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Julie’s Study Guides
1. Map distortion and projection
™ A map cannot be a perfect three-dimensional representation of the Earth
™ A distortion will occur in either distance or space on the map
2. Population densities
™ Agricultural density: the ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount
of land suitable for agriculture (arable land)
™ Arithmetic density (or population density): the total number of people
divided by the total land area
™ Physiological density: the number of people per unit of area of arable land
(land suitable for agriculture)
3. Impact of the Industrial Revolution on population demographics
™ Urbanization occurred for several reasons:
o People came to urban areas in search of factory-type jobs
o People left the rural areas because technological advancements
meant that there were fewer jobs in agriculture
4. Population growth concepts
™ Nations in Europe, especially northern and western Europe, are generally
better off economically than areas such as sub-Saharan Africa. If given a list
of countries, one should be able to decide which country is most likely to
have a high birth rate, low death rate, etc.
5. Demographic transition theory
™ Stage One: High birth rate, high death rate: low population growth
™ Stage Two: High birth rate, lower death rate: population explosion
™ Stage Three: Lower birth rate, lower death rate: slow to moderate growth
™ Stage Four: Low birth rate, similar death rate as stage three: low to now
™ Stage Five: similar birth rate as stage four, higher death rate: negative
6. Friction of distance
™ The farther away something is, the smaller the chance that something (an
idea, a group of people, etc.) has spread there
7. Hearths
™ Different kinds of hearths include cultural, political, agricultural, religious,
social, and linguistic
8. U.S. population diffusion
™ Over time, the population of the United States has moved westward and
Julie’s Study Guides
9. Latitude and longitude
™ Latitude lines are parallels: they encompass the Earth (the equator is one)
™ Longitude lines are meridians: they connect the two poles (the prime
meridian is one)
10. Malthusian theory
™ As population increases, food and resources will be too little to sustain the
population and the population will slowly die
™ For many reasons, this prediction has not come true
11. Global population growth futures
™ Asian countries have exploding populations, whereas Europe and other
MDCs have populations decreasing at a rapid rate
12. Dependency ratio
™ The number of producers divided by the number of dependents
™ Dependents: people ages 1-15 and 65+
13. Push and pull factors
™ Push factors are from the originating country; they push the emigrant
™ Pull factors are from the destination country; they pull the immigrant
14. Crude death rate (CDR), crude birth rate (CBR), infant mortality rate (IMR) and
total fertility rate (TFR)
™ These are all important indicators of the condition of a society
15. Map Scale
™ The larger the area, the smaller the scale. In a small scale, more area can be
™ The smaller the area, the larger the scale. In a large scale, greater detail can
be depicted
16. Spatial diffusion barriers
™ There is a large variety of barriers of diffusion. They affect not only people
but also ideas (e.g. an oppressive government that prevents free speech)
17. Immigration and emigration
™ Immigration is when people enter a country
™ Emigration is when people leave a country
™ Net emigration/immigration is when either emigration or immigration
totals more than the other (e.g. net immigration is when more people are
emigrating than immigrating)
18. Brain drain
Julie’s Study Guides
™ When one country attracts the brightest people from another country—the
second country is being “drained” of all its “brains”
19. Pollero
™ A person, usually Mexican, who helps illegal immigrants gain entry into the
United States
™ Also known as a “coyote”
20. Multiple combined urban cores
™ A megalopolis
™ A continuous set of urban areas uninterrupted by rural areas
™ New England, from Washington D.C. to Boston, is a good example