28-10-2011 Friday

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[m wpfpHkwpfa./ aocsmwmuawmh udk. twkid .&rSmaygh/ av.Ekdifayr.f/ cJwrH mS cJom.&JUudk.f/ bmyJjzpfjzpf 'gawGtm.wpfa.aMumufae r.MunfhMu&atmifyg/ wpftcsuf/ / uReaf wmfwaYkd wG [m b0rSmcrf. zdv Yk ykd gw.fuvSnfhMunfh vdkufwJhtcsdefrSm rsufESmwnfhwnfhudk vufo.f aqmif EdkifayrJh tJ'DvkdatmifjrifrIawG&&SdEkdif atmif uRefawmfwdkY[m udk.fq&kd if rif.rvnf&if &Sif.fwJhatmif jrifraI wGtrsm.rS a&.[m wjcm.fqdkwmrarhygeJY/ vli.tBu.qkdwJhvpm eJY HR refae*smcefYvdkufygw.qefciG rhf &Sd bl.muf ajymzl.&Sifut &rf.f/ ESpftcsuf/ / vkyif ef.u 'Dvkdyg/ cJwHav.ygr.fvdkYtjypfwifvkduf½HkeJY ol wdkYawGawmfvmrSmr[kwfygbl.f/ olwdkY[m t rsm.jcpf&rSmyJ/ olYocif&JUpum.fvkdMurf.mufjzpfzdkY twG u f tajccH t csuf a wG y J j zpf y g w.&Sifudk HR eJY ywfoufwJh oDtkd&DawGudk &Tef.pm .cGix f u J kd a&mufoGm.f/ ocifhpum.vkdyJ uRefawmfwdkY[m wpfcsdefcsdef rSmtrSm.f qH.f [m ud.tcsuf/ / av.ygqH.&JUtwGi.vkdacs a&vdk aESmufwwfuRrf. ud.vnfygw.[m uRef awmfwdkY&JUt&nftaoG.k 0ifwchJ w H w H pfacsmif.wpfacsmif.lvdkY &Ekdifayr.fqw kd mrarhygeJ/Y vuf&SduRefawmfwdkYawG awGUae& wmuawmh HR Manager &.fh vkyif ef.enf.f v k d t aMumif.vdu k ef moGm.&l rSmjzpf ygw.ykwfNyD.av.a&rif. vkyf&nfudkif&nfudkjyoEkdifzdkY BudK.f} vdkYqdkygw. k v f yk af qmif&r.D vky&f rvJw/hJ tJ'gudkMunfhjcif.awG? oifwef. vGerf Od .. awGygw. zdkYvdktyfygw.ygw.ft &nftcsif.xkwfNyD.f/ uRefawmfwdkY&JUq&mwpfa.fvkyfaqmif&r.f/ HR Manager wpf a.f/ low yourself to be held in God's hand) Things! vdq Yk ykd gw.fawG[m oDtdk&DawGt vGwfusuf tm*Hkaqmifxm.ao csmrSwfxm.f/ aemufwpfywfrSm tvkyfp0ifcgp HR refae*smawGpwifaqmif&Gufoifh wJhvkyfief.EdkifatmifBudK.EkdifvdkY vkyfief.f/ oDt&kd aD wGukd ausmif.rIawGawGUvm&Ekid yf gw.udkBuHKawGU&onfjzpf ap a&muf&mae&mrSm rdrdwdkY&JUt&nf tcsif.zdv Yk t kd yf ovdk tJ'o D t D &kd aD wGukd vufawGUtoH.pm.&if.uGyfrIatmufrSm&SdaezdkYvdkyg w.yg) yÍörtcsufuawmh b. jzpfp&mr&Sdygbl.fuvkyfief./ olwdkY awGnw hH .w l wfajrmufxm.BuD.Ny.yg. kd Mhf um.&Tef./ aemufxyfta&.cswJhbufawGrSmtm.f aqmifv&Ykd rSmr[kwb f .D cJwH bl.f? oif.pGr.fh cRepf ufyq J w kd mrif.pm.D trSeaf &mufatmifjyif&w J o hJ wåd &SdzdkYvdkygw.od&r.f/ wpfcgwynfhcHzl. jzpfvmvdrfhr.em.tcsuu f awmh rif.jiif.&JUwm0efurif.awG udk wdwyd yem. tcsuf u avmuxJ u k d rif.D us.cszdkYusawmh tawGUt BuHKenf.yJawGU&zdYk rsm. qufygw.

28-10-2011 Friday 17 .

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(additional costs) udk 0.Awfwuúov kd )f pmcsKyf (contract of carriage) csKyf qdka&.frItenf.aqmif&NyD. a&G.ygonf/ odkYaomf CIP pnf.ud p ö r sm.onfhtwdkif.vdt k yfonfh Xme qdkif&mcGifhjyKcsufrsm. l a qmif & G u f & yg onf/ ydkYukefwifydkY&mwGif taumuf cG e f & S i f .rsm.dk vkypf Ofoabmt& ukepf nf vTJajymif.28-10-2011 Friday 18 CIP (.rus/ uHaumif.enf.jzpfrnfh vTJajymif.qHk.f Edik &f eftwGuf oGi. 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Ed k i f r I tEÅ&m. ay.tqH.ygonf/ yHk (4) wpfEikd if u H kd jzwfausmo f .laqmif&Guf&ygao.foltifydkwmtae jzifh ukefpnfydkYaqmifay.ol tdwfpfydkwmuyifuscH&ygonf/ xdkY tjyif ukefpnfrsm.oGm.jyKEdkifygonf/ CIP pnf.vufc&H rnfw h m0ef&ydS gonf/ vky½f .&ef ysufuGufonf&Sdaomf owfrw S x f m.D onft h cgwGiv f nf.udk a&mif.rsm.uGw J wfonf/ &wemypönf.D aMumif.a&.k wwfonf/ ckwavmtvkyx f w J iG f pdw½f yI af xG. tquft oG. 6 ñGefYvSLyg/ tdyfrufrsm.oltdwfpfydkwmu ykcHk. pm&Gufpmwrf.k wdik f tvkyu f Nkd y.onfh vTaJ jymif.fydkYcGifh &Edkif? r&Edkifqdkonfh risk rSm a&mif .foltifydk wmu owfrw S x f m.tyfrnft h aMumif.? jynfyc&D. (place of destination) odkYr[kwf c&D.aomukepf nfrsm. jzpfbl.onf h c &D .k wufjrifrh m. owfrSwfydkifcGifh&Sdonf qdkygu tqdkygtcsdefESifh c&D.r[kwf oGi.jzpf rnf/ tzdk.onfh Institute Cargo Clauses (LMA/IUA)\ Clauses (C) odkYwnf.aMumifh &yfxm.&aomvkyf ief.vkyf &wwf\/ om.taumiftxnfay:awmh rnf/ tvkyfajymif.ap&ef arG. ( customs formalities) twGuf ydkYukefcGeftyg t0if wjcm.if.vkyif ef.&ef odkY wnf.wefypönf.ol tdwfpfydkwmonf olYtwGuftqifajy qHk.al qmif&u G &f ygonf/ ukepf nfwif tifudkwrf.yl Ykd aqmifcESihf ydaYk qmifa&.aysmuf & S y suf p D .aumif.r[kwf vly*k K¾ v d x f H vTaJ jymif.f jcif.udk a&mif.tm.tqH. vif. tzGUJ tpnf.t wGufvnf.vnfxm.jzifh tusdK. ajymif.fot l ifyw kd m\ wm0efjzpfoGm.a&.f ukecf eG af y.ol tdwfpfydkwmujzpfap? 0.rsOf. use.kH onfah eYrpS wifNy.fpmcsKyEf iS t hf nD a&.oGm.\ tajccHoabmudk yHk (4) wGif azmfjyxm.emae wwf\/ tcspfa&.rsOf.ta&muf wm 0ef.rnf/ bmyJvkyfvkyf twdkuftcHrsm.&l onft h cg jzwfausmcf iG Ehf iS hf t aumufcGef&Sif.&rnfh tcsdef udkvnf.oltw d pf yf w kd monf ukepf nf rsm.udk 0.rsm. &S&d efwm0ef&o dS nfqw kd mudak wmh 0. vif . wifoiG .pf 2010 Carriage and Insur armifa&at.aus.jzifh tcsed u f ek af ernf/ aiG0ifrnf/ a&Tvnf. topfrsm.fol tifyw kd mtaejzifh od&edS m.0ifaomukefwifukefcscwdkY udv k nf.lydkYaqmifay.vSLyg/ ckwavmrSm aysmyf &JG iT yf rJG sm.udk rnfonfhydkYaqmifa&.udpörsm.? vlrIa&. named place of destination) Incoterms® 2010 Carriage and Insurance Paid to (CIP) qdkonfrSm a&mif.forl sm.aumif. aumif.xrf.udk t xufwGifazmfjyxm.ae&mwGif ukefpnfvTJajymif. rnf/ uHaumif. (named place of destination) odkYwnf.0.mOfpufypön.&rnf/ jynfwGif.k onfah e&mwGif usc&H rnfu h ek cf scrsm.laqmif&u G &f ygonf/ tu.y#dnmOf udk 0.cGifhESifh jzwfausmfo. rnf/ aetdrftaqmuftOD.&rnf[k qdkapumrl oGif.D ESpzf uf oabmwl o wf r S w f x m.pdwfwdkif.jzwfausmrf t I wGuf t aumuf c G e f & S i f . enfvrf.k wGif ydkYaqmifa&.BuKH rnf/ rdru d .D tydu k ek u f sp&dwrf sm.ukefcscudk a&mif .vufcH rnfhydGKifh (point of receiving within the named place of destination) udkvnf.&Sdonf/ uH aumif.udkay. a[mpmwrf.rIrsm. aiGracs.ESihf qH.&&Sda&.mOf&&Sda&.aernf/ ravQmhaomZGJvHkYv jzifh tprStqH.jyKEdkifonfhtjyif wpfrsK.faumif. udk jynfyodkYwifydkYEdkif&eftwGuf jynfy ydu Yk ek v f ikd pf ifEiS hf wjcm.ESifh ydkYaqmifa&.BuKH rnf/ c&D.ay.onft h csed u f mvukeq f .csrf.vdt k yfonfh Xmeqdik &f mcGijhf yK csufrsm.f jzwfausmcf iG hf &&Sda&. (charges for unloading at the the named place of destination) Carriage an d Insurance P aid to (CIP)  vTJajymif.& rnf/ tzufzufu 0ifaiG&&Sdaernf/ cspfol 0dkif. qH k .lydkYaqmifay.onfhae&m^ ydGKifhwdkYudk a&mif. . ( place of destination) ta&muf ydkYaqmifay.tzGUJ tpnf. Mum.ap&ef arG.rsO.rsm.aeYrSmtkef.fot l ifyw kd mxHBuKd wiftaMumif.ray.toHk.tyf&rnfhydGKifh (point of delivery) (&Sdygu) rS owfrSwfc&D. ap&ef arG.&yg vdrrhf nf/ odjYk zpfonfEiS t hf nD a&mif.&efvdktyfovdk vTJajymif.oltdwfpfydkwmwGif wifydkYvdkuf aom ukefpnfrsm.tyfrnfhydGKifhudk oabmwl owfrSwfxm.tqHk.uG. udk 0.vif.aeYwGifuHhaumfñGefY 15 ñGefYbk&m.tyfawmhrnfqdkvQif ukepf nfvaJT jymif.&ude.onfh ae&m Delivery   CIP pnf.ud k a&mif.ay.vufcH rnfhydGKifh (point of receiving the goods within the named place of destination) odkYta&muf o.f pdw0f rf.pf pnf.if. vrf.fEdkifcGifh&Sdygonf/ tu.tzGJUtpnf.&rnf/ vlBuD.if.aeYwGif&GufvSyef.ay.<uvmwwf\/ xDvnf.y#dnmOfpmcsKyf wGif tusKH. aomta&mif.Mum.cHpm.r&Sdygu a&mif.onfh ydkYaqmifa&.rnf/ cg.p&mrsm.ESit hf usKd . a&.csxm.rsm.0ifrnf/ taMumif.orD.a0.wGaJ umfrwDrS jyifqifwnf.0ifrnf/ tEkynmvkkyfief.vTJajymif.udk ydaYk qmifa&.fp &m½kyyf mG .&l rnf qdk yguvnf.udk oabmwlowfrw S x f m. vif .vif.ap&ef arG.a.tcGet f crsm.f.ap&ef arG.f (risk) rSm 0.ay.&&Sdatmif p&dwfp uuscH N yD .EdkifiHwpfEdkifiHudk jzwfausmf o.rif.jzifh atmifjrifausmfMum. atmifjrifrnf/ tdrf topf? tvkyfopf&wwf\/ tdrfa&mif. oufomonfh umuG.

&rnfhwm0ef&Sdygonf/ xdkodkYaom tul t nD a wmif .\ aeYpGJ onf oabmwlowfrSwfxm.udk c&D.pdwfudk www.Mum.aumif.&Sd&ygonf/ ukef pnftmrcHonf ukefpnfvTJajymif. onf h tcgusrS a&mif.opfrsm.k udk tpHv k u kd f (full set) 0.&ygonf/ xkdYtjyif ukefpnfrsm.f .f (risk) udk tumtuG.tcsuftvufrsm.lvmonfh. acs&ygrnf/ odw Yk nf.rsKd .fot l ifyw kd mu p&dwu f s cHaqmif&u G &f rnfjzpfonf/ ukepf nfrsm.xm.tcspaf &.&wwf\/ usef.toif.fol tifydkwmu a&mif.tvm.fpmcsKyfwGif &Sif. ay.aMumif.udk ta&mif.? c&D.f pmcsKyfyg aiGaMu.r[kwf 0. twGuf uscH&jcif.f? ta&twGuf rSef? rrSef ppfaq.udkydkYaqmif&m wGif wpfckxufruaom ydkYaqmifa&.&ef vd k t yf ygonf/ .wdwdusus xnfh oGif.oltdwfpfydkwmtae jzifjh znfq h nf.&Sdapvdkygu .lxm.twG u f ukeu f sp&dwEf iS hf owif.ol tdwpf yf w kd mu p&dwpf uuscNH y.pdwfwkdaewwf\/ bmom a&.ol tdwfpfydkwmu ukefpnftmrcHaMu.oltdwfpfydkwm uyif p&dwu f scaH qmif&u G af y.rsm.ay.ay.&Sif.olwpfO.f t& ukep f nfrsm.pm&Gupf mwrf.csKyfqdkxm. cH r I r sm. twwfEdkifqHk.D Edik rf t I EÅ&m. ydaYk qmifa&.&ef wm 0ef&SdaomaMumifhjzpfonf/ odkYrSom a&mif.jcif.udk owfrw S x f m.d tpm.vnf.aomukepf nfrsm.rma&.ñTef (6) rance Paid to (CIP) r[kwf wjcm.apvdkaMumif. pm&G u f p mwrf .oif\ h / tdrw f iG t f vSL r*FvmjyK&rnf/ ud. ud k tqd k y gyd G K if h t a&muf o.ukepf nfwefz.rsm.oltw d pf yf w kd mu tultnDawmif.oltw d pf yf w kd monf ukepf nfrsm. tygt0if owif.í rnfodkUaom owif.foltifydkwm\ wm0efjzpfyg onf/ xH.tzGUJ tpnf. rsm.? od k Y w nf .af y.cHcsuft&jzpfap ydkYaqmifa&.foltifydkwmxHvTJajymif. aomMum pae &efrsm.udk a&mif.½IH.fí ydaYk qmifa&.fol tifydkwm\ awmif.fot l ifyw kd mtaejzifh Institute Cargo Clauses (LMA/IUA) yg Clauses (A) odrYk [kwf (B) t&vnf.ud k xyfrHjznfhpGufxm.jzpfrnf/ rdwf aqGa.NyD .oltdwfpfydkwmtae jzifh wm0efausonfr[kwf/ ukefpnf rsm. vnfaernf/ qHk.kd \ 110 &mcdkifEIef.t0.y#dnmOfpm csKyfwGif tqdkygydGKifhü ukefpnfrsm.wwf\/ i.ae&monf ukefpnf rsm.l&ygonf/ odkYaomf jynfyydkYukef wifydkYonfhEdkifiH (country of export) wG i f mandatory pre-shipment dk &f m inspection ESihf pyfvsO.csuft& aqmif &Gu&f efvt kd yfonfh ukepf nfppfaq.onfh tcsed u f mvtwGi.o wif.twGuf a&mif.pD.trsKd.ap&ef &m[kaxmifhwGif . (first carrier) xH vufa&muf tyfESHEdkifcGifh&Sdygonf/ xdkodkY tyfESHNyD.fí owfrw S x f m.&&Sad &.D Edik rf I tEÅ&m.lonfhae&mrSm r [kwfbJ? aemufc&D. awmif .xd.udk 0. (carrier) xHrS ukepf nfrsm.cHvmonft h ul tnDrsm.lrnfh ydkYaqmifa&.oGm.&Sd \/ raumif.qGrf. pdwf oabmxm.jzifh uHaumif.udk vTaJ jymif.aMumif. xnfo h iG . Mum.rsOf.&rnfh ae&mjzpfaomaMumifhwnf.fot l ifykd wmwdt Yk Mum.rsm. cHpm. (q&mBuD.onf 0.NyD.t0.k ta&muf ukefpnfrsm.orD.&Edik ?f r&Edik q f o kd nfh risk wdu Yk akd wmh tultnDawmif.odkY vTJajymif.jcif .Edik &f ygrnf/ .ay.rma&.tyfaom ukefpnf rsm.t&uif. a&mif.emjcif.oltdwfpfydkwmxH tcsdefrD today.wdkYBuHKrnf/ jynfwGif.oltw d pf yf w kd mu p&dwu f scaH y.\t&nftaoG.vdt k yfrnfqw kd mudk 0.udk tqdkygydGKifh ta&muf p&dwu f scyH aYkd qmifay. (carrier) xHvufa&muftyfENHS y.&efvdktyfygonf/ t b.pum.k ae&m (place of destination) wdkYudk ta&mif.wpfapmif xufruxkwfay.k pkpak ygif.jzpfrnf/ c&D. a&mif.tzGJU tpnf.í owif.ay.ay.jcif.udk ta&mif.foltifydkwmxH a&mif. xnfhoGif. r&S d y gu mandatory pre-shipment inspection twGuu f kd 0.½Iyaf xG.aomukefpnfrsm. a&mif.&efrsm. tcspaf &. f El ikd cf iG hf &Sad p&ygrnf/ xdt Yk jyif vrf.onfh umvrukeq f .&Sd\/ &ifbwfatmifhjcif.k wrf.rsm.f.f wifyEYkd ikd &f eftwGuf vHkNcKHa&. ( named place of destination) a&mufonftxd ukep f nf aysmuf&S ysufpD.wGit f vkyo f mG .fol tifydkwmu olYtaejzifh xyfaqmif. ygrnf/ arG.aeYwGif opfoD.&rnfah e&mwdrYk mS rwlujJG ym.nHah ernf/ c&D.fol tifydkwmxH vTJajymif. r&Sd vQif a&mif.oltdwfpfydkwmu 0. odkYxm.k ½I.taMumif.wl Clauses t& tumtuG .r[kwf rnfodkYrnfyHkxkyfydk.vnf.tqH.t csuf t vuf r sm.yg/ xDaygufEdkifonf/ aiGt0ifxuf txGufrsm.ol td w f p f y d k w mtaejzif h .fot l if ydkwmonf rdrd\tpDtpOfjzifh xyf avmif.orD.jyKrnfhydkYaqmif a&.&Syd g vdrfhrnf/ «Institute Cargo Clauses (LMA/IUA) \ tao.&Sif. G jf zpfrnf/ tdraf xmif&iS f rsm.? ydkYaqmifa&.tzGUJ tpnf.ay. t0. (transport document) rsm.yGm. udk pwifo.rsO.19 28-10-2011 Friday vrf.fxm.f csKyq f x kd m.udk ydaYk qmifa&.twm? tcsdeftwG.rnf/ vli.ay. cH v mygu vnf.vif. xkw.a&mif.ao.f (risk) twGuf wm0ef &SdrIukd a&mif.fot l ifyw k d muawmif. &&Sad &.p&mjyóemrsm.&efjzpfaMumif.qHk. uk e f u s p&dwfudk 0.ay.qH.udk jynfywifydkYjcif.a&.l& onfah e&mESihf p&dwpf ursm.if .onfhae&mü ukefpnfrsm.c&D.r&SdvQif a&mif.foltifydkwmu ay.opf&rnf/ &yfa0.oltdwfpfydkwmu p&dwf uscHNyD. BuHKrnf/ tvkyfwGifpum.oltw d pf yf w kd mESihf 0.D onft h cg a&mif.ap&ef oajyvSLyg/ ckwavm pdwf½IyfaxG. tzGJUtpnf. jyK&rnfqdkygu? ukefpnfvTJajymif.&Sday.pwifEdkifNyD/ uH aumif.vsif a&vrf.? {nf h o nf a &muf v mwwf \ / aumif.udk toHk.oltw d pf yf w kd monf ukepf nftm rcHay:vpDukd 0.jyóemay: wwf\/ rdbuse.i.usKd .ap&ef xreJ'gejyKyg/ .cs.csrf.nHh rnf/ rMumcPaexkdifraumif.f oltifyw kd mu tcsed rf u D n l aD qmif&u G f ay.csufrSm CIP t& a&mif.k ½I.rnf/ {nfo h nfjzpfonf/ i.jzifh t enf.H Edik rf t I EÅ&m.&Sif.fowdjyKyg/ qD.tcsut f vuf rsm.onfhae&m jzpfNyD. &Sad p&ygrnf/ tu.rif.rnfxifaom ta<u. ta&mufydkYaqmifay.f (risk) twGuf vTJajymif.udk c&D.? Institute Srikes Clause (LMA/IUA) t&vnf.&efvt kd yfrnf jzpf ygonf/ xdkYtwGuf xyfaqmif.ESihf vkNH cKaH &.fí ydaYk qmifa&.tcsuftvufrsm.wm0ef. odkYwnf. a&mif.ygonf/ • tu.k ay.wGiaf ysm&f iT zf .qH.oltdwfpfydkwmuuscH&rnf[lí azmfjyyg&SdNyD.vif.ESifh udkufnD&rnfjzpf NyD.? ydkYaqmifa&.f í oufqi XmeunT e f M um.pcef.aMumif.twGufxm.frsm.kH rDaeY&ufjzpf&ygrnf/ xH.? vlraI &.&Sif.t0.aumif.ay.csuEf iS t hf nD ukepf nfrsm.enf.ful.f.rsm.&onfh tmrcHaMu.k wrf.onfqdkygu rl &if. f r sm.onf ta&mif./ ajr? tarG0ifudef.ay. oltdwfpfydkwmtaejzifh wm0efausNyD jzpfonf/ • ukep f nfaysmuf&yS supf .uGJvGJaewwf\/ uHaumif.rsm. tyfrnfhydGKifh (point of delivery) udk oabmwl o wf r S w f x m.f rma&.ckvwfwiG f wjcm.? tpmtdrfa&m*gjzpfwwfonf/ cspfol0dkif. aernf/ &yfa0. Edik rf nfjzpfonf/ tu.? atmifjrifjcif. qH k .ygonf/ • a&mif.Edik o f nfyh pkH H (negotiation form) jzifh rl&if.jcif.qHk.kd rItwGuf ukeu f s p&dwfudkvnf.f.rSty wjcm.&rnfw h m0ef&ydS gonf/ xdt Yk wl a&mif.yifv.wdkYESifh oufqdkifaom t axmuf t xm. k w f idk v f nf.D ESpf zuf o abmwl n D c suf t &jzpf a p yd k Y aqmifa&.udk jznfhqnf.cHou l wm0ef.yfjzL 12 vufvSLyg/ aqG r sd K . tjyif vHkNcKHa&.&m a&mufoGm.mifaqmifaeaom&efou l o kd wdxm.&ef wm 0ef.kd ay. jynfyodkYwifydkYcGifh&&Sda&.&S d v d k o nf h t mrcH ( additional insurance) ESifh pyfvsOf.mOfay:rS csay. tyfonfhydGKifh (point of delivery) rS owf r S w f c &D .if. G o f rl sm.xm.&efjzpfygu? .odYk owfrw S x f m.tuJ\txifvGJrSm.rsm.jzifh uHaumif. jcm.kd rnf/ xDaygufovdv k .ESijhf yefqw kH wfonf/ a&T0ifrnf/ tvkyf tudkifwdk.fpmcsKyfwGif twwfEdkif qHk.cHvmaomtcg 0.pm&Gufpmwrf.rf t I enf.fot l ifyw kd mxHay./ • tu.udk owdjyK Edik &f ygrnf/ • tajccH t m.H Edik rf t I EÅ&m.&efvt kd yfcsuu f kd ydaYk qmifa&.k tmrcHukd xm.em.r[kwf tjynfjynfqdkif&mav qdyf) usrS vTJajymif.oltdwfpfydk wmonf ukefpnfrsm.f Edik &f efvt kd yfonfh taxmuft xm.t0.? jynfyc&D.vH.tcsut f vufrsm. (carriers) udk toHk.tusdK.rnf/ aiGaMu.&ef txl.kH ueJ cJueJ aiG0ifrnf/ xDvnf.f o l t if y d k w mu jyef t rf .rIcH& rnf/ tdrw f iG jf yóemtrsKd .pm &Gufpmwrf.vkyif ef.f (risk) twGuf wm0ef&SdrIudk 0. r[k w f wjcm.cHciG rhf &Sad y/ ckepf&ufom.yGifh) &m[k Mumoyaw.tvm.jyef &wwf\/ rdrdESifhwuG rdom.vdt k yfygonf/ tb.azmfjyxm. rnf [ k oabmwlxm.? Institute War Clause (LMA/ IUA) t&vnf.&ygvdrfhrnf/ xdkYtwGuf ukefus p&dwfESifh &Edkif? r&Edkifqdkonfh risk u awmh 0.jyK&mwGif atmufazmfjyygtcsufrsm.t&uif.wl Clauses t& umuG.tm. aumif. qH k .udak &Smif yg/ tvdkvdkae&if.tygt0if owif.&rnf/ vkyfief.if.0dkif. (unloading) twGuf ukefusp&dwfudk a&mif.pm&Gufpmwrf.jzif h CIP onf CPT (Carriage Paid to) ESihf wlonf/ t"du uGmjcm. xm.ydYk &rnfhwm0ef&Sdygonf/ ydkYaqmifa&.\ oabmobm0? odkY wnf.r*Fvmaqmif& wwf\/ um.ay.if.jcif.fhaMumifhqdkaomf a&mif.xm.oltdwfpfydkwmtaejzifh ol a&G.kd &efrvdt k yfaom ukepf nft rsK.fí ukep f nfaysmuf&yS supf . tqdkygukefusp&dwfudk 0. y#dnmOfpmcsKyfwGif xnfhoGif.csKyfxm.oltdwfpfydkwmu .wdkav.vdktyfcsufjzpfonf/ a&mif.tcsuf tvufrsm.wuf rnf/ uHaumif. ukepf nfvaJT jymif.pm&Gufpmwrf.oltdwfpfydkwm uyif uscH&ygonf/ vTJajymif.vrf.D 'kua© y.pOfvmt&jzpfap? 0.fpm csKyfygtcsufrsm.wufjcif.pOfvmt&jzpfap? 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