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Sketcher Fundamentals

Student Guide February 2006 MT10028 NX 4

Publication Number mt10028_g NX 4

Manual History

Manual Revision

Unigraphics Version Version 16.0 Version 17.0 Version 18 Unigraphics NX Unigraphics NX 2 NX 3 NX 4

Publication Date May 2000 December 2000 November 2001 October 2002 December 2003 January 2005 February 2006

This edition obsoletes all previous editions. Proprietary & Restricted Rights Notice This software and related documentation are proprietary to UGS Corp. 2006 UGS Corp. All Rights Reserved. All trademarks belong to their respective holders.

2006 UGS Corp. All Rights Reserved. Produced in the United States of America. 2 Sketcher Fundamentals Student Guide mt10028_g NX 4

Contents

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Intended Audience . . . . . . . . . Course Objectives . . . . . . . . . . Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . How to Use This Course . . . . . Class Standards . . . . . . . . . . . About Part File Naming . . . . . Seed Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Denition of Terms . . . . . . . . . Classroom System Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 11 12

Sketching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 Sketching Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sketches and the Part Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . . Sketch Visibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating a New Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Active Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sketch Creation Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity Sketch Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sketch Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity Using the Sketch Prole Tool . . . . . . Creating Fillets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trimming and Extending Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity Creating Fillets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity Using Quick Trim and Quick Extend Sketch Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dimensional Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity Adding Dimensional Constraints . . . Editing Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity Editing Sketch Dimensions . . . . . . . . Geometric Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Show/Remove Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Constraint Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity Adding Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity Constraining a Prole . . . . . . . . . . . Activity Sketching and Constraining a Gasket Convert To/From Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity Constraint Conditions . . . . . . . . . . .
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Sketcher Fundamentals Student Guide

Contents

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-99 Constraining Sketches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 Drag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Create Inferred Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity - Dragging Sketch Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity - Adding Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Automatic Constraint Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sketch Operations Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity - Projecting Objects into a Sketch . . . . . . . . . Activity - Auto Creating Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . Add Existing Curves to a Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity - Adding and Constraining Curves . . . . . . . . Activity - Design Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity - Another Design Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity - Constraining the Perimeter of a Sketch . . . Activity - Controlling Heat Transfer in a Cooling Pipe Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 . 2-5 . 2-6 2-15 2-22 2-23 2-25 2-32 2-36 2-37 2-40 2-41 2-44 2-49 2-58

Constraint Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 Alternate Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity - Alternate Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . Placing Sketches Where They Are Needed . . . . . Activity - Creating and Positioning a Sketch Activity - Positioning a Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . Activity - Using Positioning Dimensions . . . Reattach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reordering Sketches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity - Reattaching a Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity - Moving Sketches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mirroring in a Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity - Mirroring Sketch Objects . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2 . 3-4 3-11 3-12 3-20 3-28 3-38 3-40 3-41 3-45 3-62 3-63 3-66

Sketch on Path Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 Sketch on Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3 Additional Sketching Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 Edit Dening String . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deleting or Suppressing Sketches . . . . . . . . . Activity - Edit Dening String . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity - Suppressing and Deleting Sketches Animate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity - Animating Sketch Dimensions . . . .
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. 5-2 . 5-4 . 5-5 5-10 5-14 5-15

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Contents

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-19 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index-1

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Sketcher Fundamentals Student Guide

Overview
Intended Audience
This course is suited for designers, engineers, manufacturing engineers, application programmers, NC programmers, CAD/CAM managers, and system managers who have a need to create sketches for solid models or other functions. Sketches that capture design intent will be the main focus.

Course Objectives
After successfully completing this course, the student should be able to: Understand when and why to use sketches. Create sketches. Constrain sketches. Add objects to a sketch Incorporate Design Intent in sketches. Utilize additional sketch techniques.

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Sketcher Fundamentals Student Guide

Prerequisites

Prerequisites
Practical Applications of Unigraphics course Basic understanding of parametric modeling. Working knowledge of the following: Unigraphics Interface Part le saving conventions

How to Use This Course


The format of the activities is consistent throughout this course. Steps are labeled and specify what will be accomplished at any given point in the activity. Below each major step are bulleted steps which describe the individual actions that must be taken. As your knowledge of Unigraphics increases, the action boxes will seem redundant as the step text becomes all that is needed to accomplish a given task.

Sketcher Fundamentals Student Guide

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Overview

Class Standards
The following standards will be used in this course. Standardization allows users to work with and predict the organization of parts created by others. All work should be performed in accordance with these standards.

About Part File Naming


In order to facilitate the identication of design models without requiring the user to open a part le, the user community must establish standard names for the various les associated with the part denition. The following is a sample usage of a lenaming standard:

TIP Currently up to 128 characters are valid for le names. A four character extension (.prt) is automatically added to dene the le type. This means the maximum number of user dened characters for the le name is actually 124.

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Sketcher Fundamentals Student Guide

Seed Part

Seed Part
Seed parts are an effective tool for establishing customer defaults or any settings that are part-dependent (saved with the part le). This may include non-geometric data such as: TIP Once a seed part is established, it should be write-protected to avoid accidental modication. Several seed part les are available for use in this course, one for inch parts and one for metric parts. These les incorporate the standards described above, and include the TFR-TRI view as the default view. Preferences Commonly used expressions Layer categories User-dened views and layouts Part attributes

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Sketcher Fundamentals Student Guide

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Overview

Denition of Terms
Explicit Modeling Explicit modeling is modeling that is not parametric. Objects are created relative to model space, not each other. Changes to one or more objects do not necessarily affect other objects or the nished model. Examples of explicit modeling include creating a line between two existing points, or creating an arc through three existing points. If one of the existing points were moved, the line/arc would not change. Parametric Modeling A parametric model is one in which the values (parameters) used for the denition of the model are stored with the model for future editing. Parameters may reference each other to establish relationships between the various features of the model. Examples include the diameter and depth of a hole, or the length, width, and height of a rectangular pad. The designers intent may be that the hole is always as deep as the pad is high. Linking these parameters together may achieve the desired results. This is not easily accomplished with an explicit model. Constraint-based Modeling A constraint-based model is one in which the geometry of the model is driven, or solved, from a set of design rules applied to the geometry dening the model as constraints. These constraints might be dimensional constraints (such as sketch dimensions or positioning dimensions) or geometric constraints (such as parallelism or tangency). Examples include a line tangent to an arc, where the designer intends for that tangent condition to be maintained even though the angle of the line may change, or a perpendicular condition being maintained as angles are modied. Hybrid Modeling Hybrid modeling refers to the selectively combined use of the three types of modeling described above. Hybrid modelers allow designers to use parametric modeling where needed, without requiring that the entire model be constrained before proceeding. Because of this, designers have more exibility in modeling techniques. The Unigraphics NX hybrid modeler supports traditional explicit geometric modeling along with constraint-based sketching and parametric feature modeling. All tools are integrated so they can be used in combination.

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Sketcher Fundamentals Student Guide

11

Classroom System Information

Classroom System Information


Your instructor will provide you with the following items for working in the classroom: Student Login: User name:

Password:

Work Directory:

Parts Directory:

Instructor:

Date:

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Sketcher Fundamentals Student Guide

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Lesson

Sketching
Purpose This lesson introduces the method of creating a sketch and free hand sketching of curves. Objectives Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Create a sketch. Create sketch curves. Apply dimensional constraints to sketches. Apply geometric constraints to sketches. Identify constraints. Convert a sketch curve to reference.

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Sketcher Fundamentals Student Guide

1-1

Sketching

Sketching Overview
What is a sketch? A sketch is a collection of two-dimensional geometry within a part. Each sketch is a named collection of 2D curves and points residing on a plane that you specify. You can use sketches to address a wide variety of design needs. For example, you might create. Detailed part features by sweeping, extruding, or revolving a sketch into a solid or a sheet body. Large-scale 2D concept layouts. Construction geometry, such as a path of motion, or a clearance arc, that is not meant to dene a part feature. This lesson will focus on the use of sketches to dene detailed part features. Sketcher tools let you fully capture your design intent through geometric and dimensional relationships that we refer to collectively as constraints. Use constraints to create parameter-driven designs that you can update easily and predictably. Sketcher evaluates constraints as you work to ensure that they are complete and do not conict. Sketcher offers you the exibility to create as many, or as few, constraints as your design requires. Geometric relations may be established between the curves within a prole as well as with curves in other proles and model geometry such as edges or datums.

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Sketcher Fundamentals Student Guide

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Sketching

Why sketch? Sketches provide a high level of control over features and automate the propagation of changes. You can quickly apply constraints to capture a well-known design intent. Once a sketch is placed on a face or datum plane, it will automatically move when the position of the placement face/datum is changed. Since sketches do not require constraints, this approach is the quickest way to build features and still have a sufcient level of associativity. The inherent ability to solve a sketch in real time means that, as rules are applied, the sketch objects change and move to reect the effect that the assigned rule has on the geometry. This gives you the ability to quickly change proles of features created using sketches. Using Sketches for Detail Part Features When there is a commonly used shape that varies in size, a sketch can easily accommodate the iterations of the design by editing a single constraint.

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Sketcher Fundamentals Student Guide

1-3

Sketching

Sketches should be used as base features of a model if the shape lends itself to extruded or revolved geometry.

Sketches may be used in a number of different ways. Consider them for guide paths for swept features, or as section curves for free form features.

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Sketcher Fundamentals Student Guide

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Sketching

An important aspect of modeling that will help you decide how to use a sketch is dening the design intent of the model. The design intent consists of two items: Design Considerations The geometric requirements on the actual part, including engineering and design rules that determine the detail conguration of the part. Potential Areas for Change Known design changes or iterations, and their effects on the part conguration.

As a general rule, the more design considerations and potential areas for change, the more likely there are benets from sketching.

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Sketcher Fundamentals Student Guide

1-5

Sketching

Sketches and the Part Navigator


Sketches can be created by choosing the Sketch Section icon in certain feature creation dialogs such as Extrude and Revolve, choosing the Sketch icon directly in the Form Feature toolbar, or by choosing InsertSketch. If you create a sketch from within a feature creation dialog, the sketch of the section remains internal to the feature. It does not display in the graphics window or in the Part Navigator. You can edit the sketch by accessing the associated feature. If the same sketch is required to create additional features, you can choose the Make Sketch External option from the MB3 popup menu in the Part Navigator and it will appear in the graphics window.

If a sketch is not created from within a feature creation dialog, it will appear as a separate feature in the Part Navigator.

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Sketcher Fundamentals Student Guide

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Sketching

Sketch Visibility
Organizing the data in a part is an important aspect of modeling. The sketcher helps in this endeavor by automating the visibility of sketches are activated and deactivated. If a standalone sketch is created by choosing the Sketch icon in the Form Feature toolbar (or InsertSketch), the current work layer is assigned to the sketch as it is created. When you subsequently activate the sketch, the work layer is set to the layer assigned to the sketch so that you do not accidently construct objects in the active sketch across multiple layers. If the sketch is created internal to a feature, it automatically becomes visible when you edit the feature and choose the Sketch Section icon in the feature dialog.

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1-7

Sketching

1
Creating a New Sketch
Dening a Sketch Plane When creating a sketch, you rst need to dene the plane on which to place the sketch curves. But, you must consider the state of the model. Since the goal is to develop a parametric model, all of the features need to be associative. Is the sketch going to dene the base feature? Is the sketch going to be attached to an existing reference feature or face of an existing body? An icon option bar shown below appears in the upper left corner of the graphics window and contains options to dene the sketch plane.

1 Sketch in Place 2 Sketch Plane 3 XCYC Plane

4 YCZC Plane 5 XCZC Plane 6 Datum Plane

7 Datum CSYS 8 OK 9 Cancel

Dening the Sketch as the Base Feature If the sketch is going to dene the base feature and there is no existing geometry or reference features in the part, you may dene the plane by choosing one of the following options: XC-YC Plane YC-ZC Plane ZC-XC Plane Datum CSYS

Initially, the XC-YC plane will be highlighted in the graphics window. You can accept this plane or choose one of the other options.

To accept the plane, choose OK

(MB2).

After the plane is accepted, the view in the graphics window is automatically oriented so that it is parallel to the sketch plane. If you do not want the view to be oriented in this manner, you can turn off the Change View Orientation setting in PreferencesSketch.

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Sketching

Associate Sketch to Existing Face or Reference Feature You can also dene the sketch plane on an existing planar face, Datum Plane, or Datum CSYS. A relative Datum Plane or Datum CSYS may also be created on the y. To create the sketch on an existing face, Datum Plane, or Datum CSYS plane. Select the face, Datum Plane, or Datum CSYS plane. Dene the horizontal or vertical reference.

Choose OK.

To create a relative Datum Plane on the y: from the icon option bar in the upper left Choose Datum Plane corner of the graphics window. Select the required objects to dene the Datum Plane. Choose OK in the Datum Plane dialog. Dene the horizontal or vertical reference.

Choose OK. A similar procedure can be used to create a relative Datum CSYS on the y.

If there is an existing Datum CSYS in the part and it is coincident with the WCS. The X-Y plane of the Datum CSYS will initially highlight as the default sketch plane. If you choose the XC-YC, YC-ZC, or ZC-XC option, you will be asked whether to use the corresponding Datum CSYS plane instead.

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Sketcher Fundamentals Student Guide

1-9

Sketching

Dening the Reference Direction The reference direction is used to specify the horizontal direction on the sketch plane. When there is no linear object pointing in the desired horizontal direction, a vertical reference may be dened. Because vertical is 90 degrees (counterclockwise) from horizontal by denition, the horizontal direction is interpreted from it. In the example below, the shaded face (1) is specied as the placement face. An edge (2) is dened as the vertical reference. The resultant sketch orientation is shown to the right.

The direction of an axis may be changed as follows: To ip the direction of a sketch axis, double-click on it. To specify a new direction, select the axis to redirect and then select a straight edge. The straight edge is projected to the sketch plane to dene the new direction.

If a datum plane is selected to dene the sketch plane, a Z axis will also be displayed. The normal of the sketch plane may be changed by double-clicking on the Z sketch axis.

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Sketcher Fundamentals Student Guide

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Sketching

Naming a Sketch Since a unique name is required for each sketch, a default name will initially be assigned with a numeric sufx. The format of the default name is "SKETCH_###" where ### is replaced by the next sequential three digit number beginning with 000 (SKETCH_000, SKETCH_001, etc.). A sketch name may be dened during or after the sketch has been created by clicking on the default sketch name, typing in the new name and pressing Enter.

The sketch can also be renamed by choosing SketchSketch Properties. Sketches should be given descriptive names rather than accepting the default. This allows downstream users to understand the function of the sketch at a glance.

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1-11

Sketching

The Active Sketch


In any given part there may be numerous sketches of different features at different orientations. When using the sketcher, only one sketch may be worked on at a time. This sketch is called the active sketch. Curves created while a sketch is active become associated with the active sketch. When returning to a sketch to add to or modify a prole, the sketch must be activated. There are a few ways to activate a sketch: Double-clicking on a sketch curve. In the Part Navigator double-click on the sketch feature node. Choose the Sketch icon and select the desired sketch from the Sketch Name pull-down.

There are also a few ways to deactivate an active sketch: Choose the Finish Sketch icon. Choose SketchFinish Sketch. Activate a different sketch. Choose SketchNew and create a new sketch.

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Sketcher Fundamentals Student Guide

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Sketching

Sketch Creation Steps


Sketch for a Base Feature Set the work layer for the sketch.

Choose the Sketch icon. Dene the sketch plane on a WCS plane (XC-YC, YC-ZC, or ZC-XC) or create a Datum CSYS at absolute coordinates. Name the sketch.

Choose OK.

Sketch on an Existing Face or Reference Feature Set the work layer for the sketch.

Choose the Sketch icon. Select the face, Datum Plane, or Datum CSYS plane. (You could also create a relative Datum Plane or Datum CSYS on the y.) Dene the horizontal or vertical reference Name the sketch.

Choose OK.

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Sketcher Fundamentals Student Guide

1-13

Sketching

Activity Sketch Creation


In this activity, you will create a sketch on an existing face and another sketch on a datum plane that is created on the y. Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Open the seedpart_in part. Start the Modeling application. Create a sketch for a base feature. Make layer 21 the work layer.

Choose the Sketch icon.

(InsertSketch)

Choose the YC-ZC Plane. Click on the sketch name, key in base and press Enter.

Choose OK.

(MB2)

The sketch is created. In addition, a xed datum plane is created on the specied sketch plane and two xed datum axes are created along its major axes. The specied sketch plane denes a Feature Coordinate System (FCS) for the sketch such that the X axis is parallel to the horizontal direction and the Y axis is vertical. The WCS is automatically manipulated to the FCS orientation to facilitate the creation of sketch geometry. Step 4: Exit the Sketcher. Choose the Finish Sketch icon. Step 5: Step 6: Step 7: Step 8: Close the part and do not save. Open the sketch_creation_1 part. Start the Modeling application. Create a sketch on an existing face. Make layer 21 the work layer.
1-14 Sketcher Fundamentals Student Guide UGS Corp., All Rights Reserved mt10028_g NX 4

(SketchFinish Sketch)

Sketching

1
Choose the Sketch icon. The Sketch Plane icon (InsertSketch) is already selected.

Select the face (1) shown below. The 2D sketch plane indicator appears and the X-Axis is active (highlighted). Select the horizontal reference (2) at the location shown below.

Click on the sketch name, key in skt1 and press Enter.

Choose OK. Step 9:

(MB2)

Create a curve on the sketch plane. Choose the Circle icon. (InsertCircle)

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1-15

Sketching

Create a circle by selecting at location (1) and then location (2).

Choose the Finish Sketch icon.

(TaskFinish Sketch)

Step 10: Change the orientation of the face that denes the sketch plane. Choose ToolsExpression. Select the expression Change_Me and change the formula to 3.5. Choose OK. Rotate the part and notice how the circle remains associative to the face. Step 11: Create a sketch on a datum plane.

Orient the view to Trimetric.

(Home key)

Make layer 22 the work layer, layer 21 invisible, and layer 1 selectable.

Choose the Sketch icon.

(InsertSketch)

Choose Datum Plane.


1-16 Sketcher Fundamentals Student Guide UGS Corp., All Rights Reserved mt10028_g NX 4

Sketching

Select the two shaded faces shown below.

Choose OK in the Datum Plane dialog. A center datum plane is created.

The 2D sketch plane indicator appears and the X-Axis is active (highlighted).

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1-17

Sketching

Select the edge for the horizontal reference at the location indicated below.

Click on the sketch name, key in skt2 and press Enter.

Choose OK.

(MB2)

YC ZC XC

Choose the Finish Sketch icon. Step 12: Activate an existing sketch by selecting geometry. Make layer 21 selectable.

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Double-click on the sketch curve (1) shown below.

Fit the view. (MB3Fit) Sketch SKT1 is activated and oriented in the graphics window.

Choose the Finish Sketch icon. Step 13: Activate an existing sketch by name. Choose the Sketch icon.

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Choose SKT2 from the sketch name option menu.

Sketch SKT2 is activated and oriented in the graphics window.

YC ZC XC

Choose the Finish Sketch icon. Step 14: Close the part.

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Sketch Curves
Sketch curves are created via the Sketch Curve toolbar. As curves are created geometric constraints are assigned to the curves relative to the Infer Constraints Settings. 1 2 3 4 Prole Line Arc Circle

Infer Constraint Settings The Infer Constraints Settings dialog determines which constraints are automatically created during curve creation. It is accessed by choosing the Infer Constraint Settings icon from the Constraints toolbar or ToolsConstraintsInfer Constraint Settings.

As you create the curves a symbol will appear near the curve being created to represent the constraint that will be applied, if any.
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Locking a Constraint When a constraint symbol appears during curve creation you may lock in that constraint by pressing MB2. For example, if you are creating a line and the parallel symbol appears, press MB2. As you move the cursor, the new line that is rubber banding is doing so parallel to the reference curve. Snap Angle The snap angle is a preference setting in the Sketch Preferences dialog that is applied when curves are being created. It is used to "snap" a line to horizontal or vertical. The default snap angle is set to 3 and is user denable between 0 and 20. This angular tolerance is dened on either side of horizontal or vertical from the rst specied location, effectively creating a 6 tolerance zone by default.

When creating lines outside of the sketcher, snap angle only applies when using inferred cursor location. Snap Point Toolbar The Snap Point toolbar can be displayed when creating most of the curve types in the sketcher so that you have more control over the selection of locations.

When the Snap Point toolbar is active, regardless of the point types turned on, cursor location is always available.

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Alignment Lines While Creating Curves In the process of creating a curve, if you are horizontally or vertically opposite a control point, the system will display an alignment line. The example below depicts an existing curve (1) with a new curve (2) being created as well as the alignment curves (3).

Prole Tool The Prole tool allows creation of a string of lines and arcs without having to specify a start for each curve after the rst curve is created. The Prole tool is turned on by default when you rst create a sketch and can be accessed by choosing the Prole icon on the Sketch Curve toolbar. The icon options in the upper left corner of the graphics window allow you to switch between creating lines (1) or arcs (2) and allow you to switch between Coordinate Mode (3) or Parameter Mode (4). Line creation and Coordinate Mode are the defaults.

Once you have created the rst curve (line or arc), the default will revert back to Line. You can switch to arc creation by using press-drag-release with MB1.

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The "circle-X" symbol (1) controls the direction in which the arc will be created.

If the desired arc is in the wrong direction, release MB1, pass the cursor over the end of the line, and exit in a different quadrant of the symbol. Arc originating from top quadrant

Arc originating from left quadrant

Arc originating from right quadrant

Arc originating from bottom quadrant

As you create curves with the prole tool, the string mode can be broken by clicking MB2.

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1
Creating Lines Line creation is accessed by choosing the Line icon on the Sketch Curve toolbar. Once in line creation, the icons in the upper left corner of the graphics window provide two options: Coordinate Mode (by cursor location or keying in an XC and YC coordinates) and Parameter Mode.

There are several ways to create a line: Locate the start, and then locate the end. Locate the start, and then enter the length and angle parameters. Locate the start, enter one parameter, and then locate the end. Key in the parameters and then locate the start.

Once you indicate a start location, the system will switch to the Parameter Mode. But, you can still specify an end location without switching back to Coordinate Mode.

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1
Creating Arcs Arc creation is accessed by choosing the Arc icon on the Sketch Curve toolbar. Once in arc creation, the icons in the upper left corner of the graphics window give you two sets of options. The rst is creation method, and the second is for the Coordinate/Parameter Mode.

There are two different arc creation methods: Arc by 3 Points There are several ways to create the arc with this method: Locate the start, locate the end, and then locate a point on the arc. Locate the start, enter a radius value and press Enter, locate the end point, and then move the cursor to preview and choose which of the four possible solutions to create. The same as the previous, but enter the radius value after locating the end point, but before the point on arc.

Arc by Center and End Points There are several ways to create an arc with this method: Locate the center, locate the start point, and locate the end point. (The start point location determines the radius.) Locate the center, locate the start point, enter a radius value and press Enter, locate the end point. Locate the center, enter radius and sweep angle values and press Enter, locate the start of the sweep, and specify the direction for the sweep.

Once you indicate a rst location, the system will switch to Parameter Mode. But you can still specify locations with the cursor without switching back to Coordinate Mode.

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Creating Circles Circle creation is accessed by choosing the Circle icon on the Sketch Curve toolbar. Once in circle creation, the icons in the upper left corner of the graphics window provide two sets of options. The rst is creation method, and the second is for the Coordinate/Parameter Mode.

There are two different circle creation options: Circle by Center and Diameter There are a few ways to create a circle with this option: Locate the center, and then locate a point on the circumference of the circle. Locate the center, enter a Diameter, and press Enter. The circle is created. You are then in multiple circle creation mode - just indicate another location for a circle center. Locate the center, drag the radius until you get the size you want. Press Enter. The circle is created, and you are in multiple circle creation mode. Indicate another center.

Circle by 3 Points There are two ways to create a circle with this option: Locate three points on the circumference of the circle. Locate two points on the circumference of the circle, enter a radius value and press Enter, then choose which of the two options you want by cursor location.

Once you indicate a rst location, the system will switch to the enter Parameters mode. But you can still give a location without changing back to XY.

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Activity Using the Sketch Prole Tool


In this activity, you will use the Prole tool to create sketch geometry. Step 1: Open seedpart_in and save it as ***_sketch_prole_1 where *** represents your initials. Start the Modeling application. Change the Work Layer to 21. Create a sketch on the XC-YC plane. Choose the Sketch icon.

Step 2: Step 3: Step 4:

(InsertSketch)

Choose OK Step 5:

to accept the XC-YC Plane.

Add icons to the Sketch Constraints toolbar. Select the Toolbar Options area of the Sketch Constraints toolbar and choose Add or Remove ButtonsSketch Constraints.

Make sure the Infer Constraint Settings and Create Inferred Constraints icons are toggled on. You may have to move the toolbar to see the icons after they are added. Step 6: Set the Infer Constraints Settings. This is done so that only the constraints that you may want to apply will be available during curve creation.
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1
Choose the Infer Constraint Settings icon. (ToolsConstraintsInfer Constraint Settings) Turn on only the following constraints. Horizontal Vertical Tangent Parallel Perpendicular Coincident Dimensional Constraints Choose OK. Step 7: Create a Prole. In this step you will create the sketch curves shown below using the Prole tool.

Choose the Prole icon (InsertProle) and move the cursor into the graphics window. Select a start location with the cursor near the bottom left corner of the graphics window (approximately XC=-4, YC=-2)

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Move the cursor so that the rubber-banding line snaps to the horizontal orientation and the horizontal symbol displays (1) as shown below.

Notice the horizontal symbol indicating the constraint that is going to be applied to the line. Press MB2 to lock in the horizontal constraint. Now notice that as you move the cursor around, the rubber-banding line remains horizontal. Key in 3 for the Length and press Enter.

Notice that a dimensional constraint is created automatically. This is because a Length value was explicitly entered and the Dimensional Constraints option was turned on in the Infer Constraint Settings dialog.

Hold MB1 down and drag the cursor straight up from the end point of the last line and then release. You are now in Arc creation mode.

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Key in 1 for the Radius and press Enter. Key in 180 for the Sweep Angle and press Enter.

Click MB1 in the graphics window to apply.

Continue using the Prole tool to create the remaining curves in the sketch as shown below. You do not have to key in exact values but just create the approximate shape. Close the prole by selecting the end point of the rst line.

Dimensions maybe added at a later time to constrain the remaining curves to specic sizes.

Choose the Finish Sketch icon. Step 8: Save and close the part.

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Optional Challenge Practice sketching the following proles:

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1
Creating Fillets
Fillet creation is accessed by choosing the Fillet icon on the Sketch Curve toolbar. Once in llet creation, icon options appear in the upper left corner of the graphics window. The Trim Inputs option (1) determines whether or not the original curves are trimmed. The Delete Third Curve option (2) determines whether the middle curve is deleted in a three-curve llet. The Create Alternate Fillet option (3) will produce a complementary solution for the llet (e.g. a 270 degree arc instead of the default 90 degree arc).

You can create llets between lines, arcs or conics. You can also create a llet between two parallel lines. There are several ways to create Fillets: Select two curves with a single selection (at their intersection), and then drag the size and quadrant. Select two curves individually, and drag the size and quadrant. Select one curve, enter a radius value, and select the second curve. Select two curves individually, enter a radius value, and the indicate the desired quadrant. Drag (with MB1) across the two curves you want to llet. The size of the llet is determined by where the curves are selected.

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Trimming and Extending Curves

Quick Trim This option will allow you to trim any curve to the closest curve in the sketch and preview the results in preselection color.

You can trim multiple curves at one time, by using the "crayon" select method. Hold down MB1 and drag across the portion of curves you want to trim away.

You can select a specic curve to trim to, by using Ctrl-select to select the desired boundary curve. More than one bounding curve can be selected using this method. In the example below, both the arc on the left and the spline on the right were Ctrl-selected as boundary curves. With the cursor on the top line, (between the two boundary curves), the center section is previewed as the portion to be removed.

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When a curve is trimmed, appropriate constraints are automatically created. In the previous example, two Point on Curve constraints and one Collinear constraint are added. If one of the boundary curves is later trimmed to the line, the Point on Curve constraint would change to Coincident.

If you trim an arc to a line that is tangent, the tangency constraint is retained.

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1
Quick Extend This option will extend lines, arcs and conics to the closest curve in the sketch. The system will preview the results in the preselection color. The curve being extended must extend to an actual intersection with the boundary curve. You can extend multiple curves at one time, by using the "crayon" select method. Hold down MB1 and drag across the ends of curves you want to extend.

You can also select specic boundary curves by using the control-select method. As with Quick Trim, when you use Quick Extend, appropriate constraints are automatically created.

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Activity Creating Fillets


In this activity, you will create llets in an existing sketch. Step 1: Open the sketch_llet_1 part.

Step 2: Step 3:

Start the Modeling application. Activate the sketch. Double-click on any of the sketch curves.

Step 4:

Set the Infer Constraints Settings.

Choose the Infer Constraint Settings icon. (ToolsConstraintsInfer Constraint Settings) Turn off the Dimensional Constraints setting. Choose OK. Step 5: Create a 4 mm radius llet using lines L16 and L20 with a single selection and trimming the lines.

Choose the Fillet icon.

(InsertFillet)

Make sure Trim Inputs is on (highlighted background).


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Key in 4 in the Radius eld on the graphics window, and press Enter.

Select both lines at the same time, by selecting at their intersection.

Drag the cursor around the screen and notice that you can select which quadrant you want. Select in the lower right quadrant to place the llet in the desired quadrant.

Step 6:

Create a 4 mm llet using lines L16 and L17 with a single selection and do not trim the lines. Turn off Trim Inputs. (background not highlighted)

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Select the two lines at their intersection.

Select in the upper right quadrant.

Step 7:

Create a 4 millimeter llet between lines L17 and L18. Select by dragging across the two lines. The 4.0 Radius value should still be in the text eld on the graphics window. With MB1 held down, drag across the two lines as below: (This is another method of selecting the curves to be lleted. The curves crossed with the "crayon" are the curves selected.)

Notice that the 4 millimeter radius was used.

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Step 8:

Create another llet between lines L18 and L20 by using the "crayon", but this time do NOT use a radius value. Use Backspace to erase the 4 in the text eld.

Drag (with MB1), as shown below:

It used the selection location of the curves to determine the radius.

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Step 9:

Create a llet between lines L18 and L19, and drag the size and quadrant. Individually select the lines L18 and L19. Drag the cursor around the screen. Select a location to create an arc similar to the one shown below.

Choose the Finish Sketch icon. Step 10: Close the part.

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Activity Using Quick Trim and Quick Extend


In this activity, you will trim and extend existing sketch geometry. Step 1: Open the sketch_quick_1 part.

Step 2: Step 3:

Start the Modeling application. Trim curves with Quick Trim. Double-click on one of the sketch curves to activate the sketch.

Choose the Quick Trim icon.

(EditQuick Trim)

Select the line at the location of the arrow below.

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Hold MB1 down and drag the cursor across the two curves as shown below.

Ctrl-Select the curves (1) and (2) for boundaries. Select on curves (3) and (4) to trim the center portion.

Step 4:

Extending curves with Quick Extend. Choose the Quick Extend icon. (EditQuick Extend)

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Place the cursor on the arc at location (1) shown below.

The status line informs you that the curve cannot be extended. This is because there is no other curve that would intersect the arc. Place the cursor on the arc at location (2) shown below.

This time, an intersection is found and a preview is provided. Select the arc at location (2) to create the extension.

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Step 5:

Continue to experiment with Quick Trim and Quick Extend until the instructor is ready to continue.

Step 6: Step 7:

Choose the Finish Sketch icon. Close the part.

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Sketch Points
Sketch objects are dened by theoretical points. A line, for instance, is dened by two points. The sketcher attempts to mathematically solve for the location of the points by analyzing the constraints (rules) that are placed on objects. The points that the sketch solver analyzes are referred to as sketch points. By controlling the locations of these sketch points the curve itself may be controlled. There are various ways to control these points. The sketch points associated with different types of curves are illustrated in the graphic below. Line Arc Circle Fillet

Spline

Point

Ellipse

Degree-of-Freedom (DOF) Arrows Degree of freedom arrows are displayed at a sketch point when the solver is unable to fully determine where the sketch point is located on the sketch plane based on existing constraints and dimensions. They are only displayed during the creation of dimensions or constraints. The DOF arrows can point in both the horizontal and vertical directions. An arrow pointing to the right means that the sketch point is free to move left or right in the horizontal direction. An arrow pointing up means that the sketch point is free to move up or down in the vertical direction. These arrows provide visual feedback while you are constraining the sketch. Undened in X and Y Directions Undened in Undened in Y Direction X Direction Dened in X and Y Directions (no display)

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DOF arrows are removed as rules are written that dene the location of the sketch points. Arc - Arcs have sketch points at the center and at either end. These sketch points as well as the radius of the arc may be dened. Circle - Circles may have the center point as well as a radius or diameter dened. Ellipse - An ellipse may have the location of its center dened; also, the parameters for the size and orientation of the ellipse are stored for future editing. Fillet - A Fillet is a special case of arc. By denition a llet is tangent to the objects with which it is associated and this rule is applied as it is created. Fillets are also dened by the center and end points but the tangency will help determine the location of these points. Line - Lines may have the sketch points at either end dened. Point - Points may be dened relative to other objects or at specic locations in space. Spline - Degree three splines may have their dening points located. Slopes of the spline at the dening points may also be dened. Splines that are of a degree other than three may be added to sketches; however, since their dening points are not located at their knot points, there is no way to locate their dening points using constraints.

If any of the sketch points that dene a curve are unconstrained, the curve is displayed in the color specied by the Partially Constrained Curves setting in PreferencesSketchColors. When all dening points are constrained, the curve will change to the color specied by the Fully Constrained Curves setting in PreferencesSketchColors. Theses colors only apply during the creation of dimensions or constraints.

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Dimensional Constraints
Design Intent The power in sketching is derived from the ability to capture design intent. You do this by creating rules, called constraints, that dictate how sketch objects will react to changes. As many or as few constraints as necessary may be applied to cause the sketch prole to update in the manner desired. NX sketches are not required to be fully constrained. There is one case where a sketch should always be fully constrained: a sketch-on-path used for a variational sweep. Creating Sketch Dimensions A dimension controls the size of a sketch object, such as the length of a line or radius of an arc, or the relationship between two objects, such as a distance or angle. Dimensions appear in the graphics window. Unlike drafting dimensions, changing the value of the sketch dimensions changes the shape and or size of dimensioned objects. This changes any features, such as extrude or revolve features, that the sketch curves control.

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1
Dimensions may be applied by using the dimension menu on the Sketch Constraints toolbar. 1 The default Inferred Dimensions icon infers the dimension type based on the objects that are selected and the position of the cursor. 2 The other dimension icons are useful when the system is unable to infer the desired dimension type. These different options are "lters" that when selected will only allow a specic dimension type to be created. Certain types of geometry may not be selectable if they do not coincide with the dimension type selected.

As dimensions are being created, the dimension, its extension lines, and arrows are displayed as soon as the geometry has been selected. Drag the dimension until it is the correct type, for example horizontal or parallel. Place the dimension by clicking MB1. Click and drag the dimension to the desired location.

Sometimes, a dimension type may be inferred before all of the geometry has been selected. In this case, continue to select geometry until the correct dimension type is displayed, or select the icon for the dimension type you desire and select the geometry again.

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An expression is also created for each dimension. The name (1) and value (2) of the expression appear in a text box in the graphics window after the dimension has been placed. You may key in a new name or value. Press the Enter key to activate the change.

Sketch Dimension Dialog The Sketch Dimensions Dialog icon accesses the Dimensions dialog.

You can use the dialog to help create and edit dimensions. You can change the value of a dimension by either keying it in or using the slider bar.

There are also two option menus to change the appearance of the dimension. The Placement option menu is for dening how the text and arrows of the dimension will be displayed. Options are for automatic placement of text and arrows (1), manual text placement with arrows inside the extension lines (2), or manual text placement with the arrows outside the extension lines (3).

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The Leader option menu is for dening whether the dimensions leader is attached to the left (1) or right (2) of the dimension text.

Both of these option menus may be used before, during or after dimension creation. Text Height The Text Height controls the displayed height of the dimension text. Modifying this value will affect the display of all dimensions in the active sketch. The Text Height option can also be accessed by choosing PreferencesSketch. The Fixed Text Height option in SketchPreferences controls the size of the dimension text when you zoom. If this option is turned on, the text will remain the same size relative to the screen as you zoom in and out. Dimension Types Inferred The dimension type (except perimeter) is inferred based on the objects selected and the cursor location. Horizontal Species a distance constraint between two points with respect to the X-axis of the sketch coordinate system. Points, points on sketch curves, edges, lines, and arcs are selectable.

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1
Vertical Species a distance constraint between two points with respect to the Y-axis of the sketch coordinate system. Points, points on sketch curves, edges, lines, and arcs are selectable.

Parallel Species a constraint for the shortest distance between two sketch points. All sketch objects are selectable using this method. The points selected will be inferred from the objects selected.

Perpendicular Species a distance constraint measured perpendicular to a selected line and a point. If the desired point is an endpoint of a line, this endpoint must be selected as the second object.

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1
Angular Species an angular constraint between two linear objects.

Radius Species a radial size constraint for an arc or circle.

Diameter Species a diameter size constraint for an arc or circle.

Perimeter Constrains the collective lengths of lines and arcs to a desired value. After selecting the curves and choosing MB2, an expression is automatically generated with a Perimeter_ prex added to the name. (i.e. Perimeter_p7=6.456). There will be no graphical representation of this constraint in the graphics window.

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Activity Adding Dimensional Constraints


In this activity, you will capture the design intent for a part by adding rules that will control how the part is to change. These rules allow the part to be easily modied. The included angle of the adjustment slot should change from 45 to 75 by dimensional constraints. Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Open angle_adj_1. Start the Modeling application. Add the required dimensions. Double-click on one of the sketch curves to activate the sketch. Choose PreferencesSketch. Verify the Text Height is set to .10 and choose OK.

Choose the Inferred Dimensions icon. (InsertDimensionsInferred) Select the lower angled line (1, not endpoint).

The system infers that you wish to create a horizontal, vertical, or parallel dimension depending on the placement of the cursor relative to the geometry. DO NOT PLACE THE DIMENSION!

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Select the upper angled line (2, not endpoint).

Select a cursor location to place the dimension. Select the horizontal line (1, not endpoint) across the bottom. Select the lower angled line (2, not endpoint).

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Select a cursor location to place the dimension.

Choose MB2 to exit dimension creation mode. Step 4: Change the viewpoint. Choose MB3Orient View to Model.

Choose the Finish Sketch icon.

There are times, such as geometry creation, when looking directly at the plane of the sketch is benecial. At other times, it may help to change the view point to see the effects of changes on the geometry. Step 5: Close the part.

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Editing Dimensions
The editing of dimensions may be achieved as follows: To edit the value or the name, simply double-click on the dimension and edit the value or the name in the text box and press Enter. To edit the position, place cursor over a dimension, press and hold down MB1, and simply drag the dimensions location. Additional editing that may be done with the Dimensions dialog as listed below: Name Value Position Key in a new name in the text entry eld. Key in a new value in the text entry eld or use the slider. Click and hold MB1 on the dimension and drag to new position. Select a different option from the option menu. Select a different option from the option menu. Key in a new text size in the text entry eld.

Text placement Leader side Text height

The name and value of a dimension may also be edited by using the Expressions dialog. As dimensions are edited, the constraints are evaluated and the geometry is modied.

Delay Evaluation Delay Evaluation prevents geometry changes as one or more dimensions are modied. This is available as an icon on the Sketcher toolbar or by choosing ToolsDelay Sketch Evaluation.

Evaluate Sketch Evaluate Sketch controls sketch evaluation when Delay Evaluation is on. (Sketches are evaluated automatically when you exit from the Constraints dialog.) This is available as an icon on the Sketcher toolbar or by choosing ToolsEvaluate Sketch

Update Model Update Model forces the model to update without leaving the sketch function. (The model is updated automatically when you exit from the sketch environment.) This is available as an icon on the Sketcher toolbar or by choosing ToolsUpdate Model.
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Retain Dimensions When a sketch is deactivated the dimensions are normally hidden. Retain Dimensions is a toggle in the Sketch Preferences dialog to retain dimension display after the sketch is deactivated.

Retain Dimensions applies only to the active sketch, thus to suit your needs you may have a mixture of sketches with and without retained dimensions. Use this setting when you need to display dimensions without an active sketch, for example to reference expression names between sketches, when creating features, or for plotting.

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Activity Editing Sketch Dimensions


In this activity, you will edit dimensional constraints and see that they do not sufciently control the angle bracket from the previous activity. Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Open angle_adj_2. Start the Modeling application. Change the layer settings. Make layer 1 Selectable.

Fit the view.

(MB3Fit)

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Step 4:

Edit a dimension. Place the cursor over a sketch curve and choose MB3Edit. Choose MB3Orient View to Model. Double-click on the 45 dimension. In the dynamic input eld, key in 75 and press Enter.

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Step 5:

Edit another dimension. Double-click on the 15 dimension. In the dynamic input eld, key in 25 and press Enter.

Notice how the geometry updates. Basic geometric assumptions that we make when we look at this geometry are not specied to the system, i.e. the bottom line has no horizontal constraint applied. If the geometry had been created in the sketch rather than added to the sketch some of these geometric assumptions would have been added to the geometry as constraints during the creation process.

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Step 6:

Close the part. Choose Undo twice. (MB3Undo)

Choose the Finish Sketch icon. Close the part.

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1
Geometric Constraints
A geometric constraint establishes a geometric characteristic of a sketch object (such as dening a line as being horizontal) or the type of relationship between two or more objects (such as requiring that two lines be parallel or perpendicular, or that several arcs have the same radius). Unlike dimensional constraints, geometric constraints have no editable numeric values; a constant angle constraint, for instance, simply dictates that the line stay at the angle it is at when the constraint is applied. To create geometric constraints, choose the Constraints icon, select the objects, and choose the desired constraint from the icon option bar that appears in the upper left corner of the graphics window. Only icons for constraints that apply to the selected geometry will be displayed.

You may also choose the constraint from an MB3 pop-up menu after selecting the geometry.

To assign multiple constraints at one time, press the Ctrl key while selecting the objects. The icon option bar for the constraints will then remain in the upper left corner of the graphics window after you choose the rst constraint. You can use MB2 or the Esc key to cancel creation of constraints.

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Types of Geometric Constraints Coincident Collinear Constrains two or more points as having the same location. Constrains two or more linear objects as lying on or passing through the same theoretical straight line. Constrains two or more arcs as having the same center. Constrains a line so as to remain in its current orientation without input of an angular value. Constrains a line so as to remain at its current length without input of a length value. Constrains two or more lines as being the same length. Constrains two or more arcs as having the same radius value. Constrains unchangeable characteristics for geometry, depending on the type of geometry selected. You can apply a Fixed constraint to an individual sketch point or to an entire object. Constrains a line as being parallel to the FCS X-axis. Constrains the location of a point to be equidistant from both ends of the curve. Select the curve anywhere other than at its end points. Parallel Perpendicular Point on Curve Point on String Constrains two or more linear objects as being parallel to each other. Constrains two linear objects as being perpendicular to each other. Constrains the location of a point as lying on the path or projection of a curve. Constrains the location of a point as lying on an extracted string.

Concentric Constant Angle Constant Length

Equal Length Equal Radius Fixed

Horizontal Midpoint

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1
Scale, NonUniform Scale, Uniform When applied, a spline will scale in the horizontal direction while keeping the original dimensions in the vertical direction during modication. A spline will scale proportionally in both the horizontal and vertical when the horizontal length changes. Constrains a spline, selected at a dening point, and another object as being tangent to each other at the selected point. Constrains two objects as being tangent to each other. Constrains a line as being parallel to the FCS Y-axis.

Slope of Curve

Tangent Vertical

Displaying Constraint Symbols Constraint symbols are displayed when a sketch is active. Symbols for Coincident, Point on Curve, Midpoint, Tangent, and Concentric are always displayed. The Show All Constraints option will display the symbols for all the constraints in the active sketch. The various constraint symbols are shown below: Fixed Collinear Horizontal Vertical Parallel Perpendicular Equal Length Constant Length Mirror Slope of Curve Constant Angle Concentric Tangent Equal Radius Coincident Point on Curve Midpoint of Curve Point on String Scale, Uniform Scale, Non-Uniform

If the sketch curves are relatively small (the view is zoomed out), the symbols may not be displayed. You may need to zoom in to see them.

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Show/Remove Constraints
Show/Remove Constraints helps you manage constraints. The constraints may be listed by object(s) or all of the constraints of the active sketch may be listed at once. 1 List all constraints or by object(s). 2 Filter for the type of constraint to list. 3 Determines if the ltered constraint types will be included or excluded. 4 Category of constraints to list. 5 Actions to take on the listed constraints.

Constraint Interrogation While the Show/Remove dialog is displayed, you can determine what constraints are present by passing the selection ball over a sketch object. If the object has an associated constraint, the object will be pre-highlighted along with any other objects that share the constraint. The constraint symbol will appear next to the sketch objects. If an object which has no constraints associated with it, it will not highlight.

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Constraint Categories There are two major categories of constraints, Explicit and Inferred. Explicit constraints are constraints that you create by assignment using the constraints dialog or by virtue of the creation method. Inferred constraints are Coincident constraints that the system has inferred and created during the curve creation process. You have the option to list only Explicit constraints, only Inferred constraints, or both.

Constraint Listing The constraints may also be listed in the Show/Remove Constraints dialog by selecting one of the three options at the top of the dialog window. Selected Object Once an object is selected, the associated constraints, depending on the selected constraint category, are listed in the dialog. To view constraints associated with a different sketch object, simply select the new object. Allows the selection of multiple objects; the associated constraints, depending on the selected constraint category, are listed in the dialog. Objects may be deselected by holding the shift key down and selecting the object. List all the constraints of the active sketch, depending on the selected constraint category.

Selected Objects

All in Active Sketch Listing Box

Any time there are constraints listed in the list box they may be browsed by selecting the constraint to highlight it. When the constraint is highlighted in the list box, the sketch object(s) that is associated with it is also highlighted in the graphics window. The Step Up the List and Step Down the List buttons allow easy navigation through the various constraints. The Up and Down arrows on most keyboards will mimic this behavior.

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Information The Information button located on the Show/Remove Constraints dialog will list all of the constraints in the active sketch to the information window. This is useful should there be a need to make a hard copy of the constraints or save them as a text le. Removing Constraints Constraints may be deleted by these methods: Highlight them in the Show/Remove Constraints dialog List box and select Remove Highlighted Constraint(s), or just double click them in the list. Turn on Select Constraints (on the Selection toolbar), select the constraint symbol on the graphics window, and then choose the Delete icon. Turn on Select Constraints, select the constraint symbol on the graphics window, and then use MB3Delete to delete selected constraint.

Undo Undo from the Edit pull-down menu, the Undo icon on the Standard toolbar, the MB3 pop-up menu, or the accelerator keys. Undo takes the user actions back one step at a time. After an Undo is performed, the Redo option is available in the Edit pulldown menu or Standard toolbar. Dragging Geometry Under constrained geometry can be dragged only when not in a constraint creation mode. Simply hold down and drag MB1 while on the selected curve(s) or point(s). Selection When in the Sketcher Task Environment, the selection toolbar changes. It has two icons that are only available in the Sketcher. Select Sketch Objects allows selection of curves and dimensions in the sketch. Select Constraints allows selection of constraint symbols in the graphics window.

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Constraint Conditions
When either the Dimensions or Constraints option is chosen, the Status line lists the constraint condition for the active sketch. A sketch may be fully constrained, under constrained, or over constrained. When the sketch is under constrained the Status line will indicate the number of constraints needed. Sketch needs 4 constraints Sketch is fully constrained Sketch contains over constrained geometry A sketch is evaluated each time a constraint is placed upon the sketch. Each time a sketch is evaluated, the system attempts to solve the set of constraints that describe how the geometric objects are positioned and their relationships with each other. Fully Constrained In order to completely capture the design intent of a particular prole, it may be benecial to fully constrain the sketch. This occurs when the solver is able to completely dene all sketch geometry. There is no requirement to fully constrain a sketch. The design intent has been captured sufciently when the constraint set applied to the prole causes it to update in the intended manner. Under Constrained A sketch is under constrained when there is insufcient information to completely locate each sketch point. Degree-of-freedom arrows are displayed at each point that can not be solved to identify the direction in which that point remains free to move. Over Constrained A sketch is over constrained when too much constraint information is supplied to the solver. For example, if an Equal Length constraint is applied to two lines and then dimensions are added to each to constrain their length, the sketch would be over constrained. The geometry and dimensional constraints that are causing the over constrained condition are highlighted in a different color to help you identify and resolve the issue. This color is determined by the Overconstrained Curves and Dimensions setting in the Sketch Preferences. An unwanted constraint must be removed before the system will change the geometric conguration. The sketch remains in the last solved condition.
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Conicting Constraints Dimensional constraints and geometry that are in conict in the current conguration with the current constraint set are also highlighted in a different color. This indicates that the constraint set that has been supplied is not solvable with the geometry in its current conguration. Constraints may need to be added or removed in order for the sketcher to be able to solve the constraint set. The highlight color is determined by the Conicting Curves and Dimensions setting in the Sketch Preferences.

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Activity Adding Constraints


In this activity you will add constraints to the angle adjustment bracket to cause the expected update to occur when a dimension is modied. Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Open angle_adj_3. Start the Modeling application. Add the required constraints. Place the cursor over a sketch curve and choose MB3Edit. Choose MB3Orient View to Model.

Fit the view.

(MB3Fit)

Choose the Constraints icon.

(InsertConstraints)

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Select the line (1) at the bottom of the sketch.

in the upper left corner of the graphics Choose Horizontal window. (MB3Horizontal) This constraint will keep the line from rotating around when dimensions are modied. There are six places where the curvature transitions need to maintain tangency.

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Select the six tangent curve pairs near the six points shown below, two adjacent curves at a time, and apply aTangent constraint to each pair. Be careful to select on the correct half of the arc.

Lastly, the two arcs at the top of the slot should remain concentric.

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Select the two upper arcs (1) and apply a Concentric constraint.

The slot should now be constrained such that the angle may be adjusted while the conguration remains as intended.

Choose MB2 to turn the Constraints option off. Step 4: Edit the dimensions. Double-click on the 45 dimension and change it to 75. The sketch geometry changes in the expected manner.

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Step 5:

Apply the change to the solid geometry. Choose the Update Model icon. (ToolsUpdate Model)

Choose the Finish Sketch icon. Step 6: Close the part.

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Activity Constraining a Prole


Constrain the pipe vise sketch to satisfy the stated design intent. Apply constraints to the curves so that the following may be controlled: The outside envelope of the part. The included angle of the angled lines. The angled lines must remain centered in the part horizontally. The width of the slot at the bottom of the angled lines is controlled by the radius at the bottom of the slot. Open pipevise_1.

Step 1:

Step 2: Step 3:

Start the Modeling application. Activate the sketch. Double-click on a sketch curve.

Step 4:

View the system applied constraints.

Choose the Show/Remove Constraints icon. (ToolsConstraintsShow/Remove Constraints) Choose All In Active Sketch in the List Constraints For: area of the dialog.
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Verify the Show Constraints option is set to Explicit. The system created constraints are now displayed in the list box. The dialog should look similar to the graphic shown below.

Choose the rst constraint in the list. The object referred to in the list is highlighted in the graphics window. There should be one horizontal line highlighted. Use the UP and DOWN arrow buttons located to the right of the list box to browse through the constraint list. Cancel the Show/Remove Constraints dialog. Step 5: View the degree of freedom arrows. Turn on the Constraints icon.
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(InsertConstraints)
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Notice that there are degree of freedom arrows at each of the sketch points. Even though most of the objects in the sketch have constraints associated with them, the sketch points are free to move in all directions. This is because the system cannot locate any of the points relative to model space.

Step 6:

Constrain the location of a point. Select the lower endpoint of the left vertical line. Select the vertical datum axis.

Choose the Point on Curve icon of the graphics window.

in the upper left corner

The geometry now changes to follow the constraint. The point at the bottom of the left vertical line is now constrained in the horizontal direction.

Select the left endpoint of the bottom horizontal line.


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Select the horizontal datum axis.

Choose the Point on Curve icon. The geometry now changes to follow the new constraint. The shared sketch point at the bottom of the left vertical line is now constrained in both the horizontal and vertical directions. The degree of freedom arrows go away and, due to the horizontal and vertical constraints on the lines that share the sketch point, one of the arrows on the opposite end of those lines has disappeared.

Choose MB2 to cancel the Constraints mode.

Fit the view. Step 7:

(MB3Fit)

Move the datum planes and axes to layer 61. The datums have served their purpose of locating the sketch. You will now move them to ease selection of objects and clean up the screen display. Choose EditObject Display. Choose the Class Selection icon in the upper left corner of the graphics window. Choose Type.

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Choose Datums and choose OK. Choose Select All and OK. Key in 61 for the Layer in the dialog and press Enter. Step 8: Continue adding constraints to satisfy the stated design intent. Turn on the Constraints icon.

(InsertConstraints)

Hold the Ctrl key down and select the two horizontal lines (1) at the top of the prole.

Choose Collinear

and Equal Length.

Use the Esc key to deselect all the curves. (EditSelectionDeselect All). Select the right side of the arc at the bottom of the slot (1). Select the short right vertical line (2, but not on the end point).

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Choose Tangent. Create another Tangent constraint on the other side of the slot, selecting the left side of the arc and the left vertical line. Hold the Ctrl key down and select the bottom horizontal line and the lower endpoint of the line originating from the arc center.

Choose Point on Curve.

Choose Midpoint. Use the Esc key to deselect all the curves. (EditSelectionDeselect All). Select the line (1), shown below, between the midpoint and the arc center.

Choose Vertical.

Adding dimensional constraints to satisfy the controlling portions of the design intent will allow the prole to be changed by modifying the numerical values.

Choose the Inferred Dimensions icon. (InsertDimensionsInferred) Select the bottom horizontal line. Drag the dimension to position it and select with MB1 to place it.
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Key in a value of 5 and press Enter. Notice the curves change color as they become constrained. Fit the view if necessary. Select the left vertical line and place the dimension for it. Change the value to 3.75. Select the top left horizontal line and place the dimension. Change its value to .5. Fit the view if necessary. Select the left angled line (1) and the top left horizontal line (2), avoiding the end points. Place the angular dimension and change its value to 45.

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Select the right angled line and the top right horizontal line, avoiding the end points. Place this angular dimension and change its value to the p number assigned to the other angular dimension.

Select the arc at the bottom of the slot. Place the radius dimension and change its value to .25. Select the line connecting the arc center and the midpoint and place this vertical dimension. Change its value to 1.5 and choose Enter. The Status line now informs you that the sketch is fully constrained. Remember that it is not necessarily required to fully constrain the prole if it is updating in the manner desired.

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Step 9:

Change the constraints on the sketch to alter the included angle in the notch. Click on the rst angular dimensional constraint that was created and change it from a 45 to 30.

Notice that the depth of the notch is unchanged as a result of this edit. Should that have not been our intent, we would have to constrain the sketch in a different manner.

Choose the Finish Sketch icon. Step 10: Close the part.

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Activity Sketching and Constraining a Gasket


In this activity, you will create and constrain a gasket. To efciently capture the design intent, constraints and dimensions will be added progressively. The center hole is the origin of the gasket. The three holes are located on a horizontal axis. The lines on the outer boundary of the prole are tangent to the arcs.

Step 1:

Open the seedpart_in part and save it as ***_gasket_1 where *** represents your initials. Start the Modeling application. Create the sketch on a Datum CSYS. Change the Work Layer to 21 so that the part will be compliant with class standards.

Step 2: Step 3:

Choose the Sketch icon.

(InsertSketch)

Click on the sketch name; key in s21_prole and press Enter.

Choose Datum CSYS.

Choose Absolute CSYS. Choose OK.


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The X-Y plane of the Datum CSYS is highlighted as the default sketch plane.

Choose OK Step 4:

to accept the default plane.

Set the Infer Constraint Settings. Choose the Infer Constraint Settings icon. (ToolsConstraintsInfer Constraint Settings) Verify that the following constraints are turned on. Concentric Coincident Dimensional Constraints Choose OK.

Step 5:

Create the circles in the center of the gasket. Choose the Circle icon.

(InsertCircle)

Verify that Control Point toolbar.

is turned on in the Snap Point

Select the existing point at the origin of the Datum CSYS.

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Drag the cursor to preview circle as shown below. Key in a Diameter value of 2 and press Enter.

The rst circle is created. Key in a Diameter value of 3 for the second circle and press Enter. Select the existing point at the origin of the Datum CSYS.

Choose MB2. The two circles are fully constrained because of the dimensional and geometric constraints that were inferred as you created them.
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Step 6:

Create a circle representing the hole on the left side. Choose the Circle icon. (InsertCircle)

Click and drag to create a circle near on left side of the graphics window. Key in a Diameter value of 0.5 and press Enter.

Choose the Constraints icon.

(InsertConstraints)

Select the arc center of the circle and the horizontal datum axis.

Choose Point on Curve

Choose the Inferred Dimensions icon. (InsertDimensionsInferred) Create a perpendicular dimension from the vertical datum axis to the arc center of the left circle. Change the value of the dimension to 2.625.

Step 7:

Create a circle for the outer boundary on the left side. Create another circle in the left side of the graphics window with a diameter of 1.

Choose the Constraints icon.

(InsertConstraints)

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Select the two circles on the left side and choose Concentric.

Step 8:

Create circles representing the hole and outer boundary on the right side. Create two circles on the right side of the graphics window representing the hole and the outer boundary of the gasket. Do not explicitly enter the diameter values. You will constrain them to be equal to existing circles.

Choose the Constraints icon.

(InsertConstraints)

Select the two new circles on the right and choose Concentric.

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Select the arc center of the circles on the right and the horizontal datum axis and choose Point on Curve. Select the smaller circle on the left and the smaller circle on the right and choose Equal Radius. Select the larger circle on the left and the larger circle on the right and choose Equal Radius.

Choose the Inferred Dimensions icon. (InsertDimensionsInferred) Create a horizontal dimension from the arc center of the left circles to the arc center of the right circles. Change the value of the dimension to 5.25.

Step 9:

Set the Infer Constraint Settings before creating the lines. Choose the Infer Constraint Settings icon. (ToolsConstraintsInfer Constraint Settings) Disable all constraints except Point on Curve and Tangent. Choose OK.

Step 10: Create the tangent lines on the outer boundary of the gasket.
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1
Choose the Line icon. (InsertLine) In the Snap Point toolbar, disable all options except Point on Curve. Create the lines by selecting the circles representing the outer boundary of the gasket. Select the circles by placing the cursor near the expected tangency.

You should see Point on Curve and Tangent constraint symbols on each end of the lines as they are created. The Quick Trim option could be used to trim the circles. However, when extruding the sketch to create a solid body, it is possible to dene the correct boundary of the gasket without trimming.

Step 11: Choose the Finish Sketch icon. Step 12: Choose FileCloseSave and Close.

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1
Convert To/From Reference
At times it is useful to add a dimension to a sketch to see the effect of a change numerically. Adding a dimensional constraint, however, would cause the sketch to become over constrained. It also may be necessary to add sketch curves to aid in the construction and constraining of a prole without representing a portion of the swept feature. To support these needs, curve and dimensional constraints within a sketch may be converted to and from a Reference status. To convert objects, select them in the graphics window and choose Convert To/From Reference from the MB3 pop-up menu. You may access a dialog by choosing the Convert To/From Reference icon from the Sketch Constraints toolbar (ToolsConstraintsConvert To/From Reference).

Reference curves are displayed in a phantom line font and are ignored during sweep operations. Reference curves and dimensions are displayed in colors specied by the Reference Curves and Reference Dimensions settings in PreferencesSketchColors. Reference dimensional constraints are displayed with only the value portion of the expression. The values will be updated as the sketch is changed, but they do control the sketch geometry with which they are associated. Dimensions can be made reference as they are created by choosing Create Reference Dimension in the icon option bar.

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Activity Constraint Conditions


In this activity, you will constrain and edit a simple sketch to change the design intent. This conguration is not one that you would likely sketch, but its simplicity illustrates the concept of an over-constrained condition. Apply constraints to control the length and width of the sketch. The shape of the sketch should remain rectangular.

Step 1: Step 2: Step 3:

Open seedpart_in. Start the Modeling application. Create a sketch on Layer 21. Change the work layer to 21.

Choose the Sketch icon.

(InsertSketch)

Choose Datum CSYS.

Choose Absolute CSYS. Choose OK. The X-Y plane of the Datum CSYS is highlighted as the default sketch plane.

Choose OK.
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Step 4:

Set the Infer Constraints Settings. Choose the Infer Constraints Settings icon. (ToolsConstraintsInfer Constraint Settings) Verify that the following constraints are turned on. Horizontal Vertical Parallel Perpendicular Coincident Choose OK.

Step 5:

Create a rectangle. Choose the Rectangle icon. (InsertRectangle)

Verify that Control Point toolbar.

is turned on in the Snap Point

Select the existing point at the origin of the Datum CSYS.

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Drag the cursor to preview the rectangle and select a cursor location near the upper right corner of the graphics window.

Step 6:

Interrogate the constraints that currently exist for this sketch. Choose the Show/Remove Constraints icon. (ToolsConstraintsShow/Remove Constraints) Choose All In Active Sketch. Set the Show Constraints to Explicit. Highlight the rst constraint in the list and use the down arrow button to browse the constraints. Choose Cancel.

Step 7:

Apply dimensional constraints to control the length and width of the rectangle as per the design intent.

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1
Choose the Inferred Dimensions icon. (InsertDimensionsInferred) Select the left vertical line and place the dimension. Change the value to 2.75. Select the bottom horizontal line and place the dimension. Change the value to 4.5. As dimensional constraints are being created, the degree-of-freedom arrows are eliminated and the curves change to the fully constrained color. The sketch is fully constrained with one vertical and one horizontal dimensional constraint, along with the geometric constraints inferred when the lines were constructed. Design Change Modify the sketch so that it can be controlled by the angle and length of a diagonal line.

Step 8:

Create a diagonal line in the sketch and convert it to reference. Choose the Line icon. (InsertLine)

In the Snap Point toolbar, disable all options except Control Point. Select the lower left endpoint and the upper right endpoint of the rectangle to dene the line. Step 9:
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Convert the diagonal line to Reference status.


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Choose MB2 to exit the line creation mode. Select the diagonal line. Choose MB3Convert To/From Reference. Step 10: Apply an angular dimensional constraint. Choose the Inferred Dimensions icon. (InsertDimensionsInferred) Select the lower horizontal line (not the endpoint) and the diagonal line (not the endpoint). Indicate a location for the angular dimension and change the value to 35. The Status line indicates that sketch is now over constrained. The sketch objects associated with the over constrained condition change to the color specied by the Overconstrained Curves and Dimensions setting in the Sketch Preferences. To correct the over constrained condition, one or more of the offending constraints must by removed. The new design intent is to control the sketch with angular and diagonal length dimensions.

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Step 11: Apply a parallel dimensional constraint. Select the diagonal line and place a parallel dimension. Change the value of the dimension to 6.5.

Notice that the sketch conguration does not change when the value is modied. The system leaves the geometry in its last solved state until the over constrained condition is resolved. Step 12: Convert sketch dimensions to reference. Choose MB2 to exit the dimension creation mode. Select the horizontal and vertical dimensions. Choose MB3Convert To/From Reference. The sketch is returned to a fully constrained condition. The reference dimensions reect the value only. They do not control the geometry to which they are attached. The over constrained condition could also have been resolved by deleting the horizontal and vertical dimensions.

Choose the Finish Sketch icon. Step 13: Close the part.

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Summary
This lesson introduced the concept of sketch creation. Sketches may be used to dene a base feature, guide paths, and additional associative features to the base feature. A sketch parametrically controls curves. It can also be dened on a sketch plane which is associative to a datum plane/face of a model. Both of these benets allow you to capture and maintain design intent. Constraints are applied to sketch objects in order to capture the design intent. The level of constraint, partial or full, is determined by the design intent and what is necessary to capture it. In this lesson you: Created sketches on datum planes, solid faces, and a Datum CSYS. Created freehand curves in a sketch. Created and edited dimensional constraints. Created inferred and explicit geometric constraints. Converted sketch curves and dimensions to reference status.

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Lesson

Constraining Sketches
Purpose This lesson describes creating and modifying sketch constraints. Objectives Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Create Geometric Constraints Work with System Applied Constraints Auto Create and Display Constraints Work with Constraint Conditions Convert Sketch Curves To Reference Curves Update The Model Add Objects to Sketch Constrain the Perimeter of a Sketch

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Constraining Sketches

Constraints NX provides a variety of feedback about a sketch.

2
Drag

You can see color coded information about the constraint condition of a curve, list current constraints, or view information about how many constraints are needed to fully constrain the sketch.

You might consider a sketch sufciently constrained, but the system still lists the status as under constrained. One method of interrogating the sketch is to drag the geometry. Dragging allows under constrained geometry to be moved in the unconstrained directions. To drag a single curve or point move the cursor over it, click, and drag. For multiple objects rst select curves or end points and then click and drag all selected objects. Objects that share sketch points with the object being dragged remain connected to the object and stretch to accommodate the movement. If an object has no freedom to move due to constraints, it will not drag. In the example below, L6 (1) is being dragged while L4 and L5 (2) stretch to accommodate the movement of the line. L6 is constrained so it maintains its angular and length relationship during the drag operation.

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Drag may be used to drag multiple sketch curves. Select the curves to be dragged, then use the left mouse button to click and drag to move the objects in their unconstrained directions. Selecting two or more objects to drag causes different results as the constraints applied to different curves have different effects on how the group of curves react. In the example below, the two lines L4 and L6 (1) are selected to drag causing L5 and the upper horizontal line (2) to stretch.

Drag may be used to drag a single sketch point. Move the cursor to pre-highlight the point, then click and drag to move it in its unconstrained directions. Objects that share the sketch point stretch to accommodate the movement.

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Constraining Sketches

In the example below, the sketch point V1 is being dragged. The lines that share the sketch point stretch to accommodate the movement of the point. Their angle and length are modied by the drag operation.

Drag may also be used to approximate the correct location of a sketch prole relative to other objects. This may be useful when the process of constraining distorts the sketch prole so that it would be difcult to undo. Undesired Results Distortion caused by the act of constraining.

Desired Results Desired results when entire prole dragged from quadrant to quadrant.

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Create Inferred Constraints


Create Inferred Constraints lets you toggle inferred constraints on or off as you create and/or edit sketch geometry. Create Inferred Constraints is active by default. The icon is available (but by default not displayed) in the Sketch Constraints toolbar. When you drag a sketch object you can make use of Inferred Constraints, such as horizontal or vertical. If Create Inferred Constraints is inactive (off), the system uses the constraints only to place the geometry, but does not store the constraints in your le. If Create Inferred constraints is active (on), the system creates and stores constraints as shown by constraint symbols you see on the screen. You control which constraints can be inferred during curve creation via Inferred Constraint Settings.

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Activity - Dragging Sketch Objects


Step 1: Open the part le drag_1. Activate the sketch. Choose StartModeling. Double-click on a sketch curve. Zoom out the view to give yourself some working room around the geometry.

Step 2:

Toggle Show All Constraints

to active.

In PreferencesSketch make sure that Dynamic Constraint Display is inactive (off). Notice that the constraint set is presently made up of one vertical and several tangent and coincident constraints. Step 3: Drag a curve. Place the cursor over the curve at location (1) shown below. Hold MB1 down and drag the curve to location (2).

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Notice how the vertical and tangent constraints impacted the drag operation. Also notice the circle was left behind.

Choose Undo.

Choose Constraints. Select the arc (1) and circle (2) shown below. Apply a Concentric constraint.

Toggle Constraints

off (or MB2).

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Place the cursor over the curve at location (1) shown below. Hold MB1 down and drag the curve to location (2).

Notice that the circle moved with the drag operation.

Choose Undo. Step 4: Dragging curves versus endpoints. Place the cursor over the curve at location (1) shown below. Hold MB1 down and drag the curve to location (2).

The line with a constraint remains tangent to the arc, while the other line may not remain tangent.

Choose Undo.

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Select and drag the endpoint shown below from location (1) to (2).

When you select an end point the radius of the arc changes dramatically as you drag. You are effectively dragging the radius along with the end point.

Choose Undo. Step 5: Drag a line to horizontal, and create a horizontal constraint. Display Create Inferred Constraints in the Sketch Constraints toolbar, or use ToolsConstraints. Verify that Create Inferred Constraints is active.

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Drag the endpoint (1) shown below from location (1) to (2). End the dragging action only when you can see a horizontal constraint symbol.

Notice that the line snaps to horizontal within the snap angle.

Notice also that the horizontal constraint becomes permanent when you release the end point you were dragging.

Choose Undo.

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Step 6:

Drag a line to horizontal without creating a constraint. Toggle Create Inferred Constraints to inactive. Once again, drag the endpoint from location (1) to (2). End the dragging action only when you can see a horizontal constraint symbol.

Notice that, just as before, the line snaps to horizontal within the snap angle and the horizontal symbol appears. Notice that this time no horizontal constraint is created. Choose Undo. Toggle Create Inferred Constraints to active. (Restore the default setting.)

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Step 7:

Drag several curves at one time. Select the curves shown below by dragging a rectangle around them.

Drag the selection to the left as shown below.

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Step 8:

Drag all of the sketch geometry to a new position. Drag a rectangle around the entire sketch and drag the geometry to the location shown below.

Step 9:

Locate the sketch. Choose Constraints. Select the arc center of the arc (1) and the horizontal datum axis (2).

Apply a Point on Curve constraint.


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Select the same arc center and the vertical datum axis.

Apply a Point on Curve constraint. Notice what happened to the sketch geometry. The arc center moved to the prescribed location and the vertical line still meets the vertical and tangent constraints assigned to it.

Toggle Constraints

off (or MB2).

Fix the geometry by dragging the vertical line to the other side of the arc. Try to maintain the same size of the upper and lower arcs.

Choose Finish Sketch. Step 10: Close the part.

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Activity - Adding Constraints


As a design evolves two angles that determine the extents of a circular slot may be changed. When changes are made, the update must not fail, and the following conditions must be met: When the angles change, it is necessary that the slot retain its current width. The slot must remain centered in the arm with its upper end concentric with the end of the arm. All arcs that are currently tangent must remain tangent.

You will verify that this sketch needs additional constraints to control it as it updates. You will add enough geometric constraints to fully capture the design intent. Step 1: Open angle_adj_4 and choose StartModeling.

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Step 2:

Examine the sketch. Double-click on a sketch curve.

If necessary, toggle Show All Constraints to active.

In PreferencesSketch, if necessary, toggle Dynamic Constraint Display to inactive. Are there any geometric constraints in the sketch? What do you think would happen if you edited one of the dimensions?

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Step 3:

Edit the angle p68 to 35 and observe the update behavior.

Double-click on p68 to enter edit mode.

Change the value to 35 and press enter.

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What happens to the sketch?

The unite between the shape extruded from the sketch and the rest of the model will fail, thus the model cannot update successfully with the sketch in this condition. In addition, one of the end arcs of the slot has lost its tangency. Step 4: Drag a curve end to see if the sketch deforms. Drag the end point indicated by the square dot in the direction of the black arrow.

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Step 5:

Undo the changes. Choose EditUndo List and choose Edit Sketch Dimension, the entry just above Enter Sketcher. You could also press Ctrl+Z until all of the edits you made are undone

Step 6:

Constrain the line adjacent to the part. Choose Constraints. Select the line (1) at the bottom of the sketch.

Select the solid edge behind the line.

Choose Collinear. This constraint will keep the line from rotating around when dimensions are modied.
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Step 7:

Constrain the arcs to maintain tangency in six places.

Select the six tangent curve pairs near the six points shown below, two adjacent curves at a time, and apply Tangent constraints to each pair. Be careful to select on the correct half of the arc.

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Step 8:

Make the two arcs at the top of the slot concentric. Select the two upper arcs and apply a Concentric constraint.

The slot should now be constrained such that the angle may be adjusted while the conguration remains as intended.

Choose MB2 to toggle the Constraints icon off. Step 9: Edit the p68 dimension to 75. Double-click on the 45 dimension and change it to 75. Step 10: Apply the change to the solid geometry. Choose Finish. Step 11: Close the part.

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Automatic Constraint Creation

The system can create certain types of constraints automatically. This is especially useful when geometry is added to a sketch rather than created as sketch objects. You can enable the Automatic Constraints icon on the Sketch constraints toolbar, or use ToolsConstraintsAutomatic Constraints. Procedure 1. Choose Automatic Constraint Creation. 2. Toggle the desired constraints to on. 3. Ensure that the proper distance and angle tolerances are set. 4. Choose Apply or OK. The Set and Clear buttons, on the Auto Create Constraints dialog, may be used to turn all of the constraint elds on or off. When using the horizontal, vertical, parallel, and perpendicular auto create options, the system evaluates lines using the specied Angle tolerance to apply the proper constraints. Other types of auto create constraints, such as coincident and concentric, use the Distance tolerance to apply the constraints. Using the Distance tolerance with the Coincident constraint will have the effect of closing gaps. This condition is common with objects that have been translated from other systems. Allow Remote constraints permits automatic constraints to be created between curves that do not actually touch. Currently, tangency between curves that would be tangent if they were extended is supported.

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Sketch Operations Project


Project lets you create extracted curves or strings of curves by projecting external objects onto a sketch along the normal of the sketch plane. You can project a curve associatively or non-associatively onto a sketch. Objects available for projection include: Curves, associative and non-associative Edges Faces (selecting a face automatically selects its edges for projection) Other sketches or the curves within the sketches Points

Procedure 1. Set the selection lter to the desired object type. 2. Select a curve string, face, edges or points you want to project onto the sketch plane. 3. Set the Associate option as desired. 4. Set the Output Type option as desired. 5. Click OK. A curve string is projected onto the sketch plane from the selected curves, face or edges. If you selected points, the points are projected onto the sketch.

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Output Types Original The extracted curves are created with their original geometry types. The extracted curves are represented by individual splines. The extracted curves are connected and represented by a single spline

Spline Segment Single Spline Editing Projected Curves

You can add, remove, or replace curves projected into a sketch by displaying and using the Edit Curve icon on the Sketch Operations toolbar, or EditEdit Curve. You cannot edit projected points. When you choose Edit Curve and select a non-associated projected curve string, the normal edit curve dialog displays. Editing an associated projected curve string displays the Project options.

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Activity - Projecting Objects into a Sketch


You have a part that was translated from another system. It is necessary to use the imported curves to create an extrude body. You will: add the curves to a sketch. repair objects that are not suitable. create enough constraints to make the geometry usable with the extrude function.

Step 1:

Open iges_1 and if necessary choose StartModeling.

Step 2:

Create sketch s21_prole on layer 21. Change the Work Layer to 21.

Choose Sketch. Click on the sketch name; key in s21_prole and press Enter.

Choose OK

to accept the XC-YC plane.

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Step 3:

Verify whether or not the existing curves lie on the sketch plane. Imported curves should always be checked for being planar and for gaps at adjacent end points.

Choose AnalysisDistance. Alternately select the sketch datum plane and points on various lines and arcs. Do the curves lie on the sketch plane? If the distance between any point on a curve and the sketch plane is not zero, then that curve does not lie on the sketch plane. Step 4: Add the existing curves to the sketch. Fit the view. If necessary display the Sketch Operations toolbar. If necessary, use Add or Remove buttons to display the Project icon. Choose Project.

If necessary, toggle Associative

to inactive.

Associative sketch curves are constrained automatically by the curves they were projected from. You will not be able to alter their constraint condition from inside the sketch. When you project curves associatively they are treated as a single feature. You will need to access the curves individually, so you do not want associative projection. Press the key combination Ctrl+A (Select All).

Choose OK Step 5:
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to add the curves.

Verify the types of curves that were created.


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If imported curves are not parallel with the sketch plane, arcs may become conic curves. It is also prudent to verify that imported curves that appear to be lines or arcs are not in fact splines. Move the cursor over the entire string of curves while observing the status line. What curve type is the curve shown below?

Step 6:

Remove the conic curve. Make layer 41 invisible. Move the cursor over the highlighted curve shown below so that it prehighlights, press and hold MB3 until the radial popup icons appear, and slide to the left over the delete icon. .

Step 7:

Create an arc to replace the conic.


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Choose Arc.

Make sure End Point is enabled on the Snap Point toolbar. Indicate the two end points in the order shown.

For the third point, indicate any point that creates an inferred tangency constraint at one end of the arc. Click MB2 to exit from arc creation.

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Step 8:

Analyze the curves. Choose AnalysisDistance. Select pairs of endpoints from several adjacent curves, any place where there is not a coincident symbol. Make sure that Point on Curve is inactive on the snap point toolbar. End Point is the only necessary option. Notice that the curves are not contiguous. This is common when geometry is translated into a double precision system, like NX, from a single precision system. These values are fractions of a millimeter in this case; however, trying to extrude these curves into a solid body will fail because of gaps and overlaps.

Cancel from Analysis. Display the Automatic Constraints Creation icon on the Sketch Constraints toolbar, or use ToolsConstraints.

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Step 9:

Close the gaps between the curves. Choose Automatic Constraints Creation. Choose the Clear button to clear all constraint types. Choose the Coincident constraint to toggle it to active. Change the Distance tolerance value to .25. Choose OK to create the constraints. NX interrogates each sketch point for other sketch points within the Distance tolerance and combines the points to one. Observe the display of coincident constraints that were added.

The prole will now extrude properly to create a solid body.

Choose Finish Sketch.


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Step 10: Extrude the sketch into a solid feature. Orient the view to Trimetric. (HOME key.) Move the cursor over any sketch curve until it prehighlights. Hold MB3 until the radial pop-ups appear, and slide right to choose Extrude. NX treats sketches as collective strings of curves for swept features. Enter an End distance of 200 mm.

Enter a Start distance of 50 mm.

Choose OK to create the body.

Fit the view. The solid body is created. Additional sketch constraints can now be added to capture design intent. The body will update when you choose Update Model or Finish. Step 11: Optional challenge: You saw that the sketch does not have to be fully constrained to be extruded. Now, optionally, add all tangent constraints and any others needed to fully constrain the sketch. Step 12: Close the part.

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Activity - Auto Creating Constraints


You can use auto constraint creation to quickly create or recreate most constraints in a reasonably accurate sketch.

In this part, you will pretend that there is an obscure problem with constraints that someone else has created. Since the sketch is fairly simple, you decide to remove all constraints and replace them with new ones. Auto Constraint Creation will save a lot of time and effort as you complete your goal. Step 1: Open the part. Open pipevise and choose StartModeling. Step 2: Activate the sketch. Double-click on a sketch curve.

Step 3:

Analyze the existing constraint set. Ensure Show all Constraints is toggled to active.

Choose the Show/Remove Constraints icon.


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Ensure the radio button for All In Active Sketch is active.

Change the Show Constraints option to Both. Notice the different types of Explicit and Inferred constraints that exist in this part. Step 4: Remove the constraints. Select Remove Listed. Choose OK.
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Step 5:

Selectively Auto Create the constraints. Choose Automatic Constraint Creation. Choose the Clear button in the All Constraints area of the dialog. Toggle on the buttons for Horizontal, Vertical, Coincident, and Tangent only. Check or ensure that the Distance Tolerance is .001. Choose OK to create the constraints.

Step 6:

Manually create the rest of the constraints. Choose Constraints. Select the left-most vertical line. Select the vertical datum axis.

Choose Collinear. Select the bottom horizontal line. Select the horizontal datum axis.

Choose Collinear. Hold the Ctrl key down and select the two horizontal lines at the top of the prole.

Choose Collinear

and Equal Length.

If necessary, display the Deselect All icon Selection toolbar.

on the

Choose Deselect All


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Hold the Ctrl key down and select the bottom end point of the vertical line controlling the slot location and the bottom horizontal line.

Choose Midpoint

and Point on Curve.

The Status line should now inform you that the sketch is fully constrained. Click MB2 to exit the function. Windows users may also use the ESC key.

Choose Finish. The sketch is now fully constrained. Step 7: Close the part.

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Add Existing Curves to a Sketch

If you initially decide not to control a swept feature with a sketch, or if you obtain a wireframe part from a translator, you may create a sketch and add the geometry to it at a later date. You do this by displaying and using Add Existing Curves on the Sketch Constraints toolbar, or InsertExisting Curves. An example could be that you have a general idea of what a cross sectional prole looks like, but do not quite understand how form, t, and function of the part will drive the design intent. As the design matures and you recognize the intent, you may then create a sketch and add already swept curve geometry to it. Curves that are added to a sketch have their layer reassigned to that of the sketch. The only constraints that will be applied to Existing Curves that are added to a sketch are Inferred Coincidence, regardless of how the curves were originally created. Associative curves may not be directly added to sketches. The shape of these curves are controlled by other means, such as the associative faces for projected points or curves, or the law functions that control certain types of splines and helices.

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Activity - Adding and Constraining Curves


Apply dimensions and constraints to control the following: The width of the slot (1). The total length of the slot (2).

Step 1: Step 2:

Open straightslot_1 and choose StartModeling. Create a sketch in layer 21. Make 21 the Work Layer.

Choose Sketch. Click on the sketch name; key in s21_slot and press Enter. Select the front face (1) as the sketch plane.

Select the horizontal sketch axis (2) as shown above.


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Choose OK.

Step 3:

Add the curves to the sketch. Display the Add Existing Curves icon in the Sketch Operations toolbar, or use InsertExisting Curves.

Choose Add Existing Curves. Press the key combination Ctrl+A and then choose OK. Step 4: List the constraints currently on the sketch. Choose Show/Remove Constraints. Ensure the radio button for All In Active Sketch is toggled on. There are four inferred coincident constraints. No explicit constraints exist in this sketch because the curves were added to the sketch and not created with the sketch active. Cancel the Show/Remove Constraints dialog.

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Step 5:

Fully constrain the sketch according to the design intent. Use dimensions to locate the left arc center 1 inch from the left side of the part and 2 inches from the bottom of the part.

Add the following constraints: Horizontal constraint to both lines Tangent constraint to arcs and lines (4 places) Remember Automatic Constraints. Add the following dimensions:

Step 6:

After constraining the sketch, edit the dimensions for the slot to ensure that it updates properly. Use any reasonable values of your choice. Close the part.
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Step 7:

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Activity - Design Change


Change the design intent on the previous sketch: modify dimensions and constraints so that one end may be made larger than the other (1, 2). The total length (3) still needs to be controlled. Examine the diagram below and follow the steps to perform the design change.

Step 1: Step 2: Step 3:

Open straightslot_2 and if necessary choose StartModeling. Double-click on any sketch curve to activate the sketch. Identify and delete constraints that do not meet the new design intent, and add new constraints. Select the Show/Remove Constraints icon. Verify the radio button for All In Active Sketch is selected. Delete the horizontal constraints. Delete the slot width dimension and replace it with a radius dimension on each arc. The sketch is not fully constrained but it does meet the design intent; one end may be made larger than the other.

Step 4:

Edit the dimensions for the slot to ensure it updates properly. Assign a value of .5 to the left radius dimension. Assign a value of .25 to the right radius dimension. Choose Finish Sketch and close the part.

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Activity - Another Design Change


Change the sketch design so that it may be oriented at various angles (1) other than horizontal. The total length of the shape should still be controlled.

Step 1: Step 2:

Open straightslot_3 and if necessary choose StartModeling. Double-click on any sketch curve to activate the sketch.

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Step 3:

Create reference geometry. Check your Snap Point settings to assure Arc Center is active.

Create a line (1) from arc center to arc center. Create another line (2) and apply Vertical (if necessary) and Constant Length constraints.

Exit from constraint creation. Step 4: Converting Curves to Reference Lines. Select the two lines just created. Hold MB3 over either one of the lines until the radial popup options appear. Slide to the right and down to choose Convert To/From Reference.

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Step 5:

Add or edit dimensions as shown below.

If a horizontal dimension for the slot length was inferred or manually dened, delete it and replace with a parallel dimension. Step 6: After constraining the sketch, edit the dimensions for the slot to ensure that it updates properly. Use any reasonable values of your choice. Close the part.

Step 7:

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Activity - Constraining the Perimeter of a Sketch


The design intent for swimming pool requires that: The two larger radii are equal and must be controlled by a dimension. The four corner radii are equal and must be controlled by a dimension. The perimeter must be a constant value.

Step 1: Step 2:

Open the part le skt_perimeter and choose StartModeling. Activate the SWIMMING_POOL sketch.

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Step 3:

Investigate the existing constraints using Show/Remove Constraints. Choose the Show/Remove Constraints icon. If necessary, toggle on All in Active Sketch. Verify the Constraint Type is set to All. Verify the Show Constraints option is set to Explicit.

Choose the rst constraint in the list, A5 Equal radius to A7. Investigate the highlighted curves on the screen. Select the Step Down the List button or use your down arrow key and read through the constraints to get an idea of the existing constraints in the sketch. Then Cancel the dialog.

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Step 4:

Add the two dimensions shown.

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Step 5:

Constrain the perimeter of the sketch. Choose the Perimeter icon icon. from the dimension pull-down

Select all of the active curves, a total of eight.

Choose the Sketch Dimensions Dialog icon. Choose MB2 to create a perimeter dimension for the selected curves. Verify that a Perimeter dimension appears in the Dimensions list. (It may be a different "p"-number.)

If you did not get all of the curves selected, highlight the perimeter constraint in the Dimensions list and choose the Delete button in the dialog.

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Step 6:

Edit the perimeter. Slide the slider bar to the left and right and observe the changes in the sketch.

Edit the Perimeter and other dimensions by entering values and/or using the slider bar. Step 7: Close the part.

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Activity - Controlling Heat Transfer in a Cooling Pipe


The design intent for cooling ns on a length of pipe requires that the cross sectional area of the ns should be controlled by the volume of uid in the pipe. Each ns perimeter should equal 1.25 times the cross sectional ow area. You will: Use a perimeter dimension to control the total perimeter. Equate the expression for the perimeter to 1.25 times the cross sectional area of the pipe. Open the part le perim_1 and if necessary choose StartModeling.

Step 1:

This part contains the following features: Cylinder Thru Hole - The diameter of the thru hole controls the diameter of the cylinder by maintaining a constant wall thickness. Sketch Using ToolsExpressions, examine the areaRatio expression.

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Step 2:

Interrogate the sketch. Activate the FIN sketch.

Fit the view. The sketch is located by two constraints. The reference curve and datum plane (layer 61) are collinear (1) and the sketch arc and OD of the cylinder feature are concentric (2).

The sketch is not yet totally constrained.

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Step 3:

Add a perimeter dimension to the sketch. Make layer 1 invisible.

2
from the dimension pull-down

Choose the Perimeter icon icon.

Choose the Sketch Dimensions Dialog icon. Individually select the curves shown below.

Click MB2 to create the perimeter dimension. Note that there is a new dimension called Perimeter_p## and that the sketch is now fully constrained. Choose Close. You cannot edit the curves of a Perimeter constraint. If you miss a curve or get an extra, delete the constraint by highlighting it in the Dimensions list and choosing the Delete button in the dialog.

Choose Finish.

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Step 4:

Extrude the sketch. Hold MB3 over a sketch curve until the radial pop up options appear.

2
Slide to the right to choose Extrude. The default extrude direction is normal to the plane of the sketch, ZC+ in this case.

Double-click the direction vector arrow to reverse the extrusion vector to the negative ZC direction.

Change the Boolean to Unite. Notice that since there is only one body available as a target, the system does not require you to select it.

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Use MB3 over the End symbol to change the option to Until Extended. You choose Until Extended so that the system knows the face you will select must be extended beyond its current boundary to trim the extruded sketch.

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Select the bottom planar face of the solid (1).

Choose OK. Step 5: Create a circular array of the extruded n. Make layer 61 Selectable.

Choose Insert Associative Copy Instance. Choose Circular Array. Select the Extrude feature and choose OK. Enter: Number = 8 Angle = 360/8 Choose OK. Choose Datum Axis. Select the datum axis in the graphic window. Choose Yes. Choose Cancel.
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Make all but the work layer invisible.

Step 6:

Capture the design intent for the n. Choose ToolsExpression. If necessary choose More Options. If necessary change the Listed Expressions option until ID is listed. Select the ID (SIMPLE_HOLE(1) Diameter) expression and change it to 4 and Accept Edit. Choose Apply.

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Fit the view.

Notice that the ns have retained their original prole. If the cooling pipes volume is going to increase the cooling ns will also need to increase. Recall that an expression, areaRatio, relates each ns prole to the cross sectional ow area. This expression is associative to the hole feature and will update automatically. You need to link this value to the perimeter constraint.

Undo the last expression operation to return the heat pipe to its original conguration. Select the expression called Perimeter_p3 (FIN:SKETCH(5) Perimeter Dimension) (the digit following the _p in your expression may be different). Change the Formula to areaRatio and Accept Edit. While editing the ID expression highlight areaRatio in the list. Use MB3 Copy Name to assure that the spelling is correct, then type the rest of the expression. Choose Apply. The ns become slightly smaller. In a real life situation you might tweak the formula until the ratio exactly matches cooling requirements. Select the ID expression, change it to 4, and Accept Edit.
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Constraining Sketches

Choose OK.

Fit the view.

Notice how the ns have updated to meet the new ow requirement. Step 7: Close the part.

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Constraining Sketches

Summary
Sketch constraints allow you to capture and maintain design intent even after design changes occur. Through dimensions and constraints, you can adapt your solid models to the design intent of the nal product. In this lesson you: Applied Design Intent. Created Geometric Constraints. Auto Created Constraints. Displayed Constraints. Converted Sketch Curves To Reference Curves. Updated a Model. Added Objects to a Sketch. Constrained a Sketch by its perimeter.

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Lesson

Constraint Management
Purpose This lesson describes other constraint management tools as well as additional ways to use sketches. Objectives Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Create an Alternate Solution Reorder sketches Position Sketches on a Solid Body Locate a Sketch with Constraints Move a sketch using Reattach Mirror a sketch

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Constraint Management

Alternate Solution
Constraint sets may be valid in one or more congurations depending on the given geometry. Scalar dimensions have no positive or negative sign, they specify only an absolute value. This absolute value may be applied to specify a given distance between objects in one direction or the other.

There are times when multiple solutions may be available for a given constraint set. At these times there is a need to ask the system to change the conguration based on the given set of constraints. NX provides this functionality as an Alternate Solution. Selecting the Alternate Solution icon from the Sketch Constraints toolbar will bring up a small dialog containing the options OK, Back, or Cancel. The Cue line prompts the user to "Select a dimension or circle/arc".

One alternate solution as it applies to a dimension would be the fairly simple case illustrated below. Constraints for horizontal and vertical have been applied to the appropriate lines, as well as collinearity between the two horizontal segments as shown. The dimension is selected for an alternate solution with the results as shown. The vertical dimension is valid in either case when it is applied as an absolute value.

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A second form of alternate solution can be applied to a circle or an arc, for example when two circles are constrained tangent to each other or a line is constrained tangent to an arc. This is illustrated below. In the case of the two circles, either solution is valid given the constraints supplied. Alternate Solution may be used to switch between the two if some other constraint causes the system to select the wrong conguration. Two Tangent Circles Select the large circle (1) rst and the small circle (2) second.

Line Tangent to an Arc Select the arc (1) rst and the horizontal line (2) second.

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Constraint Management

Activity - Alternate Solution


In this activity you will explore alternate solutions to constraint sets and the effects that different constraints have as they are applied. Step 1: Open alternate_1.

Step 2:

View the constraints. Choose StartModeling. Double-click on a sketch curve. If necessary toggle Show All Constraints to active and make sure Dynamic Constraint Display is inactive.

Choose the Show/Remove Constraints icon. Ensure the List Constraints for radio button is set to All In Active Sketch.

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Constraint Management

Change the Constraint Type to Tangent.

Select A1 Tangent to L6 to see the only tangent constraint in the sketch. Choose Cancel.

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Constraint Management

Step 3:

Add dimensions. Choose the Inferred Dimensions icon. Select the bottom horizontal line and place a horizontal dimension on the screen. Select the circle and place a radius dimension on the screen.

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Constraint Management

Step 4:

Obtain an Alternate Solution. Display the Alternate Solution icon on the Sketch Constraints toolbar. Optionally, you can use the ToolsConstraints menu.

Choose the Alternate Solution icon. The Cue line prompts you to "Select a dimension or circle/arc". Select the circle and the center vertical line.

The circle ips to the other side of the line. This is a valid alternate solution, the circle is still tangent to the line.

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Constraint Management

Step 5:

Obtain another Alternate Solution. Select the circle and the center horizontal line.

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Since there is no constraint associated to the two objects selected, there is no alternate solution available. NX displays a message stating that there is no valid alternate solution for the selected objects. Choose OK to dismiss the message. Choose Cancel in the Alternate Solution dialog. Step 6: Add a Tangency constraint. Choose the Constraints icon. Select the circle and the center horizontal line.

Apply a Tangent constraint.

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Constraint Management

Step 7:

Obtain an Alternate Solution. Choose Alternate Solution. Select the circle and the center horizontal line.

Heres what happened. The center horizontal line has six constraints associated to it: Horizontal Tangent to the arc Left endpoint is located midpoint of the left vertical line. Left endpoint is located on the left vertical line. Right endpoint is located midpoint of the right vertical line. Right endpoint is located on the right vertical line. When the alternate solution is applied to the line and circle, the top horizontal line collapses onto the bottom horizontal line. The two vertical lines now have a theoretical length of 0 (zero), which allows the middle horizontal line to meet its midpoint, point on curve, and tangent constraints.

Choose Undo Step 8:

to restore the geometry.

Add constraints to the center horizontal and vertical lines. Choose the Constraints icon. Select the left vertical line and the bottom horizontal line and apply an Equal Length constraint to them.

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Constraint Management

Step 9:

Obtain an Alternate Solution. Choose Alternate Solution. Select the circle and the center horizontal line. With the addition of the Equal Length constraint, the geometry now updates in the desired manner.

Choose Finish Sketch. Step 10: Close the part.

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Constraint Management

Placing Sketches Where They Are Needed


Sketches require a placement plane, which can be a solid face or a datum plane. Sketches may be located in their plane by constraints with datum axes, datum planes, objects belonging to other sketches, non-sketch curves, or solid edges. Only features that are earlier in the Timestamp order (have a lower time stamp number) may be selected to constrain a sketch. Sketches may be located by one of two methods: Sketch constraints (dimensional and geometric) Positioning dimensions These two methods are mutually exclusive. If you use Positioning Dimensions, you cannot reference external objects when creating Dimensions or Constraints. If you reference external objects when creating Dimensions or Constraints, then you cannot use Positioning Dimensions. Positioning is supported by the sketcher primarily to permit sketches to be used in User Dened Features.

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Constraint Management

Activity - Creating and Positioning a Sketch


The function of this part requires a triangular pocket located relative to an angled face. The sketch position should update automatically if the angle of the face changes.

Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4:

Open fence_1. Choose StartModeling. Make layer 21 the Work Layer. Create a sketch of the pocket. Choose Sketch. Click on the sketch name, key in s21_pocket and press Enter. Select the larger top face of the block as the sketch plane.

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Constraint Management

Select the upper half of the angled edge of the pad as the horizontal sketch axis. You assure that the positive direction of XC will point away from the more pointed end of the pad by selecting the edge at the end shown below.

You can reverse the direction by double-clicking the head of the x-axis vector.

Choose OK. If your display does not look like the graphic below, start over (choose FileCloseReopen Selected Parts).

Blend features are more intuitively edited as blends than as sketch curves. You will dene the shape of the pocket in this sketch with only three lines, and add the corner radii of the pocket later using blends.

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Constraint Management

The sketcher is automatically in prole mode as you start a new sketch. Display the Create Inferred Constraints icon in the Sketch Constraints toolbar. Alternatively, you may use the ToolsConstraints menu.

Toggle Create Inferred Constraints

to inactive. (off)

In the middle of the placement face, create the three lines as shown below. Length values are approximate. Allow the rst line to snap to horizontal.

Allow the second line to snap to vertical.

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Constraint Management

Be sure to snap the third end point to the starting point of the rst line.

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Step 5: List the current constraints. Choose Show/Remove Constraints. Ensure List Constraints for is set to All in Active Sketch, Constraint Type is set to All, and Show Constraints is set to Both. There should be no constraints, because Create Inferred Constraints was inactive when you created the lines. Choose Cancel. Step 6: Add geometric constraints. Add coincident constraints only, using automatic constraints.

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Constraint Management

Add a perpendicular constraint between the two lines shown.

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Add a parallel constraint between the horizontal line and the long edge of the pad, as shown.

Step 7:

Add dimensional constraints. By design, the size of the pocket should be controlled by dening the lengths of the horizontal and vertical sides.

Choose Parallel. Select the horizontal line and place the dimension. Change the value to 6 and press Enter. Select the vertical line and place the dimension.

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Constraint Management

Change the value to 4 and press Enter.

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Choose Finish Sketch. Step 8: Extrude the sketch. Hold down MB3 to open the radial pop up menu over any of the sketch curves.

Slide right to choose Extrude. Extrude the sketch to a depth of 1 inch and subtract it to create a pocket. Step 9: Add a .5 inch blend to the inside pocket corners.

Step 10: Constrain the sketch position. Locate the sketch .75 inch away from the pad. Double-click on a sketch curve.

Choose Fit.

Choose Perpendicular.

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Constraint Management

Create the dimension from the horizontal sketch line to the edge of the solid (1) shown below.

Locate the 90 degree corner of the pocket 1 inch from the edge of the part shown below. Select the edge at the edge of the part (1) as shown. Select an end point at the 90 corner.

Use a cursor location to place the dimension. Enter a value of 1 and press the Enter key. The sketch automatically moves into position.
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Constraint Management

Notice that all three sketch curves change to the fully constrained color, and the status line reports that the sketch is fully constrained. Choose Finish Sketch . Review the updated model. Step 11: Verify the sketch positioning by editing the angle of the pad. Choose ToolsExpression. The pad has been positioned relative to the block. Its angle may be changed by editing an expression named fence_angle. Change the value for fence_angle to 35, press Enter and choose OK.

Note that the sketch remains parallel to the pad, .75 inch away, and remains 1 inch from the back of the part. In some cases if the edit to an edge used to position the sketch is great enough, an Alternate Solution to a dimension may occur. If either of the locating dimensions ips, perform an Alternate Solution on the applicable dimension to resolve the ip. Step 12: Close the part.

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Constraint Management

Activity - Positioning a Sketch


This structural frame requires pockets to minimize its weight. You will control the thickness of the walls and the webs by adding appropriate sketch constraints. Drag and Alternate Solution will be useful tools as you work on the sketch.

Step 1: Step 2:

Open frame_1. Constrain the sketch using both dimensions and constraints to position the sketch curves relative to the solid edges and datum planes. Choose StartModeling. Set the Rendering Style to Wireframe with Dim Edges.

Double-click on a sketch curve.

Choose Fit.

Choose Constraints.

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Constraint Management

Select the three sketch arcs (1) and the solid edge (2) shown below and apply a Concentric constraint.

Select the three sketch arcs and Apply an Equal Radius constraint.

Choose Inferred Dimensions.

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Constraint Management

Add a Radius constraint with a value of 2.25 to the arc (1) shown below.

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Constraint Management

When you use a dynamic input window end each value entry with the enter key. For example, in the next step, use enter to complete the dimension value 0.2, and then activate the name eld and select all of the existing text. Next, type the name wall and again use enter to complete the edit. Create the wall dimension as shown below. Remember to name the expression wall.

If the sketch line is lying off the solid face instead of over the face, use Alternate Solution to ip the wall dimension.

Choose Constraints. When you apply constraints between datum features and sketch curves the constraints have to be applied individually. In the next example, select one line and one datum plane and apply a parallel constraint. Repeat for the rest of the lines.

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Constraint Management

Apply Parallel constraints to the objects as shown below.

You may avoid needing to use Alternate Solution later: drag these curves to their proper relationships after applying geometric constraints and before dimensioning. Apply the dimensions as shown below.

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Constraint Management

When you key in the rst letter of wall you will have the option of choosing from a list of all functions and expressions. Since no function names or other variables start with w there will be only the one list entry to select. Click on your selection in the list, or use the arrow keys and enter to make a selection. When the value appears in the dynamic input window, use enter twice: one time to place the value in the input window and again to record the value and update the sketch.

Apply the remaining dimensions as shown below.

The sketch is now fully constrained and positioned on the solid body.

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Constraint Management

Step 3:

Extrude the sketch and subtract it from the solid to create the pockets. Use a Start distance of 0 and an End distance of 0.56.

Step 4:

Edit the chamfer feature. Choose EditFeatureEdit Parameters. Select the Chamfer feature and choose OK. Change the First Offset value to 1.5. Tab to the Second Offset and change it to 2.0. Choose OK twice. Examine the part to ensure the update was correctly applied. Look to see if any Alternate Solutions need to be applied to the dimensions from the datum planes.

Step 5:

Optional: Add blends to the solid edges.

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Constraint Management

For the rst set of the rst blend, specify 0.125 on the vertical edges of the pockets. For the second set of the rst blend, specify 0.325 on the outer vertical edges of the solid.

For the second blend, using selection intent Tangent Curves, specify 0.0625 on the oors of the pockets.

Step 6:

Close the part.

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Constraint Management

Activity - Using Positioning Dimensions


The design requirements for this part will eventually require the sketch to be used as a user dened feature or UDF. When you use a sketch in a UDF, it is convenient to use positioning as an intuitive tool for placing and aligning the feature. First you will fully constrain the sketch using constraints. Next you will replace constraints that are specic to this solid body with exible positioning dimensions. Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Open position_1. Choose StartModeling. Use dimensional constraints to locate the sketch on the placement plane.

Double-click on a sketch curve.

Choose Fit.

Choose Show All Constraints. Notice that there are two vertical, one horizontal and two tangent constraints.
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Constraint Management

Choose Inferred Dimensions. Select the arc center and the bottom horizontal edge of the solid body. Place a vertical dimension to the right of the part.

Change the value to 3 and press Enter. Notice that the status line indicates that 1 constraint is needed. Also notice that the vertical DOFs no longer appear.

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Constraint Management

Select the arc center again and the right vertical edge of the solid body. Place a horizontal dimension above the part. Change the value to 2 and press Enter.

The sketch is now fully constrained

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Constraint Management

Step 4:

Test the sketch to see if more exible positioning can be added with the current constraints. In some instances the sketch needs to be rotated 20 degrees as shown below.

Choose the Angular dimension type.

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Constraint Management

Select the objects in the order and at the locations as shown below.

Place the dimension to the right of the part. Notice how the dimension and horizontal constraint are displayed in the over constrained color. Also notice that the status line indicates that the sketch is over constrained. The angular dimension and horizontal constraint are presently redundant (over constrained). If you were to change the angular dimension value, the dimension would then be in conict with the horizontal and both vertical constraints.

Choose Undo.

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Constraint Management

Step 5:

Prepare to create positioning dimensions. Add Positioning Dimensions on the Sketcher toolbar. (Actually, there is a stack of three icons.) Alternatively you could use ToolsPositioning Dimensions.

Choose Create Positioning Dimensions. An error window pops-up informing you that you cannot apply positioning dimensions when there are sketch constraints to external objects. This message is referring to the dimensions going to the solid body.

Choose OK. You will now remove the dimensional constraints to the solid body and replace them with Positioning Dimensions. In a future UDF, users who create instances of your sketch would apply similar positioning dimensions to meet their design intent. Select the two dimensions that position the sketch to the solid body.

Choose Delete.

Choose Constraints.

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Constraint Management

Choose the endpoint (1) shown below and apply a Fixed constraint.

Notice that the sketch curves change to the fully constrained color, and all degree of freedom indicators are removed. The sketch is now fully constrained with no external references. When you use positioning it will apply to the entire sketch. Step 6: Use a Positioning Dimension to dene the distance from the arc center to the lower edge of the solid body.

Choose Create Positioning Dimensions.

Choose Perpendicular. Select the bottom horizontal edge of the solid body. Select the arc and choose Arc Center. Choose OK to accept the value of 3.
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Constraint Management

Step 7:

Create a Positioning Dimension to dene the distance from the arc center to the right hand edge of the solid body. Choose Perpendicular. Select the right vertical edge of the solid body. Select the arc and choose Arc Center. Choose OK to accept the value of 2.

Step 8:

Create a Positioning Dimension to dene the angle of the sketch with respect to the lower edge of the solid body. Choose Angular. Select the objects in the order and at the locations as shown below.

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Constraint Management

Key in 20 and choose OK. Notice how the sketch rotated even though there are vertical and horizontal constraints present. This is because positioning dimensions operate on the entire sketch as a feature. Choose Orient View to Sketch.

Choose Fit.

Now you can see that the sketch was rotated and that the vertical and horizontal constraints are still valid relative to the sketch plane. Step 9: Edit the angle positioning dimension.

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Constraint Management

Choose Edit Positioning Dimensions from the pull-down.

In the graphic window, select the angle positioning dimension. Key in a value of 45 and choose OK twice.

Choose Orient View to Sketch.

Fit the view.

Choose Finish Sketch. Step 10: Close the part.

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Constraint Management

Reattach
You can reattach a sketch to a different planar face or datum plane than the one on which it was created. You can only reattach to a plane or face with an earlier time stamp. The Reattach option also displays any for the sketch, and lets you redene the geometry referenced by them. After you choose the Reattach icon, the reattach input boxes display.

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Sketch in place These options are from left to right: Sketch type Lets you change between Sketch in place and Sketch on path. Sketch Plane Lets you choose a new sketch plane or planar face. OK Lets you execute the reattachment. Cancel Quits the reattachment operation.

To reattach a Sketch in place: 1. Select a new datum plane or planar surface (optional). 2. Select a horizontal or vertical reference (optional). 3. Choose OK.

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Constraint Management

Sketch on path These options are from left to right: Sketch type Lets you change between Sketch in place and Sketch on path. Path Lets you choose a new path or edit the existing one. Positioning Method Lets you change the positioning method. Alternate Solution This will be available when there are multiple positioning possibilities. OK Lets you execute the reattachment. Cancel Quits the reattachment operation.

To reattach a Sketch on path: 1. Select a new path or modify the existing path (optional). 2. Modify the sketch plane orientation: Normal to Path, Normal to Vector, Parallel to Vector, or Through Axis (optional). 3. Modify the placement of the sketch by dragging or choose among: ArcLength, % ArcLength, or Through Point (optional). 4. Choose OK. To redene a positioning dimension: 1. Select a displayed positioning dimension to redene. The original dialog used to dene the positioning dimension displays. 2. Follow the prompts to choose new reference objects for the positioning dimension. For information on positioning methods see the Modeling Online Help.

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Constraint Management

Reordering Sketches
In order to attach a sketch to a face or datum or dene a horizontal reference, the geometry must come before the sketch in Timestamp order. Reordering accomplishes this. Reordering is also necessary when you attempt to add generating or guide curves of a swept feature that occurs before the sketch. The sketch must be reordered before (earlier than) the swept feature that is generated or guided by the curves. Once the timing of the sketch relative to the swept feature is resolved, and the curves are added to the sketch, the curves may be constrained just as any other sketch curve. Sketches appear in the Part Navigator and the list of features presented when performing an Reorder. A sketch can be located anywhere after its reference geometry in the creation order.

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Constraint Management

Activity - Reattaching a Sketch


Step 1: Open reattach_1. In this activity you will reattach a sketch that denes two cam blocks (1). The design has changed so that the blocks must be mounted on the opposite face, as shown below.

Step 2:

Investigate the current placement face and horizontal reference of the sketch. Choose StartModeling. Change the Rendering Style to Wireframe with Dim Edges.

Make the sketch layer 22 and datum layer 62 selectable. Use the push pin icon open position. Make sure the Part Navigator is in the Design View; i.e., Timestamp Order does not have a check beside it. to lock the Part Navigator in the

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Constraint Management

Expand the nodes Solid Body, Unite (13), Solid Body, Extruded (11), Direction, and Sketch (9) until the Horizontal Reference and Placement Face of Sketch (9) INSERT_RELIEF are displayed, as shown below.

One at a time, select Datum_Plane(2) and the Face node under Placement face, noting which entities highlight in the graphics window.

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Constraint Management

Double-click the sketch icon beside Sketch (9) INSERT_RELIEF to activate the sketch.

Unpin the Part Navigator to expand the graphics viewing area. Step 3: Reattach the sketch. Display Orient View to Model on the Sketcher toolbar, or use the View menu.

Choose Orient View to Model. Choose Reattach. Select the face shown below.

Click on the Y axis of the coordinate system. Select the datum plane to dene the vertical direction.

Choose OK. Choose Finish Sketch.


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Constraint Management

Shade the model and review the part.

The sketch is now reattached to the dened face and the cam block features are rebuilt. Step 4: Close the part.

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Constraint Management

Activity - Moving Sketches


The part for this activity contains two dimensional geometry for a switch base. The data may have originated from another system. You will selectively eliminate some of the geometry and constrain the remainder in sketches so that parametric control over the model may be dened by the geometry. You will initially create the sketches on the same plane. Later you will move two of the sketches into the proper orthogonal planes and extrude them to dene a solid model.

Step 1: Step 2:

Open switchbase_1. Move the curves required for each prole sketch to separate layers. Choose StartModeling. Choose FormatMove to Layer.

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Constraint Management

Select only the two circles in the "top" view and choose OK.

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Key in 21 and choose Apply. Choose Select New Objects and move the lines shown below in the "front" view to layer 22.

Move the curves shown below in the "right" view to layer 23.

Step 3:

Create expressions for the diameter and height. Choose ToolsExpression. Create expressions: Name dia h Formula 3.75 5.75 Dimensionality Length Length Units Inches Inches

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Step 4:

Create a sketch for the top prole. Change the work layer to layer 21 and make all other layers invisible. Create a sketch named S21_TOP on the XC-YC plane.

Choose Fit. Add the two circles to the sketch. Step 5: Constrain the sketch for the top prole. Add constraints to position the sketch so that both circle centers are aligned with the two datum axes. Add a dimension for the outer diameter. Change the value of this expression to dia to associate it to the expression.

Choose Finish.

Choose Fit. Step 6: Move the datum plane and two datum axes to layer 61. They are no longer required for this sketch but will be referenced by the other sketches.

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Constraint Management

Step 7:

Create an extruded feature using the top prole. Change the work layer to layer 1 and keep layer 21 selectable. Change to a Trimetric view orientation. (HOME key.) Extrude the sketch S21_TOP in the default (+ZC) direction using an End distance of h and a Start distance of 0.

Step 8:

Create a sketch for the front prole. Change the work layer to layer 22. Make layer 61 selectable and all other layers invisible.

Choose Fit. Create a sketch named S22_FRONT. Select the existing datum plane as the sketch plane and select the datum axis parallel to the XC axis as the horizontal sketch axis. Choose Fit.

Add all of the curves on layer 22 to the sketch. Step 9: Constrain the front prole sketch. In SketchPreferences make sure Dynamic Constraint Display is inactive (off) so you can see all of the constraints.

Use the Automatic Constraints vertical constraints.


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to create horizontal and

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Constraint Management

Add dimensions for the total height and width as shown below. The numeric sufxes you see may differ from the illustration.

Test the behavior of the sketch by changing the height constraint to 7.0 and the width to 5.0. Notice that the sketch does not satisfy the design intent and remain symmetrical when the expressions are changed. To satisfy the design intent you can add a reference line and additional constraints.

Choose Undo (twice if necessary) to change the dimensions back to their original values.

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Constraint Management

Create a vertical line between the midpoints of the two horizontal lines shown below and convert it to reference. After you create the line verify the inferred constraints and Undo to try again if necessary.

You may need to enable Mid Point in the Snap Point toolbar so that the system can infer the correct constraints.

Remember that you can add multiple constraints to selected curves if you hold the Control (Ctrl) key as you select the curves. Add the new dimension as shown below and make the two pairs of lines (1) and (2) both Collinear and Equal Length.

Change the value of the expression for the total width to dia and the total height to h.

Choose Finish.

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Constraint Management

Step 10: Create associative reference features to be used as attachment faces for the front and right prole sketches, and as location aids. Change the work layer to layer 62. Make sure layers 1 and 61 are selectable to display the solid and the other datum objects.

Choose Datum Plane and create a datum plane through the axis of the outer cylindrical face of the solid. Create another datum plane through the axis of the cylindrical face and at a 90 degree angle to the plane you just created.

Choose Datum Axis and create a datum axis through the axis of the cylindrical face of the model pointing in the ZC+ direction.

The front prole sketch will be attached to the datum plane that is parallel to the ZC-XC plane. However, the plane was created after the sketch and cannot be referenced as a target face unless it precedes the sketch.

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Step 11: Reorder the sketch after the datum planes. Choose the Part Navigator icon. In the Part Navigator, place the cursor on the S22_FRONT:SKETCH node. The sketch will appear under Unused Items in the Design View.

Press the right mouse button to display the pop-up menu, slide the cursor down to the Reorder After option, and select the last datum axis from the cascading menu.

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Constraint Management

Step 12: Attach the front prole sketch to a datum plane. Make layer 22 selectable to display the sketch. Double-click on a sketch curve. Enable Orient View to Model on the Sketcher toolbar.

Choose Orient View to Model.

Choose Reattach. Select the datum plane that lies in the ZC-XC plane as the sketch plane. Notice the Datum Axis used for the horizontal sketch axis is still valid. It is not necessary to redene all steps during the reattach operation.

Choose OK.

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Constraint Management

Step 13: Position the sketch. Choose Fit. Add a constraint to make the centerline of the sketch Collinear with the datum axis through the cylindrical face axis (1).

Add another constraint to make the lower horizontal line in the sketch Collinear with the datum axis that is parallel to the XC-axis (2).

Choose Finish Sketch.

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Step 14: Extrude the front prole sketch. Extrude the sketch S22_FRONT along the default direction (YC axis) using Start and End values Through All and choose the Boolean option Intersect.

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Constraint Management

Step 15: Create the sketch for the right prole. Change the work layer to layer 23, make layer 61 selectable, and all other layers invisible. Create a sketch named S23_RIGHT. Once again, dene the sketch plane with the datum plane dened for the S21_TOP sketch and select the datum axis parallel to the XC axis as the horizontal sketch axis.

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Choose Fit. Add all the curves to the sketch. Step 16: Constrain the right prole sketch. Choose Automatic Constraints. Set the Distance value to .01. Toggle on: Horizontal, Vertical, Coincident, Parallel, Tangent, and Equal Length. Choose OK.

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Constraint Management

Create two vertical reference lines between the midpoints of the horizontal lines as shown below.

Add the dimensions as shown above. The numeric sufxes you see may differ from the illustration.

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Constraint Management

Change the value of the expression for the width to "dia" (1) and the value of the expression for the height to "h" (2) to associate them to the other sketches.

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Step 17: Attach the right prole sketch to the other new datum plane. Make layers 1 and 62 selectable.

Choose Orient View to Model.

Choose Fit.

Choose Reattach. Select the datum plane that lies parallel to the four at faces of the model.

Choose OK.

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Constraint Management

Step 18: Add constraints to position the sketch. Choose Orient View to Model.

Choose Fit.

Add a constraint to make the centerline of the sketch collinear with the datum axis through the cylindrical face axis (1). Add another constraint to make the lower horizontal line in the sketch collinear with the datum axis that is parallel to the XC axis (2).

Choose Finish Sketch.

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Step 19: Extrude the right prole sketch. Change the work layer to layer 1.

Choose Fit. Extrude the sketch S23_RIGHT along the default direction (XC axis) using a Start and End distances of Through All and choose the Intersect Boolean option. Make all layers invisible.

Note that the work layer is never affected when you select the layer category All and then choose Invisible. Step 20: Edit the expressions to modify the part. Choose ToolsExpression.

If necessary choose More Options. Set Listed Expressions to User Dened. Change the value of the expression dia to 4.25 and the value of the h to 6.5. Choose OK to update the model. Step 21: Close the part.

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Constraint Management

Mirroring in a Sketch
The sketch mirror functionality provides a means for copying geometry and constraints within the context of a sketch whenever the sketch design intent is meant to be symmetrical. The mirror function may provide a time saving option. To mirror sketch curves:

Choose Mirror. Select the mirror centerline. Select the curves to be mirrored. Choose OK or Apply.

The mirror centerline you select will be automatically converted to reference status if it is not already a reference line. A Mirror constraint is created between each new curve created through the Mirroring process and the original curve.

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Activity - Mirroring Sketch Objects


Step 1: Open mirror_1 and if necessary choose StartModeling.

This part le contains a sketch and an extruded solid body that represent half of a V-Block. You will mirror the sketch and update the model.

Step 2:

Activate the sketch. Double click on a sketch curve. The status line indicates that the sketch is fully constrained.

Step 3:

Mirror the sketch curves. Choose Mirror.

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Constraint Management

Select the vertical line (1) as the mirror centerline.

Click MB2 to advance the selection step to Mirror Geometry. Press the key combination Ctrl+A to select the remaining sketch geometry. Choose OK.

Step 4:

Edit the angle of the V-block. Double-click on the p2=60.000 dimension. In the dynamic input box key in 50 and press Enter.

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Notice that both sides of the sketch updated. Choose Finish Sketch. In the part navigator (Design View) verify that there is still only one solid body. After the mirror centerline was converted to reference status the remaining curves and their mirror images created a single closed loop. Step 5: Close the part.

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Constraint Management

Summary
Sketches can be recongured by using an alternate solution when more than one conguration applies to a given set of constraints. Sketches also can be dragged to other locations or in relation to their own members. Managing sketches will allow you more exibility when you create your designs.

Positioning sketches using dimensions or constraints or a combination of both can help you maintain design intent when related features change. Reattaching a sketch to another sketch plane offers you greater exibility in your nal conguration. In this lesson you: Applied Alternate Solutions to obtain the appropriate prole. Located sketches using constraints. Located sketches using positioning dimensions. Reattached sketches. Reordered sketches. Mirrored sketches.

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Lesson

Sketch on Path Overview


Purpose This lesson provides an introduction to the Sketch on Path option available within the Variational Sweep operator. For more detailed information, use the following NX help documentation Design ModelingCreating Objects From the Insert MenuSweepVariational Sweep. Objectives Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Understand When this Option is Available Understand the Sketch on Path Geometry Elements

Sketch on Path
Sketch on Path provides a single denition process that allows you to create a datum plane perpendicular to a string of curves or edges and a sketch with origin and orientation related to both the path and the datum. Sketch on Path makes it easy to create input for the Variational Sweep or V-Sweep command Sketch on Path captures the master section Guide curves such as curves or edges can be captured by the sketch using Intersect Choose from several orientation functions to control the sketch plane relative to the path: Normal to Path Normal to Vector
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Sketch on Path Overview

Parallel to Vector Through Axis

The datum axes are automatically calculated by face properties adjacent to the path Easily move the sketch plane along the path using the Reattach function Reattach a template Sketch in place to make it into a Sketch on path The location of the sketch on its path is dened by a pair of expressions, one for arclength and one for the percentage. If used in dimensions of the sketch on path, these arclength and percentage expressions will update the sketch dimensions according to the current position of the sketch The arclength and percentage expressions can be used to dene design intent in a v-sweep V-sweep generates the full range of values of the arclength and percentage expressions corresponding to all positions of the section along the path The percentage expression divided by 100 is a fraction between 0 and 1; thus pn/100 (where pn is the name of the percentage expression) can be used identically to the controlling parameter in law curves

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Sketch on Path Overview

Summary
The Sketch on Path option provides you with the ability to create associative Guide Curves and Section Strings within the Variational Sweep operator. When the feature is completed editing is assessable through familiar NX Sketch tools such as expressions, reattach and relative datum features. In this lesson you:

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Lesson

Additional Sketching Techniques


Purpose This lesson describes additional techniques that may be used to manipulate sketches. Objectives Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Edit a Dening String Suppress and Delete Sketches Animate Sketch Dimensions

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Additional Sketching Techniques

Edit Dening String


Overview Sketches may be used to dene proles for extruded, revolved, or swept features and paths for swept features. Proles are called Section Strings and the paths are called Guide Strings. Sketch objects that dene another feature of the solid model cannot simply be deleted due to the parent/child dependency relationship. Edit Dening String is accessed by displaying the icon in the Sketch Operations toolbar or via EditEdit Dening String in the sketch environment. This option allows objects to be added to or removed from a string of objects dening a Section String or Guide String that has been used to create a solid feature.

When the Edit String dialog displays, the system shows a list of features associated with the active sketch. By default, the top feature in the list is highlighted in the dialog and the sketch objects associated with the feature are highlighted in the graphics area.

To add objects to the dening string, simply select them. To remove objects from the dening string, hold down the Shift key while selecting them.
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Additional Sketching Techniques

An option menu is provided to allow ltering of selectable objects. Options are provided for All (the default), Curve, Edge, Face, and Sketch. The radio buttons at the top of the dialog, Section and Guide, are for instances where sketches are used both as a section string for one feature and as a guide string for another feature. In these cases the system provides for editing of dening strings of the non-active sketch because of the associativity of the sweep along guide feature.

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Additional Sketching Techniques

Deleting or Suppressing Sketches


Overview Since sketches are features of the model, they may be deleted or suppressed by choosing EditDelete or EditFeatureSuppress. Sketches may also be deleted or suppressed from the Part Navigator.

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Additional Sketching Techniques

Activity - Edit Dening String


In this activity you will modify the prole of a part that already exists by changing the curves that dene the prole. Step 1: Open bbqcover_1.

5
Step 2: Activate the sketch dening the prole.

Choose StartModeling. Choose EditSketch. Since S21_CROSSSECTION is the only sketch available, it is automatically opened for editing. Step 3: Change the prole dening the part. Make layer 1 Invisible.

Choose Studio Spline

on the Sketch Curve toolbar.

Use the Through Points method. Verify that the degree is 3. Make sure that End Point is active on the snap point toolbar.
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Additional Sketching Techniques

Start with the upper left endpoint on the sketch as shown. Follow with points 2, 3, and 4 as cursor locations. Finish with the upper right endpoint as shown.
2 3 4

Choose OK to signal the end of point specication.

5
Choose Constraints. Select the left angled line and the left endpoint of the spline as shown below. Make sure the spline is highlighted when selecting the left endpoint.

Apply a Slope of Curve

constraint to these objects.

Repeat the previous action for the right angled line and the right endpoint of the spline.
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Additional Sketching Techniques

Step 4:

Add six new dimensional constraints to the spline points as shown below. Your numeric sufxes may differ. Be careful to preserve the relationships illustrated.

Step 5:

Edit the dening string for the model. Display the Edit Dening String icon in the Sketch Operations toolbar.

Choose the Edit Dening String icon.

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Additional Sketching Techniques

In the dialog the Section string for EXTRUDED(4) is the only choice available.

5
With the Edit String dialog still displayed, select the spline to add it to the string. Hold down the Shift key and select the top horizontal sketch line to remove it from the string. Choose OK.

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Additional Sketching Techniques

Step 6:

Convert the extraneous line to a reference line. This line is still needed because the spline is dimensioned to it. Hold down MB3 over the line until the radial pop up options appear. Slide down and to the right to chooseConvert To/From Reference.

Choose Finish Sketch.

Examine the new and improved barbecue cover. Step 7: Close the part.

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Additional Sketching Techniques

Activity - Suppressing and Deleting Sketches


In this activity you will suppress and delete a sketch and observe the effects on features that depend on it. Step 1: Open delete_1.

Step 2:

Suppress a sketch. Choose StartModeling.

Choose EditFeatureSuppress. Choose the sketch named S21_CAM from the Feature Selection dialog. The dependents of the sketch are also selected. This includes all of the features except the datum plane and axes used to dene the sketch plane. Choose OK, and observe the effect on the model. Step 3: Unsuppress the sketch. Choose EditFeatureUnsuppress. Choose all of the suppressed features from the Feature Selection dialog (Choose the top feature in the list and drag with MB1 to the bottom of the list). Choose OK and again observe as the model updates. Step 4: Delete a sketch. Pin the Part Navigator in the open position.
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Additional Sketching Techniques

Make sure that you are in the Design View, with Timestamp Order inactive. Expand the Dependencies window. Expand the node for the bottom feature in the hierarchy, Extruded(4). Note that the arcs and lines that make up the extruded section are all named, and all nodes can be further expanded.

Make sure the Extruded(4) node is selected, so that Details are visible. If necessary, expand the Details window In the Dependencies window, note that both the Children and Parents nodes can be expanded.
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Additional Sketching Techniques

If necessary, expand the Parents node in the Dependencies window. Examine the parent-child relationships of the feature. Expand any one of the nodes for lines or arcs under Extruded(4). Note that Sketch(3) S21_CAM is the parent of the root feature of the solid body, Extruded(4). Note that the only parents of the sketch are the datums used to position it. Place the cursor over either of the Sketch(3) nodes, then click MB3 and choose Delete. A Notication window pops up informing you that deleting this feature will affect other features.

Choose Information The Information window lists the other features that will also be deleted, every feature except the datums. Close the Information window Choose OK in the Notication window.

Note that all dependents of the sketch are also deleted. There is nothing under the Model Node. The datums now appear under the Unused Items node.
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Additional Sketching Techniques

Step 5: Step 6:

Close the part. Examine the customer defaults that affect the behavior of the system as you delete features. Choose FileUtilitiesCustomer Defaults. Choose ModelingGeneral, and click the Delete and Suppress tab. On the Delete and Suppress page hover the cursor over the question mark icon for each option to examine a brief explanation of what the option does. Cancel the dialog without saving any changes.

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Additional Sketching Techniques

Animate
The Animate function dynamically displays the effect of varying a given dimension over a specied range. Any geometry affected by the selected dimension is also animated. The behavior of the animation is relative to the existing dimensions and constraints. Access Animate by displaying the Animate Dimension icon in the Sketch Constraints toolbar, or via ToolsConstraints in the sketch environment.

Dimensions list box: Lists the dimensions that can be animated. Value: The value of the currently selected dimension. Lower Limit: The smallest value that the dimension will be during the animation. The default limit is the selected dimension value minus 10%. Upper Limit: The largest value that the dimension will be during the animation. The default limit is the selected dimension value plus 10%. Steps/Cycle: The number of times that the dimension value changes when it moves from the upper limit to the lower limit (or vice versa). Display Dimensions: Optional: lets you display the original sketch dimensions during the animation.

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Additional Sketching Techniques

Activity - Animating Sketch Dimensions


Step 1: Step 2: Open animate_1. Animate the rst sketch. Choose StartModeling. Double-click on a sketch curve.

Toggle Show All Constraints

to enabled.

The constraints that presently exist in this sketch are: Lines are either horizontal or vertical. Lines are equal length to each other. Arcs are equal radius to each other. Lines and adjacent arcs are tangent. Display Animate Dimension in the Sketch Constraints toolbar.

Choose Animate Dimension. Pan the sketch so that none of the geometry is hidden behind the dialog.
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Additional Sketching Techniques

Select the p5=1 dimension. Type the following values: Lower Limit = 0.25 Upper Limit = 2.75 Steps/Cycle = 20

Choose Apply. The sketch animates the radius dimension within the animate limits and the present constraints of the sketch. Choose Stop. Change the Steps/Cycle value to 40 and choose OK. Changing the number of steps per cycle slows down the animation.

Remember to start relatively fast (low step count) and increase step count only within the ability of your computer to meet your needs. Choose Stop

Choose Finish. Step 3: Animate the second Sketch. Change the work layer to 22 and make layer 21 Invisible. Double-click on a sketch curve. The constraints in the sketch consist of a xed horizontal line and 4 angular dimensions that are associative to each other.

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Additional Sketching Techniques

Choose Animate Dimension. Select the p0=43.2 dimension. Choose OK to use the default values. If you are using a space ball, you may zoom and pan during the animation so that you can see the entire range of motion. Choose Stop Edit the p2 dimension formula to read p1*9 . Use the sketch dimension dialog or the formula editor.

Choose Animate Dimension. Select the p0=43.2 dimension. Set the Steps/Cycle back to the default value, 20. Choose OK to accept the remaining defaults. The animation now dynamically reects the new dimensional value. Choose Stop

Choose Finish. Step 4: Animate the third Sketch. (Optional) Change the work layer to 23 and make layer 22 Invisible.

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Additional Sketching Techniques

Double-click on a sketch curve.

Review the sketch constraints. Notice the reference line with the constant length constraint.

Choose Animate Dimension. Select the p9=3 dimension. Choose OK to accept the defaults. Choose Stop when you are done viewing the animation.

Choose Finish. Step 5: Close the part.

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Summary
The Edit Dening String feature in NX provides the ability to add or remove objects from sketches to change the shape of the sketch. When the strength analysis of your design indicates that you need another rib, you can accommodate the change with a minimum of delay. Suppressing or deleting sketches can provide you a means to create varying congurations of your nal product. In this lesson you: Edited the dening string of a swept feature. Deleted, suppressed, and unsuppressed sketches. Animated sketch dimensions.

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Index

A Alignment Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22 Animate Sketch Dimension . . . . . . 5-14 D Delay Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-57 Delete Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 DOF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-46 E Edit Dening String . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 Evaluate Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-57 I Infer Constraint Settings . . . . . . . . 1-21 Q Quick Extend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-36 Quick Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-34 S Show/Remove Constraints . . . . . Sketch Add Existing Curves . . . . . . . . Alternate Solution . . . . . . . . . Automatic Constraint Creation Constraining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-66 . . . . . . . . 2-36 . 3-2 2-22 1-48

Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . Convert To/From Reference . Create Inferred Constraints Creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Curve Creation . . . . . . . . . . Arc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fillets . . . . . . . . . . . . . Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prole . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mirror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Naming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference Direction . . . . . . Reordering . . . . . . . . . . . . . Show/Remove Constraints . Text Height . . . . . . . . . . . . Sketch on Path . . . . . . . . . . . Sketch Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . Snap Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suppress Sketch . . . . . . . . . . U

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . 1-63 . . . 1-92 . . . . 2-5 1-8, 1-13 . . . 1-21 . . . 1-26 . . . 1-27 . . . 1-33 . . . 1-24 . . . 1-23 . . . 1-48 . . . 1-57 . . . 1-51 . . . . 2-2 . . . 3-62 . . . 1-11 . . . . 1-2 . . . 3-11 . . . 2-23 . . . 1-10 . . . 3-40 . . . 1-66 . . . 1-51 . . . . 4-1 . . . 1-46 . . . 1-22 . . . . 5-4

Update Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-57

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STUDENT PROFILE
In order to stay in tune with our customers we ask for some background information. This information will be kept confidential and will not be shared with anyone outside of Education Services.

Please Print

Your Name Course Title/Dates NX4 SKETCHER


Hotel/motel you are staying at during your training Planned departure time on last day of class

U.S. citizen / thru

Yes

No

Employer Your title and job responsibilities Industry: Auto Aero Consumer products /

Location

Machining

Tooling

Medical

Other

Types of products/parts/data that you work with Reason for training


Please verify/add to this list of training for Unigraphics, I-deas, Imageware, Teamcenter Mfg., Teamcenter Eng. (I-Man), Teamcenter Enterprise (Metaphase), or Dimensional Mgmt./Visualization. Medium means Instructor-lead (IL), On-line (OL), or Self-paced (SP)

Software

From Whom

When

Course Name

Medium

Other CAD/CAM/CAE /PDM software you have used

Please check! your ability/knowledge in the following


Subject CAD modeling CAD assemblies CAD drafting CAM CAE PDM data management PDM system management None Novice Intermediate Advanced

Platform (operating system)

Thank you for your participation and we hope your training experience will be an outstanding one.

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Sketcher Course Agenda


Monday Morning Introduction & Overview Lesson 1. Sketching Afternoon Lesson 1. Workbook Lesson 2. Tuesday Morning Workbook Lesson 3. Workbook Afternoon Workbook Lesson 4. Lesson 5. Workbook Section 2 Constraint Management Section 3 Section 3 (continued) Sketch on Pat Overview Additional Sketching Techniques Section 4 Sketching (continued) Section 1 Constraining Sketches

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Accelerators
The following Accelerators can be listed from within an NX session by choosing InformationCustom MenubarAccelerators. Function FileNew... FileOpen... FileSave FileSave As... FilePlot... FileExecuteGrip... FileExecuteDebug Grip... FileExecuteNX Open... EditUndo EditCut EditCopy Edit-Paste EditDelete... EditSelectionTop Selection Priority - Feature EditSelectionTop Selection Priority - Face EditSelectionTop Selection Priority - Body EditSelectionTop Selection Priority - Edge EditSelectionTop Selection Priority - Component EditSelection-Select All EditBlankBlank... EditBlankReverse Blank All EditBlankUnblank Selected... EditBlankUnblank All of Part EditTransform... EditObject Display... ViewOperationZoom... ViewOperationRotate... ViewOperationSection... ViewLayoutNew... ViewLayoutOpen... ViewLayoutFit All Views ViewVisualizationHigh Quality Image... ViewInformation Window ViewCurrent Dialog ViewReset Orientation InsertSketch... InsertDesign FeatureExtrude... InsertDesign FeatureRevolve... InsertTrimTrimmed Sheet... Accelerator Ctrl+N Ctrl+O Ctrl+S Ctrl+Shift+A Ctrl+P Ctrl+G Ctrl+Shift+G Ctrl+U Ctrl+Z Ctrl+X Ctrl+C Ctrl+V Ctrl+D or Delete F G B E C Ctrl+A Ctrl+B Ctrl+Shift+B Ctrl+Shift+K Ctrl+Shift+U Ctrl+T Ctrl+J Ctrl+Shift+Z Ctrl+R Ctrl+H Ctrl+Shift+N Ctrl+Shift+O Ctrl+Shift+F Ctrl+Shift+H F4 F3 Ctrl+F8 S X R T

InsertSweepVariational Sweep... FormatLayer Settings... FormatVisible in View... FormatWCSDisplay ToolsExpression... ToolsJournalPlay... ToolsJournalEdit ToolsMacroStart Record... ToolsMacroPlayback... ToolsMacroStep... InformationObject... AnalysisCurveRefresh Curvature Graphs PreferencesObject... PreferencesSelection... StartModeling... StartAll ApplicationsShape Studio... StartDrafting... StartManufacturing... StartNX Sheet Metal... StartAssemblies StartGateway... HelpOn Context... Refresh Fit Zoom Rotate Orient View-Trimetric Orient View-Isometric Orient View-Top Orient View-Front Orient View-Right Orient View-Left Snap View

V Ctrl+L Ctrl+Shift+V W Ctrl+E Alt+F8 Alt+F11 Ctrl+Shift+R Ctrl+Shift+P Ctrl+Shift+S Ctrl+I Ctrl+Shift+C Ctrl+Shift+J Ctrl+Shift+T M or Ctrl+M Ctrl+Alt+S Ctrl+Shift+D Ctrl+Alt+M Ctrl+Alt+N A Ctrl+W F1 F5 Ctrl+F F6 F7 Home End Ctrl+Alt+T Ctrl+Alt+F Ctrl+Alt+R Ctrl+Alt+L F8

Evaluation Delivery NX 4 Sketcher, Course #TR10028


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SOMEWHAT DISAGREE SOMEWHAT AGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE STRONGLY AGREE Please share your opinion in all of the following sections with a check in the appropriate box:

If there were 2 instructors, please evaluate the 2nd instructor with Xs

Instructor:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. clearly explained the course objectives was knowledgeable about the subject answered my questions appropriately encouraged questions in class was well spoken and a good communicator was well prepared to deliver the course made good use of the training time conducted themselves professionally used examples relevant to the course and audience provided enough time to complete the exercises used review and summary to emphasize important information did all they could to help the class meet the course objectives

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What you liked best about the course delivery:

Class Logistics:
The training facilities were comfortable, clean, and provided a good learning environment 2. The computer equipment was reliable 3. The software performed properly 4. The overhead projection unit was clear and working properly 5. The registration and confirmation process was efficient Hotels: (We try to leverage this information to better accommodate our customers) 1. 2. 3. Name of the hotel Best hotel Ive stayed at YES NO 1.

Was this hotel recommended during your registration process? Problem? (brief description)

SEE BACK

AGREE

Instructor:

DISAGREE

Evaluation - Courseware NX 4 Sketcher, Course #TR10028


: SOMEWHAT DISAGREE SOMEWHAT AGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE

Please share your opinion for all of the following sections with a check in the appropriate box

Material:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The training material supported the course and lesson objectives The training material contained all topics needed to complete the projects The training material provided clear and descriptive directions The training material was easy to read and understand The course flowed in a logical and meaningful manner How appropriate was the length of the course relative to the material? Too short Too long Just right

Comments on Course and Material:

Overall impression of course

Poor

Student:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I met the prerequisites for the class (I had the skills I needed) My objectives were consistent with the course objectives I will be able to use the skills I have learned on my job My expectations for this course were met I am confident that with practice I will become proficient

Name (optional):

Location/room

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Thank you for your business. We hope to continue to provide your training and personal development for the future.

AGREE

Excellent