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This APA Quick Reference Handbook 5th edition (2003) is an updated modification of the Quick Reference Guidelines 4th edition, compiled by Azra Naseem and Sarah Zafar (2000), which was revised in 2002 by the present English Language Support team that also included Mirat al Fatima Ahsan. Its facilitative purpose and its applicability parameters remain the same as before; that is, this is a handbook, which focuses only on certain aspects of the APA Manual: it is not a summary and cannot be regarded as its substitute. This booklet is especially useful for the M.Ed. CPs whose assignments and dissertations are required to be APA consistent. Hence, it has been adapted according to their needs, which is why it covers and presents condensed forms of selected areas: the selection criteria being the areas’ relevance to the AKU-IED’s writing needs 1. For example, the APA Manual (5th edition) gives 95 examples of references whereas 42 examples have been included in this handbook. A point to note here is that these reference examples include a revised “Online Reference section” which is th substantially different in format from that given in the 4 edition APA Manual. This handbook has been divided into various sections. Examples have been included to illustrate points in every segment. In addition, an effort has been made to format this handbook in the APA style so as to make it self-illustrative. Since this is a guideline, it does not offer the kind of extensive and comprehensive coverage provided by the Manual itself. Therefore, it is advised, for those who are in need of more comprehensive information that they consult the American Psychological Association Publication Manual (APA), 5th edition, which is available in the library. Every effort has been made to make this handbook as user-friendly as possible. It can be used by the CPs of the M.Ed. programmes, the faculty related to the AKU-IED M.Ed. programme, and others involved in academic writing. It is hoped that the effort proves useful.
The ELSP Team Azra Ahmed Faiza Saleem Fatima Shahabuddin
APA permits the writers of theses and dissertations to “satisfy the graduate school’s specific requirements, even if these requirements depart from the style outlined in the Publication Manual” (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 2001, p.322).
FORMATTING Font • • • • • Times New Roman typeface should be used. Title should be set in upper case, bold, 14-font size. Block quotations and footnotes should be set in 10-font size. The abstract, acknowledgements, and the main body of the essay should be set in 12-font size. If there is a dedication, it should be in upper case, bold, 12-font size.
Paragraphs / Line Spacing • The first line of all paragraphs should be indented one tab key from the left-hand margin. • The main body text should be left aligned. • In the main body, use 1.5-line spacing. 2 • Leave one line space before a heading. 3 • Do not leave a line after the heading. • Do not leave a line between paragraphs. Page Numbers • Page numbers should be placed on the right side at the bottom of the page. • Each page in the dissertation, from the body onward, should be numbered in consecutive order. This includes the text, references, and appendices. • Preliminary pages carry lowercase Roman numerals. Spellings •
British or American spellings may be used; as long as they are used consistently throughout the paper.
Bullets should be aligned with the paragraph i.e. they should be indented one tab key from the margin.
References • •
The word ‘references’ should be left aligned, bold, uppercase, 12- font size. There should be one line space between the heading and the first reference, and between subsequent references.
Example: REFERENCES Brown, J. D. (1998). Understanding research in second language learning . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
AKU-IED requires all student assignments / dissertations to have 1.5 line spacing. ‘one’ line or ‘a’ line for AKU-IED p urposes means 1.5 line spacing.
2. Text should be justified. bold. 3 etc. 3 . Sub-title: Uppercase and Lowercase. there is more than one appendix for APPENDIX A. 12-font size). for example. etc.). 4 This is in accordance with AKU-IED’s A Guide to the M. centred Example : APPENDIX A Effects of Mentoring Footnotes • Footnotes should be numbered with superscript. it is labelled as APPENDIX (Uppercase. Page Setup4 • For the purpose of binding. APPENDIX B etc. a left margin of 1. Font size for the title and the text should be 12. Example: Item analysis 1 The item analysis for each section was carried out as follows: 1 This section of the report has been edited in order to maintain test confidentiality. If. smaller font (size 10) Arabic numerals (1. bold. centred.Ed. Dissertation. APPENDIX A2.Appendices • • • • • • If the paper has only one appendix. then it will be titled APPENDIX A1.5 inches is required. If it has more than one appendix. • These margin regulations should be met on all pages. • Other margins should be one inch. each is labelled with a capital letter such as APPENDIX A.
ed. No. p. (Eds. vols. Rep.) Trans. Tech. Vol.List of Acceptable Abbreviations Mentioned in the APA Manual chap. Rev. ed. pp. P t. Suppl. nd Chapter Edition Revised edition Second edition Editor (Editors) Translator(s) Page Pages Volume (as in Vol. Ed. 4) Volumes (as in four volumes) Number Part Technical Report Supplement 4 . 2 ed.
bold. font 12. upper case. Example: CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW Note : No heading should be given to the initial part of the chapters. 5 . italicized. Example: EFFECTIVE CLASSROOM TEACHER AS A LEADER Name (on the title page) Centre. upper case. upper case. Example: Role of an Effective Leader Sub Sub-Heading Flushed left. bold. font 12. Example: SAIRA NASEEM Chapter Heading Centre. font 12. font 12. Main Heading Flushed le ft. Example: EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP Sub Heading Flushed left. bold. bold. font 14. upper lower case. upper case. upper and lower case. Example: Leader as a Facilitator 5 The levels of headings are not consistent with the APA Manual 5th edition as they have been simplified and adapted to suit AKU-IED’s needs. bold. bold. font 12.LEVELS OF HEADINGS 5 Title (on the title page) Centre.
• Text: Justified. LM = Language minority: LEP = limited English proficient. centred. Example 2: FIGURE 1 The Differing Perspectives of National Policy on Languages and the Australian Language and Literacy Policy Perspective Expressed in Title NPL National policy on languages Use the pluralist languages ALLPa Australian Language and Literacy Policy strengthens nationalistic theme. font size 10. font size 10.TABLES AND FIGURES • Title: Uppercase. • Use Arabic numerals (1. font size 10. 1987-1991 School Year 1987-1988 1988-1989 1989-1990 1990-1991 LM Students 11. and designated “foreign” languages. Example 1: TABLE 1 Language Minority Student Enrolment in Indiana. developed from a consensus building process among diverse groups. single spaced.670 Native Language Spoken 162 166 177 178 School Cooperation (of 296) with LM Students 221 228 224 231 Counties (of 92) With LM Students 81 82 82 81 Note: From Indiana Department of Education (1995. centred. b. Claims to make separate “policy strands” “a coherent whole”.278 LEP Students 3. • For explanation of any term. not bold. Language and culture Treats languages and cultures as irretrievably interlinked Contrasts Australia’s “one national language” with its “many cultures.387 4. displaces pluralist languages by ambiguous languages (either English or language in general). p. bold. c etc.” thus separating language from culture and erasing the many languages associated with the “many cultures.) to number the figure or table. bold.769 18. 3 etc.745 13. use small alphabets (a. nominates priorities as literacy.376 3. 2. Language goals Committed to broad pluralist goals.” a Includes the interpretation of the minister of education as expected in Dawkins (1991). • Sub-title: Upper and lowercase. Terms in quotation marks are from Dawkins (1991).) and provide explanation right below the table or figure. 6 .001 4. ii).949 15. aims for control. assessment.
the text. refer to every table/ figure and tell the reader what to look for.not duplicates . Example: Figures: 13 lists. • Table/ Figure notes. NUMBERS The general rule governing APA style on the use of numbers is to use figures to express numbers 10 and above. if the table/ figure is reprinted. which are placed below the bottom rule of a table/ figure. • While citing tables/ figures in the text. Discuss only the table’s/ figure’ highlights. if you discuss every item of the table/ figure in the text. nine schools 7 . due to additions and deletions. and words to express numbers below 10. the table/ figure becomes redundant. refer to tables/ figures by their numbers: Example : As shown in Table 8. the responses were … Children with pre-training (see Table 5) … as shown in Figure 2. They also acknowledge the source of a table/ figure. explain the table/ figure data or provide additional information.” because the position and page number of a table/ figure gets changed quite often.RELATION OF TABLES/ FIGURES AND TEXT An informative table/ figure supplements . In the text. 105 stimulus words Words: One child. the relationships are data are related (see Figure 5) • Do not write “the table/ figure below” (or above) or “the table/ figure on page 32.
and before the page number (refer to Example 2 ). Quotation marks should be omitted.QUOTATIONS 1. and should be indented one tab key from the left margin.5 for AKU-IED). personal history and leisure time activities. e. Longer quotations (40 words or more). and it should be single-spaced (1. should be displayed in a freestanding block. 2. 8 . 5. All subsequent lines should be aligned with the indent. referred to as block quotations. Short quotations (fewer than 40 words) should be incorporated in the text and enclosed within double quotation marks. When quoting. Material that was in double quotation marks in the original source should be placed within double quotation marks in a block quotation. 9.44). monitoring. (p. In block quotations the full stop comes after the quote. Example 2: Roger (1997) believes that: Speaking means to be able to handle successfully a variety of uncomplicated. The block quotation should begin on a new line. or evaluating the success of a learning activity” (p.g. basic and communicative tasks and social situations. 8. 3. 4..247) 10. Example 1: O’ Malley and Chamot (1990) believe that metacognitive strategies are “higher order executive skills that may entail planning for. year of publication and specific page citation in the text. A line should be left after the block quote. 6. In quotations less than 40 words the full stop is placed after the page number (refer to Example 1 ). to ask and answer questions and participate in simple conversation on topics beyond the most immediate needs. 7. The font size in a block quotation should be changed to size 10. always mention the author’s name.
1993.276). 12.) to indicate omission between sentences. 14. punctuation or grammar in the source might confuse the 9 . Direct quotations must mention the exact spelling. Example 5: Miele (1993) found that “the ‘placebo effect. Use three ellipses points (…) within a sentence to indicate that you have omitted material from the original source. Example 3: Rubin and Thompson (1994) stated that. If any incorrect spelling. “The ‘placebo effect’… disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner” (Miele.’ which had been verified in previous studies. 15. To start a new paragraph within the quotation.11. indent the first line of the new paragraph. p. not parentheses ( ). to enclose any additions or explanations inserted in a quotation by some person other than the original author. The first point indicates the period at the end of the first sentence quoted. 16. but she did not clarify which behaviors were studied. disappeared when [only the first group’s] behaviors were studied in this manner” (p. on which the new language information will be inscribed. To emphasize a word or words in a quotation italicize the word(s). Immediately after the italicized word(s) insert within brackets the words [italics added].63) 13. or blank slate. Use brackets [ ]. (p. 276). and wordings of the original source even if the source is incorrect. Some teachers also treat their students as if they were a tabula rasa [italics added]. Material in the original source that was in double quotation marks should be placed within single quotation marks in the (short) quotation. The fact is that all of us possess a wealth of knowledge that can be brought to bear in learning a foreign language. Following the principle of “going from the known to the unknown. Use four ellipses points (…. one tab key from the margin of the quotation.” if you wisely use what you know. you can make the process of learning a foreign language more efficient and rewarding. and the three ellipsis points follow. punctuation. Example 4: She stated.
insert the word sic italicized and within brackets [sic].g. The works cited will not be included in the list of references (unless they are cited elsewhere in your paper).. 276) 17. 21. the behaviors were never exhibited again [italics added]. Do not omit citations embedded within the original material you are quoting. immediately after the error in the quotation. 18. 10 . Furthermore. Example 6: Miele (1993) found the following: The “placebo effect. The use of a comma or colon to signal a block quote should be based on the construction of the sentence preceding the quote.” which had been verified in previous studies. Earlier studies (e. (p. even when reel [sic] drugs were administered. disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner. The first letter of the first word in a quota tion may be changed to an uppercase or a lower case letter to suit the requirements of the sentence structure. 1979) were clearly premature in attributing the results to a placebo effect. 20. Fox. Abdullah. it would be advisable to write the following as a footnote instead of writing [sic] after every second word / phrase / or sentence: The language of all interview quotes has been recorded verbatim to retain the authenticity/ originality/ spontaneity of the text. When quoting from speech which may have numerous errors. 19. The evidence/ reference to field notes/ interviews and the date for a dialogue should be placed on the next line (not the last line) of the dialogue.reader. 1984.
Example: • First citation in text: Wasserstein. 2000)… In 2000 Walker compares … In a recent study of reaction times. 11 . four. always cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text. followed by a comma and “et al”. found… • • When a work has six or more authors. provide initials and surnames of the first six authors.”. Gerstman. cite the surnames of the first author and of as many of the subsequent authors as are necessary to distinguish the two references. cite only the surname of the first author followed by “et al. Walker (2000) described the method as… 2. and Rock (1994) found… • Subsequent first citation per paragraph thereafter: Wasserstein et al.” and the year if it is the first citation of the reference within a paragraph.REFERENCE CITATIONS IN TEXT 1. Zappulla. (1994) found… • Omit year from subsequent citations after first citation within a paragraph Waserstein et al. One work by one author Example: • • • • Walker (2000) compared reaction times… In a recent study of reaction times (Walker. or five authors. cite all authors the first time the reference occurs: in subsequent citations include only the surname of the first author followed by “et al. 6 However. 6 If there are two references with six or more authors shorten to the same form. One Work by Multiple Authors • • When a work has two authors. When a work has three. Rosen. in the reference list. and shorten any remaining authors to et al. and the year for the first and subsequent citations.
(1996) … Kosslyn. Koenig. Groups as Authors • The names of groups that serve as authors (e. Koenig.g. are usually spelled out each time they appear in a text citation. 1998) 12 . Cave. Work With No Author or With an Anonymous Author • Cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Gabrieli. Tang. or report. Tang. The names of some group authors. associations. brochure. 1999) Subsequent text citation: (NIMH. et al. corporations. et al. Gabrieli. especially those that may be long and cumbersome. Koenig. and italicize the title of a periodical. Example: First text citation: (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH]. Marsolek. book. Barrett. may be abbreviated in the second and subsequent citations. and study groups). and Gabrieli (1996) … Kosslyn. Use double quotation marks around the title of an article or chapter. and Daly (1996) … Cite the above references as: Kosslyn. Example: …on free care “Study Finds”. Example: (Anonymous. Barrett. Koenig.Example: For these references: Kosslyn. 1982 … …the book College Bound Seniors (1979) … Anonymous Author • Cite in text the word Anonymous followed by a comma and the date. 1999) • Citing a group author in full Example: All text citations: (University of Pittsburgh. 1993) 4. (1996) … 3.
1991. Two or More Works Within the Same Parentheses • Order the citations of two or more works within the same parentheses in the same order in which they appear in the reference list. Luce (1959) and P.d. in press-a. in press-b) • List two or more works by different authors who are cited within the same parentheses in alphabetical order by the first author’s surname. b. and so forth after the year. Classical Works • When a work has no date of publication. 1991c. 1990)… 7. Luce (1986) also found… J. Singh. D. E. Example: Past research (Edeline & Weinberger. Authors With the Same Surname • If the reference list includes publications by two or more primary authors with the same surname. repeat the year. • Arrange two or more works by the same author(s) in the same order in which they appear in the reference list by the year of publication. Kamil. 1983. for “no date”. cite in text the author’s name. in press) • Identify works by the same author (or by the same two or more authors in the same order) with the same publication date by the suffixes a. Goldberg and Wurtz (1972) studied… 6.5. Goldberg and Neff (1961) and M. 1980. even if the year of publication differs. 1984. Separate the citations by semicolons. 1993)… Past research (Gogel. 1991b. 1990. M. c. Example: Several studies (Balda. include the first author’s initials in all text citations. 13 . A. Example: R. Example: Several studies (Johnson. 1988. Place in-press citations last. followed by a comma and n. 1991a. Pepperberg & Funk.
. April 18.. field notes 7. 2003). personal communication. telephone conversations.1998) (K. 14 . Because they do not provide recoverable data. Abbas.. cite the year of the translation you used. preceded by the abbreviation: trans.g. such as for some very old works. Lutes (personal communication. Cite personal communications in text only. trans. some electronic communications (e. Khan. observations. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator. 1931) 8. indicate the page. December 31. and provide as exact a date as possible. 2003). August 21. Personal Communication • Personal Communication may be letters. chapter. (V. 7 Field notes could refer to notes taken during/ after discussions. messages from electronic bulletin boards). n. K. personal communications are not included in the reference list. Always give page numbers for quotations. interview. Khan. memos.d. September 28. Example: • • • • • T. 2003) “I taught two sessions to demonstrate the different learning styles” (J. “I taught two sessions to demonstrate the different learning styles” (J. figure. e-mail or messages from non-archived discussion groups. Example: (Aristotle. Specific Parts of a Source • To cite a specific part of a source. and the like. running notes in the field. 2001) states. 9.Example: (Aristotle. Note that the words page and chapter are abbreviated in such text citations. or equation at the appropriate point in text. etc. e-mail. G. Nguyen.) • When a date of publication is inapplicable. May 16. table.
Citations in Parenthetical Material • In citations that appear in parenthetical texts. 1991. para. ¶ 5) has aptly written… (Beutler. 1) 10. p. 332) (Shimamura. 3) • For electronic sources tha t do not provide page numbers. Example: As Myers (2000. chap. 2000. If neither paragraph nor page numbers are visible. Conclusion section. cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following it to direct the reader to the location of the material. for complete data) 15 . 1981. if available. & Schwartz. use commas (not parentheses) to set off the date: Example: (see Table 2 of Hashtroudi.Example: (Cheek & Buss. Chrosniak. use the paragraph number. preceded by the paragraph symbol ¶ or the abbreviation “para”. 1989.
N. People in organizations: An introduction to organizational behavior (3rd ed. Newbury Park. R.1). T. (Date of Publication). (1987). June 1990 (No.). & Huang. Book. & Larson. 5. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. in statistical local areas.. ed. MA: Merriam-Webster. Australian Capital Territory: Author. New South Wales. 16 .).. (1993). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. no author or editor Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed. Title of book. Edited book Gibbs. (1987). J. Place: Publisher. Author(s). New York: McGraw-Hill. Title of chapter or article.. 1. third edition. L. Book. Estimated resident population by age and sex. CA: Sage. Canberra. Place: Publisher. Jr. Jr. Children of color: Psychological interventions with minority youth . 3209. Book. Entire book (one author) Brown. D. J. Meta -analytic procedures for social research (Rev. (1991). revised edition Rosenthal. 4. Springfield. (1998).). 6. Understanding research in second language learning .REFERENCE FORMAT Author(s). in n ame Mitchelle. (Eds. Title of book . J. (Date of Publication). group author (government agency) as publisher Australian Bureau of Statistics. 3. T. Book.). R. R. 2. (1991).
A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. A.309-330). (Ed. 501-508). one author Mellers. Roediger III & F. (Ed. Hillsdale. B. 1-6). S. New York: McGraw-Hill. 13. The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians (6th ed. London: Macmillan. Article or chapter in an edited book.M. corporate author Research and Training C enter on Independent Living. Book. (1980). J. Varieties of memory & consciousness (pp. R. Relativity. La genèse de l’ idée de hasard chez l’enfant [The origin of the idea of chance in the child]. Craik (Eds. Vols. G.). 910-924. 14. Guidelines for reporting and writing about people with disabilities (4th ed. 12. New York: Dover. English translation of a book Laplace.. In H. 17 . pp.. (1951). P. 1-20). publication over a period of more than 1 year Koch.).) [Brochure]. (1989). Entry in an encyclopedia Bergmann. Psychological Bulletin. Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in human memory. Journal article. Encyclopedia or dictionary Sadie. B. & Inhelder. W. 126.L.). Trans. (Original work published 1814) 10. (2000). P. (1951). Lawrence. In The new encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica. Brochure. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.7.). NJ: Erlbaum. 26. S. Several volumes in a multivolume edited work. Non-English book Piaget. 8. Truscott & F. (1993).I. (1959-1963).A. KS: Author. 9. S. two editors Bjork. L. 11. Psycholog y: A study of science (Vols. Emory. Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences. (1993).
J. Race differences in face-ism: Does facial prominence imply dominance? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Spring).. November 10). 55. Lengua. A12. D. et al. R. E. 1040-1049.. R. S. 20. 100 (3). A. Journal article in press Zuckerman.. 68. two authors. K. 22. (1993. Diagnoses. (2000. S. Sandler. 83-87. Daily newspaper article. 290. p. American Psychologist. J. (in press). 19. 18 .. dimensions. L.R.. Entire issue or special section of a journal Barlow. Treatment for sexually abused children and adolescents. 16. (1991). Coatsworth.. and DSM-IV: The science of classification [Special issue]. An experimental evaluation of theory-based mother and mother-child programs for children of divorce. Journal article. L. J. I. C. Journal article. West. 18. journal paginated by issue Klimoski. H.. A. no author New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. P. The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. & Palmer. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Science. Journal of Abnormal Psychology.. & Squire. 21. 10-36. D. Newsletter article Brown. S. 843-856. 46. & Cohen. Neuroscience: Breaking down scientific barriers to the study of brain and mind.. Mannarino. The Clinical Psychologist. & Kieffer.15.N. Journal article. (2000). L. S.. (1993). (Ed. The Washington Post.. 45 (2). Berliner. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research. G.. (2000).). 17. (1993. A. three to six authors Saywitz. M. Tein. July 15). 1113-1120. L. more than six authors Wolchik. Antidomination training as a central component of diversity in clinical psychology education. Magazine article Kandel. S.
Washington. Sources of health insurance and characteristics of the uninsured (Issue Brief No. Technical and Research Reports Mazzeo. (1993. Fathers’ participation in family work: Consequences for fathers’ stress and father-child relations. Canada. social status. 25. ED346082) 27. NJ: Educational Testing Service. NCRTL.. Princeton. J. 19 . No. February). Looking at old photographs: Investigating the teacher tales that novice teachers bring with them (Report No..RR-92-4). & Muhlstein. Report from a private organization Employee Benefit Research Institute. Daily newspaper article (discontinuous pages) Schwartz. J. Interpersonal analyses of bulimia: Normal weight and obese. university outside the United States Almeida. University of Missouri. Druesne. 26. P. A4. D. B. A1. (1990). September 30). 28. J. Unpublished doctoral dissertation Wilfley. Raffeld.23. Comparability of computer and paper-and -pencil scores for two CLEP general examinations (College Board Rep. Obesity affects economic. Report available from the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) Mead. A. V. East Lansing. University of Victoria.E.. T. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 91-5). Unpublished master’s thesis. Unpublished master’s thesis. Victoria. 24.C. Checkettes.. DC: Author. (1992). Unpublished doctoral dissertation. MI: National Center for Research on Teacher Learning. pp. (1991). K. M. British Columbia. 123). The Washington Post. (1990). Columbia. (1992. D.
San Diego. Retrieved month day. J.. Learning by text or context? [Review of the book The social life of information ]. (Executive Producer). B. Television broadcast Crystal. Reidbord. Contemporary Psychology. & Bucci. Title of article. Online periodical Author. & Author. (1992). (1992). Melbourne. xx. Elements of references to on-line information General Form for Electronic References 35. software. C. DC: Public Broadcasting Service. Milbrath. & Briere. 30. C. or programming language Bender report [Computer software]. 1304.. S. Pape r presented at the meeting of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children. L. Unpublished paper presented at meeting Lanktree. S. October 11). C. B. Review of a motion picture Kraus. The MacNeil / Lehrer news hour.. 31. Unpublished manuscript not submitted for publication Stinson. Review of a book Schatz. W.29. xxxxxx. 20 .. 34. FL: Psychometric Software. A. from source. 33. (2000). (1991. (1993. 290. New York and Washington. J. year. Computer programme.. C. [Television Broadcast]. R. CA. Science. January). 32. Early data on the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSC-C).. B. (1993). A. Author. Thematic segmentation of psychotherapy transcripts for convergent analyses. 1146-1147. Title of Periodical. (2000). Unpublished manuscript. Visions of psychology: A videotext of classic studies [Review of the motion picture Discovering Psychology]. 37. C.
from http://www. Kain. (1989). S. J. J. et al. 2002.html 36. Whitton. 2(2). W. Vogelgesang. Retrieved February 10..org/prvention/volume3/pre0030001a. Videocounseling for families of rural teens with epilepsy . Article in an Internet-only newsletter Glueckauf. & Doe.apa. Article 0001a. A. L.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.VandenBos... July).html Online Periodicals 37. Note that there are no page numbers. Retrieved October 7. J. Retrieved month day.gov/databases/ERIC_Digest/ed307616.. 5. 3. 2001. 21 . B. L. Title of work. A.net/subscribe/newslettr-4a.. G. • Whenever possible.. Retrieved October 13. Teaching Writing with Peer Response Group: Encouraging Revision ERIC Digest. 2001. Prevention & Treatment.telehealth .. volume and issue numbers often are not relevant. Article in an Internet-only journal Fredrickson. S. Online document Author. from source Hermann. (1998.apa. If they are not used. 2000. Journal of Bibliographic Research. (2001). from h ttp:// journals. year. R. Hudson. (2000). the name of the periodical is all that can be provided in the reference. (2000. Baxter. M.. In an Internet periodical. March 7).html#1 • • • Use the complete publication date given on the article. Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Knapp. Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates. Retrieved November 20.Project update.ed. Telehealth News.A. from http://journals. the URL should link directly to the article.html 38. J. 17-123. from http://www.
September 27).columbia. McClintock. from http://www. Document available on university program or department Web site Chou. H.canarie. (1993).gatech. identify the host organization and the relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Towards a Canadian health IWAY: Vision. Technical and Research Reports 41.d. Stand-alone document.. 2000. Inc.• Break a URL that goes to another line after a slash or before a period. (n. opportunities and future steps. Retrieved November 8. GVU's 8th WWW user survey. Report from a private organization. no date If the author of a document is not identified.cc. no author identified. Moretti.edu/gvu/user-surveys/survey1997-10/ 40. available on organization Web site Canarie.edu/publications/papers/ newwine1. F. Nonperiodical documents on the Internet 39. D. 2000. from Columbia University. L. Technology and education: New wine in new bottles: Choosing pasts and imagining educational futures.ca/press/publications/pdf/health/healthvision.html • If a document is contained within a large and complex Web site (such as that for a university or a government agency).doc 22 .. from http://www. begin the reference with the title of the document. (1997.ilt..) Retrieved August 8. Do not insert (or allow your word-processing program to insert) a hyphen at the break. Retrieved August 24. & Nix. Institute for Learning Technologies Web site: http://www. 2000. Precede the URL with a colon. R.
M.. Pulakos. H. Oppler.. Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance. 78. (1993). A. C. A.. W. Electronic copy of a journal article. L. from PsycARTICLES database. 443-449. retrieved from database Borman.. 23 . Retrieved October 23. Hanson. S. E. 2000. & White. Journal of Applied Psychology. D. three to five authors.Other Electronic Sources 42.
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