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Topicality File 08

Topicality File 08

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Topicality File Samford Debate Institute ’08

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Topicality Index (p. 1 of 2)
Topicality Index (p. 1 of 2)..................................................................................................1 *****Incentives Violations*****........................................................................................3 **T—Regulations Aren’t Incentives Shell (1/2)**.............................................................3 T—Regulations Aren’t Incentives Shell (2/2).....................................................................4 T—Regulation aren’t incentives..........................................................................................5 2ac T Front-Line: Permits Are Incentives...........................................................................6 2ac T Front-Line: Permits Are Incentives...........................................................................7 T AFF: Permits are Topical.................................................................................................8 Incentives Stimulate Actions................................................................................................9 T—AFF: Regulations Are Incentives...............................................................................10 T-AFF: Carbon Tax is an Incentive...................................................................................11 T-AFF: Non-Tax Incentives Are Topical..........................................................................12 **T—Incentives Aren’t Disincentives Shell (1/2)**.........................................................13 T—Incentives Aren’t Disincentives Shell (2/2).................................................................14 Incentives Are Not Disincentives.......................................................................................15 T—AFF: Disincentives Can Be Incentives.......................................................................16 Incentives are distinct from voluntary approaches............................................................17 *****Alternative Energy Violations*****........................................................................18 **T—Alternative Energy: Fossil Fuel Cases Aren’t Topical (Shell)**............................18 T—Alternative Energy: Fossil Fuel Cases Aren’t Topical...............................................19 Alternative Energy Means Non-Fossil Fuel Sources.........................................................20 Alternative Energy Means Non-Fossil Fuel Sources.........................................................21 T--Fossil Fuels Can Be Alternative Energy.......................................................................22 Alternative Energy Isn’t Energy Efficiency ......................................................................23 Alternative Energy Isn’t Energy Efficiency.......................................................................24 Energy Efficiency is Alternative Energy............................................................................25 Alternative Energy is Non-Traditional Energy..................................................................26 Federal Law Should Be Used to Define Alternative Energy.............................................27 Alternative Energy is Renewable Energy..........................................................................28 Alternative Energy Isn’t Renewable Energy......................................................................29 Wind is an alternative energy.............................................................................................30 Solar Power is an Alternative Energy................................................................................31 Methanol is an alternative energy......................................................................................32 Biofuels are alternative energy..........................................................................................33 Alternative Means Non-Traditional...................................................................................34 Alternative Energy Is Vague..............................................................................................35 Energy Means Power.........................................................................................................36 **T—Conservation/Efficiency Isn’t Topical (Shell)**.....................................................37 **T—Nuclear Energy Is Not Topical (Shell)**................................................................38 Alternative Energy: Not Nuclear Energy..........................................................................39 Alternative Energy: Not Nuclear Energy..........................................................................40 T—AFF: Nuclear Power is Topical..................................................................................41 *****Increase Violations*****.........................................................................................42

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**T—Increase Is Distinct From Create (Shell)**.............................................................42 **T—Increase Means a Net Increase (Shell 1/1)**..........................................................43 Increase Means a Net Increase...........................................................................................44 Possible to Increase From Zero..........................................................................................45 Extending The Time on Funding Can Be an increase........................................................46 ******Substantially Violations*******...........................................................................47 **T—Substantial is Twenty Percent (Shell 1/1)**............................................................47 T—Substantial Must Be Given Meaning...........................................................................48 Substantially Means to a Large Degree.............................................................................49 Substantial Means Having Substance................................................................................50 Substantially Means Strong...............................................................................................51 Substantial Means Large....................................................................................................52 Large Alternative Energy Incentives Exist Now (for Substantial Definitions).................53 ******Federal Government Isn’t the States******..........................................................54 T—Federal Government Isn’t the States (Shell)...............................................................54 T—Federal Government Isn’t the States...........................................................................55 *****In Violations*****...................................................................................................56 **T—Can’t Take International Action (Shell 1/1)**.........................................................56 T—In means within extensions.........................................................................................57 *****Federal Government Definitions*****....................................................................58

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*****Incentives Violations***** **T—Regulations Aren’t Incentives Shell (1/2)**
A) Negative Interpretation: 1) A regulation mandates the use of alternative energy, where an incentive gives inducements to comply with an increase:
Christina Harper, 2007 (J.D. from the University of Southern California Law School, Boston College International and Comparative Law Review, Spring, 2007. Online. Lexis. Accessed, Feb. 10, 2008).

Under traditional command-and-control (CAC) regulation, polluters are required to comply with specified standards (the command) and the regulatory authority conducts stringent
monitoring and enforcement (the control). CAC regulation ensures that firms curb polluting practices. Moreover, CAC regulation is source specific, meaning it requires every firm under its scope to reduce emissions. While many countries have had some form of CAC over the past few decades (especially with regard to air and water pollution), many policymakers believe this approach is inflexible and inhibits innovative development by placing all the decision-making power in the hands of bureaucratic regulators. CAC regulation is also costly to administer because of the need for close

Economic incentives (EIs), on the other hand, have become increasingly popular around the globe. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has adopted a broad definition of EIs as "any instrument that provides continuous inducements, financial or otherwise, to encourage responsible parties to reduce their release of pollutants or make their products less polluting." As such, EIs include tradable permit schemes and green taxes.
monitoring. 2. Economic Incentives

2) Economic incentives allow the ability of the company to say “no” to the increase in alternative energy—this is distinct from a regulation requiring polluters to adopt alternative energy.
Christina Harper, 2007 (J.D. from the University of Southern California Law School, Boston College International and Comparative Law Review, Spring, 2007. Online. Lexis. Accessed, Feb. 10, 2008).

Traditional CAC regulation is source specific, requiring each polluter to reduce GHG emissions. Green taxation and emissions trading schemes, on the other hand, provide economic incentives for polluters to reduce emissions but do not demand that each polluter reduce emissions.

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T—Regulations Aren’t Incentives Shell (2/2)
B) Violation: The plan is a regulation not an incentive. C) Standards: 1) Fair limits: Potentially thousands of cases can take an action that would require companies to use particular technologies, such as nuclear, bio-fuel, solar, geothermal, etc. Only by limiting the Affirmative team to allowing an increase in incentives for increasing alternative energy stops a slippery slope of cases mandating any technology imaginable. 2) Precision: The AFF conflates regulations and incentives, only we preserve the precise meaning of incentives. D) T is a voter for fairness, clash & education

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T—Regulation aren’t incentives
Direct regulations are distinct from economic incentives.
Winston Harrington, 2006 (Prof., Georgetown U. Public Policy Institute), THE RFF READER IN ENVIRONMENTAL AND RESOURCE POLICY: SECOND EDITION, 06, 66. Environmental policies can rely more on direct regulation (the command-and-control or CAC approach) or, alternatively, on economic incentives for environmental protection.

Command and control requirements are not incentives:
Christina Harper, 2007 (J.D. from the University of Southern California Law School, Boston College International and Comparative Law Review, Spring, 2007. Online. Lexis. Accessed, Feb. 10, 2008).
As such, governments have traditionally used CAC regulation to control emissions. CAC regulation is effective in controlling emissions as it requires each polluter to reduce GHG emissions, for example, by forcing polluters to install scrubbers to industrial stacks to remove pollutants. Unsurprisingly, this heavy-handed approach has proved unpopular with industry due to its inherent inflexibility. Green taxation and emissions trading schemes, on the other hand, provide economic incentives for polluters to reduce emissions. As such, these EIs do not demand each polluter reduce emissions, but rather aim to reduce overall GHG emissions.

CAFÉ style mandates are not incentives:
Eban Goodstein, 2008 (Prof., Economics, Lewis & Clark College), ECONOMICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT, 08, 406-407. Relative to an incentive-based approach like a gas-tax, the problem with CAFE or California's Clean Car mandates is the potential for a rebound effect: by reducing customers' gas bills, vehicle miles may increase. And technology-forcing of this kind does little to promote alternative fuels. For fuel switching, all of the major options—biofuels, electric vehicles, and hydrogen fuel cells— remain at a stage where they require federal R&D expenditures to bring down costs. One study suggests that cellulosic ethanol could achieve the scale economies needed for competitive pricing with expenditures of about $200 million a year for 10 years—about the cost of 2 to 3 days of U.S. oil imports.

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2ac T Front-Line: Permits Are Incentives
1) We meet: Extend the Trowbridge evidence: it says the plan aggressively promotes a renewable energy infrastructure in the United States. 2) Counter-interpretation: Incentives stimulate one to take an action:
Michael Agnes, 2006 (Editor-In-Chief), WEBSTER’S NEW WORLD COLLEGE DICITONARY, 4TH EDITION, 06, 721. (Cleveland, OH: Wiley) Incentive: stimulating one to take action, work harder, etc.; encouraging motivating.

3) Emissions trading schemes provide economic incentives:
Christina Harper, 2007 (J.D. from the University of Southern California Law School, Boston College International and Comparative Law Review, Spring, 2007. Online. Lexis. Accessed, Feb. 10, 2008).
As such, governments have traditionally used CAC regulation to control emissions. CAC regulation is effective in controlling emissions as it requires each polluter to reduce GHG emissions, for example, by forcing polluters to install scrubbers to industrial stacks to remove pollutants. Unsurprisingly, this heavy-handed approach has proved unpopular with industry due to its inherent inflexibility. Green taxation and emissions trading schemes, on the other hand, provide economic incentives for polluters to reduce emissions. As such, these EIs do not demand each polluter reduce emissions, but rather aim to reduce overall GHG emissions.

4) Their interpretation overlimits: Prevents cases that make renewable energy competitive in the marketplace. 5) Literature checks abuse: clear literature advocating the plan. 6) A federal cap and trade program is the best way to spur research into alternative forms of energy:
Carbon Control News, 6/16/2008 (Lexis, Accessed, June 19, 2008) Rejecting Republican arguments that the bill would have sent jobs overseas and drastically raised energy prices, Boxer writes that a federal cap-and-trade program would be the best way to spur the development of "green jobs" and research into alternative energies.

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2ac T Front-Line: Permits Are Incentives
7) An incentive can be a carrot or a stick:
Odd-Helge Fjeldstad, 2006 (Dir., U4 Center at the Michelsen Institute), ANTICORRUPTION RESOURCE CENTER, 06. Retrieved Feb. 20, 08 from http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm#incentives. Incentive: An incentive is an inducement or stimulus (the carrot or the stick), that encourages someone to do something. Incentive theory provides a conceptual framework for analysing the role and potential of recruitment and promotion mechanisms, detection and penalties, and different wage systems in improving the efficiency of public agencies.

8) Reasonability: If there is no in-round abuse no reason to vote NEG on topicality.

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T AFF: Permits are Topical
We meet the counter-interpretation: Tradable permits are Economic Incentives:
Christina Harper, 2007 (J.D. from the University of Southern California Law School, Boston College International and Comparative Law Review, Spring, 2007. Online. Lexis. Accessed, Feb. 10, 2008). Like permit trading schemes, taxes are economic incentives designed to change behavior. Green taxes encourage a broad range of entities to take environmentally friendly measures through price incentives.

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Incentives Stimulate Actions
An incentive is something that motivates or encourages someone:
Christine Lindberg, 2007 (Managing Editor), OXFORD COLLEGE DICTIONARY, 2nd Ed., 07, 685. (NY: Sparks Publishing) Incentive: a thing that motivates or encourages one to do something; example: incentive to conserve;

An incentive moves someone to take action:
WORDS AND PHRASES CUMULATIVE SUPPLEMENTARY PAMPHLET, 2007 Vol. 20A, 07, 76. Incentive: Incentive meant “serving to encourage, rouse, or move to action.”

An incentive encourages a person to take action:
Carol-June Cassidy, 2008 (Editor), CAMBRIDGE DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN ENGLISH, 2nd Ed., 08, 439. Incentive: Something that encourages a person to do something.

Incentives are motivating influences:
COLLINS ENGLISH DICTIONARY, 2006, 821. Incentive: A motivating influence; stimulus.

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T—AFF: Regulations Are Incentives
Incentives can be regulations:
Chris Park, 2007 (Dir., Graduate Studies, Lancaster U.), A DICTIONARY OF ENVIRONMENT AND CONSERVATION, 07. 224. Incentive-based regulation A government regulation (such as a tradable emissions allowance) that is designed to induce changes in the behaviour of individuals or firms, in order to produce environmental, social, or economic benefits that would otherwise be prescribed by legislation.

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T-AFF: Carbon Tax is an Incentive
A Carbon Tax is an incentive
Christina Harper, 2007 (J.D. from the University of Southern California Law School, Boston College International and Comparative Law Review, Spring, 2007. Online. Lexis. Accessed, Feb. 10, 2008).
From the human perspective, global climate change will have net negative impacts. 1 As such, policymakers must implement climate change policies to mitigate these impacts to our Earth. Environmental or green taxation

is one tool available to policymakers. Tax has the effect of encouraging a broad range of entities, through price incentives, to take measures to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs).

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T-AFF: Non-Tax Incentives Are Topical
Incentives can be non-tax incentives:
Larry Kreiser, 2006 (Prof., Accounting, Cleveland State U.), CRITICAL ISSUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL TAXATION, VOL. III, 06, 466. Besides tax incentives, governmental authorities can also use non-tax incentives to foster solar power development. Some non-tax incentives include: Direct Investment Incentives (Grants) — governmental authorities provide grants where cost sharing with investors facilitates the early development of solar power. Research
and Development Programs — governmental authorities support R&D programs involving solar power which engage in basic research, applied research, and cooperative research and testing. Green Marketing/Pricing — governmental authorities support voluntary programs where customers pay a premium price to purchase solar power.

Subsidies are incentives:
Rinaldo Brau, 2006 (Prof., Economics, U. Cagliari), CRITICAL ISSUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL TAXATION, VOL. III, 06, 614-615. The easiest participation incentive is providing firms with a subsidy, which induces a downward shift of the supply curve and, under some regularity conditions on the demand side, an increase in their profits. Other than monetary, the incentive may be 'in kind', with specific services aimed at improving the abatement effort by the firm.

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**T—Incentives Aren’t Disincentives Shell (1/2)**
A) Negative Interpretation: 1) An incentive is a reward for positive action:
Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2006 (online. Internet. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/incentive. Accessed May 9, 2008). in·cen·tive –noun 1. something that incites or tends to incite to action or greater effort, as a reward offered for increased productivity.

2. The plan is a disincentive: a disincentive is something that discourages or deters investment in a particular product.
Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2006 (online. Internet. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/disincentive. Accessed May 9, 2008) dis·in·cen·tive –noun something that discourages or deters; deterrent: High interest rates and government regulations are disincentives to investment.

B) Violation: An incentive is distinct from a disincentive: disincentives try to discourage the use of a particular kind of product by raising its price:
Leticia M. Diaz, 2007 (dean and professor of law, barry university school of law, Catholic University Law Review, summer 2007. ONline. Lexis. accessed May 9, 2008). Commentators in the chemical industry offer various proposals to encourage the implementation of inherently safer technology, including tax incentives and tax disincentives. 183 One commentator advocates a tax disincentive by applying an excise tax to hazardous chemicals. 184 The increase in the cost of hazardous materials would be used in an attempt to balance the overall cost effect of using inherently safer chemicals. 185

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T—Incentives Aren’t Disincentives Shell (2/2)
C) Standards: 1) Fair limits: Potentially thousands of cases could encourage dis-incentives to the use of fossil fuels, including any kind of taxation, regulation, or penalty placed on fossil fuel use. 2) Bright line: Incentives for alternative energy are clearly affirmative ground, while the negative should have the right to defend dis-incentives to the use of fossil fuel based technologies. 3) Makes them extra-topical: Disincentives to use fossil fuels could encourage conservation or efficiency and not alternative energy—extra-T is illegitimate because it proves that resolutional action alone is insufficient to solve. D) T is a voter for fairness, clash & education

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Incentives Are Not Disincentives
Carbon taxes are economic disincentives:
Eben Albert-Knopp, 2007 (Vermont Law Review, Fall, 2007. Online. Lexis. Accessed May 9, 2008). Carbon taxes have long been proposed as a means to reduce this country's dependence on fossil fuels. A carbon tax is a flat charge levied on the carbon content of fuels. This charge would be paid by producers, refiners, or directly by the consumer. The cost of fossil fuels would thereby increase according to the amount of carbon released by the fuel when combusted. The result of such a charge is two-fold. First, the charge would create an economic disincentive to consume fossil fuels, pushing consumer behavior towards conservation and non-carbon alternatives.

Raising taxes is a disincentive not an incentive:
Peter Gillies, 2006 (Prof., Law, Macquarie U.), CRITICAL ISSUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL TAXATION, VOL. III, 06, 469. Broadly speaking, government initiatives have fallen into three categories: tax incentives, tax disincentives, and subsidies, in the context of prompting producers and users to source electricity from renewables.

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T—AFF: Disincentives Can Be Incentives
Creating the fear of punishment can be an incentive:
THE AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, 2006 4th Editon, 06, 647. 885. Incentive: Something, such as the fear of punishment or the expectation of reward, that induces action or motivates effort.

An incentive can be a carrot or a stick:
Odd-Helge Fjeldstad, 2006 (Dir., U4 Center at the Michelsen Institute), ANTICORRUPTION RESOURCE CENTER, 06. Retrieved Feb. 20, 08 from http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm#incentives. Incentive: An incentive is an inducement or stimulus (the carrot or the stick), that encourages someone to do something. Incentive theory provides a conceptual framework for analysing the role and potential of recruitment and promotion mechanisms, detection and penalties, and different wage systems in improving the efficiency of public agencies.

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Incentives are distinct from voluntary approaches
Voluntary approaches aren’t incentives:
Rinaldo Brau, 2006 (Prof., Economics, U. Cagliari), CRITICAL ISSUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL TAXATION, VOL. III, 06, 593. Environmental policy instruments are usually classified into three broad categories. The first category, which includes environmental taxes, subsidies and emission trading schemes, is that of economic instruments that provide economic agents with financial incentives to reduce environmental damage. The second category is that of regulatory instruments, which embraces traditional command-and-control policies such as emission standards, whereby public authorities directly establish the environmental performance to be achieved, or the technologies to be used. The third category, which constitutes the subject of this paper, is that of voluntary approaches (henceforth VAs), whereby firms make commitments to improve their environmental performance beyond what required by the law.

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*****Alternative Energy Violations***** **T—Alternative Energy: Fossil Fuel Cases Aren’t Topical (Shell)**
A) Negative Interpretation: Alternative energy is energy from non-fossil fuel based sources:
Chris Park, 2007 (Dir., Graduate Studies, Lancaster U.), A DICTIONARY OF ENVIRONMENT AND CONSERVATION, 07. 20. Alternative energy: Energy that is produced from sources other than fossil fuels, which includes sources such as compressed natural gas, solar, hydroelectric, or wind energy.

B) Violation: The AFF relies on fossil fuel based sources of energy not alternative energy. C) Standards: 1) Fair Limits: Potentially thousands of cases can take an action creating incentives for fossil-fuel based energy, such as any tax credit or subsidy to the oil or coal industry to produce cleancoal, new areas to drill oil, or non-traditional methods of discovering oil such as oil shale. 2) Bright Line: The AFF conflates fossil fuel energy with alternative energy allowing them to defend big coal and big oil— crushing negative ground and destroying a bright line. D) T is a voter for fairness, clash & education

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T—Alternative Energy: Fossil Fuel Cases Aren’t Topical
Alternative energy is non-petroleum energy:
Cutler Cleveland & Christopher Morris, 2006 (Dir., Center for Energy & Environmental Studies, Boston U./Chief Editor, Macmillan School Dictionary Series), DICTIONARY OF ENERGY, 06, 14. Alternative fuel: A non-petroleum energy source used to power transportation vehicles, especially road vehicles, such as ethanol or hydrogen. Thus, alternative fuel vehicle.

Fossil fuels represent traditional energy sources, not alternative energy sources
Kamaal R. Zaidi, 2007 (Albany Law Environmental Outlook Journal, 11 Alb. L. Envtl. Outlook 198. Online. Lexis. Accessed May 7, 2008). Fossil fuels represent the traditional means of producing energy, but given the finiteness
of this resource, the high levels of pollution it produces, and the rapid rise in consumption costs from fossil fuels such as

the advent of cheaper and more efficient wind energy tools like wind turbines are proving to be an attractive alternative.
coal and natural gas,

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Alternative Energy Means Non-Fossil Fuel Sources
Alternative energy sources are non-fossil fuel based:
Jerry Taylor & Peter VanDoren, 2006 (Research Analysts, Cato Institute), GLOBAL WARMING: OPPOSING VIEWPOINTS, 06, 166-167. Ever since the energy crises of the 1970s, the U.S. government has promoted the use of "renewable energies"—primarily wind, solar, biomass (burning wood and plant material for power), and geothermal (tapping the hot steam or rock beneath the earth)—as desirable substitutes for conventional fossil fuels.

Fossil fuels are not alternative energy sources:
Neil Schlager, 2006 (Journalist), ALTERNATIVE ENERGY, 06, 1. Nearly 90 percent of the world's energy comes from fossil fuels. Because fossil fuels are the main source, they are not alternative energy sources. Fossil fuels include coal, natural gas, and petroleum.

Oil and gas are traditional energy sources, not alternative energy sources:
Andrea S. Miles, 2006 (Third-year student, University of Oklahoma College of Law American Indian Law Review, 30 Am. Indian L. Rev. 461. Online. Lexis. Accessed April 28, 2008) The TERA is flexible and can be used in numerous energy projects, including traditional endeavors like oil and gas exploration and electric power generation, alternative projects to develop alternative energy such as wind and hydropower, and promoting emerging ventures such as oil shale
development. 104

Fossil fuels are conventional power sources:
Laura Thomas Gebert, 2007 (J.D. candidate, Barry University School of Law, Barry Law Review, Spring 2007, 8 Barry L. Rev. 149. Online. Lexis. Accessed, April 28, 2008). A. Negative Effects Associated with Conventional Power Generation In addition to the potential negative economic impacts associated with dependence on petroleum-based energy sources, fossil fuelbased power plants have been linked to both environmental and health problems. 26

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Alternative Energy Means Non-Fossil Fuel Sources
Coal, oil, and natural gas are conventional energy sources, not alternative energy:
Darrin Gunkel, 2006 (Journalist), ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES, 06, 72. If using conventional energy sources such as coal, oil, and natural gas did not create pollution, there likely would be no debate about using alternative energy sources.
But the unfortunate fact is that fossil-fuel use creates greenhouse gases that many scientists believe cause global warming. To address the problem, many experts argue that nations should transition to clean, renewable energy. Indeed, many consider alternative energy synonymous with clean

energy.

Fossil fuels are conventional energy sources:
Kamaal R. Zaidi, 2007 (Albany Law Environmental Outlook Journal, 11 Alb. L. Envtl. Outlook 198. Online. Lexis. Accessed May 7, 2008). Using wind energy instead of conventional fossil fuels to power approximately 200 homes would leave around 900,000 kilograms of coal in the ground and reduce annual greenhouse emissions by 2,000 tonnes. 52

Coal and natural gas are conventional energy sources:
Kamaal R. Zaidi, 2007 (Albany Law Environmental Outlook Journal, 11 Alb. L. Envtl. Outlook 198. Online. Lexis. Accessed May 7, 2008). Aside from entailing fewer deleterious effects on the environment, the application of wind energy in the marketplace is generally meant to compete against rising costs of energy supplied by conventional fossil fuels like coal or natural gas.

Carbon intensive energy sources are conventional energy sources, not alternative energy sources.
Kamaal R. Zaidi, 2007 (Albany Law Environmental Outlook Journal, 11 Alb. L. Envtl. Outlook 198. Online. Lexis. Accessed May 7, 2008). These policies tend to push forward renewable energy and require electricity producers and suppliers to reduce carbon emissions from conventional sources such as carbon-intensive power plants (coal and natural gas) and promote carbon-free energy technologies such as wind, solar, biomass, geothermal and nuclear energy.

Gasoline and diesel oil are conventional fuels, not alternative energy sources.
Roy Nersesian, 2007 (Prof., Columbia U. Center for Energy and Marine Transportation), ENERGY FOR THE 21ST CENTURY: A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE TO CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE SOURCES, 07, 216. The U.S. Department of Energy defines alternative fuels as substantially nonpetroleum methods that enhance energy security and the environment. The list includes methanol and ethanol fuels of at least 70 percent alcohol, compressed or liquefied natural
gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, biofuels, and electricity, including solar power. All are currently more costly than gasoline and diesel oil and, more importantly, lack an infrastructure for serving customers. As Table 6.5 shows, the energy content of

alternative fuels is lower than gasoline and diesel oil, which means that motor vehicles that use alternative fuels will get lower mileage (miles per gallon) than those running on gasoline diesel fuel.

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T--Fossil Fuels Can Be Alternative Energy
Broader definitions of alternative energy would allow certain fossil fuel sources to be topical.
Christopher Simon, 2007 (Prof., Political Science, U. Nevada, Reno), ALTERNATIVE ENERGY: POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL FEASIBILITY, 07, 42. Taking a broader definition of "alternative energy," producer subsidies and tax incentive structures are used to encourage fossil fuel processing to explore gas fields for methane and propane, as well as more efficiently capture and use of coal field gases that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere— misallocated energy resources.

Tar sands and oil shale are alternative energy sources.
Jay Inslee & Bracken Hendricks, 2008 (U.S. Rep., Washington & Sr. Fellow, Center for American Progress), APOLLO'S FIRE: IGNITING AMERICA'S CLEAN-ENERGY ECONOMY, 08, 261. Not all new energy technologies answer the national goals of both energy independence and climate protection. Increasing our domestic use of alternative fossil fuels by harvesting tar sands and oil shales, for example, would help
improve our domestic energy security but would greatly worsen CO2 emissions.

Noncoventional oil sources are alternative energy.
J. Thomas Chesnutt, 2007 (Editor, Extension Tourism), ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES: OPTIONS FOR NOW AND THE FUTURE, Summer 07, 1. The primary alternative energy options under examination are combustible biofuels (gasoline and diesel); nonconventional oil derived from oil sands, shale, or bitumen;
methanol; nuclear energy; and noncombustible fuel alternatives such as hydrogen fuel cells.

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Alternative Energy Isn’t Energy Efficiency
Energy efficiency is distinct from alternative fuel sources.
Mona Hymel, 2006 (Professor of Law, University of Arizona, Loyola University Chicago Law Journal, 38 Loy. U. Chi. L.J. 43 America's over-reliance on petroleum has led the federal government to invest in energy efficiency programs and the development of alternative fuel sources. Complacency during the 1980s and 1990s, the
terrorist attack of 2001, the Iraq war, environmental problems associated with global climate change, and the recent devastation to the Louisiana coast have led to heightened concerns for energy security, a vulnerable energy infrastructure, and the need to develop alternatives. 51 This section discusses existing, proposed, and expired tax incentives that target renewable and alternative energy sources.

Energy efficiency is not alternative energy
Hunter Lovins, 2006 (Journalist), ENERGY ALTERNATIVES, 06, 37. For several decades, more efficient use has been the biggest source of new energy— not oil, gas, coal, or nuclear power. More efficient use of energy enabled Americans after the
1979 oil shock to cut oil consumption 15 percent in six years while the economy grew 16 percent. These efficiencies were achieved by more productive use of energy (better-insulated houses, better-designed lights and electric motors, and cars that are safer, cleaner, more powerful, and get more miles per gallon). By 2000, the energy service provided by that increased efficiency was 73 percent greater than total U.S. oil consumption, five times domestic oil production, three times all oil imports, and 13 times Persian Gulf oil imports. Since 1996, saved energy has been the nation's fastest-growing major

"source" of energy.

Energy Conservation is not alternative energy
Greg Pahl, 2007 (Founder, Vermont Biofuels Association), THE CITIZENPOWERED ENERGY HANDBOOK: COMMUNITY SOLUTIONS TO A GLOBAL CRISIS, 07, 287. One final tool that all communities have at their disposal is conservation. While conservation is not a renewable energy strategy per se, it nevertheless is a crucial element of the new energy economy we are about to create. Conservation is the least
expensive and least harmful strategy we have available. As noted previously, it can be used to reduce our consumption a wide range of resources, including but not limited to fossil fuels, electricity, and water. Conservation also reduces the need to build costly new electrical-generation plants and other potentially polluting sources of energy. These reductions can be achieved through a combination of initiatives— including the use of energy-efficient vehicles, appliances, building materials, and other technologies— coupled with imaginative thinking about living better with less. Given the amount of waste in our society, especially in North America, living better with less would be an easy strategy for most people to adopt, except for those at the very bottom of the economic spectrum.

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Alternative Energy Isn’t Energy Efficiency
Energy-saving devices are distinct from alternative energy.
Sam Bodman, 2006 (U.S. Secretary of Energy), OIL: OPPOSING VIEWPOINTS, 06, 144-145. There are parts of the [2005 Energy] bill that will come online in the next few months, including tax credits for consumers who install energy-saving windows and insulation, solar-powered water heaters, or energy efficient air conditioners or furnaces in their homes; as well as tax credits for consumers who purchase hybrid gasolineelectric cars. In the medium time range, the bill promotes the greater use of renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, which we expect can play a part in reducing our dependence on imported petroleum.

Energy efficiency is distinct from alternative fuel sources.
Mona Hymel, 2006 (Professor of Law, University of Arizona, Loyola University Chicago Law Journal, 38 Loy. U. Chi. L.J. 43 America's over-reliance on petroleum has led the federal government to invest in energy efficiency programs and the development of alternative fuel sources. Complacency during the 1980s
and 1990s, the terrorist attack of 2001, the Iraq war, environmental problems associated with global climate change, and the recent devastation to the Louisiana coast have led to heightened concerns for energy security, a vulnerable energy infrastructure, and the need to develop alternatives. 51 This section discusses existing, proposed, and expired

tax incentives that target renewable and alternative energy sources.

Efficiency is distinct from alternative energy:
Neil Schlager, 2006 (Journalist), ALTERNATIVE ENERGY, 06, 337. While scientists and engineers search for alternatives to fossil fuels that are clean, abundant, safe, and inexpensive, other important alternatives are available to businesses, governments, and other energy consumers: finding ways to reduce energy use and using energy more wisely and efficiently. For the foreseeable future, solar power, wind energy, and other alternatives are likely to function mainly as supplements to fossil fuels.

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Energy Efficiency is Alternative Energy
Energy efficiency is topical:
Darrin Gunkel, 2006 (Journalist), ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES, 06, 18. In exploring the question of whether or not alternative energy sources should replace conventional energy, many experts are now stressing that such a transition would not be required if Americans learned to conserve the energy they have. Or, to look at it another way, if Americans could capture the energy lost in production and consumption—which some refer to as alternative energy—they would not need to explore new energy sources. Indeed, many energy experts consider energy efficiency a kind of vast alternative energy supply, waiting to be tapped. Some
power plants, for example, are beginning to recapture energy that would otherwise be wasted in the form of escaped heat, and selling it. Energy efficiency not only reduces fuel costs but can increase profits as well. Furthermore, advocates argue that efficiency is the best way to meet growing demand, eliminating the need to build new power plants or to drill or mine for new fossil fuels. According to researchers at the Rocky Mountain Institute in Snowmass, Colorado, the technology exists today to cut energy consumption by 75 percent or more. A report from the U.S. Department of Energy asserts that mandating energyefficient appliances will save American consumers $150 billion by the year 2050.

Energy efficiency can be considered alternative energy:
Dan Chiras, 2006 (Prof., Engineering, Colorado College), THE HOMEOWNER’S GUIDE TO RENEWABLE ENERGY, 06, 259. First and foremost among alternatives is energy conservation: using what we need (the frugality principle) and using it efficiently. Energy conservation is to our energy future what the emergency room is to medicine. It can save us from crashing.

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Alternative Energy is Non-Traditional Energy
Alternative energy is non-traditional energy.
27. Francesca Broadbent, 2007 (Editor), RESPONDING TO CLIMATE CHANGE, 07. Retrieved Feb. 20, 08 from http://www.rtcc.org/2007/html/glossary.html. Alternative energy energy derived from nontraditional sources (e.g., compressed natural gas, solar, hydroelectric, wind).

Alternative energy is energy that is not popularly used.
28. Natural Resources Defense Council, 2008 GLOSSARY OF ENVIRONMENTAL TERMS, 08. Retrieved Feb. 20, 08 from http://www.nrdc.org/reference/glossary/a.asp. alternative energy - energy that is not popularly used and is usually environmentally sound, such as solar or wind energy (as opposed to fossil fuels).

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Federal Law Should Be Used to Define Alternative Energy
Governmental sources define alternative energy as energy not derived from fossil fuels.
U.S. Department of the Interior, 2007 OFFSHORE MINERALS MANAGEMENT, Oct. 24, 07. Retrieved Feb. 20, 08 from http://www.mms.gov/offshore/RenewableEnergy/Definitions.htm. Alternative energy: Fuel sources that are other than those derived from fossil fuels. Typically used interchangeably for renewable energy. Examples include: wind, solar, biomass, wave and tidal energy.

The federal government defines alternative fuels as coming from multiple sources.
Christopher Simon, 2007 (Prof., Political Science, U. Nevada, Reno), ALTERNATIVE ENERGY: POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL FEASIBILITY, 07, 42. The federal definition of alternative fuel is found in Title 42, chapter 77 §6374 of the U.S. Code: The term "alternative fuel" means methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; mixtures containing 85 percent or more (or
such other percentage, but not less than 70 percent, as determined by the Secretary, by rule, to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials; electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and any other fuel the Secretary determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits.

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Alternative Energy is Renewable Energy
Alternative energy has the distinction of being renewable energy.
Emma Carlson Berne, 2008 (Journalist), GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE, 08, 21. Alternative sources of energy include solar power, wind power, landfill gas, geothermal power, biomass power, hydrogen and fuel cells, and hydropower, though this list is far from inclusive. All of these sources share the distinction of being renewable—meaning that they do not rely on a finite source— and most are either noncarbon emitting or produce only a small amount of carbon.

Alternative energy is renewable energy.
Greg Pilon, 2006 (President of Nelson Education, Ltd.), OUR ENVIRONMENT: GLOSSARY, 06. Retrieved Feb. 20, 08 from http://environment.nelson.com/0176169040/glossary.html. Alternative energy. Renewable energy sources, such as wind, flowing water, solar energy and biomass, which create less environmental damage and pollution than fossil fuels, and offer an alternative to nonrenewable resources.

Alternative energy does not use natural resources.
J. Thomas Chesnutt, 2007 (Editor, Extension Tourism), ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES: OPTIONS FOR NOW AND THE FUTURE, Summer 07, 1. In recent years, economic and environmental concerns related to the use of fossil fuels have driven the search for alternative energy sources. Alternative energy is energy derived from sources that do not use natural resources or harm the environment.

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Alternative Energy Isn’t Renewable Energy
Alternative fuels are not necessarily renewable fuels
Barbara Boxer, 2007 (U.S. Senator, California), SENATORS’ PERSPECTIVES ON GLOBAL WARMING, Senate Hearing, Jan. 30, 07, 78. Senator, I also thank you for making the distinction between alternative fuels and renewable fuels because when the President talks about alternatives, we don’t know that they are clean. We don’t know that they will necessarily help us with the greenhouse gas emissions. So there are lots of things we have to be wary of.

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Wind is an alternative energy
Wind is an alternative energy:
Karen Povey, 2007 (Journalist), ENERGY ALTERNATIVES, 07, 55-56. One of the most common forms of alternative energy is wind power. In some respects, wind is actually a form of solar energy. As the sun shines down, it heats the atmosphere and the earth's
surface. However, variation in land formations, vegetation, and bodies of water causes uneven heating around the planet. Air in some areas, such as at the equator, warms quickly As this warm air expands and rises, cooler air rushes in to replace it. The warmed air eventually cools and sinks back to the earth. This movement of warm and cool air combined with the rotational force of the earth creates wind.

Wind is a form of alternative energy:
Neil Schlager, 2006 (Journalist), ALTERNATIVE ENERGY, 06, 84. As of early 2006, the closest thing to an alternative-energy "revolution" is what is happening in wind power: large windmills have been the cheapest, mostly rapidly-growing source of new electricity worldwide since the early 2000s.

Wind and solar are alternative energies:
Paul Roberts, 2006 (Journalist), ENERGY ALTERNATIVES, 06, 44. And what about solar and wind? As it turns out, the two most famous alternative energy technologies together generate less than half a percent of the planet's energy. Here's a
depressing fact: The entire output of every solar photovoltaic (PV) cell currently installed worldwide— about 2,000 megawatts total—is less than the output of just two conventional, coal-fired power plants.

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Solar Power is an Alternative Energy
Solar, energy, and wind are alternative energy sources:
Sarah Levete, 1997 (Journalist), SOLAR POWER, 97, 26. Many people prefer to use energy sources that do not harm the natural world. These are often called alternative energy sources. Solar energy, wind energy, and water energy are alternative energy sources.

Hydroelectric, wind, and solar are alternative energy sources.
Neil Schlager, 2006 (Journalist), ALTERNATIVE ENERGY, 06, 380. Many alternative or renewable energy sources, especially hydroelectric power, wind, and solar power, are already providing important amounts of energy or are capable of providing significant amounts of energy in the near future.

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Methanol is an alternative energy
Methanol is topical:
George Olah, 2006 (Prof., Hydrocarbon Institute at the University of Southern California & Nobel Prize Winner in Chemistry), BEYOND OIL AND GAS: THE METHANOL ECONOMY, 06, 181. Resistance to the widespread introduction of methanol by special interest groups (some of which favor agricultural ethanol), energy security
issues, governmental energy and emission policies and other political considerations also play an important role. With diminishing oil and gas reserves, a new realization for the need of

finding alternative solutions is finally achieving a foothold, and the future of methanol as a transportation fuel is entering a new period.

Methanol is an alternative fuel:
Neil Schlager, 2006 (Journalist), ALTERNATIVE ENERGY, 06, 52. Many people believe methanol has potential as a fuel. Federal and state governments have passed laws encouraging the development of alternative fuels such as methanol.

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Biofuels are alternative energy
Biofuels are alternative energy:
Sally Morgan, 2007 (Journalist), FROM WINDMILS TO HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS: DISCOVERING ALTERNATIVE ENERGY, 07, 46. A huge potential source of alternative energy is biopower (power from plants). Plants can harness the sun's energy because their leaves contain a green pigment called chlorophyll. This pigment enables plants to use light to combine carbon dioxide and water in order to make sugars. The plants use these sugars to fuel their growth and reproduction. People have cut down trees and used their wood as an energy source for thousands of years. But there are other plants that could be just as useful. Technology is making it possible for us to access this type of energy.

Biofuels are a form of alternative energy.
J. Thomas Chesnutt, 2007 (Editor, Extension Tourism), ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES: OPTIONS FOR NOW AND THE FUTURE, Summer 07, 1. Biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are alternative fuel options that feature blends of traditional fuels with various nontraditional alternatives. In the case of ethanol, the mixture is made from up to 85 percent nontraditional sources such as corn, grasses, sugar cane and animal wastes blended with gasoline.

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Alternative Means Non-Traditional
Alternative means non-traditional:
THE AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, 2006 4th Editon, 06, 54. Alternative: Existing outside traditional or established institutions or systems.

Alternative means different than usual:
Carol-June Cassidy, 2008 (Editor), CAMBRIDGE DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN ENGLISH, 2nd Ed., 08, 22. Alternative: Something that is different, esp. from what is usual; a choice.

Alternative means unconventional:
Christine Lindberg, 2007 (Managing Editor), OXFORD COLLEGE DICTIONARY, 2nd Ed., 07, 36. (NY: Sparks Publishing) Alternative: of or relating to behavior that is considered unconventional and is often seen as a challenge to traditional norms.

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Alternative Energy Is Vague
Alternative Energy is a vague term:
Christopher Simon, 2007 (Prof., Political Science, U. Nevada, Reno), ALTERNATIVE ENERGY: POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL FEASIBILITY, 07, 41. What is alternative energy'? Simply put, it is not a unified concept. The lack of clarity and consistency in definition, however, provides an opportunity for individuals and groups considering alternative energy sources for their communities, states, or nation. The lack of rigidity in definition reflects the likelihood that perspectives on alternative energy will be more likely related to a search process focusing on energy alternatives.

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Energy Means Power
Energy means the capacity for work:
THE AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, 4th Editon, 06, 591. Energy: The capacity for work or vigorous activity.

Energy means the capacity for action:
Michael Agnes, 2006 (Editor-In-Chief), WEBSTER’S NEW WORLD COLLEGE DICITONARY, 4TH EDITION, 06, 471. (Cleveland, OH: Wiley) Energy: potential forces; inherent power; capacity for vigorous action.

Energy means strength or power exerted:
Michael Agnes, 2006 (Editor-In-Chief), WEBSTER’S NEW WORLD COLLEGE DICITONARY, 4TH EDITION, 06, 471. (Cleveland, OH: Wiley) Energy: strength or power efficiently exerted.

Energy could refer to a person’s physical or mental powers:
Christine Lindberg, 2007 (Managing Editor), OXFORD COLLEGE DICTIONARY, 2nd Ed., 07, 456. (NY: Sparks Publishing) Energy: The strength and vitality required for sustained physical or mental activity; a feeling of possessing such strength and vitality; force or vigor of expression; a person’s physical and mental powers, typically as applied to a particular task or activity.

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**T—Conservation/Efficiency Isn’t Topical (Shell)**
A) Negative Interpretation: 1) Alternative energy is energy produced from sources not in widespread use at the moment.
Australian Foundation for Science, 2008 NOVA SCIENCE IN THE NEWS, Aug. 06. Retrieved Feb. 20, 08 from http://www.science.org.au/nova/005/005glo.htm. Alternative energy sources. Energy sources different from those in widespread use at the moment (which are referred to as conventional). Alternative energy usually includes solar, wind, wave, tidal, hydroelectric and geothermal energy.

2) Energy conservation is distinct from alternative energy.
Hermann Scheer, 2007 (Member of the German Bundestag), ENERGY AUTONOMY: THE ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL CASE FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY, 07, 197. The oft-cited statement, 'the greatest energy source is energy conservation', is wrong on two counts: first, energy conservation is not an energy source but instead simply reduces the demand for energy; and second, with nonrenewable energy the potential for energy conservation is always smaller than the amount of non-renewable energy's total consumption, since there is no such thing as a perpetual motion machine. 'Negawatt instead of megawatt' is how another slogan goes. In other words, try to
avoid using energy as much as possible. Well into the 1990s, environmental organizations and institutes issued energy policy recommendations in which renewable energy was not even mentioned as an active option.

B) Violation: The plan increases conservation or efficiency, not alternative energy. C) Standards: 1) Fair ground: The AFF attempts to avoid disads and solvency answers specific to alternative energy—only requiring them to defend alternative energy and not merely conservation causes a debate on the merits of alternative energy. 2) Precision: The AFF. conflates conservation with alternative energy allowing them to defend big coal or big oil—our evidence draws a clean distinction between those terms. D) T is a voter for fairness, clash & education

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**T—Nuclear Energy Is Not Topical (Shell)**
A) Negative Interpretation: 1) The federal government’s definition of alternative energy excludes nuclear power:
Christopher Simon, 2007 ALTERNATIVE ENERGY: POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL FEASIBILITY, 07, 39. The federal definition of alternative energy is best summarized by Title 26, Chapter 70, Paragraph 7701 of the Revised U.S. Code: “The term ‘alternative energy facility’ means a facility for producting electrical or thermal energy if the primary energy source for the facility is not oil, natural gas, coal, or nuclear power.”

2) Federal law should be the definitive source for what constitutes alternative energy:
Christopher Simon, 2007 (Prof., Political Science, U. Nevada, Reno), ALTERNATIVE ENERGY: POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL FEASIBILITY, 07, 41-42. Federal law is fairly definitive when it comes to alternative fuels. Alternative fuel issues are often tied directly to their primary use: transportation. Federal fuels policies bring together issues related to stored energy sources and
management, transportation infrastructure, and environmental quality regulations as well as federal monies to state and local governments.

B) Violation: the plan uses nuclear power. C) Standards: 1) Resolutional context: The neg interpretation refers to the way the federal government defines alternative energy. As the federal government is the agent providing the increase, the neg interpretation best preserves resolutional context. 2) Limits: The affirmative interp allows all different kinds of nuclear energy including light water reactors, high temperature gas reactors and breeder reactors to be topical—creating a slippery slope. D) T is a voter for fairness, clash & education

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Alternative Energy: Not Nuclear Energy
Alternative energy excludes nuclear and hydroelectric power.
Michael L. McKinney, 2007 (Professor, Environmental Science, U. Tennessee), ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE: SYSTEMS AND SOLUTIONS, 4TH EDITION, 07, 601. Alternative energy sources: Energy sources, such as solar power, wind power, and so forth, that are alternatives to the fossil fuels, nuclear power, and large-scale hydroelectric power.

Nuclear is not an alternative energy source.
Christopher Simon, 2007 (Prof., Political Science, U. Nevada, Reno), ALTERNATIVE ENERGY: POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL FEASIBILITY, 07, 56. Alternative energy is a widely supported option, which, unlike nuclear power, is seen as both "green" and safe. Another conclusion that could be
drawn from the 91 percent level of support found in the 2001 study is that the public sees these sources of energy as viable energy options. Despite the previous conclusion regarding post—September 11 concerns about energy safety, it is apparent in more recent studies that the public remains focused on alternative energy as important for the long-term protection of global climate health.

Alternative energy does not include coal, oil, and nuclear energy.
New Alternatives Fund, 2004. Retrieved Feb. 20, 08 from http://www.newalternativesfund.com/invest/invest_alternative.html. Alternative Energy includes three main groups: Renewable Energy (Solar, Wind, Hydro, Geothermal, Biomass), Fuel Cells & Hydrogen, Energy Conservation and Enabling Technologies.
Alternative energy, saves natural resources, is environmentally superior to conventional coal and oil. Wind, flowing water, energy conservation and geothermal heating are ancient but now employ new advanced technology. Technologies such as solar cells, hydrogen and fuel cells and ocean energy are relatively new. All of the technologies operate. The present cost effectiveness of some of the newest technologies varies. Alternative Energy does not include: Coal, Oil, Atomic energy.

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Alternative Energy: Not Nuclear Energy
Alternative energy does not include nuclear.
Christopher Simon, 2007 (Prof., Political Science, U. Nevada, Reno), ALTERNATIVE ENERGY: POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL FEASIBILITY, 07, 39-40. The federal definition of alternative energy is best summarized by Title 26, chapter 79, §7701 of the revised U.S. Code: "the term 'alternative energy facility' means a facility for producing electrical or thermal energy if the primary energy source for the facility is not oil, natural gas, coal, or nuclear power." The primary purpose of this definition relates to the issuance of tax credits to "alternative energy facilities," which meet certain standards as defined in Title 26,
chapter 1, §48 "Energy Credit." Tax credits are one method by which the federal government encourages the private sector to make certain economic choices; in the case of energy policy, this definition of alternative energy will have a definitive impact on how alternative energy will be defined by those individuals and corporate bodies seeking federal recognition (and benefit) by adopting a particular definition of alternative energy.

Alternative energy is energy from any source other than fossil fuels and nuclear power.
Neil Schlager, 2006 (Journalist), ALTERNATIVE ENERGY, 06, 380. Most sources of "alternative" energy—which usually means energy from any source other than fossil fuels and nuclear fission—depend on obvious, natural sources of energy. The sun bathes Earth with light, which can either be turned into electricity or used directly for light or heat. The wind and rivers are loaded with kinetic energy (the energy of matter in motion). Tides raise and lower the sea, and hold a potentially useable source of energy.

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T—AFF: Nuclear Power is Topical
Nuclear energy is an alternative energy source:
Joann Jovinelly, 2008 (Journalist), OIL: THE ECONOMICS OF FUEL, 08, 44. One of the most talked about alternative energy sources is nuclear energy, which is already used around the world to produce electricity. This is especially true in countries
such as France, where it powers roughly 77 percent of the nation's total electricity, and Belgium, where 56 percent of electrical power is derived from nuclear generators. In America, only about 20 percent of all electrical power is currently generated by atomic reactors.

Nuclear power is an alternative source of energy:
Patrick Moore, 2006 (Chief Scientist, GreenSpirit & Co-Founder of GreenPeace), ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES, 06, 76-77. nuclear power is already a proven alternative to fossil fuels . The United States relies on nuclear power for some 20 percent of its electricity production, and produces nearly one-third of global nuclear energy. Despite its current limited supply,
Indeed, nuclear energy now provides the vast majority (76.2 percent) of the U.S.'s emission-free generation. (Others include hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, biomass, and solar.) In 2002, the use of nuclear energy helped the U.S. avoid the release of 189.5 million tons of carbon into the air, if this electricity had been produced by coal. In fact, the electric sector's carbon emissions would have been 29 percent higher without nuclear power.

Nuclear is an alternative energy form:
Christopher Simon, 2007 (Prof., Political Science, U. Nevada, Reno), ALTERNATIVE ENERGY: POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL FEASIBILITY, 07, 41. At the federal level, the expansion of nuclear energy policy has been proposed as a form of alternative energy, replacing the use of hydrocarbons to produce electrical or thermal energy.

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*****Increase Violations***** **T—Increase Is Distinct From Create (Shell)**
A) Negative Interpretation: 1) Increase is distinct from create:
WORDS AND PHRASES, 1960, 381. “Increased,” as used in West’s Ann.Cal. Const. art.
12, § 11, providing that the stock and bonded indebtedness of corporations shall not be increased without the consent of the person holding the larger amount of the stock, does not include or apply to the first creation of bonded indebtedness. To give it such meaning would be to inject into the

provision the word “create.”

2) There are multiple kinds of alternative energy incentives which can be “increased,” however the affirmative chooses to change energy incentive policy.
Laura Egendorf, 2006 (Journalist), ENERGY ALTERNATIVES, 06, 14.
Though alternative energy has become more popular in recent years, it is not close to replacing oil and other fossil fuels. As of 2005, alternative fuels still make up barely 1 percent of U.S. energy use and face problems expanding. As was the case during the Industrial Revolution, cost and practicality remain issues. The government,

however, is again encouraging consumers to use energy alternatives; the Energy Policy Act of 2005 authorized tax incentives for building residential solar power systems, purchasing alternative-fuel cars, and using renewable electricity sources such as wind and biomass. As President George W. Bush explained when
he signed the bill into law, "By developing these innovative technologies, we can keep the lights running while protecting the environment and using energy produced right here at home."'

B) Violation: The plan creates a new incentive program, and doesn’t provide more money for an existing incentive program. C) Standards: 1) Fair limits: Allowing for any action that creates new alternative energy incentives allows the affirmative to establish any kind of new incentive program for any new kind of technology, making the topic virtually limitless. 2) Precision: We preserve the fundamental distinction between increase and create while the negative conflates these terms. D) T is a voter for fairness, clash & education

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**T—Increase Means a Net Increase (Shell 1/1)**
A) Negative interpretation: 1) Increase means a net increase not merely an increase in a particular type of alternative energy at the expense of another type
WORDS AND PHRASES, 2007 CUMULATIVE SUPPLEMENTARY PAMPHLET, Vol. 20A, 07, 309. Increase: Term “increase” as used in statute giving the Energy Commission modification jurisdiction over any alteration, replacement, or improvement of equipment that results in “increase” of 50 megawatts or more in electric generating capacity of existing thermal power plant, refers to “net increase” in power plant’s total generating capacity in deciding whether there has been the requisite 50-megawatt increase as a result of new units being incorporated into the plant. Department of Water & Power v. Energy Resources Conservation & Development Com., 3 Cal.Rptr.2d 289, 2 Cal.App.4th 206.

2) The United States already budgets for multiple types of alternative energy—mandating a single type of alternative energy could merely tradeoff with existing energy sources.
Samuel Bodman, 2007 (Secretary, U.S. Department of Energy), PROPOSED BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2008 FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, Sen. Energy & Natural Resources Hrg., Feb. 7, 07, 9. The FY 2008 budget for AEI includes funding for the advancement of renewable energy technologies such as biomass, wind, and solar energy, as well as hydrogen research and development. Also, AEI’s diverse energy portfolio includes accelerating the development of clean coal technology including building a near-zero atmospheric emissions coal plant known as FutureGen. AEI also includes funding for nuclear energy technologies, including the Global Nuclear Energy
Partnership, and basic science research that supports developments in many of the aforementioned technologies as well as fusion energy research.

B) Violation: The aff. plan merely trades-off with existing types of alternative energy. C) Standards: 1) Division of ground: The aff interp allows them to trade-off with other forms of alternative energy instead of defending a net increase—potentially voiding negative disads to increased alternative energy consumption.

2) Bright Line: The AFF interpretation risks blurring the meaning of increase with trade-off—only we preserve the bright line. D) T is a voter for fairness, clash & education

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Increase Means a Net Increase
Increase means a net increase
WORDS AND PHRASES CUMULATIVE SUPPLEMENTARY PAMPHLET, 2007 Vol. 20A, 07, 76. Increase: Within insurance company’s superintendent’s employment contract, “increase” meant net increase in premiums generated by agent calculated by subtracting “lapses” or premiums lost on policies previously issued. Lanier v. Trans-World Life Ins. Co., 258 So.2d 103.

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Possible to Increase From Zero
One can increase from zero:
WORDS AND PHRASES CUMULATIVE SUPPLEMENTARY PAMPHLET, 2007 Vol. 20A, 07, 76. Increase: Salary change of from zero to $12,000 and $1,200 annually for mayor and councilmen respectively was an “increase” in salary and not merely the fixing of salary. King v. Herron, 243 S.E.2d36, 241 Ga. 5.

Changes can be increases:
National Economic Council, 2006 ENERGY ALTERNATIVES, 06, 164-165. Since 2001, the [Bush] Administration has spent nearly $10 billion to develop cleaner, cheaper, and more reliable alternative energy sources. As a result, America is on the verge of breakthroughs in advanced energy technologies that could transform the way we produce and use energy. To build on this progress, the President's Advanced Energy Initiative provides for a 22% increase in funding for clean-energy technology research at the Department of Energy in two vital areas: 1. Changing the way we fuel our vehicles. We can improve our energy security through greater use of technologies that reduce oil use by improving efficiency, expansion of alternative fuels from homegrown biomass, and development of fuel cells that use hydrogen from domestic feedstocks. 2. Changing the way we power our homes and businesses. We can address high costs of natural gas and electricity by generating more electricity from clean coal, advanced nuclear power, and renewable resources such as solar and wind.

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Extending The Time on Funding Can Be an increase
Extending the length of time on funding can be an increase:
WORDS AND PHRASES CUMULATIVE SUPPLEMENTARY PAMPHLET, 2007 Vol. 20A, 07, 76. Increase: A durational modification of child support is as much an “increase” as a monetary modification. State ex rel. Jarvela v. Burke, 678 N.W.2d 68.

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******Substantially Violations******* **T—Substantial is Twenty Percent (Shell 1/1)**
A) Negative Interpretation: 1) “Substantially” means at least twenty percent
Words & Phrases, 1967, 758. “‘Substantial’ number of tenants engaged in production of goods for commerce means that at least 20 per cent of the building be occupied by tenants so engaged. Ullo vs. Smith, D.C.N.Y., 62 F. Supp. 757, 760.”

2) Substantially must be measured in comparison to the entirety of the surrounding circumstances:
Words & Phrases, 1967, 759. “‘Substantial’ is a relative term, the meaning of which is to be gauged by all the circumstances surrounding the transaction, in reference to which the expression has been used. It imports a considerable amount or value in opposition to that which is inconsequential or small.”

B) Violation: The Bush administration has spent $10 billion developing alternative energy sources—the plan must be at least a $2 billion increase to be a substantial increase in alternative energy incentives.
National Economic Council, 2006 ENERGY ALTERNATIVES, 06, 164-165. Since 2001, the [Bush] Administration has spent nearly $10 billion to develop cleaner, cheaper, and more reliable alternative energy sources. As a result, America is on the verge of breakthroughs in advanced energy technologies that could transform the way we produce and use energy.

C) Standards: 1) Fair limits: Potentially thousands of cases could increase the incentives for alternative energy by a tiny amount—the plan could deal with any tiny subset of alternative energy or a small dollar amount for an unproven and esoteric technology. 2) Bright line: Our interpretation creates a clean line between what is topical and what is non-topical. D) T is a voter for fairness, clash & education

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T—Substantial Must Be Given Meaning
Substantially must have meaning in the resolution:
Corpus Juris Secundum, 1983, 765. “Substantially. A relative and elastic term which should be interpreted in accordance with the context in which it is used. While it must be employed with care and discrimination, it must, nevertheless, be given effect.”

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Substantially Means to a Large Degree
Substantial means large in size or value:
Carol-June Cassidy, 2008 (Editor), CAMBRIDGE DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN ENGLISH, 2nd Ed., 08, 873. Substantial: Large in size, value, or importance.

Substantial means to a large degree:
Carol-June Cassidy, 2008 (Editor), CAMBRIDGE DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN ENGLISH, 2nd Ed., 08, 873. Substantially: To a large degree.

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Substantial Means Having Substance
Substantial means having substance:
Michael Agnes, 2006 (Editor-In-Chief), WEBSTER’S NEW WORLD COLLEGE DICITONARY, 4TH EDITION, 06, 1428. (Cleveland, OH: Wiley) Subsantial: of or having substance.

Substantial means material:
THE AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, 2006 4th Editon, 06, 1727. Substantial: Of, relating to, or having substance; material.

Substantial means real, not imaginary:
Michael Agnes, 2006 (Editor-In-Chief), WEBSTER’S NEW WORLD COLLEGE DICITONARY, 4TH EDITION, 06, 1428. (Cleveland, OH: Wiley) Subsantial: real; actual; true; not imaginary.

Substantial means real and tangible:
Christine Lindberg, 2007 (Managing Editor), OXFORD COLLEGE DICTIONARY, 2nd Ed., 07, 1369. (NY: Sparks Publishing) Substantial: Real and tangible rather than imaginary.

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Substantially Means Strong
Substantial means strong or firm:
Michael Agnes, 2006 (Editor-In-Chief), WEBSTER’S NEW WORLD COLLEGE DICITONARY, 4TH EDITION, 06, 1428. (Cleveland, OH: Wiley) Subsantial: strong; solid; firm; stout.

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Substantial Means Large
Substantial means considerable or ample:
THE AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, 4th Editon, 2006, 1727. Substantial: Considerable in importance, value, degree, amount, or extent: won by a substantial margin.

Substantial means ample or large:
Michael Agnes, 2006 (Editor-In-Chief), WEBSTER’S NEW WORLD COLLEGE DICITONARY, 4TH EDITION, 06, 1428. (Cleveland, OH: Wiley) Subsantial: considerable; ample; large.

Substantial means of considerable worth or value:
Michael Agnes, 2006 (Editor-In-Chief), WEBSTER’S NEW WORLD COLLEGE DICITONARY, 4TH EDITION, 06, 1428. (Cleveland, OH: Wiley) Subsantial: of considerable worth or value.

Substantial means to a great or significant extent:
Christine Lindberg, 2007 (Managing Editor), OXFORD COLLEGE DICTIONARY, 2nd Ed., 07, 1369. (NY: Sparks Publishing) Substantially: to a great or significant extent.

Substantial means of considerable importance or worth:
Christine Lindberg, 2007 (Managing Editor), OXFORD COLLEGE DICTIONARY, 2nd Ed., 07, 1369. (NY: Sparks Publishing) Substantial: of considerable importance; size; or worth

14) Substantial means important or worthwhile (96)

Substantial means to a considerable or large degree:
WORDS AND PHRASES CUMULATIVE SUPPLEMENTARY PAMPHLET, 2007, Vol. 40B, 07, 95. The term “substantially” in the ADA means considerable or to a large degree. Heiko v. Colombo Savings Bank.

Substantial means important or worthwhile:
Christine Lindberg, 2007 (Managing Editor), OXFORD COLLEGE DICTIONARY, 2nd Ed., 07, 1369. (NY: Sparks Publishing) Substantial: Important in material or social terms

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Large Alternative Energy Incentives Exist Now (for Substantial Definitions)
Billions of dollars of alternative energy incentives exist now:
Samuel Bodman, 2007 (Secretary, U.S. Department of Energy), PROPOSED BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2008 FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, Sen. Energy & Natural Resources Hrg., Feb. 7, 07, 9. At a request of $2.7 billion, $557 million above the FY 2007 budget request of $2.1 billion, the President’s Advanced Energy Initiative (AEI) will continue to support clean energy technology breakthroughs that will help improve our energy security through diversification and could help to reduce our dependence on foreign oil. The FY 2008 budget for AEI includes funding for the advancement of renewable energy technologies such as biomass, wind, and solar energy, as well as hydrogen research and development. Also, AEI’s diverse energy portfolio includes accelerating the development of clean coal technology including building a near-zero atmospheric emissions coal plant known as FutureGen. AEI also includes funding for nuclear energy technologies, including the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, and basic science research that supports developments in many of the aforementioned technologies as well as fusion energy research.

Three percent of the current energy mix comes from renewable energy:
Peter Tertzakian, 2006 (Chief Energy Economist, ARC Financial Corporation), A THOUSAND BARRELS A SECOND: THE COMING OIL BREAK POINT, 06, 172. The water molecule, H20, contains two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen. The water molecule is very stable and stubbornly strong and requires a lot of electricity to break, in a process called electrolysis. Of course we know how to generate electricity, but that gets us back to our existing energy mix for electrical power, which in the United States is 51 percent coal, 3 percent oil, 16 percent natural gas, 7 percent hydroelectric, 3 percent renewables, and 20 percent nuclear. In other words, our quest to make hydrogen a new wonder fuel brings us full circle back to our mix of existing fuels. In fact, despite all the industry pronouncements, hydrogen does not exist by itself on Earth. In order to liberate it, energy that we're trying to avoid using must be expended before hydrogen can generate electricity. In other words, hydrogen is not a new energy source at all, but actually an intermediary energy carrier that slots nicely into our existing supply chains.

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******Federal Government Isn’t the States****** T—Federal Government Isn’t the States (Shell)
A) Negative Interpretation 1) The federal government is the central government of the US:
Elizabeth Jewell, 2001 (Editor), OXFORD AMERICAN DICTIONARY, 01, 620. Federal: Of, relating to, or denoting the central government of the United States.

2) The federal government is not referring to the states:
Henry Black, 1990 (Ed.), Black’s Law Dictionary, 90, 695. “Federal government. The government of the United States of America, as distinguished from the governments of the several states.”

B) Violation: the plan uses the states C) Standards: 1) Predictability: By requiring the AFF team to defend action from the central government it prevents the NEG from having to research every state or locality in the United States. 2) Precision: The affirmative interpretation blurs the meaning of a federal form of government (one that has divided powers) with the federal government—referring to the central government in Washington, D.C. The negative interpretation best preserves precision of the term’s meaning. D) T is a voter for fairness, clash & education

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T—Federal Government Isn’t the States
Federal means relating to the central government not the states:
Elizabeth Jewell, 2001 (Editor), OXFORD AMERICAN DICTIONARY, 01, 620. Federal: Of, relating to, or denoting the central government as distinguished from the separate units constituting a federation.

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*****In Violations***** **T—Can’t Take International Action (Shell 1/1)**
A) Negative Interpretation: 1) “In” means “within”
Words & Phrases, 1967, 16 . “The word ‘in’ in its most usual significance and popular use means inclosed or surrounded by limits as in a room.”

2) “United States” means the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
CORPUS JURIS SECUNDUM, 1953, 8. In a territorial or geographic sense, the term “United States” as used in the Constitution with respect to the provision that duties shall be uniform throughout the United States, includes the states whose people united to form the Constitution, and such as have since been added to the union on an equality with them, as well as the District of Columbia, but not unorganized territorial possessions. B) Violation: The plan takes an international action. C) Negative Interpretation 1) Precision: In means only in a given area. Allowing the AFF to go beyond the scope of the US causes the AFF to violate the standard that the plan must be enclosed by US territory. 2) Best limits: The AFF justifies plans that give energy incentives abroad to any nation on the planet—only our interp prevents a massive explosion of the topic. 3) Extra-topicality is illegitimate: a) Going beyond the scope of the resolution proves the resolution is insufficient to solve—justifying a neg. ballot. b) Severance is illegit: the damage has been done. We shouldn’t have to run and win an argument to get them back to square one. D) T is a voter for fairness, clash & education

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T—In means within extensions
In means within or inside of:
Words & Phrases, 1967, 16 . “Webster defines ‘in’ to mean within, inside of. It is held that where, by the terms of a mortgage, it is payable ‘in’ one year from date, it can be paid at any time during the year.”

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*****Federal Government Definitions*****
Interstate compacts can be the federal government:
Michael Agnes, 2006 (Editor-In-Chief), WEBSTER’S NEW WORLD COLLEGE DICITONARY, 4TH EDITION, 06, 519-520. (Cleveland, OH: Wiley) federal: of or formed by a compact; designating or of a union of states, groups, etc. in which each member agrees to subordinate its governmental power to that of the central authority in certain specified common affairs.

A government with divided powers is a federal government:
Bryan Garner, 2006 (Editor-in-chief), BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY, 3rd Paperback Edition, 06, 283. Federal: Of or relating to a system of associated governments with a vertical division of governments into national and regional components having difference responsibilities.

A government with independent states is a federal government:
Christine Lindberg, 2007 (Managing Editor), OXFORD COLLEGE DICTIONARY, 2nd Ed., 07, 501-502. (NY: Sparks Publishing) Federal: Having or relating to a system of government in which several states form a unity but remain independent in internal affairs.

A federal government has divided but overlapping responsibilities
Susan Ellis, 2006 Wild, (Editor), WEBSTER’S NEW WORLD LAW DICTIONARY, 06, 141. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley) Federal: Pertaining to a system of government such as that adopted in the United States, in which a national government oversees a federal of local governments, with distinctly designed but overlapping responsibilities.

A federal government has states give up some power to a federal authority
Carol-June Cassidy, 2008 (Editor), CAMBRIDGE DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN ENGLISH, 2nd Ed., 08, 308. Federal: A system of government in which states unite and give up some of their powers to a central authority.

The federal government is a union where states give up some power:
THE AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, 2006 4th Editon, 06, 647. Federal: Of, relating to, or being a form of government in which a union of states recognizes the sovereignty of a central authority while retaining certain residual powers of government.

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