit for Question 4 + − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-53 . none of the above 4V 6V 2Ω + 6V i 2Ω − 12 V 8V + − 8V 8V 2Ω 13 V Figure 3. – 4 A B.70 is A.69. The current i is A. Circuit for Question 3 4. – 5 A D. 6 A E.70. – 3 A B.

1 C. ∞ D. For that circuit.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . 8 V D.71. no solution is possible if the value of k is A. none of the above + 2A 4Ω v − Figure 3. none of the above + + 2A 2Ω v − Figure 3. Circuit for Question 5 vX 2Ω + 2v X − − 6. 6 V C.72. The value of the voltage v for the circuit of Figure 3.Circuit Theorems 5. the value of k is dimensionless. 2 B. For the circuit of Figure 3. 4 V B.71 is A. 12 V E. 0 E.72. Circuit for Question 6 4Ω + kv − 3-54 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

2 C.74.73. none of the above a 2Ω 2A b Figure 3. the Thevenin equivalent resistance R TH to the right of terminals a and b is A.74.73. 1 V D.Exercises 7. For the network of Figure 3. 5 V E. For the network of Figure 3. 1 B. – 2 V C. Network for Question 8 2Ω + 2V − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-55 . Network for Question 7 8. 5 D. 10 E. none of the above a 3Ω R TH 2Ω b 2Ω 4Ω 2Ω 2Ω 2Ω Figure 3. the Thevenin equivalent voltage V TH across terminals a and b is A. – 3 V B.

25 Ω C. In applying the superposition principle to the circuit of Figure 3. 5Ω E.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . 8 A B. Network for Question 9 2A 2A 10. none of the above a 5Ω 5Ω b Figure 3. For the network of Figure 3. the current i due to the 4 V source acting alone is A. – 1 A C. 2 Ω B. Network for Question 10 3-56 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . none of the above i 2Ω 8A 2Ω − 2Ω + 4V Figure 3. the Norton equivalent current source I N and equivalent parallel resistance R N across terminals a and b are A. 0 A.5 A. 4 A D.Circuit Theorems 9. – 2 A E.76. 2.75. 1.5 Ω D.75. 4 A.76. 1 A.

Use mesh analysis to compute the voltage v 10 Ω in Figure 3. – 499.77. Answer: 86. Use nodal analysis to compute the voltage across the 18 A current source in the circuit of Figure 3.80.6 V + 12 Ω 36 V 15 Ω − + 4Ω 12 A 6Ω 18 A v6 Ω − 24 A Figure 3.82. Circuit for Problem 1 2.9 A. Use nodal analysis to compute the current through the 6 Ω resistor and the power supplied (or absorbed) by the dependent source shown in Figure 3. Use mesh analysis to compute the voltage v 36A in Figure 3. Answers: – 3.17 w 4.81. and the power supplied (or absorbed) by the dependent source shown in Figure 3. Answer: 0. Circuit for Problem 2 3.79. Answer: 1.33 w 6. Use nodal analysis to compute the voltage v 6 Ω in the circuit of Figure 3.78. Answers: – 3.12 V 4Ω –1 5Ω –1 8Ω 4Ω 12 A –1 –1 + − 10 Ω v 18 A –1 –1 6Ω 18 A 24 A Figure 3.Exercises Problems 1. Answer: 21.34 V 5.78.5 V Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-57 . Use mesh analysis to compute the current through the i 6 Ω resistor. – 499.9 A.77.

Circuit Theorems 18 A 12 Ω iX 6Ω 4Ω 12 A − i6 Ω 15 Ω + − 5i X 24 A Figure 3.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . Circuit for Problem 4 18 A 12 Ω iX 6Ω 4Ω 12 A i6 Ω 15 Ω − + − 5i X 24 A Figure 3. Circuit for Problem 5 + − 36 V 3-58 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Circuit for Problem 3 120 V 4Ω 8Ω 12 Ω 240 V 3Ω + + − 36 V + + 4Ω 12 A 36 A − v 36A 6Ω 24 A Figure 3.80.81.79.

32 w 2Ω 3Ω − 6Ω + 8.83 using any method.85: a. Circuit for Problem 6 + − 12 V 2Ω 6A 10 Ω + 24 V − 36 V 12 V 3Ω 8A Figure 3. Answer: 73.4 Ω Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications + − 12 V 24 V Figure 3.82.84. Answer: 1. Compute the power absorbed by the 20 Ω resistor in the circuit of Figure 3.Exercises 10i X 12 Ω 4Ω − 15 Ω 8Ω 6Ω + iX 10 Ω v 10 Ω − + 7. To what value should the load resistor R LOAD should be adjusted to so that it will absorb maximum power? Answer: 2.83. In the circuit of Figure 3.84 using any method.73 w + 20 Ω − 9. Circuit for Problem 7 Figure 3. Circuit for Problem 8 3-59 . Compute the power absorbed by the 10 Ω resistor in the circuit of Figure 3.

87. Answers: i N = 0. Answer: 1. R N = 23.87.86 by its Norton equivalent. Circuit for Problem 9 10. Circuit for Problem 11 3-60 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Use the superposition principle to compute the voltage v 18A in the circuit of Figure 3.Circuit Theorems b.12 V 4Ω –1 5Ω –1 8Ω 4Ω 12 A –1 –1 + − 10 Ω v 18 A –1 –1 6Ω 18 A 24 A Figure 3. Circuit for Problem 10 5Ω iX 11. Replace the network shown in Figure 3.85.75 Ω a 15 Ω 4Ω 5iX b Figure 3.86.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . What would then the power absorbed by R LOAD be? Answer: 135 w + 12 Ω − 36 V 15 Ω 4Ω 12 A 18 A 6Ω R LOAD Figure 3.

Exercises
12. Use the superposition principle to compute voltage v 6 Ω in the circuit of Figure 3.88. Answer: 21.6 V +
12 Ω 36 V 15 Ω −

+
4Ω 12 A 6Ω 18 A v6 Ω − 24 A

Figure 3.88. Circuit for Problem 12

13.In the circuit of Figure 3.89, v S1 and v S2 are adjustable voltage sources in the range
– 50 ≤ V ≤ 50 V, and R S1 and R S2 represent their internal resistances. Table 3.4 shows the results

of several measurements. In Measurement 3 the load resistance is adjusted to the same value as Measurement 1, and in Measurement 4 the load resistance is adjusted to the same value as Measurement 2. For Measurements 5 and 6 the load resistance is adjusted to 1 Ω . Make the necessary computations to fill-in the blank cells of this table.
TABLE 3.4 Table for Problem 13

Measurement 1 2 3 4 5 6

Switch S 1 Closed Open Closed Open Closed Closed

Switch S 2 Open Closed Open Closed Closed Closed

v S1 (V)

v S2 (V)

48 0 0 15

0 36 0 −42 18 24

16 6 −5

0

Answers: – 15 V , – 7 A , 11 A , – 24 V

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-61

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
+
R S1 1 Ω R S2

1Ω − v S2 S2

v S1 S1

14. Compute the efficiency of the electrical system of Figure 3.90. Answer: 76.6%
0.8 Ω vS 480 V − − 0.5 Ω 0.8 Ω Figure 3.90. Electrical system for Problem 14 0.5 Ω 100 A 1st Floor Load i1 i2 80 A

15. Compute the regulation for the 2st floor load of the electrical system of Figure 3.91. Answer: 36.4%
0.8 Ω VS 480 V − − 0.5 Ω 0.8 Ω Figure 3.91. Circuit for Problem 15 0.5 Ω 100 A 1st Floor Load i1 i2 80 A

+

Figure 3.89. Network for Problem 13

+

+

+

3-62

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Exercises
16. Write a set of nodal equations and then use MATLAB to compute i LOAD and v LOAD for the circuit of Example 3.10 which is repeated as Figure 3.92 for convenience. Answers: – 0.96 A, – 7.68 V +
3Ω 6Ω 5Ω Figure 3.92. Circuit for Problem 16 − 3Ω − − 12 V 7Ω 4Ω v LOAD

20i X 10 Ω

+

iX

+

− 8Ω

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-63

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems 3.15 Answers to Exercises
Multiple Choice 1. E The current entering Node A is equal to the current leaving that node. Therefore, there is no current through the 2 Ω resistor and the voltage across it is zero.

6V

+
2Ω 8A A 8A 8A

+

− 8A

2. C From the figure below, V AC = 4 V . Also, V AB = V BC = 2 V and V AD = 10 V . Then,
V BD = V AD – V AB = 10 – 2 = 8 V a n d V CD = V BD – V BC = 8 – 2 = 6 V . T h e r e f o r e , i = 6 ⁄ 2 = 3 A.

+
2Ω

4V 2Ω C 2Ω i

A − 10 V

B 2Ω D

+

3. A From the figure below we observe that the node voltage at A is 6 V relative to the reference node which is not shown. Therefore, the node voltage at B is 6 + 12 = 18 V relative to the same reference node. The voltage across the resistor is V BC = 18 – 6 = 12 V and the direction of current through the 3 Ω resistor is opposite to that shown since Node B is at a higher potential than Node C. Thus i = – 12 ⁄ 3 = – 4 A
4V 6V A

2Ω

+
6V C 3Ω i B

12 V 8V

+

8V

8V

2Ω 13 V

3-64

+

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

4. E We assign node voltages at Nodes A and B as shown below.
6Ω 12 V A 3Ω 6Ω B i 8A 3Ω

+

At Node A
V A – 12 V A V A – V B ----------------- + ----- + ------------------ = 0 6 3 6

and at Node B
VB – VA VB ------------------ + ----- = 8 3 3

These simplify to
2 -- V A – 1 V B = 2 -3 3

and
2 1 – -- V A + -- V B = 8 3 3

Multiplication of the last equation by 2 and addition with the first yields V B = 18 and thus
i = – 18 ⁄ 3 = – 6 A .

5. E Application of KCL at Node A of the circuit below yields
A + vX + 2A 2Ω v − 2Ω + 2v X − −

v v – 2v X -- + ---------------- = 2 2 2

or
v – vX = 2

Also by KVL
Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-65

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
v = v X + 2v X

and by substitution
v X + 2v X – v X = 2

or
vX = 1

and thus
v = v X + 2v X = 1 + 2 × 1 = 3 V

6. A Application of KCL at Node A of the circuit below yields
A + 2A 4Ω v − 4Ω + kv −

v v – kv -- + ------------- = 2 4 4

or
1 -- ( 2v – kv ) = 2 4

and this relation is meaningless if k = 2 . Thus, this circuit has solutions only if k ≠ 2 . 7. B The two 2 Ω resistors on the right are in series and the two 2 Ω resistors on the left shown in the figure below are in parallel.
a 3Ω R TH 2Ω b 2Ω

2Ω 4Ω

2Ω

2Ω

Starting on the right side and proceeding to the left we get 2 + 2 = 4 , 4 || 4 = 2 , 2 + 2 = 4 , 4 || ( 3 + 2 || 2 ) = 4 || ( 3 + 1 ) = 4 || 4 = 2 Ω .

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Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

8. A Replacing the current source and its 2 Ω parallel resistance with an equivalent voltage source in series with a 2 Ω resistance we get the network shown below. +
− 2V 2Ω 2Ω i − 4V b a

By Ohm’s law,
4–2 i = ----------- = 0.5 A 2+2

and thus
v TH = v ab = 2 × 0.5 + ( – 4 ) = – 3 V

9. D The Norton equivalent current source I N is found by placing a short across the terminals a and b. This short shorts out the 5 Ω resistor and thus the circuit reduces to the one shown below.
a 5Ω 2A b I SC = I N A 2A

By KCL at Node A,
IN + 2 = 2

and thus I N = 0 The Norton equivalent resistance R N is found by opening the current sources and looking to the right of terminals a and b. When this is done, the circuit reduces to the one shown below.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

+

3-67

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
a 5Ω 5Ω b

Therefore, R N = 5 Ω and the Norton equivalent circuit consists of just a 5 Ω resistor. 10. B With the 4 V source acting alone, the circuit is as shown below.
i − + 2Ω − B 2Ω + − A 2Ω

+ 4V

We observe that v AB = 4 V and thus the voltage drop across each of the 2 Ω resistors to the left of the 4 V source is 2 V with the indicated polarities. Therefore,
i = –2 ⁄ 2 = –1 A

Problems 1. We first replace the parallel conductances with their equivalents and the circuit simplifies to that shown below.
v 1 12 Ω 1 4Ω 12 A
–1 –1

v 2 15 Ω 2

–1

v3 3

+
v 18 A 18 A − 6Ω
–1

24 A

Applying nodal analysis at Nodes 1, 2, and 3 we get: Node 1:
16v 1 – 12v2 = 12

Node 2:
– 12 v 1 + 27v 2 – 15v 3 = – 18

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Node 3:
– 15 v 2 + 21v 3 = 24

Simplifying the above equations, we get:
4v 1 – 3v 2 = 3 – 4 v 1 + 9v 2 – 5v 3 = – 6 – 5 v 2 + 7v 3 = 8

Addition of the first two equations above and grouping with the third yields
6v 2 – 5v 3 = – 3 – 5 v 2 + 7v 3 = 8

For this problem we are only interested in v 2 = v 18 A . Therefore, we will use Cramer’s rule to solve for v 2 . Thus,
D2 v 2 = ----∆ D 2 = – 3 – 5 = – 21 + 40 = 19 8 7 ∆ = 6 – 5 = 42 – 25 = 17 –5 7

and
v 2 = v 18 A = 19 ⁄ 17 = 1.12 V

2. Since we cannot write an expression for the current through the 36 V source, we form a combined node as shown on the circuit below. +
v1 1 4Ω 12 A 36 V v3 12 Ω 2 v 2 15 Ω 3 −

+
6Ω 18 A v6 Ω − 24 A

At Node 1 (combined node):
v1 v1 – v2 v3 – v2 v3 ---- + --------------- + --------------- + ---- – 12 – 24 = 0 4 6 12 15

and at Node 2,
Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-69

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
v2 – v1 v2 – v3 --------------- + --------------- = – 18 12 15

Also,
v 1 – v 3 = 36

Simplifying the above equations, we get:
7 1 3 -- v 1 – ----- v 2 + ----- v 3 = 36 30 3 20 311 – ----- v 1 + ----- v 2 – ----- v 3 = – 18 20 15 12 v1 – v 3 = 36

Addition of the first two equations above and multiplication of the third by – 1 ⁄ 4 yields
1 --- v 1 + 1 v 3 = 18 6 4 1 1 – -- v 1 + -- v 3 = – 9 4 4

and by adding the last two equations we get
5----- v 3 = 9 12

or
108 v 3 = v 6 Ω = -------- = 21.6V 5

Check with MATLAB:
format rat R=[1/3 −3/20 7/30; −1/12 3/20 −1/15; 1 0 −1]; I=[36 −18 36]'; V=R\I; fprintf('\n'); disp('v1='); disp(V(1)); disp('v2='); disp(V(2)); disp('v3='); disp(V(3))

v1= 288/5 v2= -392/5 v3= 108/5 3. We assign node voltages
v1 , v2 , v3 , v4

and current i Y as shown in the circuit below. Then,

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Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

v1 v1 – v2 ---- + --------------- + 18 – 12 = 0 4 12

and
v2 – v1 v2 – v3 v2 – v4 --------------- + --------------- + --------------- = 0 12 12 6

v1

12 Ω v 2 iX 6Ω

18 A 15 Ω

v3

+
i6 Ω − 36 V −

4Ω 12 A

v4

5i X iY 24 A

Simplifying the last two equations above, we get
1 1 -- v 1 – ----- v 2 = – 6 3 12

+

and
111 19 – ----- v 1 + ----- v 2 – ----- v 3 – -- v 4 = 0 12 15 6 60 5 1 2 Next, we observe that i X = --------------- , v 3 = 5i X and v 4 = 36 V . Then v 3 = ----- ( v 1 – v 2 ) and by 12 v –v 12

substitution into the last equation above, we get
19 1 1 5 1 – ----- v 1 + ----- v 2 – ----- × ----- ( v 1 – v 2 ) – -- 36 = 0 60 6 15 12 12

or
1 31 – -- v 1 + ----- v 2 = 6 9 90

Thus, we have two equations with two unknowns, that is,
1 1 -- v 1 – ----- v 2 = – 6 3 12 31 1 – -- v 1 + ----- v 2 = 6 90 9

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-71

Circuit Theorems Multiplication of the first equation above by 1 ⁄ 3 and addition with the second yields 19 ----.= -----------------------------. v3 – v2 i Y – 24 – 18 + --------------.9 A 6 6 19 To compute the power supplied (or absorbed) by the dependent source.v 1 – ----.v 2 = – 6 3 12 Thus. Thus.-------v 3 = ----.v 2 = 4 60 or v 2 = 240 ⁄ 19 We find v 1 from 1 1 -. It is found by application of KCL at node voltage v 3 . we must first find the current i Y .-------1 -.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .× 240 = – 6 12 19 3 or v 1 = – 282 ⁄ 19 Now.⎛ – 282 – 240⎞ = – 435 12 12 ⎝ 19 38 19 ⎠ Therefore. we find v 3 from 55-----------------.= – ----.= – 3. the node voltages of interest are: v 1 = – 282 ⁄ 19 V v 2 = 240 ⁄ 19 V v 3 = – 435 ⁄ 38 V v 4 = 36 V The current through the 6 Ω resistor is v2 – v4 74 240 ⁄ 19 – 36 i 6 Ω = --------------.= 0 15 or 3-72 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .( v 1 – v 2 ) = ----.v 1 – ----. 1.

17 w 38 145 38 that is. 4. we temporarily remove it and we form a combined mesh for Meshes 2 and 3 as shown below.= – 72379 = – 499.Answers to Exercises – 435 ⁄ 38 – 240 ⁄ 19 i Y = 42 – ---------------------------------------------15 915 ⁄ 38 1657 = 42 + -----------------. Since we cannot write an expression for the 36 A current source.= ----------15 38 and 1657 --------------------p = v 3 i Y = – 435 × ----------. − 120 V 4Ω + + 240 V 3Ω − i6 8Ω i5 12 Ω 4Ω 12 A i1 i2 i3 6Ω i4 24 A Mesh 1: i 1 = 12 Combined mesh (2 and 3): – 4i 1 + 12i 2 + 18i 3 – 6i 4 – 8i 5 – 12i 6 = 0 or – 2i 1 + 6i 2 + 9i 3 – 3i 4 – 4i 5 – 6i 6 = 0 We now re-insert the 36 A current source and we write the third equation as i 2 – i 3 = 36 Mesh 4: i 4 = – 24 Mesh 5: – 8 i 2 + 12i 5 = 120 or Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-73 . the dependent source supplies power to the circuit.

I=R\V..... I(1)). fprintf('i3=%7.. 0 1 −1 0 0 0... I(3)). −2 6 9 −3 −4 −6... I(2)). fprintf('i1=%7....Circuit Theorems – 2 i 2 + 3i 5 = 30 Mesh 6: – 12 i 3 + 15i 6 = – 240 or – 4 i 3 + 5i 6 = – 80 Thus. V=[12 0 36 −24 30 −80]'..2f A \t'. 0 0 0 1 0 0. 0 0 −4 0 0 5]... fprintf('i2=%7. fprintf('\n').2f A \t'. 3-74 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ R Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .. 0 −2 0 0 3 0.... fprintf('\n').2f A \t'... we have the following system of equations: i1 i2 – i3 i4 –2 i2 –4 i3 + 3i 5 = 12 = 36 = – 24 = 30 + 5i 6 = – 80 – 2i 1 + 6i 2 + 9i 3 – 3i 4 – 4i 5 – 6i 6 = 0 and in matrix form 1 –2 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 0 –2 0 0 9 –1 0 0 –4 0 –3 0 1 0 0 0 –4 0 0 3 0 0 –6 0 0 0 5 i1 i2 i3 ⋅ i4 i5 i6 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I = 12 0 36 – 24 30 – 80 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V We find the currents i 1 through i 6 with the following MATLAB code: R=[1 0 0 0 0 0.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .

73 ) – ( – 39. This is the same circuit as that of Problem 3.27 A 14.00 A i4= -24. Thus.2f A \t'.73 A i6= -39.14 5.00 A i2= i5= 6.. I(6)). We assign mesh currents as shown below. fprintf('i5=%7. we find that 4 × [ 6.27 – 12 ] + 8 × [ 6.34 = 0.. we must show that v 4 Ω + v 8 Ω + v 36 A = 0 By substitution of numerical values. We will show that we obtain the same answers using mesh analysis.34 V To verify that this value is correct. I(5)). Thus.2f A \t'.Answers to Exercises fprintf('i4=%7.2f A \t'.79 ) ] + 6 × [ ( – 29. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-75 ... fprintf('i6=%7. I(4))..18 ] + 86. fprintf('\n') i1= 12..00 ) ] or v 36 A = 86. we apply KVL around Mesh 2.. 120 V 4Ω + + − 240 V 3Ω − i5 8Ω i6 12 Ω + 4Ω 12 A i1 i2 36 A v 36 A − i3 6Ω i4 24 A v 36 A = v 12 Ω + v 6 Ω = 12 × [ ( – 29..18 A i3= -29.27 – 14.. we can find the voltage v 36 A by application of KVL around Mesh 3.73 ) – ( 24.79 A Now.

the above reduces to – 6 i 2 + 21i 3 – 15i 5 + 5i 2 – 5i 5 = 36 or – i 2 + 21i 3 – 20i 5 = 36 Mesh 4: i 4 = – 24 Mesh 5: i 5 = 18 Grouping these five independent equations we get: i1 – 2i 1 + 11i 2 – 3i 3 – i 2 + 21i 3 i4 = 12 – 6i 5 = – 18 – 20i 5 = 36 = – 24 i 5 = 18 and in matrix form.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .Circuit Theorems 18 A 12 Ω iX 6Ω 4Ω 12 A i6 Ω 15 Ω i5 + i3 − 5i X i4 24 A + i1 i2 − 36 V Mesh 1: i 1 = 12 Mesh 2: – 4i 1 + 22i 2 – 6i 3 – 12i 5 = – 36 or – 2i 1 + 11i 2 – 3i 3 – 6i 5 = – 18 Mesh 3: – 6 i 2 + 21i 3 – 15i 5 + 5i X = 36 and since i X = i 2 – i 5 . 3-76 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

71 – 19.. fprintf('i4=%7.2f A \t'.00 A By inspection.00 ) ( 19..71 A 18. −2 11 −3 0 −6. 0 −1 21 0 −20..2f A \t'. fprintf('\n') i1= 12....2f A \t'. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-77 .. I=R\V.... I(3))... 0 0 0 1 0. p 5i = 5i X ( i 3 – i 4 ) = 5 ( i 2 – i 5 ) ( i 3 – i 4 ) X = 5 ( 15. ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ i2= i5= 15. fprintf('i2=%7.00 A i3= 19. fprintf('i3=%7. 0 0 0 0 1]. fprintf('\n'). I(4)). I(5))..61 = – 3.Answers to Exercises 1 –2 0 0 0 0 11 –1 0 0 0 –3 21 0 0 R 0 0 0 –6 0 – 20 1 0 0 1 i1 i2 ⋅ i3 i4 i5 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I = 12 – 18 36 – 24 18 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V We find the currents i 1 through i 5 with the following MATLAB code: R=[1 0 0 0 0 . fprintf('i1=%7..9 A Next.61 A i 6 Ω = i 2 – i 3 = 15.33 w These are the same answers as those we found in Problem 3. V=[12 −18 36 −24 18]'.71 – 18. I(2)). fprintf('\n').2f A \t'.. We assign mesh currents as shown below and we write mesh equations.00 A i4= -24.. fprintf('i5=%7. I(1)). ..61 + 24.. 6..2f A \t'...00 ) = – 499...

Circuit Theorems 10i X 12 Ω 4Ω i1 − i4 15 Ω 8Ω i2 24 V 6Ω + iX i3 10 Ω v 10 Ω − 12 V Mesh 1: or 24i 1 – 8i 2 – 12i 4 – 24 – 12 = 0 6i 1 – 2i 2 – 3i 4 = 9 Mesh 2: Mesh 3: or – 8 i 1 + 29i 2 – 6i 3 – 15i 4 = – 24 – 6 i 2 + 16i 3 = 0 – 3 i 2 + 8i 3 = 0 Mesh 4: or i 4 = 10i X = 10 ( i 2 – i 3 ) 10i 2 – 10i 3 – i 4 = 0 Grouping these four independent equations we get: 6i 1 – 2i 2 – 3 i 2 + 8i 3 – 3i 4 = 9 = 0 – 8 i 1 + 29i 2 – 6i 3 – 15i 4 = – 24 10i 2 – 10i 3 – i 4 = 0 and in matrix form.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . 6 –8 0 0 –2 0 –3 29 – 6 – 15 –3 8 0 10 – 10 – 1 R i1 i2 ⋅ i3 i4 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I = 9 – 24 0 0 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V 3-78 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ + + − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

13 A i3= 0.2f A \t'..79 A Now. I(4)). I(3)). I(2)).× 10 = 160 = 1. fprintf('i3=%7.× 4 = ----..5 V The same value is obtained by computing the voltage across the 6 Ω resistor..⎞ × 10 = -------. we find v 10 Ω by Ohm’s law.... I(1)).2f A \t'. V=[9 −24 0 0]'.. we get 4 1 i 10 Ω = -------------.05 = 0. fprintf('i1=%7. v 10 Ω = 10i 3 = 10 × 0. 0 10 −10 −1]. 2Ω 6A 8A 6Ω 6A 10 Ω 3Ω By combining all current sources and all parallel resistors except the 10 Ω resistor.. 0 −3 8 0 .2f A \t'. v 6 Ω = 6 ( i 2 – i 3 ) = 6 ( 0.. Voltage-to-current source transformation yields the circuit below.. fprintf('i4=%7..05 A i4= 0.48 V 7.2 162 -------p 10 Ω = i 10 Ω ( 10 ) = ⎛ ----.94 A i2= 0. I=R\V. fprintf('\n') i1= 1. that is.Answers to Exercises We find the currents i 1 through i 4 with the following MATLAB code: R=[6 −2 0 −3. we obtain the simplified circuit below.A 11 1 + 10 and thus 4..32 w ⎝ 11 ⎠ 121 121 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-79 . fprintf('i2=%7.. that is. −8 29 −6 −15..13 – 0.05 ) = 0.2f A \t'. 1Ω 4A 10 Ω Applying the current division expression. fprintf('\n')..

73 w ⎝ 25 ⎠ 625 9.+ ---. 48 Σv i = -----.Circuit Theorems 8.⎞ × 20 = ----------. and v 3 . 36 V 3 2 v 2 15 Ω 12 Ω 6Ω 18 A × y v3 × x + 1 v1 4Ω 12 A Node 1: v3 – v2 v3 v1 v1 – v2 ---.= ----. We remove R LOAD from the rest of the rest of the circuit and we assign node voltages v 1 .+ --------------.× 20 = 73.v 3 = 12 3 30 20 Node 2: 3-80 − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications − − + + 24 V . 2Ω − 20 Ω 12 V + 3Ω 12 V i From this series circuit.A 25 ΣR and thus 48 2 2304 2 p 20 Ω = i ( 20 ) = ⎛ ----.= 0 4 6 12 15 or 1 7 3 -.v 1 – ----. Current-to-voltage source transformation yields the circuit below. v 2 .v 2 + ----.– 12 + --------------. We also form the combined node as shown on the circuit below.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .

fprintf('v1=%7. v2= -136.2f V \t'.v 2 – ----.00 V Thus. However.00 V ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ v3= -36.v 3 = 12 30 3 20 311– ----.00 V v TH = v 3 = – 36 V Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-81 .2f V \t'.Answers to Exercises v2 – v1 v2 – v3 --------------. we will group these three independent equations. 7 1 3 -. for convenience.2f V \t'.v 3 = – 18 20 12 15 Also. −1/12 3/20 −1/15.⋅ 15 –1 v1 v2 v3 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V = 12 – 18 36 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I We find the voltages v 1 through v 3 with the following MATLAB code: G=[1/3 −3/20 7/30. V(1)).= – 18 12 15 or 311– ----.v 3 = – 18 20 15 12 v1 – v 3 = 36 and in matrix form..v 2 + ----. fprintf('\n') v1= 0. and use MATLAB for their solution. V(3)). fprintf('v2=%7.v 1 – ----. express these in matrix form.3– ----. 1 0 −1].----12 20 1 0 G 7 ----30 1– ----. fprintf('\n').v 1 + ----.+ --------------..v 2 – ----. 1 3 -. I=[12 −18 36]'.v 1 + ----. and we could find it by Gauss’s elimination method. V(2)).– ----3 20 1. V=G\I.. we are interested only in the value of v 3 which is the Thevenin voltage v TH . v 1 – v 3 = 36 For this problem. fprintf('v3=%7.

Circuit Theorems To find R TH we short circuit the voltage source and we open the current sources. 4 Ω || 6 Ω = 2. 12 Ω 4Ω 15 Ω 6Ω × x R TH × y We observe that the resistors in series are shorted out and thus the Thevenin resistance is the parallel combination of the 4 Ω and 6 Ω resistors.4 Ω b. The circuit then reduces to the resistive network below. − + R LOAD = 2. Power under maximum power transfer condition is 3-82 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .4 Ω Now. For maximum power transfer. that is.4 Ω and the Thevenin equivalent circuit is as shown below.4 Ω 36 V a.4 Ω 2.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . we connect the load resistor R LOAD at the open terminals and we get the simple series circuit shown below. − + 36 V 2. R LOAD = 2.

⎞ × 2.5 × 2.4 + 2. 20i X ---------.4 = 135 w ⎝ 2. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-83 .4 ⎠ 10. We assign a node voltage Node 1 and a mesh current for the mesh on the right as shown below. a RN iX b To find R N we insert a 1 A current source as shown below.+ i X = 5i X 4 Mesh on the right: ( 15 + 5 )i X = v 1 and by substitution into the node equation above. the Norton current source is open as shown below.= ------------.Answers to Exercises 36 .= ----------.+ i X = 5i X 4 or 6i X = 5i X but this can only be true if i X = 0 . v OC v ab 5 × iX 5×0 i N = -------.4 = 7. v1 1 4Ω 5iX iX b iX 15 Ω 5Ω iX a At Node 1: v1 ---.2 2 2 p MAX = i R LOAD = ⎛ -------------------.= 0 RN RN RN RN Thus.= -----. Then.

+ ---------------. However.v B = 0 60 15 At Node B: vB – vA vB ---------------.v B = 1 15 15 3-84 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .+ ---------------.= 1 15 5 or 1 4 – ----. 19 ----.= v B 4 15 or 19 16 ----.v B = 1 15 15 For this problem.= 5i X 4 15 But v B = ( 5 Ω ) × i X = 5i X and by substitution into the above relation vA vA – vB ---.v A + ----.Circuit Theorems vA A 4Ω 5iX iX b iX v B 15 Ω 5Ω B iX 1A a At Node A: vA vA – vB ---.v A – 16 v B = 0 ----60 15 4 1 – ----.v A – ----. we are interested only in the value of v B which we could find by Gauss’s elimination method.+ ---. we will use MATLAB for their solution. for convenience.v A + ----.

.75 V V ab VB R N = ------.⋅ – ----.– ----60 15 1 4. The simplified circuit with assigned node voltages is shown below where the parallel conductances have been replaced by their equivalents.2f V \t'.. fprintf('vA=%7. fprintf('\n'). fprintf('vB=%7.= 23. V(2)).00 V vB= 23. V(1)). we can find the Norton equivalent resistance from the relation 11..Answers to Exercises and in matrix form. v 1 12 Ω –1 v 2 15 Ω v3 + 4Ω 12 A − –1 v' 18A 6Ω –1 The nodal equations at the three nodes are 16v 1 – 12v 2 = 12 – 12v 1 + 27v 2 – 15v 3 = 0 – 15 v 2 + 21v 3 = 0 or Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-85 .= ----. I=[0 1]'. −1/15 4/15]. 19 16 ----.75 Ω I SC 1 Now. V=G\I. This is the same circuit as that of Problem 1.2f V \t'. Let v' 18A be the voltage due to the 12 A current source acting alone. fprintf('\n') vA= 80.----15 15 ⎧ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ G vA vB ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V = 0 1 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I –1 We find the voltages v 1 and v 2 with the following MATLAB code: G=[19/60 −16/15.

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
4v 1 – 3v 2 = 3

– 4v 1 + 9v 2 – 5v 3 = 0 – 5 v 2 + 7v 3 = 0

Since v 2 = v' 18A , we only need to solve for v 2 . Adding the first 2 equations above and grouping with the third we obtain
6v 2 – 5v 3 = 3 – 5 v 2 + 7v 3 = 0

Multiplying the first by 7 and the second by 5 we get
42v 2 – 35v 3 = 21 – 25 v 2 + 35v 3 = 0

and by addition of these we get
21 v 2 = v' 18A = ----- V 17

Next, we let v'' 18A be the voltage due to the 18 A current source acting alone. The simplified circuit with assigned node voltages is shown below where the parallel conductances have been replaced by their equivalents.
vA 12 Ω
–1

v B 15 Ω

–1

vC

+
4Ω
–1

v'' 18A 18 A −

6Ω

–1

The nodal equations at the three nodes are
16v A – 12v B = 0 – 12v A + 27v B – 15v C = – 18 – 15 v B + 21v C = 0

or

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Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

4v A – 3v B = 0

– 4v A + 9v B – 5v C = – 6 – 5 v B + 7v C = 0

Since v B = v'' 18A , we only need to solve for v B . Adding the first 2 equations above and grouping with the third we obtain
6v B – 5v C = – 6 – 5 v B + 7v C = 0

Multiplying the first by 7 and the second by 5 we get
42v B – 35v C = – 42 – 25 v B + 35v C = 0

and by addition of these we get
– 42 v B = v'' 18A = -------- V 17

Finally, we let v''' 18A be the voltage due to the 24 A current source acting alone. The simplified circuit with assigned node voltages is shown below where the parallel conductances have been replaced by their equivalents.
v X 12 Ω
–1

v Y 15 Ω

–1

vZ

+
4Ω
–1

v''' 18A −

6Ω

–1

24 A

The nodal equations at the three nodes are
16v X – 12v Y = 0 – 12v A + 27v Y – 15v Z = 0 – 15 v B + 21v Z = 24

or

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-87

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
4v X – 3v Y = 0

– 4v X + 9v Y – 5v Z = 0 – 5 v Y + 7v Z = 8

Since v Y = v''' 18A , we only need to solve for v Y . Adding the first 2 equations above and grouping with the third we obtain
6v Y – 5v Z = 0 – 5 v Y + 7v Z = 0

Multiplying the first by 7 and the second by 5 we get
42v Y – 35v Z = 0 – 25 v Y + 35v Z = 40

and by addition of these we get
40 v Y = v''' 18A = ----- V 17

and thus
--------- -------- ----v 18A = v' 18A + v'' 18A + v''' 18A = 21 + – 42 + 40 = 19 = 1.12 V 17 17 17 17

This is the same answer as in Problem 1.

12. This is the same circuit as that of Problem 2. Let v' 6 Ω be the voltage due to the 12 A current source acting alone. The simplified circuit is shown below.
12 Ω 15 Ω

+
4Ω 12 A 6Ω v' 6 Ω −

The 12 Ω and 15 Ω resistors are shorted out and the circuit is further simplified to the one shown below.

3-88

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

+
4Ω 12 A 6Ω v' 6 Ω −

The voltage v' 6 Ω is computed easily by application of the current division expression and multiplication by the 6 Ω resistor. Thus,
144 4 v' 6 Ω = ⎛ ----------- × 12⎞ × 6 = -------- V ⎝4 + 6 ⎠ 5

Next, we let v'' 6 Ω be the voltage due to the 18 A current source acting alone. The simplified circuit is shown below. The letters A, B, and C are shown to visualize the circuit simplification process.
15 Ω A 12 Ω B 15 Ω A A B 12 Ω 4Ω 18 A C A 12 || 15 Ω B

+
4Ω 18 A C 6Ω v'' 6 Ω −

+
v'' 6 Ω − 6Ω

+
v'' 6 Ω − 6Ω C 4Ω 18 A

The voltage v'' 6 Ω is computed easily by application of the current division expression and multiplication by the 6 Ω resistor. Thus,
– 216 4 v'' 6 Ω = ----------- × ( – 18 ) × 6 = ----------- V 5 4+6

Now, we let v''' 6 Ω be the voltage due to the 24 A current source acting alone. The simplified circuit is shown below.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-89

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems

12 Ω

15 Ω

+
4Ω 6Ω

v''' 6 Ω 24 A

The 12 Ω and 15 Ω resistors are shorted out and voltage v''' 6 Ω is computed by application of the current division expression and multiplication by the 6 Ω resistor. Thus,
288 4 v''' 6 Ω = ⎛ ----------- × 24⎞ × 6 = -------- V ⎝4 + 6 ⎠ 5

Finally, we let v 6 Ω be the voltage due to the 36 V voltage source acting alone. The simplified circuit is shown below. +
A 12 Ω 36 V − 15 Ω B A 4Ω
iv

iv

12 Ω

+
4Ω C 6Ω v −
6 Ω

C 6Ω

+

+
v −
iv 6 Ω

36 V

15 Ω B

By application of the voltage division expression we find that
v
iv 6 Ω

6 = ----------- × ( – 36 ) = – 108 -------4+6 5
iv 6 Ω

Therefore,
v 6 Ω = v' 6 Ω + v'' 6 Ω + v''' 6 Ω + v 144 216 288 108 108 = -------- – -------- + -------- – -------- = -------- = 21.6 V 5 5 5 5 5

This is the same answer as that of Problem 2. 13. The circuit for Measurement 1 is shown below.

3-90

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

R S1 v S1 1Ω

+

Let R eq1 = R S1 + R LOAD1 . Then,
v S1 ----R eq1 = ---------------- = 48 = 3 Ω 16 i LOAD1

For Measurement 3 the load resistance is the same as for Measurement 1 and the load current is given as – 5 A . Therefore, for Measurement 3 we find that
v S1 = R eq1 ( – 5 ) = 3 × ( – 5 ) = – 15 V

and we enter this value in the table below. The circuit for Measurement 2 is shown below.
R S2 v S2 1Ω

+

Let R eq2 = R S1 + R LOAD2 . Then,
v S2 36 R eq2 = ---------------- = ----- = 6 Ω i LOAD2 6

For Measurement 4 the load resistance is the same as for Measurement 2 and v S2 is given as
– 42 V . Therefore, for Measurement 4 we find that v S2 42 i LOAD2 = ---------- = – ----- = – 7 A 6 R eq2

and we enter this value in the table below. The circuit for Measurement 5 is shown below.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-91

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
R S1

+

v S1 15 V

1Ω R S2

Replacing the voltage sources with their series resistances to their equivalent current sources with their parallel resistances and simplifying, we get the circuit below.

Application of the current division expression yields
0.5 i LOAD = ---------------- × 33 = 11 A 0.5 + 1

and we enter this value in the table below. The circuit for Measurement 6 is shown below.
R S1 1Ω R S2 A vA 1Ω v S2 i LOAD R LOAD 1Ω

We observe that i LOAD will be zero if v A = 0 and this will occur when v S1 = – 24 . This can be shown to be true by writing a nodal equation at Node A. Thus,
v A – ( – 24 ) v A – 24 ------------------------ + ---------------- + 0 = 0 1 1

+

+
− 18 V −

v S1

+

+
− 24 V

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Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

or v A = 0 Measurement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Switch
S1

Switch
S2 v S1 (V) v S2 (V) i L (A)

Closed Open Closed Open Closed Closed

Open Closed Open Closed Closed Closed

48 0 -15 0 15 −24

0 36 0 −42 18 24

16 6 −5 −7 11 0

14. The power supplied by the voltage source is
p S = v S ( i 1 + i 2 ) = 480 ( 100 + 80 ) = 86, 400 w = 86.4 Kw

The power loss on the 1st floor is
p LOSS1 = i 1 ( 0.5 + 0.5 ) = 100 × 1 = 10, 000 w = 10 Kw
2 2

0.8 Ω vS 480 V − − 0.5 Ω 0.8 Ω 0.5 Ω 100 A 1st Floor Load i1 i2 80 A

+

The power loss on the 2nd floor is
p LOSS2 = i 2 ( 0.8 + 0.8 ) = 80 × 1.6 = 10, 240 w = 10.24 Kw
2 2

and thus the total loss is
Total loss = 10 + 10.24 = 20.24 Kw

Then,

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-93

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
Output power = Input power – power losses = 86.4 – 20.24 = 66.16Kw

and
66.16 Output % Efficiency = η = ----------------- × 100 = ------------ × 100 = 76.6% 86.4 Input

This is indeed a low efficiency. 15. The voltage drop on the second floor conductor is
v cond = R T i 2 = 1.6 × 80 = 128 V 0.8 Ω VS 480 V − − 0.5 Ω 0.8 Ω 0.5 Ω 100 A 1st Floor Load i1 i2 80 A

+

and thus the full-load voltage is
v FL = 480 – 128 = 352 V

Then,
v NL – v FL 480 – 352 % Regulation = ---------------------- × 100 = ----------------------- × 100 = 36.4% 352 v FL

This is a very poor regulation. 16. We assign node voltages and we write nodal equations as shown below.

3-94

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

v1 3Ω − − 12 V v2 3Ω 6Ω 5Ω v5 v 1 = 12 v2 – v1 v2 v2 – v3 --------------- + ---- + --------------- = 0 3 3 6 v3 – v2 v3 – v5 v4 – v5 v4 – v5 --------------- + --------------- + --------------- + --------------- = 0 3 10 4 7+8 v 3 – v 4 = 20i X
2 where i X = ---- and thus

+

v3

20i X

v4

combined node 7Ω

+

iX

10 Ω

4Ω

+

− 8Ω

v 6

10 v 5 = ----- v 2 3 v5 v5 – v3 v5 – v4 v5 – v4 ---- + --------------- + --------------- + --------------- = 0 10 4 7+8 5

Collecting like terms and rearranging we get
v1 –1 5 –1 ----- v 1 + -- v 2 + ----- v 3 3 6 3 = 12 = 0

–1 ----------------- v 2 + 13 v 3 + 19 v 4 – 19 v 5 = 0 30 60 60 3 10 – ----- v 2 3 + v3 – v4 = 0

19 37 1– ----- v 3 – ----- v 4 + ----- v 5 = 0 60 60 10

and in matrix form

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-95

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
1 –1 ----3 0 5 -6 –1 0 ----3 ----0 – 10 3 0 0 0 0 –1 ----0 0 3 13 19 19 ----- ----- – ----30 60 60 1 –1 0

v1 v2 ⋅ v3 v4 v5 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V =

12 0 0 0 0 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I

1- ----- 37 0 – ----- – 19 ----10 60 60 G

We will use MATLAB to solve the above.
G=[1 0 0 0 0;... −1/3 5/6 −1/3 0 0;... 0 −1/3 13/30 19/60 −19/60;... 0 −10/3 1 −1 0;... 0 0 −1/10 −19/60 37/60]; I=[12 0 0 0 0]'; V=G\I; fprintf('\n');... fprintf('v1 = %7.2f V \n',V(1));... fprintf('v2 = %7.2f V \n',V(2));... fprintf('v3 = %7.2f V \n',V(3));... fprintf('v4 = %7.2f V \n',V(4));... fprintf('v5 = %7.2f V \n',V(5));... fprintf('\n'); fprintf('\n')

v1 v2 v3 v4 v5 Now,

= = = = =

12.00 13.04 20.60 -22.87 -8.40

V V V V V
v4 – v5 ) ----------------------------------------i LOAD = --------------- = – 22.87 – ( – 8.40 - = – 0.96 A 15 8+7

and
v LOAD = 8i LOAD = 8 × ( – 0.96 ) = – 7.68 V

3-96

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

such as voltage. sound. 4. A typical signal which varies with time is shown in figure 4. vin vout Electronic Amplifier Figure 4. and so on. telephony. It represents a fluctuating electric quantity. The symbol of a typical amplifier is a triangle as shown in Figure 4. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-1 . A signal that changes with time 4.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers T his chapter is an introduction to amplifiers.2 Amplifiers An amplifier is an electronic circuit which increases the magnitude of the input signal.2. television. image. A resistive voltage divider is a typical attenuator. or any message transmitted or received in telegraphy. pressure. temperature. current.1. current. or radar.1 Signals A signal is any waveform that serves as a means of communication. their characteristics and applications. Symbol for electronic amplifier An electronic (or electric) circuit which produces an output that is smaller than the input is called an attenuator. f (t) t Figure 4. radio. It discusses amplifier gain in terms of decibels (dB) and provides an overview of operational amplifiers.2. Numerous formulas for the computation of the gain are derived and several practical examples are provided.1 where f ( t ) can be any physical quantity such as voltage. electric or magnetic field strength.

1) The current gain G i and power gain G p are defined similarly. If the gain (or loss) is 0 dB .3 Decibels The ratio of any two values of the same quantity (power. Thus for a voltage amplifier. to avoid misinterpretation of gain or loss. we say that an amplifier has 10 dB power gain or a transmission line has a power loss of 7 dB (or gain – 7 dB ). Note 1: Throughout this text. For instance. By definition. p out dB = 10 log --------p in (4. the output is equal to the input. The gain of an amplifier is the ratio of the output to the input. or power amplifier. voltage and current when these are expressed in dB. the common (base 10) logarithm of a number x will be denoted as log ( x ) while its natural (base e) logarithm will be denoted as ln ( x ) . 10 dB represents a power ratio of 10 10n dB represents a power ratio of 10 n It is useful to remember that 20 dB represents a power ratio of 100 30 dB represents a power ratio of 1000 60 dB represents a power ratio of 1000000 4-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . For instance.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers An amplifier can be classified as a voltage amplifier. We must remember that a negative voltage or current gain G v or G i indicates that there is a 180° phase difference between the input and the output waveforms. if an amplifier has a gain of −100 (dimensionless number). 4. it means that the output is 180 degrees out-of-phase with the input. Output Voltage Voltage Gain = ---------------------------------------Input Voltage or v out G v = -------v in (4.2) Therefore. Therefore. voltage or current) can be expressed in decibels ( dB ) . we use absolute values of power. current amplifier.

given that log 2 = 0.4) Example 4.25 = 2. Amplifier for Example 4.4.4.2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-3 . Since y = log x = 2 log x and p = v 2 ⁄ R = i 2 R . Likewise.5 .3.3) and i out 2 dB i = 10 log ------. we can estimate other values. p in 1w p out 10 w Figure 4.1 Compute the gain in dB w for the amplifier shown in Figure 4.2 Compute the gain in dB v for the amplifier shown in Figure 4.3.1 Solution: p out dB w = 10 log --------. v in 1v v out 2v Figure 4.3 .= 10 log 10 = 10 log 10 = 10 × 1 = 10 dBw ----1 p in Example 4.= 20 log i in i out ------i in (4. For instance. the dB values for voltage and current ratios become: v out 2 dB v = 10 log -------. Amplifier for Example 4.Decibels Also. 1 dB represents a power ratio of approximately 1.= 20 log v in v out -------v in 2 (4. 4 dB = 3 dB + 1 dB which is equivalent to a power ratio of approximately 2 × 1. 27 dB = 20 dB + 7 dB and this is equivalent to a power ratio of approximately 100 × 5 = 500 .25 3 dB represents a power ratio of approximately 2 7 dB represents a power ratio of approximately 5 From these. if we let R = 1 .

5.707 .3 = 6 dBv -1 v in 4. 1 0. In + − Σ Gain Amplifier Out In + − Feedback Circuit Partial Output Feedback Σ Gain Amplifier Feedback Path Out Entire Output Feedback Figure 4.6. Gain amplifiers used with feedback In Figure 4.6.= 20 log 2 = 20 log 0. v out = 2 ⁄ 2 = 0. Alternately.3 = 20 × 0. the bandwidth is BW = ω 2 – ω 1 where ω 1 and ω 2 are the lower and upper cutoff frequencies respectively. and for R = 1 and v = 2 ⁄ 2 = 0. Consider.707 or i = 2 ⁄ 2 = 0. Typical bandwidth of an amplifier As shown above. At these frequencies.707 Bandwidth v out ω1 ω2 ω Figure 4.5. the symbol Σ (Greek capital letter sigma) inside the circle denotes the summing point where the output signal.707 and these two points are known as the 3-dB down or half-power points. is combined with the input signal. we can define the bandwidth as the frequency band between half-power points. the power is “halved”.6. that is. or portion of it. the magnitude of the output voltage v out of an electric or electronic circuit as a function of radian frequency ω as shown in Figure 4.4 Bandwidth and Frequency Response Like electric filters. for example. They derive their name from the fact that power p = v 2 ⁄ R = i 2 R . Most amplifiers are used with a feedback path which returns (feeds) some or all its output to the input as shown in Figure 4. the power is 1 ⁄ 2 .Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Solution: v out dB v = 20 log -------. amplifiers exhibit a band of frequencies over which the output remains nearly constant. This summing point may 4-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

analog-to-digital conversion or vice versa. Symbol for operational amplifier As shown above the op amp has two inputs but only one output. These terminals are not shown in op amp circuits since they just provide power. It can also be used as a comparator and electronic filter. Practically. capacitors. diodes. all amplifiers use used with negative feedback since positive feedback causes circuit instability. The positive (+) sign below the summing point implies positive feedback which means that the output. V CC is +15 volts and V EE is −15 volts. For this reason it is referred to as differential input. integration etc. multiplication. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-5 . Very low output impedance (resistance) 3. is done externally with proper selection of passive devices such as resistors.7. This figure also shows terminals V CC and V EE . Very good stability 6. 4.. Operation to be performed.e. or portion of it.5 The Operational Amplifier The operational amplifier or simply op amp is the most versatile electronic amplifier. the negative (−) sign implies negative feedback which means that the output. and so on. Very high input impedance (resistance) 2. single ended output amplifier. i. 4. differentiation.7. 1 2 − + 3 Figure 4. On the other hand. It is also the basic block in analog computer design. Frequency response from DC to frequencies in the MHz range 5. is subtracted from the input. integration. or portion of it. It derives it name from the fact that it is capable of performing many mathematical operations such as addition. Capable of producing a very large gain that can be set to any value by connection of external resistors of appropriate values 4. Typically.8 shows the internal construction of a typical op amp. These are the voltage sources required to power up the op amp. addition. and do not reveal any other useful information for the op amp’s circuit analysis. Figure 4. is added to the input.6 An Overview of the Op Amp The op amp has the following important characteristics: 1.The Operational Amplifier be also indicated with a large plus (+) symbol inside the circle. Its symbol is shown in Figure 4.

For the circuit of Figure 4.8.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers VCC 1 NON-INVERTING INPUT 2 INVERTING INPUT 3 OUTPUT 1 2 3 VEE Figure 4. the voltage gain G v is Rf v out G v = -------.5) 4-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .9. The non-inverting (+) input is grounded through an external resistor R as shown in Figure 4.= – ------v in R in (4. Internal Devices of a Typical Op Amp An op amp is said to be connected in the inverting mode when an input signal is connected to the inverting (−) input through an external resistor R in whose value along with the feedback resistor R f determine the op amp’s gain.9.

given that v in = 1 mV . when the input signal is positive (+) the output will be negative (−) and vice versa. Thus. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-7 . hence the name inverting amplifier. these designations imply that an input voltage of any waveform may be applied at the input terminals and the corresponding output voltage appears at the output terminals. As shown in the formula of (4. Circuit of Inverting op amp − + − + v out Note 2: The resistor R connected between the non-inverting (+) input and ground serves only as a current limiting device. Note 3: The input voltage v in and the output voltage v out as indicated in the circuit of Figure 4. and thus it does not influence the op amp’s gain. Example 4.9. the output will be −5 volts AC or 5 volts AC with 180 degrees out-of-phase with the input.5).10. For example. the gain for this op amp configuration is the ratio – R f ⁄ R in where R f is the feedback resistor which allows portion of the output to be fed back to the input. It will be omitted in our subsequent discussion. the output will be 180 degrees out-of-phase with the input. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes.An Overview of the Op Amp Rf R in v in + − R Figure 4. For AC (sinusoidal) signals. the output will be −100 volts DC.9. Therefore. The minus (−) sign in the gain ratio – R f ⁄ R in implies that the output signal has opposite polarity from that of the input signal. if the input is 1 volt AC and the op amp gain is 5. should not be interpreted as open circuits. if the input is +1 volt DC and the op amp gain is 100.3 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 4.

11. Circuit for Example 4.3 Solution: This is an inverting amplifier and thus the voltage gain G v is Rf 120 KΩ G v = – ------.10.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Rf R in v in + 20 KΩ − 120 KΩ − + − + v out Figure 4.= – ------------------20 KΩ R in or Gv = –6 and since v out G v = -------v in the output voltage is v out = G v v in = – 6 × 1 or v out = – 6 mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 4. vOUT / vIN (millivolts) 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 vIN = 1 mV vOUT = −6 mV Time Figure 4. Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 4.3 4-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .11.

13. Circuit for Example 4.4 An op amp is said to be connected in the non-inverting mode when an input signal is connected to the non-inverting (+) input through an external resistor R which serves as a current limiter.12. In our subsequent discussion.14. 8 6 v OUT / v IN (millivolts) 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 vOUT = −6sint vin = sint Time Figure 4. Rf 120 KΩ G v = – ------.13. and the inverting (−) input is grounded through an external resistor R in as shown in Figure 4. the resistor R will represent the internal resistance of the applied voltage v in .4 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 4.12.= – 6 20 KΩ R in and the output voltage is v out = G v v in = – 6 × sin t = – 6 sin t mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 4. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-9 . Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 4.4 Solution: This is the same circuit as that of the previous example except that the input is a sine wave with unity amplitude and the voltage gain G v is the same as before.An Overview of the Op Amp Example 4. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes. given that v in = sin t mV . Rf R in v in + 20 KΩ − 120 KΩ − + − + v out Figure 4. that is.= – ------------------.

For example. given that v in = 1 mV .Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Rf R in v in + − − R + + v out − Figure 4.15. if the input is +1 mV DC and the op amp gain is 75 .= 1 + ------v in R in (4. the name non-inverting amplifier. Rf R in 20 KΩ v in + − 120 KΩ − R + + v out − Figure 4. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes. Thus.5 Solution: The voltage gain G v is 4-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the non-inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 4.5 V AC and the op amp gain is G v = 1 + 19 KΩ ⁄ 1 KΩ = 20 .6) As indicated by the relation of (4. Example 4. Circuit for Example 4. in the non-inverting mode the op amp output signal has the same polarity as the input signal. For example. the output will be 10 V AC and in-phase with the input. the voltage gain G v is Rf v out G v = -------.15. For AC signals the output will be in-phase with the input. the output will be also negative. if the input is 0.14. hence. Circuit of non-inverting op amp For the circuit of Figure 4.14. the output will be +75 mV DC . the gain for this op amp configuration is 1 + R f ⁄ R in and therefore. when the input signal is positive (+) the output will be also positive and if the input is negative.6).

v out Rf 120 KΩ G v = -------.= 1 + 6 = 7 v in R in 20 KΩ and thus v out = G v v in = 7 × 1 mV = 7 mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 4.16.6 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the non-inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 4.17. Rf R in 20 KΩ v in + − 120 KΩ − R + + v out − Figure 4. Circuit for Example 4. that is.= 1 + ------------------.6 Solution: This is the same circuit as in the previous example except that the input is a sinusoid. 8 vOUT / vIN (millivolts) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 vOUT = 7 mV vIN = 1 mV Time Figure 4. Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 4.5 Example 4.= 1 + ------. Therefore.= 1 + ------------------.= 1 + 6 = 7 v in R in 20 KΩ Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-11 .16.17.An Overview of the Op Amp v out Rf 120 KΩ G v = -------. the voltage gain G v is the same as before. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes. given that v in = sin t mV .= 1 + ------.

Circuit of unity gain op amp + R + − + v out For the circuit of Figure 4. and if the input voltage is 2 mV AC .8) For this reason. the op amp circuit of Figure 4. the output will also be 2 mV AC . An example will be given in Section 4. 8 6 vOUT = 7sint vOUT / vIN (millivolts) 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 Time vIN = sint Figure 4. For example.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers and the output voltage is v out = G v v in = 7 × sin t = 7 sin t mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 4.19 it is called unity gain amplifier. − v in − Figure 4. The unity gain op amp is used to provide a very high resistance between a voltage source and the load connected to it. 4-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 4.18.18.= 1 v in (4. if the input voltage is 5 mV DC the output will also be 5 mV DC .6 Quite often an op amp is connected as shown in Figure 4.19.8.19. the voltage gain G v is v out G v = -------.19.7) and thus v out = v in (4.

this is the half power or the – 3 dB point.8 |vOUT / vIN| Half-Power Point 0. The vertical scale represents the magnitude of the ratio of output-to-input voltage v out ⁄ v in . capacitors and inductors. Operational amplifiers are used extensively as active filters.2 0 Realizable ωc Radian Frequency (log scale) ω Figure 4. the straight vertical and horizontal lines represent the ideal (unrealizable) and the smooth curve represents the practical (realizable) low-pass filter characteristics.21. and attenuates (blocks) all frequencies above this cutoff frequency. A low-pass active filter vout Low Pass Filter Frequency Respone 1 Ideal 0.20 and its frequency response in Figure 4.Active Filters 4. the gain G v . The cutoff frequency ω c is the frequency at which the maximum value of v out ⁄ v in which is unity. A low-pass filter transmits (passes) all frequencies below a critical (cutoff ) frequency denoted as ω C . vin Figure 4.4 0. a passive filter is a circuit which consists of passive devices such as resistors.20. Frequency response for amplitude of a low-pass filter In Figure 4. In contrast.21. that is.21.7 Active Filters An active filter is an electronic circuit consisting of an amplifier and other devices such as resistors and capacitors. falls to 0. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-13 .6 0. An op amp low-pass filter is shown in Figure 4.707 × Gv . and as mentioned before.

vin Figure 4.0 Realizable ωc Radian Frequency (log scale) ω Figure 4.0 0. the straight vertical and horizontal lines represent the ideal (unrealizable) and the smooth curve represents the practical (realizable) high-pass filter characteristics.23.707 × G v .Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers A high-pass filter transmits (passes) all frequencies above a critical (cutoff) frequency ω c .25.23. i. falls to 0.23.24 and its frequency response in Figure 4. while it attenuates (blocks) all frequencies outside this band. An op amp high-pass filter is shown in Figure 4. The cutoff frequency ω c is the frequency at which the maximum value of v out ⁄ v in which is unity. the gain G v . 4-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .. The vertical scale represents the magnitude of the ratio of output-to-input voltage v out ⁄ v in . A band-pass filter transmits (passes) the band (range) of frequencies between the critical (cutoff) frequencies denoted as ω 1 and ω 2 . where the maximum value of G v which is unity. A high-pass active filter vout High-pass Filter Frequency Response 1.6 0.e. An op amp band-pass filter and its frequency response are shown below. the half power or the – 3 dB point.22 and its frequency response in Figure 4. An op amp band-pass filter is shown in Figure 4.22. Frequency response for amplitude of a high-pass filter In Figure 4.8 Ideal Half-Power Point |vOUT / vIN| 0. and attenuates (blocks) all frequencies below the cutoff frequency. falls to 0.707 × Gv .4 0.2 0. that is.

26 and its frequency response in Figure 4. Frequency response for amplitude of a band-pass filter A band-elimination or band-stop or band-rejection filter attenuates (rejects) the band (range) of frequencies between the critical (cutoff) frequencies denoted as ω 1 and ω 2 .1 0 Ideal Half-Power Points Half-Power Point |vOUT / vIN| Realizable ω ω ωcω1 ω2 Radian Frequency (log scale) Figure 4.8 0.Active Filters vin vout Figure 4.9 0. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-15 .27.25.3 0. where the maximum value of G v which is unity.24.7 0. falls to 0.6 0.5 0. while it transmits (passes) all frequencies outside this band. An active band-pass filter Band Pass Filter Frequency Response 1 0.707 × G v .4 0. An op amp band-stop filter is shown in Figure 4.2 0.

2 0. superposition. Frequency response for amplitude of a band-elimination filter 4.1 0 Ideal Half-Power Half-Power PointPoints Realizable |vOUT / vIN| ω1 ωc ω2 ω ω Radian Frequency (log scale) Figure 4.8 Analysis of Op Amp Circuits The procedure for analyzing an op amp circuit (finding voltages. For simplicity. When analyzing an op amp circuit. we must remember that in any op-amp: a.4 0. The voltage difference between the input terminals of an op amp is zero c.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers vin vout Band Elimination Active Filter Circuit Figure 4. we can apply Ohm’s law.3 0.7 0. For circuits containing op amps.9 0.27.8 0.5 0. 4-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The currents into both input terminals are zero b.26. we will assume that the reference (ground) is the common terminal of the two power supplies. currents and power) is the same as for the other circuits which we have studied thus far. That is. Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems. KCL and KVL. An active band-elimination filter Band-Elimination Filter Frequency Response 1 0.6 0. the power supplies will not be shown.

Prove that the voltage gain G v is as given in (4. Rf R in v in + − i R Figure 4. since the (+) input terminal is grounded and there is no voltage drop between the (−) and (+) terminals.9) Proof: No current flows through the (−) input terminal of the op amp. the (−) input is said to be at virtual ground.= – ------v in R in Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-17 .28.28 is called inverting op amp.9) below. therefore the current i which flows through resistor R in flows also through resistor R f . Example 4. and draw its equivalent circuit showing the output as a dependent source. Also.= – ------v in R in i − + − + v out (4. this is discussed in electronic circuit analysis books. Circuit for deriving the gain of an inverting op amp v out Rf G v = -------. v out = – R f i where v in i = ------R in and thus Rf v out = – ------.v in R in or v out Rf G v = -------. From the circuit of Figure 4.28.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits We will provide several examples to illustrate the analysis of op amp circuits without being concerned about its internal operation.7 The op amp circuit shown in Figure 4.

This is the equivalent circuit of the inverting op amp and. Rf R in − + v in − + + v out − Figure 4.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers The input and output parts of the circuit are shown in Figure 4.31 is called non-inverting op amp.10) 4-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Input and output parts of the inverting op amp These two circuits are normally drawn with the output as a dependent source as shown in Figure 4.29. Equivalent circuit of the inverting op amp Example 4.v in R in + − v out Figure 4. and draw its equivalent circuit showing the output as a dependent source.= 1 + ------v in R in (4.31. + v in − R in − + Rf ------.10) below.30.30. v in+ − R in + − i i − Rf + v out − + Figure 4. Prove that the voltage gain G v is as given in (4.29 with the virtual ground being the same as the circuit ground. the dependent source is a Voltage Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS). as mentioned in Chapter 1. Circuit of non-inverting op amp v out Rf G v = -------.8 The op amp circuit shown in Figure 4.

+ R in i1 v1 v2 v in − Rf − − i2 + + − + v out Figure 4.33. Non-inverting op amp circuit for derivation of (4.= 1 + ------v in R in and its equivalent circuit is as shown in Figure 4.+ --------------------.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits Proof: Let the voltages at the (−) and (+) terminals be denoted as v 1 and v 2 respectively as shown in Figure 4.⎞ v = v out -------⎝R Rf R f ⎠ in in Rearranging. therefore. we get Rf v out G v = -------. The dependent source of this equivalent circuit is also a VCVS. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-19 . Relation (4.+ -------------------.10) By application of KCL at v 1 i1 + i2 = 0 or v 1 v 1 – v out ------.+ ---. v 1 – v 2 = 0 or v 1 = v 2 = v in .= 0 R in Rf (4.11) There is no potential difference between the (−) and (+) terminals.32.= 0 Rf R in or 1 1 ⎛ ------.32.11) then can be written as v in v in – v out ------.

− v in − + + − + v out Figure 4.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers + v in − Rf + ⎛ 1 + ------.= 1 v in (4.12) and thus v out = v in (4. Equivalent circuit of the non-inverting op amp Example 4.9 If.34.⎟ in ⎜ − ⎝ R in ⎠ v out − + Figure 4. then v out = v in . letting R f → 0 . the non-inverting amplifier of the previous example reduces to the circuit of Figure 4.⎞ v .33. prove that the voltage gain G v is v out G v = -------. Circuit of Figure 4. - v R v in R in Then.32 with R in open and R f shorted The voltage difference between the (+) and (−) terminals is zero.13) Proof: With R in open and R f shorted. in the non-inverting op amp circuit of the previous example. the gain reduces to G v = 1 and for this reason this circuit is called unity gain 4-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .34. out f We will obtain the same result if we consider the non-inverting op amp gain G v = --------. we replace R in with an open circuit ( R in → ∞ ) and R f with a short circuit ( R f → 0 ).= 1 + ------..

Circuit for Example 4.+ -------.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits R in 1 Rf − + + v in 1 − R in 2 + + v out − v in 2 − Figure 4. by application of KCL at the (−) terminal. We also observe that the (+) input is grounded. Two-input summing op amp circuit Proof: We recall that the voltage across the (−) and (+) terminals is zero. Alternately.40.12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-23 .40. and thus the voltage at the (−) terminal is at “virtual ground”.+ --------.= 0 R in 1 R in 2 R f and solving for v out we get (4. we can apply the principle of superposition to derive this relation.39. Example 4.12 Compute the output voltage v out for the amplifier circuit shown in Figure 4. we get v in 1 v in 2 v out --------.14). R in 1 10 KΩ v in 1 R in 2 Rf − 1 MΩ + R in 3 + 1 mV 20 KΩ v in 2 4 mV + v out − − + − + − 30 KΩ v in 3 10 mV Figure 4. Then.

12 with v in 1 acting alone We recognize this as an inverting amplifier whose voltage gain G v is G v = 1 MΩ ⁄ 10 KΩ = 100 and thus v out 1 = ( 100 ) ( – 1 mV ) = – 100 mV (4. with v in 1 acting alone and v in 2 and v in 3 shorted.43. and v out 3 be the output due to v in 3 acting alone. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 4. Rf R in 1 v in 1 10 KΩ 1 MΩ − + R in 3 30 KΩ v out 1 − + − 1 mV R in 2 20 KΩ + Figure 4. with v in 2 acting alone and v in 1 and v in 3 shorted. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 4. Circuit for Example 4.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Solution: Let v out 1 be the output due to v in 1 acting alone. 4-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . v out 2 be the output due to v in 2 acting alone.15) Next.41. The circuit of Figure 4. v out = v out 1 + v out 2 + v out 3 First.41.42. Then by superposition.42 as a non-inverting op amp whose voltage gain G v is G v = 1 + 1 MΩ ⁄ 10 KΩ = 101 and the voltage at the plus (+) input is computed from the voltage divider circuit shown in Figure 4.

Analysis of Op Amp Circuits Rf R in 1 10 KΩ R in 2 20 KΩ v in 2 + − 4 mV R in 3 30 KΩ 1 MΩ − + + v out 2 − Figure 4.12 with v in 2 acting alone R in 2 20 KΩ v in 2 4 mV R in 3 − + To v ( + ) + 30 KΩ − Figure 4.44.4 mV = 242.45.4 mV (4. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-25 . Circuit for Example 4.16) Finally. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 4.43. The circuit of Figure 4. Voltage divider circuit for the computation of v ( + ) with v in 2 acting alone Then. R in 3 30 KΩ v ( + ) = -------------------------.× v in 2 = ---------------.44 is also a non-inverting op amp whose voltage gain G v is G v = 1 + 1 MΩ ⁄ 10 KΩ = 101 and the voltage at the plus (+) input is computed from the voltage divider circuit shown in Figure 4.4 mV 50 KΩ R in 2 + R in 3 and thus v out 2 = 101 × 2.42. with v in 3 acting alone and v in 1 and v in 2 shorted.× 4 mV = 2.

4 + 404 = 546.44. R 2 . Circuit for Example 4.16) and (4. from (4.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Rf R in 1 10 KΩ R in 2 20 KΩ R in 3 1 MΩ − + + v out 3 − 30 KΩ − + v in 3 10 mV Figure 4. derive an expression for the voltage gain G v in terms of the external resistors R 1 . Voltage divider circuit for the computation of v ( + ) with v in 3 acting alone Then. 4-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .46. R in 2 20 KΩ v ( + ) = -------------------------. and R f .45. v out = v out 1 + v out 2 + v out 3 = – 100 + 242.13 For the circuit shown in Figure 4.15).4 mV Example 4.12 with v in 3 acting alone R in 2 20 KΩ R in 3 + 30 KΩ + v in 3 − 10 mV − To v ( + ) Figure 4.17). (4.× v in 2 = ---------------. R 3 .× 10 mV = 4 mV 50 KΩ R in 2 + R in 3 and thus v out 3 = 101 × 4 mV = 404 mV (4.17) Therefore.

46.+ ---.1⎛ ----.13 Solution: We apply KCL at nodes v 1 and v 2 as shown in Figure 4. Application of KCL for the circuit of Example 4.= 0 R1 Rf or v out 1.+ -------------------.⎟ v 1 = ----------------------------------R1 Rf ⎝ R1 Rf ⎠ or Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-27 .47.13 At node v 1 : v 1 – v in v 1 – v out ---------------. Circuit for Example 4.47.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits R1 Rf − + + − v in R2 R3 v out − + Figure 4. R1 v1 v2 Rf − + v out − + − v in R2 R3 + Figure 4.⎞ v = v in + -----------⎝R ⎠ 1 Rf R1 Rf 1 or R f v in + R 1 v out ⎛ R 1 + R f⎞ ⎜ ---------------.

( R 1 + R f ) R2 + R3 Dividing both sides of the above relation by R 1 v in and rearranging.9 Input and Output Resistance The input and output resistances are very important parameters in amplifier circuits. that is.= ----------------------------.18) At node v 2 : v 2 – v in v 2 ---------------.= ----------------R2 + R3 R1 + Rf or R 3 v in R f v in + R 1 v out = ----------------.21) 4. we rewrite (4.20) we get R f v in + R 1 v out R 3 v in ----------------------------------. we get v out R 3 ( R 1 + R f ) R f -------.– ----R1 ( R2 + R3 ) R1 v in and after simplification R1 R3 – R2 R v out G v = -------.19) and since v 2 = v 1 .18) and (4.= 0 R2 R3 or R 3 v in v 2 = ----------------R2 + R3 (4.19) as R 3 v in v 1 = ----------------R2 + R3 (4.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers R f v in + R 1 v out v 1 = ----------------------------------R1 + Rf (4.20) Equating the right sides of (4.22) 4-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= -----------------------------f v in R1 ( R2 + R3 ) (4. The input resistance R in of a circuit is defined as the ratio of the applied voltage v S to the current i S drawn by the circuit. vS R in = ---iS (4.+ ----.

Input and Output Resistance Therefore.23) and since no current flows into the minus (−) terminal of the op amp and this terminal is at virtual ground. accordingly. However. Example 4. Example 4. for a large gain.25) It is therefore.24) we observe that R in = R 1 (4. Of course.49. Fortunately.47 in terms of R 1 and R f . Circuit for Example 4.24) From (4. the value of the feedback resistor R f should be 1 GΩ . we must make the input resistance R in as high as possible. we want i S to be as small as possible. this is an impractical value. vS R in = ---iS (4. it follows that vS i S = ----R1 (4. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-29 .23) and (4.14 Compute the input resistance R in of the inverting op amp amplifier shown in Figure 4. R1 vS − Rf iS − + + + v out − Figure 4. Obviously. in an op amp circuit the input resistance provides a measure of the current i S which the amplifier draws from the voltage source v S .15 Compute the input resistance R in of the op amp shown in Figure 4.14 Solution: By definition. desirable to make R 1 as high as possible.48. if we make R 1 very high such as 10 MΩ . say 100 . a large gain can be achieved with the circuit of Problem 8.

Circuit for Example 4. Rf v in iX 100 KΩ − + + v out − Figure 4. 4-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= --.26) The output resistance R out is not the same as the load resistance.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Rf 100 KΩ v in − + + v out − Figure 4. not the source voltage v S .15 Solution: In the circuit of Figure 4.49. there is no current i S drawn by the op amp.50.49. v OC R out = -------i SC (4. The output resistance provides a measure of the change in output voltage when a load which is connected at the output terminals draws current from the circuit. It is desirable to have an op amp with very low output resistance as illustrated by the following example. Therefore. we apply a test (hypothetical) current i X as shown in Figure 4. v in is the voltage at the minus (−) terminal.49. v in 0 R in = -----. Circuit for Example 4. Therefore.= 0 iX iX By definition. that is. and we treat v in as the source voltage. the output resistance R out is the ratio of the open circuit voltage to the short circuit current. In this case.15 with a test current source We observe that v in is zero (virtual ground).

integration etc. The output signal has the same polarity from that of the input signal.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 4. or portion of it. diodes.. They are also known as half-power points. capacitors. is fed back to the input. Frequency response from DC to frequencies in the MHz range 5. • In a unity gain op amp the output is the same as the input. • The operational amplifier (op amp) is the most versatile amplifier and its main features are: 1. Very high input impedance (resistance) 2. elec- tric or magnetic field strength.707 of its maximum value. current. or radar. Very low output impedance (resistance) 3. The minus (−) sign implies that the output signal has opposite polarity from that of the input signal. is done externally with proper selection of passive devices such as resistors. A unity gain op amp is used to provide a very high resistance between a voltage source and the load connected to it. • Most amplifiers are used with feedback where the output. radio. • The gain of an inverting op amp is the ratio – R f ⁄ R in where R f is the feedback resistor which allows portion of the output to be fed back to the minus (−) input. image. and so on. • An amplifier is an electronic circuit which increases the magnitude of the input signal.10 Summary • A signal is any waveform representing a fluctuating electric quantity. Very good stability 6. i. It is normally expressed in decibel (dB) units where by definition dB = 10 log p out ⁄ p in • Frequency response is the band of frequencies over which the output remains fairly constant. television. addition. Capable of producing a very large gain that can be set to any value by connection of external resistors of appropriate values 4. • Op amps are also used as active filters. such as voltage. or any message transmitted or received in telegraphy. al that changes with time. • The lower and upper cutoff frequencies are those where the output is 0. Operation to be performed. 4-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . telephony. sound.e. • The gain of an non-inverting op amp is 1 + R f ⁄ R in where R f is the feedback resistor which allows portion of the output to be fed back to the minus (−) input which is grounded through the R in resistor. • The gain of an amplifier is the ratio of the output to the input.

to the short circuit current which is the current that flows through a short circuit connected at the output terminals. R o = v OC ⁄ i SC Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-33 . while it attenuates (blocks) all frequencies outside this band.Summary • A low-pass filter transmits (passes) all frequencies below a critical (cutoff) frequency denoted as ω C and attenuates (blocks) all frequencies above this cutoff frequency.707 × Gv . falls to 0. • The input resistance is the ratio of the applied voltage v S to the current i S drawn by the circuit. • A band-elimination or band-stop or band-rejection filter attenuates (rejects) the band (range) of frequencies between the critical (cutoff) frequencies denoted as ω 1 and ω 2 . falls to 0. that is. • A band-pass filter transmits (passes) the band (range) of frequencies between the critical (cutoff) frequencies denoted as ω 1 and ω 2 .707 × G v . where the maximum value of G v which is unity. • A summing op amp is a circuit with two or more inputs. R in = v S ⁄ i S • The output resistance (not to be confused with the load resistance) is the ratio of the open circuit voltage when the load is removed from the circuit. and attenuates (blocks) all frequencies below the cutoff frequency. where the maximum value of G v which is unity. while it transmits (passes) all frequencies outside this band. that is. • A high-pass filter transmits (passes) all frequencies above a critical (cutoff) frequency ω c .

1 KΩ B.52 v in = 2 V . Then v out will be A. Circuit for Question 2 4-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .53 v in = 6 V . 2 KΩ C.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 4. none of the above R in v in + − Rf − + − + v out Figure 4. In the op amp circuit of Figure 4. This will be obtained if the feedback resistor R f has a value of A. R in = 1 KΩ .53. and R f = 3 KΩ . none of the above R in Rf − v in − + R + + v out − Figure 4.52. 4 V E. R in = 2 KΩ .11 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. and it is desired to have v out = 8 V . 4 KΩ E. In the circuit of Figure 4. – 4 V D. 9 V C. – 9 V B. Circuit for Question 1 2. 3 KΩ D.

54 i S = 2 mA and R f = 5 KΩ . ∞ V B. Then i will be Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-35 . – 10 V E.Exercises 3. 0 V C.56 v in = 4 V . R in = 12 KΩ . Circuit for Question 4 5. and R LOAD = 6 KΩ . Then v out will be A. ∞ V B. Then v out will be A.55 i S = 4 mA and R = 3 KΩ . 10 V D. R f = 18 KΩ . indeterminate D. In the circuit of Figure 4. 0 V C. none of the above − + R iS − + v out Figure 4. In the circuit of Figure 4. none of the above Rf − iS + − + v out Figure 4. – 12 V E.55. In the circuit of Figure 4. Circuit for Question 3 4.54.

4 ⁄ 3 mA E.57 v in = 1 V and all resistors have the same value. Circuit for Question 6 4-36 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . In the circuit of Figure 4.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers A. Then v out will be A. – 2 V B. 4 V E.57. – 4 ⁄ 3 mA D. 1 mA C. – 4 V D. 2 V C.56. Circuit for Question 5 6. none of the above Rf − R in 1 Rf − R in 1 2 2 v in − + + + v out − + Figure 4. – 1 mA B. none of the above R in v in + − − Rf i R LOAD + + v out − Figure 4.

58 v in1 = 2 V .59. Then v out will be A. – 8 V D. Then v out will be A. none of the above 10 KΩ 10 KΩ v in + − 10 KΩ 20 KΩ − + 10 KΩ + v out − Figure 4.58. and R in = R f = 1 KΩ . – 2 V B.59 v in = 30 V . none of the above R in Rf +v − − in 1 + v in 2 − + − + v out Figure 4. Circuit for Question 7 8. – 90 V E. 2 V C. v in2 = 4 V . 8 V E. – 15 V D. In the circuit of Figure 4. In the circuit of Figure 4. – 10 V C. Circuit for Question 8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-37 . – 5 V B.Exercises 7.

61.60. Network for Question 9 10. For the circuit of Figure 4. none of the above 4 KΩ v in + − R in 4 KΩ − + 2 KΩ + 2 KΩ v out − 1 KΩ Figure 4. the input resistance R in is A. the current i is A. none of the above + 5Ω 2A vX − 10 Ω + i − 40v X Figure 4. – 40 A B. 40 A C. 4 KΩ D.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 9. – 400 A D. Network for Question 10 4-38 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 1 KΩ B. 8 KΩ E. 400 A E. 2 KΩ C.61. For the circuit of Figure 4.60.

64.Exercises Problems 1. and R in 3 represent the internal resistances of the input voltages v in 1 .– --------. R in 1 .63.63. Answer: 4µA − + 60 mV 4 KΩ i 5KΩ 5 KΩ + − 3 KΩ 6 KΩ Figure 4.62. For the circuit of Figure 4.– --------. For the circuit of Figure 4. R in 2 . v in 2 . Circuit for Problem 2 3. Circuit for Problem 1 2. Answer: – 0. in3 in2 in1 Answer: v out = R f ⎛ --------. For the circuit of Figure 4. compute i 5KΩ .62. and the feedback resistance R f .9 V v in 1 3 KΩ 10 mV − + 27 KΩ − 10 KΩ − v ou t1 − 90 KΩ + + v in 2 − + + − + v out 2 Figure 4. compute v out 2 . Derive an expression for v out in terms of the input voltage sources and their internal resistances. and v in 3 respectively.⎞ ⎝R R in2 R in1 ⎠ in3 v v v Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-39 .

64.67 (c).65. Answer: – 40 mV 10 KΩ 50 KΩ − + + 40 mV − 20 KΩ 40 KΩ + v out − Figure 4.66 (b). For the circuit of Figure 4.66. Circuit for Problem 3 4. Circuit for Problem 4 5. The op-amp circuit of Figure 4. For the circuit of Figure 4.66 (a) can be represented by its equivalent circuit shown in Figure 4. compute the value of R L so that it will receive maximum power.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers R in1 − R in2 R in3 Rf + + vout − + v in1 − + v in2 − v in3 − + Figure 4. compute v out . Answer: 3. 4-40 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .75 KΩ R2 R1 v in+ − v out − + v out − + (a) + v in − R1 − R2 v ----+ R 1 in v out − + (b) Figure 4.65.

69.Exercises 20 KΩ 2 KΩ v in+ − − 5 KΩ + 15 KΩ + v out R LOAD − (c) Figure 4. compute v 5KΩ using Thevenin’s theorem.69.67. Circuits for Problem 5 6. Circuit for Problem 7 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-41 . Circuit for Problem 6 20 KΩ v out − + 7. For the circuit of Figure 4. compute the gain G v = v out ⁄ v in . Answer: – ( 2 ⁄ 37 ) R3 40 KΩ R2 R1 40 KΩ R4 50 KΩ 50 KΩ + 200 KΩ v in R5 + v out − − Figure 4.68. For the circuit of Figure 4. Answer: 20 mV 84 KΩ 100 KΩ 12 KΩ 4 KΩ − + + − + 72 mV 5 KΩ v 5KΩ − Figure 4.68.

show that the gain is given by v out R5 1 G v = --------.70. For the circuit of Figure 4.+ 1⎞ ⎝R ⎠ v in R1 4 R3 R5 R4 R1 + v in − Figure 4.= – ----.70.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 8. Circuit for Problem 8 R2 + v out − 4-42 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .R 5 + R 3 ⎛ ----.

5. v out = – 2 + 8 = 6 V 8.Answers to Exercises 4. C For v in = 2 and v out = 8 .mA 3 6 KΩ 18 KΩ + 12 KΩ 3 6. Therefore. Applying KCL at the plus (+) terminal of v out we get 4 –6 V –6 V–4 V 1 i = ------------.= – 1 – -. 7. the gain must be G v = 4 or 1 + R f ⁄ R in = 4 . Therefore. Then v out will be 10 KΩ 10 KΩ v A v in + − 10 KΩ 10 KΩ 20 KΩ − + + v out − We now attach the remaining resistors and the entire equivalent circuit is shown below. B We assign node voltage v A as shown below and we replace the encircled port by its equivalent. E By superposition. D The gain of each of the non-inverting op amps is 2. R f = 3 KΩ 2. v out 1 due to v in1 acting alone is – 2 V and v out 2 due to v in2 acting alone is 8 V . Therefore.= – -.12 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1. C v out = – ( 18 ⁄ 12 ) × 4 = – 6 V . i LOAD = v out ⁄ R LOAD = – 6 V ⁄ 6 KΩ = – 1 mA . the output of the first op amp is 2 V and the output of the second is 4 V .+ --------------------------------------. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-43 . v in = 30 V . Thus. it follows that v out = 12 V also. A v out = – R f ⁄ R in × v in = – 9 V 3. Since this circuit is a unity gain amplifier. D All current flows through R f and the voltage drop across it is – ( 2 mA × 5 KΩ ) = – 10 V 4. E All current flows through R and the voltage drop across it is 4 mA × 3 KΩ = 12 V .

9. Op amps are not configured for attenuation. this circuit is an attenuator. A better and simpler attenuator is a voltage divider circuit.+ ---------------------. Therefore. This circuit is presented just for instructional purposes.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers + vA − A 10 KΩ 5 KΩ 10 KΩ + + − v out 2v A − + v in 30 V − Application of KCL at Node A yields v A – 30 v A v A – ( – 2v A ) ---------------. not an amplifier.= 0 10 10 5 and thus v A = 30 ⁄ 6 = 5 V Therefore. The voltage v at the minus (−) input of the op amp is zero as proved below.= 0 4 4 or v = 0 Then v in i = ------------4 KΩ 4-44 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .+ --------------------------. v out = – 2v A = – 10V NOTE: For this circuit. C The voltage gain for this circuit is 4 KΩ ⁄ 4 KΩ = 1 and thus v out = – v in . 4 KΩ v in + − i R in 2 KΩ 1 KΩ v 4 KΩ − + + 2 KΩ v out − v – v in v – ( – v in ) -------------.+ ---. the magnitude of the voltage is less than the magnitude of the input voltage.

We assign R LOAD . Then.× 60 mV = 20 mV 4 KΩ + 2 KΩ and since this is a unity gain amplifier. i = – 400 ⁄ 10 = – 40 A Problems 1. v X = – 10 V and thus 40v X = – 400 V .Answers to Exercises and v in R in = -----------------------.= 4 KΩ v in ⁄ 4 KΩ 10. − + 60 mV 4 KΩ + 3 KΩ 6 KΩ − v1 + v LOAD − i 5KΩ + − 5 KΩ 3 KΩ || 6 KΩ = 2 KΩ and by the voltage division expression 2 KΩ v 1 = --------------------------------. v 1 .9 V ⎝ 10 ⎠ 2.⎞ × ( – 90 ) = – 0. and v LOAD as shown below. A For this circuit. v out1 = – ( 27 ⁄ 3 ) × 10 = – 90 mV and thus v in2 = v out1 = – 90 mV Then 90 v out2 = ⎛ 1 + ----. we get v LOAD = v 1 = 20 mV Then Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-45 .

v in3 v in2 v in1 v out = R f ⎛ --------.= ---------------------.( – v in3 ) R in3 Then.v in2 R in2 v in1 = 0 v in3 = 0 and v out3 v in1 = 0 v in2 = 0 Rf = – --------.⎞ ⎝R R in2 R in1 ⎠ in3 4.– --------.– --------.= 4 × 10 A = 4 µA 3 R LOAD 5 KΩ 5 × 10 3. v out2 Rf = – --------. By superposition v out = v out1 + v out2 + v out3 where v out1 v in2 = 0 v in3 = 0 Rf = – --------. We assign voltages v − and v + as shown below. Also. 10 KΩ v − 50 KΩ − v+ + + 40 mV − 20 KΩ 40 KΩ + v out − 4-46 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers –3 v LOAD –6 20 mV 20 × 10 i 5KΩ = --------------.v in1 R in1 We observe that the minus (−) is a virtual ground and thus there is no current flow in R in1 and R in2 .= --------------.

Answers to Exercises At the minus (−) terminal v − – 40 mV v − – v out --------------------------. Vin=40*10^(−3). and R LOAD resistors to the equivalent circuit as shown below.---------------------1 ------------------.⎛ 80 × 10 .= 0 10 KΩ 50 KΩ or 1 6 ------------------.⎞ – ------------------. Vout=(R1*R3-R2*Rf)*Vin/(R1*(R2+R3)) Vout = -0.0400 5. R2=20000.– v out = 4 × 10 × 50 × 10 3 50 × 10 –3 3 3 or v out = – 40 mV Check with (4.v out = 4 × 10 – 6 3⎝ 3 ⎠ 3 50 × 10 50 × 10 –3 Multiplication by 50 × 10 yields –6 3 2 × 80 × 10 × 50 × 10 ---------------------------------------------------------.+ -------------------. Rf=50000.= 0 40 KΩ 20 KΩ or 3 -------------------.v out = 4 × 10 – 6 3 − 3 50 × 10 50 × 10 At the plus (+) terminal v+ v + – 40 mV --------------------------. 15 KΩ . R3=40000. We attach the 5 KΩ . By Thevenin’s theorem Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-47 .21) using MATLAB: R1=10000.v + = 2 × 10 – 6 3 40 × 10 or ---------------------v + = 80 × 10 3 –3 Since v + = v − we equate the nodal equations and we get 6 .+ ---------------.v – ------------------.

we must compute the Thevenin resistance using the relation R TH = v TH ⁄ i SC where i SC is found from the circuit below.= 3.5v in Because the circuit contains a dependent source.( – 10v in ) 5 KΩ + 15 KΩ or v TH = – 7. 5 KΩ × a 15 KΩ b × i SC + − 10v in We observe that the short circuit shorts out the 15 KΩ and thus – 10v in –3 i SC = --------------.5v in R TH = ----------------------------. for maximum power transfer we must have R LOAD = R TH = 3.75 KΩ 4-48 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 5 KΩ × a 15 KΩ b × + v in − 2 KΩ + − 10v in 15 KΩ v TH = v OC = v ab = -----------------------------------.75 KΩ –3 – 2 × 10 v in and the Thevenin equivalent circuit is shown below.= – 2 × 10 v in 5 KΩ Then – 7.75 KΩ R LOAD v TH + − Therefore. R TH = 3.

⎟ in ⎜ − ⎝ R in ⎠ v out − + For this circuit v in = v 5KΩ and the value of the VCVS is Rf ⎞ ⎛ 100 ⎜ 1 + ------. This is a non-inverting op amp whose equivalent circuit is shown below. 84 KΩ 12 KΩ ×a + − 72 mV 4 KΩ 5 KΩ + + v 5KΩ − ×b − 6v 5KΩ To find the Thevenin equivalent at points a and b we disconnect the 5 KΩ resistor. + v in − Rf + ⎛ 1 + ------.⎟ v 5KΩ = ⎛ 1 + -------. 12 KΩ a v ab − b 84 KΩ + − 72 mV i + + 6v 5KΩ − By KVL ( 12 KΩ + 84 KΩ )i + 6v 5KΩ = 72 mV or 72 mV – 6v 5KΩ i = -------------------------------------------( 12 KΩ + 84 KΩ ) Also Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-49 . When this is done there is no current in the 4 KΩ and the circuit simplifies to the one shown below.⎞ v .⎞ v 5KΩ = 6v 5KΩ ⎝ 20 ⎠ R in ⎠ ⎝ Attaching the external resistors to the equivalent circuit above we get the circuit below.Answers to Exercises 6.

12 KΩ + 4 KΩ a i SC b 84 KΩ 6 µA 12 KΩ 84 KΩ − 72 mV 4 KΩ a i SC b Now 12 KΩ || 84 KΩ = 10.v 5KΩ 4 or 3 v 5KΩ – -.5 KΩ i SC = i ab = ----------------------------------------.= -----------------.= 58 KΩ i SC 126 ⁄ 29 and the Thevenin equivalent circuit with the 5 KΩ resistor is shown below.5 KΩ and by the current division expression 126 10. v OC 252 R TH = -------.v 5KΩ = 63 mV 4 and thus v TH = v ab = v 5KΩ = 252 mV The Thevenin resistance is found from R TH = v OC ⁄ i SC where i SC is computed with the terminals a and b shorted making v 5KΩ = 0 and the circuit is as shown on the left below.µA 29 10.× 6 µA = -------.5 KΩ + 4 KΩ Therefore. We also perform voltage-source to current-source transformation and we get the circuit on the right below. a R TH = 12 KΩ + − v TH = 252 mV 5 KΩ b 4-50 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 72 mV – 6v 5KΩ v TH = v ab = v 5KΩ = 72 mV – ( 12 KΩ )i = 72 mV – 12 KΩ ⎛ -------------------------------------⎞ ⎝ ⎠ 96 KΩ 3 = 72 mV – 9 mV + -.

+ ---------------⎝ 200 KΩ 40 KΩ 50 KΩ 50 KΩ ⎠ 1 200 KΩ 40 KΩ Multiplication of each term by 200 KΩ and simplification yields 1 v 1 = ----.+ ---------------. We assign node voltages v 1 and v 2 as shown below and we write node equations observing that v 2 = 0 (virtual ground).× 252 = 20 mV 58 + 5 7.+ ---------------.+ ---------------.Answers to Exercises Finally.= 0 200 KΩ 40 KΩ 50 KΩ 50 KΩ or v in v out 1 1 1 1 ⎛ ------------------.+ ------------------.+ ----------------.v out 4 14 or Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-51 .= 0 50 KΩ 40 KΩ or 5 v 1 = – -.+ ---------------.⎞ v = ------------------.( v in + 5v out ) = – -.v out 4 Equating the right sides we get 5 1 ----. R3 40 KΩ 40 KΩ R4 v 2 50 KΩ 50 KΩ R2 + R1 v 1 200 KΩ v in R5 + v out − − Node 1: v 1 – v in v 1 – v out v 1 – 0 v1 ------------------.+ ---------------. 5 v 5KΩ = -------------.( v in + 5v out ) 14 Node 2: 0 – v 1 0 – v out ---------------.

v out = – ----.v in 28 14 Simplifying and dividing both sides by v in we get v out 2 G v = -------. We assign node voltages v 1 and v 2 as shown below and we write node equations observing that v 1 = 0 (virtual ground).+ ------------------.+ ----.+ ----.= 0 R1 R3 or R3 v 2 = – ----. v2 R3 R4 R5 R1 + v in − v1 R2 + v out − Node 1: 0 – v in 0 – v 2 -------------.= – ----v in 37 8.+ ----.+ ------------.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 37 1 ----.= 0 R3 R5 R4 or 1 1 1 ⎛ ----.⎞ v = v out -------⎝R R5 R4 R5 ⎠ 2 3 or 1 v 2 = ----------------------------------------------.v in R1 Node 2: v 2 – 0 v 2 v 2 – v out ------------.v out R5 ⁄ R3 + R5 ⁄ R4 + 1 4-52 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

v out = – ----.Answers to Exercises Equating the right sides we get R3 1 ----------------------------------------------.= – ----.+ 1⎞ ⎝R ⎠ R1 v in 4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-53 .v in R5 ⁄ R3 + R5 ⁄ R4 + 1 R1 Simplifying and dividing both sides by v in we get v out R5 1G v = --------.R 5 + R 3 ⎛ ----.

Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers NOTES 4-54 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

5. resistance is not the only property that an electric circuit possesses. their voltage-current relationships.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance T his chapter is an introduction to inductance and capacitance. and energy stored in inductors and capacitors. Figure 5. that is. 5. Thus. that inductance and capacitance have an effect on an electric circuit as long as there are changes in the voltages and currents in the circuit. However. circuits with resistors and constant voltage and current sources. The magnetic field loops are circular in form and are referred to as lines of magnetic flux. The effects of the inductance and capacitance properties can best be stated in simple differential equations since they involve the changes in voltage or current with time. Magnetic field around a loop of wire The direction of the magnetic field (not shown) can be determined by the left-hand rule if conventional current flow is assumed. when current flows in an electric circuit the conductors (wires) connecting the devices in the circuit are surrounded by a magnetic field.1 shows a simple loop of wire and its magnetic field represented by the small loops. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-1 . Procedures for analyzing circuits with inductors and capacitors are presented along with several examples. We will study inductance first. The unit of magnetic flux is the weber (Wb). Figure 5.1. power absorbed.1 Energy Storage Devices In the first four chapters we considered resistive circuits only. We will see through some examples that will be presented later in this chapter.2 Inductance Inductance is associated with the magnetic field which is always present when there is an electric current. or by the right-hand rule if electron current flow is assumed. in every circuit there are two other properties present and these are the inductance and the capacitance.

7) and integrating both sides we get: ∫ or i(t) i ( t0 ) di L ∫ t t0 v L dt 1 i L ( t ) – i L ( t 0 ) = -L ∫t t 0 v L dt or iL ( t ) 1 = -L ∫ t t0 v L dt + iL ( t0 ) (5. is the current flowing through the inductor at some reference time usually taken as t = 0 .8) where i L ( t 0 ) . the voltage-current relationship is v L = L -----di L dt (5. more often denoted as i L ( 0 ) . Since vL volts L = -----.Inductance For an inductor. The unit of inductance is the Henry abbreviated as H . v L has a non-zero value only when i L changes with time. and it is referred to as the initial condition.5) as di L 1 = -.6) we can say that one henry is the inductance in a circuit in which a voltage of one volt is induced by a current changing at the rate of one ampere per second. By separation of the variables we rewrite (5.5) where v L and i L have the indicated polarity and direction. Obviously. We can also express (5.8) as 1 i L ( t ) = -L ∫ 1 v L dt = -L –∞ t ∫ 1 v L dt + -L –∞ 0 ∫0 vL dt t (5.9) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-3 .= --------------------amperes di L --------------------sec onds dt (5.v L dt L 1 = -L (5.

Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance where the first integral on the right side represents the initial condition. and b is the i – axis intercept which. t = 5 ms . Waveform for Example 5. by inspection. 5. is 25 mA . Then.10) yields i = – 5 mA . t = 9 ms .1 The current i L ( t ) passing through a 50 mH inductor is shown in Figure 5. Example 5. we need to compute the current i at t = 2 ms . i = mt + b where m is the slope of the straight line segment. then from (5.4. Compute the flux linkage λ at t = 2. The slope m is --------------------m = – 20 – 25 = – 15 3–0 and thus i 3 ms t=0 = – 15 t + 25 (5.10) At t = 2 ms . a. The flux linkage λ is directly proportional to the current. (5.2) λ = N ϕ = Li Therefore. and t = 11 ms For time interval 0 < t < 3 ms .4. and 11 ms b.1 Solution: a.1) and (5. the flux linkage is 5-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Compute and sketch the voltage v L ( t ) for the time interval – ∞ < t < 14 ms iL ( t ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 (mA) 3 6 8 10 12 14 t (ms) Figure 5. 9.

t + b 3 To find b we use the fact that at t = 3 ms .× 10 3 or λ t = 5 ms = -------. Thus. and the flux linkage is λ = Li = 50 × 10 –3 10 –3 × ----.14) Also. λ t = 9 ms = Li = – 125 µWb (5.× 3 + b 3 from which b = – 55 .15).5t – 70 (5.12) and therefore at t = 5 ms .15) and with (5. i 10 ms t = 8 ms = 7.11) For the time interval 3 < t < 6 ms . i = mt + b where 15 – ( – 20 ) 35 m = ------------------------.µWb 3 500 (5.13) Using the same procedure we find that i 8 ms t = 6 ms = – 12.Inductance λ = Li = 50 × 10 –3 × ( – 5 ) × 10 –3 and λ t = 2 ms = – 250 µWb (5. i = 10 ⁄ 3 mA .= ----3–0 3 and thus 35 i = ----.16) Likewise. 35 – 20 = ----. the straight line equation for the time interval 3 < t < 6 ms is i 6 ms t = 3 ms 35 = ----. i = – 20 mA as seen in Figure 5.5 t + 90 (5. Then.4. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-5 .t – 55 3 (5.

5 A ⁄ s –3 vL 8 < t < 10 ms = L × slope = 50 × 10 10 < t < 12 ms × 7. (5. Since di L v L = L -----dt to compute and sketch the voltage v L ( t ) for the time interval – ∞ < t < 14 ms .17).18) b.5 mA ⁄ ms = – 12.× ( – 15 A ⁄ s ) = – 750 mV A⁄s (5.19) 0 < t < 3 ms 0 < t < 3 ms = L × slope = 50 × 10 slope 3 < t < 6 ms v--------. These were found in part (a) as (5.17) and with (5. (5.15). compute the slope of the straight line segments for this interval.20) = 35 ⁄ 3 mA ⁄ ms = 35 ⁄ 3 A ⁄ s –3 vL 3 < t < 6 ms = L × slope = 50 × 10 6 < t < 8 ms × ( 35 ⁄ 3 ) = 583. λ t = 11 ms = Li = 125 µWb (5. and (5. that is.23) slope vL 10 < t < 12 ms = – 2.5 ) = – 125 mV = 0 (5.5 A ⁄ s –3 = L × slope = 50 × 10 slope 8 < t < 10 ms × ( – 12.12).5 A ⁄ s –3 = L × slope = 50 × 10 slope × ( – 2.5 ) = – 625 mV (5.5 = 375 mV (5. (5.24) 12 < t < 14 ms 5-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .21) slope vL 6 < t < 8 ms = – 12.5 mA ⁄ ms = – 2.17).Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance i 12 ms t = 10 ms = – 2. we only need to differentiate.22) = 7. Then. slope vL slope vL –∞ < t < 0 –∞ < t < 0 = 0 = L × slope = 0 = – 15 mA ⁄ ms = – 15 A ⁄ s –3 (5.14).5 mA ⁄ ms = 7.10).5 t + 30 (5.3 mV (5.

2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-7 .2 The voltage across a 50 mH inductor is as shown on the waveform of Figure 5.6.5.750 0 -4.800 0 -4.1 800 Voltage (mV) 400 0 t (ms) -400 -800 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Figure 5.700 0 -4.125 −0.1 Example 5.250 −0.625 0. Compute and sketch the current which flows through this inductor in the interval – 5 < t < 5 ms vL ( t ) 0.250 0.25) to sketch v L as a function of time.75 ⁄ 3 2 0 4 6 8 10 12 14 t (ms) −0.375 −0.19) through (5. We can do this easily with a spreadsheet such as Excel as shown in Figure 5.750 Figure 5.900 0 -4.600 0 -4. vL(t) t -5.000 0 -4.125 (V) 1.550 0 -4. Voltage waveform for Example 5.950 0 -4. and it is given that the initial condition is i L ( t 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = 25 mA .Inductance vL 12 < t < 14 ms = L × slope = 0 (5.500 0.25) We now have all values given by (5.650 0 -4.6.625 −0.850 0 -4.375 0. Waveform for Example 5.5.500 −0.500 0 Voltage waveform for Example 5.

25 × 10 ) + 20 × 0 + 25 × 10 ⎠ –3 –3 + 25 × 10 = – 20 × 10 –3 = – 20 mA that is.8) which is repeated here for convenience. 5-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Inductor current for 0 < t < 3 ms .2 The same result can be obtained by graphical integration. the current has dropped linearly from 25 mA at t = 0 to – 20 mA at t = 3 ms as shown in Figure 5.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance Solution: The current i L ( t ) in an inductor is related to the voltage v L ( t ) by (5. iL 1 = ---------------------–3 0 < t < 3 ms 50 × 10 ∫0 3 ms ( – 0.75 V Then. iL –∞ < t < 0 = 25 mA From the given waveform. vL 0 < t < 3 ms = – 0. that is. Thus. Example 5. 1 i L ( t ) = -L ∫t t 0 v L dt + i L ( t 0 ) where i L ( t 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = 25 mA is the initial condition. iL ( t ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 (mA) 3 t (ms) Figure 5.75 ) dt + 25 × 10 –3 –3 = 20 ⎛ – 0.75t ⎝ = – 45 × 10 3 0 × 10 ⎞ –3 –3 –3 + 25 × 10 = 20 ( – 2.7.7.

750 × 3 × 10 ) + 25 × 10 –3 –3 = – 20 mA and the value of i L 3 < t < 6 ms .2 For the time interval 6 < t < 8 ms .Inductance iL 3 ms 1 = -.( Area t = 0 ) + initial condition L t = 3 ms = 20 ( – 0.( Area t = 3 ) + initial condition L t = 6 ms 1. Inductor current for 0 < t < 6 ms . we get iL 6 ms 1 = -.625 × 2 × 10 ) + 15 × 10 –3 –3 = – 10 mA Therefore.( Area t = 6 ) + initial condition L t = 8 ms = 20 ( – 0. Example 5.8. we get iL 8 ms 1 = -. the current has decreased linearly from 15 mA at t = 6 ms to – 10 mA at t = 8 ms as shown in Figure 5. t = 3 ms = – 20 mA now becomes our initial condition for the time interval Continuing with graphical integration.× 3 × 10 ⎞ – 20 × 10 = 15 mA ⎝ 3 ⎠ and now the current has increased linearly from – 20 mA at t = 3 ms to 15 mA at t = 6 ms as shown in Figure 5.9.75 –3 –3 = 20 ⎛ --------.8. iL ( t ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 (mA) 3 6 t (ms) Figure 5. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-9 .

9. Inductor current for 0 < t < 8 ms .125 × 2 × 10 ) + 5 × 10 –3 –3 =0 that is.375 × 2 × 10 ) – 10 × 10 –3 –3 = 5 mA that is.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance iL ( t ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 (mA) 3 6 8 t (ms) Figure 5.10. 5-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .11. the current has increased linearly from – 10 mA at t = 8 ms to 5 mA at t = 10 ms as shown in Figure 5.( Area t = 10 ) + initial condition L t = 12 ms = 20 ( – 0. the current has decreased linearly from 5 mA at t = 10 ms to 0 mA at t = 12 ms and remains at zero for t > 12 ms as shown in Figure 5.2 For the time interval 8 ms < t < 10 ms we get iL 10 ms 1 = -. for the time interval 10 ms < t < 12 ms we get iL 12 ms 1 = -. Example 5. Finally.( Area t = 8 ) + initial condition L t = 10 ms = 20 ( 0.

11.Power and Energy in an Inductor iL ( t ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 (mA) 3 6 8 10 t (ms) Figure 5. Example 5. and 12 ms . the current through the inductor never changes instantaneously. 6.3 Power and Energy in an Inductor Power in an inductor with inductance L is found from Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-11 . Inductor current for 0 < t < 10 ms .2 iL ( t ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 (mA) 3 6 8 10 12 14 t (ms) Figure 5. it displays no discontinuities since its value is explicitly defined at all instances of time. 3. that is. 10.10.2 confirms the well known fact that the current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously. 8. 5. However. We observe that the voltage across the inductor can change instantaneously as shown by the discontinuities at t = 0. This can be observed from the voltage and current waveforms for this and the previous example. Example 5.2 Example 5. Inductor current for 0 < t < 12 ms .

v 2 .3 For the circuit shown in Figure 5. compute the power absorbed and the energy consumed by the 5 mH inductor. designated as W L is the integral of the power.L [ i L ( t ) – i L ( t 0 ) ] 2 and letting i L = 0 at t = 0 . the voltages and the currents in all branches of the circuit will be constant after steady-state conditions have been reached. that is.26) and the energy in an inductor. 5-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Electric circuits that contain inductors can be simplified if the applied voltage and current sources are constant as shown by the following example.Li L ( t ) 2 (5. compute v 1 . have subsided. the (ideal) inductor is a physical device capable of storing energy in analogy to the potential energy of a stretched spring. Example 5. after steady-state*conditions have been reached.Li L = -.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance di L di L p L = v L i L = ⎛ L ⎞ i L = Li L ⎝ dt ⎠ dt (5.L [ i L ( t ) – i L ( t 0 ) ] 2 t0 2 i ( t0 ) t or 2 2 1 W L ( t ) – W L ( t 0 ) = -. we get the energy stored in an inductor as 1 2 W L ( t ) = -. Solution: Since both the voltage and the current sources are constant.12. Then. Transients will be in Chapter 10. and v 3 . WL t i ( t ) di L i(t) t p L dt = L = i L dt = L i L di L t0 t0 i ( t0 ) d t i ( t0 ) ∫ ∫ ∫ or WL i(t) 1 1 2 2 2 = -.27) Unlike the resistor which dissipates energy (in the form of heat). after some transient disturbances. Since vL di L L -----dt d ( cons tan t ) dt = = L = 0 * By steady state conditions we mean the condition (state) where the voltages and currents.

Circuit for Example 5.3 then.13. v A – 24 v A v A – v B ---------------. At Node v A . Circuit for Example 5.-.. all voltages across the inductors will be zero and therefore we can replace all inductors by short circuits.+ ---------------.⎝ 4 9 7⎠ A 7 B (5. let us first find v A and v B using nodal analysis. in Figure 5.13.-.+ ---.= 0 4 5+2 9 or ⎛ 1 + 1 + 1⎞ v – 1 v = 6 --. To find v 2 and v 2 .3 after steady-state conditions have been reached Now. by inspection. v 1 = 0 since the 12 Ω resistor was shorted out by the 60 mH inductor.28) At Node v B Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-13 .13 where the 3 Ω and 6 Ω parallel resistors have been combined into a single 2 Ω resistor.Power and Energy in an Inductor 6Ω 4Ω 40 mH 3Ω 25 mH 9Ω 5Ω + − v3 15 A − + 35 mH v2 8Ω + − 24 V 30 mH 5 mH + v1 − 12 Ω 20 mH 10 Ω 60 mH 15 mH Figure 5. vA 4Ω 9Ω 5Ω 2 Ω vB + v2 − + v3 15 A 8Ω + − 24 V + v1 − − Figure 5. The given circuit then reduces to the one shown in Figure 5.12.

5 × 5 × 10 × ⎛ ------------------⎞ ⎝ 8 ⎠ 2 2 ⎝8⎠ or W 5 mH = 0. We wish to find an expression for the equivalent inductance which we denote as L Seq in terms of L 1.– 15 + ---.4 Combinations of Series and Parallel Inductors Consider the circuits of figures 5. L N in Figure 5. disp('vB=').14 (a) and 5. 1 2 1 v3 2 808 ⁄ 11 2 –3 W 5 mH = -.⎝ 7 8⎠ 7 (5.+ --⎞ v B = 15 . p 5 mH = 0 watts Also.Li 5 mH = -.28) and (5.14 (b) where the source voltage v S is the same for both circuits.29) We will use the MATLAB code below to find the solution of (5.= 0 5+2 8 or 1 1 1 – -. L 2. V=G\I. ….29).14 (a) so that the current i will be the same for both circuits. −1/7 1/7+1/8]. disp(V(1)). I=[6 15]'.L ⎛ ---.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance vB vB – vA ---------------. v A = 360 ⁄ 11 V v B = 808 ⁄ 11 V v 2 = v A – v 2 = – 448 ⁄ 11 V v 3 = v 2 = 808 ⁄ 11 V and p 5 mH = v 5 mH × i 5 mH = 0 × i 5 mH = 0 that is. disp(V(2)) vA= 360/11 vB= 808/11 Therefore.⎞ = 0. 5-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .211 J 5. disp('vA=').v A + ⎛ -. format rat % Express answers in rational form G=[1/4+1/9+1/7 −1/7.

30) and (5. We wish to find an expression for the equivalent inductance which we denote as L Peq in terms of L 1.31) Equating the left sides of (5.Combinations of Series and Parallel Inductors + vS L1 − + L2 − − + LN − vS + + − + − i (a) i (b) L Seq − Figure 5.15 (b) where the source current i S is the same for both circuits. L N in Figure 5.= v S dt dt dt or di ( L 1 + L 2 + … + L N ) ---. Next.14 (a).15.14 (b).31) we get: L Seq = L 1 + L 2 + … + L N (5.32) Thus.+ … + L N ---.15 (a) and 5. ….30) From the circuit of Figure 5. Circuits for derivation of equivalent inductance for inductors in parallel From the circuit of Figure 5. di L Seq ---.= v S dt (5.+ L 2 ---. inductors in series combine as resistors in series do. Circuits for derivation of equivalent inductance for inductors in series From the circuit of Figure 5.= v S dt (5.14. iS + v − i1 L1 (a) i2 L2 iS iN LN + v − (b) L Peq Figure 5. L 2.15 (a) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-15 .15 (a) so that the voltage v will be the same for both circuits. di di di L 1 ---. we will consider the circuits of Figures 5.

+ ---. replace all inductors by a single equivalent inductor.15 (b) 1 ---------L Peq ∫– ∞ v d t t = iS (5.36) Thus.34) Equating the left sides of (5.t 1.4 For the network of Figure 5.+ … + ----.16.+ ---. 35 mH L eq 45 mH 125 mH 30 mH 40 mH 60 mH 120 mH 90 mH 15 mH Figure 5.+ … + ----L Peq L1 L2 LN (5.35) and for the special case of two parallel inductors L1 L2 L Peq = ----------------L1 + L2 (5.t v dt = i 1.11---------.4 5-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . inductors in parallel combine as resistors in parallel do.33) From the circuit of Figure 5.⎞ S ⎝L L2 L N⎠ – ∞ 1 ∫ (5.t ---v dt + ---v dt + … + ----v dt = i S LN –∞ L2 –∞ L1 –∞ ∫ ∫ ∫ or 1. Network for Example 5.t 1.16.= ---. Example 5.33) and (5.1⎛ ---.34) we get: 11.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance i1 + i2 + … + iN = iS or 1.

Capacitance Solution: Starting at the right end of the network and moving towards the left end. just as we considered the entire inductance to be concentrated in a single inductor. 40 mH + 35 mH = 75 mH .17. and L eq = 30 mH + 62. 30 mH || 15 mH = 10 mH . The network then reduces to that shown in Figure 5. Now.2 we learned that inductance is associated with a magnetic field which is created whenever there is current flow.5 Capacitance In Section 5. capacitance is associated with an electric field.5 mH = 92. L eq 92. First step in combination of inductances Finally. Simple circuit to illustrate a charged capacitor Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-17 .16 5.5 mH .18. In a simple circuit we can represent the entire capacitance with a device called capacitor.5 mH as shown in Figure 5. ( 40 mH + 35 mH + 10 mH ) || 125 mH = 62.5 mH Figure 5.18. is the standard symbol for a capacitor. RS S C vS − + Figure 5.19 where the device denoted as C . 75 mH L eq 30 mH 125 mH 40 mH 10 mH Figure 5. A capacitor consists of two parallel metal plates separated by an air space or by a sheet of some type of insulating material called the dielectric.17.19.17. with reference to Figure 5. let us consider the simple series circuit of Figure 5. we find that 60 mH || 120 mH = 40 mH . Network showing the equivalent inductance of Figure 5. Similarly. a n d a l s o 45 mH || 90 mH = 30 mH .

The unit of capacitance is the Farad abbreviated as F and since 5-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . + + + + + + − − − − − − Figure 5.20. The charge q on the plates is directly proportional to the voltage between the plates and the capacitance C is the constant of proportionality. in an electric field the lines of force start at the positive plate and terminate at the negative plate. an electric field has been established between the plates of the capacitor. whereas magnetic lines of force are always complete loops.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance When the switch S closes in the circuit of Figure 5.= ( Cv ) dt dt or dv C i C = C -------dt (5. However. electrons which were present in the upper plate of the capacitor will move towards the positive terminal of the voltage source.20 shows the distribution of the electric field between the two plates of a capacitor. Therefore. Electric field between the plates of a capacitor We observe that the electric field has an almost uniform density in the area directly between the plates. the voltage source will force electrons from its negative terminal through the conductor to the lower plate of the capacitor and it will accumulate negative charge. q = Cv (5. Figure 5. Thus. The distribution of the electric field set up in a capacitor is usually represented by lines of force similar to the lines of force in a magnetic field.19.38) obey the passive sign convention.38) where i C and v C in (5. This action leaves the upper plate of the capacitor deficient in electrons and thus it becomes positively charged. but it decreases in density beyond the edges of the plates. At the same time. we have the relation dq d i = ----.37) and recalling that the current i is the rate of change of the charge q.

that is.21 represents the current flowing through a 1 µF capacitor. Compute and sketch the voltage across this capacitor for the time interval 0 < t < 4 ms given that the initial condition is v C ( 0 ) = 0 . and denoted as v C ( 0 ) . Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-19 . Example 5.= --------------------volts dv C -------------------sec onds dt (5. the voltage across a capacitor at some reference time usually taken as t = 0 . By separation of the variables we rewrite (5.39) we can say that one farad is the capacitance in a circuit in which a current of one ampere flows when the voltage is changing at the rate of a one volt per second.41) where v C ( t 0 ) is the initial condition.41) as 1 v C ( t ) = --C 1 i C dt = --C –∞ t ∫ ∫ 1 i C dt + --C –∞ 0 ∫0 iC dt t where the initial condition is represented by the first integral on the right side.i C dt C (5.5 The waveform shown in Figure 5.38) as 1 dv C = --.40) and integrating both sides we get: ∫ or vC ( t ) 1 dv C = --C vC ( t0 ) ∫t t 0 i C dt 1 v C ( t ) – v C ( t 0 ) = --C ∫t t 0 i C dt or 1 v C ( t ) = --C ∫t t 0 i C dt + v C ( t 0 ) (5. We can also write (5.Capacitance iC amperes C = ------.

00 Figure 5.5 Solution: The initial condition v C ( 0 ) = 0 . 0 ) on the v C ( t ) versus time plot of Figure 5. vC t = 1 ms 1 = --C –3 ∫0 1 × 10 –3 i C dt + or vC t = 1 ms 1 = --.00 0 1 2 3 4 t (ms) Figure 5. Waveform for Example 5.⎛ Area C⎝ 1 × 10 t=0 1 ⎞ = ------------------.25 −0.50 0.00 0.22.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance iC ( t ) 1.( 1 × 10 –3 × 1 × 10 –3 ) = 1 volt –6 ⎠ 1 × 10 and this value establishes the second point of the straight line segment passing through the origin as shown in Figure 5.25 −0. establishes the first point at the coordinates ( 0.75 −1.5 5-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .25 (mA) 1 0 2 3 4 t (ms) −0. Next.75 0.50 0.50 −0.21.22.75 0.50 −0.25 (V) ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ 0 vC ( 0 ) −0.00 0. Straight line segment for 0 < t < 1 ms of the voltage waveform for Example 5. vC ( t ) 1.75 −1.22.

Voltage waveform for 0 < t < 2 ms of Example 5.25 −0. vC ( t ) 1. Continuing.25 (V) −0.23.( – 1 × 10 × ( 2 – 1 ) × 10 ) + 1 = 0 volts –6 1 × 10 Thus.75 −1.00 0 1 2 3 4 t (ms) Figure 5.⎛ Area C⎝ 1 × 10 t=0 –3 ⎞ +1 ⎠ 1 –3 –3 = ------------------. Voltage waveform for 0 < t < 4 ms of Example 5. vC ( t ) 1.50 −0. Accordingly. the capacitor voltage then decreases linearly from 1 volt at t = 1 ms to 0 volts at t = 2 ms as shown in Figure 5.75 −1.5 There is no need to calculate the values of the capacitor voltage v c at t = 3 ms and at t = 4 ms because the waveform of the current i c starts repeating itself at t = 2 ms .50 0. we get vC t = 2 ms 1 = --.00 0. the capacitor voltage v c waveform of figure (b) starts repeating itself also as shown in Figure 5.50 −0.75 0.5 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-21 .00 0.Capacitance This value of 1 volt at t = 1 ms becomes our initial condition for the time interval 1 < t < 2 . and the initial conditions and the areas are the same as before.50 0.25 −0.25 (V) −0.75 0.24.24.23.00 0 1 2 3 4 t (ms) Figure 5.

However. that is.27) and (5. that is.6 In the circuit of figure 5.24. the voltage and current sources are constant. we get the energy stored in a capacitor as 1 2 W C ( t ) = -.C [ v c ( t ) – v c ( t 0 ) ] 2 and letting v C = 0 at t = 0 . and 4 ms in Figure 5.C [ v c ( t ) – v c ( t 0 ) ] 2 or 1 2 2 W C ( t ) – W C ( t 0 ) = -. It was stated earlier that the current through an inductor and the voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously.21.25. Example 5. the voltage across the capacitor never changes instantaneously. equations (5.5 has illustrated the well known fact that the voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance Example 5. 5-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . denoted as W C is the integral of the power.6 Power and Energy in a Capacitor Power in a capacitor with capacitance C is found from dv C ⎞ pC = vC iC = vC ⎛ C ⎝ dt ⎠ and the energy in a capacitor. a physical impossibility. 5. 2. 3. then the energies W L and W C would also change instantaneously but this is. Referring to the current and voltage waveforms for this example. it displays no discontinuities since its value is explicitly defined at all instances of time as shown in Figure 5. we observe that the current through the capacitor can change instantaneously as shown by the discontinuities at t = 1.Cv C ( t ) 2 (5.Cv c 2 1 2 2 = -. These facts can also be seen from the expressions of the energy in an inductor and in a capacitor. a capacitor is a physical device capable of storing energy.42) Like an inductor. of course.42) where we observe that if the current in an inductor or the voltage across a capacitor could change instantaneously. WC t t0 = ∫t t 0 p C dt = C i(t) i ( t0 ) ∫ v(t ) 0 v(t) vC dv C dt = C dt ∫ v (t ) vC dvc 0 v(t) 1 2 = -.

R eq = ( 4 + 2 ) || ( 7 + 5 ) = 4 Ω . Compute i L1 and v C2 b. after steady-state conditions have been reached. Circuit for Example 5.25.6 Solution: a. Compute the power and energy in the 2 µF capacitor.Power and Energy in a Capacitor a. the voltages across the inductors will be zero and the currents through the capacitors will be zero. Thus. we can replace the inductors by short circuits and the capacitors by open circuits and the given circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 5.6 We can simplify the circuit of figure 5.26. We also combine the series-parallel resistors R 1 through R 4 . First simplification of the circuit of Example 5. But Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-23 .27. R1 4Ω R2 7Ω R3 2Ω i L1 R4 R6 R5 6 Ω 10 Ω 5Ω 15 A R8 8Ω + − 24 V v C2 + − Figure 5. thus. R1 4Ω C1 R2 7Ω R3 2Ω 1 µF L3 5Ω C2 30 mH 15 A C3 R7 3 µF 5Ω R8 i L1 L 1 40 mH R 4 R6 8Ω − 24 V + L2 R5 6 Ω 10 Ω v C2 + − 2 µF L4 L5 25 mH 60 mH 20 mH Figure 5. Therefore.26 by first exchanging the 15 A current source and resistor R 8 for a voltage source of 15 × 8 = 120 V in series with R 8 as shown in Figure 5.26. The voltage and current sources are constant.

6 5-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .28. is found. disp(I(1)).Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance now we observe that the branch in which the current i L1 flows has disappeared. Instead.6 We can apply superposition here. this presents no problem since we can apply the current division expression once i. with reference to the circuit of Figure 5. shown in Figure 5. disp(‘i2=’). disp(I(2)) i1= -96/61 i2= -564/61 Therefore. V=[24 −120]'. The simplified circuit then is i + R eq 4Ω R6 R8 + v C2 8Ω − 24 V i1 R5 10 Ω 6Ω − i2 + − 120 V Figure 5. Circuit for computation of i L1 and v C2 for Example 5. R=[20 −6. These in matrix form are 20 – 6 i 1 = 24 – 6 14 i 2 – 120 Solution using MATLAB: format rat.27. disp(‘i1=’). −6 14].28 R1 4Ω R2 7Ω R3 2Ω i L1 R4 R6 R5 10 Ω 5Ω 15 A R8 8Ω − 24 V + 6Ω − + v C2 Figure 5. however. we will write two mesh equations and we will solve using MATLAB.27. I=R\V. Final simplification of the circuit of Example 5.

v C1 + v C2 + … + v CN = v S or 1 ----C1 ∫ 1 i dt + ----C2 –∞ t ∫ 1 i dt + … + ------CN –∞ t t ∫–∞ i dt t = vS or 1 1 1 ⎛ ----.43) From the circuit of Figure 5.29 (b) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-25 . …. C N in Figure 5. + − + C1 − vS + − C2 − (a) vS i + CN − i (b) + + − C Seq Figure 5.525 A ( 4 + 2 ) + ( 7 + 5 ) ⎝ 61⎠ 61 and 96 564 2808 v C2 = 6 ⎛ – ----.29 (a) and 5.+ … + ------.03 V ⎝ 61 61 ⎠ 61 b. We want to find an expression for the equivalent capacitance which we denote as C Seq in terms of C 1.Cv 2 µF = 0.× ⎛ – 96⎞ = – 32 = – 0.29 (a).Capacitance Combinations (4 + 2) --------i L1 = ---------------------------------------.29 (a) so that the current i will be the same in both circuits. p 2 µF = v 2 µF × i 2 µF = v C2 × 0 = 0 and 2808 2 1 2 –6 W 2 µF = -.⎞ = ----------.29.+ -------.= 46. Circuits for derivation of equivalent capacitance for capacitors in series From the circuit of Figure 5.7 Capacitance Combinations Consider the circuits of figures 5.⎞ ⎝C C C ⎠ 1 2 N ∫– ∞ i d t = vS (5.5 × 2 × 10 × ⎛ -----------⎞ = 2 mJ ⎝ 61 ⎠ 2 5. C 2.+ ----.29 (b) in which the source voltage v S is the same for both circuits.

C 2.30 (a) so that the voltage v will be the same in both circuits.+ … + ------C Seq C1 C2 CN (5.= i S dt (5.44) we get: 1 1 1 1 ---------.46) Thus capacitors in series combine as resistors in parallel do.+ C 2 ----.30.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance 1---------C Seq ∫–∞ i dt t = vS (5. iS + v − i1 C1 (a) i2 C2 + iN CN iS v − (b) C Peq Figure 5.44) Equating the left sides of (5.+ … + C N ----. Circuits for derivation of equivalent capacitance for capacitors in parallel From the circuit of Figure 5. We wish to find an expression for the equivalent capacitance which we denote as C Peq in terms of C 1. we will consider the circuits of figures 5.45) and for the special case of two capacitors in series C1 C2 C Seq = -----------------C1 + C2 (5.= i S dt (5. dv C Peq ----.30 (b) where the source current i S is the same for both circuits. i1 + i2 + … + iN = iS or dv dv dv C 1 ----.30 (a) and 5.43) and (5.48) we get: 5-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .30 (b).= i S dt dt dt or dv ( C 1 + C 2 + … + C N ) ----.30 (a).48) Equating the left sides of (5.47) From the circuit of Figure 5. Next. C N in Figure 5.= ----.+ ----. ….47) and (5.

µF 31 4 µF 6 µF C eq 20 µF Figure 5.7 Solution: Starting at the right of the network and moving towards the left.31. Network for Example 5.7 For the network of Figure 5. and 8 µF || 12 µF = 20 µF .16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-27 .33. Finally. Example 5. t h e s e r i e s c o m b i n a t i o n o f 10.Capacitance Combinations C Peq = C 1 + C 2 + … + C N (5. C eq 20 µF Figure 5. 4. the series combination of 20 µF and 20 µF yields C eq = 10 µF as shown in Figure 5.33. replace all capacitors by a single equivalent capacitor. 15 µF 30 µF C eq 560 -------.32. 15 µF in series with 30µF = 10µF .31. Network showing the equivalent inductance of Figure 5. we find that 3 µF || 1 µF = 4 µF . First step in combination of capacitances N e x t . and 6µF capacitors y i e l d s 60 ⁄ 31 µF a n d 60 ⁄ 31 µF || 560 ⁄ 31 µF = 20 µF . T he network then reduces to that shown in Figure 5.32. capacitors in parallel combine as resistors in series do. 10 µF 560 -------.µF 31 2 µF 1 µF 3 µF 8 µF 12 µF 4 µF Figure 5.49) Thus. 2 µF || 4 µF = 6 µF .

8 Solution: Nodal Analysis: We assign nodes as shown in Figure 5. mesh or any other method of analysis as we learned in Chapter 3.34.8 Write nodal and mesh equations for the circuit shown in Figure 5.8 Nodal and Mesh Equations in General Terms In Examples 5. However.3 and 5.+ C ---.35. if the voltage and current sources are time-varying quantities we must apply KCL or KVL in general terms as illustrated by the following example. we need N – 1 = 5 – 1 = 4 nodal equations. Circuit for Example 5. Thus.6 the voltage and current sources were constant and therefore. Nodal analysis for the circuit of Example 5. R1 v S1 − C L + v S2 + − R2 Figure 5.8 At Node 1: v 1 = v S1 At Node 2: v2 – v1 d 1 --------------.34.( v 2 – v 4 ) + -dt L R1 ∫– ∞ ( v 2 – v 3 ) d t v3 = 0 t = 0 At Node 3: 1 -L ∫–∞ ( v3 – v2 ) dt + -----R2 t 5-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance 5. Example 5.35. the steadystate circuit analysis could be performed by nodal. v1 R1 v S1 − v2 v4 C L v3 R2 + v S2 + v0 − Figure 5.

i 2 + R 2 i 2 + v S2 + --C dt ∫– ∞ ( i 2 – i 1 ) d t = 0 In both the nodal and mesh equations.Summary At Node 4: v 4 = – v S2 Mesh Analysis: We need M = B – 1 = 6 – 5 + 1 = 2 mesh equations. • Unlike the resistor which dissipates energy (in the form of heat). the voltage-current relationship is v L = L ( di L ⁄ dt ) • The unit of inductance is the Henry abbreviated as H. Then.8 For Mesh 1: 1 R 1 i 1 + --C ∫–∞ ( i1 – i2 ) dt – vS1 – vS2 t t = 0 For Mesh 2: 1 dL ---. R1 v S1 − C L + i1 v S2 + − R2 i2 Figure 5. is called flux linkage.9 Summary • Inductance is associated with a magnetic field which is created whenever there is current flow. Alternately.36. • The magnetic field loops are circular in form and are called lines of magnetic flux. 5. • The magnetic flux is denoted as ϕ and. λ = N ϕ • For an inductor.36. we can add the initial condition terms and replace the lower limit of integration – ∞ with zero in the integrodifferential equations above. Mesh analysis for the circuit of Example 5. the total flux. Thus. the (ideal) inductor is a physical device capable of storing energy in analogy to the potential energy of a stretched spring. if there are N turns and we assume that the flux ϕ passes through each turn. the initial conditions are included in the limits of integration. we assign currents i 1 and i 2 as shown in Figure 5. denoted as λ . Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-29 . The unit of magnetic flux is the weber (Wb).

a capacitor behaves like an open circuit. after steady-state con2 ditions have been reached. after steady-state con2 ditions have been reached. an inductor behaves like a short circuit. • A capacitor consists of two parallel metal plates separated by an air space or by a sheet of some type of insulating material called the dielectric. • In circuits where the applied voltage source or current source are constants. a capacitor is a physical device capable of storing energy. • The energy stored in a capacitor is W C ( t ) = ( 1 ⁄ 2 )Cv C ( t ) • The voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously. q = Cv • In a capacitor. the nodal and mesh equations are. • In a circuit that contains inductors and/or capacitors. • Like an inductor. in general. if the applied voltage and current sources are time-varying quantities. • Capacitance is associated with an electric field. • The charge q on the plates of a capacitor is directly proportional to the voltage between the plates and the capacitance C is the constant of proportionality. integrodifferential equations. • Capacitors in parallel combine as resistors in series do. Thus.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance • The energy stored in an inductor is W L ( t ) = ( 1 ⁄ 2 )Li L ( t ) • The current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously. the voltage-current relationship is i C = C ( dv C ⁄ dt ) • The unit of capacitance is the Farad abbreviated as F. • In circuits where the applied voltage source or current source are constants. • Inductors in parallel combine as resistors in parallel do. • Inductors in series combine as resistors in series do. • Capacitors in series combine as resistors in parallel do. 5-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

are complete loops B. λ = Li C. The unit of capacitance is the A. µF B. start at the negative plate and end at the positive plate D. In an electric field of a capacitor. None of the above Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-31 . None of the above 4. the lines of force A. Ohm C.Exercises 5. None of the above 2. Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction states that A. Weber E. mH D.10 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. v = L ( di ⁄ dt ) D. v = dλ ⁄ dt E. None of the above 3. start at the positive plate and end at the negative plate C. Ohm C. Farad D. are unpredictable E. Farad B. λ = Nϕ B. Coulomb E. The unit of inductance is the A.

both the voltage and the current can change instantaneously E. None of the above 8. The energy in an inductor is A. None of the above 6. v C i C D. v L i L D. None of the above 7. ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) ( Li ) B. In the circuit of Figure 5. the current cannot change instantaneously C. neither the voltage nor the current can change instantaneously D. ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) ( Cv ) C. The energy in a capacitor is A. In a capacitor A. In an inductor A.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance 5. ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) ( Ci ) B. the current i L through the inductor will be 2 2 2 2 5-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) ( Lv ) C. the voltage cannot change instantaneously B. None of the above 9. dissipated in the form of heat E. dissipated in the form of heat E. both the voltage and the current can change instantaneously E.37 after steady-state conditions have been established. the voltage cannot change instantaneously B. the current cannot change instantaneously C. neither the voltage nor the current can change instantaneously D.

a. The current i L flowing through a 10 mH inductor is shown by the waveform of Figure 5.38 after steady-state conditions have been established.39. In the circuit of Figure 5.Exercises iL 5 mH 5Ω iS 5 A Figure 5. the voltage v C across the capacitor will be + − + C 2 µF R 5Ω vS − 10 V Figure 5. None of the above 10. 0 V B. 2. Compute and sketch the voltage v L across this inductor for t > 0 b. 10 V E. ∞ A C.38. Circuit for Question 10 A. 5 A E. Circuit for Question 9 A. None of the above Problems 1.5 A D. – 10 V D.37. ∞ V C. Compute the first time after t = 0 when the power p L absorbed by this inductor is p L = 50 µw Answer: t = 5 ms Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-33 . 0 A B.

capacitor. and it is known that v C ( 0 ) = 0 a. i ( t ) = 0. Answer: 1 mJ 5-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .40. For the network of Figure 5.4 mH C 100 µF Rest of the Network Figure 5.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance c. Answer: 50 µJ vC ( t ) + − i(t) R 5Ω L 0.40. Network for Problem 3 4.41. Compute the first time after t = 0 when the power p C absorbed by this capacitor is p C = – 5 mw . Compute the first time after t = 0 when the power p L absorbed by this inductor is p L = – 50 µw Answer: t = 25 ms 10 iL (mA) 40 0 10 20 30 50 60 t (ms) −10 Figure 5. compute the total energy stored in the series combination of the resistor. Answer: 23. compute the energy stored in the 5 mH inductor at t = 1 s given that i ( 0 ) = 0 . and inductor at t = 10 ms if: a. i ( t ) = 0. For the circuit of Figure 5.1e – 100t mA and it is known that v C ( 0 ) = – 10 V . Compute the first time after t = 0 when the power p C absorbed by this capacitor is p C = 5 mw . Waveform for Problem 1 2.4 mJ b. The current i C flowing through a 1 µF capacitor is given as i C ( t ) = cos 100t mA .5 cos 5t mA and it is known that v C ( 0 ) = 0 . Answer: 7.85 ms c.39.56 ms 3. Compute and sketch the voltage v C across this capacitor for t > 0 b. Answer: 3.

Circuit for Problem 6 7. Circuit for Problem 5 6. Circuit for Problem 4 5.42. Circuit for Problem 7 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-35 .44.44. C1 R1 L2 C2 L1 + − vS ( t ) R2 Figure 5.Exercises i(t ) + − 5 mH 3 mH 10 mH 7 mH v S ( t ) 10e – t mV Figure 5. For the circuit of Figure 5.42.43. replace all capacitors with an equivalent capacitance C eq and then compute the energy stored in C eq at t = 1 ms given that v C ( 0 ) = 0 in all capacitors. Write mesh equations for the circuit of Figure 5. Answer: 10 pJ 10 µF 3 µF 6 µF 8 µF iS ( t ) 10 µA Figure 5. C1 R2 + vS ( t ) − R1 C2 L Figure 5. Write nodal equations for the circuit of Figure 5.41.43.

B 5. A 9. E Henry 2. A 6. D 4.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance 5. In an inductor the voltage and current are related by v L = L ( di L ⁄ dt ) = L × slope .= 10 × 10 × ---------------------------.11 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1. B 7.= 10 mV –3 ∆t 10 × 10 s 20 ms 10 Likewise.= – 10 mV –3 ( 40 – 20 ) × 10 s –3 = L × slope = L × 0 = 0 mV –3 vL 10 ms 0 = L × slope = 10 × 10 [ 0 – ( – 10 ) ] × 10 A × -------------------------------------------------. vL vL 40 ms 20 = L × slope = L × 0 = 0 mV –3 = L × slope = 10 × 10 vL 50 ms 40 [ – 10 – ( 10 ) ] × 10 A × -------------------------------------------------. B 8.= 10 mV –3 ( 60 – 50 ) × 10 s –3 The current. 5-36 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . a. E – 5 A 10. D Problems 1. Thus. we need to compute the slope of each segment of the given waveform and multiply it by L . vL 10 ms 0 –3 ∆i L A – 3 10 × 10 = L × slope = L ------. and power waveforms are shown below. C 3. voltage.

sin 100τ 100 t = 10 sin 100t 0 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-37 . a. we observe that p L = v L i L = 50 µw occurs for the first time at point A where t = 5 ms c. we observe that p L = v L i L = – 50 µw occurs for the first time at point A where t = 25 ms 2.Answers to Exercises 10 10 mH 0 iL (mA) 40 10 20 30 50 60 t (ms) iL ( t ) −10 vL 10 (mV) + vL ( t ) − 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 t (ms) −10 pL ( µ w ) 100 A pL = vL iL 20 0 10 30 40 50 60 t (ms) B −100 b. From the power waveform above. For this problem C = 1 µF = 10 –6 F and the current i C is a sinusoid given as i C ( t ) = cos 100t mA as shown below. From the power waveform above. The voltage v C ( t ) across this capacitor is found from 1 v C ( t ) = --C ∫0 3 t i C dτ + v C ( 0 ) = 10 t 3 6 ∫0 ( 10 t –3 ) cos 100τ dτ + 0 = 10 ∫0 10 cos 100τ dτ = -------.

Since v C ( t ) is a sine function and i C ( t ) a cosine function. Then. the first time after zero that their product will be positive is in the interval 0 < t < π ⁄ 200 where we want p C = v C i C = 5 mw or p C = ( 10 sin 100t ) ( 10 cos 100t ) = 5 × 10 –3 –3 w or p C = ( 10 sin 100t ) ( cos 100t ) = 5 w Recalling that 5-38 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . ωT = 2π or ω = 2π ⁄ T . vC ( t ) (V) 10 10 sin 100t π -------100 – 10 T π ----50 Now.t = 10 sin 100t or 2π ⁄ T = 100 and T = 2π ⁄ 100 or T = π ⁄ 50 2π T b. 10 sin ----.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance iC ( t ) ( mA ) cos 100t t (s) and the waveform of v C ( t ) is shown below.

= -------.e – 10 = 10e – 100 0 0 t = 10 – 10e – 10 or v C ( t ) = – 10e – 100t Then.4 × 10 × ( 0. 1 2 1 2 W T = W L + W C = -. fprintf(' \n') WT= 0. it is dissipated in the form of heat.00785 s = 7.Cv C 2 2 where i L = i ( t ) = 0. that is.1e – 100t and 1 v C ( t ) = --C ∫0 4 t i C dτ + v C ( 0 ) = 10 t 4 ∫0 0. a. There is no energy stored in the resistor.× 0.0034 J b.1e ) + ( – 10e ) ] = 3.1 – 100τ – 100τ = --------------------.56 ms 3.4f J'.85 + 5π = 7.5*10^(−4)*((0. WT=2. Thus.1e t – 100τ dτ – 10 – 100t 10 × 0.1*exp(−1))^2+((−10)*exp(−1))^2).85 ms after t = π ⁄ 200 s or after t = 1000π ⁄ 200 ms = 5π ms . For this part Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-39 .= 0.× 10 × ( – 10e ) 2 2 = 2. p C = – 5 mw will occur for the first time at t = 7.85 + 15. fprintf('WT=%7.1e ) + -.Answers to Exercises sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x it follows that p C = 5 sin 200t = 5 w or sin 200t = 1 or sin 1 π⁄2 π t = -------------.4 mJ –4 –1 2 –1 2 We’ve used MATLAB as a calculator to obtain the answer. that is. Therefore.5 × 10 [ ( 0. the total energy is stored in the capacitor and the inductor.WT). WT t = 10 ms 1 –3 – 100t 2 1 –4 – 100t 2 = -. fprintf(' \n').85 ms 200 200 400 –1 c.Li L + -. The time where p C = – 5 mw will occur for the first time is 7.= --------.71 = 23.

v1 C1 R2 + vS ( t ) − v2 R1 C2 v3 L Then. Starting with the right side and proceeding to the left. W 5 mH t=1 s t=1 s = 2. + v S ( t ) 10e iL ( t ) 10 mH –t − mV The current i L ( t ) is i L ( t ) = -1 L ∫0 t 1 –3 v S dτ + i L ( 0 ) = ---------------------.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance i L = i ( t ) = 0. and 5 + 5 = 10 mH reduces the given circuit to the one shown below. and v 3 as shown below.05 mJ = 50 µJ We observe that the total power is independent of time.× 5 × 10 ( 1 – e ) 2 ∫0 t e dτ = – e –τ –τ t 0 =e –τ 0 t = 1–e –t Then. v 2 .5 × 10 –3 × ( 1 – e ) ≈ 1 mJ –1 2 6. the series-parallel combination of 7 + 3 = 10 .5 × 10 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 1 –4 cos 5 t + sin 5 t 2 2 = 0. 1 –4 2 1 –4 2 W T = W L + W C = -.5 cos 5t mA and 1 v C ( t ) = --C ∫0 t i C dτ + v C ( 0 ) = 10 × 10 t 0 4 –4 ∫0 5 cos 5τ dτ + 0 t = sin 5τ = sin 5t Then.5 cos 5t ) + -.× 10 × 10 –3 10 × 10 1 –3 –t 2 = -.× 10 × ( sin 5t ) 2 2 = 0. 4.× 0. 5-40 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .4 × 10 × ( 0. 10 || 10 = 5 . We assign node voltages v 1 .

( v 2 – v 3 ) + ----.Answers to Exercises v1 = vS v2 d d C 1 ---.( i 2 – i 3 ) = 0 dt dt 1 ----C2 ∫–∞ ( i3 – i1 ) dτ + L2 ----. We assign mesh currents i 1 .+ L 2 ---.= 0 dt dt R1 v3 – v1 d1 --------------. C1 R1 + − vS ( t ) i2 L2 C2 L1 i1 R2 i3 Then. and i 3 as shown below.( v 2 – v 1 ) + C 2 ---.( i3 – i2 ) + R2 i3 dt t d = 0 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-41 . 1----C1 ∫ 1i 1 dτ + R 1 ( i 1 – i 2 ) + ----C2 –∞ t ∫– ∞ ( i 1 – i 3 ) d τ t = vS di 2 dR 1 ( i 2 – i 1 ) + L 1 -----.+ C 2 ---. i 2 .( v 3 – v 2 ) + -dt L R2 ∫–∞ v3 dτ t = 0 7.

Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance NOTES 5-42 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

In Chapters 1 through 4 we considered circuits that consisted of excitations (active sources) and resistors only as the passive devices. the response will also be some constant value. In Chapter 5 we learned that when the excitation is a constant and steady-state conditions are reached. but we need to specify what the output of a circuit is. if the excitation is a constant voltage or current.1 Excitation Functions The applied voltages and currents in electric circuits are generally referred to as excitations or driving functions. Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems to find the desired response such as the voltage and/or current in any particular branch. susceptance. the response is the voltage or current at the output of a circuit. the response will also be sinusoidal with the same frequency but different amplitude and phase. derive an expression for v C ( t ) in terms of V p . inductive and capacitive circuits. Another term used in circuit analysis is the word response. impedance and admittance are also defined. and the Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-1 . or a sinusoidal. R . If not. Thus the response may be anything we define it as a response.1. and ω where the subscript p is used to denote the peak or maximum value of a time varying function. The time and frequency domains are defined and phasor relationships are developed for resistive. C . we will consider the simple series circuit of Example 6. Example 6. or an exponential function of time. The circuit analysis procedure for these circuits is the same for DC and AC circuits. if the excitation is a sinusoidal voltage or current. Thus. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with sinusoids and complex numbers.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis T his chapter is an introduction to circuits in which the applied voltage or current are sinusoidal. when the excitation is a time-varying function such as a sinusoid.1. However. superposition. 6. an inductor behaves like a short circuit and a capacitor behaves like an open circuit. we say that a circuit is “excited” or “driven” by a constant. Generally.1 For the circuit shown in Figure 6. Reactance. that is. 6.2 Circuit Response to Sinusoidal Inputs We can apply the circuit analysis methods which we have learned in previous chapters to circuits where the voltage or current sources are sinusoidal. inductors and capacitors behave entirely different as we will see in our subsequent discussion. To find out how easy (or how difficult) the procedure becomes. it is strongly recommended that Appendix B is reviewed thoroughly before reading this chapter. We used various methods such as nodal and mesh analyses. this may be the voltage or current in the “load” part of the circuit or any other part of it.

2) must have the form v C ( t ) = A cos ( ωt + θ ) (6.3) where the amplitude A and phase angle θ are constants to be determined from the circuit parameters of V p .4) and recalling that sin ( x + y ) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y and cos ( x + y ) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y 6-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2) yields – AωRC sin ( ωt + θ ) + A cos ( ωt + θ ) = V p cos ωt (6.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis sine symbol inside the circle denotes that the excitation is a sinusoidal function. R . R i( t) v S = V p cos ωt + C − vC ( t ) Figure 6. Circuit for Example 6.+ v C = v S = V p cos ωt dt (6. Substitution of (6. C .1) where v R = Ri = Ri C and dv C i C = C -------dt Then. differentiation (and integration) of a sinusoid of radian frequency ω results in another sinusoid of the same frequency ω . Accordingly.1 Solution: By KVL. the solution of (6.2) As we know.1) we get dv C RC -------. and ω .1. vR + vC = vS (6. dv C v R = RC -------dt and by substitution into (6.3) into (6.

equating like terms and. Complex numbers are discussed in Appendix B. We should remember also that when we say that the imaginary part of a complex number is some value. We will see on the next section that the complex excitation function greatly simplifies the procedure of analyzing such circuits.cos ( ωt – tan ( ωRC ) ) 2 1 + ( ωRC ) (6.2 which consists of resistors. after some more tedious work. Thus. inductors and capacitors.3 The Complex Excitation Function We recall that the derivatives and integrals of sinusoids always produce sinusoids of the same frequency but different amplitude and phase since the cosine and sine functions are 90 degrees out-of-phase. solving for amplitude A and phase angle θ we get: Vp –1 v C ( t ) = -------------------------------. using the above procedure is impractical. Thus we display the real part of a complex function on the axis of the reals (usually the x-axis). analyzing circuits with sinusoidal excitations when they contain capacitors and/or inductors. In other words. the imaginary part is just as “real” as the real part of the complex number but it is defined on a different axis. there is nothing “imaginary” about this value. if v ( t ) = A cos ( ω t + θ ) then dv = – ω A sin ( ω t + θ ) dt and if i ( t ) = B sin ( ω t + φ ) then di = ω B cos ( ω t + φ ) dt Let us consider the network of Figure 6.5) Obviously. and the imaginary part on the imaginary axis or the y-axis. it just entails the use of complex numbers.4) as – AωRC sin ωt cos θ – AωRC cos ωt sin θ + A cos ωt cos θ – A sin ωt sin θ = V p cos ωt Collecting sine and cosine terms. and it is driven (excited) by a sinusoidal voltage source v S ( t ) . The complex excitation function does not imply complexity of a circuit.The Complex Excitation Function we rewrite (6. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-3 . 6.

find the capacitor voltage v C ( t ) for the circuit of Figure 6. in this text. which is excited by a sinusoidal source. we use the v LOAD and i LOAD notations to avoid confusion with the voltage v L across and the current i L through an inductor. As we know from Chapter 5. and it is shown in differential equations textbooks† that the forced response or particular solution of these circuits have the form v LD ( t ) = A cos ( ω t ) + B sin ( ω t ) We also know from Euler’s identity that A cos ω t + jA sin ω t = Ae jωt LOAD i LOAD ( t ) + v LOAD ( t ) − (6. R i( t) v S = V p cos ωt + C − vC ( t ) Figure 6. that is.6) and therefore. General presentation of a network showing excitation and load Let us also define the voltage across the load as v LOAD ( t ) * as the response.1.2 Repeat Example 6.2 to illustrate the ease by which we can obtain the response of a circuit.3 using the complex excitation method. † This topic is also discussed in Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB® Applications by this author 6-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Inductors and Capacitors vS ( t ) Figure 6. As we stated previously. the nodal and mesh equations for such circuits are integrodifferential equations. we will represent all sinusoidal variations in terms of the cosine func- Example 6.3. In this text.2. using the complex function Ae tion. the real component is the response due to cos ω t and the imaginary component is the response to sin ω t We will use Example 6. jωt approach. Circuit for Example 6.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis Excitation Linear Network Consisting of Resistors.2 * Some textbooks denote the voltage across and the current through the load as v L and i L respectively.

we use Euler’s identity on both Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-5 . therefore we only need to be concerned with the magnitude and the phase angle of the response.The Complex Excitation Function Solution: Since cos ωt = Re { e jωt } we let the excitation be vS ( t ) = Vp e jωt and thus the response will have the form vC ( t ) = VC e j ( ωt + ϕ ) As in Example 6. If we wish to express the response in complete form.1.e –1 j ω RC + 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 j [ tan ( ωRC ) ] 1+ω R C 1+ω R C e This expression above shows the response as a function of the maximum value of the excitation.+ v C = V p e dt (6.= -------------------------------.( V C e ) + VC e = Vp e dt or ( j ω RC + 1 )V C e j ( ωt + ϕ ) = Vp e jωt The last expression above shows that radian frequency ω is the same for the response as it is for the excitation.e 2 2 2 1+ω R C jωt and Finally. since the excitation is the real part of the complex excitation.7) or dj ( ωt + ϕ ) j ( ωt + ϕ ) jωt RC ---. Accordingly.j [ ωt – tan ( ωRC ) ] = -------------------------------. we simply multiply both sides by e we get VC e j ( ωt + ϕ ) –1 Vp .= --------------------------------------------------------------. we can eliminate the radian frequency ω by dividing both sides of that expression by e jωt and thus the input-output (excitation-response) relation reduces to ( jωRC + 1 )V C e jϕ = Vp from which VC e jϕ –1 Vp Vp Vp – j [ tan ( ωRC ) ] = ---------------------. its radian frequency and the circuit constants R and C . dv C jωt RC -------.

Thus. If a sinusoid is given in terms of the sine function. the second part where the excitation-response is put back to its sinusoidal form is known as frequency-domain to timedomain transformation.3 Transform the sinusoid v ( t ) = 10 sin ( 100t – 60° ) to its equivalent jω – domain expression. we will denote the time domain as the t – domain . For brevity. to jω – domain transformation procedure is as follows: 1. Express the given sinusoid as a cosine function 2. and the frequency domain as the jω – domain . m ( t ) = A sin ( ω t + θ ) = A cos ( ω t + θ – 90° ) and in the jω – domain it is expressed as M = Ae j ( θ – 90 ) ° Vp –1 (6. we have v ( t ) = 10 sin ( 100t – 60° ) = 10 cos ( 100t – 60° – 90° ) or ° ⎧ j ( 100t – 150 ) ⎫ v ( t ) = 10 cos ( 100t – 150° ) = Re ⎨ 10e ⎬ ⎩ ⎭ 6-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Express the cosine function as the real part of the complex excitation using Euler’s identity 3.8) = A ∠( θ – 90° ) (6.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis sides and equating reals parts. Solution: For this example.9) where M represents a phasor (rotating vector) voltage V or current I∗ . Example 6. the t – domain . Extract the magnitude and phase angle from it. we get v C ( t ) = V C cos ( ω t + φ ) = ------------------------------. we must first convert it to a cosine function.cos [ ω t – tan ( ω RC ) ] 2 2 2 1+ω R C The first part of the above procedure where the excitation-response relation is simplified to amplitude and phase relationship is known as time-domain to frequency-domain transformation. In summary.

Add the radian frequency ω multiplied by t to the exponential form 3. Extract the real part from it. Compute the sum i ( t ) = i1 ( t ) + i2 ( t ) . ° ⎧ j ( ωt – 90 ) ⎫ i ( t ) = Re ⎨ 120e ⎬ = 120 cos ( ω t – 90° ) = 120 sin ω t ⎩ ⎭ j ( ωt – 90 ) ° We can add. Convert the given phasor from polar to exponential form 2. that is.The Complex Excitation Function Since the jω – domain contains only the amplitude and phase. Example 6. Solution: First.5 It is given that i 1 ( t ) = 10 cos ( 120 π t + 45° ) and i 2 ( t ) = 5 sin ( 120 π t – 45 ° ) . we extract these from the bracketed term on the right side of the above expression. Then. Example 6. subtract. we express the given phasor in exponential form.4 Transform the phasor I = 120 ∠– 90° to its equivalent time-domain expression. multiply and divide sinusoids of the same frequency using phasors as illustrated by the following example. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-7 . and we get the phasor V as V = 10e – j150 ° = 10 ∠– 150° The jω – domain to t – domain transformation procedure is as follows: 1. I = 120 ∠– 90° = 120e – j90 ° Next. adding the radian frequency ω multiplied by t to the exponent of the above expression we get i ( t ) = 120e and finally we extract the real part from it.

and C Circuits The circuit analysis of circuits containing R . We will show that this relationship also holds for the phasors V R and I R shown in circuit 6. in our subsequent discussion we will designate resistive. i 2 ( t ) = 5 sin ( 120 π t – 45 ° ) = 5 cos ( 120 π t – 45 ° – 90° ) = 5 cos ( 120 π t – 135 ° ) Next. 6-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 2 2 2 2 I = I 1 + I 2 = 10 ∠45° + 5 ∠– 135 ° = 10 ⎛ -----. that is.4 (a) below where the load is purely resistive.+ j ------⎞ = 5 ∠45° ⎝ 22⎠ and finally transforming the phasor I into the t – domain . for brevity.4 (b). 6. We must always remember that phasor quantities exist only in the jω – domain . We know from Ohm’s law that v R ( t ) = Ri R ( t ) where the resistance R is a constant.4 (a) we let v R ( t ) be a complex voltage. inductive and capacitive circuits as R . and C respectively.– j ------⎞ ⎝ 2 ⎝ 2 2⎠ 2⎠ or 2 2 I = 5 ⎛ -----. we get i ( t ) = 5 cos ( 120 π t + 45° ) Also.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis Solution: As a first step.4 Phasors in R. is considerably simplified with the use of phasor voltages and phasor currents which we will represent by the boldface capital letters V and I respectively. we will prove that V R = RI R Proof: In circuit 6. L.+ j ------⎞ + 5 ⎛ – -----. L . that is. we perform the t – domain to jω – domain transformation and we obtain the phasors I 1 = 10 ∠45° and I 2 = 5 ∠– 135 ° and by addition. we express i 2 ( t ) as a cosine function. and C devices. and which are excited by sinusoidal sources. L . 1. We will now derive V and I phasor relationships in the jω – domain . that is. V and I phasor relationship in R branches Consider circuit 6.

obeys Ohm’s law also. Vp e j ( ωt + φ ) = RI p e (6.11) to the jω – domain . * The phase will be the same since neither differentiation nor integration is performed here. it will produce a current of the same frequency ω and the same phase φ * whose form will be Ip e j ( ωt + φ ) = I p cos ( ω t + φ ) + jI p sin ( ω t + φ ) j ( ωt + φ ) and by Ohm’s law. and C Circuits vS ( t ) + iR ( t ) − vR ( t ) VS IR + VR − v R ( t ) = Ri R ( t ) = V p cos ( ω t + θ ) ( a ) t – domain network V R = RI R ( b ) jω – domain ( phasor ) network Figure 6. we let V p ∠φ = V R and I p ∠φ = I R and it follows that V R = RI R (6. we obtain the phasor relationship Vp e jφ = RI p e jφ or V p ∠φ = RI p ∠φ Since the phasor current I is in-phase with the voltage V (both I and V have the same phase φ ).6 For the network of Figure 6. Voltage across a resistive load in t – domain and jω – domain j ( ωt + φ ) Vp e = V p cos ( ω t + φ ) + jV p sin ( ω t + φ ) (6. and the current through a resistor is always in−phase with the voltage across that resistor. the phasor V and I relationship in resistors.10) and since R is a constant. Example 6.12) Therefore. L.5.4.Phasors in R.11) Transforming (6. find i R ( t ) when v R ( t ) = 40 sin ( 377t – 75° ) . Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-9 .

= 8 ∠– 165° A R 5 Therefore. vR ( t ) 40 sin ( 377t – 75° ) i R ( t ) = ----------. Voltage across an inductive load in t – domain and jω – domain We will prove that the relationship between the phasors V L and I L shown in circuit 6.= ------------------------.= -------------------------------------------.6 (a) below where the load is purely inductive. we can compute i R ( t ) directly from the t – domain expression for v R ( t ) . vS ( t ) + iL ( t ) di L v L ( t ) = L -----dt ( a ) t – domain network − vL ( t ) VS IL V L = j ω LI L + VL − ( b ) jω – domain ( phasor ) network Figure 6.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis vS ( t ) + iR ( t ) R=5Ω v R ( t ) = 40 sin ( 377t – 75° ) − vR ( t ) Figure 6.6. Voltage across the resistive load of Example 6.5.= 8 sin ( 377t – 75° ) A 5 R 2. VR 40 ∠– 165° I R = -----.. that is. v R ( t ) ⇔ V R transformation as follows: v R ( t ) = 40 sin ( 377t – 75° ) = 40 cos ( 377t – 165° ) ⇔ V R = 40 ∠– 165° Then. V and I phasor relationship in L branches Consider circuit 6.e. since the resistance R is a constant.6 Solution: We first perform the t – domain to jω – domain i.6 (b) is 6-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ jω – domain ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ t – domain I R = 8 ∠– 165° A ⇔ i R ( t ) = 8 cos ( 377t – 165° ) = 8 sin ( 377t – 75° ) A Alternately.

.Phasors in R. that is. that is.13) Proof: In circuit 6. find i L ( t ) when v L ( t ) = 40 sin ( 2t – 75° ) .7 For the network of Figure 6. transforming (6. v L ( t ) ⇔ V L transformation as follows: Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-11 .14) and recalling that if x ( t ) = sin ( ωt + φ ) then dx ⁄ dt = ω cos ( ωt + φ ) . Vp e j ( ωt + φ ) j ( ωt + φ ) j ( ωt + φ ) d = L ---. Example 6. Solution: We first perform the t – domain to jω – domain i.7.16) to the jω – domain .16) Next.( I p e ) = jωLI p e dt (6. L. the current through the inductor will have the form Ip e j ( ωt + φ ) = I p cos ( ω t + φ ) + jI p sin ( ω t + φ ) di L v L ( t ) = L -----dt (6. differentiation (or integration) does not change the radian frequency ω or the phase angle φ .15) and since then.17) indicates that the voltage across an inductor leads the current through it by 90° . we obtain the phasor relationship Vp e jφ = j ω LI p e jφ or V p ∠φ = j ω LI p ∠φ and letting V p ∠φ = V L and I p ∠φ = I L we get V L = j ω LI L (6. Vp e j ( ωt + φ ) = V p cos ( ω t + φ ) + jV p sin ( ω t + φ ) (6.17) The presence of the j operator in (6.e.6 (a) we let v L ( t ) be a complex voltage. and C Circuits V L = j ω LI L (6.

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ jω – domain ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ t – domain I L = 4 ∠105° A ⇔ i L ( t ) = 4 cos ( 2t + 105° ) = 4 sin ( 2t – 165° ) A 3. Voltage across a capacitive load in t – domain and jω – domain We will prove that the relationship between the phasors V C and I C shown in the network of Figure 6.7 v L ( t ) = 40 sin ( 2t – 75° ) = 40 cos ( 2t – 165° ) ⇔ V L = 40 ∠– 165° mV and –3 VL ----------------------------------------------------------------------I L = --------.18) Proof: In circuit 6. Voltage across the inductive load of Example 6. 6-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis vS ( t ) + iL ( t ) vL ( t ) − L = 5 mH v L ( t ) = 40 sin ( 2t – 75° ) Figure 6. V and I phasor relationship in C branches Consider circuit 6.8 (a) below where the load is purely capacitive.8 (a) we let v C ( t ) be a complex voltage.8. vS ( t ) + iC ( t ) dv C i C ( t ) = C -------dt ( a ) t – domain network − vC ( t ) VS IC I C = j ω CV C + VC − ( b ) jω – domain ( phasor ) network Figure 6.= 40 ∠– 165° = 4 ∠– 255° = 4 ∠105° A –3 10 ∠90° jωL j10 × 10 Therefore.= ( 40 ∠– 165° ) × 10 .8 (b) is I C = jωCV C (6.7. that is.

L.19) to the jω – domain . v C ( t ) ⇔ V C transformation as follows: Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-13 . we obtain the phasor relationship Ip e jφ = jωCV p e jφ or I p ∠φ = j ω CV p ∠φ and letting I p ∠φ = I C and V p ∠φ = V C we get I C = j ω CV C (6. vS ( t ) + iC ( t ) vC ( t ) − C=106 nF v C ( t ) = 170 cos ( 60 π t – 45° ) Figure 6. transforming (6. Voltage across the capacitive load of Example 6.( V p e ) = j ω CV p e dt (6.e. find i C ( t ) when v C ( t ) = 170 cos ( 60 π t – 45° ) ..8 For the circuit shown below.20) The presence of the j operator in (6. and C Circuits Vp e j ( ωt + φ ) = V p cos ( ω t + φ ) + jV p sin ( ω t + φ ) then the current through the capacitor will have the form Ip e j ( ωt + φ ) = I p cos ( ω t + φ ) + jI p sin ( ω t + φ ) dv C i C ( t ) = -------dt and since then Ip e j ( ωt + φ ) j ( ωt + φ ) j ( ωt + φ ) d = C ---.8 Solution: We first perform the t – domain to jω – domain i.19) Next. Example 6.Phasors in R.9.26) indicates that the current through a capacitor leads the voltage across it by 90° .

4 cos ( 60 π + 45° ) mA 6.4 × 10 ∠45° = 3.∫ i dt C –∞ vR ( t ) + vL ( t ) + vC ( t ) = vS ( t ) di 1 t .4 × 10 –3 × 1 ∠– 45° = 3.10 (a) and its equivalent phasor circuit shown in Figure 6. ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ jω – domain ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ t – domain R L I C = 3.I = V S jωC Algebraic Equation ( Much easier to work with ) Figure 6.5 Impedance Consider the t – domain circuit in Figure 6.I jωC VR + VL + VC = VS 1RI + jωLI + --------.+ --.4 ∠45° mA ⇔ i C ( t ) = 3.10 (b). R L vS ( t ) V + v (t) − + v (t) − C + v (t) S R L C i (t) − + I VR −+ VL − C + − VC ( a ) t – domain network v R ( t ) = Ri R ( t ) di v L ( t ) = L ---dt 1 t v C ( t ) = --.Ri ( t ) + L ---.4 ∠45° mA Therefore. The t – domain and jω – domain relationships in a series RLC circuit The last equation of the phasor circuit may be written as 1⎛ R + jωL + --------.10. I C = jωCV C = j × 60π × 106 × 10 –3 –9 × 170 ∠– 45° = 1 ∠90° × 3.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis v C ( t ) = 170 cos ( 60 π t – 45° ) ⇔ V C = 170 ∠– 45° Then.∫ i dt = v S ( t ) dt C – ∞ ( b ) jω – domain ( phasor ) network V R = IR V L = jωLI 1 V C = --------.⎞ I = V S ⎝ jωC⎠ 6-14 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ Integrodifferential Equation ( Very difficult to work with ) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ .

23) We must remember that the impedance is not a phasor.22) in polar form as Z = 2 1 R + ⎛ ω L – -------⎞ ∠ tan ⎝ ω C⎠ 2 –1 1 ⎛ ω L – ------.27) The unit of the inductive and capacitive reactances is also the Ohm (Ω).21) is referred to as Ohm’s law for AC Circuits.= – j ------ωC jωC and thus 1Z = R + j ⎛ ω L – -------⎞ ⎝ ω C⎠ (6.. i.j -2 j j j j then 1 1 --------.= -----.Impedance and dividing both sides of (6.26) (6. We can express the impedance Z as the sum of a real and an imaginary component as follows: Since j1 = 1 ⋅ .21) Expression (6. it is a complex quantity whose real part is the resistance R and the imaginary part is ω L – 1 ⁄ ω C . by definition. that is.= – j -.e.= --. Like resistance.24) The imaginary part of the impedance Z is called reactance and it is denoted with the letter X .25) (6. 1 Re { Z } = R and Im { Z } = ω L – ------ωC (6. The two components of reactance are the inductive reactance X L and the capacitive reactance X C . X = X L + X C = ωL – 1 ⁄ ω C XL = ω L XC = 1 ⁄ ω C (6.26) by I we obtain the impedance which. is VS Phasor Voltage 1 Impedance = Z = -------------------------------------.= R + jωL + --------Phasor Current I jωC (6. the unit of impedance is the Ohm (Ω). Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-15 .22) We can also express (6.⎞ ⁄ R ⎝ ωC ⎠ (6.

11. But as we now know.12 6-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .28) By a procedure similar to that of Chapter 2. V S = 100 ∠– 30° and the phasor circuit is as shown in Figure 6. Circuit for Example 6. the impedance can be expressed as Z = R + jX = R + j ( X L – X C ) = R + ( X L – X C ) ∠ tan [ ( X L – X C ) ⁄ R ] 2 2 –1 (6. a much easier solution is with the transformation of the given circuit to a phasor circuit.9 For the circuit below. Phasor circuit for Example 6. V S = ZI S VS + 5Ω −+ I − j10 Ω C + − −j100 Ω Figure 6.= – j ------.− Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis In terms of reactances. find the current i ( t ) given that v S ( t ) = 100 cos ( 100t – 30° ) . Here. we will need to solve an integrodifferential equation.= – jX C = – j ---------------------------------------.= – j100 2 2 –6 ωC jωC 10 × 10 × 10 Also.9 Solution: If we attempt to solve this problem in the time-domain directly.12.12.1 = j10 Ω and 11 1--------. Example 6. vS ( t ) − + 5Ω − + 100 mH C + i (t) − 100 µF R L v S ( t ) = 100 cos ( 100t – 30° ) Figure 6.9 From the phasor circuit of Figure 6. ω = 100 rad ⁄ s and thus j ω L = jX L = j100 × 0. we can show that impedances combine as resistances do.

by definition Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-17 .82° Z Therefore.= 1.29) by V . The t – domain and jω – domain relationships in a parallel RLC circuit The last equation of the phasor circuit may be written as 1 ⎛ G + --------.82° ) ] 90. we obtain the admittance.V jωL IR + IL + IC = IS 1 GV + jωCV + --------.11 ∠[ – 30° – ( – 86.82 ) 6. that is.∫ v dt L –∞ iG ( t ) + iL ( t ) + iC ( t ) = iS ( t ) dv 1 t .82° 2 2 –1 and VS 100 ∠– 30° I = -----.11 cos ( 100t + 56. + v (t) iS ( t ) iR ( t ) iL ( t ) − ( a ) t – domain network i G ( t ) = Gv ( t ) dv i C ( t ) = C ----dt 1 t i L ( t ) = -.13.= ------------------------------------.+ jωC⎞ V = I S ⎝ ⎠ jωL ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ Integrodifferential Equation ( Very difficult to work with ) ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (6.14 ∠– 86.14 ∠– 86. I = 1.82° ⇔ i ( t ) = 1.11 ∠56.Gv ( t ) + C ----.29) Dividing both sides of (6.13 (a) and its equivalent phasor circuit shown in Figure 6.+ -.Admittance Z = 5 + j10 – j100 = 5 – j90 = 5 + 90 ∠ tan ( – 90 ⁄ 5 ) = 90.∫ v dt = i S ( t ) dt L – ∞ R L C + V R L C iC ( t ) IR IL IC − ( b ) jω – domain ( phasor ) network IS I G = GV I C = jωCV 1 I L = --------.6 Admittance Consider the t – domain circuit in Figure 6.V = I S jωL Algebraic Equation ( Much easier to work with ) Figure 6.13 (b).

The two components of susceptance are the capacitive susceptance B C and the inductive susceptance B L . ωL 1 Re { Y } = G and Im { Y } = ωC – ------ωL (6.32) Like the impedance Z . 6-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= ---. the unit of admittance is the siemens or mho ( Ω ) . In terms of susceptances. Like conductance. it is a complex quantity whose real part is the 1 conductance G and the imaginary part is ω C – -----.34) (6. we can express the admittance Y as the sum of a real component and an imaginary component as follows: 1Y = G + j ⎛ ω C – -----.37) By a procedure similar to that of Chapter 2..33) The imaginary part of the admittance Y is called susceptance and it is denoted with the letter B . that is.35) (6.⎞ ∠ tan ⎝ ω L⎠ 2 –1 1 ⎛ ω C – -----.+ jωC = -V jωL Z Phasor Voltage (6.30) Here we observe that the admittance Y is the reciprocal of the impedance Z as conductance G is the reciprocal of the resistance R . the admittance Y it is not a phasor. B = BC + BL = ω C – 1 ⁄ ω L BC = ω C BL = 1 ⁄ ω L The unit of the susceptances B C and B L is also the siemens ( Ω ) . As with the impedance Z .⎞ ⁄ G ⎝ ω L⎠ (6. we can show that admittances combine as conductances do.36) 2 –1 (6.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis IS 1 1 Phasor Current Admit tan ce = Y = -------------------------------------. that is.⎞ ⎝ ω L⎠ –1 (6.31) and in polar form Y = 2 1 G + ⎛ ω C – -----. the admittance Y can be expressed as Y = G + jB = G + j ( B C – B L ) = G + ( B C – B L ) ∠ tan [ ( B C – B L ) ⁄ G ] 2 –1 (6.= G + --------.

Therefore.14. Example 6. Networks for Example 6. The dual quantities we have encountered thus far are listed in Table 6.Admittance Duality is a term meaning that there is a similarity in which some quantities are related to others.10 Parallel Current Conductance Norton Capacitance Susceptance Admittance Consider the series and parallel networks shown in Figure 6.= -------------.– j -----------------2 2 2 2 2 2 R + jX R – jX Z R + jX R +X R +X R +X and equating reals and imaginaries we get R G = -----------------2 2 R +X and –X B = -----------------2 2 R +X (6.10 Solution: For these circuits to be equivalent.= G + jB = -------------.⋅ -------------. TABLE 6. How should their real and imaginary terms be related so that they will be equivalent? R Z L C Y G L C Figure 6.38) Relation (6.15. R X 1 R – jX R – jX 1 1 Y = -.11 Compute Z and Y for the network of Figure 6.38) is worth memorizing.= -----------------.1 Dual quantities Series Voltage Resistance Thevenin Inductance Reactance Impedance Example 6.1.= -----------------. their impedances Z or admittances Y must be equal. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-19 .14.

9° Example 6.17 where Z 1 = j13 – j8 = j5 .= j5 + ---------------------------------------------.18 ∠26. Network for Example 6.9° jωL Since the impedance is the reciprocal of admittance. Z2 Z3 ( 10 + j5 ) ( 20 – j16 ) ( 11. Y G 4Ω –1 L – j2 Ω –1 C –1 j5 Ω Figure 6.+ jωC = 4 – j2 + j5 = 4 + j3 = 5 ∠36.12 Solution: Let the given network be represented as shown in Figure 6. it is easier to compute the admittance Y first. Z 2 = 10 + j5 .= j5 + --------------------------------------------------------------------------Z2 + Z3 10 + j5 + 20 – j16 31.11 Solution: Since this is a parallel network. Verify your answers with MATLAB.87 + j1.= -------------------. Y R2 −j16 Ω C2 Figure 6. it follows that 1 1 Z = -.12 Compute Z and Y for the circuit shown below. Thus.87 + j6.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis Z.2 ∠– 36.6° ) ( 25. 1 Y = G + --------.= 0.16 – j0.61 ∠– 38.25 = 8.85 ∠35.1° = j5 + 8. and Z 3 = 20 – j16 Then. L1 j13 Ω C1 −j8 Ω R1 L2 j5 Ω 10 Ω 20 Ω Z.12 Y 5 ∠36.7° ) Z = Z 1 + ----------------.96 ∠8° = j5 + 8.15.16. Network for Example 6.95 ∠– 20.2° 6-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .25 = 10.9 ° = 0.

• If the excitation is a sinusoidal voltage or current. • Circuit analysis in circuits where the excitation is a time-varying quantity such as a sinusoid is very difficult and thus impractical in the t – domain . They behave entirely different. • If the excitation is a constant voltage or current.0. the response will also be sinusoidal with the same frequency but with different amplitude and phase. z=z1+(z2*z3/(z2+z3)) % Find impedance z z = 8. • If the excitation is a time-varying function such as a sinusoid. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-21 . Typically response is the voltage or current in the “load” part of the circuit or any other part of it.= -----------------------------. z2=10+j*5. inductors and capacitors do not behave like short circuits and open circuits respectively as they do when the excitation is a constant and steady-state conditions are reached.17.8737+ 6. Y Z2 Z3 Figure 6.2° = 0. z3=20−j*16. • The procedure where the excitation-response relation is simplified to amplitude and phase rela- tionship is known as time-domain to frequency-domain transformation.0753. • A response is anything we define it as a response.0531i 6.Summary Z1 Z.531 Z 10.85 ∠35.092 ∠– 35.12 and 1 1 Y = -.2537i y=1/z % Find admittance y y = 0.= 0. Simplified network for Example 6.0754 – j0.7 Summary • Excitations or driving functions refer to the applied voltages and currents in electric circuits. • The complex excitation function greatly simplifies the procedure of analyzing such circuits when excitation is a time-varying quantity such as a sinusoid.2° Check with MATLAB: z1=j*5. the response will also be some constant value. in general.

Convert the given phasor from polar to exponential form 2. • The circuit analysis of circuits containing R . Express the cosine function as the real part of the complex excitation using Euler’s identity 3. Extract the real part from it. that is. L . the unit of impedance is the Ohm (Ω). Express the given sinusoid as a cosine function 2. and which are excited by sinusoidal sources.= R + jωL + --------Phasor Current I jωC • Like resistance. • The t – domain to jω – domain transformation procedure is as follows: 1.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis • The procedure where the excitation-response is put back to its sinusoidal form is known as fre- quency-domain to time-domain transformation. 6-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . is considerably simplified with the use of phasor voltages and phasor currents which we represent by the boldface capital letters V and I respectively. • Phasor quantities exist only in the jω – domain • In the jω – domain the current through a resistor is always in−phase with the voltage across that resistor • In the jω – domain the current through an inductor lags the voltage across that inductor by 90° • In the jω – domain the current through a capacitor leads the voltage across that capacitor by 90° • In the jω – domain the impedance Z is defined as VS Phasor Voltage 1 Impedance = Z = -------------------------------------. and the imaginary part is ω L – 1 ⁄ ω C . it is convenient to convert it to a cosine function using the identity m ( t ) = A sin ( ω t + θ ) = A cos ( ω t + θ – 90° ) before converting it to the jω – domain . • If a sinusoid is given in terms of the sine function. • The jω – domain to t – domain transformation procedure is as follows: 1. • For brevity. • Impedance is a complex quantity whose real part is the resistance R .= -----. Add the radian frequency ω multiplied by t to the exponential form 3. and C devices. and the frequency domain as the jω – domain . Extract the magnitude and phase angle from it. we denote the time domain as the t – domain .

= G + --------. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-23 .= ---. 1B = B C – B L = ω C – -----ωL • In polar form the admittance is expressed as Y = 2 1 G + ⎛ ω C – -----.. that is.. • The admittance Y is a complex quantity whose real part is the conductance G and the imaginary 1part is ω C – -----. that is. ωL –1 1 Re { Y } = G and Im { Y } = ωC – ------ωL • The imaginary part of the admittance Y is called susceptance and it is denoted with the letter B .⎞ ∠ tan ⎝ ω L⎠ 2 –1 1 ⎛ ω C – -----.e. • The unit of admittance is the siemens or mho ( Ω ) . The two components of reactance are the inductive reactance X L and the capacitive reactance X C . The two components of susceptance are the capacitive susceptance B C and the inductive suscep- tance B L .+ jωC = -Phasor Voltage V jωL Z • The admittance Y is the reciprocal of the impedance Z as conductance G is the reciprocal of the resistance R . • In the jω – domain the admittance Y is defined as IS Phasor Current 1 1 Admit tan ce = Y = -------------------------------------.⎞ ⁄ G ⎝ ω L⎠ –1 • The unit of the susceptances B C and B L is also the siemens ( Ω ) . i. 1 X = X L – X C = ωL – ------ωC • The unit of the inductive and capacitive reactances is also the Ohm (Ω).Summary 1 Re { Z } = R and Im { Z } = ω L – ------ωC • In polar form the impedance is expressed as Z = –1 2 1 2 1 R + ⎛ ω L – -------⎞ ∠ tan ⎛ ω L – -------⎞ ⁄ R ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ωC ω C⎠ • The imaginary part of the impedance Z is called reactance and it is denoted with the letter X .

and when we deal with conductance and susceptance we must think of devices in parallel. Similarly. this value is not impedance. conductance is not necessarily the reciprocal of resistance. Whenever we deal with resistance and reactance we must think of devices in series. However. the admittance is always the reciprocal of the impedance • The ratio V ⁄ I of the phasor voltage to the phasor current exists only in the jω – domain and it is not the ratio v ( t ) ⁄ i ( t ) in the t – domain .Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis • Admittances combine as conductances do. • Duality is a term meaning that there is a similarity in which some quantities are related to others. and suscep- tance is not the negative reciprocal of reactance. the ratio i ( t ) ⁄ v ( t ) is not admittance. 6-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . • In phasor circuit analysis. Although the ratio v ( t ) ⁄ i ( t ) could yield some value.

and capacitors. Phasor voltages and phasor currents can be used in the t – domain if a circuit contains A. If the excitation in a circuit is a single sinusoidal source with amplitude A . none of the above 3. none of the above 4. radian frequency ω but different amplitude A and different phase angle θ C. A series RLC circuit contains two voltage sources with values v 1 ( t ) = 100 cos ( 10t + 45° ) and v 2 ( t ) = 200 sin ( 5t – 60 ° ) . V = 120e C.8 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. and the circuit contains resistors. The sinusoid v ( t ) = 120 sin ( ω t + 90° ) in the jω – domain is expressed as A. V = 120e D. v ( t ) = 100 cos ( 5t + 105° ) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-25 . We can transform this circuit to a phasor equivalent to find the cur- rent by first replacing these with a single voltage source v ( t ) = v 1 ( t ) + v 2 ( t ) whose value is A. V = 120e j ( ωt + 90° ) jωt j90° j0° E. inductors. and capacitors E.Exercises 6. v ( t ) = 300 cos ( 15t – 15 ° ) B. all voltages and all currents in that circuit will be of the same A. inductors. independent and dependent sources with resistors. and phase angle θ . amplitude A same radian frequency ω and same phase angle θ E. none of the above 2. independent and dependent sources with resistors and inductors only C. radian frequency ω . V = 120e B. independent and dependent sources with resistors and capacitors only D. independent and dependent sources with resistors only B. phase angle θ but different amplitude A and different radian frequency ω D. amplitude A but different radian frequency ω and different phase angle θ B.

5 6 ----B. none of the above 5. The equivalent admittance Y eq of the network of Figure 6.18. the phasor voltage V across that coil is A.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis C. 4 – j 1. The equivalent impedance Z eq of the network of Figure 6.5 Ω Z eq −j2 Ω 2Ω Figure 6.5t – 15 ° ) D. 12 + j ----37 D. Network for Questions 5 and 6 6. – j1 D. 2 + j0 E. The resistance of a coil is R = 1.3 mH .18 is A. 10 ∠53. 1 – j1 C. 1 + j1 B. 2 – j2 E. none of the above 2Ω j0.1° V 6-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5t + 15° ) E. 16 + j ----73 73 37 2----C.5 Ω and the inductance of that coil is L = 5. none of the above 7. v ( t ) = 150 cos ( 7.18 is A. If a current of i ( t ) = 4 cos ωt A flows through that coil and operates at the frequency of f = 60Hz . v ( t ) = 150 cos ( 7.

6. 3 cos ωt + j3 sin ωt B. 5 cos ( ωt + 53. 6 ∠0° V C. 56.8 ∠45° V E. 5 sin ( ωt + 53. A conductance with value G = 0. 56. none of the above 10. none of the above Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications j(π ⁄ 2) .6 cos ( ωt – 45° ) D. A phasor voltage with value V = 10 ∠0° is applied across this parallel combination. cos ( ωt + π ⁄ 2 ) B. none of the above 8.2° ) E. A phasor current with value I = 8 ∠0° A is flowing through this series combination.3 × 10 ∠90° V D. none of the above 9. 80 sin ωt C.Exercises B.3 Ω –1 –3 is in parallel with a capacitor whose capacitive suscep–1 tance at some particular frequency ω is jB C = j0.6 cos ( ωt + 45° ) E. 5. – sin ωt E.2° ) D.3 Ω . then in the t – domain i ( t ) is 6-27 . 80 cos ωt B. If the phasor I = je A. – cos ωt D. sin ( ωt + π ⁄ 2 ) C. The t – domain voltage across this series combination is A. The t – domain total current through this parallel combination is A. A resistor with value R = 5 Ω is in series with a capacitor whose capacitive reactance at some particular frequency ω is – jX C = – 5 Ω . 3 cos ωt – j 3 sin ωt C.

533 KHz R 8Ω 1 mH L C 1 µF vS i Figure 6.605 ms I = 5.00 mA at 1.62 V 0.20.62 mA I i (mA) i = 15.000 ms 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 t (ms) Figure 6.94 ms 0 t (ms) Figure 6.19.9° ) A ? Answer: f = 5. Compute i ( 1 ) .21 operating if it is known that v S = 120 cos ω t V and i = 12 cos ( ω t – 36.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis Problems 1. and θ . Circuit for Problem 3 6-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Circuit for Problem 2 3.18 as v ( t ) = A cos ( ω t + θ ) . At what frequency f is the network of Figure 6. that is. Answer: v ( t ) = 2 cos ( 1000t + 36.20.2 ms 1. 23.27 mA at 3.1° ) v (V) −2. Express the sinusoidal voltage waveform of Figure 6.21. ω . find A . and two values are known as indicated. the current at t = 1 ms Answers: i ( t ) = 50e – 750t mA . The current i ( t ) through a device decays exponentially as shown by the waveform of Figure 6. that is. Circuit for Problem 1 2.

Network for Problem 5 * Voltmeters and Ammeters are discussed in Chapter 8.23. v S = V cos ( 2000t + θ ) V and the symbols V and A inside the circles denote an AC voltmeter* and ammeter respectively. For the circuit shown on Figure 6.22. Assume that the ammeter has negligible internal resistance. Find the value of the capacitor. it will suffice to say that these instruments indicate the magnitude (absolute) values of voltage and current.6 µF A R vS Other Part of the Network 2Ω V L C 0. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-29 .Exercises 4. Network for Problem 4 5. if C = 1 F and R 1 = 1 Ω vS Other Part of the Network ZIN YIN L 1H C R2 1Ω R1 Figure 6. what are these values? Answer: Yes.5 mH Figure 6. The variable capacitor C is adjusted until the voltmeter reads 25 V and the ammeter 5 A. For this exercise.22. In the circuit of Figure 6. Answer: C = 89.23. is it possible to adjust the variable resistor R 1 and the variable capacitor C so that Z IN and Y IN have the same numerical value regardless of the operating frequency? If so.

E The voltage sources v 1 ( t ) and v 1 ( t ) operate at different frequencies. C 9. C Problems 1.94 = 3.13° . V = ZI = 2. E 3 – j0.62 V 0.2 + 0.94 ms 0 t (ms) θ or 6-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and one period is T = 6. D 4. B 3.3 × 10 –3 = j2 Ω Z = 1.28 ms .2 ms 1. A ω = 2πf = 2π × 60 = 377 r ⁄ s .Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis 6.E Phasors exist in the jω – domain only 2. Therefore. ω = 2πf or ω = 2π × 10 ⁄ 2π = 1000 r ⁄ s 3 3 3 Next.5 + j2 = 2.0000-0. we find the phase angle θ from the figure above observing that π ⁄ 2 + θ = 2.5 ∠53. 5. z=z1+z2 z = 3. to find the current we must apply superposition.5 ∠53.5000i 6. The t – axis crossings define half of the period T. D 10.5j. jX L = jωL = j × 377 × 5. z2=2*(−2j)/(2−2j).5 This value is obtained with the MATLAB code z1=2+0.9 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1.13° 8. T ⁄ 2 = 2. Thus. C 7.13° × 4 ∠0° = 10 ∠53. Then. The frequency is f = 1 ⁄ T = 10 ⁄ 6.2 ms v (V) −2.28 = 10 ⁄ 2π .14 ms .

605 × 10 )α –3 and i t = 3.605 × 10 )α –3 or e – ( 1.1° – 90° = 36.2 × 2 × 180° – π = 126.27 mA = Ae – ( 3.605 × 10 )α + ( 3.--θ = 2.000 × 10 )α –3 Division of the first equation by the second yields Ae 15 mA ------------------------------------. Then.– π –3 π rad 2 2 6. v ( t ) = 2 cos ( 1000t + 36.28 Finally.= 750 1.27 ) × 10 α = -------------------------------------------.-2 6.1° ) or 1.605 ms – αt = 15 mA = Ae – ( 1.395 × 10 α –3 15 = --------5.= 2 V cos 36.27 mA – ( 3. v ( 0 ) = 1.1° Therefore.27 ⎠ or ln ( 15 ⁄ 5. The decaying exponential has the form i ( t ) = Ae mA where the time is in ms and thus for this problem we need to compute the values of A and α using the given values.62 A = --------------------.× ------------. i t = 1.62 V .= -------------------–3 5.62 = A cos ( 0 + 36.000 ms = 5.2ms – π = 2.000 × 10 )α –3 –3 15 = --------5.27 or 15 –3 ln ⎛ --------.395 3 and thus i ( t ) = Ae Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications – 750t mA 6-31 . we find the amplitude A by observing that at t = 0 .2 × 10 s × ------------------------------.1° ) 2.27 or e 1.28 × 10 s = 2.000 × 10 )α Ae – ( 1.⎞ = 1.395 × 10 α ⎝ 5. that is.Answers to Exercises 2π rad 180° –3 .1° ---------------------------------. v = 1.

= 10 ∠36. – 750 × 3 × 10 or A = 5.27 = Ae t = 3 ms –3 = 5. jωL = j10 ω .9° A .27 × 10 -------------------------– 2.25 e –3 or A = 0.9° A and Z = 10 = R + ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC ) 2 2 2 or R + ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC ) = 100 2 or 8 + ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC ) = 100 2 2 or ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC ) = 36 2 or ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC = 6 or 6-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Then.9° I 12 ∠– 36. I = 12 ∠– 36.62 mA and i t = 1 ms = 50e – 750 × 10 –3 3. VS 120 ∠0° V Z = ----. i ( t ) = 50e – 750t mA = 23. R 8Ω L jωL C 1 µF –3 6 vS I j– ------ωC In the jω – domain V S = 120 ∠0° V .= -------------------------------. and – j ⁄ ωC = – j10 ⁄ ω Then.050 A = 50mA Therefore.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis To find the value of A we make use of the fact that i 5.27 mA . The equivalent phasor circuit is shown below.

= 625 2 C C –4 –8 and after simplification we get 500C + 250 × 10 C – 625 × 10 2 –4 –8 = 0 Using MATLAB.9° 10 ∠36. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-33 . 5. r=roots(p) and this yields C = 89.= 0 L LC or ω – 6 × 10 ω – 10 = 0 2 3 9 Solving for ω and ignoring the negative value.765 Z = R + j ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ( ωC ) ) = 8 + j ( 34.= 12 ∠– 36.6 µF The second root of this polynomial is negative and thus it is discarded. 765 r ⁄ s f = ----.= 5. 765 r ⁄ s 2 3 6 9 and ω 34.+ ------------------------. Since the instruments read absolute values. Thus.765 – 28.= ---------------------------. We group the series devices as shown below. phasor current. we are only need to be concerned the magnitudes of the phasor voltage.⎞ ⎝ ⎠ C × 25 625 × 10 250 × 10 = 100 + 25 – ------------------------.765 ) = 8 + j6 = 10 ∠36. and impedance.Answers to Exercises 2 6 1ω – -. – j ⁄ ωC = – j28. 533 Hz = 5.765 .533 KHz 2π 2π Check: jωL = j34.9° 4. we get p=[500 250*10^(−4) −625*10^(−8)]. we get -----------------------------------------------------------------------ω = 6 × 10 + 36 × 10 + 4 × 10 .9° and 120 ∠0° I = ----------------------.= 34.ω – -----. V = Z I = 25 = R + ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC ) × 5 –4 2 2 2 or V 2 2 2 2 5 × 10 = 25 = [ R + ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC ) ] × 25 = 4 + ⎛ 1 – ------------------.

= ω – ------ωC ωC From the first equation above we get C = 1 F and by substitution of this value into the second equation we get R 1 = 1 Ω 6-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis ZIN YIN L 1H C R2 1Ω R1 Z1 Z2 Thus Z 1 = R 1 + jω . and Z1 ⋅ Z2 ( R 1 + jω ) ( 1 – j ⁄ ωC ) Z IN = ----------------. if the condition Y IN = Z IN is to hold for all frequencies.= R 1 + 1 C R1 1ω – ------.= --------------------------------------------------R 1 + jω + 1 – j ⁄ ωC ( R 1 + jω ) ( 1 – j ⁄ ωC ) [ ( R 1 + jω ) ( 1 – j ⁄ ωC ) ] = [ R 1 + jω + 1 – j ⁄ ωC ] ( R 1 + jω ) ( 1 – j ⁄ ωC ) = R 1 + jω + 1 – j ⁄ ωC R1 11 R 1 – j ------.= --------------------------------------------------Z IN ( R 1 + jω ) ( 1 – j ⁄ ωC ) Therefore.= R 1 + 1 + j ⎛ ω – ------. Z 2 = 1 – j ⁄ ( ωC ) . ( R 1 + jω ) ( 1 – j ⁄ ωC ) R 1 + jω + 1 – j ⁄ ωC --------------------------------------------------.+ jω + --.⎞ + jω = ( R + 1 ) + j ⎛ ω – ------. the right sides of Z IN and Y IN must be equal.⎞ ⎝ ωC ωC ⎠ C R1 11 ⎛ R + --.⎞ 1 ⎝ ⎝ 1 C⎠ ⎝ ωC ⎠ ωC ⎠ 2 2 Equating reals and imaginaries we get 1 R 1 + --.= --------------------------------------------------Z1 + Z2 R 1 + jω + 1 – j ⁄ ωC and at any frequency ω R 1 + jω + 1 – j ⁄ ωC 1 Y IN = ------. that is.⎞ + j ⎛ ω – ------.

1 VB Solution: As before. The following example illustrates the procedure. Circuit for Example 7.544 ∠– 20.1 Nodal Analysis The procedure of analyzing a phasor* circuit is the same as in Chapter 3. and Z 3 as shown. Then. phasor diagrams are introduced.1.1 Use nodal analysis to compute the phasor voltage V AB = V A – V B for the circuit of Figure 7. and we write nodal equations at the other two nodes A and B . and Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems in phasor circuits.6° * A phasor is a rotating vector Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-1 . Example 7. VA 4Ω 5 ∠0° A –j 6 Ω 2Ω j3 Ω 8Ω –j 3 Ω 10 ∠0° A Figure 7. mesh analysis.2. Z 2.3° Z 3 = 8 – j3 = 8. except that in this chapter we will be using phasor quantities.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis T his chapter begins with the application of nodal analysis. for convenience. Z 1 = 4 – j6 = 7.3° Z 2 = 2 + j3 = 3. we designate the devices in series as Z 1.1. we choose a reference node as shown in Figure 7. Also.606 ∠56. and the input-output relationships for an RC low-pass filter and an RC high-pass filter are developed.211 ∠–56. superposition. and then we write the nodal equations in terms of these impedances. 7.

277 ∠– 56.1) or 1⎛ Z 1 + Z 2⎞ V – ----.+ -----------------.V – ( 0.2) Next.708 ∠– 26.V = 5 ∠0° ⎝Z Z ⎠ A Z2 B 1 2 (7.= 5 ∠0° Z2 Z1 or 1 1 1 ⎛ ---.3 ) ( 3.3° )V B = 5 ∠0° 26 ∠0° ( 0. at V B : VB – VA VB ------------------.3° 6 – j3 -------------------.277 ∠– 56.211 ∠– 56.0 ∠0° A 6.1 By application of KCL at V A .V A – ( 0.+ ---. VA VA – VB -----.3° )V B = 5 ∠0° 26.258 ∠– 26.277 ∠– 56.606 ∠56.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis VB 2Ω Z2 Z1 VA 4Ω 5 ∠0° A –j 6 Ω j3 Ω 8Ω –j 3 Ω Z3 10 ∠0° A Figure 7.V A – -----------------------------.V B = 5 ∠0° ( 7. Nodal analysis for the circuit for Example 7.3° ) 3.+ -----.606 ∠56.6° ---------------------------------.6° )V A – ( 0.⎞ V – ---.V = 5 ∠0° ----------------⎝ Z1 Z2 ⎠ A Z B 2 and by substitution for Z 1 and Z 2 we get 4 – j6 + 2 + j3 1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------.2.= – 10 ∠0° Z2 Z3 or 7-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .3° )V B = 5 ∠0° (7.

5) the system of equations is ( 0.6° ) 3.7° )V B = 10 ∠180° (7.3) In matrix form (7.325 ∠– 35.277 ∠– 56. please refer to Appendix A Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-3 .3° 10 – ( 0. and we will use MATLAB®* to verify the results.3° )V B = 5 ∠0° – ( 0.810 ∠35.1) and (7.V B = 10 ∠180° ( 3.+ ---.V A + ⎛ ---.5) and thus with (7.V A + --------------------------------------------------------------------------.V A + ⎛ -----------------⎞ V B = 10 ∠180° ⎝ Z2 Z3 ⎠ Z2 2 + j3 + 8 – j3 1 – -----------------------------.6) We find V A and V B from D1 V A = ----- ∆ (7.7) and D2 V B = ----- ∆ (7.+ ---.544 ∠–20.325 ∠– 35.7° – ( 0.277 ∠– 56.3) as Z2 + Z3 1 – ---.Nodal Analysis 1 1.8) The determinant ∆ is * If unfamiliar with MATLAB.277 ∠– 56.3° ) ( 8.4) We will follow a step-by-step procedure to solve these equations using Cramer’s rule.3° )V A + ( 0.277 ∠– 56.7° )V B = 10 ∠180° (7.3° )V A + ( 0.3° )V A + --------------------------------.6° )V A – ( 0.V B = 10 ∠180° 30.2) and (7.+ ---. We rewrite (7.1– ---.⎞ V B = – 10 ∠0° ⎝Z Z2 Z3 ⎠ 2 (7.606 ∠56.606 ∠56.⎞ V B ⎝Z Z ⎠ = 5 – 10 (7.⎞ ⎝Z Z ⎠ 1 2 1 – ---Z2 2 3 VA 1 – ---Z2 1 1 ⎛ ---.3) are 1 1 ⎛ ---.258 ∠– 26.

3° ) – ( 0.570 + j21.3° ) 10 ∠180° = ( 0.= 24.625 ∠– 35. Va=V(1.3° ) ( 0.769 – j1.5° Check with MATLAB: z1=4−j*6.3° ) ] = ( 1.258 ∠– 26.1).385 ∠– 56.155 + 0.6° ) – ( 0. disp('Vab = ').685 – ( – 24. by substitution into (7.084 ∠– 62.258 ∠– 26.003 = 0.357 = 1.8° ) Also.7° ) – ( 0.9° Therefore.039 – j0.685 0. z2 and z3 Z=[1/z1+1/z2 −1/z2. disp(Vab).358 ∠179.325 ∠– 35.003 = 1.8° ∆ Finally. D1 = 5 ∠0° – ( 0.152 ) = – 1. z2=2+j*3.8).= ------------------------------.062 ∠– 2. % Elements of matrix Z I=[5 −10]'.5 ∠48.807 ∠– 177.277 ∠– 56.325 ∠– 35. −1/z2 1/z2+1/z3]. z3=8−j*3.1° and D2 = ( 0.277 ∠– 56.= 22.325 ∠– 35.374 ∠99. Vb=V(2.= --------------------------------.85 = 30.7° ) = ( 5 ∠0° ) ( 0.374 ∠99.570 + j21.307 + j1.169 0.3° ) 10 ∠180° ( 0.580 ∠153.062 ∠– 2.258 ∠– 26.9° V B = ----.217 + j1.077 ∠– 112.7) and (7.6 ) – ( 0.948 + ( – 1.9° = – 4. Vb = V(2) are also acceptable % With fprintf only the real part of each parameter is processed so we will use disp fprintf(' \n').3° = – 24. 7-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .3° ) ( 5 ∠0° ) = 2.062 ∠– 2.7° ) = ( 0. disp(Vb).277 ∠– 56.780 – j1.21 + j22. V AB = V A – V B = – 4. % Va = V(1).325 ∠– 35.277 ∠– 56.320 – j0.3° ) – ( 0.023 – j0.169 ) = 20.4° + 1.7° ) – ( 10 ∠180° ) [ – ( 0.780 – j1. disp('Vb = ').161 ∠101.3° ) ⋅ ( – 0.358 + j0. we get D1 1.277 ∠– 56. disp(Va).7° + 2.305 ) = – 0.1° V A = ----.074 ) – ( – 0.3 ) = ( 0.3° = ( – 2.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis ∆ = ( 0.277 ∠– 56.277 ∠– 56. fprintf(' \n').8° ∆ and D2 1.071 ) = ( 0.537 + j2. % Define z1. % Column vector I V=Z\I.770 ∠123.7° ) = 1.1).258 ∠– 26.358 ∠179.062 – j0.6° ) 5 ∠0° – ( 0.6° ) ⋅ ( 0. Vab=Va−Vb. disp('Va = ').277 ∠– 56.6° ) ( 10 ∠180° ) – ( – 0.

for Mesh 1.1. The circuit then is as shown in Figure 7.3. Circuit for Example 7.Mesh Analysis Va = -4. and we write mesh equations in terms of these impedances. for convenience.0345i Vab = 18. Accordingly. we should accept the MATLAB values as more accurate.2 Solution: As in the previous example. and Z 3 . I 1 = 5 ∠0° (7.6552i Vb = -22. Z 2. Example 7. we denote the passive devices in series as Z 1. By inspection. We observe that the voltage across the 10 ∠0° current source is the same as the voltage across the 8 Ω and – j 3 Ω series combination.4 with the mesh currents assigned in a clockwise direction.3. although it only displays four decimal places in the short (default) number display format. 2Ω 4Ω 5 ∠0° A –j 6 Ω j3 Ω + 8Ω –j 3 Ω V 10A − 10 ∠0° A Figure 7. The following example illustrates the procedure. use mesh analysis to find the voltage V 10A . the procedure of analyzing a phasor circuit is the same as in Chapter 3 except that in this chapter we will be using phasor quantities.2 For the circuit of Figure 7.1379 + 19. the voltage across the 10 ∠0° current source.6897i These values differ by about 10% from the values we obtained with Cramer’s rule where we rounded the values to three decimal places.2 Mesh Analysis Again.2759 + 20.4138 .9) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-5 . that is. MATLAB performs calculations with accuracy of 15 decimal places. 7.

i1=I(1). i1 = 5 i2 = 7.038 We observe that this is the same value as that of the voltage V B in the previous example. (7. the voltage across the 10 ∠0° A current source is V 10A = Z 3 ( I 2 – I 3 ) = ( 8 – j3 ) ( 7.4. i3=I(3). disp('i1 = ').1. and (7. i2=I(2). * As we experienced with Example 7.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis Z2 4Ω Z1 5 ∠0° A –j 6 Ω I1 I2 2Ω j3 Ω + 8Ω –j 3 Ω Z3 I3 V 10A − 10 ∠0° A Figure 7.9).586 – j1. Accordingly.5862 .1. −(4−j*6) 14−j*6 −(8−j*3). by inspection for Mesh 3.035 – 10 ) = – 22.11) and in matrix form. disp(i1). – Z 1 I 1 + ( Z 1 + Z 2 + Z 3 )I 2 – Z 3 I 3 = 0 or – ( 4 – j6 ) I 1 + ( 14 – j6 )I 2 – ( 8 – j3 )I 3 = 0 (7. V=[5 0 10]'.10) Also.12. I=Z\V. I 3 = 10 ∠0° (7. disp('i3 = '). fprintf(' \n').0345i i3 = 10 Therefore. disp('i2 = '). in our subsequent discussion we will use MATLAB for the solution of simultaneous equations with complex coefficients.* Z=[1 0 0. fprintf(' \n'). disp(i2). 0 0 1]. 7-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .11) are written as 1 – ( 4 – j6 ) 0 I1 5 0 0 ( 14 – j6 ) – ( 8 – j3 ) I 2 = 0 – 10 0 1 I3 (7.12) We use MATLAB for the solution of 7. disp(i3).417 – j1. (7.10). the computation of phasor voltages and currents becomes quite tedious.2 By application of KVL around Mesh 2. Mesh analysis for the circuit of Example 7.

5 ∠0° = ------------------------------------. Example 7. the circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 7.3° 4 – j6 I ' C2 = -----------------------------------------------------.2° 4 – j6 + 2 + j3 + 8 – j3 The voltage across C 2 with the 5 ∠0° current source acting alone is Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-7 . Then. Circuit for Example 7.Application of Superposition Principle 7. 2Ω j3 Ω 8Ω –j 3 Ω V ' C2 C2 4Ω 5 ∠0° A –j 6 Ω Figure 7. The following example illustrates the application of the superposition principle in phasor circuits.3 Use the superposition principle to find the phasor voltage across capacitor C 2 in the circuit of Figure 7. the current I ' C2 through C 2 is 7. and that due to the 10 ∠0° A current source as V '' C2 .6. 4Ω 5 ∠0° A –j 6 Ω 2Ω j3 Ω 8Ω –j 3 Ω C2 10 ∠0° A Figure 7.5 ∠0° = 2. the superposition principle is most useful when a circuit contains two or more independent voltage or current sources.367 ∠– 33. Circuit for Example 7.3 Application of Superposition Principle As we know from Chapter 3.211 ∠–56.232 ∠– 23.1° 15.5.5.3 with the 5 ∠0° A current source acting alone By application of the current division expression.6.3 Solution: Let the phasor voltage across C 2 due to the 5 ∠0° A current source acting alone be denoted as V ' C2 . V C2 = V ' C2 + V '' C2 With the 5 ∠0° A current source acting alone.

367 ∠– 33.6° = ------------------------------------.240 = 7.189 or V C2 = – 3.4 For the circuit of Figure 7.873 ∠113.8.367 ∠– 33.2° The voltage across C 2 with the 10 ∠0° current source acting alone is V '' C2 = ( – j3 ) ( 4.10 ∠180° = 4.878 – j5. with the 10 ∠0° A current source acting alone.1° = – 3.6° ) = ( 3 ∠– 90° ) ( 4.6 = 0. the current I '' C2 through C 2 is 4 – j6 + 2 + j3 I '' C2 = -----------------------------------------------------. apply Thevenin’s theorem to compute I X and then draw Norton’s equivalent circuit.1° ) = 7.1° ) = ( 3 ∠– 90° ) ( 2. 7-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .232 ∠– 23.3 with the 10 ∠0° A current source acting alone and by application of the current division expression.404 ∠176.949 (7.784 + j13. Circuit for Example 7.1° (7.7.404 ∠176.949 + 0.6° 15.708 ∠– 26.14) Addition of (7.13) with (7.404 ∠176.( – 10 ∠0° ) 4 – j6 + 2 + j3 + 8 – j3 6.878 – j5.15) 7. 2Ω j3 Ω 8Ω –j 3 Ω V '' C2 C2 4Ω –j 6 Ω 10 ∠0° A Figure 7.102 ∠– 123.14) yields V C2 = V ' C2 + V '' C2 = – 3.6° ) = ( 13.784 + j13.13) Next.094 + j7.213 ∠86. the circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 7. Example 7.7.189 ) (7.4 Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems These two theorems also offer a very convenient method in analyzing phasor circuits as illustrated by the following example.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis V ' C2 = ( – j3 ) ( 2.

Circuit for Example 7.170 ∠0° = --------------------------------------.9. the circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 7.16) and 50 50 V 2 = ---------------------.4 )° (7. 85 Ω V1 170 ∠0° V j200 Ω – j100 Ω V2 50 Ω Figure 7. from (7.170 ∠0° = 156.18) Next.4 Solution: With the 100 Ω resistor disconnected.9. Circuit for Example 7.170 ∠0° = ----------------------------.Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems 85 Ω IX 170 ∠0° V 100 Ω j200 Ω 50 Ω – j100 Ω Figure 7. we find the Thevenin equivalent impedance Z TH by shorting the 170 ∠0° V voltage source.17) Then.13 217.8.4 with the 100 Ω resistor disconnected By application of the voltage division expression.13 – ( 34 + j68 ) or V TH = 110 – j6.8 ∠( – 63.16) and (7.31 ∠67° 85 + j200 (7. The circuit then reduces to that shown in Figure 7.4° = 34 + j68 50 – j100 111.87 = 110. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-9 .170 ∠0° = 76 ∠63.10.21 ∠– 3. 200 ∠90° j200 V 1 = ---------------------.17).46 ∠23° = 144 + j61.6 ° (7. V TH = V OC = V 12 = V 1 – V 2 = 144 + j61.

4° Ω The Thevenin equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 7.4 with the voltage source shorted 85 Ω – j100 Ω Y ZTH 50 Ω – j100 Ω j200 Ω 85 Ω We observe that the parallel combinations j200 || 85 and 50 || j100 are in series as shown in Figure 7.11.0598e+001i or Z TH = 112. 7-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .11.12. Network for the computation of Z TH for Example 7. Zth=85*200j/(85+200j) + 50*(−100j)/(50−100j) Zth = 1.11.0 + j10.+ -----------------------------85 + j200 50 – j100 and with MATLAB.4 −j100 Ω 85 Ω From Figure 7.10. 85 × j200 50 × ( – j100 ) Z TH = ---------------------. X j200 Ω ZTH 50 Ω Y Figure 7.5 ∠5.6 = 112.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis X 85 Ω X j200 Ω – j100 Ω Y 50 Ω X j200 Ω 50 Ω Y Figure 7. Circuit for Example 7.1200e+002 + 1.

18 of Appendix C where we applied nodal analysis to find IX . V TH I X = -------------------------------.6j.= ---------------------------------.21∠−3. Ix=Vth/(Zth+100).519 ∠– 6.13.98 ∠– 9° A Z TH 112.058 = 0.4 VTH = 110−j6. Zth=112+10. Simplified circuit for computation of I X in Example 7.0582i that is. Thevenin equivalent circuit for Example 7.= 0.19) The same answer is found in Example C.6 Ω IX 100 Ω Y Figure 7. Thus.6° = 110−j6.87 Y Figure 7. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 7.6° I N = --------.4° A Z TH + 100 Ω (7.5 ∠5.5160 . fprintf(' \n').= 0.5 ∠5.4° Ω Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-11 .12.21 ∠– 3. Norton’s equivalent is obtained from Thevenin’s circuit by exchanging V TH and its series Z TH with I N in parallel with Z N as shown in Figure 7.13. Ix = 0. disp('Ix = ').14.516 – j0.0. fprintf(' \n'). X 112 Ω j10. disp(Ix).87 We find I X using MATLAB: Vth=110−6.4° and Z N = Z TH = 112.6 Ω X VTH = 110.Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems ZTH 112 Ω j10.87j. V TH 110.4 With the 100 Ω resistor connected at X-Y.

Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis

IN

ZN

Figure 7.14. Norton equivalent circuit for Example 7.4

7.5 Phasor Analysis in Amplifier Circuits
Other circuits such as those who contain op amps and op amp equivalent circuits can be analyzed using any of the above methods. Example 7.5 Compute i X ( t ) for the circuit below where v in ( t ) = 2 cos ( 30000 ω t ) V .
2Ω 50 Ω 10 Ω

iX ( t )

v in ( t )

8Ω 0.2 mH

+

vC ( t )

+
− 5v ( t ) C

4Ω

10 ⁄ 3 µF

Figure 7.15. Circuit for Example 7.5

Solution: As a first step, we perform the t – domain , to jω – domain transformation. Thus,
jX L = j ω L = j0.2 × 10
–3

× 30 × 10 = j6

3

and
1 1 – jX C = – j ------- = – j ------------------------------------------------- = – j10 ωC 3 10 –6 30 × 10 × ----- × 10 3

Also,
V IN = 2 ∠0°

and the phasor circuit is shown in Figure 5.16.

7-12

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Phasor Analysis in Amplifier Circuits
V1
2Ω

V2
10 Ω 8Ω j6 Ω

50 Ω

V3

IX

+

V IN 2 ∠0°

+

VC −j10 Ω

+
− 5V C

4Ω

Figure 7.16. Phasor circuit for Example 7.5

At Node

:
V1 V 1 – V C V 1 – 5V C V 1 – 2 ∠0° ------------------------- + ------------- + ------------------ + ---------------------- = 0 2 10 50 8 + j6

(7.20)

and since
3 1 8 –j 6 8 –j 6 4 1 ------------- = ------------- ⋅ ---------- = ---------- = ----- – j ----8 + j6 8 – j 6 100 50 50 8 + j6

the nodal equation of (7.20) simplifies to
3 ⎛ 35 – j -----⎞ V – 1 V = 1 ∠0° -----⎝ 50 50⎠ 1 5 C

(7.21)

At Node

:
VC – V1 VC ------------------ + ---------- = 0 10 – j10

or
111 – ----- V 1 + ⎛ ----- + j -----⎞ V C = 0 ⎝ 10 10⎠ 10

(7.22)

At Node

:
V 3 = 5V C

We use MATLAB to solve (7.21) and (7.22).
G=[35/50 −j*3/50; −1/5 1/10+j*1/10]; I=[1 0]'; V=G\I; Ix=5*V(2,1)/4; % Multiply Vc by 5 and divide by 4 to get current Ix magIx=abs(Ix); theta=angle(Ix)*180/pi; % Convert current Ix to polar form fprintf(' \n'); disp(' Ix = ' ); disp(Ix);... fprintf('magIx = %4.2f A \t', magIx); fprintf('theta = %4.2f deg \t', theta);... fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n');

Ix = 2.1176 - 1.7546i

magIx = 2.75 A

theta = -39.64 deg

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

7-13

Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis
Therefore,
I = 2.75 ∠– 39.6° ⇔ i ( t ) = 2.75 cos ( 30000t – 39.6° )

Example 7.6 Compute the phasor V out for the op amp circuit of Figure 7.17.
−j5 Ω 4Ω 5Ω V in = 4 ∠0° V −j10 Ω 10 Ω V out

Figure 7.17. Circuit for Example 7.6

Solution: We assign phasor voltages V 1 and V while observing that V out = V
+ +

as shown in Figure 7.18, and we apply KCL at these nodes,

V1 4Ω V in = 4 ∠0° V 5Ω −j10 Ω V
+

10 Ω

V out

Figure 7.18. Application of KCL for the circuit of Example 7.6

At Node

:
V 1 – 4 ∠0° V 1 – V out V 1 – V out V1 ------------------------- + ---------------------- + ---------------------- + ---------- = 0 4 – j10 – j5 5

or
39 ⎛ ----- + j -----⎞ V – ⎛ 1 + j 1 ⎞ V -- -= 1 ∠0° ⎝ 20 10⎠ 1 ⎝ 5 5 ⎠ out

(7.23)

At Node

,
Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

7-14

Phasor Diagrams
V2 = V
+

= V out

and thus,
V out V out – V 1 V out – V 1 ---------- + ---------------------- + ---------------------- = 0 5 – j5 10

or
1 1 1 3 – ⎛ -- + j -- ⎞ V 1 + ⎛ ----- + j -- ⎞ V out = 0 ⎝5 5 ⎠ ⎝ 10 5 ⎠

(7.24)

Solving (7.23) and (7.24) with MATLAB we get:
format rat G=[9/20+j*3/10 −1/5−j*1/5; −1/5−j*1/5 3/10+j*1/5]; I=[1 0]'; V=G\I; fprintf(' \n');disp(‘V1 = ’); disp(V(1,1)); disp(‘Vout = ’); disp(V(2,1)); format short magV=abs(V(2,1)); thetaV=angle(V(2,1))*180/pi; fprintf('magIx = %5.3f A \t', magIx); fprintf('theta = %4.2f deg \t', theta);... fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n')

V1 = 68/25 - 24/25i magIx = 2.750 A Therefore,

Vout = 56/25 - 8/25i theta = -39.64 deg
V out = 2.263 ∠– 8.13°

(7.25)

7.6 Phasor Diagrams
A phasor diagram is a sketch showing the magnitude and phase relationships among the phasor voltages and currents in phasor circuits. The procedure is best illustrated with the examples below. Example 7.7 Compute and sketch all phasor quantities for the circuit of Figure 7.19. +
VS I
2Ω j3 Ω

− +

VR

VL VC

+
− −j5 Ω

Figure 7.19. Circuit for Example 7.7

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

7-15

Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis
Solution: Since this is a series circuit, the phasor current I is common to all circuit devices. Therefore, we assign to this phasor current the value I = 1 ∠0° and use it as our reference as shown in the phasor diagram of Figure 7.20. Then,
V R = ( 2 Ω ) ( 1 ∠0° ) = 2 ∠0° V V L = ( j3 Ω ) ( 1 ∠0° ) = j3 = 3 ∠90° V V C = ( – j 5 Ω ) ( 1 ∠0° ) = – j5 = 5 ∠– 90 ° V V S = V R + ( V L + V C ) = 2 – j2 = 2 2 ∠– 45° VL VR VL+VC VC Figure 7.20. Phasor diagram for the circuit of Example 7.7 I = 1∠0°

VS=VR+(VL+VC)

Example 7.8 Compute and sketch all phasor quantities for the circuit of Figure 7.21. +
V IS − IR
10 Ω

IL
j20 Ω

IC −j10 Ω

Figure 7.21. Circuit for Example 7.8

Solution: Since this is a parallel circuit, the phasor voltage V is common to all circuit devices. Therefore let us assign this phasor voltage the value V = 1 ∠0° and use it as our reference phasor as shown in the phasor diagram of Figure 7.22. Then,

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Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Phasor Diagrams
I R = 1 ∠0° ⁄ 10 = 100 ∠0° mA I L = 1 ∠0° ⁄ j20 = 1 ∠0° ⁄ 20 ∠90° = 50 ∠– 90 ° m I C = 1 ∠0° ⁄ ( – j 10 ) = 1 ∠0° ⁄ 10 ∠– 90 ° = 100 ∠90° mA I C + I L = 50 ∠90° mA I S = I R + ( I C + I L ) = 100 + j50 = 111.8 ∠26.6° IC IC+IL IS=IR+(IC+IL) V = 1∠0° IR IL Figure 7.22. Phasor diagram for Example 7.8

We can draw a phasor diagram for other circuits that are neither series nor parallel by assigning any phasor quantity as a reference. Example 7.9 Compute and sketch all phasor voltages for the circuit of Figure 7.23. Then, use MATLAB to plot these quantities in the t – domain . +
VS VR1
2Ω

+ +

VL
j3 Ω

+
5Ω

IR2 VR2

−j5 Ω −

VC

Figure 7.23. Circuit for Example 7.9

Solution: We will begin by selecting I R2 = 1 ∠0° A as our reference as shown on the phasor diagram of Figure 7.24. Then,
V R2 = 5 Ω × I R2 = 5 × 1 ∠0° = 5 ∠0° V L = j3 Ω × I R2 = 3 ∠90° × 1 ∠0° = 3 ∠90° V C = V L + V R2 = 5 ∠0° + 3 ∠90° = 5 + j3 = 5.83 ∠31°

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Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis
VC ----------------------V R1 = 2 Ω × I R1 = 2 ( I C + I R2 ) = 2 ⎛ ------- + I R2⎞ = 2 ⎛ 5.83 ∠31° + 5 ∠0° ⎞ ⎝ 5 ∠– 90° ⎠ ⎝ – j5 ⎠ = 2.33 ∠121° + 10 ∠0° = – 1.2 + j2 + 10 = 8.8 + j2 = 9 ∠12.8°

and
V S = V R1 + V C = 8.8 + j2 + 5 + j3 = 13.8 + j5 = 14.7 ∠20° V C = 5.83 ∠31° V S = 14.7 ∠20° V L = 3 ∠90° V R1 = 9 ∠12.8° V R2 = 5 ∠0° I R2 = 1 ∠0° A

Figure 7.24. Phasor diagram for Example 7.9

Now, we can transform these phasors into time-domain quantities and use MATLAB to plot them. We will use the voltage source as a reference with the value V S = 1 ∠0° , and we will apply nodal analysis with node voltages V1, V2, and V3 assigned as shown in Figure 7.25.
V1 + VR1 − V2 + VL − V3 j3 Ω IR2 2Ω + VS + 5Ω VR2 VC − − −j5 Ω 1 ∠0° V Figure 7.25. Circuit for Example 7.9 with the voltage source taken as reference

The node equations are shown below in matrix form.
1 –1 -2 0 0 1 - 1⎛ 1 + ------- + ---- ⎞ -⎝ 2 – j5 j3 ⎠ 1– ---j3 G 0 1– ---j3 1- -⎛ ---- + 1 ⎞ ⎝ j3 5 ⎠ V1 V2 V3 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V = 1 0 0 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I Orchard Publications

The MATLAB code is as follows:

7-18

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications

Phasor Diagrams
% Enter the non-zero values of the G matrix G(1,1)=1; G(2,1)=−1/2; G(2,2)=1/2−1/5j+1/3j; G(2,3)=−1/3j; G(3,2)=−1/3j; G(3,3)=1/3j+1/5; % % Enter all values of the I matrix I=[1 0 0]'; % % Compute node voltages V=G\I; % VR1=V(1)−V(2); VL=V(2)−V(3); % Compute magnitudes and phase angles of voltages magV1=abs(V(1)); magV2=abs(V(2)); magV3=abs(V(3)); phaseV1=angle(V(1))*180/pi; phaseV2=angle(V(2))*180/pi; phaseV3=angle(V(3))*180/pi; magVR1=abs(VR1); phaseVR1=angle(VR1)*180/pi; magVL=abs(VL); phaseVL=angle(VL)*180/pi; % % Denote radian frequency as w and plot wt for 0 to 2*pi range wt=linspace(0,2*pi); V1=magV(1)*cos(wt-phaseV(1)); V2=magV(2)*cos(wt-phaseV(2)); V3=magV(3)*cos(wt-phaseV(3)); VR1t=magVR1*cos(wt-phaseVR1); VLt=magVL*cos(wt-phaseVL); % % Convert wt to degrees deg=wt*180/pi; % % Print phasor voltages, magnitudes, and phase angles fprintf(' \n'); % With fprintf only the real part of each parameter is processed so we will use disp disp('V1 = '); disp(V(1)); disp('V2 = '); disp(V(2)); disp('V3 = '); disp(V(3)); disp('VR1 = '); disp(VR1); disp('VL = '); disp(VL); fprintf('magV1 = %4.2f V \t', magV1); fprintf('magV2 = %4.2f V \t', magV2); fprintf('magV3 = %4.2f V', magV3); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf('phaseV1 = %4.2f deg \t', phaseV1); fprintf('phaseV2 = %4.2f deg \t', phaseV2); fprintf('phaseV3 = %4.2f deg', phaseV3); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf('magVR1 = %4.2f V \t', magVR1); fprintf('phaseVR1 = %4.2f deg ', phaseVR1); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf('magVL = %4.2f V \t', abs(VL)); fprintf('phaseVL = %4.2f deg ', phaseVL); fprintf(' \n'); % plot(deg,V1,deg,V2,deg,V3,deg,VR1t,deg,VLt) fprintf(' \n');

V1 = 1 V2 = 0.7503 - 0.1296i
Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

7-19

Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis
V3 = 0.4945 - 0.4263i VR1 = 0.2497 + 0.1296i VL = 0.2558 + 0.2967i magV1 = 1.00 V phaseV1 = 0.00 deg magVR1 = 0.28 V magVL = 0.39 V and with these values we have
v S ( t ) = v 1 ( t ) = cos ω t v 2 ( t ) = 0.76 cos ( ω t – 9.8° ) v 3 ( t ) = 0.65 cos ( ω t – 40.8° ) v L ( t ) = 0.39 cos ( ω t + 49.2° )

magV2 = 0.76 V phaseV2 = -9.80 deg phaseVR1 = 27.43 deg phaseVL = 49.24 deg

magV3 = 0.65 V phaseV3 = -40.76 deg

v R1 ( t ) = 0.28 cos ( ω t + 27.4° )

These are plotted with MATLAB as shown in Figure 7.26.
1
0 .8
0 .6
0 .4
0 .2
0
-0 .2
-0 .4
-0 .6
-0 .8
-1

v1 ( t ) = vS ( t ) v2 ( t ) v R1 ( t ) v3 ( t )

vL ( t )

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Figure 7.26. The t – domain plots for Example 7.9

7.7 Electric Filters
The characteristics of electric filters were introduced in Chapter 4 but are repeated below for convenience. Analog filters are defined over a continuous range of frequencies. They are classified as low-pass, highpass, band-pass and band-elimination (stop-band). Another, less frequently mentioned filter, is the all-pass

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Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Basic Analog Filters
or phase shift filter. It has a constant amplitude response but is phase varies with frequency. This is discussed in Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications, ISBN 0-9709511-3-2, by this author. The ideal amplitude characteristics of each are shown in Figure 7.27. The ideal characteristics are not physically realizable; we will see that practical filters can be designed to approximate these characteristics. In this section we will derive the passive RC low and high-pass filter characteristics and those of an active low-pass filter using phasor analysis.
V out --------V in 1
PASS BAND

V out --------V in
STOP (CUTOFF) BAND

1
STOP BAND PASS BAND

ωc Ideal low− pass filter V out --------V in

ω

ωc Ideal high− pass filter

ω

1
STOP BAND PASS BAND STOP BAND

V out --------V in

1
PASS BAND STOP BAND PASS BAND

ω1

ω2

ω

ω1

ω2

ω

Ideal band− pass Filter

Ideal band − elimination filter

Figure 7.27. Amplitude characteristics of the types of filters

A digital filter, in general, is a computational process, or algorithm that converts one sequence of numbers representing the input signal into another sequence representing the output signal. Accordingly, a digital filter can perform functions as differentiation, integration, estimation, and, of course, like an analog filter, it can filter out unwanted bands of frequency. Digital filters are discussed in Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications by this author, Orchard Publications.

7.8 Basic Analog Filters
An analog filter can also be classified as passive or active. Passive filters consist of passive devices such as resistors, capacitors and inductors. Active filters are, generally, operational amplifiers with resistors and capacitors connected to them externally. We can find out whether a filter, passive or active, is a low-pass, high-pass, etc., from its the frequency response that can be obtained from its transfer function. The procedure is illustrated with the examples that follow. Example 7.10 Derive expressions for the magnitude and phase responses of the series RC network of Figure 7.28, and sketch their characteristics.
Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

7-21

Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis
+
V in −

R

C

+

V out

Figure 7.28. Series RC network for Example 7.10

Solution: By the voltage division expression,
1 ⁄ jωC V out = -------------------------- V in R + 1 ⁄ jωC

and denoting the ratio V out ⁄ V in as G ( jω ) , we get
V out 1 1 G ( jω ) = --------- = ----------------------- = ----------------------------------------------------------------------1 + jωRC V in 2 2 2 ( 1 + ω R C ) ∠ atan ( ωRC ) 1 = -------------------------------- ∠– atan ( ωRC ) 2 2 2 1+ω R C

(7.26)

The magnitude of (7.26) is
V out 1 G ( jω ) = --------- = -------------------------------2 2 2 V in 1+ω R C

(7.27)

and the phase angle θ , also known as the argument, is
V out θ = arg { G ( jω ) } = arg ⎛ ---------⎞ = – atan ( ωRC ) ⎝ V in ⎠

(7.28)

We can obtain a quick sketch for the magnitude G ( jω ) versus ω by evaluating (7.27) at ω = 0 , ω = 1 ⁄ RC , and ω → ∞ . Thus, as ω → 0 , G ( j ω ) ≅ 1 for ω = 1 ⁄ RC , G ( j ω ) = 1 ⁄ 2 = 0.707 and as ω → ∞ , G ( j ω ) ≅ 0 To obtain a smooth curve, we will use a spreadsheet such as Microsoft Excel to plot G ( jω ) versus radian frequency for several values of ω . This is shown in Figure 7.29 where, for convenience, we let

7-22

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

200 0.040 0.180 0. ω 0. we let RC = 1 Example 7.98058 0.2 0 Half-power point (|G(jω)|=0. + V in − C R V out − + Figure 7. θ = arg { G ( j ω ) } versus ω by evaluating of (11. Amplitude characteristics of a series RC low-pass filter We can also obtain a quick sketch for the phase angle.11 The network of Figure 7.29.30.3) at ω = 0 .9998 0. θ = – atan ( – ∞ ) = 90° and as ω → ∞ . θ = – atan ( ∞ ) = – 90 ° We use Excel to plot θ versus radian frequency for several values of ω .99034 0. θ = – atan 1 = – 45° for ω = – 1 ⁄ RC .9982 0.080 0.99504 0.31 where.120 0.Basic Analog Filters RC = 1 . ω = – 1 ⁄ RC . to the amplitude characteristics of a low-pass filter. although not a good one.30 is also a series RC circuit.000 0. again for convenience..99288 0.97664 Series RC Low-pass Filter Frequency Response |G(jω)| 1 0.6 0.e.220 |G(jω)| 1 0. The plot shows that this circuit is an approximation.98744 0.160 0. as ω → 0 .11 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-23 . θ = – atan ( – 1 ) = 45° as ω → – ∞ . Derive expressions for the magnitude and phase responses. θ ≅ – atan 0 ≅ 0° for ω = 1 ⁄ RC .4 0.98418 0.99682 0. and sketch their characteristics. ω = 1 ⁄ RC . This is shown in Figure 7.020 0. i.060 0.9992 0.140 0.707) RC=1 1/RC Radian Frequency (ω) Figure 7.100 0. ω → – ∞ and ω → ∞ . where the positions of the resistor and capacitor have been interchanged. RC network for Example 7.8 0. Thus.

20 85.15 85. is 1 θ = arg { G ( j ω ) } = atan ⎛ ----------.V in R + 1 ⁄ j ωC or 2 2 2 V out ωRC ( j + ωRC ) j ωRC .14 85.94 -11.29) is 1 G ( j ω ) = -------------------------------1 1 + -----------------2 2 2 ω R C (7.19 85.= -------------------------------.00 -11.16 85.98 -11.13 Series RC Low-Pass Filter Phase Angle θ versus ω 90.18 85.00 -90.∠ atan ⎛ ----------.= ---------------------------------------.⎞ ⎝ ωRC⎠ 1 1 = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------.= ------------------------------------2 2 2 2 2 2 V in 1 + j ωRC 1+ω R C 1+ω R C 1 2 2 2 ωRC 1 + ω R C ∠ atan ⎛ ----------.00 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 1------RC –1 ------RC 2 RC = 1 4 6 8 Radian Frequency (ω) Figure 7.82 -11.30) and the phase angle or argument.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis ω -12.j ωRC + ω R C G ( j ω ) = --------.17 85.00 -45.⎞ ⎝ ωRC⎠ (7. Phase characteristics of a series RC low-pass filter Solution: R V out = -------------------------.22 85.80 -11.⎞ ⎝ ωRC⎠ 2 2 2 1 1+ω R C 1 + -----------------2 2 2 ω R C (7.21 85.78 -11.96 -11.88 -11.16 85.90 -11.76 -11.74 θ 85.= ----------------------.92 -11.20 85.31.84 -11.00 0.00 Phase Angle θ (deg) 45.86 -11.29) The magnitude of (7.24 85.31) 7-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .23 85.

to the amplitude characteristics of a high-pass filter. ω = 1 ⁄ RC .0995 0. as ω → 0 .13865 0. ω = 1 ⁄ RC .2 0 Half-power point (|G(jω)|=0.21486 Series RC High-Pass Filter |G(jω)| versus ω |G(jω)| 1 0.707 and as ω → ∞ .31) at ω = 0 . ω 0. Thus.200 0. although not a good one.33 shows the phase angle θ versus radian frequency for several values of ω . θ ≅ – atan 0 ≅ 0° for ω = 1 ⁄ RC .05989 0. θ = – atan ( – 1 ) = 45° as ω → – ∞ .4 0. G ( j ω ) ≅ 1 Figure 7. G ( j ω ) ≅ 0 for ω = 1 ⁄ RC .180 0.e. i. The plot shows that this circuit is an approximation. Amplitude characteristics of a series RC high-pass filter We can also obtain a quick sketch for the phase angle.080 0.120 0. ω = – 1 ⁄ RC . where RC = 1 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-25 .32 shows G ( j ω ) versus radian frequency for several values of ω where RC = 1 .30) at ω = 0 . ω → – ∞ . θ = – atan ( ∞ ) = – 90 ° Figure 7. θ = – atan ( – ∞ ) = 90° and as ω → ∞ .140 0.8 0.020 0.. and ω → ∞ .07975 0.220 |G(jω)| 1E-07 0. Thus. θ = arg { G ( j ω ) } versus ω .17715 0. and ω → ∞ .000 0. G ( j ω ) = 1 ⁄ 2 = 0.040 0.02 0.060 0.707) RC=1 1/RC Radian Frequency (ω) Figure 7.32.100 0. as ω → 0 .6 0.15799 0. θ = – atan 1 = – 45° for ω = – 1 ⁄ RC . by evaluating (7.03997 0.11915 0.160 0.19612 0.Basic Analog Filters We can obtain a quick sketch for the magnitude G ( j ω ) versus ω by evaluating (7.

C 2 10 nF v2 v out 25 nF R2 R1 200 kΩ v in C1 40 kΩ v1 R3 50 kΩ Figure 7.32) 7-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .940 -11. Phase characteristics of an RC high-pass filter 7.33.+ ----------------------.34.7715577 -4. such as those we discussed in Chapter 4.835843 -4.800 -11. using phasor circuit analysis.827713 -4. Low-pass filter for Example 7.7636417 -4.860 -11.8440004 -4.7954638 -4.880 -11.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis ω -12.840 -11.8686381 Series RC High-pass Filter Phase Angle θ versus ω 90 Phase Angle θ (deg) 45 0 -45 -90 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 RC=1 Radian Frequency (ω) Figure 7.8603978 -4.920 -11.34 which is known as a Multiple Feed Back (MFB) active low-pass filter.900 -11.000 -11.760 -11. Example 7.780 -11.9 Active Filter Analysis We can analyze active filters.7874686 -4.8115345 -4.980 -11.820 -11.+ --------------.12 Solution: We write the phasor circuit nodal equations as follows: At Node : v 1 – v in v 1 – v out v 1 – v 2 v1 ----------------.8034858 -4.740 θ -4.960 -11.8196102 -4.= 0 R3 1 ⁄ ( j ω C1 ) R1 R2 (7.+ -------------------.12 Compute the approximate cut-off frequency of the circuit of Figure 7.7794999 -4.8521853 -4.

+ j ω C ⎞ ( – j ω R C ) – ----. relation (7.5 × 10 ω – j5 × 10 –3 ω + 5 w=1:10:10000. hold on xlabel('Radian Frequency w').= --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11. Radian Frequency') (7.+ j ω C 1 ⎞ ( – j ω R 3 C 2 ) – ----⎝ R ⎠ R2 R3 R2 1 By substitution of given values of resistors and capacitors.34) into (7.+ ----.*j. we get: 1 1 1 1 1 ⎛ ----. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-27 .35 where we see that the cutoff frequency occurs at about 700 rad ⁄ s .34) (7. Gjw=−1.5.^(−6).37) with the following code.37) and now we can use MATLAB to find and plot the magnitude of (7.*w.= ------------------------------------------------------------------------–6 2 v in 2.33) and since v 2 = 0 (virtual ground).2 × 0.36) or v out –1 G ( j ω ) = --------.1v in R 1 ⎛ ----.+ j2. and collecting like terms.v = ----.35) or v out 1 --------.*w+5).= ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 ⎛ –8 ⎞ 4 –8 1 1 v in 2 × 10 -------------------.141 .*10. We observe that the half-power point for this plot is 0.33) reduces to v 1 = ( – j ω R 3 C 2 ) v out and by substitution of (7.5 × 10 ω ( – j5 × 10 × 10 ω ) – ----------------⎝ ⎠ 3 4 20 × 10 4 × 10 (7. rearranging.+ ----.^(−3).+ ----.32).Active Filter Analysis At node : v2 – v1 C2 --------------.^2−5./(2.abs(Gjw)). we get v out 1 --------.*10.707 = 0.v in 1 ⎠ 3 2 ⎝ R R1 R2 R3 R 2 out 1 (7. The plot is shown in Figure 7. ylabel('|Vout/Vin|'). semilogx(w.+ ----.= ----------------------R3 1 ⁄ ( j ω C2 ) (7. title('Magnitude Vout/Vin vs.1. grid.

10 Summary • In Chapter 3 we were concerned with constant voltage and constant current sources. Plot for the magnitude of the low-pass filter circuit of Example 7.12 7. z 2 . • MATLAB can be used very effectively to perform the computations since it does not require any special procedures for manipulation of complex numbers. the principle of superposition. and admittances. and Norton’s theorem can also be applied to phasor circuits. • Whenever a branch in a circuit contains two or more devices in series or two or more devices in parallel. Radian Frequency |Vout/Vin| 0. resistances and conductances. the first step is to select one phasor as a reference.35. Thevenin’s theorem.2 0. • Nodal analysis. mesh analysis. • The use of complex numbers make the phasor circuit analysis much easier. In this chapter we were concerned with alternating voltage and alternating current sources.12 0. When constructing a phasor diagram.04 0.16 0.02 0 10 0 10 1 Radian Frequency w 10 2 10 3 10 4 Figure 7.1 0.08 0. and so on before writing nodal or mesh equations.14 Magnitude Vout/Vin vs. and all other phasors must be drawn with the correct relative angles. it is highly recommended that they are grouped and denoted as z 1 .06 0. • The RC low-pass and RC high-pass filters are rudimentary types of filters and are not used in prac- tice. They serve as a good introduction to electric filters.18 0.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis 0. 7-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . usually with zero phase angle. • Phasor diagrams are sketches that show the magnitude and phase relationships among several pha- sor voltages and currents. impedances.

none of the above VS 2 ∠0° V I 1Ω 1Ω 1Ω −j1 Ω j1 Ω Figure 7.11 Exercises Multiple Choice 1.Exercises 7. In the circuit of Figure 7. 2 + j2 A E.37 the phasor current I is A. none of the above IS 1 ∠0° A + j0. Circuit for Question 2 3. Circuit for Question 1 2. 0 + j2 A B.36 the phasor voltage V is A. 1 – j 0 V D.36. In the circuit of Figure 7. 1 + j0 A D. In the circuit of Figure 7. 8 × 10 sin ( 2000t + 90° ) V B.38 the voltage across the capacitor C 2 is A. 1 + j V E. 1 + j0 V C. 2 + j0 V B.37.5 Ω V − −j Ω 1Ω Figure 7. 50 cos ( 2000t – 45° ) V –4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-29 . 0 – j2 A C.

40 is A.39. none of the above 7-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 10 ∠– 45° V E.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis C. D. 50 cos ( 2000t + 45° ) V 50 cos ( 2000t + 90° ) V E.13° V D. none of the above L1 vS ( t ) 4Ω 3 mH C1 500 µF L2 2 mH C2 8 sin ( 2000t + 90° ) 100 µF Figure 7.39 the current i C ( t ) through the capacitor is A.13° V C.5 mH 5. D. 32 cos ( 2000t – 45° ) 32 cos ( 2000t + 90° ) E. In the circuit of Figure 7. none of the above iS ( t ) 1Ω i S ( t ) = 4 cos 2000t Figure 7. 10 ∠53. 10 ∠– 53. 4 sin ( 2000t + 180° ) C.38. The Thevenin equivalent voltage V TH at terminals A and B in the circuit of Figure 7. Circuit for Question 4 iC 500 µF 0. Circuit for Question 3 4. 10 ∠– 90° V B. 4 sin 2000t B.

4 ∠53.41. – j 5 Ω E. Circuit for Questions 5 and 6 6. In the circuit of Figure 7. 0 + j20 V 5Ω is Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-31 . 4 – j 2 Ω D.1° V D. 2 + j4 Ω B. none of the above VS 20 ∠0° V IX + − 4Ω j3 Ω + − IX −j4 Ω 4IX V Figure 7.1° V E. In the circuit of Figure 7. none of the above 7.40.41 the phasor voltage V C is A. 5 ∠– 45° V C. The Thevenin equivalent impedance Z TH at terminals A and B in the circuit of Figure 7.40 is A. 5 ∠– 90° V B. Circuit for Question 7 8.42 the phasor voltage V R A. 4 ∠– 53. 4 + j2 Ω C. 20 + j0 V B.Exercises 4Ω VS 10 ∠0° V j2 Ω A −j5 Ω B Figure 7.

In the circuit of Figure 7. 0.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis C.1° ) V 7-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 4 – j 0 V D.89 cos ( ωt + 45° ) V B. 20 + j20 V D. none of the above IS + 4Ω j4 Ω VX − + 5 Ω VR − 5Ω 2V X A 4 ∠0° A Figure 7. Circuit for Question 9 10. In the circuit of Figure 7. 2 + j0 V B.43. 4 + j0 V C.5 cos ( ωt + 53. 1 + j1 V E.44 the t – domain voltage v AB ( t ) is A.42.53 cos ( ωt – 45 ° ) V C. none of the above j5 Ω V IN 1 ∠0° − V OUT 1 V OUT 2 10 Ω –j 5 Ω 10 Ω Figure 7. 0. 80 – j80 V E. 2 cos ωt V D.43 the phasor voltage V OUT 2 is A. Circuit for Question 8 9. 1.

A 8Ω 20 mH 6Ω iC ( t ) 1000 ⁄ 6 µF 2Ω iS ( t ) 7Ω 5Ω B Figure 7. Circuit for Problem 2 3. Compute v AB ( t ) and i C ( t ) .47 given that v S ( t ) = 100 cos ( 10000t + 60° ) V . Write mesh equations and use MATLAB to compute i L ( t ) for the circuit of Figure 7.45. i S ( t ) = 2 cos 1000t A .44.Exercises E. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-33 .46.45. Circuit for Question 10 Problems 1. 4Ω 2Ω vS ( t ) 10 Ω 5Ω + − iC ( t ) 20 Ω 5 mH 100 µF Figure 7.46 given that v S ( t ) = 12 cos ( 1000t + 45° ) V . Write nodal equations and use MATLAB to compute i C ( t ) for the circuit of Figure 7. Circuit for Problem 1 2. For the circuit of Figure 7. none of the above A j2 Ω 2Ω VS −j Ω 2Ω 2 ∠0° V B Figure 7.

Circuit for Problem 5 6. Circuit for Problem 3 4. and i S ( t ) = 4 cos 2000t A . find v C ( t ) if v S1 = 15 V . find the value of Z LD which will receive maximum power. 7-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 10 Ω 1 mH 2 mH v S1 + + − + 500 µF − vC ( t ) 5Ω iS ( t ) v S2 ( t ) − Figure 7.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis 4Ω 10 Ω 2Ω 5Ω + − v (t) S 20 Ω 2 mH iL ( t ) 10 µF Figure 7.49. For the circuit of Figure 7. L1 2 mH R1 10 Ω R2 25 Ω L2 5 mH + v S1 ( t ) − 20 µF + vC ( t ) − + − v S2 ( t ) Figure 7. For the circuit of Figure 7. Plot v C ( t ) using MATLAB or Excel.48. Use superposition to find v C ( t ) .50. v S2 ( t ) = 20 cos 1000t V .48.47. Circuit for Problem 4 5.49. For the circuit of Figure 7. it is given that v S1 ( t ) = 40 cos ( 5000t + 60° ) V and v S2 ( t ) = 60 sin ( 5000t + 60° ) V .

For the op amp circuit of Figure 7.52. Circuit for Problem 8 9. For the circuit of Figure 7. Circuit for Problem 6 7. 4Ω 10 Ω 5Ω + VS − 20 Ω j5 −j10 Figure 7. Find v out ( t ) .51.51. For the circuit of Figure 7. to what value should the load impedance Z LD be adjusted so that it will receive maximum power from the voltage source? Z LD 10 Ω 5Ω 4Ω + − 20 Ω j5 −j10 170 ∠0° Figure 7.50. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-35 .52.53. v in ( t ) = 3 cos 1000t V . draw a phasor diagram which shows the voltage and current in each branch.Exercises + vS − ZS Z LD Figure 7. Circuit for Problem 6 8.

53.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis C R2 R1 v in ( t ) 1 KΩ v out ( t ) 3 KΩ Figure 7. Circuit for Problem 9 7-36 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

= ------------. – j ⁄ ωC 1 = – j1 and the phasor equivalent circuit is shown below. and the resistor in series with the capacitor as z 3 . jωL 1 = j6 .+ -----. IS 4 ∠0° A 1Ω –1 IC j1 Ω –1 – j1 Ω –1 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-37 .= 1 + j0 A Z 2 + j0 3. Therefore. 2 VS 8 + j0 4 – j4 32 – j32 8 + j0 I = ----.⋅ ------------. G = 1 ⁄ R = 1 Ω . 1 –j 1+j 1–j 2 2 2 V = j1 ⁄ 2 + 1 ⁄ 2 – j1 ⁄ 2 = 1 ⁄ 2 + j0 V 2. – j ⁄ ωC 1 = – j1 .-tion -----. B 8 sin ( 2000t + 90° ) = 8 cos 2000t ⇔ 8 ∠0° V . E V = V L + V C where V L = 1 ∠0° × j1 ⁄ 2 = j1 ⁄ 2 V and V C is found from the nodal equaVC VC 1 1 1–j 1– .Answers to Exercises 7. 4 + j4 4 – j4 32 Z 4 + j4 50 ∠– 45° ⇔ 50 cos ( 2000t – 45° ) V –1 –1 and thus V C = – j5 × ( 1 – j ) = 5 – j5 = –1 4. – j ⁄ ωL = – j1 Ω .= 1 + ------------------------------------. and the phasor equivalent circuit is shown below.= ------------. C Denoting the resistor in series with the voltage source as z 1 .= ------------.= ---------j = 1 – j -. jωL 2 = j4 .= 1 – j1 .= 1 + 2 = 2 + j0 2 1 – j1 + 1 + j1 z2 + z3 and VS 2 + j0 I = ----. D 4 cos 2000t ⇔ 4 ∠0° .V . jωC = j1 Ω .12 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1.= 1 + j0 or ( 1 + j )V C = 1 or V C = ---------. L1 VS + 8 ∠0° V − 4Ω C1 j6 Ω −j1 Ω L2 j4 Ω C2 I −j5 Ω Z = 4 + j6 – j1 + j4 – j5 = 4 + j4 .× --------. the equivalent impedance is z2 ⋅ z3 ( 1 – j1 ) ( 1 + j1 ) -Z eq = z 1 + --------------. the resistor in series with the capacitor as z 2 .= ------------------.

× 4 ∠0° × j4 = ----------------------.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis Denoting the parallel combination of the conductance and inductance as Y 1 = 1 – j1 and using the current division expression for admittances we get jωC j1 I C = --------------------.9° = 4 ∠53.⋅ I S = -----------------------.× V OUT 1 = – j 2 × 2 ∠0° = 2 ∠– 90 ° × 2 ∠90° = 4 ∠0° = 4 + j0 –j 5 10.= 10 – j20 = ------------------.⋅ 10 ∠0° = 5 ∠– 90° × 10 ∠0° = ----------------------.∠45° = 2 32 ∠45° 4 + j4 32 ∠45° 32 and VR 5Ω 2 2 = 2V X × 5 = 20 × 32 ∠45° = 20 32 ⎛ -----. A We write the nodal equation at Node A for V AB as 7-38 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . D I X = ---------------.9° and 4I X -------------------------I C = ------.= ---------------------.9° 4 + j3 5 ∠36.= 4 ∠– 36. 10 – j20 4 + j3 100 – j50 Z TH = ( – j5 ) ( 4 + j2 . B By the voltage division expression – j5 50 ∠– 90° -----------------------------------------V TH = V AB = -----------------------. B V OUT 1 = – ----. C We short the voltage source and looking to the left of points A and B we observe that the capacitor is in parallel with the series combination of the resistance and inductance.⋅ ------------.= 16 ∠– 36.1° 4 ∠– 90° – j4 64 × 32 4 64 ∠90° 8. 4I X = 16 ∠– 36. Thus.= 10 ∠– 53.× 1 ∠0° = j2 × 1 ∠0° = 2 ∠90° × 1 ∠0° = 2 ∠90° 10 j5 and V OUT 2 10 = – ------.= -------------------. E V X = ------------.1° V 4 + j2 – j5 5 ∠– 36.= 4 – j2 -------------------------------------------------) 4 – j3 4 + j3 25 4 – j3 4 + j2 – j5 20 ∠0° 20 ∠0° 7.+ j ------⎞ = 80 + j80 ⎝ 2 2⎠ 9.9° .= j1 × 4 ∠0° = 1 ∠90° × 4 ∠0° = 4 ∠90° A jωC + Y 1 j1 + 1 – j1 and thus i S ( t ) = 4 cos ( 2000t + 90° ) A 5.= --------------------.9° 4 – j3 6.

we combine the series resistors. V A – V B V A – 10 ∠0° V A – V B ------------------.= --------------------------.= 0 z2 z1 z3 1 1 1 ⎛ --.+ ---------------------------.= 0 –j 2 2 + j2 1 ⎛ 1 + j + ------------.⎞ V = 2 ∠90° -⎝2 2 + j2 ⎠ AB 2 ∠90° 2 ∠90° 2 ∠90° V AB = -----------------------------------------------.+ --------.+ ------------.⎞ V = --------------. A z2 8Ω j20 Ω z1 6Ω 5Ω IC z3 – j6 Ω 8Ω + 15 Ω − C VS 10 ∠0° V B For this phasor circuit.= 2 ∠0° -⎝ 5 15 + j20 8 – j 6 ⎠ A 5 and Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-39 . and z 3 = ( 8 – j 6 ) Ω We observe that V A = V AB = V AC + V CB = V AC + 10 ∠0° V and V B = 0 .= ----------------------1⁄2+j+1⁄4–j⁄4 3 ⁄ 4 + j3 ⁄ 4 1. z 1 = 5 Ω .Answers to Exercises V AB – 2 ∠0° V AB V AB ---------------------------.89 ∠45° and in the t – domain v AB ( t ) = 1.+ ---------. V S = 2 ∠0° × 5 = 10 ∠0° V . At Node A.06 ∠45° or V AB = 1.⎞ V = 10 ∠0° --------------⎝z z1 z2 z3 ⎠ A 1 1 1 10 ∠0° ⎛ 1 + ------------------. jωL = j10 × 20 × 10 3 3 –6 3 –3 = j20 Ω and – j ⁄ ωC = – j ⁄ ( 10 × 10 ⁄ 6 × 10 ) = – j6 .+ ------------------.+ --. z 2 = ( 15 + j20 ) Ω . We transform the current source and its parallel resistance to a voltage source series resistance.89 cos ( ωt + 45° ) Problems 1. and we draw the phasor circuit below.+ --.

+ -----------------z2 z1 z3 z7 7-40 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .55 ∠– 5.2f V \t'.655 ∠31..1 × 0. fprintf(' \n'). VA=(10+0j)/(z1*(1/z1+1/z2+1/z3)).9° 1 0.55 cos ( 1000 + 5.304 + j0.55 V 3 –4 phaseVA = -5.1 ∠36.04 sin 53. Also. fprintf('phaseVA = %5.26° Then. fprintf('magVA = %5.26° = 0.26° ) .1 × 0.angle(VA)*180/pi)..= ----------------------------------------------------------------------------1 0.26 deg 3 –3 2.305 ∠5.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis 2 ∠0° 2 ∠0° V A = ----------------------------------------------------------------------.04 × 0. VA ------------------------------I C = -----.= 6.abs(VA)).655 cos ( 1000 + 31.2 + 0.9° + j0.9° z3 and i C ( t ) = 0.+ -------------------------25 ∠53.8 + 0..8 + j0.2 + 0.7° ) Check with MATLAB: z1=5.1 ° + 0.= 6. fprintf(' \n'). z2=15+20j.2 + 0..2 + ----------------------.04 ∠– 53.1° 10 ∠– 36. z3=8−6j.028 2 ∠0° = -----------------------------.9° 2 ∠0° = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------0.6 0.04 × 0.55 ∠– 5. The equivalent phasor circuit is shown below where jωL = j10 × 5 × 10 – j ⁄ ωC = – j ⁄ ( 10 × 10 ) = – j10 z1 4Ω = j5 and z7 z3 10 Ω 20 Ω 2Ω VS + − 12 ∠45° V1 V2 z5 5Ω V3 IC z 6 – j 10 Ω j5 Ω z4 z2 Node V 1 : V1 – VS V1 – V2 V1 V1 – V3 -----------------.1 cos 36. fprintf(' \n').+ -----------------. magVA = 6.1° – j0.7° 10 ∠– 36.1 sin 36.6 – j0.26° 0. in the t – domain v AB ( t ) = 6.+ ----..= ---------------------------------0.1° + 0..9° 2 ∠0° 2 ∠0° = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.2f deg \t'.04 cos 53.

V = --.1– --.⎞ V 2 – --.⎞ V 3 = 0 ⎝z z7 z5 z6 z7 ⎠ 5 and in matrix form 1 1 1 1 ⎛ --.... disp('phaseIc=')..+ --.⎞ ⎝z z z ⎠ 5 6 7 1 – --z3 1– --z7 V1 ⋅ V2 = V3 1 --. z3=10. V1 = 5. z7=2.V 1 – --. fprintf(' \n').+ --.+ -----------------.Answers to Exercises or 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ⎛ --. % Express Vs in rectangular form z1=4.+ --. disp(Ic). magIc=abs(Ic). disp('V1=').+ -----------------. format bank % Display magnitude and angle values with two decimal places disp('magIc=').+ --. phaseIc=angle(Ic)*180/pi.4.+ --..+ --.= 0 z5 z7 z6 or 111. −1/z3 1/z3+1/z4+1/z5 −1/z5.. z4=5j.. disp(magIc).⎞ ⎝z z z ⎠ 3 4 5 1 – --z7 1 – --z5 1..+ --..V ⎝z ⎠ 1 z3 2 z7 3 z1 S z2 z3 z7 1 Node V 2 : V2 – V1 V2 V2 – V3 -----------------. disp('V2=')..1.+ ----.V 3 = 0 ⎝z ⎠ z3 z5 z4 z5 3 Node V 3 : V3 – V2 V3 – V1 V2 – V3 -----------------... V=Y\I.V S z1 0 0 1– --z5 Shown below is the MATLAB code to solve this system of equations.+ --.. Vs=12*(cos(pi/4)+j*sin(pi/4)).... z6=−10j.1...V 2 + ⎛ --... disp(V(2)).⎞ V – --. disp('V3=').9950 ... disp(phaseIc).+ --.= 0 z4 z3 z5 or 111 1 1 – --. −1/z7 −1/z5 1/z5+1/z6+1/z7]. disp(V(1)).8789i Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-41 .V – --. z5=5.+ --. Ic=V(3)/z6. I=[Vs/z1 0 0]'.+ --.. z2=20.+ --. disp(V(3)).. Y=[1/z1+1/z2+1/z3+1/z7 −1/z3 −1/z7..1⎛ --..⎞ ⎝z z z z ⎠ 1 2 3 7 1 – --z3 1 1 1 ⎛ --.+ -----------------.+ --. disp('Ic=').V 1 + ⎛ --..+ --.

46° ⇔ i C ( t ) = 0.9658 .69 ∠50.46° ) A 3.3552 .Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis V2 = 5.5355i magIc = 0.5960i V3 = 5. The equivalent phasor circuit is shown below where jωL = j10 × 2 × 10 – j ⁄ ωC = – j ⁄ ( 10 × 10 × 10 ) = – j10 z1 4Ω 4 –6 4 –3 = j20 and z7 I2 z 3 10 Ω 2Ω z5 5Ω + − V S = 100 ∠60° I1 z2 I3 20 Ω z4 IL j20 Ω I4 z6 – j10 Ω Mesh I 1 : ( z 1 + z 2 )I 1 – z 2 I 3 = V S Mesh I 2 : ( z 1 + z 2 + z 7 )I 2 – z 3 I 3 – z 5 I 4 = 0 Mesh I 3 : – z 2 I 1 – z 3 I 2 + ( z 2 + z 3 + z 4 )I 3 – z 4 I 4 = 0 Mesh I 4 : – z 5 I 2 – z 4 I 3 + ( z 4 + z 5 + z 6 )I 4 = 0 and in matrix form 7-42 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .4.4203i Ic = 0.69 phaseIc = 50. I C = 0.0.46 Therefore.4420 + 0.69 cos ( 1000t + 50.

82° ) 4.4150. disp(I(2)). disp('I1=').Answers to Exercises z1 + z2 0 –z2 0 0 z1 + z2 + z7 –z3 –z5 –z2 –z3 z2 + z3 + z4 –z4 0 –z5 –z4 z4 + z5 + z6 ⋅ I1 I2 I3 I4 = VS 0 0 0 Shown below is the MATLAB code to solve this system of equations. V=[Vs 0 0 0]'. z6=−10j.6787i magIL = 3.2369i I4 = 7.. disp('I3=').0214 + 0.. z2=20..81 ∠– 153... I L = 3. The equivalent phasor circuit is shown below where jωL 1 = j5 × 10 × 2 × 10 jωL 2 = j5 × 10 × 5 × 10 3 3 3 –3 4 = j10 = j25 –6 –3 – j ⁄ ωC = – j ⁄ ( 5 × 10 × 20 × 10 ) = – j10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-43 . z3=10. disp(I(3)). IL=I(3)−I(4).7028i I3 = 4...9157i IL= -3.4364 + 1. I1 = 5. I=Z\V. z7=2.. disp(I(4)).. format bank % Display magnitude and angle values with two decimal places disp('magIL='). disp(I(1)). z4=20j..82° ⇔ i L ( t ) = 3.3...4110i I2 = 4. disp('I4=').81 phaseIL = -153.. disp(phaseIL).82 Therefore. disp('I2=').... disp('phaseIL='). 0 z3+z5+z7 −z3 −z5.. Z=[z1+z2 0 −z2 0. % Express Vs in rectangular form z1=4..5527 + 0.. magIL=abs(IL)...81 cos ( 10 t – – 153...1.. disp('IL='). fprintf(' \n'). phaseIL=angle(IL)*180/pi. z5=5. −z2 −z3 z2+z3+z4 −z4...4345 . disp(IL). disp(magIL)..... Vs=100*(cos(pi/3)+j*sin(pi/3)).... 0 −z5 −z4 z4+z5+z6].

7595 .= --------------------------------C z1 1.+ --.30 V C Next.1⎛ --. and V'' C is the C C capacitor voltage due to V S2 acting alone.+ ----. 7-44 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . z2=−10j. z1=10+10j.76 – j5. with V S2 acting alone the circuit reduces to that shown below.= 0 z1 z2 z3 1. z1 V S1 j10 Ω 10 Ω 25 Ω z2 j25 Ω + − 40 ∠60° V z3 – j 10 Ω + − V' C By KCL V' – V S1 V' V' C C C -------------------.+ --. z3=25+25j.1⎛ --. V1c=Vs1/(1+z1/z2+z1/z3) V1c = 36.1.+ ----.1.5.2962i Therefore.⎞ z1 ⋅ --⎝z ⎝ z2 z3 ⎠ z2 z3 ⎠ 1 and with MATLAB Vs1=40*(cos(pi/3)+j*sin(pi/3)).⎞ V' = V S1 -------⎝z z2 z3 ⎠ C z1 1 V S1 V S1 V' = -------------------------------------------. With V S1 acting alone the circuit reduces to that shown below.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis j10 Ω 10 Ω 25 Ω j25 Ω V S1 + − 40 ∠60° V – j 10 Ω + − VC + V S2 − 60 ∠( – 30 )° V We let V C = V' + V'' C where V' is the capacitor voltage due to V S1 acting alone. V' = 36.+ --.+ --.⎞ ⎛ 1 + z 1 + --.

V1c=36. disp('Vc=V1c+V2c')..16 deg and v C ( t ) = 43. fprintf(' \n').. fprintf('magVc = %4.5818 .27. disp(V2c). disp(Vc).35° C phaseVc = -39.2f deg \t'... V2c=Vs2/(z3/z1+z3/z2+1)... z1=10+10j.3519i magVc = 43...35 = 43.7595−5.⎞ --⎝z ⎝z ⎠ z2 z3 ⎠ z2 1 1 and with MATLAB Vs2=60*(cos(pi/6)−j*sin(pi/6))..31 cos ( 5000t – 27.5.angle(Vc)*180/pi).+ --..2f V \t'. Vc=V1c+V2c.= 0 z3 z1 z2 1 1 1 ⎛ --...22.⎞ V'' = V S2 -------⎝z z3 z2 z3 ⎠ C 1 V S2 V S2 V'' = -------------------------------------------. fprintf(' \n'). disp(V1c).+ 1 ⎞ z 3 ⋅ ⎛ --. disp('V2c = ').2962i V2c = -3. fprintf('phaseVc = %4.Answers to Exercises z1 j10 Ω 10 Ω 25 Ω z2 j25 Ω z3 – j 10 Ω + − V'' C + V S2 − 60 ∠( – 30 )° V By KCL V'' V'' V'' – V S2 C C C -----..2962j.abs(Vc)). disp('V1c = ').31 V Then....+ --------------------.1777 ... disp('Vc = ').+ --.= --------------------------------C z3 1 1 1 ⎛ z 3 + --.+ --..+ --.31 ∠27. z3=25+25j.35° ) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-45 .+ -----.0557i Vc = V1c+V2c Vc = 33. V1c = 36..7595 . z2=−10j. V C = V' + V'' C = 33.. fprintf(' \n'). fprintf(' \n').58 – j27.

and V''' the capacitor voltage due to i S ( t ) acting alone. 7-46 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Therefore. V'' the capacitor voltage due to v S2 ( t ) C C acting alone. Let V' be the capacitor voltage due to v S1 acting alone.⋅ 15 = 5 V DC 10 + 5 5Ω v'C ( t ) = 5 V DC and Next. an AC (sinusoidal) voltage source. after steady-state conditions have been reached the inductors behave like short circuits and the capacitor as an open circuit and thus the circuit is simplified as shown below. with the sinusoidal voltage source v S2 ( t ) acting alone the reactances are jω 1 L 1 = j10 × 1 × 10 jω 1 L 2 = j10 × 2 × 10 3 3 3 –3 = j1 Ω = j2 Ω –3 – j ⁄ ω 1 C = – j ⁄ ( 10 × 5 × 10 ) = – j 2 Ω –4 and the equivalent phasor circuit is as shown below. 10 Ω + V' C VR + 5Ω + − 15 V 5Ω − − By the voltage division expression V' = V R C 5 = -------------.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis 5. Then. we will apply the superposition principle. This circuit is excited by a DC (constant) voltage source. and an AC current source of different frequency. the capacitor voltage C due to all three sources acting simultaneously will be V C = V' + V'' + V''' C C C With the DC voltage source acting alone.

with the sinusoidal current source i S ( t ) acting alone the reactances are jω 2 L 1 = j2 × 10 × 1 × 10 jω 2 L 2 = j2 × 10 × 2 × 10 3 3 3 –3 = j2 Ω = j4 Ω –3 – j ⁄ ω 2 C = – j ⁄ ( 2 × 10 × 5 × 10 ) = – j 1 Ω –4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-47 .54 = 3. z1=10+j.1.⎞ V'' = V S2 -------⎝z z2 z3 ⎠ C z1 1 V S2 V S2 V'' = -------------------------------------------... fprintf(' \n').⎞ z1 ⋅ ⎝z ⎝ z2 z3 ⎠ z2 z3 ⎠ 1 and with MATLAB Vs2=20+0j. fprintf(' \n').91 deg Then. z2=−2j.+ --.+ --. V2c=Vs2/(1+z1/z2+z1/z3).⎞ ⎛ 1 + --..3.97 ∠– 62.97 V phaseV2c = -62.+ --.1. disp(V2c).= 0 z1 z2 z3 1.abs(V2c))..97 cos ( 1000t – 62. V2c = 1.9 ° and v'' ( t ) = 3. disp('V2c = ').+ -----.2f V \t'.1⎛ --. fprintf('magV2c = %4..angle(V2c)*180/pi). fprintf(' \n'). V'' C = 1.+ --.= ---------------------------------C z1 z1 1.9° ) C Finally.Answers to Exercises z1 V S2 j1 Ω 10 Ω 25 Ω z3 j2 Ω + − 20 ∠0° V z2 – j 10 Ω + − V'' C By KCL V'' – V S2 V'' V'' C C C --------------------..2f deg \t'.8089 . fprintf('phaseV2c = %4.+ -----.1⎛ --. z3=5+2j.81 – j3.+ --.5362i magV2c = 3.

z2=−j.1170i magV3c = 3.44 – j3. z3=5+4j.+ --.*cos(wt−62.+ --.79 deg Then. V''' = – 1./180).43 V phaseV3c = -114.+ --.. z1=10+2j. fprintf('magV3c = %4.43 cos ( 2000t – 114.8° ) C and v C ( t ) = v' C + v'' ( t ) + v''' ( t ) = 5 + 3.2*2*pi).43 cos ( 2000t – 114. V2c=3.⎞ ⎛ z 3 + --.+ ------. fprintf(' \n'). V1c=5.. disp('V3c = '). z1 j2 Ω 10 Ω z3 5Ω j4 Ω z2 –j 1 Ω + − V''' C + V S3 − 20 ∠0° V By KCL V''' V''' V''' – V S3 C C C ------.+ --.97..2f deg \t'.9.+ ---------------------..8° ) C C These waveforms are plotted below using the following MATLAB code: wt=linspace(0.. fprintf(' \n').*pi.. 7-48 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .3. deg=wt*180/pi. fprintf(' \n').⎞ V''' = V S3 -------⎝z z2 z3 ⎠ C z3 1 V S3 V S3 V''' = -------------------------------------------.4395 .2f V \t'.= --------------------------------C z3 1.= 0 z1 z2 z3 1 1 1 ⎛ --.+ 1 ⎞ z3 ⋅ --⎝z ⎝z ⎠ z2 z3 ⎠ z2 1 1 and with MATLAB Vs3=20+0j. V3c=Vs3/(z3/z1+z3/z2+1).9° ) + 3.1.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis and the equivalent phasor circuit is as shown below where the current source and its parallel resistance have been replaced with a voltage source with a series resistor.43 ∠– 114.97 cos ( 1000t – 62.angle(V3c)*180/pi).1⎛ --. V3c = -1. fprintf('phaseV3c = %4.8 ° C or v''' ( t ) = 3. disp(V3c).abs(V3c)).12 = 3.

For this problem. when Z LOAD is adjusted to be equal to the complex conjugate of Z S . Therefore. as we found in Chapter 3. the load impedance Z LOAD will receive maximum power when Z LOAD = Z S∗ that is.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis and. and other similar problems involving the maximum power transfer theorem. Therefore. to find Z TH we remove Z LOAD and we short the voltage source. that is. 7. we will begin our computations with the Thevenin voltage. we only need to compute Z TH . for maximum power transfer R LOAD = R S . V TH and I SC is the current that would flow between the terminals when the load is replaced by a short. we will compute Z TH using the relation Z TH = V OC ⁄ I SC where V OC is the open circuit voltage. The remaining circuit then is as shown below. This and the Delta to Wye transformation are very useful in threephase circuits and are discussed in Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications by this author. it is best to replace the circuit with its Thevenin equivalent. 7-50 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . We disconnect Z LOAD from the circuit at points X and Y as shown below. For this. Thus. X z3 z 12 z4 z5 z6 Y But this circuit cannot be simplified further unless we perform Wye to Delta transformation which we have not discussed. X z3 z1 z2 z4 z5 z6 Y We observe that z 1 is in parallel with z 2 and this combination is shown as z 12 in the simplified circuit below. Moreover.

+ ----.+ --.⎞ V – --.+ ----.+ ----.+ --.+ --. with Z LOAD disconnected the circuit simplifies to that shown below.+ -----------------. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-51 .= 0 z3 z4 z5 1 1 1 1 – --. z5=5−10j.= 0 z1 z3 z2 VS 1 1 1 1 ⎛ --. Thus.V 1 + ⎛ --. z3=10.⎞ V 2 ⎝z z3 z4 z5 ⎠ 3 and with MATLAB Vs=170. z1=4.V = ----... we will find V TH = V XY = V X – V Y = V 1 – ( V 2 – V R 5Ω ) At Node 1: V1 – VS V1 V1 – V2 -----------------.Answers to Exercises X 4Ω 10 Ω Z LD Y 5Ω + − 20 Ω j5 −j10 170 ∠0° We will replace the remaining circuit with its Thevenin equivalent. z4=5j. z2=20..+ --. 4Ω X 10 Ω 2 V2 z4 j5 Ω – j 10 Ω 5Ω Y VY z5 + VS − z1 z2 1 V z3 1 20 Ω 170 ∠0° Now.2 1 ⎝z z3 z1 z2 z3 ⎠ 1 At Node 2: V2 – V1 V2 V2 -----------------.

disp('VTH = ').2f deg '.2f V '. disp(V2)..1538i VTH = 1...Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis Y=[1/z1+1/z2+1/z3 −1/z3. disp('V1 = '). disp(V1). fprintf(' \n'). V=Y\I.91 deg Thus. fprintf(' \n'). fprintf('phaseVTH = %4.abs(VTH))...1.85 V phaseVTH = -6. fprintf('magVTH = %4.85 ∠– 6. V1=V(1)... disp('V2 = '). V2=V(2). V1 = 1.. −1/z3 1/z3+1/z4+1/z5].. VY=(5/z5)*V2. I=[Vs/z1 0]'.1538e+001i V2 = 44.. we must find I SC from the circuit shown below.angle(VTH)*180/pi). disp(VTH).. VTH=VX−VY.2308+46.1731e+002 + 1.91° Next. Observing that a and b are the same point the mesh equations are ( z1 + z2 ) I1 – z2 I2 = VS – z2 I1 + ( z2 + z3 + z4 ) I2 – z4 I3 – z3 I4 = 0 – z4 I2 + ( z4 + z5 + z6 ) I3 – z5 I4 = 0 – z3 I2 – z5 I3 + ( z3 + z5 ) I4 = 0 and in matrix form z1 + z2 –z2 0 –z2 z2 + z3 + z4 – z4 –z3 0 –z4 z4 + z5 + z6 –z5 0 –z3 –z5 z3 + z5 ⋅ I1 I2 I3 I4 = VS 0 0 0 7-52 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . V TH = 127. VX=V1.. z1 4Ω a X 10 Ω I SC Y I4 5Ω + VS 20 Ω b z2 I2 z3 z4 j5 I3 z5 z6 −j10 − I 1 170 ∠0° We will write four mesh equations as shown above but we only are interested in phasor current I 4 .2692e+002 . fprintf(' \n').5385e+001i magVTH = 127.

disp(I2). disp(I3).. disp('I1 = ').4° V and Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-53 .1559i I3 = -1. z1=4.6.. −z2 z2+z3+z4 −z4 −z3.0520 + 10. for maximum power transfer there must be Z LOAD = Z∗ or TH Z LOAD = 18.0084 .2. VTH=126. we let I 5 = 1 ∠0° A Then.7302i I4 = 6... ZTH=VTH/I4.43 Ω 8.39j.09 + j6. 0 −z4 z4+z5+z6 −z5.3094 . z5=5.. I4=I(4)... 0 −z3 −z5 z3+z5].43 Ω and by Problem 6.92−15. V 5 = 5 ∠0° V and since I C = I 5 V C = I C ⁄ ( – j10 ) = 1 ∠0° ⋅ 10 ∠– 90° = 10 ∠– 90° V Next.4728i ZTH = 18..5223 + 1. z4=5j. z6=−10j. z3=10. I=Z\V. z2=20. I2=I(2). disp('I2 = ').Answers to Exercises With MATLAB Vs=170. disp('I3 = '). I3=I(3).6300i I2 = 10. I1=I(1). disp(ZTH). Z=[z1+z2 −z2 0 0. fprintf(' \n'). Z TH = 18. V=[Vs 0 0 0]'.09 – j6. I1 = 15. disp('ZTH =')..6745 . that is.18 ∠– 63.. disp(I4).. V L = V 5 + V C = 5 ∠0° + 10 ∠– 90° = 5 + ( – j10 ) = 5 – j10 = 11. disp('I4 ='). We assign phasor currents as shown below..3. fprintf(' \n'). 4Ω 10 Ω 5Ω + VS − I4 I 20 I 10 20 Ω I5 j5 IL −j10 IC We choose I 5 as a reference.4260i Thus. disp(I1).

V S = V 4 + V 20 = – 5 – j8 – 5 – j20 = – 10 – j28 = 29.73 ∠– 109.18 ∠– 63.25 – j2 A and V 4 = 4I 4 = 4 × ( – 1.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis I L = V L ⁄ j5 = ( 11.7° V The magnitudes (not to scale) and the phase angles are shown below. I4 IL V 10 V4 VS VL I10 I20 I5 = IC V 20 V C The phasor diagram above is acceptable.25 – j2 ) = – 5 – j8 V Finally.24 ∠– 153.4° ) ⁄ ( 5 ∠90° ) = 2. I5 = IC I20 I4 VL VC V 20 I10 V4 V 10 VS IL 7-54 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . However.4° = – 2 – j A Now I 10 = I L + I 5 = – 2 – j + 1 = – 1 – j = 2 ∠– 135° A and V 10 = 10 × 2 ∠– 135° = 10 × ( – 1 – j ) = – 10 – j10 V Continuing we find V 20 = V 10 + V L = – 10 – j10 + 5 – j10 = – 5 – j20 V and I 20 = V 20 ⁄ 20 = ( – 5 – j20 ) ⁄ 20 = – 0.7° to show the voltage source V S as reference at 0° as shown below.25 – j – 1 – j = – 1.25 – j A Also. I 4 = I 20 + I 10 = – 0. it would be more practical if we rotate it by 109.

z 2 = R 2 = 3 KΩ . disp(Vout).+ --.+ ---------------------..2 cos ( 1000t + 143.1⎛ z1 + z1 ⎞ z 1 ⋅ ⎛ --.3200i magVout = 7. and z 3 = – j ⁄ ωC = – j ⁄ ( 10 × 0.2 ∠143.13° V phaseVout = 143.⎞ --. The equivalent phasor circuit is shown below where z 1 = R 1 = 1 KΩ . fprintf('phaseVout = %5.2f deg \t'. fprintf('magVout = %5.76 + j4. z3=−4000j.25 × 10 ) = – j4 KΩ z3 z2 1 KΩ z1 V IN = 3 ∠0° V V OUT 3 KΩ V 3 –6 Application of KCL yields V – V IN V – V OUT V – V OUT -----------------.2f V \t'. fprintf(' \n')..+ ---------------------. Vout = -5.⎞ V OUT = ----------⎝z z1 z3 ⎠ 2 or – V IN – V IN V OUT = --------------------------------. z2=3000. fprintf(' \n')..Answers to Exercises 9..13° ) V Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-55 .13 deg and v out ( t ) = 7.angle(Vout)*180/pi)..abs(Vout)). z1=1000.--⎝z ⎝z z3 ⎠ z3 ⎠ 2 2 and with MATLAB Vin=3.20 V Thus. fprintf(' \n').7600 + 4.= -----------------------1. disp('Vout = ').. Vout=−Vin/(z1/z2+z1/z3).32 = 7. V OUT = – 5.+ --.= 0 z1 z2 z3 and since V = 0 the above relation reduces to – V IN 1 1 ⎛ --.

Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis NOTES 7-56 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

Complex Power. and complex power. cos(ωt+θ) cosωt θ T T T T T T T T Figure 8. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-1 . and energy.1. The sinusoidal and sawtooth waveforms of Figure 8.1 Periodic Time Functions A periodic time function satisfies the expression f ( t ) = f ( t + nT ) (8. It also discusses electrical instruments that are used to measure current. voltage.1) where n is a positive integer and T is the period of the periodic time function. Examples of periodic functions of time Other periodic functions of interest are the square and the triangular waveforms. power. resistance. the power triangle.1 are examples of periodic functions of time. and Instruments T his chapter defines average and effective values of voltages and currents.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. 8. power factor. instantaneous and average power.

Example 8. Complex Power. where V p denotes the peak (maximum) value of the sinusoidal voltage. v(t) Vp V p sin ω t 0 π /2 π 3π /2 ω t (r) 2π −V p T Figure 8.( 1 – 1 ) = 0 2π 8-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Waveform for Example 8.( – cos ω t ) 2π Vp = ----.1 Compute the average value of the sinusoid shown in Figure 8.3.2 Average Values The average value of any continuous function f ( t ) such as that shown in Figure 8. 1 V ave = -T ∫0 T 1 v ( t ) dt = -----ωT 2π 0 ∫0 ωT Vp V p sin ω t d( ωt ) = ----2π 0 2π ∫0 2π sin ω t d( ω t ) Vp = ----.2) The average value of a periodic time function f ( t ) is defined as the average of the function over one period. f (t) a b t Figure 8. and Instruments 8.3. A continuous time function f ( t ) is defined as 1 f ( t ) ave = ----------b–a ∫a f ( t ) d t b 1 b = ----------.2 over an interval a ≤ t ≤ b.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.( area a ) b–a (8.1 Solution: By definition.( cos ω t ) 2π Vp = ----.2.

Average Power = P ave = RI eff = RI dc 2 2 (8.cos ω t 2π 2π Ip Ip = ----.4. the average value of the half-wave rectification waveform is equal to its peak value divided by π . Waveform for Example 8.3) Then.2 Compute the average value of the half-wave rectification waveform shown in Figure 8.[ 1 – ( – 1 ) ] = --2π π (8.4. 8. Example 8. in a periodic current waveform i ( t ) . that is. Half-Wave Rectifier Waveform Current (I) I p sin ω t π T 2π Radians Figure 8.Effective Values as expected since the net area of the positive and negative half cycles is zero.3 Effective Values The effective current I eff of a periodic current waveform i ( t ) is defined as the current which produces heat in a given resistance R at the same average rate as a direct (constant) current I dc .5) Also.4) In other words. its average value is found from 1 I ave = ----2π ∫0 2π 1 I p sin ω t d( ω t ) = ----2π 0 π ∫0 π I p sin ω t d( ω t ) + ∫π 2π 0 d( ω t ) Ip Ip π = ----.2 Solution: This waveform is defined as ⎧ I p sin ω t i(t) = ⎨ 0 ⎩ 0 < ωt < π π < ωt < 2π (8. the instantaneous power is Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-3 .( – cos ω t 0 ) = ----.

and Instruments p(t) = R i 2(t) (8. Thus. However. The waveform of Figure 8. general.5. then V ave = 0 . if 8-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5) with (8. i2ave = 0 and sqrt(i2ave) = 0 Figure 8. ( i ave ) 2 implies that the average value of the function must first be found and then the average must be squared. and also I ave = 0 . P ave ≠ V ave × I ave . ave ( i 2 ) ≠ ( i ave ) 2 since the expression ave ( i 2 ) implies that the function i must first be squared and the average of the squared value is then to be found.6) and 1 P ave = -T ∫ T 0 1 p ( t ) dt = -T ∫ T 0 R Ri dt = -T 2 ∫ T i 0 2 dt (8.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.5 illustrates this point. Complex Power. On the other hand.8) Caution 1: In general. Waveforms to illustrate that ave ( i 2 ) ≠ ( i ave ) 2 Caution 2: In v ( t ) = V p cos ω t and i ( t ) = I p cos ( ω t + ϕ ) . P ave = 0 . For example. sqrt(ave(i2)) ≠ 0 ave(i2) ≠ 0 0 i2 i iave = 0.7) we get R RI eff = -T 2 ∫ T i 0 2 dt or 1 2 I eff = -T ∫0 i T 2 dt or 1 -T I eff = ∫ T i 0 2 dt = I Root Mean Square = I RMS = Ave ( i ) 2 (8.7) Equating (8.

and I RMS in terms of V p and I p Let i = I p cos ( ω t – θ ) then.6. and the RMS values as V RMS and I RMS . We will denote the peak values of voltages and currents as V p and I p respectively. 1 2 I RMS = -T ∫0 T 2 1 i dt = ----2π ∫0 2π I p cos ( ω t – θ ) d( ω t ) 2 2 and using the identity 1 2 cos φ = -.4 Effective (RMS) Value of Sinusoids Now.6. V RMS . we will derive an expression for the Root Mean Square (RMS) value of a sinusoid in terms of its peak (maximum) value.707 × Peak = 120 V Peak (Max) Value = 170 V 90 180 Time (Degrees) 270 360 Peak (Max) Value = −170 V Peak-to-Peak Value = 340 V Figure 8. The value from positive to negative peak will be denoted as V p – p and I p – p .Effective (RMS) Value of Sinusoids T T T 1 P ave = -T ∫ 0 1 p ( t ) dt = -T ∫ v ( t )i ( t ) dt = 0 1 -T ∫ ( V p cos ωt ) [ I p cos ( ωt + ϕ ) ] dt ≠ 0 0 8. RMS Value = 0. Their notations and relationships are shown in Figure 8. I p – p .( cos 2 φ + 1 ) 2 we get Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-5 . Definitions of V p – p .

10) We observe that the RMS value of a sinusoid is independent of the frequency and phase angle.7.--------------------------------------------------------------------------. i(t) 10 A t Figure 8.( 2 π ) = ---4π 4π 2 2 2 Ip 1 2 2 and therefore.7. Waveform for Example 8. it is dependent on the amplitude of the sinusoid only.+ 2 π 4π 2 (8. 8-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Example 8.9).Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.707I p 2 FOR SINUSOIDS ONLY (8.3 Compute the I ave and I RMS for the sawtooth waveform shown in Figure 8. Ip I RMS = -----. the period T is as shown in Figure 8.+ 2 π = ----.8.sin 4 π cos θ – cos 4 π sin θ + sin θ = ----.9) Using the trigonometric identities sin ( x – y ) = sin x cos y – cos x sin y and – sin ( – α ) = sin α by substitution into (8.= 0. in other words.-----------------------------) 4π 2 I p sin ( 4 π – θ ) – sin ( – θ ) 2π + ( ω t 0 ) = ----. and Instruments I RMS 2 Ip = ----4π 2 2 ∫0 2π cos ( 2 ω t – θ ) d( ω t ) + 2π 0 ∫0 2π d( ω t ) 2 I p sin ( 2 ω t – θ = ----.3 Solution: By inspection.---------------------------------------------------. Complex Power. we get 0 I RMS 2 Ip Ip .

10).8. this is for sinusoids only.⎜ -------.77 A -------3 3 8.⎟ ⎝T ⎠ T ⎝ T2 3 ⎠ 0 3 1 ⎛ 100 T ⎞ = -. Thus.⎛ 100 ⋅ t ⎞ ----. I RMS 2 T 1 = -T ∫0 T 1 i ( t ) dt = -T 2 ∫0 T 3 2 1 ⎛ 10 t⎞ dt = -.RMS Values of Sinusoids with Different Frequencies i(t) 10 A t T Figure 8.⎟ = 100 -------T ⎝ T2 3 ⎠ 3 or I RMS = 10 100 = -----.11) where I 0 represents a constant current.12) or I RMS = 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 I 0 + -.13) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-7 .I + … + -. the RMS value of i is found from I RMS = I 0 + I 1 RMS + I 2 RMS + … + I N RMS 2 2 2 2 (8. if i = I 0 + I 1 cos ( ω 1 t ± θ 1 ) + I 2 cos ( ω 2 t ± θ 2 ) + … + I N cos ( ω N t ± θ N ) (8.= 5.---.5 RMS Values of Sinusoids with Different Frequencies The RMS value of a waveform which consists of a sum of sinusoids of different frequencies. I 2 …. and I 1.8).I + -. I N represent the amplitudes of the sinusoids.I 2 1p 2 2p 2 Np (8. Accordingly. Then. we must use the definition of the RMS value as derived in (8. Defining the period for the waveform of Example 8. Then.⋅ ----.3 The average value is Area ----------------------------------I ave = ----------------.= ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) × 10 × T = 5 A T Period To find I RMS we cannot use (8. is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the RMS values of each sinusoid.⎜ -------.

15) 8-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .4 Solution: By inspection.10. Complex Power.[ ω t 0 + ω t 2π 2π ] π 1 = ----.sin 3 ω t + -.9. ISBN 0-9709511-3-2 by this author. (8.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.4 Find the I RMS value of the square waveform of Figure 8. 1 π 2π ωt −1 Figure 8. a. Waveform for Example 8.14) b.[ π + 2 π – π ] = 1 2π I RMS = 1 or (8. Determination of the period to the waveform of Example 8. the period T = 2π is as shown in Figure 8.12) 1 ωt −1 Figure 8. Fourier series analysis textbooks* show that the square waveform above can be expressed as 4 1 1 i ( t ) = -.sin 5 ω t + …⎞ ⎠ π⎝ 3 5 * Such a textbook is Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. and Instruments Example 8. 2 1 I RMS = -T ∫ 1 i 2 dt = ----2π 0 T ∫0 2π 2 1 i d( ω t ) = ----2π ∫0 π 1 d( ω t ) + 2 ∫ π ( –1 ) 2π 2 d( ω t ) 1 π = ----.⎛ sin ω t + -.4 Then.9 by application of (8.9.

= -. Circuit for Example 8. denoting that inductive or capacitive branch with the subscript X we get: P ave X = V RMS X I RMS X cos 90° = 0 Of course. Then. and the capacitor.12. the inductor. we need to find the current I and its phase relation to the source voltage V S .23) or P ave R V RMS R 1 Vm R 1 2 2 = ---------------. Example 8. Obviously.---------. θ = 90° and therefore.25) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-11 . find the average power supplied by the voltage source.= --------------------------------.= I RMS R R = -.5 Solution: Since this is a series circuit.Average Power in Inductive and Capacitive Loads P ave R = V RMS R I RMS R cos 0° = V RMS R I RMS R (8.= -------------------------. if the load of a circuit contains resistors.= ------------------. and the power factor cos θ will be within 0 ≤ cos θ ≤ 1 . 10 Ω j20 Ω I V S = 170 ∠0° – j 10 Ω Figure 8. VS 170 ∠0° 170 ∠0° 170 ∠0° I = ----.= 12 ∠– 45° 10 + j10 10 + j20 – j10 Z 10 2 ∠45° (8.5 For the circuit of Figure 8. inductors and capacitors. the average power absorbed by the resistor.8 Average Power in Inductive and Capacitive Loads With inductors and capacitors there is a 90° phase difference between the voltage and current. that is.11.I p R R 2 R 2 R 2 2 (8. the instantaneous power is zero only at specific instants. the phase angle θ between V RMS LOAD and I RMS LOAD will be within 0 ≤ θ ≤ 90° .24) 8.

26) The average power absorbed by the inductor and the capacitor is zero since the voltages and currents in these devices are 90° out-of-phase with each other. θ = – 45° .13.035 = 22.( 12 ) 10 = 720 w 2 2 (8. and the power factor is cos θ = cos ( – 45° ) = 0.24) we find that the average power absorbed by the resistor is 1 2 1 2 P ave R = -. Check: The average power delivered by the voltage source is Vp Ip ( 170 ) ( 12 ) P ave SOURCE = ---------.27) and we observe that (8.0.26) and (8.cos θ = -----------------------. 8-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .086 ∠101. using (8.6 and V B = – 22. find the power absorbed by each resistor.707 = 721 w 2 2 (8.440 ∠– 177.28) VB 5 ∠0° A −j6 Ω −j3 Ω 10 ∠0° A Figure 8. Solution: This is the same circuit as in Example 7. and Instruments Relation (8.6 For the circuit of Figure 8.707 Therefore.655 = 20. and the power supplied (or absorbed) by the current sources.1 where we found that V A = – 4.27) are in close agreement.414 – j1.I p R R = -.138 + j19.9° VA 4Ω 2Ω j3 Ω 8Ω (8.25) indicates that I p = 12 A .29) Then. Example 8. Complex Power.4 ° (8. Circuit for Example 8.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.13.

61 w 2 2 p8Ω (8. Therefore.786 ∠158.31) Likewise.33) and the power absorbed by the 10 A source is Vp Ip V B 10 A P ave 10 A = ---------.4° out-of-phase respectively with the current sources as shown by (8.70 w 2 2 p2Ω (8.786 × 4 = 15.30) Also. the power absorbed by the 5 A source is Vp Ip VA 5 A P ave 5 A = ---------.= ---------------------------------------.983 × 2 = 80.34) indicate that both current sources supply power to the rest of the circuit.I ( 2 Ω ) = -.983 ∠88.7 ° 8 – j3 8.9° and θ 2 = – 177.7° 2 + j3 3.61 ∠56.32) The voltages across the current sources are the same as VA and VB but they are 101.× ( – 0.2° 7. Then.0° I 2 Ω = ------------------.54 ∠– 20.9° = 2.35 w 2 (8.33) and (8.61 ∠56.999 ) = – 112.= 20.52 w 2 2 p4Ω (8.× 8.206 ) = – 10.28) and (8.× 2.= -----------------------------------.Average Power in Inductive and Capacitive Loads VA – VB 18.690 32.I ( 4 Ω ) = -.× ( – 0.9° and – 177.627 ∠– 156.× 2.cos θ 1 = -------------------.cos ( 101.440 × 10 = ---------------------------.I ( 8 Ω ) = -.086 × 5 = ------------------------.= 8. VA -----------------------------------I 4 Ω = ------------.3° 3.= ---------------------------------------. Check: Total average power absorbed by resistors is Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-13 .21 ∠– 56. we let θ 1 = 101.= 2.4 ° ) 2 2 22.08 w 2 (8.4 ° .cos θ 2 = ----------------------.6° and 1 1 2 2 P ave 8 Ω = -.086 ∠101.276 + j20.29).9° ) 2 2 20.627 × 8 = 27.3° 4 – j6 and 1 1 2 2 P ave 4 Ω = -.430 ∠145.cos ( – 177. VB 22.440 ∠– 177.34) The negative values in (8.3° and 1 1 2 2 P ave 2 Ω = -.4 ° I 8 Ω = ------------.

52 + 27.7 Compute the average power absorbed by a 5 Ω resistor when the voltage across it is the half-wave rectification waveform shown in Figure 8.61 = 123.35) Example 8.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.7 Solution: We first need to find the numerical value of ω . Half-Wave Rectifier Waveform Voltage (V) 10sinωt 1 2 t (ms) Figure 8.83 w and the total average power supplied by current sources is 112.dt = ------------------–3 R 2 × 10 ∫0 10 –3 10 sin 10 π t --------------------------------. 8.dt = -R T ∫0 i R dt 2 T (8.+ 5 2 2 3 ∫ 10 2 × 10 –3 –3 0 dt 8-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .9 Average Power in Non-Sinusoidal Waveforms If the excitation in a circuit is non-sinusoidal.14. Waveform for Example 8. Complex Power. the total average power supplied by the current sources is equal to the total average power absorbed by the resistors. P ave 1 = -T ∫0 T v2 1 ----.= 10 π T and thus 10 sin ωt = 10 sin 10 π 3 Then. The small difference is due to rounding of fractional numbers.43 w Thus. It is found as follows: T = 2 ms = 2 × 10 –3 s ωT = 2π ω 3 2π = ----.70 + 15. and Instruments 80.14.35 = 122. we can compute the average power absorbed by a resistor from the relations 1 P ave = -T ∫0 T 1 p dt = -T ∫0 T v2 1 ----.08 + 10.

Power triangles for inductive and capacitive loads In a power triangle. P real = P ave = V RMS I RMS cos θ = Q = Reactive Power = V RMS I RMS sin θ = P a = Apparent Power = V RMS I RMS (in watts) (8. But in a “purely capacitive load” θ 2 = 90° and thus the power factor is cos θ 2 = cos 90° = 0 8. The product V RMS × I RMS × sin θ is referred to as the reactive power.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.Power Triangle We recall that 1 P ave = -.V p I p cos θ = V RMS I RMS cos θ 2 (8. and Instruments In Figure 8. The apparent power is expressed in volt – amperes or VA . that is. for either triangle of Figure 8. The reactive power is expressed in volt – amperes reactive or VAR . Thus. P real = P ave θ Pa Q θ −Q Pa P real = P ave (a) Power Triangle for Inductive Load (b) Power Triangle for Capacitive Load Figure 8.38) (8. cos θ 2 is referred to as leading power factor and it is denoted as pf lead. and it is denoted as Q .16 (b) shows the power triangle for both a capacitive load. and it is denoted as P a . and Figure 8. the cosine of the angle θ 2 .17. the product V RMS × I RMS is referred to as the apparent power. The term “capacitive load” means that the load is more “capacitive” (with some resistance) than it is “inductive”. Complex Power. Figure 8.17.37) (8.39) (in VARs) (in VAs) 8-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .11 Complex Power .17 (a) shows the power triangle of an inductive load.36) This relation can be represented by the so-called power triangle.16.

18. the power factor of the line plus the load R line = 1 Ω VS 480 ∠0° V RMS R line = 1 Ω Figure 8.41) is known as the complex power.Complex Power .40) where the (+) sign is used for inductive loads and the (−) sign for capacitive loads. R line = 2 Ω VS I RMS 480 ∠0° V RMS Z LD Load 10 + j10 Figure 8. Example 8.8 with the line resistances combined From the circuit of Figure 8. that is.Power Triangle The apparent power P a is the vector sum of the real and reactive power components. we find that Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-17 . the relation of (8.8 For the circuit shown in Figure 8. P a = P real power ± jQ = P ave ± jQ (8. Circuit for Example 8.19. we redraw the circuit as shown in Figure 8. the apparent power supplied by the voltage source d. the power factor of the load e. For this reason.18.19. Circuit for Example 8. the average power absorbed by the line c.8 Load 10 + j10 Solution: For simplicity.19 where the line resistances have been combined into a single 2 Ω resistor. the average power delivered to the load b. find: a.

in opposite direction of Q 1 must be added. Circuit for Example 8. For this reason. Power triangles for existing and desired power factors Since the voltage across the given load must not change (otherwise it will affect the operation of it). VS 480 ∠0° V RMS 60 Hz Figure 8. 1 Kw θ1 θ 1 = cos 0.85 .21. Accordingly. Example 8. Obviously.23.9 1 Kw Load @ pf =0. say Q 3 . the circuit of Figure 8.22.8 = 36. and thus can be neglected.95 = 18. The power factor correction procedure is illustrated with the following example.95 lagging. when added across the load.2° –1 This is what we have This is what we want Figure 8.22.8 lag It is desired to “raise” the power factor of the load to 0. typically lower than 0. will accomplish this. and must be connected in parallel with the existing load.21.Power Factor Correction losses in the utility’s transmission and distribution system.21 must be modified as shown in Figure 8. the resistance of the lines between the voltage source and the load and the internal resistance of the source are considered small. facility engineers must install the appropriate equipment to raise the power factor.9° –1 1 Kw θ2 Q2 Q1 θ 2 = cos 0. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-19 . it is evident that a load. the Q 3 load must be capacitive. Solution: The power triangles for the existing and desired power factors are shown in Figure 8. Compute the size and the rating of a capacitor which. Accordingly. electric utility companies impose a penalty on industrial facility customers who operate at a low power factor.9 In the circuit shown in Figure 8.

not any 4.88 A 480 V S RMS and VC 480 X C = -----.= 4. the VAR value of Q 2 must be reduced to Q 2 = ( 1 Kw ) tan 18.= 0. and Instruments VS 480 ∠0° V RMS 60 Hz IC Capacitive Load with Leading pf 1 Kw Load @ pf =0. the capacitive load must consist of a capacitor with the value 1 1 1 C = ---------. 8-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. the capacitor must be capable of withstanding a maximum voltage of V C max = 2 × 480 = 679 V and for all practical purposes.= --------.8 lag Figure 8. Q3 421 I C = ---------------.88 IC Therefore. Circuit for power factor correction For the existing load.= 547 Ω 0. we can choose a 5 µF capacitor rated at 700 volts or higher.85 µF capacitor will do.= -------. Q 1 = ( 1 Kw ) tan 36.2° = 329 VAR Therefore.= -----------------------------.95 .85 µF 2 π f XC 2 π ( 60 ) ( 547 ) ω XC However. the added capacitive load must be a vector Q 3 such that Q 3 = Q 1 – Q 2 = 750 – 329 = 421 VAR The current I C through the capacitive load is found from Q3 = IC VC = IC VS Then.= --------------.23.9° = 750 VAR and for the desired pf = cos θ 2 = 0. Complex Power.

Often. Ohmmeters. Voltmeters. DC ammeters and voltmeters read average values whereas AC ammeters and voltmeters read RMS values.24. is proportional to the current in the coil. and a control spring. an electromagnet which typically is a metal cylinder with very thin wire wound around it which is referred to as the coil. we can use a low range milliammeter with a shunt (parallel) resistor as Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-21 . and Milliammeters (ammeters which measure current in milliamperes) are normally combined into one instrument called VOM. a milliammeter or microammeter may be used where the former measures current in milliamperes and the latter in microamperes.26. milliammeters. and watt-hour meters measure electric energy. A typical analog VOM An ammeter measures current in amperes. exceeds the range of the instrument. A typical oscilloscope is shown in Figure 8. and microammeters must always be connected in series with the circuits in which they are used. a torque is produced that tends to rotate the coil. and when there is current in the coil. For currents less than one ampere.13 Instruments Ammeters are electrical instruments used to measure current in electric circuits. The basic meter movement consists of a permanent horse shoe magnet. We will see how a digital VOM can be constructed from an analog VOM equivalent at the end of this section. In such a case. ohmmeters measure resistance. For example. Ammeters.Instruments 8. and Figure 8. An oscilloscope is an electronic instrument that produces an instantaneous trace on the screen of a cathode-ray tube corresponding to oscillations of voltage and current. The coil is free to move on pivots. the electric current to be measured. wattmeters measure power. we cannot directly measure a current of 5 to 10 milliamperes with a milliammeter whose range is 0 to 1 milliampere.25 shows a typical digital type VOM. Rotation of the coil is restrained by a helical spring so that the motion of the coil and the pointer which is attached to it. Figure 8.24 shows a typical analog type VOM. Figure 8. voltmeters measure voltage.

A typical oscilloscope 8-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . In Figure 8.25.27 I T is the total current to be measured. where the circle with mA represents an ideal milliammeter (a milliammeter with zero resistance). and Instruments shown in Figure 8. A typical digital VOM Figure 8. I S is the current through the shunt resistor. I M is the current through the meter. and R S is the shunt resistance.26. Complex Power. R M is the milliammeter internal resistance.27.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. Figure 8.

10 IT Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-23 . IT = IM + IS (8. IM =Maximum allowable current through the milliammeter I fs = 1 mA IT IM mA RM 40 Ω RS IS Figure 8. that is.10 In the circuit of Figure 8. and its internal resistance is 40 Ω .Instruments IT IM IT mA RS IS Figure 8.27.28.41) Also. therefore.28. then IM R S = ----. Milliammeter with shunt resistor R S RM From the circuit of Figure 8.42) Example 8. the milliammeter has a full-scale current I fs of 1 mA . that is. RM IM = RS IS and since we normally need to calculate the shunt resistor.27. the total current entering the circuit is 5 mA and the milliammeter range is 0 to 1 milliampere. that is. the voltages across these parallel branches are equal. we observe that the sum of the current flowing through the milliammeter I M and the current I S through the shunt resistor is equal to the total current I S . the shunt resistor R S is in parallel with the milliammeter branch. Circuit for Example 8.R M IS (8. Compute the value of the shunt resistor R S .

IM 1 R S = ----..× 40 = 10 Ω IS 4 Check: The calculated value of the shunt resistor is 10 Ω . the 10 Ω resistor will allow four times as much current as the milliammeter to flow through it. Circuit for a multi-range ammeter/milliammeter A voltmeter. Therefore.R M = -. i.42). this is one-fourth the value of the milliammeter internal resistor of 40 Ω . a voltmeter is a modified milliammeter where an external resistor R V is connected in series with the milliammeter as shown in Figure 8. IT + RS A IM RM − IT IS Figure 8.29. the remaining 4 milliamperes must flow through the shunt resistor. Typically. as stated earlier. A multi-range ammeter/milliammeter is an instrument with two or more scales. I S = I T – I M = 5 – 1 = 4 mA The required value of the shunt resistor is found from (8. measures voltage in volts.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.e. that is.29 shows the circuit of a typical multi-range ammeter/milliammeter. Complex Power.30 where I = current through circuit R M = internal resis tan ce of milliameter R V = external resistor in series with R M V M = voltmeter full scale reading 8-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Figure 8. and Instruments Solution: The maximum current that the milliammeter can allow to flow through it is 1 mA and since the total current is 5 milliamperes.

Instruments RV = Voltmeter internal resistance VM = Voltmeter range IM mA + RM VM RV − Figure 8. IM ( RM + RV ) = VM or VM R V = -----. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-25 .43) Voltmeters must always be connected in parallel with those devices of the circuit whose voltage is to be measured.11 Here.11 Design a voltmeter which will have a 1 volt full-scale using a milliammeter with 1 milliampere fullscale and internal resistance 100 Ω . Then.30. we only need to compute the value of the external resistor R V so that the voltage across the series combination will be 1 volt full scale. IM mA + 100 Ω RM VM RV − Figure 8. Circuit for Example 8.– R M IM (8.31. Example 8.30.43). from (8. Solution: The voltmeter circuit consists of the milliammeter circuit and the external resistance R V as shown in Figure 8. Typical voltmeter circuit For the circuit of Figure 8.31.

the resistor R X whose resistance is to be measured. the 0 (zero) point appears on the right-most point of the Ohmmeter scale. we only need to attach a 900 Ω resistor in series with that milliammeter. is connected in series with the Ohmmeter circuit shown in Figure 8. In the series type Ohmmeter. Figure 8. to convert a 1 milliampere full-scale milliammeter with an internal resistance of 100 Ω to a 1 volt full-scale voltmeter.33.– R M = --------. I VS + − mA + Figure 8. Figure 8. Complex Power. For this reason. 8-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the current I is maximum when the resistor R X is zero (short circuit).9 kΩ 100 Ω mA 900 Ω 1V RM 10 V IM = 1 mA fs VM − An Ohmmeter measures resistance in Ohms. and Instruments VM 1 R V = -----.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.9 kΩ 100 V I 9. Circuit for a multi-range voltmeter RM Zero Adjust RX ∞ 0 Figure 8.– 100 = 1000 – 100 = 900 Ω –3 IM 10 (8. and the current is zero when R X is infinite (open circuit).34 shows the circuit of a shunt (parallel) type Ohmmeter where the resistor R X whose value is to be measured.32. and the infinity symbol appears on the left-most point of the scale. Circuit for a series type Ohmmeter We observe from Figure 8.32 shows a typical multi-range voltmeter. 99. is in parallel with the Ohmmeter circuit.44) Therefore.33 that for the series type Ohmmeter.33.

Circuit for a parallel type Ohmmeter From Figure 8. the current through the milliammeter circuit is zero when the resistor R X is zero (short circuit) since all current flows through that short. for the shunt type Ohmmeter. the current through the milliammeter branch is maximum. that is. For this reason.35.Instruments VS + − mA RX I RM Zero Adjust 0 ∞ Figure 8. An instrument which can measure unknown resistance values very accurately is the Wheatstone Bridge shown in Figure 8.34. Wheatstone Bridge Circuit One of the resistors. when R X is infinite (open circuit). However. This balance occurs when R1 R3 ----. is the unknown resistor whose value is to be measured. R1 + − VA R2 µA R4 0 µA VS R3 VB − + Figure 8.45) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-27 .= ----R R2 4 from which the value of the unknown resistor is found from R2 R 4 = ----.R 3 R1 (8. and another resistor.35. say R 4 . say R 3 is adjusted until the bridge is balanced. until there is no current flow through the meter of this circuit.34 we see that. and the infinity symbol appears on the right-most point of the scale. the 0 (zero) point appears on the left-most point of the Ohmmeter scale.

Wheatstone Bridges are also used to accept or reject resistors whose values exceed a given tolerance. Compute the value of the unknown resistor R 4 . There are different types of analog-to-digital converters such as the flash converter. As shown in Figure 8. 600 Ω + − VA R2 200 Ω R1 µA R4 R3 120 Ω VB 0 VS µA − + Figure 8. that is. and one end of the resistor whose value is to be measured must be disconnected from the circuit. Circuit for Example 8. We will discuss the flash converter only because of its simplicity. Complex Power. Then. W = Pt in watt-hours. A wattmeter is an instrument which measures power in watts or kilowatts. when the current through the meter is zero. where W is the product of the average power P in watts and time t in hours. slope converter and tracking converter.36. 8-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . This and the other types are discussed in digital circuits textbooks.12 Solution: When the bridge is balanced. R2 200 R 4 = ----. Electric utility companies use kilowatt-hour meters to bill their customers for the use of electricity. and an eight-to-three line encoder. a current coil and a voltage coil where the interacting magnetic fields of these coils produce a torque which is proportional to the V × I product. its value is 120 Ω . Digital meters include an additional circuit called analog-to-digital converter (ADC).R 3 = -------. relation (8.36.× 120 = 40 Ω 600 R1 When measuring resistance values. comparators (denoted as triangles). the voltage sources in the circuit to which the unknown resistance is connected must be turned off.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. A watt-hour meter is an instrument which measures electric energy W . It is constructed with two sets of coils.45) holds. the time-window converter. resistor R 3 is adjusted until the meter reads zero.12 In the Wheatstone Bridge circuit of Figure 8. and when this occurs. that is.37. Because of their great accuracy. and Instruments Example 8. the flash type ADC consists of a resistive network.

5 V 9V 7.5 to less than 3.5 V 4.2 V.5 V 1.5 V 7.Instruments 12 V Supply 12 V 10.5 to less than 6. it converts digital values to equivalent analog values. Typical analog-to-digital converter Analog Input A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 B2 B1 B0 Less than 0 V 0 to less than 1. then A0 = A1 = A2 = A3 = 1 and A4 = A5 = A6 = A7 = A8 = 0 Figure 8.0 V 9.5 V 6V 4.0 to less than 10.5 to less than 9.37.0 V 6. that is.0 to less than 4.0 to less than 7.5 V 3V 1.5 to 12 V Greater than 12 V † Underflow ‡ Overflow 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 x 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 x x 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 x x† 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 x‡ A digital-to-analog converter (DAC) performs the inverse operation.5 V 0V − ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER Overflow A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 Analog Input 8-to-3 Encoder B2 B1 B0 Comparator VX VY − + − + − − + + − − + Ai Inputs Output VX = VY Previous Value VX > VY Ai = 0 VX < VY Ai = 1 + + − + − − + + For Example.0 V 3.38 shows a four-bit R-2R ladder network and an op-amp connected to form a DAC.5 V 10. Figure 8. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-29 . if Analog Input = 5.

A typical digital-to-analog converter 8.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. • The average value of any continuous function f ( t ) over an interval a ≤ t ≤ b .14 Summary • A periodic time function is one which satisfies the relation f ( t ) = f ( t + nT ) where n is a positive integer and T is the period of the periodic time function.( area a ) b–a • The average value of a periodic time function f ( t ) is defined as the average of the function over one period. Complex Power. and Instruments DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERTER 2R R 2R (lsb) B0 R R 2R − 2R 2R 2R B1 B2 B3 (msb) + V out − + − 1 Volt Switch Settings: For Logic “0” (ground) positioned to the right For Logic “1” (+5 V) positioned to the left With the switches positioned as shown. lsb = least significant bit msb = most significant bit Figure 8.is defined as 1 f ( t ) ave = ----------b–a ∫a f ( t ) dt b 1 b = ----------. B3 B2 B1 B0 = 0100 Negative reference voltage is used so that the inverting op amp’s output will be positive. • A half-wave rectification waveform is defined as ⎧ A sin ω t f(t) = ⎨ 0 ⎩ 0 < ωt < π π < ωt < 2π 8-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .38.

• Ohmmeters are instruments used to measure resistance. • Watt-Hour meters are instruments used to measure energy. milliammeters. and Instruments • The apparent power P a . • Voltmeters. • A Wheatstone Bridge is an instrument which can measure unknown resistance values very accu- rately. • Voltmeters are instruments used to measure voltage. Ohmmeters. 8-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . • A power factor can be corrected by placing a capacitive load in parallel with the load of the cir- cuit. Complex Power.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. and microammeters must always be connected in series with the circuits in which they are used. is the vector sum of the real and reactive power components. • Ammeters are instruments used to measure current in electric circuits. • An oscilloscope is an electronic instrument that produces an instantaneous trace on the screen of a cathode-ray tube corresponding to oscillations of voltage and current. and one end of the resistor whose value is to be measured must be disconnected from the circuit. P a = P real power ± jQ = P ave ± jQ where the (+) sign is used for inductive loads and the (−) sign for capacitive loads. also known as complex power. that is. and Milliammeters (ammeters which measure current in milliamperes) are normally combined into one instrument called VOM. Ammeters. the voltage sources in the circuit to which the unknown resistance is connected must be turned off. Voltmeters must always be connected in par- allel with those devices of the circuit whose voltage is to be measured. • Digital meters include an additional circuit called analog-to-digital converter (ADC). • DC ammeters and DC voltmeters read average values • AC ammeters and AC voltmeters read RMS values. When measuring resistance values. • Wattmeters are instruments used to measure power.

5 ⁄ 2 A D. 12 ⁄ 2 V B. The RMS value of i = 5 + cos 100t A is A. The average value of a constant (DC) voltage of 12 V is A. none of the above 2. 6 V B. 12 V C. 12 × 2 V E. 12 V D. 5 × 2 A C. 5 A Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-33 . none of the above 3. The RMS value of a constant (DC) voltage of 12 V is A. 5 × 2 A C. 6 × 2 ⁄ 2 V C. 5 A E. 5 + 2 ⁄ 2 A B. 12 × 2 V E. 12 ⁄ 2 V D. 5 + 2 ⁄ 2 A B. none of the above 4.15 Exercises Multiple Choice 1.Exercises 8. 5 ⁄ 2 A D. The average value of i = 5 + cos 100t A is A.

none of the above 5.67 w E.33 w B. 352. Complex Power. The average power absorbed by that load is A. 10 ⁄ 2 V 8-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. 24 V B. The average value of the waveform of Figure 8. 12 V D. and Instruments E. 157.39 is v (V) 24 4 8 12 Figure 8. 71. Waveform for Question 6 A.44 w C. The voltage across a load whose impedance is Z = 75 + j38 Ω is 115 V RMS. 6 V E. 16 V C. The RMS value of the waveform of Figure 8.40 is i (A) 10 1 3 t (s) Figure 8. 176. Waveform for Question 7 A.3 w D. none of the above 7.40.39. none of the above 6.

The average power absorbed by this load is A. 0 w E. A load with a leading power factor of 0. 25 w B. If the average power absorbed by a load is 500 watts and the reactive power is 500 VAR . 10 w C. A current with a value of i = 5 cos 10000t A is flowing through a load that consists of the series combination of R = 2 Ω . 10 × 3 V E. a capacitor in series with the load E. 10 × 2 V C. none of the above 10.60 can be corrected to a lagging power factor of 0. 500 × 2 VA E. L = 1 mH .Exercises B. 5 w D. 250 VA D. none of the above 8. 500 VA C. none of the above 9. 0 VA B. and C = 10 µF . 10 ⁄ 3 V D.85 by adding A. an inductor in parallel with the load C. a capacitor in parallel with the load B. an inductor is series with the load D. none of the above Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-35 . the apparent power is A.

and Instruments Problems 1. Compute the average and RMS values of the voltage waveform of Figure 8.41. b.5 H inductor is given as i L ( t ) = 5 + 10 sin t A . The power output during the transmission of a pulse. v( t) A V t(s) 0 Figure 8. Compute: a. Complex Power. b.42. The RMS values of the current and voltage. 8-36 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . voltage and power for this inductor. A radar transmitter sends out periodic pulses. Compute the RMS value of i ( t ) = 10 + 2 cos 100t + 5 sin 200t 5. It sends out one of these pulses every 1 ms . 2.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. The average output power of this transmitter is 750 w . Compute the RMS value of the voltage waveform of Figure 8.42. Waveform for Problem 3 4. The energy transmitted in each pulse. The current i L ( t ) through a 0. The average values of the current. v( t) V 15 5 t(s) 0 Figure 8. It transmits for 5 µs and then rests. Waveform for Problem 2 3. Compute: a.41.

43.44.45. For the multi-range ammeter/milliammeter shown in Figure 8.44. For the circuit of Figure 8. For the circuit of Figure 8. Compute the values of R 1. VS ZIN PCB Figure 8. the input impedance of the PCB (Printed Circuit Board) is Z IN = 100 – j100 Ω and the board must not absorb more that 200 mw of power. otherwise it will be damaged. Compute the average power delivered (or absorbed) by each device. R 3.43.Exercises 6. R 2.45. and R 4 so that the instrument will display the indicated values. v s ( t ) = 100 cos 1000t V. Multi-range ammeter for Problem 8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-37 . the meter full scale is 1 mA . vS ( t ) 2Ω 3 mH 5Ω 200 µF Figure 8. Compute the largest RMS value that the variable voltage source V S can be adjusted to. Network for Problem 7 8. 10 mA 980 Ω IT + 100 mA R1 R2 mA IM RM =20 Ω 1A − IT R3 Figure 8. Circuit for Problem 6 7.

and returns to the other terminal point F of the input voltage source. and returns to the other terminal point A of the input voltage source. through the resistor R to point D . There is a small voltage drop v D across each diode* but it can be neglected if v in » v D . I Diode − Allows current to flow in the indicated direction only B A vIN F D3 D1 D2 D − vOUT R + C D4 DC Voltmeter V E Figure 8. through D 2 to point C .47.47. Network for Problem 9 v in (t) Vp V p sin ω t 0 ω t (r) Vp Full Rectified Waveform Vpsinωt Figure 8. through the resistor R to point D . Input and output waveforms for the network of Problem 9 * For silicon type diodes. Complex Power. the voltage drop is approximately 0. through diode D 3 to point E . Compute the value indicated by the DC voltmeter.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.7 volt. The circuit of Figure 8.46. The input and output voltage waveforms are shown in Figure 8.46 is known as full-wave rectifier. During the negative input half cycle. current flows from point F to point E. and Instruments 9. During the positive input half cycle. through diode D 4 to point C . 8-38 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . through the diode D 1 to point B . current flows from point A to point B .

1 i L ave = -T 1 -T ∫0 T 1 i L dt = -T ∫0 T ( 5 + 10 sin t ) dt 1 and since -. i L = 5 + 10 sin t .54 w 6.Answers to Exercises 8. D 3. C 4. 1 = -T 1 p L ave = -T ∫0 T 1 p L dt = -T ∫0 T 1 v L i L dt = -T ∫0 5 cos t ( 5 + 10 sin t ) dt T ∫0 T ( 25 cos t + 50 sin t cos t ) dt and using sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x it follows that 50 sin t cos t = 25 sin 2t and thus 1 p L ave = -T ∫0 T ( 25 cos t + 25 sin 2t ) dt = 0 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-39 .37 ∠– 26. Likewise. A 5.87° ) = 140. D 10. v L = L -----.5T = 5 A .5 ---.∫ 10 sin t dt = 0 .87° . I RMS = 115 ∠0° ⁄ 84. B 7.( 5 + 10 sin t ) = 5 cos t di dt d dt a. E Z = 75 + j38 = 84. Also. C 8.16 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1.37 × cos ( – 26. B 2.= 0.87° and thus P ave = V RMS ⋅ I RMS cos θ = 115 × 1. v L ave = -T T ∫0 T 5 cos t dt = 0 . B Problems L 1. it follows that T T 0 ∫0 T 1 1 5 dt = -.08 ∠26.08 ∠26. A 9.87° = 1.

1 2 I L RMS = -T 1 = -T 1 = -T ∫0 ∫0 T 2 i L dt T ∫0 T ( 5 + 10 sin t ) dt 2 25 2 [ 5 ( 1 + 2 sin t ) ] dt = ----T ∫0 T ( 1 + 4 sin t + 4 sin t ) dt 2 1 T 2 1 T ----------------------Using sin x = 1 – cos 2x and observing that -.∫ 4 sin t dt = 0 and -. From the waveform below we observe that Period = T = 5τ and since V ave = Area ⁄ Period = ( 15τ + 20τ ) ⁄ 5τ = 7 V Also.707 × 5 = 3.∫ cos 2t dt = 0 we get 2 T 0 T 0 25 2 I L RMS = ----. 8-40 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .707V p and since V p = 5 it follows that V RMS = 0. and Instruments b. v( t) V 15 τ 5 4τ T 0 1 2 V RMS = -T t(s) ∫0 T 1 2 v dt = ----5τ ∫0 τ ( 15 ) dt + 2 ∫τ 5τ 1 2 ( 5 ) dt = ----. We choose the period T as shown below.⎛ t T⎝ T 0 25 4 T + -.66 A For sinusoids V RMS = V p ⁄ ( 2 ) = 0. Complex Power.06 V 3.t 0⎞ = ----.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.( 225τ + 125τ – 25τ ) = 65 5τ and thus V RMS = 65 = 8.54 V 2.( T + 2T ) = 75 and I L RMS = T 2 ⎠ 75 = 8.

The effective (RMS) value of a sinusoid is a real number that is independent of frequency and phase angle and for current it is equal to I RMS = I p ⁄ 2 .5 = 10.13).= A ⁄ 6 24 2 and V RMS = 6 2 A ⁄ 6 = -----. The RMS value of sinusoids with different frequencies is given by (8.Answers to Exercises v( t) A V 2A v ( t ) = -----T t(s) 0 T T 2A Using the straight line equation y = mx + b we find that for 0 < t < T ⁄ 2 . A 5 µs 1 2 t(s) For this problem we do no know the amplitude A of each 5 µs pulse but we know the average power of one period T = 1 s . 1 2 V RMS = -T ∫0 T 1 2 v dt = -T T⁄2 ∫0 T⁄2 2 1 ⎛ 2A t⎞ dt + ------⎝T ⎠ T ∫ 4A 0 ⋅ dt = -------3 T⁄2 T T 2 ∫0 T⁄2 t dt 2 4A 3 = -------. v ( t ) = -----.t 3 3T 2 0 2 4A = -------.A = 0.2 + -.41A 6 4. The waveform representing the transmitter output pulses is shown below. For this problem I RMS = 2 1 2 1 2 10 + -. Since Area Area P ave = 750 w = ----------------.t .5 = 2 2 100 + 2 + 12.7 A 5.= ----------Period 1s Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-41 . Then.

VS – VC I 2 Ω = -----------------z1 VC I C = -----z1 VC I L = -----z3 and with MATLAB Vs=100.. and Instruments it follows that a. z1=2. z2=−5j.. 8-42 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .. fprintf(' \n'). Ic=Vc/z2. Complex Power. disp('phaseI2 = ')...+ --.. z3=5+3j.+ -----. disp(abs(I2)).. disp(I2). Energy transmitted during each pulse is Area of each pulse = 750 w ⋅ s b. I2=(Vs−Vc)/z1..⎞ ⎝ z z ⎠ 2 3 Also.. The power during the transmission of a pulse is P = W ⁄ t = 750 w ⋅ s ⁄ 5 µs = 750 w ⋅ s ⁄ 5 × 10 –6 = 150 × 10 w = 150 Mw 3 –3 6 6..Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.⎞ V = V S ----⎝z z1 z2 z3 ⎠ C 1 or VS V C = -------------------------------z1 z1 ⎛ 1 + --. disp('I2 = '). disp('phaseVc = '). disp(abs(Vc)). The phasor equivalent circuit is shown below where jωL = j10 × 3 × 10 – j ⁄ ωC = – j ⁄ 10 × 2 × 10 3 –4 = j3 Ω and = – j5 Ω z1 2 Ω VS VC j3 Ω IL 5Ω I2 Ω IC z2 – j5 Ω z3 100 ∠0° By application of KCL VC – VS VC VC -----------------.... disp(angle(I2)*180/pi). disp('magI2 = ')..+ -----. Vc=Vs/(1+z1/z2+z1/z3). IL=Vc/z3. disp('magVc = '). disp(Vc). disp('Vc = ')..+ --..+ --.= 0 z1 z2 z2 or 1 1 1 ⎛ --.. disp(angle(Vc)*180/pi)..

2290 phaseIc = 80.4 w 2 Also... disp('magIL = ').5266i magIL = 13. disp('phaseIc = '). 1 2 2 P 2 Ω ave = -. disp('IL = '). disp(angle(IL)*180/pi).43° as shown by the phasor diagram below. disp(abs(IL)).9604i magVc = 76.43° VS Therefore.. 1 P S ave = -.43° = 624.97 w 2 and Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-43 .5 × ( 14.0068i magIc = 15.4802i magI2 = 14...8.5 × 100 × 14.07 ) × 2 = 197.4350 Ic = 2..1452 phaseVc = -9.0647 phaseI2 = 27..0588 phaseIL = -40.I p R 2 Ω = 0. disp(IL). disp(abs(Ic)). disp('phaseIL = ').× V S × I 2 Ω cos θ = 0.0341-12..7636 The average power delivered by the voltage source V S is computed from the relation 1 P ave = V RMS I RMS cos θ = -. disp(angle(Ic)*180/pi). disp(Ic).07 × cos 27..Answers to Exercises disp('Ic = ').7998 I2 = 12.V p I p cos θ 2 where θ = 27. disp('magIc = ').2002 IL = 9.8909 . I2 Ω θ = 27. Vc = 75.5921 + 15.4829 + 6.

97 + 426.5 × ( 13.41 = P S ave = 624. Z IN = 100 – j100 Ω or Z IN = Z IN ∠θ = – 1( – 100 ) 2 2 100 + 100 ∠ tan -------------------. we must satisfy the condition Vp Ip p = ---------. that is. we can find its value from the given input impedance.06 ) × 5 = 426.I L R 5 Ω = 0.= 100 2 ∠– 45° 100 8-44 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .[ cos ( 2ωt + θ ) + cos θ ] ≤ 0. i(t) ZIN vS ( t ) PCB Let and Then.2 w . Let us consider the t – domain network below.4 w The average power in the capacitor and the inductor is zero since θ = 90° and cos θ = 0 7.41 w 2 Check: P 2 Ω ave + P 5 Ω ave = 197.2 w 2 and therefore we must find the phase angle θ .[ cos ( x + y ) + cos ( x – y ) ] 2 we get Vp Ip p = ---------.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. p = v S i = V p I p cos ωt ⋅ cos ( ωt + θ ) v S = V p cos ωt i = I p cos ( ωt + θ ) and using 1 cos x ⋅ cos y = -. that is. Complex Power. and Instruments 1 2 2 P 5 Ω ave = -. Since θ appears also in the jω – domain .[ cos ( 2ωt + θ ) + cos θ ] 2 We require that the power p does not exceed 200 mw or 0.

980 Ω 10 mA + R1 9 mA R2 20 Ω mA 1 mA R3 10 mA − Then.76V RMS = -----. Vp Ip 2 p max = ---------.07 V 1.76 and Vp 5.707 or Vp = 33. With the switch at the 10 mA position.14 = 5.2 w 2 ⎝ 2⎠ Then.= 4.⎛ 1 + ------⎞ = 0. V p I p = 0. 9 × 10 ( R 1 + R 2 + R 3 ) = ( 980 + 20 ) × 10 –3 –3 or ----------R 1 + R 2 + R 3 = 1000 (1) 9 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-45 . that is.= -----------.707 and now we can express I p in terms of V p using the relation Z IN = 100 2 and I p = V p ⁄ Z IN and by substitution 2 ----------------------------V p = 0.Answers to Exercises and in the t – domain Vp Ip p = ---------.4 × 100 2 = 33.4 ⁄ 1.414 2 8. the circuit is as shown below.[ cos ( 2ωt – 45° ) + cos ( – 45° ) ] 2 The maximum power p occurs when cos ( 2ωt – 45° ) = 1 .14 1.

and Instruments With the switch at the 100 mA position. Complex Power. the circuit is as shown below. 980 Ω 1A + 1 mA R1 R2 mA 1 mA 20 Ω 1A − 999 mA R3 Then.+ 1000 = -------------9 9 or 8-46 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 980 Ω 100 mA + 99 mA R3 10 mA − 1 mA R1 R2 mA 1 mA 20 Ω Then.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. 99 × 10 ( R 2 + R 3 ) = ( R 1 + 980 + 20 ) × 10 –3 –3 or – R 1 + 99R 2 + 99R 3 = 1000 (2) With the switch at the 1 A position. 999 × 10 R 3 = ( R 1 + R 2 + 980 + 20 ) × 10 –3 –3 or – R 1 – R 2 + 999R 3 = 1000 (3) Addition of (1) and (3) yields 1000 10000 1000R 3 = ----------. the circuit is as shown below.

cos ωt π Vp 2V p = ----. the DC voltmeter will read the average value of the voltage v OUT across the resistor. Therefore. DC instruments indicate average values.2.+ 1000 = -------------9 9 or -------R 2 + R 3 = 100 (5) 9 Substitution of (4) into (5) yields R 2 = 10 Ω (6) and substitution of (4) and (6) into (1) yields R 1 = 100 Ω (7) 9.Ω (4) 9 Addition of (1) and (2) yields 1000 10000 100R 2 + 100R 3 = ----------.Answers to Exercises 10 R 3 = ----. Full Rectified Waveform Vpsinωt Vp π 2π π ωt = 0 Then. The period of the full-wave rectifier waveform is taken as π. this average is twice the average value of the half-wave rectifier waveform of Example 8. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-47 .( – cos ωt ) π 0 0 π Vp = ----. v OUT ave 1 = -π ∫ π Vp V p sin ωt d( ωt ) = ----.( 1 + 1 ) = -------π π As expected.

Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. and Instruments NOTES 8-48 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Complex Power.

Separation of Variables Method Rearranging (9. that is.1) Here. and we seek the circuit’s natural response. integrating both sides and using the initial condition.The term natural implies that there is no excitation in the circuit.Chapter 9 Natural Response T his chapter discusses the natural response of electric circuits. i = I 0 .1). 1. − R + L + i − Figure 9.= – -. As we know. We will consider both. we get Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-1 . we seek a value of i which satisfies the differential equation of (9. that is. and it is given that at t = 0 . we need to find the natural response which in differential equations terminology is the complementary function. we get R di ---. two common methods are the separation of variables method and the assumed solution method. The natural response is also referred to as the transient response. so that the variables i and t are separated. the initial condition is i ( 0 ) = I 0 . 9. the circuit is source-free.1. that is.dt L i Next.1 The Natural Response of a Series RL circuit Let us find the natural response of the circuit of Figure 9.1). Circuit for determining the natural response of a series RL circuit Application of KVL yields vL + vR = 0 or di L ---.1 where the desired response is the current i.+ Ri = 0 dt (9.

we assume a solution of the form i ( t ) = Ae st (9. it must satisfy the differential equation (9.3) is a solution. 2. or if s = – R ⁄ L .3) where A and s are constants to be determined.di = – R dσ -L 0 I i ∫ where σ is a dummy variable.σ 0 L or R ln i – ln I 0 = – -.t L or R iln --. if (9. Now. Then. Assumed Solution Method Relation (9. if A = 0 or s = – ∞ . we get: RAe + sLAe st st = 0 or ⎛ s + R ⎞ Ae st = 0 -⎝ L ⎠ The left side of the last expression above will be zero if A = 0 .1).= – -.2) Substitution of (9. s = – R ⁄ L is the only logical solution.2) into (9. then every response is zero and this represents a trivial solution. we get i ( t ) = I0 e –( R ⁄ L ) t x (9.1) indicates that the solution must be a function which. both the differential equation and the initial condition are satisfied. Therefore. But. An exponential function will accomplish that and therefore. Thus.1) yields 0 = 0 and that at t = 0 .Chapter 9 Natural Response ∫0 i1 t -. when added to its first derivative will become zero.t L I0 Recalling that x = ln y implies y = e .3) we get i ( t ) = Ae –( R ⁄ L ) t 9-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . i ( 0 ) = I 0 . and by substitution into (9. or if s = – ∞ . by substitution. Integration yields ln i i I0 R t = – -.

= e –( R ⁄ L ) t ) ------I0 and sketch it as shown in Figure 9.0 0.4 0.7 0.8 0 –( R ⁄ L ) t (9.4) Percent i(t) / I 0 0. Thus.⎞ . Plot for i ( t ) ⁄ I 0 in a series RL circuit From Figure 9. I 0 = Ae or A = I 0 and therefore.3 0.2.2 we observe that at t = 0 . that is.The Natural Response of a Series RL circuit We must now evaluate the constant A . d i ---.⎛ --. we rewrite it as i ( t . This constant rate of decay is represented by the straight line equation i( t) = – R t + 1 -------L I0 and at t = τ . The initial rate (slope) of decay is found from the derivative of i ⁄ I 0 evaluated at t = 0 .2. 1. we define the time constant τ as the time required for i ⁄ I 0 to drop from unity to zero assuming that the initial rate of decay remains constant. i ( t ) = I0 e as before.6 0.e = – -L L t=0 t=0 and thus the slope of the initial rate of decay is – R ⁄ L Next. i ⁄ I 0 = 0 .dt ⎝ I 0 ⎠ R –( R ⁄ L ) t R = – -.8% 13. and i → 0 as t → ∞ .2 0.5% 5% Time Constants 2 3 4 5 Figure 9. This is done with the use of the initial condition i ( 0 ) = I 0 . Then.0 0 1 e−(R/L) t i(t) / I 0 = −(R / L) t +1 36. i ⁄ I 0 = 1 .1 0. Next. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-3 .9 0.5 0.

τ + 1 L or L τ = -R Time Cons tan t for RL Circuit (9.1 i ( t ) = I0 e –( R ⁄ L ) t where I 0 = i L ( 0 ) . that is. Circuit for Example 9. in how many seconds after t = 0 has the a. i − Figure 9.5) Evaluating (9.Chapter 9 Natural Response R 0 = – -.1 For the circuit shown in Figure 9.8% of its initial value.= e = e = e = 0. we get – ( R ⁄ L )τ –( R ⁄ L ) ( L ⁄ R ) –1 i(τ) -------.2).2. in one time constant. Example 9.6) Therefore. the response has dropped to approximately 36. 9-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Then. it reaches its final value after five time constants.368 I0 or i ( τ ) = 0. If we express the rate of decay in time constant intervals as shown in Figure 9.3.368I 0 (9. we find that i ( t ) ⁄ I 0 ≈ 0 after t = 5τ .4) at t = τ = L ⁄ R .3. energy stored in L has reached ¼ of its initial value? c. current i ( t ) has reached ½ of its initial value? b. power dissipated in R has reached ¾ of its initial value? − 10 Ω R + L 10 mH + Solution: From (9.

W L ( 0 ) = -. To find the energy stored in L which reaches ¼ of its initial value.) = -. To find the power dissipated in R when it reaches ¾ of its initial value. I 0 = i L ( 0 ) . Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-5 .LI 0 ⎞ ⎠ 4⎝ 2 4 Therefore. and since for the given circuit i ( t ) = iR ( t ) = I0 e –( R ⁄ L ) t 2 then.LI 0 2 and 2 1 1 1 .-.25 ) = – 1. we start with the fact that the instantaneous power absorbed by the resistor is p R = i R R . 2 1 W L ( 0 ) = -.386 and t = 693 µs This is the same answer as in part (a) since the energy is proportional to the square of the current. Then.Li ( t ) 2 and at t = 0 . we start with 1 2 W L ( t ) = -.5 ) = – 0.5 or – 1000t = ln ( 0. The current i ( t ) will have reached ½ of its initial value when 0.The Natural Response of a Series RL circuit a.LI 0 ⎞ ⎠ 2 2 4 4⎝ 2 or e –2 ( R ⁄ L ) t = 1⁄4 = 1⁄4 e – 2000t – 2000t = ln ( 0.⎛ -.5I 0 = I 0 e – ( 10 ⁄ 10 × 10 –3 )t = I0 e – 1000t or e – 1000t = 0. c.L ( I 0 e .Li ( t ) = -.W L ( t ) = -.⎛ -. t = 693 µs b. –( R ⁄ L ) t 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 -.693 and therefore.

and the capacitor behaves as an open circuit. Also. iL ( 0 ) = iL ( 0 ) = iL ( 0 ) − + − + (9.LI 0 2 Also.2 In the circuit of Figure 9. Example 9. v R ( 0 ) . and i L ( 0 ) will be used to denote the time just after the change has occurred.W R = 3 W L ( 0 ) = 1 Li ( t ) = 1 L ( I 0 e -.LI 0 ⎞ ⎠ 4 4 4⎝2 2 2 or e –2 ( R ⁄ L ) t – 2000t = 3⁄4 = 3⁄4 e – 2000t = ln ( 0.7) where i L ( 0 ) will be used to denote the time just before a switch is opened or closed. when the excitations are constant. the expression “long time” will mean that sufficient time has elapsed so that the circuit has reached its steady-state conditions. 1 2 W L ( 0 ) = -. at steady state conditions the inductor behaves as a short circuit.4.⎛ -.LI 0 2 and thus 2 –( R ⁄ L ) t 2 3 3 1 2 -.--) = -. Find i L ( t ) for t > 0 . the switch S has been in the closed position for a long time and opens at t = 0 . As we know from Chapter 5. from part (b) above.Chapter 9 Natural Response p R = I 0 Re 2 –2 ( R ⁄ L ) t and the energy dissipated (in the form of heat) in the resistor is WR = ∫0 ∞ p R dt = I 0 R 2 ∫0 ∞ e –2 ( R ⁄ L ) t 2 L –2 ( R ⁄ L ) t dt = I 0 R ⎛ – ------⎞ e ⎝ 2R⎠ ∞ 0 1 2 = -. in our subsequent discussion.288 and t = 144 µs In some examples and exercises that follow.75 ) = – 0. and v R ( 0 ) − + 9-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the initial condition may not be given directly but it can be found from the fact that the current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously and therefore.

the 32 V source and the 10 Ω resistor are disconnected from the circuit which now is as shown in Figure 9. Circuit at t = 0 − − + vR ( t ) 10 Ω + − 32 V − − iL ( t ) Figure 9.5.2 A We also observe that vR ( 0 ) = 0 − At t = 0 . we see that i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = 32 ⁄ 10 = 3.2 Solution: We are not given an initial condition for this example.5.2 at t = 0 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-7 . Circuit for Example 9.2 at t = 0 From the circuit of Figure 9. Circuit for Example 9.The Natural Response of a Series RL circuit t = 0 + vR ( t ) − iL ( t ) 20 Ω 1 mH S 10 Ω + − 32 V Figure 9. at t = 0 the inductor acts as a short thereby shorting also the 20 Ω resistor.6.6. however.2A − + and thus the initial condition has now been established as I 0 = 3. Circuit at t = 0 + + + vR ( t ) − 1 mH 20 Ω iL ( t ) + Figure 9. The circuit then is as shown in Figure 9.5. Circuit for Example 9.4.

2e – 20000t and v R ( 0 ) = 20 ( – I 0 ) = 20 ( – 3.3 In the circuit shown in Figure 9.2e – ( 20 ⁄ 10 –3 )t or i L ( t ) = 3. − 72 V 72 V i T ( 0 ) = --------------------------. Find: a. Then.7.3 Solution: a.Chapter 9 Natural Response For the circuit of Figure 9.= -------------. the switch S has been closed for a long time and opens at t = 0 . The circuit then is as shown in Figure 9.= 3 A 4 + 60 || 30 4 + 20 − 9-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . i 60 ( t ) at t = 100 µs c.8. i 48 ( t ) at t = 200 µs 4Ω t = 0 S 30 Ω 24 Ω + − + − 72 V 60 Ω 1 mH i 60 ( t ) iL ( t ) 48 Ω i 48 ( t ) Figure 9.7.6. At t = 0 the inductor acts as a short thereby shorting also the 24 Ω and 48 Ω resistors.2 ) + or v R ( 0 ) = – 64 V + We observe that v R ( 0 ) ≠ v R ( 0 ) Example 9. i L ( t ) for t > 0 b. iL ( t ) = I0 e –( R ⁄ L ) t = 3. Circuit for Example 9.

2).9.3 at t = 0 − and by the current division expression.3 at t = 0 From (9. the 72 V source and the 4 Ω resistor are disconnected from the circuit which now is as shown in Figure 9.8. iL ( t ) = I0 e – ( R eq ⁄ L ) t where R eq = ( 60 + 30 ) || (24+48) = 40 Ω and thus i L ( t ) = 2e – ( 40 ⁄ 10 )t –3 or i L ( t ) = 2e Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications – 40000t 9-9 .× 3 = 2 A 30 + 60 9 and thus the initial condition has been established as I 0 = 2 A At t = 0 . Circuit for Example 9.The Natural Response of a Series RL circuit Circuit at t = 0 4Ω − 30 Ω iT ( 0 ) − + − 72 V 60 Ω iL ( 0 ) − Figure 9. Circuit at t = 0 30 Ω 24 Ω + + 60 Ω 1 mH 48 Ω i 60 ( t ) iL ( t ) i 48 ( t ) + Figure 9. Circuit for Example 9.9. 60 6 − − i L ( 0 ) = ----------------.⋅ i T ( 0 ) = -.

8).( – 2e ) 27 t = 100 µs 8 –4 = – -.Chapter 9 Natural Response Also.8) and with dv C i C = C -------dt and vC i R = ----R by substitution into (9. we obtain the differential equation 9-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and it is given that at t = 0 . v C = V 0 . i 60 ( t ) t = 100 µs ( 24 + 48 ) = ---------------------------------------------------. iC iR vC ( t ) R + C − Figure 9. iC + iR = 0 (9.[ – i L ( t ) ] ( 30 + 60 ) + ( 24 + 48 ) t = 100 µs or i 60 ( t ) t = 100 µs 12 – 40000t = ----.e = – 16.10.373 mA 9 9.[ – i L ( t ) ] ( 30 + 60 ) + ( 24 + 48 ) t = 200 µs or i 48 ( t ) t = 200 µs 15 – 40000t = ----. that is.2 The Natural Response of a Series RC Circuit In this section.10 where the desired response is the capacitor voltage v C .e = – 0.( – 2e ) 27 t = 200 µs 10 – 8 = – ----. Circuit for determining the natural response of a series RC circuit By KCL.3 mA 9 and i 48 ( t ) t = 200 µs ( 30 + 60 ) = ---------------------------------------------------. we will find the natural response of the RC circuit shown in Figure 9. the initial condition is v ( 0 ) = V 0 .

.9) Ae Ase + --------. that is.e = – ------RC RC t=0 t=0 and thus the slope of the initial rate of decay is – 1 ⁄ ( RC ) Next.⎞ .11) We express (9.+ ------.dt ⎝ V 0 ⎠ 1 – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t 1 = – ------.10) will be satisfied when s = – 1 ⁄ RC and therefore.⎛ ----.10) Following the same reasoning as with the RL circuit. Therefore. d vC ---.9) As before.= e V0 and we sketch it as shown in Figure 9.11) as vC ( t ) – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t ----------. i. v C ( t ) = Ae – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t The constant A is evaluated from the initial condition.11. v C ( 0 ) = V 0 = Ae or A = V 0 . we define the time constant τ as the time required for v C ( t ) ⁄ V 0 to drop from unity to zero assuming that the initial rate of decay remains constant. we assume a solution of the form v C ( t ) = Ae st and by substitution into (9.The Natural Response of a Series RC Circuit dv C v C -------.e.= 0 RC st st or 1⎛ s + -------⎞ Ae st = 0 ⎝ RC⎠ (9. the natural response of the RC circuit is vC ( t ) = V0 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t 0 (9. v C ⁄ V 0 = 1 . (9. and i → 0 as t→∞ The initial rate (slope) of decay is found from the derivative of v C ( t ) ⁄ V 0 evaluated at t = 0 .= 0 dt RC (9. This constant rate of decay is represented by the straight line equation Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-11 . We observe that at t = 0 .

4 0.368V 0 (9.8% 13. we find that v C ( t ) ⁄ V 0 ≈ 0 after t = 5 τ .9 0.11. we will make use of the fact that vC ( 0 ) = vC ( 0 ) = vC ( 0 ) − + (9.0 0 1 Percent vc(t) / V0 e−(1/RC) t vc(t) / V0 = −(1/RC) t +1 36.0 0. that is.6 0. it reaches its final value after five time constants.14) Therefore. we get vC ( τ ) – τ ⁄ RC – RC ⁄ RC –1 -----------.1 0.15) 9-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . In the examples that follow.τ + 1 RC (9. in one time constant.3 0. 10 = – ------. Then.Chapter 9 Natural Response 1. Circuit for determining the natural response of a series RC circuit vC ( t ) 1-----------.5 0.= e = e = e = 0. If we express the rate of decay in time constant intervals as shown in Figure 9.7 0.2 0.11) at t = τ = RC .8% of its initial value.8 0.= – ------.368 V0 or v C ( τ ) = 0. the response has dropped to approximately 36. v C ( t ) ⁄ V 0 = 0 .11.t + 1 RC V0 and at t = τ .12) or τ = RC Time Cons tan t for R C Circuit (9.5% 5% 2 3 Time Constants 4 5 Figure 9.13) Evaluating (9.

13.4 at t = 0 From the circuit of Figure 9. Circuit for Example 9. t = 0 10 µF S 10 KΩ − + i (t) 50 KΩ + − vC ( t ) + − 60 V Figure 9.14. From (9. Find v C ( t ) for t > 0 . vC ( t ) = V0 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-13 .11).= 1 mA 10 KΩ + 50 KΩ + At t = 0 the 60 V source and the 10 KΩ resistor are disconnected from the circuit which now is as shown in Figure 9. and opens at t = 0 .12. i ( 0 ) .4 Solution: At t = 0 the capacitor acts as an open. the switch S has been in the closed position for a long time.The Natural Response of a Series RC Circuit Example 9. and i ( 0 ) .13 we see that 60 V − + − v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = 50 KΩ × i ( 0 ) = 50 × --------------------------------------.12. Circuit for Example 9. The circuit then is as shown in Figure 9.13.4 In the circuit of Figure 9.= 50 V 10 KΩ + 50 KΩ and thus the initial condition has been established as V 0 = 50 V . Circuit at t = 0 − − i (t) 50 KΩ vC ( t ) 10 KΩ + − 60 V − Figure 9. We also observe that − 60 V i ( 0 ) = --------------------------------------.

This is true because the voltage across the capacitor cannot change instantaneously.5 – 2t Then. the switch S has been in the closed position for a long time and opens at t = 0 .5 In the circuit of Figure 9. Example 9.4 at t = 0 + where RC = 50 × 10 × 10 × 10 3 –6 = 0.5 )t = 50e and V0 + 50 V i ( 0 ) = ----. hence.15. Circuit for Example 9.14. v C ( t ) = 50e – ( 1 ⁄ 0.15.= 1 mA R 50 KΩ We observe that i ( 0 ) = i ( 0 ) . v 10 ( t ) at t = 200 µs 6 KΩ t = 0 S 30 KΩ 20 KΩ − + + − + − 72 V 60 KΩ + 40 ----.5 9-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . v C ( t ) for t > 0 b.µF + 9 v 60 ( t ) − − + vC ( t ) v 10 ( t ) 10 KΩ − Figure 9. Find: a.= ---------------.Chapter 9 Natural Response Circuit at t = 0 + i (t) 50 KΩ + − 10 µF vC ( t ) Figure 9. Circuit for Example 9. v 60 ( t ) at t = 100 µs c. the voltage across the resistor must be the same at t = 0 and at t = 0 .

Circuit at t = 0 30 KΩ + + 20 KΩ + v 60 ( t ) − 40 ----.17. Circuit for Example 9. At t = 0 the capacitor acts as an open and the circuit then is as shown in Figure 9.17.16.The Natural Response of a Series RC Circuit Solution: a.5 at t = 0 − From the circuit of Figure 9. we get 60 KΩ 1 − − i 10 ( 0 ) = --------------------------------------.16.⋅ i T ( 0 ) = -.16. − 72 V 72 V i T ( 0 ) = ----------------------------------------------------------. the 72 V source and the 6 KΩ resistor are disconnected from the circuit which now is as shown in Figure 9. Circuit for Example 9.µF 9 60 KΩ + − + vC ( t ) 10 KΩ v 10 ( t ) − Figure 9.= -----------------------------------.5 at t = 0 + Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-15 . v C ( 0 ) = ( 20 KΩ + 10 KΩ ) ⋅ i 10 ( 0 ) = 30 V − − and thus the initial condition has been established as V 0 = 30 V At t = 0 .× 2 = 1 mA 60 KΩ + 60 KΩ 2 Then.= 2 mA 6 KΩ + 60 KΩ || 60 KΩ 6 KΩ + 30 KΩ and using the current division expression. Circuit at t = 0 6 KΩ 30 KΩ − − 20 KΩ iT ( t ) + 60 KΩ + − 72 V v 60 ( t ) v C ( t ) − − + + 10 KΩ i 10 ( t ) v 10 ( t ) − Figure 9.

v 60 ( t ) t = 100 ms 60 KΩ = --------------------------------------. a.35 V Example 9. v 10 ( t ) t = 200 ms 10 KΩ = --------------------------------------. To what value should the resistor R be adjusted so that the initial rate of change would be – 200 V ⁄ s ? b. What would then the energy in the capacitor be after two time constants? C + − 10 µF vC ( t ) R Figure 9.( 30e ) 3 = 20e t = 100 ms –1 = 7.× 10 = 0. 3 40 –6 R eq C = 22.( 30e ) 3 = 10e t = 200 ms –2 = 1.5 × 10 × ----.5 KΩ Then.18.1 )t = 30e – 10t b.1 9 and v C ( t ) = 30e – ( 1 ⁄ 0.⋅ v C ( t ) 10 KΩ + 20 KΩ t = 200 ms or v 10 ( t ) t = 200 ms 1 – 10t = -. Circuit for Example 9. vC ( t ) = V0 e – ( 1 ⁄ R eq C ) t where R eq = ( 60 KΩ + 30 KΩ ) || ( 20 KΩ + 10 KΩ ) = 22.Chapter 9 Natural Response From (9. it is known that v C ( 0 ) = V 0 = 25 V .⋅ v C ( t ) 30 KΩ + 60 KΩ t = 100 ms or v 60 ( t ) t = 100 ms – 10t 2 = -.18.6 9-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .11).6 For the circuit of Figure 9.36 V c.

After two time constants the capacitor voltage will drop to the value of v C ( 2 τ ) = 25e – ( 1 ⁄ RC )2τ = 25e – ( 2RC ⁄ RC ) = 25e –2 = 3.Summary Solution: a.3 Summary • The natural response of the inductor current i L ( t ) in a simple RL circuit has the form iL ( t ) = I0 e –( R ⁄ L ) t where I 0 denotes the value of the current in the inductor at t = 0 • In a simple RL circuit the time constant τ is the time required for i L ( t ) ⁄ I 0 to drop from unity to zero assuming that the initial rate of decay remains constant.5 KΩ b. the energy after two time constants will be WC t = 2τ –6 2 1 2 = -. after approximately 5 time constants.⎞ 25e ⎝ ⎠ R t=0 t=0 2. then dv C -------dt – ( 100000 ⁄ R )t 100000 = ⎛ – ----------------.8% of its initial value.= – 200 R 6 and solving for R we get R = 12.38 = 57.2 µJ 2 9. v C ( t ) = 25e – ( 100000 ⁄ R )t Now.38 V Therefore.Cv C = 5 × 10 × 3. The capacitor voltage decays exponentially as vC ( t ) = V0 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t and with the given values. that is. it decays to zero. • The initial condition I 0 can be established from the fact that the current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously and thus i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) − + Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-17 .5 × 10 = – --------------------. if the initial rate (slope) is to be – 200 V ⁄ s . and its value is τ = L ⁄ R • In one time constant the natural response of the inductor current in a simple RL circuit has dropped to approximately 36. • The natural response of the inductor current in a simple RL circuit reaches its final value.

Chapter 9 Natural Response • The natural response of the capacitor voltage v C ( t ) in a simple RC circuit has the form vC ( t ) = V0 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t where V 0 denotes the value of the voltage across the capacitor at t = 0 • In a simple RC circuit the time constant τ is the time required for v C ( t ) ⁄ V 0 to drop from unity to zero assuming that the initial rate of decay remains constant. that is. it decays to zero after approximately 5 time constants. • The initial condition V 0 can be established from the fact that the voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously and thus v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) − + 9-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .8% of its initial value. • The natural response of capacitor voltage in a simple RC circuit reaches its final value. and its value is τ = RC • In one time constant the natural response of the capacitor voltage in a simple RC circuit has dropped to approximately 36.

In a simple RL circuit the unit of the time constant A. i. The current i L ( t ) for all t > 0 is –1 –1 τ is A. s E. dimensionless B.e. Switch S 1 opens and Switch S 2 closes. e – 50t A E.. 2e – 100t – 50t A A C.19 Switch S 1 has been closed for a long time while Switch S 2 has been open for a long time.. none of the above 2. At t = 0 . the millisecond C. In a simple RC circuit the unit of the term 1 ⁄ RC is A.19. the reciprocal of second. 2e D. Circuit for Question 3 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-19 . the millisecond D. i.Exercises 9. none of the above 3. the microsecond E. the reciprocal of second. In the circuit of Figure 9. the second B.e. the microsecond D.4 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. s C. none of the above S1 5Ω 5Ω t = 0 2A t = 0 S2 i L ( t ) 100 mH Figure 9. 2 A B.

2 w D.20 Switch S 1 has been closed for a long time while Switch S 2 has been open for a long time.Chapter 9 Natural Response 4. 10e V D. The power absorbed by the inductor at t = +∞ will be A. The voltage v C ( t ) for all t > 0 is A. At t = 0 . 1 w C. 0.21. Circuit for Question 4 5. In the circuit of Figure 9.1t V E. Circuit for Question 5 9-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .20. Switch S 1 opens and Switch S 2 closes. In the circuit of Figure 9. none of the above S1 5Ω 5Ω t = 0 2A t = 0 S2 i L ( t ) 100 mH Figure 9. Switch S 1 opens and Switch S 2 closes. 10e – 10t –t V C. 10 V B. 0 w B.21 Switch S 1 has been closed for a long time while Switch S 2 has been open for a long time. none of the above 50 KΩ S1 50 KΩ t = 0 + t = 0 − 10 V S2 vC ( t ) + − 20 µF Figure 9. 10e – 0. At t = 0 .2 w E.

Exercises 6.01 s C. none of the above 9. none of the above 50 KΩ S1 50 KΩ t = 0 + t = 0 − 10 V S2 vC ( t ) + − 20 µF Figure 9. 0. none of the above 8. 10 mw E.01 µs E. 0. Circuit for Question 6 7. 5 w D. 10 – 12 E. 100 s B. Switch S 1 opens and Switch S 2 closes. 10 12 τ is s s D. 10 w C. In a simple RL circuit the condition(s) ___ are always true τ is Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-21 . 100 s C. In a simple RL circuit where R = 10 MΩ and L = 10 µH the time constant A.22 Switch S 1 has been closed for a long time while Switch S 2 has been open for a long time. 100 µs D. In the circuit of Figure 9. 1 s B. At t = 0 .22. In a simple RC circuit where R = 10 MΩ and C = 10 µF the time constant A. The power absorbed by the capacitor at t = +∞ will be A. 0 w B.

In a simple RC circuit the condition(s) ___ are always true A. v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) and i R ( 0 ) = i R ( 0 ) = i R ( 0 ) E.Chapter 9 Natural Response A. both switches S 1 and S 2 have been closed for a long time and both are opened at t = 0 .5 mH Figure 9. v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) and i C ( 0 ) = i C ( 0 ) = i C ( 0 ) B. 10. v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) and v R ( 0 ) = v R ( 0 ) = v R ( 0 ) C. i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) and i R ( 0 ) = i R ( 0 ) = i R ( 0 ) C. Problems 1. none of the above.23. at t = 0 switch S 1 opens while S 2 closes. switch S 1 has been closed for a long time and switch S 2 has been open for a long time. In the circuit of Figure 9. Circuit for Problem 1 2. i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) and v L ( 0 ) = v L ( 0 ) = v L ( 0 ) B. none of the above. Compute and sketch the current i L ( t ) for the time interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 ms 9-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) and v R ( 0 ) = v R ( 0 ) = v R ( 0 ) D. Compute the current i S2 ( t ) through switch S 2 for t > 0 3Ω t = 0 S1 − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + 8Ω 5Ω i S2 ( t ) + − 15 V 6Ω 10 Ω t = 0 S2 2.23. v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) D. Then.24. In the circuit of Figure 9. i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) E.

Compute the values of R and L for that circuit. Circuit for Problem 2 3.25. In a series RL circuit. In the circuit of Figure 9. At t = 0 switch S 1 is opened and S 2 is closed. Compute the voltage v C2 ( t ) for t > 0 . At t = 0 S 1 and S 2 are opened and S 3 is closed. switch S 1 has been closed and S 2 has been open for a long time. while switch S 3 has been open for a long time.25. In the circuit of Figure 9. Circuit for Problem 4 5. 10 KΩ 1 KΩ S1 3 mH t = 0 t = 0 S2 2 KΩ − + + − v in1 t = 0 S3 iL ( t ) + 5 KΩ 10 mV + v in2 v out − 10 KΩ − 20 mV Figure 9.26. Compute the current i L ( t ) for t > 0 . the voltage v L across the inductor is v L = 0. both switches S 1 and S 2 have been closed for a long time.Exercises 12 V 2Ω S2 t = 0 8Ω 16 Ω S1 t = 0 + − 6Ω iL ( t ) 10 ⁄ 3 mH 12 Ω 10 Ω + − 24 V 4Ω Figure 9.2e – 2000t V and the current i L at t = 0 is i L ( 0 ) = 10 mA . 4. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-23 .24.

2 KΩ A t = 0 16 KΩ 5 µF 6 KΩ S B 4 KΩ + − vC ( t ) + − 24 V 8 KΩ Figure 9. switch S has been open for a long time and closes at t = 0 .28. Compute the voltage v C ( t ) across the capacitor for t > 0 . Circuit for Problem 6 7. switch S has been in the A position for a long time and at t = 0 is thrown in the B position.26. In the circuit of Figure 9.28.27. Compute i SW ( t ) for t > 0 100 Ω 6 mH S 10 µF t = 0 6Ω + 36 V − 3Ω i SW ( t ) Figure 9. Circuit for Problem 7 9-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Circuit for Problem 5 6.Chapter 9 Natural Response 10 KΩ S1 S2 t = 0 + − 12 V v C1 ( t ) + 6 µF t = 0 + − − v C2 ( t ) 3 µF 10 KΩ 50 KΩ Figure 9. In the circuit of Figure 9.27. and the energy stored in the capacitor at t = 1 ms .

⋅ 15 = 10 V and R TH = ----------. D 4. A 6. 3Ω 8Ω 6Ω 15 V × x 10 Ω y × 5Ω iL ( 0 ) − − + − Replacing the circuit above with its Thevenin equivalent to the left of points x and y we find 6 3×6 that v TH = ----------. The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below. D 8. A 7. B 3. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-25 .5 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1.Answers to Exercises 9. E τ = L ⁄ R = [ volt ⁄ ( ampere ⁄ sec ond ) ] ⁄ [ volt ⁄ ampere ] = sec ond ( s ) 2. B 9. D 10.+ 8 = 10 Ω and attaching the rest of the circuit 3+6 3+6 to it we get the circuit below. 10 Ω v TH 10 V R TH 10 Ω iL ( 0 ) − + − 5Ω By voltage-source to current-source transformation we get the circuit below. C Problems 1. C 5.

that is. the initial condition has been established as i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = I 0 = 0.5e – 2000t A 2. i S2 ( t ) = – i L ( t ) = – I 0 e − = – 0.5 mH – ( R ⁄ L )t – ( 5 ⁄ 2.5e = – 0.5 × 10 )t –3 + Thus for t > 0 . 5Ω i S2 ( t ) i L ( 0 ) = I 0 = 0.5 A − + The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below.Chapter 9 Natural Response 10 Ω 10 Ω − 1A − 5Ω 5Ω iL ( 0 ) and by inspection.5 A 2. i L ( 0 ) = 0. 8Ω 6Ω i S2 ( t ) 5Ω Closed Switch i L ( 0 ) = 0. i L ( 0 ) = i 3 – i 4 − 9-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 A 2. The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below and the mesh equations are 20i 1 – 4i 3 = 24 16i 2 – 6i 3 – 8i 4 = – 12 – 4i 1 – 6i 2 + 20i 3 – 10i 4 = 0 8i 2 – 10i 3 + 30i 4 = 0 Then.5 mH + + We observe that the closed shorts out the 6 Ω and 8 Ω resistors and the circuit simplifies to that shown below.5 A .

0 16 −6 −8.. iL ( t ) = I0 e – ( R ⁄ L )t = 0.2f A \t'... fprintf(' \n')..03 A i3 = -0. fprintf('i1 = %4. i1 = 1.1e – 5000t A and iL t = 0.. i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = I 0 = 0.1e –2 = 0...26 A i4 = -0. fprintf('iL0 = %4.. fprintf('i2 = %4. fprintf(' \n'). fprintf('i4 = %4.2f A \t'.mH 3 Thus for t > 0 . I(2)). −4 −6 20 −10. I(3)). 20/3 Ω iL ( 0 ) 12 Ω 10 Ω 20 Ω + + − + 6Ω 4Ω iL ( 0 ) 10 Ω + 8Ω 10 ----...10 A Therefore.mH 3 10 Ω iL ( 0 ) 20/3 Ω + 10 ----. I(1)). I=R\V.. I(4)). V=[24 −12 0 0]'.2f A \t'. iL0=I(3)-I(4).2f A \t'.1 A Shown below is the circuit at t = 0 and the steps of simplification. I(3)−I(4)). fprintf(' \n'). fprintf('i3 = %4.7 mA Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-27 . 0 −8 −10 30].mH 3 10 ----.0137 A = 13..36 A iL0 = 0.4 ms = 0.2f A \t'.15 A i2 = -1.Answers to Exercises 12 V 16 Ω 2Ω i2 6Ω + − iL ( 0 ) − 8Ω + − 24 V 4Ω i1 i3 10 Ω 12 Ω i4 and with MATLAB R=[20 0 −4 0.

2 = 20 Ω Also..^(−3).7 0.iLt).Chapter 9 Natural Response To compute and sketch the current i L ( t ) for the time interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 ms we use MATLAB as shown below.1 0. from R ⁄ L = 2000 .8 0.9 x 10 1 -3 3.11 we have 9-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .01 = 10 mH − 4. L = 20 ⁄ 2000 = 0.⎟ ⎝ R in 1 R in 2 ⎠ that was developed in Example 4. t=(0: 0. iLt=0..6 0.8 0. 5 0.2e or R = 0..2e + − – 2000t for t > 0 + L − vL iL R and with i L ( 0 ) = 10 mA .2 0.4 0.2 ⁄ 10 –2 –3 –0 = 0.01: 1)*10^(−3).3 0...+ --------.*10.. grid x 10 -4 1 0. plot(t.2 0 0 0. The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below and using the relation ⎛ v in 1 v in 2 ⎞ v out = – R f ⎜ --------. by substitution R ( 10 × 10 ) = 0.4 0.6 0. From the figure below v L = Ri L = 0.1.*t).*exp(−5000.

− Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-29 . after sufficient time has elapsed the capacitor behaves as an open and thus the voltage across the capacitor C 1 is 12 V as shown.2 V = – 40 × 10 A = – 40 µA 5 KΩ The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below where i L ( 0 ) = 40 µA with the direction shown. + 3 mH − + + + iL ( 0 ) 10 KΩ 5 KΩ − 0. 5. As we’ve learned in Chapter 5.⎞ = – 10 × 2 × 10 = – 0.2V − 3 mH − 15 KΩ + Then for t > 0 iL ( t ) = I0 e ( R ⁄ L )t + i ( 0+ ) L + = 40 × 10 e – 6 ( 15 × 10 ⁄ 3 × 10 )t 3 –3 = 40e – 5 × 10 t 6 µA with the direction shown.2 V ⎝ 1 KΩ 2 KΩ ⎠ –2 –2 and − –6 --------------i L ( 0 ) = I 0 = i 5 KΩ = – 0.+ ------------------. The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below.Answers to Exercises 10 KΩ 1 KΩ − + v in1 iL + − 10 mV 2 KΩ + 5 KΩ v in2 v out − + − 20 mV –2 2 × 10 10 v out = – 10 KΩ ⎛ ------------. when a circuit is excited by a constant (DC) source.

Chapter 9 Natural Response 10 KΩ + − 12 V 10 KΩ C1 6 µF + − v C1 ( 0 ) = 12V − The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below where the 12 V represents the voltage across capacitor C1 . 2 KΩ 4 KΩ 16 KΩ 5 µF 6 KΩ 24 V − 4 + − + − vC ( 0 ) − Then.= ----------.= 2 µF C1 + C2 6+3 –6 – 10t Then. 1 ⁄ RCeq = 1 ⁄ ( 5 × 10 × 2 × 10 ) = 10 and thus v C2 ( t ) = 12e 6.× 24 = 12 V 6 KΩ + 6 KΩ The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below where v C ( 0 ) = 12 V . v C2 ( t ) = v C1 e C1 ⋅ C2 6×3 where v C1 = 12 V and C eq = -----------------. The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below. 12 V + − + v C1 C1 6 µF – ( 1 ⁄ RC eq ) + − 3 µF 50 KΩ + − v C2 ( t ) C2 Now. + + 9-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 6 KΩ − v C ( 0 ) = V 0 = v 6KΩ = --------------------------------.

+ 16 = 4 + 16 = 20 KΩ 12 + 6 and the circuit for t > 0 reduces to the one shown below. 5 µF 20 KΩ + − vC ( t ) – 10t Now.Answers to Exercises 4 KΩ 16 KΩ 5 µF 8 KΩ 6 KΩ + − vC ( 0 ) + Series and parallel resistances reduction yields 12 × 6 R eq = [ ( 8 KΩ + 4 KΩ ) || 6 KΩ ] + 16 KΩ = -------------.5 × 5 × 10 1 ms – 6 – 20t t = 1 ms –6 = 12e – 10t . i L ( 0 ) = ----------------------. The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below. 6Ω − 100 Ω + + 36 V − 3Ω iL ( 0 ) vC ( 0 ) − − 36 V Then. 1 ⁄ R eq C = 10 and v C ( t ) = V 0 e = 0. Also.= 4 A and v C ( 0 ) = 3 × i L ( 0 ) = 3 × 4 = 12 V − − − (6 + 3) Ω Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-31 .1 . R eq C = 2 × 10 × 5 × 10 WC 1 ms 4 –6 = 0.35 mJ 7. 1 2 = -.Cv C ( t ) 2 × 144e – 20t t = 1 ms = 360 × 10 e − = 0.

100 Ω 10 µF + + + 6Ω + 36 V − + i L ( 0 ) = 4 A 6 mH + − i SW ( t ) v C ( 0 ) = 12 V + 3Ω We will apply superposition three times. R ⁄ L = 3 ⁄ ( 6 × 10 ) = 500 and thus i'' SW ( t ) = – i L ( t ) = – 4e – 500t –3 9-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . R = 3 Ω . I 0 = 4 A . due to i L ( 0 ) = 4 A . With the 36 V voltage source acting alone where i L = 0 (open) and v C = 0 (shorted).Chapter 9 Natural Response The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below and the current i SW ( t ) through the switch is the sum of the currents due to the 36 V voltage source. L = 6 mH . and due to v C ( 0 ) = 12 V . the circuit is as shown below. With the i L ( 0 ) = 4 A current source acting alone the circuit is as shown below where we observe that the 6 Ω and 100 Ω resistors are shorted out and thus i'' SW ( t ) = – i L ( t ) where iL ( t ) = I0 e – ( R ⁄ L )t + . 6Ω 100 Ω iL ( t ) = 0 + 36 V − 3Ω 6 mH i' SW ( t ) vC ( t ) = 0 Since the 100 Ω is shorted out. Thus for t > 0 : I. we have i' SW ( t ) = 36 ⁄ 6 = 6 A II.

Then. i''' SW ( t ) = v C ( t ) ⁄ 100 Ω = 0.Answers to Exercises 6Ω 100 Ω + i L ( 0 ) = 4 A 6 mH i SW ( t ) vC ( t ) = 0 V 3Ω III.12e Therefore. With the v C ( 0 ) = V 0 = 12 V voltage source acting alone the circuit is as shown below where we observe that the 6 Ω resistor is shorted out.12e – 1000t A Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-33 . the total current through the closed switch for t > 0 is i SW ( t ) = i' SW ( t ) + i'' SW ( t ) + i''' SW ( t ) = 6 – 4e – 500t + 0. + 6Ω 100 Ω iL ( t ) = 0 6 mH 3Ω i''' SW ( t ) v C ( 0 ) = 12 V + and thus vC ( t ) = V0 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t = 12e – [ 1 ⁄ ( 100 × 10 ) ]t –5 = 12e – 1000t – 1000t .

Chapter 9 Natural Response NOTES 9-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

the unit step function u 0 ( t ) changes abruptly from 0 to 1 at t = 0 . Waveform for u 0 ( t ) u0 ( t ) In the waveform of Figure 10. A well-known discontinuous function is the unit step function u 0 ( t ) * that is defined as ⎧0 u0 ( t ) = ⎨ ⎩1 t<0 t>0 (10. if the function jumps from one value to another without taking on any intermediate values. the unit step function is denoted as u ( t ) . Waveform and definition of u 0 ( t – t 0 ) * In some books.2. that is. and its response to that excitation is analyzed. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-1 . 1 u0 ( t – t0 ) t0 t 0 ⎧0 u0 ( t – t0 ) = ⎨ ⎩1 t < t0 t > t0 Figure 10. its waveform and definition are as shown in Figure 10. the forced response is added to the natural response to form the total response.1 The Unit Step Function u 0 ( t ) A function is said to be discontinuous if it exhibits points of discontinuity.The term “forced” here implies that the circuit is excited by a voltage or current source.1. without the subscript 0. Then. 10. But if it changes at t = t 0 instead. In this text we will reserve this designation for any input. 1 0 Figure 10.1.that is.2.1.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits T his chapter discusses the forced response of electric circuits.1) It is also represented by the waveform of Figure 10.

t (a) –A u0 ( t ) Au 0 ( – t ) Au 0 ( – t + T ) Τ 0 −A –A u0 ( t – T ) (b) −A 0 −A t −Τ 0 (c) –A u0 ( t + T ) t A A 0 Τ Τ 0 −A (h) (e) Au 0 ( – t – T ) A 0 (d) t t −Τ 0 (f) t 0 −A –A u0 ( –t ) (g) t t −Τ 0 −A (i) t –A u0 ( – t + T ) –A u0 ( – t – T ) Figure 10.5. Waveform and definition of u 0 ( t + t 0 ) Other forms of the unit step function are shown in Figure 10.3.4.5. 1 u0 ( t ) – u0 ( t – 1 ) 1 u0 ( t ) 0 t 0 t 1 0 t –u0 ( t – 1 ) Figure 10. A rectangular pulse expressed as the sum of two unit step functions 10-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . This pulse is represented as u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 1 ) . it is denoted as u 0 ( t + t 0 ) 1 −t0 0 u0 ( t + t0 ) t ⎧0 u0 ( t + t0 ) = ⎨ ⎩1 t < –t0 t > –t0 Figure 10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits Likewise. Other forms of the unit step function Unit step functions can be used to represent other time-varying functions such as the rectangular pulse shown in Figure 10. if the unit step function changes from 0 to 1 at t = – t 0 as shown in Figure 10.3.4.

a constant voltage source of 24 V applied at t = 0 . starts at t = 2T .6.5. can be denoted as 24u 0 ( t ) V . and terminates at t = T on the time axis. starts at t = T . or sawtooth. 3T .The Unit Step Function The unit step function offers a convenient method of describing the sudden application of a voltage or current source. This segment can be v 3 ( t ) = A [ u 0 ( t – 2T ) – u 0 ( t – 3T ) ] (10.3) Line segment expressed as has height A . or any other recurring pulse.1 Solution: The line segment has height A . as in Figure 10. can be described as v ( t ) = ( V m cos ωt )u 0 ( t – t 0 ) V . and terminates at t = 2T .1 Express the square waveform of Figure 10. this segment can be expressed as v1 ( t ) = A [ u0 ( t ) – u0 ( t – T ) ] (10. the square waveform of Figure 10. This segment can be expressed as v 2 ( t ) = – A [ u 0 ( t – T ) – u 0 ( t – 2T ) ] (10.3 . or triangular. Also. v(t) A T 2T 3T 0 −A t Figure 10. 2T. starts at t = 0 . Example 10. a sinusoidal voltage source v ( t ) = V m cos ωt V that is applied to a circuit at t = t 0 . and terminates at t = 3T . Likewise. and terminates at t = 4T . Then. and so on. that is. This segment can be v 4 ( t ) = – A [ u 0 ( t – 3T ) – u 0 ( t – 4T ) ] (10. Square waveform for Example 10.4) Line segment expressed as has height – A .5). Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. on the time axis. The vertical dotted lines indicate the discontinuities at T. it can be represented as a sum (difference) of unit step functions. For example.2) through (10.6 as a sum of unit step functions. if the excitation in a circuit is a rectangular.6 can be expressed as the summation of (10. starts at t = 3T .5) Thus.2) The line segment has height – A .

8) Example 10.9.3 Express the symmetric triangular waveform shown in Figure 10.2 Solution: This pulse has height A .3 and 10. we derive the equations of the linear segments and shown in Figure 10. 1 v(t) −T/2 0 T/2 t Figure 10. and terminates at t = T ⁄ 2 .Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits v ( t ) = v1 ( t ) + v2 ( t ) + v3 ( t ) + v4 ( t ) = A [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – T ) ] – A [ u 0 ( t – T ) – u 0 ( t – 2T ) ] +A [ u 0 ( t – 2T ) – u 0 ( t – 3T ) ] – A [ u 0 ( t – 3T ) – u 0 ( t – 4T ) ] (10.7 as a sum of unit step functions. Symmetric triangular waveform for Example 10. with reference to Figures 10.4 (b). i(t) A −T/2 0 T/2 t Figure 10.3 Solution: As a first step. we get v ( t ) = A [ u 0 ( t ) – 2u 0 ( t – T ) + 2u 0 ( t – 2T ) – 2u 0 ( t – 3T ) + … ] (10.6) Combining like terms. it starts at t = – T ⁄ 2 .8. 10-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .7) Example 10.7. Symmetric rectangular pulse for Example 10.2 Express the symmetric rectangular pulse of Figure 10.8 as a sum of unit step functions. Therefore. we get ----i ( t ) = Au 0 ⎛ t + T ⎞ – Au 0 ⎛ t – T ⎞ = A u 0 ⎛ t + T ⎞ – u 0 ⎛ t – T ⎞ ⎝ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎠ (10.

Waveform for Example 10. we get v ( t ) = v1 ( t ) + v2 ( t ) 2 T 2 T = ⎛ -.11) Example 10. 2 -v 1 ( t ) = ⎛ -.t + 1⎞ u 0 ⎛ t + T ⎞ – u 0 ( t ) ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝T ⎠ (10. Equations for the linear segments of Figure 10.The Unit Step Function v(t) 1 2 -.11.10 as a sum of unit step functions.9.⎞ – u 0 ( t ) + ⎛ – -.t + 1 T −T/2 2 – -.⎞ ⎝T ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ T ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ (10.t + 1 T T/2 0 t Figure 10.9) and (10.t + 1⎞ u 0 ⎛ t + -. we first find the equations of the linear segments Figure 10.10) Combining (10.10. 2 -v 2 ( t ) = ⎛ – -.9) and for line segment .t + 1⎞ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ⎛ t – -. v(t) 3 2 1 t 0 1 2 3 Figure 10.5 .10).4 Express the waveform shown in Figure 10.8 For line segment .t + 1⎞ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ⎛ t – T ⎞ ⎝ T ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ (10.4 Solution: As in the previous example. and shown in Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.

10 Following the same procedure as in the previous examples. 10. is defined as u1 ( t ) = ∫– ∞ u 0 ( τ ) d τ t (10.12) Two other functions of interest are the unit ramp function and the unit impulse or delta function.13) where τ is a dummy variable. we get v ( t ) = ( 2t + 1 ) [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 1 ) ] + 3 [ u 0 ( t – 1 ) – u 0 ( t – 2 ) ] + ( – t + 3 ) [ u0 ( t – 2 ) – u0 ( t – 3 ) ] Multiplying the values in parentheses by the values in the brackets.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits v(t) 3 2 2t + 1 1 –t+3 t 0 1 2 3 Figure 10. Equations for the linear segments of Figure 10. we get v ( t ) = ( 2t + 1 )u 0 ( t ) – ( 2t + 1 )u 0 ( t – 1 ) + 3u 0 ( t – 1 ) – 3u 0 ( t – 2 ) + ( – t + 3 )u 0 ( t – 2 ) – ( – t + 3 )u 0 ( t – 3 ) or v ( t ) = ( 2t + 1 )u 0 ( t ) + [ – ( 2t + 1 ) + 3 ]u 0 ( t – 1 ) + [ – 3 + ( – t + 3 ) ]u 0 ( t – 2 ) – ( – t + 3 )u 0 ( t – 3 ) and combining terms inside the brackets. denoted as u 1 ( t ) . 10-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . We will discuss the unit ramp function first.11.2 The Unit Ramp Function u 1 ( t ) The unit ramp function. we get v ( t ) = ( 2t + 1 )u 0 ( t ) – 2 ( t – 1 )u 0 ( t – 1 ) – t u 0 ( t – 2 ) + ( t – 3 )u 0 ( t – 3 ) (10.

⎧0 un ( t ) = ⎨ n ⎩t t<0 t≥0 or un ( t ) = 3 ∫– ∞ u n – 1 ( τ ) d τ (10.16) Similarly. we define u 2 ( t ) as ⎧0 u2 ( t ) = ⎨ 2 ⎩t t<0 t≥0 or u2 ( t ) = 2 ∫– ∞ u 1 ( τ ) d τ t t (10. For example.---.u 1 ( t ) = u 0 ( t ) dt (10.12..12.17) and in general.e. Area under the unit step function from – ∞ to t Therefore.u n – 1 ( t ) = -.19) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. ⎧0 u3 ( t ) = ⎨ 3 ⎩t t<0 t≥0 or u3 ( t ) = 3 ∫– ∞ u 2 ( τ ) d τ t (10. 1 Area = 1τ = τ = t τ t Figure 10. ⎧0 u1 ( t ) = ⎨ ⎩t t<0 t≥0 (10.The Unit Ramp Function We can evaluate the integral of (10.7 . 1d . integrating u 0 ( t ) twice and multiplying by 2 . d ---. then u 0 ( t ) must be the derivative of u 1 ( t ) .14) and since u 1 ( t ) is the integral of u 0 ( t ) .u n ( t ) n dt (10.18) Also. i.15) Higher order functions of t can be generated by repeated integration of the unit step function.13) by considering the area under the unit step function u 0 ( t ) from – ∞ to t as shown in Figure 10.

13 (b) is the derivative of Figure 10. zero width.23) that is. Representation of the unit step as a limit. Therefore. multiplication of any function f ( t ) by the delta function δ ( t ) results in sampling the function at the time instants where the delta function is not zero. let us represent the unit step u 0 ( t ) as shown in Figure 10. It is generally defined as ∫– ∞ δ ( τ ) d τ where t = u0 ( t ) (10.13 (a) becomes the unit step as ε → 0 . we can think of δ ( t ) as approaching a very large spike or impulse at the origin.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits 10. but the area of the rectangle remains 1 . and area equal to 1 . The Sampling Property of the Delta Function states that f ( t )δ ( t ) = f ( 0 )δ ( t ) (10. with unbounded amplitude. Two useful properties of the delta function are the sampling property and the sifting property.22) or f ( t )δ ( t – a ) = f ( a )δ ( t ) (10.13.13 (a). denoted as δ ( t ) . in the limit. is the derivative of the unit step u 0 ( t ) .13 (a). 1 ⁄ 2 ε becomes unbounded. Figure 10. The function of Figure 10.21) To better understand the delta function δ ( t ) .20) δ ( t ) = 0 for all t ≠ 0 (10. where we see that as ε → 0 . 10-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .3 The Delta Function δ ( t ) The unit impulse or delta function. The study of discrete-time systems is based on this property. 1 −ε Area =1 −ε 0 ε 0 Figure (a) ε t 1 2ε Figure (b) t Figure 10.

t = – 0. Shown below are examples of how they are being used.5 For the circuit shown in Figure 10. Orchard Publications 2001. if we multiply any function f ( t ) by δ ( t – α ) and integrate from −∞ to +∞.22) through (10. They are provided in Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. ISBN 09709511-3-2 by this author.24) and additional properties of the delta function are beyond the scope of this book.24) that is.5 s c.9 . MATLAB has two built-in functions for the unit step and the delta functions. Compute v out at: a.The Delta Function The Sifting Property of the Delta Function states that ∫–∞ f ( t )δ ( t – α ) dt ∞ = f(α ) (10.5 s b. t = 1. we will obtain the value of f ( t ) evaluated at t – α . These are designated by the names of the mathematicians who used them in their work.14. syms k a t u=k*sym('Heaviside(t-a)') % Create unit step function at t=a u = k*Heaviside(t-a) d=diff(u) % Compute the derivative of the unit step function d = k*Dirac(t-a) int(d) % Integrate the delta function ans = Heaviside(t-a)*k Example 10. The unit step u 0 ( t ) is called Heavyside(t) and the delta function δ ( t ) is called Dirac(t). the inputs are applied at different times as indicated. t = 5 s Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. The proofs of (10.

Circuit for Example 10. exchanging the current source and its parallel resistance with an equivalent voltage source with a series resistance.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits v in 1 = 0.5 s only the signal due to i in is active. the input circuit becomes as shown in Figure 10.8u 0 ( t – 3 ) V 0 1 2 3 u0 ( t – 3 ) t(s) v in 2 = 0.5u 0 ( t – 1 ) V i in = 0.14 [ u 0 ( t + 1 ) + u 0 ( t – 2 ) ] mA 3 KΩ 50 KΩ − Rf + − + 6 KΩ + v in 1 + v in 2 − 5 KΩ v out − i in Figure 10.8u 0 ( t – 3 ) V v in 2 = 0.5u 0 ( t – 1 ) V i in = 0.15.5 Solution: Let us first sketch the step functions for each of the inputs.14. therefore. 10-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . v in 1 = 0.14 [ u 0 ( t + 1 ) + u 0 ( t – 2 ) ] mA 0 1 u0 ( t – 1 ) t(s) [ u0 ( t + 1 ) + u0 ( t – 2 ) ] −1 0 1 2 t(s) a. At t = – 0.

Simplified input to the circuit of Example 10.7 V 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω 2 KΩ v TH1 = V 2 KΩ = ---------------------------------.7 V Figure 10.15.25) b. we get the network of Figure 10.( – 0.2 V Figure 10.11 . At t = 1. Input to the circuit of Example 10. we can compute v out 1 with the circuit of Figure 10.5 s the active inputs are i in = 0.= 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω 7 KΩ + − + v TH1 − −0.5 when i in is acting alone Now. Circuit for computation of v out 1 50 v out 1 = – ⎛ ------------⎞ v TH1 = – 35 × ( – 0.2 mV ) = 7 V ⎝ 10 ⁄ 7⎠ (10.17.5 when i in is acting alone Replacing the circuit of Figure 10.The Delta Function To op amp’s inverting input 5 KΩ 3 KΩ 6 KΩ − + −0.17. 3 KΩ 6 KΩ = 2 KΩ 5 KΩ 2 KΩ −0.2 V 2 KΩ + 5 KΩ 2 KΩ × 5 KΩ R TH1 = ---------------------------------.2 V v TH1 + + v out 1 − Figure 10.14 [ u 0 ( t + 1 ) + u 0 ( t – 2 ) ] mA and Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.15 with its Thevenin equivalent.16.16.7 ) = – 0. 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω Rf − 50 K Ω + − −0.

18. with the input v in 2 acting alone. the input circuit is as shown in Figure 10.20.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits v in 2 = 0.19. we get the network of Figure 10. we can compute v out 2 with the circuit of Figure 10.V 42 + v out 2 − + Figure 10. 3 KΩ 5 K Ω = 15 ⁄ 8 K Ω 15 ⁄ 8 5 6 KΩ 15/8 KΩ 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω v TH2 = v ( 15 ⁄ 8 ) KΩ = --------------------.19. Input to the circuit of Example 10. Circuit for computation of v out 2 10-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 ) = ----. Thus. To op amp’s inverting input 6 KΩ 3 KΩ 5 KΩ − + 0. Simplified input to the circuit of Example 10.5 V Figure 10. we will find the output due to v in 2 acting alone and then apply superposition to find the output when both of these inputs are present.18.V 15 ⁄ 8 + 6 42 R TH 2 = R TH 1 = 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω + − + 0.18 with its Thevenin equivalent.20.( 0.5u 0 ( t – 1 ) V Since we already know the output due to i in acting alone.5 when v in 2 is acting alone Replacing this circuit of Figure 10. 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω Rf 50 KΩ − + v TH2 − 5----.5 V − ----5 42 V Figure 10.5 when v in 2 is acting alone Now.

we can compute v out 3 with the circuit of Figure 10. Simplified input to the circuit of Example 10.( 0.⎞ = – 25 V ⎝ 10 ⁄ 7⎠ ⎝ 42 ⎠ 6 (10.22. the input circuit is as shown in Figure 10.The Delta Function 50 5----v out 2 = – ⎛ ------------⎞ v TH2 = – 35 × ⎛ ----.V 30 ⁄ 11 + 3 21 R TH 3 = R TH 2 = R TH 1 = 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω + − + 0. from (10.13 .5 when v in 1 is acting alone Replacing this circuit of Figure 10. we get the network of Figure 10. To op amp’s inverting input 3 KΩ 6 KΩ 5 KΩ − + 0. Input to the circuit of Example 10. At t = 5 s the active inputs are v in 1 = 0.8 V − 10 ----21 V Figure 10.8 V Figure 10.5 s is 17 v out 1 + v out 2 = 7 – 25 = ----.26) the op amp’s output voltage at t = 1.21.8 ) = ----. 6 KΩ 5 K Ω = 30 ⁄ 11 kΩ 30 ⁄ 11 10 3 KΩ 30 /11 KΩ 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω v TH3 = v ( 30 ⁄ 11 ) KΩ = -----------------------. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. Thus.21.22.23.8u 0 ( t – 3 ) V and v in 2 = 0. we will find the output due to v in 1 acting alone and then apply superposition to find the output when both of these inputs are present.5u 0 ( t – 1 ) V Since we already know the output due to v in 2 acting alone.5 when v in 1 is acting alone Now. with the input v in 1 acting alone.V ----6 6 (10.26) Therefore.21 with its Thevenin equivalent.25) and (10.27) c.

The switch in Figure 10.24 (b).⎞ = – ----.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω Rf 50 KΩ − + v TH3 − 10 ----21 V + v out 3 − + Figure 10.30) 10-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . We will derive an expression for the inductor current i L ( t ) = i ( t ) for t > 0 given that the initial condition is i L ( 0 ) = 0 .– ----. Circuit for computation of v out 3 10 50 50 v out 3 = – ⎛ ------------⎞ v TH3 = – 35 × ⎛ ----. the inductor current i L ( t ) will be referred to as the total response.29) 10.+ Ri = V S u 0 ( t ) dt (10. R − t = 0 R + VS − i(t) (a) L + VS u0 ( t ) − i(t) (b) L Figure 10.24 (a) can be omitted if we multiply the excitation V S by the unit step function u 0 ( t ) as shown in Figure 10. that is.23.26) and (10.24. di L ---. from (10. Circuits for derivation of the total response i L ( t ) = i ( t ) We start by applying KVL. Here.28) the op amp’s output voltage at t = 5 s is 25 50 125 v out 2 + v out 3 = – ----.28) Therefore.24 (a).= – -------.V 6 3 6 (10. V S is constant.V ⎝ 21 ⎠ ⎝ 10 ⁄ 7⎠ 3 (10.4 The Forced and Total Response in an RL Circuit For the circuit shown in Figure 10.

ln ( V S – Ri ) = t + k R Ldi (10. thus for t < 0 .ln ( V S – Ri ) = t – -.ln ( V S – 0 ) = 0 + k R or L k = – -.[ ln ( V S – Ri ) – ln V S ] = t R or Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.ln V S R R or L – -. and integrating we get: di L ---.33) Therefore.The Forced and Total Response in an RL Circuit The initial condition states that i L ( 0 ) = 0 . Thus.= dt V S – Ri or ∫ ----------------. we get L – -.32).ln V S R and by substitution into (10. i ( t ) = 0 For t > 0 . at t = 0 + L – -. separating the variables. rearranging (10.32). we get L L – -.32) The constant k in (10. we must solve the differential equation di L ---. can be solved by the method of separation of the variables.= V S – Ri dt or Ldi ---------------.15 .32) represents the constant of integration of both sides and it can be evaluated from the initial condition. and as we stated in the previous chapter iL ( 0 ) = iL ( 0 ) = iL ( 0 ) − + (10.+ Ri = V S dt − (10.= ∫ dt V S – Ri and referring to a table of integrals.31) It is shown in differential equations textbooks that a differential equation such as the above.

e R R The general expression for all t is V S V S – ( R ⁄ L ) t⎞ i ( t ) = ⎛ ----.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits V S – Ri L – -.ln ---------------. and the exponential term – ----.35).e u (t) ⎝R R ⎠ 0 (10.24 to find the complete (total) response i total by the summation of the forced and the natural responses as indicated in (10.e – ( R ⁄ L )t that has the same form as that of the previous V R chapter which we call the natural response.34) consists of two terms.= t R VS or V S – Ri R ln ---------------.– ----.= – -.34) We observe that the right side of (10.– ----. This value represents the steady-state condition reached as t → ∞ since the inductor L at this state behaves as a short circuit. i ( t ) total = i ( t ) or i total = i f + i n (10. 10-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . that is. The amplitude of the natural response is – V S ⁄ R and depends on the values of V S and R . The summation of the forced response and the natural response constitutes the total response or com- plete response. V S ⁄ R which is constant called the S forced response.= e VS or Ri = V S – V S e –( R ⁄ L ) t or VS VS –( R ⁄ L ) t i ( t ) = ----. The forced response V S ⁄ R is a result of the application of the excitation (forcing) function V S u 0 ( t ) applied to the RL circuit. let us return to the RL circuit of Figure 10.t L VS or V S – Ri –( R ⁄ L ) t ----------------.35) forced response + i ( t ) natural response Now.

37) Therefore. Circuit for derivation of the forced response i f Then. from the circuit of Figure 10. the total response is VS – ( R ⁄ L )t i total = i f + i n = ----.17 . VS i f = ----R (10.The Forced and Total Response in an RL Circuit The forced response i f is found from the circuit of Figure 10.38) − + where the constant A is evaluated from the initial condition i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) Substitution of the initial condition into (10.+ Ae R or VS A = – ----R Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.+ Ae R (10.25 where we let t → ∞ R − VS u0 ( t ) Short Circuit as t → ∞ + if L Figure 10.36) Next. we need to find the natural response.25. This is found by letting the excitation (forcing function) V S u 0 ( t ) go to zero as shown in the circuit of Figure 10.38) yields VS 0 i ( 0 ) = 0 = ----.26. R VS u0 ( t ) = 0 in L Figure 10.25. Circuit for derivation of the natural response i n We found in Chapter 9 that the natural response i n has the exponential form i n = Ae – ( R ⁄ L )t (10.26.

39) and this is the same as (10.6 -0.= -.6 VS / R i(t) = (VS / L) t 0.τ L R or τ = -L R 10-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= ----.27. at t = τ .4 -0.e separately and then add these.i total = ⎛ ----.2 0.38) is rewritten as V S V S – ( R ⁄ L )t ⎞ u (t) .8 0.2 -0. Curves for forced.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits and with this substitution (10. S S –( R ⁄ L ) t We can sketch i total easily if we sketch ----.e ⎝R R ⎠ 0 (10.27. and its numerical value can be found from the circuit constants R and L as follows: The equation of the straight line with slope = V S ⁄ L is found from d---.0 -0.4 0.0 τ Figure 10.– ----. VS i ( t ) = ----R and thus VS VS ----.632VS / R i(t) = VS / R −(VS/ R) e−Rt / L Time Constants −(VS / R) e−Rt / L Percent VS / R 0.e L R VS = ----L t=0 t=0 Assuming constant rate of change as shown in Figure 10. This is V R V R done with Excel and the plots are shown in Figure 10.( i total ) dt R V S –( R ⁄ L ) t .8 -1.and – ----.0 0.34). and total responses in a series RL circuit The time constant τ is defined as before.27.⋅ ----. natural. Exponential Rise in RL Circuit 1.

28.29 where the 3 Ω resistor is shorted out by the inductor.6 For the circuit of Figure 10.The Forced and Total Response in an RL Circuit as before. Circuit for Example 10.19 . − ----i L ( 0 ) = 12 = 2 A 6 and this value establishes our initial condition as iL ( 0 ) = 2 A Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications + (10. Circuit of Example 10.368 ) i ( τ ) = ----.6 Solution: For t < 0 . 6Ω + − 12 V 10 mH iL ( t ) 3Ω 5u 0 ( t ) A Figure 10.29.6 for t < 0 From the circuit of Figure 10.632 ----R (10. Example 10. the circuit is as shown in Figure 10.2% of its final value.41) 10.28. 6Ω + − 12 V iL ( t ) Figure 10. Also.= ----. in one time constant has reached 63.( 1 – 0.e R R R R or VS i ( τ ) = 0.( 1 – e ) = ----.– ----.29. from (10. compute the energy stored in the 10 mH inductor at t = 100 ms .39) VS V S V S –( R ⁄ L ) ( L ⁄ R ) VS –1 . the current in a series RL circuit which has been excited by a constant source.40) Therefore.

31. Circuit of Example 10.32.31 where the voltage source and its series resistance have been exchanged for an equivalent current source with a parallel resistor. It is shown in Figure 10.6 under steady-state conditions By inspection. the circuit is as shown in Figure 10.30. The circuit then reduces to that shown in Figure 10.6 for t > 0 We will find i L ( t ) from the relation iL ( t ) = if + in The forced component i f is found from the circuit at steady state conditions. 2A 10 mH 5A if Figure 10.32 is i n = Ae – ( R ⁄ L )t = Ae – ( 2 ⁄ 10 × 10 )t –3 10-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 6Ω 10 mH 3 Ω || 6 Ω = 2 Ω in 3Ω in 10 mH 2Ω Figure 10. Circuit of Example 10. The resistors have been shorted out by the inductor. Circuit of Example 10. i f = 2 – 5 or if = –3 A (10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits For t > 0 .42) To find i n we short the voltage source and open the current source.30.32.6 for determining the natural response The natural response of RL circuit of Figure 10. 6Ω + − 12 V 10 mH iL ( t ) 3Ω 5A Figure 10.

42) and (10.42).45) and the energy stored in the inductor at t = 100 ms is –3 – 200 × 100 × 10 ⎞ 1 2 1 WL = -.Li L = -.43). Circuits for derivation of the total response v C ( t ) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. by substitution into (10. R − t = 0 C R VS + − + − (t) vC − VS u0 ( t ) (b) + + v (t) − R C + − vC ( t ) (a) Figure 10.46) 10. that is.44) Using the initial condition of (10.33 (a). we get i L ( 0 ) = 2 = – 3 + Ae + –0 or A = 5 Finally.5 The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit For the circuit shown in Figure 10. the capacitor voltage v C ( t ) will be referred to as the total response.10 × 10 ⎛ – 3 + 5e ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 t = 100 ms t = 100 ms = 5 × 10 –3 ( – 3 + 5e – 20 2 ) = 45 mJ –3 2 (10.43) The total response is the summation of (10.33. V S is constant. We will derive an expression for the capacitor voltage v C ( t ) for t > 0 given that the initial condition is v C ( 0 ) = 0 .The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit or i n = Ae – 200t (10.44) we get i total = ( – 3 + 5e – 200t )u 0 ( t ) (10. Here.21 . i total = i f + i n = – 3 + Ae – 200t (10.

separating variables and integrating.dt vC – VS or dv C 1= – ------. vR + vC = VS u0 ( t ) (10.47) and since dv C i = i C = C -------dt we can express v R as dv C v R = Ri = RC ------dt By substitution into (10. we get dv C RC -------.t + k RC where k represents the constant of integration of both sides of (10. We start by applying KVL.+ v C = V S u 0 ( t ) dt (10. Then.= – ------. that is.33 (b).50) 1 ln ( v C – V S ) = – ------. thus for t < 0 .47). we get: RCdv C = ( V S – v C )dt or dv C 1 ----------------. v C ( t ) = 0 For t > 0 .Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits The switch in Figure 10.48) The initial condition states that v C ( 0 ) = 0 .51).49) Rearranging.33 (a) can be omitted if we multiply the excitation V S by the unit step function u 0 ( t ) as shown in Figure 10.dt RC ∫ (10.dt RC vC – VS or ∫ ----------------. vC – VS = e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t + k = e e k – ( 1 ⁄ ( RC ) ) t = k1 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t 10-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .+ v C = V S dt − (10. we must solve the differential equation dv C RC -------.

v C ( t ) complete response = v C ( t ) forced response + v C ( t ) natural response or v C total = v C f + v C n (10. i. The constant term V S is the voltage attained across the capacitor as t → ∞ and represents the steady-state condition since the capacitor C at this state behaves as an open circuit. from the circuit of Figure 10. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.51) + The constant k 1 can be evaluated from the initial condition v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = 0 where by substitution into (10.e.33 to find the complete (total) response by summing the forced and the natural responses indicated in (10.23 .34. the solution of (10. we observe that the solution consists of a forced response and a natural response.53) Now.53).49) is vC ( t ) = ( VS – VS e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t )u 0 ( t ) (10. The amplitude of the exponential term natural response is – V S . The summation of the forced response and the natural response constitutes the total response.34. let us return to the RC circuit of Figure 10.34 where we let t → ∞ R + − vCf VS u0 ( t ) Open Circuit as t → ∞ Figure 10.51) we get vC ( 0 ) = 0 = VS – k1 e + 0 or k1 = VS Therefore.52) As with the RL circuit of the previous section.The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit or vC = VS – k1 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t − (10.. The forced response v C f is found from the circuit of Figure 10. Circuit for derivation of the forced response v C f Then.

The time constant τ is defined as before.55) is rewritten as vC ( t ) = ( VS – VS e – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t )u 0 ( t ) (10. we need to find the natural response and this is found by letting the excitation (forcing function) V S u 0 ( t ) go to zero as shown in Figure 10.52).36.35.56) and this is the same as (10.55) − + where the constant A is evaluated from the initial condition v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = 0 Substitution of the initial condition into (10. We can sketch v C total easily if we sketch V S and – V S e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t separately and then add these.35.55) yields v C ( 0 ) = 0 = V S – Ae + 0 or A = –VS With this substitution (10. and its numerical value can be found from the circuit constants R and C as follows: 10-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .54) Next. This is done with Excel and the plots are shown in Figure 10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits vCf = VS (10. R C VS u0 ( t ) = 0 vCn Figure 10. Circuit for derivation of the natural response v C n We found in Chapter 9 that the natural response v C n has the exponential form v C n = Ae – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t and thus the total response is v C ( t ) = v C f + v C n = V S + Ae – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t (10.

Curves for forced.632V S (10.2% of its final value. vC ( t ) = VS and thus VS V S = ------. the voltage across a capacitor in a series RC circuit which has been excited by a constant source.25 .36. and total responses in a series RC circuit The equation of the straight line with slope = V S ⁄ RC is found from d ---.36. at t = τ .8 0. natural.368 ) –1 or v C ( τ ) = 0.4 0.632VC / V S vC(t) = VS − VS e−t / RC Time Constants −VS e−t / RC τ Figure 10.56) vC ( τ ) = VS –VS e – ( 1 ⁄ RC )RC = V S ( 1 – e ) = V S ( 1 – 0.6 Percent VC / V S 0. in one time constant has reached 63.v C ( t ) dt – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t 1 = ------.2 0. Also.0 0.8 -1.6 -0.0 VC / V S vC(t) = (VS / RC) t 0.The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit Exponential Rise in RC Circuit 1.τ RC or τ = RC as before.57) Therefore.⋅ V S e RC t=0 t=0 VS = ------RC Assuming constant rate of change as shown in Figure 10. from (10.2 -0.0 -0. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.4 -0.

Exchanging the current source and the 10 KΩ resistor with a voltage source with a 10 KΩ series resistor. 38. the circuit at t = 1 is as shown in Figure 10. v C ( 1 ) and i C ( 1 ) c. Circuit for Example 10. No initial condition is given so we must assume that sufficient time has elapsed for steady-state conditions to exist for all t < 1 s. Circuit for Example 10.37.7 Solution: a. we get vC ( 1 ) = 0 − and iC ( 1 ) = 0 − b.37 find: a. since there is no voltage or current source present to cause current to flow. iC ( t ) 9u 0 ( t – 1 ) V + + C 10 µF 10 KΩ 60 KΩ + − 20 KΩ − vC ( t ) Figure 10. Then.7 at t = 1 + 10-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .38. v C ( 1 ) and i C ( 1 ) b.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits Example 10. ) d. We assume time is in seconds since we are not told otherwise. ) and i C ( t = 10 min. i C ( t ) for t > 1 9u 0 ( t – 1 ) mA iC ( t ) 10 µF + + − − + C − vC ( t ) 10 KΩ 60 KΩ 20 KΩ Figure 10.7 For the circuit shown in Figure 10. v C ( t = 10 min.

and at this time the capacitor voltage v C ( t = 10 min ) is constant and equal to the voltage across the 60 KΩ resistor. the voltage across the capacitor would change instantaneously.58) c. 90 V v C ( t = 10 min ) = v C ( ∞ ) = v 60 KΩ = ---------------------------------------------. the current path is through the capacitor which at exactly t = 1 acts as a short circuit since v C ( 1 ) = v C ( 1 ) = 0 . Therefore. and as we know.59) We can evaluate the constant A using (10. since v C ( 1 ) = v C ( 1 ) .e. i C n = Ae – ( 1 ⁄ 0. Instead. no current flows through the 60 kΩ resistor at t = 1 .= 3 mA ( 20 + 10 ) KΩ + − + + − + (10.The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit Now. The time t = 10 min is the essentially the same as t = ∞ . + 90 V i C ( 1 ) = --------------------------------. For t > 1 iC ( t ) t>1 where from part (c) iC f ( ∞ ) = 0 and i C n = Ae –( 1 ⁄ R eq C) t With the voltage source shorted in the circuit of Figure 10. this is a physical impossibility.= 0 t=∞ dt = iC f + iC n d..27 .59) where i C ( 1 ) = 3 mA = Ae + –5 or Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.38. if it did. i.⋅ 60 KΩ = 60 V ( 20 + 10 + 60 ) KΩ Also.2 ) t = Ae – 5t (10. iC ( t ) dv C = C -------.2 s Therefore. the equivalent resistance is R eq = ( 10 KΩ + 20 KΩ ) || 60 KΩ = 20 KΩ or R eq C = 20 × 10 × 10 × 10 3 –6 = 0.

25 KΩ ) × 0.61) Next. v C ( 0 ) = 0 ..02 µF + C + − (t) vC − Figure 10.02 µF Figure 10. 10-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Circuit for Example 10. the switch is actually an electronic switch and it is open for 15 µs and closed for 15 µs .40.71 V (10.40. VS 1 KΩ 250 Ω C + + − vC ( t ) − 6V Switch open 0.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits A = 3 × 10 .8 with the switch in the open position For the time period 0 < t open < 15 µs the time constant for the circuit of Figure 10. at the end of the first period when the switch is open. with the switch closed for 15 < t closed < 30 µs the circuit is as shown in Figure 10. Initially.445e – 5t u 0 ( t – 1 ) mA (10.e.41.8 In the circuit shown in Figure 10.39.59).445 ------------------e–5 –3 and by substitution into (10. iC ( t ) t>1 = i C f + i C n = i C n = 0. the capacitor is discharged. Compute and sketch the voltage across the capacitor for two repetitive cycles.60) Example 10. Circuit for Example 10. VS 1 KΩ 250 Ω 350 Ω 6V 0.40 is τ open = R eq C = ( 1 KΩ + 0.39. the voltage across the capacitor is vC ( t ) t = 15 µs = vC f + vC n = VS – VS e – t ⁄ RC = 6 – 6e – 4 × 10 t 4 = 6 – 6e – 0.02 × 10 –6 = 25 µs Thus.6 = 2. i.8 Solution: With the switch in the open position the circuit is as shown in Figure 10.= 0.

2 ) ( 15 – 15 ) Then.= 259 Ω 1350 − 1.42. is τ closed = R eq C = ( 259 Ω + 250 Ω ) × 0.× 6 = 1.02 µF v C ( t ) Figure 10.71 = 1.2 ) ( t – 15 ) (10.62) is vC ( t ) t = 15 µs = 2.42. we get the circuit shown in Figure 10. Circuit for Example 10.15 or and by substitution into (10. Thevenin equivalent circuit for the circuit of Figure 10.56 + 1.62) vC ( t ) 15 < t < 30 µs = 1.02 × 10 –6 = 10.41 The time constant for the circuit of Figure 10.63) At the end of the first period when the switch is closed.41.2 ) ( t – 15 ) (10.15e – ( 1 ⁄ 10.42 is v C ( t ) = v C f + v C n = V TH + A 1 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) ( t – 15 ) = 1.8 with the switch in the closed position Replacing the circuit to the left of points x and y by its Thevenin equivalent. vC ( t ) 15 < t < 30 µs = 2.56 + A 1 e A 1 = 1.2 µs The capacitor voltage v C ( t ) for the circuit of Figure 10.56 V 1350 350 × 1000 R TH = -------------------------.The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit × VS 1 KΩ x 250 Ω + − 6V Switch closed 350 Ω C + − (t) vC 0. VTH RTH 259 Ω 250 Ω C + + − 350V TH = ----------.56 + A 1 e – ( 1 ⁄ 10.62) and the constant A 1 is evaluated from initial condition at t = 15 µs which by (10.02 µF × y Figure 10.71 V – ( 1 ⁄ 10.29 .42 where the switch is closed. the voltage across the capacitor is Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.56 V 0.

69) and vC ( t ) t = 60 µs = 1. for 30 < t open < 45 µs when the switch is open.82 = 6 + A 2 e A 2 = – 4.65) as vC ( t ) t = 30 µs = 1.15e – ( 1 ⁄ 10.66) At the end of the second period when the switch is open. the time constant τ open is the same as before.56 + 2..82 V (10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits vC ( t ) t = 30 µs = 1.18 e – ( 1 ⁄ 25 ) ( 45 – 30 ) = 3.e.67) we get A 3 = 2.64) For the next cycle. vC ( t ) 45 < t < 60 µs = v C f + v C n = V TH + A 3 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) ( t – 45 ) = 1.67) The second period when the switch is closed is 45 < t closed < 60 µs Then.15e – ( 1 ⁄ 10.71 V (10.15 Therefore. that is.2 ) ( t – 45 ) (10. the voltage across the capacitor is vC ( t ) t = 45 µs = 6 – 4.15e – ( 1 ⁄ 10.2 ) ( t – 45 ) (10.65) The constant A 2 is computed with (10.18 – ( 1 ⁄ 25 ) ( 30 – 30 ) or and by substitution into (10. i.71) 10-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .65) vC ( t ) 30 < t < 45 µs = 6 – 4.56 + 1. we get vC ( t ) 60 < t < 75 µs = 6 – 3.56 + A 3 e – ( 1 ⁄ 10.70) Repeating the above steps for the third open and closed switch periods.2 ) ( 30 – 15 ) = 1. τ open = 25 µs and the capacitor voltage is vC ( t ) = vC f + vCn = 6 + A2 e – ( 1 ⁄ 25 ) ( t – 30 ) (10. vC ( t ) 45 < t < 60 µs = 1.56 + 2.68) and with (10.95e – ( 1 ⁄ 25 ) ( t – 60 ) (10.18e – ( 1 ⁄ 25 ) ( t – 30 ) (10.05 V (10.2 ) ( 60 – 45 ) = 2.

72) Likewise.08 V (10.73) and vC ( t ) t = 90 µs = 2.43.2 ) ( t – 75 ) (10. vC ( t ) 75 < t < 90 µs = 1. • The unit step function offers a convenient method of describing the sudden application of a voltu0 ( t ) age or current source.8 10.56 + 2. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.83 V (10. Capacitor Voltage (V) 4 3 2 1 0 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 Time (µs) Figure 10. 1 0 • Unit step functions can be used to represent other time-varying functions. Voltage across the capacitor for the circuit of Example 10.Summary and vC ( t ) t = 75 µs = 3.74) and using Excel we get the waveform shown in Figure 10.43.31 .6 Summary • The unit step function u 0 ( t ) is defined as ⎧0 u0 ( t ) = ⎨ ⎩1 t<0 t>0 and it is represented by the waveform below.27e – ( 1 ⁄ 10.

e ⎝R R ⎠ 0 where the forced response i f represents the steady-state condition reached as t → ∞ .u 0 ( t ) dt or ∫– ∞ δ ( τ ) d τ and t = u0 ( t ) δ ( t ) = 0 for all t ≠ 0 • In a simple RL circuit that is excited by a voltage source V S u 0 ( t ) the current is V S V S – ( R ⁄ L ) t⎞ u (t) i ( t ) = i f + i n = ⎛ ----.– ----. denoted as δ ( t ) . The natural response i n is the second term in the parenthesis of the above expression. v C n = Ae must be evaluated from the total response. Since the capacitor C at this state behaves as an open circuit. It is defined as dδ ( τ ) = ---.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits • The unit ramp function u 1 ( t ) . i f = V S ⁄ R . is defined as the integral of the unit step function. that is. The constant A 10-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . that is. – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t . i n = ( – V S ⁄ R )e is v C ( t ) = v C f + v C n = ( V S + Ae – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t –( R ⁄ L ) t • In a simple RC circuit that is excited by a voltage source V S u 0 ( t ) the voltage across the capacitor )u 0 ( t ) where the forced response v C f represents the steady-state condition reached as t → ∞ . It is also expressed as ⎧0 u1 ( t ) = ⎨ ⎩t • The unit impulse or delta function. Since the inductor L at this state behaves as a short circuit. The natural response v C n is the second term in the parenthesis of the above expression. v C f = V S . u1 ( t ) = ∫– ∞ u 0 ( τ ) d τ t<0 t≥0 t where τ is a dummy variable. is the derivative of the unit step u 0 ( t ) . that is.

none of the above 4 KΩ 6 KΩ 5u 0 ( t ) A Figure 10. 190 ms D. For the circuit of Figure 10.45.Exercises 10. Circuit for Question 1 2.7 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. 16 A B.33 . 10 A Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.5 ms B. 0. 71. 2. 000 s D. 78.6 ms E. 100 ms C. 0.45 the time constant is A.43 µs C.44. none of the above 4Ω 2Ω 1 mH + 12u 0 ( t ) V − 12 Ω Figure 10.44 the time constant is A. Circuit for Question 2 10 KΩ 5 KΩ 10 µF 3.46 is A. 50 ms B. The forced response component i Lf of the inductor current for the circuit of Figure 10.2 ms E. For the circuit of Figure 10.

6 A B.47. For the circuit of Figure 10. 2 V C. 10 V B. none of the above 5Ω 4Ω 16u 0 ( t ) A Figure 10. Circuit for Question 3 12 Ω 1 mH 4. none of the above 4 KΩ 2 KΩ 1 µF + 16u 0 ( t ) V − 12 KΩ Figure 10. 6 A D. The forced response component v Cf of the capacitor voltage for the circuit of Figure 10.48 i L ( 0 ) = 2 A .Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits C.46.47 is A. 8 V E. 2 A E. none of the above 10-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 6e –5000t A – 5000t A C. 6 + 6e − D. 32 ⁄ 3 V D. For t > 0 the total response of i L ( t ) is A. 6 – 4 e –5000t A E. Circuit for Question 4 5.

49 v C ( 0 ) = 5 V . For the circuit of Figure 10.Exercises 5Ω 4Ω 16u 0 ( t ) A Figure 10. 32e – 8000t – 8000t V E. 20e – 5000t – 5000t − V V V C.49. 12 V B. For the circuit of Figure 10. For t > 0 the total response of v L ( t ) is A. 12 – 7e D. none of the above 4 KΩ 2 KΩ 1 µF + 16u 0 ( t ) V − 12 KΩ + − vC ( t ) Figure 10. Circuit for Question 5 12 Ω 1 mH iL ( t ) 6. For t > 0 the total response of v C ( t ) is A. Circuit for Question 6 7. 20e B. none of the above Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.50 i L ( 0 ) = 2 A .35 . 10 – 5e C. – 32e D. 12 + 7e – 500t – 200t – 200t − V V V E.48.

5 ) [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 3 ) ] A E. 1. Circuit for Question 7 12 Ω 1 mH + − vL ( t ) 8. 1400e B. 3.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits 5Ω 4Ω 16u 0 ( t ) A Figure 10. 3t [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 3 ) ] + ( – 1.51 v C ( 0 ) = 5 V .50.51.5t + 4. none of the above 10-36 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . For t > 0 the total response i C ( t ) is A.52 can be expressed as A. 3t [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 1 ) ] + ( – 1. 3tu 0 ( t ) A B. 3 [ u 0 ( t ) ] – 3 [ u 0 ( t – 3 ) ] A C. The waveform of Figure 10. none of the above 4 KΩ 2 KΩ 1 µF iC ( t ) + 16u 0 ( t ) V − 12 KΩ Figure 10. Circuit for Question 8 9. For the circuit of Figure 10.5 ) [ u 0 ( t – 1 ) – u 0 ( t – 3 ) ] A D. 3500e D.4e – 200t − A – 200t A A C.5t + 4.5e – 500t – 500t A E.

2 ( 1 – e – αt – αt –e – βt )u 0 ( t ) V – βt B. ( 2 – 2e D.53 can be expressed as A. sketch. Compute. the voltage source v S ( t ) varies with time as shown by the waveform of Figure 10.37 . ( 2 – 2e C. ( 2 – 2e ) [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 2 ) ] + ( 2e ) [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 2 ) ] – ( 2e ) [ u 0 ( t ) ] – ( 2e – βt ) [ u0 ( t – 2 ) – u0 ( t – 3 ) ] V – αt – αt – βt ) [ u0 ( t – 2 ) – u0 ( t – 3 ) ] V ) [ u0 ( t – 3 ) ] V E. and express v LOAD ( t ) as a sum of unit step functions for 0 ≤ t ≤ 5 s. none of the above vC ( t ) V 2 1 – αt 2e – βt 2 – 2e 1 2 3 t (s) Figure 10. Waveform for Question 10 Problems 1. The waveform of Figure 10. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.55.52.54.Exercises 3 2 1 t (s) iL ( t ) A 1 2 3 Figure 10. Waveform for Question 9 10. In the circuit of Figure 10.53.

Waveform for Problem 1 2.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits 6Ω 6Ω 12 Ω + v LOAD ( t ) 10 Ω + − vS ( t ) − Figure 10.3 ms b.54. Circuit for Problem 1 v S ( t ) (V) 120 60 0 −60 t(s) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Figure 10. In the circuit of Figure 10. Compute i L ( t ) for t > 0 .56. Compute i L ( t ) for 0 < t < 0.57 (a).57 (b). the excitation v S ( t ) is a pulse as shown in Figure 10.55. R 3 KΩ + L − vS ( t ) iL ( t ) 1 mH Figure 10. v S ( t ) = 15u 0 ( t ) – 30u 0 ( t – 2 ) V . In the circuit of Figure 10. Compute and sketch i L ( t ) for all t > 0 10-38 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . a.56. Circuit for Problem 2 3.

57. compute v out ( t ) for t > 0 in terms of R . Circuit and waveform for Problem 3 4. Circuit for Problem 5 6.58.58.Exercises iL ( t ) 3Ω 1 mH 6Ω 6Ω 0. switch S has been open for a very long time and closes at t = 0 . For the circuit of Figure 10.59. compute v C ( t ) for t > 0 . Circuit for Problem 4 5.60. i SW ( t ) S 4Ω vS 6Ω t = 0 + − 20 V 8Ω 1H iL ( t ) Figure 10. and v in u 0 ( t ) given that v C ( 0 ) = 0 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications − 10.39 .59. C .3 (a) (b) t (ms) vS ( t ) V 24 + − vS ( t ) Figure 10. For the circuit of Figure 10. Compute and sketch i L ( t ) and i SW ( t ) for t > 0 . 10u 0 ( t ) A vS 38 Ω + − 24 V 2Ω 50 µF + − vC ( t ) Figure 10. In the circuit of Figure 10.

iC ( t ) C − R1 18 Ω R2 12 Ω + − vC ( t ) 1F + − 10i ( t ) C Figure 10. R1 v S2 − R2 + 25 KΩ v S1 50 KΩ 50 V + − t = 0 100u 0 ( – t ) V S vC ( t ) − 1 µF v R3 ( t ) R3 C + − + 100 KΩ Figure 10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits C R v in u 0 ( t ) v out ( t ) Figure 10. Hint: Be careful in deriving the time constant for this circuit. In the circuit of Figure 10. Circuit for Problem 6 7.62. Circuit for Problem 7 8. Circuit for Problem 8 10-40 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Compute i C ( t ) for t > 0 .62.60.61. switch S has been open for a very long time and closes at t = 0 . Compute and sketch v C ( t ) and v R3 ( t ) for t > 0 . it is given that v C ( 0 ) = 5 V . For the circuit of Figure 10.61.

Answers to Exercises 10.41 . We replace the given circuit shown below with its Thevenin equivalent. A 9. B 3. C 7. C 10. C 4. D 2. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. E 12 V 5. E 6 – 4e 6. B Problems 1. D 8. 6Ω 6Ω 12 Ω – 8000t A × x 10 Ω + v LOAD ( t ) − 10 Ω + 10 Ω + − vS ( t ) + y × v S ( t ) (V) 120 60 0 −60 − v TH ( t ) v LOAD ( t ) − 1 2 3 4 5 6 t(s) For the Thevenin equivalent voltage at different time intervals is as shown below.8 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1.

v LOAD ( t ) 40 20 0 – 20 1 2 3 4 5 t (s) (V) The waveform above can now be expressed as a sum of unit step functions as follows: v LOAD ( t ) = 20u 0 ( t ) – 20u 0 ( t – 1 ) + 40u 0 ( t – 1 ) – 40u 0 ( t – 3 ) + 20u 0 ( t – 4 ) – 20u 0 ( t – 3 ) + 20u 0 ( t – 4 ) + 20u 0 ( t – 4 ) = 20u 0 ( t ) + 20u 0 ( t – 1 ) – 60u 0 ( t – 3 ) + 40u 0 ( t – 4 ) 2.× 120 = 80 V 3 0<t<1 s 1<t<3 s 3<t<4 s 2 = -.5 × ( – 40 ) 20 ⎜ ⎝ 0.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits ⎛ 12 v s ( t ) ----⎜ 18 ⎜ ⎜ 12 v ( t ) ----⎜ 18 s v TH ( t ) = ⎜ ⎜ 12 v ( t ) ⎜ ----.5v TH ( t ) = ⎜ ⎜ 0. we will assume that iL ( 0 ) = 0 − − For t > 0 we let i L1 ( t ) be the inductor current when the 15u 0 ( t ) voltage source acts alone and i L2 ( t ) when the 30u 0 ( t – 2 ) voltage source acts alone. i L TOTAL ( t ) = i L1 ( t ) + i L2 ( t ) 10-42 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .× ( – 60 ) = – 40 V 3 2 = -.× 60 = 40 V 3 t>4 s 0<t<1 s 1<t<3 s 3<t<4 s t>4 s and ⎛ 0.5 × 40 ⎜ 0. The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below and since we are not told otherwise. Then.v s ( t ) 18 2 = -.× 60 = 40 V 3 2 = -.v TH ( t ) = 0.5 × 80 10 v LOAD ( t ) = ----.5 × 40 = 20 V = 40 V = – 20 V = 20 V The waveform of the voltage across the load is as shown below.s 18 ⎜ ⎜ 12 ⎝ ----.

Answers to Exercises 3 kΩ 1 mH vS ( 0 ) = 0 − iL ( 0 ) = 0 − For 0 < t < 2 s the circuit is as shown below.= – 10 mA and i L2n = A 2 e = Be 3 KΩ Thus. i L2f = ------------.43 . with the 30u 0 ( t – 2 ) voltage source acts alone the circuit is as shown below. we get − i L1 ( 0 ) = 5 + A 1 e mA or A 1 = – 5 . i L2 ( t ) = i L2f + i L2n . – 3 × 10 ( 2 – 2 ) 6 = i L1 t=2 s = 5 = – 10 + A 2 e mA or A 2 = 15 and 6 i L2 ( t ) = – 10 + 15e – 3 × 10 ( t – 2 ) mA (2) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.= 5 mA and i L1n = A 1 e 3 KΩ = Ae + Thus. i L2 ( t ) = – 10 + A 2 e above as i L1 i L2 t=2 s t=2 s – 3 × 10 ( t – 2 ) – 6 × 10 t 6 6 mA and the initial condition at t = 2 is found from (1) = 5 – 5e ≈ 5 mA . i L1 ( t ) = 5 + A 1 e 0 – 3 × 10 t 6 mA and using the initial condition i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = 0 . 3 KΩ + 30 V 1 mH − iL ( t ) 6 –( R ⁄ L ) ( t – 2 ) – 3 × 10 ( t – 2 ) – 30 Then. 3 KΩ + − 15 V i L1 ( t ) 1 mH – ( R ⁄ L )t – 3 × 10 t 6 15 Then. i L1 ( t ) = i L1f + i L1n where i L1f = ------------. Therefore. Therefore. i L1 ( t ) = 5 – 5e – 3 × 10 t 6 (1) Next.

For this circuit v S ( t ) = 24 [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 0. that is.3 ) = A2 e – 8000 ( t – 0. we will assume that i L ( 0 ) = 0 . For this circuit iL ( t ) = A2 e – ( R ⁄ L ) ( t – 0. i L TOTAL ( t ) = i L1 ( t ) + i L2 ( t ) = 5 – 5e = – 5 – 5e – 3 × 10 t 6 – 3 × 10 t 6 6 – 10 + 15e mA – 3 × 10 ( t – 2 ) 6 mA + 15e – 3 × 10 ( t – 2 ) 3. 3Ω − × 6Ω 6Ω 1 mH 8Ω + − iL ( t ) + × v S ( t ) = 24 [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 0.3 ) ] and since we are not told otherwise. that is.3 ) (2) and A 2 is found from the initial condition at t = 0.3 ) ] vS ( t ) − 1 mH iL ( t ) v TH ( t ) v TH ( t ) = 16 [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 0. i L ( t ) = i Lf + i Ln = 16 ⁄ 8 + A 1 e – ( R ⁄ L )t = 2 + Ae 0 – 8000t and at t = 0 iL ( 0 ) = iL ( 0 ) = 0 = 2 + A1 e − or A 1 = – 2 and thus for 0 < t < 0.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits Therefore.3 ms iL ( t ) = 2 –2 e – 8000t (1) b. with (1) above we get 3Ω × 6Ω 6Ω 1 mH vS ( t ) = 0 iL ( t ) 8Ω 1 mH iL ( t ) × 10-44 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . For t > 0. For 0 < t < 0. a.3 ) ] Then.3 ms . the total current when both voltage sources are present is the summation of (1) and (2).3 ms the circuit is as shown below.3 ms the circuit and its Thevenin equivalent are as shown below.

iL ( A ) 1.Answers to Exercises iL t = 0.82 .× 20 = 40 ⁄ 3 V 4+8 and 8×4 R TH = ----------. 4Ω 6Ω − − vS + − 20 V iL ( 0 ) − For t > 0 the circuit and its Thevenin equivalent are as shown below where 8 v TH = ----------.3 ms ) The waveform for the inductor current i L ( t ) for all t > 0 is shown below. At t = 0 the circuit is as shown below where i L ( 0 ) = 20 ⁄ ( 4 + 6 ) = 2 A and thus the initial condition has been established.45 .3 × 10 3 –3 = 2 – 2e 2.3 – 0.3 ) or A 2 = 1.82 = A 2 e – 8000 ( 0.82e – ( t – 0.82 t ( ms ) 0. Therefore for t > 0.3 ms = 1.3 4.82 A and by substitution into (2) above iL t = 0.4 = 1.+ 6 = 26 ⁄ 3 Ω 8+4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.3 ms = 2 – 2e – 8 × 10 × 0.3 ms i L ( t ) = 1.

67t – 8. i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = 2 = 20 ⁄ 13 + Ae − + 0 from which A = 6 ⁄ 13 and thus for t > 0 – 8.e.67t ) + 1 × ---.24 + 2.46e ) dt – 8. di L v 8 Ω = v 6 Ω + v L ( t ) = 6i L ( t ) + L -----dt = 6 ( 1.24 – 1.54 + 0.46e – 8.( 1.–( 26 ⁄ 3 )t = 1.e 13 13 Next.67t and 10-46 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .54 + 0.23e – 8..67t – 8.46e (1) i L ( t ) = ----.67t d – 8.+ ----.67 × 0.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits 4Ω vS Closed Switch 6Ω R TH 26 ⁄ 3 Ω v TH + − 20 V 8Ω + − iL ( t ) 40 ⁄ 3 V 1H iL ( t ) 1H Then. i. to find i SW ( t ) we observe that this current flows also through the 8 Ω resistor and this can be found from v 8 Ω shown on the circuit below.67t 20 6. 4Ω vS i SW ( t ) + − 20 V 8Ω 6Ω + − v8 Ω 1H iL ( t ) Now.54 + 0.76e = 9. – ( R ⁄ L )t – ( 26 ⁄ 3 )t -----------i L ( t ) = i Lf + i Ln = 40 ⁄ 3 + Ae = 20 ⁄ 13 + Ae 26 ⁄ 3 and A is evaluated from the initial condition.46e = 9.

23e i SW ( t ) = i 8 Ω = --------. iL ( t ) A 2.0 1. At t = 0 the circuit is as shown below where v C ( 0 ) = 24 V and thus the initial condition has been established.15e (2) 8 8 Therefore.= 1.67t 9.5 t − − i SW ( t ) A 1.47 .15 = 1.01 1. (1) and (2) above we have iL ( 0 ) = 2 + i L ( ∞ ) = 1.Answers to Exercises – 8.54 i SW ( 0 ) = 1.67t v8 Ω – 8. v C ( t ) = v Cf + v Cn = 4 + Ae – 1 ⁄ ( RC ) t = 4 + Ae – 500t Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.5 1.24 – 1.0 0.16 – 0. − vS 38 Ω 2Ω + + − 24 V 20 V 50 µF + − 40 Ω vC ( t ) + − 4V 50 µF + − vC ( t ) Now.16 and with these values we sketch i L ( t ) and i SW ( t ) as shown below. from the initial condition.= ----------------------------------------.16 – 0.01 + i SW ( ∞ ) = 1.16 t 5. vS 38 Ω 2Ω 50 µF + − 24 V + − vC ( t ) The circuit for t > 0 is shown below where the current source has been replaced with a voltage source.

= 0 dt R and since v − = 0 v in dv C C -------. Then. Therefore. vC ( 0 ) = vC ( 0 ) = 0 = 0 + k − + or k = 0 .t ⎞ u 0 ( t ) ⎝ RC ⎠ and v in ⁄ RC is the slope as shown below.t + k RC where k is the constant of integration of both sides and it is evaluated from the given initial condition. 10-48 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . For t > 0 the op amp circuit is as shown below. + − C + R v in ( t ) − v− v out ( t ) − + Application of KCL at the minus (−) input yields v − – v in dv C -----------------. v in v out ( t ) = – ⎛ ------.= ------dt RC Integrating both sides and observing that v out ( t ) = – v C ( t ) we get v in v out ( t ) = – ------.+ C -------.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits and with the initial condition v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = 24 V = 4 + Ae from which A = 20 we get v C ( t ) = 4 + 20e – 500t − + 0 6.= -----dt R or v in dv C -------.

49 .Answers to Exercises slope = – v in ⁄ RC 7.= 10 × ( – 8 × 10 e ) dt Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. 175 KΩ − − + + − 150 V 1 µF − vC ( 0 ) − The circuit for t > 0 is shown below where the voltage source v S1 is absent for all positive time and the 50 KΩ is shorted out by the closed switch. At t = 0 the circuit is as shown below where v C ( 0 ) = 150 V and thus the initial condition has been established. 125 KΩ + + − 50 V 1 µF − vC ( t ) For the circuit above v C ( t ) = v Cf + v Cn = 50 + Ae – t ⁄ ( RC ) = 50 + Ae – 8t and with the initial condition v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = 150 = 50 + Ae − + 0 from which A = 100 and thus for t > 0 v C ( t ) = 50 + 100e – 8t V To find v R3 ( t ) we will first find i C ( t ) from the circuit below where dv C –6 – 4 – 8t i C ( t ) = C -------.

v R3 ( t ) = ( 100 KΩ )i C = 10 ( – 8 × 10 e 5 ) = – 80e V The sketches below show v C ( t ) and v R3 ( t ) as they approach their final values.+ ----R1 R2 or 10-50 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . that is. For this circuit we cannot short the dependent source and therefore we cannot find R eq by combining the resistances R 1 and R 2 in parallel combination in order to find the time constant τ = RC . Instead.9) of the previous chapter. vC ( t ) V 150 100 50 t 0 – 80 0 v R3 ( t ) V t 8.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits 25 KΩ 1 µF − 50 V 100 KΩ + vC ( t ) + + − v R3 ( t ) − – 4 – 8t – 8t Then. we will derive the time constant from the differential equation of (9.+ ------.= 0 dt RC From the given circuit shown below vC iC ( t ) C R1 18 Ω R2 12 Ω + − vC ( t ) 1F + − 10i ( t ) C v C – 10i C v C i C + ---------------------. dv C v C -------.

⎞ v = 0 -------⎝ R ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎠ ⎝ R 1 ⋅ R 2 ⎠ C 1 or R1 + R2 ⎛ ----------------.3125t Then.= 30 ⁄ 216 = ----------------. using dv C i C = C -------dt we find that for t > 0 i C ( t ) = ( 1 ) ( – 0.= 1 = ---------------------------.C -------.= 135 = ----.+ ----.+ ⎛ ----. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.v C = 0 10 dt ⎛ 1 – ----.51 .3125t and the minus (−) sign indicates that the i C ( t ) direction is opposite to that shown.+ ----------------------------.3125t ) = – 1.= 0.⎞ ⋅ C ⎝ R1 ⎠ and from this differential equation we see that the coefficient of v C is 515 × 930 ⁄ 216 1 -----------------------------------.⎞ ⎝ R1 ⋅ R2 ⎠ dv C -------.3125t and with the given initial condition v C ( 0 ) = V 0 = A = 5 V we get v C ( t ) = 5e – 0.3125 16 432 4 × 108 8 ⁄ 18 τ R eq C ⎛ 1 – 10 ⎞ ⋅ 1 ----⎝ 18 ⎠ and thus v C ( t ) = Ae − – 0.3125 × 5e – 0.⎞ v C – ----.= 0 ⎝R ⎠ dt R 1 dt R2 1 or R1 + R2 10 ⎛ 1 – ----.⎞ ⎛ C dv C⎞ + ⎛ ----------------.Answers to Exercises dv C 10 dv C 1 1 C -------.5625e – 0.

Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits NOTES 10-52 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

A. procedures for naming and saving the user generated files. This prompt is displayed also after execution of a command. MATLAB now waits for a new command from the user. To use the Editor/Debugger: 1. access to MATLAB’s Editor/Debugger. This takes us to the Editor * EDU>> is the MATLAB prompt in the Student Version Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-1 . save it. we will use the following conventions: Click: Click the left button of the mouse Courier Font: Screen displays Helvetica Font: User inputs at MATLAB’s command window prompt >> or EDU>>* Helvetica Bold: MATLAB functions Times Bold Italic: Important terms and facts. In this appendix we will discuss MATLAB only. aerospace. notes and file names When we first start MATLAB. and making plots. These are two outstanding software packages for scientific and engineering computations and are used in educational institutions and in industries including automotive. A. It is highly recommended that we use the Editor/Debugger to write our program. Simulink is a block diagram tool used for modeling and simulating dynamic systems such as controls. From the File menu on the toolbar. telecommunications.1 MATLAB® and Simulink® MATLAB and Simulink are products of The MathWorks. we see the toolbar on top of the command screen and the prompt EDU>>. important terms. finding the roots of a polynomial. Inc. electronics. we choose New and click on M-File. and communications. comment lines.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® T his appendix serves as an introduction to the basic MATLAB commands and functions. and return to the command screen to execute the program as explained below. MATLAB enables us to solve many advanced numerical problems fast and efficiently. and MATLAB functions. Several examples are provided with detailed explanations. and environmental applications.2 Command Window To distinguish the screen displays from the user commands. signal processing.

Whenever we want to return to the command window.and lower-case letters. A-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . variables. conv(p. MATLAB then returns to the command window. For instance. To get help with other MATLAB topics. 2. The files that we create are saved with the file name we use and the extension . We must save our program with a file name which starts with a letter.q) % performs multiplication of polynomials p and q. leaving only the >> prompt on the upper left of the screen.m. This command erases everything. t and T are two different letters in MATLAB language. Thus. we press <enter> and observe the execution and the values obtained from it. we should use the command clear. But if we want to clear all previous values. or open a previously saved file. if the code performs some matrix operations. we type the file name without the . that is. The command help matlab\iofun will display input/output information. The MATLAB User’s Guide contains numerous help topics. Once the code is written and saved as an m-file. we type help matlab\graphics. The MATLAB User’s Guide provides more information on this topic. it distinguishes between upper. Important! MATLAB is case sensitive. and thus it is ignored during the execution of a program. For example. we type demo and we see the MATLAB Demos menu. In other words. % The next statement performs partial fraction expansion of p(x) / q(x) are both correct.m. it will be understood that each input command is typed after the >> prompt and followed by the <enter> key. we click on the Close button. To execute a program. we use the clc command. If we have saved our file in drive a or any other drive. The command clc clears the screen but MATLAB still remembers all values. then. it is like exiting MATLAB and starting it again. for example. we type quit or exit. All text after the % (percent) symbol is interpreted as a comment line by MATLAB.m or any other similar name. It is a good practice to save the code in a file name that is descriptive of our code content. to get information on graphics. A comment can be typed on the same line as the function or command or as a separate line. When we are done and want to leave MATLAB. myfile01. We should also use a floppy disk to backup our files. we can type help followed by any topic from the displayed menu. we must make sure that it is added it to the desired directory in MATLAB’s search path. and equations without exiting. Henceforth. For instance.m extension at the >> prompt. To appreciate MATLAB’s capabilities. variables and equations that we have already used. We can do this periodically to become familiar with them. if we want to clear all previously entered commands. 3.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® Window where we can type our code (list of statements) for a new file. we ought to name and save that file as matrices01. we may exit the Editor/Debugger window by clicking on Exit Editor/Debugger of the File menu.

0000-4. or variable such as cos ( x ) . p1=[1 −10 35 −50 24] % Specify and display the coefficients of p1(x) p1 = 1 -10 35 -50 24 roots_ p1=roots(p1) % Find the roots of p1(x) roots_p1 = 4. We must include terms whose coefficients are zero. However. and the roots as roots_ p1.1 Find the roots of the polynomial p 1 ( x ) = x – 10x + 35x – 50x + 24 4 3 2 Solution: The roots are found with the following two statements where we have denoted the polynomial as p1.Roots of Polynomials One of the most powerful features of MATLAB is the ability to do computations involving complex numbers.0000i In the above example. or j to denote the imaginary part of a complex number. A. a polynomial is expressed as a row vector of the form [ a n a n – 1 … a 2 a 1 a 0 ] . that is.0000 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-3 . we must type cos(x)*j or j*cos(x) for the imaginary part of the complex number. p is a row vector containing the polynomial coefficients in descending order. These are the coefficients of the polynomial in descending order. if the imaginary part is a function.3 Roots of Polynomials In MATLAB. a multiplication (*) sign between 4 and j was not necessary because the complex number consists of numerical constants. We can use either i . we must use the multiplication sign. We find the roots of any polynomial with the roots(p) function. the statement z=3−4j displays z = 3. For example.0000 3. Example A. such as 3-4i or 3-4j.

1. where we have defined the polynomial as p2. p2=[1 −7 0 16 25 52] p2 = 1 -7 0 16 25 52 roots_ p2=roots(p2) roots_ p2 = 6.4 Polynomial Construction from Known Roots We can compute the coefficients of a polynomial.2 Find the roots of the polynomial p 2 ( x ) = x – 7x + 16x + 25x + 52 5 4 2 Solution: There is no cube term.0000 1.3366.5711 -0.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® 2.3366+ 1. from a given set of roots.7428 -1. with the poly(r) function where r is a row vector containing the roots. The result indicates that this polynomial has three real roots. and two complex roots. the conjugate of a complex number A = a + jb is A∗ = a – jb A-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .3202i A.5014 2. we must enter zero as its coefficient. * By definition. and the roots of this polynomial as roots_ p2. and the roots as a column vector. therefore.0000 We observe that MATLAB displays the polynomial coefficients as a row vector.3202i -0. Example A. complex roots always occur in complex conjugate* pairs. Of course. The roots are found with the statements below.

3 It is known that the roots of a polynomial are 1. Solution: We first define a row vector. 4 + j5 and 4 – j5 .0000i poly_r4=poly(r4) -2.0000 Column 5 -4. then. Find the coefficients of this polynomial. r3=[1 2 3 4] % Specify the roots of the polynomial r3 = 1 poly_r3 = 1 -10 35 -50 24 2 3 4 poly_r3=poly(r3) % Find the polynomial coefficients We observe that these are the coefficients of the polynomial p 1 ( x ) of Example A.0000 -3. – 3. 3.0000. Compute the coefficients of this polynomial. Example A. say r3 .0000 -4.0000+ 5. with the given roots. with the given roots as elements of this vector. 2. r4=[ −1 −2 −3 −4+5j −4−5j ] r4 = Columns 1 through 4 -1.1.5. we find the coefficients with the poly(r) function as shown below.0000i poly_r4 = 1 14 100 340 499 246 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-5 .Polynomial Construction from Known Roots Example A.4 It is known that the roots of a polynomial are – 1. – 2. Solution: We form a row vector. and 4 . and we find the polynomial coefficients with the poly(r) function as shown below. say r4 .

% val_minus3=polyval(p5. polyder(p) − produces the coefficients of the derivative of a polynomial p.6 Let p 1 = x – 3x + 5x + 7x + 9 5 4 2 and A-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .b) − multiplies two polynomials a and b [q. Example A. the polynomial is p 4 ( x ) = x + 14x + 100x + 340x + 499x + 246 5 4 3 2 A.x) function evaluates a polynomial p ( x ) at some specified value of the independent variable x.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® Therefore.1) at x = – 3 . −3) % Evaluate p5 at x=−3. no semicolon is used here % because we want the answer to be displayed val_minus3 = 1280 Other MATLAB functions used with polynomials are the following: conv(a. Example A. Solution: p5=[1 −3 0 5 −4 3 2].d) −divides polynomial c by polynomial d and displays the quotient q and remainder r.5 Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values The polyval(p.r]=deconv(c.) after the right bracket suppresses the display of the row vector % that contains the coefficients of p5. % These are the coefficients % The semicolon (.5 Evaluate the polynomial p 5 ( x ) = x – 3x + 5x – 4x + 3x + 2 6 5 3 2 (A.

d) function.p4) q = 0. p2=[2 0 −8 0 4 10 12]. p4=[2 −8 0 0 4 10 12].r]=deconv(p3. p 1 ⋅ p 2 = 2x 11 – 6x 5 10 – 8x + 34x + 18x – 24x 4 3 2 9 8 7 6 – 74x – 88x + 78x + 166x + 174x + 108 Example A.Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values p 2 = 2x – 8x + 4x + 10x + 12 6 4 2 Compute the product p 1 ⋅ p 2 using the conv(a.p2) % The coefficients of p1 % The coefficients of p2 % Multiply p1 by p2 to compute coefficients of the product p1p2 p1p2 = 2 -6 -8 34 18 -24 -74 -88 78 166 174 108 Therefore.r]=deconv(c. Solution: p1=[1 −3 0 5 7 9]. [q. p1p2=conv(p1. Solution: % It is permissible to write two or more statements in one line separated by semicolons p3=[1 0 −3 0 5 7 9].7 Let p 3 = x – 3x + 5x + 7x + 9 7 5 3 and p 4 = 2x – 8x + 4x + 10x + 12 6 5 2 Compute the quotient p 3 ⁄ p 4 using the [q.b) function.5000 r = 0 4 -3 0 3 2 3 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-7 .

d dx 6 4 2 Solution: p5=[2 0 −8 0 4 10 12].5 r = 4x – 3x + 3x + 2x + 3 5 4 2 Example A. we can write MATLAB statements in one line.7.2) where some of the terms in the numerator and/or denominator may be zero. q = 0.p 5 using the polyder(p) function. if we separate them by commas or semicolons.= ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------m m–1 m–2 Den ( x ) + am – 2 x + … + a1 x + a0 am x + am – 1 x n n–1 n–2 (A.p 5 = 12x 5 – 32x 3 + 4x 2 + 8x + 10 dx 0 -32 0 8 10 A. Commas will display the results whereas semicolons will suppress the display.8 Let p 5 = 2x – 8x + 4x + 10x + 12 Compute the derivative ----.6 Rational Polynomials Rational Polynomials are those which can be expressed in ratio form. A-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . d----.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® Therefore. As noted in the comment line of Example A. We can find the roots of the numerator and denominator with the roots(p) function as before. as + bn – 2 x + … + b1 x + b0 bn x + bn – 1 x Num ( x ) R ( x ) = ------------------. that is. der_p5=polyder(p5) % The coefficients of p5 % Compute the coefficients of the derivative of p5 der_p5 = 12 Therefore.

x 1 ⋅ x 2 = c .6760+0. the negative sum of the roots is equal to the coefficient b of the x term.4922i -0. den=[1 0 −4 0 2 5 6].3370.1633 As expected. roots_num=roots(num).6760 – j0.9304 -1.9 Let 5 4 2 p num x – 3x + 5x + 7x + 9 R ( x ) = ----------. in a quadratic equation of the form x 2 + bx + c = 0 whose roots are x 1 and x 2 . while the product of the roots is equal to the constant term c . Accordingly. we have the factored form p num = ( x – 2.3370 + j0.0000 2.9961 ) and for the denominator.2108+0.4186+ 1.9961 ) ( x + 0.4922 ) ( x – 1.4186 + j1.3370+ 0.3370 – j0. we have p den = ( x – 1.4186.0712 ) ( x + 1. the complex roots occur in complex conjugate pairs.0000 ) We can also express the numerator and denominator of this rational function as a combination of linear and quadratic factors.9870i 1.2108 – j 0. – ( x 1 + x 2 ) = b . We recall that.9961i -1. that is.9870 ) ( x + 0.1.9870i -1.0. then we multiply the complex conjugate roots to obtain the constant term c using MATLAB as follows: Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-9 .6760-0.= ------------------------------------------------------6 4 2 p den x – 4x + 2x + 5x + 6 Express the numerator and denominator in factored form.1633 ) ( x + 0.0712i -0.6760 + j0.9961i roots_den = 1.0712i -0.4186 – j1. that is. we form the coefficient b by addition of the complex conjugate roots and this is done by inspection.9870 ) ( x + 1. For the numerator.2108-0.Rational Polynomials Example A.4922 ) ( x + 1.2108 + j0. Solution: num=[1 −3 0 5 7 9].9304 ) ( x + 0. using the roots(p) function. roots_den=roots(den) % Do not display num and den coefficients % Display num and den roots roots_num = 2.0712 ) ( x – 2.4922i -0.

8372*x+6. t.3370+ 0.7 Using MATLAB to Make Plots Quite often.9304 ) We can check this result with MATLAB’s Symbolic Math Toolbox which is a collection of tools (functions) used in solving symbolic expressions.1058)*(x+1.3520x + 3. we must create one or more symbolic variables such as x.1633 ) R ( x ) = ----------.0000 ) ( x + 1. A. we want to plot a set of ordered pairs.1058 (1.6740*x+1.0512 (−0.4922i) ans = 3. our interest is in using the collect(s) function that is used to multiply two or more symbolic expressions to obtain the result in polynomial form. Before using a symbolic expression.6740x + 1. and so on. polynomial coefficients.9870i) ans = 1.0186 Thus.4186 + 1.2108+ 0.9961i) ans = 1. For the present.3370−0. We can use the same procedure to verify the denominator.0186 ) ( x + 1.2108−0.0712i) ans = 6.9870i)*(−0.9971 (−0. x is the horizontal axis (abscissa) and y is the vertical axis (ordinate).4186 −1. A-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Here.4922i)*(1. We must remember that the conv(p. we find that is the same as the numerator of the given rational expression in polynomial form.1058 ) ( x + 1. y. that is. This is a very easy task with the MATLAB plot(x.6760+ 0.9961i)*(−0.4216x + 1.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® (2. For our example.y) command that plots y versus x.6760−0. we use the following code: syms x % Define a symbolic variable and use collect(s) to express numerator in polynomial form collect((x^2−4.= --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 2 p den ( x – 3.q) function is used with numeric expressions only.0512 ) ( x + 0.1633)) ans = x^5-29999/10000*x^4-1323/3125000*x^3+7813277909/ 1562500000*x^2+1750276323053/250000000000*x+4500454743147/ 500000000000 and if we simplify this.9971)*(x^2+0. 2 2 p num ( x – 4.8372x + 6.9971 ) ( x + 0. They are discussed in detail in MATLAB’s Users Manual.0712i)*(2.

1. The ammeter readings were then recorded for each frequency. that is. while the amplitude was held constant.182 436.589 71.088 73. where the radian frequency ω (radians/second) of the applied voltage was varied from 300 to 3000 in steps of 100 radians/second.437 222.111 ω (rads/s) 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 |Z| Ohms 90. Solution: We cannot type ω (omega) in the MATLAB command window.10 Consider the electric circuit of Figure A. so we will use the English letter w instead.353 103.1.Using MATLAB to Make Plots Example A.432 38.83 266.845 Plot the magnitude of the impedance.513 62.10 TABLE A.1.10 ω (rads/s) 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 |Z| Ohms 39. A R V L C Figure A. The magnitude of the impedance |Z| was computed as Z = V ⁄ A and the data were tabulated on Table A.286 44. Electric circuit for Example A. If a statement.182 40.588 67.052 145.184 97.339 52.428 48. |Z| versus radian frequency ω .1 Table for Example A.481 58.717 46.032 187.665 140. or a row vector is too long to fit in one line.122 42. it can be continued to the next line by typCircuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-11 .056 1014.938 469.751 120.240 54.603 81.611 51.

and we press <enter>.717 46.432 38. % z=[39.845].104 97.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® ing three or more periods.286 44.481 58. 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000].052 145.... we simply type w or z.665 140..339 52.830 266.240 54.611 51.056. To plot z (y-axis) versus w (x-axis). The data are entered as follows: w=[300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900. 48.182 40.938 469.) to suppress the display of numbers that we do not care to see on the screen. Also.2.. Plot of impedance z versus frequency ω for Example A.603 81. 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Figure A..111. we use plot(w.751 120.032 187.. as mentioned before.182 436. This plot is shown in Figure A. 1014.. we use the semicolon (.468.2.353 103. then pressing <enter> to start a new line.z).789 71. 90. For this example..437 222. MATLAB displays the plot on MATLAB’s graph screen..513 62. and continue to enter data.y) command.088 73.122 42. Of course. if we want to see the values of w or z or both... When this command is executed.10 A-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . This is illustrated below for the data of w and z.588 67. we use the plot(x.

that is.y) command is similar to the plot(x. xlabel(‘string’) and ylabel(‘string’) are used to label the x. Throughout this text it will be understood that log is the common (base 10) logarithm. ylabel('|Z| in Ohms') After execution of these commands.Using MATLAB to Make Plots This plot is referred to as the amplitude frequency response of the circuit. To return to the command window. the function log(x) in MATLAB is the natural logarithm. changes from off to on or vice versa. we select MATLAB Command Window. the x-axis of the frequency response is more often shown in a logarithmic scale. To see the graph again. the semilogy(x.y) command. and we select Figure. voltage or current. and the y-axis as a linear scale. grid. and the logarithm to the base 2 as log2(x). however. The default is on. and box on restores the box. We can make the above. We can use the semilogx(x. our plot is as shown in Figure A. box off: This command removes the box (the solid lines which enclose the plot). The default* is off. or any plot.y) command uses logarithmic scales for both axes. and the x-axis as a linear scale. except that the y-axis is represented as a log scale. and ln is the natural (base e) logarithm. except that the x-axis is represented as a log scale. we press any key. Radian Frequency'). title(‘string’): This command adds a line of the text string (label) at the top of the plot.z) command title('Magnitude of Impedance vs. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-13 . % Replaces the plot(w. more presentable with the following commands: grid on: This command adds grid lines to the plot. If the y-axis represents power. xlabel('w in rads/sec').y) command. We must remember. The loglog(x. The command box toggles them. Likewise. The amplitude frequency response is usually represented with the x-axis in a logarithmic scale. and the y-axis in dB (decibels). Let us now redraw the plot with the above options by adding the following statements: semilogx(w. The decibel unit is defined in Chapter 4. or from the Window pull-down menu.z). The grid off command removes the grid. The command grid toggles them.and y-axis respectively.y) command that is similar to the plot(x.3. * A default is a particular value for a variable that is assigned automatically by an operating system and remains in effect unless canceled or overridden by the operator. whereas the common logarithm is expressed as log10(x). we click on the Window pull-down menu.

and we replace the semilogx(w. lines and arrows directly into the graph using the tools provided on the Figure Window.y. number_of_values) * With MATLAB Versions 6 and 7 we can add text.z) command with semilogx(w. A-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and string is the label which we want to place at that location. and we press <enter>.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 10 2 10 3 10 4 Figure A. The first line of the code below has the form linspace(first_value.2. we can move the cross-hair to the position where we want our label to begin.’string’) is similar to gtext(‘string’). we add the relation dB=20*log10(v). we can use the command gtext(‘Impedance |Z| versus Frequency’).3. We will illustrate its use with the following example that plots a 3-phase sinusoidal waveform. To display the voltage v in a dB scale on the y-axis. Then. For instance. The command gtext(‘string’)* switches to the current Figure Window. It places a label on a plot in some specific location specified by x and y. Modified frequency response plot of Figure A. last_value.dB). and displays a cross-hair that can be moved around with the mouse. using the mouse. The command text(x. and this will place a cross-hair in the Figure window.

4. or a combination Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-15 . plot(x.02*pi:2*pi or x = (0: 0. However. An alternate function is x=first: increment: last and this specifies the increments between points but not the number of data points. 'sin(x+4*pi/3)') These three waveforms are shown on the same plot of Figure A. % The x-axis must be specified for each function % turn grid and axes box on text(0.65.Using MATLAB to Make Plots This function specifies the number of data points but not the increments between data points. u=sin(x+2*pi/3).6 -0. and colors for our plots.6 0. box on.x. 0. grid on.65. text(2. MATLAB allows us to specify various line types. Three-phase waveforms In our previous examples. 0.2 0 -0. 1 0.2 -0.4 0. % pi is a built-in function in MATLAB. 60).65.4.02: 2)*pi instead.75. v=sin(x+4*pi/3).95. plot symbols.v). markers. text(4. 0. 2*pi. These. and colors. % we could have used x=0:0.85. we did not specify line styles.u. y=sin(x).8 0. 'sin(x+2*pi/3)'). 'sin(x)').y.4 -0. The code for the 3-phase plot is as follows: x=linspace(0.x.8 -1 sin(x) sin(x+2*pi/3) sin(x+4*pi/3) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Figure A.

y3. can be added with the plot(x. and sn are strings specifying color.) where xn. they are drawn on two axes. MATLAB has also a three-dimensional (three-axes) capability and this is discussed next.s3.s2.'rs−'). or line style. o x + * s d − : −. marker symbol. MATLAB has no default color.y. that is. it starts with blue and cycles through the first seven colors listed in Table A. For additional information we can type help plot in MATLAB’s command screen.y.. colors. The plot3(x.. but does not draw any line because no line was selected. If we want to connect the data points with a solid line. Also. plot(x.y1.s) command. These strings are the same as those of the two-dimensional plots. y and z are three vectors of the same length.z) command plots a line in 3-space through the points whose coordinates are the elements of x.'rs') plots a red square at each data point. yn and zn are vectors or matrices.y. The default line is the solid line. and plot(x. −− ∨ ∧ < > p h For example. The plots we have discussed thus far are two-dimensional. y and z.x3. and markets used in MATLAB Symbol b g r c m y k w Color blue green red cyan magenta yellow black white Symbol Marker point circle x-mark plus star square diamond triangle down triangle up triangle left triangle right pentagram hexagram Symbol Line Style solid line dotted line dash-dot line dashed line . we must type plot(x.s1.z1. there is no default marker. The general format is plot3(x1. TABLE A.. A-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .z3.y.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® of these.'m*:') plots a magenta dotted line with a star at each data point.y2.y.2 Styles.x2.z2. where s is a character string containing one or more characters shown on the three columns of Table A. where x.2 for each additional line in the plot.2. no markers are drawn unless they are selected.

in a three-dimensional plot we can set the limits of all three axes with * This statement uses the so called dot multiplication.^2−1. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-17 .5.3) Solution: We arbitrarily choose the interval (length) shown on the code below. These operations will be explained in Section A. plot3(x. grid % Length of vector x % Length of vector y must be same as x % Vector z is function of both x and y* The three-dimensional plot is shown in Figure A. 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000 -2000 10 5 0 -5 -10 -10 -5 5 0 10 Figure A.11 In a two-dimensional plot.5.y.Using MATLAB to Make Plots Example A. x= -10: 0.5: 10. Three dimensional plot for Example A.*x. y= x.^3+x+3. and exponential operators are preceded by a dot.8.and y-axes with the axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) command. dot division. division.z). we can set the limits of the x. Likewise. z= −2.11 Plot the function z = – 2x + x + 3y – 1 3 2 (A.*y. and dot exponentiation where the multiplication.

and the matrix Y whose columns are copies of the vector y. This will be explained in Section A. title('Volume of Right Circular Cone').y. 0: 6).6. Example A. that is. To produce a mesh plot of a function of two variables. We observe that x corresponds to the columns of Z. volume (cubic meters)').z. We can generate the matrices X and Y with the [X. Z ( i. In this case. These must be defined as length ( x ) = n and length ( y ) = m where [ m./ 3. For three-dimensional plots.4) Plot the volume of the cone as r and h vary on the intervals 0 ≤ r ≤ 4 and 0 ≤ h ≤ 6 meters.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® the axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax zmin zmax]) command. mesh(R.y) function that creates the matrix X whose rows are copies of the vector x. zlabel('z-axis.z) on the plot.12 The volume V of a right circular cone of radius r and height h is given by 1 2 V = -. V) xlabel('x-axis.^ 2 . box on The three-dimensional plot of Figure A. y ( i ). j ) } . or on the same line without first executing the plot command. h ) The three-dimensional plot is created with the following MATLAB code where. and dot exponentiation. altitude h (meters)'). Solution: The volume of the cone is a function of both the radius r and the height h. shows how the volume of the cone increases as the radius and height are increased. y ) . say z = f ( x. H. [R.y.8. dot division. radius r (meters)'). as in the previous example.* H) . the vertices of the mesh lines are the triples { x ( j ). We can also use the mesh(x. ylabel('y-axis.’string’) command will place string beginning at the co-ordinate (x. and y corresponds to the rows.y.z) commands.y. The three-dimensional text(x. we must first generate the X and Y matrices that consist of repeated rows and columns over the range of the variables x and y. A-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .πr h 3 (A.* R . This must be done for each plot. in the second line we have used the dot multiplication. It must be placed after the plot(x. % Creates R and H matrices from vectors r and h V=(pi . n ] = size ( Z ) .H]=meshgrid(0: 4. grid on and box off are the default states.Y]=meshgrid(x.y) or plot3(x.z) command with two vector arguments. V = f ( r.

The possible combinations are shown in Figure A. We will illustrate the use of the subplot(m.n.p) command following the discussion on multiplication.p). No spaces or commas are required between the three integers m.6.8 Subplots MATLAB can display up to four windows of different plots on the Figure window using the command subplot(m. Possible subplot arrangements in MATLAB Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-19 .7. 111 Full Screen 211 212 221 222 212 221 223 211 223 224 222 224 221 223 122 Default 121 122 222 224 121 Figure A. division and exponentiation that follows. MATLAB can generate very sophisticated threedimensional plots. This.7. volume (cubic meters) 100 80 60 40 20 0 6 4 4 3 2 2 1 0 y-axis.5. The MATLAB User’s manual contains more examples. are rudimentary.n. altitude h (meters) 0 x-axis. and the plot of Figure A.Subplots V olume of Right Circular Cone 120 z-axis. This command divides the window into an m × n matrix of plotting areas and chooses the pth area to be active. A. Volume of a right circular cone. n and p. radius r (meters) Figure A.

11] b = -1 3 6 11 b=[−1 3 6 11]' b = -1 3 6 11 We will now define Matrix Multiplication and Element-by-Element multiplication. Division and Exponentiation MATLAB recognizes two types of multiplication. it is called a column vector. such a those that contained the coefficients of polynomials. and exponentiation. and thus are called row vectors. the elements of a column vector must be separated by semicolons. MATLAB uses the single quotation character (′) to transpose a vector. 6. and exponentiation. Matrix Multiplication (multiplication of row by column vectors) Let A = [ a1 a2 a3 … an ] and B = [ b 1 b 2 b 3 … b n ]' A-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Thus. 3. consisted of one row and multiple columns. is to write it first as a row vector. a column vector can be written either as b=[−1.9 Multiplication. division. 1.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® A. MATLAB produces the same display with either format as shown below. They are explained in the following paragraphs. An easier way to construct a column vector. 11] or as b=[− 1 3 6 11]'. and then transpose it into a column vector. 3. In Section A. division. These are the matrix multiplication.2. division. We recall that the elements of a row vector are separated by spaces. 6. and exponentiation. If an array has one column and multiple rows. To distinguish between row and column vectors. the arrays [ a b c … ] . b=[−1. and the element-by-element multiplication.

multiplication of the row vector A by the column vector B. It recognizes that B is a row vector. not a row vector. if A = [1 2 3 4 5] and B = [ – 2 6 – 3 8 7 ]' the matrix multiplication A*B produces the single value 68. Here. let us suppose that both A and B are row vectors. A∗ B = 1 × ( – 2 ) + 2 × 6 + 3 × ( – 3 ) + 4 × 8 + 5 × 7 = 68 and this is verified with MATLAB as A=[1 2 A*B 3 4 5]. MATLAB displays the following message: ??? Error using ==> * Inner matrix dimensions must agree.Multiplication. that is. Then.5) For example. MATLAB expects vector B to be a column vector. 2. and we attempt to perform a row-by-row multiplication with the following MATLAB statements. This operator is defined below. because we have used the matrix multiplication operator (*) in A*B. ans = 68 Now. as indicated by the transpose operator (′). Division and Exponentiation be two vectors. A*B = [ a 1 b 1 + a 2 b 2 + a 3 b 3 + … + a n b n ] = sin gle value (A. B=[−2 6 −3 8 7].Element-by-Element Multiplication (multiplication of a row vector by another row vector) Let C = [ c1 c2 c3 … cn ] and D = [ d1 d2 d3 … dn ] Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-21 . A=[1 2 3 4 5]. Here. is performed with the matrix multiplication operator (*). and warns us that we cannot perform this multiplication using the matrix multiplication operator (*). We observe that A is defined as a row vector whereas B is defined as a column vector. A*B When these statements are executed. we must perform this type of multiplication with a different operator. Accordingly. B=[ −2 6 −3 8 7]'.

13 Write the MATLAB code that produces a simple plot for the waveform defined as y = f ( t ) = 3e –4 t cos 5t – 2e –3 t t sin 2t + ---------t+1 2 (A. As an example. D=[−2 6 −3 8 7].6) This product is another row vector with the same number of elements. Here. Note: A dot (. the division (/) and exponentiation (^) operators.7) in the 0 ≤ t ≤ 5 seconds interval. are used for matrix division and exponentiation. whereas dot division (. C.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® be two row vectors. division.) and the multiplication. Thus. We must remember that no space is allowed between the dot (.∗ D = 1 × ( – 2 ) 2 × 6 3 × ( – 3 ) 4 × 8 5 × 7 = – 2 12 – 9 32 35 Check with MATLAB: C=[1 2 3 4 5]. C.*D % Vectors C and D must have % same number of elements % We observe that this is a dot multiplication ans = -2 12 -9 32 35 Similarly.^) are used for element-by-element division and exponentiation. C. Example A. multiplication of the row vector C by the row vector D is performed with the dot multiplication operator (. There is no space between the dot and the multiplication symbol. and exponentiation operators.∗ D = [ c 1 d 1 c2 d2 c3 d3 … cn dn ] (A. let C = [1 2 3 4 5] and D = [ –2 6 –3 8 7 ] Dot multiplication of these two row vectors produce the following result. Solution: The MATLAB code for this example is as follows: A-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . as the elements of C and D.) is never required with the plus (+) and minus (−) operators./) and dot exponentiation (.*).

* t) . the axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) command.13 Had we. ylabel('y=f(t)'). and also MATLAB’s capability of displaying up to four windows of different plots.5 5 Figure A. This is because the last term (the rational fraction) of the given expression.* sin(2 .y). division.13 5 4 3 y=f(t) 2 1 0 -1 0 0.5 4 4. in this example. MATLAB would have displayed the following message: Warning: Divide by zero. The following example illustrates the use of the dot multiplication.13') Figure A.5 2 2. The command axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) scales the current plot to the values specified by the arguments xmin. the eps number. There are no commas between these four arguments.* exp(−4 .* exp(−3 .* cos(5 .* t) + t . is divided by zero when t = – 1 . It will be used with the next example. xmax.5 t 3 3.* t)−2 . grid. which is a number approximately equal to 2.8. plot(t. title('Plot for Example A. we use the special MATLAB function eps. Plot for E xample A.^2 . Example A. and exponentiation.8 shows the plot for this example.5 1 1. defined the time interval starting with a negative value equal to or less than – 1 . Division and Exponentiation t=0: 0.01 increments y=3 .* t) ./ (t+1). To avoid division by zero.01: 5 % Define t-axis in 0.2 × 10 – 16 . Plot for Example A.14 Plot the functions Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-23 . This command must be placed after the plot command and must be repeated for each plot. xlabel('t').Multiplication. ymin and ymax. say as – 3 ≤ t ≤ 3 .

v=y.2 300 0. axis([0 2*pi 0 400]).2*pi.* z.z). title('w=(sinx)^2*(cosx)^2').^ 2). Subplots for the functions of Example A. % lower left of four subplots plot(x.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® y = sin 2x.2 0.4 0. 1 y=(sinx)2 1 z=(cosx)2 0.3]). subplot(223). title('z=(cosx)^2').05 100 0 0 2 4 6 0 0 2 4 6 Figure A.% upper left of four subplots plot(x. z=(cos(x).v). % Interval with 100 data points y=(sin(x).9. axis([0 2*pi 0 1]). title('y=(sinx)^2').15 200 0. w=y. v = sin 2x ⁄ cos 2x in the interval 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π using 100 data points.25 0.6 0.y).9.8 0.100).^ 2).8 0. subplot(222). title('v=(sinx)^2/(cosx)^2')./ (z+eps).2 0 0 2 4 6 0 0 400 2 4 6 w=(sinx)2 *(cosx)2 v=(sinx)2/(cosx)2 0. These subplots are shown in Figure A.6 0.14 A-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . % lower right of four subplots plot(x. % upper right of four subplots plot(x. % add eps to avoid division by zero subplot(221). w = sin 2x ⋅ cos 2x.4 0. Solution: The MATLAB code to produce the four subplots is as follows: x=linspace(0. subplot(224). axis([0 2*pi 0 0.1 0. axis([0 2*pi 0 1]).w). Use the subplot command to display these functions on four windows on the same graph. z = cos 2x.

* (0.Multiplication.r) function that produces a plot in polar coordinates. % Define interval with one radian interval z=(10+(10 .^ 6 .15 10 Ω 0. a 10 Ω Z ab b Figure A. the abs(z). w=0: 1: 2000./ (w+eps)))). ylabel('Real part of Z'). 4 6 (A. We will also use the polar(theta. c. and capacitance. % % The first five statements (next two lines) compute and plot Re{z} real_part=real(z). % Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-25 .* w −10. Electric circuit for Example A. plot(w. and the round(n) function that rounds a number to its nearest integer. where r is the magnitude.1 H 10 µF With the given values of resistance.1 .* 10 . grid. It also produces a polar plot (part c).^5. and plots these as two separate graphs (parts a & b). Solution: The MATLAB code below computes the real and imaginary parts of Z ab that is. the impedance Z ab as a function of the radian frequency ω can be computed from the following expression: 10 – j ( 10 ⁄ ω ) Z ab = Z = 10 + ------------------------------------------------------5 10 + j ( 0.^ 4 −j ./ (w+eps)) . theta is the angle in radians. Plot Im { Z } (the imaginary part of the impedance Z) versus frequency ω. Plot the impedance Z versus frequency ω in polar coordinates.10. Example A. inductance. denoted as z.8) b.15 Consider the electric circuit of Figure A. and the angle(z) functions that compute the absolute value (magnitude) and phase angle of the complex quantity z = x + iy = r∠θ.10. Plot Re { Z } (the real part of the impedance Z) versus frequency ω.real_part). We will introduce the real(z) and imag(z) functions that display the real and imaginary parts of the complex quantity z = x + iy.1ω – 10 ⁄ ω ) a./ (10 + j . Division and Exponentiation The next example illustrates MATLAB’s capabilities with imaginary numbers. for simplicity. xlabel('radian frequency w').

11.13 respectively. Plot for the real part of the impedance in Example A. Example A. imaginary. and polar plots are shown in Figures A.11. grid. A. Generally. % Rounds |Z| to read polar plot easier theta=angle(z).10 Script and Function Files MATLAB recognizes two types of files: script files and function files. a script file is one which was generated and saved as an m-file with an editor such as the MATLAB’s Editor/ Debugger. % Computes the phase angle of impedance Z polar(theta. accurate. and A.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® % The next five statements (next two lines) compute and plot Im{z} imag_part=imag(z). ylabel('Imaginary part of Z'). % Computes |Z| rndz=round(abs(z)).15 A-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 1200 1000 800 Real part of Z 600 400 200 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 radian frequency w 1400 1600 1800 2000 Figure A.imag_part). and flexible MATLAB is. A. fast. % Angle is the first argument grid. the code for each of the examples we discussed earlier. xlabel('radian frequency w'). Thus. Both types are referred to as m-files since both require the .15 clearly illustrates how powerful.12. make up a script file. A script file consists of two or more built-in functions such as those we have discussed thus far. % The last six statements (next six lines) below produce the polar plot of z mag=abs(z). The real.rndz). plot(w.m extension. ylabel('Polar Plot of Z').

12.13.15 90 120 1015 812 60 609 150 406 30 Polar Plot of Z 203 180 0 210 330 240 270 300 Figure A. Polar plot of the impedance in Example A. Plot for the imaginary part of the impedance in Example A.Script and Function Files 600 400 Imaginary part of Z 200 0 -200 -400 -600 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 radian frequency w 1400 1600 1800 2000 Figure A.15 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-27 .

04 Solution: We first plot this function to observe the approximate zeros. or inability to produce a result as described on the next paragraph. fzero(f.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® A function file is a user-defined function using MATLAB. and minima using the following code. Example A. but since a maximum of f ( x ) is equal to a minimum of – f ( x ) . such as those in Examples A. and the input argument enclosed in parentheses. but the file name must have the extension .x1.x) tries to find a zero of a function of one variable. The string f contains the name of the function to be minimized. Note: NaN (Not-a-Number) is not a function.lims) plots the function specified by the string fcn between the x-axis limits specified by lims = [xmin xmax]. We use function files for repetitive tasks.16 Find the zeros. it is MATLAB’s response to an undefined expression such as 0 ⁄ 0 . we will use the following MATLAB functions.x2) to find both minimum and maximum values of a function. the function file consisting of the two lines below function y = myfunction(x) y=x. We can avoid division by zero using the eps number.2. that we mentioned earlier.1 ) + 0.x1. maxima.1 and A.01 ( x – 1. and returns that value.^ 3 + cos(3. MATLAB searches for a value near a point where the function f changes sign. ∞ ⁄ ∞ . The first line of a function file must contain the word function.x2) function in MATLAB. there is no fmax(f.– 10 2 2 ( x – 0.2 ) + 0.* x) is a function file and must be saved as myfunction. maxima and minima of the function 1 1 f ( x ) = --------------------------------------. It attempts to return a value of x where f ( x ) is minimum in the interval x 1 < x < x 2 .+ --------------------------------------.x2) minimizes a function of one variable. For example. followed by the output argument.m For the next example. we can use fmin(f. where f is a string containing the name of a real-valued function of a single real variable. The string fcn must be the name of an m-file function or a string with variable x . that is. fmin(f. the equal sign ( = ). or returns NaN if the search fails.m. fplot(fcn.x1. The function name and file name must be the same. A-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Important: We must remember that we use roots(p) to find the roots of polynomials only. Note: MATLAB does not have a function to maximize a function of one variable. Using lims = [xmin xmax ymin ymax] also controls the y-axis limits.

15.^ 2 + 0.Script and Function Files x=−1.01) −1.lims) command to plot f ( x ) as follows.5]). As expected. Plot for Example A.5 0 0.01: 1. The maximum occurs at approximately x = 0. Next.^ 2 + 0.y).3 .04) −10. fplot('funczero01'.1 where. we can use the fplot(fcn./ ((x−0. this plot is identical to the plot of Figure A. approximately./ ((x−1.2 and x = 0.y) command. we define and save f(x) as the funczero01.04)-10.16 using the plot command The roots (zeros) of this function appear to be in the neighborhood of x = – 0.5 1 1.14.1)^2+0. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-29 . grid This plot is shown in Figure A. 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -1.1).m function m-file with the following code: function y=funczero01(x) % Finding the zeros of the function shown below y=1/((x−0. Now. approximately.14.14 that was obtained with the plot(x. and the minimum occurs at approximately x = 1.01)−1/((x−1. plot(x.5 1.5.5 Figure A.2)^2+0.5 -1 -0.5: 0. y min = – 34 . y max = 90 .2 where. [−1. grid The plot is shown in Figure A. y=1.2).

before displaying the function minimum. The code below must be saved with a file name. For this example. The minimum of f(x) is found with the fmin(f.x2) function. 0.x) function to compute the roots of f ( x ) in (A. are the maximum or minimum values of a function within a restricted range of values in the independent variable.20) more precisely.5 -1 -0. the maxima and minima are considered be to the maximum and minimum values in the entire range in which the function is defined. fprintf('The roots (zeros) of this function are r1= %3. A-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we must remember that this function searches for a minimum and it may display the values of local minima* . x2= fzero('funczero01'. -0. 0.5 ≤ x ≤ 1.4f \n'.x2) function as follows. When the entire range is considered. x1).5 Figure A.5 rather than the interval – 1. It is. x1= fzero('funczero01'.15.5) min_val = 1. if any. Plot for Example A.y) or the fplot(fcn.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -1. therefore.5 1 1. x2) MATLAB displays the following: The roots (zeros) of this function are r1= -0. min_val=fmin('funczero01'. we specify the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 1.1919 and r2= 0. advisable to plot the function with either the plot(x.5 .x1.3).2).4f'.x1. fprintf(' and r2= %3.16 using the fplot command We will use the fzero(f.lims) command to find the smallest possible interval within which the function minimum lies. and then invoked with that file name. 1.2012 * Local maxima or local minima.5 0 0.3788 Whenever we use the fmin(f.

04)−10).01) −1 / ((x−1. All computations in MATLAB are done in double precision.Display Formats This is the value of x at which y = f ( x ) is minimum.0999.2) ^ 2 + 0. The available formats can be displayed with the help format command as follows: help format FORMAT Set output format.1) max_val = 0. The format displayed has nothing to do with the accuracy in the computations. y=1 / ((x−0. FORMAT may be used to switch between different output display formats as follows: FORMAT Default. To find the value of y corresponding to this value of x.01)−1/((x−1. or in short floating point format with four decimals if it a fractional number. Same as SHORT.1) ^ 2 + 0. Of course. so that the maximum value will be displayed. Now.2000 A. max_val=fmin('minusfunczero01'. The output format can changed with the format command. we substitute it into f ( x ) . that is. We have placed the minus (−) sign in front of the right side of the last expression above.11 Display Formats MATLAB displays the results on the screen in integer format without decimals if the result is an integer number.% Using this value find the corresponding value of y y=1 / ((x−0.0999 x=0. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-31 .2012. we execute the following code to get the value of x where the maximum y = f ( x ) occurs. this is equivalent to the negative of the funczero01 function.2)^2+0.1)^2+0. x=1.1812 To find the maximum value. MATLAB performs all computations with accuracy up to 16 decimal places.01) −1 / ((x−1. we must first define a new function m-file that will produce – f ( x ) . 0.04) −10 y = 89.04) −10 y = -34.1) ^ 2 + 0.2) ^ 2 + 0. We define it as follows: function y=minusfunczero01(x) % It is used to find maximum value from -f(x) y=−(1/((x−0.

.and blank are printed for positive. the values will be displayed and printed in scientific notation format. and if %e is used.3335 Four decimal digits (default) format long 33. if %f is used. Some examples with different format displays age given below. With this command only the real part of each parameter is processed.array) command displays and prints both text and arrays. FORMAT LONG G Best of fixed or floating point format with 15 digits. The disp(X) command displays the array X without printing the array name.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® FORMAT SHORT Scaled fixed point format with 5 digits. FORMAT SHORT E Floating point format with 5 digits. FORMAT LONG E Floating point format with 15 digits.3333e+01 Four decimal digits plus exponent format short g 33. FORMAT LONG Scaled fixed point format with 15 digits. FORMAT LOOSE Puts the extra line-feeds back in. It uses specifiers to indicate where and in which format the values would be displayed and printed. FORMAT RAT Spacing: FORMAT COMPACT Suppress extra line-feeds. FORMAT + The symbols +. the values will be displayed and printed in fixed decimal format.33 two decimal digits format + only + or − or zero are printed format rat 100/3 rational approximation Approximation by ratio of small integers. FORMAT SHORT G Best of fixed or floating point format with 5 digits. Thus. format short 33. Imaginary parts are ignored. The fprintf(format. A-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . FORMAT HEX Hexadecimal format. If X is a string. the text is displayed. FORMAT BANK Fixed format for dollars and cents.33333333333334 16 digits format short e 3.333 Better of format short or format short e format bank 33. negative and zero elements.

the vector A has rotated 180 ° and its new value now is – A . jA j ( j A ) = j2 A = –A y 2 3 4 A x 2 j ( –j A ) = –j A = A j ( –A ) = j 3 A = –j A Figure B. Applications using Euler’s identities are presented. multiplication of this vector by the operator j will result in a new vector jA whose magnitude remains the same. B. i = – 1 . Essentially. The j operator Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-1 . In the electrical engineering field. A fourth 90 ° rotation returns the vector to its original position. Also. Thus. its value becomes j ( – A ) = – j A . j is an operator that produces a 90-degree counterclockwise rotation to any vector to which it is applied as a multiplying factor. we denote i as j to avoid confusion with current i . if it is given that a vector A has the direction along the right side of the x-axis as shown in Figure B.1 Definition of a Complex Number In the language of mathematics. j = – j .1. we conclude that j = – 1 . but it has been rotated counterclockwise by 90 ° . and the exponential and polar forms are discussed and illustrated with examples. The basic operations are defined and illustrated by several examples. Therefore. the square root of minus one is denoted as i .1. another multiplication of the new vector jA by j will produce another 90 ° counterclockwise direction. When this vector is rotated by another 90 ° for a total of 270 ° . that is. In this case. and thus its value is again A . and j = 1 .Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers T his appendix is a review of the algebra of complex numbers.

is a complex number. and an imaginary component equal to the sum of the imaginary components. For subtraction. say r . the number A = a + jb where a and b are both real numbers. Thus. are equal if and only if their real parts are equal. For example. By definition.* An imaginary number is the product of a real number. the imaginary axis is just as important as the real axis. Thus. In other words. two complex numbers A and B where A = a + jb and B = c + jd . we change the signs of the components of the subtrahend and we perform addition. Thus. Then. and the yaxis (ordinate) as the imaginary axis with the understanding that the “imaginary” axis is just as “real” as the real axis. if A = a + jb and B = c + jd then A + B = (a + c) + j(b + d) and A – B = (a – c) + j(b – d) Example B. we will designate the x-axis (abscissa) as the real axis. by the operator j . Find A + B and A – B Solution: A + B = (3 + j4) + (4 – j2) = (3 + 4) + j(4 – 2) = 7 + j2 and A – B = (3 + j4) – (4 – j2) = (3 – 4) + j(4 + 2) = – 1 + j6 * We may think the real axis as the cosine axis and the imaginary axis as the sine axis. B-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers Note: In our subsequent discussion. B.2 Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers The sum of two complex numbers has a real component equal to the sum of the real components. A complex number is the sum (or difference) of a real number and an imaginary number. A = B if and only if a = c and b = d . r is a real number and jr is an imaginary number.1 It is given that A = 3 + j 4 . and b = Im { A } the imaginary part of A. and B = 4 – j 2 . and also their imaginary parts are equal. a = Re { A } and b = Im { A } where Re { A } denotes real part of A.

and making use of the fact that j 2 = – 1 . Then. it follows that A ⋅ B = ac + jad + jbc – b d = ( ac – bd ) + j ( ad + bc ) Example B. if A = a + jb . if A = a + jb . the result is a real number. and with an imaginary component of opposite sign. but the imaginary component has opposite sign. Example B.2 It is given that A = 3 + j 4 and B = 4 – j 2 .1) The conjugate of a complex number. A∗ = 3 – j 5 If a complex number A is multiplied by its conjugate. then A∗ = a – j b .4 It is given that A = 3 + j 5 . is another complex number with the same real component. denoted as A∗ .3 Multiplication of Complex Numbers Complex numbers are multiplied using the rules of elementary algebra. Find A∗ Solution: The conjugate of the complex number A has the same real component. Thus. if A = a + jb and B = c + jd then A ⋅ B = ( a + jb ) ⋅ ( c + jd ) = ac + jad + jbc + j 2 bd and since j 2 = – 1 . then A ⋅ A∗ = ( a + jb ) ( a – jb ) = a 2 – jab + jab – j 2 b 2 = a + b 2 2 Example B. Thus. Find A ⋅ B Solution: A ⋅ B = ( 3 + j 4 ) ⋅ ( 4 – j 2 ) = 12 – j 6 + j 16 – j 2 8 = 20 + j 10 (B.Multiplication of Complex Numbers B.3 It is given that A = 3 + j 5 . Find A ⋅ A∗ Solution: A ⋅ A∗ = ( 3 + j 5 ) ( 3 – j 5 ) = 3 + 5 = 9 + 25 = 34 2 2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-3 . Thus.

= -------------------------------------. Example B.2).5) B-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . if A = a + jb and B = c + jd .= 24 + j ----.= -.96 + j 0.= 0. and it is done by multiplying the denominator by its conjugate. we get 73 + j4 (3 + j4)(4 – j3) 24 + j 7 A = ------------. Thus.= 12 – j 9 + j 16 + 12 = ---------------. and B = 4 + j 3 . This procedure is called rationalization of the quotient.28 .⋅ ----.4 Division of Complex Numbers When performing division of complex numbers. we multiplied both the numerator and denominator by the conjugate of the denominator to eliminate the j operator from the denominator of the quotient. it is desirable to obtain the quotient separated into a real part and an imaginary part.= -----------------------------------------------------2 2 B B∗ B c + jd ( c + jd ) ( c – jd ) c +d ( ac + bd .4) = C cos θ + j C sin θ (B.5 Exponential and Polar Forms of Complex Numbers The relations e and e are known as the Euler’s identities. Find A ⁄ B Solution: Using the procedure of (B.Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers B.2). then.5 It is given that A = 3 + j 4 .+ j ---------------------2 2 2 2 c +d c +d (B.3) by the real positive constant C we get: Ce jθ – jθ jθ = cos θ + j sin θ (B. A B∗ a + jb ( a + jb ) ( c – jd ) ( ac + bd ) + j ( bc – ad ) A -.= ------------. Multiplying (B.3) = cos θ – j sin θ (B. Using this procedure.2) In (B.= ------------------------------------.-----------------------------------------------2 2 25 B 25 25 4 + j3 (4 + j3)(4 – j3) 4 +3 B.( bc – ad ) ) = ---------------------. we see that the quotient is easily separated into a real and an imaginary part.

7) = a +b 2 2 or C = a +b 2 2 (B.= tan θ C cos θ a or –1 b θ = tan ⎛ -. we use the expression 2 2 a + jb = a +b e j ⎛ tan ⎝ –1 b⎞ -a⎠ (B.8) Also. that is. we get a = C cos θ and b = C sin θ Squaring and adding the expressions in (B. and thus Ce jθ = a + jb (B. we use the expressions Ce Ce jθ – jθ = C cos θ + j C sin θ = C cos θ – j C sin θ (B. C 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (B.11) The polar form is essentially the same as the exponential form but the notation is different.6).7).7) b C sin θ -.⎞ ⎝a⎠ (B. Ce jθ = C ∠θ (B. Equating real and imaginary parts in (B. from (B.= --------------.9) To convert a complex number from rectangular to exponential form.5) and (B. we get a + b = ( C cos θ ) + ( C sin θ ) = C ( cos θ + sin θ ) = C Then. and the right side is the rectangular form.10) To convert a complex number from exponential to rectangular form.6) is the exponential form.6) where the left side of (B.Exponential and Polar Forms of Complex Numbers This expression represents a complex number. say a + jb .12) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-5 .

⎠ ⎝ 3 = 5e j53. magx=abs(x).Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers where the left side of (B.6 ° = 5 ∠116.2. 4 – j 3 Solution: a.1301 b. Then.6° B-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . disp(thetax) 5 53.1° 3 +4 e 2 2 Check with MATLAB: x=3+j*4.3. The real and imaginary components of this complex number are shown in Figure B. Example B.⎞ ⎝ –1 ⎠ = 1 +2 e 2 2 –1 5e j116.1° 3 Re Figure B. 3 + j4 = –1 j ⎛ tan 4 ⎞ -. 4 Im 5 53.1 ° = 5 ∠53. We must remember that the phase angle θ is always measured with respect to the positive real axis. disp(magx). – 2 – j d. The components of 3 + j 4 Then.2. and rotates in the counterclockwise direction.6 Convert the following complex numbers to exponential and polar forms: a. The real and imaginary components of this complex number are shown in Figure B. 3 + j 4 b. – 1 + j2 = 2 j ⎛ tan ----.12) is the exponential form. and the right side is the polar form. thetax=angle(x)*180/pi. – 1 + j 2 c.

–2 –j 1 = –1 j ⎛ tan – 1 ⎞ ----⎝ –2 ⎠ 2 2 2 +1 e = 5e j206. The components of – 1 + j 2 Check with MATLAB: y=−1+j*2. 4 –j 3 = –1 j ⎛tan – 3⎞ ----.6° Re 2 Figure B.1° = 5e –j36. The components of – 2 – j Then. disp(thetay) 2.2361 -153.4349 d. thetay=angle(y)*180/pi.6° = 5e j ( – 153.9 ° 4 +3 e ⎝ Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-7 .Exponential and Polar Forms of Complex Numbers Im 5 63.9 ° = 5 ∠– 36.6° 5 Re −153. thetav=angle(v)*180/pi.5651 c.1 ° = 5 ∠323. disp(magy). magv=abs(v).4°(Measured Clockwise) −1 Figure B. Im 206.4.3. disp(thetav) 2.4 ° Check with MATLAB: v=−2−j*1.⎠ 2 2 4 = 5e j323. Then.4 )° = 5 ∠– 153. The real and imaginary components of this complex number are shown in Figure B. The real and imaginary components of this complex number are shown in Figure B.5.2361 116.6° −2 26.4.4° −1 116. disp(magv).6° = 5 ∠206. magy=abs(y).

disp(magw). if A = M ∠θ and B = N ∠φ B-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . that is. however.6. The components of 4 – j 3 Check with MATLAB: w=4−j*3.8699 Example B.73 30° 2 Re −150°(Measured Clockwise) −1 Figure B.Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers Im 323.1° −36. we multiply the magnitudes and we add the phase angles. thetaw=angle(w)*180/pi. The components of 2 ∠– 150° Then. Solution: We recall that – 1 = j 2 . Therefore. 2 ∠– 150 ° = 2e – j 150 ° = 2 ( cos 150° – j sin 150° ) = 2 ( – 0. Since each j rotates a vector by 90 ° counterclockwise.6.7 Express the complex number – 2 ∠30° in exponential and in rectangular forms.9° −3 5 4 Re Figure B.5. magw=abs(w). Im 210° −1.866 – j0.5 ) = – 1. – 2 ∠30° = 2 ∠( 30° + 180° ) = 2 ∠210° = 2 ∠– 150° The components of this complex number are shown in Figure B. the exponential and polar forms are most convenient when we multiply or divide complex numbers. then – 2 ∠30° is the same as 2 ∠30° rotated counterclockwise by 180 ° . disp(thetaw) 5 -36.73 – j Note: The rectangular form is most useful when we add or subtract complex numbers. To multiply two complex numbers in exponential (or polar) form.

9° Solution: Division in polar form yields A 10 ∠53.1° -. if A = M ∠θ and B = N ∠φ then.9° j90° 10 e A -.9 Divide A = 10 ∠53.1° ) ( 5e – j 36.14) Example B.∠( θ – φ ) = -----------.8 Multiply A = 10 ∠53.= ----------------------.= -------------------. we divide the magnitude of the dividend by the magnitude of the divisor.9° ) = 50 e j ( 53.1° j36.2° and multiplication in exponential form yields AB = ( 10 e j53. M j(θ – φ ) M Me A -.1° by B = 5 ∠– 36.Exponential and Polar Forms of Complex Numbers then. that is.9° Solution: Multiplication in polar form yields AB = ( 10 × 5 ) ∠[ 53.1° – ( – 36.1° by B = 5 ∠– 36.9° ) = 50 e j16.= 2e e = 2e – j36.9° Division in exponential form yields j53.1° – 36.e N N jφ B Ne jθ (B.9° ) ] = 2 ∠90° B 5 ∠– 36.= --.9° B 5e j53.9° ) ] = 50 ∠16.1° Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-9 .= 2 ∠[ 53. and we subtract the phase angle of the divisor from the phase angle of the dividend.= ---. AB = MN ∠( θ + φ ) = M e jθ Ne jφ = MN e j(θ + φ) (B.13) Example B.2° To divide one complex number by another when both are expressed in exponential or polar form.1° + ( – 36.

Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers NOTES B-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

In a square matrix. …. These are denoted with a dagger (†) and may be skipped. a nn . C. 2 3 7 1 –1 5 1 3 1 –2 1 –5 4 –7 6 or In general form. it is said to be a square matrix of order 5. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-1 . a matrix A is denoted as a 11 a 12 a 13 … a 1 n a 21 a 22 a 23 … a 2 n A = a 31 a 32 a 33 … a 3 n … … … … … a m 1 a m 2 a m 3 … a mn (C. ….1 Matrix Definition A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers such as those shown below. Cramer’s rule. Some definitions and examples are not applicable to subsequent material presented in this text. are located on the main diagonal. and Gauss’s elimination method are reviewed. A matrix of m rows and n columns is said to be of m × n order matrix. the matrix is said to be a square matrix of order m (or n). If m = n . Thus. a 22. a 22. we say that the matrix elements a 11. Alternately. if a matrix has five rows and five columns. Thus. a nn are called the main diagonal elements. the elements a 11. a 43 indicates the element positioned in the fourth row and third column. but are included for subject continuity. Determinants.1) The numbers a ij are the elements of the matrix where the index i indicates the row.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants T his chapter is an introduction to matrices and matrix operations. and j indicates the column in which each element is positioned. a 33. a 33. and reference to more advance topics in matrix theory.

C-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . If A = a ij and B = b ij are conformable for addition (subtraction). † A matrix in which every element is zero. that is. 2. These are discussed in matrix theory textbooks. A+B * Henceforth. C = A ± B = [ a ij ± b ij ] (C.1 Compute A + B and A – B given that A = 1 2 3 and B = 2 3 0 0 1 4 –1 2 5 Solution: A+B = 1+2 0–1 2+3 1+2 3+0 = 3 5 4+5 –1 3 3 9 and A–B = 1–2 0+1 2 – 3 3 – 0 = –1 –1 3 1–2 4–5 1 –1 –1 % Define matrices A and B % Add A and B Check with MATLAB: A=[1 2 3. 3 . 2 . …. A = B . m j = 1. 0 1 4]. −1 2 5]. n (C.3) Example C. ….2 Matrix Operations Two matrices A = a ij and B = b ij are equal. is called a zero matrix. 3. C. where each element of C is the sum (difference) of the corresponding elements of A and B . that is. if they are of the same order m × n. all paragraphs and topics preceded by a dagger ( † ) may be skipped. B=[2 3 0. their sum (difference) will be another matrix C with the same order as A and B . if and only if a ij = b ij i = 1 .2) Two matrices are said to be conformable for addition (subtraction).Appendix C Matrices and Determinants † The sum of the diagonal elements of a square matrix A is called the trace* of A .

k 1 = 5 b. k1*A % Define scalars k1 and k2 % Define matrix A % Multiply matrix A by constant k1 ans = 5 -10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-3 . A=[1 −2. k 2 ⋅ A = ( – 3 + j2 ) × 1 – 2 = ( – 3 + j2 ) × 1 ( – 3 + j2 ) × ( – 2 ) = – 3 + j2 2 3 ( – 3 + j2 ) × 2 ( – 3 + j2 ) × 3 – 6 + j4 6 – j4 – 9 + j6 Check with MATLAB: k1=5. Example C. 2 3]. k2=(−3 + 2*j). k 1 ⋅ A = 5 × 1 – 2 = 5 × 1 5 × ( – 2 ) = 5 – 10 2 3 5×2 5×3 10 15 b. k 2 = – 3 + j2 Solution: a. and not [k] which is a 1 × 1 matrix.Matrix Operations ans = 3 -1 A−B 5 3 3 9 % Subtract B from A ans = -1 1 -1 -1 3 -1 If k is any scalar (a positive or negative number).2 Multiply the matrix A = 1 –2 2 3 by a. then multiplication of a matrix A by the scalar k is the multiplication of every element of A by k .

0000i -6. The product A ⋅ B will then be an m × n matrix.0000+ 4.0000i 6.0000i -9.0000i Two matrices A and B are said to be conformable for multiplication A ⋅ B in that order. Thus.0000.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants 10 k2*A 15 %Multiply matrix A by constant k2 ans = -3. Shows that A and B are conformable for multiplication A m×p B p×n Indicates the dimension of the product A ⋅ B For the product B ⋅ A we have: Here. Example C. A convenient way to determine if two matrices are conformable for multiplication is to write the dimensions of the two matrices sideby-side as shown below. the product A ⋅ B (but not B ⋅ A ) is conformable for multiplication only if A is an m × p matrix and matrix B is an p × n matrix. then.0000+ 6. That is.3 Matrices C and D are defined as 1 C = 2 3 4 and D = – 1 2 Compute the products C ⋅ D and D ⋅ C C-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .4. B and A are not conformable for multiplication B p×n A m×p For matrix multiplication. only when the number of columns of matrix A is equal to the number of rows of matrix B . we add these products. the operation is row by column. we multiply each element of a row of A by the corresponding element of a column of B . to obtain the product A ⋅ B .0000+ 2.

and it will become apparent later in this chapter. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-5 . Multiplication of these will produce a 3 × 3 matrix as follows: 1 (1) ⋅ (2) (1) ⋅ (3) (1) ⋅ (4) 2 3 4 D ⋅ C = –1 2 3 4 = ( –1 ) ⋅ ( 2 ) ( –1 ) ⋅ ( 3 ) ( –1 ) ⋅ ( 4 ) = –2 –3 –4 2 (2) ⋅ (2) (2) ⋅ (3) (2) ⋅ (4) 4 6 8 Check with MATLAB: C=[2 3 4]. an equivalent operation exists. D=[1. 1 C ⋅ D = 2 3 4 –1 = ( 2 ) ⋅ ( 1 ) + ( 3 ) ⋅ ( –1 ) + ( 4 ) ⋅ ( 2 ) = 7 2 The dimensions for D and C are respectively 3 × 1 1 × 3 and therefore. In an upper triangular matrix. 2]. therefore the product C ⋅ D is feasible.3 Special Forms of Matrices † A square matrix is said to be upper triangular when all the elements below the diagonal are zero.Special Forms of Matrices Solution: The dimensions of matrices C and D are respectively 1 × 3 3 × 1 . C. not all elements above the diagonal need to be non-zero. and will result in a 1 × 1 . The matrix A of (C. the product D ⋅ C is also feasible.4) is an upper triangular matrix. −1. C*D % Define matrices C and D % Multiply C by D ans = 7 D*C % Multiply D by C ans = 2 -2 4 3 -3 6 4 -4 8 Division of one matrix by another. However. that is. when we discuss the inverse of a matrix. is not defined.

7) is a scalar matrix with k = 4.6) is a diagonal matrix. not all elements below the diagonal need to be non-zero. when all the elements above the diagonal are zero. † A square matrix is said to be diagonal. if a 11 = a 22 = a 33 = … = a nn = k where k is a scalar. The matrix B of (C.5) In a lower triangular matrix.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants a 11 a 12 a 13 … a 1 n 0 a 22 a 23 … a 2 n 0 0 … … … … … 0 … … 0 0 0 … a mn A = (C. C-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .6) † A diagonal matrix is called a scalar matrix. is called an identity matrix I . if all elements are zero. 3 × 3 . 4 D = 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 4 (C. The matrix D of (C. a 11 B = … … am1 0 … … am 2 0 … 0 0 … 0 … 0 0 … … 0 a m 3 … a mn a 21 a 22 (C.4) † A square matrix is said to be lower triangular. and 4 × 4 identity matrices. The matrix C of (C.5) is a lower triangular matrix.7) A scalar matrix with k = 1 . Shown below are 2 × 2 . a 11 0 C = 0 0 0 0 … 0 0 a 22 0 … 0 0 … 0 0 0 0 … 0 0 0 … a mn (C. except those in the diagonal.

For example. −2 1 −5.Special Forms of Matrices 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 (C. the eye(size(A)) function. eye(4) % Display a 4 by 4 identity matrix ans = 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Likewise. let matrix A be defined as A=[1 3 1. eye(size(A)) 3 1 -7 1 -5 6 displays ans = 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 † The transpose of a matrix A . produces an identity matrix whose size is the same as matrix A . if 1 1 2 3 then A T = 2 4 5 6 3 4 5 6 A= (C.9) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-7 . For example. is the matrix that is obtained when the rows and columns of matrix A are interchanged. For example. 4 −7 6] % Define matrix A A = 1 -2 4 then. denoted as A T .8) The MATLAB eye(n) function displays an n × n identity matrix.

3. 1 2 3 A = 2 4 –5 3 –5 6 1 2 3 A = 2 4 –5 = A 3 –5 6 T (C. 4 5 6] % Define matrix A A = 1 4 A' 2 5 3 6 % Display the transpose of A ans = 1 2 3 4 5 6 † A symmetric matrix A is a matrix such that A T = A .0000.0000 conj_A=conj(A) 0+ 1. that is.10) † If a matrix A has complex numbers as elements.0000i % Compute and display the conjugate of A conj_A = C-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . conj(A). computes the complex conjugate of any complex number. 3 2−3j] % Define and display matrix A A = 1. and the second.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants In MATLAB we use the apostrophe (′) symbol to denote and obtain the transpose of a matrix.0000i 2. is called the conjugate of A . conj(x). computes the conjugate of a matrix A . An example of a symmetric matrix is shown below. we get A = [1+2j j. A=[1 2 3. A = 1 + j2 3 j 2 – j3 A∗ = 1 – j 2 3 –j 2 + j3 MATLAB has two built-in functions which compute the complex conjugate of a number. The first. the transpose of a matrix A is the same as A .0000+ 2. and it is denoted as A∗ An example is shown below. Thus.0000i 3. for the above example. the matrix obtained from A by replacing each element by its conjugate. Using MATLAB with the matrix A defined as above.

4 Determinants Let matrix A be defined as the square matrix a 11 a 12 a 13 … a 1 n a 21 a 22 a 23 … a 2 n A = a a a … a 31 32 33 3n … … … … … a n 1 a n 2 a n 3 … a nn (C. For example. For example. matrix A above is skew-Hermitian. denoted as detA .2. matrix A above is Hermitian.11) then.0000i 3. † A square matrix A such that A T∗ = – A is called skew−Hermitian.0000i † A square matrix A such that A T = – A is called skew-symmetric.0000 0.0000i 2. the determinant of A . is defined as Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-9 . † A square matrix A such that A T∗ = A is called Hermitian.0000+ 3. 0 2 –3 A = –2 0 –4 3 4 0 0 –2 A = 2 0 –3 –4 T 3 4 = –A 0 Therefore. C. j A = –1–j –2 1–j 3j j 2 j T A = 1–j j 0 2 –1–j 3j j –2 –j T* A = 1+j j 0 2 –1+j – 3j –j –2 –j = –A 0 Therefore.Determinants 1. 1 A = 1+j 2 1–j 3 –j 2 1 T A = 1–j j 0 2 1+j 3 j 2 1 T* A = 1–j –j 0 2 1+j 3 j 2 –j = A 0 Therefore. matrix A above is skew symmetric.0000.1. For example.

A = a 11 a 12 a 21 a 22 (C.14) Example C.4 Matrices A and B are defined as A = 1 2 and B = 2 – 1 2 0 3 4 Compute detA and detB .Appendix C Matrices and Determinants detA = a 11 a 22 a 33 …a nn + a 12 a 23 a 34 …a n 1 + a 13 a 24 a 35 …a n 2 + … – a n 1 …a 22 a 13 … – a n 2 …a 23 a 14 – a n 3 …a 24 a 15 – … The determinant of a square matrix of order n is referred to as determinant of order n. that is. Solution: detA = 1 ⋅ 4 – 3 ⋅ 2 = 4 – 6 = – 2 detB = 2 ⋅ 0 – 2 ⋅ ( – 1 ) = 0 – ( – 2 ) = 2 Check with MATLAB: A=[1 2.13) Then. 3 4]. B=[2 −1. detA = a 11 a 22 – a 21 a 12 (C. Let A be a determinant of order 2. det(A) % Define matrices A and B % Compute the determinant of A ans = -2 det(B) % Compute the determinant of B ans = 2 Let A be a matrix of order 3. 2 0]. a 11 a 12 a 13 A = a 21 a 22 a 23 a 31 a 32 a 33 (C.15) C-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .12) (C. that is.

we must first compute the cofactors. then subtract the products formed by the diagonals from lower left to upper right as shown on the diagram of the next page. a 11 a 12 a 13 a 11 a 12 a 21 a 22 a 23 a 21 a 22 a 31 a 32 a 33 a 31 a 32 − + This method works only with second and third order determinants. is to write the first two columns to the right of the 3 × 3 matrix.Determinants then. these will be defined shortly. When this is done properly. and add the products formed by the diagonals from upper left to lower right. Example C.16) A convenient method to evaluate the determinant of order 3. To evaluate higher order determinants.5 Compute detA and detB if matrices A and B are defined as 2 A = 1 2 3 5 0 1 1 0 2 –3 –4 0 –2 0 –5 –6 and B = 1 Solution: 2 detA = 1 2 3 5 2 3 0 1 1 0 1 0 2 1 or detA = ( 2 × 0 × 0 ) + ( 3 × 1 × 1 ) + ( 5 × 1 × 1 ) – ( 2 × 0 × 5 ) – ( 1 × 1 × 2 ) – ( 0 × 1 × 3 ) = 11 – 2 = 9 Likewise. detA is found from detA = a 11 a 22 a 33 + a 12 a 23 a 31 + a 11 a 22 a 33 – a 11 a 22 a 33 – a 11 a 22 a 33 – a 11 a 22 a 33 (C. we obtain (C.16) above. 2 –3 –4 2 –3 detB = 1 0 – 2 1 – 2 0 –5 –6 2 –6 or detB = [ 2 × 0 × ( – 6 ) ] + [ ( – 3 ) × ( – 2 ) × 0 ] + [ ( – 4 ) × 1 × ( – 5 ) ] – [ 0 × 0 × ( – 4 ) ] – [ ( – 5 ) × ( – 2 ) × 2 ] – [ ( – 6 ) × 1 × ( – 3 ) ] = 20 – 38 = – 18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-11 .

C-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 Minors and Cofactors Let matrix A be defined as the square matrix of order n as shown below. α 12 and α 13 . 2 1 0]. a 11 a 12 a 13 … a 1 n a 21 a 22 a 23 … a 2 n A = a a a … a 31 32 33 3n … … … … … a n 1 a n 2 a n 3 … a nn (C. The signed minor ( – 1 ) Example C. and jth column. 1 0 −2. 1 0 1.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants Check with MATLAB: A=[2 3 5.det(B) % Define matrix B and compute detB ans = -18 C.6 Matrix A is defined as a 11 a 12 a 13 A = a 21 a 22 a 23 a 31 a 32 a 33 i+j M ij is called the cofactor of a ij and it is denoted as α ij .18) Compute the minors M 11 . the remaining n – 1 square matrix is called the minor of A .17) If we remove the elements of its ith row. (C. and it is denoted as M ij . det(A) % Define matrix A and compute detA ans = 9 B=[2 −3 −4. 0 −5 −6]. M 13 and the cofactors α 11 . M 12 .

–4 2 1 2 = –8 2 –4 α 12 = ( – 1 ) 1+2 2 2 = 10 –1 –6 2 –3 = 6 2 –6 1 2 = –4 –1 2 1 –3 = –8 2 2 (C. M 23 . α 22. α 32. M 22 . M 33 and cofactors α 21.19) Solution: α 11 = ( – 1 ) 1+1 – 4 2 = 20 2 –6 2 –4 = 0 –1 2 1 –3 = –9 –1 –6 2 – 3 = – 8. α 23. M 31 . and α 33 are defined similarly.7 Compute the cofactors of matrix A defined as 1 2 –3 A = 2 –4 2 –1 2 –6 (C. Example C.21) α 22 = ( – 1 ) 2+2 α 23 = ( – 1 ) 2+3 (C.22) α 31 = ( – 1 ) 3+1 α 32 = ( – 1 ) 3+2 (C. α 31.24) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-13 . M 32 .20) α 13 = ( – 1 ) 1+3 α 21 = ( – 1 ) 2+1 (C.Minors and Cofactors Solution: M 11 = a 22 a 23 a 32 a 33 M 12 = a 21 a 23 a 31 a 33 M 11 = a 21 a 22 a 31 a 32 and α 11 = ( – 1 ) 1+1 M 11 = M 11 α 12 = ( – 1 ) 1+2 M 12 = – M 12 α 13 = M 13 = ( – 1 ) 1+3 M 13 The remaining minors M 21 .23) α 33 = ( – 1 ) 3+3 (C.

Solution: detA = 1 – 4 2 – 2 2 2 – 3 2 – 4 = 1 × 20 – 2 × ( – 10 ) – 3 × 0 = 40 2 –6 –1 –6 –1 2 Check with MATLAB: A=[1 2 −3. the cofactors on the diagonals have the same sign as their minors.8 Matrix A is defined as A = 1 2 –3 2 –4 2 –1 2 –6 (C. 2 −4 2.det(A) % Define matrix A and compute detA ans = 40 We must use the above procedure to find the determinant of a matrix A of order 4 or higher. the value of the determinant of A is the sum of the products obtained by multiplying each element of any row or any column by its cofactor. Thus.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants It is useful to remember that the signs of the cofactors follow the pattern + − − + + − − + + − + − − + + − − + + − + − + − + that is. Example C. C-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . a fourth-order determinant can first be expressed as the sum of the products of the elements of its first row by its cofactor as shown below.25) Compute the determinant of A using the elements of the first row. −1 2 −6]. Let A be a square matrix of any size.

we will multiply each element of the first column by its cofactor. we find [ a ] = 6 . [ c ] = 0 . [ b ] = – 3 . −3 0 0 1].9 Compute the value of the determinant of the matrix A defined as 2 –1 0 A = –1 1 0 4 0 3 –3 0 0 –3 –1 –2 1 (C. [ d ] = – 36 and thus detA = [ a ] + [ b ] + [ c ] + [ d ] = 6 – 3 + 0 – 36 = – 33 We can verify our answer with MATLAB as follows: A=[ 2 −1 0 −3.26) +a 31 a 22 a 23 a 24 – a 41 a 22 a 23 a 24 Determinants of order five or higher can be evaluated similarly.27) Solution: Using the above procedure. using the procedure of Example C. −1 1 0 −1. 4 0 3 −2.5 or Example C. Example C.Minors and Cofactors a 11 a 12 a 13 a 14 A = a 21 a 22 a 23 a 24 a 31 a 32 a 33 a 34 a 41 a 42 a 43 a 44 a 22 a 23 a 24 a 42 a 43 a 44 a 12 a 13 a 14 a 42 a 43 a 44 a 12 a 13 a 14 = a 11 a 32 a 33 a 34 – a 21 a 32 a 33 a 34 a 42 a 43 a 44 a 12 a 13 a 14 a 32 a 33 a 34 (C. delta = det(A) delta = -33 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ C-15 .8. 1 0 –1 A=2 0 3 – 2 0 0 1 [a] –1 0 –3 –( –1 ) 0 3 –2 0 0 1 [b] –1 0 –3 +4 1 0 – 1 0 0 1 [c] –1 0 –3 –( –3 ) 1 0 –1 0 3 –2 [d] ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ Next. Then.

the determinant is zero. detA is zero because the second column in A is 2 times the first column. For example.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants Some useful properties of determinants are given below. 1 2 1]. 3 6 1. detA = 2 3 1 4 6 2 1 1 1 2 3 1 4 6 = 12 + 4 + 6 – 6 – 4 – 12 = 0 2 (C. An example of this is the determinant of the cofactor [ c ] above.6 Cramer’s Rule Let us consider the systems of the three equations below a 11 x + a 12 y + a 13 z = A a 21 x + a 22 y + a 23 z = B a 31 x + a 32 y + a 33 z = C (C. C.30) and let ∆ a 11 a 12 a 13 = a 21 a 22 a 23 a 31 a 32 a 33 D1 = A a 11 a 13 B a 21 a 23 C a 31 a 33 D2 = a 11 A a 13 a 21 B a 23 a 31 C a 33 D3 = a 11 a 12 A a 21 a 22 B a 31 a 32 C C-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Property 2: If all the elements of one row or column are m times the corresponding elements of another row or column.28) then.29) Here. Check with MATLAB: A=[2 4 1. the determinant is zero. the determinant is zero.det(A) ans = 0 Property 3: If two rows or two columns of a matrix are identical. if 2 A = 3 1 4 6 2 1 1 1 (C. Property 1: If all elements of one row or one column are zero. This follows from Property 2 with m = 1 .

Then. and C .31) are determinants that are formed from ∆ by the substitution of the known values A . by Cramer’s rule. v 2 .30) is a homogeneous set of equations. ∆ = 2 –1 3 –4 –3 –2 3 1 –1 5 –1 3 8 –3 –2 4 1 –1 2 –1 – 4 – 3 = 6 + 6 – 12 + 27 + 4 + 4 = 35 3 1 5 –1 8 – 3 = 15 + 8 + 24 + 36 + 10 – 8 = 85 4 1 D1 = Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-17 . x = y = z = 0 also. for the coefficients of the desired unknown. then. Solution: Rearranging the unknowns v. If (C. and D 3 are all zero as we found in Property 1 above. B . Example C. We observe that the numerators of (C.32) and verify your answers with MATLAB. D 2. Cramer’s rule applies to systems of two or more equations. if A = B = C = 0 . and v 3 if 2v 1 – 5 – v 2 + 3v 3 = 0 – 2v 3 – 3v 2 – 4v 1 = 8 v 2 + 3v 1 – 4 – v 3 = 0 (C.33) Now.31) provided that the determinant ∆ (delta) is not zero. y. and z can be found from the relations D1 x = ----- ∆ D2 y = ----- ∆ D3 z = ----- ∆ (C. that is.Cramer’s Rule Cramer’s rule states that the unknowns x. we get 2v 1 – v 2 + 3v 3 = 5 – 4v 1 – 3v 2 – 2v 3 = 8 3v 1 + v 2 – v 3 = 4 (C. and transferring known values to the right side.10 Use Cramer’s rule to find v 1 . D 1.

% Display the value of v2 disp('v3=').34) We will verify with MATLAB as follows. % The elements of D2 detd2=det(d2).31) we get D1 --------x 1 = ----. % Compute the value of v3 % disp('v1='). −4 −3 −2. % Compute the value of v1 v2=detd2/delta. % The elements of the determinant D of matrix B delta=det(B). 8 -3 -2. % The following code will compute and display the values of v1. % Compute he determinant of D3 v1=detd1/delta. % Compute the determinant of D2 d3=[2 -1 5.= – 170 = – 34 -----------7 35 ∆ D3 x 3 = ----.= 85 = 17 ∆ 35 7 D2 x 2 = ----. % Display the value of v1 disp('v2=').= – 55 = – 11 --------7 35 ∆ (C. using (C. 3 1 4]. % Compute the value of v2 v3=detd3/delta.34) C-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . % Compute the determinant of D1 d2=[2 5 3. v2 and v3. % Display the value of v3 v1= 17/7 v2= -34/7 v3= -11/7 These are the same values as in (C. 3 4 -1]. % Compute the determinant D of matrix B d1=[5 -1 3. format rat % Express answers in ratio form B=[2 −1 3. % The elements of D1 detd1=det(d1). -4 -3 8. 4 1 -1].disp(v3). 3 1 −1].Appendix C Matrices and Determinants 2 –4 3 5 3 8 –2 4 –1 5 8 4 2 –4 3 5 8 = – 16 – 30 – 48 – 72 + 16 – 20 = – 170 4 D2 = D3 = 2 –1 –4 –3 3 1 2 –1 – 4 – 3 = – 24 – 24 – 20 + 45 – 16 – 16 = – 55 3 1 Then.disp(v1). % The elements of D3 detd3=det(d3).disp(v2). -4 8 -2.

v 2 .37).38) into (C. By substitution of (C. This procedure is repeated until all unknowns are found. This can be done by multiplying the terms of any of the equations of the system by a number such that we can add (or subtract) this equation to another equation in the system so that one of the unknowns will be eliminated. the objective is to eliminate one unknown at a time.35) by 3.35) with the third to eliminate the unknown v2 and we obtain the following equation.38) Now. we can find the second unknown. we add the first equation of (C.37) from (C. With this method. by substitution to another equation with two unknowns. This method is best illustrated with the following example which consists of the same equations as the previous example. substitution of the two values found can be made into an equation with three unknowns from which we can find the value of the third unknown.36) yields ----7v 3 = – 11 or v 3 = – 11 7 (C. we obtain the following equation. Subsequently.35) Solution: As a first step. we can find the last unknown v 2 from any of the three equations of (C.11 Use the Gaussian elimination method to find v 1 .7 Gaussian Elimination Method We can find the unknowns in a system of two or more equations also by the Gaussian elimination method.36) we get 17 11 5v 1 + 2 ⋅ ⎛ – -----⎞ = 9 or v 1 = ----⎝ 7⎠ 7 (C. 5v 1 – 5v 3 = 20 (C. and v 3 of the system of equations 2v 1 – v 2 + 3v 3 = 5 – 4v 1 – 3v 2 – 2v 3 = 8 3v 1 + v 2 – v 3 = 4 (C. By substitution into the first equation we get Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-19 .Gaussian Elimination Method C. 5v 1 + 2v 3 = 9 (C.36) Next. Then. and we add it with the second to eliminate v 2 . we can find the unknown v 1 from either (C.36) or (C. we multiply the third equation of (C. Example C.35).39) Finally. Then.37) Subtraction of (C.

α 11 α 21 α 31 … α n 1 α 12 α 22 α 32 … α n 2 adjA = α α α … α 13 23 33 n3 … … … … … α 1 n α 2 n α 3 n … α nn (C.8 The Adjoint of a Matrix Let us assume that A is an n square matrix and α ij is the cofactor of a ij .– ----.12 Compute adjA if Matrix A is defined as 1 2 3 A = 1 3 4 1 4 3 (C. The Gaussian elimination method works well if the coefficients of the unknowns are small integers.11.40) These are the same values as those we found in Example C.– ----.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants 34 33 35 34 v 2 = 2v 1 + 3v 3 – 5 = ----. is defined as the n square matrix below. However.10. denoted as adjA . as in Example C. Example C.42) Solution: 3 4 adjA = – 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 3 3 4 – 2 4 1 1 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 4 – 2 3 3 4 = –7 6 –1 1 0 –1 1 –2 1 – 1 2 1 4 1 2 1 3 C-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . C.= – ----7 7 7 7 (C.41) We observe that the cofactors of the elements of the ith row (column) of A are the elements of the ith column (row) of adjA . it becomes impractical if the coefficients are large or fractional numbers. Then the adjoint of A .

we can compute its inverse A –1 from the relation A –1 1 = ----------.Singular and Non-Singular Matrices C. that is. Solution: detA = 1 2 3 2 3 3 4 5 7 1 2 2 3 = 21 + 24 + 30 – 27 – 20 – 28 = 0 3 5 Therefore. B is called the inverse of A . C. A = B –1 If a matrix A is non-singular. if detA ≠ 0 . that is.45) Compute its inverse. find A –1 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-21 . A is called non-singular.10 The Inverse of a Matrix If A and B are n square matrices such that AB = BA = I .9 Singular and Non-Singular Matrices An n square matrix A is called singular if detA = 0 .44) Example C. denoted as B = A –1 . Example C. and likewise.13 Matrix A is defined as 1 A = 2 3 2 3 3 4 5 7 (C.14 Matrix A is defined as 1 2 3 A = 1 3 4 1 4 3 (C.43) Determine whether this matrix is singular or non-singular. matrix A is singular. A is called the inverse of B .adjA detA (C. where I is the identity matrix.

adjA = ----.5 1 – 0.46) Check with MATLAB: A=[1 2 3. AA –1 = I or A A = I –1 (C.5000 Multiplication of a matrix A by its inverse A –1 produces the identity matrix I .5000 2 3 4 3 4 3 -3.12.5 (C.15 Prove the validity of (C.44).47) for the Matrix A defined as A = 4 2 3 2 2 –3 –2 4 Proof: detA = 8 – 6 = 2 and adjA = C-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .0000 0 1. detA = 9 + 8 + 12 – 9 – 16 – 6 = – 2 .5000 -0.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants Solution: Here. 1 4 3].5000 -0.5000 0.5 –2 detA 1 –2 1 – 0. invA=inv(A) % Define matrix A and compute its inverse A = 1 1 1 invA = 3.5 0 0. and since this is a non-zero value.47) Example C.0000 0. A –1 –7 6 –1 3. From Example C. that is.5 1 1 = ----------. 1 3 4.5 – 3 0. –7 6 –1 adjA = 1 0 – 1 1 –2 1 Then. it is possible to compute the inverse of A using (C.1 0 – 1 = – 0.5000 -0.

the given set of equations is AX = B where Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-23 .16 For the system of the equations ⎧ 2x 1 + 3x 2 + x 3 = 9 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ x 1 + 2x 2 + 3x 3 = 6 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 3x 1 + x 2 + 2x 3 = 8 ⎭ (C.Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices Then.48) where A and B are matrices whose elements are known. and X is a matrix (a column vector) whose elements are the unknowns. Multiplication of both sides of (C. A –1 1 1 1 –3 ⁄ 2 = ----------. We will refer to this method as the inverse matrix method of solution of simultaneous equations. Solution: In matrix form.11 Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices Consider the relation AX = B (C. Example C.2 – 3 = 2 –2 4 detA –1 2 3 1 –3 ⁄ 2 = 4 – 3 2 –1 2 2–2 –6+6 = 1 –3+4 0 0 = I 1 and AA –1 = 4 2 C.48) by A –1 yields: A AX = A B = IX = A B –1 –1 –1 (C. We assume that A and X are conformable for multiplication. we can use (C.51) compute the unknowns x 1. and x 3 using the inverse matrix method.49) or X=A B –1 (C. x 2.50) to solve any set of simultaneous equations that have solutions.adjA = -.50) Therefore.

61 = 18 18 5 5 ⁄ 18 0.7 1 – 5 6 = ----.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants 2 A= 1 3 x1 9 3 1 . it is easier to use the matrix left division operation X = A \ B . X=A \ B C-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .52) Then. where matrix X is the same size as matrix B. However. we could use the MATLAB’s inv(A) function.53) we obtain the solution as follows.7 1 – 5 detA 18 –5 7 1 and by (C. 1 2 3. A –1 1 –5 7 1 1 = ----------. For this exam–1 ple. and then multiply A –1 by B. 3 1 2].55) To verify our results. we find the determinant detA . x1 X = x2 x3 35 35 ⁄ 18 1.53) or x1 x2 x3 2 = 1 3 3 1 2 3 1 2 –1 9 6 8 (C. X = A B –1 (C.94 1 –5 7 9 11----. B=[9 6 8]'. B = 6 2 3 8 1 2 x3 (C.54) Next.29 = 29 ⁄ 18 = 1.28 –5 7 1 8 (C. X = x2 . and the adjoint adjA detA = 18 and adjA = 1 –5 7 7 1 –5 –5 7 1 Therefore. this is MATLAB’s solution of A B for the matrix equation A ⋅ X = B .adjA = ----. A=[2 3 1.

1.Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices X = 1. Circuit for Example C.17 For the electric circuit of Figure C. we find that Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-25 . For this example.adjR detR (C.56) Use the inverse matrix method to compute the values of the currents I 1 . the matrix equation is RI = V or I = R –1 V .2778 Example C.17 the loop equations are 10I 1 – 9I 2 = 100 0 0 – 9I 1 + 20I 2 – 9I 3 = – 9I 2 + 15I 3 = (C. V = 0 0 – 9 15 0 I1 and I = I 2 I3 The next step is to find R – 1 . I 2 . This is found from the relation R –1 1 = ----------.57) Therefore.9444 1. where 10 – 9 0 100 R = – 9 20 – 9 .6111 0. and I 3 Solution: For this example. 1Ω V = 100 v 2Ω 2Ω − + I1 9Ω 9Ω 4Ω I2 I3 Figure C.1. we find the determinant and the adjoint of R .

R(2.8462 8. R(2.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants 219 135 81 detR = 975. We start with a blank spreadsheet and in a block of cells. adjR = 135 150 90 81 90 119 (C.31 I3 I1 Check with MATLAB: R=[10 −9 0.8462 8. % No need to make entry for A(1. we enter the elements of matrix V in G3:G5.2)=20. I=R\V I = 22. 0 −9 15]. −9 20 −9. R(1.2)=-9.135 = 13.135 150 90 975 detR 81 90 119 and 219 135 81 100 219 22.2)=-9.85 0 975 975 81 90 119 0 81 8.135 150 90 = -------. For instance. R –1 219 135 81 1 1 = ----------. to obtain the values of the three currents in Example C.17. the above code could also have been written as: R(1. Accordingly.1)=10.3077 Spreadsheets also have the capability of solving simultaneous equations using the inverse matrix method.adjR = -------.2.3)=-9. I=R\V I = 22. R(3.1)=-9. V=[100 0 0]'. C-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .3)=15.3) since it is zero.4615 13.3077 We can also use subscripts to address the individual elements of the matrix. we can use Microsoft Excel’s MINVERSE (Matrix Inversion) and MMULT (Matrix Multiplication) functions. V=[100 0 0]'.4615 13. R(3.58) Then. say B3:D5.46 1 100 I = I 2 = -------. The procedure is as follows: 1. R(2. we enter the elements of matrix R as shown in Figure C. Then.

we type the formula =MININVERSE(B3:D5) and we press the Crtl-Shift-Enter keys simultaneously. and with the cell marker positioned in G7.3077 10 Figure C.462 7 -1 R = 0.846 9 0. We choose B7:D9 for the elements of this inverted matrix.138 0.17 with a spreadsheet Example C. 3.083 22.18 85 Ω 170∠0° + V1 R1 C IX −j100 Ω V2 50 Ω VS − j200 Ω R3 = 100 Ω L R2 Figure C. we choose the block of cells G7:G9 for the values of the current I. With this range highlighted and making sure that the cell marker is in B7. A B C D E F G H 1 Spreadsheet for Matrix Inversion and Matrix Multiplication 2 10 -9 0 100 3 R= -9 20 -9 V= 0 4 0 -9 15 0 5 6 0. we highlight them.3. that is. We observe that R – 1 appears in these cells.154 0.18 For the phasor circuit of Figure C.225 0.2. The values of I then appear in G7:G9.092 8 I= 13. Next. As before. we compute and display the inverse of R. We format this block for number display with three decimal places. R – 1 . we type the formula =MMULT(B7:D9.083 0.138 0. Circuit for Example C. Solution of Example C.122 8.092 0.G3:G5) and we press the Crtl-Shift-Enter keys simultaneously.18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-27 .Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices 2. Now.

I.01 V 1 + ( 0. where Y = Admit tan ce .= 0 85 100 j200 (C. % Insert a line disp('V1 = ').01V 2 = 2 – 0. I=[2.62) in matrix form as 0.+ ----------------. V=Y\I.% Define Y.+ -------------. disp(V(1)).01 0. 1.03+0.61).01 – 0. The code is shown below.005 )V 1 – 0.03 + j0.0218 – j0.01j]. Simplifying and rearranging the nodal equations of (C.03 + j0.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants the current I X can be found from the relation V1 – V2 I X = ----------------R3 (C. disp('V2 = ').+ -------------.005 – 0. and find V fprintf('\n'). and then writing the above relations in matrix form as YV = I .62) Next.01.7 (C. disp(V(2)).+ ----------------.60) and V 2 – 170 ∠0° V 2 – V 1 V 2 – 0 ------------------------------.63) where the matrices Y .01 0. we write (C. and I are as indicated.= 0 – j100 100 50 (C.01 Y V1 V2 V = 2 j1.59) and the voltages V1 and V2 can be computed from the nodal equations V 1 – 170 ∠0° V 1 – V 2 V 1 – 0 ------------------------------.005j −0. % Display values of V1 and V2 C-28 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .7j]. and express the current I x in both rectangular and polar forms by first simplifying like terms.7 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I (C. Y=[0. We will use MATLAB to compute the voltages V 1 and V 2 . and to do all other computations.0218 – j0.01 )V 2 = j1. V = Voltage . and I = Current Solution: The Y matrix elements are the coefficients of V 1 and V 2 . V . we get ( 0.61) Compute. collecting. −0.60) and (C.0218−0.

and thus we cannot use them to compute matrices that include complex numbers in their elements as in Example C.Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices V1 = 1.4162 + 55.9448e+001i V2 = 53.0490e+002 + 4.3439i Next. we find I X from R3=100. in polar form I X = 0.5326 Therefore.0.0590i This is the rectangular form of I X . IX=(V(1)−V(2))/R3 % Compute the value of IX IX = 0.5149.53° Spreadsheets have limited capabilities with complex numbers.518 ∠– 6.18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-29 . For the polar form we use magIX=abs(IX) % Compute the magnitude of IX magIX = 0.5183 thetaIX=angle(IX)*180/pi % Compute angle theta in degrees thetaIX = -6.

C – D d. Verify your answers with MATLAB. A ⋅ B e. a. C ⋅ A c. x1 –3 1 3 4 a. B ⋅ A b. b. A + C f. A + B e. Solve the following systems of equations using the inverse matrix method. a. B – D d. – 2x 1 + 3x 2 + x 3 = 9 3x 1 + 4x 2 – 5x 3 = 0 b. detB f. det ( A ⋅ B ) b. x 1 – 2x 2 + x 3 = – 4 – x 1 + 2x 2 – 3x 3 + 5x 4 = 14 x 1 + 3x 2 + 2x 3 – x 4 = 9 3x 1 – 3 x 2 + 2x 3 + 4x 4 = 19 4x 1 + 2x 2 + 5x 3 + x 4 = 27 a. Repeat Exercise 4 using the Gaussian elimination method. if possible. Verify your answers with MATLAB. 2 – 4 1 –1 3 –4 2 –2 2 x1 –2 1 3 ⋅ x 2 = 10 x3 2 – 14 1 7 x4 C-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 3 1 – 2 ⋅ x 2 = – 2 0 2 3 5 x3 2 4 3 b. B + D g. detA e. the matrices A . C . and D are defined as: 1 –1 –4 A = 5 7 –2 3 –5 6 5 9 –3 B = –2 8 2 7 –4 6 4 6 C= – 3 8 5 –2 D = 1 –2 3 –3 6 –4 1. Perform the following computations. Perform the following computations.12 Exercises For Problems 1 through 3 below.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants C. C ⋅ D · h. if possible. Verify your answers with MATLAB. A ⋅ C f. detC d. A – C c. Solve the following systems of equations using Cramer’s rule. Verify your answers with MATLAB. D ⋅ C 2. B . C + D h. D ⋅ A 3. Perform the following computations. det ( A ⋅ C ) c. A – B a. 5. detD 4. B ⋅ D g. Verify your answers with MATLAB. 6. if possible.

A-28 Euler’s identities B-4 excitations 6-1 exit in MATLAB A-2 exponential form of complex numbers B-5 exponentiation in MATLAB A-22 eye(n) in MATLAB C-7 eye(size(A)) in MATLAB C-7 F Farad 5-18. 8-32 angle(z) in MATLAB A-25 attenuation 4-13. 5-17 in parallel 5-27 in series 5-26 chemical processes 1-17. 1-20 dielectric 5-17. 4-33 current 1-1 current division expressions 2-25 current flow conventional 1-2 electron 1-2 current gain 4-2 current limiting devices 2-2 current ratings for electronic equipment 2-30 current source combinations 2-17.b) in MATLAB A-6 conversion factors 1-16 conductor sizes for interior wiring 2-33 coulomb 1-1. 1-18 Cramer’s rule 3-2. A-2 effective (RMS) value of sinusoids 8-5 effective values 8-3 efficiency 3-47 eight-to-three line encoder 8-28 electric field 5-17. conj(x) in MATLAB C-8 conjugate of a complex number B-3 conv(a. 5-30 differential input amplifier 4-5 digital filter 7-21 diode(s) 1-10 Dirac function 10-9 direct current 1-4 discontinuous function 10-1 disp(A) in MATLAB 7-19. 5-30 Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction 5-2 . A-7 default color in MATLAB A-16 default in MATLAB A-13 default line in MATLAB A-16 default marker in MATLAB A-16 delta function defined 10-8 sampling property 10-8 sifting property 10-9 demos in MATLAB A-2 dependent source(s) current 1-10. 5-30 electric filters . 1-19 ampere capacity of wires 2-30 amplifier 4-1.d) in MATLAB A-6. 5-18.see filters energy dissipated in a resistor 2-4 energy stored in a capacitor 5-22 energy stored in an inductor 5-12 eps in MATLAB A-23. 6-21 complex number(s) addition B-2 conjugate A-4. 6-24 E editor window in MATLAB A-1 editor/debugger in MATLAB A-1. A-18. 1-20 circuit(s) defined 1-12. B-3 complex excitation function 6-3. A-13 deconv(c. A-32 display formats in MATLAB A-31 division in MATLAB A-22 dot multiplication operator in MATLAB A-22 driving functions 6-1 duality 6-19. 2-18 ideal 1-11 independent 1-11 practical 3-21 cutoff frequency band-elimination filter 4-15 band-pass filter 4-15 high-pass filter 4-14 low-pass filter 4-13 lower 4-4 upper 4-4 D data points in MATLAB A-15 DC (Direct Current) 1-4 decibel 4-2. 1-20 analysis with loop equations 3-8 analysis with mesh equations 3-8 analysis with nodal equations 3-1 with non-linear devices 3-45 clc in MATLAB A-2 clear in MATLAB A-2 combined mesh 3-18 combined node 3-6 command screen in MATLAB A-1 command window in MATLAB A-1 commas in MATLAB A-8 comment line in MATLAB A-2 comparators 8-28 complementary function 9-1 complete response 10-16 complex conjugate A-4. C-16. 3-41 voltage 1-10. 4-20 analog-to-digital converter 8-28. 4-33 attenuator 4-1 average value 8-2. B-2 division B-4 exponential form B-5 multiplication B-3 polar form B-5 rectangular form B-5 subtraction B-2 complex power 8-16. 1-20 passive 1-12.Index Symbols and Numerics % (percent) symbol in MATLAB A-2 3-dB down 4-4 A abs(z) in MATLAB A-25 admittance 6-17 ampere 1-1. 4-32 buffer 4-20 unity gain 4-12. 1-20. 3-41 determinant C-9 device(s) active 1-12. A-23 B bandwidth 4-4 box in MATLAB A-13 branch 2-5 C capacitance 5-17 capacitance combinations 5-25 capacitor(s) 1-12. C-17 critical frequency 4-13. B-3 defined A-3. 8-17 conductance 2-2 conj(A). 8-30 axis in MATLAB A-17.

7-21 phase shift 7-21 RC high-pass 7-23 RC low-pass 7-21 stop-band 4-15. 9-10. 9-11 instantaneous values 2-1 int(f. C-6 Hermitian C-9 identity C-6 inverse of C-21 left division in MATLAB C-24 lower triangular C-6 minor of C-12 multiplication using MATLAB A-20 non-singular C-21 singular C-21 scalar C-6 skew-Hermitian C-9 skew-symmetric C-9 square C-1 symmetric C-8 theory 3-2 trace of C-2 transpose C-7 upper triangular C-5 zero C-2 maximum power transfer theorem 3-38. A-26 mho 2-2 Military Standards 2-27 MINVERSE in Excel C-26 MMULT in Excel C-26. 5-29 I imag(z) in MATLAB A-25 imaginary axis B-2 number B-2 impedance 6-14 inductance 5-2 inductive reactance 6-15. 7-23 low-pass 4-13. 3-1. 7-20 band-rejection 4-15. 5-29 matrix.x2) in MATLAB A-28. 6-22 full-wave rectification function file in MATLAB A-26.array) in MATLAB 7-19. 6-23 inductor(s) defined 1-12. 10-23 .x) in MATLAB A-28. 1-20 m-file in MATLAB A-1. 5-17. 1-20.y) in MATLAB A-18 metric system 1-13.b) in MATLAB 1-7 International System of Units 1-13 J j operator B-1 K KCL 2-6 Kirchhoff’s Current Law 2-6 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law 2-7 KVL 2-7 L left-hand rule 5-1 lims = in MATLAB A-28 linear circuit 3-40 devices 1-10 factor A-9 inductor 5-2 passive element 3-39 linearity 3-39 lines of magnetic flux 5-1.y. 7-20 band-pass 4-14. 6-23 susceptance 6-18. A-32 frequency response A-13 frequency-domain to time-domain transformation 6-6. 5-29 magnetic flux 5-2.x1. A-28 fzero(f.z) in MATLAB A-18 meshgrid(x. 7-20.x1. 7-20 band-stop 4-15. 10-23 format command in MATLAB A-31 format in MATLAB A-31 fplot in MATLAB A-28 fplot(fcn. 10-16. 8-31 inductive 8-15.y) in MATLAB A-13 loop defined 2-5 equations 3-1. 4-33. A-30 G Gaussian elimination method C-19 grid in MATLAB A-13 ground defined 2-1. 4-33. 5-29 linspace(values) in MATLAB A-14 ln (natural log) A-13 load capacitive 8-15. 7-5 generalized 3-18 mesh(x.x2) in MATLAB A-28 fmin(f. 4-33. 5-2 in parallel 5-16 in series 5-15 initial condition 5-3 initial rate of decay 9-3. 4-33. A-30 forced response 6-4. 7-20 flash converter 8-28 flux linkage 5-2. 2-15 virtual 4-17 gtext(‘string’) in MATLAB A-14 H half-power points 4-4 half-wave rectification 8-3 Heavyside function 10-9 Henry 5-3. 7-20. 8-31 lighting 2-34 resistive 8-10 log (common log) A-13 log(x) in MATLAB A-13 log10(x) in MATLAB A-13 log2(x) in MATLAB A-13 loglog(x. 3-13 circuits with single 2-10 M magnetic field 5-1. 4-33. 10-16.a. 7-21 passive 4-13. 5-29 fmax(f. A-29 fprintf(format. 7-20 high-pass 4-14. 7-35 mechanical forms of energy 1-17. 1-20 mesh combined 3-18 defined 2-6 equations 2-10. 5-28. 4-33. 4-33.lims) in MATLAB A-28. C-27 multiplication of complex numbers B-3 multiplication in MATLAB A-20. matrices adjoint C-20 cofactor of C-12 conformable for addition C-2 conformable for multiplication C-4 congugate of C-8 defined C-1 diagonal of C-1. A-21 multirange ammeter/milliammeter 8-24 N NaN in MATLAB A-28 National Electric Code (NEC) 2-30 natural response 9-1.feedback 4-4 negative 4-5 positive 4-5 figure window in MATLAB A-14 filter active 4-13 all-pass 7-20 analog 7-21 band-elimination 4-15.

A-8. 3-1. 1-18 nodal analysis 2-14.x) in MATLAB A-6 round(n) in MATLAB A-25 potential difference 1-4 S power absorbed 1-8.’string’) in MATLAB A-14 text(x.z) in MATLAB A-16 tolerance 2-27 polar plot in MATLAB A-25 response 6-1.y) in MATLAB A-13 in a resistive loads 8-10 .NEC 2-30 negative charge 5-18 network active 1-12. 2-4. 1-19 resistive network 8-28 periodic functions of time 8-1 resistors 1-12. 6-23 real axis B-2 number B-2 real(z) in MATLAB A-25 regulation 3-49 P resistance defined 2-1 parallel connection 2-8. 2-17. 7-1 non-reference 3-1 reference 3-1 non-linear devices 1-10 Norton’s theorem 3-35. 3-1. 7-7 susceptance 6-18. 4-32 single ended output amplifier 4-5 single node-pair parallel circuit 2-14 slope converter 8-28 solar energy 1-17. 5-28.b. 6-23 inductive 6-18.z. 6-21 time-window converter 8-28 title(‘string’) in MATLAB A-13 total response 10-16 tracking converter 8-28 transient response 9-1 transistors 1-10 trivial solution 9-2 two-terminal device 1-4. A-9 known roots in MATLAB A-4 polyval(p. 10-24 time-domain to frequency-domain transformation 6-6. 6-23 capacitive 6-18. 8-17 gain 4-2 in a capacitor 5-22 in an inductor 5-11 in a resistor 2-3. 9-11. 6-21 polar(theta.y. 2-17 short circuit 2-2 SI Derived Units 1-17 siemens 2-2 signal 4-1.’string’) in MATLAB A-18 Thevenin’s theorem 3-24. 10-32 unit ramp function 10-6. 1-20 O Ohm 2-1 Ohm’s law 2-1 Ohm’s law for AC circuits 6-15 Ohmmeter 8-26 parallel type 8-26 series type 8-26 shunt type 8-26 op amp 4-5 inverting mode 4-6 non-inverting mode 4-9 open circuit 2-2 operational amplifier . 6-23 inductive 6-15. 1-19 U unit impulse function 10-8. 8-14 script file in MATLAB A-26 in capacitive loads 8-11 semicolons in MATLAB A-8 semilogx(x. 2-28 instantaneous 8-3 power factor 8-10 defined 8-10 lagging 8-15 leading 8-15 power factor correction 8-18 power triangle 8-16 prefixes 1-14. A-8 RMS values of sinusoids with polynomial construction from different frequencies 8-7 roots(p) in MATLAB A-3. 2-2 phasor analysis in amplifier circuits 7-12 color code 2-27 phasor diagram 7-15 failure rate 2-27 plot(x. 1-19 average 8-9. A-12.tol) in MATLAB 1-7 quad8 in MATLAB 1-7 quadratic factors A-9 quit in MATLAB A-2 R series connection 2-8.y. 1-20 standard prefixes 1-14 Standards for Electrical and Electronic Devices 2-26 steady-state conditions 5-12 string in MATLAB A-18 subplot(m.see op amp complex 8-16. 1-19 voltage defined 1-4 dividers 2-2 division expressions 2-23 drop 1-5 rational polynomials A-8 reactance capacitive 6-15.y) in MATLAB A-10.p) in MATLAB A-19 substitution method of solving a system of simultaneous equations 3-2 supermesh 3-18 supernode 3-6 superposition principle 3-41. 6-23 T temperature scales equivalents 1-16 text(x. 10-32 unit step function 10-1. 1-7 quad(‘f’.y.n. 7-8 time constant 9-3. 7-1 node combined 3-6 defined 2-5 generalized 3-6 equations 2-14. 1-20 sources of energy 1-17. 10-31 V virtual ground 4-17 volt 1-5. A-5 RMS value of sinusoids 8-5 polyder(p) in MATLAB A-6. 2-16. 1-20 passive 1-12. 10-18. 1-20 topology 3-1 newton 1-1. 2-18 input 4-28 particular solution 6-4 output 4-28 passive sign convention 1-8. 7-8 nuclear energy 1-17.y) in MATLAB A-13 in inductive loads 8-11 semilogy(x. 1-15 principle of superposition 3-41 Q quad in MATLAB 1-6.r) in MATLAB A-25 right-hand rule 5-1 poly(r) in MATLAB A-4.a. A-16 shunt 8-21 plot3(x.

follower 4-20 gain 4-2 instantaneous 1-5 rise 1-5 voltage source combinations 2-16. 8-32 X xlabel(‘string’) in MATLAB A-13 Y ylabel(‘string’) in MATLAB A-13 Z zero potential 2-15 . 2-17 ideal 1-11 independent 1-11 practical 3-20 voltmeter 8-24 W watt 1-8 watt-hour meter 8-28 wattmeter 8-28 weber 5-1. 5-29 Wheatstone bridge 8-27.