6.4 Traits, Genes, and Alleles The Same Gene Can Have Many Versions.

a) Gene – specific region of DNA that codes for a particular protein b) Each gene has a locus, a specific position on a pair of homologous pair. c) Allele – any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a specific locus d) Your cells have 2 alleles for each gene, one on each homologous pair e) Homozygous – characteristic of having two of the same alleles at the same locus of sister chromatids Genes Influence the Development of Traits. a) Genome – all of an organism’s genetic material b) Some of our traits can been, some cannot. c) Genotype – collection of all of an organism’s genetic information that codes for traits d) Phenotype – collection of all of an organism’s physical characteristics 1. Dominant and Recessive Alleles a) Dominant allele – allele that is expressed when two different alleles are present in an organism’s genotype b) Recessive allele – allele that is not expressed unless two copies are present in an organism’s genotype c) The dominant allele is not necessarily stronger or better than a recessive allele. d) An allele is dominant in a heterozygote simply b/c it is expresses and the other allele is not 2. Alleles and Phenotype a) Two genotypes can produce the dominant phenotype b) Many traits are influenced by multiple genes c) The environment also interacts w/ genes and affects their expressions 6.4 Assessment 1. The terms gene, locus, and allele are related. Each gene has a locus, a specific position on a pair of homologous pair. An allele is any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a specific locus 4. If a recessive allele helps an organism reproduce and the dominant allele hinders reproduction, the recessive allele will be more common due to the fact that the recessive allele will ensure the future existence of a species. The recessive allele over time will become dominant.

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