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AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY (SUTTON) EXAM REVIEW

Julie’s Study Guides


http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/
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1. Map distortion and projection
™ A map cannot be a perfect three-dimensional representation of the Earth
™ A distortion will occur in either distance or space on the map
2. Population densities
™ Agricultural density: the ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount
of land suitable for agriculture (arable land)
™ Arithmetic density (or population density): the total number of people
divided by the total land area
™ Physiological density: the number of people per unit of area of arable land
(land suitable for agriculture)
3. Impact of the Industrial Revolution on population demographics
™ Urbanization occurred for several reasons:
o People came to urban areas in search of factory-type jobs
o People left the rural areas because technological advancements
meant that there were fewer jobs in agriculture
4. Population growth concepts
™ Nations in Europe, especially northern and western Europe, are generally
better off economically than areas such as sub-Saharan Africa. If given a list
of countries, one should be able to decide which country is most likely to
have a high birth rate, low death rate, etc.
5. Demographic transition theory
™ Stage One: High birth rate, high death rate: low population growth
™ Stage Two: High birth rate, lower death rate: population explosion
™ Stage Three: Lower birth rate, lower death rate: slow to moderate growth
™ Stage Four: Low birth rate, similar death rate as stage three: low to now
growth
™ Stage Five: similar birth rate as stage four, higher death rate: negative
growth
6. Friction of distance
™ The farther away something is, the smaller the chance that something (an
idea, a group of people, etc.) has spread there
7. Hearths
™ Different kinds of hearths include cultural, political, agricultural, religious,
social, and linguistic
8. U.S. population diffusion
™ Over time, the population of the United States has moved westward and
southward
AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY (SUTTON) EXAM REVIEW
Julie’s Study Guides
http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/
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9. Latitude and longitude
™ Latitude lines are parallels: they encompass the Earth (the equator is one)
™ Longitude lines are meridians: they connect the two poles (the prime
meridian is one)
10. Malthusian theory
™ As population increases, food and resources will be too little to sustain the
population and the population will slowly die
™ For many reasons, this prediction has not come true
11. Global population growth futures
™ Asian countries have exploding populations, whereas Europe and other
MDCs have populations decreasing at a rapid rate
12. Dependency ratio
™ The number of producers divided by the number of dependents
™ Dependents: people ages 1-15 and 65+
13. Push and pull factors
™ Push factors are from the originating country; they push the emigrant
away
™ Pull factors are from the destination country; they pull the immigrant
closer
14. Crude death rate (CDR), crude birth rate (CBR), infant mortality rate (IMR) and
total fertility rate (TFR)
™ These are all important indicators of the condition of a society
15. Map Scale
™ The larger the area, the smaller the scale. In a small scale, more area can be
shown
™ The smaller the area, the larger the scale. In a large scale, greater detail can
be depicted
16. Spatial diffusion barriers
™ There is a large variety of barriers of diffusion. They affect not only people
but also ideas (e.g. an oppressive government that prevents free speech)
17. Immigration and emigration
™ Immigration is when people enter a country
™ Emigration is when people leave a country
™ Net emigration/immigration is when either emigration or immigration
totals more than the other (e.g. net immigration is when more people are
emigrating than immigrating)
18. Brain drain
AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY (SUTTON) EXAM REVIEW
Julie’s Study Guides
http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/
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™ When one country attracts the brightest people from another country—the
second country is being “drained” of all its “brains”
19. Pollero
™ A person, usually Mexican, who helps illegal immigrants gain entry into the
United States
™ Also known as a “coyote”
20. Multiple combined urban cores
™ A megalopolis
™ A continuous set of urban areas uninterrupted by rural areas
™ New England, from Washington D.C. to Boston, is a good example