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WWD Topicality

WWD Topicality

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SDI 08 WW(J)D

WW(J)D TOPICALITY 2.0

INCREASE WW(J)D TOPICALITY 2.0.............................................................................................................................................................1 WW(J)D ..................................................................................................................................................................1 INCREASE = NOT A DISINCENTIVE.........................................................................................................................................3 v. intr.....................................................................................................................................................................................3 2. To multiply; reproduce....................................................................................................................................................3 INCREASE = NOT REMOVE A BARRIER..................................................................................................................................4 v. intr.....................................................................................................................................................................................4 2. To multiply; reproduce....................................................................................................................................................4 INCENTIVES = ONLY POSITIVE ...............................................................................................................................................5 Garcia 08. (Nicolas, with the Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission, Greenhouse Gas Mitiation Options for Washington State, pg. 39-40, http://yosemite.epa.gov/gw/StatePolicyActions.nsf/uniqueKeyLookup/MSTY5Q4LPY? OpenDocument)...........................................................................................................................................................................5 2NC OVERVIEW............................................................................................................................................................................6 2NC AT: CINTERP -- CAN BE BOTH..........................................................................................................................................7 Driesen 98. [David, Assistant Professor of Law, Syracuse University College of Law; J.D., Yale University, "Is Emissions Trading an Economic Incentive Program" Washington & Lee Law Review -- lexis]................................................................7 AT: CAP AND TRADE IS THE CORE OF THE TOPIC..............................................................................................................8 AT: ITS BETTER FOR THE NEG TO ANSWER REGULATIONS ...........................................................................................9 AT: BUT NEGATIVE INCENTIVES ARE TOPICAL…............................................................................................................10 AT: REASONABILITY ................................................................................................................................................................11 SDI 08...............................................................................................................................................................................................1 NEGATIVE INCENTIVES NOT TOPICAL ..............................................................................................................................12 NEG INCENTIVES = REGULATIONS.......................................................................................................................................13 COMMAND AND CONTROL NOT TOPICAL .........................................................................................................................14 INCENTIVES = FINANCIAL 1NC..............................................................................................................................................15 D. Topicality is a voting issue—it tells the Negative what to and what not to prepare for in debates.....................................15 INCENTIVES = FINANCIAL EXTENSIONS.............................................................................................................................16 INCENTIVES MUST BE EXTERNAL 1NC................................................................................................................................17 INCENTIVES MUST BE EXTERNAL EXTENSIONS..............................................................................................................18 INCENTIVES = SPECIFIC NEW POLICIES 1NC......................................................................................................................19 INCENTIVES CAN BE IMMEDIATE OR LONG-TERM..........................................................................................................20 INCENTIVES CAN BE INTERNAL/A2 MUST BE EXTERNAL..............................................................................................21 INCENTIVES CAN BE INTERNAL/A2 MUST BE EXTERNAL..............................................................................................23 ALTERNATIVE ENERGY INCENTIVES = ELECTRICITY SECTOR 1NC............................................................................24 ALTERNATIVE ENERGY INCENTIVES = ELECTRICITY SECTOR EXTENSIONS..........................................................25 ALTERNATIVE ENERGY = NOT NUCLEAR/OIL/COAL/NAT GAS 1NC............................................................................26 ALTERNATIVE ENERGY = NOT OIL/NAT GAS (ALLOWS FOR COAL) 1NC...................................................................27 ALTERNATIVE ENERGY = NOT OIL/NAT GAS/NUKE POWER.........................................................................................28 ALTERNATIVE ENERGY = DERIVED FROM NONTRADITIONAL SOURCES 1NC........................................................29 ALTERNATIVE ENERGY = SOURCES NOT HARMING THE ENVIRONMENT................................................................30 ALTERNATIVE ENERGY = RENEWABLES/FUEL CELLS/CONSERVATION TECH........................................................31 ALTERNATIVE ENERGY = REDUCE OIL/COAL DEPENDENCE. ......................................................................................32 ALTERNATIVE ENERGY INCLUDES OCEAN THERMAL...................................................................................................33 ALTERNATIVE ENERGY LAUNDRY LIST ............................................................................................................................34 INCREASE (ALGAE SPECIFIC).................................................................................................................................................35 v. intr...................................................................................................................................................................................35 2. To multiply; reproduce..................................................................................................................................................35 CTL AIN’T T.................................................................................................................................................................................36 CAP AND TRADE UNTOPICAL ................................................................................................................................................37 FLEX FUEL NOT TOPICAL .......................................................................................................................................................39 FEEBATES NOT T........................................................................................................................................................................40 Green Car Congress 07. (“Canadian Auto Feebate Program a “First Step”, But Needs Improvement”, November 23, http://www.greencarcongress.com/2007/11/study-canadian.html)......................................................................................40 INCENTIVES CAN BE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE...............................................................................................................41 1

SDI 08 WW(J)D
NEGATIVE INCENTIVES ARE TOPICAL ...............................................................................................................................42 C&T TOPICAL .............................................................................................................................................................................43 NON TRADITIONAL USES OF TRADITIONAL FUELS = T..................................................................................................44 Alternative Transportation Fuels .........................................................................................................................................44 BIOFUELS = T..............................................................................................................................................................................45 CARBON TAX = POSITIVE INCENTIVE .................................................................................................................................46

2

SDI 08 WW(J)D

INCREASE = NOT A DISINCENTIVE

A. INCREASE MEANS TO BECOME GREATER OR LARGER. American Heritage Dictionary 6. [Fourth edition, accessed via
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/increase] v. intr.

1. To become greater or larger.
2. To multiply; reproduce.

B. VIOLATION – THE AFF PLACES DISINCENTIVES FOR THE USE OF FOSSIL FUELS – THEY DON’T INCREASE THE NUMBER OF INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE ENERGY. C. REASONS TO PREFER -1. 2. 3. LIMITS – THE AFF MAKES THE TOPIC BIDIRECTIONAL BY ALLOWING BOTH INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE ENERGY AND DISINCENTIVES FOR FOSSIL FUELS – THIS EXPLODES THE TOPIC KILLING TOPIC SPECIFIC EDUCATION AND CLASH. GROUND – ONLY OUR INTERPRETATION PRESERVES CORE NEG GROUND – I.E. INCREASING INCENTIVES WHICH IS CRUCIAL TO OUR LINKS TO DISADS AND COUNTEPRLAN GROUND. BRIGHTLINE – YOU EITHER INCREASE INCENTIVES OR YOU DON’T – PREFER THE SPECIFICTY OF OUR INTERPRETATION.

D. VOTER FOR FAIRNESS ABUSE AND JURISDICTION.

3

SDI 08 WW(J)D

INCREASE = NOT REMOVE A BARRIER

A. INTERPRETATION - INCREASE MEANS TO BECOME GREATER OR LARGER. American Heritage Dictionary 6. [Fourth edition, accessed via
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/increase] v. intr.

1. To become greater or larger.
2. To multiply; reproduce.

B. VIOLATION – THE AFF REMOVES A CURRENT BARRIER TO ALTERNATIVE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT – IT DOESN’T PROVIDE ACTIVE INCENTIVES. C. REASONS TO PREFER -1. LIMITS – their interpretation allows affs that actually increase incentives and also those that merely remove a current barrier – this explodes the topic forcing the neg to rely on generics which hurt clash and education. GROUND – forcing the aff to defend an actual increase in alternative energy incentives is crucial to stable negative link and counterplan ground. EFFECTS IS A VOTER – the plan can only claim to solve for renewables by eventually leading to investment in alternative energy – this removes any limit on the topic, makes the aff conditional and skews neg strategy.

2. 3.

D. TOPICALITY IS A VOTER FOR FAIRNESS ABUSE AND JURISDICTION.

4

SDI 08 WW(J)D

INCENTIVES = ONLY POSITIVE

A. INTERPRETATION – INCENTIVES ARE POSITIVE AND NOT REGULATIONS – OUR EVIDENCE IS COMPARATIVE Garcia 08. (Nicolas, with the Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission, Greenhouse Gas Mitiation Options for
Washington State, pg. 39-40, http://yosemite.epa.gov/gw/StatePolicyActions.nsf/uniqueKeyLookup/MSTY5Q4LPY? OpenDocument)

A variety of policy instruments could be used to implement this greenhouse gas mitigation program. The state indicates that choosing the appropriate policy instrument is extremely important. Generally, policy instruments fall into three areas: 1. Economic Incentives—direct taxes granting or eliminating tax breaks, subsidies, granting of regulatory exemptions, making pricing more efficient; 2. Public Investment—research and development, education, new infrastructure, maintenance of existing infrastructure, also withholding investment in greenhouse gas generating activities; and 3. Regulation—efficiency standards, zoning, building codes, fuel use requirements, speed limits, and travel restrictions. B. VIOLATION – THE AFF IS A NEGATIVE INCENTIVE OR REGULATION – THIS IS NOT AN INCENTIVE. C. REASONS TO PREFER LIMITS AND GROUND – THE AFF MAKES THE TOPIC BIDIRECTIONAL BY JUSTIFYING BOTH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE INCENTIVES – THERE IS NO STABLE CORE GROUND AND EXPLODES THE RESEARCH BURDEN. DEFINITIONAL PRECISION – INCENTIVES ARE DISTINCT FROM COERCION. 12Manage 8 (6/4 "Incentives," http://www.12manage.com/description_incentives.html) DEFINITION INCENTIVES. DESCRIPTION. An Incentive is any extrinsic reward factor that motivates

an employee or manager or team to achieve an important business goal on top of his/her/their intrinsic motivation. It is a factor aiming to shape or direct behavior. In an optimal form, executives and employees should be remunerated well (but cost-effectively) where they deserve it, and not where they do not. Pay-offs for failure should be kept at a minimum. Furthermore, to be effective, a layered or gradual approach is better than an all-ornothing incentive. A smart executive reward scheme is one of the pillars to ensure entrepeneurial behavior and maximizing shareholder value (Compare: Value Based Management). An incentive is

unlike coercion, in that coerced work is motivated by the threat or use of violence, punishment or negative action, which an incentive is a positive stimulation. Incentives can also be used as Anti Hostile Takeover Mechanisms.

EFFECTS IS ILLEGIT – at best the aff can claim to incentivize the development of alternative energy post regulation. This isn’t a direct incentive which explodes the topic killing topic specific education and all neg ground. Voter for fairness. D. Topicality is a voter for fairness, jurisdiction, and abuse.

5

SDI 08 WW(J)D

2NC OVERVIEW

EXTEND THE 1NC GARCIA EVIDENCE – INCENTIVES REFER TO POSTIVE ACTIONS SUCH AS TAX BREAKS, SUBSIDIES OR REGULATORY EXEMPTIONS. THIS IS A DISTINCT AND OPPOSING CATEGORY TO A NEGATIVE INCENTIVE WHICH IS A REGULATION LIKE THE AFF. IF YOU ALLOW THE AFF TO BE A REGULATION IT MAKES THE TOPIC BIDIRECTIONAL – THE NEG IS FORCED TO BE READY TO DEBATE THE MANDATE COUNTERPLAN ONE ROUND AND THE VOLUNTARY COUNTERPLAN THE NEXT. THIS LOSS OF STABLE NEG GROUND MEANS WE’RE FORCED TO GO FOR GENERICS LIKE CONSULT AND ASPEC JUST TO GET BACK TO GROUND ZERO KILLING TOPIC SPECIFIC EDUCATION. THE AFF JUSTIFIES CASES LIKE CARBON TAX, RAISING CAFÉ STANDARDS, FEEBATES, MANDATED GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT AND ANY FUEL EFFICIENCY AFF. NONE OF THESE ARE PREDICTABLE AND DESTROY CLASH AND NEGATIVE STRATEGY. EVEN IF THE AFF INTERPRETATION GIVES US MORE GROUND ITS NOT PREDICTABLE – THE KEY TEST ON THIS T DEBATE IS FAIR LIMITS AND PREDICTABLE GROUND AND WE’LL ALWAYS WIN THAT DEBATE. FINALLY TOPICALITY IS A VOTR FOR FAIRNESS ABUSE AND JURISDICTION – YOU HAVE TO VOTE NEG ON T SINCE IT’S THE BEGINNING OF THE SEASON AND NOW IS THE TIME TO SET A PRECEDENT.

6

SDI 08 WW(J)D

2NC AT: CINTERP -- CAN BE BOTH

This interpretation ruins debate. Ruins it. They explode the topic by functionally making it bidirectional. The impact of the explosion of the topic outweighs any sort of aff flex whine arguments they make. Forcing the negative to prepare both the mandate and voluntary counterplans for one topic and eliminating any stable negative ground outweighs the cost of not debating cap and trade on the affirmative. Additionally, DEFINING INCENTIVES TO INCLUDE BOTH NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE EXPAND THE TOPIC TO INCLUDE ANY REGULATORY PROGRAM – PREFER OUR EVIDENCE BECAUSE IT’S THE MOST CONCLUSIVE. Driesen 98. [David, Assistant Professor of Law, Syracuse University College of Law; J.D., Yale University, “Is Emissions
Trading an Economic Incentive Program” Washington & Lee Law Review -- lexis]

An economic incentive program can be defined as any program that provides an economic benefit for pollution reductions or an economic penalty for pollution. Defining economic incentives to include both positive and negative incentives includes pollution taxes in the definition. 155 Does command and control regulation qualify as an
economic incentive program under this definition? Imagine a pure command and control law. The law commands polluters to perform specific pollution reducing acts, but provides no penalties for noncompliance. This law would probably motivate little or no pollution reduction, because polluters could violate the commands without consequence. 156 Command and control regulation only works when an enforcement mechanism exists. 157

Traditional regulation relies upon a negative economic incentive a monetary penalty for non-compliance as the principle inducement to comply with regulatory requirements, true command and control requirements, such as work practice standards, and the more common performance standards. 158 Indeed, a traditional
regulation's success depends heavily upon the adequacy of these monetary penalties. 159

A formal definition of an economic incentive program as any program relying on positive or negative economic inducements to secure pollution reductions plausibly applies to just about any regulatory program. To evaluate
possible explanations for the dichotomy's assumption that emissions trading relies on economic incentives, but traditional regulation does not, a functional analysis is helpful. Parties to this debate need to analyze whether emissions trading overcomes traditional regulation's weaknesses in spurring innovation and providing continuous incentives. This will require examination of the sources of economic inducements, the financing mechanisms, the likely responses of regulated polluters (both strategic and desired), and the governmental [*324] role in emissions trading. These questions provide the tools to develop a functional theory of economic incentives.

AND ALLOWING REGULATIONS TO BE TOPICAL JUSTIFIES ANYTHING BEING TOPICAL INCLUDING EVERY REGULATION CAP AND TRADE, THE CARBON TAX CP, AND EVERYTHING ELSE – IT ELIMINATES THE MEANING OF AN INCENTIVE. Driesen 98. [David, Assistant Professor of Law, Syracuse University College of Law; J.D., Yale University, "Is Emissions
Trading an Economic Incentive Program" Washington & Lee Law Review -- lexis]

The emissions trading example reveals that the term "economic incentive" has very little meaning if defined to include everything that relies on some kind of monetary penalty or benefit. Indeed, to the extent the term "economic incentive" should not apply to traditional regulation, it also should not apply to emissions trading. Both types of programs rely on monetary penalties to induce compliance with government set limits. Neither creates incentives for sources to continuously realize net reductions substantially surpassing the specifically mandated reductions.

7

SDI 08 WW(J)D

AT: CAP AND TRADE IS THE CORE OF THE TOPIC

FIRST, the negative research burden presented by allowing negative incentives clearly outweighs the loss of education from not debating cap and trade on the aff. Making the topic bidirectional forces the neg to resort to bad consultation or condition counterplans diverting focus from the topic where debating would be educational. Second, cap and trade will still be debated under our interpretation it will just become a negative counterplan instead of an affirmative. Its better to debate it as a counterplan because we subsume all their core of the topic education arguments but preserves negative ground by only forcing the aff to defend positive incentives.

8

SDI 08 WW(J)D

AT: ITS BETTER FOR THE NEG TO ANSWER REGULATIONS

Yes there might be awesome disads to regulation affs but the college energy topic proves that there’s just as good negative evidence the other direction. Its better to have to do a little bit more work on reasons why incentives fail rather than having to do all the work why incentives fail AND cut all those disads why regulations suck. Even if they give us more ground, its unpredictable ground which makes it worthless. The crucial thing on this topic is fair limits which only the negative interpretation provides.

9

SDI 08 WW(J)D

AT: BUT NEGATIVE INCENTIVES ARE TOPICAL…

WRONG – extend the 1NC Garcia evidence – incentives are defined in the literature as a positive actions such as subsidies, granting regulatory incentives, tax breaks etc. However regulation or negative incentives are punishments towards an industry for not complying or mandates like efficiency standards, carbon taxes and fuel use requirements. Additionally, here’s more evidence that delineates between incentives as positive motivational influences and disincentives as the opposite. Collins Essential Thesaurus 2006 (Second Edition, "Incentive," http://www.thefreedictionary.com/incentive) Noun 1. incentive - a positive motivational influence
inducement, motivator rational motive - a motive that can be defended by reasoning or logical argument dynamic, moral force - an efficient incentive; "they hoped it would act as a spiritual dynamic on all churches"

deterrence, disincentive - a negative motivational influence

And, here’s contextual evidence which draws the clear dichotomy between an incentive and a disincentive or a regulation. Malloy 2. [Tim, Acting Professor of Law, University of California at Los Angeles.Texas Law Review “Regulating by Incentives”
-- lexis] Environmental regulation is all about using incentives to control behavior.

Under direct "command and control" regulation, 1 the government creates specific obligations and generally relies upon the negative incentives of civil and criminal penalties to motivate individuals or organizations to comply with those obligations. 2 Alternatively, the new generation of "market-based" or "incentive-based" regulations typically create an op-portunity rather than (or in addition to) an obligation, offering the positive [*532] incentive of increased profits (or reduced costs) in the hope of eliciting the desired behavior. 3 A regulator using either of these two regulatory approaches must identify
the appropriate type and level of incentive - be it positive or negative - needed to produce the "correct" response from the target. In crafting and evaluating regulatory incentives, a regulator necessarily relies upon some basic model of how the target makes decisions. 4 If that model is flawed, then the incentive will miss the mark, and the desired behavior may never occur.

Prefer the specificity of our contextual evidence – it actually has the intent to define both a regulation and an incentive individual and to define the distinctions between the two.

10

SDI 08 WW(J)D

AT: REASONABILITY

Competing interpretations is the better way to adjudicate T debates. Reasonability is inherently vague and forces judge intervention because there’s no way to objectively evaluate what is ‘reasonably’ topical. Competing interpretations asks you to decide who wins net benefits to their interpretation i.e. ground and limits. Whoever wins that debate wins the round. You should vote on T right now because this is the time that shapes the way the community decides what is topical. Voting negative on T is crucial to setting the precedent of regulation affs not being topical.

11

SDI 08 WW(J)D

NEGATIVE INCENTIVES NOT TOPICAL

NEGATIVE INCENTIVES FALL UNDER REGULATIONS NOT INCENTIVES. Malloy 2. [Tim, Acting Professor of Law, University of California at Los Angeles.Texas Law Review “Regulating by Incentives”
-- lexis] Environmental regulation is all about using incentives to control behavior.

Under direct "command and control" regulation, 1 the government creates specific obligations and generally relies upon the negative incentives of civil and criminal penalties to motivate individuals or organizations to comply with those obligations. 2 Alternatively, the new generation of "market-based" or "incentive-based" regulations typically create an op-portunity rather than (or in addition to) an obligation, offering the positive [*532] incentive of increased profits (or reduced costs) in the hope of eliciting the desired behavior. 3 A regulator using either of these two regulatory approaches must identify
the appropriate type and level of incentive - be it positive or negative - needed to produce the "correct" response from the target. In crafting and evaluating regulatory incentives, a regulator necessarily relies upon some basic model of how the target makes decisions. 4 If that model is flawed, then the incentive will miss the mark, and the desired behavior may never occur.

REGULATIONS ARE NOT TOPICAL. Stavins 1. [Robert N., Albert Pratt Prof of Business and Government, Harvard University – JFK School of Government,
“Lessons from American Experiment with Market-Based Environmental Policies” SSRN, April http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=285998] Environmental policies typically combine the identification of a goal with some means to achieve that goal. Although these two components are often linked within the political process, I focus in this chapter exclusively on the second component, the means — the “instruments” — of environmental policy.

Market-based instruments are regulations that encourage behavior through market signals rather than through explicit directives regarding pollution control levels or methods. These policy instruments, such as tradable permits or pollution charges, can reasonably be described as “harnessing market forces,”3 because if they are well designed and implemented, they encourage firms or individuals to undertake pollution control efforts that are in their own interests and that collectively meet policy goals.

12

SDI 08 WW(J)D

NEG INCENTIVES = REGULATIONS

NEGATIVE INCENTIVES ARE DIRECT REGULATION WHICH AREN’T TOPICAL. Freeman 6. [Myrick, Research Professor of Economis @ Bowdoin College, former Sr Fellow @ Resources for the Future,
Visiting College Prof @ U of Washington, and Robert M La Follette Visiting Distinguished Prof @ U of Wisconsin-Madison, “Economics, Incentives, and Environmental Policy”Environmental Policy: New Directions for the Twenty-First Century p200]

The major provisions of the federal laws controlling air and water pollution embody what is often termed a direct regulation (or command-and-control) approach to achieving the established
targets. This direct regulation approach involves placing limits on the allowable discharges of polluting substances from each source, coupled with an administrative and legal system to monitor compliance with these limits and to impose sanctions or penalties for violations. In this approach the pollution control authority must carry out a series of four steps:

1.

Determine the rules and regulations for each source that will achieve the given pollution targets. The regulations typically establish maximum allowable discharges of polluting substances
from each source. They also could require the installation of certain types of pollution control equipment, restrict certain activities, or limit such things as the sulfur content of fuels. Establish penalties or sanctions for non compliance Monitor sources so that incidents of noncompliance can be detected. Alternatively the authorities might establish a system of self reporting with periodic checks and audits of performance. Punish violations. If violations of the regulations are detected, the authorities must use the administrative and legal mechanisms spelled out in the relevant laws to impose penalties or to require changes in the behavior of the sources.

2. 3. 4.

13

SDI 08 WW(J)D

COMMAND AND CONTROL NOT TOPICAL

COMMAND AND CONTROL ISN’T TOPICAL – THE LITERATURE DEFINES IT AS OPPOSITE TO AN INCENTIVE. Driesen 98. [David, Assistant Professor of Law, Syracuse University College of Law; J.D., Yale University, “Is Emissions
Trading an Economic Incentive Program” Washington & Lee Law Review -- lexis] Rather than define economic incentives, scholars employ a conventional dichotomy that contrasts "command and control" regulations (rules that dictate [*291] precisely how a polluter must clean-up) with economic incentives. 5 They claim that command and control regulations work inefficiently, discourage innovation, and fail to provide continuous incentives to reduce pollution, but that emissions trading and other economic incentive programs overcome these problems. 6

The dichotomy between command and control regulations and economic incentives has had a powerful influence upon policy. 7 On October 22, 1997, President

Clinton outlined his plans to address global climate change, an increase in global mean surface temperatures that emissions of carbon dioxide and other "greenhouse gases" cause. 8 The President's speech stressed the issue's importance by referring to some possible consequences of climate change including "disruptive weather events" (such as droughts and floods), the spread of "disease bearing insects," and receding glaciers (which might cause inundation of coastal areas). 9 President Clinton did not mention a single new traditional regulatory program or propose any specific cuts in greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon dioxide, below 1990 levels to combat this potential menace. Instead, he announced a "package of strong market incentives, [*292] tax cuts and cooperative efforts with industry." 10 The President's package included emissions trading, which is the "economic incentive program" most often implemented. His proposal would allow polluters in one country to avoid greenhouse gas reductions at home in exchange for pollution reductions abroad. 11 Not surprisingly, emissions trading became an important element of the subsequently negotiated Kyoto Protocol on climate change, in which the developed countries apparently agreed to modest cuts in greenhouse gas emissions. 12

14

SDI 08 WW(J)D

INCENTIVES = FINANCIAL 1NC

A. Definition—Incentives are financial forms of encouragement for customers to make sure of a particular product or service Taylor, Kipp, and Ruppert 8 (Nicholas, Jennison, and Kathleen, Research Associate, Research Economist, and associate
extension scientists @ Program for Resource Efficient Communities @ University of Florida, "Energy Efficient Homes: Incentive Programs for Energy Efficiency," http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FY1033#FOOTNOTE_2)

Incentive Encouragement, often financial, for customers to make use of a particular product, type of product, or service. B. Violation—the Affirmative doesn’t increase financial incentives for alternative energy C. Standards 1. Predictable limits—financial incentives are a clear, predictable mechanism for what constitutes an incentive. Allowing for non-financial incentives justifies Affirmatives dealing with public service announcements or changes in corporate leadership that open the floodgates for potential Affirmatives, destroying clash and creating research burdens 2. Ground—defining incentives as financial ensures Negatives disad ground in the form of spending, budget tradeoff, and politics and counterplan ground in the form of punitive measures/regulations or non-financial incentives D. Topicality is a voting issue—it tells the Negative what to and what not to prepare for in debates

15

SDI 08 WW(J)D

INCENTIVES = FINANCIAL EXTENSIONS

“Alternative energy incentives” must require the expenditure of governmental funding Arens 03 (Birgit, Advisor @ Association of European Chambers of Commerce and Industry, "Thematic Strategy on the Urban Environment," May 28, http://www.duurzaamwonen.com/media/Bauke_de_vries_02_2.doc.) Incentives to use renewable sources of energy: Incentives usually cost money, which is rarely available at present unless governments make it a clear priority. Furthermore, most incentives are
national programmes and the influence of local authorities is limited.

16

SDI 08 WW(J)D

INCENTIVES MUST BE EXTERNAL 1NC

A. Definition—Incentives must be external influences that incite one to action Merriam-Webster Dictionary 08 (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/motive)
synonyms motive, impulse, incentive, inducement, spur, goad mean a stimulus to action. motive implies an emotion or desire operating on the will and causing it to act <a motive for the crime>. impulse suggests a driving power arising from personal temperament or constitution <buying on impulse>. incentive applies to an external influence (as an expected reward) inciting to action <a bonus was offered as an incentive>. inducement suggests a motive prompted by the deliberate enticements or allurements of another <offered a watch as an inducement to subscribe>. spur applies to a motive that stimulates the faculties or increases energy or ardor <fear was a spur to action>. goad suggests a motive that keeps one going against one's will or desire <thought insecurity a goad to worker efficiency>.

B. Violation—the Affirmative increases internal incentives, i.e. incentives for federal alternative energy C. Standards 1. Limits—allowing Affirmatives to give federal incentives to the federal government itself makes a potentially huge topic unmanageable, creating research burdens and destroying clash 2. Ground—the federal government isn’t a substantial consumer of fossil fuels, which means we lose link magnitude to our various fossil fuel industry disadvantages 3. Grammar—defining incentives as other than external influences or rewards is grammatically incorrect—grammar is important because it’s a key aspect of education and it’s a prerequisite to determining notions of limits and ground D. Topicality is a voting issue—tells the Negative what to and what not to prepare in debates

17

SDI 08 WW(J)D

INCENTIVES MUST BE EXTERNAL EXTENSIONS

Bourgond 06 (Dr. Greg, "Balance vs. Centeredness," http://64.233.169.104/search?
q=cache:ht8AR9thgGEJ:www.heartofawarrior.org/Balance%2520vs%2520Centeredness.pdf+ %22Incentive+applies+to+an+external+influence%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=4&gl=us)
A motive is a stimulus to act. Words that have the same or nearly the same meaning include impulse, incentive, or inducement. Webster's suggests that a motive implies an emotion or desire operation on the will and causing it to act. Impulse suggests a driving power arising from personal temperament or constitution. Incentive applies to an external influence inciting to action. Inducement suggests a motive prompted by the deliberate enticements or allurements of another.

18

SDI 08 WW(J)D

INCENTIVES = SPECIFIC NEW POLICIES 1NC

A. Interpretation—incentives must be SPECIFIC inducements aimed at influencing governmental or nongovernmental actors AND they MUST take the form of a new law, policy, or program Emerton 2001 (Lucy, Environmental Economist + Regional Group Head of the Asia Ecosystems and Livelihoods Group of the IUCN World Conservation Union, "THE USE OF ECONOMIIC MEASURES IN NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY STRATEGIES AND ACTIION PLANS: A Review of Experiences, Lessons Learned and Ways Forward," October, http://www.unep.org/bpsp/Economics/Synthesis %20(Economic).pdf)
Setting in place economic incentives provides an important source of support and encouragement for biodiversity conservation, and is required in Articles 11, 20 and elsewhere in the CBD. Within the context of the Convention, an

incentive is defined as “A specific inducement designed and implemented to influence government bodies, business, non-governmental organisations, or local people to conserve biological diversity or to use its components in a sustainable manner. Incentive measures usually take the form of a new policy, law or economic or social programme.” (UNEP/CBD/COP/3/24). B. Violation—the Affirmative doesn’t make a specific, new incentive—it merely expands or modifies an existing incentive C. Standards 1. Limits—there are an infinite number of ways to expand, modify, or tinker with existing federal alternative energy incentives, which means allowing Affirmatives to avoid creating new incentives opens the floodgates, destroying clash and creating research burdens 2. Ground—allowing Affirmatives to merely augment or tinker with existing incentives destroys uniqueness for our disadvantages and destroys our ability to read counterplans that involve modifying existing incentives D. Topicality is a voting issue—it tells the Negative what to and what not to prepare for in debates

19

SDI 08 WW(J)D

INCENTIVES CAN BE IMMEDIATE OR LONG-TERM

Incentives can be EITHER immediate or long-range in nature The Dictionary of Psychology 2002 (Raymond J. Corsini, "incentive," p. 477) incentive The reward that an organism expects to obtain for engaging in certain behaviors. The incentive may be immediate, such as water when thirsty, or long range, such as the probability of getting a college degree.

20

SDI 08 WW(J)D

INCENTIVES CAN BE INTERNAL/A2 MUST BE EXTERNAL

Incentives can be internal

Government Technology 07 (December 20, Andy Opsahl, Government Technology, A Paler
Shade of Green?, http://www.govtech.com/gt/216761) Surging energy costs have motivated some states, such as California and Virginia, to begin green IT research. However, a lack of internal incentives keep that process sluggish in government as a whole, said Aaron Hay, research consultant with Info-Tech Research Group. Internal Incentives are topical Heaten et al 91 (April, TRANSFORMING TECHNOLOGY: AN AGENDA FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY, SUSTAINABLE GROWTH IN THE 21ST CENTURY, George Heaton, Robert Repetto, Rodney Sobin, WORLD RESOURCES INSTITUTE, http://pdf.wri.org/transformingtechnology_bw.pdf) In any event, the limiting reagent of pollution prevention is generally not as much the "hardware" of technology as the "software" of corporate management. Experts in pollution prevention are more likely to identify corporate leaders' attitudes, organizational structures, and perceived internal incentives as the primary determinants of pollution prevention success than any set of machines, devices, or technical capabilities (Ehrenfeld 1990; Hirschhorn 1990). Internal Incentives are topical and prevalent the literature TD Bank 08 (Feb 5, Greenhouse Gas Emissions Plan, p. lexis) TD Bank Financial Group Enhanced Coverage Linking TD Bank Financial Group announced that its Canadian operations will be "carbon neutral" in 2010. This announcement delivers on a commitment made by TD in its Environmental Management Framework (published in June 2007) to set a target for reducing its greenhouse gas emissions in 2008. "Reducing our own greenhouse gas emissions is a key element of our ongoing commitment to take climate change and the environment seriously," said Ed Clark, President and Chief Executive Officer, TD Bank Financial Group. Enhanced Coverage Linking TD Bank Financial Group. "Our approach will start with energy savings programs to reduce our emissions. We will also use green power, and make investments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions outside TD to offset any emissions we cannot eliminate." TD's greenhouse gas emissions plan includes the following: - Reducing existing greenhouse gas emissions. TD has worked with The Pembina Institute to quantify 2006 emissions for its Canadian bank operations at 138,548 tonnes. TD will target a reduction of five percent in these emissions by 2010. - Following the planned integration of TD Banknorth and Commerce Bank, TD will set a target in 2009 for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from its US operations. - Creating internal incentives for TD businesses to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. - Purchasing green energy from sources like wind power and low-impact water power. - Setting up the TD Emissions Reduction Fund. TD is working with independent experts to develop a long-term plan to ensure the selection of emission reduction investments that are effective, permanent and incremental. "Our primary focus is to find ways to minimize our actual emissions footprint," said Mike Pedersen, Group Head Corporate Operations, TD Bank Financial Group. Enhanced Coverage Linking TD Bank Financial Group. "As we continue to grow, we will constantly look for opportunities to be as efficient as possible in our energy use. This includes greener buildings, lower energy consumption, and expanded recycling programs. However, we recognize that it is unrealistic to expect that we can eliminate all emissions from TD's operations. Therefore, through the TD Emissions Reduction Fund, we will invest in projects with strong sustainability and community benefits, including initiatives to assist non-profit organizations in reducing their emissions." As details on the TD Emissions Reduction Fund become available, TD will publish this information on www.td.com/environment. Beginning with its 2008 Corporate Responsibility Report (published in March 2009), TD will publish its annual independently verified emissions total in Canada. To download the report please visit www.td.com/crr. "In addition to addressing our own emissions footprint, we're tackling a number of projects including the development of a procurement policy for major purchase categories with a specific focus on wood and paper sources. We also continue to work on the enhanced due diligence process for client 21

SDI 08 WW(J)D

financing committed to in our Environmental Management Framework, and will step up our promotion of the TD Friends of the Environment Foundation, which thanks to customer and employee donations has funded more than 16,000 grassroots environment and wildlife projects across Canada since 1990," added Pedersen.

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INCENTIVES CAN BE INTERNAL/A2 MUST BE EXTERNAL

Internal incentives are common in the government with regard to energy policy University of Illinois Law Review 99 (Wendy E. Wagner, Associate Professor, Case Western Reserve University School of Law, ARTICLE: CONGRESS, SCIENCE, AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY 1999 U. Ill. L. Rev. 181, p. lexis) internal incentives within the executive branch may cause the science advice received by this branch to be more biased than that offered by the captive experts on which Congress relies: "In the Executive Office of the President ... experts ... are likely to be sanctioned for displaying a
n254. Bruce Bimber suggests that lack of commitment and rewarded for providing expertise designed to further a focused set of political interests." Bimber, supra note 75, at 7; see also Terry M. Moe, The Politicized Presidency, in The New Direction in American Politics 235 (John E. Chubb & Paul E. Peterson eds., 1985). Thus, even when agencies overcome the many practical and institutional obstacles and publicly highlight the prevalence and import of knowledge gaps to environmental legislation, it is possible that the Madisonian legislators may discount the agencies' advice because of perceived biases resulting from their loyalty to the president's larger policy agenda. Cf. Comment of R, Environment, Energy, and Economics, supra note 75, at 130 (observing that the executive branch should improve its responsiveness to congressional requests and insinuating that, at times, executive officials do not provide balanced or honest information). One of the original purposes of the OTA, in fact, was to provide Congress with information from a source independent from the executive agencies. See Staff of Senate Comm. on Rules & Admin., 92d Cong., Technology Assessment for the Congress 44 (Comm. Print 1972); see also Bimber, supra note 75, at 40-49 (describing the primary role of OTA as helping Congress see biases in executive branch technical positions); Fallows, supra note 53, at 91 (reporting, based on interviews with nuclear staffers in congressional committees, that they "expect bureaucrats to glean potentially damaging data, leaving only the information they perceive to be neutral or advantageous to their agency's interest.").

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ALTERNATIVE ENERGY INCENTIVES = ELECTRICITY SECTOR 1NC

A. Definition—“Alternative energy incentives” means the encouragement of investment for the distribution of electricity Iowa State Legislature 4 ("Senate File 2271: Bill Text," http://www.legis.state.ia.us/GA/80GA/Legislation/SF/02200/SF02271/Current.html) 1 14 Sec. 2. NEW SECTION. 476.48 ALTERNATE ENERGY INCENTIVE 1 15 PROGRAM. 1 16 1. PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS. An alternate energy incentive 1 17 program

is established in the utilities division of the 1 18 department of commerce in consultation with the department of 1 19 natural resources.

The purpose of the program is to encourage 1 20 investment in alternate energy production facilities located 1 21 in this state for distribution of electricity to users

1 22 throughout the state. An electric utility that generates or 1 23 sells electricity in this state may participate in the 1 24 alternate energy incentive program if all of the following 1 25 criteria are met: 1 26 a. The electric utility must purchase or generate by the 1 27 following dates at least the following percentages of its 1 28 total annual Iowa retail electric sales from alternate energy 1 29 production facilities located in this state: 1 30 (1) By December 31, 2006, ten percent. 1 31 (2) By December 31, 2008, fifteen percent. 1 32 (3) By December 31, 2010, and annually thereafter, twenty 1 33 percent. 1 34 b. As part of the purchase or generation requirement in 1 35 paragraph "a", no more than a maximum of two percent of each 2 1 electric utility's total annual Iowa retail electric sales can 2 2 be purchased from alternate energy production facilities or 2 3 small hydro facilities placed in service before January 1, 2 4 2005. 2 5 c. At least twenty percent of an electric utility's annual 2 6 purchase or generation requirement in paragraph "a" must be 2 7 purchased from small distributed generation facilities or an 2 8 aggregate of small producers. 2 9 d. A contract to purchase electricity from small 2 10 distributed generation facilities or an aggregate of small 2 11 producers must include a purchase rate of at least three and 2 12 one-half cents per kilowatt hour. 2 13 2. INCENTIVES. The incentives for which an electric 2 14 utility may qualify shall be determined and distributed 2 15 reasonably by rule as adopted by the utilities board.

B. Violation—the Affirmative increases incentives in sectors other than the electrical sector C. Standards 1. Limits—this topic has the potential to be unmanageably huge, which demands a need to place a limit on the topic. Allowing for Affirmatives that apply only to the electricity sector provides such a limit, ensuring clash, limiting research burdens, and ensuring meaningful debates over global warming, air pollution, and energy prices. 2. Ground—electricity-sector only Affs ensures Negative ground in the form of coal industry and natural gas-related industries good, electricity prices, and counterplan ground in the form of alternative energy incentives in non-electricity sectors D. Topicality is a voting issue—it tells the Negative what to and what not to prepare for in debates

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ALTERNATIVE ENERGY INCENTIVES = ELECTRICITY SECTOR EXTENSIONS

"Energy incentives" must assist customers reduce electricity demand and natural gas use We Energies 2008 ("Energy Incentives Program Overview," June, http://www.weenergies.com/propertymanager_new/multifam_overview.pdf) We Energies offers energy incentive programs to assist eligible multi-family, non-profit/charitable organizations and small commercial customers. The programs are designed to assist customers in the implementation of projects that reduce electric demand and natural gas use.

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ALTERNATIVE ENERGY = NOT NUCLEAR/OIL/COAL/NAT GAS 1NC

A. Definition—Alternative energy means energy derived NOT from oil, natural gas, coal, or nuclear power Simon 07 (Christopher, Prof of Poly Sci @ University of Nevada—Reno, Alternative energy: political, economic, and social feasibility, p. 39-40) The federal definition of alternative energy is best summarized by Title 26, chapter 79, 7701 of the revised U.S. Code: "the term 'alternative energy facility' means a facility for producing electrical or thermal energy if the primary energy source for the facility is not oil, natural gas, coal, or nuclear power." The primary purpose of this definition relates to the issuance of tax credits to "alternative energy
facility[ies]," which meet certain standards as defined in Title 26, chapter 1, 48 "Energy Credit." Tax credits are one method by which the federal government encourages the private sector to make certain economic choices; in the case of energy

policy, this definition of alternative energy will have a definitive impact on how alternative energy will be defined by those individuals and corporate bodies seeking federal recognition (and benefit) by adopting a particular definition of alternative energy. Many state definitions of alternative energy

closely follow federal definitions. Case law confirms that federal guidelines supercede state-level guidelines. Federal standards also impact the state and local receipt of alternative energy grants, subsidies, and tax exemptions. It is reasonable, therefore, that state and local definitions would be consistent with federal energy policy. Consistency between federal and state definitions does not mean that there are not a few variations. In many ways, variation at the state level illustrates the dynamic and evolving alternative energy paradigm, which is by no means unique to the U.S. policy process.

B. Violation—the affirmative increases incentives for nuclear power OR energy derived from oil, coal, or natural gas C. Standards 1. Limits—limiting alternative energy to exclude Affirmatives that give incentives for oil, coal, natural gas, and nuclear power provides a limit to a potentially huge topic, ensuring clash and preventing research burdens 2. Ground—coal, oil, natural gas, and nuclear power SHOULD BE reserved to the Negative as EITHER disadvantages or counterplans to solve mainstream advantages like air pollution or climate change 3. Precision—our evidence is from the US Code, the MOST PREDICTABLE and AUTHORITY on what is alternative energy
4. Precise definitions of alternative energy is key to solvency Simon 07 (Christopher, Prof of Poly Sci @ University of Nevada—Reno, Alternative energy: political, economic, and social feasibility, p. 57)
Alternative energy is defined at the federal level, but states often conceptualize it differently.

It is important to have some unified sense of what alternative energy entails simply because public policy demands that target populations be monitored for successful and positive participation within policy areas, either through direct involvement or through more passive methods such as voting for a
president.

D. Topicality is a voting issue—tells what the Negative what to and what not to prepare for in debates

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ALTERNATIVE ENERGY = NOT OIL/NAT GAS (ALLOWS FOR COAL) 1NC

Alternative energy is any energy source other than oil, natural gas, or their products United States Senate 1982 ("Tax Expenditures: Relationships to Spending Programs and Background Material," 97th Congress, 2d session, committee print. P. 63) Alternative energy is defined as any energy source other than oil, natural gas, or their products (with the exception of petroleum coke and petroleum pitch).

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ALTERNATIVE ENERGY = NOT OIL/NAT GAS/NUKE POWER

Alternative energy means NOT fuel derived from oil, gasoline, natural gas, or nuclear fissionable materials California Financial Code accessed 08 ("FINANCIAL CODE SECTION 32200-32219," http://caselaw.findlaw.com/cacodes/fin/32200-32219.html) 32201. "Alternative energy system" means any device or combination of devices which conserves or produces heat, process heat, space heating, water heating, steam, space cooling, refrigeration, mechanical energy, electricity, or energy in any form convertible to these uses, which does not expend or use conventional energy fuels, except when such conventional energy fuels are used as a back up
energy system for such alternative energy system or in conjunction with an alternative energy system. 32202. "Conventional energy fuel" means any fuel derived from petroleum

deposits, including but not limited to oil, heating oil, gasoline, fuel oil, or natural gas, including liquified natural gas, or nuclear fissionable materials. "Conventional energy fuel" includes energy produced by the use of such fuels.

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ALTERNATIVE ENERGY = DERIVED FROM NONTRADITIONAL SOURCES 1NC

Alternative energy is energy derived from nontraditional sources Environmental Protection Agency 08 ("Glossary of Climate Change Terms," http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/glossary.html) Alternative Energy Energy derived from nontraditional sources (e.g., compressed natural gas, solar, hydroelectric, wind).5

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ALTERNATIVE ENERGY = SOURCES NOT HARMING THE ENVIRONMENT

Wordweb Online 08 (http://www.wordwebonline.com/search.pl?w=alternative+energy)
Energy derived from sources that do not use up natural resources or harm the environment

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ALTERNATIVE ENERGY = RENEWABLES/FUEL CELLS/CONSERVATION TECH

Alternative Energy includes renewable energy, hydrogen fuel cells, and conservation technologies

New Alternatives Fund 04
(http://www.newalternativesfund.com/invest/invest_alternative.html) Alternative Energy includes three main groups: Renewable Energy (Solar, Wind, Hydro, Geothermal, Biomass) Fuel Cells & Hydrogen Energy Conservation and Enabling Technologies. Alternative energy saves natural resources and is environmentally superior to conventional coal and oil. Wind, flowing water, energy conservation and geothermal heating are ancient but now employ new advanced technology. Technologies such as solar cells, hydrogen and fuel cells and ocean energy are relatively new. All of the technologies operate. The present cost effectiveness of some of the newest technologies varies. Alternative Energy does not include Coal, Oil, Atomic energy. Coal and oil are fossil fuels that cause environmental damage when mined and release pollution when combusted. Alternative energy is cleaner. There may be future technologies for the transformation of coal to a clean source of energy. We do invest in natural gas which is the cleanest of all hydrocarbons, particularly when used in modern turbines and fuel cells. Natural gas is often used to displace dirtier options

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ALTERNATIVE ENERGY = REDUCE OIL/COAL DEPENDENCE.

THE U.S. CODE DEFINES ALTERNATIVE ENERGY AS SOURCES WHICH DECREASES DEPENDENCE ON OIL AND COAL SOURCES. U.S. Code 8. [42 USCS § 6901, Approved 7/1, Title 42 The Public Health and Welfare Chapter 82 Solid Waste Disposal
General Provisions -- lexis]

(d) Energy. The Congress finds with respect to energy, that-(1) solid waste represents a potential source of solid fuel, oil, or gas that can be converted into energy; (2) the need exists to develop alternative energy sources for public and private consumption in order to reduce our dependence on such sources as petroleum products, natural gas, nuclear and hydroelectric generation; and (3) technology exists to produce usable energy from solid waste.

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ALTERNATIVE ENERGY INCLUDES OCEAN THERMAL

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY INCLUDES OCEAN THERMAL. Rosacker and Metcalf 92. [Robert, Asst. Prof of Accounting, U of South Dakota, Richard, Prof of Accounting and
Coordinator of the Masters of Professional Accountancy Program, U of South Dakota, 9 Akron Tax J 59 -- lexis] Targeted investment activities are designated in the statutory framework of the Internal Revenue Code wherein a taxonomy of three credits may be found: regular, rehabilitation, and energy. The first credit is granted for expenditures on depreciable personalty (e.g., cars, computers, furniture, office equipment, and production machinery). 18 Urban recovery and the restoration of older buildings are emphasized with the second credit. 19 The third credit encourages alternative energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and ocean thermal. 20 In order to limit the scope of this research, this article is confined to the effectiveness of the regular ITC.

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ALTERNATIVE ENERGY LAUNDRY LIST

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY IS PRETTY MUCH ANYTHING. Borders 01. [William, JD Candidate, Chicago-Kent College of Law 2002, M.S., Environmental Management, Illinois Institute of
Technology, 77 Chi.-Kent. L. Rev. 333 -- lexis] n21. A qualifying facility is a small power producer or cogenerator that qualifies under PURPA to provide electricity to regulated utilities that are required to purchase that power at a state-approved price. Such generators include power producers that use renewable and alternative energy resources

such as hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal energy, biomass, municipal solid waste, or landfill gas to generate power. Energy Info. Admin., Glossary, at
http://www.eia.doe.gov/glossary/glossary qr.htm (last visited Dec. 3, 2001).

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INCREASE (ALGAE SPECIFIC)

A. INTERPRETATION -- INCREASE MEANS TO BECOME GREATER OR LARGER. American Heritage Dictionary 6. [Fourth edition, accessed via
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/increase] v. intr.

1. To become greater or larger.
2. To multiply; reproduce.

B. VIOLATION -- THEIR PLAN TEXT ENFORCES SECTION 123 WHICH REMOVES CURRENT TAX CREDITS FOR BIODIESEL INSTEAD OF INCREASING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE ENERGY. GovTrack.us. 8. [H.R. 6049--110th Congress (2008): Renewable Energy and Job Creation Act of 2008, GovTrack.us
(database of federal legislation) <http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=h110-6049&tab=summary> accessed Jul 19, 2008]

Section 123 Disqualifies foreign-produced fuel that is used or sold for use outside the United States for the income and excise tax credits for alcohol, biodiesel, renewable diesel, and alternative fuel production. C REASONS TO PREFER -1. 2. LIMITS – this aff makes the topic bidirectional by allowing affirmatives to both give and remove incentives – explodes the neg research burden and eliminates any stable ground. RESOLUTIONAL INTENT – their interpretation functionally moots the word increase from the resolution destroying the intent of the resolution justifying eliminating any word from the rez killing topic specific education. EXTRA T IS A VOTER – the aff accesses their splash and dash advantage by removing current incentives for biofuels – this explodes the topic, destroys the resolution and is unpredictable – severing the advantage doesn’t solve the abuse.

3.

D. TOPICALITY IS A VOTER FOR FAIRNESS ABUSE AND JURISDICTION.

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CTL AIN’T T

A. INTERPRETATION – ALTERNATIVE ENERGY IS THOSE SOURCES NOT DERIVED FROM COAL OIL GAS OR NUCLEAR. Simon 07 (Christopher, Prof of Poly Sci @ University of Nevada—Reno, Alternative energy: political, economic, and social feasibility, p. 39-40) The federal definition of alternative energy is best summarized by Title 26, chapter 79, 7701 of the revised U.S. Code: "the term 'alternative energy facility' means a facility for producing electrical or thermal energy if the primary energy source for the facility is not oil, natural gas, coal, or nuclear power." The primary purpose of this definition relates to the issuance of tax credits to "alternative energy
facility[ies]," which meet certain standards as defined in Title 26, chapter 1, 48 "Energy Credit." Tax credits are one method by which the federal government encourages the private sector to make certain economic choices; in the case of energy

policy, this definition of alternative energy will have a definitive impact on how alternative energy will be defined by those individuals and corporate bodies seeking federal recognition (and benefit) by adopting a particular definition of alternative energy. Many state definitions of alternative energy

closely follow federal definitions. Case law confirms that federal guidelines supercede state-level guidelines. Federal standards also impact the state and local receipt of alternative energy grants, subsidies, and tax exemptions. It is reasonable, therefore, that state and local definitions would be consistent with federal energy policy. Consistency between federal and state definitions does not mean that there are not a few variations. In many ways, variation at the state level illustrates the dynamic and evolving alternative energy paradigm, which is by no means unique to the U.S. policy process.

B. VIOLATION – THEY USE COAL. C. REASONS TO PREFER -1. 2. 3. LIMITS – forcing the aff to defend energy sources not derived from fossil fuels is the fairest limit on the topic – including fossil fuels makes the neg research burden outrageous and destroys clash. CONTEXT KEY – our interpretation comes from the U.S. Code which is the most common and authoritative on U.S. energy policy. GROUND – core negative ground should be fossil fuels good args like the coal or oil disad – the aff interpretation destroys this killing topic specific education and negative strategy.

D. TOPICALITY IS A VOTER FOR FAIRNESS ABUSE AND JURISDICTION.

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CAP AND TRADE UNTOPICAL

EVIDENCE SUPPORTING CAP AND TRADE BEING TOPICAL HAS NO INTENT TO ACTUALLY DEFINE ECONOMIC INCENTIVES AND EXPLODES THE LITERATURE – PREFER OUR WORLDVIEW FOR DEBAT.E Driesen 98. [David, Assistant Professor of Law, Syracuse University College of Law; J.D., Yale University, “Is Emissions
Trading an Economic Incentive Program” Washington & Lee Law Review -- lexis]

Is an emissions trading program 1 an economic incentive program?

Emissions trading programs allow polluters to avoid pollution reductions at a regulated pollution source, if they provide an equivalent reduction elsewhere. 2 Most scholars, government officials, and practitioners

equate emissions trading with economic incentives, but they do not define "economic incentives."

This failure to define economic incentives leaves unsupported the suggestion that emissions trading realizes environmental goals through economic incentives, but that traditional regulations (rules that limit discharges of pollutants into the environment without allowing trading) do not. Both traditional regulation and emissions trading rely upon the threat of a monetary penalty to secure compliance with government commands setting emission limitations. 3 Perhaps neither traditional regulation nor emissions trading should be considered economic incentive programs, because both rely upon government commands. 4 Or perhaps both should be considered
economic incentive programs, because monetary penalties provide a crucial economic incentive in both systems.

CAP AND TRADE MAKES CARBON TAX TOPICAL… Freeman 6. [Myrick, Research Professor of Economis @ Bowdoin College, former Sr Fellow @ Resources for the Future,
Visiting College Prof @ U of Washington, and Robert M La Follette Visiting Distinguished Prof @ U of Wisconsin-Madison, “Economics, Incentives, and Environmental Policy”Environmental Policy: New Directions for the Twenty-First Century p200] A system of marketable or tradable discharge permits (TDPs) has essentially the same incentive effects as a tax on pollution. After establishing a maximum allowable level of emissions (a cap), the government would issue a limited number of pollution permits, or “tickets.” Each ticket would entitle its owner to discharge one unit of pollution during a specific time period. The government could either distribute the tickets free of charge to polluters on some basis or auction them off to the highest bidders. Dischargers could also buy and sell permits among themselves. This has come to

be known as a cap-and-trade system. The cost of purchasing a ticket or of forgoing the revenue from selling the ticket to someone else has the same incentive effects as a tax on pollution of the same amount.

CAP AND TRADE ISN’T AN INCENTIVE – ITS JUST REGULATION – PREFER OUR COMPARATIVE EVIDENCE. Driesen 98. [David, Assistant Professor of Law, Syracuse University College of Law; J.D., Yale University, “Is Emissions
Trading an Economic Incentive Program” Washington & Lee Law Review -- lexis]

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Emissions trading, traditionally considered an "economic incentive" program, may provide a less potent economic incentive to reduce pollution [*337] and innovate than a comparable traditional regulation. 221 An understanding of the reasons for this may
contribute to a theory that would help guide design of better environmental programs. Analyzing a program's ability to provide economic incentives for pollution reduction requires an evaluation of all potentially relevant monetary flows. In simpler terms, "follow the money."

Emissions trading programs are often characterized as economic incentives because they use positive economic inducements. The lower cost source can increase revenue by reducing pollution below regulatory limits and selling credits to the higher cost source. The money to provide a positive inducement, however, must come from somewhere. An emissions trading program produces no net incentive to do better than traditional regulation in any way because emission increases finance emission decreases. High-cost sources decrease costs by exceeding a regulatory limit. The savings the highcost source realizes by exceeding a regulatory limit on pollution finance the low-cost source's "additional" pollution reductions.

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FLEX FUEL NOT TOPICAL

FLEX FUEL ISN’T TOPICAL – IT’S THE HARSHEST KIND OF REGULATION POSSIBLE – PREFER OUR EVIDENCE BECAUSE ITS COMPARATIVE. Stavins 97. [ Robert, Professor of Public Policy, JFK School of Gov’t Harvard, University Fellow, Resources for the Future,
“Policy Instruments for Climate Change: How Can National Governments Address a Global Problem” University of Chicago Legal Forum

Conventional regulatory standards (often described as "command-and-control" regulations) can loosely be categorized as either technology-based or performance-based, although the distinction is often not clear. Technology-based (or design) standards typically require specified equipment, processes, or procedures. In the context of climate change policy, such standards might require, for example, that firms use particular types of energyefficient motors, combustion processes, or landfill gas collection
technologies.

Performance-based standards are more flexible than technology-based standards in that they specify allowable levels of pollutant emissions or polluting activities but permit regulated entities to choose the way in which they will achieve these levels. Examples of uniform performance standards for greenhouse gas abatement include maximum
allowable levels of CO2 emissions from combustion or maximum levels of methane emissions from landfills. Uniform standards can also take the form of outright bans of certain products or processes, such as the banning of aerosol sprays that contain ozone-depleting substances. 19

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FEEBATES NOT T

Feebates don’t incentivize alternative energy, they just limit emissions Globe and Mail, 6/21/07, [Jeremy Cato, “Auto makers push ahead to develop better green machines”,
http://www.reportonbusiness.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20070620.wh-greenautos-0621/BNStory/robNews, liz]

But many argue the feebate does not do this at all. More than half of the Canadians who buy a new car every year already opt for highly fuel-efficient models - small entry-level cars. What we have, then, says Dennis DesRosiers of DesRosiers Automotive Consultants, is a feebate that "costs approximately $5,600 per tonne of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions reduced. The most expensive environment program anywhere in the world by a wide margin." Perhaps even more troubling, critics argue this government initiative will do almost nothing to encourage the development of "green" vehicle technologies such as gasoline-electric hybrids, plug-in hybrids, clean diesels, ethanol/E85 vehicles and other automotive technologies that are better for the environment - including hydrogen-powered cars, which for some auto makers are literally just around the corner. Make no mistake, representatives from Toyota, General Motors, BMW, Nissan, Honda and Ford said they are prepared to bring more fuel-saving/eco-friendly technologies to dealer showrooms. But how far they go depends on the regulatory and economic environments. Feebates only solve energy effiency, not transition to alternatives
Green Car Congress 07. (“Canadian Auto Feebate Program a “First Step”, But Needs Improvement”, November 23, http://www.greencarcongress.com/2007/11/study-canadian.html)

The federal government’s 2007 budget introduced a feebate scheme known as the “vehicle efficiency initiative.” It combines a rebate program for fuel-efficient vehicles with a tax on fuel-inefficient ones. The benchmark is fuel consumption in litres per 100 km driven.

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INCENTIVES CAN BE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE

INCENTIVES CAN BE BOTH. Driesen 98. [David, Assistant Professor of Law, Syracuse University College of Law; J.D., Yale University, 1989 “Is emissions
trading an economic incentive program?: Replacing the command and control economic incentive dichotomy” Washington and Lee Law Review, Spring -- lexis] Many scholars advocate increased reliance upon economic incentives to achieve environmental goals. But

what precisely is an economic incentive? [*323] What distinguishes reliance upon economic incentives from reliance upon traditional regulation to meet environmental goals? An economic incentive program can be defined as any program that provides an economic benefit for pollution reductions or an economic penalty for pollution. Defining economic incentives to include both positive and negative incentives includes pollution taxes in the definition. 155 Does command and control regulation qualify as
an economic incentive program under this definition? Imagine a pure command and control law. The law commands polluters to perform specific pollution reducing acts, but provides no penalties for noncompliance. This law would probably motivate little or no pollution reduction, because polluters could violate the commands without consequence. 156 Command and control regulation only works when an enforcement mechanism exists. 1

INCENTIVES CAN BE POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE – PREFER OUR DEFINITION BECAUSE ITS FROM THE EPA. NCEE 01. [National Center for Environmental Economics under the EPA, “The US Experience with Economic Incentives for
Pollution Control” EPA January http://yosemite1.epa.gov/ee/epalib/incent2.nsf/Table+of+Contents]

II. Definition of Economic Incentives For the purposes of this report, economic incentives are defined broadly as instruments that use financial means to motivate polluters to reduce the health and environmental risks posed by their facilities, processes, or products. These incentives provide monetary and near-monetary rewards for polluting less and impose costs of various types for polluting more, thus supplying the necessary motivation to polluters. This approach provides an opportunity to address sources of pollution that are not easily
controlled with traditional forms of regulation as well as providing a reason for polluters to improve upon existing regulatory requirements. Under traditional regulatory approaches, polluters have little or no incentive to cut emissions further or to make their products less harmful once they have satisfied the regulatory requirements.

Incentives are the direct or indirect use of sanctions or inducements—examples prove they can be positive OR negative Weiss 99 (Janet, Professor of Organization Behavior and Public Policy @ University of Michigan, Edited by George Frederickson and Jocelyn Johnston , Public Management Reform and Innovation: Research, Theory, and Application, p. 52) Incentives are defined as the direct or indirect use of sanctions or inducements to alter the calculus of costs and benefits associated with given behavior for the target individuals. Examples of public policies that rely on incentives are subsidies, social insurance, grants, and taxes.

Answers.com 08 (http://www.answers.com/topic/incentive?cat=biz-fin)
n. Something, such as the fear of punishment or the expectation of reward, that induces action or motivates effort.

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NEGATIVE INCENTIVES ARE TOPICAL

NEGATIVE INCENTIVES ARE TOPICAL AND ARE THE MOST COMMONLY USED INCENTIVE IN ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION. NCEE 01. [National Center for Environmental Economics under the EPA, “The US Experience with Economic Incentives for
Pollution Control” EPA January http://yosemite1.epa.gov/ee/epalib/incent2.nsf/Table+of+Contents]

IV. Types of Economic Incentives
This report examines several types of economic incentives that are currently in use in the United States at all levels of government, and it assesses their advantages and disadvantages. Although all these incentives give sources of pollution an impetus to minimize their emissions, the incentives take widely differing forms. In fact, the variety of economic incentives in use today is one of the

most remarkable developments in environmental management over the past decade. 1. Fees, Charges, and Taxes From the perspective of sources that are subject to environmental fees, charges, and taxes, these three terms are largely interchangeable in terms of their effects. They all require that the generator of a designated type of pollution pay a fee (or charge or tax) for each unit of pollution. These fees make attractive tools for managing the environment because they attach an explicit cost to polluting activities and because sources can easily quantify their savings if they reduce the amount of pollution they emit. Pollution-related fees, charges, and taxes are widely collected at all levels of government, and they are one of the most prevalent economic incentives in use today. For example, fees linked
to air emissions are imposed in California, Texas, and several other states, while permit fees for water effluent discharge are based on the volume and toxicity of the discharge in Washington, New Jersey, and Wisconsin, among others. Per-bag fees on households that dispose of solid waste are in effect in more than 3,000 communities across the country. Fees that are tied to resources such as the use of grazing lands, water, and sewage systems are widely levied in the United States. One disadvantage is that fees do not guarantee the amount by which a source would reduce pollution.

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SDI 08 WW(J)D

C&T TOPICAL

CAP AND TRADE IS TOPICAL – STILL CLASSIFIED AS A MARKET INCENTIVE. Boczar 94. [Barbara, Associate, McCutchen, Doyle, Enersen & Brown, San Francisco CA, JD Stanfaord Law, PhD
in Biology @ U of C @ Santa Barbara, “Toward a viable environemental regulatory framework: From corporate environmental management to regulatory consensus” DePaul Business Law Journal Spring -lexis]

1. Direct Regulation Direct regulations encompass a variety of command and control regulations, including enabling, environmental quality and resource conservation regulations.
Enabling regulations set out the general objectives and the interactions among the legislative and executive branches of government, while providing for the general funding of the environmental programs outlined in the legislation. 13 The environmental quality regulation provides flexible standards based on current technologies and health and safety criteria. These regulations determine the methods for controlling pollution and set numerical limitations on permissible levels of pollution. 14 Finally, resource conservation regulations define the management, distribution and preservation of natural resources such as mineral, forests and water. 15

2. Market Incentives
Both industry and government pursued the incorporation of market incentives into environmental legislation. The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act did incorporate incentive-

based ideas. The Act established a pollution credit trading scheme through the Act's acid rain control program. The emissions trading provisions allow a holder of emissions credits to sell those rights to another firm. 16 This approach potentially could
save industry three billion dollars a year. 17 Numerous commentators proposed many different general market-based solutions to pollution problems. These plans include pollution charges such as fees, taxes, subsidies and deposit-refund systems.

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SDI 08 WW(J)D

NON TRADITIONAL USES OF TRADITIONAL FUELS = T

NON TRADITIONAL USES OF TRADITIONAL FUELS LIKE GAS OR NATURAL GAS IS TOPICAL. National Energy Department Policy Development Group 01. [Reliable, Affordable, and Environmentally Sound
Energy for America’s Future “Chapter 6: Nature’s Power: Increasing America’s Use of Renewable and Alternative Energy” http://www.whitehouse.gov/energy/2001/Chapter6.pdf]

Alternative energy includes: alternative fuels that are transportation fuels other than gasoline and diesel, even when the type of energy, such as natural gas, is traditional; the use of traditional energy sources, such as natural gas, in untraditional ways, such as for distributed energy at the point of use through microturbines or fuel cells; and future energy sources, such as hydrogen and fusion. ALTERNATIVE ENERGY FUEL SOURCES ARE ANYTHING MADE FROM NONTRADITIONAL SOURCES. National Energy Department Policy Development Group 01. [Reliable, Affordable, and Environmentally Sound
Energy for America’s Future “Chapter 6: Nature’s Power: Increasing America’s Use of Renewable and Alternative Energy” http://www.whitehouse.gov/energy/2001/Chapter6.pdf]

Alternative Energy
Alternative Transportation Fuels

Alternative fuels are any transportation fuels made from a nontraditional source, including ethanol, biodiesel, and other biofuels. These can be made from biomass resources, including liquid fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, biodiesel) and gaseous fuels (e.g., hydrogen and methane). Biofuels are primarily used to fuel vehicles, but can also fuel engines or fuel cells for electricity generation. Alternative fuels also include traditional energy sources, such as natural gas and liquid propane that are traditionally not used as a transportation fuel.

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SDI 08 WW(J)D

BIOFUELS = T

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY INCLUDES BIOFUELS – FEDERAL AND STAT E LEGISLATURE PROVES. Jennings 7. [Margaret, B.A. Iowa State University, 2004; J.D., Candidate, Drake University, 2007, 12 Drake J. Agric. L. 205
Spring -- lexis] Thus, the purpose of this note is to answer the looming questions that many Americans might have when pondering the issue of U.S. foreign oil dependence and how they are going to be able to afford to live if something is not done to relieve the problem. First, this note will give some background information and statistics on the U.S.'s dependence on foreign oil. This will lead to a discussion of recent

legislation at both the federal and state level that has been approved to promote the development of alternative energy sources, specifically biofuels. Next,

information will be given defining bioenergy and its many forms, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of this type of energy. The note will then go on to discuss predictions regarding the potential for growth of bioenergy [*207] use worldwide and in the U.S. Finally, the note will conclude with a short evaluation of the U.S.'s plan to make bioenergy fuels the fuel of the future, and if this plan will be successful.

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SDI 08 WW(J)D

CARBON TAX = POSITIVE INCENTIVE

REGULATIONS ARE POSITIVE INCENTIVES – makes the carbon tax cp topical. Freeman 6. [Myrick, Research Professor of Economis @ Bowdoin College, former Sr Fellow @ Resources for the Future,
Visiting College Prof @ U of Washington, and Robert M La Follette Visiting Distinguished Prof @ U of Wisconsin-Madison, “Economics, Incentives, and Environmental Policy”Environmental Policy: New Directions for the Twenty-First Century p200]

Economists have long argued for an alternative approach to pollution control policy based on the creation of strong positive incentives for firms to control pollution. One form that the incentive could take is a charge or tax on each unit of pollution discharged. The tax would be equal to the monetary value of the damage that pollution caused to others. Each discharger wishing to minimize its total cost (cleanup cost plus
tax bill) would compare the tax cost of discharging a unit of pollution with the cost of controlling or preventing the discharge. As long as the cost of control was lower than the tax or charge, the ifrm would want to prevent the discharge. In fact, it would reduce pollution to the point at which its marginal cost of control was just equal to the tax and, indirectly, equal to the marginal damage caused by the pollution. The properly set tax would cause the firm to undertake on its own

accord the optimum amount of pollution control.

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