Sam McCarter
Norman Whitby

Introductio n
page 4
Unit 1
page 6
page 14
page 22
page 30
page 38
Unit 6
page 46
page 54
page 62
page 70
Unit 10
page 78
TOp ic
Change and
The importance
of the past
Machines, cycles,
and processes
Arts and sciences
Individual and
Sample answers
page 6
page 96
••• • •••••
• ••
Task 1
Describing trends
Related verbs and nouns
Underst anding data
Comparing information
Adverbs in comparisons
Comparing and contrasti ng
The passive
General and spedfic
Comparing information
Describing proportions
Describing changes
Describing locations
Concluding statement.
Concession ( 1 )
Using actveJ: bs to eva lu at e
Avoiding irrelevance
taking predictions
Factual accuracy
Varying vocabulary
Checking pelling
Word order
Linking using wi th
Task 1 revision
Ta..,k Z
Understanding questions
Expressing solutions
Lin king ph rases
Us ing trigger words
Using itltheylthislthese
Planning essays
Devel ping ideas
Using which to organize
Expressi ng result and purpose
Avoiding ov rgenerajizati on
Developing reasons
Developing an d j ustifying
Writing introduct ions
Expressing advantag sand
Advantage and disadvantage
va abulary
Concession (2)
DiSCUSSing other people's opinion
Hypolh e izing
Wri tin g conclusions
Organizing words
Verb-subject agreement
Paragraph struClure
Relevant and irrelevanr
Task 2 revision
• 3
• ••
•• •
• •••
4 ••
In trod-uction
• •
What is Improve your IEL TS Writing Skills?
Improve YOllr fELTS Writing Skills is a complete preparation course for the Academic
Wr iting paper o( the International Engli sh Language Te" ting System. Through
targeted practice, it develops skills and language to help you achieve a higher JELTS
score in the Academic Writing paper.
How can I use this book?
You can use Improve YOllr lELTS Writil1g Skills as a book fo r tudying on your own or in
a class.
If you arc studying on your own, f mprove YOllr f ELTS Wri tillg Skills is designed to guide
au step"by"step through the activities. This book is also completely elf-contained:
a clear and accessible key is provided so that you can easily check you r answ r as
you work through the book. in addition, there is a sample answer to acc mpanyeach
Task 1 and Task 2 question.
If you are studying as part of a class, your teacher will direct you on how to use each
activity. Some activities can be treated a discussions, in which case they can be a
useful opportunity to _hare ideas and techniques with other learners.
How is Improve your IEL TS Writing Skills orga n ized?
J[ consists of ten units based aroun d topics wbich occur commonly in the real test .
Each unit consists of three sections:
Task I: exercises and examples to de velop skills and language for Ta k 1 questi ons.
Ta sk 2: exerdses and examples to develop skills and language for Task 2 questions.
Practice test: a complete Academic Writing paper based on the unit topiC to practi se
the skills learned.
Each Task 1 and Task 2 section is subdivided furthe r into skills se ti ons. These focus
n spedfic areas of relevance to each task.
In addit ion, there are echniqlles boxes throughout the book These rei mor e k.ey
points on how to approach Academi c Writing tasks.
How will Improve your JELTS Writing SkiJJs improve my
By developing skills
The skills secti ons form a detailed syllabus of essential IELTS wriling skills . For
example, key elements of Task 1 preparat ion, su ch as Describing trends and COlI/paril1g
information, are fully covered. Similarly, Task 2 skills, such as Expressing sO/II/iom and
Dnelopil19 ideas are dealt with in detail.
By developing language
Each unit also contains a resour e of useful phrases and vocabular y to II e in each
wri ting task. Over the ourse of Irnprol'eyollr fELTS Writing Skills, you will encounter
a wide rang of ideas (0 ensure thaI you are not lost for words when you get to the
real test. These include concepts such as organjzjng word, trigger words, and linking
phrases, which all contribute to an appropriate academic writing style.
BV developing test technique
The Tedlllique boxes contain shari tips which can easily be memorized and used
as reminders in the real test. These include quick and easy advice about planning,
under tanding questions, and how t o use eUectively the language you have learned.

How is the IELTS Academic Writing paper organized?
The academic wri ting omponent of the IELTS lasts one hour. 111 the test, there are
two task of di fferent le ngth. both of which 'ou must all' wer.
What does each task consist of?
In Task I. you will hav to write at least 150 words to describe some data or a
diagram. Data will normally be presented in the form of a graph, a bar or pie chan.
a tabl e. or a ombination of these. A diagram will normall y (elate [Q a process, the
worki ngs [ an object. or changes in map over time. You are always expe ted to
summarize the information by describing the main features. makin J comparison
" .... here relevan t.
In Task 2. you will have to writ e at least 250 words on a topic. Y 1.1 wil l be presented
wilh an opinion, an argument . r a problem, and you will be expected to respond in
son e way. For example. in 'our re pons . you may be asked LO:
xpr s an opinion .
give views about two differem opinions and give your own opinion.
discuss advantages and di sadvantage .
give a solution to a problem by sugges ti ng meas ures.
discuss ca uses of a problem and suggest sol utions.
You are ahvays expe ted to give reasons and include any relevant examples from
your own knowledge and experience.
How will I be assessed?
In both tasks ou will be Clssessed on your ability to expre s yourself clearly an d
accurately in English.
In Task 1. you r an wer is assessed according to your ability to write abou t d ta in an
organized wa y and compare infoID1ation where it is relevant to do so. You. hould
write about the mai n features of the data an a ld rel evant d rail where n e essary.
In Task 2, your answer i assessed a cording to your abili ty to wri in a logical
manner as you give a solution 10 a problem, present andjuslify an opinion, compare
and contrast evict nce and opinions, or evaluate and challenge ideas or arguments.
How much time should I spend on each task?
You are ad ised to spend 20 minutes on Task l.
You are advised to spend 40 minut s on Task .
Even though Task 2 carrie more marks, you should always do Task 1 firs t. This
is because it is shorter, and psychologicCl lly it fee ls better if you ha ve comple ted
on e task.
• 5

6 ••••
Change and conseqLlences
Unit aims
Task t
Descnl:lIng trends
Related verbs and nouns
Understanding data
T a s ~ 2
Understandmg questIOns
ExpreSSing soluttons
Linking phrases
USing trigger wards
Task 1 Describing trends
1 The gTaphs relate to sales of media technolog . .
Which graph a- h do au think shows sales for each
item in the photos 1-4?
2 Match each grapb (a-h) with the most appr p riate
description below (1- 10).
Sales of auelio cassettes fell steaelily . .......... ~ ......
2 iPo sales rose gradually . ..................
3 Plasma TV sales fluctuated wildly, but the trend
was upward . ..................
4 Sales of video cassettes n uctuated wildly, and the
tTend was downward ..... ....... _ .. ... _
5 Total digital camera sales dropped slightly.
.... ... - ..........
6 Sa es of audio cassettes fell and then levelled off.
7 The sales of MP3-players rose gradually and then
climbed sharply . ..... .... .... _ ....
B Purchases of video cassett e recorders d lined
dramatically . ......... ,' .......
9 Sales of games consoles decreased and then
levelled off ...................
10 CD sales dropped suddenJy ............ .......
3 Underline the verbs in 2 used to describe trend
I Sales of audio cassettes kU steadily.
4 The verbs in 2 are modified by adverb such as
steadily. Find the adverbs and decide wheth r they
mean slow or fast changes. Complete the lists below.
Slow .. ~ ~ ~ ! ~ ~ . ,

. ~
• Include a variety of
• structures In your
• writing. Use both
• verb + adverb a 1d
• adjective + noun
• •
• structures In '{our
Task 1 answer.
• Express nouns as
The . of or as TWO
• nouns

UNIT 1 Charlge alld COli eqllell"s
••• • •
Related verbs and nouns
5 containing verb phrQs es such as j eJl steadily call often be re\-\' J.iLLen
using the correct form of there islare and a related noun. Read the examples.
Then rewri te sentences a-j below.
Th consumption of chocolate fell steadily. (verb + adverb)
There was a steady fall in the consumption of chocolate . (there was a + adjective +
noun )
There has been a dramatic rise in the producri oD of films . (there has been a +
adjeCtive + noun)
Th production of film has risell dramaticalry. (verb + adverb)
a Spice expons fr om Afri ca fl uctuated wil dly over the period.
There were ........................................ ................................. .. ..................................... .
b The development of new products fell gradually.
Ther was ...... ............. ..... .......................................................................................... .
c There has been a noticeable decrease in investmen l.
Research ......................... ............... ........... ........ ... .. .................................................. ..
d The purchases of ti.cket dropped significantly last month.
There ............................................................................................................ ..
e On the Internet, the illu rober of sites rose significantly.
There wa .................................................................................................................. ..
There was a su. dden decrease in th e sale of mangos.
The sale .... ...... ........................................................................................................... .
g At the theme park. there "vere very slight fluctuations in the number of
The number ................................................................ ............................................... .
h There was a gradual decline in sugar impons.
Sugar .......................................................................................................................... .
The quality of food in supermarkers has tncreased slowly .
There h as ................................................................................................ .......... ......... .
The number of air travellers fluctuated remarkably.
There ........ .. ................ ................................. .. ........................................ ..................... .
Phrases such as the consumplion oj chocolate can often be rewritten as just two
nouns. Read the examples. Then find and revyTit t' olh J examples in 5.
The consumptioll oj chaco/ate can become Chocolate cOllsumption.
The production offt/lns can become Fillll production. (not Films production).
••••• 7
To you read
the graph. write the
• Ilames nt tile t.afes
at the end of each

Model text
Understanding data
7 Read the graph and the Task 1 quesli.on. Wh l was the in me in dollar for:
a The Tea Room in January?
..... .. ......... . .. ..... .....
b Internet Express in Jul y?
c Wi-fi Cafe in November?
d are Co I in D eember?
e The Tea Room i n February?
Task 1
Y01/ should spend about 20 111 in lit es 011 this task.
The graph sholt·,\, I lJe income of faLl r cafes
i/l Ne w York over lasl year.
Sutnmal'iZl! the informalion by selectil)D
and reporliJ.ID the maill f eatt/res, and
make compllri ons where relevallt.
Write at least 150 words. __ The TeB Room
-+- Internel Express
--- WI ·II Ca fe
-- Cafe Cool
Changing trends in cafe income
.200 -.-------------
180 +-----------+_
140 -l--'rl'---1.---I.------.---I--

;3 100 -+-:..:--- -------c
g 80

8 Answer t hese questions about rhe graph.
a What do the lett ers , F, M, etc along th b llom of the graph mean?
b What do s OOOs mean .
e What P Ite m an you s 'C?
d What comparisons can you make?
9 Read the model text and decide wherher each missing phras
noun, or an adverb.
1 adverb
me graph providef, informa1ion about the
inc.ome of four over the la5t
increase to $120,000, furthermore, the
inc.ome for both Internet £,y.pre5s and the
10 March options
a-g with gaps
There are two baf,ic. general trendf,:
downwar and upward. As regards the
fir5t, the earning5 for The Tea \Zoom,
down over the falling I ... ... .. .. .. from
alm05l earning5 a month tO jU5t
under $50,000 in December,
B-t contrast, the inc.ome for ihc other thre.e
, ak5 went up b'j vat"(ing degrees, There
"las :2. ., ... ....... in Gafe c.ool' (') 5ale5 over
the ten month5, followed b'j a sudden
8 ••••
Wi-fi Gafe'J ............ in Duember. The
former ey. perienc.e.d 4 .... ... ..... to June, but
after Ihat, inc.ome rose S .. .. ..... ... ending
the at $1'30,000.
UKe\o ise, the trend for Wi-fi waf, upward,
Between Janua'1 to earnings
I. .... ........ from $')0,000 to nead'j $100,000
and I .. .......... to around $lqO,ooo.
It if, noticeable that the inc..ome for The
i ea \Zoom i5 lowel' in tne winter montho
than for the. olne.r tnree. c.afes.
1- 7 in Ibe model
a I adily
b then rocketed
e doubled
d significant 11'
e also ended the
year lip
a steady fall
il ris '
u r ~ r T 1 Cill7.llge mId cOllSeqllellCl!s

Task 2 Understanding questions
1 Task 2 questions cOlltdin a general subject and often in cl ude a spe jfic
organizing word to help you organize your t: ssay. In each group a-d below,
'o.vhich organil'Z ing word has a di fferent meani ng fx JJ1 th e lher two?
a ad\ anlages dr awbacks benefits
b measures st eps reasons
c ause eHecls consequences
d disadvantages drawbacks solutions
2 Cmnpkt ~ e,lCh Task 2 question below v-'" liih words 1t! n!)] the b ox.
You may use each item more than nce.
agree or disagree advantages
solutions measures
a What are the ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 . .. of learning skills jn the mod rn vvodd?
b Any attempts to preserve the natural worl d will alvva is h inder economi c
developmenL. The benefit will howev r far outweigh th e
.................. . Do you .................. ")
c What are the .................. and .................. of laking a eal" 0[[ b tween school
a nd univcrsit y?
d Student s should be trained on how to ope wit h hange in the modern
world. How far do you .................. ?
e Volunteer work wit h disadvantaged groups like underpr ivileged children is
[he best way for you ng people to learn about th e real world. ' '''hat are the
.................. of such work ?
Every day, animals are becoming extinct throughout the world. What do
you think the .................. of this are? What ..... ... .......... can you uggest.
g Ov rcrowding in large ci ties h as always been a problem, but with
popula tions a ro und the world a out to double, the social problems are
certain to multiply. What ............ can you suggest to control th e problems .
3 How many p ans are [here in each quest ion in 2? For example, (a) bas one
p art. If there are two or th ree p arts, how are they related?
• •• 9

Identlf the type 01 •
que lion For cause/ -
10 •
Expressing solutions
4 Change is more rapid in the modem world than it was in th e pasl. umber
each category belov 1- 5 accord'ing to how rapi dly each is changing in your
opinion (1 = most rapid; 5 = least rapid). Tltink of an example ofrapid
h ange for each category.
Work Technology Travel Communication Health
5 Look at the Task 2 quest ion below and answer the question
Jou should spend about 40 minutes 011 this task.
Write about the following topic.
/.ore lind. /}l ore people claim ti m" H l O " ~ ' ' ' ' ' 1 1\" rk patterns a re a SOlI/'ce of s l r ess.
What do YOII think are the causes of this? Can you sllggest some possible
Give reasons for your anS'lver and inc/ude any relevant examplf!s from your own
knowledge or experienCe.
a Which part of the question states a problem?
b Which t wO words in the que lion are important for the organization of your
6 Read the
conversati on
bel ' een rw o
students d iscussing
the problem of stress
at work. w hich p ar t
of the question in 5
are they answering?
What solut ions
and result s do they
7 This paragraph
. suggests a solution
to [be Task 2
que llon in 5 .
Complete each gap
with the phrases in
a-f for p r Selliing
sol utions, examples,
and res ult s,
a A further step is to
b for example
Ti na:
Ti na:
How do you t hink people can deal with t heir
stressful lives, especially at w ork?
Firstly, I think employers should encou rage
workers to rel ax.
Well. i n some companies, gym facilities or
massage therapi es are available.
Yes. If you help your employees to rel ax, th is
improves their effi ciency and production.
Are t here other solutions?
Of course. Employees could be trai ned i n
how to plan t heir ti me more effectively.
One w ay is to stop people taking work
home. And then the workpl ace will become
a lot happier.
1 .. .. .. ...... for employers to encourage workers to relax .
2 ....... .. " . , in some companies, gym facilities or
massage therapies are available. 3 .' .......... , this
improves their effiCiency and production. 4 .. .. .. . .. . .. train
employees in how to plan their time more effectively,
5 ............ , by stopping people taking work home.
6 ............ , the workplace will become a lot hapPier.
d As a result
I think the most obvious
solution is
e By doing this
For instance
UNIT 1 (/lId coIIseqllellCe!
8 There axe several ways to express sol utjons. Should is used for SIl' ong
suggestions; could is used for possible sugge (i ons. Other phrases can also be
used to express solutions. Read the example [rom 6 and 7 on page 10. Then
rewri te the sent ences in a- f.
Employers should eJ/courage workers to relax.
[ think the most obvious solution is/or employers to ncouTage workers [Q relax.
Employees could be [rai/led in how to plan their Lime more effectively.
A further st ep is to train employees in h ow [Q plan Ih eir li me more dfe [i vely.
a 1 think the most obvious solution is to encourage people to exercise more.
PeopleshouJd ......................................... , ............................. , ... ,.,. , ....... , .... , .......... , ... .
b The obvious answer is to reduce the number 0 working hours ,
The number of working hours ...... , ....... ....... , ............ , ................................. , .......... .
c The government could provide each employee with their own computer.
One possibility is ....... , .... ... .................................................................... ... ... ...... .... .... .
d One option is to persuade parents to spen d more time with [heir children.
Parents could .............. , ............................................ ..... ... ........... , .. .. .............. ,
e A good idea is to restri ct the number of ars coming into iries,
The number of cars coming into cities .... " . ....... ..... .. ,' .......................................... .
f The go emmenl should build more sky rapers to solve the problem.
A good idea is .................................................................. ... " ... ..................... .
9 Which problems ('[modern life do (he SentenceS in S rein Ill?
overcrowding traffic congestion obesity
lack of discipline stress technology
10 Use·the following phrases (0 add re ults to the Solul ions ab ove. Use YOUT
own ideas and words.
a I think the most obvious solution is to encourage people to exerdse more,
By doing this, they would lose weight and would feel better generally.
As a result, This would enable/help them to This would lead to
This means that they would By doing this, Consequently,

•• •
Linking phrases
11 Linking phrases mark the ftloctions 01 other sent ent: es i1n d phrases, as
solutjons, results, and examples. Match each linl(ing ph rase ' '',I tch th e cor Cl
addi rion a nd
resu It
Usin g trigger words
8ftt! conseq uentJy,
and so since
therefore, if
as a result.
for instance,
in order to
fu rth crmore,
for example,
12 Read the paragraph from a Task 2 essay on overcrowded cities and find the
UnkLn g phr ases which match these functions.
Reason Result Example Solution
Man\' citie in the worl d have now b ecome very
because people are migrating in from the
counrrysid e in search of work. As a result , fa cilities like
water supplies and public transport cannot cope with
the demands from increased numbers of people, and
so they are under severe strain. The obviol1s answer is
to encourage the creation of jobs outside the cities. For
example) we could encourage certai n business s to set
up branch es in rur al areas.
13 phrases can be used to tr.i gger ideas becau e th ey mark fun ctio n s.
When you plan a Task 2 answer, write down some trigger words to h elp you
devd QP YOUT basic idea. Use [11e trigger w o rds below (a develop th e ideas
lfpeople migrale 10 cilies, they become ................ ..
And so ................ ..
And as a rest ill .... .. ........... .
A good idea would be to ................. .
By doing this, ................ ..
People spend 100 /lllIch time watching TV.
For example, ................ ..
Con equemly, .. .. , ....... .. .. ..
If .................. , then .............. .. . .
This \vill lead to ........ .. ...... . .
The development of tourism of Tell creates resentment among local people because
For example, ......... .. ...... .
The obvious ans wer is to ...... _._ .. .... __
Furthermore, ....... _ .. ....... .

• ••
UNIT 1 Cil(l11ge and cOlIst:quenus
• •••••
Practice Test 1
Task 1
You should spend aboUl 20 minutes on this task.
The 9rtJph belDH' shows il1 percentage terms tlu changing patterns of domestic aeee s
to Jil(){il'm tecJl11vlo9.\J il1 homes in the UK
SIUJllII{//";ze flu "information by selectil1g and rep(wtillij tI,e IJ1l1in /catllres, anrl make
comparisons where relevant.
Write alleasl 150 words.
100 -.--------------------------------------------------------------,
CD pl ayer

Task 2
You should spend about 40 II/inures on this Jask.
Write about the followil1g topic:
MObile phone
.... .
....... ".:.-.--------
- ----- ------
2000/01 2002/03
People naturally resist making changes;n their ..
What kind of problems can this calise? What solutioJls can you suggest?
Give reasons for your allswer and include any relevanr examples from your OHI1"1 knowledge
or experimce.
Write at least 250 words.
• •• 13


Ballpoint pen,
Laszlo Biro
Tin can patented
by Peter Durand

In the test. circle

and number
Important de1ails •

in pencil.

14 •••••
The importance of the past
.. ... ..
- - - . - ~ -
Unit aims
Task 1
Comparing information
Adverbs in comparisons
Comparing and contrasting
Task 2
Using it/they/ this/these
Planning essays
Developing Ideas
• •
••••• ••••••
Task 1 Comparing information
The pictures and text show some inventions and who invented them.
Answer the question s.
First mercury thermometer,
Gabriel Fahrenhei t
Safety pin,
Walter Hunt
a Which is the oldes t invention?
b Which is the most recem invention?
Paper money in China
c Which do you think are the most and least important inventions?
d What other important historical inventions are not induded here?
2 The chan shows {he results of a survey about the most important inventi ons
in th e l ast 300 years . Answer [he questions.
Most important inventi ons in t he last 300 years
I. Male 0 Female 1
a What is the most
striking feature of
the chart?
b What voting
patterns can you
see for females?
c What voting
patterns can yo
see for males?
3 You can use a range of structures to make compadsons. Read these exampJe
describing the chart in 2. Then complete s,entences a-j with sui table
information based on the chart.
More males than females chose the TV. (more + noun + than)
Fewer females than males chose t h e TV. (fewer + noun + than)
The TV was more popular among males than females. (morel less + adjective +
The most popular form of conununication was the Internet. (the most/least +
UNIT 2 TIre importGI1Ct! of the pasr
a More fe males ....................... ...... males chose [h e bicycle.
b The bicycle was more ........................ .... than any other invention.
c The car was .... ......................... popular among females than males.
d ... ................... .. ..... invention among both sexes was the TV.
e ................ ....... .. .... women than men voted for the mobile phone .
.......................... .. . invention among both sexes was the bicycle.
g ......... ..... ............... males than females picked the radio.
h The computeT was ............................. for women than for men.
More people seleded the bicycle ............................. any other invention.
The TV was ........................ .. ... popular than any other invention.
4 You can also compare information by using a ma/ly ... as when numbers are
very dose, or by using I/ot as many .. _ as. Read the examp les. Then compare
male and female ani( udes (0 cars and mobil e phones.
As many females as males chose the computer.
Not as many females as males chose tb radi o.
5 Make comparative sentences based on notes a-g below and the chart in 2.
Use the passive or active form of the verb in italics.
femalesJmalesl sel ect fthe bicycle More females than male sf/eeted the bicycle.
males/femalesl seleetfthe bicycle Fewer males thall f males selected the bicycle.
the bicyclelchooselfemales/males The bicycle was chosen by more females than
a males/femaleslehooselthe car
b women/men/ selwlthe mobile phone
c the Intemetlehooselmales/females
d (emalesJ males! pick/ the radio
e malesl£emaleslpicklthe radio
the comput erl chooselfemales/males
g the bicyclelselect/males/females
••• • 15
16 •••••
Adverbs in comparisons
6 You can add adverbs to comparisons to make them more precise, such as
significantly (more) or almost (as many). Read the examples. Then underline the
adverbs in sentences a-i.
Significantly mOTe people voted for the bicycle than tbe other inventions.
The bicycle was chosen by almost as many males as females.
a Slightly more women than men voted for th e bi cycle.
b In the past, considerably more people lived in the countryside than towns.
c Many more people can use a computer today than thirt y years ago.
d Substantially less time is now spent doing housework than before.
e There are significantly fewer people now worldng in manufacturing than in
the past.
Sports programmes are watdled by practically as many peopl now as jn
previ ous years.
g The exhibition about dnerna attracted far fewer visirors than expected.
h Illiteracy is much less common than in previous generations .
Nearly as many children as adults watch progranmles about anci enL history.
7 Which adverbs above mean:
a almost? b a lot? c just a few?
8 Look again at the sentences you wrote in 5 on page 15. Add suitable adverbs .
Comparing and contrasting
9 Answer (hese questions about (he b ar chart.
a What do you mink the bar chart provides information about ?
b What could the numbers on the left relate to?
c What do you trunk the words along the bottom of the dl an relate to?
d What could the numbers in the box refer to?
e Is there a time reference for the graph?

-------------------1 I

In the test, make
a qUick list of
the comparison
structures you know
before you write
UNiT 2 Tire ;mportallu ofllle past
1 0 Match sentence beginnings 1-6 with endings a-f to form correct senlences
abom the chart.
1 The arts and crafts society has the greatest number of 20-30 year-olds,
2 Only 25 people fTom the younger age group are members of the historical
3 Some societies are clearly more popular with one of tbe age groups,
4 The keep fit and social clubs have slightly more members in the younger age
5 In generaL the 20-30 year-olds are more actively involved in societies
6 The keep fit and social clubs attract a broader range f people
a wh reas the archaeological society is equally popular wi th both .
b ill compariso11 with [he hi stori al society,
e but it is one of the least popular clubs with the ol' er age group-
d comp.11'ed with the Ider age group,
e whilt! the figure for 45-65 year-olds is abou 50.
althollgh they are fairly popular with both age grou s.
11 I n which of [he sentences in 10 uld the ending a-f orne fir t? Which
cOlmecting words in italics are followed by a noun phrase only,
12 Read the description of (he chan in 9. For aeh of 1- 6, two options are
possible and one is ineorreCL Delete the in correct opti on.
Model text
l'he Ghart provides information about
how two age groups partic.ipate in 'beveral
dub\') at a Lentr£. for ,j (ktl1s.
We '5Ce. from the data that the, Keep fit and wc.ial dubs
are popular with both older and
people. I contraM, the and art'b and c.rafts wc.ietie-s
dead,! appeal more to one of the age-
groupD. In the Wc.iet-j, SO of the
members are between 4'5 and (,?,
2. but/whilelhowever "lhere are 2.5
from "lhe age group. For the art
and c.rafts soc.iet-j, the- pattern is reve-rsed.
l'here- are about membe-rs aged
be-twe-e-n'}.() and 30, -; but/whereaslin
c-ompari50n the number of people- in
the- 45 to (pI5 age group is 4 Jar/slightly/
considerably lower.1he Ke-ep fit and wGial
dubs are popular with both age- groupD,
'i howeverlbut/although there are sllghH'i
fewer older people, e-mbe-rship of th
;; Mc.iet., stand5 at it? fo
both groups.
In ge-ne-ral, the- age- group are
v signific.antly/almost/noticeably more
involved in the various wc.ieties than tl1
it?-(;j 01d5.
... • 17
18 •••••
Task 2 Using itltheylthislti'zese
1 Read the text below writlen by a st udent as part of a Task 2 essay. Replace
the words in italics wi th ii, they, this, or these.
Archaeologists, for example, help us to learn about the past. Archaeologists
look for evidence in artefacts like pots and jewellery. Pots aJldjewellery
reveal a lot of information about our ancestors. Revealing infonnatioll about
the past is very useful, but the information is still quite limited.
2 Match 1-4 witb a- d to explain how ro use il, Ihey, this, and tll ese.
I It and this refer to
2 They and these refer to
3 This and these are often used to refer to
4 This can also refer to
a nouns at the end of the previous senten ce.
b plural nouns.
c situations and processes.
d singular nouns.
3 Underline the exact text which it, they, tilis, and these refer [0 in sentences a-h.
The first one has been done for you.
a History teaches children not just facts, but a range of skills. For example,
they can learn how to analyse material, do basic sorting and research .
b Old buildings help create a more relaxing environment in cities than
concrete office blocks . This makes them more pleasant to work and live in .
c Studying history may trigger an interest in other subject areas. This , in tum,
may Lead to other hobbies.
d Built-up areas can be made more attractive by adding monuments and
statues. These can then enrich people's lives considerably.
e Government s should provide more money to preserve historical siles. By
doing this, our heritage would be saved for future generations.
Tradition does not hold us back as some people believe. In facr, it helps us to
build the future.
g Schools and colleges need to emphasize history and related subjects as these
will help give them a wider view of the world.
h The Internet and computers can b<;.' used to preserve the past For example,
they can be used by children to do basic research and store images.
4 Complete sentences a-g with ii, they, 1111:5, or these.
a If the past i to be preserved, .............. .. ,. must be done by usi ng modem
b The an and language of a country represent its history, so it is important
that ................ .. are both preserved.
c The primary role of advenising is to encourage the public to replace the old
witb the new ................... is called progress by some people.
d History broadens the minds of most people ,"vho study .................. , but
.................. also has the potential to narrow the minds of some.
e History should be given more emphasis in schooL as .................. will help
children to understand better the world they live in.
If hlstory is emphasized more in schools, .......... .. ... : .. wiU lead to a b tter
understanding of the world.
g The past infom1.s us of the present and the future, but few people are
suificiently aware of , .... ... . "" ......
uNiT 2 The imparlQllce afllre pasl

P]ann in g essays
5 Read (he historical facts in a-f below. Rank the events 1-6 according to how
important you think rhey were in human history (1 = most impoTl am; 6 =
least importanr). What other events would you add to the l ist?
a In 1792, France abolished the monarchy and instituted the fi rst republic.
b In 1953, Francis Watson and James Crick described the structure and
importance of DNA.
c In October 1492. Christopher Columbus set foot in the Americas.
d In 1885. Karl Benz built and patented the first automobile.
e In 1983. a computer system connecting universitjes was creat ed. whkh
later became the Internet.
In the nimh cemury. gunpowder was first invented and used by the
6 Read the Task 2 essay question below. Ded de which of points a-g ar
rel evant to this answer.
It is sometimes said tll at history /lever repeats itself, yet there is mild/ ill
it which is relevant to our modern world. Suggest some ways in. whicJI
the study of history migllt help liS today.
a There is often uncertainty about what really happened with regard to
well-known historical events.
b Studymg other historical periods gives insights into different ways of life .
e We can learn about the recent past by asking older relatives.
d HiStory involves investigation and interpretation, so its study develops
thinking skills.
e Learning about conflicts in the past can teach u S hovv to avoid them in
History is a more dHficult area of study than most p ople imagine.
g The past can often provide explanations for the sit uation W ' face today
7 Read the idea below. Choose some of the trigger words to develop tlus
point. The first one has been done for you . Refer to Unit 1 page 12 for more
examples of similar phrases.
Studying other historica.l periods gives insights in to different ways of life.
For example, students ca11 investigate the way in which people lived in ancient limes
such as ................ ..
As a res ulr, ................ ..
Therefore, ................ ..
Furthermore . ................. .
8 Look back at Ihe other relevant sentences you chose in 6 above. Develop
those ideas in the same way llsiJlg tr igger words. Then wri tt: out yow ideas
in a pa.ragr aph.
. .. • . • 19
To help you build
a bank of Ideas.
recycle relevam
Information from

other essay,-s_, _......;I.
20 •••••
Developi ng ideas
9 Read the Task 2 question below. Make a not of any ways you can mink of to
make history more interesting.
Some children find lem'fling history at school very exciting. but matlY
others think it is I'ery boriug. In what ways can history be brought to life
for 0,1/ school children?
10 The list a-i below contains ideas that a student came up with for [he essay
question in 9. There aI\:' thr,ee solutions, each whb an example and an ffe l.
Complete (he table by matching each idea with the appropriate funct ion.
Paragraph 1 Paragrapb 2
Solutions a
a using the Internet and computers
b isiting historical sites
c historical places seem more real
l: make a poster about local history
(' go to a local archaeological site
it increase motivation to do research
g these kill can be applied in other subjects
h doing written projects
search for iniorrnation about historical figures online
Paragraph 3
11 Decide which function in 10 these linking phrases rel ate to.
a Another method is to
h T}') is will lead to
c For example,
d Last but not least, children could
e For instance,
such as
g As a result .
h The best way is to
12 Use YOUI answers to 10 and 11 to write the ideas out as three paragraphs.
UNit' 2 The i mponallCt: of rhe past

• • • ••
Practice Test 2
Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes all this task.
The graph below SllOWS the contribution of three sectors - agriculture,
manufacturing, llnd b1lSi1l2.5S ilIId fin lll/cia I services -to the UK economy ill the
twentieth cClllury.
Summarize tile infonnatiol1 by selecting alId reporting tile main jeatw'es, and make
cOlllpm'isolls where relevant.
Write at least 150 wards.
Contribution of selected sectors to the
UK economy in the twentieth century
Task 2
h'U sholild spend about 40 minutes on this task.
V"'I"itt" ,l bc,ut Ihe/t'llu" .... il1g topic:
o Agriculture
• Manufacturing
o Business and Financial
To some people studying the past has lillIe value it! tile modem I For/d. Wil y do you
tlIil1k it is important to do so? What will be the effect If children are not taugll t
Give reasons foryour answer and include any relevant examples frolll your own knowledge or
Write Cit least 250 words.
•• 21
• • Machines, cycles, and processes
• ••••• •• •
When describing
processes, sho',",
hat you can use
active and passive
forms where
• appropf i_at_e __ .....
22 • ••••
Unit aims
Tas' l Task 2
The passive
Using whIch to organize informatron
Expressing result and purpose
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ . ~ . ~ . ~ . ~ . = - - - ~ = - = - = - = - ~ ~ = - ~ = - ~
Task 1 The passive
1 Look at the five objects a- and answer the questions.
a Which materials are used to make these objects?
b Which of the material in your list are natural and which are
2 Natura] processes are oft en de cribed using (he active form. whereas
manufaClUIi og processes are usual ly described using the passive. Read rh
examples. Then omplete 1-6 with the correct fonns of the verb in bra kelso
A riverf10ws from its source to the ocean. (active)
Many electronic goods are manufactured in Japan. (passive: bi + past paniciple)
Limestone is the main ingredient of cement. Firstly, it 1 .... .. ............. . . .. .... ..
(extract) from the ground. Then, at the factory. it 2 .. ..................... ... ... (heat)
(Q a high temperature with other ingredients. After thiS, it
3 ........... . .. ........ ....... (cool) with blasts of cold air.
When warm air ~ .. ....... .... ............... . (reach) high ground. it is force to rise.
and, as a result, it 5 ..... ... .. ........... .. .. ... . cool) . Moisture in the air
6 ......... .......... .......... (condense) to form rain.
3 When describing processes, make sure the subject and verb agree. Read the
example, then complete 1-8 with the carr ct forms of the verbs in brackets.
The sun shines and the temperature rises.
Some rock formations I .... ........ (hold) large amounts of water, When it
2 ............ (rain). the tiny spaces in th rock gradually 3 .... .. . .. .. . (fill) with
water so that the rock 4 ... .... ... .. (become) saturated. Tbe top of this saturated
zone is called the wate( table. If long periods of rain 5 ...... .. .. .. (occur). the
water table 6 ............ (rise). If there is no rain, the rock 7 ............ (begin) to
dry out and the water table 8 ............ (fall).
UNIT 3 Machines, cycles, and prOCf!sstS

4 Verbs which requi re an object are called transitive. Ver bs "vh ich never have
an object are caUed Are the verbs in sentence a-c transitive,
intransitive, or both? Which sentence cannot be put iOlO the passive?
a The temperature falls.
b Manufacturers make rubbe r products.
c Sunlight opens the leaves. The leaves Opel! .
5 Put each verb in the box into the correCllist: transiti ve, intransit i ve, Or b oth.
design produce rise
se nd
Transiti ve:
Intransitive: fall
obtain die
6 U e the notes below to write short paragraphs ab out production processes.
The production of a car involves various stages. car/design; prototype/make;
car/rna s·produce; car/distribure; car/sell
After the car is designed, a prototype is made and the car is mass-produced. The car is OUr1
distn'buted and sold.
a The production of a motorcycle involves various stages. motorcycle/design;
prototype/make; prototype/test; motorcycle/manufacture; motorcycle!
export; motorcycle/sell .
b The diagram shows the various stages in the production of bread. wheat/
plant; crop/harvest; wheat/transport to the mill; wheat/make fl our; fl ourl
buy/baker; bread/bake; bread/sold.
7 Some diagrams require descriptions using past tenses. COIllpJe!e lhe
paragraph with lhe verbs from the box.
300 mi llion years ago
100 million years ago
Dead plants
Rocks & Dirt
. / ; __ :0=1IIII_, ."
·_·.,' t , t , t .-" .".
a died and dropped b was formed
c lived d was covered e was t rapped
f turned 9 is now mined h buil t up
The diagrams show the process by which coal
I ............ over a period of millions of years.
First of all, large plants 2 ......... .. . in enonnous
swamps a long time ago. These 3 •.......... • to the
bottom of t.he water. Over the years, the dead
plants formed a layer, which became deeper
and deeper. More and more earth and dirt
4 . .. ......... on top of this layer. Subsequently,
this layer 5 ............ by rocks and dirt, and so the
energy of the dead plants 6 ............ underneath .
As the pressure an d the heat grew over time,
the layer of dead plants 7 ...... . ..... into coal.
Seams of coal were formed, and coal 8 ............ .
• • •• 23
When describmg
• processes, use
• phrases such as
• F{{st of al/, After
thar, and When as
• . d • trlgger wor s to •
• you sequence •
• Ideas. •
24 •••••
8 The diagram shows how energy is produced from coal. Answer the
a How is the coal carried to [he pO'wer plant?
b What is added to tbe furnace in addition to coal?
( What gas is produced when coal is burnt in the furnace?
d What do you think is removed from the gas?
e What is the gas called foll owing trus pro ess?
What do you think [he gas does in the turbine?
g What does the turbinE do to the generator?
h Where do the hot exhaust gases come from?
What bappens [0 the gases?
Gas turbine
9 Complece the model text below by choosing the correct aJtcrnati'\'c in each
Model text
me diagram the variouf> f>tage!> in
the. proauc.tion of dean from wa\ .
I firM of aU/At first/One. the wal if>
mined in deep pitf> underground and then to the $urfaa .. 2. Furthermore/
After that/As a result, it i$ c.arried
along a belt to a power plant.
'3 when/then/where it i5 burned in a
large furnac. e to i5 added.
4 Ofherwise/from this/Therejore, ral"
i!> proauc.ed. At tne 5tage.
of the proc.ef>f>, harmful f>ubf> li\:e
c.arbon dio'l'ide., and sulphur are
removed. S Fol/owing that/ Followino/
Subsequent, the. purified gas i$ U$ed to
drive a gas turbine. me turbine" in turn/
afterwards/therefore powerf> a generator,
produc.i ng eledri{ me gas turbine aIM
produc.e5 hot ga5es. mef>e are
1 then/thertfore/consequently piped to
a heat rewve.t"{ steam generator,
wnvertf> the heat into $team. \he 5team i5
I) tonsequently/subsequent/subsequently
LI $ed to power a steam turbine, whid1
ilgil in if> uf>ed to generate
me e.nerg'1 if> dean buau5e narmful
produd$ are removed and the c.oal if> not
transported to anothe.c 5ite to produc.e
UNIT 3 /Hachines, cycles. alld proc£sses

10 ConneCl the sentences below. Use the Unldng words in brackets in each case.
The parts of th e car are assembled. The cars are ex-ported. (aiter)
After the parts of the car are assembled, the cars are exported.
a Tb e snow falls. It covers the ground with a protective layer. (when)
b Her cubs are born. The lioness licks them all over. (as soon as)
c The paper is collected. It i sent for recycling. (once)
d Volcanoes erupt. They send huge amounts of smoke int o the air. (before
e The plants perspire. The air becomes humid. (when)
The trees are cut d OVIlI]. The forest is graduall y dest royed. (and)
11 Connect these sentences using your own words.
a The food is processed. Ir is packaged. It is distributed.
b The cycle is completed. Jt repeats itseli all over again .
c The rubbish is collected. It is sent to a centre for sorting. It is recycled.
d A new model of the bicycle is develope( Tlic bicycle is tested
e The TV is assembled. It is sent to the shops.
The water is purified. It is bottled.
g The data about the weatl1er is collected. The infonnation is then broadcast.
h Th e prototype is tested. It is rnodilied.
12 From your own knowledge, write a short paragraph to des cribe each of the
processes below.
a The process of digital photography from the acti on of taking a photograph
to displaying the image.
b The progress of a lener or parcel from packaging to delivery.
c The life cycle of an animal such as a butterfly or a frog.
d Th e water cycle which creates clouds and rainfall.
26 •••••
Task 2 Using which to organize information.
Answer the questions about the list of technologit.'s .
computers automatic doors mobi le phones video games
TV remote controls MP3-players satellite navigation systems
digital cameras
a Which of the technologies can help peopl e and which can make life more
diffi cult ?
b Which technologies might make people more lazy?
c Whicll technologies do you find annoying and which impressive?
2 Read the Task 2 question. What two kc'!' elements must you include in your
answer? Underline the organizing words which tell you [his.
A recent survey has shown that people of all ages are losing the ability
to perfonn basic practical tasks and processes at work. What do you
think are the main causes of this? What solurions can you suggest?
3 Read the following paragraph vvri tten by a student and answer
questions a-e.
People generally are losing traditional practical skills whkh they need to
function in everyday life . This has come about in my opinion, because
people are now so over-reliant on machines. For example, computers
in one form or another perform many of the tasks that people used t
do themselves such as office functions, opening and locking doors, or
switching mach.ines on and off. Consequently, workers annat do basi
practical tasks in depth, which in turn has an impact on how to process
basic informati on mentally when they are at work
a What kind of skills are people losing?
b What is the cause of this?
c Which examples are given?
d What is the practical consequence of all this?
e ' '''hat is the mental consequence?
4 In each sentence below, what does the word in italics refer to?
a People often allow the TV to do their thinking for them at borne, which in
tum has an impact on their mental performance at work. (Effect)
b People generally are losing traditional practical skills which they need to
function in every day life.
• Use which as a
• trigger word to
• add detail to your
• writing.
.1.-_____ ....

UNIT 3 Machines, cycles, and

5 Combine [he following pairs of sentences using which.
a Sometimes, computers make mistakes and prevent things happening. This
wastes valuable ti me and can cost money.
b TV programmes provide people with information about the world around
them, This information is often very useful
c Machines now give us more fr eedom. This means that we have more time
for leisure activi.ties.
d Technology saves us more and more time. This time can be used to create
more machines.
e More and more household tasks are now carried out by robots. They will be
even more common in the future .
Every thing se ms to be available at the touch of a button. Th.i s makes
people expect instant responses from other people.
6 What does whieh refer to in each of your answers in S? In which cases does
the wlll'ell clause express an effect as in 4a?
7 When combining sent ences, a which clause of len cont ains information that
is non-essential to the sentence. Read Ehe examples. Then combine Ih
sentences in a-e, decidin. which information is non-essential.
News broadcasts about world disasters, which are now available 24 hours a day,
can make people feel anxious.
The si tuation, which people blame the government for, is everyone's fau lt .
a The situation has now become much more complex. It is eUeclively OUI of
b The problem is everyone's responsibility. The public blame the gove rrunent
for it.
c The cause of the problem is the lack of basic Iraining. The cause is not
immediately obvi ous to everyone .
d The solution is, in my opinion, by far the best. The sol ution is to have a day
at work where peopJe do not use computers or other machines.
e Office technology is the cause of much frustration at work. It requires only
basic training to use.
':J .1.1 27
Expressing result and purpose
8 The extract below contains three paragraphs, each organized to express
functions such as cause and result. Identify the ideas that relate to each
function and underline them. The first paragraph has been done for you.
?roblem rirf>t of all, in recent people
all over the worla have aemonf>tratea
fi'l-ing a plug, menaing a pundure on
a or even sewing a button on
a f>hirt. a dear lacK of abilitj to carC'j out certain
baf>ic ta;,K;,. A number of reaf>onf> have
been put forwara for thif>, but far the
mOf>t important, I feel, if> the comple'l-itj of
c..aUf>e ____ the moaern a@e.
Apart from parents, the international
arive towaras learning new
also neeas to a gooa part of the
blame. mif> has lea to ioun9 people
leaVing school literate in certain
computer f>Kills. But it has alw createa
a generation almost aeficient in baf>ic
practical f>Kills, because technical
problem-wiVing liKe maKing things in
has been sguenecl out of the
school curriculum.
Learn at least one
result phrase and
one purpose phrase
• and use these as
trigger words.
• When you write a
sentence, insert
• your result/purpose
trigger words to
, develop it.
28 •••••

'Parentf>, for e'l-ample, no longer have
enough time to f>pena at home with their
chi\clren, because are worKing
unsociable hours to cope with the
pressures ana aemanas of s worla.
Young people are wnseguentli aeprivea
of valuable time to learn the pradical
f>Kills for life liKe
Paragraph 1: Problem/Cause
Paragraph 2: Example/Cause/Effect
Paragraph 3: Cause/Result I /Result 2/Reason/Example
9 Which linking phrases are used in 8 to express the functions listed?
Decide whether the linking phrases below express Result or Purpose.
so therefore in order to consequently so as to as a result
with the aim of and so so that for this reason as a consequence
hence which leads to which means that
For each idea below, continue the sentence or write a follow-on sentence
using your own ideas to express Result or Purpose.
a Children are now learning how to do mental arithmetic again .
b Some cities charge motorists to take their cars into the centre.
c Machines are manufactured to break down after a certain time.

UNI T 3 Machi nes, cydes, and proc(! ~ s
• • •• ••••••
Practice Test 3
Task 1
You should spmd abollt 20 minutes on this las
T ~ l e diagram behlli' .,11011'5 hOI!' S{ll.t i.'I rt!tI1i)I'f'd from sea water to m,7ki' it drinkable.
Summari ze Ihe illforT1Jilliotl vJ.' st'/c'{(ill.'J alld rq.' orti Jl!} Il l e mdilJ f cd //./res, and make
comparisons where releva/lt.
Write at least 150 words .
. ;. -
l ask2
Filter 1
forced through
membrane at
high pressure
1 Seawater
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Writt' about the following lopic:
To integrated
water supply
Water molecules
The widespread lise of the Internet 1las hl'ought many problems. What do you thiflk
{lrc the mail! problems associated witll the use of the web? What sO/lIlioll can YOIl
Give reasons for your answer and inclllde any relevant examples from your own knowledge or
Write at least 250 words.

30 •••••
General and specific statements
Comparing Information
Describing proportions
Task 2
Avoiding overgeneralization
Developing reasons
Task 1 General and specific statements
1 The statements he10w give students' reasons for choosing a particular
university. Which of these statements do you agree with?
a The lecturers' qualifications are more important' than the quality of the
teaching. -
b The sports fa ci lities are as important as the academic reso urces.
c Good library facilities are the most important factor for postgraduate
d A pleasant environment is more important than the university's reputati n.
2 Look at the pie charts and [be Task 1 question. Answer questi ons a-e below.
The pie charts below illustrate tilt' number of journal articles read
week by all students, PhD Sludents, and jun for lecturers at an Alistralian
Number of journal articles Number of journal articles NUIllON of journal articles
read by ju nior lecturers read by all students read by Ph D students

. .
l - tt05 _6totl 012'!-1
Summa.rize the infonnat.ioH by selectin9 and reporting r!'l e maill feLrtllu'S,
and make comparisotTS' where relevant.
What does each pie cban describe?
What do tbe numbers on each pi e chart represent?
Wbat does the box at the bottom of tbe pie chart refer to
What noticeable feature can you see in each chan?
' !\Tbat gen eral statements can you make abou t each chart?
: Technique
• Aim to make at
• least one general
• statement in the
: middle of your text.
UNIT 4 Education
3 Complete sentences a-g using the ph rases below.
that respectively for example how but
which meanwh ile whereas and
a The three pi.e charts illustrate .. ................ many articles [rom academk
journals are read weekly by PhD students ..... .... ....... .. junior lecturer
compared to other st udents at an Australian unj versit y.
b .................. the overwhelming majority of those studying doctorares read at
least twelve articles per week in comparison with the average student.
c The figures were 80 per cent and twelve per cent .. ................ .
d Furthermore, only five per cent of PhD level students read between one and
five articles, .................. th e average for all st udent in tbis category is a hefty
67 per cent. .
e ............. for junior lecturers the pattern appears to be slightly differenl.
Most read six or more articles per week (99 per cen t), .... : ............. out of this
total 24 per cent read twelve or more, .................. is almost a third of the
corresponding figure for PhD level students.
g It is clear ................ .. those students who are re earching Jor a phD read more
articles than either junior lecturer or other students.
4 The sentences in 3 form a model text. Group the sentences into foU(
p aragrapbs.
Paragraph 1:
Paragraph 2:
Paragraph 3:
Paragraph 4:
5 Descr iptions contain general and specific st atements. Specific statements
contain reference to data, wbereas general statements do not. Which
statements in 3 are general? Wh ich are specific?
6 Divide the following sentences into general and specific statements.
General: Postgraduate students tended to be better off than other students.
Specific: Seventy-five per cent of school children read comics each week.
a Far fewer female lecturers as opposed to male lecturers are employed at the
uruversity, 25 and 7 5 respectively.
b We can see that there are considerable dHferences in t he proportion of
nationalities in each course.
c Only ten per cent of students preparing for their Masters attended taught
d OveralL women were more likely to read novels than men.
e Student s preparing for their doctorate read the greatest number ofjoumal
The sales for all four comparue showed similar trends.
g The pattern for senj or lecturers was very different.
h The vast majority of those students preparing for PhDs read twelve or more
journal articles each week.
• • •• 31
: Technique
• Vary the way you
• express proportions
• - sometimes use
• words instead of
: numbers.
32 •••••

COlnpal'ing information
7 Rewrite th e following sentences using the given word so that the meaning
the same.
a Far more PhD students ,read over twelve articles a week compared with
junior lecture rs.
Far fewer ................................................................................................................. .
b The average student reads fe'Aret journal articles tl:1C111 the average j unior
lect urer.
The average j uni.or lecturer ............................................................ ...................... .
c The other students at the university do not read as many articles as the
average phD student.
The average PhD student .... ..... ... ........................................................................... .
d Junior lecturers do not have as much time to read articles as those students
who are researching for a PhD.
Th ose students who are researching for a PhD ..................... .. .......................... .
Describing proportions
8 The phrases in the list are al ternative ways of describing proportions . Divide
the lis\ inlo four groups that each have similar meanings.
three quarters almost half one third 75 per cent one in three
nearly half 26 per cent 48 per cent about one i n fou r 33 per cent
three out of four just under one half just over a quarter
close to one half
9 These adjective-noun collocations can also be used to describe proport ions.
Write the adjectives next to the correct meaning in the table.
the vast majority a tiny minority a massive 85 per cent
a modest twelve per cent a hefty 85 per cent
a mere twelve per cent the oven,vhelming majority
Very big
Very big (used before numbers)
Very small
Not very big (used before numbers)
a-e, replacing the phrases h1 i talics w ,hh an
a We see from the char t tha t 23 per cent of students failed to finish their
university degree.
b In 1990, nine oul of tel! engineering st udents were male, but by 2000 this
figure had fa1J.en to exactly three quarters .
c In 1960, 34 per cent of se ence graduates went into the teachi ng profession
but in 1970, the figure was just ten per cent.
d Exadly one half of the student population were members of the union in
2001 , bu t live years la ter the figure was 64 per cent.
e Ninety-nvo per cent of people surveyed felt that mixed sex schools were
UNIT 4 Educatioll
11 Read the Task 1 question bel ow and all $ \>\' eT a-e.
Task 1
Tlte pie charts below show the t1l1mber of I,ours spent ill a BritislI IIniversity /ibra ry
by undergraduates, pos/Bradlla.les, (/lid tile .t olal siudellt population.
Proport ion of all students
by time spent in library
Proportion of undergrudl!Hltes by
time spent in library
I .1 to 7 0 8 to 14 • 15+ I
Proportion of post graduates by
ti me spent in library
Sumlllarize tlIe illjtJ rmati(1/1 by . ela ting Illd repor/l'ng the main f etllll res, muf make
comparisons where reLevallt .
a What are the similarities between postgraduate and all students?
b What are the main differences between undergraduate and postgraduate
c What tendency can you obse rve as st udents move lrom undergraduate to
d What is the most interesting feature of the three cha n
e What general concl usi ons can you draw?
12 Choose the most suitable alternrltive to complete the sentences bel ow about
the d(1{ll in 1 L
a Meanwhile, the pattern/amount/majority for postgraduate students was
substantially different.
b OveralL the pattern/size/proportion of postgraduate students who spent
fifteen hours a week or more in the library was very clo . to the entire
student body who spen t 1-7 hours in the library.
c The most striking dillerence in the data for undergraduates was that a
sizeable majority/minority/number spent only 1-7 hours per week in the
d A majority/minority/total of undergraduates (nine per cent) used the library
for fifteen or more hours per week.
e There is a clear trend/progress/drift towards using the library more as students
move towards graduation and post- graduation.
Undergrad uate students were less likely than postgraduate students to use
[h e library witH just u nder one quarter/one third/two-thirds of the former
spending 1-7 hours ther .
g About a third/quarter/minority of undergraduate students as opposed to
nearly a third of postgraduate students spent between eight and f urteen
hours studyi ng.
13 In your own words, write twO sentences about eacb pie chart and one
summarizing sentence.

A common
Cri ticism of IELTS
candidate IS that
they overgener all ze
III Task 2 Avoid
overgeneral izlI lg by
givi ny leasons.
34 • •
Task 2 Avoiding overgeneralization
1 Read the sent ences below. Then 8J1 wer que fion a-c.
The international community should ensure that education is free for all
• They should provide books.
• Parents should be encouraged to become involved in schools .
a How are the ideas connected?
b Do the second and third sentences support the first sentence?
c What ideas an you think of to support th first sentence?
2 The opinion stat ement below is very broad. In yOUT opini on, wh ich rea on is
most approp riate?
0 \ in ion sl atem Jl !: Educa lion is a n1ilj or Lx! r i n li fting people ou t of p ' rty
Reason 1: ... ince it gives people more ideas Clb Ul what t do with their liv" .
Reason 2: ,, ' beca use it gives them grea ter opportunities \ hen they I ok for
3 A 11 of the opi ni on statem n ts a- h below are very broad. or each sla tement,
decide vvhelher you ( gree or disagree.
a Univ r -iries should make more links with businesses.
b The pre en! young generation knows more rhan their previous
Teaching thin ing a t c 100) i essentiaL even at primary level.
d More time needs to be devoted to learning musi c. either during or aft r
school bours.
e Phy ieaJ edu ation i a neee ary part f th e learn ing process for all pupils.
Play is a maj or pan of the learning pr ce for children.
g II is importan t f r ch il dren to try [0 learn another lanquage c r ly in [h eir
educa lion .
h Being bored and learning to deal with boredom is a n ce sary p<lrt f th e
learning proces for chil dren.
4 Look again at the tatements you agreed with in 3_ Choose from t h e phrases
below 10 intens ify your opi nions and add the e to the sen ! nces you agreed
with in 3.
Jc is importallt thal universities should make more link with busine .
It is impo rtant that The re is no doubt that One can not deny t hat
It is impossi ble to a rg ue aga inst the fa ct tl1at
When you make an
opinion statement
that IS velY general.
make sure yot!
Justify It with a
reason Use phrases
such as /.18C8USe
and since as tri gger
UNIT 4 Educa/ioll
••• •••
5 Look ag<lin ,1\ the phrases you disag'rcec! \\' ith in 3. It is 1 ].)11'0$ 'Ill
opinions as belongjng. to someone else - possibly to hide your own opinion.
Choose rr nm the phrases be low ilnd PI (ld to sent enCes you dis,l g l t' E'C]
w ith in 3.
Some people think/feel/believe/claim/argue that
Other people are of the opinion that
Yet other put forward the view that
6 To avoid overgeneraliz8tion, give reasons. Add (he reasons below to opinions
a-h in 3.
since it crea tes a healthy basis for later life.
2 (IS it h elps the brain to funcri on bett er and increases coordination.
3 because children now find it more difficult to reason .
4 since they have more access ro infonnation.
5 bemuse it hel ps t hem intell ectually and also heJps Lo fi nd a job.
6 as thi s would connect their research with the real world.
7 because interaction helps to develop social skills.
8 as it teaches ll, em how to be creat i ve on their own.
Developing reasons
7 I n lELTS, opinions and rt'clSOl'l'i should be supported with 'examp les rrom
your knowledge and experience", Sentences a-c give three examples 10
support the argurnent below. Match each examp le wHh the
description s 1-3.
Play is a major pari of the learl1lng process for children as it teaches litem how 10 be
a Take for example children in my coun try who lea rn musical g" J1l s at em
b For instance. children who draw and paint are idely known to have
greater spacial awareness.
( For example. play can develop artistic or m usical skills.
a general example
2 an example from knowledge
'3 an example froIU experien ce
• ••
When you state a
reason, think how
you could Illustrate
it with exampl es
Use phrases slich as
For example and like
as trr gger words.
36 ••••
8 Develop [he ideas below by addi ng yom own examples like thos e in 7 on
page 35 . the phrases in the box t hel p you.
For instance, For example, like namely
Take for example A good exampl e is
a Out of sch 01 act lvili es help children develop because they can learn
subjects that are not in the school curriculum.
b Education is being redu ed to a production line becau e [he focus is on
targets rather than on learning.
c Travel helps to broaden the minds f children because it helps to bring to
life the things they read in class .
d Private ducation omplements state ducation very well as it can do things
state education cannot.
e Successful entrepreneu rs and sport s stars should teach in schools and
universities since th ey would provi de good role models for young people.
9 Develop three of the sentences bel ow. Use phrases to intensif I your own or
other ' opinions. Give your own reasons and example".
Example: Too much emphasis is put on passing exam . .
Some people feel til I too much emphasis is put on passing exams, because
pupils spend a large proportion of school time doing tests rather than
learning. For example, children in some Bri tish schools prepare for tests for
weeks before the exams, bw t hey are not taught anything.
a Foreign language learning should be compulsory.
b Studenrs need to have good study skills on entering un iversit y.
c University lecturers need some teacher training.
d Boys and girls ought !O be educated in separate s hools.
e Teachers' salaries need to be as high a doctor' or lawyers'.

UNIT 4 EdllCfll i oll

Practice Test 4
Task 1
lou shollid spend about 20 lIIinutes 011 (his (ask
Tile Lilli" clltlJ"t ,/IOII'S {he 11Ijhcsl qllalifiD1tit'J} all,7incd by Sf'S IlJ/" tilL' \\'<,r/,:il};)
pOpUllllioJl in Wales i112001l2002.
Summari ze the infonHati01J by 5eleC:lil1g and reporting the IIwin reatures, and make
comparisoll s where releval1t.
Write (I( least! 50 words.
Highest quali fications attained: by sex,
for w orking age population 2001/02

I_ Mal es Females 1
Task 2
Degree or
qual ificati on
GeE A level
or equivalent
YOll should spend abollt 40 mil/ute'S 017 this task.
Writ", about rhe following topic:
GCSE grade
A"-C or
Other No
qualifications qualifications
SOJlle people beliere thnt competitive sports, both teaJII alia inail'ialla/, !Jave 110 place
intlte ,'c111JOl' ' IJniculllllJ. HL'I!' fill' ciL' rOil tlgree or disagree?
Give reasons for your answer and iI/elude allY rdel'al/t examples from your OWI1 knowledge or
Write at least 250 wards,

38 ••
Unit aims
Task 1
Describmg changes
Describing locations
Task 1 Describing changes
Task 2
Developing and JustifYing opinIons
Writing introductions
Read the comments by three people talki ng about toe [own where they grew
up. Answer the questions below.
I r emember there wasn ' t much to do her when I was growing up. My
friends and I used to J USl hang around in the park, getting into trouble.
These days th ere's much more here [or young peopl e. For instance, the
coullcil opened the ice rink, the leislIr centre. all d the skate park las I year. I wis h
I' d had things like tbat to keep me entertained.
One of the lhings I used to really like about this area was the peace and It was so safe for us as kids . We could play in the sIre ts or in the
nearby woods and fields. They buill a bypass alld all indllstrial estate a few
years ago, and there's been a lot more traffic and developmen t since . I
don' t feel it's safe for my children, aQd I'd like to move away.
Well, you can' t stand in the way of change, I suppose. Yes, people 100
at the town now and say it's oat as prett y or peaceful as it was in the pasL
I suppose thaI 'S true. Even so, there are more jobs and opportunities
now than there were when I ,;va a teenager. I guess you can't have one
wit hout losing tbe other.
a For each speaker, do they think things were better or worse when they
were young? Why?
b What changes have occurred to the place you corne froro? Do you think
they are positive or negative changes?
c How could you express the phrases in italics in a more formal way .
ct Imagine you are a young person moving to a new town. Whi ch facilities in
the lis! belm'v would be important to you?
golf course skate park thea t re
gal lery stadium ice rink
rfJilw<:Jy station
pa rk college
co ncert hilil
UNIT 5 YOIl/ll
2 The map s below show ch.anges Look plac in Youngsvill in ew Zealand
over a 25-year period from 1980 to 2005. Answer the fa ll wi ng question
a Wbat is th e most n oticeable difference between the two maps?
b Was the town more or less residential in 2005 compared to 1980?
Were there more or fewer trees in 2005?
d \,\'ere the changes dramatic or negligible over tl le 25 -year period?
e Wha t were the two biggest changes north of the; river?
( What happened to the houses and trees along the railway line south of
the river?
9 9 99 9


Stadi um
• 9 9 9
• Park

River Alanah
"'''''''1 Railway
. 9. . 9 station
School tt1 tI'1 tI'1

t 9
Airport9woodland9 t 9


3 Complete the model text below. Use one ";lOrd frOIll lb' following list
to complete each blank space. The first one has bL'l'll dDne [or y i;\ll.
In order to identify
changes, st udy the
maps and number
the changes on the
Ol le. Think
of some general
statements, and
nlake notes.
houses experienced not iceable factories
COllstr"uction comparison residential corner
Model text
1he maps Dnow the I
tool:: plaa. in the- c.oastal to" n of
Younysville between IqgO and 2005
In IqSO, the. town \-laD a muth grnner
2. •••••••••••• ••• ••• are-a witn a large. number of
treeD and individual houses, but during
tne ne"1-i 25 ie.arD the town ................. .
a number of dramatic. c.hangeD.1he mODt
, ..... ...... ...... i" that all of the trees 50Uth
of tne, \Z-iver AI anah were Gut aO'Mn, with
all the. ' ....... , ........ ,. al ong railVlai
line being I::noG\::u\ down and replaced bi
sKiscrape.ri> More.ove.r, a new industrial
estate. wilD " .................. and
sprang up around the airport and 5(.hoo\.
01'111 a fevl k nodn of tile. river remained,
1he waD c.le.are<\ to maKe wa-,
for a a golf WUITl-, and L2r
I ..... ,........ . .. . Further dw' lopmenh were.
the 0 ..... ... ... ... .... of a stadium near the
no!il1-easP .. ....... ... ...... of1he\aKf. nd a
new Dtrekn of railwai from the river running
airutl'! nortl1. A marina also built at the
OLrth of the river.
Overall , a 10 •••••••• , .. ... . ' of the two mapo
reveals a change from a largel,! rural to a
mainl urban landscape.
• 39
Do not just describe
the map or maps
Describe the
developments that
took place.

4 Transform Ihe sentences below by changing the nouns i_nlO verb and using
Ihe passive. Refer [0 page 7 for more information on Rr!/aled verbscl11d JlOlllLS.
There were Sp f' clacll la r changes in th e are,1.
The area was changed spect acularly.
a There were dramatic developments in the town centre.
b There was a complete transfonnation of the n ighbourhood.
c There vva a tOt al reconstruction of the residenti al area.
d There was a total redevelopment of th old fa tori es .
e There \·vas a rebuildi ng of the old houses.
There was a complete modernization of the entertainmenr district .
5 Look again at Ihe sentences you Wl'Oft e in 4. Whi ch coul d be rewritten in the
active fonn?
6 Re ;vrit e sentences a-h below u iog ynonym from the model I Xl in 3.
a Th e maps show changes which OCCllITed between 1980 and 2005.
b Very few trees \<II re lef t.
c Over the nexl 25 years, all these houses were delllolished.
d The si ngle dwellings were replnced by skyscrapers .
e The trees H,'ere chopped down.
The area wimessed dramatic manges.
g The woodland gave way l O a golf COllrse.
h A mari na Wii S also constructed
7 Put the verb' below i nto the correCl fom1. AU of the changes took pl ace
b tween 2000 and 2005.
Th e block of flats (turn) into a hotel. (passive)
The block of flats .. .. .. (make way) for a hotel. (aclive)
a The row of old hOllses .... .. , ......... .. (knock down) to make way for a road.
b The forest ................ .. (CUI down) 10 build a railway.
c The area .................. (redevelop) completely.
d The fact ory .... .. .. .......... (COnvert) into an art gaUery.
e Th city entre .................. (undergo) a total transformation.
Th e row of old t rraced houses in the cil Y .................. (pull down ) and
.................. (replace) by a block of flats .
g A sport complex .... ........ .. . (conslruCl) in the suburbs.
h A number of spectacular changes ..... , ............ (take place).
The 'whole centre of tbe town ............ ...... (transform) by ne w eveJopments.
UNIT 5 YOll/I,

8 Which of the foll owi ng cannot be used to replace the phrase Betwem 2000 <111
a Over the period c From 2000 to 2005
b During the five year period d Over the past Li ve years
9 The pa t perfect (h(/d done) can also be used to descri be changes occurring
before a specjfjc [LIn in the past. Look at the example . Then insert By 2005
allhe begin ning of each sen tence in 7 and adjust each sentence.
By 2005, the block of flats had been fUmed into a hotel. (passive)
By 200 , the block of flats had made way for a hotel. (active)
Describing locations
10 It is somet Lmes important to st at e loca tions cl early on a map . Read tbe
examples. Then answer the questions a-g about th e map on page 39 usi ng
the phrases in th e box.
Only a few trees 110rc/7 oflhe river remained.
Where is the golf course? It is norrh-wes/ of ril e lake.
south of the river beside the railway line in the south-west of the town
north of the skyscrapers south of the [Jolf course
south-west of stadium north-east of the lake
a Whe re are lhe skyscrapers? They are ............ .. ............... .
b Where is tbe stadium? It is ........... _." .. _ ........... .
c Where is rhe lake? It is .............. .. ........ .. ... .
d Where is the hospital? It is ..................... " ...... .
e Where is t he railway sta ti on? It is .......... .. ................. .
Where is the airport? It is ...... .. ............ .. ....... _
g Where is the school? It is .... .. .... .... ... . _ .. ... _ .... .
11 Complete the following senfences by choosing the c rreel preposi tions of
place from the alte rn ali v s.
a Several changes took plac al/in/olllh town of Northgate.
b North of the tOwn, there is a lake surrounded in/of/by tree
c A number of new houses we re built besidelarlolilhe railway line.
d There was a large indusuial area located ontilliat the north.
e A new railway was constructed which ranfroll/laflill north to soulh.
f Two new hotels were erected on/ ill /at the banks of t he riv r.
g A large number of new vi ll as were built besidelmlro lhe sea.
h A yachti ng cl ub was set lip oll/il//ot the shor s of the lake.
A number of wind turbines were placed in the sea, just the
I shoul d get paid
more -I have
more experi ence.
42 •
I get better resu Its.
I should get more.
Tas 2 Developing and
justifying opini ons
1 Look ilt t he p ictures and
the l e \!. An we r th
quest ions bel w.
a Which person do you
agre e with?
Do you agree with the
justifi cation for each
person's opinion.
c Is this sit uation the
same all over the
2 Read the foUovving Ta k 2 question, tben an wer quest i ons a·-b.
Emplo)'!!rs shollid pal )'0 111'1,1} people tIl l!. St}J)/1! .ml'll }· older
colleagues doing the sOlllejvb.
To wlwt extent do .1'0 11 agree or
a Do you hav to strongly agree or disagree? Is is possible to rake a neutral
b Rewrite the ·tatemeDl in your own words. Begin with Young employees . . ..
3 Read a-g, tak en front 3J l illwwer to th e qrUE' slj on in 2, l\1.atcl1 ea h sentence or
p <1. rt-sentence the correct function from the list. The first one bas been
done for you.
Contradiction Result Example
Reason I x 2) 8piflto-frSt-8"!en'ieI'Tt
a Many people beli eve tha t workers should be paid
accordi ng to age ra ther than merit.
b How ver, I feel that they should be paid according TO
result .
c Take for example someone in their twenties workin in a
financial company.
d They deserve to recei e the same salary . . .
e '" becau e they are doing the same work.
Moreover, young people nowadays are often fa ter at
doing things than their older work colleague ' . ..
g . .. which compensates for Jack of experience.
UNIT 5 Yo 1111,

4 Under li ne the iinl<ing phrases in 3 which in dicate the function 'ou ho e.
5 Using the sen tences in 3 a a model, write a paragraph expressing your own
opinion in response to the question in 2. Use appropriat linking phrases.
6 Read the Task 2 q u.estion and the model answer bel o,-\!. For each of 1--6, two
options are possible a.lld one is incorrect. Del te tbe incorre t opti on.
SOllie people feclthat YOllJlg people face fillY/: presSllres todm' OW/I
the equivaleJlt age groups did il1 previous gCllcral'iL)lIs. Othas Il1il11<
thalilley have a much easier life thon their parcHts did. 'IV/Jal your
Model text
life for the 'joung in toda'j' 5 world is in
some wais c.e.rtainli more c.omfortable.
tn.;m for those in previous gene-rations.
\ However!fv1orwver/£ven so, one c.annot tne fad tnat in a number of
life is muc.n more- demanding than It Uf>ed
9&11erations. "3
there. is inc.rea5e.d mobilit'j of pe.op\e. In tne
international job mar'Ke.t.
move from tl1e far £.a5t to £.urope.. ndia,
to be.
la'Ke tne wor'Kplac.e, for e'f.ample.
Competition for e.ver'jjob if> fierc.e. in
all parts of the orld. not just de.velope.a
c.oUntrie5, 2- whilelbec.auseias '1
people. are mor o,ualifie<1 tnan previou5
4 for inManc.e/also!in parfic.ular. nas a .
large. pool of mobile 5'Killea \'lorlCw,. \\115
ofjob511a5 'j C;O()$tqutntly!
howtvtr!as d result put intense pressure.
on iOU119 people af> the.i 5earc.h for
in tneir home GOuntrie.5. I. 1hus!5o!
Substqutntly. it i5 no longer a c.a5e. of just goo a: 'jollng people are to
be top rate..
Decide which functions are indicated by the correct linking phrases in 6.
1 a contrast b re ult c ad ilion
2 a contrast b reason c result
3 a addition b contrast c result
4 a contrast b addition c exampl
5 a result b contrast c reason
6 a example b reason c conclusion
•• 43
When developing
and Justlfymg
OpiniOnS, you do
not need 10 tell
the truth. iv1ake a
statement and use
linking phrases
as tngger words
to think up and
orqanize ideas.
Keep your
Introductions shon
VVnte only one or
two sentences
8 Read the st atements below and in each case cont.rclllic( uhcnl. Begin by \l si !) !.,
one offoll owing expressions in Ihe box.
Nevertheless, I feel.. . However, I think ...
Personally, I be:lieve ...
a Many feel that young people hay oluc 1 more influence in the world than
their counterpart in the pas!.
b According to some people, older wor 'ers are just a equipped to deal with
the modern world as young people.
c Some people are of the opinion that advertising should not be banned in TV
programm s directed at young people.
Writing introductions
9 Read the Task 2 quest ions and .inlIocluctions bel ow. Match each introducti on
a---< with one of (he questions 1-4.
All forms of media but especially films and TV programmes sh uld be
censored to prate t young people. To what extent do you agre '?
2 The younger generarion are the main driving force behind many of the
latest technological developments . How far do you agree-?
'3 Blogs on the web are very effective ways for people to expres_ their ideas
and reliev tensions. hat is your opinion?
4 The modern emphasis on computer redu the development of any
creative abilit y. How far do you agre
a It is cen ainly importan l to mal'e sure th at people arc prnlc(lcci Imlll
harmful mnl erial in various media. However, J feel th at care need 10 be
taken in doino so f r ariou reasons.
b In some areas. i1 does appear that computers redt! e creativity. but 1 also feel
they can be used as a tool to develop cr ative abiHt)' in many Ii Id .
c hile the youth of today definitely have an impact on the way new
[echnology dev lops, there are other factors involved.
For the remaining tlll e, it ' our own int rodu tion. Try to paraphrase the
statement illl11e tit le in one sentence, and then write another statement to
show hoy you inte nd to organize your essay.
•• • •
UNIT 5 l' ollllJ
• •
• • • •• •
Practice Test 5
Task 1
You should spend abouI20 minurcs 011 this task.
The maps belol\' sholl' the c1wnges that han, t.7J.:cn plocc at tl7C seaside resort of
Ternpletol1 bctwee111990 and 2005.
Summan"ze the informatio11 by selectil1f) and reportinf) tile main features, and make
C(llJ1p; ,.nisul1s Hil,erI' relevant.
Write at ie(1S1 } 50 wNds.

t 9



-11 'f.tstation
Task 2
YOli shouid spend ab011 1.f O mi ilLiles ,1 Ji. Ihis task
Write aboll t the fall ol,vi ll
_ HOsPit al
YoulIg people are milch 1rI00·e {/ware of and concerned about issues like the
cl1virOl'l1l1ellt, poverty, and animal welfare Ihall previ,,1/.' gl!l1i."1"atiofls. WhClt is your
O\VII opil1iOJ"I?
Giw rf,1$[>I15 for your {i I/s,ver mul iil c/I/de allY relevant examples/rom YOllr own kl1O\.l'!edge or
experieJl ce.
Write at least 250 lyards.
• • •
Unit aims
Task 1
Task 2
Concluct ing statement s
Concession {11
Expressing advantages and disadvantages
Advantage and disadvantage vocabulary
Concession (2)
Task 1 Concluding statements
1 Rank the ideas in the list below 1-10 according to how important they are in
developing understanding between different cultm es (1 = most important;
10 = lease important). Think of examples to justify Y0ul ideas.
organized student exchanges
l:ll1guage learning
international tra de agreements
similar cl imate and landscape
joint cultural events
tmns pon links
shared scientific and technological know-how
positive media images
similarities in lifestyle and cuhure
2 Which of the ideas in 1 can be carried out by individuals? which can be
carried au( by governments? Which are difficult to change?
3 Statements a-c were used to conclude descriptions of data. Put the words in
italics in the conect order.
a It is clear that JII1?jcnilylpc·L'plel oven'.'/'lZlminqlof/theh-l·cre/,lfljm.·(1J!rim sL·bl )()1
visits between countries.
b OveralL just over half tIl e people su rveyed fou od the climate in the tropi cs
the m05·t difficult thing to ildapt to, alnlll llbcrlwithh"Jil l111cr-l nami llgl all dl

c The lhree languages in question, Spanish, Arabic, and Chinese, were named
as after En glish by ab,; H! l of!equnllpeopl elJi li mbers.
4 An sw er these questions about the sentences in 3.
a Which topic in I do they rdatr' to?
b Which pie chart 1-4 on p8gl' 47 vvonld be a good illustrati on of each
concluding statement in 3? esc the proportions in each sentence to
help you.
Aim to Include
several key features
• In your description:
• a paraphrase of
the question. a
proportion phrase,
some compari son.
some general and
specific statement s.
and a concluding
• statement.
UNIT 6 CII 1/11 re

5 Pie charts are frequently used to summarize dat a. Therefore, they can often
by used as the basis for concluding statements. Match each of the foll owing
conclusions to one of the pie chart s 1-4 above.
a To conclude. only a small minority of people felt that the language banier
would prevent the development o( cultural links. .
b It is evident thar opinions are split almost equally between the three options
as regards the benefits of joinr cultural ventures.
c It would seem that the vast maj ority of people th ink tha r rhe development
of trade links has the greatest impact on international relations.
d Just under hall the peopie surveyed are of the opinion that China wou L be
th e biggest cultural influence in tbe world by 2020.
e About hall of the holiday makers visited ltaly because they were interested
in the art and culture, whereas the food and the cl imate were named as he
most important factors by approximately equal numbers of the remaining
tOlJ rists in the survey .
6 Rewrite the sentences below using a suitable phrase from [h Ii {.
nearly a third almost equal numbers the vast major ity
a tiny minority just under half nearly two-thirds
Govemmen t subsidies accounted for 63 per cent of all funding.
Govemmen t su bsidies accounted for nearly two-thirds of all funding.
a Eighty-seven per cent ofholiday makers to China were very satisfied with their
b It is clear that about 50 per cent of both sexes favoured increased cultural
c Only eleven percent offilmgoers though t films helped promote cultural
d In conclusion, the trend is clearly upward wi th 47 per cent of companies
establishing new trade and cultural links in 2005 .
e To sum up, 32 per cem of all tourists were on some form of package holiday.
7 Look again at the Sl'mences in 3,5, and 6. Make a list ofphra es which are
used to indicate conclusions.
•• 47
Sat isfaction rating
Not sure
48 •••••
The table below shows tile age profili! ofro.llrisls 011 backpacking holidays am
guided tours in Ne w Zealand in 2005, (/11£1 the pie chart gives the satisfaction
rating of their slay.
Age profile Backpacking Gujde d tOU-r5
18-30 62% 7%
23% 22%
41-50 10% 57%
Other 5% 14%
SWJlmari::<, tile infllrlll'arioJl bJ" si!leC-l iJlg ml(/ repo,1ing the maln featu res, alld
make wll1pa";sons where relevdll1.
8 Read the Task 1 question and answer questions a-c ..
a How does the age prof.ile of people on each holiday type differ?
b Which age group is almost equally represented on each type of holiday?
c How would you describ the opinion of the majorit y of visitors?
9 Complete (he model (ext wit h verbs from the box. The firs t gap ha been
done for you.
comes accounts for bel ong
make up
include enjoyed is rated
Model text
1he. table I .. a bre.a\::down
age group of those on
ba(.\::pac.\::ing and gUided tours in New
l.ealand in 200'5, with the pie c.hart
indic.ating whether the.i 1. •.• .•• .....•.••.••
their holida'j.
Au be seen from the table. the age
profile of people on the two different
"tipes of holidai varies c.onsiderabli- For
the majorlti «(,z. per c.ent) of
tl1ose. on bac.\::pac.\::ing holidai£
? ................ . . to the IS-3D age range,
but the 5ame age group <\ ••••• •••••• •• ••••
3 small proportion (seven per c.e.nt) of
tl1ose. on gllided tours. \1oweve.r, the
pattern is the c.omplete reverse when it
s .... .. ....... " .. to 41-'50 iear-olds.1hese
people (; .................. 51 per c.ent of those.
on gUided tours, despitl', aa.ounting for
onli ten per c.ent of bac.\::pac.\::ers.
e>i c.ontrast the profiles for botl1
bac.\::pac.l::ing and gUided tours
1 . ................. roughli equal proportions
from the 31-40 age group: Z.3 and Z.2 per
c.ent resped ivel'{.
It is c.\e<l r from the pie c.hart that New
l.e.aland S ............ . ..... as a popular
holidai destinatiol1 among the
of all holida,{-mal::ers, with a massive 53
per c.ent from both groups stating the'{
enjoied their holida'{
10 which phlase is used to indicat e a concl uding statement in th e model text?
Show that you can
• combine ideas into
complex sentences.
UNIT 6 Culture
Concession (1)
11 Read the example sentences below. Then answer questions a-c.
Fifty-seven per cent of people on guided tours were aged 41-50, although only
leD per cent of backpackers belonged t o this age group ..
Fifty-seven per cent of people on guided tours were aged 41-50. Nevertheless,
only ten per cem of backpackers belonged to this age group.
a Which linldng phrases are used t o introduce a contrast?
b How are the phrases used d.ifferently?
c Find three examples of similar phrases in the model text in 9. Which
phrases in the example sentences are they like? Which phrase can only e
used before a Doun or an -i l1g form?
12 M,ltch a-e below with suitable follow-ons 1-5 to create correct statements
abom the data in 8.
a Despite accounting for nearly eq ual proporti ons of each holiday type.
b Althougli people aged 4 1- 50 were dominant on guided tour ',
c Gui ded tours were leas t popular among people in the 18- 30 age group.
d One in ten people said that they didn't enjoy their boliday.
e Only fourt een per cent of peopl e (rom the ' other' category chose guided
they still accounted for one in ten backpackers.
2 Nevertheless, most clearly expressed satisfaction.
3 this age group still accounted for under a quarter of each.
4 However, that was still a higher proportion than the J 8- 30 age group.
S bllt they were most popular with the oldest group.
13 Join each of the following sentences using the phrase given.
a The vast majority of visitors to Britain come from Europe. However, they
stay for fewer than ten days on average.
Although ... ... ... .. .. .. ............................................. .. ................................................... .
b Forty-five per cem of people speak a foreign language. Neverthele s. the
vast majorit y are at a low level.
Although forty· five per cent ................................................................................ .
c It has good weather. However. southern France is visited by only two per
cem of Asian tourists.
Despite .. ........ .. ... .. ... .. ........ .. ........ ..................................... .
The cost of student exchanges went up.
exchanges rose.
The number of studenr exchanges ............................ ..
The event was promoted to teenagers.
only 32 per cent of the audience.
Although ......... .... .. .. .................................... .... .. .. ; ... .. ... ... .
• • • 49
50 ••••
Task 2 Expressing advantages and disadvantages
1 Look at the photos of popular electronic items. Which ideas in the box
explain the popularity of each item in the pictures? What do you think the
next electronic craze will be?
size design portability
business need entertainment
fashion price
2 Read the Task 2 question below. Then answer the questions.
Portable entertainment devices, such as MP3 or DVD-players, which allow
people to listen to music or watch films on the move, are now commonplace.
What do you think are the main advantages and disadvantages of this
a Which part of the question states the general subject?
b Which part of the question contains the organizing words?
3 Decide whether each idea below is an advantage or a disadvantage. Which
entertainment devices would you associate them with?
a It helps people to relax.
b It allows people greater freedom.
c It reduces communication.
d It makes life more enjoyable.
e It makes entertainment more accessible everywhere.
It makes people more isolated.
g It is a nuisance for other travellers.
h It makes people less sociable.
4 Complete each sentence a-fwith a word from the box.
help difficult interfere benefits ideal enable
a These devices bring a number of .................. .
b The main one, in my opinion, is that they .................. people relax, for
example, while they are studying or working in cafes or on trains.
c Some people find it .................. to do so when it is completely quiet outside
their homes.
d So these devices .................. people to relax and create a familiar
e Sometimes, however, they do .................. with others if the volume is too
high, hence the quiet zones in many trains.
f Nevertheless, laptops, etc are .................. , because they allow people to do
things where they want to rather than being restricted to working at home.
5 Decide whether the words in 4 express advantage or disadvantage.
6 The sentences in 4 form a paragraph taken from an answer to the Task 2
question. Answer questions a-c
a Which sentence in 4 expresses a disadvantage?
b Which linking phrases are used in 4?
c Which ideas from 3 are used in the paragraph?
Use nouns. verbs
and adjectives.
such as benefit and
• drawback. which
• express advantages
and disadvantages
as trigger words to

help you plan.
UNIT 6 Culture
7 The paragraph below is taken from a similar answer. Complete the
paragraph with words from the box.
even if likewise
for example though
and although
The main drawback is. in my opinion, quite obvious. Take I ................. .
people of all ages who are travelling on trains nowadays. 2 ................. they
are reading, they are plugged into the radio. talking on their mobiles, or
listening to music on their MP3-players. 3 .................. , others are playing
games, watching a film, and working simultaneously, even 4 ................ ..
they have friends next to them to talk to. 5 ........ ........ .. this allows people
greater freedom and flexibility 6 .............. .... takes away the boredom of
journeys, people are becoming more and more isolated in their own
worlds. 7 .... .............. , the an of communication is being lost.
8 Answer these questions about the paragraph in 7.
a Does this paragraph concentrate on an advantage or a disadvantage?
b Which ideas does this paragraph mention from the list in 3 on page 50?
c Underline the main advantage and disadvantage in the paragraph.
Advantage and disadvantage vocabulary
9 Nouns can be used to express advantage and disadvantage. Complete
sentences a-g with words from the box.
benefit problems opportunities chance
handicap drawbacks gain
a Not knowing a foreign language has its .................. , such as when one tries
to make contact with people in other countries.
b Visiting other countries gives people a ........... ....... to experience cultures first
c The financial .................. to any nation exceeds all other benefits.
d If people take time to find out about the country they are travelling to, they
will face fewer ................ .. .
e These days not having access to the web to find out what is going on is a
serious .................. .
Cultural exchanges offer enormous .................. to the nations involved.
g Being culturally aware is of great ..... ............. in business.
Adjectives can also be used to emphasize advantage and disadvantage. Does
the word serious in ge emphasize advantage or disadvantage?
• • •• 51
52 ••••
11 Decide whether each adjective in the box expresses advantage or
66.6f1t6geeus beneficial useful worthless
invaluable difficult helpful convenient
12 Write the opposite of each of the adjectives in 11. Where possible, add or
remove a prefix or suffix to create the opposite.
13 Verbs can also indicate advantages and disadvantages. Complete the
following sentences in your own words.
a International arts festivals encourage ................................................................... .
b Lending artworks to other countries improves .................................................... .
c Films and concerts enhance ................................................................................... .
d To enable children to value their heritage, ....... .................................................. .
e Personal links can benefit ....................................................................................... .
Ignorance of other people's traditions can handicap ......................................... .
g To prevent countries falling out with each other, .............................. ................. .
Concession (2)
14 Read sentences 1 and 2 and answer the questions a and b.
1 Although the vast majority of electronic devices are very usefuL they are
also highly annoying.
2 Despite being highly annoying, the vast majority of electronic gadgets are
very useful.
a Which word introduces the concession in each case?
b Which sentence emphasizes the advantage? Which emphasizes the
15 Complete sentences a-e with words from the box.
nevertheless however despite although but
a .................. listening to music on CDs is very pleasant, it is not as good as a
live concert.
b Documentaries are invaluable sources of knowledge ......... .......... , they need
to be entertaining as well as informative.
c .................. the large numbers of tourists, ancient buildings and temples are
still inspiring places to visit.
d Sculptures can make gardens and public spaces attractive ................... , they
are expensive to look after.
e Arts exhibitions show the public artefacts they would not normally see,
.................. at a price.
• • • • • •• •
Practice Test 6
Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
UNIT 6 Culture
The table below shows how young people in Tokyo, Japan, listened to music over the
previous month. The pie chart shows a record company's international findings about
whether people preferred live or recorded music.
Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.
Live music
44 %
EI Live • Recorded 0 Don't know
Task 2
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Write about the following topic:
Internet CDs
55 % 19%
42% 22%
It is important for travellers and business people to understand the cultures they come
into contact with, however briefly. What are the main advantages of doing so? What
do you think is the main disadvantage of not doing so?
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or
Write at least 250 words .
• • •• 53
54 ••••
Arts and sciences
Unit aims
Task 1
Using adverbs to evaluate data
Avoiding irrelevance
Task 1 Adverbs
Task 2
Discllssing other people's opinions
1 Read these conflicting views about scientists moving to rich countries,
Answer questions a-c.
The 'brain drain' of skilled workers like scientists and to rich
econon1ie5 is morally wron g.
People should have greater freedoDI to work where Lhey want. Surely. it's a
I e,-s.mal matter.
a Which views do y t.l·ll agree wi th?
b Is [his 'brain drain' a new phenomenon. or has it been around for a long time?
c Should somdhing be done about the situation or is it uns roppable?
2 Read the Task 1 questi.on below. Then answer questions a-e.
Sources of funding for R&D in the UK
o Govemment I
• Business
o Overseas
200 1
10 20 30 40 50
The cha rt abOlJe shows sources of funding for researCH and devel'opment (R&D)
in tile UKfronJ 1999 to 2001. The table below SllOWS tlte percentage of natio11al
income spent on R&D for a range of collntries.
Proportion of national income allocated to R&D (1999)
UK USA Germany France Ital y Japan ED average
1.82% 2.75 % 2.4% 2.3 % 1.1 % 2.9% 1. 81 %
Summmi:e the information by' selecting and tile ltIain featl/res, and
make compm7so11s where relevant.
a What general tr end can you see in the chart?
b What general pattern can you see in the table?
c Which is clearly the main source of fundin g in [he bar chan?
d Which piece of data in the table can you Use as a standard for comparison?
e Which pieces of information in the table are signili cant?
UNIT 7 Arts ani! scil!llces
• •
3 Complete (he modellexl below with verbs from the box.
rose contributed (x 2) was overtook
was spent is shown came stmws
"The. c:narl I .. . .... information about
the main 50Un .. es of funding for uientific:
re5earc.h and development (\Z-W) in the
UK.1he. proportion of national inc:ome
spent 0tI j2.M) b'j LOuntf'j 1. ....•.. . .......... in
the table.
Betwe,cn Iqqg and 1-001, jht .amount of
funding al \oc.a"l e.d from eun soura·
., ......... ... ... ... vef'j slightll
half of all inve5tment throughout the
perioa 4 ...... .... ........ fr om busine.5s.
the. government wnsiste.ntl'j
last two 'je.ars it t. ................. . gove-mment
spending in this area.
N, regard.s the proportion of national
inc.ome a\\oc.ated to \2-&0. the. highef>t
perc.entage (1-8 per a .nt) 1 .. ... ......... .... b'j
rapan. fo\\owd c:\05e\'j b'j the U'Sf-
(2.'5 per·Le.nt). B'j contrast l"tal'{
.................. ihc sma\\uit amoLi nt of
national inc:ome to on\'j1.l per c:ent,
f>ignific:antl'j be-low the f,U average of 1$1
per cent
It if> interef>ting to note that al1hough the
? .................. around seventeen per c.ent.
It is abo notic:eable that in IqqS ana Iqqq> '!>pending on in the. UK
wa'!> wmparab\e. to the government' 5, at
around seventeen per But for the
Uk'5 spending on \2.&D 1 ........... ....... above
the f,U average in IqqS. ii if> c.on'!>iderab\'j
be.hind othe.r dose trading partners
Franc.e and bermanl
4 find examples of adverbs ending in -ly used in [he modeltexl.
5 Choose (he most suitable adverb in sentences a-h.
The trend for other countries was completely/wd1 different.
Government investment rose significantly/ ftigftIy.
a The government's spending for the past year was significantly /weli higher
than before.
b Women have been consistently /deeply under- represented in science jobs.
c Workers in highly/lowly/considerably paid jobs are generally healthier.
d Th e company's sales are slightly/much behind its competitors.
e Sales were marginally/deeply up OD the previ ous quarter.
Investment in the arts rose quite considerably/slightly/seriously.
g S!ightly/Approximately/Welll1aJf the spending was from the private sector.
h The income for the arts centre was substantially/much/highly down on the
previous year.
6 Match the adverbs a-g below with their opposites 1-7.
a .vcID I rapidly
b marginally 2 slightly
c approximately 3 exactly
d constantly 4 badly
e slowl y 5 considerably
f significantly 6 partiall y
g completely .' 7 errat ically

Use at least one
• adverb or adverbial
• phrase to help you
• evaluate the data.
56 •••••
Using adverbs to evaluate data
7 Look again at [he model te x. '1 in 3 on page 55 . Which phrases arc:: used to
introduce sentences instead of noticeably and illteresting/v?
8 Rewrite each sentence a-b using an adverb or starting with It.
Clearly, the trend is upward.
It is clear that the trend is upward.
a It is significanr tbat the number of sci entists per head of population has
de clined in recent y ars .
b Imere tingly, the sales failed to recover.
It .................... ............................ ............................. .. .. .................... , ...... , .................. .
c It is probabl e that numbers will continue to fall over the period.
d It is not surprising that there were skills sbortages in the chemical industry.
e Evidently. inveSl ment needs to be increased.
It ... , .... , .......................................... , ... , ......... , ...... , .. , .... , .. , ......... , ... .. ... .. , .. .... .. .......... .... ,
Noticeably. the pattern for mv lInen! in the art is the revers .
It ........ ...................................... .... ........................................................................... ..
g More importantly, Ihe cost f plasma scre ns is set to fall.
It ............................................................... .. ' ...... ... .................................... , ...... " ........ ,
h Not surprisingly, analogue TV sales then fell.
It ............................................................................................................................... .
9 DifferCIH adverbs can be put in different pillces i.n sentences. Which
sentences a-d are possible?
a Considerably. sal es fell.
b Sales fell considerably.
c Clearly, the trend was downward.
d The trend was clearly downward.
10 Put th e adverb in bracke ts in [he correct place in Ih e sencence. Some can be
used in morc than one place.
a The number of science graduates fell. (signifi cantly)
b The number of staff in hospitals is falling. (evidently)
c The cost of training scien tists is increasing year by year. (noticeabl y)
d Investment in cap:ital equipment like specialist machinery is down on last
year. (in teres tingly)
e Sales of new televisions soared before the World Cup, (not surprisingly)
The trend is now upward. (obviously)
Write your own sentences about the data in 2 on page 54.
a Describe the bar chart, u ing marginally, apprpximately, and slowly .
b Describe the table, using considerably. evidently, noticeably, slightly, and
Do not speculate
when you describe
data unless you
are asked to. Avoid
writing lists of
UNIT 7 Arts and deuces

Avoiding irrelevance
12 Look at the chart below, which shows how students on all courses at an
Australian university vkwed subjects on a scale of easy to difficult.
Answer questions a-f.
G Easy
o Moderately 30

• Di fficul t
Languages Chemistry Physics Maths Art
languages languages
a Whose opinions does the chan show?
b How many subjects does the chart show?
c Which subject was rated as 'diffi cult' by the hi ghest percentage of tudents?
d Which other subjeCTS were judged ' difficult' or ' moderately diffi cult' by a
large number (over 70 per cent) of students?
e Which subject was rated as ' easy' by the highest percentage of students?
f Is there a clear correspondence between the type of subject and whether it
was rated as easy or difficult? Give examples to show why/why not.
13 Decide whether the statements a-f are relevant or irrelevant and explain
why. Irrelevant statements may contain an unnecessary opinion, too much
data, or unnecessary speculation.
a The subject which was ra ted as difficult by the highest percentage of
students (70 per cem) was mathematics, mainly because I think it is
complex for many students.
b By contrast, the subject which was most often judged as easy was d1emistry.
c T-he chart shows tbe opinions of Australian students on whether different
subjects \vere easy or difficult .
d Airican languages ,;vere seen as easy, which is somewhat surprising when
YOll consider the range of languages in Africa.
e Oriemallanguages were ranked as easy by only abOll t 20 per cent.
f The Y axis shows the percentages, and the bars contain the numbers about
tbe legend at the bottom.
14 Describe the chart in 12 in your mvn words.
.. '
Task 2 Discussing other pe ople's opinions
1 Complet the list bel ow with a famous artist and scientist from our coumry.
Leonardo da Vi nci
Albert Ei nstein
Si r Isaac Newton
Ni colaus Copernicus
a Are the people in the list famous in your ountry?
b What do you know a out them if they are?
c What benefit do artists and scientists bring to societ y?
d Do art ist an d scientists in your society have a hi gh or low status?
e Should scientists and artists be govemed by the same rules as we are? Why
do you thi nk 507
2 Read the Task 2 ques[iOD b(>Jo\'V and say which p art of the qu 'S UOIl rd a[es [0:
a people's opinions abOllt the arts?
b people's opinions about sciences?
c your opinion?
Some people belie ve tllat tile arts should receive ubsidies or spoJ/SorslIip
f rom governmellt l.11l d big companies. Others f eel suell speud il1g is a
[uxury and that it would be better if it were invested il1 scientific project.
Discuss both views arid give your own opinion.
3 Complete the paragraph with sentences a-c.
a So of art groups feel that the ompany's tra I and
accommodation costs ought {Q recei ve more sub idies or spon orship .
b Touring thea rre groups or dan e companies are a case in poin t.
c Nlany peopl e feel strongly that arts projects like exhibitions of photography.
sculpture, or paintings hould be helped financially by gov rnment and big
1 .. .. .. .. .... .. .... . They argue that such projects enrich people's lives, often
simply because they are new and show a different way of doing things.
2 ...... .. .. . .. ..... . National companies, for exampl e, can take plays to provincial
areas that don't have their own facilities. This, however, requires a lot
of money. 3 .. ....... .. .. ..... , If thi s were done more by the government and
commercial organizations, then the arts could be brought to a wider public,
4 Which phrases are used in (he paragraph in 3 to i nd icate someone else's
UNIT 7 A rls ami sLiences
5 Match the statements a-h wit h the best explanations l-8.
Example: a4
a Amateur arts groups should be en couraged.
b The wealth of a na tion is connected with sdeutific development.
c Science is n ow playing a more important role in our lives than in the past.
d The work of artists should be censored.
e Scientists should have some involvement with artists, and vice versa .
Science is dull and boring.
g Many sdentific e"X.-perimenrs are dangerous to society.
h The work of scientists should Dot be tight ly regulated by socie ty.
Modern economies cannot ad ance without a strong scientific base.
2 Bringin g these two groups together would be bener for sodety as a whole.
3 It ha an effect on everything we 0 from eating to travelling.
4 Such groups help to develop talent and bring people together
5 Cert ain works of art tha t are produced are offensive and should be banned.
6 By limiting scientific work. we might stop certain beneficial devel opments.
7 There are many examples where serious mistakes have been made .
8 Spending time alone in laboratories without much human contact is not
very interesting.
6 It is often useful to suggest [hat an opini on bel ongs to someone else. Read
the example and phrases in the lists below. Th en join your ans \· ers to 5 with
similar phrases.
Some people thin k thal amateur arts groups should be encouraged. rhey argile
such groups help to develop lalent and bring people together.
It is argued by some people that
Yet others believe that
Many people think that
A commonly held belief is that
Some people feel that
They claim that
They feel that
They maintai n that
They argue t hat
7 Use the expressions in the box below to develop the explanations in 5.
They argue that such groups help to develop talent and bring people together. A
good example here is where a young artist joins a local group and progresses on to
TV work.
For example, For instance,
A very good example here is
A case in point is ' " ,which
Take ... for example. It/They
• •
Use linking phrases
like if and unless
in answer to Task 2
questions In order to
hypothesize about
601 •• • •
8 Match the semence halv s a-e wit h the end ings 1-5.
a Personally, I would argue that science need not be
b However, it could possibly be a requirement for the first two or three year ,
c During this time, children can do exciting experiments,
d If trips to places of sciemiiic interest are also arranged,
e Above all. I think it is better fOT science classes to be optional
thi s might motivate some children to take up a science subject.
2 obligatory at this level.
3 because n ot all pupils are good at such subjects and any compulsion migl:t
discourage them.
4 like making basic chemical compounds or colleeri ng plants .
5 as it wouLd give pupils a raster.
9 The sentences in 8 form a paragraph. Why has the writer chosen 10 use word
such as wOllld, ccJuld, and might? Which sentence ask lhe reader to imagine a
situation and iIS consequence?
1 0 The linki ng phrases if, providing, provided, and II It less can all b e used to
hypothesize . Read the example. Then rewrite sentences a-d using the word
given .
A nati.on should nurture the talents of its people. It will then reap many
If a nation nurtures the talents of its people, it will reap ~ w l l y bellefits .
a Without being encouraged by parents and teachers, budding
musicians will not develop.
Unless ...................................... ........................................ , ..................................... .
b Science may one day stop tbe ageing process in humans, but will this
benefi t mankind?
If .......................................................................... , .................................................. ?
c If there is no effort to keep traditional crafts alive, they will disappear.
Unless ..................................................................................................................... . .
d If innovation is encouraged, many new jobs will be created .
Providing ............................................................................................................ .... .
11 Complete the following sentences using yow- own ideas,
a Provided parents have an interest in music,
b If government support for arts projects is not available,
c Unless ntrance to museums and an gaLLeries is free,
d Providing young scientists are gi ven the right opportunities,

%, 30
UNIT 7 Arts and d efl cc:;

••••• ••

Pr actlce Test 7
Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
Tile charts belo\.'.! show how selected flge groups puc1Ulsed concert cinema, al1d theatre
tickets online over rIte fit-st three J/lOlltlis of 2006 ilt three cOlin tries and how tile
Internet was accessed.
SWllllwrize the illformation by selecting and reporting the maillfcatures, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.
Most li kel y t o buy theat re/concert/ci nema Most common means of access
to buy tickets
tickets on li ne
I 025-4
UK Malaysia
Task 2
% 30
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Write about the following tupie:
o Australia
o MalaysIa
Mobile phone
The money spel1t on space re.,earcJ11ws brou.ght enormous bel1efits to mankind, but it
could be /JIore usefttlly applied. How fa.,. do yOIl 11gree?
Give reasons for your answer and i/1clude any relevant examples from your OW1/ or
Write at least 250 words.
• .... -
,Technique _
• Before you start •
• writing make a list
• of 'predict' verbs
• to use as trigger
62 •••••.

. ...... _ ...... .
Unit aims
Task 1
Makrng predictions
Factual accuracy
Task 1 Making predictions
Answer questions a-d.
Task 2
Writing conclusions
a What aspect of the future do the photos relate to?
b What en vi ronmental developments do you think wlll happen in your
country in the near fut ure?
c What other developments are happening in your country which are not
happening elsewhere in the world?
d What will your c untry be like in ten years' time? in 25 years'
2 Look at the bar chart and description below. Th en answer questions - c
Tlu bar cllm1 SIIOII'S the prt!dictcd nllmber of bll ildiJlgs that will be
powered by so/ar and willd energy in the flllll reo

o 100 200 300
mil lions
I_ Wind power I
! CJ Solar enegy
500 600
a What does the chart show?
b What do the numbers relate to?
c What is the range of the numbers along the bottom of the d1arr?
3 The structure will + infiniti ve or a range of prediction verbs are used to talk
about future stati stics. Complete sentences a-d with tbe words will. predictioll
or predicted.
a The number of solar-powered buildings .................. increase to 500 million
in 2025 .
b It is .................. (hal the number of solar-powered buildings ................. .
increase in the future.
c The ................. . is that the n umber of building powered by solar energy
.. ................ increase .
d The number is ... , .......... ... to increase to 500 million in 2025 .
UNIT 8 Nature
•••• •
4 Answer these questions ;:tbout the StntL"nC\:s in 3.
a Which of these words could replace the word prediction?
projection assumption forecast anticipation
h Which of t hese words coul d replace the word predided?
projected anticipated forecast said
c which other words do you know [0 replace predidion and predicted?
5 Complete sentences a-h with the correct forms of the verbs j n brackets.
a It ................... ... ....... (predict) that in 202 5, solar energy ... , ........................ .
(provide) en ergy for 500 million buil dings worldwide.
b In 20 ) 5, abou t 25 million buildings .................... ......... (expect) to receive
energy from wind power,
c In 2025, much more energy to power buildings ............................. (come)
from solar energy compared to wind power.
d In the future, solar energy ............................. (forecast ) to be a much greater
source of energy than wind power.
e In the future, wind power ............................. (not expect) to be as great a
source of power as solar energy.
In years to come, it ............................. (proj ect ) that wind power
............................. (be) a less .i mportant source of energy than solar energy"
g Solar energy ............................. (set) to assume greater importance as a
source of energy in the fut ure.
h In 201 5, it ............................. (anticipate) that solar energy and wind power
each ............................. (provide) approximately the same amount of energy,
6 Which of the sentences below describes something which will bappen
before a futUre Time? Which describes something in progress aL a time in the
a By 2025, 500 million buildings will have converted to solar power. (will have +
past participle)
bIn/By 2025. 500 milHon bnildings will be using solar power. (will be + ·il1!1
7 Complete sentences a-e with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Use
will + infinitive, will have + past participle, or will be + -ing form. You may also
need to use the passive.
a By 2020, it i expected that 30 million buildings ............................. (use) wind
b By 2025, very few people ................ " ........... (live) in the countryside.
c In20IO, more bicycles ............................. (sell ),
d By 2020, it is predicted that many animals ............................. (become)
e By the year 2015, it is anticipat ed that many narura! habitats
............................. (destroy).
• • 63
1. 6
1. 4
% 1.0
factual accuracy
8 Look at the charts. Then ansvveT questions ,1-f.
Forecast for reforestion rate Forecast f or worldwi de
reforestati on rate
Current interest
in reforestat ion
in selected areas of t he world
. -

i_ 2006
- r- -
- -
- -
- 1- -
1.4 .---- - - ----- - -
1.2 -1-------
% 1.0
0. 6
Hu'ng:!ry Tasmania-'
0 2015 020251
a Which chart provides more general information? Which c11art can be used
for the conclusion?
b In general, is the reforestation projected to increase or decrease?
c Which region is prOjected to have the highest rate")
d For which region does the chart show the greatest difference between 2006
and 2025?
e Which chart COntains information which could be used for a conclusion?
In generaL are most people concerned about reforesta tion or not?
9 Find and COlTed SL",( factual errors in the text below.
!he c.hartf> show fOrec.a5tf> for the. annual
de.forestation rate. in f>eluted regions
and worldwide together with the wrrent
attitude towardf> c.onc:.em for tre,e, 10f>5.
benerall i, it fore.c:.a5t that the
refore,f,tation rate in the four region5
will grow until UY3'5. though at vClf'-l ing
rate,s. It is prQjuted that Ire-lana \1ill have.
the highef>t rate in 202'5 at IS per c:.ent
followed c.\ of>el'j -raDrna nia. The- fore.ul5t
for bath regi ons for 20lS iD tl1e f>ame at
1.'5 per Gent. Hungal'(. b-t c:.ontra5t, \'litl1
tl1e 10\'leDl projec:.ted rate throughout
the pe.rioa, \'l ill the.
overall inGrease-. It iD antic.ipated tl1at the
figure lIlill £.limb from os pe.r (.ent in
WI? to 0.11 pe.r (.ent and then riDe- more
f>harpl'j to 1.1 pe.r c. e.nt.
It alf>o worth not ing tl1at the refore-fltation
rate in Thailand if> antic.ipate-a to be in line \'lith the worldWide average.
for both 2(11) and 2021). 1."3 per c,(',nt .
and 1.0 per c:. ent re5pec:.t ive-l,/- tJl eanwhi\ e..
!-\ur1gal'( will be, be,l ow tne international
rateD, whiie both Ireland and -raDmania
wi \1 ey.c.eed them.
f rom the pie c..hart, be. f>een that
there if> some obvious wnc:.ern about the
nee,d for planting more treef> (wnc.erned'
"3'f per c:. ent, and 'not vef'j c.onc.erned' 2'5
per c.e,nt). while. at the 5ame time there is
a 5i1.eable. proportion of pe.ople who
not wnc.erned.
64 •••••
UNIT 8 a/llri!
lOIn each of sentences a-f (here is a word mis si ng. Add th mis ing w rd.
a It predicted that the use of solar energy will become more important.
b We see from the chart that largest amount of money wa spent on lhe warer
conservation project.
c The chart shows the different types of trees are found in different regions.
d From the pie chan, can be seen that hydroelectric power constitutes seven
per cent of the world energy demand.
e It is dear that majority of people are very concerned about climate change.
Recently, a number of campaigns have encouraged people plant trees.
11 Look agai n at the text in 9. Tbere is a missing word in each of tbe last three
p aragraphs. Add the missing words in the correct places . .
12 Read the table. vvh ich describes in thousands the estimated and actual
numbers of houses b uil t in the UK by region in 2002. Answer que lions a-h
to iden tify the conecl facts .
Regions Actu a l Estimated
Scotland 3,000 3,200
Nonhern Ireland 5,000 2,500
Wales 6,300 2,900
North of England 13,500 9,300
Central England 16,200 8,100
Southern England
77, 500 5UOO
(exc. London)
London 47,800 24,800
a What infonnation does the table give?
b How many region of the l JT< is it divided into?
c Usually, was the estimated Dumber above or below the actual n umber?
d In which three regions were the highest numbers of houses built? How did
th e figures for these regions compare with the estimates?
e Which region had a disparity of just over four thousand between lhe
estimate and the actual figure? What were the figures for thi' region?
f Which other two regi ons followed the usual trend? What were the figures
for these two regions'?'
g [n \.vhich region was the lowest number of houses built?
h Which region is an exception to t.he general trend? What were the figures
for this region?
13 Using the facts identified in your an 'weTS to tb e que lions above,
summarize the table by selecting and reporting the main fea nu es, and make
comparisons where relev ant. Wri te at least 150 words.
• 65
66 . •
Task 2 Articles
Answer ques\jons a-d.
a What are the most serious threats that the natural world is facing in the

b What is the most serious threae to the envi ronment in your counery?
c What action is being taken?
d What Cunher steps do you think could be taken?
2 The paragraph below has been taken Crom an essay on measures 10 reduce
river pollution throughout the world. Complete th gaps vdt h the nouns in
the box. The fir st one has been done for you.
factories pollutants action fish wildlife
pmblern leisure incent ives pressure
Pj fa r tne best to Mlve tne.
.. . of Vlater pollution to
locate all 1. . .. " ............. from rive,r5
and. and to in&tall treatment
center'b. i\\ I the .................. in tne wat\'.r
would then be a& ha& been
done in ol d areas in
Voland. and 1hi'b Vloula mean
that .. ................ and. 5 ..................
b\'. able to return to ri ve.r\:, and people
would. be able to use them for
v ... .......... .. ... liKe 5V1imming ana fi'bhing.
There i5 c.on5iderable. 1 ....... . .. ........ on
mani poor countrie& to ckvdop
uonomie5 ana 'bO it Vlould b\'. diffiwli to
per&uade mani of them to c:.hange their
pOlic. ies. l1owever, I thinK tha1
'I}, . .. .... , ......... nud.s to be taKen an
perhaps financ.ial 1 .. ................ from
ric.her c.oun1ries would help,
3 AJ'e the words in the lis! below coulltJ.ble or uncountable?
information nature
research weather
climate accommodation
tree idea situation fact
4 Look again a( [he paragraph in 2. Are the answers countab Ie or uncountabl e?
5 Add a/an, the, or no anicle [0 sentences a-h.
The plastic bottles that I threw out yesterday have been taken away for
Plastic bottles are now being made of .................. biodegradable material ' _ (no
a .................. knowledge about the environment can be foun d in ................. .
books and on the Internet.
b .. ................ energy can be generated from bio-fuels .
( Trees belp to protect .................. soil by conserving wa t r
d Newspapers now use ........... .. ..... hi gh percentage 0 .................. re yel d
e Looking after .................. nature is important for all of us.
It is better to see animals in .................. wild than in captivity.
g .................. solution to the problem is to fine people for dropping ........ ... , .... ..
h ............ "" .. new plastic containers which 1 bought last week are not harmful
for the environment as they are biodegradable.
UNIT 8 Nallln

6 In each text a-f, th ere is one mistake relating to artjcles. Con eer the mistakes
by adding or deleting a ·word.
Animals like chimpanzees and apes should not be used for the ex-periments.
a Wave power technology is the best answer to the problem of poll ution.
However, the int roduction of such technology also creates the problem.
b Governments worl dwide should tax the cars more. A measure like tbis
would make people think more about nature.
e In near future, bouses will be more energy-efficient than they are now.
d Food industry could pay for recycl ed bottles a Iv as done in the past. The
bot tles would then not be thr own away.
e Insects like the bees, for example, playa vital rol e in most ecosystems. The
bee pollinates plants and flowers.
The fadlities li ke dams and forests are also used for leisure.
Writ ing, COncllllSi oilS
7 Read the two Task 2 queSl tOns . Then decide which question each sentence
a- g relates 10. Write 1 or 2 next to each sentence,
1 Pol/Lltioll from aircraft is one of tlie main factors responsible for
global wm'mi 1f!I. What measures could be taken to l'edtlcc this sour Ce of
climate change?
2 Wilen a COUllt,)' become'S l"ichet : the natural ell d rMll11en t lI ' ill slljTn:
It is /"lot possible for a cOtm tly to both develop its economy and proteL"(
the envil'omnent. To what extent do you a,qree or disagree?
a This means that in the short term we will just have 10 accept paying higher
prices for flights and Ira veUing less.
b In concl usion. I do nOI agree [hat developing a country' s e onomy has to
invol ve dest roying the nat ural world.
c If this type of eco-friendly business is encouraged, then there is no reason
why a healthy economy and a healthy environment cannot exist together.
d All in all I feel that imposing higher taxes on airlines is unavoidable.
e It is true that some businesses move into new areas with no regard for t hei r
effect on the environment.
We can cenainly investigate "lIays of making aixcrah technology cleaner,
but we do not know how long tbey will take to develop.
g However, there are many examples of local busine ses whi ch depend on
and support the local envi ronment .
II • 67
Always write a
concl usion to your
answer Avoid
repeating words in
your conclusion.
6a •••••
8 A conclusion needs to state your opinion or your most important idea, and
remin d (h e reader of how you argued in favour of it. The sentences in 7 on
page 67 form concluding paragraphs to th e e ~ am question . Wr it e out the two
paragraphs with the sentences in the best order, following the frameworks
hd ow.
Question I
Statement of most important measure:
Another possible measure and why it is Jess effective:
Restatement of most important measure and its consequences:
Question 2
Statement of opinion:
Reference to the opposite vie "' :
Reason against the opposite view:
Restatement of opinion:
9 Look at {he underlined. phrases in the sentences in 7. For each one, ch oose
two alternatives with a similar meaning from the box below.
to sum up I believe of cou rse I would argue that in gene ral
1 0 Your conclusion must be dear but you need to avoid making claims that
sound roo strong. One way to avoid this is to talk a boUt possibilit ie u ing
the phrase There is /10 reaslJ !I WilY + neg.1ti\' e. Read the exampl . Then change
sentences a-d in a similar way.
A healthy economy and a healthy environment can exist together.
There is /10 reason why a healthy econ omy and a h ealthy environmen t cannot
exist toget her.
a Local eeo-friendly businesses can be successful.
b People could take more holidays at home instead of always flying abroad.
c People could travel by fast train instead of taking short flights .
d Governments should gi ve special financial support to eeo-friendly busine s
UNIT 8 Na/llre
••• •
Practice Test 8
Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The table below silo II'S tile projected costillgs OVe/' tl1e next five years in American
dollars for tJu'el! ClIVil'OlImental projects Jor SItS/ainable forestry. The pie chal1 shows
the e.ypected e.i'peilditur.e breakdou'Jl aJ/ocll.tiol1 for the first year as the projects m-e
set LIp.
SI./JlllIlI1ri:e the injormution by se!utiJlfj and reporting the JTuli l l fi?alllreS, and make
cOlllparisMls where relevant,
Write at least 150 words.
Year 1 Year 2 Year3
West Africa 10.5 million 7.5 million 2.5 million
20 rrul1ion 12 million 5 million
Sout h -east
30 million 20 million 40 million
Projected expenditure in Year 1
• Set-up costs
• Salaries
o Training
o Office expenses
Task 2
You should spend about 40 m i n u u ~ s on this task
Write about the following topic:
Year 4 Year 5
2.5 million 3.5 million
5 million 5 million
50 million 50 million
More and more city W01*ers are deciding to live il1 the country and travel into work
every day. TIre rest/It is increased traffic cong.estion and damage to fIle 1!!1\'irOJlJIICJIt.
What measures do you thil1k could be taken to encourage people not to travel such
long distllJlces ilf to \i'Ll7'k ?
Give reasons for your ansl'.ver and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or
Write alleast 250 words.
70 • - •••
Unit aims
Task 1
Varying vocabulary
Checking spelling
Tasl< 1 Varying vocabulary
Task 2
Organizing words
Verb-subject agreement
1 Answer these questions about hospitals and h alrh care.
a What are the m,li ll p::i"ri( ics of health care in your counlry?
b How is health Gl rc delivered in your home country? If YOll want to nsu it
a doctor. what do you do? -
c Are medicines fre e or do you have to pay for tbem?
d What effect has technology had on medical care in your country'?
2 Read the Task 1 question on page 71. Then arlswer questi ons a-e below.
a What general statement can you mak about the whole graph? Look at the
deSCription and the graph itself.
b What general statement can you make about the French hospital?
c What general statement can you make about the Ukrainian hospital ?
d How can you link the pie charts to the graph?
e How could you use these words to describe the graph.
except that
upward similar pattern reach a peak
saw a continuous rise change coinci de
UNIT 9 rIealtlr

The cllarts below show the average bed use i/1 three rypiml hospitals
illt f l'J1lItiolla/ly and ,lie prop01'til1 n of 1111spital bll dgets a/ll)J Cl"lt ed to
care before and after day-surgery was introc/llced in 2003.
Average bed use for the years 1997- 2006

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Funds allocated to in-patient care 2002
Other cost.
Fu nds allocated to in-patient care 2006
Other costs
StwllJl tl r .fze O,e il1fonndtiorJ by seli?ctill9 and reportil1g JIIllill fe.lil/ res, mid
make comparisDns wher e relevant.
3 Complete the text with words frout the box. The first ha. been don for
peak impact
marked reduction
Model text
The graph proviaes I .. . ... about
the. average be.ds in use. eae-h iear in
three similar hospitals before ana after
the introaudion of da'j-c.are. wryer'! .
Da'j-e-are surgef'j seems to have h;}d
an"l. .................. on bed use in all three
hospitals. A.t the. frene-h hospital . the.
figures an upwara ? ............. . ... .
over the. perioa from 40 be.cis to 4(".
Kowever, in 2.003 bed 4 ...... .. ..... . .... had
reac.hed a ................. . of just under 10
beds, before (. .................. bac.k. A. similar
pattern was for the UKrainian
hospital, e"1-(.ept that the du.line in bed
oeeu paney trend
sign ifieantly rise
experi enced
use after 2.00"3 WaS not so 1 ......... .•. ......
(1(; beds in 2.00"3 as against 11 in 2.00v).
1he Chinese hospital, b'f c.omparison,
s .................. a c.ontinua\ 'i .................. in
be.d use behJeen \ Q'l1 and 2.00(;. 11 ;lIla
q"3 re.spe.c.tivel'j. l1o\'lever, we. see. that after
2.004 the rate of ine-re.ase \'las
I •....•• .. ..• •. .. slower than in previous
,{ear", .
It is II .................. that the fall in be.d use
c. oinc.iaes wi th the 11 .. . . . ......•...... in the.
average budget at the three hospitals for
in - patient c-are (?? pe.r a,nt c.ompared to
2.1 per e-ent) between 2.002. and 2.00(;.
•• • 71
Use a variety
of alternative
expressions when
writing your answer
to avoid repetition.
72 •••••
4 Look again at the words in the gaps in 3 on page 72 and choose an alternative
[or eadl one fTom the box. You \'vill no'! use aliI th e words.
effect use
tendency cut considerably low
decrease droppi ng informat ion
high point sharp dramatically
5 For each sentence a-h, there are three alternative phrases to replace the
phrase in it alics. Delete the option which is nOI correct.
a The graph provides details about bed use. (gives/says/shows)
b The introduction of day-care surgery had an impact on bed use. (had all effect
on/ had an affect on/ affected)
c Bed use reached a peak of just under 70 beds. (reached its highest point/reached
a height/hit a peak)
d A similar pattern was se n in th Ukra inian hospita l. (designl trmdlmovellleJ/ (}
e The Chinese hospital, by comparison. continued to see a rise. (by contrast/oil
the other hand/alternatively)
The number of beds ro e from 40 to ar und 45. (approximatelY/l1bolltltoll'ards)
g There was a reduction in the budget ( 35 per cent compared (027 per cent).
(as opposed tolas against/colltrast with)
h The change in bed use is reflected in the budget. (call be seen in/ can b viewed
in/can be detected in)
6 The descripti ons below sUmnlarize the sentenc Slr uctW'e of the model in 3.
Number the notes in the correct order, based on the sentences in th mode\.
The first and last have been done for you.
a General introdu ctory statement .
b Gen · ral statement of first main trend, then specifi c data.
c General statement abom a reinforcing trend, then specifi c dat a.
d Spe ific statement qualifying the trend. without detail.
e General statement about the line graph.
General statement of contrasting trend, then specific data .
g SpeciHc statement qualifying the trend. with detail.
h General conclusion based on pie charts. ... .. J? ..... .. .
UN'T 9 He(llth
•• •
Checking spelling
7 In each group of fOUT words, circle the one which is spell incorrectly and
correct it.
a therdore opposite bcfor limit
b believe achieve recieve bri ef
c stay,ing stayed studing studi ed
d usefllil helpful hopefuUy carefully
e personaly practical usually normal
f efficient sufIicent ancient deficie nt
g unfortunately improvement definitly management
h comfortable diffrent temper ture interested
chaise price increLl se advice
prefe rred commitled rdered happened
8 Look again at your answers in 7. Some of the spellings dep end on simple
rules. What spelling rules explain the misspelt words? Compare your ideas
with tbe key on page llO.
9 Find and correct the spelling mistakes in the following sentences. One of the
semences has two spelling mistakes.
a The numbers declined gradualy and stood at JUS! rwen ry in 2006.
bIn-patient CZl re [Oak up 25 per cent of the funds, wieh was an increas e of SL,{
per cem on the previous yea r.
c A number of significant changes oecured in the following t venty years.
d The percemage increased sharply and reached a pick in 2003 .
e The figres rose from approximatly 45, 000 to 49,000 over the peri od.
Patient numbers rose steadily for the first ten years, and th en flactua ted
around 500 for the following decade.
g The required number of beds exeeded what was anticipa1ed for rha I year.
n Mos[ people in the servey thought that more money should be spent on the
health service.
10 Read the following extract written by an IELTS student on the number of
traffic accident seen at a local hospital. Find the eight mistakes that
he made.
me averag numbe.r of rOad traffiL 3Lic\r.nts from mLrea""ed dramati(.a1i
petloJe-t,n Iqqr;; 3nd tne 2.000, risi"s from a tob'l of '5'3 to Il£> respedive.ll Over
the. five ieaf5, tnen '1135 a notiLeap\e improvme.nt <15 number:> fell to
a new low point of?J in A'il regard mOlorLid uc.ide.nt5, noV/eve.r. it is dear
the. tnnd is upward, with more oLLuring in thi:> in the. later pe.r.iod.
••• 73
74 •••
Task 2 Organizjng words
1 Which of the following do you (hink are most imponam for good health?
Rank them .in order of importance (1 = most importan t; 6 = least important).
Are there any ot her lifest yle factors which are not included in (he list?
taking regular exercise carefui'ly monitoring your diet
having a wide range of int@rests having a wid@ netw(i)rk of friends
living in the countryside sleeping at least seven hours a nig ht
2 Complete the paragraph by choosing (he best adverb in each case.
!he 1 normallyloutlandishlylstrangely
benefi(.ia\ effec.t that have. on
people.'$ ne<lltn and general well-being is
now 1 tsf>t.ntiallylgoodlylwell ru.ogniz.ut
Ihe idea seem pec.uliar to some people,
but ;I surprisingly/shoc.kinglylunprtdidably
there. is dear evidel1Le of the. partnership.
laKe, the, e;f.,amp\r, of do\phiI15, whic.h are,
4 wildfy/Wide.fylhardly for their
bealing qualitle.$. DOg5 have· al50 bew
used to deted c.el\<:. 'i de.eplyl
proje.s5ionallylac.c.urately in pat ien15 and
are (, oftenlrartlylhardly even taKen
3!"ound hMpita\ 'tJard5 to be. ir'ltf"odua .. d to
1 seriously!17ugtly/deadly ill
of this partiw\ar partnership are
S importantiylrUJ li'yl we/l dowmente.d and
have led to animals being
freqUtnilylseldomlots to wpp\e.ment
c.DIlVl:-lltiollal mMic.ill(:' . 10 {5l1idtntlc.Jearlyl
Oddly. the. c.ondusion If> to maKe more
mone.1 available for .. ard1 Into
animalf> benefit humans.
3 Which pattern does the paragrapb in 2 follow? which organizing \>\ur,: Jrt'
llsed to empbasize eacb elemem of the p attern?
a situation - examples - eUects - conclusion
b si tuat ion - effects - reasons - examples - conel usion
4 Complete sentences a-I with an organizing word from the box.
idea information issue knowledge measure
opinion problem scheme solution
a The best way to improve public health is to provide people with all the facts,
but the ......... ......... needs to be made simple.
b It is often suggested that national health systems should be modernized.
However, many people are opposed t o (he .. .. .. .. .......... of modernization.
c Our programme to introduce new equipment ucceeded in reducing
waiting lists, but the improvement .................. met with considerable
resis lance.
d The government should invest more money in preven ting drug abuse. This
............ ...... , if taken .. would save many lives.
e Obesity is on the rise in many countries and not just in the developed
world. It is now an .................. that demands immediate attenti on.
More nurses need to be uained rather than doctors. This, I feeL is the best
.................. 10 the current crisis .
g People are often aware of the dangers of smoki ng. but even with [his
widespread ........ " ........ , it is difficult to persuade them to stop.
h Some people are againsl the involvement of private companies in health
care, but this .................. is held by fewer people nowadays.
Lack of health care is making the li ves of many people misera Ie. ye( it is a
.................. that can be easily tackled.
Ai m to use at least
one organizing \/v'ord
in each paragraph
you write.
U NIT 9 Healtlr
5 For each of a-b, read the first sent ence, then complete the follow-up sentence
with your own ideas. Use the organizing words in it alics to help you.
a Some people are concerned that increasing n umb r of old people will
mean more spending on health care.
This issl/e .. ... d.·" ··.· ..... ...... ...................... .. .... ......... " .. " .... ... ... ................ ..... ....... .. .... .
b Conventional and alt rnatjve medicine can complement each other.
This idea could ." ....... .... ............. ....... .. ..... ... ........... .. d . . .. ... .. . . ............... ... .................. .
c In the fut ure, h ealth care will be much cheaper and for everyone.
This predictiol1 .. ... ,." .... .. ........ ..... ......... .... .. ........ .... .... ..... .... ........ ... ..... ... .. ................. .
d The pace of ch ange within many national health systems is speeding up.
Initially, this may be a probbn, but .... .... ................ ..... .................. ........ ............. .. .
e Health care costs are now worrying plan ners throughout the world.
The situatioll, however . ............. ..... .... ..... .. .. ... .... .. .. .. ... .. ........... ........... .... ......... ..... . .
are emphasis should be put on preventive medicine, like health
Measllre like this ....... ..... ..................... .... .... ........................................... .. .............. .
g Acupuncture is becoming more and more popul ar around the world.
Not surprisingly, it is a trend ........... ........ ............ ............. ................. ....... .......... " .. .
h If people live longer, [hen this can lead to other COS ts and problems .
This is a matter that ... ... .... .... ........................................ ...... .................... .. ....... ...... .. .
6 Choose one of the topics a-c below. Make a list of ideas for the topic you have
chusen. Ue ( j ~ e organizing words in the box 10 trigger ideas.
a the connection berween music and health
b how alternat ive therapies can influence health
c the conneClion between e>;. ercise and healt h
conclusion effect idea information issue knowledge
matter measure opinion prediction problem
scheme solution trend view example
Write your own paragraph based on your ideas in 6. To plan your answer, a k
yourself these questions.
a What paragraph organization can I use?
b WhicJl connecting words can I use to link the pattern I have chosen to
c Which examples can I use to j ustify my ideas in each paragraph?
• •
Make sure you
check that the
subjects and the
verbs In your
sentences agree.
76 •••
Verb-subject agreement
8 Comple te t he following sentences with is, are, has, or have.
a The number of people who are suffering fTOrn stress .. ................ on the
b The fact that people live longer nowadays ........ ......... . led to an increased
number of elderly people in sodery.
c Predictions about how long a patient with cancer will live ...... ............ often
d A ban on advenising all types of junk food .................. probably the onl way
to stop the spread of obesity.
e The pressurized situation in many hospitals ............ ..... . resulted in a stressed
workforce and low morale amongst nurses.
f Elderly people who have a large family ........... ....... generally healthier and
happier than those who have fewer contacts with other people.
g The reason why allergies are becoming more common .................. still not
h An increasing number of patient seem to be dissatisfied wjth conventional
medicine and .................. turned to alternative therapies.
9 In sentence a-g, replace the countable nouns in italics with an uncountabl e
noun [rom the box. Make any other n eces ary changes in verb forms or
progress evidence information work
advice research equipment
a Everyone is aware today of the bad effects of smoking on people's health.
The e fadS are published all around us, even on cigarette packets.
b Most doctors recommend a diet low in sugar and fat. an d high in fibre.
Unfortunately, these suggestions are not often followed.
c Many nurses nowadays do nor carry out basic care such as washing and
feeding patients. Instead, these tasks are carried out by health care assistant .
d Enormous advances have been made in understanding how disease sprea
but the possibility of a worldwide pandemic is still wit h us.
e Many people enjoy keeping fit in the gym by using rowing machines,
walking machines, and so on. However, these devices can be dangerous if
they are not used properly.
f Many doctors do not believe in homeopathic medidne. However, there are
certainly some indications that it is more than just a placebo.
g Some studies have been carried out which sboY': that elderly people li ve
longer if they live with a partner.

UNIT 9 H.:allll
• • •
•• ••
Practice Test 9
Task 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The 9Taph belmi ' shbwS the average monthly use of a healt11 club jn Mi ami, Florida by
all full-time members over last year. The pie charts shaw the age profile of male and
female members.
Summarize the iflformatiol! by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
compan'soJis tII'll'ere relevant.
Write at least 150 words.
'--- - -
10 Femal e • Male I
Male membership by age
Health club use over last year
'- '--- '--
M J J A s
Female membership by age
You shou Id spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Wrile about the follov,/i1l8 topic:
- - '--
o N o
The numberoje/derly people in the world is increasiJlg. What do you lliill/.: lire the
positive al1d l1egative effects of this trend?
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from YOllr own know/edge or
Write at least 250 words_
• II 77

Individual and society
Unit aims
Task 1
Word order
Linking using with
Task 1 revision
Task 1 Word order
Task 2
Paragraph structure
Task 2 revision
Relevant and irrelevant information
1 The list below contains factors which influence career choice. Choose the
five that have influenced you most j.n choosing a career. RanJ, them in order
of importance 1-5 (1 = most important; 5 = least important). Then ans wer
questions a-d.
money interest friends ambition
role models parents teachers
a Why have you chosen these five factors?
b How di d they contribute to your career cboice?
c Why did you not choose the other factors?
d What other [actors might infl uence you?
2 Read the Task 1 quesrion. Then answer questions a-e.
The bar charts show
the results of a Greek
survey from two
selected age 9roups in
2003 011 tile relative
importance of five
factors in choosing a
SlIlJ/JllLlrize the
information by
seleclillg a1/d
repOltin9 the main
featllres, and make
cOlllparisotlS where
Main reasons for choosing a career - 20-35 age group
% 15
Mai n reaSOnS for choosing a career - 40-50 age group
% 15
a What does each chart refer to generally? Look at the captions .
b What do the items along th e bottom of the bar charts refer to?
c How do the bar charts relate to each other?
d 'Nhat are the most noticeable features of the first bar chan?
e What are the most noticeabl e fea tmes of the second bar chart?
UNIT 10 [ll di vidll al alldsociely
• •
3 Reorder the words in italics in the model text below.
Model text
1he bar c,harts provide information from
a about I reasonslthe/for/
main/c.areer/a/c.hoosing among two age
9roups. 20-'7'5 and 40-'50.
It is that the two 9rouPS 2. thel
influenc. u1!werelvar-iouslby/fat..tor5
to with the mOflt
inf\ uentia\ facton) whi d) contributed to
Gareer chOice for the. 20-2? age group
being monei (i:lpprO'l'imatel'i 2.1 per cent)
and then pi:lre. nb (2"3 per HOI,eve-r.
the fadors • the/agt/ were/for/ reversel
grouplthel40-50. wah pare.nts affe-d ing
the.m most at '70 per Gent.
the- relative importance. of was ag"M
the other round: S ninelfifteen/
younger/the, and fourtee.n and elwen per
Gent for the. older.
be-tween/age waf> that fr iends had lef>s
inf\uena over Gareer Ghoice for the
iounger and olde.r groupfl 1 factors!
than/any/other. seven and ten pe.r cent
4 Six of the sentences a- h contain a word in the wrong place. Corr: t each
sentence by moving the word to the right place.
Traveller numbers have decreased ov r period in the question.
Traveller numbers have decreased over the period in question.
a The specialist sales of rours have fallen recently.
b In 2006. more males than females tOok up individual spons rather than
team activities.
c As can be seen. more people from the younger age group (Tavel on their
own. in sharp contrast to those over sixty.
d It is dear lbJ t rhe number of flats by single' people in ()ccllpieci major citie
in the West is putting pressure on housing.
e From [he graphs, it can be concl uded that are young people much more
mobile than previous generations.
The noticeable pursuit of a professional career among botb men and
woman has led to a reduction in the birth rate.
g There are similarities in the presentation of the several data.
h Overall the chart shows that the media peopl e are re ponsible for tumin
into eel brities.
• • •• 79
80 •••••
Linking using with
5 Read the example sentence from the model text in 3 on page 79. Then answer
the questions below.
However, the factors were the reverse for the 40-50 age group, with parents
affecting them most at 30%.
a What function does the phrase beginning with with introduce?
b What type of verb struct ure normally follows with?
6 Read the example, Then join the sentences below making an y nec s ary
There were several similarities . The most and least important factors were the
There were several similarities, with the most and least importan t factors being
the same.
a Sale were upward for most oC the year. The profi l reached a peak in
b The main reason for career dloice was ambition. Fifty per cent chose it.
c IT is expected that the price of one bedroom flats will ri e AccommOdation
for individuals is in shon supply.
d The pattern was different. Passenger numbers dropped in summer and rose
in wlllter.
e The trend was d early upwaTd Manufacturing costs decreased at the same lime.
Consumption of ene rgy rose. The highest point was in January.
Task 1 revision
7 Decide if the following statements about Task 1 techniques are true or false.
a Your first paragraph is usually a general statement about
the subject of the graph, table, map, etc.
b Writi ng in paragraphs is not important for Task l.
c Task 1 will always be written in the past tense.
d If your English is correct, then it does not matter if your
information is inaccurate.
e You need to dedde which is the most important or striking
information in the graph, table, map, etc.
You should quote all th e figures that the information gives you.
g In a paragraph, sentences which quote specific figures nearly
always come before general statements.
h Your conclusion will n ot normally give sped fic figures.
UNIT 10 I"dividllal al1d S')ciely
Task 2 Paragraph structure
1 For each Task 2 question below, put the sentences that follow in the most
logical order to create a p.:nagraph.
1 Amuit,'cm IS a negative attl"ibllte of a person's character. Do yOIl
agree or d.isagree \.I ith this statement?
a This is because, even when they realize an ambition, they are still not
b It is cenainly Hue [hat ambitious people do not always crea re happiness for
themselves or others.
c If we look at the busin ssman who wants 10 earn a six-figure salary, we see
that in most cases, when he reaches tJus position, he will still want more
povver or an even higher salary.
2 P£I 1'1 iwlilJ' ct/ltu res are IInder threat Jlowadays due tv tile f act that we
art' li\'ing in a global village. Wh at do you think ca ll be dOlle tv protect
a society'S traditiolllll l"alues and wItIJre?
a Nor does ir mean that they will fail to respect an d valu e other people's
cultures .
b One way to protect tr aditional val ues and customs is si mply to teach p e o p l ~
to value their own culture
c On the contrary, it wil give them the confidence to operate in our global
village without feeling that their own identity is under threa r.
d This does not mean that they have to resist the current movement towards
greate r international trade.
3 Emails are the most vaLuable tool for communication in the
twenty-first century. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
a They can exchange ideas and discuss things more often as they are working,
and the result may be a better end product.
b This allows people to work together on the same proj ect even if they are on
opposite sides of the worl d,
c Emails have certain ly bad far-reaching effects on people's ability to
d It is now possible for people to correspond cheaply and at length from
anywhere as long as t hey have a connection.
2 Match each of the paragraphs above 1-3 with the correct structure bel ow a-c.
a general statement - reason why this statement is true - example
b general statement - reason why this statement is true - effect - second
c statement of what should happen - statement that a negative result will
not occur - statement that a second negative result will not occur - positive
• • • • 81
~ .....
3 Read the following twO essay questions. For each ques ti on, choose one of the
paragraph structures in 2 on p age 81 and write a paragraph which could form
par I of an answer. following [he structure you h ave chosen .
MOll ey does not make happiness. To what ex tent do you agree or disagree?
It is [)fmer to reform criminals instead of jllst pllJ1ishil1g them. What
measures could be taken to attempt to ill tegrate law-breakers back
into society?
Relevant and irrelevant information
4 The three paragraphs below relate to the Task 1 questions in 1 on page 81. In
eAch paragraph, there Cl n: several option s. Choos(, cb." options wh ich are most
relevant to the question.
Text 1
1 Another r eason why ambition is not always good is that ambitious people
may lise unfair or dishonest means of reaching their goa l. F r example.
they may
a work so hard that they neglect their families .
b take the credit for work that they have not done.
2 In some cases, they may damage the careers o( people who they see as
rivals, perhaps by
a making false accusations about them to their employers.
b stealing their money and possessions.
3 In the most extreme cases, they may tum to serious crime . ............ .. .............. .
provides a clear exa mple of this.
a Shakespeare's story of Macbeth
b The story of Sinbad the sail or
Text 2
4 One way to ensure that people value their traditjonal culture is to focus on
language. With the global dominance of Engli sh, some minority languages
such as ............................. may feel under threa t.
a Welsh or Estonian
b Chinese or Arabic
5 Ii people are made familiar with the history and literature of their own
language, then
a they will be more able to talk to older people about it .
b they will appredate their own cult ure more.
6 This could be done by arranging arts festivals or writing competitions. For
example, in the UK
a there are many prizes which novelists and poets can win.
b there is an annual festival to celebrat e the best of Welsh wri ting and culture.
Text 3
UNIT 10 I"dividual and society
•• •
7 However, the effects of the Internet on communication are not all positive.
Emails can be wri tten and replied to very quickly which means that
a people often do not consider carefully what they have written.
b people can check their inbox two or three time 3 day.
8 Another problem is that people simply send and receive co
many emails .................... The result of this Ls that they spend time dealing
wi th this constan t stream of messages instead of doing their real work.
a Children, for example, love to contact tbeir friends frequently by email.
b An office worker, for example. may receive twenty or thirt y emails a day.
5 Reacllhc Task 2 question. Then ans\over questions a-c below.
The current interest in famous people's privale lives has negative effects
both for those people alld JO/' s@ciety as a w·h(J!c. NelVspapen .d·ul/Ild rtot be
nnowed to ptlblish details of people's private lives is clearly in ti,e
pliblic illterest.
To what extent do y OIl agrel! 01' disagree?
a Think of a famous person who has been in the news recentl y for something
unconnected with his/her job. What were the effects of this?
b How relev3m is your example [Q the guestion . If possibl e, compare your
example with a partner. Which is [he most relevant to the question?
c Write a general statement-example paragraph, using the example you have
Task 2 revision
6 Read the Task 2 techniques in the questionnaire. Decide hmv of len you do
these things.
Task 2 techniques questionnaire
Tick the appropriate box. Always Sometimes Never
I mat ch the organizat ion of my essay to the question. D D D
[ use the paragraph structure. D D D
[ divide my essay into paragraphs. D D D
[ use organizi ng words to help develop my sentences. D D D
I use a range of linking phrases - like, because, D D D
for example - to trigger my ideas.
J wTite a shon introduction wbich paraphrases tbe que li oo. D D D
I know that I must write at least 250 words. D D D
lleav myself rime to check my answer. D D D
I develop functi ons like advamages, disadvantages, so/uliotls, D D 0
measures, causes by using reasons, examples,reslllts, effects.
I can state my opinion clearly apd contradict other opinions. D D D
• ••• 83
84 •••••
7 Which phrases can you use as trigger words for each of the following
functions? Make your own list.
a Example: For example, ............................ .
b Reason: because ................ ... ....... .. .
c Effect : As a result, .... ., .... ., ................ .
d Additional inlormation: Moreover, ............................ .
e Hypothesis: If ............................ .
Contrast: but .... , .. ., ........... ., ...... .
g Concession: Although ...... ..... ..... ........... . .
h Conclusion: And 50 .... " ...................... .
8 Some functions are rel ated so (hal one suggests the other. Complete the
Jist below with rdaJed fl!IncHons. Are the combinat ions fix ed or can you
combine them in any way?
a Problem and ................. .
b Measures and ................. .
( Cause and ................. .
d Reason and ........... ...... .
e Example and ................. .
f Effect and ................. .
g Additional information and ... .......... ,., ..
h Condition/ Hypothesis and ........ "" .... ..
Concession and .. " ............ . .
9 Read (he Task 2 question below, then use the trigger words to develop
semences a-f with your own ideas.
Too much emphasis is PHt 011 eaming money rather thal1 lookiJ1g for {/
good qtlality of life. To what extent do you agree with tl1is idea?
a Money is not as important as frien 5, because .... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. .. ... .. ... ...... ..
b For many people, keeping fi t and healthy is the main factor which is
necessary for a good quality of life. However, .... " .. .... ..... ... , .... , ... .. ... , .... .. .. " ... ... . .
c If one is content with life, then ...................................................... " .... ., .. .. ..... .. .
d What is involved in achieving a good quality oI llie depends on many factors
rather than just one. For example. " ... ., ...... ., ........ ., ... " ............. ... , ................. .. ... . .
e Happiness and contenmlent are more importa nt than the pursuit of
fre edom. The latt er aim ............................................................................ ............. .
Many people living in poor housing conditions are still happy. So the idea
thaI ............................................................................................................... .. .......... .
1 0 Wrire your own paragraph about [he importance of family in mai ntaining a
good qualil y of li fe . W ~ i t e about 60-80 words.
••• •
UNIT 10 TmJil'idllal n ~ J d so ie/.\'
•• • • D •
• • •
Practice Test 10
Task 1
You should spend abo/(( 20 minutes on this task.
Th..: bar Ghart below sholl's fhf pe/·Lt'lItL19i.' of people in Great Britai n li vi119 alone by
age und sex ill 2.004./2005.
SWI/llwrize tJu inft)f' matiim by sd.:ctill9 and reporting the main features, and make
cOn/pan'sons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.
People living alone: by sex and age, 2004/05, GB
75 and over
o 10 20 30
Task 2
YOIl should spend abollt 40 minutes on this Lask.
Write about the foll owing topic:
40 50 60
Indil'idlwls WII do 110tl1il1g to clw/1ge society. Any new deve/olllllt:llts CLlII ollly he
brollght abotlt by govel'l1men ts {lI1d large Itlstitutiotls. How fat· do you ag/'ee 0/'
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from YOll r OHlII knowledge
or experience.
Write at least 250 words.
• •
86 •
Sample answers
The publishers stress that these are not official grades and are for guidance only.
There is no guara nt ee that these answ ers would ob tain these grades in the te st.
Practice Test 1
Task 1
The graph indicates the Valiali on of t h ~ ' privat e use of Interne!, Pc' mobil e phones and CD
player in the UK (rom J 996 to 2003.
The l[cnd in four dements of the study was upward except in mobil e phone that was
rarher erratic. CD player had the biggest figure among al l wit h 60% at ) 996/97 and 80%
,1t 2002/ 03. While the Int ernet access only started in 1998/99 showing the lowes! figur
throughoUl rhe period (from 10% in 1998f99 to above 4.0% in 2002/03).
Be1ween 10996/97 and 1998/99 mobil e phon and PC were going upward "" hile j ust alter
1999 the former exceeded. showing figure oC 70% compared to home c01111 uters with 55%
i n 2002/03.
To sum up. it was expect ed to have home computers as exceeding {i.g ure in the ~ t u d y as the)'
provide fe atures o r CD player and the Internet acces but CD player and mobile phon were
the two top modem technology access in homes . (154 Illords)
Grade: 5
Commen t: The t ext is logically organized, but does not indicate that figures are
approximate. The summary cannot be deduced from the diagram. Vocabulary i
adequate. despite some errors. However, grarnrna!i al mistakes, especially faulty
complex structures, cause some difficulties for the reader.
Task 2
If is obvious rhat people are unwilling to make changes in their lives afr er being accu toOled
to a cert ai n st yle of life . However this could cause many problems.
Take for exampl e. people who leave rheir counrry and going abroad. They might face many
issue .. Firsr of alL they have to adapt to a new culture and habit which might be completely
different from theLr native country. Moreover, it takes time to Cldapt LO 'weather and to the
sl},'le of new IUe wLch may be different [rom where they lived before.
There is another changes in lite. For example. some people al a certain moment in their live
have to change their career, regardless of the reaSons. It is quite difficult they find not easy to
acquire ex.peIience in their new job and difficult to make new friends at work.
In my opinion. people should be lIexible. For people who leaving their country to live and
work in another country I agree that they might have many problems such as a new culture
and languag,,· und habits bur the i.llregration wi th people it could solve the problem. By the
time, they will find themselves a pan of rhe new society. People who change t heir career
the on ly lhing to eli.> it is to concentrate in rheir ne\-\' job. Experience thar they need they will
acquire Ivith time
In conclusion, people ha e to ready for any changes in their lives as no guarantee for anyone
that the LiI e will be stable lorever. (2'>0 \\"e',<I;")
Grade: 6
Comments: All parts of th e prompt are covered, but the content is somewhat
repeti tive. Organiza tion and paragraphing is satisfactory, wi th some e ffec tive use of
links . Vocabulary is generally adequate However, complex sentences are usually
faulty and t here ar e many grammaticaJ errors.
ampl,; flllSlt 'er '
Practice Test 2
Task 1
The graph shows t he cont ribuTion 01 diUercm senor, to the UK economy in the 20th
century, In particular it compares the agri cultural. manufac!.Uring and businc' s and financial
sector .
Pirstly, agriculture sect or shows the higher value at the begi nning oll he period (around
50% in the Iirst 50 years of rhe ce tu ry). By the 1975, it had utt ered a dramatic decrease
(1 5%) tollowed by 11 drop to almost zero in By contra L busine ' s and finantiaJ ' eclOr
weI' almost zero at the beginning bl.J! it sharpl y increased during the pe n od.
,\1anula w ring $ .ctGr seems to follovY rht:: trend of agri ulture, st arri ng with a value oj 45%
in 19(1(). In J 95(\ it !>egan t() lalllill 1975 where ir IVa' bel,)w ,\')"/0 At tl t' end of the period
the pnceillil!;l' for IlIilllllfilC!urillg ,'t'ilC:WS 2()%
III general. ilgriclilt ur,ll JlId nl<lnulau uring St' llllr has .'l trends but th<.: f rmer
dropped much more at the end of the tll,m the contrat, th", l r t:nd o{
bu ' iness and financial increased during the periou. (l68 IViJrd,\)
Grade: 6
Comments: Use of tbe rubric unchanged reduces the word count . The infurmalioll
logically ordered, but the business sector data is omitted. Vocabulary is adequate and
usually appropriate, as is the range of sentence forms, but there are some imponant
Studying the history is on of che most importantsnbjectsin the drculum of primary and
secondary schools. Some people argue that there is nu benefit 01 that and history can be
substituted by oth er more important subj ect s. However, it i;; no! a logical opinion for many
Althougb it is true thilt the <.:I'ents lllal a!'c studied in history haprcm,d in the past, it is also
true that it reptesen! il nJuabk human experience. This can be VL'ry useful in planning for
the futuTe. rr humans know rhe mistakes thi)[ had been done .'lnd caused events
in the past, lhey will try 10 avoid doing the same mistakes ill the tuture.
Moreover studying the past of other nation, will give' the oppOrEUnily to .know more about
their society. Tbl, will help I'etwcer: diUerelll c untri es.
Children art tht' peopie who \l'ilI h:\ld tIl<' world in the f 11 50 they should for
this role. The kno,,,,· 1edge V;' llich can be gained trom the history is one of the most important
sources for their ski ll s of unders tanding the h uman society As m lIch as they learn [rom the
history. they will be efficient in their ability to decide when t h y tace any problem in the
future. Also the fliswry can give a good information aboul the development in different
branches of scienc . Some of these informalion may have a good alue f r invl' Hors,
In concl usion. it is undeniable that history, the suounary of human experience, js very
import ant in improvem ent of human's future if they can u:;e it pn1perly. (261)
Grade: 6
Comments: The topic is adequately covered, tbough there is some repetilion . The
order and paragraphing of ideas is mostly logical. Vocabulary is adequate and has
some precision. Complex sentences are well managed, but there are many min r
grammatical errors.

88 • • • •
Practice Test 3
Task 1
The diagramilluStralE'$ the I'arious stages in the desalinati.on of seawater to make it suitable
for drinking.
Pirst of all. water is taken from the sea Jnel then passed througll a pre -t reatment filler where
the big impurit ies are removed. This backwash is then piped back into the sea through
another rUr er. At the next st age in the process, the remail1illg wilter is forced through 1\
membrane at high pressure an d any impurities incl udin g salt are removed. Alter that,
the seawater concentrate i returned to the sea while the remaining water goes through a
pOSt treatment process . In this phase, the water is treated wit h lime, chlori ne and fluoride
to make it drinkable before it is stored in a reservoir. Finally. the desalinated water is
distributed to the integrated water supply system for people to use as d rUl king water.
Desa lination involves a process of purifica ti on of VI'ater foll owed by fi ltration and adding
chemical agents. (153 words)
Grade: 7
Com.ments: Interest is maintained by the nexi Ie use of input language, and a wi e
ra nge of vo abulary and skilfully deployed grammatical st ructures. All stage: arc:
covered accurately, though some additions are made, The overview should more
logically be the second sentenc .
Tasl< 2
Great changes h ave taken place in our life along with d v [opment of society, As far as I am
concerned, the Internet plays a big part in this.
Firsr. of aU, wi th the opp<)rtllIli ty of su r fing Ullcrnct or playing computer and video games,
people h ave a more sedentary li fe style. Children no longer play games outside and get
exerose bur they spend time on the computer. This has bad effect on their health and can
cause problems such as obesity.
Anot her probl em is the negative effect on their relationship with their family, Internet
access fills most young people's time, and even thei r leisure time, so this is the cause of their
disconnection with t heir family and ultimately can have an eli ct on tbeir social behaviour.
A thjrd problem is that not all internet sites are USdlJI. tnlormation is often not accurate
and some sites are not suitable lor children. Some interneT sites like chat rooms can eveu be
dangerou because you do nut know who is the other person.
As regarding children's use of the Internet, the Lirst solution must be wilh tb parents,
They need to limit hours that children spend 00 the computer and to encourage them to
have other hobbies and pastimes. There is an impon ant need for them to s p l ~ n d mor e time
to speak v.'itb their famil y than an electronic connection. Parents sh, uld also en ourage
children to use other means of inIonnalion in addition to internet.
To concl ude, I would say thaI the internet has hrought many benefits and it will Do t
disappear, therefore il is very importitll! that we learntlO me it well so lilat we can reap tbe
benefils and not me disad anl ages. (278 words)
Grade: 7
Comments: The topic is considered fully, with ideas presented in a clear progression
wi th mostly logical paragraphing. A good range of vocabulary gives fl exibili ty
and preasion to the writing. Sentence st ru cture is reasonably varied, bu t minor
grammatical errors are frequent.
Sample answer;
• •
Practice Test 4
Task I
The bar chart shows the figures for qualifications a ltai,net.i in wornl'n an m(;;n in Wale in
200] ilnd 2002 in pt'r"(l'1I1ilges.
The information can be divided in to three gro ups. Tilt' br,l category includes degree a nd
higher education qualification. The percentages Well: awund 13% and app roximately 11 %
fur mell an d women respeC!ively for but for hi l1.her ed ucali,.Hl q:vdHicati on 8% for
male and 9% for female.
for GeE A level and GCSE grade A to C the percemagc was DlllCb higher co mpared wit h the
other two groups. TIK number of mak';, in GeE A level Wel) roughl y 28% but for females
about 15%. However, tbe GCSE gr,lde A--( sbowe d a revC[,;c: patlern, 18 'Yo ami 28 % for
men arrd womel) respeClively.
The for the third group were mllch hw.'er. Other qualifications figures cit ed 12% for
men and 11 % for women. No qualifica tions were rccordnl for higher numbers of men and
womerr. 20% and 23%.
Overall, men h ad more higher degrees whereas women b ad more GeE or equivalent
qualifications. (168 words)
Grade: 6
Comments: Details are accurately li ste d, bu r there is no real overview. The key
points a re n o t brought our. However. the vocab ul ary sho w s some variet y and
precision. Despite minor errors of grammar, simple sen tences al e used wdL but
complex structures are lacki ng.
Task 2
To some extent I disagree with lhe no tion that competitive spons cannut be part of the
school curriculum. However, the amount of time giVt"D SbOllJd not be overlooked.
Sports as a is an ill\jlort.J11l pJrt 01 growjng up. Students regardle s of th eir age take
pilri in exercise individua:U v or as il tcam member. Ta ke primary scbools for instance, they
havL" playgrounds and [aid)' enough fadlitit:s fmrn student' can tak e benefit.
In $tL' ondary 5cl!ooh St uuents' attitude {(I sport change'. The demand for more facilities and
equipments rises. As Can be seen, more dnd 1110re teenage rs turn (0 [ootbll11, swimnling,
even body building oUtside school hours. They tr y 10 make use of t he facibties avallable t
[hem ill schoo! as well. Whilt is imponant is time \.o;'hich shoul d nOl be spent on taken up
and nll! doing Dther school work or study.
On the other hand, considering the availability of the facilities to all schools is not a bad idea.
To illuslrilll· this, some schools are well equipped while others do poorly. NQ matter how
liltk the J'acility studenLI be encouraged [0 take part in competiti ve spons.
Ai] ill aiL r think spon WdS pan of everyday ;ife in the past and iD today's span attracting
sOCielieS. The best place you Sl<lrt yoc:r life after h Ot11e is school. Everyone decides what to do
i1t early i1gt' As sport, il ',va, pan of curriculum vit ae in the pa$t alld will be in t he future
of cOurse, ,\iith ,1 bettc( managernen L (25·1 wrrdsJ
Grade: 6
Comments: Though the ideas are relevant and sullicient. faul ts in ordering and
use of Links sometimes cause diffi cul ty for t h e reader. A good range of vocabular .
is mostly used with precision. A limited but accurate range of complex sen rene
al"e deployed.

90 •••••
Practice Test 5
Task 1
Between L990 and 2005 there were so many chauges that took place in to,'! Il of Templeton
in term of developments.
On the weSl of the liver that divide the city imo t wo parts, 1111. ' re main buildings were
construcred repl acing pan 01 the gr'en area and the suburba n home. Besides. more houses
were built to reduce the greell area funher more. To the south 01 the above developments. all
houses were demolished and new buildings raised up instead together with supermarket .
To the east of the river. an airporl was built in an area previously covered by t ree. and more
houses were added to tlle aIea around the hospital
A major development took p lace in south east art of dty whe re a facto ry was constructed
and ferry service was established. replacing all of the old houses and the tree fores t tll at
occupied the area before. Moreover. a new railvvay track Ivas laid down along ide th e
embankment. (15.5 words)
Grade: 6
Comm e nt s: All key points were highlighted, but lacked a cI ar oven·jew. The data
w as logi all)' and coherently arra nged. The vocabulary was adequat E' f r [he t a ~ k .
but induded some inappropriaci es. Sentence structures were varied and usually well
comrolled. despite frequent grammati cal errors.
Task 2
Many people thin ks that the world exist ing problems are only matter the young generation
a they are the candidate who are facing tl, em now and in the future.
Alt hough a considerable percentage of the public might refe r to th esl: hazards as hazards for
the young predominantly. yet n1any of these concerns are actuall y brough t into the scene
by Tbe old people. The previous generati on are those who li ved the new developments in
science and teclmology lhal broughl wit h them pollmi on, PO\' rty and part f it also possible
distinction of many species of pla nts and animals.
So They raise the alarms for tho-e radical and serious consequences. It is often suggested that
old generation are pas ing by and not interested in what happening and only the young who
gives those alerts considerable thoughts.
However from what we are experiencing now. tbat many of green people are old and
work anj \ ely to preserve animal rights and fight fie rcely agaimt global warming and
environment al pollution. This give LIS that the present world coneene; are a shared interest
of both old and new generations. Although many an i is t on these issues appears in the
media and they are from the yomh. still and probably equal number from t he old foll ow the
same rOlltes.
Actually no one in this life want to destroy our planet. Defin it ely every parent is of concern
about his offspri ng lives thereafter. and selfish ness does not dominate OUT rhinlOng at aJl .
What one should be aware of is that such threats are not always djscussed or contemplated
in t he right way by old or young generation. (264 words)
Grade: 5
Comments: Though the ideas are relevant and well argued, cohesi on is faulty and
the paragraphing is notlogicaJ. Vocabulary is fairly varied and precise. However.
omplex structures, thougb frequent, are always (aulty, with grammatical errors
causing some strain for the reader.
Samplt' O/ISII't'r:s
Practice Test 6
Task I
The table ilJustrates the percent ages of both young boys and gi rl whu listened to musiC' tn
the previous m()l1 th in the capit al ()f Japan.
The mos t striking feat ure i that males were more interested in music than their female
counterparts except tor listening [0 CDs (19% and 22 % respectively). The highest rate wa
79% for boy' who were interested in MP3-players, while wit h regard to tbe same type of
players for girls the proponioll was 40% which was almost mnilar to the percentage of the
Int ernet (42%). With respect to live music, females recorded 44%.
Turning to the pie chart. 70% of young Japanese people prefer live musi c, whereas recorded
music raIl' was 26'% and those who answered Don't know their rale was just 4%.
In conclusion. young females spent less time l'islening to fa v mite music cOlllpared {O the
opposite sex. Regarding prefcrerKe of music Live music scored t he top percentage. (750
Grade: 6
Comments: The key poin ts are mainly covered, but ther is an important error
(paragraph 3) . It could be ordered more logically. However. cohesive devi e\ an:
well used. Vocabulary is adequate for the purpose. There are a variety of sentence
tructures, but their complexity sometimes causes difficulty for the reader.
Task 2
There is no doubt tJ1at the number of visltors and businessmen and women who are
travelling abroad has beeo incT';;3sing markedly in recent years. However. not surpri ' ingly,
underst anding t he cult ure of IDcal peop1e brings many benefits to all types o[ visitors as well
as problems for those who do n ot understand a n ew culture.
First of all, no sensible p e r ~ o n can deny the importance of breaking dOWJl barriers between
countries By this I mean, people from diiIerenl lands catl soda lize effectively and relate
emotiona lly rega rdless of their race and religion. if they lake lime to learn languages and
to find out about where tbey are gOhlg before they travel. As a res ult . the tensior) between
p0()p,le from different backgrounds would be melted.
Another imponant advantage 111at needs to be taken into account is that travell er:; can
broaden tJleir horizons by travelling. In other I-von:ls, people who travel for busi ness or
tourism definitely would gain a lot of information from t heir hos t societ y. KJ10wing how to
behave can help businessmen make lots 01 money for t hemselves and for their companies.
undoubtedly business and tourism playa pivotal role in employing of peopl e and reviving
the local economy in thei-r 01'\'11 countries and when they travel.
On t he nber hand lack of understanding of the culture and tradi tions of people may lead
to misunderstandi ng and even increased tension between di fferent cQmmunities. imply
because the background of any society can act as a mirrOJ to reflect th'e nature personality
and behaviour 01 people. Certainly. when we know these vitall hings we can overcome
many dilIiculties. (262 words)
Grade: 8
Comments: Ther are many ideas, well organized intO paragraphs and highligbted
clearly, despite minor lapses in forus. The wide range of vocabulary exhibits flexibilil}'
and precision, with only occasional inappropriades. A variety of sentence structures
are used, containing no Significant errors.
• 91
92 • II
Practice Test 7
Task 1
The two bar chart illustrate the percclllage of purchase on-li ne tickets of concert, cinema,
and theatre in (Australia, th..: UK and Malaysia). by a sekcted age group and how !.he
imeres t was accessed over the first three months of 2006.
Purchases for the age group 25-44 was the same in t he western countries at 55%, whereas
in Ma.laysia. it was JUSt under 40°/" . Surprisingly, the percentage wa s very close in t be UK
and Ma laysia a round 40'Y., for Ihe age group 65+, wil.h a slight increase in Australia to about
45 %.
Tn terms 01 the common mean of access to buy tickets, the chart shows that !.he
desktOp computers wa, the predominant means in 1alaysia the UK and Australia at about
60%,62% and 68% respeClivt"ly. Next came the wptop, wit h ados ' percentage in Australia
and Malaysi a around (45 % each). while there was a moderate drop to 30. 5% in the UK
The data might give us an indication about the nline purcha ' iog. (163 words)
Grade: 5
Comments: Excessive use of the rubri r edu es the word count and in urs a penally.
There are many inaccuracies in the data, which lacks an overviev . V('I abulary Jnd
links are inaccurately used, bUI grammar and sentence st ructures are adequate I r
the task.
Task 2
The question of whether money could be more usefully applied to tackle the crisis around
!.he world rat her than spent it OD space research is a very contr vc rsial i.ssu and it is now
a matter of considerable public concern. There are. rherdore, people on both sides of the
(lrgumem who have feeli ngs either tor or agai nst.
Many people believe that money should be spent to solve food crisis in Africa and South
Asia. Drought. [or example, left Atrica with famine. Every 30 second aD African dilld dies
of hunger and abom 45% ot d1ildren in South Asia suirer from malnutrition. Similarly, the
global issue is the conflict of ALDS in AIrica. Although, there are numerous factors in the
spread ot HIV J AIDS , it is largely recognized as a disease of poverty. Medicines, for instance,
are very expensive and Ille government in poor countries can not aHord 10 treat the disease.
tberefore Tlullions are dying. while in rich countries I eople are li ving longer.
Havi ng said that. however, some people oppose the fOIDler argument. They claim that
space research has brought enormou benefits to mankind. Recently, NASA has launched
Satellites lor weather and climate, v,'hi ch will give the scientists a unique view of earth's
auno pbere, helping tbern to improve their abilities to forecast weather and predio climate
From what has been d iscussed abov we may draw the (onclusion that bOlh points of view
bave their merits. Allhough. human life has priority in our 'oci eties, advanced research
should be out to Lind illlolber source of energy, wa ter on other pl anet , and to
uncicrstanJ the plallets and its' effect on earth tor the benefit of aU. (276 words)
Grade: 7
Comments: Though there are sufficient ideas and evidence, the first paragraph
adds nothing. Ideas are logically organized and paragraphed, but the condu ion is
n OI clearly articulated. There is a good range of vocabulary and sentence structures,
despite some jarring punctua tion errors.

Sall/ple all ll"t"1'l
Practice Test 8
Task 1
The table illustrates ex-pected cost ot the Ihree t'll vironm mal pr je IS in three different pans
of t he world in t he next five year .
The t: 'timated cOSt a lthe A1rican project in Year I is 10.5 millioll dollars, almost hal f of the
projected cost for Central America (20 million) and about one third ot t.he Asian proj ect (30
million) . It is preuictecllhat West Africa \ ill money in (he loilowi ng years than
in Year J. faJling 10 3. 5 million in Year 5. Central America h ws a imilar pattern. tn Year 5
expected mst o[ projecl }S 5 million which i.s four times Ie s than in year 1. However.
in South Ea t A. ia in year 5 spending will rise to 50 million dollar,
Regardi ng I he pie chart, 50 % 01 projected cost will cover salaries. The rest 50% will be
shared on training and office expenseS. 10% each, whi le 30% is expected set up costs .
Tu sum up SOUTh Eas! Asia has the pwjccted cos; for ellvilunlllL'nt.l1 projects fur the
next five years . (J n \Vclrr!S)
Grade: 7
Comments: The key points are presented logically and are suitably highlighleJ
by cohesive devices, However, the overview cou ld be more fully dey loped. The
vocabulary range allow some fl exibility of presentatjo.n. Sent en e structures are
vari ed, but some basic grammatical errors occur.
Task 2
Many people are moving Qut of big cities into the counrryside to live to escape [rom city
problems. Tllis is causing problems because most the jobs that are available are in the cities
so peo})le have to travel back into the cities again to work. The trans p'"lrt system can nor cope
so people are using their own cars and the countryside is affected by the traffk pIUS.
One ' oluti,ln to encourage people to Slay in cit ies is 10 improve the qua lity of life tbere. M.ore
money could be spent reducing crime, as this is one of the main reasons why people leave
cit ies. For example, more policemen can be employed lor city centres, which happenedln
NevI' York and is happeni ng here in UK As well as safe places to IVork and live city centres
could be made more iri endly and weJcoming. The en vironment can be made cleaners and
more agreeable to live and work in. This INay pC'opk might be encou raged to y ralher
1ban mOling out.
A very dif ferent ,vay to tackle the problem would to mo e of the job Ollt of city to
smaJler cities or towm. People could then sti ll live in the countryside and enjoy it and only
have ( 0 travel short distances to work. Another step is to encourage workers to spend pan of
their working week a t home, perhaps two da ys and I hen 10 go i ntCl work in the otber days,
This is h appening more and more in many parts of the world.
There are uther ways to overcome the situation but these are the most important. (264 lI'ords)
Grade: 7
Comments: The writers proposals are dearly presented, with logica l paragraphing,
but the conclUSion could be more fully developed. The progression of ideas is well
marked. The vocabulary .is very appropriate t o the task. Sentence structure are
reasonably varied, without significant errors.
• • • 93
94 •••••
Practice Test 9
Task I
The graph gives information about Ihe average moothly use oj a Healt h Club in Miami
Florida by full lime members la -I year.
One o[ the most striking features of the graph is that use the gym was higher in sununer
compared to rhe other months of the year. In January 550 male visited the:: gym the
figure decreased slightly. After that there was a significant increase in nu mber of males
membership [rom January to J unc. In June the !igur!' hit the highest point of 8500
Juiy there was a slight reduct ion to December. The trend for Ie males membership follow the
arne. However (rom July to September 7200 female useJ the gym in every month.
Turning to pie chart, -\.% more of male membership aged between 2 1 and 45 used the
facilities in gym compared to females. TbirtY- Iw pe::rc fit of femal e member had ag!;: 65+
in contrast to 25% of males. TwelllY percent o( otber age group among males had the
J;nembership compared to 17% of female .
Overall . rugher number of males used the gym than women. (179 words)
Grade: 5
Comments: opying the rubri c reduces tl1 word count. Data is listed mechanically
and, and includes serious errors. The selection, which is not wholly logical, lacks an
overview. The range of both vocabulary and sentence struct ures is limited, with many
grammatical errors .
Task 2
There is no doubt tbat age expectancy has increased over the lasr twenty \,l' a rs. The question
o[ whether the increasing number of elderly people causes posiIive eifCCTS or negative is a
matter of disput e. As far as I am concerned it has negative effect for a number of reasons.
Some people are 1 the opinion rhat this trend should be increased bl' ca use tbere migbt
be more experienced worker' in SOciety. People will work longer than nO·N. Tllli might
have a possitjve effect on economy. A - \w know. these people gi ve tax 10 I h l;: government.
Moreover if we ask anyone, they are happy to live longer as they devote most of their lives
to working. In retirement age elderly people need comfort and such desire 10 do
many rhings that they did not do before. Thus, increas ing aged populali n gives hope w [he
senio who would like to enjoy their lives.
However, I do believe that higher aged population needs higher investment as people in
elder age suffer frOIll diseases ouch as beart disease, srroke, diabetis, Alzehamer disease.
Govenunents need to invest a colosal sums of money treating such pati ents. Fur·ther more
people in elder age become more dependent to orh ers as these people n e to be supervised
by other people. I think nobody likes to live with other people and ust: the facilitjes thaI are
not belong to them. Therefore seniors suffer from depress'ion and psychological problems.
AI the "ame lime jf people work longer, [here j not promotion for rhe:: younger generation
because most positions are occupied by the elderly people.
l' conclude, Heel that the negative effects on ori ety outweigh the positive effects because
of the above reasons. (282 wcrds)
Grade: 6
Comments: There are plenty of ideas. but paragr aphing is not ma naged
However, [he sentences tend to be clearly li nked. The range of vocabulary is adequate
for the purpose, as is the varie ty of sentence struct ur es, but grammatical errors a re
Samplt! <l1l$Wer;
Practice Test 10
Task I
The bar chart ill ustrat es the percen tage of people in Great Britain living alone according to
their age and gender from 200-1 to 2005.
It is immediat ely apparent t hat Ji ing alone increased as people we re getting older and
percentage of female outnumbered the oppo ite se}; . For instance. the last category of age
howt d that tbe overwhelmi ng majority of people li ving alone female ' about 59%
compared only to 28% of male:: .
As regards males living (m thel r own we can see a little difference in the !:' ond third and
Jourth groups ur age. They alm.os t had the imilar percentage. Howl!Vt' r chi.; !lilt the case
in the first category which was just 5%. UnJike men. Ivomen', predominance began ill the
65174 year old which showeJ a dramati c change. For example the percentage of females
was 32
ft, as opposed to 15% lor males . Prior to this group, tbe Ihird category of age had
almust the same:' percentage.
By and large, Jiving al one \'Vas common among women as they go older. The 35-44 year oids
was the only category with a noticeable male predorninan e. (182
Grade: 6
Comments: The rubric is copied, reducing the word count. There is a dear overview.
with well highlighted main points. However, organlzation is less clear in the
thi rd paragraph. Vocabulary and grammar are fairly vari ed, but there are various
inaccurate usages.
Task 2
There is Little doubt that governments and Jarge i.ll stilulions implel11.em many innovation-
iJ1to our society. However, fmm my point of view. rbey are only able to Li o so with th help
of ideas from individ ual citizL'llS.
For a stan, every pan of society, including government and large imitituli ons, consists
of individual members. Governments have the righTS 10 rile furtht'r use of Ih new i.d eas
and in iact ,hould alway, listen to them. For example. a U krainiilll L'ngineer called Pia ion
il1lroduced rhe idea of i1. bridge across thl:" rivLT in Kit\·. Seeing rh.e st rategic
importance of Ihis bridge the govemment pruvidetl funds t.) build it. And nov>' the whult: of
society benefils from tllte' ur Oll(' man's idea.
Furthermore in london, rhe Mayor, Mr livingstOne, announced a comper it ion which can
be entered by individuilb to find a new way to provide air conditioning for the underground
Tliis is yet another example 01 how governments and large i nstitutioTl s rely on the
creativity 01 individual:; to be lnventive- and brin g about change.
Some people might say that goveruments have the st rength, power and mone t() reali se
and introduce new idea 0[1 thei r own. In the case ot illsti tutIOns they possess up to date
equipment and massive facilities. However 1 would sa ( that Ihey are not enough to allow
them to contribut e to society as a whole. This 1. where creal ivity and outstanding ideas come
in. So if an indi vidual's dfom are combined with t11 government" power and money,
there wou ld be many changes that could benefit eVI' T; one.
In conclusion, both indi vidual s and large organizations, lIlcluding governments need 10
work in partnership to bring about any bendjdal change. (278 words)
Grade: 8
Comments: The writer does not fully address the topic but does present a clear
and logi cally _equenced argument, supported by evidence . Cohesive devices are
used eflectively. The range of vocabula ry produces nuency and precision. Sentence
str uct ure is varied and grammaticall y accurat e.
• • •• 95
Unit 1
Task 1

Possible answer
Students' own answers. Graphs
associated with iPod and DVD
may be expected to be rising (c
or f) , whereas graphs associated
with audio and vjdeo cassettes
may be expected to be falling (a.
e, g, or b) .
19 2c 3 d 4a 5b
6 h 7 f 8 e 9 h 10 e
2 rose
3 fluctuated
4 flu tuat ed
5 dropped
6 fell. levell ed aU
7 rose, cli mbed
8 declined
9 decreased, levelled off
10 dropped
Slow: steadily, gradually,
Fast: wildly, sharply. dramat ically,
suddenl y
a There were wHd f]UCluauons
in spice exports [rom AIri a
over the period.
b There was a gradual fa ll in the
development of new products.
c Research investment has
decreased noticeably.
d There was a significant drop
in the purch , ses of ti cke ts la$[
e There was a significant r ise
in the number of sites on the
The sale of' mangos decreased
96 ••••
• •
g The number of visi tors at the
th eme park fluctuated very
h Sugar impons declined
There has been a slow increase
in the quality of food in
There was a remarkable
fluctuation i the number of
air travellers.
a African sp ice exports
b new product de velopment
d ticket purchases
e Internet sites
f mango sal es
g theme park vi sitors
supermarket food qualit y
b $85,000
c $ 125,000
d $120,000
e $130,000
a months of the vea r
b thousands of d ~ l l a r s
c Sales went up for Internet
Express. Wi-fi Cafe, and Cale
Cool, but down for The Tea
d Bet ween different cafes and
between different mont hs for
[he same cafe.
2 noun 3 verb
4 nOUD 5 adverb
6 verb 7 verb
d 2 g 3 e 4 f 5 a
6 c 7 b
Task 2
a drawbacks
b reasons
c causes
d solutions
• •
b disadvantage, ngree or
c advantages/benefit s,
disadva ntages
d agree or disagree
e advantages/benefits
f causes, solutions
g measures
b three pans, t wo statements
pl us ques ti on
c one part
d two parts, statement plus
e two parts, statem ot plus
quest ion
three pans, Statement plus
two questions
g two parts, statement plus
Possible answers

Work: people have less srabl jobs
Technology: continually
developing new computer
systems and electronic devices
Travel: air travel is still on the
increase and becoming cheaper
Communication: people are using
text message more
Healt h: life expectancy is
a first sentence
b ca uses, solutions
They are answering: can you
suggest some pas ible solutions?
Th ey sugges t: encouraging
employees to relax, providing
gyms and massage therapy,
training employees to manage
their time better.
Results: people wW be more
efficient and producti e; the
workplace ,viii b happier.
1 c 2 f 3 d <1 a
5 b 6 e
a People should be encouraged
to exercise more.
b The number of working hours
hould be reduced.
c One possibili ty is for the
government to provide each
employee WiIh their own
d Parents could be pers uaded t o
spend more ti me wilh thei r
chi ldren .
e The number of cars coming
into cities should/coul d be
A good idea is for the
government to build more
a obesity (or stress)
b stress
c (echnology
d lack of disdpline
e traffi c congestion
f overcrowding
Possible answers
b As a res ult , peopl e wou ld be
obliged to manage th elr l ime
more effedively.
c Thi would enable them to
work irom hom and avoId
str ess[ul journeys into work.
d This would lead to better
communication between
family members.
e Consequently, the:re woul d
be less traffic congestion
and journey times would be
By doing this, they would
ensure that there were fewer
people living in crowded or
substandard accommodation.
addition: and, furthermore
condition: H
example: for instan ce, for
reason :
result :
in order to
because, since
consequently, and so ..
therefore. as a result
as a resulr, and so
for example
rhe obvious answer is
Possible answers
If people migrate to cities,
they become trapped in poor,
over rowded accommodation and
so thei r healt h deteriorates and as
a result their quality of life may
be no bener than before. A good
idea would be to try to create new
jobs in the countryside. By doing
this, people would not feel the
need to move into ci ties which
are already overcrowded.
People spend too much time
watching TV For example, some
children stay up late watching
TV in their bedroom instead
of getting a good night'S , Ieep .
Consequen tly, they arrive at
school tiled and unable to learn.
If hous eholds just have one TV in
rhe main li ving area. then it wiLi
be easier to control h ow many
hours are spent in front of it.
This will lead to better res ult s at
The development of tourism
often creates resentment among
local people because tourists
do not help the local e onomy.
For example, they may stay
in international hotels which
make large prouts outside the
country. Tbe obvious answer
is to encourage tourLsts to use
locally available accommodation .
Furthermore, by doing this, they
would learn more about the
COLUJ try they are visiting.
••• •
Task 1
a paper lUoney, around eighth
century AD
b ballpoint pen, patented 1938
(other dates are Fahrenheit 's
thermometer 1714, Durand'
tin can 1810, and Hunt's
safety pin 1849)
c Students' own answers.
d There are many otber
important historical
inventions. They could
include paper, the light bulb,
radi o and TV.
a The bicycle was ranked as
most imponant by most males
and females .
b More females thelD males
ranked the bicycle, mobile
phone, and radio as the most
More males than females
ranked the car, computer,
Internet. and TV a the most
a than
b popular
c less
d The least popular
e l\'lore
f The most popular
g Fewer
h less importan t
Possible answers
Not as many females as males
chose the car.
lot as many males as females
chose the mobile phone.
• • • 97
a More males than females
eho e the car.
b More women than meu
selected the mobile phon
c The Internet was chosen by
more males than females.
d More females than males
picked the radio.
e Fe\..,· r males than females
picked the radio.
The computer was chosen by
few r females than males .
g The bicycle was selected by
fewer males than female s.
a Slightly
b considerabl y
c Many
d Substant iall y
e signifi can tly
f pracl ically
g far
h mucb
N .arly
a nearly, pra ctically
b considerably, many,
'ubstantiaUy, significantly,
far, much
e slightly
Possible answers
a Far more males t ban femal es
ch ose the car.
b Considerably more women
th an men sel ected the mobile
c The Internet was chosen by
significantly mor e males r11an
d Substantially more females
than males picked the radio.
e Significantly fe wer males than
female picked the radio ..
f The computer was chosen by
slightly fe\"o'er females than
mal es.
g The bicycle was elected by
slightly fewer males than
females .
•• •
Possible answers
a The bar hart probably
provides infom1ation about
the number of people in two
di Uerent age groups who had
various interests.
b numbers of people
c interests/societies
d age groups
e There is no lime reference.
1 c 2 e 3 a 4 f
5 d 6 b
1 1
Ending could come first: 2, 3, 4,
5, 6
Noun phrase only: in comparison
wi/h, compared with
Correct options
1 However, By contrast
2 but. while
3 but, wh.ereas
4 far, considerabl y
5 but, although
6 significan t.l y, noticeably
Task 2
Archeologists, for example, help
us to learn abo ut the pas t. They
look for evidence in artefacts like
pots and jewellery. These reveal
a lot of information abo ut our
ancestors. This is very useful, but
it is still quite li mited.
1 d 2 b 3 a 4 c
b Old buildings help create a
more relaxing environment
in cities than concrete office
blocks .
c Studying history may ~
an interest in Qther subject
~ .
d Built-up areas can be made
more attractive by adding
monuments and stat ues.
e Gov rnmems should provide
more money to preserve
historical sites.
f Tradit ion does not hold us
back as some people believe.
g Schools and colleges need to
emphasize history and related
subjects .. .
h The Interne! and computers
ca n be used [ 0 preserve the
a it/thi s
b , hey
c This
d it, it
e it fthis
f this
g this
Students' own answers.
Other impQrtant histori cal
e ents could be the ctiscQvery of
Australia. the discovery that the
earth goes round the sun, or the
first splitting of the atom.
Relevant PQints: b, d, e, g
Possible answers
__ . such as in Ancient Greece or
during the Roman Empire.
A s a result, they will be able to
compare these societi es with our
own .
Th erefore. they \vill become more
aware of the kind of society that
we live in.
Furthermor ' , they will come tQ
appreciate [h e contribution lhat
these sQcieties made to the way
~ v e think roday.
Students' own answ rs.
Possible answers
They eQuId visit historical places
such as castles or archaeolQgical
They ould research their own
family history.
They could do project work on
historical periods or figures whQ
intere t them .
1 2 3
Solutions a b h
Examples i e d
Effects f c g
a solution b effect
c example d solution
e example f example
g effect h solution
Possible answers
One way is to encourage children
to study history by using the
Internet. For example, they could
search for in formation about
histOrical fi gures online. This
coul d increase their motivation to
do historical res earch.
The best wa y is probably to visit
historical ire . For instance,
children could visit a local
archeological site. As a resul t,
the h istorical places will come to
seem more real.
Another method is to involve
children in doing writing projects,
such as p roducing a p ster or an
informa tion booklet . The skills
that they practise in these sorts of
projects could then be applied in
other subj ecis.
Unit 3
Task 1
Possi ble answers
a ring: gold, silver
house : cement, stone, wood,
bag: plastic
shoe: 1 athe r
car: steel, plastic, glass
b natural : gol d, silver, ston e,
wood, leather
manufactured: cement, glass,
plastiC, steel
1 is extracted
2 is heated
3 is cooled
4 reaches
5 cool s
6 condenses
1 hold
2 rain s
3 fil l
4 becomes
a intransiti ve
b transitive
c bOlh
5 occur
6 rises
7 begins
c. falls
Semence a cannot be put inlO the
Transitive: design,
produce, send, mamtfact ure,
obtain, become
Intransi tive: fail, ri se, die
Both: begin, dry, grow, cool
Some variation is possible.
a A. fter the motorcycle is
designed, a prototype is made .
It is tested and the motorcycle
is manufactured. Ai ter thi s, it
is exported and sold.
b First the wheal i planted, and
later the crop is harvested .
The wheat is transported to
the mill where it is made into
flour. The flour is bough t by a
baker. Later the bread is baked
and sold.
1 b 2 c 3 a 4 h 5 d
6 e 7 8 g
a by conveyor belt
b oxygen
c raw syngas
d carbon dioxide, mercurv an d
sulphur '
e puriiied syngas
f It drive it.
••••• •••
g It powers it.
h the turbine
They are sent to a heat
reco cry steam generator.
1 First of all
2 After that
3 where
4 From this
5 Follo\ving that.
6 in turn
7 then
8 subsequently
a When the snow fa l s, it covers
the ground with a protective
b As soon as her cubs are born,
the lioness licks them all over.
e Once the paper is collected. it
is sent [or re yeUng.
d Before volcanoes erupt, they
send huge amounts of smoke
into the air.
e When the plants perspire, th
ai r becomes h umid.
The trees are cut down
and the lorest is gradually
Possible answers
a As soon as the food is
processed, it is packaged and
then it is dis tributed.
b When the cycle is completed.
it repeats itself al l over again.
c Ailer the rubbish is collected.
it is sent to a centre for soning
and then it is recycled.
d. Once a new model of the
bicycle is developed, it is
rested .
e When the TV is assembled, it
is sent to the shops.
s soon as lh e water is
purified, it is bou led.
g The data about the weather is
collected, and the information
is then broadcast.
h Once the prot otype has been
tes ted, it is modified.
• • •• 99
Students' own answ n.
Task 2
Possible answers
a Computers, au(Omatic doors,
mobile phones, and satellite
navigation systems can all
belp. All of them can make
life difficult as it can take orne
time to learn how to use tbem
and they can go wrong.
b Aut omatic doors and TV
remote controls might make
people lazier. Video games and
lv1P3-players might also make
people lazy in that peopl
might c me to prefer using
these instead of taking up
more active pastimes.
c St udent' own answers.
auses, s JUli ons
a practical skills for everyday life
b over-reliance on machines
c office functions, openin
and locking doors, switching
machines on and off
d IN rkers cannot do basic
practical tasks.
e They have dilficulty in
processing basic information.
a all ow the TV to do their
thinking for them at home
b traditional practical skills
a Sometimes computers make
mistakes and prevent things
happening, which wastes
valuable time and can cost
b TV programmes provide
people with infonnation
about the world around them.
which is often very useful.
c Machines now give us more
freedom, which means w
have more time for leisure
activities .
100 •••••
d Technology saves us more and
more lime, which can be used
to create more
e More and more household
tasks are now carried out by
robots, which will be even
more common in the future.
Ev rything seems to be
available at the touch of a
bulton, which makes people
ex-pect instant responses from
other people.
a computers make mistakes and
prevent things happening
b information about the world
c machi nes nov give us more
d time
e r bots
f everything eems to be
available at the touch of a
The which-clause expresses an
effect in a, c, d, and f.
a The situation, which has now
become much more complex.
is effectively out of control.
b The problem, which the public
blame the government for, is
everyone's responsibility.
c The cause of the problem.
which is not immediately
obvi us to everyone, is a lack
of basic training.
d The solution, which in my
opinion, is by far the best. is
to have a day at work where
people do not use computers
or other machines.
e Office technology, which
require only basic
t use, is the cause of much
frustration at work.
Paragraph 2
Example: fiting a pl ug, mending
a puncture on a bicycle, or even
sewing a button on a shirt
Cause: parents no longer have
enough time to spend at home
with their children
Effect: young people are
consequently deprived of
valuable lime to I am practical
Paragraph 3
Call (>: j'nt ernatiooal drive
towards leaming new technology
Result 1: young people leavin
school literate in certain
computer skills
Result 2: a generation almost
deficient in ba ic practical skills
Reason: tedmical problem-
solving bas been squeezed OUI
of the curriculum
Example: making thing in
carp ntry
Paragra ph 1
Problem: First of all
Cau e: A number of reasons have
been put for ward for thi s, bUl by
fa r the most important
Pa,ragraph 2
Example: li.k
Cause : becau t:
Ellect: consequently
Paragraph 3
Cause: also needs to carry a good
part of the blame
Result 1: This has led to
Result 2: it has also created
Reason: becau e
Example: like
consequ ntly
as a result
and so
for this reason
as a consequence
which leads to
which means that
in order to
so as to
with the aim of
. 0 that
1 1
Possibl'e answers
a Children are now learning
how to do mental arithmetic
agai n, which means that they
will rely less on calculators
b Some cities charge motorists
to take their cars into the
cemre in order to encourage
people to use public transport.
c Machines are manufactured
to break down after a certain
time, 0 that companies can
sell more of them.
Unit 4
Task 1
Students' own answers
a The pie charts describe the
proponion.s of each group
reading particular numbers of
article ' each week.
b The number represent
percentage f people.
c It shows the number of
articles read each week. There
are three separate
d For all student , the most
noticeable feature is that the
majority read 1-5 artides .
Por PhD students, the most
noticeable feature is that the
majority read twelve or more
articles per week.
For junior lecturers, the most
noticeable feature is that the
majority read 6-11 articles per
e In general, most students read
between one and five articles
a week.
Most PhD students read more
articles than other tudents
and junior lecturers.
A tiny minority of junior
lecturers read only 1-5 articles
per week.
how, an
For example,
but, which
Paragraph I : a
Paragraph 2: b, c, d
Paragraph 3: e, f
Paragraph 4: g
General: a, e, g
Specific: b, c, d, f
General: b, d, e, f, g
Specific: a, c, h
a Far fewer junior Je turers read
over twelve articles a we . .
compared \ovith PhD students.
The average junior lecturer
reads mort: journal articl
than the average student.
c The average PhD student
reads more articles than
the other students at the
d Those students who are
researching for a PhD have
more time to read articles than
junior lecturers .
26 per cent
a.bout one in four
just over a quarter
33 per cent
one third
one in three
48 per cent
almost hali
nearly hali
ju I under one half
close to one hali
75 per cent
three out of four
ree quarters
very big: vast, overwhelming
very big (used before numbers) :
massive, hefty
very small: tiny
not very big (used before
n.umbers): modest, mere
Possible arnswerrs
a about one in four/just under a
b the overwhelming/vast
majority of; 75 per cent
c about one in three/just over
one third: one in ten
d Filty per cent; a hefty 64 per
cent/over ix ut of ten
e The overwhelming/vast
majority/ About nine out of
1 1
a The percentage who spent
8-14 hour in tbe library are
imilar: 35 p r cent for all
students and 32 per cent {or
postgraduate. The proportion,
are approximately the
but for different of
b The percentages of ludents
spending 1-7 hours and
fifteen or more hours are very
different in each case.
c As students progre s toward
postgraduate level. the
number of hours spent in the
library increases.
d The similarity between
the diff rent proportions
for undergraduates and
postgraduates, but for
different categories.
e Undergraduate students spend
Ies time tha n other students
in the library. Other stu dents
spend less time in the library
than postgraduate students.
Postgraduate students spend
more time in the Ubrary than
all other students.
a pattern e trend
b proportion f two-thirds
c majority g quarter
d minority
Students' own answers.
•• • • • 101
Task 2
a They are connected by the
topic of education.
b No. th y stand alone. The
statements are very sweeping
and do not dearly support the
fjrst one.
c You could give reasons like:
because chis would help poorer
countries and poorer parts of rich
anmtries develop. Then you
could give example . like: For
example, s hoofs in places like
.... could be sponsored by richer
B th statements SllPP rt the
Students' own ans wers.
Possible answers
a It is important that
universities should make
more links with businesses.
b There is no doubt that the
present young generation
knows more than therr
previous counterparts.
c One cannot deny that
teaching thinking at school
is e sential, even at primary
d It is impossible to argue
agai n I the fact that more
time needs to be devoted to
learning music, either during
or after school hours.
Possible answers
e Some people believe physical
education is a necessary part
of Lhe learning process for aU
Some people feel that play is
a major part of the learning
race for children.
g Other people are of the
opinion that it is imponant
{or hildren to LTy to learn
anot her language arly in
their education.
102 •• ••
h Yet other people put forward
the view that being bored and
learning to deal with boredom
is a necessary part of the
learning process for children.
e d2 c3 b4 S g
6a 7/ 8h
a 3 b 2
Possible answers
a For example, they can learn
languages li ke Japanese or
b A good example is the endless
tests given to school children
in some countri s.
C Take for example trips to
place. of historical interest likt:
The Great Wall of China or
d It can, for example, provide
small classes an d sometimes
even better facilities.
e Famous sports stars li ke
footballers could. for instance,
conduct training on a regular
Possible answers
a Some people are of the
opinion that foreign
language learning should be
compuJsory, because it helps
intellectual development.
It can, for instance, develop
one's own language and
improve communication.
b There is no doubt that
students need to have good
study skills on ntering
university. since most subjects
r quire a lot of sophis ticated
skills like listeni ng [0 lect ures,
note taking, etc.
c Yet others feel that university
lecturers need some teacher
training, as they are us d to
lecturi ng rather than teaching
which is not uitable for small
groups. Lecturers could, for
instance, follow short courses
or visit coUeges or schools.
d It is important that boys and
girl ought to be educated in
separate schools. One reason
for thjs is (hat the learn in
different ways. For example.
boys are known to prefer
competitive activities.
e SOIDe people think that
teachers' salaries need to
be as high as doctors' or
lawyers' since they have such
an important job to do. For
instance, creating a future
generation of doctors and
lawyers requires go d welJ-
paid teachers in the present .
Unit 5
Task 1
Suggested answers
a Dave thinks it wa worSe.
There is now more lor young
people to do.
Sandra thinks it was better. II
was quiet and peaceful. 0\
there is a bypass.
Tom agrees the tOwn wa
prettier and more pea cful.
However. he thinks there are
more jobs and opportunities.
b Students' own answers.
c Dave: The ice rink, the leisur
centre, and the kate park
were opened by the council
last year.
Sandra: A ypass an an
industrial estat e were built a
few year ago.
d Students' own answers.
a The town changed
conSiderably over tbe peri od.
b 11 was more residential.
c There were fewer trees in
d They were dramatic.
e The construction of the
stadium and tbe removal of
the houses.
They were cut down and
replaced by skyscrapers.
2 residential
3 experienced
4 noticeable
5 houses
6 factories
7 facilitie
8 construction
9 comer
10 comparison
a The town cent re was
developed dramatically.
The neighbourhood was
completely transformed.
c The residential area was
totalJy reconstructed
d The old factories were totally
e The old houses were rebuilt .
f The entertainment district was
completely modernized.
b The town centre developed
a The map shows changes
which took place between 19 0
and 2005.
b cry few trees remained.
c Over the next 25 years. a ll
these houses were kl10cked
d The single dwellings made way
for skyscrapers.
e The trees wae cut down.
f The area experienced dramatic
changes .
g The woodland made way for a
golf course.
h A marina was also built.
a was knocked down
b was cut down
c was redeveloped
d was converted
e underwent
J was pulled down/replac d
g was constructed
h took place
was transformed
d cannot replace Between 2000 and
a By 2005, the row of old
houses had been knocked
down to make way for a road.
b By 2005, the forest had been
cut down to build a railway.
c By 2005, the area had been
redeveloped completely.
d By 2005, the factory had been
converted into an art gallery.
e By 2005, the city centre
had undergone a total
By 2005, the row of old
terraced houses in [he city
bad been pulled down and
replaced by a block of fiats .
g By 2005, a sports omplex
had been conslrUcted in the
h By 2005, a number of
spectacular changes bad taken
By 2005, the whole
centre of the town had
been transformed by new
a Tbey are beside the railvvay
b It is north-east of the lake.
c It is south-west of the
d It is south oJ the goll course.
e It is north of the skyscrapers.
f It is in the south-west of the
g It is south of the river.
a in
d in
g beside
Task '2
b by
e from
b on
Students' own answers.
c beside
f on
K ~ j '
a You can agree or disagree
completely. You can agree 50
per cent an d disagree 50 per
cent. You cannot be neutral.
You have to express an
b Young employ e should
receive the same amO).lnl of
money as older people i f they
do identical work.
a Opinion statement
b Contradiction
t Example
d Explanafion
e Reason
f Reason
g Resuli
a Many people believe that
b R wever
c Take {or example
d They deserve to receive the
same salary .
e because
f Moreover,
g which
Students' own answers.
Delete the following:
1 Moreover
2 while
3 And
4 also
5 however
6 Subsequently
1 a. contrast
2 b reason
3 a addition
4 c example
5 a result
6 c conclusion
• • •• 103
Possible answers
a Many feel that young people
have much more influence
in the world than their
coumrparts in the past.
Personally, I believe that this is
not necessarily true, because
most people in power belong
to the older generation. For
example, most politicians
throughout the world
are mainly middle-aged.
Moreover, most wealth is
concentrated among people
in their forties upwards. So,
young people may appear
to exert influence, but it is
b Accorcting 10 some people,
older workers are just as
equipped to deal with the
modem world as young
people. However, I think that
younger people are much
more prepared because they
are much more compllt er-
litera te than older peopJe.
Moreover, they are welJ-
acquainted with the latest
'gadgetS'. For example, many
young people are able to
design their own web pages
and adapt quickly £0 the latest
tools. Thus, I feel they are
better at coping with today's
c Some people are of the
opinion that advertising
should not be banned in TV
programmes directed at young
people. Nevertheless, I fe eL
adverts in these programmes
should be SlOpped, as they
encourage young people to
buy products that neither they
nor their parents can afford.
Take the latest toys or ED
television sets. may be
put under enormous pressure
to buy these, thus ending
up in debt. So I think some
control must be exercised
over TV commercials in
programmes for young
1 a 2 C 4 b
104 •
Possib,le answer
Some people feel [hat weblogs are
ju t a waste of time and another
way to lure people on to the
Internet. Personally, however,
I feel that they are very useful
for people of all ages, especially
young people, for many reasons.
Task 1
Students' own answers.
Possible answers
Student exchanges, language
learning, joint ultural events,
and shared cientific, and
technological know- how an be
canied out by individuals.
Trade agreements, transport
links, and media images can be
i.mproved by governments.
Tourism can be carried out
by both individuals and
Climate and landscape, and
lifestyle and culture are difficult
to change.
a the overwhelming majority of
people were in (a vour of
b with iii smaller number
naming lifestyle and food
c the most important languages,
about equal numbers of
a Sentence a relates to student
exchanges, b relates to
climate, and c relates to
language learning.
b Sentence a is illustrated by pie
chart b is illustrated by pie
chart 4, and c is illustrated by
pie char t 3,
a pie chart I
b pie chart 3
c pie chart 1
d pie chart 2
e pie chart 4
a The vast majority of holiday
makers to China . ..
b It is clear that aIm st equal
numbers of bot h sexes ...
c Only a Liny minority of
filmgoers ...
d Tn conclusion, the trend is
Jearly upward, with just
under hall of companies ...
e To sum up, neady a third of all
tourists .. .
It is clear that
To conclude
It is evident tha l
It would seem that
It is clear that
In conclusion
To sum up
a Backpacking is popular
wi th the youngest gr up
and guided tours relatively
unpopular. This pattern is
reversed for (he oldest group.
b 31-40 year aids
c satisfied
2 enj oyed
3 belong
4 accounts for
5 comes
6 make up
7 include
8 is rated
It is dear ...
a although, ne vertheless
b although is a conjunc1ion,
nevertheless is an adverb.
Nevertheless normally starts a
c bUL however, despite
But is a conjunction. however is
an adverb and normally starts a
sentence. Despite can only be used
before a noun or an -i119 form.
a 3 b 1 c 5 d 2 e 4
a Although the ast majority of
vi sitors to Britain come from
Europe, they stay for fewer
than len days on average.
b Alt hough forty-five per cent
of people speak a for ign
language. tb e vast majority
are at a low level.
( Despite its/the good weather,
southern France is vi ited by
only two per cent of Asian
tourists .
d The number of student
exchanges rose, but/although
the st of them wenl up.
e Although the event was
promoted to teenager, they
accounted for only 32 per cent
of the audience.
Task 2
Students' own answers
a the first sentence
b the s cond sen renee
(advanta es and
disadvantages )
(Some other entertainment
devices may be possible.)
a Advantage: iPod, DVD player
b Advantage: Mobile phone.
c Disadvantage: iPod, handheld
d Advantage: iPod, handheld
e Advantage: iPod, mobile
phone, handheld game, DVD
Disadvantag : iPod.
g Disadvantage: Mobile phone.
h Disadvantage: iPod, handheld
a benefi t
b help
c difficult
d enable/help
e interfere
f ideal
Advantage: h Jp, benefits, ideal.
Disadvantage diliicult, interfere,
a e
b for example. so, however.
hence, neverth eless, because
c Th y allow people to relax;
they allow people grealer
freedom; they are a nui ' ance
for other travellers .
for example
2 even if
3 likewise
4 though
5 Although
6 and
7 Consequently
a disadvantage
b (, e, f, h
( Main advantage: this aT/ows
p.:ople greater freedom and
flexibility and takes away the
boredom ofjoll rneys.
Main disadvantage: people are
becomi11g more and more isolated
in their OW1/ worlds. The art of
communication is being lost.
a drawbacks
b chance
c gain
d problems
e handicap
f opportunities
g benefit
Serio liS empbasizes disadvantage.

Advantage: advantageous,
beneficial, useful , invaluable.
helpful, convenient
Disadvantage: wonhless, di Ui cuIt
advantageous - di advantageous
beneficial - detrimental
useful- useless
wonhless - valuable/invaluable
invaluable - worthle
difficult - easy
belpful- unhelpful
convenient - inconv !li ent
Possible answers
a International art s festival s
en ourage intt:n:sl in [her
people's cultures.
b Lending artworks to other
countries improves their:
knowledge of other culture .
c Films and (oncert enhance
the quality of people's lives.
d To enable children to value
their heritage, we need to
show (hem how strongly it
still influences society tOday.
e Personal links can benefi t
travellers when they are out
of their own country.
Ignorance of ther people's
tradi ti ons can handicap
busi ness partnerships .
g To prevent countries from
falling out with each olher, we
need to promote interest in
part icular cultures.
a I Although, 2 Despite
b I emphasizes the
disadvantage, 2 emphasizes
the advantage.
a Although
b However/N vertheless
c Despite
d However:/Nevertheless
e but
• • 105
Unit 7
Task 1
Students' own answers.
a There was little hange over
the period. onJy a slight
increase from each source.
b The highest proportions were
allocated by non-European
countries (Japan and USA .
c business
d the EU average
The highest proportion was
allocated by Japan, the lowest
by Italy.
is shown 3 rose
arne 5 contribut
overtoo ' 7 was spent
contributed 9 wa '
slightly, approximately,
consistently, closely, significantly.
a sign iii can tly
b consistently
d slightly
e marginally
f considerably
g Approximately
a 4 b 5 c 3 d 7 e 1
f 2 g 6
It is also noticeable that
It is interesting to note that
a The number of sdentists
per head of population has
declin d significantly in recent
year .
b It is interesting that the sales
failed to recover.
c Numbers will probably
continue to fall over the
106 •••••
d ot surprisingly, there were
kills shortages in the chemical
e It is evident that inveslment
needs to be increased.
1t is noticeable that the patter
for investment in the arts is
the reverse.
g It is more important that the
cost of plasma screens is set
to fall.
h It is not surprising that
analogue TV sales then fell.
Sentences b, and d are possible.
a The number of science
graduates fell significantly.
b Evidently. the number of
technical staff in hospitals is
c The cost of training scientists
is increasing noticeably year
by year.
d Interestingly. investment
in capital equipment like
spedalist machinery is down
on last year.
e ot surprisingly, sale of new
televisions soared before the
World Cup.
The trend is now obviously
Possible answers
a Funding for R&D increased
only marginally over the
Bu iness provided
approximately halI of the
investment in ! 998.
The amount of funding
increased very slowly over the
b Japan allocated considerably
more of its national income to
R&D than Ita] y.
Evidently, the four EU
countries invested less than
the USA or Japan.
The proporti on of national
income given to R&D was
noticeably higber in Germany
and France than in Ital y.
The proportion allocated
by the UK was onJy slightly
above the EU average.
Interestingly. tlle average
proponion among EU
oUllIries wa below that for
Japan and the USA.
a students on all courses at an
Au tralian unjversit y
b seven
c maths
d phy ic . rientallanguages
e chemistry
f Apparently not. Fo( example.
chemistry and physic are
both science subjects but
chemistry was seen as easy by
70 per cent of students and
pbysics by only 25 per ent.
Likewise, among language
subjects. African languages
were seen as easy by 60 per
cent but oriental languages by
onl y 20 per cent.
a irrelevant
b relevant
c relevant
d irrelevant becau e it contains
an unn essary opinion
e relevant
f irrelevant as it give t 0 much
data. or rather unnecessary
inionnat ion about how the
bar chart is drawn
Possible answer
The bar chart shows whether
student at an Australian
university rated different subjects
as easy, moderately difficult. or
difficul t.
Tbe subject which was most
commonly rated as dif[icult was
maths. by 70 P r cent of tudems.
Only 20 per cent saw it as easy.
Physics was also largely judged
to be a dillicult or moderately
difficult subject. Only 25 per cent
of students 'ewed it as easy. By
contrast, chemistry was regarded
as easy by a massiv . 70 per cent
of students.
A far as language subjects are
concerned. language in general
were seen as easy by 40 percent
of students. This percentage
dropped to 20 percent for orienta
languages. African languages,
however, were iewed as ea y by
60 per cent of rudents. An was
judged to be an easy subject by
only 30 per cent of students and.
like physics, 50 per cent rated it as
In conclusion, there seerru to be
no dear correspondence between
the type of subject and whether
it was generally rated as easy or
Task 2
Students' own answers.
Background information:
Leonardo da VInci was a famous
Italian anis! and inventor who
aimed the Mona Lisa .
Albert Einstein was a famous
theoretical physicist who came up
with the theor)' of relativity.
Sir Isaac A eWlOn was an English
scientist and mathematician
who described the properties of
Nicola us Copernicus was a Polish
sdentist who recognized that the
Earth orbited the Sun.
a first sentence
b second sentence
c third sentence
I c 2 b 3 a
Many people feel strongly; They
argue; Supporters of ans groups
a4 bl c3 d5 e2
IS g7 h6
Possible answers
b Some people feel that
the wealth of a nation is
connected with scientific
development. They claim that
modem economies cannot
advance without a strong
scientific base.
c A commonly held belief is
that science is now playing a
more important role in our
lives than in the past. People
feel that it has an effect on
everything we do from eating
to travelling.
d It is argued by some people
that the work of artists should
be censored. They maintain
that certain works of art that
are produced are offensive
and should be banned.
e Some people think that
scient ists should have some
involvement with artists. and
vjce versa. They argue that
bringing these two groups
together would be better for
society as a whole.
f Some people feel that science
is dull and boring. They
maintain tbat spending time
alone in laboratories without
much human contact is not
very interesting.
g It is argued by some
people that many sdentific
experiments are dangerous 10
society. They claim that there
are many examples where
serious mistakes bave been
h Yet others believe that the
work of scientists should
n Ot be tightly regulated by
society. They argue that by
limiting scientillc work, we
might stop certain beneficial
Possible answers
b A good example here is
Germany, which produces
a large number of sdence
graduates and has a thriving
c For example. when we buy
food frOID the supermarket
the flavourings and additives
bave all been measured and
tested sdentilically.
d A case in point are certain
works which depict religious
e For example. more regular
contact between tl1e two would
help scientists to appreciate'
the way in which scientilic
advances are perceived in
society as a whole.
Take the job of lab technician
for instance. It involves
dealing with tests and test
resul ts, and there is very linie
human contact involved.
g A good example is certain
tests in which possible new
medical drugs were tried out
on humans only to find that
they bad unforeseen and very
serious effects on the subjects'
health . .
h For instance. how could we
continue to research cures
for disease. uch as cancer
or AIDS if the
commun ity were allowed
to interfere with scientist '
a2 b5 c4 ell e3
would. could and might talk about
Sentence d asks the reader
to imagine a situation and its
a Unless they are ncouraged by
parents and teachers. budding
musicians will not develop.
b If science stops the ageing
process in humans one day,
will this benefit mankind?
c Unless there is an effon to
keep traditional crafts alive,
they will disappear.
d Providing innovation is
encouraged, many new jobs
will be created.
Possible answers
a Provided parents have an
interest in mlJ sic, they will
encourage musical talent in
their children,
• • •• 10'
b IJ govemment support for ans
projects is not available. they
will be forced to seek funding
c Unless entrance to museums
and art galleries i free. many
people will never experience
them at all .
d Providing young scientists are
given the right opport unities,
the work they do has the
potential to be of enormous
benefit to society.
Unit 8
Task 1
Possible answers
a The photographs relate
ro our changing future
relationship with the
b-d Students' own answers.
a 1f shows predictions for the
number of buildings that will
be powered by solar and wind
b They relate t the number of
c 0-600 million
a will
b pr dieted, will
c prediction, will
d predicted
a projection, forecast,
b projected, anticipated. forecast
c prediction: expectation,
predicted: expected.
estimated, set
a is predi ct d. will provid
b are expected
c will come
d i. forecast
e is not expected
r is projected. will be
g is set
h is anticipa ted. will provide
108 •••••
Sentence a decribes something
which ""rill happen before a future
Sentence b describes something
in progress at a time in the future.
a will be using
b will be living
c will have been old
d will have become
e will have been de troyed
a the pie chart
b It is projected to increase.
c Ireland
d Hungary
e the pie chart
( Yes. 64 per cent.
The charts show forecasts for
the annual reforestation (not
deforestalion) rate in selected
2 They forecast that the
reforestation rate in th fou r
regions will grow unti l 2025
(not 2035)
3 It i projected that Ireland will
hav the highest ra te in 2025
at 1.7 per cent (nor 1.5 pt'r cent)
4 It i, anticipated that the figure
wi ll cl imb from 0.5 per cent in
200 (not 20]5)
5 with the worldwide average
for both 2015 and 2025, 1. 0
per cent and 1.3 per cent
r especti vely (nol .1.3 and 1.0)
6 (' concerned' 39 per cent, and
' very concerned' 25 per cent).
a It is predicted that the use of
solar energy will become more
b We see from the chart that
the largest amount of money
was spe nt on the water
conservation project.
c The chart shows th· different
types/of trees which are found
in different regions.
d From the pie chart, it can be
seen that hydroelectric power
constitute seven per cent of
the world energy demand.
It is clear that tlte majority ot
people are very concerne
about climate change.
Recently, a number of
campaigns have encouraged
people 10 plant trees.
Generally, it is forecast that the
reforestation rate
It is al'O worth noting that
From the pie chart. it can be seen
a It gives in thousands the
estimated and actual numbers
of houses built in the UK in
b seven
c below
d outhern England (77. 00).
London (47.800) and in
Central England (16.200) .
These figur far exceeded (he
estimate ..
e North of England. The
estimate was 9. 300 houses
while the actual figure was
f Nonhern Ireland and Wa e .
In Wales, it was estimated that
2,900 houses would b built.
but the rea l fi ure was 6,300.
Likewise. in orthern Ireland
the stimate was for 2,500
t housand houses, but the rea l
number was 5.000.
g Scotland.
h cotland. 1t was estimated that
3.200 hou es would be built
but in the event Ih figure was
nly 3,000.
Possible answer
The diagram give figures for the
actual and estimated numbers of
houses built in the UK by region
in 2002.
In most cases, the estimated
number was below the number
of houses which were actually
built. The highest numbers of
houses were onstructed in
Southern England (77,600),
Loudon (47,800). and i Central
England (16,200), far exceeding
the estimates (5 1. 10 . 24,800,
and 8,100 respectively) . imilarly
in the onh of England. there
was a disparity of just 0 er 4,000
between th two figures, 9,300
houses for the estimated figure
against L3,500 for the actual
figure. orthern Ireland and
Wales foll owed the same trend,
2,500 houses as opposed to 5,000,
and 2.900 compared to 6,300.
Scotland was the region where
the lowest number of houses
were built. It was esti mated
tbat 3,200 houses would e
constructed but in the event th
figure was only 3,000.
In conclusion, it is clear that
many more houses were built io
the UK in 200_ than had been
Task 2
Possible answers
a The most serious threats are
water sh nages, dTOugh t
and other natural disasters.
as well as other effects ot:
global warming.
b-d Students' own an wers.
2 factories 6 leisure
3 pollutants 7 pressure
4 fish 8 action
5 wildlife 9 incentives
animal - countable
information - uncountable
nature - uncountable
cl imate - uncountable
accommodation - uncountable
knowledge - uncountable
research - uncountable
weather - uncountable
tree - countable
idea - countable
situation - coun.table
fact - countable
problem - countable
factOries - countable
oll utants - countable
fish - uncountable
wildlife - uncountable
I isure - uncountable
pressure - uncountabl
action - uncountable
incentives - countable
a no article, no article
b no anicle
d a, no article
e no art icle
f the
g The. no article
h The
a Wave power technology is the
best answer to lhe problem
of pollution. However,
the introduction of such
technology also creales a
b Government worldwide
should tax the cars more . A
measure like this would make
people think more about
c In the near fut ure, hOllses will
be more energy-eilicient than
rhey are now.
d The food industry could pay
for recycled b t lIes as was
done in the past. The bottles
would rhen not be thrown
e Insects like the bees. for
example, play a vital role in
most ecosystems. Th bee
pollinates plants and flowers.
'fhe Facilities Uke dams and
forests are also used for
aJ b 2 c2 dl e2
fI g 2
Question I
Statement of most important
measure: d
Another possible measure and
why it is I 5S effective: [
Restatement o[ most important
meas ure and it consequences: a
£<e \'

Question 2
Statement of opinion: b
Reference to rhe opposite view: e
Reason against the opposite view: g
Restatement of opinion: c
In conclusion: to sum up. to
I do not agree: I do not accept. I
disagree with the idea tha t
All in all: in generaL all thillg
I feel that: I believe, I would argue
cert ainly: of ourse. n doubt
a There i no rea on why loca
e o-friendly busincs es cannO!
b uccessfll!.
b There is no reason why people
could not take more holida y$
at home instead of always
flying abroad.
c There is no reason why people
could not tra vel by fast train
instead of taking short [lights.
d There is no reason why
governments should not give
special financial suppon to
eco-friendly busines people.
Task 1
St udents' own answer .
a The graph gives information
about rhe average use of beds
in three typical hospital
around the world before
and after day-surgery is
b While rhe trend was upward
f r the French hospital.
th average bed occupancy
dropp d noticeably after the
introduction of day-surgery.
c The trend for the Ukrainian
hospital was similar to that of
the French ho pitat but the
fall in bed use after 2003 was
not as marked.
• 109
d You can make a conn ection
between the coinddental [aU
in the budget for inpatient
care and the fall in bed
e Yo u can use trend to
summarize information.
You can use upward to show
th e direction of the tren d.
You can use the phrase similar
pattern to compare simila.riti es.
You can use reach a peak to
describe a hi gh poin t.
YOll can use except that to
introduce detail whi ch is
different from the general
You can use saw a continuous
rise as an alternative to rose.
You can use change to describe
d c!.iHtrence that OCCl rrs.
You CJl1 use co in cido' to show
when things bappen ilt the
same ti me. vvhether they are
related or nol.
ris e
d ear
1 details - information
2 impact - eilect
3 trend - tendency
4 occupancy - use
5 peak - high point
6 faJling - droppi ng
7 marked - sha rp
8 experienced - saw
9 rise - increase
10 Significantl y - considerably
11 d ear - evident
12 reduction - cut/decrease
Incorrect answers to be deleted:
a says
b had an affect on
c reached a heigh t
d desi gn
e alternati vely
[ towards
110 •••••
g contrast with
h G lD be vi evved in
a 1 b 3 c 5 d 7 e 2
6 g 4 h 8
a before
b receive
c studying
d useful
e P 'Jsonally
f sufJi cienr
g defin itely
h di ffe rent
Spelling rules
i before ,'. except after C:. receive,
bu t not after ch: achieve.
Words (, lldi ng in a vowel then y : y
does no! change. eg studying.
Noun + full : remove th e second /
== rlse/ul .
Adverbs (rom adjectives in
-al: add -Iy and remove nothing,
eg personally.
Adc:verbs from adjectives enti iJl ';
in -e : add -/y and keep the e, eg
Verbs ending witllY + ·ina : no
change. eg studying.
Words of more tban one syllable:
the consonant doubles if the finaJ
syllable is stressed:
a graduillly
b which
c occurred
d peak
e fig ures, approxi m2ll d y
f fluct ua ted
g e:-.:ceeded
h survey
accidents I
dramaticall y
Task 2
Student's own ,lin 'WCl'>.
1 strangel y
2 well
3 surprisingly
4 Widely
5 accurately
6 often
7 seriously
8 well
9 frequently
10 Clearly
T\:le paragraph foll ows se nt ence
panem a.
Organizing words
Situati on: The idea
ExampJe: Take the example 01
Effects . The effects
ConclUSion: the COIl c/IiSioll IS
a information
b idea
c scheme
d r\H:,.a$ ll re
e issue
f sol ution
g knowledge
h opinion
Possibl e answers
a Thi s issue n eeds to be
considered when planning
the healt h care budge! for any
b This idea could ha ve benefits
both for people's health and
the education of doctors and
n urses.
c This prediction may seem
surprising, bu t I believe costs
will be reduced as tech nology
becomes more wi dely
d Initially, this may be a
problem, but the changes
wi ll result in a more efficient
health service.
e The situation, however, is one
that can be prepared for by
setting money aside for the
fu ture.
Measures like this could lead
t a significant improvemeOl
in the nation's health.
g Not surpri singl y, it is a trend
which is not looked on
favourably by some western
h This is a matter that needs to
be considered when planning
for future spending.
Possible answers
a music and health
Effect: helps people relax ,
takes lip attention
Measure: music therapy,
used sometimes 10 treat
pat ients with communication
problem .
b alternati e therapies and
Example: homeopathy,
Information: contested by
different people.
Opinions: health practitioners
versus people wh o have
experienced these therapies.
Effects: may be due to
influence on the mind as weU
a- body.
c exercise and healt h
Effects: strengthens muscles,
helps coordination, help
people to relax.
Problem: hi gh cost of gyms!
health ceotres .
Scheme: companies offer
gym membership as pan of
package to staff.
Students' own answers.
a is
e has
b has
f are
g is
d is
h have
a This information is published
all around us, even on
ci garett e packets.
b Unfortunately, this advice is
not often followed.
c Instead, this work is carried
out by health care assistants.
d Enormous progress has been
made in understanding how
disease spreads, .. .
e However, thi s equipmeOl can
be dangerous if it is not used
However. there is certainly
some evidence thaI it is more
than ju t a placebo.
g Some research has been
carried out 'which shows that
elderly people live longer if
they live wi ih a partner.
Unit 10
Task 1
Srudeuts' own answers .
a Both chart refer to the main
re<1 SOns for choosing a career
according to age group.
b They refer to the reasons
under consideration.
c They show the different
ways in whi ch the two age
groups were influenced by tbe
various factors.
d The most noticeable fea tures
are the imponance of money
and the position of friends.
e The most noticeable features
are the imponance of money
and parents, the reverse of the
younger age group.
the main reasons for choosing
a career
2 were influenced by the
various factors
3 were the reverse for the 40-50
age group
4 As regards teachers and role
5 nine and fifteen per cent
respec1ively for the younger
6 The only similarity between
the two age groups
7 than any other factors
a The sales of specialisllours
have fallen recent ly.
d It i clear that the number of
Hats occupied by si ngle people
in major dties in the West is
pUlling pressure on housing.
e From the graphs, it can be

are much more mobiJe than
previous generations.
The pursuit of a professional
career among both men and
woman has led to a lIoticeablr'
reduction in the birth rate .
g There are several similarities in
the presentation of the data.
h Overall, the chart shows that
tbe media art:: responsible for
urning pt'C'p/e into celcbritks.
a an explanation
b with is normally followed by a
noun then a erb with -i119.
a Sales were 1I pward for most
of the year, with the profit
reaching a peak in December.
b The main reason for career
choice was ambition, with 50
per cent chOOSing it.
cIt - expeded that the price
of one bedroom nat will
ri se, with accommodation
for individuals being in short
d The pattern was different,
with passenger numbers
dropping in ummer an
rising in winter.
e The trend was clearly upward,
with manufacturing costs
decreasing at the same time.
Cons umption of energy rose,
wi th the highest point being in
a True b False
d False True
g False h True
c False
f False
• • •• 111
Task 2
Question 1: b, a,
Question 2: b, d, a, c
Question 3: c. d, b, a
Question 1: a
Question 2: c
Question 3: b
Possib,le ,answers
Money dves nof JI/,7ke happiness.
To what extt!nt do yotl agree or
It is impossible to deny th aI
money h elps people to achieve
happiness because it is impossibl
to do anyiliing in liIe without il.
For example, if you want to ee a
fi lm or a play at tbe theatre, you
need money for the ticket and
for transport. Also, if you want to
have a relaxing time at home you
still n eed money, even to buy a
TV or a computer. (structure b)
It is better to refonl1 crimi nals
iI/stead of just pllflisT1i1l9 them.
'What measures could be taken fa
attempt to integrate law-b"eakers
back into society?
Personall y, I think that criminals
of all levels should be given a
chance to be a pan of society
rat her thanjusl being put into
prison. II this is done, then the
offender will have a better chance
of not reoffending, Society will
al so not have to pay for the cost
of keeping criminals in prisons,
whi ch are very expensive places
to run. Of course, then ocietyas
a whole will benefit. (stnlCl ure c)
Text 1
1 [, 2 a 3 a
Text 2
4 a 5 b 6 b
Text 3
7 a 8 b
Student s' own answers .
112 •
U you want to achieve a good
score band, you need to be able to
tick Always for aU of the items in
t ne Ust.
Possible answers
a for example, for instance, a
rase in point is, like
b as, one reason for this is, since
c as a result, therefore, so, this
means that, this leads to
d moreover, furthermore. in
addi tion, and, also.
e if, unless, provided
but, however, while, wher eas .
g although, despite
h and so, and therefore, to sum
up, aU in alL in general
Suggested answers
a Problem and solution
b Measures and results
c Cause and effect
d Reason and example
e Example and specific example
f Effect and example
g Additional inIormation and
h ConditionlHyporhesi and
Concession and contrast
Possible answers
a Money is not a important
as frie nds, because it cannot
pr vide emotional support.
b Par many people, keeping
fi t and healthy is the main
factor which is necessary for a
good quali ty of lile. However.
developing a healthy mind is
just as imponant.
c U one is content with liIe, then
there is no longer any need to
pursue unrealistic ambitions .
d What is involved in achieving
a good qUality of life depends
on many factors rather than
just one. For example, money
is important to gain a certain
financial securi ty, but it is not
enough on its own.
e Happiness and contentment
are more important than the
pursuit of freedom. The latter
aim is an illusion as n obody j
ever completely free.
Many people living in poor
housing conditions are still
happy, Sotheideathatyou
have to have a high standard
of Uving to b happy is false.
Possible answer
And yet other people believe
[h at the family play an
important role LO maintaining
a good qualit y of life, You just
have to look at societies where
there are extended fami lies 10
see how much more content
people are because they are
surrounded by relatives v\lhn
love them and can look aft er
them if t h ~ y fall ill or ha ve
problems. This support i
not just financial but also

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