This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Estimation of Wind Load Effects
Wind forms the predominant source of loads, in tall freestanding structures – like
chimneys. The effect of wind on these tall structures can be divided into two
components, known respectively as
 alongwind effect
 acrosswind effect
Alongwind loads are caused by the ‘drag’ component of the wind force on the
chimney, whereas the acrosswind loads are caused by the corresponding ‘lift’
component. The former is accompanied by ‘gust buffetting’ causing a dynamic response
in the direction of the mean flow, whereas the latter is associated with the phenomenon
of ‘vortex shedding’ which causes the chimney to oscillate in a direction perpendicular
to the direction of wind flow. Estimation of wind effects therefore involves the
estimation of these two types of loads.
2.1 Along Wind Effects
Alongwind effect is due to the direct buffeting action, when the wind acts on the
face of a structure. For the purpose of estimation of these loads the chimney is modeled
as a cantilever, fixed to the ground. The wind is then modeled to act on the exposed face
of the chimney causing predominant moments in the chimney. Additional complications
arise from the fact that the wind does not generally blow at a fixed rate. Wind generally
blows as gusts. This requires that the corresponding loads, and hence the response be
taken as dynamic. True evaluation of the alongwind loads involves modeling the
concerned chimney as a bluff body having incident turbulent wind flow. However, the
mathematical rigor involved in such an analysis is not acceptable to practicing
engineers. Hence most codes use an ‘equivalent static’ procedure known as the gust
factor method. This method is immensely popular and is currently specified in a number
of building codes including the IS (IS:4998) code. This process broadly involves the
determining of the wind pressure that acts on the chimney due to the bearing on the face
2
of the chimney, a static wind load. This is then amplified using the ‘gust factor’ to take
care of the dynamic effects.
This study involves the evaluation of the alongwind loads by using the methods
specified in a number of codes like
 CICIND (Model Code for Concrete Chimneys, 1998)
 ACI 30795
 IS 4998 (Part 1) : 1992
2.1.1 Basic Design Wind speed
One of the primary steps to finding the alongwind loads is to get the basic
design wind speed. The determination of the effective wind pressure is based on the
basic wind speed. The basic wind speed (V
b
) is defined (by the CICIND code) as the
mean hourly wind speed at 10m above the ground level in open flat country without
having any obstructions. This means that the wind speed is measured at a height of 10m
above the ground at the location of the chimney and is averaged over an hour. The ACI
code suggests a wind speed averaged over a period of the order of 20min to 1hr. The IS
code however uses the basic wind speed based on peak gust velocity averaged over a
short time interval of about three seconds. The value of the basic wind speed must be
established by meteorological measurement. Normally though it is not necessary to
actually do the measurement for a particular region. The values as suggested from
published Wind Maps specified by the codes may be used. Basic wind speeds generally
have been worked out for a return period of 50 yrs.
It may me noted that the ACI follows the FPS system and therefore in the
following discussion the formulae by the code appear different from the SI system of the
other two codes.
2.1.2 Wind Profile
Wind flow is retarded by frictional contact with the earth’s surface. The effect of
this retardation is diffused by turbulence in wind flow across a region known as the
‘atmospheric boundary layer’. The thickness of this boundary layer depends on the wind
speed, terrain roughness and angle of latitude. The rougher the terrain, the more
effective the retardation to the mean flow, and hence, greater is the gradient height. The
3
effect of this gradient is the wind flow now assumes a profile that varies with height
from 0 at the surface to the maximum at the end of the ‘atmospheric boundary layer’.
The variation of mean wind speed with height Vz is generally described by the
power law.
(2.1)
V
z
= V
b
(Z / Z
o
)
Į
Where V
z
is the profile with respect to height. V
b
is the basic wind speed, Z is
the height above ground level, Z
o
) is a height of the boundary layer and Į is the terrain
factor. The values of the various factors are specified by the respective codes.
The CICIND code suggests the following code for the purpose of evaluation of
the wind speed profile.
(2.2)
V(z) = V
b
k(z) k
t
k
i
Where:
V(z) is the hourly mean wind speed at level z
z is the height above ground level
V
b
is the basic wind speed specified
k(z) is given by the equation
(2.3)
k(z) = k
s
(z / 10)
Į
k
s
scale factor, equal to 1.0 in open flat country
Į is the terrain factor
k
t
topographical factor
k
i
interference factor
The ACI code gives the following formula for obtaining the Wind profiles
V(z) = (1.47)0.78(80/V
R
)
0.09
V
R
(z/33)
0.14
(2.4)
Where V
R
is the basic wind speed. The equation also converts from the basic
wind speed in mph to ft/s as required for the calculations.
The IS:875 however does not give a wind profile but gives a wind velocity at any
height V
z
.
(2.5)
V
z
= V
b
k
1
k
2
k
3
4
Where V
z
is the required wind speed, V
b
is the basic wind speed. k
1
is a
probability factor (risk), k
2
is the terrain, height and structure size factor,k
3
is a
topography factor. The values of these factors can be gauged from the Tables given in
the IS code.
2.1.3 Design Wind Pressure
The obtained wind velocities are assumed to act on the face of the chimney. The
corresponding pressure on the surface has to be evaluated next. This is done with the
help of the drag coefficient. This coefficient is defined in a number of ways in all the
codes. The main concept however is that the square of the velocity acting at any point is
to be multiplied by this coefficient to get the pressure acting at that point. The
coefficient takes into account factors like – slenderness of the column, ribbed quality of
the surface, the effect of having a curved surface etc.
The wind pressure then is multiplied with the density of air and the exposed area
to get the actual static loads acting on the chimney.
The CICIND code calculates the loads with the following formula
w
m
(z) = 0.5 ȡ
a
v(z)
2
C
D
d(z)
(2.6)
Which is more than just the pressure calculation. However the term C
D
refers to
the coefficient that depends on the slenderness of the column. The value of this
coefficient depends on the h/d ratio and can be obtained from the code. It varies between
0.6 and 0.7 for change in the h/d ratio from 5 to 25. The term w
m
(z) is basically the
‘weight’ acting on the cantilever for which it has to be designed.
The Indian code converts the velocity profile into its corresponding pressure
profile with the help of the following formula
p
z
= 0.6 V
z
2
(2.7)
The value of 0.6 is the drag coefficient specified.
5
The ACI code suggests a very similar function, however specifying the
coefficient to be 0.0013 as opposed to 0.6, mainly to keep it consisting with the FPS
system used by the code.
6
Figure 2.1 – Wind profile and Response
2.1.4 Force resultants
The pressure values obtained in the earlier case are then converted into the
corresponding force values. The chimney is idealized to be a vertical cantilever, fixed to
the ground. The load that acts can be takes as a continuous load acting on this cantilever.
The calculation of the force resultants of shear and moment are trivial.
In reality the base of the chimney is broad. Hence the shear resisting capacity of
the chimney is high. In fact shear also may manifest itself as moment due to the deep
beam effect. Hence the more important resultant to calculate here is the moment as
compared to either the shear or the axial force.
Moment
Wind
Profile
The moment at any point on the cantilever can be calculated by integrating the
moment from the end to that point. Hence the functions given to calculate the moment
too are integrals.
The CICIND code gives the following main formula for the purpose of
calculation of the gust factor moments in chimneys
)
÷
=
h
m
g zdz z w
h
z G
z w
0
2
) (
) 1 ( 3
) (
(2.8)
where
G is the gust factor (will be looked into later)
h is the height of the top of the shell above the ground level
z is the height above the ground level
w
m
(z) is the mean hourly wind load per unit height at height z
The IS code gives two methods for the evaluation of alongwind loads on
chimneys, both of which are discussed below.
The IS simplified method
This method, as the name suggests, is a simple procedure to come up with the
load values for a given configuration. The formula suggested for this method is
F
z
= p
z
.C
D
.d
z
(2.9)
Where the factor CD is to be taken as 0.8. This is actually a vast simplification of
the procedure outlined in the IS:875 which specifies the distribution of the value of the
drag coefficient around the periphery of the cylindrical shell. This method however does
not take into account the effect of the dynamic quality of the incident wind on the
chimney.
The second method given by the code is the random response method. The
equations for the same are given below and terms explained. The need and use of the
Gust factor however is discussed later.
)
÷
=
H
zm zf
zdz F
H
z
H
g
F
0
2
) 1 ( 3
(2.10)
7
8
8
Where F
zf
is the wind load in N/m height due to the fluctuating component of the
wind at height z. The whole load is given by
(2.11)
zf zm z
F F F + =
The wind load due to the hourly mean wind component is given by
where pz gives the design pressure at hourly mean wind component and is
pbtained by the equation
z D z zm
d C p F =
(2.12)
z V p
z
2
6 . 0 =
(2.13)
In the equation for the fluctuating component of the wind load the gust factor G
is used. The equations and the concept involved are discussed later.
The ACI code gives the following code for the purpose of calculation of the
alongwind load. This code too divides the load due to the wind into two parts – the
mean load and the fluctuating component. The mean load is calculated by the formula
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( z p z d z C z w
dr
=
(2.14)
Where the value
C
dr
= 0.65 for z < h1.5d(h)
C
dr
= 1 for z > h1.5d(h)
And the value of the mean pressure has been given.
The fluctuating load component has been taken equal to
3
'
) ( 0 . 3
) ( '
h
b M zG
z w
w w
=
(2.15)
Where M is the base bending moment due to the constant load acting on the
chimney. It is basically an integral of the weight acting on the chimney multiplied with
the distance from the base. The Gust factor G is calculated by
 
86 . 0
47 . 0
1
) 16 (
) 33 ( 0 . 11
30 . 0 '
+
+ =
h
V T
Gw
(2.16)
For a preliminary design the Time period of oscillation can be calculated with
the help of an equation suggested by the code. However the code requires the time
period to be calculated with the help of dynamic analysis for the final design. Analysis
here was done by modeling the chimney using a program STRAP.
2.1.5 Dynamic Effects and the Gust Factor
All alongwind loads that act on the chimney are not due to the static wing
bearing on the surface of the chimney alone. There is a significant change in the applied
load due to the inherent fluctuations in the strength of wind that acts on the chimney. It
is not possible of feasible to take the maximum load that can ever occur due to wind
loads and design the chimney for the same. At the same time it is very difficult to
quantify the dynamic effect of the load that is incident on the chimney. Such a process
would be very tedious and time consuming. So most of the codes make use of the gust
factor to account for this dynamic loading. To simplify the incident load due to the mean
wind is calculated and the result is amplified by means of a gust factor to take care of the
dynamic nature of the loading.
The gust factor is defined as the ratio of the expected maximum moment M
0
to
the mean moment M
m0
at the base of the chimney. It is accordingly denoted as G0 and is
referred to as the base gust factor.
The CICIND code gives the following formula for the calculation of the Gust
factor.
ç
ES
B gi G + + = 2 1
(2.17)
Where g is peak factor with
vT
vT g
e
e
log 2
577 . 0
log 2 + =
(2.18)
the turbulence intensity
h i
10
log 089 . 0 311 . 0 ÷ =
(2.19)
88 . 0
63 . 0
265
1
÷
(
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

+ =
h
B
background turbulence
(2.20)
9
83 . 0
42 . 0
2
1
21 . 0 1
330
1
123
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

+


.

\

=
h
V
f
h
V
f
E
b
b
energy density
(2.21)
spectrum
88 . 0
98 . 0
14 . 1
1
78 . 5 1
÷


.

\



.

\

+ = h
V
f
S
b
size reduction factor
(2.22)
damping ȗ is a fraction of the critical damping and is taken as 0.016. f
1
is the
natural frequency in the first mode of vibration.
h is the height of the shell above the ground in m and V
b
is the basic wind speed.
T is the sample period and v is effective cycling rate.
The equation for the Gust factor used by the ACI code is given earlier.
The IS code probably borrowed its gust factor equation from the CICIND code
as both the equations are remarkably similar. Only the names given to some of the
factors are different. The factors and the equations themselves are the same
A typical chimney of 250m was chosen to calculate the alongwind loads. The
dynamic analysis was done using a structural analysis program called STRAP.
2.1.6 Analysis using STRAP
For the purpose of analysis the chimney was modeled in STRAP. The chimney
was idealized into 32 components outside the ground and one component inside the
ground (to take care of fixity and the effect of the foundation), a total of 33 components.
The various components were taken to be cylindrical objects. Hence the chimney was
idealized as 33 hollow cylinders stacked upon each other.
The thickness of the components of the chimney were varied according the
thickness of the actual chimney at the middle of each section. A fixed joint was assumed
after 32 nodes.
For the purpose of dynamic analysis the weight data was calculated by the
program itself. This however was strictly not correct because there would be the
10
additional weight of the lining inside the chimney. Hence a lining of a layer of bricks
was assumed and the weight calculated by the program was corrected with a factor to
account for the weight of the lining. The calculation of the factors was done with the
help of a small program that actually calculated the volume ratios for the purpose.
The chimney itself was assumed to be of a standard dimensions and ratios as
given below.
Attribute Value
Height 250m
Height to Base Diameter 7
Top Diameter to Base Diameter 0.6
Base Diameter to base thickness 35
Top thickness to base thickness 0.4675
Table 2.1 – Chimney Attributes
The results of dynamic analysis of the modeled chimney are given below
Mode Time Period
1 0.2345
2 1.0266
3 2.4826
4 3.6286
5 4.4460
Table 2.2 – Results of dynamic analysis
These values of time periods of oscillations and the corresponding frequencies
(1/Time Period) were used for the calculations of the Gust factor.
2.1.7 Expected maximum moments
The moments were calculated for the model chimney assumed earlier and the
results are shown in the graph below
11
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0 500 1000 1500 2000
CICIND ACI IS
Figure 2.2 – Moment profiles (comparative)
As is visible, there is considerable difference in the expected maximum base
moments of the chimney using the three codal methods.
Additionally the base gust factors for the three methods are given below
Code Base Gust factor
IS 1.85
CICIND 1.85
ACI 1.993
Table 2.3 – Base Gust factors (comparative)
2.2 Across Wind Effects
Recommendations for considering the acrosswind loads have been included into
the codes only recently. In spite of considerable research the problem of accurately
predicting the acrosswind response has to be fully resolved. Hence the CICIND code
does not take into account acrosswinds. For this study the codes used therefore were the
IS 4998(Part 1): 1992 and the ACI 30795.
12
A tall body like the chimney is essentially a bluff body as opposed to a
streamlines one. The streamlined body causes the oncoming wind flow to go smoothly
past it and hence is not exposed to any extra forces. On the other hand the bluff body
causes the wind to ‘separate’ from the body. This separated flow causes high negative
regions in the wake region behind the chimney. The wake region is a highly turbulent
region that give rise to high speed eddies called vortices. These discrete vortices are
shed alternately giving rise to ‘lift forces’ that act in a direction perpendicular to the
incident wind direction.
13
Figure 2.3 – Across wind effect
These lift forces cause the chimney to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the
wind flow.
2.2.1 Vortex Shedding
The phenomena of alternately shedding the vortices formed in the wake region is
called vortex shedding. This is the phenomena that gives rise to the acrosswind forces.
This phenomena was reported by Strouhal, who showed that shedding from a
circular cylinder in a laminar flow is describable in terms a nondimensional number S
n
called the Strouhal number.
CHIMNEY
velocity flow mean
cylinder of diameter frequency shedding
S
n
_ _
_ _ _ ×
=
(2.23)
The phenomena of vortex shedding and hence the acrosswind loads depends on
a number of factors including wind velocity, taper factors etc., that are specified by the
codes. Codal estimation of the acrosswind loads also involves the estimation of the
modeshape of the chimney in various modes of vibration. This is obtained as follows.
2.2.2 Chimney Modeling and estimation of shape factor and time period
As discussed earlier dynamic analysis of the chimney was done using the
structural analysis program STRAP. A model chimney with the parameters shown
earlier was modeled and dynamic analysis performed on it. The required mode shapes
were obtained from the program itself.
The results from the analysis are given below with the normalized mode shapes
on the left and the corresponding frequencies of vibration on the right. It may be noted
that although four mode shapes have been assumed for the purpose of analysis, in reality
only the first two modes are actually active. This is because the wind velocity required
to make the chimney vibrate in higher mode shapes is very high.
Mode shapes 1 to 4
Frequencies:
Mode 1: 0.2345 hz
Mode 2: 1.0266 hz
Mode 3: 2.4826 hz
Mode 4: 3.6286 hz
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
1.2 0.7 0.2 0.3 0.8
Figure 2.4 – Mode shapes
2.2.3 Estimation of Moments
The various codal methods for the purpose of estimation of alongwind loads are
as follows.
14
The IS code, gives two methods for the estimation of acrosswind loads. These
are called respectively the simplified method and the random response method. The
amplitude of the vortex excited oscillation is to be calculated by the equation.
si n
L
H
zi
H
zi z
oi
K S
C
dz
dz d
2
0
2
0
4t


q ×
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
=
)
)
(2.24)
Where Ș
oi
is the peak tip deflection due to vortex shedding in the i
th
mode of
vibration in m, C
L
= 0.16, H is the height in meters, K
si
is the damping parameter for the
i
th
more of vibration, S
n
strouhal number = 0.2 and ĭ
zi
is the normalized mode shape.
Calculations of oscillation calculated using this formula are acceptable till 4
percent of the effective diameter. For values more that this the resultant is amplified
using a given formula.
Once this value is obtained the sectional shear force F
zoi
and Bending moment
M
zoi
at any height zo for the i
th
mode of vibration, as obtained as follows.
)
=
H
zo
zi z i o zoi
dz m f F  q t
2
1
2
4
(2.25)
)
=
H
zo
zi z i o zoi
dz m f F  q t
2
1
2
4
(2.26)
Where f
i
is the natural frequency in the i
th
mode of vibration and m
z
is the mass
per unit length of the chimney at section z in kg/m.
The mass damping factor Ksi required for the earlier equation is calculated using
the formula
2
2
d
m
K
s ei
i s
o
o
=
(2.27)
m
ei
is the equivalent mass per unit length in kg/m in the i
th
mode of vibration, į
s
= 2ʌȕ, and ȕ = 0.016 (structural damping factor), ı is the mass density of air taken as 1.2
kg/m
3
and d is the effective diameter taken as average diameter over the top 1/3 height
of the chimney in m.
15
The equivalent mass per unit length in the i
th
mode of vibration can be calculated
using the formula given below. It is basically dependant on the amount of mass that is
available given the mode shape.
)
)
=
H
zi
H
zi
z
ei
dz
dz m
m
0
2
0
2


(2.28)
The oscillation is caused by the wind. The mode in which the chimney vibrates is
decided by the wind speed. Higher modes need a higher wind speed for excitation.
Hence it is possible to know the wind velocities that causes shedding in the i
th
mode. It is
done with the help of the following equation.
n
cri
S
d f
V
1
=
(2.29)
Since higher wind speeds are required to excite higher modes of vibration, it is
not necessary to consider all the modes of vibration for the purpose of design. All modes
which can be excited up to wind speeds of 10 percent above the maximum expected at
the height of the effective diameter shall be considered for subsequent analysis. If the
critical winds for any mode of vibration, exceeds the limits specified earlier, the code
allows the assumption that the problem of vortex excited resonance will not be a design
criteria for that and higher modes. In these cases acrosswind analysis may not be
required.
The acrosswind analysis using the random response method is also specified by
the code. The relevant expressions are given for chimneys of two types – those with
little or no taper and those with significant taper. Taper is defined as
H
d d
taper
top av
) ( 2 ÷
=
(2.30)
When the value of the taper is less than 1 in 50 (or 2 percent) the chimney is said
to have little taper.
For chimneys with little or no taper, the expression to calculate the modal
response at critical wind speed as given in equation 2.24 earlier
16
ei
a
zi
ei
n
L
oi
m
d k
dz
H
m
L
d
S
H d C
2
2
2
2 2
1
1
) 2 ( 2
25 . 1
o
 
t
o
t

q
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
×
=
)
(2.31)
Where the RMS lift coefficient is taken as 0.12, correlation length in diameters is
taken as 1.0 and the aerodynamic damping coefficient is taken as 0.5.
Chimneys that are significantly tapered have the following equation
)
÷
=
H
ei
a
zi
zi
ei
zei
ze
L
oi
m
d k
d m S
t
L
H d C
0
2
2 2 2
1
4
2
2
o 
 t
t
  o
q
(2.32)
Where z
ei
is the height in m at which a given expression is maximum in the i
th
mode of vibration. The term Į in the expression is the power law exponent which was
discussed earlier with respect to the wind profiles. The value of this depends on the
Terrain Category and varies from 0.10 to 0.34.
The critical wind speed for exciting the mode of vibration is determined by the
equation.
n
i ze
cri
S
d f
V
1
=
(2.33)
Calculations begin by first taking z
ei
=H and progressively decreasing till a
maximum in Ș
oi
is observed. Also if the required velocity for excitation in any mode is
greater than the maximum velocity, the chimney will not be assumed to experience
much acrosswind loads in that and higher modes. If this applies to the first mode of
vibration itself then the chimney has negligible acrosswind loads.
The ACI code considers the acrosswind loads due to vortex shedding for in the
design of chimneys when the critical velocity is between 0.5 and 1.3 V
zcr
. Acrosswind
loads are not considered outside this range.
Te critical velocity is calculated using the function.
t
cr
S
u fd
V
) (
=
(2.34)
17
Where the S
t
is the Strouhal number and is calculated using


.

\

+ =
) (
log 206 . 0 333 . 0 25 . 0
u d
h
S
e t
(2.35)
d(u) is the mean outside diameter of the upper 1/3 of the chimney in feet, and h is
the height above the ground level.
The peak base moment at the critical velocity if determined by the equation.
( )
(
¸
(
¸
+

+
 =
E
p
a s
cr
L S a
C
u d
h
L
S h u d V
a
C S
g
G
M
) (
2
4
) (
2
2 2
 
t µ
(2.36)
M
a
is evaluated over a range of wind speeds in the specified range of 0.5 to 1.3
V
cr
to determine the maximum response. For values of velocity greater than V
cr
the
value of M
a
is multiplied with
4 . 1
1
) (
) (
3
4
4 . 1
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷
cr
cr
z V
z V V
(2.37)
The values of the various terms are given in the code including the peak factor,
mode shape factor and specific gravity of air.
The code also gives a formula for the calculation of the time period in the second
mode of vibration, although the final design needs a dynamic analysis. The values
obtained from the STRAP program were used in this calculations.
The results of the analysis are given below
18
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
400 200 0 200 400 600 800
Mode 1 Mode 2
Figure 2.5 – IS Simplified method & Figure 2.6 – IS Random Response Method
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
1000 500 0 500 1000 1500
Mode 1 Mode 2
19
The first graph refers to the result of the IS simplified method, whereas the
second graph refers to the IS Random response method.
As can be seen from the graph the moments in the first mode of vibration are
very similar for both the methods of calculation, whereas the moments for the second
mode of vibration vary a lot. The moments obtained from the Random response method
are almost double that obtained using the simplified method. In fact the Random
response method given higher moments for the second mode of vibration and lower
moments for the first mode of vibration, as compared to the simplified method.
The base moments as calculated using the ACI method are given below
(All values MNm) Acrosswind Alongwind Gust Factor Max Moment
Mode 1 125.46 432.98 1.8854 825.922
Mode 2 98.86 432.98 1.592 696.56
Table 2.4 – Base Moments (ACI)
It is seen that the values obtained using the ACI method are very small as
compared to the IS method. This is especially true of the acrosswind loads.
2.2. Variation of moments with change in H by D ratio
An analysis was done to find the change in acrosswind loads with change in
Height to Base diameter ratio.
For the purpose of the Analysis, Chimneys with the following parameters were
used
Height : 250 m
Height to Base diameter Ratio : 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 17
Top diameter to Base diameter Ratio : 0.6
Base diameter to Base thickness Ratio : 35
Top thickness to Base thickness Ratio : 0.4675
The following methods were employed for the same
1. IS Approximate Method
2. IS Random Response Method
3. ACI – 95 Method (Also CICIND approved)
20
Estimation of Free Vibration parameters like the modeshapes the free
frequency and the Weight data for the calculations were calculated by modeling the
chimney in STRAP. The modeling was done with the chimney broken down into 32
elements. Vibration Analysis was done for modes 1 to 5 but only the first two were
required for the purpose of Moment calculations.
2.2.5 Conclusions from the variational analysis
 The AcrossWind Moments were inversely proportional to the H by D Ratio.
The Moments consistently increased with fall in the H/D Ratio for all methods of
estimation.
 The Approximate method of the IS code gave consistently higher moments as
compared to the Random Response Method for vibrations in the first mode.
 The Approximate method of the IS code gave consistently lower moments as
compared to the Random Response Method for vibrations in the second mode.
 The IS method gave higher moments in the second mode of vibration as
compared to the first mode in both its methods.
 The ACI method gave very small values as compared to the IS methods for the
base moment in all cases
 Anomalously the moments in the second mode were lower in the ACI method as
compared to those in the first mode.
All relevant Data can be found in the subsequent pages. It may be noted that the
higher moment curves correspond to lower H/D ratio.
21
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0 2000 4000 6000
Figure 2.7 – IS Approximate Method – Mode 1
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
10000 5000 0 5000 10000
Figure 2.8 IS Approximate Method – Mode 2
22
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
Figure 2.9 IS Random Response Method – Mode 1
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
20000 10000 0 10000 20000 30000
Figure 2.10 IS Random Response Method – Mode 2
23
H/d 7 9 11 12 13 15 17
Mode 1 641.15 340.566 204.425 144.783 114.783 77.271 55.244
Mode 2 411.482 225.483 142.764 107.867 87.404 59.786 42.523
Table 2.5 ACI Method (all modes)
Conclusion
The wind loads form the major sources for moments on Tall free standing
structures like chimneys. We have looked at the two kinds on windloads that act on
chimneys and also have presented the calculations for a standard chimney.
24
of the chimney, a static wind load. This is then amplified using the ‘gust factor’ to take care of the dynamic effects. This study involves the evaluation of the alongwind loads by using the methods specified in a number of codes like x x x CICIND (Model Code for Concrete Chimneys, 1998) ACI 30795 IS 4998 (Part 1) : 1992
2.1.1 Basic Design Wind speed One of the primary steps to finding the alongwind loads is to get the basic design wind speed. The determination of the effective wind pressure is based on the basic wind speed. The basic wind speed (Vb) is defined (by the CICIND code) as the mean hourly wind speed at 10m above the ground level in open flat country without having any obstructions. This means that the wind speed is measured at a height of 10m above the ground at the location of the chimney and is averaged over an hour. The ACI code suggests a wind speed averaged over a period of the order of 20min to 1hr. The IS code however uses the basic wind speed based on peak gust velocity averaged over a short time interval of about three seconds. The value of the basic wind speed must be established by meteorological measurement. Normally though it is not necessary to actually do the measurement for a particular region. The values as suggested from published Wind Maps specified by the codes may be used. Basic wind speeds generally have been worked out for a return period of 50 yrs. It may me noted that the ACI follows the FPS system and therefore in the following discussion the formulae by the code appear different from the SI system of the other two codes.
2.1.2 Wind Profile Wind flow is retarded by frictional contact with the earth’s surface. The effect of this retardation is diffused by turbulence in wind flow across a region known as the ‘atmospheric boundary layer’. The thickness of this boundary layer depends on the wind speed, terrain roughness and angle of latitude. The rougher the terrain, the more effective the retardation to the mean flow, and hence, greater is the gradient height. The
3
Zo) is a height of the boundary layer and is the terrain factor.5) .4) (2. The IS:875 however does not give a wind profile but gives a wind velocity at any height Vz.14 (2.effect of this gradient is the wind flow now assumes a profile that varies with height from 0 at the surface to the maximum at the end of the ‘atmospheric boundary layer’. The CICIND code suggests the following code for the purpose of evaluation of the wind speed profile.47)0. Vz = Vb (Z / Zo) (2. Z is the height above ground level. V(z) = Vb k(z) kt ki (2.3) Where VR is the basic wind speed. Vb is the basic wind speed. Vz = Vb k1 k2 k3 4 (2.09 VR(z/33)0.2) Where: V(z) is the hourly mean wind speed at level z z is the height above ground level Vb is the basic wind speed specified k(z) is given by the equation k(z) = ks (z / 10) ks scale factor.0 in open flat country is the terrain factor kt topographical factor ki interference factor The ACI code gives the following formula for obtaining the Wind profiles V(z) = (1. The variation of mean wind speed with height Vz is generally described by the power law. The values of the various factors are specified by the respective codes. The equation also converts from the basic wind speed in mph to ft/s as required for the calculations.78(80/VR)0.1) Where Vz is the profile with respect to height. equal to 1.
6) Which is more than just the pressure calculation.3 Design Wind Pressure The obtained wind velocities are assumed to act on the face of the chimney.k3 is a topography factor. The CICIND code calculates the loads with the following formula wm(z) = 0. This coefficient is defined in a number of ways in all the codes. k1 is a probability factor (risk). The main concept however is that the square of the velocity acting at any point is to be multiplied by this coefficient to get the pressure acting at that point.7) 5 . The coefficient takes into account factors like – slenderness of the column. The values of these factors can be gauged from the Tables given in the IS code.6 and 0. However the term CD refers to the coefficient that depends on the slenderness of the column.7 for change in the h/d ratio from 5 to 25.Where Vz is the required wind speed.6 Vz2 The value of 0. The wind pressure then is multiplied with the density of air and the exposed area to get the actual static loads acting on the chimney. the effect of having a curved surface etc. k2 is the terrain. The term wm(z) is basically the ‘weight’ acting on the cantilever for which it has to be designed.6 is the drag coefficient specified. The corresponding pressure on the surface has to be evaluated next. (2. height and structure size factor. Vb is the basic wind speed. It varies between 0. 2. The value of this coefficient depends on the h/d ratio and can be obtained from the code.1. ribbed quality of the surface. The Indian code converts the velocity profile into its corresponding pressure profile with the help of the following formula pz = 0. This is done with the help of the drag coefficient.5 a v(z)2 CD d(z) (2.
however specifying the coefficient to be 0.1 – Wind profile and Response 2.The ACI code suggests a very similar function. Hence the more important resultant to calculate here is the moment as compared to either the shear or the axial force.4 Force resultants The pressure values obtained in the earlier case are then converted into the corresponding force values. The chimney is idealized to be a vertical cantilever.6. The load that acts can be takes as a continuous load acting on this cantilever. Moment Wind Profile Figure 2.0013 as opposed to 0.1. fixed to the ground. mainly to keep it consisting with the FPS system used by the code. In fact shear also may manifest itself as moment due to the deep beam effect. The calculation of the force resultants of shear and moment are trivial. In reality the base of the chimney is broad. 6 . Hence the shear resisting capacity of the chimney is high.
The IS simplified method This method. The second method given by the code is the random response method. Hence the functions given to calculate the moment too are integrals.10) 7 .CD. This is actually a vast simplification of the procedure outlined in the IS:875 which specifies the distribution of the value of the drag coefficient around the periphery of the cylindrical shell. as the name suggests. The need and use of the Gust factor however is discussed later.8) Where the factor CD is to be taken as 0. is a simple procedure to come up with the load values for a given configuration. Fzf 3( g 1) z Fzm zdz H2 H ³ 0 H (2. The equations for the same are given below and terms explained.8.The moment at any point on the cantilever can be calculated by integrating the moment from the end to that point.dz (2. The formula suggested for this method is Fz = pz. The CICIND code gives the following main formula for the purpose of calculation of the gust factor moments in chimneys wg ( z ) where G is the gust factor (will be looked into later) h is the height of the top of the shell above the ground level z is the height above the ground level wm(z) is the mean hourly wind load per unit height at height z The IS code gives two methods for the evaluation of alongwind loads on chimneys. both of which are discussed below. This method however does not take into account the effect of the dynamic quality of the incident wind on the chimney.9) 3(G 1) z ³ wm ( z ) zdz h2 0 h (2.
14) And the value of the mean pressure has been given.13) In the equation for the fluctuating component of the wind load the gust factor G is used.86 > @ 0.12) where pz gives the design pressure at hourly mean wind component and is pbtained by the equation pz 0. The equations and the concept involved are discussed later. The ACI code gives the following code for the purpose of calculation of the alongwind load.0 zG w' M w (b) h3 (2.5d(h) Cdr = 1 for z > h1. The fluctuating load component has been taken equal to w' ( z ) 3.16) For a preliminary design the Time period of oscillation can be calculated with the help of an equation suggested by the code.5d(h) C dr ( z )d ( z ) p( z ) (2.11) The wind load due to the hourly mean wind component is given by Fzm p z C D d z (2. The Gust factor G is calculated by 11.15) Where M is the base bending moment due to the constant load acting on the chimney. The whole load is given by Fz Fzm Fzf (2. This code too divides the load due to the wind into two parts – the mean load and the fluctuating component.6V z 2 (2.47 (2.0 T1V (33) Gw' 0. The mean load is calculated by the formula w( z ) Where the value Cdr = 0. However the code requires the time 8 .65 for z < h1.30 (h 16) 0.Where Fzf is the wind load in N/m height due to the fluctuating component of the wind at height z. It is basically an integral of the weight acting on the chimney multiplied with the distance from the base.
2. At the same time it is very difficult to quantify the dynamic effect of the load that is incident on the chimney.20) 9 . So most of the codes make use of the gust factor to account for this dynamic loading. To simplify the incident load due to the mean wind is calculated and the result is amplified by means of a gust factor to take care of the dynamic nature of the loading.19) 2 log e vT 0. Analysis here was done by modeling the chimney using a program STRAP.5 Dynamic Effects and the Gust Factor All alongwind loads that act on the chimney are not due to the static wing bearing on the surface of the chimney alone.577 2 log e vT (2.88 (2. The gust factor is defined as the ratio of the expected maximum moment M0 to the mean moment Mm0 at the base of the chimney.1. It is accordingly denoted as G0 and is referred to as the base gust factor.311 0.63 º ¸ » «1 ¨ « © 265 ¹ » ¬ ¼ 0. Such a process would be very tedious and time consuming.17) Where g is peak factor with g the turbulence intensity i 0.18) background turbulence B ª § h · 0. G 1 2 gi B ES ] (2. The CICIND code gives the following formula for the calculation of the Gust factor.period to be calculated with the help of dynamic analysis for the final design. There is a significant change in the applied load due to the inherent fluctuations in the strength of wind that acts on the chimney.089 log10 h (2. It is not possible of feasible to take the maximum load that can ever occur due to wind loads and design the chimney for the same.
The IS code probably borrowed its gust factor equation from the CICIND code as both the equations are remarkably similar. A fixed joint was assumed after 32 nodes. The factors and the equations themselves are the same A typical chimney of 250m was chosen to calculate the alongwind loads. h is the height of the shell above the ground in m and Vb is the basic wind speed. f1 is the natural frequency in the first mode of vibration.energy density spectrum E § f · 123¨ 1 ¸h 0.1. The dynamic analysis was done using a structural analysis program called STRAP.6 Analysis using STRAP For the purpose of analysis the chimney was modeled in STRAP.22) damping is a fraction of the critical damping and is taken as 0. Only the names given to some of the factors are different.21) size reduction factor S 1. T is the sample period and v is effective cycling rate. This however was strictly not correct because there would be the 10 .88 (2. For the purpose of dynamic analysis the weight data was calculated by the program itself.14 § · § f1 · ¨1 5. Hence the chimney was idealized as 33 hollow cylinders stacked upon each other. The chimney was idealized into 32 components outside the ground and one component inside the ground (to take care of fixity and the effect of the foundation).21 ¨V ¸ © b¹ ª § 330 f · 2 º 1 ¸ h 0. 2. a total of 33 components.83 (2.42 » «1 ¨ ¨ ¸ « © Vb ¹ » ¬ ¼ 0.98 ¸ ¨V ¸ ¨ ¸ © b¹ © ¹ 0.78¨ ¸ h 0. The various components were taken to be cylindrical objects.016. The thickness of the components of the chimney were varied according the thickness of the actual chimney at the middle of each section. The equation for the Gust factor used by the ACI code is given earlier.
The calculation of the factors was done with the help of a small program that actually calculated the volume ratios for the purpose.2 – Results of dynamic analysis These values of time periods of oscillations and the corresponding frequencies (1/Time Period) were used for the calculations of the Gust factor.2345 1.4675 The results of dynamic analysis of the modeled chimney are given below Mode 1 2 3 4 5 Time Period 0.7 Expected maximum moments The moments were calculated for the model chimney assumed earlier and the results are shown in the graph below 11 .0266 2. Attribute Height Height to Base Diameter Top Diameter to Base Diameter Base Diameter to base thickness Top thickness to base thickness Table 2.additional weight of the lining inside the chimney.1 – Chimney Attributes Value 250m 7 0. 2.4460 Table 2. Hence a lining of a layer of bricks was assumed and the weight calculated by the program was corrected with a factor to account for the weight of the lining. The chimney itself was assumed to be of a standard dimensions and ratios as given below.6286 4.6 35 0.4826 3.1.
For this study the codes used therefore were the IS 4998(Part 1): 1992 and the ACI 30795. In spite of considerable research the problem of accurately predicting the acrosswind response has to be fully resolved.2 Across Wind Effects Recommendations for considering the acrosswind loads have been included into the codes only recently.3 – Base Gust factors (comparative) 2. 12 . Additionally the base gust factors for the three methods are given below Code IS CICIND ACI Base Gust factor 1. there is considerable difference in the expected maximum base moments of the chimney using the three codal methods.2 – Moment profiles (comparative) As is visible.300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 500 CICIND 1000 ACI 1500 IS 2000 Figure 2.85 1. Hence the CICIND code does not take into account acrosswinds.993 Table 2.85 1.
1 Vortex Shedding The phenomena of alternately shedding the vortices formed in the wake region is called vortex shedding.A tall body like the chimney is essentially a bluff body as opposed to a streamlines one.23) 13 . CHIMNEY Figure 2. These discrete vortices are shed alternately giving rise to ‘lift forces’ that act in a direction perpendicular to the incident wind direction. 2. This is the phenomena that gives rise to the acrosswind forces.2. who showed that shedding from a circular cylinder in a laminar flow is describable in terms a nondimensional number Sn called the Strouhal number. The streamlined body causes the oncoming wind flow to go smoothly past it and hence is not exposed to any extra forces. The wake region is a highly turbulent region that give rise to high speed eddies called vortices. Sn shedding _ frequency u diameter _ of _ cylinder mean _ flow _ velocity (2. On the other hand the bluff body causes the wind to ‘separate’ from the body.3 – Across wind effect These lift forces cause the chimney to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the wind flow. This separated flow causes high negative regions in the wake region behind the chimney. This phenomena was reported by Strouhal.
that are specified by the codes. The results from the analysis are given below with the normalized mode shapes on the left and the corresponding frequencies of vibration on the right. 14 .4 – Mode shapes 2. taper factors etc.0266 hz Mode 3: 2.4826 hz Mode 4: 3..7 0.3 Estimation of Moments The various codal methods for the purpose of estimation of alongwind loads are as follows.2. 2. It may be noted that although four mode shapes have been assumed for the purpose of analysis. in reality only the first two modes are actually active. The required mode shapes were obtained from the program itself.2 Chimney Modeling and estimation of shape factor and time period As discussed earlier dynamic analysis of the chimney was done using the structural analysis program STRAP.8 Frequencies: Mode 1: 0.2345 hz Mode 2: 1.3 0. A model chimney with the parameters shown earlier was modeled and dynamic analysis performed on it.6286 hz Mode shapes 1 to 4 Figure 2. Codal estimation of the acrosswind loads also involves the estimation of the modeshape of the chimney in various modes of vibration. This is obtained as follows.2.2 0.The phenomena of vortex shedding and hence the acrosswind loads depends on a number of factors including wind velocity.2 0. This is because the wind velocity required to make the chimney vibrate in higher mode shapes is very high. 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1.
H is the height in meters.27) s mei is the equivalent mass per unit length in kg/m in the ith mode of vibration. The amplitude of the vortex excited oscillation is to be calculated by the equation. =2 . 15 . is the mass density of air taken as 1.26) Where fi is the natural frequency in the ith mode of vibration and mz is the mass per unit length of the chimney at section z in kg/m. CL = 0. as obtained as follows. Ksi is the damping parameter for the ith more of vibration. The mass damping factor Ksi required for the earlier equation is calculated using the formula Ksi 2mei G s Vd 2 (2.The IS code. gives two methods for the estimation of acrosswind loads. vibration in m.2 kg/m3 and d is the effective diameter taken as average diameter over the top 1/3 height of the chimney in m. Once this value is obtained the sectional shear force Fzoi and Bending moment Mzoi at any height zo for the ith mode of vibration. H ½ ° ³ d zI zi dz ° CL °0 ° ®H ¾u ° I 2 zi dz ° 4SS 2 n K si °³ ° ¯ 0 ¿ K oi (2. Sn strouhal number = 0.25) Fzoi 4S 2 f1 K o i ³ m zI zi dz 2 zo (2. Fzoi 4S 2 f1 K o i ³ m zI zi dz 2 zo H H (2. and = 0.016 (structural damping factor).24) Where oi is the peak tip deflection due to vortex shedding in the ith mode of is the normalized mode shape. These are called respectively the simplified method and the random response method.2 and zi Calculations of oscillation calculated using this formula are acceptable till 4 percent of the effective diameter. For values more that this the resultant is amplified using a given formula.16.
24 earlier 16 . it is not necessary to consider all the modes of vibration for the purpose of design. exceeds the limits specified earlier. The relevant expressions are given for chimneys of two types – those with little or no taper and those with significant taper. All modes which can be excited up to wind speeds of 10 percent above the maximum expected at the height of the effective diameter shall be considered for subsequent analysis. In these cases acrosswind analysis may not be required. The mode in which the chimney vibrates is decided by the wind speed. If the critical winds for any mode of vibration. Vcri f1d Sn (2. H ³m I z 0 H 2 zi dz (2. Hence it is possible to know the wind velocities that causes shedding in the ith mode. Higher modes need a higher wind speed for excitation. the code allows the assumption that the problem of vortex excited resonance will not be a design criteria for that and higher modes.28) mei ³I 0 2 zi dz The oscillation is caused by the wind. For chimneys with little or no taper. It is done with the help of the following equation. the expression to calculate the modal response at critical wind speed as given in equation 2.29) Since higher wind speeds are required to excite higher modes of vibration. It is basically dependant on the amount of mass that is available given the mode shape.30) When the value of the taper is less than 1 in 50 (or 2 percent) the chimney is said to have little taper. The acrosswind analysis using the random response method is also specified by the code.The equivalent mass per unit length in the ith mode of vibration can be calculated using the formula given below. Taper is defined as taper 2(d av d top ) H (2.
12.K oi SL ½ Vd 2 ® ¾ 1. The value of this depends on the Terrain Category and varies from 0.34. The critical wind speed for exciting the mode of vibration is determined by the equation. If this applies to the first mode of vibration itself then the chimney has negligible acrosswind loads. The ACI code considers the acrosswind loads due to vortex shedding for in the design of chimneys when the critical velocity is between 0.25C L dIH 1 ¯ 2( 2) ¿ u mei S 2S 2n k a Vd 1 2 ³ I zi dz E mei H 2 (2.31) Where the RMS lift coefficient is taken as 0. Vcr fd (u ) St 17 (2. Vcri f1 d ze i Sn (2.0 and the aerodynamic damping coefficient is taken as 0. correlation length in diameters is taken as 1. The term in the expression is the power law exponent which was discussed earlier with respect to the wind profiles. Te critical velocity is calculated using the function.33) Calculations begin by first taking zei =H and progressively decreasing till a maximum in oi is observed. Chimneys that are significantly tapered have the following equation V C L d 4 zeI zeiIH 1 2S S mei ³ I 2 2 0 H 2 zi K oi SL 2t d zi E k a Vd 2 mei (2.3 Vzcr.5 and 1. Also if the required velocity for excitation in any mode is greater than the maximum velocity. the chimney will not be assumed to experience much acrosswind loads in that and higher modes.5.10 to 0.32) Where zei is the height in m at which a given expression is maximum in the ith mode of vibration. Acrosswind loads are not considered outside this range.34) .
333 0. and h is the height above the ground level. Ma G Ua 2 S 2L S S CL V cr d (u )h 2 x x Sp g 2 4E s E a .35) d(u) is the mean outside diameter of the upper 1/3 of the chimney in feet.25¨ 0.Where the St is the Strouhal number and is calculated using St § h · ¸ 0. The peak base moment at the critical velocity if determined by the equation.206 log e ¨ d (u ) ¸ ¹ © (2.
although the final design needs a dynamic analysis. The code also gives a formula for the calculation of the time period in the second mode of vibration. ª h º « d (u ) C E » ¬ ¼ (2.4 ° ¯ ¿ (2. For values of velocity greater than Vcr the value of Ma is multiplied with ½ 4 ªV V ( z cr ) º ° 1 ° ®1.4 « »¾ 3 ¬ V ( z cr ) ¼ ° 1.36) Ma is evaluated over a range of wind speeds in the specified range of 0. The values obtained from the STRAP program were used in this calculations.5 to 1. mode shape factor and specific gravity of air.3 Vcr to determine the maximum response. The results of the analysis are given below 18 .37) The values of the various terms are given in the code including the peak factor.
300 250 200 150 100 50 0 400 200 0 200 Mode 1 400 Mode 2 600 800 Figure 2.5 – IS Simplified method & Figure 2.6 – IS Random Response Method 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1000 500 0 Mode 1 500 Mode 2 1000 1500 19 .
For the purpose of the Analysis. The moments obtained from the Random response method are almost double that obtained using the simplified method. ACI – 95 Method (Also CICIND approved) 20 . Chimneys with the following parameters were used Height Height to Base diameter Ratio Top diameter to Base diameter Ratio Base diameter to Base thickness Ratio Top thickness to Base thickness Ratio : : : : : 250 m 7. Variation of moments with change in H by D ratio An analysis was done to find the change in acrosswind loads with change in Height to Base diameter ratio. 12. In fact the Random response method given higher moments for the second mode of vibration and lower moments for the first mode of vibration.2. IS Random Response Method 3. 2.6 35 0. 15. as compared to the simplified method. The base moments as calculated using the ACI method are given below (All values MNm) Mode 1 Mode 2 Acrosswind 125.The first graph refers to the result of the IS simplified method.86 Alongwind 432.4 – Base Moments (ACI) It is seen that the values obtained using the ACI method are very small as compared to the IS method. 9.922 696. This is especially true of the acrosswind loads.98 432.8854 1. 11. whereas the moments for the second mode of vibration vary a lot. whereas the second graph refers to the IS Random response method. IS Approximate Method 2. 17 0.56 Table 2.98 Gust Factor 1.592 Max Moment 825.46 98. As can be seen from the graph the moments in the first mode of vibration are very similar for both the methods of calculation.4675 The following methods were employed for the same 1. 13.
All relevant Data can be found in the subsequent pages.2. x x x x x The Approximate method of the IS code gave consistently higher moments as compared to the Random Response Method for vibrations in the first mode. The Moments consistently increased with fall in the H/D Ratio for all methods of estimation.5 Conclusions from the variational analysis x The AcrossWind Moments were inversely proportional to the H by D Ratio. The IS method gave higher moments in the second mode of vibration as compared to the first mode in both its methods. Vibration Analysis was done for modes 1 to 5 but only the first two were required for the purpose of Moment calculations.Estimation of Free Vibration parameters like the modeshapes the free frequency and the Weight data for the calculations were calculated by modeling the chimney in STRAP. 2. The Approximate method of the IS code gave consistently lower moments as compared to the Random Response Method for vibrations in the second mode. The modeling was done with the chimney broken down into 32 elements. The ACI method gave very small values as compared to the IS methods for the base moment in all cases Anomalously the moments in the second mode were lower in the ACI method as compared to those in the first mode. 21 . It may be noted that the higher moment curves correspond to lower H/D ratio.
7 – IS Approximate Method – Mode 1 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 10000 5000 0 5000 10000 Figure 2.8 IS Approximate Method – Mode 2 22 .35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 2000 4000 6000 Figure 2.
9 IS Random Response Method – Mode 1 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 20000 10000 0 10000 20000 30000 Figure 2.10 IS Random Response Method – Mode 2 23 .35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 Figure 2.
5 ACI Method (all modes) Conclusion The wind loads form the major sources for moments on Tall free standing structures like chimneys.783 87.271 59.786 17 55.244 42.783 107.404 15 77.566 225. 24 .523 Table 2.15 411.425 142.867 13 114.482 9 340.H/d Mode 1 Mode 2 7 641.764 12 144. We have looked at the two kinds on windloads that act on chimneys and also have presented the calculations for a standard chimney.483 11 204.