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AP Human Geography Mid-Term Review

AP Human Geography Mid-Term Review


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Published by Helie
A typed-up version of what Mr. Sutton told us in class.
A typed-up version of what Mr. Sutton told us in class.

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Published by: Helie on Dec 16, 2008
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AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY (SUTTON) EXAM REVIEW Julie’s Study Guides http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.


1. Map distortion and projection A map cannot be a perfect three-dimensional representation of the Earth A distortion will occur in either distance or space on the map 2. Population densities Agricultural density: the ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture (arable land) Arithmetic density (or population density): the total number of people divided by the total land area Physiological density: the number of people per unit of area of arable land (land suitable for agriculture) 3. Impact of the Industrial Revolution on population demographics Urbanization occurred for several reasons: o People came to urban areas in search of factory-type jobs o People left the rural areas because technological advancements meant that there were fewer jobs in agriculture 4. Population growth concepts Nations in Europe, especially northern and western Europe, are generally better off economically than areas such as sub-Saharan Africa. If given a list of countries, one should be able to decide which country is most likely to have a high birth rate, low death rate, etc. 5. Demographic transition theory Stage One: High birth rate, high death rate: low population growth Stage Two: High birth rate, lower death rate: population explosion Stage Three: Lower birth rate, lower death rate: slow to moderate growth Stage Four: Low birth rate, similar death rate as stage three: low to now growth Stage Five: similar birth rate as stage four, higher death rate: negative growth 6. Friction of distance The farther away something is, the smaller the chance that something (an idea, a group of people, etc.) has spread there 7. Hearths Different kinds of hearths include cultural, political, agricultural, religious, social, and linguistic 8. U.S. population diffusion Over time, the population of the United States has moved westward and southward

AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY (SUTTON) EXAM REVIEW Julie’s Study Guides http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/

9. Latitude and longitude Latitude lines are parallels: they encompass the Earth (the equator is one) Longitude lines are meridians: they connect the two poles (the prime meridian is one) 10. Malthusian theory As population increases, food and resources will be too little to sustain the population and the population will slowly die For many reasons, this prediction has not come true 11. Global population growth futures Asian countries have exploding populations, whereas Europe and other MDCs have populations decreasing at a rapid rate 12. Dependency ratio The number of producers divided by the number of dependents Dependents: people ages 1-15 and 65+ 13. Push and pull factors Push factors are from the originating country; they push the emigrant away Pull factors are from the destination country; they pull the immigrant closer 14. Crude death rate (CDR), crude birth rate (CBR), infant mortality rate (IMR) and total fertility rate (TFR) These are all important indicators of the condition of a society 15. Map Scale The larger the area, the smaller the scale. In a small scale, more area can be shown The smaller the area, the larger the scale. In a large scale, greater detail can be depicted 16. Spatial diffusion barriers There is a large variety of barriers of diffusion. They affect not only people but also ideas (e.g. an oppressive government that prevents free speech) 17. Immigration and emigration Immigration is when people enter a country Emigration is when people leave a country Net emigration/immigration is when either emigration or immigration totals more than the other (e.g. net immigration is when more people are emigrating than immigrating) 18. Brain drain

AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY (SUTTON) EXAM REVIEW Julie’s Study Guides http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/

When one country attracts the brightest people from another country—the second country is being “drained” of all its “brains” 19. Pollero A person, usually Mexican, who helps illegal immigrants gain entry into the United States Also known as a “coyote” 20. Multiple combined urban cores A megalopolis A continuous set of urban areas uninterrupted by rural areas New England, from Washington D.C. to Boston, is a good example

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