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T-KO DDI ‘08

JWu

We win by Technical Knock Out!

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9 ALTERNATIVES, 5 INCENTIVES 1NC
A. Interpretations: Incentives in the context of USFG policy is 5 things Tom, Dedeurwaerdere, Centre for Philosophy of Law, Université Catholique de Louvain 3- “Bioprospection: From the
Economics of Contracts to Reflexive Governance,” www.bioecon.ucl.ac.uk/4th_paper/Dedeurwaerdere.doc)

Here I employ the broad definition of incentives used in the OECD handbook on incentive measures, covering both direct and
indirect incentives: “The incentive measures presented can be roughly categorised in the following eight groups: fees, charges and environmental taxes; market creation and assignment of well-defined property rights; reform or removal of adverse subsidies; regulations and access restrictions; environmental funds and public financing; information provision and capacity building; economic valuation of environmental benefits and costs; and stakeholder involvement and institution building. Only the first five groups actually comprise “incentive measures” as traditionally understood, i.e. the implementation or abolition of an administrative act by an authority, usually the central government, with a legal grounding and the explicit objective to induce a certain behaviour” (OECD, 1999, p. 73). In this discussion, I have included information provision, stakeholder involvement, economic valuation, and capacity and institution building under the evolutionary approaches to incentive politics, while other approaches might have chosen to group them under framework building (OECD, 1999, p. 97) or reflexive implementation processes (Ibid, p. 14; p. 73).

2. Alternative energy are 9 things, that exclude fossil and nuclear energy

Republic of Korea, 97

(“Act on the Promotion of the Development and Use of Alternative Energy.”, http://faolex.fao.org/docs/texts/kor51024.doc) 1.The term "alternative energy" means other energy resources than petroleum, coal, atomic energy, or natural gas, which fall under one of the following subparagraphs: (a) Solar energy; (b) Bio energy; (c) Wind force; (d) Small hydraulic power; (e) Fuel cells; (f) Energy from liquefied or gasified coal, and from gasified heavy residual oil; (g) Energy from the ocean; (h) Energy from waste treatment; (i) Geothermal energy

B. Violation—the aff ________________________________________________ C. Vote neg for education, fairness, and jurisdiction 1. We allow ample ground on both sides—the neg has 9 energy links and 5 mechanism links to cover all 45 of plans the aff can choose from 2. Brightline limits; our sources clearly defines what is and is not alternative energy, best for clarity and resolving jurisdiction 3. Our sources are in context of government policies, most relevant to policymaking 4. Topic education—get to the heart of the topic; we advance clash on "alternative energy" and "incentives"

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T—IN THE U.S. 1NC
A. Interpretations "In" means within the bounds of American Heritage, 6 4th edition
In: a. Within the limits, bounds, or area of: was hit in the face; born in the spring; a chair in the garden.

US is the 50 states Random House unabridged, 6
United States -a republic in the N Western Hemisphere comprising 48 conterminous states, the District of Columbia, and Alaska in North America, and Hawaii in the N Pacific. 267,954,767; conterminous United States, 3,022,387 sq. mi. (7,827,982 sq. km); with Alaska and Hawaii, 3,615,122 sq. mi. (9,363,166 sq. km). Capital: Washington, D.C. Abbreviation: U.S., US

B. Violation— They don't increase incentives for alternative energy in the United States C. Vote negative for fairness, education, and jurisdiction 1. Explodes the limits to increasing incentives in any country; can claim advantages off relations or local issues of any of them 2. Moots neg ground to US economy, politics, and international counterplans

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EXT. UNITED STATES
The United States is areas bounded by current treaties National Atlas of the United States, US Dept of Interior, 4-29-08 http://www.nationalatlas.gov/boundaries.html
Boundaries delineate the extent of areas. They define regions as having characteristics that differ from their neighbors. They divide one area from another. Boundaries are devised by humans or they follow natural features. The conterminous United States is divided from Canada by an international boundary that was the result of treaties with Britain. The Pacific Ocean sets a natural boundary around Hawaii. Private properties, school districts, counties, Congressional Districts, postal and telephone area codes; these are all examples of regions divided, delineated, and defined by manmade boundaries. The boundaries of the United States were determined as a result of treaties, purchases, colonial charters, and acts of Congress. A property boundary is defined by a property deed and survey. Local administrative boundaries are typically decided by local and regional government organizations. Imaginary lines of latitude and longitude are also frequently used by humans to define boundaries. Of course, any boundary set by men and women can be changed by them as well.

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Other US Definitions
United States refers to Mexico Britannica, 08 www.britannica.com/bps/search?query=united+states
United Mexican States : see Mexico country of North America and the third largest country in Latin America, after Brazil and Argentina. Although there is little truth to the long-held stereotype of Mexico as a slow-paced land of subsistence farmers, Mexican society is characterized by extremes of wealth and poverty, with a limited middle class wedged between an elite cadre of landowners and investors on the one hand and masses of rural and urban poor on the other.

The United States refers to the federal government Wordnet 6 Princeton University
United States, n. the executive and legislative and judicial branches of the federal government of the United States [syn: United States government]

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POSITIVE INCENTIVES 1NC
A. interpretations 1. Incentives must be positive rewards USAID, no date Quality Assurance Project, Healthcare and Workforce improvement, "Glossary of useful terms",
http://www.qaproject.org/methods/resglossary.html

Incentive A tangible or intangible reward that is designed to motivate a person or group to behave in a certain way. For example, in an effort to reduce fertility, community health workers may be given a small amount of money for each woman they refer to the health clinic for family planning services. 2. They must be given before action, not punishment after action University of Washington, 07 "Glossary of commonly used compensation terms" http://www.washington.edu/admin/hr/ocpsp/prostaff/researchsciengr/glossary.html
Incentive (pay plans): Pay plans designed to reward the accomplishment of specific results. Awards are usually tied to expected results identified at the beginning of the performance cycle. The plans can be individual, group, companywide, or a combination of any. Incentive plans are "forward" looking; bonus plans look "backward."

B. Violation—the aff doesn't offer a reward, instead they (modify a law, promise punishment, ...) C. Vote neg for education and fairness. 1. Limits—opens the floodgates to doing literally anything to promote alternative energy; they could bomb Iranian oil fields or shoot the CEOs of major petrol companies to increase development for alternative energy 2. Ground—incentives that invest in alternative energy are key to spending and politics 3. Predictability—there are any number of threats; this moots ability to get links off of the type of incentive

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EXT: INCENTIVES MUST BE POSITIVE
Incentives – even broadly defined – must be positive – they exclude negative penalties
D. Knowler, 99 - UN Food and Agricultural Organization “Incentive Systems for Natural Resource Management: The Role of Indirect Incentives”, ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/007/x2247e/x2247e00.pdf

1.8 Incentives may be broadly defined, as in “everything that motivates or stimulates people to act” (Giger 1996). What
is important about such a broad definition is that it allows for incentives to be of either a passive or an active nature. In the former case, we can think of incentives as signals in the producer’s environment which influence decision-making about farming practices, whether intended or otherwise. Many macroeconomic policies, being remote from the producer and targeted at objectives other than promoting sustainable farming practices, would fit into this category. In contrast, the notion of ‘active’ refers to a government’s ability to actually design or modify policies with a desire to bring about certain conservation outcomes. McNeely (1988), for example, refers to this concept of incentive when he defines incentives as “any inducement which is specifically intended to incite or motivate governments, local people, and international organizations” (p.38-39). We draw this distinction because of the need to consider both active and passive aspects when assessing the importance of incentives for NRM. While governments may be most concerned with the design of good policies aimed at improving NRM, they need to be cognizant of the sometimes counterproductive influence exerted by a poor incentive structure, in the

1.9 McNeely (1988) also makes the useful distinction between incentives, disincentives and perverse incentives. In contrast to incentives, which we have described above, disincentives are purposely designed to discourage particular behaviours and can include taxes, fines and various other penalties or moral suasion.
passive sense.

DEFINITION: INCENTIVES MUST BE A REWARD FOR ACTION RANDOM HOUSE 2006
something that incites or tends to incite to action or greater effort, as a reward offered for increased productivity.

Incentives are positive; distinct from disincentives E.S. Geller, 1996. Working Safe: How to Help People Actively Care for Health and Safety Incentives vs. disincentives Activators that signal the availability of a consequence are either incentives or disincentives. An incentive announces to an individual or group, in written or oral form, the availability of a reward. This pleasant consequence follows the occurrence of a certain behavior or an outcome of one or more behaviors. In contrast, a disincentive is an activator announcing or signaling the possibility of receiving a penalty. This unpleasant consequence is contingent on the occurrence of a particular undesirable behavior Incentives are positive benefits
DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY no date – www.sustainable.doe.gov/iutil2.htm A benefit or consideration, financial or otherwise, given to induce specific action.

Incentives are beneficial rewards Brightfield Group for Business Planning, 06 "Supply Chain Glossary" http://www.bridgefieldgroup.com/bridgefieldgroup/glos4.htm
incentive- Financial compensation, public recognition or other benefits used to reward higher levels of performance and/or new ideas or contributions.

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INCENTIVES NOT MANDATORY 1NC
A. Interpretation Incentive are positive inducements – this excludes requirements
- professor of Special Education and Courtesy Professor of Law, Co-Director of the Beach Center on Families and Disability, University of Kansas 01 (30 J.L. & Educ. 445 (2001), “IDEA, Positive Behavioral Supports, and School Safety,” Hein Online) The term "incentive" is different from the term "requirement." An incentive is a positive reason for acting; a requirement is a legal duty to act. The difference in meaning is consistent with our argument above that the PBS provisions do create a presumption in favor of that technology.
Ann

Turnbull et al,

B. Violation—the plan mandates an increase in alternative energy, rather than offering optional incentives C. Vote neg for fairness and education 1. Ground—they moot mandate counterplans, mechanism counterplans, and econ and politics disads with links off incentivizing the private industry 2. Topic education: mandating the mechanism moots the word "incentives" in the resolution, decreasing unique value of this year's topic 3. limits—there's only 1 case topical: mandating increases in alternative energy. We'd be debating one case the entire year, not learning about anything new

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EXT. INCENTIVES NOT MANDATORY
IN POLICYMAKING, INCENTIVES DIFFER FROM COMMAND AND CONTROL
HARRINGTON AND MORGENSTERN 2004 – http://www.rff.org/Documents/RFF_Resources_152_ecoincentives.pdf RESOURCES FOR THE FUTURE, FALL/WINTER

Now, decades after the first environmental laws were passed in this country, policymakers face many choices when seeking to solve environmental problems. Will taxing polluters for their discharges be more effective than fining them for not meeting certain emissions standards? Will a regulatory agency find it less costly to enforce a ban or oversee a system of tradable permits? Which strategy will reduce a pollutant the quickest? Clearly, there are no “one-size-fits-all” answers. Many factors enter into the decision to favor either policies that lean more toward economic incentives (EI) and toward direct regulation, commonly referred to as command-and-control (CAC) policy. Underlying determinants include a country’s governmental and regulatory infrastructure, along with the nature of the environmental problem itself. Even with these contextual factors to consider, we thought it would be useful to compare EI and CAC policies and their outcomes in a real-world setting. To do this, we looked at six environmental problems that the United States and at least one European country dealt with differently (see box on page 14.) For each problem, one approach was more of an EI measure, while the other relied more on CAC. For example, to reduce point-source industrial water pollution, the Netherlands implemented a system of fees for organic pollutants (EI), while the United States established a system of guidelines and permits (CAC). It turned out, in fact, that most policies had at least some elements of both approaches, but we categorized them as EI or CAC based on their dominant features. We then asked researchers who had previously studied these policies on either side of the Atlantic to update or prepare new case studies. We analyzed the 12 case studies (two for each of the six environmental problems) against a list of hypotheses frequently made for or against EI and CAC, such as which instrument is more effective or imposes less administrative burden.

Command and control regulations are not incentives
David Driesen, Assistant Professor of Law,

Syracuse University College of Law, J.D., Yale University Spring 1998, “Is emissions trading an economic incentive program?: Replacing the command and control/economic incentive dichotomy”, Washington and Lee Law review http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3655/is_199804/ai_n8791954/print Rather than define economic incentives, scholars employ a conventional dichotomy that contrasts "command and control" regulations (rules that dictate precisely how a polluter must clean-up) with economic incentives.5 They claim that command and control regulations work inefficiently, discourage innovation, and fail to provide continuous incentives to reduce pollution, but that emissions trading and other economic incentive programs overcome these problems.

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AFF: INCENTIVES INCLUDE NEGATIVE
Incentives are either financial incentives or regulations Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency, 07 (North Carolina State University,
http://www.dsireusa.org/faq/faq.cfm?&CurrentPageID=9&EE=1&RE=1)

What types of renewable energy incentives does DSIRE track?
The DSIRE project tracks information on state, utility, local, and selected federal incentives that promote the use of renewable energy technologies. For more information on federal incentives, see What federal incentives does DSIRE track. On the DSIRE website, incentives are grouped into two categories as follows: (1)Financial Incentives: tax incentives, grants, loans, rebates, industry recruitment, bond programs, and production incentives. (2) Rules, Regulations, & Policies: public benefits funds, renewables portfolio standards, net metering, interconnection, extension analysis, generation disclosure, contractor licensing, equipment certification, solar/wind access laws, and construction & design standards (including building energy codes and energy standards for public buildings), required utility green power options, and green power purchasing/aggregation policies.

Even Congress and courts use incentives to include disincentives Fred Harris, professor of law at the University of Illinois 89 – (49 La. L. Rev. 1315 (1988-1989) “Automobile Emissions
Control Inspection and Maintenance Program: Making It More Palatable to Coerced Participants”, Hein Online)

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T—INCENTIVES FINANCIAL 1NC
A. Incentives must be financial

Energy Information Administration, 01 (US Department of Energy, “Renewable Energy 2000: Issues and Trends”, February, http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/ftproot/renewables/06282000.pdf)
The term “incentive” is used instead of “subsidy.” Incentives include subsidies in addition to other Government actions where the Government’s financial assistance is indirect. A subsidy is, generally, financial assistance granted by the Government to firms and individuals. B. Violation—plan gives non-financial incentives C. Vote negative for education and fairness Predictable limits—they open the floodgates to allow any kind of incentive; it's our case list times infinity 2. Case list—we allow financial incentives for solar, wind, geothermal, or hydropowered energy. They allow giving ponies to companies that use wind power; putting CEOs of gas companies in jail; shooting people that burn coal in their homes 3. Focused topic education—we get in-depth about alternative energy, rather than useless mechanism debates 4. Unpredictable ground is the same as no ground—we have no links
1.

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RENEWABLE ENERGY 1NC
A. Interpretation Alternative energies must be renewable US department of interior, 7/16/08 "Alternative energy programs, definitions" Minerals Management Service
http://www.mms.gov/offshore/AlternativeEnergy/Definitions.htm Alternative energy: Fuel sources that are other than those derived from fossil fuels. Typically used interchangeably for renewable energy. Examples include: wind, solar, biomass, wave and tidal energy.

B. Violation—x isn't renewable C. Vote neg for competitive equity and jurisdiction
A.

Ground—our disads link to switching off from non-renewable energies; their aff moots these disads Topic education—renewable versus nonrenewable is the heart of the topic; aff must affirm renewable energy Predictable limits—they allow alternative uses of coal, oil, and gas; not neg burden to indict fossil fuels Case list—we allow 5 cases; they allow oil shale, reprocessing fuel; gas efficiency; synthetic hydrocarbons; methane hydrates, and other sketchy things

B.

C.

D.

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ALTERNATIVE ENERGY = RENEWABLE
Alternative energies must be renewable US department of interior, 7/16/08 "Alternative energy programs, definitions" Minerals Management Service
http://www.mms.gov/offshore/AlternativeEnergy/Definitions.htm Alternative energy: Fuel sources that are other than those derived from fossil fuels. Typically used interchangeably for renewable energy. Examples include: wind, solar, biomass, wave and tidal energy.

Alternative energies are renewable Pearson Education, 01 "Glossary" http://wps.pearsoned.co.uk/wps/media/objects/2768/2834452/glossary/glossary.html
alternative energy Energy obtained from sources other than fossil fuels or nuclear power. The sources generally have low pollution implications and use renewable resources; for example biogas, geothermal energy, hydroelectric power, solar energy, tidal power, and wind power. (Chapter 10)

Alternative energy is renewable Nelson Education, no date, Glossary, Our Environment: A Canadian Perspective, 2nd edition
http://www.environment.nelson.com/0176169040/glossary.html alternative energy. Renewable energy sources, such as wind, flowing water, solar energy and biomass, which create less environmental damage and pollution than fossil fuels, and offer an alternative to nonrenewable resources.

RENEWABLE ENERGY DEFINITION
US department of interior, 7/16/08 "Alternative energy programs, definitions" Minerals Management Service http://www.mms.gov/offshore/AlternativeEnergy/Definitions.htm Renewable energy: Energy resources that are naturally replenishing but flow-limited. They are virtually inexhaustible in duration but limited in the amount of energy that is available per unit of time. Renewable energy resources include: biomass, hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, ocean thermal, wave action, and tidal action. (EIA Glossary)

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ALTERNATIVE ENERGY =\= RENEWABLE
Alternative energy doesn't have to be renewable
Torridge district council glossary, no date, http://www.torridge.gov.uk/onlineplan/written/cpt28.htm Alternative Energy Energy generated from alternatives to fossil fuel. Need not be renewable

Alternative energy is distinct from renewable energy

Hasan, no date - President of the Altenews Company (Russell, “Introduction to Alternative Energy,” http://www.altenews.com/Alternative%20Energy%20Overview.pdf)
An overview of the various kinds of alternative energy follows. At the outset we must differentiate between alternative energy, and renewable energy. Alternative energy refers to any form of energy which is an alternative to the traditional fossil fuels of oil, natural gas and coal. Renewable energy are the forms of alternative energy that are renewed by the natural processes of the Earth, such as sunlight from the sun or wind from the air, and so are environmentally friendly. We cover all alternative energies, but we will begin the overview with the renewable energy sources.

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EXT. NUCLEAR IS NONRENEWABLE
NUCLEAR IS NONRENEWABLE US department of interior, 7/16/08 "Alternative energy programs, definitions" Minerals Management Service
http://www.mms.gov/offshore/AlternativeEnergy/Definitions.htm Nonrenewable fuels: Fuels that cannot be easily made or "renewed," such as oil, natural gas, coal and nuclear.

Alternative energy is renewable energy – excludes uranium because it’s a single use resource ABS Alaskan, 08 (“Alternative Energy Information”, http://www.absak.com/library/alternative-renewable-energy)
The term "alternative energy" (also: renewable energy) encompasses a variety of power generation sources. Generally, it refers to electrical power derived from "renewable" resources such as solar or wind energy, as opposed to "singleuse" resources such as coal or uranium. The most common forms of alternative energy available for homeowner use today are solar power, wind power and "micro-hydro" power.

Alternative energy isn't renewable—this is from a policy bill
Brian Lyman, 2-14-08, Mobile Register Alabama Power Lawmakers are considering a bill that would extend tax breaks to alternative energy power plants - particularly those favored by Alabama Power Co. - but the head of the state's influential teachers union says he is worried the measure might hurt the cash-strapped Education Trust Fund. The bill, sponsored by state Rep. William Thigpen, D-Tuscaloosa, would give noneducational sales tax breaks to those building coal gasification, coal liquefaction or hydropower projects started between 2012 and 2018. Thigpen said Wednesday that the legislation would be a "positive influence" on the state's school budget. "For the last 15 years, Alabama has had the door open for industrial development," Thigpen told the House Education Appropriations committee. "It's brought a lot of money into the ETF." Committee members delayed action on the bill Wednesday over concerns about its potential impact on the Education Trust Fund. The bill is part of a larger legislative package from the Joint Legislative Committee on Energy Policy. It specifically defines "alternative energy resources" as coal gasification or liquefaction, nuclear and advanced fossil-based generation. Solar, wind, geothermal and other power sources are defined as "renewables" in the legislation and would not qualify for the proposed abatements.

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NUCLEAR ISN'T T 1NC
A. Interpretations ___ Alternative energy excludes nuclear
U.S. Code, 4/25/08, TITLE 26. INTERNAL REVENUE CODE, 26 USCS § 7701 (D) Alternative energy facility. For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term 'alternative energy facility' means a facility for producing electrical or thermal energy if the primary energy source for the facility is not oil, natural gas, coal, or nuclear power.

___ This may seem obvious, but incentives are not DIS-incentives
Geller, E S. Working Safe: How to Help People Actively Care for Health and Safety. CRC P, 1996. Google Books. 2 July 2008 Incentives vs. disincentives Activators that signal the availability of a consequence are either incentives or disincentives. An incentive announces to an individual or group, in written or oral form, the availability of a reward. This pleasant consequence follows the occurrence of a certain behavior or an outcome of one or more behaviors. In contrast, a disincentive is an activator announcing or signaling the possibility of receiving a penalty. This unpleasant consequence is contingent on the occurrence of a particular undesirable behavior

B. Violation – the plan __(modifies law, changes tonnage limit, regulates)__ for nuclear energy C. T is a voter for fairness and jurisdiction 1. All forces fall into either incentive or disincentive, allowing disincentives opens the floodgates. Unpredictable ground is the same as no ground. 2. Real world—our definition is from US Code, it's normal means for policymaking 3. Trade-off and politics disad links are specific to alternative energy; using nuclear moots neg ground

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EXT: NUCLEAR ISN'T ALTERNATIVE ENERGY
Alternative energy excludes nuclear energy and all fossil fuels. Bertinelli, 87 - Judge (William, Court of Appeal of California, First Appellate District, Division Four, 195 Cal. App. 3d 982; 241
Cal. Rptr. 215; 1987 Cal. App. LEXIS 2255, 10/28, lexis) Public Resources Code section 26003, subdivision (d), defines alternative energy sources as including geothermal sources of energy and any other source of energy, "the efficient use of which will reduce the use of fossil and nuclear fuels.

Alternative energy doesn't include nuclear energy Republic of Korea, 97 (“Act on the Promotion of the Development and Use of Alternative Energy.”,
http://faolex.fao.org/docs/texts/kor51024.doc) The definition of terms used in this Act shall be as follows: 1.The term "alternative energy" means other energy resources than petroleum, coal, atomic energy, or natural gas, which fall under one of the following subparagraphs: (a) Solar energy; (b) Bio energy; (c) Wind force; (d) Small hydraulic power; (e) Fuel cells; (f) Energy from liquefied or gasified coal, and from gasified heavy residual oil; (g) Energy from the ocean; (h) Energy from waste treatment; (i) Geothermal energy

NUCLEAR ISN'T ALT EN Pearson Education, 01 "Glossary" http://wps.pearsoned.co.uk/wps/media/objects/2768/2834452/glossary/glossary.html
alternative energy Energy obtained from sources other than fossil fuels or nuclear power. The sources generally have low pollution implications and use renewable resources; for example biogas, geothermal energy, hydroelectric power, solar energy, tidal power, and wind power. (Chapter 10)

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Aff: NUCLEAR IS AE
The G8 defines alternative energy to include nuclear and hydrogen NationMaster encyclopedia, 06 "32nd g8 summit" http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/32nd-G8-summit
Because the Group of Eight is primarily an economic forum between the global economic powerhouses, the focus of the G8 Summit is discussion of economic issues. Some of the pressing items on the agenda: [3] • Open trade between Russia and the United States, including discussion of Russian entry into the World Trade Organization • Multibillion dollar aircraft manufacturing contracts, in light of strategy shifts at Airbus and Boeing and worsening airline business performance • Free energy markets, especially regarding Russia and former Soviet republics, as well as petroleum from the Middle East o Nigeria, Venezuela, and the Persian Gulf regions have all had reduced energy exports in the past weeks due to various political and technical issues o Rights for exploration and exploitation of natural gas in Russia and the North Atlantic Ocean / Baltic Sea o Alternative energy forms, especially relaxing nuclear power regulations; and development of hydrogen as an economically viable energy platform

Nuclear is alternative energy Random House, 06 (http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=alternative+energy&r=66
alternative energy –noun energy,as solar, wind, or nuclear energy, that can replace or supplement traditional fossil-fuel sources, as coal, oil, and natural gas.

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INCREASE MUST BE EXISTING 1NC
A. Increase means increasing pre-existing Jeremiah Buckley et al, Attorney, Amicus Curiae Brief, Safeco Ins. Co. of America et al v. Charles Burr et al,06
http://supreme.lp.findlaw.com/supreme_court/briefs/06-84/06-84.mer.ami.mica.pdf) First, the court said that the ordinary meaning of the word “increase” is “to make something greater,” which it believed should not “be limited to cases in which a company raises the rate that an individual has previously been charged.” 435 F.3d at 1091. Yet the definition offered by the Ninth Circuit compels the opposite conclusion. Because “increase” means “to make something greater,” there must necessarily have been an existing premium, to which Edo’s actual premium may be compared, to determine whether an “increase” occurred. Congress could have provided that “adverse action” in the insurance context means charging an amount greater than the optimal premium, but instead chose to define adverse action in terms of an “increase.” That definitional choice must be respected, not ignored. See Colautti v. Franklin, 439 U.S. 379, 392-93 n.10 (1979) (“[a] definition which declares what a term ‘means’ . . . excludes any meaning that is not stated”). Next, the Ninth Circuit reasoned that because the Insurance Prong includes the words “existing or applied for,” Congress intended that an “increase in any charge” for insurance must “apply to all insurance transactions – from an initial policy of insurance to a renewal of a long-held policy.” 435 F.3d at 1091. This interpretation reads the words “existing or applied for” in isolation. Other types of adverse action described in the Insurance Prong apply only to situations where a consumer had an existing policy of insurance, such as a “cancellation,” “reduction,” or “change” in insurance. Each of these forms of adverse action presupposes an already-existing policy, and under usual canons of statutory construction the term “increase” also should be construed to apply to increases of an already-existing policy. See Hibbs v. Winn, 542 U.S. 88, 101 (2004) (“a phrase gathers meaning from the words around it”) (citation omitted).

B. Violation: the plan creates a new incentive/ alternative energy C. Vote neg for education, jurisdiction and fairness 1. They open the limits, opening the floodgate to increasing any type of incentive or alternative energy. There are limited existing incentives/AE, but infinite types of new ones 2. Ground—we wouldn't research links to energies that don't exist, or the research burden would be overwhelming 3. Predictable ground is key to clash and debatibility

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SOLAR PANELS / BIOMASS ARE A.E.
SOLAR PANELS ARE ALTERNATIVE ENERGY Frontdoor.com, 3-27-08 "Green terms and tidbits," http://www.frontdoor.com/news/article/1547
Alternative Energy -- Energy from sources other than fossil fuels (coal, natural gas), such as renewable sources like wind, sun, or running water. Solar panels are a common way to collect the sun's energy.

BIOMASS IS ALTERNATIVE ENERGY Nelson Education, no date, Glossary, Our Environment: A Canadian Perspective, 2nd edition
http://www.environment.nelson.com/0176169040/glossary.html alternative energy. Renewable energy sources, such as wind, flowing water, solar energy and biomass, which create less environmental damage and pollution than fossil fuels, and offer an alternative to nonrenewable resources.

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AE HELPS ENVIRON
ALTERNATIVE ENERGY PRODUCES NO EMISSIONS Meredith Christiansen is Product Manager, Neenah Paper. The Greenspeak Glossary is part of Neenah Green, a multiheaded initiative to alleviate climate chang. 4-10-08 http://s220352448.onlinehome.us/2008/04/10/greenspeak-glossary/
Alternative energy: Energy derived from sources that have little or no impact on the environment and produce no net greenhouse gas emissions in generating electricity. Such sources include wind and solar.

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY USES UP NO NATURAL RESOURCES WORDNET, at Princeton University, 06 http://wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=alternative%20energy
(n) alternative energy (energy derived from sources that do not use up natural resources or harm the environment)

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY MUST HELP ENVIRONMENT BC Science Clusters Directory, Glossary, 11-3-05 http://www.vpl.ca/bcscienceclusters/glossary.html
ALTERNATIVE ENERGY includes all energy sources and energy technologies that minimize environmental impacts relative to conventional hydrocarbon resources and technology.

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INCENTIVES MUST HAVE OUTCOME
Incentives must have a linked outcome Grant, 02 - professor of political science at Duke University (Ruth, “THE ETHICS OF INCENTIVES: HISTORICAL ORIGINS
AND CONTEMPORARY UNDERSTANDINGS,” Economics and Philosophy, 18 (2002) 111, proquest) We are now in a position to identify a core understanding or a

distinctive meaning of the concept of incentives; what we might call incentives `strictly speaking'. Incentives are employed in a particular form of negotiation. An offer is made which is an extrinsic benefit or a bonus, neither the natural or automatic consequence of an action nor a deserved reward or compensation. The offer is usually made in the context of an authority relationship ± for example, adult/child, employer/employee, government/citizen or government/organization. The offer is a discrete prompt expected to elicit a particular response. Finally and most importantly, the offer is intentionally designed to alter the status quo by motivating a person to choose differently than he or she would in its absence. If the desired action would result naturally or automatically, no incentive would be necessary. An incentive is the added element without which the desired action would not occur.

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ALTERNATIVE ENERGY MUST BE NOT MAINSTREAM
Alternative energies aren't mainstream Natural resources defense council, 08 http://www.nrdc.org/reference/glossary/a.asp
alternative energy - energy that is not popularly used and is usually environmentally sound, such as solar or wind energy (as opposed to fossil fuels).

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AE NOT FOSSIL FUELS
ALTERNATIVE ENERGY IS NOT FOSSIL FUELS Information Architects, "an Environmental

dictionary for beginners" no date http://www.iagreen.com/glossary.htm

Alternative Energy: Energy from a source other than the conventional fossil-fuel sources of oil, natural gas and coal (i.e., wind, running water, the sun). Also referred to as "alternative fuel."

Alternative energy is not fossil fuels
US department of interior, 7/16/08 "Alternative energy programs, definitions" Minerals Management Service http://www.mms.gov/offshore/AlternativeEnergy/Definitions.htm Alternative energy: Fuel sources that are other than those derived from fossil fuels. Typically used interchangeably for renewable energy. Examples include: wind, solar, biomass, wave and tidal energy.

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RESOLVED DEFINITIONS
Resolved requires a definite course of action WordNet 06 (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Resolved, adj.) determined; "she was firmly resolved to be a doctor"; "single-minded in his determination to stop smoking" [syn: single-minded] Dictionary.com 06 (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Resolved, adj.) firm in purpose or intent; determined MSN Encarta 07 (http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861700940/resolved.html, adj) determined: determined in purpose Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary Online 07 (http://dictionary.cambridge.org/define.asp?dict=CALD&key=67258, adj.) determined Dictionary.com 06 (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Resolved, verb) to come to a definite or earnest decision about; determine (to do something): I have resolved that I shall live to the full. Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary Online 07 (http://dictionary.cambridge.org/define.asp?dict=CALD&key=67258, verb) to make a decision formally or with determination American Heritage Dictionary 07 (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Resolved, verb) To make a firm decision about.

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THE DEFINITIONS
The implies a particular, definite noun. Dictionary.com 06 (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/The, article) (used, esp. before a noun, with a specifying or particularizing effect, as opposed to the indefinite or generalizing force of the indefinite article a or an): the book you gave me; Come into the house. American Heritage Dictionary 06 (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/The, article) Used before singular or plural nouns and noun phrases that denote particular, specified persons or things: the baby; the dress I wore. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary 06 (http://merriam-webster.com/dictionary/the) used as a function word to indicate that a following noun or noun equivalent is definite or has been previously specified by context or by circumstance

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SHOULD DEFINITIONS
Should is used to show an obligation Dictionary.com 06 (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/should) must; ought (used to indicate duty, propriety, or expediency): You should not do that. MSN Encarta 07 (http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_/should.html) indicating that something is the right thing for somebody to do Wordsmyth 02 (http://www.wordsmyth.net/live/home.php?script=search&matchent=should&matchtype=exact) used to indicate obligation.

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SUBSTANTIALLY DEFINITIONS
Substantially means “with material qualification” Blacks Law Dictionary 1990 Substantially means at least 95% Kerry Lavelle JD, Depaul, Virginia Tax Review ‘89
The origin of section 482 can be traced to Articles 77 and 78 of Regulation 41 of the Revenue Act of 1921 ("1921 Act") which imposed the requirement that "affiliated" domestic corporations and partnerships file consolidated returns. 9 That Regulation was ratified by section 1331 of the 1921 Act, 10 but was narrowly construed to apply only to entities that bought and sold products among each other either above or below the current market price, in effect creating an artificial distribution of profit. The "affiliation" required in the early 1920's between the two businesses that traded goods was either direct ownership or control of substantially all of the stock of the two business entities. While this statute did not define the term "substantially all," Treasury Decision 2662 (March, 1918) clarified section 78 of Regulation 41, stating that "substantially all of the stock" meant ninety-five percent. Subsequently, section 1331 of the 1921 Act accepted this definition of the term "substantially."

Substantially means more than 50% Anne Dupre Associate Professor of Law, University of Georgia Law ‘00 Washington law review
In fact, the statute defines "substantial" evidence as "beyond a mere preponderance," or beyond fifty percent. 311 Given that definition of "substantial evidence," it would appear that "substantially likely" means that the school must show that there is a more than fifty-percent likelihood that injury will occur before a violent student can be placed in an alternative setting

Substantially means at least 30% Joseph Ferraro Partner, Clifford Chance Rogers & Wells, ‘02 American University Law Review
The Federal Circuit noted that, in this case, the specification defines "substantially increased" as an increase of at least thirty percent and provides reasonable guidance through the examples of how the increase should be measured. 534 The court also observed that the specification discloses
suggestions for how long a "period sufficient" might be, and the parties agreed that a "period sufficient" could be determined by doing activity checks. 535 The Federal Circuit noted that, "when a word of degree is used the district court must [*691] determine whether the patent's specification provides some standard for measuring that degree." 536 In this case, the specification provided guidance as to what was meant by "substantial absence" with a reasonable degree of particularity and definiteness. 537 Accordingly, the Federal Circuit reversed the summary judgment of invalidity and remanded the case to the Court of Federal Claims. 538

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INCREASE DEFINITIONS
Increase means to make larger Random House Unabridged Dictionary 2006 in·crease /v. ɪnˈkris; n. ˈɪnkris/ [v. in-krees; n. in-krees] Pronunciation Key - Show IPA Pronunciation verb, -creased, -creas·ing, noun –verb (used with object) 1. to make greater, as in number, size, strength, or quality; augment; add to: to increase taxes.

Increase means to continually grow
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language 2006 These verbs mean to make or become greater or larger. Increase sometimes suggests steady growth: The mayor's political influence rapidly increased. "No machines will increase the possibilities of life. They only increase the possibilities of idleness" (John Ruskin).

- Increase means to become larger in size, amount, number or intensity Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary 2006
Main Entry: 1in·crease Pronunciation: \in-ˈkrēs, ˈin-ˌ\ Function: verb Inflected Form(s): in·creased; in·creas·ing Etymology: Middle English encresen, from Anglo-French encreistre, from Latin increscere, from in- + crescere to grow — more at crescent Date: 14th century

1: to become progressively greater (as in size, amount, number, or intensity)

- Increase means to make a set amount bigger Worldweb Online 2006
Verb: increase in'krees Become bigger or greater in amount "The amount of work increased" Make bigger or more "The boss finally increased her salary"; "The university increased the number of students it admitted"

- increase means to become larger in number or value Oxford University Press 2005
in•crease verb, noun verb /nkris/ ~ (sth) (from A) (to B)| ~ (sth) (by sth) to become or to make sth greater in amount, number, value, etc.: [v] The population has increased from 1.2 million to 1.8 million.

- Increase means a process to become greater larger in importance WordNet 2001
Increase 3. A process of becoming larger or more numerous or more important; "the increase in unemployment"; "the growth of population".

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IN DEFINITIONS
In: part of something Cambridge University Press, 2006
(http://dictionary.cambridge.org/define.asp?key=54475&dict=CALD) preposition forming a part of something :

In: involved with Cambridge University Press, 2006
(http://dictionary.cambridge.org/define.asp?key=54475&dict=CALD) preposition involved or connected with a particular subject or activity:

In: inclusion within limits Merriam Webster’s Online Dictionary, 06. (http://www.m-w.com/cgibin/dictionary) used as a function word to indicate inclusion, location, or position within limits

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