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Scientific+Article+Questions+Answers by Stafford Final

Scientific+Article+Questions+Answers by Stafford Final

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1. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of exercise regimes.

P1

Advantages of moderate exercise regimes include  Increased BMR;  Improved well being  Decreased blood pressure  Decreased adrenaline levels  Increased HDL  Less stress  Decreased LDL  Moderate exercise increases levels of Natural Killer cells, which secrete  Decreased risk of CHD apoptosis-inducing chemicals in  Maintaining healthy BMI response to non-specific viral or  Decreased risk of diabetes cancerous threat.  Increased bone density Disadvantages of exercising too much (over-training) include;  Chronic fatigue (tiredness) and poor athletic performance  Increase in upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) - Sore throats and flu-like symptoms, due to a suppressed immune system with a decrease in the number and activity of cells in the immune system.  An inflammatory response in muscles due to damage to muscle fibres.  Increased wear and tear of joints  Increased risk of cardiac failure, specially in older untrained individuals.

2. Explain what is meant by a tissue.

P1

A group of specialised cells working together to perform a specific function. Brown Adipose Tissue is made up of specialised adipocytes.

3. Suggest how an unspecialised cell can become specialised into brown adipose tissue (BAT).
Specific genes which are needed to form BAT get „switched on‟. The induction of these genes produces active mRNA which can form specific proteins. These proteins will transform the unspecialised cell into a specialised BAT cell. The trigger for gene induction comes from an environmental cue, cold surroundings in this case. This also shows that the environment can influence the phenotype.

4. What criteria might have been used to assess obesity, to arrive at the estimate that almost two thirds of adults and one third of children are obese? P2
Obesity indicators – BMI or waist to hip ratio – may be used to assess obesity. A person with BMI greater than 30 or a waist to hip ratio above 0.80 for women and above 0.95 for men may be considered obese.

BMI = Weight (in kg) / Height2 (in m) Waist-to-Hip ratio = waist circumference / hip circumference

A sizeable population should have been sampled and the number of obese individuals would be divided by the total number of people in the sample to get a ratio.
.............................................................................................................................................................................................................. Compiled by Stafford Valentine Redden (Head of Department, VIHS, Maldives), Author and publisher of Advanced Level Biology textbooks. Contact: staffordv@yahoo.com for additional resources or consultation. Phone: +9607765507 Page 10

........... 11.. Maldives). It also makes it easier to compare the prevalence of other disorders or to compare the same disorder in other populations.. 12.......... 7......... P3 Obesity (BMI > 30) Increased adipose tissue Increased high blood pressure Increased Endothelial damage in coronary arteries Increased atheroma or plaque formation Increased risk of blood clotting Coronary arteries get blocked leading to lack of oxygen and promotion of anaerobic respiration.........................com for additional resources or consultation..... Why is mortality for anorexia expressed as a rate. Suggest a sequence of events that could causally link obesity with an increased risk of heart disease.... P3 Correlation is when a change in one factor is reflected by a change in another factor...... P4 Answer: 47.. P7 The studies should have  a large sample size  a control group  statistical analysis of data  randomised selection of participants to reduce bias ...... 10... P3 Triglycerides are composed of one glycerol attached to three fatty acid tails by ester linkages. calculate the average mass of the fashion model of ‘today’. What is meant by the prevalence of a disease or condition? Prevalence is a measurement of all individuals affected by the disease within a particular period of time.( in %.............. It is typically expressed as a percentage or proportion of the population affected by the condition of disease within a particular period of time..... Compiled by Stafford Valentine Redden (Head of Department... The fatty acid tails may be saturated or unsaturated.. lactic acid formation and subsequent necrosis or death of cardiac tissue (heart attack) 6...... rather than in numbers of deaths? P6 Expressing the number as a percentage.... or deaths per 100..... Distinguish between correlation and causation.5. P6 P6 Any factor which increases the chance or probability of facing an undesirable event.......... gives a clear idea of the prevalence of the disease irrespective or regardless of the population size..............74kgs Ask your teacher for help or email me for the WORKING 9...... causation is when a change in one factor is responsible for a change in the other factor. where as. The cause for the change can be clearly explained by a biological phenomenon. State the features of studies referred to in this paragraph that will render it reliable...... Author and publisher of Advanced Level Biology textbooks.... Describe the structure of triglycerides.... VIHS.......000)..... Explain what is meant by a risk factor........ 8............... Phone: +9607765507 Page 11 ................. If the average adult woman has a mass of 62kgs... Obesity has been linked with heart disease......... Contact: staffordv@yahoo.....

.. Contact: staffordv@yahoo.....13. P8 fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) shows which parts of the brain are active during a particular task..... but whether they are active...... VIHS.. Describe the technique of fMRI and explain how it can be used to investigate brain function..... so the differences may be attributed to genetic differences.. Oxyhaemoglobin does not absorb radio signals but deoxyhaemoglobin absorbs radio signals. reasoning.......... Frontal lobe Medulla oblongata Involved in decision making... The paragraphs 11 to 14 refer to gender differences in responding to media images... sneezing and movements (Associated learning)............ P11 to 14 Both men and women live in the same environment and are exposed to the same stimuli.... Involved in learned reflexes like coughing.................... Compiled by Stafford Valentine Redden (Head of Department.......... Describe the method used to classify people as ‘healthy’........ ‘obese’ or ‘overweight’... Similar to MRI.... .... but the doctor not only knows what the tissues look like.... Controls rate of heartbeat...... The pre-frontal cortex is part of the frontal lobe of the brain.. that shows brain activity......... 14............ and compare it with the function of the medulla.... P9 Control setup Experimental setup No neural activity in pre frontal cortex when person is not engaged in self reflection. It is therefore very useful in the study of brain function... Phone: +9607765507 Page 12 . Justify the statement that the difference in responses of males and females to media images is influenced more by genes (nature) rather than by nurture (environment)......... vomiting........... Author and publisher of Advanced Level Biology textbooks....... 15. breathing rate.... This is the only technique.. P10 BMI Less than 20 20 to 24....... planning and emotions...........com for additional resources or consultation....... Describe some of the functions of this part of the brain.. The difference in oxyhaemoglobin content of the brain is used to rapidly produce a three dimensional (3D) image of the active and non active regions of the brain..9 Above 30 Category Underweight Healthy Overweight Obese 16...9 25 to 29... Explain how fMRI was able to show that activity increases in the prefrontal cortex in subjects engaged in self-reflection.. Maldives).. which is virtually nonmagnetic............ 17.......... Deoxygenated haemoglobin is more magnetic than oxygenated haemoglobin....

.. thighs and hips are central to sexual selection............. damaged white blood cells (Basophils and mast cells) release histamine at the site of infection.......... This is a key health and fertility indicator and core feature of feminine beauty.... Describe the inflammatory process P18 Whenever there is a cut in the skin or tissue damage..... Paragraph 24 describes how female attractiveness is influenced by cultural and media influences. Author and publisher of Advanced Level Biology textbooks. This increases the rate of formation of tissue fluid and leads to local oedema (the swelling associated with inflammation).. The phagocytes (macrophages and neutrophils) complete the job by engulfing cell debris and dead cells............. Phone: +9607765507 Page 13 ............18............... Histamine causes local arterioles to vasodilate...... What evidence is given in the text that what is perceived as the ideal body shape for a woman is a cultural construct. Exposure to visual images depicting attractive females is found to alter women‟s perception of their own sexual attractiveness and mating viability through a cognitive comparison process referred to as the „contrast effect‟................. Oedema allows monocytes and neutrophils into the infected area to engulf and destroy foreign bodies and pathogens....... Maldives). more subcutaneous fat and fat deposits mainly around the buttocks............ rather than from a genetically determined way of identifying a healthy potential mate? Paragraph 23 describes the features of a genetically healthy female...... Heterosexual human females maintain/adapt physical appearance in accordance with sexual dimorphism – the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex.. Neutrophils consume fewer bacteria than macrophages..... increasing the blood supply to the infected area.... VIHS........... Dead monocytes and pathogens may form pus. In females....... ........................... Contact: staffordv@yahoo................. 19... The waist-hip ratio of any physique is very strongly correlated to male perception of female attractiveness across all cultures and throughout history...... It also causes capillary walls to become more permeable............com for additional resources or consultation....... Compiled by Stafford Valentine Redden (Head of Department.....

but the T cells mature in the thymus gland (hence T lymphocytes)........ Light causes cis-retinal to be converted into trans-retinal..... It is sensitive to light of low intensity / dim light (luminescence). The cis-retinal recombines with opsin to form Rhodopsin. Retinal is derived from vitamin A. Author and publisher of Advanced Level Biology textbooks.. Contact: staffordv@yahoo...com for additional resources or consultation..20.. Suggest what cells may be reduced in number when cortisol produces ‘impaired immunity’ T Cells will be „muted‟ by cortisol... taking a few minutes....... In the dark retinal is in the cis form............... ATP is used for this process.... and it can exists in 2 forms: a cis form and a trans form. the photoreceptor molecule..... This causes the trans-retinal to split from the opsin.............. Trans-retinal is reconverted into cis-retinal by an enzyme retinal isomerase.... below.. Retinal is the light-sensitive part..... which splits away from opsin...... The detection of light is carried out on the membrane discs (vesicles) in the outer segment.. Explain how the ‘contrast effect’ might occur in the retina of the eye...... Some time is needed to resynthesise rhodopsin..... Rhodopsin consists of a membrane-bound protein called opsin and a covalently-bound prosthetic group called retinal... 21. The process is illustrated in the fig. with the stimulus of ‘luminescence’ p25 Rhodopsin: this is the photosensitive pigment found in the rod cells of the retina................ Remember that T helper cells activate the B cells to produce antibodies................. Phone: +9607765507 Page 14 ..... T and B lymphocytes are produced in the bone marrow... This explains why you are initially blind when you walk from sunlight to a dark room......... so that the immune response will not be triggered.. The B cells mature in the bone marrow (hence B lymphocytes)............. and a dietary deficiency in this vitamin causes night-blindness (poor vision in dim light)....... Compiled by Stafford Valentine Redden (Head of Department. Maldives)....... VIHS............................. The reverse reaction (trans to cis retinal) requires an enzyme reaction and is very slow............ This is called as the dark adaptation....... but when it absorbs a photon of light it quickly switches to the trans form.. These discs contain thousands of molecules of rhodopsin. ....... This process is called bleaching.

...... Action potential is Not generated in the Ganglion cell Generating an impulse 1... The bipolar neurone is depolarised 7.. Author and publisher of Advanced Level Biology textbooks........ The bipolar cell cannot depolarise 7............ Bleaching occurs by converting cis-retinal to trans retinal 3.... Compiled by Stafford Valentine Redden (Head of Department................ Inner segment pumps sodium ions out by active transport 5. No impulse formed 1. Phone: +9607765507 Page 15 .. Rhodopsin with cis retinal opens it and rhodopsin with trans retinal closes it.. Action potential is generated in the Ganglion cell.......... Trans-retinal converted to cis-retinal 3... Absence of light 2...................... Photon hits rhodopsin 2............... ........ so the neurotransmitter (glutamate) stops the bipolar cell making a nerve impulse.......................... The rod is not hyperpolarised and releases inhibitory neurotransmitter (glutamate) 6..com for additional resources or consultation......... Maldives). Trans-retinal blocks Na+ channels in outer segment 4..... Cis-retinal opens Na+ channels in outer segment 4................Rod cell membranes contain a special sodium channel that is controlled by rhodopsin.......... Contact: staffordv@yahoo............... VIHS............. which passes to the brain as a nerve impulse by formation of local circuits... The rod is hyperpolarised and stops releasing inhibitory neurotransmitter (glutamate) 6.............. The synapse with the bipolar cell is an inhibitory synapse.. Inner segment pumps sodium ions out by active transport 5..

.......... The diagram below summarises the events that occur during oxidative phosphorylation in the inner mitochondrial membrane.....22......com for additional resources or consultation...... Phone: +9607765507 Page 16 .......... as it joins the chain later and pumps in less hydrogen ions to the inter membranal space............. ATP is generated from free energy released when H+ ions move back into mitochondrial matrix. which contain the enzyme ATP synthase or ATPase.  The components of the electron transport chain split hydrogen into electrons and hydrogen ions................. This ensures that the Electron Transport Chain (ETC) continues to function and NAD+ (oxidized Hydrogen carriers) can be regenerated for aerobic respiration to continue............. These stalked particles are called chemiosmotic channels and the movement of hydrogen ions into the matrix is called chemiosmosis....... controlled by oxidoreductase or dehydrogenase enzymes........ link reaction and Kreb‟s cycle get oxidised by LOSING hydrogen to the electron transport chain................... 4H+ + 4e.....+ O2 2H2O   Note: During oxidative phosphorylation... through stalked particles..... As the electrons are passed from one component to another................... ..... Oxygen is used to absorb electrons from the electron transport chain and combines these electrons with H+ ions to form water............ Contact: staffordv@yahoo............ This causes a high concentration of hydrogen ions in the inter-membranal space.. Author and publisher of Advanced Level Biology textbooks..... into the inter-membranal space........... VIHS.............. hydrogen ions are pumped from the matrix... Describe the processes taking place in mitochondria... The electrons pass down the chain through a series of redox reactions.... Compiled by Stafford Valentine Redden (Head of Department....  NADH2 from glycolysis....... one NADH2 produces 3ATP and one FADH2 produces 2ATP. when ATP production is not uncoupled from the respiration process p28 Oxidative phosphorylation: Phosphorylation of ADP to ATP in the presence of oxygen... Maldives)..

..7 metres per second and 120 metres per second General effect...... Compare and contrast the way in which these two methods of communication operate.. Phone: +9607765507 Page 17 ...... Using your knowledge of chemiosmosis suggest a mechanism by which an uncoupling protein might work. Author and publisher of Advanced Level Biology textbooks......... Feature Nature of signal Hormonal control Nervous control All hormones are chemical signal Nerve impulses are electrical signals...... Only short – lived Speed of signal Effect in the body Effect on growth Capacity for modification Duration of effect ...................................... BAT is activated by both the SNS and thyroid hormones. Can affect growth Cannot affect growth Cannot be modified by learning from Can be modified by learning from previous previous experience experiences Short term or long lasting...................23........... Contact: staffordv@yahoo.......... Between 0................... VIHS...... Maldives)............................ The hormones can Localized effect – affects only the influence cells in many different particular muscle or the gland parts of the body... 24............. (Chemical) Chemical signalling takes place at synapses (Electrochemical) Slow Rapid........... Compiled by Stafford Valentine Redden (Head of Department............com for additional resources or consultation.....................

...... Contact: staffordv@yahoo....... They have plenty of mitochondria to provide ATP at the required rate...........com for additional resources or consultation... Compiled by Stafford Valentine Redden (Head of Department.. 27. The cubes show the relationship between size and surface area to volume ratio......... Examples of such tissues will be muscle tissue and liver tissue.. Glucose can enter the cell by active transport through a specific glucose transporter protein in the cell surface membrane......... . Hence babies lose heat more rapidly than a larger adult human......................... Tissues in which ATP is produced and used rapidly is considered to be metabolically very active.......... Describe the mechanisms by which glucose may be taken up by cells........................ VIHS..... Express this relationship in an appropriate way to explain why a baby would have a higher rate of heat loss than an adult. as compared with an adult (p30). The protein will use ATP to transport glucose across the membrane... Strictly speaking it is absurd to suggest that a baby has a large body surface........ Phone: +9607765507 Page 18 .....25.... Maldives).......... Author and publisher of Advanced Level Biology textbooks................. and give examples of tissue that might be described as such... Babies behave like the smaller cube and have a lower diffusion distance and larger surface area to volume ratio than an adult.......................... 26... Since glucose is a large molecule with polar groups. What is meant by a metabolically active tissue p31........................... it cannot cross the phospholipid bilayer of the cell........

.  Behavioral changes – pouring water on the skin or turning on the fan helps to cool the body down. Phone: +9607765507 Page 19 .  Hair erector muscles relax – this results in the hair falling towards the skin and less air is trapped around the body.... 0 Compiled by Stafford Valentine Redden (Head of Department... Contact: staffordv@yahoo...........................com for additional resources or consultation... Normal body temperature ................ This helps to produce more heat. Air is trapped around the body... Heat loss by conduction decreases (as air is an insulator)...... textbooks. This increases heat loss by radiation................. This helps to produce less heat... This decreases heat loss by radiation.... Thermoregulatory centre about following changes brings  Vasoconstriction – smooth muscles of arterioles constrict and less blood flows into capillaries below skin... Normal body temperature 370C Increase in temperature ...............  Behavioral changes – putting on warm clothes or turning on the heater helps to reduce heat loss.28.... Author and publisher of Advanced Level Biology VIHS................Exercise / high metabolism .... the thermoregulatory mechanism operates through negative feedback mechanisms to keep the temperature within a narrow range...............  Hair erector muscles contract – this results in the hair becoming erect....Heat loss to surrounding / cold surrounding Increase in temperature is detected by temperature sensitive receptors in the hypothalamus and skin Impulses sent to temperature control centre in the hypothalamus (Thermo-regulatory centre) Decrease in temperature is detected by temperature sensitive receptors in the hypothalamus and skin Impulses sent to temperature control centre in the hypothalamus (Thermoregulatory centre) Thermoregulatory centre brings about following changes  Vasodilation – smooth muscles of arterioles relax and more blood flows into capillaries below skin..... Heat loss by conduction increases...Physical inactivity / low metabolism ........  Decreased sweat production – Less evaporation of sweat from skin reduces heat loss...........  Decreased metabolism – the metabolic activity in liver and muscles is reduced... Describe the responses by the body that might help to prevent death by uncontrollable heat production as described in para 37 Uncontrollable heat production can lead to failure of the thermoregulatory mechanism and lead to hyperthermia..Lack of clothing .......  Increased metabolism – the metabolic activity in liver and muscles is increased............ In normal circumstances...........  Increased sweat production – Evaporation of sweat from skin cools the body by removing heat... The enzymes and proteins can denature and cause death.............37 C Maldives).Warm clothes .... The mechanism is shown in the flowchart below....Heat gain from surrounding / warm surrounding Decrease in temperature ..

... The following table summarises the process of drug testing in the UK.......... Outline the role of transcription factors which lead to a higher expression of PRDM16 in BAT............ An independent organisation (UK Medicines Control Agency) assesses whether it is appropriate to move to Phase 2 Clinical Trials 1. The results are analysed 4. Proposed drug is given to animals to see the effects on a whole animal........... A small group of people with the disease are given the drug.... VIHS......  protein repressor molecules can attach to the transcription factors preventing them forming the transcription initiation complex..... Maldives)... are present.. The effects of the different doses are assessed to try and determine the optimum dose 4........ Studies are very similar to Phase 1 3... Three-phased testing New drugs are now tested extensively before marketing – it can take over 10 years for some drugs....... Any side effects away from target cells are noted...... compared to WAT......... Phase 1 They are told what the drug does 2................ Signal proteins may act directly by entering the cell (like steroid hormones) or indirectly through a second messenger (cAMP)... p40 „Switching on a gene‟ – Gene induction or activation Transcription of a gene is initiated by RNA polymerase and transcription factors binding to a promoter region (section of DNA upstream to a gene).. This process is different in other countries.. When the DNA is coiled around histones (Supercoiling)......... Other transcription factors are only synthesised in certain cells at a particular stage of development.. Clinical Trials 1.. 3...com for additional resources or consultation..... hence blocking the attachment sites for transcription factors..... A small group of healthy volunteers are given different doses of the drug.. absorbance rate.... metabolism & excretion profile of the drug are assessed. Compiled by Stafford Valentine Redden (Head of Department.. Proposed drug is tested in a lab with cultured cells to see the general testing effects of the drug 2.. „Switching off a gene‟ – deactivation Genes are switched off (not able to be transcribed) by the cell protein repressor molecules may attach to the promoter region...........  signal proteins (Hormones) acting as transcription factors may not be present............ A large group of people with the disease are given optimum doses of the Phase 3 drug 2... Stage Purpose of stage Pre-clinical 1.. The optimum dose is worked out Clinical Trials 1........  .... It is reported no studies for fucoxanthin have been carried out on humans (p38)... Outline the protocols that would be carried out before it can be said that the treatment is effective... Author and publisher of Advanced Level Biology textbooks........ If the drug has had a significant positive effect in the treatment of the disease it is put forward to licensing authority 30. The distribution.. which is later activated by signal proteins or regulator proteins... Phase 2 2. RNA Polymerase + Transcription factors = Transcription Initiation Complex Some transcription factors are always present in all cells (example the transcription factors needed to switch on the genes for respiration or protein synthesis). certain genes may be inactivated because its promoter may not be accessible to the transcription factors or RNA polymerase....... Contact: staffordv@yahoo...... in their active form.... The patients are either given the drug or a placebo in a double-blind test 3. Phone: +9607765507 Page 20 . often in an inactive form........ The gene is „switched on‟ when all the transcription factors....29.............

....... Implant the embryo into a surrogate mother... P30 At birth. The synapses that are not used frequently are eliminated..... 3. in this case) and completes the Transcription Initiation Complex........ 2....... the number of neurons stays the same and the number of synapses increases.. 5..... This activates RNA polymerase to become active and begin the process of transcription of the gene......... The brain‟s task for the first 3 years is to establish and reinforce connections with other neurons........com for additional resources or consultation....... Adenyl cyclase enzyme is released from the receptor and diffuses into the cytoplasm........ Author and publisher of Advanced Level Biology textbooks......... the human brain is still preparing for full operation.. Transgenic mouse will be born........ become a permanent part of the brain................... After age 3.. These connections are formed when impulses are sent and received between neurons............ the creation of synapses slows until about age 10.. During the first 3 years of life....... Contact: staffordv@yahoo....... Maldives). like a tree with more branches. wire together”..... These connections form synapses....... Using your knowledge of brain development... the brain creates more synapses than it needs.... The gene is now ‘SWITCHED ON’. Phone: +9607765507 Page 21 .. 1. 32.. with high levels of expression of PRDM16. Introduce the gene for PRDM16 and its transcription factors into the fertilised egg.. the synapses become more complex.... explain why babies are unable to shiver while adults can. “Neurones that fire together.. Compiled by Stafford Valentine Redden (Head of Department........ ............... The brain‟s neurons exist mostly apart from one another...in this case... The second messenger initiates a series of reactions in the cell and activates Transcription Factor 7.... 31... As a child develops....... The synapses that are used very frequently.. The activated transcription factor (TF7) now binds to the existing Transcription factors (TF1 to TF6.. Describe the procedures that might be used to genetically modify the mice to produce high levels of PRDM16....... “use it or lose it”.... Adenyl cyclase converts ATP into cyclic AMP (Second messenger) 4.. This is where experience plays an important role in wiring a young child‟s brain...The mode of action for peptide hormones is shown below.. VIHS........ Hormone binds to specific receptor on the cell membrane... Create a mouse embryo by in vitro fertilization.. Between birth and age 3.....

........ Author and publisher of Advanced Level Biology textbooks............................com for additional resources or consultation..................... VIHS.... 34.. which means that when a stem cell divides by mitosis it can give rise to new stem cells.................33........ Contact: staffordv@yahoo................ A cascade of different transcription factors can turn specific genes on and cause cell differentiation...... Compiled by Stafford Valentine Redden (Head of Department.................. Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) Found in specific regions near the neck and shoulder blades Brown in colour due to abundant supply of capillaries and mitochondrial cytochromes Smaller in size (25 to 40µm) Many small lipid droplets when exposed to cold conditions Lots of mitochondria Mitochondria have uncoupling protein Produce less ATP and generate more heat White Adipose Tissue (WAT) Distributed throughout the body Yellow in colour Larger cells (60 µm) One large lipid globule in all conditions Fewer mitochondria No uncoupling protien Produce lots of ATP and generate less heat .......... They also have the ability of self renewal.................... Compare the structure and function of BAT and WAT................ Phone: +9607765507 Page 22 ............ P33 35..... Maldives).... Describe the structure of muscle tissue. Give the characteristics of stem cells that can differentiate into BAT and muscle tissue.... namely BAT and muscle tissue..... This ensures that there is a sustained supply of stem cells in the body......... These stem cells have the ability of differentiating into different cell types...........

............. which breaks down dopamine in the brain............... Contact: staffordv@yahoo.... Author and publisher of Advanced Level Biology textbooks..... P48 Dopamine is crucial to human movement and is the neurotransmitter that helps transmit messages that both initiate and control movement and balance. under precise control and without unwanted movement... The symptoms are more intense in older people.... MAO B Inhibitors are drugs which inhibit the action of MAO B.................... forming glycoproteins........... This relieves the symptoms....  L-dopa: L-dopa (levodopa) is a precursor of dopamine. Describe and explain the implications of low levels of dopamine........ The level of dopamine remains high and the symptoms are relieved.. These dopamine molecules ensure that muscles work smoothly........... Dopaminergic genes are the genes responsible for synthesis of dopamine... Dopamine is too large to cross the blood-brain barrier in the brain...... Symptoms  Slowness of movement and poor balance  Shaking of hands (tremors)  Stiffness of skeletal muscles  Difficulty in speaking and breathing  Depression Treatment of symptoms – Increase the levels of dopamine in the brain... These neurons secrete dopamine neurotransmitter..36....... Maldives).. brain stem and spinal cord become inactive......................... Compiled by Stafford Valentine Redden (Head of Department. In Parkinson‟s disease neurons in the frontal cortex.... Phone: +9607765507 Page 23 ........... The glycocalyx is always found only on the outer surface of the cell membrane....................  Monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) Inhibitors: Monoamine oxidase B is an enzyme in the brain. Describe the structure of the cell surface membrane and label the glycoprotein...... It is then converted to dopamine and secreted.. State the role of glycoproteins. 37.. forming glycolipids or to proteins... P44 Branched chains of carbohydrates maybe attached to some phospholipid molecules............ This is collectively called the glycocalyx............  Dopamine agonists: these drugs bind with dopamine receptors and mimic the action of dopamine.. . VIHS.... However L-dopa is small enough to cross the barrier and enter the neurones..... The glycocalyx provides chemical protection to the cell membrane and also plays an important role in cell recognition (antigens and binding of hormones to target cells) and adhesion. This results in lack of the neurotransmitter substance dopamine in the brain....com for additional resources or consultation..

....... The increased number of viruses in the blood will destroy many T Helper cells and their numbers will also begin to fall. which slows the replication of the virus...... Kaposi's sarcoma) and serious infections such as TB and cryptococcal meningitis..com for additional resources or consultation. Regardless of symptoms..... Contact: staffordv@yahoo.. which attaches to a receptor (CD4) on the membrane of a type of white blood cell called a Helper T cell (T4 lymphocyte)... Severe symptoms begin to appear such as major weight loss.... dementia as brain cells become infected....... through unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected person.......7..... P52 HIV is the Human immunodeficiency Virus.... the immune system becomes weaker and weaker...... ...... This can last for many years..... Phone: +9607765507 Page 24 ..e... The person will die quickly from the secondary infection.... Describe how HIV/AIDS can eventually lead to death... The virus continues to replicate.......... blood-to blood transfer involving an infected person (tattoos......... The acute phase... sore throat and swollen lymph nodes.... or they may have no symptoms...... 2...... piercing & cut-to-cut transfer).... 1..... 3.. HIV is spread by direct contact i.... The chronic phase or asymptomatic phase.... Once inside the bloodstream an HIV infection occurs in 3 distinct phases. making them HIV positive.. However.... because the immune system is weakened other bacteria and viruses are more likely to infect the person (TB and shingles may reactivate at this point)... from an infected mother to baby (through placenta or breast feeding).. The acute phase ends when the Killer T cells begin to recognise infected Helper T cells and kill them. which cannot be overcome by the weakened immune system....... but the Killer T cells keep the numbers in check... Compiled by Stafford Valentine Redden (Head of Department. Maldives). sweats.... VIHS..... cancers (e....................g. The chronic phase is represented by the time period between 2 to 6 years on fig 12.... The disease phase or AIDS........... headache........ The fig shows the events that occur inside an infected T helper cell...... as shown in THE fig.... As the numbers of virus increase (viral load increases) and the numbers of Helper T cells fall to less than 200 per mm3 of blood... HIV virus has a ligand (GP120)... The infected person may experience symptoms such as fever........ HIV rapidly infects Helper T cells and the virus population increases quickly.... 3 to 12 weeks after infection HIV antibodies appear in the blood...... Eventually a second pathogen will infect the person (an opportunistic infection).. needle sharing..38.... Author and publisher of Advanced Level Biology textbooks.. which eventually leads to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)..

9.......5 minutes) Wholemeal bread (44g) Swimming ( 23.....9.. Compiled by Stafford Valentine Redden (Head of Department..............9..5 minutes) Walking (32. Contact: staffordv@yahoo. Fig.... the person's weight remains constant................0 Tomatoes (548g) minutes) Oranges (peeled) (253g) Energy EAR = BMR x Physical Activity Level (PAL).. Analyse the effects of energy balance on health Energy balance When the diet provides more energy than is needed...... the excess is stored as fat and the person 'puts on weight'............ as depicted in fig.........9. Fig.....7....com for additional resources or consultation.5 minutes) Margarine (13g) Walking (30... Maldives)...... the person 'puts loses weight'...9....5 minutes) Swimming ( 25...............5 minutes) Cycling (17....... as depicted in fig9.. Author and publisher of Advanced Level Biology textbooks............9..........9 The table below shows the energy in a meal and the physical activities that could use up the energy consumed (Energy in versus energy out) Energy consumed = 400 Physical activity to burn 400 kJ of energy KJ White rice boiled (68g) Boys Girls Milk (205ml) Running (16. VIHS.....5 minutes) Running (17... When the diet provides the same amount of energy that is being used...... The excess energy is stored in the body as fat in adipose tissue.........8 .......39.....7 Fig... Phone: +9607765507 Page 25 ...... When the diet provides less energy than is needed.5 minutes) Milk Chocolate (18g) Cycling (16. as depicted in fig................................8...........

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