This workbook contains a compilation of edited, and formatted valuable and practical "Tips" on Heat

Exchangers that have been published and offered to the engineering public by Mr. Dale Gulley, an experienced
and recognized authority on Heat Exchanger Design, Fabrication, and Consulting.
For some years , I have endeavored to collect as many of Dale's valued advice and "tips" as I possibly could.
By doing so, I have gained further insight and knowledge by reading and applying his tips and know-how.
Dale is not only an outstanding and recognized heat transfer expert, but he has been a contributing and positive
member of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers' Association for many years, advocating the useful and
positive efforts this organzatn has done for the engineerng profession world-wide.
In the past 50 years I have arrived at many conclusions and results in dealing with the design, specification,
fabrication, and operation of heat exchangers that are identical with Dale's Tips. My experience also coincides
with that of a lot of my past and present engineering colleagues. My field experience has proven Dale's
advice and Tips to be not only credible - but also valuable in applying heat transfer to process operations.
I have put my effort into this compilation in order to make use of this valuable engineering know-how as a
basis for Experienced Based Learning when dealing with heat exchangers.
Through out this compilation, my personal notes on some of the Tips can be seen off the printed area of the
worksheet and to the right-hand side. I have used this method to record my own experience related to the topic
and to add empirical support and reinforcement to what Dale describes.
Please note that I have used the following spreadsheet and workbook techniques to assist in employing the
ideas and recommendations expounded by Dale:
• The bulk of the Tips are organized in the same manner as they are found in Dale's Website. I
have made use of Exel's Hyperlink feature to facilitate the quick and accurate access to any of
the topics that are listed and grouped in the Table of Contents. Once you locate a subject or
topic that you want to read or persue in the Table of Contents, all you have to do is click on the
subject and the hyperlink will take you directly to the selected Tip.
• I have made every effort to convert Dale's original presentation of recommended calculations and
equations to a format that allows the reader to immediately employ his/her basic data to make the
indicated calculation using Excel's basic spreadsheet feature. The reader can type in the basic data
in the YELLOW-filled cells and the resultant calculated answer will be generated in BOLD RED
numbers. This allows the reader to do several "what-if" calculations quickly to get an idea of the
perceived effect on the heat exchanger.
• The various groups of the Tips subject matter are also hyper-linked and a reader can go directly to
one of the groups of Tips directly from the Table of Contents.
These Tips are compiled and freely distributed with Dale Gulley's permission and approval. I would ask all
engineers who are helped and assisted by this contribution to call or email Dale with thanks and gratitude for his
contribution to heat exchange. Dale is active in heat exchange design, software, and process engineering
out of Tulsa, Oklahoma. Needless to say, his organization can be of great help in a heat exchanger application.
A Workbook Collection of Dale Gulley's Heat Exchanger Tips
Art Montemayor - 05 April 2011
Exchangers that have been published and offered to the engineering public by Mr. Dale Gulley, an experienced
Dale is not only an outstanding and recognized heat transfer expert, but he has been a contributing and positive
fabrication, and operation of heat exchangers that are identical with Dale's Tips. My experience also coincides
worksheet and to the right-hand side. I have used this method to record my own experience related to the topic
engineers who are helped and assisted by this contribution to call or email Dale with thanks and gratitude for his
out of Tulsa, Oklahoma. Needless to say, his organization can be of great help in a heat exchanger application.
4/26/2011 - Added Bs factor the second term in the denominator for the equation Chris Haslego
for the seal bar calculation on sheet "Calculations". Cheresources.com Admin
6/28/2011 - Added three new tips from Gulleyassociates.com with permission. Chris Haslego
Boiling Cheresources.com Admin
Estimate - critical heat flux for propane chillers.
Calculations
Estimate - optimum flow velocity for gas inside tubes.
Construction
Longitudinal baffle heat conduction cures.
11/10/2011 - Added five new tips from Gulleyassociates.com with permission Chris Haslego
Boiling Cheresources.com Admin
Kettle Reboilers - Supports or Baffles
Construction
Design Temperatures of Carbon Steel and Low Alloy Tubes and Tubesheets
Design Temperatures of Nonferrous Tubes and Tubesheets
Misc.
Fouling factors for water(hr-ft2-F/Btu)
Fouling Factors for Liquid Hydrocarbons(hr-ft2-F/Btu)
4/5/2012 - Added five new tips from Gulleyassociates.com with permission Chris Haslego
Boiling Cheresources.com Admin
Vertical Thermosyphon-Calculate Pressure Drop at The Outlet Nozzle
Vertical Thermosyphon-Design for a Smaller Liquid Preheat Zone
Calculations
Estimate - Hydrocarbon Gas Heat Transfer Coefficient in Shell Side
Tube Bundle Vibration
Best Design Feature to Prevent Bundle Vibration
Misc.
Viscous Flow - Use More Pressure Drop Than Usual
Chris Haslego
Cheresources.com Admin
Chris Haslego
Cheresources.com Admin
Chris Haslego
Cheresources.com Admin
Design Temperatures of Carbon Steel and Low Alloy Tubes and Tubesheets
Design Temperatures of Nonferrous Tubes and Tubesheets
Chris Haslego
Cheresources.com Admin
Vertical Thermosyphon-Calculate Pressure Drop at The Outlet Nozzle
Vertical Thermosyphon-Design for a Smaller Liquid Preheat Zone
Estimate - Hydrocarbon Gas Heat Transfer Coefficient in Shell Side
2911 E. 77 Pl., Tulsa, OK 74136 · P.O. Box 700295, Tulsa, OK. 74170-0295
Phone: (918) 744-0100
Air Coolers:
1. Air flow accessories - don't overlook these when calculating fan HP
2. Box header design - limit of process temperature change
3. Connecting bundles of existing coolers for a new service
4. Fan drive changes that increase capacity of existing cooler
5. Fan drive noise - suggestions on how to reduce
6. Maximum motor HP for a fan
7. Maximum tube wall temperature for wrap-on fins
8. Optimum number of tube rows
9. Overall heat transfer rate estimate for hydrocarbons
10. When do bare tubes become more efficient than fin tubes?
11. When To limit number of tube passes in air coolers
12. When to use wind coolers
Boiling:
1. Avoid mist flow boiling inside tubes
2. Kettle reboiler - liquid carryover problem solutions
3. Kettle reboiler - shell nozzle arrangement problem
4. Kettle reboiler - shell vapor outlet nozzle location
5. Kettle reboiler - sizing shell vapor space
6. Kettle reboiler - undersized shell effects
7. Estimate - pool boiling heat transfer coefficient for hydrocarbons
8. Large boiling temperature difference problems
9. Lowest limit of boiling temperature difference
10. Vertical thermosyphon - choking two phase flow with small outlet nozzle
11. Vertical thermosyphon - minimum recirculation rate
12. Vertical thermosyphon - check for liquid preheat zone
13. Vertical thermosyphon - who sets recirculation rate
14. Vertical Thermosyphon-Calculate Pressure Drop at The Outlet Nozzle
15. Vertical Thermosyphon-Design for a Smaller Liquid Preheat Zone
Calculations
1. What diameter to use to start design of a coil
2. Estimate - gas heat transfer coefficient inside tubes
3. Estimate - hydrocarbon heat transfer coefficient in tubes
4. Estimate - latent heat of hydrocarbons
5. Estimate - liquid thermal conductivity of light hydrocarbons
6. Estimate - overall heat transfer coefficient in shell & tube
7. Estimate - tube length that lowers tube pressure drop
8. How to calculate excess surface and overdesign surface
9. Use superficial velocities to calculate best heat transfer flow pattern
10. L/D equation for heat Transfer coefficient inside tubing
11. LMTD correction factor charts for TEMA G and J type shells
12. Low LMTD correction factor for divided flow
13. What is the lowest LMTD correction to use in shell & tube
14. Minimum flow area for shell side inlet nozzle
15. How to calculate performance of heat exchangers with plugged tubes
16. How to increase heat transfer for low Reynolds numbers
17. Calculate when to use seal bars on a bundle to increase heat transfer
18. Calculate S & T bundle diameter from number of tubes
19. Equation for calculating tube count in shell & tube
20. Check for hot tube wall temperature of cooling water
21. Sometimes larger tubes are better than small ones
22. Weighted MTD
23. Estimate - optimum flow velocity for gas inside tubes.
24. Estimate - Hydrocarbon Gas Heat Transfer Coefficient in Shell Side
Condensing:
1. Avoid small baffle cuts in S & T condensers
2. Estimate - Condensing heat transfer coefficient for hydrocarbons inside tubing
3. Maximum heat transfer rate inside tubes for total condensation
4. Quick estimate for reflux condenser LMTD in air cooler
5. Reflux (Knockback) condenser comments
6. Steam condenser types
7. Sulfur condenser - design within tube velocity limits
8. Warning about small temperature pinch points in condensers
9. When to slope single tube pass tubes in condensing service
10. Zone those condensers!
11. Estimate - critical heat flux for propane chillers.
Construction:
1. Benefits of using rotated square pitch in shell & tube
2. Caution when using a longitudinal baffle in the shell side
3. Using turbulators for tube side laminar flow
4. Discussion of types of triple segmental baffles in shell & tube
5. Check entrance and exit space for shell nozzles
6. Horizontal vs vertical baffle cut in shell & tube
7. Is expansion joint required in the shell of a fixed tube sheet?
8. Increasing capacity of existing shell & tube exchangers
9. Locating vents on the shell side of vertical exchangers
10. Optimun gasket location for flanges
11. Reinforcing rods as tube inserts to increase heat transfer
12. Shell side impingement protection
13. Special shell & tube heat exchanger type (NTIW)
14. When to consider by-pass strips in shell & tube bundle
15. What is too large of temperature change in 2 tube passes ?
16. When to rotate square tube pitch in shell & tube exchanger
17. Longitudinal baffle heat conduction cures.
Heat Recovery:
1. Deciding on what fin spacing to use
2. Estimate of nozzle size for HRSG
3. Face area estimate for HRSG units
4. Maximum exhaust gas temperaure for steel fin tubes
5. When to use bare tubes in waste heat boilers
Materials:
1. Cooling water flowing inside 304SS U-tubes
Pressure Drop:
1. Allowing for fouling in pressure drop calculations
2. Allowable pressure drop suggestions
3. Allowable shell side pressure drop if a multi-leaf(a.k.a. lamaflex) long baffle is used
4. Better baffle window pressure drop equation
5. Designing for better use of tube pressure drop
6. Effect of 1st tube rows on shell nozzle pressure drop
7. Pressure drop on kettle side
8. Reducing high shell side pressure drop in fixed tube sheet exchangers
9. Use impingement rods instead of plate to lower shell press. drop
10. What design pressure drop to use for heavy liquids inside tubes
11. Maximum velocity inside tubes
12. Calculate shell nozzle pressure drop
13. Improve shell side pressure drop calculations
Tube Bundle Vibration:
1. Features of a new S & T bundle that replaces bundle that vibrated
2. Vibration cure when designing shell & tube bundles
3. Conditions likely to cause shell & tube bundle vibration
4. Cures for vibration in existing bundle
5. Best Design Feature to Prevent Bundle Vibration
Miscellaneous:
1. Allocation of streams in shell & tube
2. Articles published by Dale Gulley
3. Avoid these fluids when using lowfin tubing
4. Best heat transfer flow pattern
5. Check liquid thermal conductivity at high reduced temperatures
6. Check piping connections when there is under-performance
7. Evaluating an exchanger for a new service
8. Check heat release curve data for skipping over dewpoints and bubblepoints
9. When will exchangers with low-fins be more economical than exchangers with bare tubes?
10. Problems with excess heat exchanger surface
11. Purchasing warning for shell & tube exchangers
12. What is the minimum velocity inside tubing for slurries?
13. Suggestions for low-fins and potential S & T bundle vibration
14. Choose shell & tube or multi-tube heat exchangers
15. Thermal design problem with shell side long baffle
16. Trouble shooting article in Hydrocarbon Processing
17. Under-surfaced S&T quote
18. When to add shell in Series
19. When to consider a long baffle in the shell
20. Which stream goes inside the tubes of gas/gas exchangers?
21. Weighted MTD
22. Why did performance decline in a TEMA type F,G or H type shell?
23. Zone those condensers
24. Viscous Flow - Use More Pressure Drop Than Usual
Note: Input data into YELLOW cells and receive output in BOLD RED
Air flow accessories - don't overlook louvers and screens when calculating fan HP
Air static pressure loss is used to calculate the horsepower required for fans used in process air coolers. Charts and
equations in the literature are usually for the tube bundle only. Frequently, air coolers have accessories like louvers
and fan guards. They may also have hail, bug, or lint screens. Don't overlook the accessory pressure drop because
they can increase the static pressure as much as 25%.
Box header design - limit of process temperature change March, 1998
In the design of an Air cooled heat exchanger, avoid imposing too large a temperature change in the box headers.
Too much temperature drop between the inlet and outlet tube passes can cause leakage where the tubes meet the
tubesheet. If the temperature change of the tube side stream is over approximately 400
o
F, then use a split header
design. This allows a hot top section to slide past a cooler bottom section.
Connecting Bundles of Existing Coolers for a new Service April, 1998
When re-using air cooled exchangers in a new service, don't overlook connecting the bundles in a series-parallel
arrangement. New air coolers nearly always have the bundle connected in parallel. Arrange the bundles for more
series type flow to increase the tube side velocity and get higher heat transfer rates. For example, an air cooler with
six bundles could be arranged with four bundles in parallel, connected to two bundles in series. The two series
bundles would handle the coldest part of the heat load where higher velocity is needed the most.
Increase Capacity of Existing Air Cooler with Fan Drive Changes October, 1997
If you need to increase the capacity of an air cooler, don't junk it for a new one until you have exhausted the
possibilities on changing the fan and the fan motor. The least expensive change is to increase the fan blade angle if it
will not overload the motor. But check to make sure the blade angle is not already at the maximum. The next best
change in terms of cost is to increase the fan speed by changing the drive ratio between the fan and the motor. If
these changes are not enough you could increase the motor size or change the fan for one with more blades.
Suggestions to Reduce Fan Drive Noise
The most effective solution is to reduce the fan speed by changing the drive ratio between the fan and the motor.
Other suggestions are to reduce the fan blade angle or change to a fan with more blades.
Maximum Motor HP for a Fan
Adding more HP to a fan will only work up to a point. The fan efficiency reaches a peak. Then increasing the HP
will produce no more air. An estimate for this HP is:
Max HP = 46.4 HP
Fan Diam = 7.00 feet
This is for fan diameters greater than 3.5 ft.
17 + 8.4 (Fan Diam - 3.5) =
Temperature Limit of Wrap-On Fins for Aircoolers June, 2000
Above a certain temperature, it will be too hot for wrap-on fins. Due to thermal expansion, the aluminum fins will
lose good contact with the tubing. In this case an integral type fin tube should be used. The summer time air outlet
temperature is a very rough approximation. To be more exact, the tube wall temperature needs to be calculated for
the hottest tube row. Then:
T
wall
= Ta + (Th
1
- Ta) x Ro x Uc = 459
o
F
Where
T
wall
= temperature of tube wall
Ta = air outlet temperature = 200
o
F
Th
1
= temperature inside tube = 488
o
F
R
o
= thermal resistance of air = 0.12
hr-ft
2
-
o
F/Btu
U
C
= clean overall heat transfer coefficient = 7.5
Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F
Example: Steam is condensing at 488
o
F. Assume that the U
C
is 7.5 and R
o
is 0.12.
If the air outlet temperature is 200
o
F, then:
T
wall
= 200 + (488 - 200) x 0.12 x 7.5
T
wall
=
459
o
F
As you can see, the problem is more severe at high heat transfer rates. Not even the aircooled manufacturers agree
exactly what this maximum tube wall temperature should be. The ASME code for allowable stress of aluminum has
a maximum temperature of 400
o
F. I believe this is the upper limit. Then the above example is operating too hot for
wrap-on fins.
Optimun Number of Tube Rows
The optimum number of tube rows is a function of the maximum acceptable temperature rise of the air side. There
are three limitations and the smallest air rise of the three should be used. The limitations are:
1 Limit the LMTD correction factor to a minimum of 0.9 for one tube pass - maximum air
outlet temperature to be the same as the process side outlet temperature.
2 Minimum temperature difference at the hot end to be 8 to 10
o
F.
3 Maximum air outlet temperature to be 300
o
F if tension wound fins are used.
Hydrocarbon U Estimate (Air-Coolers) February, 2002
In the preliminary design or checking of process air-coolers you need an estimate of the overall heat transfer
coefficient (U). An estimate that is based on fin surface can be made from the following:
Where OP is the operating pressure in PSIA
When do Bare Tubes become More Efficient Than Fin Tubes?
If the inside heat transfer coefficient beomes too low, fin tubes can become inefficient. This can be the case in
heavy oil coolers. If it is expected that the heat transfer coefficient is below approximately 20 Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F,
investigate both bare and fin tubes.
When To Limit Tube Passes in an Aircooler November, 1999
For tube side streams that have a high heat transfer coefficient, it is probably not advantageous to use more than
two tube passes. This would be for condensing streams like ammonia and steam. This could also be true for high
thermal conductivity liquid streams if the LMTD is high. The velocity on these type of streams will have a minor
effect on the overall heat transfer coefficient in the typical aircooler. The major thermal resistance is the air side
heat transfer coefficient.
Air Cooler Using Wind December, 2000
Where cooling water is not available and the outlet temperature is not critical, an air cooler can be built that
depends only on the wind for cooling. It will have the best performance when the tubes have high fins and the
tubes are perpendicular to the wind direction. In areas where the wind does not have a prevailing direction,
arrange the tubes in a bird cage type pattern. Then there is cooling no matter which way the wind blows. If there
is a prevailing wind direction, use an air cooler bundle that sets on a stand that faces the wind.
Gases
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
Rt = 0.29 x Sqrt (100/OP) + 0.145
Fluid in Tube side
Where: viscosity is less than 3 cP.
Rt = 0.165 x Sqrt (avg. tube viscosity) + 0.145
U = 1/Rt
U = 1/Rt
Liquids
March, 2000
Air static pressure loss is used to calculate the horsepower required for fans used in process air coolers. Charts and
equations in the literature are usually for the tube bundle only. Frequently, air coolers have accessories like louvers
and fan guards. They may also have hail, bug, or lint screens. Don't overlook the accessory pressure drop because
In the design of an Air cooled heat exchanger, avoid imposing too large a temperature change in the box headers.
tubesheet. If the temperature change of the tube side stream is over approximately 400
o
F, then use a split header
arrangement. New air coolers nearly always have the bundle connected in parallel. Arrange the bundles for more
series type flow to increase the tube side velocity and get higher heat transfer rates. For example, an air cooler with
possibilities on changing the fan and the fan motor. The least expensive change is to increase the fan blade angle if it
will not overload the motor. But check to make sure the blade angle is not already at the maximum. The next best
Adding more HP to a fan will only work up to a point. The fan efficiency reaches a peak. Then increasing the HP
Above a certain temperature, it will be too hot for wrap-on fins. Due to thermal expansion, the aluminum fins will
lose good contact with the tubing. In this case an integral type fin tube should be used. The summer time air outlet
temperature is a very rough approximation. To be more exact, the tube wall temperature needs to be calculated for
As you can see, the problem is more severe at high heat transfer rates. Not even the aircooled manufacturers agree
exactly what this maximum tube wall temperature should be. The ASME code for allowable stress of aluminum has
a maximum temperature of 400
o
F. I believe this is the upper limit. Then the above example is operating too hot for
The optimum number of tube rows is a function of the maximum acceptable temperature rise of the air side. There
two tube passes. This would be for condensing streams like ammonia and steam. This could also be true for high
thermal conductivity liquid streams if the LMTD is high. The velocity on these type of streams will have a minor
arrange the tubes in a bird cage type pattern. Then there is cooling no matter which way the wind blows. If there
Mist Flow Boiling Inside Tubes November, 2001
This is a flow pattern to avoid in heat transfer. The mist flow region is dependent upon velocity, % vapor and
stratification effects. In this type of flow the tube wall is mostly dry and the liquid droplets are carried along in a vapor
core. Therefore the heat transfer is much lower because the much higher thermal conductivity of the liquid is in very
little contact with the tube wall. The higher the % vaporization, the lower the velocity needs to be to avoid mist flow.
For example in a vertical tube where the vaporization is 50 % and the vapor density is 1.0 lb/cu ft, the velocity needs
to be below approximately 80 ft/sec. If the vaporization is 75 %, the maximum velocity is approximately 30 ft/sec.
This comes from the Fair equation. In a horizontal tube where there can be stratification, these maximum velocities are
much lower. If the mist flow region cannot be avoided, then twisted tape turbulators can be used to increase the heat
transfer. They will throw the liquid in the vapor core toward the tube wall.
Kettle Reboiler - Location of Vapor Outlet Nozzles
When it is necessary to have dry vapor leaving the kettle side, the location of the nozzles is important. The inlet nozzle
should not be located directly under the vapor outlet. This probably results in some liquid carryover. When there is
a single vapor outlet, it is usually centered over the bundle with the inlet nozzle located some distance away. There
have been cases where someone other than the thermal designer changed the location of this vapor nozzle without
the thermal designers OK. In one case the vapor outlet was moved to the back of the kettle resulting in appreciable
liquid carryover
Kettle Reboiler - Problem Shell Nozzle Arrangement
Sometimes you see kettle reboilers where the inlet nozzle is directly under the outlet vapor nozzle. This arrangement
creates extra turbulence under the vapor nozzle which affects the amount of liquid entrainment in the outlet vapor. It
is safer to use the conventional nozzle arrangement where the inlet is some lateral distance away unless a demister
pad is used.
Another problem with the vertical nozzle arrangement is when the kettle bundle is relatively long and there is a
single pair of nozzles. Then there is no good flow distribution. The boiling zones near the ends of the bundle will
have lower fluid circulation rates and lower heat transfer.
Kettle Reboiler - Location of Vapor Outlet Nozzles October, 2000
When it is necessary to have dry vapor leaving the kettle side, the location of the nozzles is important. The inlet
nozzle should not be located directly under the vapor outlet. This probably results in some liquid carryover. When
there is a single vapor outlet, it is usually centered over the bundle with the inlet nozzle located some distance away.
There have been cases where someone other than the thermal designer changed the location of this vapor nozzle
without the thermal designers OK. In one case the vapor outlet was moved to the back of the kettle resulting in
appreciable liquid carryover
Sizing the Vapor Space in Kettle Reboilers June, 1998
The size of the kettle is determined by several factors. One factor is to provide enough space to slow the vapor
velocity down enough for nearly all the liquid droplets to fall back down by gravity to the boiling surface. The
amount of entrainment separation to design for depends on the nature of the vapor destination. A distillation tower
with a large disengaging space, low tower efficiency and high reflux rate does not require as much kettle vapor
space as normal. Normally, the vapor outlet is centered over the bundle. Then the vapor comes from two different
directions as it approaches the outlet nozzle. Only in rare cases are these two vapor streams equal in quantity. A
simplification that has been extensively used is to assume the highest vapor flow is 60% of the total. One case
where this would cause an undersized vapor space is when there is a much larger temperature difference at one end
of the kettle then the other. The minimum height of the vapor space is typically 8 inches. It is higher for high heat
flux kettles.
Kettle Reboiler - Effect of Undersized Kettle Diameter July, 1997
What effect will an undersized kettle diameter have? The effect will be a decrease in the boiling coefficient. A boiling
coefficient depends on a nucleate boiling component and a two-phase component that depends on the recirculation
rate. An undersized kettle will not have enough space at the sides of the bundle for good recirculation. Another
effect is high entrainment or even a two-phase mixture going back to the tower.
Estimate - Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficient for Hydrocarbons
Boil h =
22 (Δt)
1.25
=
2,925
Btu/(hr)(ft
2
)(
o
F)
Where
Δt = (tube wall temperature - liquid temperature) = 50
o
F
t = temperature,
o
F
Large Boiling Temperature Differences March, 1999
Large temperature differences in heat exchangers where liquid is vaporized are a warning flag. When the temperature
differences reach a certain value, the cooler liquid can no longer reach the heating surface because of a vapor film.
This is called film boiling. In this condition, the heat transfer deteriorates because of the lower thermal conductivity
of the vapor. If a design analysis shows that the temperature difference is close to causing film boiling, the vaporizer
should be started with the boiling side full of relatively cooler liquid. This way, you don't start flashing the liquid.
The liquid is slowly heated up to a more stable condition. If the vaporizer is steam heated, the steam pressure
should be reduced which will reduce the temperature difference. With steam heating, take a close look at the design
if the LMTD is over 90
o
F. This is close to the critical temperature difference where film boiling will start.
Lower Limit of Boiling Film Temperature Difference February, 1997
A reboiler or chiller is best designed so that it doesn't have the lower heat transfer mode of natural convection. The
dividing line between natural convection and boiling depends on the type of tubing used. If steel bare tubes are used,
the lower limit of temperature difference between the tube wall and the boiling fluid is approximately 5
o
F. We have
designed hydrocarbon chillers down to the temperature difference of 2
o
F using low-finned tubes. Special enhanced
tube surfaces can be used for even lower temperature differences than 2
o
F.
Choking a Vertical Thermosyphon December, 1999
Choking down on the channel outlet nozzle and piping reduces the circulation rate through a heat exchanger. Since
the tubeside heat transfer rate depends on velocity, the heat transfer is lower at reduced recirculation rates. A rule
of thumb says that the inside flow area of the channel outlet nozzle and piping should be the same as the flow area
inside the tubing. The Shell Oil Company, in an experimental study, showed that a ratio of 0.7 in nozzle flow
area/tube flow area reduced the heat flux by 10%. A ratio of 0.4 cut the heat flux almost in half.
An approximate equation for the amount of heat flux reduction is:
Reduction = 3.06X -1.63X
2
- 0.43 =
53.32%
Where X = area ratio= 0.40
Minimum Recirculation Rate in Thermosyphon Reboilers
When does a recirculation rate become too low (high % vaporization)? When this happens, the tube wall is no
longer wet and the heat transfer diminishes. The guidelines in the literature show the lowest permissible recirculation
rates give from 25 to 40% vaporization for hydrocarbons. It has been observed that this threshold is when the
outlet two-phase density (volume basis) is below 1.0 lb/cu-ft. Nearly all thermosyphons have outlet densities above
this value.
Vertical Thermosyphon - Check for Liquid Preheat Zone February, 2001
When designing vertical thermosyphon reboilers with boiling at low operating process fluid pressures, check for the
presence of a liquid preheat zone. Back pressure raises the boiling point at the interface of liquid preheat zone and
subcooled boiling. This boiling point rise creates a liquid zone with relatively low heat transfer and it reduces the
temperature driving force (MTD). If the operating pressure is below approximately 25 PSIA, there should be a
liquid preheat zone. The lower the operating pressure, the more likely there is liquid preheat. If there is no liquid
preheat, there may be an input error.
Vertical Thermosyphon Recirculation Rate December, 1997
In the design of vertical thermosyphons, the recirculation rate should be set by the process engineer if there will be
anything unusual about the connecting piping. The recirculation rate is especially sensitive to the size and configuration
of the outlet piping. If the recirculation rate is left for the thermal designer to set, they will have to make piping
assumptions that may be violated later in the actual installation.
Estimate - Critical Heat Flux For Propane Chillers
A simple equation is presented for a kettle reboiler. It is conservative for very small bundles.
The crital heat flux depends on the geometry of the bundle. The following estimate is based on 3/4 inch tubes on 15/16 inch pitch.
It is actually good for any tube diameter with a tube pitch/tube diameter ratio of 1.25 and triangular tube pitch.
A boiling temperature of -30 F. is assumed for the propane.
CHF = 32500 = 12844 Btu/h ft2
Ds
(0.25)
CHF = crital heat flux in Btu/(hr)(ft)2
Ds = shell bundle diameter in inches = 41
Example
What is the critical heat flux for a 41 inch diameter bundle?
CHF = 32500
(41)
0.25
CHF = 12,850
Kettle Reboilers - Support or Baffles?
For kettle reboilers use segmental baffles instead of full supports if shell fouling factor is greater Than 0.002(hr-ft
2
-F/Btu)
Vertical Thermosyphon-Calculate Pressure Drop at The Outlet Nozzle
A rule of thumb is that the pressure drop at the outlet nozzle should not be greater than 30% of the total static head.
There is another tip in this boiling section about choking the flow with a small outlet nozzle. The inside flow area of the
outlet nozzle should be the same or greater than the total flow area inside the tubing. For a channel with a side outlet
the pressure drop is composed of a turning loss and a contraction loss The following equations calculate the pressure
drop at the outlet. The pressure drop for expansion into the channel is not included here but is with the tube pressure drop.
Ktr = ___1______ = 0.445576 (used for pressure drop calc)
Ds
0.3
(If Ktr less than 0.40, use 0.40)
Kc =0.5 (1 - (No/Ds)2) = 0.28077
KT = Ktr + Kc = 0.726346
ΔPn = KT = 0.000108 x Vn
2
x ρtp = 0.16944
Where:
Ds = Top channel ID (inches) = 14.8
Ktr = pressure loss coefficient for turning loss = 0.445576 (calculated)
Kc = pressure loss coefficient for contraction into nozzle = 0.28077
KT = total pressure loss coefficient = 0.726346
No = Outlet nozzle ID (inches) = 9.8
Vn = velocity thru nozzle (ft/sec) = 120
ρtp = two-phase density (lb/ft3) = 0.15
ΔPn = pressure drop thru channel and outlet nozzle (Psi) = 0.17
Vertical Thermosyphon-Design for a Smaller Liquid Preheat Zone
At low operating pressures there will be a sensible heat liquid zone with relatively low heat transfer. This is caused by the
fact that a small pressure change will cause a large increase in the boiling point. There has been a case where 90% of the
tube length was in the sub-cooled phase. What can you change that will decrease the size of the liquid preheat zone and
increase the overall heat transfer?
One answer is to evaluate the piping system above the top tubesheet. In order to make an evaluation check the pressure drop
at the outlet. There is on this section of the website equations to calculate the pressure drop of a nozzle that is at right angle to
the top channel. Most vertical thermosyphons have the outlet nozzle at right angles to the top channel. There may be a simple
change of enlarging the outlet nozzle that would be the cure. But there needs to be a check to make sure the nozzle and
connecting piping are not so large that there is liquid slip. If enlarging the right angle nozzle and piping is not the answer then
there are other configerations that will use less outlet pressure drop. Next the pressure drop of using a B type channel with
a long radius ell could be tried. If this doesn't do it, try a mitered channel design.
Another solution to the problem is to investigate inserts such as swisted tape, wire matrix , or helically coiled.
This is a flow pattern to avoid in heat transfer. The mist flow region is dependent upon velocity, % vapor and
stratification effects. In this type of flow the tube wall is mostly dry and the liquid droplets are carried along in a vapor
core. Therefore the heat transfer is much lower because the much higher thermal conductivity of the liquid is in very
little contact with the tube wall. The higher the % vaporization, the lower the velocity needs to be to avoid mist flow.
For example in a vertical tube where the vaporization is 50 % and the vapor density is 1.0 lb/cu ft, the velocity needs
to be below approximately 80 ft/sec. If the vaporization is 75 %, the maximum velocity is approximately 30 ft/sec.
This comes from the Fair equation. In a horizontal tube where there can be stratification, these maximum velocities are
much lower. If the mist flow region cannot be avoided, then twisted tape turbulators can be used to increase the heat
Art's Note:
When it is necessary to have dry vapor leaving the kettle side, the location of the nozzles is important. The inlet nozzle I agree. I have also found that locating the inlet liquid nozzle directly under the vapor outlet is not good.
should not be located directly under the vapor outlet. This probably results in some liquid carryover. When there is In Amine BKU reboilers I found that locating the inlet rich amine liquid as close to the U-tube bundle tubesheet
a single vapor outlet, it is usually centered over the bundle with the inlet nozzle located some distance away. There gave the best, consistant results in obtaining good solution stripping. This gives the heating medium
have been cases where someone other than the thermal designer changed the location of this vapor nozzle without
the thermal designers OK. In one case the vapor outlet was moved to the back of the kettle resulting in appreciable
Sometimes you see kettle reboilers where the inlet nozzle is directly under the outlet vapor nozzle. This arrangement
creates extra turbulence under the vapor nozzle which affects the amount of liquid entrainment in the outlet vapor. It
is safer to use the conventional nozzle arrangement where the inlet is some lateral distance away unless a demister
Another problem with the vertical nozzle arrangement is when the kettle bundle is relatively long and there is a
single pair of nozzles. Then there is no good flow distribution. The boiling zones near the ends of the bundle will
When it is necessary to have dry vapor leaving the kettle side, the location of the nozzles is important. The inlet
nozzle should not be located directly under the vapor outlet. This probably results in some liquid carryover. When
there is a single vapor outlet, it is usually centered over the bundle with the inlet nozzle located some distance away.
There have been cases where someone other than the thermal designer changed the location of this vapor nozzle
without the thermal designers OK. In one case the vapor outlet was moved to the back of the kettle resulting in
The size of the kettle is determined by several factors. One factor is to provide enough space to slow the vapor
velocity down enough for nearly all the liquid droplets to fall back down by gravity to the boiling surface. The
amount of entrainment separation to design for depends on the nature of the vapor destination. A distillation tower
with a large disengaging space, low tower efficiency and high reflux rate does not require as much kettle vapor
space as normal. Normally, the vapor outlet is centered over the bundle. Then the vapor comes from two different
directions as it approaches the outlet nozzle. Only in rare cases are these two vapor streams equal in quantity. A
simplification that has been extensively used is to assume the highest vapor flow is 60% of the total. One case
where this would cause an undersized vapor space is when there is a much larger temperature difference at one end
of the kettle then the other. The minimum height of the vapor space is typically 8 inches. It is higher for high heat
What effect will an undersized kettle diameter have? The effect will be a decrease in the boiling coefficient. A boiling
coefficient depends on a nucleate boiling component and a two-phase component that depends on the recirculation
rate. An undersized kettle will not have enough space at the sides of the bundle for good recirculation. Another
Large temperature differences in heat exchangers where liquid is vaporized are a warning flag. When the temperature
differences reach a certain value, the cooler liquid can no longer reach the heating surface because of a vapor film.
This is called film boiling. In this condition, the heat transfer deteriorates because of the lower thermal conductivity
of the vapor. If a design analysis shows that the temperature difference is close to causing film boiling, the vaporizer
should be started with the boiling side full of relatively cooler liquid. This way, you don't start flashing the liquid.
The liquid is slowly heated up to a more stable condition. If the vaporizer is steam heated, the steam pressure
should be reduced which will reduce the temperature difference. With steam heating, take a close look at the design
A reboiler or chiller is best designed so that it doesn't have the lower heat transfer mode of natural convection. The
dividing line between natural convection and boiling depends on the type of tubing used. If steel bare tubes are used,
the lower limit of temperature difference between the tube wall and the boiling fluid is approximately 5
o
F. We have
designed hydrocarbon chillers down to the temperature difference of 2
o
F using low-finned tubes. Special enhanced
Choking down on the channel outlet nozzle and piping reduces the circulation rate through a heat exchanger. Since
the tubeside heat transfer rate depends on velocity, the heat transfer is lower at reduced recirculation rates. A rule
of thumb says that the inside flow area of the channel outlet nozzle and piping should be the same as the flow area
inside the tubing. The Shell Oil Company, in an experimental study, showed that a ratio of 0.7 in nozzle flow
When does a recirculation rate become too low (high % vaporization)? When this happens, the tube wall is no
longer wet and the heat transfer diminishes. The guidelines in the literature show the lowest permissible recirculation
rates give from 25 to 40% vaporization for hydrocarbons. It has been observed that this threshold is when the
outlet two-phase density (volume basis) is below 1.0 lb/cu-ft. Nearly all thermosyphons have outlet densities above
When designing vertical thermosyphon reboilers with boiling at low operating process fluid pressures, check for the
presence of a liquid preheat zone. Back pressure raises the boiling point at the interface of liquid preheat zone and
subcooled boiling. This boiling point rise creates a liquid zone with relatively low heat transfer and it reduces the
temperature driving force (MTD). If the operating pressure is below approximately 25 PSIA, there should be a
liquid preheat zone. The lower the operating pressure, the more likely there is liquid preheat. If there is no liquid
In the design of vertical thermosyphons, the recirculation rate should be set by the process engineer if there will be
anything unusual about the connecting piping. The recirculation rate is especially sensitive to the size and configuration
of the outlet piping. If the recirculation rate is left for the thermal designer to set, they will have to make piping
The crital heat flux depends on the geometry of the bundle. The following estimate is based on 3/4 inch tubes on 15/16 inch pitch.
It is actually good for any tube diameter with a tube pitch/tube diameter ratio of 1.25 and triangular tube pitch.
For kettle reboilers use segmental baffles instead of full supports if shell fouling factor is greater Than 0.002(hr-ft
2
-F/Btu)
A rule of thumb is that the pressure drop at the outlet nozzle should not be greater than 30% of the total static head.
There is another tip in this boiling section about choking the flow with a small outlet nozzle. The inside flow area of the
outlet nozzle should be the same or greater than the total flow area inside the tubing. For a channel with a side outlet
the pressure drop is composed of a turning loss and a contraction loss The following equations calculate the pressure
drop at the outlet. The pressure drop for expansion into the channel is not included here but is with the tube pressure drop.
(used for pressure drop calc)
(If Ktr less than 0.40, use 0.40)
At low operating pressures there will be a sensible heat liquid zone with relatively low heat transfer. This is caused by the
fact that a small pressure change will cause a large increase in the boiling point. There has been a case where 90% of the
tube length was in the sub-cooled phase. What can you change that will decrease the size of the liquid preheat zone and
One answer is to evaluate the piping system above the top tubesheet. In order to make an evaluation check the pressure drop
at the outlet. There is on this section of the website equations to calculate the pressure drop of a nozzle that is at right angle to
the top channel. Most vertical thermosyphons have the outlet nozzle at right angles to the top channel. There may be a simple
change of enlarging the outlet nozzle that would be the cure. But there needs to be a check to make sure the nozzle and
connecting piping are not so large that there is liquid slip. If enlarging the right angle nozzle and piping is not the answer then
there are other configerations that will use less outlet pressure drop. Next the pressure drop of using a B type channel with
I agree. I have also found that locating the inlet liquid nozzle directly under the vapor outlet is not good.
In Amine BKU reboilers I found that locating the inlet rich amine liquid as close to the U-tube bundle tubesheet
gave the best, consistant results in obtaining good solution stripping. This gives the heating medium
Note: Input data into YELLOW cells and receive output in BOLD RED
What Coil Diameter to Use to Start Design October, 2002
When starting to design a coil or other single continuous tube heat exchanger, the diameter is unknown. An example
of this is an economizer in a heat recovery system. In this case it is desirable to have a single flow path rather than
using parallel paths where headers are required. The following gives guidelines for liquids on a diameter selection:
Size
1” tube
1 ¼” pipe
1 ½” pipe
2” pipe
3” pipe
4” pipe
Estimate Gas Heat Transfer Rate for Hydrocarbons February, 1998
If you need to estimate a gas heat transfer rate or see if a program is getting a reasonable gas rate, use the following:
h =
75 x (Op. pressure/100)
1/2
=
75
Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F
Generally more accurate
Or,
h =
1.4W
0.8
=
66
Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F
Generally understated
Operating pressure = 100.0 Psia.
W = 123.00 lb/tube/hr
This is for inside the tubes. The rate will be lower for the shell side or if there is more than one exchanger.
Estimate Hydrocarbon Heat Transfer Coefficient In Tubes
Use the following equation to estimate the heat transfer coefficient when liquid is flowing inside 3/4 inch tubing:
Hio = 87
Btu/Ft
2
-hr-
o
F
Where:
Viscosity = 3.0 cP.
This is limited to a maximum viscosity of 3 cP
Estimate - Latent Heat of Hydrocarbons
An equation from the Bureau of Standards Miscellaneous Publication No. 97 can be used when the Specific Gravity
is greater than 0.67 and less than 0.934. It is:
(111 - 0.09T)/SG60 = 113 Btu/lb Lat heat =
Unit Capacity flow rate
3,000-5,000 # / tube / hr
5,000-10,000 # / tube / hr
10,000-17,000 # / pipe / hr
150 / sqrt(avg. viscosity) =
17,000-35,000 # / pipe / hr
35,000-70,000 # / pipe / hr
70,000-130,000 # / pipe / hr
Where:
Lat heat = The fluid's Latent Heat in Btu/lb
T = The fluid temperature in
o
F = 100
SG60 = The fluid's Specific gravity @ 60
o
F = 0.9000 (0.67<SG<0.934)
For hydrocarbons below a Specific Gravity of 0.67 and pressures below 50 psia, use:
Lat heat = 172 - 0.195 T
Liquid Thermal Conductivity for Light Hydrocarbons July, 1999
You can make an estimate for the liquid thermal conductivity of light hydrocarbons if you know their specific heat.
It is good for propane and heavier.
K =
0.025 / (specific heat)
1.5
=
0.0427
0.7000 But/lb °F
Estimate Overall Heat Transfer Rate (U) in S & T December, 2001
In the preliminary design of shell and tube heat exchangers, you need an estimate of the overall heat transfer coefficient
(U). Process simulator programs give you a UA from which you can estimate the surface if you have a U value.
An estimate for a hydrocarbon U value can be made from the following:
Rt =
Fouling + Sqrt(avg. tube viscosity)/150 +((avg. shell viscosity)
0.27
)/140 =
Where,
Avg. tube viscosity = 2.0 cP Fouling = U = 1/Rt =
Avg. shell viscosity = 3.0 cP
Fouling is the total for both sides. The above is limited to a maximum viscosity of 3 cP for the tube side. There is no
limit on the shell viscosity. This is also limited to bare tube surface with no internal turbulation devices.
Estimated Tube Length That Lowers Tube Pressure Drop September, 2001
When the calculated tube side pressure drop exceeds the allowable, there are several design options. One option is
to design with shorter tubing when the number of tube passes is one. To estimate the new tube length, use the
following equation:
New Lg = 15.9 feet
Where
Lg = Existing tube length = 20 feet
Allow.Ap = Allowable Tube pressure drop = 1.00 psi
Calc. Ap = Calculated Tube pressure drop = 2.00 psi
The final tube length needs to be slightly longer than calculated because the calculated surface will be larger due to
a lower tube velocity that gives a lower heat transfer.
How to Calculate Excess Surface and Over-design Surface
Specific Heat =
Lg (Allowed Ap/Calc. Ap)
1/3
=
0.0005
100 x (A
actual
–A
calculated
) / A
calculated =
31.58%
Where
A
actual
= actual heat transfer surface = 250.0
A
calculated
= surface calculated from design overall heat transfer coefficient = 190.0
To calculate over-design surface use the clean overall heat transfer coefficient for A
calculated
.
Use Superficial velocities to Calculate Best Heat Transfer Flow Pattern
The best heat transfer occurs when there is an annular flow pattern. Then there is a relatively thin liquid film and
little vapor in contact with the heat transfer surface. How do you tell if the flow is annular? It will be when the
superficial gas velocity is above the following value:
If the superficial liquid velocity is below 0.30 ft/s:
Vg
Max
= 41.3 ft/sec.
where
VL = 0.25 ft/sec. (less than 0.30 ft/s)
If the superficial liquid velocity is above 0.30 ft/s:
Vg
Max
= 57.2 ft/sec.
where
VL = 1.00 ft/sec. (more than 0.30 ft/s)
L/D Equation For Heat Transfer Coefficient Inside Tubing
For Reynolds numbers below 10,000 there is an L/D effect on the heat transfer coefficient inside tubing. If you use the
full tube length for L, you may be too conservative. There will be turbulation at the tube entrance before laminar flow
is fully developed. The turbulent length needs to be subtracted from the full tube length. Use the following for tube
sizes 1.0 inch or less.
L = Tube Length - 0.0027 D
i
Re
11 feet
Where
L = variable to use in L/D expression, ft
Tube Length = length of tube, ft = 20 feet
D
i
= tube I.D., in = 0.650 inches
Re = Reynolds number = 5,000
LMTD Correction Factor Charts for TEMA G and J Shell Types
There are LMTD correction factor charts in TEMA for a single type G shell and two in series of type J shells.
For charts of more shells in series, refer to the enclosed Dale Gulley-generated charts in this Workbook.
Excess surface =
72 – 148 VL +100 VL
2
=
28.1 + 28 VL + 1.12 VL
2
=
the superficial liquid velocity =
the superficial liquid velocity =
Divided Flow LMTD Correction November, 1996
Something to watch out for is the LMTD correction for Divided Flow Shell & Tube Exchangers. Divided flow
(shell type J) does not have the same correction as the usual flow pattern (shell type E). We have seen several
instances lately where a thermal design program made this correction factor mistake. True, there is very little
difference at correction factors above 0.90. However, there is a difference at lower values. For example:
Correction F
n
0.805
0.775
0.765
0.65
Contact us if you do not have LMTD correction factor charts for divided flow. TEMA has one chart for a single
shell but it gives high values for the above examples and it is hard to read in this range. Refer to the enclosed Dale
Gulley charts for up to 4 shells in series that are found in this Workbook.
Lowest Limit of LMTD Correction Factor
What is the lowest LMTD correction factor to be used? Here is what several literature sources say:
Heat Exchanger Design Handbook (HEDH):
“F should be kept above 0.75 to 0.80”
Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook:
“Values of F less than 0.80 (0.75 at the very lowest) are generally
unacceptable because the exchanger configuration chosen is inefficient ...”
In over 50 years of experience, a correction factor of 0.75 is the lowest we have seen a thermal designer use.
Although there was one case where an operating shell-and-tube heat exchanger reflected a lower LMTD correction
factor than 0.75. Another way of looking at the correction factor is to never use a temperature cross of more than
5 degrees F in a single multi-tube pass shell.
Minimum Flow Area For Shell Side Inlet Nozzle
For single phase liquids and no impingement plate:
(Flow (lb/hr) x 0.04) / (38.73 Sq.Root(ρ)) = 0.261
in
2
Shell Side Flow Rate = 2,000 lb/hr
Shell Side fluid density = 62.50 lb/ft
3
For boiling liquids and no impingement plate:
(Flow (lb/hr) x 0.04) / (22.36 Sq.Root(ρ)) = 0.453
in
2
Shell-type Flow
Minimum area =
Minimum area =
Shell type "J"
Equal outlet temperatures Shell type "E"
Shell type "J"
Cold outlet 5
o
F higher than hot outlet Shell type "E"
How to Calculate the Performance of Heat Exchangers with Plugged Tubes
1. Using the actual overall heat transfer coefficient (U), calculate the heat transfer resistances that excludes the
tube side resistance:
R
other
= 1/U -1/h
io
2. Calculate new h
io
and new surface using usable number of tubes
3. Calculate new U
U
new
= 1/(1/h
io
+ R
other
)
How to Calculate the Performance of Heat Exchangers With Plugged Tubes
4. Calculate a new heat load from new surface and a new U
How to Increase Heat Transfer for Low Reynolds Numbers September, 1999
If pressure drop is available and if the tube side Reynolds number is less than 5,000 and more than 1,000, you
can probably increase the heat transfer considerably by increasing the number of tube passes and using shorter tubes.
This will not only increase the tube velocity but there will be a lower L/D correction. Both of these factors will
increase the heat transfer.
Calculate When to Use Seal Bars on a Bundle to Increase Heat Transfer
One of the fluid by-pass streams that lower the shell-side heat transfer is the stream that flows around the bundle.
To evaluate, calculate a heat transfer variable named FSBP. It is the ratio of the by-pass to the cross flow area.
The by-pass area is normally:
FSBP = Bs (Ds - OTL) = 0.054
Bs(Ds-OTL)+Bs(OTL-Do)(P-Do)/P
Where
Ds = inside diameter of shell = 23.00 in.
OTL = The Outer Tube Limit, or outer diameter of the tube bundle = 22.75 in.
18.00 in.
Do = tube OD = 1.00 in.
P = tube spacing = 1.25 in. Typical value is 1.25 x tube OD
If FSBP is more that 0.15, then seal bars are needed.
Calculate Tube Bundle Diameter January, 2000
Following are equations for one tube pass bundle diameter when the tube count is known or desired:
For tubes with 30 Deg. Pitch:
DS = 1.052 x pitch x SQRT(count) + tube O.D. = 17.384 inches
Bs = Baffle Spacing =
For tubes with 90 Deg. Pitch:
DS = 1.13 x pitch x SQRT(count) + tube O.D. = 18.617 inches
Where:
Tube OD = 0.750 inches
DS = Bundle diameter
Count = 250 Number of tubes
Pitch = Tube spacing = 1.000 inches
Tube Count Calculation for S & T August, 2002
If you don't have a tube count table for a shell and tube exchanger, the tube count can be calculated. The following
equation is good for any size tube on any tube pitch. It is primarily for situations where there is not a need for
allowance for bundle entrance and exit area.
Count =
F [0.7854 x TC
2
- (PLw + Do - P) (TC x Npl)] / P
2
=
372 Tubes on Square Pitch
Where: = 428 Tubes on Triangular Pitch
Do = Tube O.D. = 0.750 inches
F = 1.00 for square pitch
F = 1.15 for triangle pitch
Npl = Number of tube pass lanes (1 for two pass) = 2
PLw = Tube pass lane width (typical is 0.625 inches) = 0.625 inches
P = Tube pitch = 1.000 inches
TC = (Bundle diameter - tube O.D.) = 22.250 inches
For tube pass lane width for square rotated tube pitch use (1.414P – Do). The decrease in the number of tubes
due to bundle entrance and exit area could be allowed for by using a larger PLw.
Tube Wall Temperature for Cooling Water January, 1999
When designing heat exchangers where hot process streams are cooled with cooling water, check the tube wall
temperature. Hewitt says that where calcium carbonate may deposit, heat transfer surface temperatures above
140
o
F should be avoided. Corrosion effects should also be considered at hot tube wall temperatures. As a rough
rule of thumb, make this check if the inlet process temperature is above 200
o
F for light hydrocarbon liquids and
300 - 400
o
F for heavy hydrocarbons. Consider using Air coolers to bring the process fluid temperature down
before it enters the water-cooled exchanger.
Sometimes Larger Tubes are Better October, 1998
There is an exception to the rule that a shell and tube heat exchanger service using 3/4 inch tubes will be cheaper
than one using 1-inch tubes. This is when the tubeside has a much lower heat transfer coefficient than the outside
of the tubes and the following conditions are present:
The flow will be in laminar flow if two (2) tube passes are used.
If four (4) tube passes are used, the tubes in the 3/4 inch selection will have to be significantly shorter than allowed
in order to meet pressure drop. On the other hand, the 1-inch tube design uses the full allowable tube length.
Weighted MTD
If there is more than a slight curvature in the heat release curve, things get more complicated. Then a step-wise
method using local temperatures and local heat transfer coefficients are used to calculate the heat exchanger area.
The question is what do you report as the MTD and the correction factor? There is a reference in TEMA in the
temperature relations section T-3.2 that refers to a weighted MTD. The article mentioned was published by
Dale Gulley in the June 1966 issue of Hydrocarbon Processing. The article shows how to calculate a weighted
MTD and its correction factor if one is required.
Estimate - Optimum Flow Velocity for Gas Inside Tubes
Since the design of heat exchangers is a trial and error solution, a good starting point is desired.
Usually the design starts with an estimated overall heat transfer coefficient. If you don't know a good starting value for this
coefficient the equations presented here give this starting point with simple equations.
In the design of heat exchangers using up the maximum allowable pressure drops gives the highest heat transfer for single phase fluids.
The equations below estimates the tube velocity(W)for a gas that will meet the maximum allowable pressure drop.
From W you can calculate the tube count or heat transfer coefficient. For a given tube length the following equation gives the optimum
tube velocity for turbulent flow. Gases will be in turbulent flow more than 99% of the time. If your calculated tubeside velocity is below
what the following equation calculates, you need more tube travel where tube travel is in the form of number of tube passes or total tube
length(s) for countercurrent flow. These equations can be used for two phase flow as long as the two phase viscosity is less than 0.015 cp,
For 3/4 inch tubes with 0.06 tube wall
W = 1600(ΔPρ/L)
0.555
For 1.0 inch tubes with 0.06 tube wall
W = 3500(ΔPρ/L)
0.555
Where:
L = total tube lengths in ft.
(Add [8 x tube ID in inches] ft for turning losses for each tube pass)
W = lb/hr/tube
ΔP = allowable pressure drop inside tubes in psi (deduct 15% for nozzle pressure drops)
ρ = density in lb/cu.ft.
L = 21 ft For 3/4" tubes, W = 1,497 Tube count =
ΔP = 7 psig For 1" tubes, W = 3,274 Tube count =
ρ = 2.66 lb/ft
3
Mass flow = 195000 lb/h
Example
Use 3/4 inch tubes and 16 foot tubes. The maximum allowable pressure drop inside the tubes is 7 psi (after nozzle deduction) and the
gas density is 2.66 lb/cu.ft. The tube side flow is 195,000 lb/hr. What should be the starting tube count?
Solution
W = 1600(7 x 2.66/(16+5))
0.555
W = 1497 lb/hr/tube
Tube count = 195,000/1497 = 130
For a shell-and-tube heat exchanger, calculate the shell diameter when given the tube count here:
Calculate S & T diameter from number of tubes
Estimate - Hydrocarbon Gas Heat Transfer Coefficient in Shell Side
Its difficult to estimate a gas heat transfer coefficient in the shell side because of the many variables. The following will give you a value within 25%.
Ho = 430.Cp(ΔP/L x ρ)1/3 = 17 Btu/h ft2 °F
where
Cp = specific heat (Btu/lb-F) = 0.15
L = tube length (ft) = 10
ΔP = shell side pressure drop (Psi) = 2
(subtract nozzle losses)
ρ = density of gas (lb/ft3) = 0.085
When starting to design a coil or other single continuous tube heat exchanger, the diameter is unknown. An example
of this is an economizer in a heat recovery system. In this case it is desirable to have a single flow path rather than
using parallel paths where headers are required. The following gives guidelines for liquids on a diameter selection:
If you need to estimate a gas heat transfer rate or see if a program is getting a reasonable gas rate, use the following:
Generally more accurate
Use the following equation to estimate the heat transfer coefficient when liquid is flowing inside 3/4 inch tubing:
An equation from the Bureau of Standards Miscellaneous Publication No. 97 can be used when the Specific Gravity
You can make an estimate for the liquid thermal conductivity of light hydrocarbons if you know their specific heat.
In the preliminary design of shell and tube heat exchangers, you need an estimate of the overall heat transfer coefficient
(U). Process simulator programs give you a UA from which you can estimate the surface if you have a U value.
0.020
51
Fouling is the total for both sides. The above is limited to a maximum viscosity of 3 cP for the tube side. There is no
When the calculated tube side pressure drop exceeds the allowable, there are several design options. One option is
to design with shorter tubing when the number of tube passes is one. To estimate the new tube length, use the
The final tube length needs to be slightly longer than calculated because the calculated surface will be larger due to
The best heat transfer occurs when there is an annular flow pattern. Then there is a relatively thin liquid film and
little vapor in contact with the heat transfer surface. How do you tell if the flow is annular? It will be when the
For Reynolds numbers below 10,000 there is an L/D effect on the heat transfer coefficient inside tubing. If you use the
full tube length for L, you may be too conservative. There will be turbulation at the tube entrance before laminar flow
is fully developed. The turbulent length needs to be subtracted from the full tube length. Use the following for tube
There are LMTD correction factor charts in TEMA for a single type G shell and two in series of type J shells.
Something to watch out for is the LMTD correction for Divided Flow Shell & Tube Exchangers. Divided flow
(shell type J) does not have the same correction as the usual flow pattern (shell type E). We have seen several
instances lately where a thermal design program made this correction factor mistake. True, there is very little
Contact us if you do not have LMTD correction factor charts for divided flow. TEMA has one chart for a single
shell but it gives high values for the above examples and it is hard to read in this range. Refer to the enclosed Dale
In over 50 years of experience, a correction factor of 0.75 is the lowest we have seen a thermal designer use.
Although there was one case where an operating shell-and-tube heat exchanger reflected a lower LMTD correction
factor than 0.75. Another way of looking at the correction factor is to never use a temperature cross of more than
Calculate the expected performance of an exchanger that has had to have some tubes plugged by doing the following:
1. Using the actual overall heat transfer coefficient (U), calculate the heat transfer resistances that excludes the 1. You know the original overall heat transfer coefficient for the un-plugged exchanger and the
number of tubes plugged.
2. Therefore, you know the original heat transfer area, the original hi and ho, the original tubeside velocity
and the original duty and terminal temperatures.
3. You want to know what will be the new duty capacity and terminal temperatures with the
unit operating with plugged tubes.
How to Calculate the Performance of Heat Exchangers With Plugged Tubes
After a heat exchanger goes into operation it may develope leaks in the tube walls.
The following procedure calculates the new heat load and new overall heat transfer coefficient.
1. Using the actual overall heat transfer coefficient (U). calculate the heat transfer resistances that exclude the tubeside resistance
If pressure drop is available and if the tube side Reynolds number is less than 5,000 and more than 1,000, you R
other
= 1/U -1/h
io
can probably increase the heat transfer considerably by increasing the number of tube passes and using shorter tubes. 2. Calculate new h
io
and new surface using usable number of tubes
This will not only increase the tube velocity but there will be a lower L/D correction. Both of these factors will 3. Calculate new U
U
new
= 1/(1/h
io
+ R
other
)
4. Calculate new heat load from new surface and new U
One of the fluid by-pass streams that lower the shell-side heat transfer is the stream that flows around the bundle.
To evaluate, calculate a heat transfer variable named FSBP. It is the ratio of the by-pass to the cross flow area.
If you don't have a tube count table for a shell and tube exchanger, the tube count can be calculated. The following
equation is good for any size tube on any tube pitch. It is primarily for situations where there is not a need for
Tubes on Square Pitch
Tubes on Triangular Pitch
For tube pass lane width for square rotated tube pitch use (1.414P – Do). The decrease in the number of tubes
When designing heat exchangers where hot process streams are cooled with cooling water, check the tube wall
temperature. Hewitt says that where calcium carbonate may deposit, heat transfer surface temperatures above
140
o
F should be avoided. Corrosion effects should also be considered at hot tube wall temperatures. As a rough
rule of thumb, make this check if the inlet process temperature is above 200
o
F for light hydrocarbon liquids and
300 - 400
o
F for heavy hydrocarbons. Consider using Air coolers to bring the process fluid temperature down
There is an exception to the rule that a shell and tube heat exchanger service using 3/4 inch tubes will be cheaper
than one using 1-inch tubes. This is when the tubeside has a much lower heat transfer coefficient than the outside
If four (4) tube passes are used, the tubes in the 3/4 inch selection will have to be significantly shorter than allowed
in order to meet pressure drop. On the other hand, the 1-inch tube design uses the full allowable tube length.
If there is more than a slight curvature in the heat release curve, things get more complicated. Then a step-wise
method using local temperatures and local heat transfer coefficients are used to calculate the heat exchanger area.
The question is what do you report as the MTD and the correction factor? There is a reference in TEMA in the
temperature relations section T-3.2 that refers to a weighted MTD. The article mentioned was published by
Dale Gulley in the June 1966 issue of Hydrocarbon Processing. The article shows how to calculate a weighted
Usually the design starts with an estimated overall heat transfer coefficient. If you don't know a good starting value for this
In the design of heat exchangers using up the maximum allowable pressure drops gives the highest heat transfer for single phase fluids.
The equations below estimates the tube velocity(W)for a gas that will meet the maximum allowable pressure drop.
From W you can calculate the tube count or heat transfer coefficient. For a given tube length the following equation gives the optimum
tube velocity for turbulent flow. Gases will be in turbulent flow more than 99% of the time. If your calculated tubeside velocity is below
what the following equation calculates, you need more tube travel where tube travel is in the form of number of tube passes or total tube
length(s) for countercurrent flow. These equations can be used for two phase flow as long as the two phase viscosity is less than 0.015 cp,
130
60
Use 3/4 inch tubes and 16 foot tubes. The maximum allowable pressure drop inside the tubes is 7 psi (after nozzle deduction) and the
Its difficult to estimate a gas heat transfer coefficient in the shell side because of the many variables. The following will give you a value within 25%.
Calculate the expected performance of an exchanger that has had to have some tubes plugged by doing the following:
1. You know the original overall heat transfer coefficient for the un-plugged exchanger and the
2. Therefore, you know the original heat transfer area, the original hi and ho, the original tubeside velocity
3. You want to know what will be the new duty capacity and terminal temperatures with the
After a heat exchanger goes into operation it may develope leaks in the tube walls.
The following procedure calculates the new heat load and new overall heat transfer coefficient.
1. Using the actual overall heat transfer coefficient (U). calculate the heat transfer resistances that exclude the tubeside resistance
Avoid Small Baffle Cuts in S & T Condensers July, 2001
There will be a theoretical liquid level when there is condensation in a heat exchanger. The condensing heat transfer
coefficient decreases as its' liquid film increases. For best heat transfer the liquid level should be low as possible.
Small baffle cuts in a shell and tube exchanger will hold a higher liquid level than large cuts. Use a separated flow
model equation system to determine the theoretical liquid level. Unless you want subcooling, do not use a baffle cut
that would hold a liquid level higher than the theoretical one.
Estimate - Condensing Heat Transfer Coefficient for Hydrocarbons Inside Tubing
Cond h = 828
Where
Cond h =
W = Condensing fluid in tubes = 750.00 lbs/hr/tube
Maximum Condensing Rate Inside Tubes August, 2001
Following is a close estimate of the maximum heat transfer rate for total condensation. It is based on the maximum
condensing rate for the average hydrocarbon to be 750 BTU/hr-ft
2
-F. It is good for other types of chemical compounds.
Hi = 3,193 Btu/hr
Where,
K
liq
= liquid thermal conductivity of the condensate =0.350
Btu/hr-ft-
o
F
For example this equation yields a maximum heat transfer rate for steam to be 3,600.
Quick Estimate for Reflux Condenser LMTD in Air-cooler
This type of service has steam condensing out from a non-condensable gas which is mostly CO
2
. The condensing
curve has a hump which will give a LMTD higher than one calculated from a straight line condensing plot. An
equation that makes a quick estimate for the LMTD is:
Standard LMTD x Factor
In the case of outlet process temperatures below 153.5
o
F,
Then LMTD Factor = 1.4 -0.0092 (T -110)
Where T = outlet temperature and air inlet temperature is 100
o
F.
Reflux (“Knock back”) Condenser June, 2001
Do not design this like the usual vertically condensing heat exchanger where both gas and liquid flow in one direction.
In this type of condenser, the coldest condensate will be in contact with the entering hot vapor (in the bottom section).
Nearly everything about this type condenser is different. It is both difficult to design and difficult to control. The
flow patterns, pressure drop and heat transfer calculations are different. Be sure the heat transfer calculations are zoned.
Btu/(hr)(ft
2
)(
o
F) (4.15) W
0.8
=
Inside condensing heat transfer coefficient
750 (K
liq
/ 0.07)
0.9
=
Types of Steam Condensers
Small steam condensers use shell-and-tube heat exchangers while large steam condensers use surface condensers.
A conventional “E” type shell is used when the steam condensing temperature is above approximately 120
o
F. For
lower temperatures, a “X” type shell can be used. A point is reached where the size or operating pressure requires
a surface condenser.
Sulfur Condenser - Tube Velocity Limits
For good operation of a sulfur condenser the design velocities inside the tubes should be within certain limits. The
velocity range is between 1.5 and 6.0 lb/sq ft-sec. Below this range there will be slugging. Above this range sulfur
fogging will occur..
Small Temperature Pinch Points in Condensers November, 1998
Be extra careful when condensers are designed with a small pinch point. A pinch point is the smallest temperature
difference on a temperature vs. heat content plot that shows both streams. If the actual pressure is less than the
process design operating pressure, there can be a significant loss of heat transfer. This is especially true of fluids
that have a relative flat vapor pressure plot like ammonia or propane. For example: If an ammonia condenser is
designed for 247 PSIA operating pressure and the actual pressure is 5 PSI less and the pinch point is 8
o
F, there
can be a 16% drop in heat transfer.
When to Slope Single Tube Pass Tubes in Condensing Service January, 2002
At low vapor velocities, it has been proven that even a slight downward slope of tubes gives a significant increase in
heat transfer in the case of tube-side condensation. But this does not mean the larger the slope the higher the heat
transfer. The benefit of sloping stops at an angle of approximately 10
o
. A common case of a condenser needing to
have the tubes sloped is when they are operating near atmospheric pressure and there is one tube pass. An example
of this is a sulfur condenser. It has a low pressure drop usually less than 0.5 psi. They typically are designed with
a slope of 1/8 inch per foot of tubing.
Zone Those Condensers
The heat transfer and pressure drop of a condenser usually should be zoned. A typical heat exchanger that condenses
100% of the vapor will go through 2 or 3 different flow pattern zones before the flow becomes a liquid. There is
better accuracy if the flow patterns are determined and their individualistic equations are used.
There will be a theoretical liquid level when there is condensation in a heat exchanger. The condensing heat transfer
coefficient decreases as its' liquid film increases. For best heat transfer the liquid level should be low as possible.
Small baffle cuts in a shell and tube exchanger will hold a higher liquid level than large cuts. Use a separated flow
model equation system to determine the theoretical liquid level. Unless you want subcooling, do not use a baffle cut
Estimate - Condensing Heat Transfer Coefficient for Hydrocarbons Inside Tubing
Following is a close estimate of the maximum heat transfer rate for total condensation. It is based on the maximum
condensing rate for the average hydrocarbon to be 750 BTU/hr-ft
2
-F. It is good for other types of chemical compounds.
This type of service has steam condensing out from a non-condensable gas which is mostly CO
2
. The condensing
curve has a hump which will give a LMTD higher than one calculated from a straight line condensing plot. An
Do not design this like the usual vertically condensing heat exchanger where both gas and liquid flow in one direction.
In this type of condenser, the coldest condensate will be in contact with the entering hot vapor (in the bottom section).
Nearly everything about this type condenser is different. It is both difficult to design and difficult to control. The
flow patterns, pressure drop and heat transfer calculations are different. Be sure the heat transfer calculations are zoned.
Small steam condensers use shell-and-tube heat exchangers while large steam condensers use surface condensers.
A conventional “E” type shell is used when the steam condensing temperature is above approximately 120
o
F. For
lower temperatures, a “X” type shell can be used. A point is reached where the size or operating pressure requires
For good operation of a sulfur condenser the design velocities inside the tubes should be within certain limits. The
velocity range is between 1.5 and 6.0 lb/sq ft-sec. Below this range there will be slugging. Above this range sulfur
Be extra careful when condensers are designed with a small pinch point. A pinch point is the smallest temperature
difference on a temperature vs. heat content plot that shows both streams. If the actual pressure is less than the
process design operating pressure, there can be a significant loss of heat transfer. This is especially true of fluids
that have a relative flat vapor pressure plot like ammonia or propane. For example: If an ammonia condenser is
designed for 247 PSIA operating pressure and the actual pressure is 5 PSI less and the pinch point is 8
o
F, there
January, 2002
At low vapor velocities, it has been proven that even a slight downward slope of tubes gives a significant increase in
heat transfer in the case of tube-side condensation. But this does not mean the larger the slope the higher the heat
transfer. The benefit of sloping stops at an angle of approximately 10
o
. A common case of a condenser needing to
have the tubes sloped is when they are operating near atmospheric pressure and there is one tube pass. An example
of this is a sulfur condenser. It has a low pressure drop usually less than 0.5 psi. They typically are designed with
The heat transfer and pressure drop of a condenser usually should be zoned. A typical heat exchanger that condenses
100% of the vapor will go through 2 or 3 different flow pattern zones before the flow becomes a liquid. There is
Rotated Square Tube Pitch
Some heat exchanger specifications for shell and tube heat exchangers mention square pitch but do not specifically
mention rotated square pitch. Engineers with little thermal design experience who are trying to strictly adhere to the
specifications may reject this type of tube pitch. The benefits for this type of tube pitch sometimes get lost because
of this. Rotated square pitch gives better mixing of the shell fluid and better heat transfer for the heavier fluids.
Frequently the shell size can be reduced when there will be heavier liquids on the shell side and the designer uses
rotated square pitch.
Caution When Using a Longitudinal Baffle in the Shell Side
The following are potential problems when considering the use of a longitudinal baffle in a new S & T heat exchanger:
1. The largest temperature drop across the long baffle is more than 250
o
F. Then the thermal efficiency
is lost due to conduction across the long baffle. Check and make sure this has been taken into consideration;
2. If the long baffle is not welded to the shell, the pressure drop across the long baffle is more than 7 to 8 psi.
This will also lose thermal efficiency. The seal on the long baffle should be tested in the shop after fabrication.
Using Turbulators for Tube Side Laminar Flow
If the flow inside the tubes of a heat exchanger is in laminar or viscous flow, take a look at enhancing the heat transfer.
One simple and inexpensive device is the twisted-tape insert. Using twisted-tape inserts for laminar flow in new heat
exchangers results in cost savings and smaller heat exchangers. Twisted-tape inserts can be used in existing heat
exchangers to make a significant increase in capacity. The amount of increase in heat exchanged depends on whether
the increase in pressure drop can be tolerated. If there is no pressure drop limitation, there can be as much as a 50%
increase in capacity.
Here are the recommended guide lines for using twisted tape inserts:
1 Pressure drop in the tube side without inserts is less than 3 to 4 PSI.
2 Minimum fluid viscosity of 2 centipoise unless there is a very low velocity
3 Use a minimum tube diameter of 5/8” for .001 fouling. Use a minimum of 1” diameter for
0.0015 fouling. It is not recommendable to use turbulators in a service that has a fouling
factor greater than 0.0015.
These guidelines for tube diameter are due to fouling being more of a problem with turbulators in small tubes.
Triple Segmental Baffles November, 1997
There is more than one kind of triple segmental baffles in the shell side of heat exchangers. Be sure you know which
kind if you are checking a design that uses them. There is the kind you see in TEMA where there are three different
groups in a set. The total number of baffle pieces is six. There is the kind that is like producing two double segmental
streams in parallel. There are two groups in a set and a total of five baffle pieces. Another kind has only three pieces
in a group and each piece has a different shape.
Entrance and Exit Space for Shell Nozzles January, 2001
There have been cases where not enough space was under the shell nozzles. This can be critical for applications like
a horizontal thermosyphon or other pressure drop sensitive applications. Check the distance from the nozzle I.D. to
the nearest tube row or impingement plate. If there is an impingement plate this distance should be ¼ or more of the
nozzle I.D. If there is no impingement plate this distance should be 1/6 or more of the nozzle I.D. If pressure drop is
not a consideration and TEMA requirements are met and vibration is not a problem then the above calculated distance
could be reduced. This criterion naturally doesn't apply to shells with distributor belts or where the nozzle is beyond
the back of a U-tube bundle.
For information on calculating shell nozzle pressure drops, refer to “Calculate Shell Nozzle Pressure Drop” in
the calculation Tab of this Workbook.
Horizontal vs. Vertical Baffle Cut in S & T Exchangers May, 2001
In shell and tube heat exchangers it is safer from a thermal design standpoint to use vertical baffle cuts but horizontal
cuts have an advantage in certain situations. Horizontal cuts are best if the shell side stream is clean and single phase.
There will be less of the shell side stream bypassing through the tube pass lanes. Since in a multi-tube pass exchanger
there will be more horizontal tube pass lanes than vertical pass lanes, you need to flow perpendicular to these pass
lanes for minimum by-passing of the shell stream. This means horizontal cut. Where you do not want to use horizontal
cut is when there is either condensing or where there is the possibility of foreign material being in the flowing stream.
It is suggested to use a maximum fouling factor of 0.002 for horizontal baffle cut. It may be possible to use horizontal
cut in certain boiling applications.
Is an Expansion Joint Required in the Shell? December, 1998
A fixed tube sheet exchanger does not have provision for expansion of the tubing when there is a difference in metal
temperature between the shell and tubing. When this temperature difference reaches a certain point, an expansion
joint in the shell is required to relieve the stress. It takes a much lower metal temperature difference when the tube
metal temperature is hotter than the shell metal temperature to require an expansion joint. Typically, an all steel
exchanger can take a maximum of approximately 40
o
F metal temperature difference when the tube side is the hottest.
When the shell side is the hottest, the maximum is typically 150
o
F. Usually if an expansion joint is required, it is
because the maximum allowable tube Compressive stress has been exceeded. According to the TEMA procedure
for evaluating this stress, the compressive stress is a strong function of the unsupported tube span. This is normally
twice the baffle spacing.
Increasing Capacity of Existing Shell & Tube Exchangers March, 1997
To increase heat transfer check out using low fins or other special tubing. When an increase in capacity will cause
excessive pressure drop, you may not have to junk the heat exchangers. Investigate the relatively inexpensive
modification of reducing the number of tube passes. Other possibilities are arranging multiple exchangers in parallel.
Locating Vents on the Shell Side of Vertical Exchangers July, 1998
Proper venting of equipment is not always given the consideration it deserves. One place where venting is especially
a problem is underneath the tubesheet of a vertical exchanger. The problem is that there will always be a space above
the vent connection to trap gases or vapors. Besides the poor heat transfer in this region, this can cause corrosion
problems. It is important to get the vent connection as close to the tubesheet as possible. Using multiple connections
that are smaller is one solution. Another solution is to fabricate the upper tubesheet with a small vent tunnel inside.
Flange Gasket Location May, 1999
There is an optimum diameter of the gasket for flanges. It is when the total Operating moment of the flange under
pressure is equal to the gasket seating moment. For low-pressure flanges, the diameter should be as close to the bolt
circle as possible. For high-pressure flanges, the diameter should be as close to the flange I.D. as possible. In this
case, low pressure is considered to be below 300 psi. High pressure is considered to be approximately 750 psi
and higher.
Using Rods for Tube Inserts to Increase Heat Transfer August, 1998
Use concrete reinforcing rods inserted inside the tubes to increase the heat transfer and tube velocity. It is a quick
and economical solution. This is usually done only in clean services. A typical case is using 3/8" rods inside a
3/4" x 14 BWG tube. The tube side heat transfer coefficient is increased by a factor of 1.7. However, you have to
be able to stand the increase in pressure drop. It goes up by a factor of 9.5. Another example is a 1.0" x 16 BWG
avg. wall tube where the heat transfer goes up by a factor of 1.17 and the pressure drop by a factor of 3.5.
Shell Side Impingement Protection
There may be tube vibration or erosion if the shell-side fluid velocity is above a maximum value. These values can be
found in TEMA section RCB-4.61 & 4.62. In the eighth edition the maximum values can be found on page 35.
The most common impingement protection is a plate baffle that is slightly above the tube bundle. But this type of
protection has some drawbacks. It has a relatively higher pressure drop than most other methods and the tubes on
the first several rows tend to vibrate. Other types of impingement protection are:
1. Plate within a nozzle enlarger
2. Solid rods instead of tubes for the first 2 or 3 rows.
3. Snap-on tube protectors on top of the tubes in the first 2 or 3 rows
4. Small angle iron types setting on top of the tubes in the first 2 or 3 rows
5. Vapor belt
Special S & T Exchanger Type (NTIW) September, 1998
A shell & tube heat exchanger with normal segmental baffles has tubes that miss every other baffle. This can lead
to long unsupported tube lengths for some applications. A long tube span has a low natural frequency and is prone
to vibration. One solution is to design a “no tubes in window” (NTIW) exchanger. This design has no tubes in the
baffle cut out. By using intermediate supports between baffles, the natural frequency of the tubes can be raised
considerably to resist vibration.
When to Consider By-pass Strips in S & T Bundle
Use a by-pass strip if tubes are removed under a nozzle. Removing tubes leaves an open area where the shell fluid
can flow either over or under the bundle.
Consider by-pass strips if the bundle to shell clearance is more than 3/4 inches and the shell fluid is mostly sensible
heat transfer.
Especially consider by-pass strips if the shell liquid is a hydrocarbon with an average viscosity greater than 1
centipoise and the tube fluid has a high heat transfer coefficient (example water). In this case, a 5 to 10% increase
in heat duty can be achieved by installing by-pass strips.
What is too Large a Temperature Change in 2 Tube Passes? December, 1996
Warning! Large tube side temperature change. A big difference between the inlet and outlet temperature of the
tube side causes leakage and bypass problems. The worst case is a shell and tube exchanger with two (2) tube
passes where a gasket is used to seal between the passes. A careful analysis should be made if the temperature
difference across the pass plate is more than 300 oF. For a channel type that has a welded in pass plate, make an
analysis if the temperature difference is more than 450 oF. If this temperature difference causes an over stressed
condition, possible cures are:
- Add a unit in series so each unit has a smaller temperature difference;
- Use one tube pass if the penalty isn't too great;
- For air coolers, use a split headers design.
Rotated Square Tube Pitch February, 1999
Some heat exchanger specifications for shell and tube heat exchangers mention square pitch but do not specifically
mention rotated square pitch. Engineers with little thermal design experience who are trying to strictly adhere to the
specifications may reject this type of tube pitch. The benefits for this type of tube pitch sometimes get lost because
of this. Rotated square pitch gives better mixing of the shell fluid and better heat transfer for the heavier fluids.
Frequently the shell size can be reduced when there will be heavier liquids on the shell side and the designer uses
rotated square pitch.
Longitudinal Baffle Heat Conduction Cures
With a longitudinal baffle and a long temperature range there can be a problem with heat conduction through the
longitudinal baffle. There will be a loss of thermal efficiency due to the heat conduction.
The longitudinal baffle can be fabricated in one of two ways.
1. Leaving an small enclosed air gap between two longitudinal baffles.
2. Spray an insulating material like Ryton on the longitudinal baffle.
Design Temperatures of Carbon Steel and Low Alloy Tubes and Tubesheets
Use the higher of the shell-side and tube-side design temperatures up to 650 F.
At higher design temperatures use the arithmetic average of the 2 design temperatures.
Design Temperatures of Nonferrous Tubes and Tubesheets
Water in the shell-side
Use the arithmetic average of the shell-side and tube-side design temperatures.
Water in the tube-side
Use the higher of the tube-side design temperature or tube-side outlet temperature + 1/3 of the LMTD.
Some heat exchanger specifications for shell and tube heat exchangers mention square pitch but do not specifically
mention rotated square pitch. Engineers with little thermal design experience who are trying to strictly adhere to the
specifications may reject this type of tube pitch. The benefits for this type of tube pitch sometimes get lost because
of this. Rotated square pitch gives better mixing of the shell fluid and better heat transfer for the heavier fluids.
Frequently the shell size can be reduced when there will be heavier liquids on the shell side and the designer uses
The following are potential problems when considering the use of a longitudinal baffle in a new S & T heat exchanger:
The largest temperature drop across the long baffle is more than 250
o
F. Then the thermal efficiency
is lost due to conduction across the long baffle. Check and make sure this has been taken into consideration;
If the long baffle is not welded to the shell, the pressure drop across the long baffle is more than 7 to 8 psi.
This will also lose thermal efficiency. The seal on the long baffle should be tested in the shop after fabrication.
If the flow inside the tubes of a heat exchanger is in laminar or viscous flow, take a look at enhancing the heat transfer.
One simple and inexpensive device is the twisted-tape insert. Using twisted-tape inserts for laminar flow in new heat
exchangers results in cost savings and smaller heat exchangers. Twisted-tape inserts can be used in existing heat
exchangers to make a significant increase in capacity. The amount of increase in heat exchanged depends on whether
the increase in pressure drop can be tolerated. If there is no pressure drop limitation, there can be as much as a 50%
Use a minimum tube diameter of 5/8” for .001 fouling. Use a minimum of 1” diameter for
These guidelines for tube diameter are due to fouling being more of a problem with turbulators in small tubes.
There is more than one kind of triple segmental baffles in the shell side of heat exchangers. Be sure you know which
kind if you are checking a design that uses them. There is the kind you see in TEMA where there are three different
groups in a set. The total number of baffle pieces is six. There is the kind that is like producing two double segmental
streams in parallel. There are two groups in a set and a total of five baffle pieces. Another kind has only three pieces
There have been cases where not enough space was under the shell nozzles. This can be critical for applications like
a horizontal thermosyphon or other pressure drop sensitive applications. Check the distance from the nozzle I.D. to
the nearest tube row or impingement plate. If there is an impingement plate this distance should be ¼ or more of the
nozzle I.D. If there is no impingement plate this distance should be 1/6 or more of the nozzle I.D. If pressure drop is
not a consideration and TEMA requirements are met and vibration is not a problem then the above calculated distance
could be reduced. This criterion naturally doesn't apply to shells with distributor belts or where the nozzle is beyond
For information on calculating shell nozzle pressure drops, refer to “Calculate Shell Nozzle Pressure Drop” in
In shell and tube heat exchangers it is safer from a thermal design standpoint to use vertical baffle cuts but horizontal
cuts have an advantage in certain situations. Horizontal cuts are best if the shell side stream is clean and single phase.
There will be less of the shell side stream bypassing through the tube pass lanes. Since in a multi-tube pass exchanger
there will be more horizontal tube pass lanes than vertical pass lanes, you need to flow perpendicular to these pass
lanes for minimum by-passing of the shell stream. This means horizontal cut. Where you do not want to use horizontal
cut is when there is either condensing or where there is the possibility of foreign material being in the flowing stream.
It is suggested to use a maximum fouling factor of 0.002 for horizontal baffle cut. It may be possible to use horizontal
A fixed tube sheet exchanger does not have provision for expansion of the tubing when there is a difference in metal
temperature between the shell and tubing. When this temperature difference reaches a certain point, an expansion
joint in the shell is required to relieve the stress. It takes a much lower metal temperature difference when the tube
metal temperature is hotter than the shell metal temperature to require an expansion joint. Typically, an all steel
exchanger can take a maximum of approximately 40
o
F metal temperature difference when the tube side is the hottest.
When the shell side is the hottest, the maximum is typically 150
o
F. Usually if an expansion joint is required, it is
because the maximum allowable tube Compressive stress has been exceeded. According to the TEMA procedure
for evaluating this stress, the compressive stress is a strong function of the unsupported tube span. This is normally
To increase heat transfer check out using low fins or other special tubing. When an increase in capacity will cause
excessive pressure drop, you may not have to junk the heat exchangers. Investigate the relatively inexpensive
modification of reducing the number of tube passes. Other possibilities are arranging multiple exchangers in parallel.
Proper venting of equipment is not always given the consideration it deserves. One place where venting is especially
a problem is underneath the tubesheet of a vertical exchanger. The problem is that there will always be a space above
the vent connection to trap gases or vapors. Besides the poor heat transfer in this region, this can cause corrosion
problems. It is important to get the vent connection as close to the tubesheet as possible. Using multiple connections
that are smaller is one solution. Another solution is to fabricate the upper tubesheet with a small vent tunnel inside.
There is an optimum diameter of the gasket for flanges. It is when the total Operating moment of the flange under
pressure is equal to the gasket seating moment. For low-pressure flanges, the diameter should be as close to the bolt
circle as possible. For high-pressure flanges, the diameter should be as close to the flange I.D. as possible. In this
case, low pressure is considered to be below 300 psi. High pressure is considered to be approximately 750 psi
Use concrete reinforcing rods inserted inside the tubes to increase the heat transfer and tube velocity. It is a quick
and economical solution. This is usually done only in clean services. A typical case is using 3/8" rods inside a
3/4" x 14 BWG tube. The tube side heat transfer coefficient is increased by a factor of 1.7. However, you have to
be able to stand the increase in pressure drop. It goes up by a factor of 9.5. Another example is a 1.0" x 16 BWG
avg. wall tube where the heat transfer goes up by a factor of 1.17 and the pressure drop by a factor of 3.5.
There may be tube vibration or erosion if the shell-side fluid velocity is above a maximum value. These values can be
found in TEMA section RCB-4.61 & 4.62. In the eighth edition the maximum values can be found on page 35.
The most common impingement protection is a plate baffle that is slightly above the tube bundle. But this type of
protection has some drawbacks. It has a relatively higher pressure drop than most other methods and the tubes on
A shell & tube heat exchanger with normal segmental baffles has tubes that miss every other baffle. This can lead
to long unsupported tube lengths for some applications. A long tube span has a low natural frequency and is prone
to vibration. One solution is to design a “no tubes in window” (NTIW) exchanger. This design has no tubes in the
baffle cut out. By using intermediate supports between baffles, the natural frequency of the tubes can be raised
Use a by-pass strip if tubes are removed under a nozzle. Removing tubes leaves an open area where the shell fluid
Consider by-pass strips if the bundle to shell clearance is more than 3/4 inches and the shell fluid is mostly sensible
Especially consider by-pass strips if the shell liquid is a hydrocarbon with an average viscosity greater than 1
centipoise and the tube fluid has a high heat transfer coefficient (example water). In this case, a 5 to 10% increase
Warning! Large tube side temperature change. A big difference between the inlet and outlet temperature of the
tube side causes leakage and bypass problems. The worst case is a shell and tube exchanger with two (2) tube
passes where a gasket is used to seal between the passes. A careful analysis should be made if the temperature
difference across the pass plate is more than 300 oF. For a channel type that has a welded in pass plate, make an
analysis if the temperature difference is more than 450 oF. If this temperature difference causes an over stressed
Some heat exchanger specifications for shell and tube heat exchangers mention square pitch but do not specifically
mention rotated square pitch. Engineers with little thermal design experience who are trying to strictly adhere to the
specifications may reject this type of tube pitch. The benefits for this type of tube pitch sometimes get lost because
of this. Rotated square pitch gives better mixing of the shell fluid and better heat transfer for the heavier fluids.
Frequently the shell size can be reduced when there will be heavier liquids on the shell side and the designer uses
With a longitudinal baffle and a long temperature range there can be a problem with heat conduction through the
Use the higher of the tube-side design temperature or tube-side outlet temperature + 1/3 of the LMTD.
Choosing Fin Spacing June, 2002
In waste heat applications, the fin spacing depends not only on the heat transfer but the cleanliness of the exhaust gas.
If the gas is fouled from soot or other fine particulates, use a maximum of 5 fins per inch. For very dirty gases the
fin spacing can be as low as 2 fins per inch. Usually there will be soot if fuels heavier than diesel fuel are fired.
The designer needs to know the source of the waste heat gas so that he can make a decision on what fin spacing to use.
HRSG Nozzle Size April, 2002
For an estimate of the nozzle size entering and leaving a HRSG unit use:
D = 4.43 inches
Where:
D = diameter of nozzle
Flow = Gas flow = 1,000 lbs/hr
This is based on a total of 0.8 inches of water
Face Area for HRSG Units April, 2001
The starting point in the design of a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) is the face area. This will determine
the preliminary duct dimensions and starting face areas of any economizers and superheaters.
0.40
ft
2
Where:
Flow = 1,000 lbs/hr
Where face area is in square feet.
This is based on using 2 inch O.D. tubing with 1 inch high fins. The tubing is arranged on 4 1/8 inch triangular pitch.
Maximum Exhaust Gas Temperature for Steel Fin Tubes
Here is an approximation of the maximum exhaust temperature for steel fin tubes when generating steam.
Otherwise, the fins would need to be the more expensive 409 SS material. This is based on the typical 2 inch O.D.
tubing with 1 inch fins and 6 to 7 fins/inch.
MaxTg = 1,021
o
F
Where
MaxTg = maximum gas temperature
Btemp = water boiling temperature = 300
o
F.
When to Use Bare Tubes in Waste Heat Boilers
Use bare tubes if the bundle is quite small or the gas temperature is greater than 1,350 to 1,400
o
F.
1,090 - 0.23 Btemp =
0.14 x (flow)
1/2
=
Face area =
Exhaust Gas flow =
(Flow / 2,500) =
In waste heat applications, the fin spacing depends not only on the heat transfer but the cleanliness of the exhaust gas.
If the gas is fouled from soot or other fine particulates, use a maximum of 5 fins per inch. For very dirty gases the
fin spacing can be as low as 2 fins per inch. Usually there will be soot if fuels heavier than diesel fuel are fired.
The designer needs to know the source of the waste heat gas so that he can make a decision on what fin spacing to use.
The starting point in the design of a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) is the face area. This will determine
This is based on using 2 inch O.D. tubing with 1 inch high fins. The tubing is arranged on 4 1/8 inch triangular pitch.
Otherwise, the fins would need to be the more expensive 409 SS material. This is based on the typical 2 inch O.D.
Cooling Water Flowing Inside 304SS U-tubes June, 1999
Normally it is OK to use 304SS when cooling water with low chloride content is flowing inside U-tubes. But if for
some reason the operating pressure drops to saturation there can be corrosion problems. The tube vibration that
results from the flashing of steam amplifies the stress that causes stress corrosion cracking.
Normally it is OK to use 304SS when cooling water with low chloride content is flowing inside U-tubes. But if for
some reason the operating pressure drops to saturation there can be corrosion problems. The tube vibration that
Calculating Fouled Pressure Drop August, 1999
There are various ways to account for fouling when calculating pressure drop.
One way would be to add a small amount to the tube diameter. This has a complex effect that is not linear in nature.
A simpler method is to add 10% for each 0.001 increase in fouling factor. Then multiply this factor by the clean
pressure drop. You would use a pressure drop factor of 1.2 for a fouling factor of 0.002.
Allowable Pressure Drop Suggestions March, 2002
If you are at a loss as to what allowable pressure drop to specify, here are some suggestions:
Gas
Liquid
Change of phase
Boiling:
Condensing operating pressure
Allowable Shell Side Pressure Drop if a Multi-leaf (a.k.a. Lamaflex) Long Baffle is Used
Four thin (0.008”) stainless strips are normally used to seal the sides of the long baffle. Because of their flexibility,
they are not able to withstand large shell side pressure drops. It is best to limit the pressure drop to 5 psi with
7.5 psi being the maximum.
Better Baffle Window Pressure Drop Equation
A new baffle window pressure drop equation has been published in the June 2004 issue of Hydrocarbon Processing.
The name of the article is “More Accurate Exchanger Shell-Side Pressure Drop Calculations”. The article can be
found on this page with the subject “Heat Exchanger Articles Published by Dale Gulley”. The equation improves the
accuracy of the shell side pressure drop. Refer to the article for more detail. The equation has the following form:
K
P
= Pressure loss coefficient for velocity head equation
fi = Friction factor for ideal tube bundle
C
1
= Constant based on the type of tube layout
For 30 deg. Triangular, 2.2;
For 90 deg. Square, 3.64;
For 45 deg. sq. rotated, 2.29;
For 60 deg. Triangular, 1.79 estimated.
N
cw
= Effective number of tube rows crossed in baffle window
Less than atmospheric
Atmospheric to 25 psi
50 to 150 psi
25 to 50 psi
0.5
1
2
3.0 to 5.0 150 psi +
3
1.0 to 5.0 psi for less than 10 % vapor
Fluid and Condition Allowable Pressure Drop, psi
3 to 5
8 to 10
0.5 to 1.0 psi for greater than 10 % vapor
D = Distortion factor for ideal fluid stream. It varies with baffle cut. Refer article elsewhere on this site for
equation. (Baffle cuts from 24% to 29% (fractional) have a distortion factor of 1.0)
Sl = Total of leakage areas (in
2
)
Sw = Net flow area in baffle window (in
2
)
EXAMPLE:
This is taken from the first experimental case in “A Reappraisal of Shellside Flow in Heat Exchangers HTD-Vol. 36”.
Average flow of 990,000 lb/hr with a density of 62.4 lb/ft3 is flowing through a 13.25 ID nozzle. The shell ID is
23.25 in. and the OTL is 22.375 in. The tube OD is 0.75 in. on a tube pitch of 0.9375 in. with 30 degree layout.
There are 7 baffles and 26% baffle cut.
The following are taken from a tip in this section named “Improve Shell Side Pressure Drop Calculations”
fi = 0.1025
Ncw = 5.96
Sl = 11.0
Sw = 44.47
C1 for a 30 degree layout is 2.2
D = 1 since the fractional baffle cut is 26%
Kp = 0.1025 ( (2.2 x5.96) -2(11/44.47)
2
) )
Kp = 1.33
Gw = (990000 x 0.04)/44.47 = 890.5 (#/sqft-sec)
ΔPw = Kp x 0.000108 x Gw
2

ΔPw = 1.33 x 0.000108 x (890.5)
2
x 7/62.4
ΔPw = 12.78
Designing Better Use of Tube Pressure Drop October, 1999
When the calculated pressure drop inside the tubes is under-utilized, the estimated pressure drop with increased
number of tube passes is:
AP x (NPASS/OPASS)
3
=
12.0 psi
Where
AP = Previous Pressure drop 1.5 psi
NPASS = New number of tube passes = 4
OPASS = Old number of tube passes = 2
This would be a good estimate if advantage is not taken of the increase in heat transfer. Since the increased number
of tube passes gives a higher velocity and increases the calculated heat transfer coefficient, the number of tubes to
be used will decrease. The use of fewer tubes increases the new pressure drop. For a better estimate of the new
pressure drop, add 25% if the heat transfer is all sensible heat.
Effect of 1
st
Tube Rows on Shell Nozzle Pressure Drop
Usually when shell-and-tube heat exchangers are designed, the tube layout is made so that the shell entrance area is
New tube AP =
approximately equal to the shell nozzle flow area. The average distance to the 1st tube row is Dn/4 where Dn is the
inside diameter of the shell nozzle. In this case the pressure loss coefficient is 1.0 for the pressure drop calculation
for the shell nozzle entrance.
If the shell nozzles are greater than 2” and some tubes are not omitted from the tube layout, the nozzle entrance
pressure drop can be significantly higher than the normal calculation based on the nozzle flow area. In a case of a
6” shell nozzle and where no tubes were omitted in a BEM type heat exchanger, the pressure drop was 3 times
higher than that calculated with just the nozzle flow area. For more information, you can refer to the tip “Calculate
Shell Nozzle Pressure Drop” in this Workbook.
Kettle Pressure Drop April, 1999
Usually you will see the allowable pressure drop on the specification sheet for the shell side of a kettle reboiler to
be stated as “nil”. This is close to being true only for the bundle. The inlet and outlet kettle nozzles will have a
definite pressure drop. It is best to locate the inlet nozzle on the side of the kettle and above the bundle. This
keeps the pressure drop down because there are no tubes in the vicinity to provide a restriction.
Fixed Tube Sheet Exchanger and High Shell Side Pressure Drop July, 2000
When there is a design problem meeting the allowable shell side pressure drop, reverse the stream sides. Since it is
a fixed tube sheet exchanger, the unit can be designed with one (1) tube pass. Other types of heat exchangers can
be designed with a single tube pass but they can have more operating problems. The pressure drop can be further
reduced by using axial nozzles that are on the exchanger centerline. This eliminates large turning pressure drop losses.
Impingement Rods January, 1997
When shell pressure drop is critical and impingement protection is required, use rods or tube protectors in top
rows instead of a plate. These create less pressure drop and better distribution than an impingement plate. An
impingement plate causes an abrupt 90 degree turn of the shell stream which causes extra pressure drop.
Specifying Pressure Drop for Heavy Liquids Inside Tubes
Frequently process engineers specify 5 or 10 psi for allowable pressure drop inside heat exchanger tubing. For heavy
liquids that have fouling characteristics, this is usually not enough. There are cases where the fouling excludes using
turbulators and using more than the customary tube pressure drop is cost effective. This is especially true if there is a
relatively higher heat transfer coefficient on the outside of the tubing. The following example illustrates how allowable
pressure drop can have a big effect on the surface calculation. A propane chiller was cooling a gas treating liquid
that had an average viscosity of 7.5 cP. The effect on the calculated surface was as follows:
You can see that using 25 psi pressure drop reduced the surface by nearly one-half. This would result in a price
reduction for the heat exchanger of approximately 40%. This savings offset the cost of the pumping power.
Maximum Velocity Inside Tubes
An estimate for maximum tube velocity inside steel tubes
50 1,419
Allowable tube
pressure drop, psi
25 2,104
Exchanger surface
ft
2
5 4,012
V
max
= 10.2 ft/sec
Where
V
max
= maximum fluid velocity
Density = 62.00 lb/cu ft.
Calculate Shell Nozzle Pressure Drop
Shell nozzle pressure drop calculation methods are difficult to find in the open literature. The nozzle pressure drops
are difficult to predict accurately. There is a complex flow pattern of a tube matrix, bundle bypassing, and recirculation.
Because of this, it is possible to have pressure loss coefficients greater than the customary 1.5 velocity heads for
sharp edge expansion/contraction edges.
If the bundle entrance area is equal to or greater than the inlet nozzle flow area, use a pressure loss coefficient of 1.0.
If the bundle exit area is equal to or greater than the exit nozzle area, us a pressure loss coefficient of 0.58. There are
indications that it should be larger. The following procedure is for the situation where the nozzle flow area is greater
than the entrance or exit area and the bundles do not have an impingement plate. If there is an impingement plate,
there will have to be added a turning loss to the calculation below. If the two shell side nozzles are not the same size,
calculate the inlet pressure drop and take 2/3 of it and make a separate calculated pressure drop for the outlet and
take 1/3 of it.
Shell Entrance or Exit Area:
1. Calculate the bundle bypass area Sb = π x Dn x h
2. Calculate the slot area Aslot = 0.7854Dn
2
(Pt -Dt)/(F2 x Pt)
3. Calculate the shell entrance and exit area.(As)
As = Sb + Aslot
(refer TEMA RGP-RCB-4.621 & 4.622)
4. Calculate ratio of Sb to total area FR = Sb/As
5. Kn = 0.65 +2.14 (FR -0.4)
(minimum Kn = 0.8, maximum = 1.8)
6. ΔPn = Kn x .000108Vs
2
x density
(ΔPn = total of both nozzles)
where
ΔPn = Total nozzle pressure drop (lb/ft
2
)
Dn = Nozzle ID in.
Ds = Shell ID in.
Dt = Tube outside diameter in.
F2 = 0.707 for 45 degree pitch, all others use 1.0
h = 0.5(Ds-OTL) in.
Kn = Pressure loss coefficient
OTL= Outer tube limit diameter in.
Pt = Tube center to center pitch in.
Vs = velocity in the entrance/exit area (ft/sec)
EXAMPLE
990,000 lb/hr with a density of 62.4 lb/ft
3
is flowing through a 13.25 in. ID nozzle. The shell ID is 23.25 in. and
the OTL is 22.375 in. The tube OD is 0.75 in. on a tube pitch of 0.9375 in. with 30 degree layout.
80 / sqrt(density) =
fluid density =
Calculate Sb
h = 0.50(23.25-22.375)= 0.4375
Sb = π x 13.25 x 0.4375 = 18.23
Calculate Aslot
Aslot = 0.7854(13.25
2
) (0.9375-0.75)/(1.00 x .9375)= 27.58
Calculate total area As
As = Sb + Aslot = 18.23 + 27.58 = 45.81
Calculate FR
FR = 18.23/45.81 = 0.4
Calculate Kn
Kn = 0.65 +2.14(0.4 -0.4) = 0.65 (use minimum 0.8)
Calculate nozzle pressure drop
Vs = (990000 x 0.04)/(45.81 x 62.4)= 13.85
ΔPn = 0.8 x 0.000108 x 13.85
2
x 62.4 = 1.03 psi
Comment - Using 1.5 total pressure loss coefficient and the nozzle flow area gives only 0.21 PSI
Improve Shell Side Pressure Drop Calculations
The shell side pressure drop calculation can be improved by better equations for the baffle window and the nozzle
pressure drops. Both of these methods can be found elsewhere on this web page.
The baffle window pressure drop in the open literature is a function only of the number of tubes crossed and the
velocity in the window. It does not take into account a friction factor, type of tube pattern or fluid eddies.
When there are no tubes removed under the shell nozzles and the nozzles are large, using the nozzle flow area can
result in wrong pressure drop calculations.
This is taken from the first experimental case in “A Reappraisal of Shell side Flow in Heat Exchangers HTD-Vol. 36”.
Average flow of 990,000 lb/hr with a density of 62.4 lb/ft
3
is flowing through a 13.25 ID nozzle. The shell ID is
23.25 in. and the OTL is 22.375 in. The effective tube length is 11.729 ft. The tube OD is 0.75 in. on a tube pitch
of 0.9375 in. with 30 degree layout. There are 7 baffles and 26% baffle cut
From the following the cross flow pressure drop is calculated:
Bs = 17.6 in
fi = 0.1025 - Ideal tube bank correlation ( J. Taborek)
Nc = 13.75
Rb = 0.536
Re = 40,249
Rl = 0.615
ΔPc = 6.41 psi
ΔPshell = ΔPc + ΔPw + ΔPn
From other tips: ΔPw = 12.78
ΔPn = 1.03
ΔPshell = 6.41 +12.78 +1.03 = 20.2 psi
Experimental = 20.3 psi
One way would be to add a small amount to the tube diameter. This has a complex effect that is not linear in nature.
A simpler method is to add 10% for each 0.001 increase in fouling factor. Then multiply this factor by the clean
Allowable Shell Side Pressure Drop if a Multi-leaf (a.k.a. Lamaflex) Long Baffle is Used
Four thin (0.008”) stainless strips are normally used to seal the sides of the long baffle. Because of their flexibility,
they are not able to withstand large shell side pressure drops. It is best to limit the pressure drop to 5 psi with
A new baffle window pressure drop equation has been published in the June 2004 issue of Hydrocarbon Processing.
The name of the article is “More Accurate Exchanger Shell-Side Pressure Drop Calculations”. The article can be
found on this page with the subject “Heat Exchanger Articles Published by Dale Gulley”. The equation improves the
accuracy of the shell side pressure drop. Refer to the article for more detail. The equation has the following form:
Distortion factor for ideal fluid stream. It varies with baffle cut. Refer article elsewhere on this site for
This is taken from the first experimental case in “A Reappraisal of Shellside Flow in Heat Exchangers HTD-Vol. 36”.
Average flow of 990,000 lb/hr with a density of 62.4 lb/ft3 is flowing through a 13.25 ID nozzle. The shell ID is
23.25 in. and the OTL is 22.375 in. The tube OD is 0.75 in. on a tube pitch of 0.9375 in. with 30 degree layout.
The following are taken from a tip in this section named “Improve Shell Side Pressure Drop Calculations”
When the calculated pressure drop inside the tubes is under-utilized, the estimated pressure drop with increased
This would be a good estimate if advantage is not taken of the increase in heat transfer. Since the increased number
of tube passes gives a higher velocity and increases the calculated heat transfer coefficient, the number of tubes to
be used will decrease. The use of fewer tubes increases the new pressure drop. For a better estimate of the new
Usually when shell-and-tube heat exchangers are designed, the tube layout is made so that the shell entrance area is
approximately equal to the shell nozzle flow area. The average distance to the 1st tube row is Dn/4 where Dn is the
inside diameter of the shell nozzle. In this case the pressure loss coefficient is 1.0 for the pressure drop calculation
If the shell nozzles are greater than 2” and some tubes are not omitted from the tube layout, the nozzle entrance
pressure drop can be significantly higher than the normal calculation based on the nozzle flow area. In a case of a
6” shell nozzle and where no tubes were omitted in a BEM type heat exchanger, the pressure drop was 3 times
higher than that calculated with just the nozzle flow area. For more information, you can refer to the tip “Calculate
Usually you will see the allowable pressure drop on the specification sheet for the shell side of a kettle reboiler to
be stated as “nil”. This is close to being true only for the bundle. The inlet and outlet kettle nozzles will have a
definite pressure drop. It is best to locate the inlet nozzle on the side of the kettle and above the bundle. This
When there is a design problem meeting the allowable shell side pressure drop, reverse the stream sides. Since it is
a fixed tube sheet exchanger, the unit can be designed with one (1) tube pass. Other types of heat exchangers can
be designed with a single tube pass but they can have more operating problems. The pressure drop can be further
reduced by using axial nozzles that are on the exchanger centerline. This eliminates large turning pressure drop losses.
When shell pressure drop is critical and impingement protection is required, use rods or tube protectors in top
rows instead of a plate. These create less pressure drop and better distribution than an impingement plate. An
impingement plate causes an abrupt 90 degree turn of the shell stream which causes extra pressure drop.
Frequently process engineers specify 5 or 10 psi for allowable pressure drop inside heat exchanger tubing. For heavy
liquids that have fouling characteristics, this is usually not enough. There are cases where the fouling excludes using
turbulators and using more than the customary tube pressure drop is cost effective. This is especially true if there is a
relatively higher heat transfer coefficient on the outside of the tubing. The following example illustrates how allowable
pressure drop can have a big effect on the surface calculation. A propane chiller was cooling a gas treating liquid
You can see that using 25 psi pressure drop reduced the surface by nearly one-half. This would result in a price
reduction for the heat exchanger of approximately 40%. This savings offset the cost of the pumping power.
Shell nozzle pressure drop calculation methods are difficult to find in the open literature. The nozzle pressure drops
are difficult to predict accurately. There is a complex flow pattern of a tube matrix, bundle bypassing, and recirculation.
Because of this, it is possible to have pressure loss coefficients greater than the customary 1.5 velocity heads for
If the bundle entrance area is equal to or greater than the inlet nozzle flow area, use a pressure loss coefficient of 1.0.
If the bundle exit area is equal to or greater than the exit nozzle area, us a pressure loss coefficient of 0.58. There are
indications that it should be larger. The following procedure is for the situation where the nozzle flow area is greater
than the entrance or exit area and the bundles do not have an impingement plate. If there is an impingement plate,
there will have to be added a turning loss to the calculation below. If the two shell side nozzles are not the same size,
calculate the inlet pressure drop and take 2/3 of it and make a separate calculated pressure drop for the outlet and
990,000 lb/hr with a density of 62.4 lb/ft
3
is flowing through a 13.25 in. ID nozzle. The shell ID is 23.25 in. and
The shell side pressure drop calculation can be improved by better equations for the baffle window and the nozzle
The baffle window pressure drop in the open literature is a function only of the number of tubes crossed and the
velocity in the window. It does not take into account a friction factor, type of tube pattern or fluid eddies.
When there are no tubes removed under the shell nozzles and the nozzles are large, using the nozzle flow area can
This is taken from the first experimental case in “A Reappraisal of Shell side Flow in Heat Exchangers HTD-Vol. 36”.
Average flow of 990,000 lb/hr with a density of 62.4 lb/ft
3
is flowing through a 13.25 ID nozzle. The shell ID is
23.25 in. and the OTL is 22.375 in. The effective tube length is 11.729 ft. The tube OD is 0.75 in. on a tube pitch
Features of a New S & T bundle to Replace Bundle That Vibrated
1. If possible, design for lower cross flow velocity with special baffles.
2. Make sure that impingement plate is very secure.
3. Use a tube/baffle clearance of 1/64.
4. Use thicker baffles.
5. Use closer baffle/shell clearance.
6. Use thicker tubes.
7. If tubes are low fins, have the tubing bare where it goes through the baffles.
Vibration Cure When Designing Shell & Tube Bundles May, 2000
The cure depends upon whether it is flow induced or acoustical type vibration. Both types can be cured by using
a lower cross flow velocity across the bundle. To do this, use double or triple segmental baffles. This not only
lowers the velocity but the closer resulting baffle spacing increases the natural frequency of the bundle. Another
possibility is to use a “No Tubes in Baffle Window” design. Then you can use as many baffle supports as necessary
with very little effect on shell pressure drop.
If the vibration is the acoustical type, use either 30 degree triangular pitch or square rotated pitch. The former is the best.
Another cure is to use a de-resonating baffle. In a few cases, putting the problem stream inside the tubes would be better.
Conditions Likely to Cause Shell & Tube Bundle Vibration May, 1997
Bundle vibration can cause leaks due to tubes being cut at the baffle holes or tubes being loosened at the tubesheet joint.
There are services that are more likely to cause bundle vibration than others are. The most likely service to cause
vibration is a single-phase gas operating at a pressure of 100 to 300 PSI. This is especially true if the baffle spacing
is greater than 18 inches and single segmental type. Another service that sometimes causes bundle vibration is water
in the shell side. Water has a relatively higher momentum than other most fluids. Therefore, if extra precautions on
bundle design are not taken, a vibration problem can develop later when the exchanger goes into operation.
Cures for Vibration in Existing Bundle September, 1997
Most flow-induced vibration occurs with the tubes that pass through the baffle window of the inlet zone. The
unsupported lengths in the end zones are normally longer than those in the rest of the bundle. For 3/4 inch tubes, the
unsupported length can be 4 to 5 feet. The cure for removable bundles, where the vibration is not severe, is to stiffen
the bundle. This can be done by inserting metal slats or rods between the tubes under the nozzles. Normally this
only needs to be done with the first few tube rows. Another solution is to add a shell nozzle opposite the inlet so as
to cut the inlet fluid velocity in half. For non-removable bundles, this is the best solution. Adding a distributor belt
on the shell would be a very good solution but it is expensive.
If a U-tube bundle has a vibration problem in the bend area, metal slates or rods can be inserted between the tubes.
If a slight decrease in heat transfer is not a problem, encircle the U-bends with a band or heavy wire and squeeze
the tubes together.
Best Design Feature to Prevent Bundle Vibration
In designing a shell-and-tube heat exchanger, use a 30o triangular tube pitch if possible. This will lower the vortex shedding
frequency which is a direct function of something called a Strouhal number. The Strouhal number is a constant composed
of the vortex shedding frequency, shell side velocity and tube OD.
The 30° triangular tube pitch has a significantly lower Strouhal number than other tube pitch types. Using Barrington as a source,
for 3/4 inch tubes on 30o triangular tube pitch the Strouhal number is 0.21. But for 60o rotated triangular tube pitch the
Strouhal number is 0.81.
The cure depends upon whether it is flow induced or acoustical type vibration. Both types can be cured by using
a lower cross flow velocity across the bundle. To do this, use double or triple segmental baffles. This not only
lowers the velocity but the closer resulting baffle spacing increases the natural frequency of the bundle. Another
possibility is to use a “No Tubes in Baffle Window” design. Then you can use as many baffle supports as necessary
If the vibration is the acoustical type, use either 30 degree triangular pitch or square rotated pitch. The former is the best.
Another cure is to use a de-resonating baffle. In a few cases, putting the problem stream inside the tubes would be better.
Bundle vibration can cause leaks due to tubes being cut at the baffle holes or tubes being loosened at the tubesheet joint.
There are services that are more likely to cause bundle vibration than others are. The most likely service to cause
vibration is a single-phase gas operating at a pressure of 100 to 300 PSI. This is especially true if the baffle spacing
is greater than 18 inches and single segmental type. Another service that sometimes causes bundle vibration is water
in the shell side. Water has a relatively higher momentum than other most fluids. Therefore, if extra precautions on
bundle design are not taken, a vibration problem can develop later when the exchanger goes into operation.
Most flow-induced vibration occurs with the tubes that pass through the baffle window of the inlet zone. The
unsupported lengths in the end zones are normally longer than those in the rest of the bundle. For 3/4 inch tubes, the
unsupported length can be 4 to 5 feet. The cure for removable bundles, where the vibration is not severe, is to stiffen
the bundle. This can be done by inserting metal slats or rods between the tubes under the nozzles. Normally this
only needs to be done with the first few tube rows. Another solution is to add a shell nozzle opposite the inlet so as
to cut the inlet fluid velocity in half. For non-removable bundles, this is the best solution. Adding a distributor belt
If a U-tube bundle has a vibration problem in the bend area, metal slates or rods can be inserted between the tubes.
If a slight decrease in heat transfer is not a problem, encircle the U-bends with a band or heavy wire and squeeze
In designing a shell-and-tube heat exchanger, use a 30o triangular tube pitch if possible. This will lower the vortex shedding
frequency which is a direct function of something called a Strouhal number. The Strouhal number is a constant composed
The 30° triangular tube pitch has a significantly lower Strouhal number than other tube pitch types. Using Barrington as a source,
for 3/4 inch tubes on 30o triangular tube pitch the Strouhal number is 0.21. But for 60o rotated triangular tube pitch the
Allocation of Streams in Shell & Tube May, 1998
For those exchangers that need countercurrent flow, the stream with the highest pressure drop is usually best put in
the tube side. This is true unless the design pressure is so high for the shell side that there would be material problems.
High pressure drop instead of high design pressure is opposite of conventional thinking. If there are gas streams on
both sides with mol. weights about the same and a small temperature difference, put the stream in the tubes with the
highest value of the following:
(#//hr)(#/hr)/op. pressure
Otherwise, calculate the little more difficult term Vel x Vel x Density term for each side and put the stream with the
highest value in the tubes.
Heat Exchanger Articles Published by Dale Gulley
1. "More Accurate Exchanger Shell-and-Tube Pressure Drop Calculations", Hydrocarbon Processing, June 2004
2. "Troubleshooting Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers", Hydrocarbon Processing, September 1996
3. "Computers help Design Tubesheets", The Oil & Gas Journal, May 20,1974
4. "Computer Programs aid Design Work", The Oil & Gas Journal, Jan. 13,1969
5. "How to Calculate Weighted MTD's", Petroleum Refiner, July 1966
6. "How to Figure True Temperature Difference in Shell-and-Tube Exchangers", The Oil & Gas Journal, Sept. 14,
1964
7. "Make This Correction Factor Chart to Find Divided Flow Exchanger MTD", Petro/Chem Engineer, July 1962
8. "Use Computers to Select Exchangers", Petroleum Refiner, July 1960
Copies of the articles are available in .pdf format
Avoid These Fluids When Using Low fin Tubing
When a fluid has a high surface tension, the fluid doesn't readily flow from the gap between the tube fins. This adds
resistance and lowers the heat transfer. The types of fluids that are to be avoided are those whose surface tension is
above 30 to 40 dynes/cm. This includes such fluids as condensing steam, aqueous solutions with a high % of water,
amines and glycols.
Use Superficial velocities to Calculate Best Heat Transfer Flow Pattern
The best heat transfer occurs when there is an annular flow pattern. Then there is a relatively thin liquid film and little
vapor in contact with the heat transfer surface. How do you tell if the flow is annular? It will be when the superficial
gas velocity is above the following value:
VgMax = 1,832.0
where
VL = the superficial liquid velocity = 5.0 ft/sec.
Check Liquid Thermal Conductivity at High Reduced Temperatures November, 2000
There have been instances where process simulators have given results where the liquid thermal conductivity was
nearly the same as the vapor thermal conductivity when the reduced temperature was still significantly lower than the
critical temperature. Examine carefully the liquid thermal conductivity when its reduced temperature is above
approximately 0.70. You may be able to justify a higher conductivity value and thus a higher heat transfer coefficient
by using an independent and reliable correlation for the calculation.
72 -148VL +100 VL
2 =
Check Piping Connections When There is Under-performance July, 2002
When a heat exchanger is installed and it is not achieving the desired heat duty, the first thing to check is the piping.
Is the piping connected to the correct sides? It may be piped-up backwards. The worst case is when the shell side
has a viscosity more than approximately 3 cP and there is no extra heat transfer enhancement inside the tubing. This
could cause the fluid, when piped to the tube side, to be in laminar flow with its low heat transfer coefficient.
Evaluating a Shell & Tube Exchanger For a New Service September, 2000
The best information to have for a shell and tube heat exchanger is a specification sheet and a full set of drawings.
If both are not available, it is better to have the drawings. This is because they are more accurate on the mechanical
details and they have tube layout details and seal bar information that the specification sheet does not have. What are
most often missing on older heat exchangers are the bundle drawings. In this case, you need the original specification
sheet. Then you can use its data and simulate the shell side heat transfer and pressure drop by running a thermal
design Program to get a baffle configuration. Then this is used with the new process data to evaluate the new service.
This procedure will not be as accurate as having the exact baffling but it is the best you can do if this is all you have
to work with.
Check Heat Release Curves for Skipping Over Dewpoints & Bubblepoints
Frequently process engineers specify tabular heat release data that skips over dew points and bubble points. If equal
increments of heat load or temperatures are used, chances are that the dew points and bubble points will be missed.
It is important that the heat content at dew points or bubble points be shown.
When Will Exchangers With Low-fins be More Economical Than Exchangers
With Bare Tubes?
1. If the shell size is a least 2 sizes smaller (pipe size).
2. If the shell size is at least 14" O.D.
3. If there are fewer exchangers. when using low-fins
4. When (total shell resistance/total tube resistance) is greater than 0.4
Excess Heat Exchanger Surface Problems September, 2002
Excess surface does not always mean being safe. It can lead to control problems, pulsations, or freezing of condensate.
Vaporization services and reboilers can particularly be a problem. Provide a way to control the flow of the heat
medium in a new plant. In an existing installation without control, the boiling temperature difference may be so high
that there is complete flashing of the liquid into vapor. Then the liquid feed rushes in to replace it which results in
pulsations that may give downstream problems. The quickest solution is to either plug the tubes or put an orifice in
the outlet vapor line to restrict the flow.
Purchasing Shell & Tube Exchangers March, 2001
It is to the benefit of purchasers of shell and tube heat exchangers to not insist on applying their design. If the heat
exchanger is to be built to TEMA requirements, it will void the guarantee. The last line of paragraph G5.2 says, “The
thermal guarantee shall not be applicable to exchangers where the thermal performance was made by the purchaser”.
Minimum Velocity inside Tubing for Slurries
The minimum velocity for slurries inside tubes for shell-and-tube is 4 ft/sec. This is for a fine material like a catalyst.
For slurries there is a special Reynolds number used for calculating the settling velocity. For more information on
slurries, refer to chapter C11 in the piping handbook.
Suggestions for Low-Fins and Potential S & T Bundle Vibration May, 2002
Tube bundles are more likely to vibrate if there is not a close clearance between the tubes and baffles. Low-fins are
more susceptible to vibration because of the valleys between the fins. Another factor that makes them susceptible is
that some low-fins are manufactured with the fin O.D. smaller than the bare ends. Some suggestions if the design
software shows that the bundle may vibrate are:
1. Specify the low-fin tubing be bare where it passes through baffling.
2. Specify a tight tube hole tolerance.
3. Purchase tubing that has a fin O.D. the same as the bare ends.
Shell & Tube or Multi-Tube? June, 1997
It is best to use Multi-tube (Hairpin) Exchangers instead of Shell & Tube when:
1. You require a small surface (less than 400 square feet);
2. There is a temperature cross in the heat transferred in a Shell & Tube;
3. The liquid flows are less than 150,000 lbs/hr;
4. Natural gas flows less than 1,200 X Sq. root(oper. pressure)
Thermal Evaluation of Long Baffles August, 1997
The two thermal design problems associated with using two shell passes and a longitudinal baffle in Shell and Tube
heat exchangers are:
1 Heat conduction through the baffle. There is a calculation method by Whistler.
It is a correction applied to the LMTD.
2 Fluid by-pass around the long baffle. If possible, use an exchanger type where
the long baffle is seal welded to the shell in order to avoid bypassing of the shell fluid.
This should be done with a full penetration weld. The exchanger types, where the
long baffles can be welded in, are Fixed Tube Sheets or U-Tubes. If U-tubes,
the number of tube passes must be a multiple of four. Then the bundles can be
removed. Other designs use multi-leaf long baffles for two shell passes. Since
these cannot make a perfect seal, the amount of shell fluid bypassing the bundle
must be calculated.
Trouble-Shooting Article October, 1996
To find out more about heat exchangers, see Dale Gulley's article in the 1996 September issue of Hydrocarbon
Processing. The title is “Troubleshooting Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers”. It gives helpful information on
diagnosing problems.
Undersurfaced S&T Quote
When a vendor’s heat exchanger quote is under-surfaced, the following should be asked:
1. Are there seal strips? If so, how many?
2. What tube hole clearance was used in the baffles
When to Add Shells in Series August, 2000
Usually you should design for the least number of shells for an item. However, there are times when it is more
economical to add a shell in series to the minimum configuration. This will be when there is a relatively low flow in
the shell side and the shell stream has the lowest heat transfer coefficient. This happens when the baffle spacing is
close to the minimum. The minimum for TEMA is (Shell I.D./5). Then adding a shell in series gives a higher
velocity and a much better heat transfer because of the smaller flow area in the smaller required exchangers.
When to Consider a Long Baffle in the Shell October, 2001
The cost curve for a shell and tube heat exchanger decreases with increasing surface. The curve flattens at about
6,000 square feet of bare surface. If the first selection has multiple shells that are not countercurrent flow and
each shell has less than 6,000 square feet, consider using a long baffle for cost savings. This is especially true if
the exchanger is of a type where the long baffle can be welded to the shell (less likely to bypass fluid).
Which Stream Goes Inside Tubes for Gas/Gas Exchangers?
In a counter-current flow heat exchanger, the steam with the highest factor as calculated below goes inside the tubes:
Factor = (flow)
2
/ density
You can also use the following factor if both gases’ molecular weight and temperature are about the same on both sides:
Factor = (flow)
2
/ pressure
Why Did the Performance Decline in a TEMA F, G, or H Type Shell?
Has performance declined after the bundle has been pulled and later installed back in the shell? If the longitudinal
long baffle is sealed on the sides with leaf seals, they are probably the problem. These thin flexible strips should be
positioned so that they form a concave pattern and flex upward. Then, when the shell fluid puts pressure on the
leaves, they will press harder against the sides of the shell. If there is too much pressure - or if the bundle is installed
upside down - the leaves will flex downward, and the shell fluid will bypass the bundle. Another possibility is that
the leaf seals were damaged when the bundle was out of the shell.
Fouling factors for water(hr-ft2-F/Btu)
0.0005steam,steam condensate,engine jacket water
0.0010boiler feed water
0.0015clean water,moutain water,etc.
0.0020normal cooling tower water
For cooling water when velocity is 3 -8 ft/sec
Fouling = 0.025/V
1.67
Where V =ft/sec
Fouling Factors for Liquid Hydrocarbons(hr-ft2-F/Btu)
0.0010If sp. gravity At 60F less than 0.80, lube oil and heating oils
0.0020If sp. gravity At 60F 0.80 -0.87
0.0030If sp. gravity At 60F 0.87 -1.00
0.0050Heavy fuel oils
Viscous Flow - Use More Pressure Drop Than Usual
High viscosity fluids can have a problem achieving the design heat transfer. The fluids are usually petroleum based
and have an API of 20 or less.
Low pressure drops can cause maldistribution of the tubeside flow which in turn reduces the heat transfer.
That is why you can see allowable pressure drops 2 or 3 times higher than usual. There is a method by A.C. Mueller
for calculating this minimum allowable pressure drop. Another thing that can help is to use more tube passes and shorter
tubes than normal. Also the fluid could be placed in the shell side if cleanig isn't a problem.
For those exchangers that need countercurrent flow, the stream with the highest pressure drop is usually best put in
the tube side. This is true unless the design pressure is so high for the shell side that there would be material problems.
High pressure drop instead of high design pressure is opposite of conventional thinking. If there are gas streams on
both sides with mol. weights about the same and a small temperature difference, put the stream in the tubes with the
Otherwise, calculate the little more difficult term Vel x Vel x Density term for each side and put the stream with the
1. "More Accurate Exchanger Shell-and-Tube Pressure Drop Calculations", Hydrocarbon Processing, June 2004
6. "How to Figure True Temperature Difference in Shell-and-Tube Exchangers", The Oil & Gas Journal, Sept. 14,
7. "Make This Correction Factor Chart to Find Divided Flow Exchanger MTD", Petro/Chem Engineer, July 1962
When a fluid has a high surface tension, the fluid doesn't readily flow from the gap between the tube fins. This adds
resistance and lowers the heat transfer. The types of fluids that are to be avoided are those whose surface tension is
above 30 to 40 dynes/cm. This includes such fluids as condensing steam, aqueous solutions with a high % of water,
The best heat transfer occurs when there is an annular flow pattern. Then there is a relatively thin liquid film and little
vapor in contact with the heat transfer surface. How do you tell if the flow is annular? It will be when the superficial
November, 2000
There have been instances where process simulators have given results where the liquid thermal conductivity was
nearly the same as the vapor thermal conductivity when the reduced temperature was still significantly lower than the
critical temperature. Examine carefully the liquid thermal conductivity when its reduced temperature is above
approximately 0.70. You may be able to justify a higher conductivity value and thus a higher heat transfer coefficient
When a heat exchanger is installed and it is not achieving the desired heat duty, the first thing to check is the piping.
Is the piping connected to the correct sides? It may be piped-up backwards. The worst case is when the shell side
has a viscosity more than approximately 3 cP and there is no extra heat transfer enhancement inside the tubing. This
could cause the fluid, when piped to the tube side, to be in laminar flow with its low heat transfer coefficient.
The best information to have for a shell and tube heat exchanger is a specification sheet and a full set of drawings.
If both are not available, it is better to have the drawings. This is because they are more accurate on the mechanical
details and they have tube layout details and seal bar information that the specification sheet does not have. What are
most often missing on older heat exchangers are the bundle drawings. In this case, you need the original specification
sheet. Then you can use its data and simulate the shell side heat transfer and pressure drop by running a thermal
design Program to get a baffle configuration. Then this is used with the new process data to evaluate the new service.
This procedure will not be as accurate as having the exact baffling but it is the best you can do if this is all you have
January, 1998
Frequently process engineers specify tabular heat release data that skips over dew points and bubble points. If equal
increments of heat load or temperatures are used, chances are that the dew points and bubble points will be missed.
Excess surface does not always mean being safe. It can lead to control problems, pulsations, or freezing of condensate.
Vaporization services and reboilers can particularly be a problem. Provide a way to control the flow of the heat
medium in a new plant. In an existing installation without control, the boiling temperature difference may be so high
that there is complete flashing of the liquid into vapor. Then the liquid feed rushes in to replace it which results in
pulsations that may give downstream problems. The quickest solution is to either plug the tubes or put an orifice in
It is to the benefit of purchasers of shell and tube heat exchangers to not insist on applying their design. If the heat
exchanger is to be built to TEMA requirements, it will void the guarantee. The last line of paragraph G5.2 says, “The
thermal guarantee shall not be applicable to exchangers where the thermal performance was made by the purchaser”.
The minimum velocity for slurries inside tubes for shell-and-tube is 4 ft/sec. This is for a fine material like a catalyst.
For slurries there is a special Reynolds number used for calculating the settling velocity. For more information on
May, 2002
Tube bundles are more likely to vibrate if there is not a close clearance between the tubes and baffles. Low-fins are
more susceptible to vibration because of the valleys between the fins. Another factor that makes them susceptible is
that some low-fins are manufactured with the fin O.D. smaller than the bare ends. Some suggestions if the design
The two thermal design problems associated with using two shell passes and a longitudinal baffle in Shell and Tube
To find out more about heat exchangers, see Dale Gulley's article in the 1996 September issue of Hydrocarbon
Processing. The title is “Troubleshooting Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers”. It gives helpful information on
Usually you should design for the least number of shells for an item. However, there are times when it is more
economical to add a shell in series to the minimum configuration. This will be when there is a relatively low flow in
the shell side and the shell stream has the lowest heat transfer coefficient. This happens when the baffle spacing is
close to the minimum. The minimum for TEMA is (Shell I.D./5). Then adding a shell in series gives a higher
velocity and a much better heat transfer because of the smaller flow area in the smaller required exchangers.
The cost curve for a shell and tube heat exchanger decreases with increasing surface. The curve flattens at about
6,000 square feet of bare surface. If the first selection has multiple shells that are not countercurrent flow and
each shell has less than 6,000 square feet, consider using a long baffle for cost savings. This is especially true if
the exchanger is of a type where the long baffle can be welded to the shell (less likely to bypass fluid).
In a counter-current flow heat exchanger, the steam with the highest factor as calculated below goes inside the tubes:
You can also use the following factor if both gases’ molecular weight and temperature are about the same on both sides:
Has performance declined after the bundle has been pulled and later installed back in the shell? If the longitudinal
long baffle is sealed on the sides with leaf seals, they are probably the problem. These thin flexible strips should be
positioned so that they form a concave pattern and flex upward. Then, when the shell fluid puts pressure on the
leaves, they will press harder against the sides of the shell. If there is too much pressure - or if the bundle is installed
upside down - the leaves will flex downward, and the shell fluid will bypass the bundle. Another possibility is that
High viscosity fluids can have a problem achieving the design heat transfer. The fluids are usually petroleum based
Low pressure drops can cause maldistribution of the tubeside flow which in turn reduces the heat transfer.
That is why you can see allowable pressure drops 2 or 3 times higher than usual. There is a method by A.C. Mueller
for calculating this minimum allowable pressure drop. Another thing that can help is to use more tube passes and shorter
Art Montemayor September 30, 2005
Rev: 0
A E L
B F M
C G N
N H P
Channel integral with tubesheet Split Flow Shell Fixed tubesheet; like "C"
& removable cover. stationary head.
Bundle
Channel integral with tubesheet Double split flow Outside, packed floating head
& removable cover.
Shown: Removable Tube
Stationary head.
Bonnet (Integral Cover) 2-pass shell with longitudinal Fixed tubesheet; like "B"
baffle stationary head.
TEMA DESIGNATIONS
Front End Stationary Head Shell Type Rear End Stationary Head
Channel and removable cover One-pass shell Fixed tubesheet; like "A"
Page 282 of 327
FileName: 93186371.xls.ms_office
WorkSheet: TEMA Designations
Art Montemayor September 30, 2005
Rev: 0
D J S
Conventional Front End Heads:
A
or,
B
K T
Other popular rear end head types employed:
U
W
Kettle type of reboiler Pull-through floating head
U-tube bundle design
(No Rear Head Required)
Packed floating tubesheet with
lantern ring
device (split-ring)
Special, high-pressure closure Divided shell flow Floating head with backing
Page 283 of 327
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WorkSheet: TEMA Designations
Art Montemayor September 30, 2005
Rev: 0
Some examples of the TEMA designation for Heat Exchangers are shown below:
Front bonnet (Intergral Cover), with one-Pass Shell and a Fixed Tubesheet rear Bonnet
Fixed tubesheet heat exchanger. This is a very popular version as the heads can be removed to clean the inside
of the tubes. The front head piping must be unbolted to allow front head removal; if this is undesirable, then
this can be avoided by applying a type A front head. In that case only the cover needs to be removed. It is not
possible to mechanically clean the outside surface of the tubes as these are fixed inside the shell. Chemical
cleaning can be used in the shell side. Shown is a version with one shell pass and two tube passes. This is
probably the least expensive of the shell-and-tube designs.
This is the same type of heat exchanger as shown above, except it has only one tube pass
Channel with Removable Cover, One Pass Shell, Fixed Tubesheet Bonnet
This is almost the same type of heat exchanger as the first BEM. The removable cover allows the inside of the
tubes to be inspected and cleaned without unbolting the piping. However, as can be expected, the tradeoff is
that this convenient feature makes it more expensive.
BEM
BEM
AEM
Page 284 of 327
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Art Montemayor September 30, 2005
Rev: 0
The maintenance feature of having a removable tube bundles requires an exchanger as the following:
Channel and Removable Cover, One Pass Shell, Floating Head with Backing Device
A floating head heat exchanger is excellent for applications where the difference in temperature between the
hot and cold fluid causes unacceptable stresses in the axial direction, between the shell and tubes. The
floating head can move, i.e. it provides the ability to allow tube expansion in the axial direction.
Note that the bundle can not be pulled from the front end. For maintenance both the front and rear end head,
including the backing device, must be disassembled. If pulling from the front head is required a type AET
should be selected.
However, it is wise and prudent to be aware of the inherent trade-offs in this design. Note that the tube-side
fluid can leak through the internal floating head cover gasket and mix (or contaminate) the shell-side fluid.
It is very difficult -and sometimes impossible to mitigate or compensate for the internal bolts tightening the
internal bonnet to remain under constant, steady torque. Hot fluid temperatures make the bolts expand and
the result is a reduction in bolt torque and subsequent leaks through the bonnet gasket. Additionally, it is a
common and expected occurance for maintenance crews to find the internal bolts badly rusted or corroded to
the point where they have to be burned or sawed off in order to extract the "removable" tube bundle.
The chemical engineer has other options to apply when requiring mechanical expansion of a heat exchanger
tube bundle. Various rear head design also exist that allow for tube bundle expansion. Among these are the
popular (and inexpensive) "U" tube bundle design. A "P" and "W" rear head design will also contribute this
feature without the hazard of internal mixing (or contamination) of the two fluids.
Also, be aware that any TEMA shell and tube design with a removable tube bundle feature has - by nature - a
larger shell diameter (& increased cost) due to the need to be able to pull the rear tubesheet the length
of the exchanger's shell. A larger diameter shell can sometimes also present problems in a lower Reynolds
number (yielding a lower heat transfer) and internal by-passing of the shell fluid around the baffles (this also
reduces the effective heat transferred. All these effects eventually lead to a bigger heat exchanger (more area
and more tubes) in order to do a heat transfer operation.
AES
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Art Montemayor September 30, 2005
Rev: 0
Longitudinal Baffles - their application and inherent problems
The employment of longitudinal baffles in heat exchangers - such as the "F", "G", and "H" shell types - can
often resolve both heat transfer and fluid flow problems within the shell and tube exchanger used.
Their application can significantly increase the shell-side Reynolds Number and lead to more efficient shell-side
heat transfer coefficients with a subsequent increase in heat transfer. Additionally, these type of baffles permit
the engineer to incorporate counter-flow heat transfer. True counter-current heat transfer is as efficient
a heat transfer configuration as an engineer can obtain. In some heat recovery applications, this is highly sought.
By splitting the shell-side flow, some applications can actually have a significant reduction in shell-side pressure
drop. This is especially true in partial vacuum process operations where a minimum of pressure drop can be
tolerated.
However, the application of longitudinal baffles should be always carefully scrutinized and used sparingly. There
are, as would be expected, some very important trade-offs involved in the application of longitudinal baffles.
Firstly, if a longitudinal baffle is a process necessity, the baffle should be seal-welded against the inner shell
wall in order to ensure that there will be no internal, by-pass leakage. This positive step negates the possibility
of having a removable tube bundle. Additionally, the welding necessity requires a minimum shell diameter
and this winds up being applicable only to relatively large streams.
By the basic need to establish effective shell-side flow around a longitudinal baffle, one has to accept the
obvious fact that a minimum of shell-side clearances can be tolerated. Once having said and applied these facts,
one then has to also accept that the required, small baffle clearances mean extraordinary fabrication techniques
and resultant super-human maintenance efforts to extract a removable tube bundle. In far too many actual
field cases, it has been found that the removable tube bundle with a longitudinal baffle is a non-practical device.
Field results have shown that in most cases the tube bundle has resulted in being destroyed in order to remove it.
This extraordinary and desperate maintenance act labels such a design as non-practical.
Page 286 of 327
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WorkSheet: TEMA Designations
Art Montemayor September 30, 2003
Rev: 0
Source: "Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants"; Vol. 3; p.24
Ernest E. Ludwig; Gulf Publishing Co.; Houston, TX (1965)
Tube O. D. & Pitch 8 10 12 13-1/4 15-1/4 17-1/4 19-1/4 21-1/4 23-1/4 25 27 29 31 33 35 37
3/4" on 15/16" Triang. 33 69 105 135 193 247 307 391 481 553 663 763 881 1,019 1,143 1,269
3/4" on 1" Triang. 33 57 91 117 157 217 277 343 423 493 577 667 765 889 1,007 1,127
3/4" on 1" Square 33 53 85 101 139 183 235 287 355 419 495 587 665 765 865 965
1" on 1-1/4" Triang. 15 33 57 73 103 133 163 205 247 307 361 427 481 551 633 699
1" on 1-1/4" Square 17 33 45 65 83 111 139 179 215 255 303 359 413 477 545 595
3/4" on 15/16" Triang. 32 58 94 124 166 228 300 370 452 528 626 734 846 964 1,088 1,242
3/4" on 1" Triang. 28 56 90 110 154 208 264 326 398 468 556 646 746 858 972 1,088
3/4" on 1" Square 26 48 78 94 126 172 222 280 346 408 486 560 644 746 840 946
1" on 1-1/4" Triang. 16 32 52 62 92 126 162 204 244 292 346 410 462 530 608 688
1" on 1-1/4" Square 12 26 40 56 76 106 136 172 218 248 298 348 402 460 522 584
3/4" on 15/16" Triang. 8 34 64 94 134 180 234 304 398 460 558 648 768 882 1,008 1,126
3/4" on 1" Triang. 8 26 60 72 108 158 212 270 336 406 484 566 674 772 882 1,000
3/4" on 1" Square 12 30 52 72 100 142 188 242 304 362 436 506 586 688 778 884
1" on 1-1/4" Triang. XX 8 26 42 58 84 120 154 192 234 284 340 396 466 532 610
1" on 1-1/4" Square XX 12 22 38 58 76 100 134 180 214 256 304 356 406 464 526
3/4" on 15/16" Triang. XX 48 84 108 154 196 266 332 412 484 576 680 788 904 1,024 1,172
3/4" on 1" Triang. XX 44 72 96 134 180 232 292 360 424 508 596 692 802 912 1,024
3/4" on 1" Square XX 48 72 88 126 142 192 242 308 366 440 510 590 688 778 880
1" on 1-1/4" Triang. XX 24 44 60 78 104 138 176 212 258 308 368 422 486 560 638
1" on 1-1/4" Square XX 24 40 48 74 84 110 142 188 214 260 310 360 414 476 534
3/4" on 15/16" Triang. XX 28 56 84 122 166 218 286 378 438 534 622 740 852 976 1,092
3/4" on 1" Triang. XX 20 52 64 98 146 198 254 318 386 462 542 648 744 852 968
3/4" on 1" Square XX 24 44 64 90 130 174 226 286 342 414 482 560 660 748 852
1" on 1-1/4" Triang. XX 20 36 50 74 110 142 178 218 266 322 376 444 508 584
1" on 1-1/4" Square XX 16 32 50 66 90 122 166 198 238 286 336 384 440 500
3/4" on 15/16" Triang. XX 80 116 174 230 294 372 440 532 632 732 844 964 1,106
3/4" on 1" Triang. XX 66 104 156 202 258 322 388 464 548 640 744 852 964
3/4" on 1" Square XX 54 78 116 158 212 266 324 394 460 536 634 224 818
1" on 1-1/4" Triang. XX 34 56 82 112 150 182 226 274 338 382 442 514 586
1" on 1-1/4" Square XX 44 66 88 116 154 184 226 268 318 368 430 484
3/4" on 15/16" Triang. XX 74 110 156 206 272 358 416 510 596 716 826 944 1,058
3/4" on 1" Triang. XX 56 88 134 184 268 300 366 440 518 626 720 826 940
3/4" on 1" Square XX 56 80 118 160 210 268 322 392 458 534 632 718 820
1" on 1-1/4" Triang. XX 30 42 68 100 130 168 206 252 304 356 426 488 562
1" on 1-1/4" Square XX 42 60 80 110 152 182 224 268 316 362 420 478
3/4" on 15/16" Triang. XX 94 140 198 258 332 398 484 576 682 790 902 1,040
3/4" on 1" Triang. XX 82 124 170 224 286 344 422 496 588 694 798 902
3/4" on 1" Square XX 94 132 174 228 286 352 414 490 576 662 760
1" on 1-1/4" Triang. XX 66 90 120 154 190 240 298 342 400 466 542
1" on 1-1/4" Square XX 74 94 128 150 192 230 280 334 388 438
3/4" on 15/16" Triang. XX 68 102 142 190 254 342 398 490 578 688 796 916 1,032
3/4" on 1" Triang. XX 52 82 122 170 226 286 350 422 498 600 692 796 908
3/4" on 1" Square XX 48 70 106 146 194 254 306 374 438 512 608 692 792
1" on 1-1/4" Triang. XX 24 38 58 90 118 154 190 238 290 340 404 464 540
1" on 1-1/4" Square XX 34 50 70 98 142 170 206 254 300 344 396 456
Notes: 1) The above tube counts have an allowance made for Tie Rods.
2) The Radius of Bend for the U-Tube bundles is equal to (2.5) (Tube O.D.); The actual number of U-tubes is 1/2 of the above figures.
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Heat Exchanger Tube Sheet Layout Count Table
Shell I. D., inches
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Page 287 of 327
FileName: 93186371.xls.ms_office
WorkSheet: Tube Counts
Art Montemayor March 12, 2001
Rev: 0
T in, Cold Side (t
1
) 69
o
F
T out, Cold Side (t
2
) 83
o
F
T in, Hot Side (T
1
) 169
o
F
T out, Hot Side (T
2
) 128
o
F
Exchanger Heat Duty 3,950 M Btu/hr
Overall U, estimated 100 Btu/hr - Ft
2
-
o
F
Number of shell passes 1
Number of tube passes 2
Log Mean Temperature Difference, LMTD 72
o
F
F Factor (see below) 0.98
Adjusted LMTD 70
o
F
Heat Transfer Area calculated 562 Ft
2
Design contingency factor 1.25
Over-design allowance 1.00
Heat Transfer Area required 702
Ft
2
450 psig, Saturated Steam Req'd, 5,163 lbs/hr
CW Req'd @ 14 deg rise, gpm 564 gpm
Calculation of F Factor:
P (or S) 0.14
R 2.93
Term 1 0.69 [(RP-1)/(P-1)]
(1/N)
Px 0.14
Term 2 1.60 (R^2+1)
0.5/(R-1)
Term 3 0.38 1.46
Term 4A 13.45
Term 4B 7.26
Term 4 0.62
F 0.98
HEAT EXCHANGER SUMMARY
q, U, A, AT
m
w, c
p
, t
1
W, C
p
, T
2
W, C
p
, T
1
w, c
p
, t
2
Page 288 of 327
FileName: 93186371.xls.ms_office
WorkSheet: HX Design
Sheet 1 of 1
Corporation
1
2
3 Mfr Ref. No. * No. Req'd
4 TEMA Size, Type Horiz. Vert. Connected in Series Parallel
5 ft
2
Gross Eff. Shells/Unit One Surface/Shell * ft
2
Gross Eff.
6 Plot Plan No. Other Ref. Dwg No.
7 PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT
8
9
10
11
12 Liquid lb/h
13 Steam lb/h
14 Non-Condensables lb/h
15 Fluid Vaporized or Condensed lb/h
16 Steam Condensed lb/h
17 ºF
18
19 Viscosity cP
20 Vapor Molecular Weight
21 Specific Heat Btu/lb·ºF
22 Thermal Conductivity Btu/h·ft·ºF
23 Latent Heat Btu/lb
24 Operating Pressure, Inlet psig
25 Velocity Max. Min. fps
26 Pressure Drop, Clean (Allow./Calc.) psi
27 Fouling Resistance ft
2
·h·ºF/Btu
.
28 Heat Exchanged Btu/h Log MTD (Uncorrected) ºF Log MTD (Corrected) ºF
29 Transfer Rate, Service Btu/ft
2
·h·ºF
.
Btu/ft
2
·h·ºF
.
30 CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS
31 SHELL SIDE TUBE SIDE Sketch (Bundle, Nozzle Orientation)
32 Design Pressure psig
33 Test Pressure psig
34 Design Temperature ºF
35 Number of Passes per Shell
36 In
37 Out
38 Intermediate
39 Tubes: Type Number OD in. BWG or in. X Min. Av. Wall
40 Tube Length in. Tube Pitch in. Flow Pattern (circle one)
41 Shell: ID in. OD in. Tube-to-Tubesheet Joint
42 Baffles - Cross: Type Spacing in. % Cut on X Diam. Area
43 Baffles - Long: Perm. Removable Seal Type: Bypass Seal:
44 Inlet Nozzle lb/ft·sec Bundle Entrance lb/ft·sec Bundle Exit lb/ft·sec
45 Expansion Joint? Yes X No Type: Impingement Protection? X Yes No
46
47 Tubes Floating Tubesheet
48 Shell Fixed Tubesheet * 0.125
49 Shell Cover Tube Supports * 0.125
50 Channel Cross Baffles * 0.125
51 Channel Cover Long Baffle * 0.125
52 Fltg Head Cover Gaskets
53
§
Stress Relieved (Mark "SR') and/or Radiographed (Mark 'XR') Parts User Spec.:
54 Code Requirements: ASME Sec. VIII, Para. 1 (1992) Stamp?
55 Weights: Shell lb Filled with Water lb Bundle lb
56 Remarks 1. Items marked with an asterisk (*) to be completed by Vendor.
57
58
Rev Date Description By Chk. Appr. Rev Date Description By Chk. Appr.
* *
0 For Purchase
*
Stainless Stl ----
Yes
Carbon Steel
TEMA Class:
Carbon Steel
PART MATERIAL
§
THK, in. C.A., in.
Carbon Steel
Carbon Steel
C.A., in.
Stainless Stl 16 BWG min. Carbon Steel * ----
PART MATERIAL
§
THK, in.
µv
2
: * * *
* * *
16
0.9375
* Transfer Rate, Clean
* * Rolled and Seal Welded
* 0.75
*
Temperature
Density, Specific Gravity
*
Vapor (In/Out) lb/h
Fluid Circulated
Total Fluid Entering lb/h
Fluid Allocation SHELL SIDE TUBE SIDE
Manufacturer * Model *
Surface/Unit *
SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER SPECIFICATION
(English Units)
Project No.
Location Unit
P&ID No.
Service Lean MEA Solution Cooler Equipment No.
P.O. No.
Connections
Size &
60° 90° 45° 30°
R
e
v
.

N
o
.

Montemayor
PLATE & FRAME HEAT EXCHANGER SPECIFICATION Sheet 1 of 1
(English Units)
Corporation
1
2
3 Model
4
5 ft
2
ft
2
6
7
8 Fluid Allocation
9 Fluid Circulated
10 Total Fluid Entering
11 Vapor (In/Out)
12 Liquid
13 Steam
14 Non-Condensables
15 Fluid Vaporized or Condensed
16 Steam Condensed
17 Temperature
18 Density, Specific Gravity
19 Viscosity
20 Vapor Molecular Weight
21 Specific Heat
22 Thermal Conductivity
23 Latent Heat
24 Operating Pressure, Inlet
25 Velocity X Max. Min.
26 Pressure Drop, Clean (Allow./Calc.)
27 Fouling Resistance
28 Heat Exchanged ºF ºF
29
30
31 Sketch (Frame, Nozzle Orientation)
32
33
34
35
36 in.
37 In
38 Out
39 Intermediate
40
41
42 Frame Capacity (Max. No. of Plates)
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52 lb lb
53
54
55
Date Description By Chk. Appr. Rev Date Description By Chk. Appr. Rev
0 9-Dec-96 For Inquiry ABC DEF XYZ
Remarks 1. Items marked with an asterisk (*) to be completed by Vendor.
Filled with Water * Client Spec.: Weights: Empty Frame *
End Cover Carbon Steel * 0.03125
Carbon Steel 0.03125
Cleaning: Painting:
Code Requirements: ASME Sec. VIII, Para. 1 (1992) Stamp? Yes
Carbon Steel Insulation:
MATERIAL
§
THK, in. C.A., in.
0.03125
Carbon Steel

§
Stress Relieved (Mark "SR') and/or Radiographed (Mark 'XR') Parts
OSHA Type Protective Shroud? Yes Material:
0.03125
Plate Gaskets Carbon Steel * 0.03125 Frame
0.03125
Carrying Bar Carbon Steel
Heat Conservation
Plates Stnless Steel 16 BWG min. 0.03125 Connections Stnless Steel
Carbon Steel 0.03125
PART MATERIAL
§
THK, in. C.A., in. PART
None
No. of Plates
3" 150# RF 6" 125# FF
µv
2
, Inlet/Outlet lb/ft·s
300
---- ----
Impingement Protection? Yes
Corrosion Allowance 0.0625
3" 150# RF 6" 125# FF
Number of Passes per Frame Two *
Test Pressure psig
Design Temperature ºF 300
Code Code
CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS
Allocation HOT SIDE COLD SIDE
Design Pressure psig 150 125
fps 8.0 8.0
Transfer Rate, Service * Btu/ft
2
·h·ºF Transfer Rate, Clean Btu/ft
2
·h·ºF
Btu/h Log MTD (Uncorrected)
*
ft
2
·h·ºF/Btu 0.001 0.003
3,097,238 157.0 Log MTD (Corrected) *
Btu/h·ft·ºF 0.178 0.160 0.358 0.365
Btu/lb ----
psi 10
Btu/lb·ºF 0.867
----
psig 75 60
0.843 1.0
0.65
---- ---- ---- ----
10 *
1.0
*
cP 0.54 13.7 0.76
105
0.907 0.929 0.995 0.992
ºF 235 120 90
----
lb/h ---- ---- ---- ----
lb/h ---- ---- ----
----
lb/h ---- ---- ---- ----
lb/h
---- ---- ----
lb/h 31,500 206,483
---- ---- ----
----
lb/h 31,500 31,500 206,483 206,483
lb/h
Cooling Water
Mfr Ref. No. * No. Req'd
PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT
P&ID No. Plot Plan No. Other Ref. Dwg No.
Effective Surface/Frame Gross
* One
Size, Type * - * Frames/Unit One Connected in
Cooling Water Exchanger Equipment No.
Surface/Unit * *
HOT SIDE COLD SIDE
Single
Manufacturer *
P.O. No.
Project No. 1234567
Location Unit
Service
Connections
Size &
R
e
v
.

N
o
.
Montemayor
Art Montemayor Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient October 02, 2003
Rev: 0
Source: http://www.the-engineering-page.com/forms/he/typU.html
Hot Fluid Cold Fluid
Water Water 800 – 1,500 140 - 264
Organic solvents Organic Solvents 100 - 300 17 – 52
Light oils Light oils 100 - 400 17 – 70
Heavy oils Heavy oils 50 - 300 9 – 53
Reduced crude Flashed crude 35 - 150 6 – 26
Regenerated DEA Fouled DEA 450 - 650 79 – 114
Gases (p = atm) Gases (p = atm) 5 - 35 1.0 – 6
Gases (p = 200 bar) Gases (p = 200 bar) 100 - 300 17 – 53
Organic solvents Water 250 - 750 44 – 132
Light oils Water 350 - 700 62 - 123
Heavy oils Water 60 - 300 11 - 53
Reduced crude Water 75 - 200 13 – 35
Gases (p = atm) Water 5 - 35 1.0 – 6
Gases (p = 200 bar) Water 150 - 400 26 – 70
Gases Water 20 - 300 4 – 53
Organic solvents Brine 150 - 500 26 – 88
Water Brine 600 – 1,200 106 – 211
Gases Brine 15 - 250 3 - 44
Steam Water 1,500 – 4,000 264 - 700
Steam Organic solvents 500 – 1,000 88 - 176
Steam Light oils 300 - 900 53 – 159
Steam Heavy oils 60 - 450 11 – 79
Steam Gases 30 - 300 5 – 53
Heat Transfer (hot) Oil Heavy oils 50 - 300 9 – 53
Heat Transfer (hot) Oil Gases 20 - 200 4 - 35
Flue gases Steam 30 - 100 5 - 18
Flue gases Hydrocarbon vapors 30 -100 5 - 18
Aqueous vapors Water 1,000 – 1,500 176 – 264
Organic vapors Water 700 – 1,000 123 – 176
Refinery hydrocarbons Water 400 - 550 70 - 97
Vapors with some non
condensables
Water 500 - 700 88 – 123
Vacuum condensers Water 200 - 500 35 – 88
Heaters
Condensers
Coolers
Typical Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients
Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers Overall “U”
W/m
2
-C Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F
Heat Exchangers
Page 291 of 327
FileName: 93186371.xls.ms_office
WorkSheet: Typical "U"
Art Montemayor Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient October 02, 2003
Rev: 0
Steam Aqueouos solutions 1,000 – 1,500 176 – 264
Steam Light organics 900 – 1,200 159 – 211
Steam Heavy organics 600 - 900 106 – 159
Heat Transfer (hot) oil Refinery hydrocarbons 250 - 550 44 – 97
300 - 450 53 - 79
300 - 700 53 - 123
50 - 150 9 - 26
50 - 300 9 - 53
300 - 600 53 - 106
Coil Fluid Pool Fluid
Steam Dilute aqueous
solutions
500 – 1,000 88 – 176
Steam Light oils 200 - 300 35 – 53
Steam Heavy oils 70 - 150 12 – 26
Aqueous solutions Water 200 - 500 35 – 88
Light oils Water 100 - 150 18 – 26
Steam Dilute aqueous
solutions
800 – 1,500 140 – 264
Steam Light oils 300 - 500 53 – 88
Steam Heavy oils 200 - 400 35 – 70
Aqueous solutions Water 400 - 700 70 - 123
Light oils Water 200 - 300 35 - 53
Jacket Fluid Vessel Fluid
Steam Dilute aqueous
solutions
500 - 700 88 - 123
Steam Light organics 250 - 500 44 - 88
Water Dilute aqueous
solutions
200 - 500 35 - 88
Water Light organics 200 - 300 35 - 53
Art’s Note: Above U’s were originally given in metric units and the conversion to good,
old fashioned US engineering units is based on:
1.0 Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F = 5.678263 Watts/m
2
-
o
K
Immersed coils
Natural circulation
Agitated
Process Fluid (tube side)
Water
Jacketed vessels
Heavy organics
Gases
Condensing hydrocarbons
Light organics
Vaporizers
Air Cooled Exchangers
Page 292 of 327
FileName: 93186371.xls.ms_office
WorkSheet: Typical "U"
Art Montemayor
G KETTLES RECIRCULATION COOLER
E-G-43
October 24, 1997
ID = Shell Internal diameter, in. = 23
OD
T
= Tube external diameter, in. = 0.75
P
T
= Tubes' Pitch, in. = 0.9375
C' = Clearance between tubes = 0.1875
B = Baffle spacing, in. = 15
N = Number of Shell-side baffles = 11
a
S
= Shell-side crossflow area, ft
2
= 0.4792
W = Shell-side mass flowrate,lb/h = 325500
G
S
= Shell-side unit mass flowrate,lb/h-ft2 = 679,304
D
e
= Equivalent shell diameter, ft = 0.045833
N
Re
= Shell-side Reynolds Number = 643.3
f = Friction factor for pressure drop, ft
2
/in
2
= 0.00352
c
P
= Fluid's Heat Capacity, Btu/lb-
o
F = 0.52
µ = Fluid's Viscosity, cP = 20
µ' = Fluid's Viscosity, lb/ft-h 48.4
k = Fluid's therm. cond., Btu/ft-h-
o
F = 0.086
N
Pr
= Fluid's Prandtl Number = 292.7
us = Viscosity ratio, (µ/µ
w
)
0.14
= 1
s = Shell fluid's specific gravity = 0.930372
AP =
Shell-side pressure drop, psi = 16.8
From "Process Heat Transfer"; D. Kern; McGraw-Hill; 1950; pages 147-148

AP = f G
2
s
D
s
(N+1)/(5.22 x 10
10
)D
e
s u
s



Page 293 of 327
Electronic FileName: 93186371.xls.ms_office
WorkSheet: Shell-Side Pressure drop
Quick & Dirty Tubular Heat Exchanger Rating Sheet
Project Project No.
Item No. E-G-XX Service By Date/Time 13-Mar-97 15:12
Step 1.
Input flows, conditions and properties data for shellside and
Step 4. Start configuring the exchanger. Begin with the total calculated
tubeside. transfer coefficients to this point (i.e., not including shellside h):
Tube Side Shell
U
start
=
235
Btu/h·ft
2
·
o
F
CW Fluid Name Warm Water On that basis, assumed U
o
= 195 Btu/h·ft
2
·
o
F
418,000 Flow (M), lb/h 195,000 Then the required transfer A = 2,139 ft
2
88 Temp. in,
o
F 130 Number of tubes required = 545
102 Temp. out,
o
F 100 Reset tubes/pass (Step 3), then no. of passes = 4
Av. Density 62.05 µ, lb/ft
3
61.9 Total tube count = 584
Av. Viscosity 0.723 µ, cP 0.590 Tubeside AP (incl. returns) = 8.1 psi OK?
Av. Heat Capacity 1
c
p
, Btu/lb·
o
F
1 Actual effective transfer area, A = 2,293
ft
2
Heat Exchanged 5,850,015 Q, Btu/h 5,850,000 OK?
Av. Thermal Conductivity 0.360 k, Btu/h·ft·
o
F 0.368
Fouling Resistance 0.002 R, ft
2
· h·
o
F/Btu 0.0015 Step 5. Select tube arrangement Tube Pitch 0.9375 in.
Prandtl No. 4.86 c
p
µ/k 3.88 and estimate shell diameter Pattern Tri
Uncorrected MTD 18.9
o
F Shell ID from Tube Count Tables 27 in.
Corrected MTD 14.0
o
F Select Baffle Spacing 16 in.
Number of Baffles = 14
Flow Area across Bundle, a
s
= 0.600
ft
2
Step 2. Input tubing OD, BWG and Tube OD 0.7500 in. Equivalent Diameter, d
e
(see table) = 0.55 in.
length (can be trial and error). BWG 16 Mass Velocity, G
s
= 325,000
lb/h·ft
2
Tube ID, d = 0.620 in. Shellside Reynolds No., N
Re
= 25,258
Tube Length, L = 20 ft. Shellside Friction Factor = 0.00178
Flow area per tube, a
t
= 0.302
in.
2
Shellside AP = 2.7
psi OK?
Effective transfer area per tube = 3.927
ft
2
Outside Transfer Factor, j
h
= 90.4
Outside Film Coefficient, h
o
= 1,140
Calculated U
o
= 195.1
Step 3. Estimate the number of Tubes/pass = 146 Check: % difference, U
calc.
vs U
assum.
= 0.0% OK?
tubes per tube pass. lb/h per tube = 2,863 U
clean
= 614.9
Av. velocity, fps = 6.11 OK?
Tubeside Reynolds No., N
Re
= 40,324
Tubeside Friction Factor, f = 0.010 Step 6. Check tubeside velocity and AP, shellside AP. If too high or too low,
AP per pass, psi = 1.01 OK? adjust tube length, number of tubes per pass, number of passes, and/or shell
Inside Transfer Factor, j
h
= 113.7 baffle spacing. Remember to reset shell diameter from tube count tables, as
Inside Film Coefficient, h
i
= 1,335 required.
Reactor Warm Water System Upgrade
Quick & Dirty Tubular Heat Exchanger Rating Sheet
Btu/h·ft
2
·
o
F
Btu/h·ft
2
·
o
F
Step 6. Check tubeside velocity and AP, shellside AP. If too high or too low,
adjust tube length, number of tubes per pass, number of passes, and/or shell
baffle spacing. Remember to reset shell diameter from tube count tables, as
Signature Date 18-Feb-04 Checked Date Proj No.
Project File
Subject Sheet 1 of 10
1
2 A horizontal, 1-2 condenser is required for condensing pure propyl alcohol emanating from the top of a distillation
3 column. Side-to-side, 25% cut segmental baffles will be used. Basic data is as follows:
4
5 Propanol flowrate 60,000 lb/hr
6 Propanol vapors' inlet pressure 15.0 psig
7 Propanol vapors' inlet temperature 244
o
F
8 Cooling Water inlet temperature 85
o
F
9 Propanol allowable pressure drop 2.00 psi
10 CWS allowable pressure drop 10.00 psi
11 Dirt factor 0.003
12 Condenser tubes' length 8.00 feet
13 Tubes' OD 0.7500 inches
14 Tubes' length 8.00 feet
15 Tubes' gauge 16 BWG
16 Tubes' ID 0.6200 inches
17 Tubes' pitch 0.9375 Triangular, inches
18 Clearance between tubes 0.1875 inches
19 Propanol Latent Heat at 15 psig 285 Btu/lb
20 Propanol Molecular Weight 60.1
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
A B C D E F G H I J K L
CALCULATION SHEET
Art Montemayor
D. Q. Kern, "Process Heat Transfer"; Mc-Graw Hill; 1950; p. 274
Horizontal n-Propanol Total Condenser
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

o
F

85
244
Distance along tubes
Vapo
Condensate
Cooling water
Cooling water in
Signature Date 18-Feb-04 Checked Date Proj No.
Project File
CALCULATION SHEET
Art Montemayor
D. Q. Kern, "Process Heat Transfer"; Mc-Graw Hill; 1950; p. 274
Subject Sheet 2 of 10
45
46 First, make a heat and material balance to establish the heat load and the cooling water required:
47
48 Propanol latent heat for condensation = Btu/hr
49 Cooling water terminal temperature = 120
o
F
50 Cooling water required = 488,571 lb/hr = 976 gpm
51 Propanol Water Differ.
52 244 Higher Temperature 120 124
53 244 Lower Temperature 85 159
54 0 35 35
55
56 141
o
F
57
58 Since the shell side Propanol vapor is essentially isothermal, the exchanger is in true counterflow.
59
60
T
c
= The caloric temperature of the hot fluid
61
t
c
= The caloric temperature of the cold fluid
62
t
a
= The average temperature of the cold fluid
63 The influence of the tube-wall temperature is included in the condensing film coefficient.
64
65 102.5
o
F can be used as the caloric temperaure of the cold fluid
66
67 Execute a trial calculation:
68 a) 100 Btu/hr-
o
F-ft
2
69 Condensing film coefficients will generally range from 150 to 300. Assuming a film coefficient of 1,000
70
for water, U
C
will range from 130 to 230 Btu/hr-
o
F-ft
2.
71
72 1,215
ft
2
73 773
74
75 b) Assume that 4 tube passes are used. The quantity of water is large, but the condenser will have a
76 large number of tubes, making a 2-pass assumption inadvisable.
77 From the tube counts table, 4 tube passes using 3/4" OD tubes on 15/16" triangular pitch , yields a
78 count of 766 tubes in a 31 inch ID shell.
79 c) The corrected U
D
coefficient, using the 31" shell, is now calculated:
80 1,203
ft
2
81
Q/A AT = 101 Btu/hr-
o
F-ft
2
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
A B C D E F G H I J K L
Quantity of 3/4" OD tubes =
Corrected area, A =
Corrected U
D
=
Horizontal n-Propanol Total Condenser
17,100,000
Difference
Log Mean Temperature Difference = LMTD =
Heat transfer area = A = Q/U
D
AT =
The mean t
a
=
Assume that U
D
=
Signature Date 18-Feb-04 Checked Date Proj No.
Project File
CALCULATION SHEET
Art Montemayor
D. Q. Kern, "Process Heat Transfer"; Mc-Graw Hill; 1950; p. 274
Subject Sheet 3 of 10
89
90 Calculations for shell side hot fluid, n-Propanol
91
92
Assume a maximum baffle spacing. This will be 32-1/2", 31", and 32-1/2" which is equal to 96" or 2 baffles and
93 3 crosses for the proposed side-to-side flow. Since these are the minimum baffles that can be used, this should
94 yield the lowest attainable shell-side pressure drop in this configuration.
95
96 1.33
ft
2
(Eq. 7.1; p.138)
97 where,
98 ID = Shell inside diameter, inches
99 C' = Clearance between tubes, inches
100 B = Baffle spacing, inches
101
P
T
= Tube pitch, inches
102
103 44,953
lb/hr-ft
2
104
105 89.6 lb/hr-linear ft
106 where,
107 L = Tube length, feet
108
N
t
= Tube quantity effective for condensation
109
110 200
Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F
111
112
h
iO
= 1,075
Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F
(Refer to line # 165)
113 where,
114
h
iO
= The inside film (water) heat transfer coefficient refered to the tube OD, Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F
115
h
i
= The inside (water) film heat transfer coefficient = 1,300 Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F (From fig. 25 )
116
117 125
o
F
(Eq. 5.31; p. 98)
118 where,
119
T
v
= Average temperature of hot fluid (vapor),
o
F
120
121 184
o
F
122
123 0.095 Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F/ft (From Table 4)
124
125 0.80 (From Table 6)
126
127 0.62 cP (From Fig. 14)
128
129
130
131
132
133
A B C D E F G H I J K L
Specific Gravity of shell side film = s
f
=
Viscosity of shell side film = µ
f
=
Shell side film thermal conductivity = k
f
=
Horizontal n-Propanol Total Condenser
The shell-side or bundle crossflow area = a
S
=(ID) (C') (B)/(P
T
* 144) =
The shell-side mass velocity = G
s
= W / a
S
=
The condensate loading on the horizontal tubes = G'' = W/L*N
t
2/3
=
Assume the value of the average condensing film coefficient = h
O
=
h
i
(ID/OD) =
Tube wall temperature = t
W
= t
a
+ [h
O
/(h
iO
+ h
O
)] (T
v
- t
a
) =
Shell side film temperature = t
f
= (T
v
+ t
w
)/2 =
Signature Date 18-Feb-04 Checked Date Proj No.
Project File
CALCULATION SHEET
Art Montemayor
D. Q. Kern, "Process Heat Transfer"; Mc-Graw Hill; 1950; p. 274
Subject Sheet 4 of 10
134
135
h' ( µ
f
2
/ k
f
3
µ
f
2
g)
1/3
= 1.5 (4 G''/µ
f
)
-1/3
(Equation 12.42; p. 266)
136 where,
137 h' = Average condensing film coefficient, Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F
138
µ
f
= = 1.5004 lb/ft-hr
139
k
f
= film coefficient thermal conductivity, Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F/ft
140
µ
f
= film coefficient density, lb/ft
3
= 49.92
141 g =
Acceleration of gravity, ft/hr
2
=
142 G'' = Condensate loading for horizontal tubes, lb/hr-ft
143
144 Average shell side condensing film coefficient = 178 Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F
145
146 Calculations for tube side cold fluid, Water
147
148 0.3020
in
2
(From condenser tube table)
149
150 0.402
ft
2
151 where,
152
N
T
= Number of tubes effective for condensation
153
a'
t
= Flow area per tube, in
2
154 n = Number of tube passes
155
156 w / a
t
=
lb/hr-ft
2
157
158 5.41 ft/sec
159
160 102.5
o
F:
161
162 0.72 cP = 1.74 lb/ft-hr
163 0.0517 ft
164
165
D G
t
/µ = 36,073
166
167 1,300 Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F (From Fig. 25)
168
169
h
iO
= 1,075
Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F
170 where,
171
h
iO
= The inside film (water) heat transfer coefficient refered to the tube OD, Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F
172
173 Based on h' = 172 instead of the assumed 200, a new value of tw and tf could be obtained to give a more exact value
174 of h' based on the fluid properties at a value of tf more nearly correct. However, it is not necessary in this example
175
because the condensate properties will not change materially.
176
177
178
A B C D E F G H I J K L
Reynolds Number (for pressure drop only) =
1,216,508
Average water velocity in the tube side = V = G
t
/ (3,600*µ) =
Tube side water heat transfer film coefficient = h
i
=
h
i
(ID/OD) =
Horizontal n-Propanol Total Condenser
film coefficient absolute viscosity
4.18E+08
Flow area of a 3/4" OD x 16 BWG tube =
Flow area per tube = N
T
a'
t
/ 144 n =
Water mass velocity in the tube side = G
t
=
At the average water temperature, t
a
, of
Water viscosity = µ =
Tubes' ID =
Signature Date 18-Feb-04 Checked Date Proj No.
Project File
CALCULATION SHEET
Art Montemayor
D. Q. Kern, "Process Heat Transfer"; Mc-Graw Hill; 1950; p. 274
Subject Sheet 5 of 10
179
180 Calculations for shell side pressure drop
181
182 244
o
F
183 Propanol vapor viscosity = 0.010 cP = 0.0242 lb/ft-hr (From fig. 15)
184
185 Shell-side equivalent diameter (D
e
):
186 The hydraulic radius employed for correlating shell-side coefficients for bundles having baffles is not the true hydraulic
187 radius. The direction of flow in the shell is partly along an d partly at right angles to the long axes of the bundle's tubes.
188 The flow area at right angles to the long axes is variable from tube row to tube row. A hydraulic radius based upon
189 the flow area across any one row could not distinguish between square and triangular pitch. In order to obtain a simple
190 correlation combining both the size and closeness of the tubes and their type of pitch, excellent agreement is
191 obtained if the hydraulic radius is calculated along (instead of across) the long axes of the tubes.
192
193
D
e
= (4 * free area)/(wetted area) = [(4) (0.5 *P
T
* 0.86 * P
T
- 0.5 * t * d
2
/40] / (0.5 * t *d)
194 = 0.55 inches = 0.0458 ft (From fig. 28)
195
196 85,139
197
198 0.00141
ft
2
/in
2
(From fig. 29)
199
200 3
201
202 Assume that the propanol vapor follows the ideal gas law at the low pressure.
203
204 0.236
lb/ft
3
205
206 0.00378
207
208 2.58 ft
209
210 1.2 psi (Eq. 12.47; p.273)
211
212
213 Calculations for tube side pressure drop
214
215
For the tube side Reynolds Number = 36,073 the corresponding tube-side friction factor
216
217 f = 0.00019 ft
2
/in
2
(From fig. 26)
218
219
Straight tube pressure drop + Return Loss pressure drop
220
221 3.3 psf = 0.02 psi
222
(Eq. 7.45; p. 148)
223
A B C D E F G H I J K L
Tube-side pressure drop =
Straight tube pressure drop = AP
t
= f * G
t
2
* Ln/(5.22*10
10
*D
e
* s *u
t
) =
Shell-side Reynolds Number = D
e
G
s
/µ =
Propanol vapor density = MW / (V
1
) (T
2
/T
1
) (P
1
/P
2
) =
Propanol vapor specific gravity = s =
Shell Inside Diameter = D
s
=
Shell-side pressure drop = (1/2) [ f *G
s
2
D
s
(N+1) /(5.22 * 10
10
*D
e
* s)] =
Shell-side friction factor for 25% cut segmental baffles = f =
Number of shell-side crosses = (N+1) =
Horizontal n-Propanol Total Condenser
The propanol vapor temperature =
Signature Date 18-Feb-04 Checked Date Proj No.
Project File
CALCULATION SHEET
Art Montemayor
D. Q. Kern, "Process Heat Transfer"; Mc-Graw Hill; 1950; p. 274
Subject Sheet 6 of 10
224
225 7.3 psi (Eq. 7.46; p.148)
226
227 7.29 psi
228 where,
229 L = tube length, feet
230 n = Number of tube passes
231
u
t
= The viscosity ratio (µ/µ
w
)0.14 in the tubes
232 g' =
Acceleration of gravity, 32.2 ft/sec
2
233
234
235 Calculation of clean overall coefficient U
C
:
236
237 152.4
Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F
238
239
240 Calculation of dirt factor R
d
:
241
242 101 Btu/hr-
o
F-ft
2
(From line 81)
243
244 0.0033
hr-ft
2
-
o
F/Btu
245 (Note: In condensation calculations the omission of the tube metal resistance may introduce a significant error and
246 should be checked.)
247
248
249 178 1,075
250 U
C
= 152.4
251 U
D
= 101
252 0.0033
253 0.003
254 1.2 7.29
255 2.00 10.00
256
257 Conclusion:
258 The first trial calculated is satisfactory and yields the following exchanger:
259
260
ID = 31 inches 766; 8' - 0"
261
31 inches (approx.) 3/4"; 16 BWG; 15/16", triangular
262
1 4
263
264
It is interesting at this point to compare a vertical condenser with this horizontal model. The horizontal and vertical
265
266
number of tubes in both models is the same. To this end a vertical condenser will be assumed which uses the same
267
tube count as the above except that the tube length may be 12 or 16 ft (as needed) to account for the lower
268 coefficients obtained in the vertical orientation.
A B C D E F G H I J K L
Shell side
Tube side
Quantity and length =
Baffle spacing = OD, BWG, & pitch =
Passes = Passes =
condensing film coefficients are both affected by W and N
t
, and the best basis fof comparison is otained when the
Shell
side
Summary of
Results
Tube
side
h (outside)
R
d
calculated =
R
d
required =
Horizontal n-Propanol Total Condenser
Calculated AP
Allowable AP
Total tube-side pressure drop =
U
C
= (h
io
* h
o
)/(h
io
+ h
o
) =
Corrected U
D
=
R
d
= (U
C
- U
D
)/(U
C
* U
D
) =
Return Loss pressure drop = AP
r
= (4*n/s) (V
2
/2 g') =
Signature Date 18-Feb-04 Checked Date Proj No.
Project File
CALCULATION SHEET
Art Montemayor
D. Q. Kern, "Process Heat Transfer"; Mc-Graw Hill; 1950; p. 274
Subject Sheet 7 of 10
269
270
The vertical condenser to be rated will be oriented as seen in the sketch below. The process conditions will be
271 identical to those of the previous horizontal model rated. In order to prevent water corrosion in the carbon steel shell,
272 the water will also be introduced in the tube side.
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293 Btu/hr
294
295 141
o
F
296
297
298 102.5
o
F
299
300 Trial Calculation:
301
302 a) Assume that the overall dirty heat transfer coefficient, U
D
= 70 Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F
303 The equation for the condensing film coefficient gives greater values for horizontal tubes than for vertical tubes.
304
It will, consequently, be necessary to reduce the value of U
D
.
305
306 1,735
ft
2
307
308
The nearest common, available tube length (using the same 766 tubes) is:
309
## 11.5 feet ( use 12 foot length tubes )
311
312
313
A B C D E F G H I J K L
Vertical n-Propanol Total Condenser
Total heat transferred = 17,100,000
Caloric temperature of the water = t
C
=
Heat transfer area = A = Q/U
D
* AT =
Tube length =
Log Mean Temperature Difference = LMTD =
Caloric temperature of the Propanol vapor = T
C
Vapor
Condensate
Cooling water Cooling water in
Signature Date 18-Feb-04 Checked Date Proj No.
Project File
CALCULATION SHEET
Art Montemayor
D. Q. Kern, "Process Heat Transfer"; Mc-Graw Hill; 1950; p. 274
Subject Sheet 8 of 10
314
315
b) The same tube layout, using 3/4" OD x 16 BWG tubes on 15/16" triangular pitch and 4 passes will also be
316 used.
317
318 c) The corrected U
D
coefficient, using the 31" shell, is now calculated:
319 1,804
ft
2
320
Q/A AT = 67 Btu/hr-
o
F-ft
2
321
322
323 Calculations for shell side hot fluid, n-Propanol
324
325 0.0625 ft
326
327 399 lb/hr-lin. ft (Eq. 12.36; p. 265)
328
329 100
Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F
330
331
h
iO
= 1,075
Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F
(Refer to line # 165)
332 where,
333
h
iO
= The inside film (water) heat transfer coefficient refered to the tube OD, Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F
334
h
i
= The inside (water) film heat transfer coefficient = 1,300 Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F (From fig. 25 )
335
336 114.5
o
F
(Eq. 5.31; p. 98)
337 where,
338
T
v
= Average temperature of hot fluid (vapor),
o
F
339
340 179
o
F
341
342 0.095 Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F/ft (From Table 4)
343
344 0.80 (From Table 6)
345
346 0.65 cP
(From Fig. 14; also, 4*G'/µ = 1,025)
347
348
h' ( µ
f
2
/ k
f
3
µ
f
2
g)
1/3
= 1.47 (4 G'/µ
f
)
-1/3
(Equation 12.39; p. 266)
349 where,
350 h' = Average condensing film coefficient, Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F
351
µ
f
= film coefficient absolute viscosity = 1.573 lb/ft-hr
352
k
f
= film coefficient thermal conductivity, Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F/ft
353
µ
f
= film coefficient density, lb/ft
3
= 49.92
354 g =
Acceleration of gravity, ft/hr
2
=
355 G' = Condensate loading for vertical tubes, lb/hr-ft
356
357 Average shell side condensing film coefficient = 104 Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F
358
A B C D E F G H I J K L
Viscosity of shell side film = µ
f
=
4.18E+08
Shell side film temperature = t
f
= (T
v
+ t
w
)/2 =
Shell side film thermal conductivity = k
f
=
Specific Gravity of shell side film = s
f
=
Vertical n-Propanol Total Condenser
Corrected area, A = Q/U
D
*At =
Corrected U
D
=
Tubes' outside diameter, Do =
Condensate loading for vertical tubes = W/N
t
* t * D
o
=
Assume the value of the average condensing film coefficient = h
O
=
h
i
(ID/OD) =
Tube wall temperature = t
W
= t
a
+ [h
O
/(h
iO
+ h
O
)] (T
v
- t
a
) =
Signature Date 18-Feb-04 Checked Date Proj No.
Project File
CALCULATION SHEET
Art Montemayor
D. Q. Kern, "Process Heat Transfer"; Mc-Graw Hill; 1950; p. 274
Subject Sheet 9 of 10
359
360 Calculations for tube side cold fluid, Water
361
362 The tube-side water conditions and configuration is the same as the horizontal configuration.
363
364
h
iO
= 1,075
Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F
365 where,
366
h
iO
= The inside film (water) heat transfer coefficient refered to the tube OD, Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F
367
368
369 Calculations for shell side pressure drop
370
371 It is necessary to arrange the 12-foot tube bundle into a minimum number of bundle crosses, or (N + 1) = 5.
372 The spacing between baffles will be:
373 B = 29 inches
374
375 1.24
ft
2
(Eq. 7.1; p.138)
376 where,
377 ID = Shell inside diameter, in.
378 C' = Clearance between tubes, in.
379 B = Baffle spacing, in.
380
P
T
= Tube pitch, in.
381
382 48,387
lb/hr-ft
2
383
384 244
o
F
385 Propanol vapor viscosity = 0.010 cP = 0.0242 lb/ft-hr (From fig. 15)
386
387 0.0458 ft (From table in fig. 28)
388
389 91,642
390
391 0.00140
ft
2
/in
2
(From fig. 29)
392
393 5
394
395 0.00378
396
397 2.58 ft
398
399 2.3 psi (Eq. 12.47; p.273)
400
401
This pressure drop prediction is high, and if it cannot be compensated for by elevating the condenser, it will be
402
necessary to use the half-circle (50% cut) support baffles as shown in Example 7-8.
403
A B C D E F G H I J K L
Propanol vapor specific gravity = s = (Same as line 206)
Shell Inside Diameter = D
s
=
Shell-side pressure drop = (1/2) [ f *G
s
2
D
s
(N+1) /(5.22 * 10
10
*D
e
* s)] =
Equivalent diameter for pressure drop = D
e
=
Shell-side Reynolds Number = Re
S
= D
e
* G
S
/ µ =
Shell-side friction factor for 25% cut segmental baffles = f =
Number of shell-side crosses = (N+1) =
Vertical n-Propanol Total Condenser
h
i
(ID/OD) =
Shell-side (bundle) crossflow area = a
s
= (ID * C' * B)/(P
T
* 144) =
The shell-side mass velocity = G
s
= W / a
S
=
The propanol vapor temperature =
Signature Date 18-Feb-04 Checked Date Proj No.
Project File
CALCULATION SHEET
Art Montemayor
D. Q. Kern, "Process Heat Transfer"; Mc-Graw Hill; 1950; p. 274
Subject Sheet 10 of 10
404
405 Calculations for tube side pressure drop
406
407 The basic data is the same as in the horizontal model example, except for the tube length.
408
409 5.0 psf = 0.03 psi
410
(Eq. 7.45; p. 148)
411
412 7.3 psi (Eq. 7.46; p.148)
413
414 7.30 psi
415
416
417 Calculation of clean overall coefficient U
C
:
418
419 95.0
Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F
420
421
422 Calculation of dirt factor R
d
:
423
424 67 Btu/hr-
o
F-ft
2
(From line 81)
425
426 0.0043
hr-ft
2
-
o
F/Btu
427
428
429
430 104 1,075
431 U
C
= 95.0
432 U
D
= 67
433 0.0043
434 0.003
435 2.3 7.30
436 2.00 10.00
437
438 Conclusion:
439
Shell side Tube side
440
ID = 31 inches 766; 12' - 0"
441
29 inches (approx.) 3/4"; 16 BWG; 15/16", triangular
442
1 4
443
444
This vertical condenser is somewhat secure in performing the specified heat transfer duty but it exceeds the
445
allowable pressure drop, although not seriously. The advantage of horizontal condensation may be observed
446 from the U
C
of 148.5 in the horizontal condenser as compared with the 93.2 in the vertical unit in identical service.
447
The vertical unit has an inherent advantage, however, when the condensate is to be subcooled.
448
A B C D E F G H I J K L
Passes = Passes =
Shell
side
Summary of
Results
Tube
side
h (outside)
R
d
calculated =
R
d
required =
Calculated AP
Allowable AP
f * G
t
2
* Ln/(5.22*10
10
*D
e
* s *u
t
) =
Return Loss pressure drop = AP
r
= (4*n/s) (V
2
/2 g') =
Total tube-side pressure drop =
U
C
= (h
io
* h
o
)/(h
io
+ h
o
) =
Quantity and length =
Baffle spacing = OD, BWG, & pitch =
Corrected U
D
=
R
d
= (U
C
- U
D
)/(U
C
* U
D
) =
Vertical n-Propanol Total Condenser
Straight tube pressure drop = AP
t
=
Some of this data was taken from Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA); 7th Edition (1988); page 178. Note: some of the tabular TEMA data contained ERRATA, but this was corrected with this spreadsheet's formulas.
Outside Inside
7
8 0.165
9 0.148
10 0.134 0.482
11 0.120 0.510
12 0.109 0.282 0.0625 0.1309 0.0738 0.456 0.532
13 0.095 0.560
14 0.083 0.334 0.0876 0.1309 0.0874 0.370 0.584
15 0.072 0.606
16 0.065 0.370 0.1075 0.1309 0.0969 0.302 168 0.620
17 0.058 0.634
18 0.049 0.402 0.1269 0.1309 0.1052 0.236 198 0.652
20 0.035 0.430 0.1452 0.1309 0.1126 0.174 227 0.680
22 0.028 0.444 0.1548 0.1309 0.1162 0.141 241
NOTES:
* The weight of the condenser tubes is based on low carbon steel with a density of 0.2836 lbs/in
3
. For other metal materials multiply by the following factors:
Factor
0.35
0.58
0.99
1.02
1.04
1.06
1.07
1.09
1.13
1.12
1.14
** Liquid Velocity within the tubes = (Lbs Per Tube Hour) / (C * Liquid Specific Gravity) in feet per sec. (Specific gravity of Water @ 60
o
F = 1.00)
Copper and Cupro-Nickels
Material
Aluminum
Titanium
A.I.S.I. 300 Series Stainless Steels
A.I.S.I. 400 Series Stainless Steels
Aluminum Bronze
Aluminum Brass
Nickel-Chrome-Iron
Admiralty
Nickel-Copper
Nickel
Surface area per linear
foot, ft
2
Tube weight
per linear foot,
lb of steel*
Constant
C
**
Tube I. D.
inches
BWG
Wall
thickness
inches
1/2" O. D. Condenser tube 3/4" O. D. Condenser tube
Tube I. D.
inches
Tube flow
area in
2
Some of this data was taken from Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA); 7th Edition (1988); page 178. Note: some of the tabular TEMA data contained ERRATA, but this was corrected with this spreadsheet's formulas.
Outside Inside Outside Inside
0.670 0.3526 0.2618 0.1754
0.704 0.3893 0.2618 0.1843
0.1825 0.1963 0.1262 0.883 285 0.732 0.4208 0.2618 0.1916
0.2043 0.1963 0.1335 0.808 319 0.760 0.4536 0.2618 0.1990
0.2223 0.1963 0.1393 0.747 347 0.782 0.4803 0.2618 0.2047
0.2463 0.1963 0.1466 0.665 384 0.810 0.5153 0.2618 0.2121
0.2679 0.1963 0.1529 0.592 418 0.834 0.5463 0.2618 0.2183
0.2884 0.1963 0.1587 0.522 450 0.856 0.5755 0.2618 0.2241
0.3019 0.1963 0.1623 0.476 471 0.870 0.5945 0.2618 0.2278
0.3157 0.1963 0.1660 0.429 492 0.884 0.6138 0.2618 0.2314
0.3339 0.1963 0.1707 0.367 521 0.902 0.6390 0.2618 0.2361
0.3632 0.1963 0.1780 0.268 567 0.930 0.6793 0.2618 0.2435
* The weight of the condenser tubes is based on low carbon steel with a density of 0.2836 lbs/in
3
. For other metal materials multiply by the following factors:
** Liquid Velocity within the tubes = (Lbs Per Tube Hour) / (C * Liquid Specific Gravity) in feet per sec. (Specific gravity of Water @ 60
o
F = 1.00)
1" O. D. Condenser tube
Surface area per linear
foot, ft
2
Tube I. D.
inches
Tube flow
area in
2
3/4" O. D. Condenser tube
Surface area per linear
foot, ft
2
Tube weight
per linear foot,
lb of steel
Constant
C
**
Tube flow
area in
2
Some of this data was taken from Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA); 7th Edition (1988); page 178. Note: some of the tabular TEMA data contained ERRATA, but this was corrected with this spreadsheet's formulas.
Outside Inside
0.890 0.6221 0.3272 0.2330 2.059 970
1.473 550 0.920 0.6648 0.3272 0.2409 1.914 1,037 1.170
1.348 0.954 0.7148 0.3272 0.2498 1.744 1.200
1.241 656 0.982 0.7574 0.3272 0.2571 1.599 1,182 1.230
1.129 708 1.010 0.8012 0.3272 0.2644 1.450 1,250 1.260
1.038 749 1.030 0.8332 0.3272 0.2697 1.341 1,305 1.280
0.919 804 1.060 0.8825 0.3272 0.2775 1.173 1,377 1.310
0.814 852 1.080 0.9161 0.3272 0.2827 1.059 1,440 1.330
0.714 898 1.110 0.9677 0.3272 0.2906 0.883 1.360
0.650 927 1.120 0.9852 0.3272 0.2932 0.824 1,537 1.370
0.584 1.130 1.0029 0.3272 0.2958 0.763 1.380
0.498 997 1.150 1.0387 0.3272 0.3011 0.641 1,626 1.400
0.361 1,060 1.180 1.0936 0.3272 0.3089 0.455 1,706
Surface area per linear
foot, ft
2
Tube weight
per linear foot,
lb of steel
Constant
C
**
Tube I. D.
inches
1-1/2" O. D. Condenser tube 1" O. D. Condenser tube 1-1/4" O. D. Condenser tube
Tube weight
per linear foot,
lb of steel
Constant
C
**
Tube I. D.
inches
Tube flow
area in
2
Outside Inside Outside Inside
1.0751 0.3927 0.3063 2.355
1.1310 0.3927 0.3142 2.165
1.1882 0.3927 0.3220 1.970 1,860
1.2469 0.3927 0.3299 1.771 1.760 2.4328 0.5236 0.4608
1.2868 0.3927 0.3351 1.635 2,014 1.782 2.4941 0.5236 0.4665
1.3478 0.3927 0.3430 1.427 1.810 2.5730 0.5236 0.4739
1.3893 0.3927 0.3482 1.286 2,180 1.834 2.6417 0.5236 0.4801
1.4527 0.3927 0.3560 1.070
1.4741 0.3927 0.3587 0.997 2,300
1.4957 0.3927 0.3613 0.924
1.5394 0.3927 0.3665 0.775
Tube flow
area in
2
Surface area per linear
foot, ft
2
Tube weight
per linear foot,
lb of steel
Tube flow
area in
3
Surface area per linear
foot, ft
3
1-1/2" O. D. Condenser tube 2" O. D. Condenser tube
Constant
C
**
Tube I. D.
inches
2.412 3,795
2.204 3,891
1.935 4,014
1.701 4,121
Constant
C
**
Tube
weight per
linear foot,
2" O. D. Condenser tube
Art Montemayor Heat Exchanger Tubesheets
Tubesheet Thickness
October 09, 1991
Rev: 0
F = 1.25
G = 12 inches
P = 350 psig
S = 17,500 psi
T = 1.06 inches
T =
F =
=
=
G =
P = design pressure, psig
S = tubesheets' material allowable stress, psi
100 200 300 400 500
17,500 17,500 17,500 17,500 17,500
-- 17,700 16,100 15,900 --
15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000 15,000
17,500 16,500 15,500 14,800 14,700
-- 12,500 10,500 2,000 --
12,500 10,500 10,400 10,400 10,400
6,600 5,700 5,000 -- --
Tubesheet thickness, inches
a factor
1.0 for stationary and floating-head tubesheets
SB-402 Copper Nickel
1.25 for U-tube tubesheets
shell internal diameter, as calculated from transfer surface and tube dimensions, inches
Values of S for some common materials are shown in the following table. With this table and the other terms,
SB-11 Copper
tubesheet thickness can be calculated in this spreadsheet.
Material
Temperature,
o
F
SA-516 Grade 70
Stainless Steel
Monel
1.25Cr - 0.5Mo - Si Steel
SB-171 Naval Brass
From: Chemical Engineering Magazine; Plant Notebook; May 12, 1975
The thickness of heat exchanger tubesheets is an important consideration in cost-estimating and selecting
design alternatives for process heat systems. According to the Tubular Exchanger Manufactureres Assn.
(TEMA) standards, the tubesheet thickness for shell-and-tube exchangers is given by the formula:
TEMA gives precise rules for determining the variables F, G, P, and S for exchanger design. For estimating
purposes, however, these terms can be taken as:
S
P G F
T
2
=
Page 311 of 327
FileName: 93186371.xls.ms_office
WorkSheet: TubeSheet
1
TubePass
2
TubePass
4
TubePass
6
TubePass
8
TubePass
1
TubePass
2
TubePass
4
TubePass
6
TubePass
8
TubePass
1
TubePass
2
TubePass
8 32 26 20 20 21 16 14
10 52 52 40 36 32 32 26 24 16 12
12 81 76 68 68 60 48 45 40 38 36 30 24
13-1/4 97 90 82 76 70 61 56 52 48 44 32 30
15-1/4 137 124 116 108 108 81 76 68 68 64 44 40
17-1/4 177 166 158 150 142 112 112 96 90 82 56 53
19-1/4 224 220 204 192 188 138 132 128 122 116 78 73
21-1/4 277 270 246 240 234 177 166 158 152 148 96 90
23-1/4 341 324 308 302 292 213 208 192 184 184 127 112
25 413 394 370 356 346 260 252 238 226 222 140 135
27 481 460 432 420 408 300 288 278 268 260 166 160
29 553 526 480 468 456 341 326 300 294 286 193 188
31 657 640 600 580 560 406 398 380 368 358 226 220
33 749 718 688 676 648 465 460 432 420 414 258 252
35 845 824 780 766 748 522 518 488 484 472 293 287
37 934 914 886 866 838 596 574 562 544 532 334 322
39 1049 1024 982 968 948 665 644 624 612 600 370 362
Note:
where,
C =
P =
L =
N = C * (L/P)
2
0.75 (a constant for Square pitch)
the tube spacing, in inches
the Outer Tube Limit, in inches
These tube counts can be taken only as an estimate. For accurate tube counts, an actual scaled layout should be done.
Kern does not reveal where he obtained this information and he is not specific in giving details to what TEMA type, orientation, and Outer Tube Limits (OTL) this data applies.
Consequently, the user is advised to scrutinize this information before using it.
The number of heat exchanger tubes can be estimated from the equation
SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER TUBESHEET LAYOUTS (TUBE COUNTS)
Source: "Process Heat Transfer"; Donald Q. Kern, McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1950); page 841
Shell I. D.
Inches
3/4" O. D. tubes on 1-inch square pitch 1" O. D. tubes on 1-1/4 inch square pitch 1-1/4" O. D. tubes on 1-9/16 inch square pitch
Another estimating method for tube counts is found in "Petroleum Refinery Engineering"; Nelson; McGraw-Hill; Page 544:
1.5 inches
13.5 inches
61
Tube Spacing =
Outer Tube Limit =
Number of Tubes =
The OTL is about 1-1/2" less than the inside diameter of the shell in floating head exchangers.
It is about 5/8" less than the shell inside diameter of fixed-head or U-tube construction.
4
TubePass
6
TubePass
8
TubePass
1
TubePass
2
TubePass
4
TubePass
6
TubePass
8
TubePass
10
22 16 16 16 16 12 12
30 22 22 22 22 16 16
37 35 31 29 29 25 24 22
51 48 44 39 39 34 32 29
71 64 56 50 48 45 43 39
86 82 78 62 60 57 54 50
106 102 96 78 74 70 66 62
127 123 115 94 90 86 84 78
151 146 140 112 108 102 98 94
178 174 166 131 127 120 116 112
209 202 193 151 146 141 138 131
244 238 226 176 170 164 160 151
275 268 258 202 196 188 182 176
311 304 293 224 220 217 210 202
348 342 336 252 246 267 230 224
1-1/2" O. D. tubes on 1-7/8 inch square pitch
These tube counts can be taken only as an estimate. For accurate tube counts, an actual scaled layout should be done.
Kern does not reveal where he obtained this information and he is not specific in giving details to what TEMA type, orientation, and Outer Tube Limits (OTL) this data applies.
SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER TUBESHEET LAYOUTS (TUBE COUNTS)
Source: "Process Heat Transfer"; Donald Q. Kern, McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1950); page 841
1-1/4" O. D. tubes on 1-9/16 inch square pitch
1
TubePass
2
TubePass
4
TubePass
6
TubePass
8
TubePass
1
TubePass
2
TubePass
4
TubePass
8 36 32 26 24 18 37 30 24
10 62 56 47 42 36 61 52 40
12 109 98 86 82 78 92 82 76
13-1/4 127 114 96 90 86 109 106 86
15-1/4 170 160 140 136 128 151 138 122
17-1/4 239 224 194 188 178 203 196 178
19-1/4 301 282 252 244 234 262 250 226
21-1/4 361 342 314 306 290 316 302 278
23-1/4 442 420 386 378 364 384 376 352
25 532 506 468 446 434 470 452 422
27 637 602 550 536 524 559 534 488
29 721 692 640 620 594 630 604 556
31 847 822 766 722 720 745 728 678
33 974 938 878 852 826 856 830 774
35 1102 1068 1004 988 958 970 938 882
37 1240 1200 1144 1104 1072 1074 1044 1012
39 1377 1330 1258 1248 1212 1206 1176 1128
Note:
As an example of a discrepancy, refer to the 8" shell with 3/4" tubes on 15/16" triangular pitch and 2-passes. An actual layout yields 48 tubes with 3/16" OTL, as compared with the listed 32 tubes.
where,
C =
P =
L =
1.5 inches
13.5 inches
70
Outer Tube Limit =
Number of Tubes =
0.86 (a constant for Triangular pitch)
the tube spacing, in inches
The OTL is about 1-1/2" less than the inside diameter of the shell in floating head exchangers.
It is about 5/8" less than the shell inside diameter of fixed-head or U-tube construction.
the Outer Tube Limit, in inches
Shell I. D.
Inches
3/4" O. D. tubes on 15/16-inch triangular pitch 3/4" O. D. tubes on 1-inch triangular pitch
Tube Spacing =
Another estimating method for tube counts is found in "Petroleum Refinery Engineering"; Nelson; McGraw-Hill; Page 544:
The number of heat exchanger tubes can be estimated from the equation
N = C * (L/P)
2
Triangular pitch should never be used with a dirty or fouling fluid on the shellside of an exchanger. This configuration is impossible to clean mechanically.
SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER TUBESHEET LAYOUTS (TUBE COUNTS)
Source: "Process Heat Transfer"; Donald Q. Kern, McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1950); page 842
These tube counts can be taken only as an estimate. For accurate tube counts, an actual scaled layout should be done.
Kern does not reveal where he obtained this information and he is not specific in giving details to what TEMA type, orientation, and Outer Tube Limits (OTL) this data applies.
Consequently, the user is advised to scrutinize this information before using it.
6
TubePass
8
TubePass
1
TubePass
2
TubePass
4
TubePass
6
TubePass
8
TubePass
1
TubePass
2
TubePass
24 21 16 16 14
36 32 32 26 24 20 18
74 70 55 52 48 46 4 32 30
82 74 68 66 58 54 50 38 36
118 110 91 86 80 74 72 54 51
172 166 131 118 106 104 94 69 66
216 210 163 152 140 136 128 95 91
272 260 199 188 170 164 160 117 112
342 328 241 232 212 212 202 140 136
394 382 294 282 256 252 242 170 164
474 464 349 334 302 296 286 202 196
538 508 397 376 338 334 316 235 228
666 640 472 454 430 424 400 275 270
760 732 538 522 486 470 454 315 305
864 848 608 592 562 546 532 357 348
986 870 674 664 632 614 598 407 390
1100 1078 766 736 700 688 672 449 436
As an example of a discrepancy, refer to the 8" shell with 3/4" tubes on 15/16" triangular pitch and 2-passes. An actual layout yields 48 tubes with 3/16" OTL, as compared with the listed 32 tubes.
The OTL is about 1-1/2" less than the inside diameter of the shell in floating head exchangers.
It is about 5/8" less than the shell inside diameter of fixed-head or U-tube construction.
3/4" O. D. tubes on 1-inch triangular pitch 1" O. D. tubes on 1-1/4 inch triangular pitch 1-1/4" O. D. tubes on 1-9/16 inch triangular pitch
Another estimating method for tube counts is found in "Petroleum Refinery Engineering"; Nelson; McGraw-Hill; Page 544:
Triangular pitch should never be used with a dirty or fouling fluid on the shellside of an exchanger. This configuration is impossible to clean mechanically.
SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER TUBESHEET LAYOUTS (TUBE COUNTS)
Source: "Process Heat Transfer"; Donald Q. Kern, McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1950); page 842
These tube counts can be taken only as an estimate. For accurate tube counts, an actual scaled layout should be done.
Kern does not reveal where he obtained this information and he is not specific in giving details to what TEMA type, orientation, and Outer Tube Limits (OTL) this data applies.
4
TubePass
6
TubePass
8
TubePass
1
TubePass
2
TubePass
4
TubePass
6
TubePass
8
TubePass
14
26 22 20 18 14 14 12 12
32 28 26 27 22 18 16 14
45 42 38 36 34 32 30 27
62 58 54 48 44 42 38 36
86 78 69 61 58 55 51 48
105 101 95 76 72 70 66 61
130 123 117 95 91 86 80 76
155 150 140 115 110 105 98 95
185 179 170 136 131 125 118 115
217 212 202 160 154 147 141 136
255 245 235 184 177 172 165 160
297 288 275 215 206 200 190 184
335 327 315 246 238 230 220 215
380 374 357 275 268 260 252 246
425 419 407 307 299 290 284 275
1-1/4" O. D. tubes on 1-9/16 inch triangular pitch 1-1/2" O. D. tubes on 1-7/8 inch triangular pitch
Art Montemayor November 03, 1997
TOTAL NUMBER OF TUBES IN AN EXCHANGER, N
t:
If not known by direct count, find the tube quantity in the tube count table as a function of D
otl
, the tube
pitch, p, and the layout. The shell diameter D
i
and outer tube limit D
otl
given in the table are those for a
conventional split-ring floating head design, fully tubed out. For a given shell diameter, the value of D
otl
will be
greater than that shown for a fixed tube sheet design and smaller for a pull-through floating head. In any case,
the tube count can be reasonably interpolated from the Table using the known or specified D
otl
, asuming that
the tube count is proportional to (D
otl
)
2
. All tube count tables are only approximate since the actual number of
tubes that can be fitted into a given tubesheet depends upon the pass partition pattern, the thickness of the pass
dividers and exactly where the drilling pattern is started relative to the dividers and the outer tube limit. Additional
tubes will be lost from the bundle for a U-tube design because the minimum bending radius prevents tubes from
being inserted in some, or all, of the possible drilling positions near the centerline of the U-tube pattern. Tubes
will also be lost if an impingement plate is inserted underneath the nozzle. For a no-tubes-in-the-window design,
the actual number of tubes in the bundle is F
c
N
t
. F
c
is the fraction of total tubes in crossflow.
0.75 0.9375 Triang. 38 32 26 24
0.75 1.0000 Square 32 26 20 20
0.75 1.0000 Triang. 37 30 24 24
1.00 1.2500 Square 21 16 16 14
1.00 1.2500 Triang. 22 18 16 14
0.75 0.9375 Triang. 62 56 47 42
0.75 1.0000 Square 52 52 40 36
0.75 1.0000 Triang. 61 52 48 48
1.00 1.2500 Square 32 32 26 24
1.00 1.2500 Triang. 37 32 28 28
0.75 0.9375 Triang. 109 98 86 82
0.75 1.0000 Square 80 72 68 68
0.75 1.0000 Triang. 90 84 72 70
1.00 1.2500 Square 48 44 40 38
1.00 1.2500 Triang. 57 52 44 42
0.75 0.9375 Triang. 127 114 96 90
0.75 1.0000 Square 95 90 81 77
0.75 1.0000 Triang. 110 101 90 88
1.00 1.2500 Square 60 56 51 46
1.00 1.2500 Triang. 67 63 56 54
0.75 0.9375 Triang. 170 160 140 136
0.75 1.0000 Square 138 132 116 112
0.75 1.0000 Triang. 163 152 136 133
1.00 1.2500 Square 88 82 75 70
1.00 1.2500 Triang. 96 92 86 84
0.75 0.9375 Triang. 239 224 194 188
0.75 1.0000 Square 188 178 168 164
0.75 1.0000 Triang. 211 201 181 176
1.00 1.2500 Square 112 110 102 98
1.00 1.2500 Triang. 130 124 116 110
0.75 0.9375 Triang. 301 282 252 244
0.75 1.0000 Square 236 224 216 208
0.75 1.0000 Triang. 273 256 242 236
1.00 1.2500 Square 148 142 136 129
1.00 1.2500 Triang. 172 162 152 148
0.75 0.9375 Triang. 361 342 314 306
0.75 1.0000 Square 276 264 246 240
19.25 18.00
21.00 19.25
17.25 16.00
12.00 10.75
13.25 12.00
15.25 14.00
8.071
(Sch. 30)
6.82
Tube
Layout
Number of Tube Passes
4 6 1
10.02
(Sch. 40)
8.77
Shell ID
in.
Outer Tube
Limit
Diameter, in.
2
Tube OD
in
Tube Pitch,
in.
Page 318 of 327
FileName: 93186371.xls.ms_office
WorkSheet: Total Tubes
Art Montemayor November 03, 1997
0.75 1.0000 Triang. 318 308 279 269
1.00 1.2500 Square 170 168 157 150
1.00 1.2500 Triang. 199 188 170 164
0.75 0.9375 Triang.
0.75 1.0000 Square
0.75 1.0000 Triang.
1.00 1.2500 Square
1.00 1.2500 Triang.
0.75 0.9375 Triang.
0.75 1.0000 Square
0.75 1.0000 Triang.
1.00 1.2500 Square
1.00 1.2500 Triang.
0.75 0.9375 Triang.
0.75 1.0000 Square
0.75 1.0000 Triang.
1.00 1.2500 Square
1.00 1.2500 Triang.
0.75 0.9375 Triang.
0.75 1.0000 Square
0.75 1.0000 Triang.
1.00 1.2500 Square
1.00 1.2500 Triang.
0.75 0.9375 Triang.
0.75 1.0000 Square
0.75 1.0000 Triang.
1.00 1.2500 Square
1.00 1.2500 Triang.
0.75 0.9375 Triang.
0.75 1.0000 Square
0.75 1.0000 Triang.
1.00 1.2500 Square
1.00 1.2500 Triang.
0.75 0.9375 Triang.
0.75 1.0000 Square
0.75 1.0000 Triang.
1.00 1.2500 Square
1.00 1.2500 Triang.
0.75 0.9375 Triang.
0.75 1.0000 Square
0.75 1.0000 Triang.
1.00 1.2500 Square
1.00 1.2500 Triang.
0.75 0.9375 Triang.
0.75 1.0000 Square
0.75 1.0000 Triang.
1.00 1.2500 Square
1.00 1.2500 Triang.
0.75 0.9375 Triang.
0.75 1.0000 Square
0.75 1.0000 Triang.
1.00 1.2500 Square
1.00 1.2500 Triang.
0.75 0.9375 Triang.
0.75 1.0000 Square
0.75 1.0000 Triang.
1.00 1.2500 Square
1.00 1.2500 Triang.
44.00 42.25
39.00 37.25
42.00 40.25
35.00 33.25
37.00 35.25
31.00 29.25
33.00 31.25
27.00 25.25
29.00 27.25
23.25 21.50
25.00 23.25
21.00 19.25
Page 319 of 327
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WorkSheet: Total Tubes
Art Montemayor November 03, 1997
0.75 0.9375 Triang.
0.75 1.0000 Square
0.75 1.0000 Triang.
1.00 1.2500 Square
1.00 1.2500 Triang.
0.75 0.9375 Triang.
0.75 1.0000 Square
0.75 1.0000 Triang.
1.00 1.2500 Square
1.00 1.2500 Triang.
0.75 0.9375 Triang.
0.75 1.0000 Square
0.75 1.0000 Triang.
1.00 1.2500 Square
1.00 1.2500 Triang.
0.75 0.9375 Triang.
0.75 1.0000 Square
0.75 1.0000 Triang.
1.00 1.2500 Square
1.00 1.2500 Triang.
60.00 58.00
48.00 46.00
52.00 50.00
56.00 54.00
Page 320 of 327
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WorkSheet: Total Tubes
Art Montemayor November 03, 1997
conventional split-ring floating head design, fully tubed out. For a given shell diameter, the value of D
otl
will be
the tube count is proportional to (D
otl
)
2
. All tube count tables are only approximate since the actual number of
tubes that can be fitted into a given tubesheet depends upon the pass partition pattern, the thickness of the pass
dividers and exactly where the drilling pattern is started relative to the dividers and the outer tube limit. Additional
tubes will be lost from the bundle for a U-tube design because the minimum bending radius prevents tubes from
will also be lost if an impingement plate is inserted underneath the nozzle. For a no-tubes-in-the-window design,
18
36
60
68
36
40
86
70
74
44
50
128
108
110
64
72
178
142
166
82
94
234
188
210
116
128
290
234
8
Number of Tube Passes
Page 321 of 327
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WorkSheet: Total Tubes
Art Montemayor November 03, 1997
260
148
160
Page 322 of 327
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WorkSheet: Total Tubes
Art Montemayor November 03, 1997
Page 323 of 327
FileName: 93186371.xls.ms_office
WorkSheet: Total Tubes
Art Montemayor November 03, 1997
Tube OD, in. Tube Pitch, in. Layout P
p
, in. P
n
, in.
0.625 0.8125 0.704 0.406
0.750 0.9375 0.814 0.469
0.750 1.0000 1.000 1.000
0.750 1.0000 0.707 0.707
0.750 1.0000 0.866 0.500
1.000 1.2500 1.250 1.250
1.000 1.2500 0.884 0.884
1.000 1.2500 1.082 0.625
Tube Pitch Types:
Note: Flow arrows are perpendicular to the baffle cut edge

TUBE PITCH PARALLEL TO FLOW, P
P
, AND NORMAL TO FLOW, P
N

These quantities are needed only for the purpose of estimating other parameters. If a detailed drawing of
the exchanger is available, or if the exchanger itself can be conveniently examined, it is better to obtain
these other parameters by direct count or calculation. The quantities are described by Figure 5.2-1 and read
from Table IV for the most common tube layouts.
30
o
Triangular 60
o
Rotated Triangular
Flow
Flow
Square
Rotated Square
Art Montemayor Heat Exchanger Temperatures August 21, 2004
Rev: 0
Source: Chemical Engineering Magazine; Plant Notebook Section; Unknown date
J. T. Petrosky; Vulcan Materical Co. Wichita, Kansas
In specifying heat exchanger sevices for process design, it is frequently necessary to arive at optimum condtions
through trial and error. However, the determination of each set of condtions within this trial-and-error also involves
calculation of interrelated variables, such as inlet and outlet temperatures and area; and this can result in
trial-and-error calculations within the trial-and -error for the optimum. It is, thus, convenient to be able to calculate
exchanger outlet conditions directly, based on known or assumed values of inlet temperatures, specific heats,
flowing quantities, overall transfer rate, and surface. Such a direct calculation is developed as follows and shown
in the sketch.
Nomenclature:
q = Heat duty, Btu/hr or kcal/hr = 1,000,000
C
p
= Constant or average specific heat on the shell side, Btu/lb or kcal/kg = 0.5000
c
p
= Constant or average specific heat on the tube side, Btu/lb or kcal/kg = 1.0000
W = Fluid mass flow rate in shell side, lb/hr or kg/hr = 100,000
w = Fluid mass flow rate in tube side, lb/hr or kg/hr = 45,000
U = Overall heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hr-ft
2
-
o
F or kcal/hr-m
2
-
o
C = 125
A = Total exchanger heat transfer area, ft
2
or m
2
= 300.0
T
1
= Shell-side fluid temperature,
o
F or
o
C = 250
t
1
= Tube-side fluid temperature,
o
F or
o
C = 85
AT
m
= Log mean temperature difference,
o
F or
o
C=
1
= Subscript denoting inlet conditions
2
= Subscript denoting outlet conditions
From the derived equations, let: Z = 50,000
B = 45,000
C = 0.920044
Therefore,
T
2
=
152
o
F or
o
C
Direct Calculation of Exchanger Exit Temperatures
B t
1
(1 - C) - T
1
(B - Z)/(Z - BC) =
q, U, A, AT
m
w, c
p
, t
1
W, C
p
, T
2
W, C
p
, T
1
w, c
p
, t
2
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
B Z
UA
e C
1 1
Page 325 of 327
FileName: 93186371.xls.ms_office
Worksheet: Ht Exchanger Temperatures
Art Montemayor Heat Exchanger Temperatures August 21, 2004
Rev: 0
Equations and their derivations:
The heat transferred to the tube-side fluid = q = (w) (c
p
) (t
2
- t
1
)
The heat transferred to the shell-side fluid = q = (W) (C
p
) (T
1
-T
2
)
In specifying heat exchanger sevices for process design, it is frequently necessary to arive at optimum condtions
through trial and error. However, the determination of each set of condtions within this trial-and-error also involves Let:
B = (w) (c
p
)
trial-and-error calculations within the trial-and -error for the optimum. It is, thus, convenient to be able to calculate Z = (W) (C
p
)
exchanger outlet conditions directly, based on known or assumed values of inlet temperatures, specific heats,
flowing quantities, overall transfer rate, and surface. Such a direct calculation is developed as follows and shown Combining both above equations,
( ) ( )
( )
( )
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= A =
1 2
2 1
1 2 2 1
ln
t T
t T
t T t T
UA T UA also is d transferre heat The
m
( )
1 2 1 2
t T T
B
Z
t + ÷ |
.
|

\
|
=
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷
1 2
2 1
1 2 2 1
2 1
ln
t T
t T
t T t T
UA T T Z
( )
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( )
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷ ÷ + ÷
|
.
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(
(
(
¸
(

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÷ ÷
|
.
|

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|
÷
2 1
1 2 1 2 1 1
1 2
1 2 1 1
ln
T T Z
t T t T T
B
Z
T
UA
t T
t T T
B
Z
T
( ) ( )
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
+ ÷ +
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

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|
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=
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(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
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|
÷
2 1
1 2 1 2 1 1
1 2
1 2 1 1
ln
T T Z
t T t
B
Z
T
B
Z
T T
UA
t T
t
B
Z
T
B
Z
T T
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 1
2 1 2 1
2 1
2 2 1 1
1 2
1 2 1
1
ln
T T Z
T T
B
Z
T T
UA
T T Z
T T T
B
Z
T
UA
t T
t
B
Z
T
B
Z
T
÷
÷
|
.
|

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|
÷ ÷
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷ ÷
|
.
|

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|
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=
(
(
(
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÷
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.
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+
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.
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.
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FileName: 93186371.xls.ms_office
Worksheet: Ht Exchanger Temperatures
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Page 327 of 327
FileName: 93186371.xls.ms_office
Worksheet: Ht Exchanger Temperatures

Art Montemayor - 05 April 2011

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4/26/2011 - Added Bs factor the second term in the denominator for the equation for the seal bar calculation on sheet "Calculations". 6/28/2011 - Added three new tips from Gulleyassociates.com with permission.
Boiling

Chris Haslego Cheresources.com Admin Chris Haslego Cheresources.com Admin

Estimate - critical heat flux for propane chillers.
Calculations

Estimate - optimum flow velocity for gas inside tubes.
Construction

Longitudinal baffle heat conduction cures.
11/10/2011 - Added five new tips from Gulleyassociates.com with permission
Boiling

Chris Haslego Cheresources.com Admin

Kettle Reboilers - Supports or Baffles
Construction

Design Temperatures of Carbon Steel and Low Alloy Tubes and Tube Design Temperatures of Nonferrous Tubes and Tubesheets
Misc.

Fouling factors for water(hr-ft2-F/Btu) Fouling Factors for Liquid Hydrocarbons(hr-ft2-F/Btu)
4/5/2012 - Added five new tips from Gulleyassociates.com with permission
Boiling

Chris Haslego Cheresources.com Admin

Vertical Thermosyphon-Calculate Pressure Drop at The Outlet Nozzle Vertical Thermosyphon-Design for a Smaller Liquid Preheat Zone
Calculations

Estimate - Hydrocarbon Gas Heat Transfer Coefficient in Shell Side
Tube Bundle Vibration

Best Design Feature to Prevent Bundle Vibration
Misc.

Viscous Flow - Use More Pressure Drop Than Usual

Chris Haslego Cheresources.com Admin

Chris Haslego Cheresources.com Admin

Chris Haslego Cheresources.com Admin

lloy Tubes and Tubesheets ubesheets

Chris Haslego Cheresources.com Admin

at The Outlet Nozzle uid Preheat Zone

cient in Shell Side

2911 E. 77 Pl., Tulsa, OK 74136 · P.O. Box 700295, Tulsa, OK. 74170-0295 Phone: (918) 744-0100

Air Coolers:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Air flow accessories - don't overlook these when calculating fan HP Box header design - limit of process temperature change Connecting bundles of existing coolers for a new service Fan drive changes that increase capacity of existing cooler Fan drive noise - suggestions on how to reduce Maximum motor HP for a fan Maximum tube wall temperature for wrap-on fins Optimum number of tube rows Overall heat transfer rate estimate for hydrocarbons When do bare tubes become more efficient than fin tubes? When To limit number of tube passes in air coolers When to use wind coolers

Boiling: Avoid mist flow boiling inside tubes 2. Kettle reboiler - liquid carryover problem solutions 3. Kettle reboiler - shell nozzle arrangement problem 4. Kettle reboiler - shell vapor outlet nozzle location 5. Kettle reboiler - sizing shell vapor space 6. Kettle reboiler - undersized shell effects 7. Estimate - pool boiling heat transfer coefficient for hydrocarbons 8. Large boiling temperature difference problems 9. Lowest limit of boiling temperature difference 10. Vertical thermosyphon - choking two phase flow with small outlet nozzle 11. Vertical thermosyphon - minimum recirculation rate 12. Vertical thermosyphon - check for liquid preheat zone 13. Vertical thermosyphon - who sets recirculation rate 14. Vertical Thermosyphon-Calculate Pressure Drop at The Outlet Nozzle
1.

Estimate .overall heat transfer coefficient in shell & tube 7. Estimate . 4. Calculate when to use seal bars on a bundle to increase heat transfer 18.gas heat transfer coefficient inside tubes 3. Calculate S & T bundle diameter from number of tubes 19.liquid thermal conductivity of light hydrocarbons 6. L/D equation for heat Transfer coefficient inside tubing 11. Estimate . Low LMTD correction factor for divided flow 13. How to increase heat transfer for low Reynolds numbers 17. Minimum flow area for shell side inlet nozzle 15. 6. What is the lowest LMTD correction to use in shell & tube 14. 2. How to calculate performance of heat exchangers with plugged tubes 16. Condensing: 1.Hydrocarbon Gas Heat Transfer Coefficient in Shell Side 1.design within tube velocity limits . How to calculate excess surface and overdesign surface 9. Avoid small baffle cuts in S & T condensers Estimate . Estimate .latent heat of hydrocarbons 5. Use superficial velocities to calculate best heat transfer flow pattern 10. Equation for calculating tube count in shell & tube 20. 5. Estimate . 24.optimum flow velocity for gas inside tubes. Sometimes larger tubes are better than small ones 22. LMTD correction factor charts for TEMA G and J type shells 12.tube length that lowers tube pressure drop 8. 3.hydrocarbon heat transfer coefficient in tubes 4.15. Check for hot tube wall temperature of cooling water 21. 7. Estimate .Condensing heat transfer coefficient for hydrocarbons inside tubing Maximum heat transfer rate inside tubes for total condensation Quick estimate for reflux condenser LMTD in air cooler Reflux (Knockback) condenser comments Steam condenser types Sulfur condenser . Weighted MTD 23. Estimate . Vertical Thermosyphon-Design for a Smaller Liquid Preheat Zone Calculations What diameter to use to start design of a coil 2. Estimate .

Locating vents on the shell side of vertical exchangers 10. Heat Recovery: 1. Estimate .Warning about small temperature pinch points in condensers 9. Optimun gasket location for flanges 11. Horizontal vs vertical baffle cut in shell & tube 7. 8. Check entrance and exit space for shell nozzles 6. 2. Is expansion joint required in the shell of a fixed tube sheet? 8. Reinforcing rods as tube inserts to increase heat transfer 12. Special shell & tube heat exchanger type (NTIW) 14. Increasing capacity of existing shell & tube exchangers 9. Zone those condensers! 11. When to slope single tube pass tubes in condensing service 10. What is too large of temperature change in 2 tube passes ? 16. 3. When to consider by-pass strips in shell & tube bundle 15. Shell side impingement protection 13.critical heat flux for propane chillers. Deciding on what fin spacing to use Estimate of nozzle size for HRSG Face area estimate for HRSG units Maximum exhaust gas temperaure for steel fin tubes When to use bare tubes in waste heat boilers Materials: 1. Construction: Benefits of using rotated square pitch in shell & tube 2. Discussion of types of triple segmental baffles in shell & tube 5. 1. Caution when using a longitudinal baffle in the shell side 3. Longitudinal baffle heat conduction cures. 4. Using turbulators for tube side laminar flow 4. 5. Cooling water flowing inside 304SS U-tubes Pressure Drop: . When to rotate square tube pitch in shell & tube exchanger 17.

7.a. 10. 5. 11. 6. 8. 10.k. drop What design pressure drop to use for heavy liquids inside tubes Maximum velocity inside tubes Calculate shell nozzle pressure drop Improve shell side pressure drop calculations Tube Bundle Vibration: 1. 14. Allocation of streams in shell & tube Articles published by Dale Gulley Avoid these fluids when using lowfin tubing Best heat transfer flow pattern Check liquid thermal conductivity at high reduced temperatures Check piping connections when there is under-performance Evaluating an exchanger for a new service Check heat release curve data for skipping over dewpoints and bubblepoints When will exchangers with low-fins be more economical than exchangers with Problems with excess heat exchanger surface Purchasing warning for shell & tube exchangers What is the minimum velocity inside tubing for slurries? Suggestions for low-fins and potential S & T bundle vibration Choose shell & tube or multi-tube heat exchangers . 4. 5. 4. 4. lamaflex) long baffle is Better baffle window pressure drop equation Designing for better use of tube pressure drop Effect of 1st tube rows on shell nozzle pressure drop Pressure drop on kettle side Reducing high shell side pressure drop in fixed tube sheet exchangers Use impingement rods instead of plate to lower shell press. 6. 3. 2. 3. 13.1. Features of a new S & T bundle that replaces bundle that vibrated Vibration cure when designing shell & tube bundles Conditions likely to cause shell & tube bundle vibration Cures for vibration in existing bundle Best Design Feature to Prevent Bundle Vibration Miscellaneous: 1. 13. 5. 9. Allowing for fouling in pressure drop calculations Allowable pressure drop suggestions Allowable shell side pressure drop if a multi-leaf(a. 9. 8. 2. 12. 7. 12. 2. 11. 3.

22. 23. Thermal design problem with shell side long baffle Trouble shooting article in Hydrocarbon Processing Under-surfaced S&T quote When to add shell in Series When to consider a long baffle in the shell Which stream goes inside the tubes of gas/gas exchangers? Weighted MTD Why did performance decline in a TEMA type F. 21. 20. 24.15.G or H type shell? Zone those condensers Viscous Flow . 17. 18. 16.Use More Pressure Drop Than Usual . 19.

an air cooler with six bundles could be arranged with four bundles in parallel. Then increasing the HP will produce no more air.4 (Fan Diam .5 ft. Too much temperature drop between the inlet and outlet tube passes can cause leakage where the tubes meet the tubesheet. The fan efficiency reaches a peak. don't junk it for a new one until you have exhausted the possibilities on changing the fan and the fan motor. New air coolers nearly always have the bundle connected in parallel. air coolers have accessories like louvers and fan guards.5) = Fan Diam = 7. If the temperature change of the tube side stream is over approximately 400 oF. Don't overlook the accessory pressure drop because they can increase the static pressure as much as 25%. 1997 If you need to increase the capacity of an air cooler. An estimate for this HP is: Max HP = 17 + 8. The next best change in terms of cost is to increase the fan speed by changing the drive ratio between the fan and the motor. Box header design . Arrange the bundles for more series type flow to increase the tube side velocity and get higher heat transfer rates.00 feet This is for fan diameters greater than 3. connected to two bundles in series.4 HP .don't overlook louvers and screens when calculating fan HP Air static pressure loss is used to calculate the horsepower required for fans used in process air coolers. Charts and equations in the literature are usually for the tube bundle only. don't overlook connecting the bundles in a series-parallel arrangement. Maximum Motor HP for a Fan Adding more HP to a fan will only work up to a point.limit of process temperature change March. bug. Other suggestions are to reduce the fan blade angle or change to a fan with more blades. The two series bundles would handle the coldest part of the heat load where higher velocity is needed the most. They may also have hail. October. then use a split header design.3. Frequently. 46. avoid imposing too large a temperature change in the box headers. The least expensive change is to increase the fan blade angle if it will not overload the motor. For example.Note: Input data into YELLOW cells and receive output in BOLD RED Air flow accessories . 1998 In the design of an Air cooled heat exchanger. or lint screens. Connecting Bundles of Existing Coolers for a new Service April. Increase Capacity of Existing Air Cooler with Fan Drive Changes Suggestions to Reduce Fan Drive Noise The most effective solution is to reduce the fan speed by changing the drive ratio between the fan and the motor. This allows a hot top section to slide past a cooler bottom section. But check to make sure the blade angle is not already at the maximum. 1998 When re-using air cooled exchangers in a new service. If these changes are not enough you could increase the motor size or change the fan for one with more blades.

Ta) x Ro x Uc = 459 F Where Twall = Ta = Th1 = Ro UC = = temperature of tube wall air outlet temperature = temperature inside tube = thermal resistance of air = clean overall heat transfer coefficient = o 200 F o 488 F 2 o 0.June. o 2 Minimum temperature difference at the hot end to be 8 to 10 F.F Temperature Limit of Wrap-On Fins for Aircoolers Example: Steam is condensing at 488 oF. The ASME code for allowable stress of aluminum has a maximum temperature of 400 oF. 2000 Above a certain temperature. The summer time air outlet temperature is a very rough approximation. Then the above example is operating too hot for wrap-on fins. Due to thermal expansion. The limitations are: 1 Limit the LMTD correction factor to a minimum of 0. I believe this is the upper limit.12. To be more exact.5 Btu/hr-ft . the aluminum fins will lose good contact with the tubing.5 and Ro is 0. If the air outlet temperature is 200 oF. the tube wall temperature needs to be calculated for the hottest tube row.200) x 0. . Assume that the UC is 7. o 3 Maximum air outlet temperature to be 300 F if tension wound fins are used. In this case an integral type fin tube should be used.5 o Twall = 459 F As you can see.12 hr-ft . Optimun Number of Tube Rows The optimum number of tube rows is a function of the maximum acceptable temperature rise of the air side. Not even the aircooled manufacturers agree exactly what this maximum tube wall temperature should be. it will be too hot for wrap-on fins. There are three limitations and the smallest air rise of the three should be used.maximum air outlet temperature to be the same as the process side outlet temperature. then: Twall = 200 + (488 .12 x 7.F/Btu 2 o 7.9 for one tube pass . Then: o Twall = Ta + (Th1 . the problem is more severe at high heat transfer rates.

The velocity on these type of streams will have a minor effect on the overall heat transfer coefficient in the typical aircooler. Air Cooler Using Wind December. An estimate that is based on fin surface can be made from the following: Fluid in Tube side Liquids Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient Rt = 0. Gases Rt = 0. investigate both bare and fin tubes. 2000 Where cooling water is not available and the outlet temperature is not critical. 1999 For tube side streams that have a high heat transfer coefficient. tube viscosity) + 0. an air cooler can be built that depends only on the wind for cooling. In areas where the wind does not have a prevailing direction.145 U = 1/Rt Where OP is the operating pressure in PSIA When do Bare Tubes become More Efficient Than Fin Tubes? If the inside heat transfer coefficient beomes too low. This would be for condensing streams like ammonia and steam. Then there is cooling no matter which way the wind blows.145 U = 1/Rt Where: viscosity is less than 3 cP. fin tubes can become inefficient. . 2002 In the preliminary design or checking of process air-coolers you need an estimate of the overall heat transfer coefficient (U). it is probably not advantageous to use more than two tube passes. The major thermal resistance is the air side heat transfer coefficient.165 x Sqrt (avg. If it is expected that the heat transfer coefficient is below approximately 20 Btu/hr-ft2-oF. use an air cooler bundle that sets on a stand that faces the wind. It will have the best performance when the tubes have high fins and the tubes are perpendicular to the wind direction. This could also be true for high thermal conductivity liquid streams if the LMTD is high. If there is a prevailing wind direction.29 x Sqrt (100/OP) + 0. When To Limit Tube Passes in an Aircooler November. This can be the case in heavy oil coolers.Hydrocarbon U Estimate (Air-Coolers) February. arrange the tubes in a bird cage type pattern.

split header les for more ir cooler with blade angle if it The next best asing the HP .March. 2000 s. Charts and s like louvers drop because ox headers.

num fins will ime air outlet calculated for cturers agree aluminum has ting too hot for r side. There .

If there .rue for high ave a minor ws.

One factor is to provide enough space to slow the vapor velocity down enough for nearly all the liquid droplets to fall back down by gravity to the boiling surface. The amount of entrainment separation to design for depends on the nature of the vapor destination. low tower efficiency and high reflux rate does not require as much kettle vapor space as normal. This comes from the Fair equation. Mist Flow Boiling Inside Tubes Kettle Reboiler . it is usually centered over the bundle with the inlet nozzle located some distance away. The boiling zones near the ends of the bundle will have lower fluid circulation rates and lower heat transfer. The inlet nozz should not be located directly under the vapor outlet. If the mist flow region cannot be avoided. There have been cases where someone other than the thermal designer changed the location of this vapor nozzle without the thermal designers OK. Only in rare cases are these two vapor streams equal in quantity. A distillation tower with a large disengaging space.Location of Vapor Outlet Nozzles Sizing the Vapor Space in Kettle Reboilers . In this type of flow the tube wall is mostly dry and the liquid droplets are carried along in a vap core. the maximum velocity is approximately 30 ft/sec. If the vaporization is 75 %. then twisted tape turbulators can be used to increase the heat transfer. A simplification that has been extensively used is to assume the highest vapor flow is 60% of the total. This arrangement creates extra turbulence under the vapor nozzle which affects the amount of liquid entrainment in the outlet vapor. This probably results in some liquid carryover. Therefore the heat transfer is much lower because the much higher thermal conductivity of the liquid is in very little contact with the tube wall. the lower the velocity needs to be to avoid mist flow For example in a vertical tube where the vaporization is 50 % and the vapor density is 1. the location of the nozzles is important. The higher the % vaporization. 1998 The size of the kettle is determined by several factors. Then the vapor comes from two different directions as it approaches the outlet nozzle. the velocity needs to be below approximately 80 ft/sec. In one case the vapor outlet was moved to the back of the kettle resulting in appreciable liquid carryover Kettle Reboiler . In a horizontal tube where there can be stratification. % vapor and stratification effects. There have been cases where someone other than the thermal designer changed the location of this vapor nozzle without the thermal designers OK. Then there is no good flow distribution. When there is a single vapor outlet. 2000 When it is necessary to have dry vapor leaving the kettle side. Normally.Problem Shell Nozzle Arrangement Sometimes you see kettle reboilers where the inlet nozzle is directly under the outlet vapor nozzle. October. Another problem with the vertical nozzle arrangement is when the kettle bundle is relatively long and there is a single pair of nozzles. these maximum velocities a much lower.November.Location of Vapor Outlet Nozzles When it is necessary to have dry vapor leaving the kettle side. In one case the vapor outlet was moved to the back of the kettle resulting in appreciable liquid carryover June. This probably results in some liquid carryover. the vapor outlet is centered over the bundle. One case where this would cause an undersized vapor space is when there is a much larger temperature difference at one end Kettle Reboiler . 2001 This is a flow pattern to avoid in heat transfer. The inlet nozzle should not be located directly under the vapor outlet.0 lb/cu ft. When there is a single vapor outlet. the location of the nozzles is important. The mist flow region is dependent upon velocity. They will throw the liquid in the vapor core toward the tube wall. It is safer to use the conventional nozzle arrangement where the inlet is some lateral distance away unless a demister pad is used. it is usually centered over the bundle with the inlet nozzle located some distance away.

25 = 2 o 2.of the kettle then the other. the heat transfer is lower at reduced recirculation rates.Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficient for Hydrocarbons Boil h = Where Δt = t= 22 (Δt)1. This is called film boiling. Since the tubeside heat transfer rate depends on velocity. 1999 Choking down on the channel outlet nozzle and piping reduces the circulation rate through a heat exchanger.63X2 .43 = Where X = area ratio= 0. If the vaporizer is steam heated. A boili coefficient depends on a nucleate boiling component and a two-phase component that depends on the recirculation rate. The dividing line between natural convection and boiling depends on the type of tubing used. 1997 A reboiler or chiller is best designed so that it doesn't have the lower heat transfer mode of natural convection. the cooler liquid can no longer reach the heating surface because of a vapor film. the heat transfer deteriorates because of the lower thermal conductivity of the vapor.0. The liquid is slowly heated up to a more stable condition.4 cut the heat flux almost in half. The minimum height of the vapor space is typically 8 inches. Special enhanced tube surfaces can be used for even lower temperature differences than 2 oF. The Shell Oil Company. 1997 What effect will an undersized kettle diameter have? The effect will be a decrease in the boiling coefficient.925 Btu/(hr)(ft )( F) (tube wall temperature . Another effect is high entrainment or even a two-phase mixture going back to the tower. This way. you don't start flashing the liquid.7 in nozzle flow area/tube flow area reduced the heat flux by 10%. In this condition. December. This is close to the critical temperature difference where film boiling will start. in an experimental study.32% Lower Limit of Boiling Film Temperature Difference Choking a Vertical Thermosyphon . An undersized kettle will not have enough space at the sides of the bundle for good recirculation. We have designed hydrocarbon chillers down to the temperature difference of 2 oF using low-finned tubes. Large Boiling Temperature Differences February.40 53. showed that a ratio of 0. With steam heating.06X -1. July. If steel bare tubes are used. An approximate equation for the amount of heat flux reduction is: Reduction = 3. the vaporizer should be started with the boiling side full of relatively cooler liquid. When the temperatur differences reach a certain value. take a close look at the design if the LMTD is over 90 oF. 1999 Large temperature differences in heat exchangers where liquid is vaporized are a warning flag. A rule of thumb says that the inside flow area of the channel outlet nozzle and piping should be the same as the flow area inside the tubing. Kettle Reboiler . If a design analysis shows that the temperature difference is close to causing film boiling. A ratio of 0. oF o 50 F March. the steam pressure should be reduced which will reduce the temperature difference. It is higher for high heat flux kettles.liquid temperature) = temperature.Effect of Undersized Kettle Diameter Estimate . the lower limit of temperature difference between the tube wall and the boiling fluid is approximately 5 oF.

If there is no liquid preheat. If the operating pressure is below approximately 25 PSIA.Check for Liquid Preheat Zone December. It is conservative for very small bundles. there should be a liquid preheat zone. It has been observed that this threshold is when the outlet two-phase density (volume basis) is below 1. CHF = 32500 = (0. This boiling point rise creates a liquid zone with relatively low heat transfer and it reduces the temperature driving force (MTD).25 CHF = 12. the more likely there is liquid preheat.Support or Baffles? For kettle reboilers use segmental baffles instead of full supports if shell fouling factor is greater Than 0. the recirculation rate should be set by the process engineer if there will be anything unusual about the connecting piping. Vertical Thermosyphon .Minimum Recirculation Rate in Thermosyphon Reboilers When does a recirculation rate become too low (high % vaporization)? When this happens. Vertical Thermosyphon Recirculation Rate Estimate .25 and triangular tube pitch. A boiling temperature of -30 F. February. The crital heat flux depends on the geometry of the bundle. 1997 In the design of vertical thermosyphons. The lower the operating pressure. the tube wall is no longer wet and the heat transfer diminishes.Critical Heat Flux For Propane Chillers A simple equation is presented for a kettle reboiler. there may be an input error.002(hr-ft2-F Vertical Thermosyphon-Calculate Pressure Drop at The Outlet Nozzle A rule of thumb is that the pressure drop at the outlet nozzle should not be greater than 30% of the total static head. The inside flow area of . check for the presence of a liquid preheat zone. If the recirculation rate is left for the thermal designer to set. The recirculation rate is especially sensitive to the size and configurat of the outlet piping. 2001 When designing vertical thermosyphon reboilers with boiling at low operating process fluid pressures. Nearly all thermosyphons have outlet densities above this value. There is another tip in this boiling section about choking the flow with a small outlet nozzle. Back pressure raises the boiling point at the interface of liquid preheat zone and subcooled boiling.850 Kettle Reboilers . they will have to make piping assumptions that may be violated later in the actual installation. is assumed for the propane.0 lb/cu-ft. The guidelines in the literature show the lowest permissible recirculation rates give from 25 to 40% vaporization for hydrocarbons.25) 12844 Btu/h ft2 Ds CHF = crital heat flux in Btu/(hr)(ft)2 Ds = shell bundle diameter in inches = Example 41 What is the critical heat flux for a 41 inch diameter bundle? CHF = 32500 (41) 0. The following estimate is based on 3/4 inch tubes on 15/1 It is actually good for any tube diameter with a tube pitch/tube diameter ratio of 1.

445576 (calculated) 0. What can you change that will decrease the size of the liquid preheat zone a increase the overall heat transfer? One answer is to evaluate the piping system above the top tubesheet.16944 14.5 (1 . Most vertical thermosyphons have the outlet nozzle at right angles to the top channel. There has been a case where 90% of tube length was in the sub-cooled phase.3 Kc =0.(No/Ds)2) KT = Ktr + Kc ΔPn = KT = 0. Another solution to the problem is to investigate inserts such as swisted tape.40) 0. wire matrix . But there needs to be a check to make sure the nozzle an connecting piping are not so large that there is liquid slip.445576 (used for pressure drop calc) (If Ktr less than 0.28077 0.28077 0. or helically coiled. If enlarging the right angle nozzle and piping is not the ans there are other configerations that will use less outlet pressure drop. There is on this section of the website equations to calculate the pressure drop of a nozzle that is at right the top channel. For a channel with a side outlet the pressure drop is composed of a turning loss and a contraction loss The following equations calculate the pressure drop at the outlet. The pressure drop for expansion into the channel is not included here but is with the tube pressure Ktr = ___1______ Ds0.8 120 0.outlet nozzle should be the same or greater than the total flow area inside the tubing. use 0.8 0.726346 0. This is caused b fact that a small pressure change will cause a large increase in the boiling point. try a mitered channel design.17 = = = = = = = = = = = Vertical Thermosyphon-Design for a Smaller Liquid Preheat Zone At low operating pressures there will be a sensible heat liquid zone with relatively low heat transfer. In order to make an evaluation check the pressu at the outlet.726346 9.40. Next the pressure drop of using a B type channel a long radius ell could be tried. There may be change of enlarging the outlet nozzle that would be the cure. .000108 x Vn2 x ρtp Where: Ds = Top channel ID (inches) Ktr = pressure loss coefficient for turning loss Kc = pressure loss coefficient for contraction into nozzle KT = total pressure loss coefficient No = Outlet nozzle ID (inches) Vn = velocity thru nozzle (ft/sec) ρtp = two-phase density (lb/ft3) ΔPn = pressure drop thru channel and outlet nozzle (Psi) = 0. If this doesn't do it.15 0.

vapor nozzle resulting in w the vapor urface.vapor and ied along in a vapor e liquid is in very o avoid mist flow. There nozzle without g in appreciable Art's Note: I agree. I have also found that locating the inlet liquid nozzle directly under the vapor outlet is not good. In Amine BKU reboilers I found that locating the inlet rich amine liquid as close to the U-tube bundle tub gave the best. One case ence at one end . It less a demister nd there is a the bundle will nt. When me distance away. ximum velocities are increase the heat nt. The istillation tower kettle vapor m two different n quantity. he velocity needs mately 30 ft/sec. A l. consistant results in obtaining good solution stripping. This gives the heating medium This arrangement he outlet vapor. The inlet nozzle r. The inlet arryover. When there is nce away.

We have Special enhanced xchanger. A rule s the flow area ozzle flow . Since n rates. the vaporizer hing the liquid. mal conductivity ing.er for high heat efficient. ly 5 oF. m pressure ook at the design convection. Another en the temperature of a vapor film. The are tubes are used. A boiling he recirculation on.

check for the reheat zone and d it reduces the should be a ere is no liquid if there will be ize and configuration make piping inch tubes on 15/16 inch pitch. r tube pitch.e wall is no ssible recirculation s when the t densities above es. han 0.002(hr-ft2-F/Btu) total static head. side flow area of the .

This is caused by the ase where 90% of the uid preheat zone and n check the pressure drop zzle that is at right angle to el.with a side outlet ulate the pressure the tube pressure drop. ressure drop calc) 40. use 0.40) . There may be a simple sure the nozzle and ping is not the answer then g a B type channel with .

et is not good. tube bundle tubesheet ng medium .

0 Psia.F Generally more accurate Generally understated Operating pressure = 100. An example of this is an economizer in a heat recovery system. 150 / sqrt(avg. the diameter is unknown.000-35. viscosity) = 2 o 87 Btu/Ft -hr.Input data into YELLOW cells and receive output in BOLD RED What Coil Diameter to Use to Start Design October.000-17.000-10. The following gives guidelines for liquids on a diameter selection: Note: Size 1” tube 1 ¼” pipe 1 ½” pipe 2” pipe 3” pipe 4” pipe Unit Capacity flow rate 3. It is: Lat heat = (111 .F Estimate Gas Heat Transfer Rate for Hydrocarbons 75 x (Op. Estimate Hydrocarbon Heat Transfer Coefficient In Tubes Use the following equation to estimate the heat transfer coefficient when liquid is flowing inside 3/4 inch tubing: Hio = Where: Viscosity = 3.000-130.09T)/SG60 = 113 Btu/lb .000 # / pipe / hr February.000-5.00 lb/tube/hr This is for inside the tubes. h= 1.8 = 2 o 66 Btu/hr-ft .000 # / tube / hr 5. 1998 If you need to estimate a gas heat transfer rate or see if a program is getting a reasonable gas rate.Latent Heat of Hydrocarbons An equation from the Bureau of Standards Miscellaneous Publication No. In this case it is desirable to have a single flow path rather than using parallel paths where headers are required.000 # / pipe / hr 35.000 # / pipe / hr 17.000 # / pipe / hr 70.4W0.67 and less than 0. The rate will be lower for the shell side or if there is more than one exchanger.0 cP. W= 123.934.0.000-70. pressure/100)1/2 = 2 o 75 Btu/hr-ft . 2002 When starting to design a coil or other single continuous tube heat exchanger. use the following: h= Or. 97 can be used when the Specific Gravity is greater than 0.000 # / tube / hr 10.F This is limited to a maximum viscosity of 3 cP Estimate .

The above is limited to a maximum viscosity of 3 cP for the tube side.67<SG<0. tube viscosity)/150 +((avg. To estimate the new tube length. This is also limited to bare tube surface with no internal turbulation devices.0.9000 (0. use the following equation: 1/3 New Lg = Lg (Allowed Dp/Calc.195 T July. It is good for propane and heavier. Process simulator programs give you a UA from which you can estimate the surface if you have a U value.0427 Specific Heat = 0. 2001 When the calculated tube side pressure drop exceeds the allowable. Dp = Calculated Tube pressure drop = 2.9 feet Where Lg = Existing tube length = 20 feet Allow.Dp = Allowable Tube pressure drop = 1.27)/140 = Estimate Overall Heat Transfer Rate (U) in S & T Where.5 K = 0.0 cP Fouling is the total for both sides.Where: Lat heat = The fluid's Latent Heat in Btu/lb T = The fluid temperature in oF = 100 o SG60 = The fluid's Specific gravity @ 60 F = 0.7000 But/lb °F Liquid Thermal Conductivity for Light Hydrocarbons December. use: Lat heat = 172 . Dp) = Estimated Tube Length That Lowers Tube Pressure Drop 15.025 / (specific heat) = 0. There is n limit on the shell viscosity. tube viscosity = 2. shell viscosity = 3.934) For hydrocarbons below a Specific Gravity of 0. Avg. there are several design options. you need an estimate of the overall heat transfer coefficie (U).0 cP Fouling = 0. An estimate for a hydrocarbon U value can be made from the following: Rt = Fouling + Sqrt(avg. September.67 and pressures below 50 psia. shell viscosity)0. How to Calculate Excess Surface and Over-design Surface .00 psi The final tube length needs to be slightly longer than calculated because the calculated surface will be larger due to a lower tube velocity that gives a lower heat transfer.00 psi Calc. One option is to design with shorter tubing when the number of tube passes is one. 1.0005 U = 1/Rt = Avg. 2001 In the preliminary design of shell and tube heat exchangers. 1999 You can make an estimate for the liquid thermal conductivity of light hydrocarbons if you know their specific heat.

How do you tell if the flow is annular? It will be when the superficial gas velocity is above the following value: If the superficial liquid velocity is below 0. you may be too conservative.30 ft/s) If the superficial liquid velocity is above 0. Then there is a relatively thin liquid film and little vapor in contact with the heat transfer surface. L = Tube Length .25 ft/sec. ft = Di = tube I.000 there is an L/D effect on the heat transfer coefficient inside tubing.2 ft/sec. There will be turbulation at the tube entrance before laminar flow is fully developed. .650 inches Re = Reynolds number = 11 feet 20 feet 5.000 LMTD Correction Factor Charts for TEMA G and J Shell Types There are LMTD correction factor charts in TEMA for a single type G shell and two in series of type J shells.0027 Di Re Where L = variable to use in L/D expression. refer to the enclosed Dale Gulley-generated charts in this Workbook. the superficial liquid velocity = 0.0 To calculate over-design surface use the clean overall heat transfer coefficient for Acalculated.12 VL2 = 57.1 + 28 VL + 1. ft Tube Length = length of tube.0 inch or less. Use the following for tube sizes 1.00 ft/sec.0 Acalculated = surface calculated from design overall heat transfer coefficient = 190.D. in = 0.30 ft/s: VgMax = where VL = 28.3 ft/sec. Use Superficial velocities to Calculate Best Heat Transfer Flow Pattern The best heat transfer occurs when there is an annular flow pattern. If you use th full tube length for L. (more than 0.30 ft/s) L/D Equation For Heat Transfer Coefficient Inside Tubing For Reynolds numbers below 10. the superficial liquid velocity = 1. For charts of more shells in series.Excess surface = 100 x (Aactual –Acalculated) / Acalculated = 31. (less than 0..58% Where Aactual = actual heat transfer surface = 250.30 ft/s: VgMax = where VL = 72 – 148 VL +100 VL2 = 41. The turbulent length needs to be subtracted from the full tube length.0.

there is very little difference at correction factors above 0.Root(ρ)) = Shell Side Flow Rate Shell Side fluid density For boiling liquids and no impingement plate: Minimum area = (Flow (lb/hr) x 0.36 Sq. 1996 Something to watch out for is the LMTD correction for Divided Flow Shell & Tube Exchangers. However.75 to 0. For example: Shell-type Flow Correction Fn Equal outlet temperatures Shell type "E" 0. Refer to the enclosed Dale Gulley charts for up to 4 shells in series that are found in this Workbook. a correction factor of 0.50 lb/ft .75 is the lowest we have seen a thermal designer use.04) / (38.453 in 2 0. there is a difference at lower values. True. We have seen several instances lately where a thermal design program made this correction factor mistake.80 (0.” In over 50 years of experience.73 Sq. Another way of looking at the correction factor is to never use a temperature cross of more than 5 degrees F in a single multi-tube pass shell.75. TEMA has one chart for a single shell but it gives high values for the above examples and it is hard to read in this range. Divided Flow LMTD Correction Lowest Limit of LMTD Correction Factor What is the lowest LMTD correction factor to be used? Here is what several literature sources say: Heat Exchanger Design Handbook (HEDH): “F should be kept above 0.November..261 in = = 2.805 Shell type "J" 0. Minimum Flow Area For Shell Side Inlet Nozzle For single phase liquids and no impingement plate: Minimum area = (Flow (lb/hr) x 0.04) / (22.000 lb/hr 3 62.765 Cold outlet 5 F higher than hot outlet Shell type "E" Shell type "J" 0.75 at the very lowest) are generally unacceptable because the exchanger configuration chosen is inefficient . Divided flow (shell type J) does not have the same correction as the usual flow pattern (shell type E).Root(ρ)) = 2 0.65 Contact us if you do not have LMTD correction factor charts for divided flow.80” Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook: “Values of F less than 0.90. Although there was one case where an operating shell-and-tube heat exchanger reflected a lower LMTD correction factor than 0..775 o 0.

Calculate new U Unew = 1/(1/hio + Rother) 4. Typical value is 1. P = tube spacing = 1. then seal bars are needed. = 0. calculate the heat transfer resistances that excludes the tube side resistance: Rother = 1/U -1/hio 2.00 in.000. 2000 Following are equations for one tube pass bundle diameter when the tube count is known or desired: For tubes with 30 Deg.15.054 January.OTL) Bs(Ds-OTL)+Bs(OTL-Do)(P-Do)/P Where Ds = inside diameter of shell = 23.384 inches .25 x tube OD If FSBP is more that 0.00 in. OTL = The Outer Tube Limit.25 in. you can probably increase the heat transfer considerably by increasing the number of tube passes and using shorter tubes.000 and more than 1.How to Calculate the Performance of Heat Exchangers with Plugged Tubes 1. Pitch: DS = 1. To evaluate. 1999 If pressure drop is available and if the tube side Reynolds number is less than 5.D. Using the actual overall heat transfer coefficient (U). It is the ratio of the by-pass to the cross flow area. or outer diameter of the tube bundle = Bs = Baffle Spacing = 18. The by-pass area is normally: FSBP = Bs (Ds . calculate a heat transfer variable named FSBP. How to Increase Heat Transfer for Low Reynolds Numbers Calculate When to Use Seal Bars on a Bundle to Increase Heat Transfer One of the fluid by-pass streams that lower the shell-side heat transfer is the stream that flows around the bundle. = Calculate Tube Bundle Diameter 17. Do = tube OD = 1. Both of these factors will increase the heat transfer. 22.75 in. This will not only increase the tube velocity but there will be a lower L/D correction. Calculate new hio and new surface using usable number of tubes 3.052 x pitch x SQRT(count) + tube O.00 in. Calculate a new heat load from new surface and a new U How to Calculate the Perf September.

(PLw + Do . The decrease in the number of tubes due to bundle entrance and exit area could be allowed for by using a larger PLw. the 1-inch tube design uses the full allowable tube length.750 inches DS = Bundle diameter Count = 250 Number of tubes Pitch = Tube spacing = 1. On the other hand. make this check if the inlet process temperature is above 200 oF for light hydrocarbon liquids and 300 . January. the tube count can be calculated. heat transfer surface temperatures above 140 oF should be avoided. Hewitt says that where calcium carbonate may deposit. 1999 When designing heat exchangers where hot process streams are cooled with cooling water. = 0.For tubes with 90 Deg. Pitch: DS = 1.625 inches) = Tube pitch = 1.400 oF for heavy hydrocarbons. As a rough rule of thumb. check the tube wall temperature. Consider using Air coolers to bring the process fluid temperature down before it enters the water-cooled exchanger.00 for square pitch 1. If four (4) tube passes are used. the tubes in the 3/4 inch selection will have to be significantly shorter than allowed in order to meet pressure drop.D.13 x pitch x SQRT(count) + tube O.D. October. The following equation is good for any size tube on any tube pitch. Count = Where: Do = F= F= Npl = PLw = P= TC = F [0. It is primarily for situations where there is not a need for allowance for bundle entrance and exit area. Tube Wall Temperature for Cooling Water Sometimes Larger Tubes are Better .000 inches (Bundle diameter . = Where: Tube OD = 0.617 inches Tube Count Calculation for S & T August. 1998 There is an exception to the rule that a shell and tube heat exchanger service using 3/4 inch tubes will be cheaper than one using 1-inch tubes.625 inches For tube pass lane width for square rotated tube pitch use (1. Corrosion effects should also be considered at hot tube wall temperatures.414P – Do).000 inches 18.750 inches 1.15 for triangle pitch Number of tube pass lanes (1 for two pass) = 2 Tube pass lane width (typical is 0. This is when the tubeside has a much lower heat transfer coefficient than the outside of the tubes and the following conditions are present: The flow will be in laminar flow if two (2) tube passes are used.tube O.) = 22.D.P) (TC x Npl)] / P2 = = Tube O.250 inches 372 428 Tubes on Square Pit Tubes on Triangular 0.7854 x TC2 . 2002 If you don't have a tube count table for a shell and tube exchanger.

W = For 1" tubes. L= ΔP = ρ= Mass flow = Example 21 ft 7 psig 3 2.06 tube wall W = 1600(ΔPρ/L)0. The maximum allowable pressure drop inside the tubes is 7 psi (after nozzle de gas density is 2. Then a step-wise method using local temperatures and local heat transfer coefficients are used to calculate the heat exchanger area. Estimate . a good starting point is desired. From W you can calculate the tube count or heat transfer coefficient. (Add [8 x tube ID in inches] ft for turning losses for each tube pass) W = lb/hr/tube ΔP = allowable pressure drop inside tubes in psi (deduct 15% for nozzle pressure drops) ρ = density in lb/cu. The question is what do you report as the MTD and the correction factor? There is a reference in TEMA in the temperature relations section T-3.497 3. For a given tube length the following equation g tube velocity for turbulent flow.66 lb/ft 195000 lb/h For 3/4" tubes.06 tube wall W = 3500(ΔPρ/L)0. If you don't know a good starting value fo coefficient the equations presented here give this starting point with simple equations. things get more complicated.0 inch tubes with 0. In the design of heat exchangers using up the maximum allowable pressure drops gives the highest heat transfer for s The equations below estimates the tube velocity(W)for a gas that will meet the maximum allowable pressure drop. W = 1.ft.555 Where: L = total tube lengths in ft.555 For 1.000 lb/hr.66 lb/cu.Weighted MTD If there is more than a slight curvature in the heat release curve.274 Tube count = Tube count = Use 3/4 inch tubes and 16 foot tubes. The tube side flow is 195. These equations can be used for two phase flow as long as the two phase viscosity For 3/4 inch tubes with 0. Usually the design starts with an estimated overall heat transfer coefficient. What should be the starting tube count? Solution .2 that refers to a weighted MTD. The article shows how to calculate a weighted MTD and its correction factor if one is required.ft. If your calculated tubesid what the following equation calculates. you need more tube travel where tube travel is in the form of number of tube length(s) for countercurrent flow. The article mentioned was published by Dale Gulley in the June 1966 issue of Hydrocarbon Processing. Gases will be in turbulent flow more than 99% of the time.Optimum Flow Velocity for Gas Inside Tubes Since the design of heat exchangers is a trial and error solution.

000/1497 = 130 For a shell-and-tube heat exchanger.66/(16+5))0.W = 1600(7 x 2.085 .Hydrocarbon Gas Heat Transfer Coefficient in Shell Side Ho = 430. calculate the shell diameter when given the tube count here: Calculate S & T diameter from number of tubes Estimate . The following w where Cp = specific heat (Btu/lb-F) = L = tube length (ft) = ΔP = shell side pressure drop (Psi) = (subtract nozzle losses) ρ = density of gas (lb/ft3) = 0.15 10 2 0.555 W = 1497 lb/hr/tube Tube count = 195.Cp(ΔP/L x ρ)1/3 = 17 Btu/h ft2 °F Its difficult to estimate a gas heat transfer coefficient in the shell side because of the many variables.

known. An example w path rather than diameter selection: . use the following: more accurate 3/4 inch tubing: he Specific Gravity .

020 51 tube side. There is no ons. 0. One option is ength.their specific heat. eat transfer coefficient have a U value. use the ill be larger due to .

. If you use the e before laminar flow e following for tube type J shells.n liquid film and ill be when the tubing.

Divided flow e seen several is very little hart for a single the enclosed Dale esigner use. LMTD correction oss of more than .

you know the original heat transfer area. Calculate new heat load from new surface and new U ound the bundle. Using the actual overall heat transfer coefficient (U). . Therefore. Calculate new hio and new surface using usable number of tubes 3. oss flow area. calculate the heat transfer resistances Rother = 1/U -1/hio 2. 3. 2. the original hi and ho. you using shorter tubes. Calculate new U Unew = 1/(1/hio + Rother) 4. ese factors will After a heat exchanger goes into operation it may develope leaks in the tube walls. You know the original overall heat transfer coefficient for the un-plugged exchanger and t number of tubes plugged.Calculate the expected performance of an exchanger that has had to have some tubes plugged t excludes the 1. the original tub and the original duty and terminal temperatures. The following procedure calculates the new heat load and new overall heat transfer coefficien 1. ulate the Performance of Heat Exchangers With Plugged Tubes an 1.000. You want to know what will be the new duty capacity and terminal temperatures with the unit operating with plugged tubes.

As a rough bon liquids and erature down will be cheaper t than the outside orter than allowed tube length.ed. The following not a need for Tubes on Square Pitch Tubes on Triangular Pitch mber of tubes k the tube wall ratures above ures. .

hen a step-wise exchanger area.015 cp. following equation gives the optimum ur calculated tubeside velocity is below m of number of tube passes or total tube two phase viscosity is less than 0. n TEMA in the ublished by ate a weighted good starting value for this est heat transfer for single phase fluids. 130 60 7 psi (after nozzle deduction) and the . ble pressure drop.

.les. The following will give you a value within 25%.

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e heat transfer resistances that exclude the tubeside resistance . all heat transfer coefficient.have some tubes plugged by doing the following: n-plugged exchanger and the hi and ho. the original tubeside velocity nal temperatures with the the tube walls.

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Use a separated flow model equation system to determine the theoretical liquid level. 2001 Do not design this like the usual vertically condensing heat exchanger where both gas and liquid flow in one direction In this type of condenser. The condensing curve has a hump which will give a LMTD higher than one calculated from a straight line condensing plot.350 For example this equation yields a maximum heat transfer rate for steam to be 3.0092 (T -110) Where T = outlet temperature and air inlet temperature is 100 oF.5 oF. Quick Estimate for Reflux Condenser LMTD in Air-cooler This type of service has steam condensing out from a non-condensable gas which is mostly CO2. Avoid Small Baffle Cuts in S & T Condensers Estimate .July. It is good for other types of chemical compoun Hi = 750 (Kliq / 0. For best heat transfer the liquid level should be low as possible.15) W0. 2001 Following is a close estimate of the maximum heat transfer rate for total condensation.9 = 3. 2001 There will be a theoretical liquid level when there is condensation in a heat exchanger.600. Unless you want subcooling.07)0. pressure drop and heat transfer calculations are different.8 = 828 Btu/(hr)(ft2)(oF) Where Cond h = Inside condensing heat transfer coefficient W = Condensing fluid in tubes = 750. Small baffle cuts in a shell and tube exchanger will hold a higher liquid level than large cuts. The condensing heat transfer coefficient decreases as its' liquid film increases.4 -0. Then LMTD Factor = 1. Kliq = liquid thermal conductivity of the condensate =0. Be sure the heat transfer calculations are zon Reflux (“Knock back”) Condenser . It is both difficult to design and difficult to control.Condensing Heat Transfer Coefficient for Hydrocarbons Inside Tubing Cond h = (4. June. The flow patterns. It is based on the maximum condensing rate for the average hydrocarbon to be 750 BTU/hr-ft2-F. the coldest condensate will be in contact with the entering hot vapor (in the bottom section) Nearly everything about this type condenser is different.00 lbs/hr/tube August. do not use a baffle cut that would hold a liquid level higher than the theoretical one.193 Btu/hr Btu/hr-ft-oF Maximum Condensing Rate Inside Tubes Where. An equation that makes a quick estimate for the LMTD is: Standard LMTD x Factor In the case of outlet process temperatures below 153.

0 lb/sq ft-sec. A common case of a condenser needing to have the tubes sloped is when they are operating near atmospheric pressure and there is one tube pass. It has a low pressure drop usually less than 0. For lower temperatures.5 psi. An example of this is a sulfur condenser. 2002 At low vapor velocities. heat content plot that shows both streams. Sulfur Condenser . If the actual pressure is less than the process design operating pressure. The benefit of sloping stops at an angle of approximately 10o. But this does not mean the larger the slope the higher the heat transfer.Tube Velocity Limits For good operation of a sulfur condenser the design velocities inside the tubes should be within certain limits. 1998 Be extra careful when condensers are designed with a small pinch point. Below this range there will be slugging. November. This is especially true of fluids that have a relative flat vapor pressure plot like ammonia or propane. For example: If an ammonia condenser is designed for 247 PSIA operating pressure and the actual pressure is 5 PSI less and the pinch point is 8 oF. January. A point is reached where the size or operating pressure requires a surface condenser. it has been proven that even a slight downward slope of tubes gives a significant increase in heat transfer in the case of tube-side condensation.5 and 6. there can be a 16% drop in heat transfer. there can be a significant loss of heat transfer. They typically are designed with a slope of 1/8 inch per foot of tubing. A conventional “E” type shell is used when the steam condensing temperature is above approximately 120 oF. Small Temperature Pinch Points in Condensers When to Slope Single Tube Pass Tubes in Condensing Service Zone Those Condensers The heat transfer and pressure drop of a condenser usually should be zoned. A typical heat exchanger that condenses 100% of the vapor will go through 2 or 3 different flow pattern zones before the flow becomes a liquid. The velocity range is between 1.Types of Steam Condensers Small steam condensers use shell-and-tube heat exchangers while large steam condensers use surface condensers. Above this range sulfur fogging will occur. a “X” type shell can be used. There is better accuracy if the flow patterns are determined and their individualistic equations are used. . A pinch point is the smallest temperature difference on a temperature vs..

y CO2. . The ransfer calculations are zoned. apor (in the bottom section). An liquid flow in one direction. difficult to control. The condensing condensing plot. do not use a baffle cut de Tubing is based on the maximum ypes of chemical compounds.he condensing heat transfer ould be low as possible. Use a separated flow ing. uts.

An example ically are designed with t exchanger that condenses omes a liquid. proximately 120 oF. The . There is .use surface condensers. there January. Above this range sulfur the smallest temperature essure is less than the especially true of fluids ammonia condenser is ch point is 8 oF. For erating pressure requires within certain limits. 2002 es a significant increase in lope the higher the heat f a condenser needing to e tube pass.

The seal on the long baffle should be tested in the shop after fabric Using Turbulators for Tube Side Laminar Flow If the flow inside the tubes of a heat exchanger is in laminar or viscous flow. The amount of increase in heat exchanged depends on whethe the increase in pressure drop can be tolerated.001 fouling. Here are the recommended guide lines for using twisted tape inserts: 1 Pressure drop in the tube side without inserts is less than 3 to 4 PSI. November. 2001 There have been cases where not enough space was under the shell nozzles. January. There is the kind you see in TEMA where there are three different groups in a set. The largest temperature drop across the long baffle is more than 250 oF. The benefits for this type of tube pitch sometimes get lost because of this. This can be critical for applications like a horizontal thermosyphon or other pressure drop sensitive applications. Frequently the shell size can be reduced when there will be heavier liquids on the shell side and the designer uses rotated square pitch.0015. There are two groups in a set and a total of five baffle pieces.0015 fouling. There is the kind that is like producing two double segment streams in parallel. 2 Minimum fluid viscosity of 2 centipoise unless there is a very low velocity 3 Use a minimum tube diameter of 5/8” for . If there is no pressure drop limitation. If the long baffle is not welded to the shell. take a look at enhancing the heat transfe One simple and inexpensive device is the twisted-tape insert. the pressure drop across the long baffle is more than 7 to 8 psi This will also lose thermal efficiency. The total number of baffle pieces is six. Then the thermal efficiency is lost due to conduction across the long baffle. These guidelines for tube diameter are due to fouling being more of a problem with turbulators in small tubes.Rotated Square Tube Pitch Some heat exchanger specifications for shell and tube heat exchangers mention square pitch but do not specifically mention rotated square pitch. If there is an impingement plate this distance should be ¼ or more of the Triple Segmental Baffles Entrance and Exit Space for Shell Nozzles . Caution When Using a Longitudinal Baffle in the Shell Side The following are potential problems when considering the use of a longitudinal baffle in a new S & T heat exchange 1. Using twisted-tape inserts for laminar flow in new hea exchangers results in cost savings and smaller heat exchangers. to the nearest tube row or impingement plate. Rotated square pitch gives better mixing of the shell fluid and better heat transfer for the heavier fluids. Engineers with little thermal design experience who are trying to strictly adhere to the specifications may reject this type of tube pitch. Another kind has only three pieces in a group and each piece has a different shape. Check and make sure this has been taken into considerati 2.D. Be sure you know which kind if you are checking a design that uses them. Check the distance from the nozzle I. It is not recommendable to use turbulators in a service that has a fouling factor greater than 0. 1997 There is more than one kind of triple segmental baffles in the shell side of heat exchangers. there can be as much as a 50% increase in capacity. Use a minimum of 1” diameter for 0. Twisted-tape inserts can be used in existing heat exchangers to make a significant increase in capacity.

low pressure is considered to be below 300 psi. Horizontal vs. 1999 There is an optimum diameter of the gasket for flanges.D. High pressure is considered to be approximately 750 psi Locating Vents on the Shell Side of Vertical Exchangers Flange Gasket Location . the diameter should be as close to the flange I. 1998 Proper venting of equipment is not always given the consideration it deserves. For information on calculating shell nozzle pressure drops. It is important to get the vent connection as close to the tubesheet as possible. This is normally twice the baffle spacing. the maximum is typically 150 oF. the diameter should be as close to the bolt circle as possible. the compressive stress is a strong function of the unsupported tube span. The problem is that there will always be a space above the vent connection to trap gases or vapors. This criterion naturally doesn't apply to shells with distributor belts or where the nozzle is beyond the back of a U-tube bundle.D.D. an all steel exchanger can take a maximum of approximately 40 oF metal temperature difference when the tube side is the hottes When the shell side is the hottest. Another solution is to fabricate the upper tubesheet with a small vent tunnel inside. May. Horizontal cuts are best if the shell side stream is clean and single phase There will be less of the shell side stream bypassing through the tube pass lanes. This means horizontal cut. It takes a much lower metal temperature difference when the tube metal temperature is hotter than the shell metal temperature to require an expansion joint.002 for horizontal baffle cut. In this case. as possible. It is when the total Operating moment of the flange under pressure is equal to the gasket seating moment. Is an Expansion Joint Required in the Shell? March. you need to flow perpendicular to these pass lanes for minimum by-passing of the shell stream. If pressure drop is not a consideration and TEMA requirements are met and vibration is not a problem then the above calculated distanc could be reduced. It may be possible to use horizonta cut in certain boiling applications. According to the TEMA procedure for evaluating this stress. this can cause corrosion problems. Other possibilities are arranging multiple exchangers in parallel Increasing Capacity of Existing Shell & Tube Exchangers July. 1998 A fixed tube sheet exchanger does not have provision for expansion of the tubing when there is a difference in metal temperature between the shell and tubing. Besides the poor heat transfer in this region. refer to “Calculate Shell Nozzle Pressure Drop” in the calculation Tab of this Workbook. Since in a multi-tube pass exchange there will be more horizontal tube pass lanes than vertical pass lanes. When this temperature difference reaches a certain point. May. 1997 To increase heat transfer check out using low fins or other special tubing. Where you do not want to use horizon cut is when there is either condensing or where there is the possibility of foreign material being in the flowing stream It is suggested to use a maximum fouling factor of 0. an expansion joint in the shell is required to relieve the stress. it is because the maximum allowable tube Compressive stress has been exceeded. Using multiple connections that are smaller is one solution. When an increase in capacity will cause excessive pressure drop. One place where venting is especially a problem is underneath the tubesheet of a vertical exchanger. If there is no impingement plate this distance should be 1/6 or more of the nozzle I. Typically. For high-pressure flanges. Investigate the relatively inexpensive modification of reducing the number of tube passes.nozzle I. you may not have to junk the heat exchangers. Usually if an expansion joint is required. For low-pressure flanges. Vertical Baffle Cut in S & T Exchangers December. 2001 In shell and tube heat exchangers it is safer from a thermal design standpoint to use vertical baffle cuts but horizontal cuts have an advantage in certain situations.

0" x 16 BWG avg. August. But this type of protection has some drawbacks. Snap-on tube protectors on top of the tubes in the first 2 or 3 rows Small angle iron types setting on top of the tubes in the first 2 or 3 rows Vapor belt September. However. One solution is to design a “no tubes in window” (NTIW) exchanger. A long tube span has a low natural frequency and is prone to vibration. Plate within a nozzle enlarger Solid rods instead of tubes for the first 2 or 3 rows.62. 1998 Use concrete reinforcing rods inserted inside the tubes to increase the heat transfer and tube velocity. In the eighth edition the maximum values can be found on page 35. Consider by-pass strips if the bundle to shell clearance is more than 3/4 inches and the shell fluid is mostly sensible heat transfer. Other types of impingement protection are: 1. Removing tubes leaves an open area where the shell fluid can flow either over or under the bundle. 5. A typical case is using 3/8" rods inside a 3/4" x 14 BWG tube. Using Rods for Tube Inserts to Increase Heat Transfer Shell Side Impingement Protection There may be tube vibration or erosion if the shell-side fluid velocity is above a maximum value. This design has no tubes in the baffle cut out.61 & 4. A careful analysis should be made if the temperature difference across the pass plate is more than 300 oF. 4. you have to be able to stand the increase in pressure drop. It is a quick and economical solution. The worst case is a shell and tube exchanger with two (2) tube passes where a gasket is used to seal between the passes.and higher. 1996 Warning! Large tube side temperature change. 2. The most common impingement protection is a plate baffle that is slightly above the tube bundle. Special S & T Exchanger Type (NTIW) When to Consider By-pass Strips in S & T Bundle Use a by-pass strip if tubes are removed under a nozzle. Another example is a 1. 3. A big difference between the inlet and outlet temperature of the tube side causes leakage and bypass problems. December.5. For a channel type that has a welded in pass plate. wall tube where the heat transfer goes up by a factor of 1. make an What is too Large a Temperature Change in 2 Tube Passes? . The tube side heat transfer coefficient is increased by a factor of 1. the natural frequency of the tubes can be raised considerably to resist vibration.7. It has a relatively higher pressure drop than most other methods and the tubes on the first several rows tend to vibrate. In this case. It goes up by a factor of 9.5. Especially consider by-pass strips if the shell liquid is a hydrocarbon with an average viscosity greater than 1 centipoise and the tube fluid has a high heat transfer coefficient (example water). These values can b found in TEMA section RCB-4. By using intermediate supports between baffles. This can lead to long unsupported tube lengths for some applications. a 5 to 10% increase in heat duty can be achieved by installing by-pass strips. This is usually done only in clean services.17 and the pressure drop by a factor of 3. 1998 A shell & tube heat exchanger with normal segmental baffles has tubes that miss every other baffle.

. Water in the tube-side Use the higher of the tube-side design temperature or tube-side outlet temperature + 1/3 of the LMTD. Design Temperatures of Carbon Steel and Low Alloy Tubes and Tubesheets Use the higher of the shell-side and tube-side design temperatures up to 650 F. The longitudinal baffle can be fabricated in one of two ways. 1999 Some heat exchanger specifications for shell and tube heat exchangers mention square pitch but do not specifically mention rotated square pitch. Frequently the shell size can be reduced when there will be heavier liquids on the shell side and the designer uses rotated square pitch. For air coolers. Design Temperatures of Nonferrous Tubes and Tubesheets Water in the shell-side Use the arithmetic average of the shell-side and tube-side design temperatures. The benefits for this type of tube pitch sometimes get lost because of this. Rotated Square Tube Pitch February. possible cures are:    Add a unit in series so each unit has a smaller temperature difference. Use one tube pass if the penalty isn't too great.analysis if the temperature difference is more than 450 oF. Spray an insulating material like Ryton on the longitudinal baffle. Longitudinal Baffle Heat Conduction Cures With a longitudinal baffle and a long temperature range there can be a problem with heat conduction through the longitudinal baffle. Rotated square pitch gives better mixing of the shell fluid and better heat transfer for the heavier fluids. There will be a loss of thermal efficiency due to the heat conduction. At higher design temperatures use the arithmetic average of the 2 design temperatures. Leaving an small enclosed air gap between two longitudinal baffles. use a split headers design. 2. Engineers with little thermal design experience who are trying to strictly adhere to the specifications may reject this type of tube pitch. 1. If this temperature difference causes an over stressed condition.

e and the designer uses a new S & T heat exchanger: the thermal efficiency been taken into consideration.ch but do not specifically ng to strictly adhere to the metimes get lost because for the heavier fluids. to should be ¼ or more of the . s. sted in the shop after fabrication. t enhancing the heat transfer. or laminar flow in new heat be used in existing heat hanged depends on whether can be as much as a 50% diameter for ators in small tubes. Be sure you know which re there are three different ducing two double segmental r kind has only three pieces ritical for applications like ce from the nozzle I. affle is more than 7 to 8 psi.D.

a multi-tube pass exchanger pendicular to these pass do not want to use horizontal being in the flowing stream. be possible to use horizontal ere is a difference in metal tain point.zzle I. If pressure drop is he above calculated distance where the nozzle is beyond e Pressure Drop” in al baffle cuts but horizontal m is clean and single phase. This is normally se in capacity will cause atively inexpensive tiple exchangers in parallel. it is to the TEMA procedure be span. on joint is required. as possible. ment of the flange under ould be as close to the bolt I. In this proximately 750 psi . an expansion difference when the tube Typically. an all steel n the tube side is the hottest.D. where venting is especially will always be a space above his can cause corrosion Using multiple connections a small vent tunnel inside.D.

However. value.5. This can lead al frequency and is prone design has no tubes in the e tubes can be raised area where the shell fluid ll fluid is mostly sensible osity greater than 1 ase.0" x 16 BWG a factor of 3. you have to ple is a 1. But this type of ethods and the tubes on her baffle.be velocity. bundle. It is a quick ng 3/8" rods inside a . These values can be be found on page 35. make an . a 5 to 10% increase let temperature of the er with two (2) tube de if the temperature in pass plate.

e and the designer uses conduction through the of the LMTD.causes an over stressed ch but do not specifically ng to strictly adhere to the metimes get lost because for the heavier fluids. .

MaxTg = 1. 2002 In waste heat applications.8 inches of water April. This will determine the preliminary duct dimensions and starting face areas of any economizers and superheaters.021 o F 300 o F. (Flow / 2.0.090 . Otherwise.400 oF.D. . Face area = Where: Flow = Exhaust Gas flow = Where face area is in square feet. use a maximum of 5 fins per inch. The designer needs to know the source of the waste heat gas so that he can make a decision on what fin spacing to us Choosing Fin Spacing HRSG Nozzle Size For an estimate of the nozzle size entering and leaving a HRSG unit use: D= Where: D= Flow = 0.23 Btemp = Where MaxTg = maximum gas temperature Btemp = water boiling temperature = 1. tubing with 1 inch fins and 6 to 7 fins/inch.000 lbs/hr 0. Usually there will be soot if fuels heavier than diesel fuel are fired.000 lbs/hr This is based on a total of 0. This is based on the typical 2 inch O. The tubing is arranged on 4 1/8 inch triangular pitch Maximum Exhaust Gas Temperature for Steel Fin Tubes Here is an approximation of the maximum exhaust temperature for steel fin tubes when generating steam. 2002 diameter of nozzle Gas flow = 1.June. 2001 The starting point in the design of a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) is the face area. For very dirty gases the fin spacing can be as low as 2 fins per inch.D. the fin spacing depends not only on the heat transfer but the cleanliness of the exhaust gas If the gas is fouled from soot or other fine particulates. tubing with 1 inch high fins.14 x (flow)1/2 = 4. the fins would need to be the more expensive 409 SS material.500) = 1.40 ft2 Face Area for HRSG Units This is based on using 2 inch O.350 to 1. When to Use Bare Tubes in Waste Heat Boilers Use bare tubes if the bundle is quite small or the gas temperature is greater than 1.43 inches April.

al 2 inch O.the exhaust gas. .D. rty gases the l are fired. in spacing to use. determine triangular pitch.

The tube vibration that results from the flashing of steam amplifies the stress that causes stress corrosion cracking. 1999 Normally it is OK to use 304SS when cooling water with low chloride content is flowing inside U-tubes. But if for some reason the operating pressure drops to saturation there can be corrosion problems.June. Cooling Water Flowing Inside 304SS U-tubes .

bes. But if for ration that .

Lamaflex) Long Baffle is Used Four thin (0. Because of their flexibility. For 90 deg. A simpler method is to add 10% for each 0. 1999 One way would be to add a small amount to the tube diameter.0 Allowable Pressure Drop Suggestions Allowable Shell Side Pressure Drop if a Multi-leaf (a. sq. The name of the article is “More Accurate Exchanger Shell-Side Pressure Drop Calculations”.0 to 5. Ncw = Effective number of tube rows crossed in baffle window .2 for a fouling factor of 0. Refer to the article for more detail.64. This has a complex effect that is not linear in nature. they are not able to withstand large shell side pressure drops.001 increase in fouling factor. 2002 If you are at a loss as to what allowable pressure drop to specify. psi 3 to 5 8 to 10 0.008”) stainless strips are normally used to seal the sides of the long baffle. 3.0 to 5. The equation improves the accuracy of the shell side pressure drop. Better Baffle Window Pressure Drop Equation A new baffle window pressure drop equation has been published in the June 2004 issue of Hydrocarbon Processing.5 1 2 3 3.5 psi being the maximum. Triangular. 1.k. The equation has the following form: KP = Pressure loss coefficient for velocity head equation fi = Friction factor for ideal tube bundle C1 = Constant based on the type of tube layout For 30 deg.Calculating Fouled Pressure Drop There are various ways to account for fouling when calculating pressure drop. Triangular. Then multiply this factor by the clean pressure drop. You would use a pressure drop factor of 1. For 60 deg. March. Square.29. 2. rotated. The article can be found on this page with the subject “Heat Exchanger Articles Published by Dale Gulley”. For 45 deg.2.a. here are some suggestions: Fluid and Condition Gas Liquid Change of phase Boiling: Condensing operating pressure Less than atmospheric Atmospheric to 25 psi 25 to 50 psi 50 to 150 psi 150 psi + Allowable Pressure Drop.0 psi for greater than 10 % vapor 1.79 estimated. It is best to limit the pressure drop to 5 psi with 7. 2.5 to 1.0 psi for less than 10 % vapor 0.002. August.

000 lb/hr with a density of 62.4 ΔPw = 12.78 October.04)/44.25 ID nozzle. There are 7 baffles and 26% baffle cut.0 psi psi This would be a good estimate if advantage is not taken of the increase in heat transfer. 36” Average flow of 990. For a better estimate of the new pressure drop.000108 x (890.96) -2(11/44. Since the increased number of tube passes gives a higher velocity and increases the calculated heat transfer coefficient.75 in.0) Sl = Total of leakage areas (in2) Sw = Net flow area in baffle window (in2) EXAMPLE: This is taken from the first experimental case in “A Reappraisal of Shellside Flow in Heat Exchangers HTD-Vol.5 (#/sqft-sec) ΔPw = Kp x 0.1025 Ncw = 5. Refer article elsewhere on this site for equation. Effect of 1st Tube Rows on Shell Nozzle Pressure Drop Usually when shell-and-tube heat exchangers are designed.2 D = 1 since the fractional baffle cut is 26% Kp = 0.96 Sl = 11. the tube layout is made so that the shell entrance area is . add 25% if the heat transfer is all sensible heat.47)2) ) Kp = 1.25 in.33 x 0. on a tube pitch of 0. and the OTL is 22. The use of fewer tubes increases the new pressure drop.2 x5. The shell ID is 23.9375 in.5 NPASS = New number of tube passes = 4 OPASS = Old number of tube passes = 2 2 Designing Better Use of Tube Pressure Drop 12. It varies with baffle cut. the estimated pressure drop with increased number of tube passes is: 3 New tube DP = DP x (NPASS/OPASS) = Where DP = Previous Pressure drop 1. The following are taken from a tip in this section named “Improve Shell Side Pressure Drop Calculations” fi = 0. the number of tubes to be used will decrease.000108 x Gw /ρ ΔPw = 1.5)2 x 7/62.4 lb/ft3 is flowing through a 13. 1999 When the calculated pressure drop inside the tubes is under-utilized.0 Sw = 44.1025 ( (2.33 Gw = (990000 x 0.47 = 890.375 in. with 30 degree layout. The tube OD is 0.47 C1 for a 30 degree layout is 2.D= Distortion factor for ideal fluid stream. (Baffle cuts from 24% to 29% (fractional) have a distortion factor of 1.

012 2. this is usually not enough. psi 5 25 50 Exchanger surface 2 ft 4. April. Other types of heat exchangers can be designed with a single tube pass but they can have more operating problems.419 You can see that using 25 psi pressure drop reduced the surface by nearly one-half. This is close to being true only for the bundle. use rods or tube protectors in top rows instead of a plate. you can refer to the tip “Calculate Shell Nozzle Pressure Drop” in this Workbook.5 cP. the pressure drop was 3 times higher than that calculated with just the nozzle flow area.approximately equal to the shell nozzle flow area. Maximum Velocity Inside Tubes An estimate for maximum tube velocity inside steel tubes . The effect on the calculated surface was as follows: Allowable tube pressure drop. Fixed Tube Sheet Exchanger and High Shell Side Pressure Drop Impingement Rods Specifying Pressure Drop for Heavy Liquids Inside Tubes Frequently process engineers specify 5 or 10 psi for allowable pressure drop inside heat exchanger tubing. The pressure drop can be further reduced by using axial nozzles that are on the exchanger centerline. 1999 Usually you will see the allowable pressure drop on the specification sheet for the shell side of a kettle reboiler to be stated as “nil”. For heavy liquids that have fouling characteristics. The following example illustrates how allowab pressure drop can have a big effect on the surface calculation. This keeps the pressure drop down because there are no tubes in the vicinity to provide a restriction. For more information. A propane chiller was cooling a gas treating liquid that had an average viscosity of 7. This eliminates large turning pressure drop losse January. It is best to locate the inlet nozzle on the side of the kettle and above the bundle. 1997 When shell pressure drop is critical and impingement protection is required. 2000 When there is a design problem meeting the allowable shell side pressure drop. reverse the stream sides. the unit can be designed with one (1) tube pass.0 for the pressure drop calculation for the shell nozzle entrance. This is especially true if there is a relatively higher heat transfer coefficient on the outside of the tubing. In a case of a 6” shell nozzle and where no tubes were omitted in a BEM type heat exchanger. There are cases where the fouling excludes using turbulators and using more than the customary tube pressure drop is cost effective. An impingement plate causes an abrupt 90 degree turn of the shell stream which causes extra pressure drop. Since it is a fixed tube sheet exchanger. The inlet and outlet kettle nozzles will have a definite pressure drop. This would result in a price reduction for the heat exchanger of approximately 40%. This savings offset the cost of the pumping power. the nozzle entrance pressure drop can be significantly higher than the normal calculation based on the nozzle flow area. If the shell nozzles are greater than 2” and some tubes are not omitted from the tube layout.104 1. The average distance to the 1st tube row is Dn/4 where Dn is the inside diameter of the shell nozzle. These create less pressure drop and better distribution than an impingement plate. Kettle Pressure Drop July. In this case the pressure loss coefficient is 1.

00 lb/cu ft.622) 4. .5(Ds-OTL) in. Kn = Pressure loss coefficient OTL= Outer tube limit diameter in. on a tube pitch of 0. and the OTL is 22.Vmax = 80 / sqrt(density) = Where Vmax = maximum fluid velocity Density = fluid density = 10.0 h = 0. Calculate Shell Nozzle Pressure Drop Shell nozzle pressure drop calculation methods are difficult to find in the open literature. If the bundle entrance area is equal to or greater than the inlet nozzle flow area.65 +2. Dt = Tube outside diameter in.58. Vs = velocity in the entrance/exit area (ft/sec) EXAMPLE 990.14 (FR -0. ID nozzle. ΔPn = Kn x . us a pressure loss coefficient of 0. all others use 1.4) (minimum Kn = 0.25 in.375 in. and recirculati Because of this. If there is an impingement plate.25 in.5 velocity heads for sharp edge expansion/contraction edges. Shell Entrance or Exit Area: 1. The nozzle pressure drops are difficult to predict accurately. The shell ID is 23. with 30 degree layout.8.7854Dn2 (Pt -Dt)/(F2 x Pt) 3. Kn = 0. Pt = Tube center to center pitch in.8) 6. bundle bypassing.75 in.000 lb/hr with a density of 62. F2 = 0. maximum = 1.621 & 4. there will have to be added a turning loss to the calculation below. There is a complex flow pattern of a tube matrix. If the bundle exit area is equal to or greater than the exit nozzle area. Calculate the bundle bypass area Sb = π x Dn x h 2.(As) As = Sb + Aslot (refer TEMA RGP-RCB-4. Calculate ratio of Sb to total area FR = Sb/As 5. The following procedure is for the situation where the nozzle flow area is greater than the entrance or exit area and the bundles do not have an impingement plate. If the two shell side nozzles are not the same size calculate the inlet pressure drop and take 2/3 of it and make a separate calculated pressure drop for the outlet and take 1/3 of it. Calculate the slot area Aslot = 0. use a pressure loss coefficient of 1.9375 in. Ds = Shell ID in. There are indications that it should be larger.0. it is possible to have pressure loss coefficients greater than the customary 1. The tube OD is 0.707 for 45 degree pitch. Calculate the shell entrance and exit area.000108Vs2 x density (ΔPn = total of both nozzles) where ΔPn = Total nozzle pressure drop (lb/ft2) Dn = Nozzle ID in.2 ft/sec 62.4 lb/ft3 is flowing through a 13.

8 x 0.4)= 13.4 = 1. 36 Average flow of 990.50(23.375 in. Both of these methods can be found elsewhere on this web page. and the OTL is 22.375)= 0.81 Calculate FR FR = 18.Calculate Sb h = 0.75)/(1. The shell ID is 23.23 Calculate Aslot Aslot = 0.23 + 27.5 total pressure loss coefficient and the nozzle flow area gives only 0.000 lb/hr with a density of 62. Taborek) Nc = 13.729 ft.4 lb/ft3 is flowing through a 13.536 Re = 40.25 x 0. The effective tube length is 11.9375-0.4375 = 18.14(0.8) Calculate nozzle pressure drop Vs = (990000 x 0.25 in.Ideal tube bank correlation ( J.852 x 62.81 x 62.85 ΔPn = 0. There are 7 baffles and 26% baffle cut From the following the cross flow pressure drop is calculated: Bs = 17. The baffle window pressure drop in the open literature is a function only of the number of tubes crossed and the velocity in the window. The tube OD is 0. When there are no tubes removed under the shell nozzles and the nozzles are large. It does not take into account a friction factor.00 x .615 .04)/(45. type of tube pattern or fluid eddies.6 in fi = 0.81 = 0. using the nozzle flow area can result in wrong pressure drop calculations.4375 Sb = π x 13.03 psi Comment .7854(13. with 30 degree layout.9375)= 27.65 +2.58 Calculate total area As As = Sb + Aslot = 18.4 Calculate Kn Kn = 0.25 ID nozzle.23/45.21 PSI Improve Shell Side Pressure Drop Calculations The shell side pressure drop calculation can be improved by better equations for the baffle window and the nozzle pressure drops.75 in.4) = 0.4 -0.249 Rl = 0. on a tube pitch of 0.9375 in. This is taken from the first experimental case in “A Reappraisal of Shell side Flow in Heat Exchangers HTD-Vol.65 (use minimum 0.75 Rb = 0.1025 .Using 1.58 = 45.252) (0.000108 x 13.25-22.

78 +1.ΔPc = 6.3 psi .2 psi Experimental = 20.41 psi ΔPshell = ΔPc + ΔPw + ΔPn From other tips: ΔPw = 12.78 ΔPn = 1.03 = 20.41 +12.03 ΔPshell = 6.

The article can be The equation improves the has the following form: . this factor by the clean g Baffle is Used ecause of their flexibility. e drop to 5 psi with Hydrocarbon Processing. ns”.that is not linear in nature.

nozzle.elsewhere on this site for Exchangers HTD-Vol. 36”. op Calculations” e drop with increased ince the increased number . the number of tubes to er estimate of the new the shell entrance area is . The shell ID is with 30 degree layout.

In a case of a ure drop was 3 times refer to the tip “Calculate de of a kettle reboiler to le nozzles will have a ve the bundle. For heavy the fouling excludes using s especially true if there is a mple illustrates how allowable ing a gas treating liquid would result in a price e pumping power. This e stream sides. xchanger tubing.w is Dn/4 where Dn is the pressure drop calculation t. the nozzle entrance low area. . An pressure drop. Since it is of heat exchangers can sure drop can be further turning pressure drop losses. be protectors in top pingement plate.

58. zzles are not the same size.The nozzle pressure drops e bypassing.25 in.0. 1. and . and recirculation. drop for the outlet and hell ID is 23. efficient of 0. There are nozzle flow area is greater s an impingement plate.5 velocity heads for sure loss coefficient of 1.

on a tube pitch . 36”. nozzle.window and the nozzle tubes crossed and the or fluid eddies.75 in. the nozzle flow area can t Exchangers HTD-Vol. The shell ID is s 0.

Adding a distributor belt on the shell would be a very good solution but it is expensive. Make sure that impingement plate is very secure. use double or triple segmental baffles. 1997 Bundle vibration can cause leaks due to tubes being cut at the baffle holes or tubes being loosened at the tubesheet jo There are services that are more likely to cause bundle vibration than others are. 6. The former is the b Another cure is to use a de-resonating baffle. shell side velocity and tube OD. use either 30 degree triangular pitch or square rotated pitch. The 30° triangular tube pitch has a significantly lower Strouhal number than other tube pitch types. Then you can use as many baffle supports as necessary with very little effect on shell pressure drop. Use a tube/baffle clearance of 1/64. The cure for removable bundles. Another service that sometimes causes bundle vibration is water in the shell side. if extra precautions on bundle design are not taken. this is the best solution. The Strouhal number is a constant comp of the vortex shedding frequency. design for lower cross flow velocity with special baffles. This is especially true if the baffle spacing is greater than 18 inches and single segmental type. This will lower the vortex sh frequency which is a direct function of something called a Strouhal number. This not only lowers the velocity but the closer resulting baffle spacing increases the natural frequency of the bundle. If a slight decrease in heat transfer is not a problem. May. encircle the U-bends with a band or heavy wire and squeeze the tubes together. 2000 The cure depends upon whether it is flow induced or acoustical type vibration. Therefore. The unsupported lengths in the end zones are normally longer than those in the rest of the bundle. If a U-tube bundle has a vibration problem in the bend area. Another solution is to add a shell nozzle opposite the inlet so as to cut the inlet fluid velocity in half. a vibration problem can develop later when the exchanger goes into operation. 2. Use thicker baffles. where the vibration is not severe. 3. Using Barrington . the unsupported length can be 4 to 5 feet. Cures for Vibration in Existing Bundle Best Design Feature to Prevent Bundle Vibration In designing a shell-and-tube heat exchanger. For non-removable bundles.Features of a New S & T bundle to Replace Bundle That Vibrated 1. Another possibility is to use a “No Tubes in Baffle Window” design. 5. The most likely service to cause vibration is a single-phase gas operating at a pressure of 100 to 300 PSI. In a few cases. To do this. Use thicker tubes. Both types can be cured by using a lower cross flow velocity across the bundle. Normally this only needs to be done with the first few tube rows. Use closer baffle/shell clearance. is to stiffen the bundle. Vibration Cure When Designing Shell & Tube Bundles If the vibration is the acoustical type. 7. For 3/4 inch tubes. If possible. Conditions Likely to Cause Shell & Tube Bundle Vibration September. metal slates or rods can be inserted between the tubes. putting the problem stream inside the tubes would be be May. 4. Water has a relatively higher momentum than other most fluids. 1997 Most flow-induced vibration occurs with the tubes that pass through the baffle window of the inlet zone. If tubes are low fins. have the tubing bare where it goes through the baffles. use a 30o triangular tube pitch if possible. This can be done by inserting metal slats or rods between the tubes under the nozzles.

But for 60o rotated triangular tube pitch t Strouhal number is 0.81.for 3/4 inch tubes on 30o triangular tube pitch the Strouhal number is 0.21. .

the n is not severe. The dle. t likely service to cause y true if the baffle spacing s bundle vibration is water ore. This not only of the bundle. eavy wire and squeeze his will lower the vortex shedding number is a constant composed ch types. For 3/4 inch tubes. The former is the best. oosened at the tubesheet joint. Another affle supports as necessary d pitch. Normally this le opposite the inlet so as Adding a distributor belt erted between the tubes. is to stiffen nozzles. Using Barrington as a source. if extra precautions on es into operation. .can be cured by using affles. nside the tubes would be better. the inlet zone.

tated triangular tube pitch the .

Jan. The Oil & Gas Journal. 4.0 ft/sec. pressure Otherwise. 1964 7. Hydrocarbon Processing. How do you tell if the flow is annular? It will be when the superficia gas velocity is above the following value: VgMax = 72 -148VL +100 VL 2 = 1. amines and glycols. The Oil & Gas Journal. put the stream in the tubes with the highest value of the following: (#//hr)(#/hr)/op. You may be able to justify a higher conductivity value and thus a higher heat transfer coefficien by using an independent and reliable correlation for the calculation. weights about the same and a small temperature difference. July 1960 Copies of the articles are available in . 3. Sept. where VL = the superficial liquid velocity = 5. Petroleum Refiner. the stream with the highest pressure drop is usually best put in the tube side. the fluid doesn't readily flow from the gap between the tube fins.pdf format Avoid These Fluids When Using Low fin Tubing When a fluid has a high surface tension. Check Liquid Thermal Conductivity at High Reduced Temperatures . This is true unless the design pressure is so high for the shell side that there would be material problem High pressure drop instead of high design pressure is opposite of conventional thinking. July 1966 "How to Figure True Temperature Difference in Shell-and-Tube Exchangers". This includes such fluids as condensing steam. 2. Petroleum Refiner. If there are gas streams on both sides with mol. 6. Hydrocarbon Processing.1974 "Computer Programs aid Design Work". "More Accurate Exchanger Shell-and-Tube Pressure Drop Calculations". July 1962 8.1969 "How to Calculate Weighted MTD's". Then there is a relatively thin liquid film and littl vapor in contact with the heat transfer surface. aqueous solutions with a high % of water. This adds resistance and lowers the heat transfer. Use Superficial velocities to Calculate Best Heat Transfer Flow Pattern The best heat transfer occurs when there is an annular flow pattern. calculate the little more difficult term Vel x Vel x Density term for each side and put the stream with the highest value in the tubes. Examine carefully the liquid thermal conductivity when its reduced temperature is above approximately 0. 13. September 1996 "Computers help Design Tubesheets".0 November. Allocation of Streams in Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger Articles Published by Dale Gulley 1. The types of fluids that are to be avoided are those whose surface tension is above 30 to 40 dynes/cm. 14. "Make This Correction Factor Chart to Find Divided Flow Exchanger MTD".May. Petro/Chem Engineer.70. 2000 There have been instances where process simulators have given results where the liquid thermal conductivity was nearly the same as the vapor thermal conductivity when the reduced temperature was still significantly lower than the critical temperature. 1998 For those exchangers that need countercurrent flow. The Oil & Gas Journal. "Use Computers to Select Exchangers". 5.832. June 2004 "Troubleshooting Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers". May 20.

4 September. If the shell size is a least 2 sizes smaller (pipe size). If both are not available. Provide a way to control the flow of the heat medium in a new plant. it is better to have the drawings. Is the piping connected to the correct sides? It may be piped-up backwards. The worst case is when the shell side has a viscosity more than approximately 3 cP and there is no extra heat transfer enhancement inside the tubing. It is important that the heat content at dew points or bubble points be shown. When Will Exchangers With Low-fins be More Economical Than Exchangers With Bare Tubes? 1. The quickest solution is to either plug the tubes or put an orifice in the outlet vapor line to restrict the flow. “The thermal guarantee shall not be applicable to exchangers where the thermal performance was made by the purchaser”. 2002 Excess surface does not always mean being safe. chances are that the dew points and bubble points will be missed. 2. or freezing of condensa Vaporization services and reboilers can particularly be a problem. Then the liquid feed rushes in to replace it which results in pulsations that may give downstream problems.D. Then this is used with the new process data to evaluate the new service This procedure will not be as accurate as having the exact baffling but it is the best you can do if this is all you have to work with.July. it will void the guarantee. Excess Heat Exchanger Surface Problems March. the boiling temperature difference may be so high that there is complete flashing of the liquid into vapor. If equal increments of heat load or temperatures are used. when piped to the tube side. 3. It can lead to control problems. What are most often missing on older heat exchangers are the bundle drawings. In an existing installation without control. 2000 The best information to have for a shell and tube heat exchanger is a specification sheet and a full set of drawings. If the heat exchanger is to be built to TEMA requirements. For more information on . When (total shell resistance/total tube resistance) is greater than 0. Purchasing Shell & Tube Exchangers Minimum Velocity inside Tubing for Slurries The minimum velocity for slurries inside tubes for shell-and-tube is 4 ft/sec. you need the original specification sheet. This is because they are more accurate on the mechanical details and they have tube layout details and seal bar information that the specification sheet does not have. to be in laminar flow with its low heat transfer coefficient. when using low-fins 4. This could cause the fluid. 2002 When a heat exchanger is installed and it is not achieving the desired heat duty. If there are fewer exchangers. Check Piping Connections When There is Under-performance September. This is for a fine material like a catalyst For slurries there is a special Reynolds number used for calculating the settling velocity. Then you can use its data and simulate the shell side heat transfer and pressure drop by running a thermal design Program to get a baffle configuration. pulsations. If the shell size is at least 14" O. the first thing to check is the piping. In this case. Evaluating a Shell & Tube Exchanger For a New Service Check Heat Release Curves for Skipping Over Dewpoints & Bubblepoints Frequently process engineers specify tabular heat release data that skips over dew points and bubble points.2 says. The last line of paragraph G5. 2001 It is to the benefit of purchasers of shell and tube heat exchangers to not insist on applying their design.

where the long baffles can be welded in. Natural gas flows less than 1. Suggestions for Low-Fins and Potential S & T Bundle Vibration Shell & Tube or Multi-Tube? Thermal Evaluation of Long Baffles Trouble-Shooting Article Undersurfaced S&T Quote When a vendor’s heat exchanger quote is under-surfaced. 3. It gives helpful information on diagnosing problems. If U-tubes. are Fixed Tube Sheets or U-Tubes. It is a correction applied to the LMTD.D. 2002 Tube bundles are more likely to vibrate if there is not a close clearance between the tubes and baffles. 1997 It is best to use Multi-tube (Hairpin) Exchangers instead of Shell & Tube when: 1. Specify a tight tube hole tolerance. 4. The exchanger types. 2. Then the bundles can be removed. how many? 2. the number of tube passes must be a multiple of four. pressure) August. 2 Fluid by-pass around the long baffle. use an exchanger type where the long baffle is seal welded to the shell in order to avoid bypassing of the shell fluid. Other designs use multi-leaf long baffles for two shell passes. smaller than the bare ends. the amount of shell fluid bypassing the bundle must be calculated. The title is “Troubleshooting Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers”. 1996 To find out more about heat exchangers. the same as the bare ends.D. June. Since these cannot make a perfect seal. the following should be asked: 1.000 lbs/hr. Purchase tubing that has a fin O. You require a small surface (less than 400 square feet). May. root(oper. This should be done with a full penetration weld.200 X Sq. 2. 3. October. There is a calculation method by Whistler. 1997 The two thermal design problems associated with using two shell passes and a longitudinal baffle in Shell and Tube heat exchangers are: 1 Heat conduction through the baffle. Are there seal strips? If so. Specify the low-fin tubing be bare where it passes through baffling. Low-fins are more susceptible to vibration because of the valleys between the fins. Some suggestions if the design software shows that the bundle may vibrate are: 1. What tube hole clearance was used in the baffles . If possible. refer to chapter C11 in the piping handbook. Another factor that makes them susceptible is that some low-fins are manufactured with the fin O.slurries. The liquid flows are less than 150. see Dale Gulley's article in the 1996 September issue of Hydrocarbon Processing. There is a temperature cross in the heat transferred in a Shell & Tube.

normal cooling tower water For cooling water when velocity is 3 -8 ft/sec Fouling = 0.D.00 Heavy fuel oils .000 square feet of bare surface.025/V1.steam condensate.000 square feet. lube oil and heating oils If sp. This happens when the baffle spacing is close to the minimum.August.0010 0. This will be when there is a relatively low flow in the shell side and the shell stream has the lowest heat transfer coefficient. These thin flexible strips should be positioned so that they form a concave pattern and flex upward. The curve flattens at about 6. gravity At 60F less than 0. or H Type Shell? Has performance declined after the bundle has been pulled and later installed back in the shell? If the longitudinal long baffle is sealed on the sides with leaf seals. 2001 The cost curve for a shell and tube heat exchanger decreases with increasing surface. there are times when it is more economical to add a shell in series to the minimum configuration.0050 If sp.moutain water.67 Where V =ft/sec Fouling Factors for Liquid Hydrocarbons(hr-ft2-F/Btu) 0. they will press harder against the sides of the shell. Then.0020 steam.etc.0015 0. and the shell fluid will bypass the bundle.engine jacket water boiler feed water clean water. they are probably the problem.80 -0./5).87 -1.80. gravity At 60F 0. This is especially true if the exchanger is of a type where the long baffle can be welded to the shell (less likely to bypass fluid). G. consider using a long baffle for cost savings. Then adding a shell in series gives a higher velocity and a much better heat transfer because of the smaller flow area in the smaller required exchangers. the steam with the highest factor as calculated below goes inside the tubes: You can also use the following factor if both gases’ molecular weight and temperature are about the same on both sid Factor = (flow)2 / pressure Why Did the Performance Decline in a TEMA F. October. When to Add Shells in Series When to Consider a Long Baffle in the Shell Which Stream Goes Inside Tubes for Gas/Gas Exchangers? Factor = (flow)2 / density In a counter-current flow heat exchanger.0010 0.0005 0. when the shell fluid puts pressure on the leaves. If the first selection has multiple shells that are not countercurrent flow and each shell has less than 6.87 If sp.0020 0.the leaves will flex downward. However. The minimum for TEMA is (Shell I. Another possibility is that the leaf seals were damaged when the bundle was out of the shell.or if the bundle is installed upside down . If there is too much pressure . Fouling factors for water(hr-ft2-F/Btu) 0.0030 0. 2000 Usually you should design for the least number of shells for an item. gravity At 60F 0.

There is a method by A. Also the fluid could be placed in the shell side if cleanig isn't a problem. That is why you can see allowable pressure drops 2 or 3 times higher than usual. The fluids are usually petroleum based and have an API of 20 or less. . Mueller for calculating this minimum allowable pressure drop.Use More Pressure Drop Than Usual High viscosity fluids can have a problem achieving the design heat transfer.Viscous Flow . Another thing that can help is to use more tube passes and sho tubes than normal.C. Low pressure drops can cause maldistribution of the tubeside flow which in turn reduces the heat transfer.

14. July 1962 en the tube fins. f there are gas streams on ream in the tubes with the nd put the stream with the Processing. ely thin liquid film and little will be when the superficial November. em Engineer. Sept. 2000 ermal conductivity was significantly lower than the emperature is above her heat transfer coefficient . This adds whose surface tension is ns with a high % of water. June 2004 & Gas Journal.rop is usually best put in would be material problems.

What are ed the original specification p by running a thermal to evaluate the new service. For more information on . nd a full set of drawings. This ransfer coefficient. se is when the shell side ent inside the tubing. If the heat f paragraph G5. ol the flow of the heat e difference may be so high eplace it which results in e tubes or put an orifice in their design. “The as made by the purchaser”. fine material like a catalyst. ns.ing to check is the piping. or freezing of condensate. ccurate on the mechanical et does not have.2 says. n do if this is all you have January. 1998 nd bubble points. If equal ble points will be missed.

May. 2002 and baffles. Low-fins are makes them susceptible is uggestions if the design l baffle in Shell and Tube ssue of Hydrocarbon pful information on .

curve flattens at about ntercurrent flow and his is especially true if ypass fluid).imes when it is more e is a relatively low flow in hen the baffle spacing is series gives a higher uired exchangers. elow goes inside the tubes: about the same on both sides: hell? If the longitudinal n flexible strips should be d puts pressure on the or if the bundle is installed Another possibility is that .

a method by A.C. Mueller e more tube passes and shorter .usually petroleum based he heat transfer.

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N Channel integral with tubesheet H & removable cover.ms_office WorkSheet: TEMA Designations . like "B" stationary head. like "A" Stationary head. 2005 Rev: 0 Rear End Stationary Head A Channel and removable cover E One-pass shell L Fixed tubesheet.xls. packed floating head Page 282 of 327 FileName: 93186371. Shown: Removable Tube Bundle Split Flow Shell N Fixed tubesheet. like "C" stationary head.Art Montemayor TEMA DESIGNATIONS Front End Stationary Head Shell Type September 30. C Channel integral with tubesheet G & removable cover. Double split flow P Outside. B Bonnet (Integral Cover) F 2-pass shell with longitudinal baffle M Fixed tubesheet.

high-pressure closure J Divided shell flow S Floating head with backing device (split-ring) Conventional Front End Heads: A or.Art Montemayor September 30.xls. B K Other popular rear end head types employed: Kettle type of reboiler T Pull-through floating head U U-tube bundle design (No Rear Head Required) W Packed floating tubesheet with lantern ring Page 283 of 327 FileName: 93186371. 2005 Rev: 0 D Special.ms_office WorkSheet: TEMA Designations .

One Pass Shell. This is probably the least expensive of the shell-and-tube designs. Chemical cleaning can be used in the shell side.xls. However. Fixed Tubesheet Bonnet This is almost the same type of heat exchanger as the first BEM. BEM This is the same type of heat exchanger as shown above. Page 284 of 327 FileName: 93186371. with one-Pass Shell and a Fixed Tubesheet rear Bonnet Fixed tubesheet heat exchanger. The front head piping must be unbolted to allow front head removal. as can be expected. except it has only one tube pass AEM Channel with Removable Cover. the tradeoff is that this convenient feature makes it more expensive. then this can be avoided by applying a type A front head.ms_office WorkSheet: TEMA Designations . It is not possible to mechanically clean the outside surface of the tubes as these are fixed inside the shell. In that case only the cover needs to be removed. Shown is a version with one shell pass and two tube passes.Art Montemayor Some examples of the TEMA designation for Heat Exchangers are shown below: September 30. 2005 Rev: 0 BEM Front bonnet (Intergral Cover). This is a very popular version as the heads can be removed to clean the inside of the tubes. The removable cover allows the inside of the tubes to be inspected and cleaned without unbolting the piping. if this is undesirable.

Note that the bundle can not be pulled from the front end.September 30. Floating Head with Backing Device A floating head heat exchanger is excellent for applications where the difference in temperature between the hot and cold fluid causes unacceptable stresses in the axial direction. Also. between the shell and tubes. Various rear head design also exist that allow for tube bundle expansion.ms_office WorkSheet: TEMA Designations .xls. However. It is very difficult -and sometimes impossible to mitigate or compensate for the internal bolts tightening the internal bonnet to remain under constant. Note that the tube-side fluid can leak through the internal floating head cover gasket and mix (or contaminate) the shell-side fluid. If pulling from the front head is required a type AET should be selected. Additionally. A larger diameter shell can sometimes also present problems in a lower Reynolds number (yielding a lower heat transfer) and internal by-passing of the shell fluid around the baffles (this also reduces the effective heat transferred. be aware that any TEMA shell and tube design with a removable tube bundle feature has . must be disassembled. The chemical engineer has other options to apply when requiring mechanical expansion of a heat exchanger tube bundle. For maintenance both the front and rear end head. it is wise and prudent to be aware of the inherent trade-offs in this design. A "P" and "W" rear head design will also contribute this feature without the hazard of internal mixing (or contamination) of the two fluids. Hot fluid temperatures make the bolts expand and the result is a reduction in bolt torque and subsequent leaks through the bonnet gasket. The floating head can move. it is a common and expected occurance for maintenance crews to find the internal bolts badly rusted or corroded to the point where they have to be burned or sawed off in order to extract the "removable" tube bundle. steady torque.by nature . it provides the ability to allow tube expansion in the axial direction. Among these are the popular (and inexpensive) "U" tube bundle design. One Pass Shell.e. i. All these effects eventually lead to a bigger heat exchanger (more area and more tubes) in order to do a heat transfer operation. including the backing device. Page 285 of 327 FileName: 93186371.a larger shell diameter (& increased cost) due to the need to be able to pull the rear tubesheet the length of the exchanger's shell. 2005 Art Montemayor The maintenance feature of having a removable tube bundles requires an exchanger as the following: 0 Rev: AES Channel and Removable Cover.

Field results have shown that in most cases the tube bundle has resulted in being destroyed in order to remove it.such as the "F". these type of baffles permit the engineer to incorporate counter-flow heat transfer. By the basic need to establish effective shell-side flow around a longitudinal baffle. Additionally. the baffle should be seal-welded against the inner shell wall in order to ensure that there will be no internal. it has been found that the removable tube bundle with a longitudinal baffle is a non-practical device.xls. By splitting the shell-side flow. "G". if a longitudinal baffle is a process necessity. Firstly. In some heat recovery applications. one has to accept the obvious fact that a minimum of shell-side clearances can be tolerated. the application of longitudinal baffles should be always carefully scrutinized and used sparingly. Once having said and applied these facts. True counter-current heat transfer is as efficient a heat transfer configuration as an engineer can obtain. the welding necessity requires a minimum shell diameter and this winds up being applicable only to relatively large streams. by-pass leakage. 2005 Rev: 0 The employment of longitudinal baffles in heat exchangers .Art Montemayor Longitudinal Baffles . small baffle clearances mean extraordinary fabrication techniques and resultant super-human maintenance efforts to extract a removable tube bundle. some very important trade-offs involved in the application of longitudinal baffles. this is highly sought. This is especially true in partial vacuum process operations where a minimum of pressure drop can be tolerated. This extraordinary and desperate maintenance act labels such a design as non-practical. one then has to also accept that the required.their application and inherent problems September 30.can often resolve both heat transfer and fluid flow problems within the shell and tube exchanger used. There are. Their application can significantly increase the shell-side Reynolds Number and lead to more efficient shell-side heat transfer coefficients with a subsequent increase in heat transfer. This positive step negates the possibility of having a removable tube bundle. and "H" shell types .ms_office WorkSheet: TEMA Designations . Additionally. Page 286 of 327 FileName: 93186371. In far too many actual field cases. as would be expected. However. some applications can actually have a significant reduction in shell-side pressure drop.

019 889 765 551 477 964 858 746 530 460 882 772 688 466 406 904 802 688 486 414 852 744 660 444 384 844 744 634 442 368 826 720 632 426 362 790 694 576 400 334 796 692 608 404 344 35 1.D. 3/4" on 1" Square 1" on 1-1/4" Triang. 2) The Radius of Bend for the U-Tube bundles is equal to (2. 3/4" on 1" Square 1" on 1-1/4" Triang.ms_office WorkSheet: Tube Counts . 1" on 1-1/4" Square 3/4" on 15/16" Triang.. 3/4" on 1" Triang. & Pitch Fixed Tubes Fixed Tubes 3/4" on 15/16" Triang.269 1. 1" on 1-1/4" Square 3/4" on 15/16" Triang. 1" on 1-1/4" Square 3/4" on 15/16" Triang.024 912 778 560 476 976 852 748 508 440 964 852 224 514 430 944 826 718 488 420 902 798 662 466 388 916 796 692 464 396 37 1. 3/4" on 1" Square 1" on 1-1/4" Triang.106 964 818 586 484 1. 3/4" on 1" Square 1" on 1-1/4" Triang. 3/4" on 1" Square 1" on 1-1/4" Triang. 1" on 1-1/4" Square 3/4" on 15/16" Triang. D. 3/4" on 1" Square 1" on 1-1/4" Triang. Gulf Publishing Co.172 1.127 965 699 595 1.. 3/4" on 1" Triang. 2003 Rev: 0 Shell I.088 972 840 608 522 1. U Tubes 68 52 48 24 102 82 70 38 34 Page 287 of 327 FileName: 93186371. Houston. 3/4" on 1" Triang.126 1.024 880 638 534 1.008 882 778 532 464 1. 3/4" on 1" Triang. 3.).5) (Tube O. 3/4" on 1" Triang. 1" on 1-1/4" Square 3/4" on 15/16" Triang.092 968 852 584 500 1. 1" on 1-1/4" Square One-Pass 8 33 33 33 15 17 32 28 26 16 12 8 8 12 XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX 10 69 57 53 33 33 58 56 48 32 26 34 26 30 8 12 48 44 48 24 24 28 20 24 12 13-1/4 15-1/4 17-1/4 19-1/4 21-1/4 23-1/4 105 135 193 247 307 391 481 91 117 157 217 277 343 423 85 101 139 183 235 287 355 57 73 103 133 163 205 247 45 65 83 111 139 179 215 94 90 78 52 40 64 60 52 26 22 84 72 72 44 40 56 52 44 20 16 124 110 94 62 56 94 72 72 42 38 108 96 88 60 48 84 64 64 36 32 80 66 54 34 74 56 56 30 166 154 126 92 76 134 108 100 58 58 154 134 126 78 74 122 98 90 50 50 116 104 78 56 44 110 88 80 42 42 94 82 228 208 172 126 106 180 158 142 84 76 196 180 142 104 84 166 146 130 74 66 174 156 116 82 66 156 134 118 68 60 140 124 94 66 142 122 106 58 50 300 264 222 162 136 234 212 188 120 100 266 232 192 138 110 218 198 174 110 90 230 202 158 112 88 206 184 160 100 80 198 170 132 90 74 190 170 146 90 70 370 326 280 204 172 304 270 242 154 134 332 292 242 176 142 286 254 226 142 122 294 258 212 150 116 272 268 210 130 110 258 224 174 120 94 254 226 194 118 98 452 398 346 244 218 398 336 304 192 180 412 360 308 212 188 378 318 286 178 166 372 322 266 182 154 358 300 268 168 152 332 286 228 154 128 342 286 254 154 142 25 553 493 419 307 255 528 468 408 292 248 460 406 362 234 214 484 424 366 258 214 438 386 342 218 198 440 388 324 226 184 416 366 322 206 182 398 344 286 190 150 398 350 306 190 170 27 663 577 495 361 303 626 556 486 346 298 558 484 436 284 256 576 508 440 308 260 534 462 414 266 238 532 464 394 274 226 510 440 392 252 224 484 422 352 240 192 490 422 374 238 206 29 763 667 587 427 359 734 646 560 410 348 648 566 506 340 304 680 596 510 368 310 622 542 482 322 286 632 548 460 338 268 596 518 458 304 268 576 496 414 298 230 578 498 438 290 254 31 881 765 665 481 413 846 746 644 462 402 768 674 586 396 356 788 692 590 422 360 740 648 560 376 336 732 640 536 382 318 716 626 534 356 316 682 588 490 342 280 688 600 512 340 300 33 1. 1" on 1-1/4" Square 3/4" on 15/16" Triang. 1" on 1-1/4" Square 3/4" on 15/16" Triang.xls. 3/4" on 1" Triang. Vol.143 1.007 865 633 545 1. 3/4" on 1" Square 1" on 1-1/4" Triang. The actual number of U-tubes is 1/2 of the above figures.242 1. 3/4" on 1" Triang. 3/4" on 1" Square 1" on 1-1/4" Triang.032 908 792 540 456 Two-Pass Four-Pass Six-Pass Eight-Pass Fixed Tubes U Tubes Fixed Tubes U Tubes Fixed Tubes U Tubes Notes: 1) The above tube counts have an allowance made for Tie Rods.000 884 610 526 1. 3/4" on 1" Square 1" on 1-1/4" Triang. 3/4" on 1" Triang. Ludwig.040 902 760 542 438 1. 1" on 1-1/4" Square 3/4" on 15/16" Triang. D. p. 3/4" on 1" Triang. TX (1965) September 30.088 946 688 584 1.Art Montemayor Heat Exchanger Tube Sheet Layout Count Table Source: "Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants".058 940 820 562 478 1. inches Tube O.24 Ernest E.

t1 q.46 13. DTm w.950 M Btu/hr 2 o 100 Btu/hr . T1 Page 288 of 327 FileName: 93186371.98 W.98 o 70 F 2 562 Ft 1.5/(R-1) 1. Hot Side (T2) Exchanger Heat Duty Overall U. A.00 2 702 Ft 5.45 7. cp.69 [(RP-1)/(P-1)] 0. gpm 69 83 169 o o o o March 12.Art Montemayor HEAT EXCHANGER SUMMARY T in. Cp. Cold Side (t1) T out.14 2.62 0. Hot Side (T1) T out. CW Req'd @ 14 deg rise.26 0. T2 w. LMTD F Factor (see below) Adjusted LMTD Heat Transfer Area calculated Design contingency factor Over-design allowance Heat Transfer Area required 450 psig. 2001 Rev: 0 F F F 128 F 3.xls.38 1.14 0. t2 W.60 (R^2+1) 0. estimated Number of shell passes Number of tube passes Log Mean Temperature Difference.25 1.F 1 2 o 72 F 0. cp.93 (1/N) 0.163 lbs/hr 564 gpm Calculation of F Factor: P (or S) R Term 1 Px Term 2 Term 3 Term 4A Term 4B Term 4 F 0.Ft . U. Cold Side (t2) T in. Cp.ms_office WorkSheet: HX Design . Saturated Steam Req'd.

Corporation 1 Service 2 Location Project No. VIII. Montemayor SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER SPECIFICATION (English Units) Sheet 1 of 1 . Para.125 Carbon Steel Channel Cover Long Baffle * 0. PART THK. Unit P. 45° 60° 90° Av. Type 5 Surface/Unit 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 P&ID No. PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT SHELL SIDE lb/h lb/h lb/h lb/h lb/h lb/h lb/h ºF cP Other Ref. Appr. Design Pressure psig Test Pressure psig Design Temperature ºF Number of Passes per Shell In Connections Out Size & Intermediate Tubes: Type Number * OD 0. No.Cross: Type * Spacing * in.125 Carbon Steel Channel Cross Baffles * 0. Connected in Lean MEA Solution Cooler * * ft 2 3 Manufacturer 4 TEMA Size. Rev. Btu/h Log MTD (Uncorrected) ºF Log MTD (Corrected) * * Btu/ft2·h·ºF .125 Stainless Stl Fltg Head Cover Gaskets ---§ User Spec.75 in. X Min. Min. in.9375 in. No. Equipment No. Fluid Allocation Fluid Circulated Total Fluid Entering Vapor (In/Out) Liquid Steam Non-Condensables Fluid Vaporized or Condensed Steam Condensed Temperature Density. C. Rev 0 Date Description For Purchase By Chk.125 Carbon Steel Shell Cover Tube Supports * 0. * Vert.. Items marked with an asterisk (*) to be completed by Vendor. Gross Eff. Inlet Velocity Max. No. Clean CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS SHELL SIDE TUBE SIDE Sketch (Bundle.) Fouling Resistance Heat Exchanged Transfer Rate. Clean (Allow.A. Specific Gravity Viscosity Vapor Molecular Weight Specific Heat Thermal Conductivity Latent Heat Operating Pressure. Baffles . Tube-to-Tubesheet Joint Rolled and Seal Welded Baffles .: Stress Relieved (Mark "SR') and/or Radiographed (Mark 'XR') Parts Code Requirements: Stamp? Yes TEMA Class: ASME Sec.. in. Rev Date Description By Chk. Mfr Ref. Wall Tube Length in. in.O. Pressure Drop. Req'd Parallel ft 2 One Surface/Shell * Gross Eff. TUBE SIDE Btu/lb·ºF Btu/h·ft·ºF Btu/lb psig fps psi ft2·h·ºF/Btu . Tube Pitch 0./Calc. Tubes Floating Tubesheet Carbon Steel * ---Carbon Steel Shell Fixed Tubesheet * 0. Shells/Unit * Series No. in. MATERIAL§ MATERIAL§ Stainless Stl 16 BWG min.Long: Perm. C. Service Plot Plan No. 1 (1992) * * * Weights: Shell lb Filled with Water lb Bundle lb Remarks 1.A. * % Cut on Area X Diam. OD * in. Flow Pattern (circle one) Shell: ID * in. Dwg No. Removable Seal Type: Bypass Seal: * lb/ft·sec Bundle Entrance * lb/ft·sec Bundle Exit * lb/ft·sec rv2: Inlet Nozzle Expansion Joint? Yes Type: Impingement Protection? No X No X Yes PART THK. Appr. 16 BWG or 30° in. Nozzle Orientation) * ºF Btu/ft2·h·ºF . Transfer Rate. Model Horiz.

O. VIII. Rev.907 0. Montemayor PLATE & FRAME HEAT EXCHANGER SPECIFICATION (English Units) Sheet 1 of 1 .003 ft2·h·ºF/Btu Btu/h Log MTD (Uncorrected) Heat Exchanged 3.238 157. Service Transfer Rate. No.867 0. XYZ Rev Date Description By Chk. in.65 Vapor Molecular Weight ------------Btu/lb·ºF Specific Heat 0.365 Btu/lb Latent Heat ------psig Operating Pressure.03125 Carbon Steel 0.097.03125 Carbon Steel § 0. C. Equipment No. Req'd ft2 One One Connected in Effective Plot Plan No. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 Project No. of Plates Frame Capacity (Max.03125 End Cover Carrying Bar Carbon Steel * 0. Mfr Ref.03125 Plate Gaskets Frame Carbon Steel * 0. Para. of Plates) PART THK.0 X Max.0 1.0 ºF Log MTD (Corrected) * ºF Transfer Rate.929 0.7 0. Gross PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT HOT SIDE COLD SIDE Fluid Allocation Cooling Water Fluid Circulated lb/h Total Fluid Entering 31. Specific Gravity 0.03125 Carbon Steel 0.: Weights: Empty Frame * Remarks 1. C.0625 None In 3" 150# RF 6" 125# FF Connections Out 3" 150# RF 6" 125# FF Size & Intermediate ------lb/ft·s rv2.483 lb/h Steam ------------lb/h Non-Condensables ------------lb/h Fluid Vaporized or Condensed ------------lb/h Steam Condensed ------------ºF Temperature 235 120 90 105 Density.483 206.178 0.001 0. Inlet 75 60 fps Velocity Min.500 206. PART THK. DEF Appr.0 Btu/h·ft·ºF Thermal Conductivity 0.Corporation 1 Service 2 Location 3 Manufacturer 4 Size.500 31. 1 (1992) Yes Client Spec.995 0. No. Inlet/Outlet Impingement Protection? Yes No. psi Pressure Drop. Surface/Frame * Other Ref. in. 0. Appr.03125 Carbon Steel 0. No.160 0.76 0. MATERIAL§ MATERIAL§ Plates Connections Stnless Steel 16 BWG min.54 13. Type 5 Surface/Unit 6 P&ID No. Nozzle Orientation) Design Pressure psig 150 125 Test Pressure psig Code Code Design Temperature ºF 300 300 Number of Passes per Frame Two * Corrosion Allowance in. Clean (Allow.843 1..500 206. in. 1234567 Cooling Water Exchanger * *-* * ft2 Model * Frames/Unit * Single No.03125 Heat Conservation Stress Relieved (Mark "SR') and/or Radiographed (Mark 'XR') Parts OSHA Type Protective Shroud? Material: Carbon Steel Insulation: Yes Cleaning: Painting: Code Requirements: Stamp? ASME Sec. lb Filled with Water * lb Rev 0 Date Description 9-Dec-96 For Inquiry By ABC Chk. Clean * * Btu/ft2·h·ºF Btu/ft2·h·ºF CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS Allocation HOT SIDE COLD SIDE Sketch (Frame.A.483 lb/h Vapor (In/Out) ------------lb/h Liquid 31. No. Items marked with an asterisk (*) to be completed by Vendor. in./Calc.A. 0. 8.) 10 * 10 * Fouling Resistance 0..992 cP Viscosity 0. Dwg No.03125 Stnless Steel 0.358 0. Unit P.0 8.

Art Montemayor Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient Typical Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients Source: http://www.500 100 .300 35 .250 Overall “U” W/m2-C 800 – 1.450 30 .000 – 1.264 17 – 52 17 – 70 9 – 53 6 – 26 79 – 114 1.300 75 .300 100 .700 200 .150 450 .44 264 .100 30 -100 Water Water Water Water Water Water Water Brine Brine Brine 250 .200 30 .0 – 6 26 – 70 4 – 53 26 – 88 106 – 211 3 .53 13 – 35 1.xls.200 5 .650 5 .97 88 – 123 35 – 88 Page 291 of 327 FileName: 93186371.176 53 – 159 11 – 79 5 – 53 9 – 53 4 .123 11 . 2003 Rev: 0 Btu/hr-ft2-oF 140 .900 60 .500 Water Organic solvents Light oils Heavy oils Gases Heavy oils Gases Steam Hydrocarbon vapors 1.com/forms/he/typU.300 October 02.35 100 .the-engineering-page.300 20 .500 – 4.500 700 – 1.300 50 .700 88 .200 15 .35 150 .300 150 .400 20 .18 176 – 264 123 – 176 70 .700 60 .500 600 – 1.0 – 6 17 – 53 44 – 132 62 .750 350 .400 50 .000 300 .550 500 .35 5 .18 5 .000 400 .ms_office WorkSheet: Typical "U" .html Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers Hot Fluid Cold Fluid Heat Exchangers Water Water Organic solvents Organic Solvents Light oils Light oils Heavy oils Heavy oils Reduced crude Flashed crude Regenerated DEA Fouled DEA Gases (p = atm) Gases (p = atm) Gases (p = 200 bar) Gases (p = 200 bar) Coolers Organic solvents Light oils Heavy oils Reduced crude Gases (p = atm) Gases (p = 200 bar) Gases Organic solvents Water Gases Heaters Steam Steam Steam Steam Steam Heat Transfer (hot) Oil Heat Transfer (hot) Oil Flue gases Flue gases Condensers Aqueous vapors Organic vapors Refinery hydrocarbons Vapors with some non condensables Vacuum condensers Water Water Water Water Water 1.000 500 – 1.

old fashioned US engineering units is based on: 1.500 200 .700 50 .300 October 02.150 200 . 2003 Rev: 0 176 – 264 159 – 211 106 – 159 44 – 97 300 .0 Btu/hr-ft2-oF = 5.123 35 .106 500 – 1.123 9 .300 88 .53 53 .200 Steam Heavy organics 600 .600 53 .400 400 .678263 Watts/m2-oK Page 292 of 327 FileName: 93186371.79 53 .300 70 .500 300 .26 9 .000 200 .300 300 .700 200 .xls.700 250 .150 88 – 176 35 – 53 12 – 26 35 – 88 18 – 26 140 – 264 53 – 88 35 – 70 70 .88 35 .ms_office WorkSheet: Typical "U" .53 Art’s Note: Above U’s were originally given in metric units and the conversion to good.53 Steam Steam Water Water Jacketed vessels Jacket Fluid Vessel Fluid Dilute aqueous solutions Light organics Dilute aqueous solutions Light organics 500 .900 Heat Transfer (hot) oil Refinery hydrocarbons 250 .500 200 .550 Air Cooled Exchangers Process Fluid (tube side) Water Light organics Heavy organics Gases Condensing hydrocarbons Immersed coils Coil Fluid Pool Fluid Natural circulation Steam Dilute aqueous solutions Steam Light oils Steam Heavy oils Aqueous solutions Water Light oils Water Agitated Steam Steam Steam Aqueous solutions Light oils Dilute aqueous solutions Light oils Heavy oils Water Water 800 – 1.500 Steam Light organics 900 – 1.000 – 1.450 300 .123 44 .150 50 .500 200 .500 100 .88 35 .Art Montemayor Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient Vaporizers Steam Aqueouos solutions 1.

086 292.52 20 48. in. pages 147-148 October 24. in.4 = Fluid's Viscosity.1875 15 11 0.00352 0.14 = s = Shell fluid's specific gravity = DP F= 0. = Clearance between tubes = Baffle spacing.045833 643.3 2 = Equivalent shell diameter. = ODT = Tube external diameter. in..lb/h-ft2 = 23 0.930372 16.lb/h = Shell-side unit mass flowrate.Art Montemayor G KETTLES RECIRCULATION COOLER E-G-43 From "Process Heat Transfer". lb/ft-h o k = Fluid's therm. cP = m' /in = 2 0.F = m = Fluid's Viscosity. 1997 DP = f G2sDs(N+1)/(5. D. cond.ms_office Page 293 of 327 WorkSheet: Shell-Side Pressure drop . (m/mw)0. = Number of Shell-side baffles = Shell-side crossflow area. McGraw-Hill. in. 1950. ft = NRe = Shell-side Reynolds Number = f = Friction factor for pressure drop.22 x 1010)Des Fs ID = Shell Internal diameter.304 0.75 0.8 = Shell-side pressure drop.4792 325500 679. = PT = C' = B= N= aS = W= GS = De Tubes' Pitch. Btu/lb. ft2 = Shell-side mass flowrate.xls. Btu/ft-hNPr = Fluid's Prandtl Number = Fs = Viscosity ratio. psi = Electronic FileName: 93186371.7 1 0.9375 0. Kern. ft o cP = Fluid's Heat Capacity.

000 Flow (M). de (see table) = Mass Velocity. Input tubing OD. assumed Uo = 195 Then the required transfer A = Number of tubes required = Reset tubes/pass (Step 3). vs Uassum. out. of passes = Total tube count = Tubeside DP (incl. Tube Side Shell CW Fluid Name Warm Water 418.88 o o Project No.010 1.335 OK? OK? Av.590 cp. psi = Inside Transfer Factor. lb/ft3 Av. Date/Time 13-Mar-97 15:12 Start configuring the exchanger. oF 88 130 o Temp.2 ft2 psi OK? Step 3.723 0. Heat Capacity 1 1 5.0 in. lb/h Temp.600 0.927 in.86 Uncorrected MTD 18.. in. conditions and properties data for shellside and tubeside.7 1. number of passes. Reactor Warm Water System Upgrade E-G-XX Service Input flows. . in. Btu/h·ft·oF Av.002 cpm/k Prandtl No.302 3. NRe = Tubeside Friction Factor.0% 614. in. Thermal Conductivity 0.55 325.000 25. Density 62. ft2·h·oF/Btu Fouling Resistance 0. ft. If too high or too low. at = Effective transfer area per tube = and 0. not including shellside h): Ustart = 235 On that basis..Quick & Dirty Tubular Heat Exchanger Rating Sheet Project Item No.258 0.11 40.863 6.1 2. F 102 100 r.015 Q. L = Flow area per tube. Btu/h k. Tube OD BWG Tube ID.7 90.324 0.368 0.360 R.850.e. then no.9 m. number of tubes per pass. jh = Outside Film Coefficient. returns) = Actual effective transfer area. d = Tube Length.000 195. 4. Gs = Shellside Reynolds No. in. jh = Inside Film Coefficient.293 psi OK? ft2 Heat Exchanged 5. By Step 4. hi = Step 6..0015 3. Btu/lb·oF Av. fps = Tubeside Reynolds No. ft2 in. OK? adjust tube length.140 195. BWG length (can be trial and error).139 545 4 584 8.9 2. f = DP per pass.850. Viscosity 0. and/or shell baffle spacing. Check tubeside velocity and DP. of Tubes/pass = lb/h per tube = 146 2. Step 1. ho = Calculated Uo = Check: % difference. cP Av. Select tube arrangement Tube Pitch and estimate shell diameter Pattern Shell ID from Tube Count Tables Select Baffle Spacing Number of Baffles = Flow Area across Bundle.000 0.9375 Tri 27 16 14 0. lb/h·ft2 F F Step 2. = Uclean = 0. A = OK? Step 5. velocity. NRe = Shellside Friction Factor = Shellside DP = Outside Transfer Factor. as = Equivalent Diameter.4 1.1 0. as required.620 20 0.05 61.9 Corrected MTD 14.00178 2.01 113. Begin with the total calculated Btu/h·ft2·oF Btu/h·ft2·oF ft2 transfer coefficients to this point (i. in. shellside DP. Ucalc. Estimate the number tubes per tube pass. Remember to reset shell diameter from tube count tables.7500 16 0.

u/h·ft2·oF u/h·ft2·oF or too low. as . or shell les.

Q. p. Side-to-side. inches 0.6200 0. oF 244 85 Distance along tubes . 274 Horizontal n-Propanol Total Condenser 1 of 10 A horizontal.1875 inches 285 Btu/lb 60.00 0. D. 1-2 condenser is required for condensing pure propyl alcohol emanating from the top of a distillation column.1 Vapo Cooling water Cooling water in Condensate Temperature.00 10. Basic data is as follows: Propanol flowrate Propanol vapors' inlet pressure Propanol vapors' inlet temperature Cooling Water inlet temperature Propanol allowable pressure drop CWS allowable pressure drop Dirt factor Condenser tubes' length Tubes' OD Tubes' length Tubes' gauge Tubes' ID Tubes' pitch Clearance between tubes Propanol Latent Heat at 15 psig Propanol Molecular Weight 60.00 0. 25% cut segmental baffles will be used. Mc-Graw Hill. Kern. 1950.0 244 85 2. "Process Heat Transfer".00 16 0.7500 8.9375 lb/hr psig o o F F psi psi feet inches feet BWG inches Triangular.003 8.CALCULATION SHEET Signature Art Montemayor Project Subject 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 A B C D E F G H I J K L Date 18-Feb-04 Checked Date File Sheet Proj No.000 15.

using the 31" shell.100. 274 Horizontal n-Propanol Total Condenser 2 of 10 First. Mc-Graw Hill. is now calculated: Corrected area. Kern.5 oF can be used as the caloric temperaure of the cold fluid Execute a trial calculation: a) Assume that UD = 100 Btu/hr-oF-ft2 69 Condensing film coefficients will generally range from 150 to 300. Q. 244 Higher Temperature 120 124 244 Lower Temperature 85 159 Difference 0 35 35 Log Mean Temperature Difference = LMTD = 141 o F Since the shell side Propanol vapor is essentially isothermal. Tc = The caloric temperature of the hot fluid 61 tc = The caloric temperature of the cold fluid 62 ta = The average temperature of the cold fluid 63 The influence of the tube-wall temperature is included in the condensing film coefficient. yields a count of 766 tubes in a 31 inch ID shell. A = 1.571 lb/hr = 976 gpm Propanol Water Differ.000 Propanol latent heat for condensation = Btu/hr o Cooling water terminal temperature = 120 F Cooling water required = 488. Assuming a film coefficient of 1. c) The corrected UD coefficient. p. 4 tube passes using 3/4" OD tubes on 15/16" triangular pitch . D.000 70 for water. the exchanger is in true counterflow. 1950. but the condenser will have a large number of tubes. The quantity of water is large.203 ft2 Corrected UD = Q/A DT = 101 Btu/hr-oF-ft2 D E F G H I J K L . 67 68 71 Heat transfer area = A = 73 Quantity of 3/4" OD tubes = 72 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 A B C Q/UD DT = 773 1. 60 64 65 66 The mean ta = 102. make a heat and material balance to establish the heat load and the cooling water required: 17.CALCULATION SHEET Signature Art Montemayor Project Subject 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 Date 18-Feb-04 Checked Date File Sheet Proj No.215 ft2 b) Assume that 4 tube passes are used. "Process Heat Transfer". UC will range from 130 to 230 Btu/hr-oF-ft2. From the tube counts table. making a 2-pass assumption inadvisable.

inches PT = Tube pitch. inches C' = Clearance between tubes. this should 94 yield the lowest attainable shell-side pressure drop in this configuration. inches B = Baffle spacing. 92 93 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 The shell-side or bundle crossflow area = aS =(ID) (C') (B)/(PT * 144) = where. 98) where. 114 hiO = The inside film (water) heat transfer coefficient refered to the tube OD.31.80 0. and 32-1/2" which is equal to 96" or 2 baffles and 3 crosses for the proposed side-to-side flow.F (From fig. 14) .075 Btu/hr-ft2-oF (Refer to line # 165) hiO = 113 where. L = Tube length. This will be 32-1/2". p. oF Shell side film temperature = tf = (Tv + tw)/2 = 0. 1950. Btu/hr-ft 2-oF 2 o 115 1. Mc-Graw Hill. ID = Shell inside diameter. feet Nt = Tube quantity effective for condensation 89. 25 ) hi = The inside (water) film heat transfer coefficient = 112 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 A B C D E F G H I J K L Tube wall temperature = tW = ta + [hO/(hiO + hO)] (Tv . inches The shell-side mass velocity = Gs = W / aS = 44. 31".953 lb/hr-ft2 W/L*Nt2/3 = 1. D. 274 Horizontal n-Propanol Total Condenser 3 of 10 Calculations for shell side hot fluid.62 184 o F (From Table 4) Shell side film thermal conductivity = kf = Specific Gravity of shell side film = sf = Viscosity of shell side film = mf = Btu/hr-ft2-oF/ft (From Table 6) cP (From Fig.095 0. 5. Since these are the minimum baffles that can be used.1. p.300 Btu/hr-ft . p. 7.6 lb/hr-linear ft Assume the value of the average condensing film coefficient = h O = 200 Btu/hr-ft2-oF hi (ID/OD) = 1.CALCULATION SHEET Signature Art Montemayor Project Subject 89 90 91 Date 18-Feb-04 Checked Date File Sheet Proj No. n-Propanol Assume a maximum baffle spacing. Tv = Average temperature of hot fluid (vapor). "Process Heat Transfer". Kern.ta) = 125 o F (Eq. Q.33 ft2 (Eq.138) The condensate loading on the horizontal tubes = G'' = where.

a new value of tw and tf could be obtained to give a more exact value of h' based on the fluid properties at a value of tf more nearly correct.216.41 ft/sec Gt / (3. h' = mf = kf = rf = g = G'' = Average condensing film coefficient. 274 Horizontal n-Propanol Total Condenser h' ( mf2 / kf3 rf2 g)1/3 = 1. Btu/hr-ft .402 (From condenser tube table) ft2 where.74 lb/ft-hr 0.72 cP 0.5004 lb/ft-hr film coefficient thermal conductivity.075 Btu/hr-ft2-oF hiO = 170 where. in2 154 n = Number of tube passes 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 Water mass velocity in the tube side = Gt = w / at = Average water velocity in the tube side = V = At the average water temperature. "Process Heat Transfer".F/ft = 49. However. Mc-Graw Hill. it is not necessary in this example 175 because the condensate properties will not change materially. D.5 o F: = 1. lb/ft3 2 4. p.600*r) = 102. Btu/hr-ft 2-oF 169 172 Based on h' = 172 instead of the assumed 200. ta.5 (4 G''/mf)-1/3 4 of 10 (Equation 12. p. ft/hr Condensate loading for horizontal tubes. 173 174 176 177 178 A B C D E F G H I J K L . Btu/hr-ft2-oF film coefficient absolute viscosity = 2 o 1. Kern.18E+08 = Acceleration of gravity.300 Btu/hr-ft2-oF (From Fig.0517 ft Reynolds Number (for pressure drop only) = D Gt/m = Tube side water heat transfer film coefficient = hi = 36. 25) hi (ID/OD) = 1.073 1. of Water viscosity = m = Tubes' ID = 1. 1950.92 film coefficient density. lb/hr-ft Average shell side condensing film coefficient = 178 Btu/hr-ft2-oF Calculations for tube side cold fluid. NT = Number of tubes effective for condensation 153 a't = Flow area per tube. 171 hiO = The inside film (water) heat transfer coefficient refered to the tube OD.CALCULATION SHEET Signature Art Montemayor Project Subject 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 Date 18-Feb-04 Checked Date File Sheet Proj No.42. 266) where. Water Flow area of a 3/4" OD x 16 BWG tube = 0.508 lb/hr-ft2 5. Q.3020 in2 Flow area per tube = NT a't / 144 n = 0.

Q.5 *PT * 0. 28) Shell-side Reynolds Number = De Gs /m = 85. 7. 1950.58 ft 1.2 psi (Eq.5 * p * d2 /40] / (0.22 * 1010 *De * s)] = Calculations for tube side pressure drop For the tube side Reynolds Number = 36.02 psi (Eq. The flow area at right angles to the long axes is variable from tube row to tube row.45.3 psf = 0.0458 ft (From fig. Kern. Mc-Graw Hill.86 * PT .22*1010 *De * s *Ft) = 3. Propanol vapor density = MW / (V1) (T2/T1) (P1/P2) = Propanol vapor specific gravity = s = 0.139 (From fig. p. 12.00019 ft /in Date 18-Feb-04 Checked Date File Sheet Proj No.47. excellent agreement is obtained if the hydraulic radius is calculated along (instead of across) the long axes of the tubes.073 the corresponding tube-side friction factor (From fig.0242 lb/ft-hr (From fig. 148) .5 * p *d) = 0.010 cP = 0. "Process Heat Transfer".00378 Shell Inside Diameter = Ds = 2. 274 Horizontal n-Propanol Total Condenser 5 of 10 Calculations for shell side pressure drop The propanol vapor temperature = Propanol vapor viscosity = o 244 F 0.00141 ft2/in2 Number of shell-side crosses = (N+1) = 3 Assume that the propanol vapor follows the ideal gas law at the low pressure. 29) Shell-side friction factor for 25% cut segmental baffles = f = 0. In order to obtain a simple correlation combining both the size and closeness of the tubes and their type of pitch.236 lb/ft3 Shell-side pressure drop = (1/2) [ f *Gs2 Ds (N+1) /(5. 26) Tube-side pressure drop = Straight tube pressure drop + Return Loss pressure drop Straight tube pressure drop = DPt = f * Gt2 * Ln/(5. De = (4 * free area)/(wetted area) = [(4) (0.0. p. A hydraulic radius based upon the flow area across any one row could not distinguish between square and triangular pitch. The direction of flow in the shell is partly along an d partly at right angles to the long axes of the bundle's tubes.CALCULATION SHEET Signature Art Montemayor Project Subject 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 A B C D E F G H I J K L 2 2 f = 0.55 inches = 0. D. p.273) 0. 15) Shell-side equivalent diameter (De): The hydraulic radius employed for correlating shell-side coefficients for bundles having baffles is not the true hydraulic radius.

"Process Heat Transfer". p. BWG.UD)/(UC * UD) = 0. 274 Horizontal n-Propanol Total Condenser 7. 32.003 1. 8' .0033 Rd required = 0.4 UD = 101 Rd calculated = 0.148) where.0" OD. p.0033 hr-ft2-oF/Btu (Note: In condensation calculations the omission of the tube metal resistance may introduce a significant error and should be checked.) Summary of Shell Tube side side Results h (outside) UC = 152. and the best basis fof comparison is otained when the 266 number of tubes in both models is the same. feet Number of tube passes The viscosity ratio (m/mw)0.075 7. 7. 1950.CALCULATION SHEET Signature Art Montemayor Project Subject 224 225 226 227 Date 18-Feb-04 Checked Date File Sheet Proj No. L = 230 n = 231 Ft = 232 g' = 228 229 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 Calculation of clean overall coefficient UC: UC = (hio * ho )/(hio + ho) = 152. A B C D E F G H I J K L .2 ft/sec2 7. The horizontal and vertical 265 condensing film coefficients are both affected by W and Nt. To this end a vertical condenser will be assumed which uses the same 267 tube count as the above except that the tube length may be 12 or 16 ft (as needed) to account for the lower 268 coefficients obtained in the vertical orientation.3 psi psi 6 of 10 Return Loss pressure drop = DPr = (4*n/s) (V2/2 g') = Total tube-side pressure drop = tube length. Mc-Graw Hill. D.46.29 (Eq.29 10. Q. 15/16".2 Calculated DP 2. & pitch = 3/4". 16 BWG. triangular Passes = 4 It is interesting at this point to compare a vertical condenser with this horizontal model.00 Conclusion: The first trial calculated is satisfactory and yields the following exchanger: Tube side Shell side ID = 31 inches Baffle spacing = 31 inches (approx.4 Btu/hr-ft2-oF Calculation of dirt factor Rd: Corrected UD = 101 Btu/hr-oF-ft2 (From line 81) Rd = (UC .) Passes = 1 Quantity and length = 766. Kern.14 in the tubes Acceleration of gravity.00 Allowable DP 178 1.

CALCULATION SHEET Signature Art Montemayor Project Subject 269 270 271 Date 18-Feb-04 Checked Date File Sheet Proj No. Q. In order to prevent water corrosion in the carbon steel shell. "Process Heat Transfer".5 o F Trial Calculation: a) Assume that the overall dirty heat transfer coefficient. available tube length (using the same 766 tubes) is: Tube length = 11. 1950. 304 It will.000 141 Btu/hr o Log Mean Temperature Difference = LMTD = Caloric temperature of the Propanol vapor = TC Caloric temperature of the water = tC = F 102. be necessary to reduce the value of UD.5 feet ( use 12 foot length tubes ) ## 311 312 313 A B C D E F G H I J K L . consequently. 272 the water will also be introduced in the tube side. Mc-Graw Hill. 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 Cooling water in Cooling water Vapor Condensate Total heat transferred = 17.100. 302 305 306 307 308 309 Heat transfer area = A = Q/UD * DT = 1. UD = 70 Btu/hr-ft2-oF 303 The equation for the condensing film coefficient gives greater values for horizontal tubes than for vertical tubes. The process conditions will be identical to those of the previous horizontal model rated. Kern. D.735 ft2 The nearest common. p. 274 Vertical n-Propanol Total Condenser 7 of 10 The vertical condenser to be rated will be oriented as seen in the sketch below.

12. 274 Vertical n-Propanol Total Condenser 8 of 10 b) The same tube layout.65 179 o F (From Table 4) Shell side film thermal conductivity = kf = Specific Gravity of shell side film = sf = Viscosity of shell side film = mf = Btu/hr-ft2-oF/ft (From Table 6) cP (From Fig. is now calculated: Corrected area.80 0. "Process Heat Transfer". 25 ) hi = The inside (water) film heat transfer coefficient = 331 335 336 337 Tube wall temperature = tW = ta + [hO/(hiO + hO)] (Tv . p. 5.36. using 3/4" OD x 16 BWG tubes on 15/16" triangular pitch and 4 passes will also be used. using the 31" shell. lb/hr-ft Average shell side condensing film coefficient = 104 Btu/hr-ft2-oF . Do = 0. Btu/hr-ft 2-oF/ft = 49. also. 1950. A = Q/UD*Dt = 1.F (From fig.804 ft2 Corrected UD = Q/A DT = 67 Btu/hr-oF-ft2 Calculations for shell side hot fluid. 4*G'/m = 1.ta) = 114. Kern.31. n-Propanol Tubes' outside diameter. oF 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 A B C D E F G H I J K L Shell side film temperature = tf = (Tv + tw)/2 = 0. Mc-Graw Hill. p.300 Btu/hr-ft .5 o F (Eq.0625 ft 399 lb/hr-lin.18E+08 = Acceleration of gravity. p.095 0. Btu/hr-ft2-oF film coefficient absolute viscosity = 1.39. h' = mf = kf = rf = g = G' = Average condensing film coefficient. 265) Btu/hr-ft2-oF Condensate loading for vertical tubes = W/Nt * p * Do = Assume the value of the average condensing film coefficient = h O = hi (ID/OD) = 1.573 lb/ft-hr film coefficient thermal conductivity. Q.92 film coefficient density.025) (Equation 12. D. c) The corrected UD coefficient. 338 Tv = Average temperature of hot fluid (vapor).47 (4 G'/mf)-1/3 where.CALCULATION SHEET Signature Art Montemayor Project Subject 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 Date 18-Feb-04 Checked Date File Sheet Proj No. 98) where. 14.075 Btu/hr-ft2-oF (Refer to line # 165) hiO = 332 where. lb/ft3 2 4. 266) h' ( mf2 / kf3 rf2 g)1/3 = 1. ft/hr Condensate loading for vertical tubes. 333 hiO = The inside film (water) heat transfer coefficient refered to the tube OD. p. ft 100 (Eq. Btu/hr-ft 2-oF 2 o 334 1.

in.273) Shell-side pressure drop = (1/2) [ f *Gs2 Ds (N+1) /(5. in.1.47. p. Mc-Graw Hill.3 psi (Eq. p.24 ft2 (Eq.642 (From table in fig. PT = Tube pitch. Btu/hr-ft 2-oF 364 367 368 369 370 Calculations for shell side pressure drop It is necessary to arrange the 12-foot tube bundle into a minimum number of bundle crosses.075 Btu/hr-ft2-oF hiO = 365 where.CALCULATION SHEET Signature Art Montemayor Project Subject 359 360 361 362 363 Date 18-Feb-04 Checked Date File Sheet Proj No. (ID * C' * B)/(PT * 144) = 1. Kern. in. it will be 402 necessary to use the half-circle (50% cut) support baffles as shown in Example 7-8. and if it cannot be compensated for by elevating the condenser. B = Baffle spacing.0242 lb/ft-hr (From fig.010 cP = 0. or (N + 1) = 5.22 * 1010 *De * s)] = This pressure drop prediction is high. Water The tube-side water conditions and configuration is the same as the horizontal configuration.00140 ft2/in2 Number of shell-side crosses = (N+1) = 5 (From fig. 15) Equivalent diameter for pressure drop = De = 0. 366 hiO = The inside film (water) heat transfer coefficient refered to the tube OD. in. 403 A B C D E F G H I J K L .387 lb/hr-ft2 The propanol vapor temperature = Propanol vapor viscosity = o 244 F 0. 1950.58 ft 2. 29) Propanol vapor specific gravity = s = 0. The spacing between baffles will be: 373 B = 29 inches 371 372 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 Shell-side (bundle) crossflow area = as = where. C' = Clearance between tubes. ID = Shell inside diameter. 7. p. D. 28) Shell-side friction factor for 25% cut segmental baffles = f = 0. Q. "Process Heat Transfer". 12.138) The shell-side mass velocity = Gs = W / aS = 48.0458 ft Shell-side Reynolds Number = ReS = De * GS / m = 91. hi (ID/OD) = 1. 274 Vertical n-Propanol Total Condenser 9 of 10 Calculations for tube side cold fluid.00378 (Same as line 206) Shell Inside Diameter = Ds = 2.

22*1010 *De * s *Ft) = 5.003 2.148) Calculation of clean overall coefficient UC: UC = (hio * ho )/(hio + ho) = 95. when the condensate is to be subcooled. except for the tube length. 15/16". 1950.0043 Rd required = 0.075 7. 447 448 A B C D E F G H I J K L The vertical unit has an inherent advantage. Straight tube pressure drop = DPt = f * Gt2 * Ln/(5.30 10.2 in the vertical unit in identical service. 12' .0043 hr-ft2-oF/Btu Shell side Summary of Results h (outside) 104 UC = 95. D. Q.00 Allowable DP Tube side 1. . Mc-Graw Hill.0 Btu/hr-ft2-oF Calculation of dirt factor Rd: Corrected UD = 67 Btu/hr-oF-ft2 (From line 81) Rd = (UC . although not seriously. 7.30 psi 7.3 psi (Eq. "Process Heat Transfer". Kern.03 psi (Eq. 7.00 Conclusion: Shell side ID = 31 inches Baffle spacing = 29 inches (approx.46.UD)/(UC * UD) = 0. The advantage of horizontal condensation may be observed 446 from the UC of 148.0 psf = 0.) Passes = 1 Tube side Quantity and length = 766. 274 Vertical n-Propanol Total Condenser 10 of 10 Calculations for tube side pressure drop The basic data is the same as in the horizontal model example.5 in the horizontal condenser as compared with the 93. & pitch = 3/4". p. 16 BWG. p.3 Calculated DP 2.0 UD = 67 Rd calculated = 0.0" OD. 148) Return Loss pressure drop = DPr = (4*n/s) (V2/2 g') = Total tube-side pressure drop = 7. p.CALCULATION SHEET Signature Art Montemayor Project Subject 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 Date 18-Feb-04 Checked Date File Sheet Proj No. BWG. however. triangular Passes = 4 This vertical condenser is somewhat secure in performing the specified heat transfer duty but it exceeds the 445 allowable pressure drop.45.

282 0.I.584 0.634 0.09 1.606 0. D.134 0.456 0.Some of this data was taken from Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA).2836 lbs/in3.I.0625 0.1126 0. D.07 1.1052 0.174 0.0969 0.35 0.I.13 1. ft2 inches inches area inches in2 Outside C ** Inside lb of steel* 0.095 0. 7th Edi 1/2" O.1309 0.370 0.532 0.165 0. Tube flow per linear foot.028 3/4" O BWG 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 22 0.370 0.402 0. 300 Series Stainless Steels A.1309 0.560 0.0874 0.06 1.14 For other meta ** Liquid Velocity within the tubes = (Lbs Per Tube Hour) / (C * Liquid Specific Gravity) in feet per sec.482 0.1309 0.1452 0.04 1.444 0.652 0.02 1.109 0.302 0.58 0.236 0. (Specific g .065 0.334 0.1548 0.058 0.S. Material Aluminum Titanium A.1309 0. foot.12 1.1162 0.S.148 0.1075 0.035 0.0876 0. 400 Series Stainless Steels Aluminum Bronze Aluminum Brass Nickel-Chrome-Iron Admiralty Nickel Nickel-Copper Copper and Cupro-Nickels Factor 0. thickness Tube I.049 0.680 NOTES: * The weight of the condenser tubes is based on low carbon steel with a density of 0.1309 0.1269 0.120 0.510 0.99 1.072 0. Condenser tube Wall Surface area per linear Tube weight Constant Tube I.0738 0.620 0.083 0.I.430 0.1309 0. D.141 168 198 227 241 0.

D.3157 0.1963 0.1623 0.4536 0.rs Association (TEMA). Tube flow 2 per linear foot.782 0.3019 0.2618 0.2618 0.3632 0.747 0.2183 0.1754 0.522 0.1393 0.2047 0. Note: some of the tabular TEMA data contained ERRATA. ft2 inches area area in2 Outside C ** in2 Outside Inside Inside lb of steel 0.3893 0.1963 0. ft foot. page 178.1529 0.476 0.665 0.1963 0.2121 0.2463 0.2679 0.2618 0.1963 0.367 0.2223 0.2618 0.883 0.834 0.2618 0.6793 0.1587 0.1825 0.760 0.1963 0.2314 0.1963 0. foot.2618 0.2618 0.856 0.592 0.1990 0.902 0.5463 0.00) .268 285 319 347 384 418 450 471 492 521 567 2836 lbs/in3.870 0. Condenser tube Surface area per linear Tube weight Surface area per linear Tube flow Constant Tube I.1466 0. 7th Edition (1988).6390 0.4803 0.1262 0.930 0. D.2618 0.1660 0.1963 0.1963 0.2884 0.3526 0. but this was corrected with 3/4" O.1963 0.884 0.1963 0.2435 0.2361 0.2618 0.810 0.2278 0.670 0.3339 0.2618 0.5755 0.5153 0.1335 0.2618 0.429 0.704 0.2241 0. D.4208 0.1780 0.1916 0.1843 0.2043 0.6138 0.2618 0. Condenser tube 1" O. For other metal materials multiply by the following factors: y) in feet per sec.732 0. (Specific gravity of Water @ 60 o F = 1.5945 0.808 0.1707 0.

3272 0.3272 0.650 927 1.2932 0.883 1. per linear foot.330 0.714 898 1.059 970 1.3272 0.2697 1.954 0.010 0.060 0.3272 0.440 1.8012 0.2498 1.241 656 0.200 1.7148 0.763 1.037 1. Condenser tube Surface area per linear Tube weight Tube weight Constant Tube I.3272 0.348 0.3272 0.038 749 1.6221 0.059 1.030 0.0387 0.305 1.0936 0.230 1.180 1. ft2 inches area inches C ** in2 Outside C ** Inside lb of steel lb of steel 0.2644 1.060 1.706 1-1/2 .3272 0.3272 0. ondenser tube 1-1/4" O.914 1.150 1.260 1.919 804 1.360 0.0029 0.824 1.2775 1.537 1.3011 0.7574 0. foot.080 0.584 1.2330 2.450 1.120 0.455 1.173 1.. D.400 0.744 1.3272 0.280 0.6648 0.2827 1.814 852 1.361 1.2409 1.310 0.110 0.982 0.473 550 0.129 708 1.599 1.920 0.9677 0. D. per linear foot.626 1.182 1.3272 0.498 997 1.3272 0.9161 0.2906 0.2571 1.370 0.250 1. Tube flow Constant Tube I.2958 0. D.8332 0.377 1.9852 0.8825 0.3272 0. but this was corrected with this spreadsheet's formulas.170 1.130 1.641 1.3272 0.890 0.341 1.3089 0.380 0.

635 1.5730 2.3430 0.3299 0.1310 1.286 1.3560 0.3927 0.860 2.2469 1.3927 0.4739 0.3927 0.4665 0.3351 0. D.5394 0.3613 0.4328 2.6417 0.3927 0.355 2.3927 0.3893 1. D.4608 0.3220 0.4741 1.997 0. ft3 inches area area in2 Outside C ** in3 Outside Inside Inside lb of steel 1.1882 1.4957 1.924 0.5236 0.3927 0.3142 0.3927 0. Condenser tube Surface area per linear Tube weight Surface area per linear Tube flow Constant Tube I. D.3927 0.180 2.165 1.5236 0.4527 1.834 2.3927 0.4801 . ft foot.3478 1.300 1.760 1.3665 2.0751 1.5236 0.070 0.782 1.771 1. Condenser tube 2" O.014 2.3927 0.810 1.970 1.427 1.775 1. foot.4941 2. Tube flow 2 per linear foot.3587 0.2868 1.3927 0.3482 0.1-1/2" O.5236 0.3063 0.

ndenser tube Tube Constant weight per C ** linear foot. 2.795 3.935 1.121 .204 1.014 4.412 2.891 4.701 3.

0 for stationary and floating-head tubesheets = 1.100 15.500 -15. According to the Tubular Exchanger Manufactureres Assn. (TEMA) standards.ms_office WorkSheet: TubeSheet .000 -- 100 17. psig S = tubesheets' material allowable stress. P.500 2.000 10.500 6.400 10. psi Values of S for some common materials are shown in the following table.500 10. Material SA-516 Grade 70 Stainless Steel 1.5Mo . May 12. oF 200 300 400 17.25 for U-tube tubesheets G = shell internal diameter.500 10.500 -12.800 12.500 17.Si Steel Monel SB-171 Naval Brass SB-402 Copper Nickel SB-11 Copper Temperature.500 17. With this table and the other terms. inches F = a factor = 1.700 -10. inches P = design pressure.500 17.500 15.600 500 17.700 5. Heat Exchanger Tubesheets Plant Notebook. G.Art Montemayor From: Chemical Engineering Magazine.000 14.0.25 12 350 17. these terms can be taken as: T = Tubesheet thickness.000 17.900 15.25Cr .000 15. the tubesheet thickness for shell-and-tube exchangers is given by the formula: FG T 2 P S F G P S T = = = = = 1.000 15.xls.400 -- Page 311 of 327 FileName: 93186371.700 16. however. as calculated from transfer surface and tube dimensions.500 -15.000 16.400 5.06 inches psig psi inches TEMA gives precise rules for determining the variables F. For estimating purposes. 1975 Tubesheet Thickness October 09. and S for exchanger design.500 14. 1991 Rev: 0 The thickness of heat exchanger tubesheets is an important consideration in cost-estimating and selecting design alternatives for process heat systems.500 1. tubesheet thickness can be calculated in this spreadsheet.

McGraw-Hill.75 (a constant for Square pitch) P = the tube spacing. tubes on 1-9/16 inch squ 1 2 4 6 8 1 2 4 6 8 1 2 TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass 32 26 20 20 21 16 14 52 52 40 36 32 32 26 24 16 12 81 76 68 68 60 48 45 40 38 36 30 24 97 90 82 76 70 61 56 52 48 44 32 30 137 124 116 108 108 81 76 68 68 64 44 40 177 166 158 150 142 112 112 96 90 82 56 53 224 220 204 192 188 138 132 128 122 116 78 73 277 270 246 240 234 177 166 158 152 148 96 90 341 324 308 302 292 213 208 192 184 184 127 112 413 394 370 356 346 260 252 238 226 222 140 135 481 460 432 420 408 300 288 278 268 260 166 160 553 526 480 468 456 341 326 300 294 286 193 188 657 640 600 580 560 406 398 380 368 358 226 220 749 718 688 676 648 465 460 432 420 414 258 252 845 824 780 766 748 522 518 488 484 472 293 287 934 914 886 866 838 596 574 562 544 532 334 322 1049 1024 982 968 948 665 644 624 612 600 370 362 Note: These tube counts can be taken only as an estimate. For accurate tube counts. the user is advised to scrutinize this information before using it. Kern does not reveal where he obtained this information and he is not specific in giving details to what TEMA type. Inches 8 10 12 13-1/4 15-1/4 17-1/4 19-1/4 21-1/4 23-1/4 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 3/4" O. page 841 Shell I. (1950). D. in inches L = the Outer Tube Limit. Donald Q. tubes on 1-inch square pitch 1" O. D. McGraw-Hill Book Co. orientation. Nelson. C = 0. an actual scaled layout should be done. in inches . D. Page 544: The number of heat exchanger tubes can be estimated from the equation N = C * (L/P)2 where. Kern. tubes on 1-1/4 inch square pitch 1-1/4" O. and Outer Tube Limits (OTL) this dat Consequently. Another estimating method for tube counts is found in "Petroleum Refinery Engineering".SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER TUBESHEET LAYOUTS (TUBE COUNTS) Source: "Process Heat Transfer". D.

Tube Spacing = Outer Tube Limit = 1. It is about 5/8" less than the shell inside diameter of fixed-head or U-tube construction.The OTL is about 1-1/2" less than the inside diameter of the shell in floating head exchangers.5 inches 13.5 inches Number of Tubes = 61 .

. D.tubes on 1-9/16 inch square pitch 1-1/2" O. tubes on 1-7/8 inch square pitch 4 6 8 1 2 4 6 8 TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass 10 22 30 37 51 71 86 106 127 151 178 209 244 275 311 348 16 22 35 48 64 82 102 123 146 174 202 238 268 304 342 16 22 31 44 56 78 96 115 140 166 193 226 258 293 336 16 22 29 39 50 62 78 94 112 131 151 176 202 224 252 16 22 29 39 48 60 74 90 108 127 146 170 196 220 246 12 16 25 34 45 57 70 86 102 120 141 164 188 217 267 12 16 24 32 43 54 66 84 98 116 138 160 182 210 230 22 29 39 50 62 78 94 112 131 151 176 202 224 ube Limits (OTL) this data applies.

McGraw-Hill. Nelson. Triangular pitch should never be used with a dirty or fouling fluid on the shellside of an exchanger.5 inches Number of Tubes = 70 . Kern. refer to the 8" shell with 3/4" tubes on 15/16" triangular pitch and 2-passes. D. For accurate tube counts. Inches 8 10 12 13-1/4 15-1/4 17-1/4 19-1/4 21-1/4 23-1/4 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 3/4" O. Pag The number of heat exchanger tubes can be estimated from the equation N = C * (L/P)2 where. It is about 5/8" less than the shell inside diameter of fixed-head or U-tube construction. Donald Q. Tube Spacing = Outer Tube Limit = 1.5 inches 13.86 (a constant for Triangular pitch) P = the tube spacing. McGraw-Hill Book Co. This configuratio Another estimating method for tube counts is found in "Petroleum Refinery Engineering".SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER TUBESHEET LAYOUTS (TUBE Source: "Process Heat Transfer". D. the user is advised to scrutinize this information before using it. As an example of a discrepancy. An ac Consequently. in inches L = the Outer Tube Limit. C = 0. tubes on 15/16-inch triangular pitch 3/4" O. D. tubes on 1-inch triangular pitch 1 2 4 6 8 1 2 4 TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass 36 32 26 24 18 37 30 24 62 56 47 42 36 61 52 40 109 98 86 82 78 92 82 76 127 114 96 90 86 109 106 86 170 160 140 136 128 151 138 122 239 224 194 188 178 203 196 178 301 282 252 244 234 262 250 226 361 342 314 306 290 316 302 278 442 420 386 378 364 384 376 352 532 506 468 446 434 470 452 422 637 602 550 536 524 559 534 488 721 692 640 620 594 630 604 556 847 822 766 722 720 745 728 678 974 938 878 852 826 856 830 774 1102 1068 1004 988 958 970 938 882 1240 1200 1144 1104 1072 1074 1044 1012 1377 1330 1258 1248 1212 1206 1176 1128 Note: These tube counts can be taken only as an estimate. (19 Shell I. an actual scaled layout should be Kern does not reveal where he obtained this information and he is not specific in giving details to what TEMA type. in inches The OTL is about 1-1/2" less than the inside diameter of the shell in floating head exchangers.

ering". Nelson. .TUBESHEET LAYOUTS (TUBE COUNTS) Kern. tubes on 1-1/4 inch triangular pitch 1-1/4" O. orientation. An actual layout yields 48 tubes with 3/16" OTL. This configuration is impossible to clean mechanically. tubes on 1-9/16 inch trian 6 8 1 2 4 6 8 1 2 TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass 24 21 16 16 14 36 32 32 26 24 20 18 74 70 55 52 48 46 4 32 30 82 74 68 66 58 54 50 38 36 118 110 91 86 80 74 72 54 51 172 166 131 118 106 104 94 69 66 216 210 163 152 140 136 128 95 91 272 260 199 188 170 164 160 117 112 342 328 241 232 212 212 202 140 136 394 382 294 282 256 252 242 170 164 474 464 349 334 302 296 286 202 196 538 508 397 376 338 334 316 235 228 666 640 472 454 430 424 400 275 270 760 732 538 522 486 470 454 315 305 864 848 608 592 562 546 532 357 348 986 870 674 664 632 614 598 407 390 1100 1078 766 736 700 688 672 449 436 n actual scaled layout should be done. page 842 es on 1-inch triangular pitch 1" O. as compared with the listed 32 tubes. ving details to what TEMA type. ion. McGraw-Hill. gular pitch and 2-passes. and Outer Tube Limits (OTL) this data applies. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Page 544: exchangers. an exchanger. (1950). D. D.

D." O. D. tubes on 1-9/16 inch triangular pitch 1-1/2" O. tubes on 1-7/8 inch triangular pitch 4 6 8 1 2 4 6 8 TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass TubePass 14 26 32 45 62 86 105 130 155 185 217 255 297 335 380 425 22 28 42 58 78 101 123 150 179 212 245 288 327 374 419 20 26 38 54 69 95 117 140 170 202 235 275 315 357 407 18 27 36 48 61 76 95 115 136 160 184 215 246 275 307 14 22 34 44 58 72 91 110 131 154 177 206 238 268 299 14 18 32 42 55 70 86 105 125 147 172 200 230 260 290 12 16 30 38 51 66 80 98 118 141 165 190 220 252 284 12 14 27 36 48 61 76 95 115 136 160 184 215 246 275 .

Tube Layout Triang.2500 0.9375 0. Square Triang. and the layout.75 1. 1997 If not known by direct count.25 0.25 0. Triang. the tube pitch. Square Triang.0000 1. 0. in. Square Triang.2500 1.75 1. the actual number of tubes in the bundle is FcNt.0000 8. Additional tubes will be lost from the bundle for a U-tube design because the minimum bending radius prevents tubes from being inserted in some.75 0. 30) 1. For a no-tubes-in-the-window design. In any case.75 1. Fc is the fraction of total tubes in crossflow.2500 1.00 1. asuming that the tube count is proportional to (Dotl)2.82 (Sch.2500 1.00 1.2500 1. the tube count can be reasonably interpolated from the Table using the known or specified Dotl.75 0.Art Montemayor TOTAL NUMBER OF TUBES IN AN EXCHANGER.00 1. Square Number of Tube Passes 1 38 32 37 21 22 62 52 61 32 37 109 80 90 48 57 127 95 110 60 67 170 138 163 88 96 239 188 211 112 130 301 236 273 148 172 361 276 2 32 26 30 16 18 56 52 52 32 32 98 72 84 44 52 114 90 101 56 63 160 132 152 82 92 224 178 201 110 124 282 224 256 142 162 342 264 4 26 20 24 16 16 47 40 48 26 28 86 68 72 40 44 96 81 90 51 56 140 116 136 75 86 194 168 181 102 116 252 216 242 136 152 314 246 6 24 20 24 14 14 42 36 48 24 28 82 68 70 38 42 90 77 88 46 54 136 112 133 70 84 188 164 176 98 110 244 208 236 129 148 306 240 Page 318 of 327 FileName: 93186371. Outer Tube Tube OD Tube Pitch.9375 0. or all.75 0. Limit in in. Square Triang.00 1.75 0.00 1.0000 18.9375 0. Triang.75 0. Square Triang.071 0. the thickness of the pass dividers and exactly where the drilling pattern is started relative to the dividers and the outer tube limit. Square Triang. the value of Dotl will be greater than that shown for a fixed tube sheet design and smaller for a pull-through floating head.00 1.2500 1.0000 10. Triang.9375 0.75 0. Square Triang. All tube count tables are only approximate since the actual number of tubes that can be fitted into a given tubesheet depends upon the pass partition pattern.25 0.00 13.75 1.00 1.75 1. find the tube quantity in the tube count table as a function of Dotl. p. Triang.0000 12.75 1. Square Triang.0000 6. The shell diameter Di and outer tube limit Dotl given in the table are those for a conventional split-ring floating head design.0000 8.00 Shell ID in.9375 0.00 15.00 17.75 1. Tubes will also be lost if an impingement plate is inserted underneath the nozzle. fully tubed out.02 0.xls.00 19.00 0.00 1.0000 16. Triang.00 1. Diameter.2500 0. Square Triang. Square Triang.9375 0.00 1.75 1.9375 0.2500 1.00 1.0000 1.0000 1.2500 0. Square Triang. Square Triang.ms_office WorkSheet: Total Tubes .75 1.0000 1.2500 0.75 0. Square Triang.0000 19. Square Triang.75 1.75 1.75 1.75 1. Triang.25 0.00 1. Triang.77 (Sch.2500 0.2500 0.00 1.00 1. 40) 1.2500 1. of the possible drilling positions near the centerline of the U-tube pattern.75 1. Nt: November 03. For a given shell diameter.75 1.0000 14.2500 0.0000 1.0000 10.25 21.9375 0.75 12.75 0.

2500 1.2500 1.9375 1. Square Triang.00 1.25 37.25 42. Square Triang.0000 1.00 0.00 27.0000 1.75 0.75 1.9375 1.75 0.9375 1.00 0.25 Page 319 of 327 FileName: 93186371.00 25.75 0.00 35.2500 0.25 0.25 39.2500 1. Square Triang.0000 1.75 0.0000 1.2500 1.75 1.9375 1.2500 Triang.0000 1. Square Triang. Triang. Square Triang.75 1. Square Triang.00 1.9375 1.0000 1.Art Montemayor 21.25 33. Triang. Square Triang.2500 1. Square Triang. Square Triang.25 29.0000 1.2500 0.2500 0. Triang.75 0.2500 0.2500 0. 318 170 199 308 168 188 November 03.75 0.00 0. Square Triang.00 1.9375 1.2500 1.25 44.75 0.0000 1.75 1.00 1.75 0. Square Triang. Square Triang.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.00 1.75 1.75 1.75 0.9375 1.00 0. Triang. Square Triang.00 37.75 0.2500 0.25 31.0000 1. Square Triang. Triang.0000 1. Triang.75 0. 1997 279 157 170 269 150 164 23.50 25.9375 1.00 0.00 1.2500 0.75 0. Square Triang.00 1.0000 1. Triang.75 1. Square Triang. Square Triang. Square Triang.00 1. Square Triang.00 1.00 1.0000 1.00 29.2500 1.75 0.2500 0.75 0.2500 0.00 31.2500 1.2500 1.75 0.75 0.0000 1. Square Triang.0000 1. Triang.00 19.ms_office WorkSheet: Total Tubes .2500 1.2500 0.75 1.25 27.2500 1.75 1.0000 1.0000 1.75 1.9375 1.9375 1.0000 1.75 1.2500 1.00 0.75 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.2500 0.00 1.75 0. Triang.75 0.00 0.00 1.xls.0000 1.00 33.75 0. Square Triang.0000 1.9375 1.00 0.00 0.75 0.75 0. Triang.75 1.25 21.00 23.25 35.0000 1. Square Triang.00 42. Square Triang.00 40. Triang.

9375 1.00 0.0000 1.00 58. Square Triang.xls.75 0.75 0. Square Triang.75 1. Triang.0000 1.0000 1.00 1.2500 1.00 1.75 0.00 1.00 0.00 Page 320 of 327 FileName: 93186371.0000 1.75 0.00 46. Triang. Triang.2500 1.2500 0.ms_office WorkSheet: Total Tubes . Square Triang.75 1.Art Montemayor 48.2500 Triang.00 54.00 60.75 1.75 1.2500 1.2500 0.9375 1.00 1. Square Triang.00 0. 1997 52.75 0.00 0.9375 1. Square Triang.9375 1.0000 1.2500 1. Square Triang.2500 0. Square Triang.00 50. Square Triang.75 0.0000 1.75 0.0000 1. November 03.00 0.75 0.00 56.0000 1.

xls. 1997 e of Dotl will be al number of s of the pass it.Art Montemayor November 03. Additional s tubes from dow design.ms_office WorkSheet: Total Tubes . Passes 8 18 36 60 68 36 40 86 70 74 44 50 128 108 110 64 72 178 142 166 82 94 234 188 210 116 128 290 234 Page 321 of 327 FileName: 93186371.

xls. 1997 Page 322 of 327 FileName: 93186371.Art Montemayor 260 148 160 November 03.ms_office WorkSheet: Total Tubes .

1997 Page 323 of 327 FileName: 93186371.Art Montemayor November 03.ms_office WorkSheet: Total Tubes .xls.

000 0. or if the exchanger itself can be conveniently examined.469 1. PP.750 1. it is better to obtain these other parameters by direct count or calculation. 0. November 03.0000 1. in.Art Montemayor TUBE PITCH PARALLEL TO FLOW.250 0.866 1.814 1.704 0.750 0. in.250 0. Pn. AND NORMAL TO FLOW. Tube Pitch.2500 1. in. in.0000 1. Layout Pp.750 0.082 0.707 0.9375 1.2500 1.000 1. The quantities are described by Figure 5.000 1.625 Tube Pitch Types: Flow 30o Triangular 60o Rotated Triangular Note: Flow arrows are perpendicular to the baffle cut edge Flow Rotated Square Square .000 0.707 0.750 0.884 0.2-1 and read from Table IV for the most common tube layouts. If a detailed drawing of the exchanger is available.000 0.406 0.8125 0.500 1.0000 1. PN These quantities are needed only for the purpose of estimating other parameters.625 0.884 1. 1997 Tube OD.2500 0.

5000 1. W. lb/hr or kg/hr = 100. Such a direct calculation is developed as follows and shown in the sketch. F or C= 1 = Subscript denoting inlet conditions 2 = Subscript denoting outlet conditions t1 From the derived equations. T1 0. Kansas Heat Exchanger Temperatures August 21. specific heats.0000 125 = Tube-side fluid temperature. thus. Btu/lb or kcal/kg = cp = Constant or average specific heat on the tube side. Btu/lb or kcal/kg = W = Fluid mass flow rate in shell side. and surface.000. cp. based on known or assumed values of inlet temperatures. t2 Nomenclature: q = Heat duty. lb/hr or kg/hr = 45.C) . Vulcan Materical Co.T1(B . Cp.Z)/(Z .C = 2 2 A = Total exchanger heat transfer area. ft or m = 300. 2004 Rev: 0 Direct Calculation of Exchanger Exit Temperatures In specifying heat exchanger sevices for process design. T.BC) = 152 o F or oC Page 325 of 327 FileName: 93186371. such as inlet and outlet temperatures and area. flowing quantities. overall transfer rate. A. It is. oF or oC = o o DTm = Log mean temperature difference. However. the determination of each set of condtions within this trial-and-error also involves calculation of interrelated variables.000 0. Petrosky. Btu/hr or kcal/hr = 1. Btu/hr-ft . convenient to be able to calculate exchanger outlet conditions directly. Unknown date J. F or C = 250 W. Plant Notebook Section. and this can result in trial-and-error calculations within the trial-and -error for the optimum.000 Cp = Constant or average specific heat on the shell side. T2 w.000 w = Fluid mass flow rate in tube side. Wichita.xls.920044 (1 .000 45.F or kcal/hr-m .0 o o T1 = Shell-side fluid temperature. it is frequently necessary to arive at optimum condtions through trial and error. DTm w. t1 q.000 2 o 2 o U = Overall heat transfer coefficient. cp. T2 = t1 B 1 1 UA   Z B Z = B = 50.ms_office Worksheet: Ht Exchanger Temperatures . Cp. U. let: 85 Ce C = Therefore.Art Montemayor Source: Chemical Engineering Magazine.

ms_office Worksheet: Ht Exchanger Temperatures .Art Montemayor Equations and their derivations: Heat Exchanger Temperatures (t2 . follows and shown Z t 2   T1  T2   t1 B    T  t   T  t   2 2 1  The heat transferred is also  UADTm  UA  1 T1  t 2    ln  T2  t1        T  t   T  t   2 2 1  Z T1  T2   UA 1 T1  t 2    ln  T2  t1         Z Z  T1   B T1  T2   t1   T1   B T1  T2   t1  T2  t1         UA   ln  T2  t1  Z T1  T2                  Z Z Z Z T1  T1  B   T2  B   t1  T1  T1  B   T2  B   t1  T2  t1            UA  ln  T2  t1  Z T1  T2                 Z    Z   Z   T1  1  B   T 2  B   t1  1   B           UA  1  1    UA  ln    T 2  t 1  Z B       Z              Z Z Z T1  T2    Z T1  T    T1 1  B   T2  B   t1   T1   B T1  T2   T2        B   UA    UA ln  T2  t1  Z T1  T2  Z T1  T2              Page 326 of 327 FileName: 93186371.t1) (T1 -T2) August 21. ptimum condtions d-error also involves be able to calculate specific heats. 2004 Rev: 0 The heat transferred to the tube-side fluid = q = (w) (cp) The heat transferred to the shell-side fluid = q = (W) (Cp) Let: B = (w) (cp) Z = (W) (Cp) Combining both above equations.xls.

Art Montemayor Heat Exchanger Temperatures August 21. 2004 Rev: 0   t 2   T2  t1    T1  t 2   ln T2  t1     T2   t1  T2  t1     T2   1    Z    t1  T2  t1   B  T1  T2     1   1  UA    B   Z 2 T1  T2    Z T1  T2    B Z T1  T2  A Page 327 of 327 FileName: 93186371.xls.ms_office Worksheet: Ht Exchanger Temperatures .

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