TEL KABRI

THE 1986-1993 EXCAVATION SEASONS
AHARON KEMPINSKI

Contributions by N. Angel-Zohar, R. Y. Bankirer, A. Cohen-Weinberger, P. Comale, C. Dauphin, M.Faerman, M. Fischer, L. Gershuny, S. Givon, Y. Goren, A. Horowitz, H. M. Khalaily, L. Kolska Horwitz, Z. Koren, G. Lehmann, O. Lemau, N. Liphschitz, O. Marder, H. Mienis, Y. Mizrachy, A. Nebel, B. Niemeier, W.-D. Niemeier, R. Oren, T. Oman, M. W. Prausnitz, A. Princivalle, P. Rosano, N. Scheftelowitz, S. Shalev, P. Smith, M. Tagliapietra, T. Tsuk, U. Yalcin. .

EDITED BY

NA' AMA SCHEFTELOWITZ AND RONIT OREN

EMERY AND CLAIRE YASS PUBLICATIONS IN ARCHAEOLOGY TEL AVIV 2002

IV. AREAE
Gunnar Lehmann

Area E lies on a small rectangular artificial hill measuring 100 x 150 m in the southwestern corner of the large Middle Bronze Age mound of Tel Kabri and rising some 12 m over it (Fig. 4.81). Until 1948 a small village called et-Tell occupied this area. The rich spring of <A a1-Fuwarah and the reservoir of <Ein Shefa' in (Birket Mefshukh) (Conder and Kitchener 1881:156, 158) lie to its northeast (Chapter 3). Excavation concentrated on the northwestern corner of the hill. The investigation, begun in 1986 under the supervision of Lilly Gershuny, was continued in 1989, 1990 and 1992 by Helena Pastor Borgonon. In 1993 this author supervised the excavations in Area E. Preliminary reports on the stratigraphy and finds for these seasons were published by the Kabri Expedition between 1990-1994 (Gershuny 1987; Kempinski 1987, 1991; Naveh and Kempinski 1991; Niemeier 1990, 1994; Pastor Borgonon 1990, 1991; Lehmann 1993).

Fig. 4.81: The mound of et-Tell showing the excavations in Area E.

Four main strata were discerned.
Stratum E1 E2 E3 E4 Date 19th century CE- 1948 Hellenistic period Iron Age" Iron Age" Iron Age" Description and Interpretation Village Some pottery finds from disturbed tombs Fortress Fortress Floors and debris

73

EARL Y BRONZE AGE
Pottery from this period was mixed into almost all lower Iron Age loci providing abundant evidence for occupation here at that time. However, no Early Bronze Age structures or layers were excavated.

MIDDLE AND LATE BRONZE AGE
These periods are represented by isolated sherds found in the debris below the lowest floors.

IRON AGE
The earliest Iron Age levels are debris layers (Locus 871) that were identified in a very limited sounding under Floor 870 of Stratum E4 (Fig. 4.82). There is no floor connected with this debris. STRATUME4 Remains of Stratum E4 appeared only in a sounding under Floor 866 of Stratum E3 in Square L 11.1 A plaster floor (870) at 55.00-55.10 m was discerned but its relationship to the casemate walls was not clear. However, the underlying locus (871) is already under the casemate walls and it seems probable that Stratum E4 predates the construction of the fortress. No other evidence of this stage was found, perhaps because excavation did not continue below Stratum 3 anywhere else. Pre-8th century BCE pottery (Figs. 5J50, 5.70) is associated with this stratum. STRATUME3 The structural piers remains of Stratum E3 are those of a fortress with casemate l312/816, l3111l344) are massive constructions, walls (858, fieldstone fills. Partition 878, 87~, 882, walls (Fig. 4.83, 4.84). The 1.60 m wide, built with ashlar l332) form a number of '
871

N
59.00

L11

s

Fig. 4.82: Schematic north-south section through Square Lll.

casemate walls (l343/863, and undressed compartments.

Casemate walls W816 and Wl311

of Stratum 3 are clearly cut in Square M9 by W131 0 of division (Fig. 4.85). only in Square

Stratum 2 (see below) providing us with a distinct stratigraphic LII at 55.90 m. Thus the earliest phase (E3c) is evident

Stratum E3 had at least three phases of floors (Fig. 4.85). Floor 866 was excavated is represented by floors at a level of about 57.00-15 by later building Metal fittings, activity m in the casemate rooms

only in one small room. The next phase (3b) 848, 876 and 883 in Almost (Locus all 873)

Squares Ll1, K-LlI2 was badly disturbed baskets century B.C.E.

and K13. The final phase (3a) at about 57.70 m (Loci 812, 813, 837, 1313, 1314) and the finds on and above them are mixed. Ottoman sherds together for a door, were found in the debris 3b and 3a contain probably with distinctive 8th-7th

of floor loci from phases pottery.

above the 3b floor 876. 1 Unfortunatelythe locusnumberwas not changedin 1990 so thatthe fmds from underthe floor are also numbered L. 866. It is howeverpossibleto isolatethe basketsL. 866 thatcontainedmaterialfrom StratumE4. 74

J 75 ....I~ It. I I I I I .

84: Schematicplans of Strata E3a (top). 76 . E3b (centre) and E3c (bottom). 4.N t M N t M 10 N t M 10 Fig.

87: Casemate rooms in Squares 0/4-8. looking south.85: Square M9.Fig. 4. Room 1977 in foreground.88. Fig. 4. 4. W1310 of Stratum E2 (on right) cuts W1311/W1312 of Stratum 3 (on left). 77 . 4. looking east. Fig. 4.89). 4.87.86: Looking west over Squares 0-P/7-8. 4. STRATUME2 Only the northwestern part of this fortress was excavated (Squares L-Q/4-10) (Figs.86.

. o ] .._ -1- _L I -I- -I- -i- I -1- N ~ -\- _L I -t~ V1 '+-< 0 ~ ~ e .. 00 00 ..f z 0 0 ii: eO 78 .§ A-. I -j- ~~IM~.~· ------% -1... . ." z o . -1- -1- -1- -1- -1- -:--------:-:3t .

Str.SBm--+ B .'I .. 4.89: Schematic plan of Stratum E2 with Sections A-A and B-B. E2b N6 + 06 o:"'__~d' P6 B Destruction layer with Restorable Pottery 04 05 06 07 Fig. A Destruction Layer with Restorable Pottery A L :---_ --I I 1 I I . 79 ..

The burnt contents of a transport jar were also collected. The outer casemate wall (W1382+WI986) turns northward after running for 25 m east-west.79:12. as does the floor. The structural context of this wall. Wall W1339 does not continue further east into Square L 11 but may have been robbed out. The beaten earth floor has an ash layer of up to 10 em on it. Stratum E2b in order to examine the foundations of W1389 but digging stopped before reaching their base.g. built with ashlar piers and undressed fieldstone fills (Fig. Two phases of use were discernible in most of them (2a. Under the lowest surface reached in the sounding (1992). 4. its architectural context is unclear.60 m wide. 4. 13. it is not clear to which stratum this wall belongs. The ash and the restorable pottery from the casemate floor may indicate a destruction layer. About 10-15cm under the floor gravel bedding (Locus 1994) slopes downward from north to south. In Square OP7 a sounding was made under Floor 1987 of fieldstone fill. 1984) was exposed between walls W1331 and W897 in Square 0/5-6 (Fig. Note ashlar piers.1989. The sounding exposed remains ofa wall (WI926) in Square P7.91). Stratum E2. early mortaria types or transport jars (Fig. Other finds on the floor include iron objects.82:8-10) and represents a typical assemblage of the mid-7th century BeE. Only the northern part of this wall was excavated but as no floor connected with it was found. too remains obscure. Although the excavations reached the western slopes of the hill. some of it (e. Phase E2b A floor of a casemate room of Stratum E2b (Loci 1961. 4. Wall W1339 was built exactly between walls W816 and W1343. It may be the eastern continuation of the Stratum E2 casemate system or a reinforcement in Stratum E3 between walls W816 and W1343. the northwestern corner of the casemate fortification system was not established. Since the foundation of W1339 was not excavated.90: W1340. Below this was a further series of surfaces (1988. Assyrianizing types) appears only in Stratum E2.1990. 2). a wall (WI993) was found with a narrow. 5. but thick layer of ash immediately north of it. 2b) represented by distinct floors. Fig. the casemate walls are 1. 80 . and found. 5. looking None of the foundations of the three casemate walls were west. Fortunately many floors were still deep enough to survive this leveling. In Square L 10 it disappears in pits which were dug by stone robbers in the Ottoman period when the remains of Stratum E2 were leveled and built over by a village. which may be the remains of a burnt beam. While most of the pottery from this sounding has parallels in both Strata E2 and E3. Two rows of rooms were excavated between the three walls.90).1991. The rich pottery repertoire retrieved comprises restorable types such as jugs. This technique has been identified as a Phoenician architectural element (c£ Stem 1992:Fig. adjusting to the topography of the mound.As in Stratum 3. as were several additional rooms south of the innermost casemate wall (W897). fragments of at least one large pottery basin and a concentration of shells.1992).

looking east. Destruction layer with restorable pottery. it was not established whether these floors are a continuation of floor 1309. The entire central part of its plaster floor was destroyed by an Ottoman pit. South of Room 1987 is Room 1309. Floor 1309 runs up to W1328 and joins floor 1987. 5. In Square Q7 two floors. such as ash and restorable pottery on the floors. 4.42-59. the undisturbed part of the floor is a fragment of a basket handle amphora with an engraved sign (Fig. There are some indications of destruction of Stratum E2b. Fig.86:3).Room 1969 in Square P6 has a floor at about 59. 1). Phase 2a The overall plan of this phase is virtually identical to that of its predecessor. 4. Excavations continued some 20 em under floor 1966 (Locus 1963) until the end of the season interrupted operations.91: Room 1961. which may have originally covered both rooms. the debris was apparently leveled immediately after the destruction raising the floor level of Stratum E2a to about 20 em above E2b. possibly with the addition of some pit installations.92: Room 890. Fig. The floor slopes down southward rather steeply from W897 to W1328/W1949 which was built on it (Kempinski and Niemeier 1994:Fig. This material is apparently either from a destruction at the end of Stratum E2b or it is a fill to raise the level of Stratum E2b to that of Stratum E2a. in Square P7. Only parts of the floor of Room 1987 in Square O-P/7 were exposed during the excavation. Among the finds from. Since the pottery repertoire of Strata E2a and E2b is very similar. 81 . The pottery types resemble the types in Stratum E2a. Pit 1936 was dug down from this floor. Locus 1333 east of W1330 and Locus 1334 to the west of this wall may belong to Stratum E2b.55 m which yielded a large number of pottery finds. Since the baulk between P7 and Q7 was not removed. It was violently destroyed resulting in small finds and large amounts of restorable pottery being left in situ.

According to the pottery and the small finds. 4. it may also be part of the same phase. In Locus 1321. The floor of Room 890 lay at 58. 8. 5.93: Destruction debris in Room 1948. 5. In the destruction debris of Square 04 was a body sherd with an incision of a jar (Fig. It was severely disturbed by robber trenches and pits cutting through the loci immediately above it. One of these had Cypriote letters incised on it (Fig. 10. Peleg et al.New floors were exposed in the casemate rooms.87:1). This type of arrowhead is well known from Syria and Palestine from the late 8th through the 4th centuries BeE (see Cleuziou 1977. Finds on its floor comprise late 7th century BCE transport jars.30-1.50-55m (Fig. 4. and of Room 1948 at 58. 1983). 82 . apparently an aleph (Fig.96). enclosed by W1310. that of Room 1941 at 58.95. It is a type with a long socket and an elaborated rib in the middle of the blade which has many parallels in the late Iron Age (Moorey 1980:64). looking west. W1340 and W1995.00 m thick above them (Locus 1914) in which remains of plaster flooring were also mixed (Fig. 4. Floors 890. Recovered from the floors of these rooms was a large quantity of restorable transport jars.5:9) which may have been one of the weapons used during the destruction of the building. 4.94). Fig.62 m. 4. Fig. This assortment of pottery and small finds does not rest immediately on the floors but in a layer of debris from 0.5:8) was found out of context but probably belongs to Stratum E2. Fallen stones and broken mudbricks covered the floor of 1948 (Fig. They are defined and separated from one another by partition walls W899. on which lay a great deal of pottery. looking north. Also unearthed was an iron spearhead (Fig.53 m.87:2). 4. many of them basket-handle amphoras from Cyprus. 1941 and 1948 were identified between walls W1331 and W897 in Square 05-7. 5. Moorey 1980:64-66. a floor.58 m.93). W1331 and W1342. 8. Although Locus 1977 in Square 04 on the western edge of the mound between casemate walls W897 and W1331 is much lower than the above-mentioned floors of Stratum E2a.94: Locus 1914. It is therefore possible that material from an upper storey collapsed into the rooms below and that the upper floors were used for storage. this deposit of pottery and small finds was filled into the casemate rooms during the destruction of Stratum E2a (Figs. a fragment of a pottery vat used for purple dyeing (Chapter 16) and a broken storage jar with an incised Phoenician letter.75). 4. was traced in Square N8-9 at 58. Trilobate arrowheads have been connected with Scythians in the 7th century BCE (Cleuziou 1977: I93) but were also later used by the Achaemenid army.92). A bronze trilobate arrowhead with socket (Fig. Oren 1984:28. Other finds from this destruction debris include an Egyptian amulet (Fig.23).

the threshold survived. 5. The room was entered from the south through a doorway. looking east.65-70 m (Fig. close to wall W897. Fig. 4. complete with threshold and door socket found in situ. several in situ finds from the destruction of Stratum E2a were recorded. including complete transport jars and an oven in the northeastern corner of the room. Several rooms abutting on the southern side of W897 were excavated. 4. In the northern part of the room.97: Installations in Room 1960. Fig. East of this was a stone basin.98).Fig. 4. 4.96: Locus 1913. were a few installations.97). east of 1960. looking south. Fig. Although cut by a number of Ottoman pits.95: Locus 1912.76:15) in it. W1950 and W1974. W1329. As in Room 1960. looking east. A complete transport jar was sunk slightly into the floor which was plastered around the opening in order to facilitate pouring liquids into it. was identified at 59. is defined by W897.69-73 m (Fig. The floor of Room 1960 in Square P6. South of this installation was a stone lined pit with an Assyrian bowl (Fig. W1949 and W1950 with a floor at 59. Room 1308. 83 . enclosed by W897.98: Destruction debris on the floor of Room 1308. 4. W1328. 4.

Unfortunately this area was so disturbed by Ottoman pits that there were almost no traces of Stratum E2a except for finds out of context. Large rectangular dressed stones found in situ in Square P8 in Room 1318 may have been the first steps of stairs leading into an upper storey (Fig. forms an entrance to Room 1308. This corridor continued eastward into Square P7 where it may have linked up with a room between W1328. Unfortunately a pit (Locus 1908 in Square P7) destroyed the northern part of W1330 and there is no evidence of any connection between these two walls. 5. This floor was apparently in use with the steps. this floor connects with adjacent floors of Stratum E2a. Among the pottery finds from Room 1318 were fragments of a Greek SOS amphora (Fig. 84 . 4.45 m and west ofW1330 at 59. Material found in Locus 864 below this floor was also mixed. with W1328.94 m). This floor is connected to W860. W1341 and W1330 (Loci 1305.99). This locus was disturbed during the Ottoman period by stone-robbing.3: 10).South of Room 1960 there was probably a corridor (Locus 1963) but the area excavated is too small to clarify the plan in this part of the building.52-63 m. Remains of additional floors were also found in Square Q7 west ofW1330 at 59. On the floor was a thick layer of ash. south of which were the remains of an oven. W1329. It may have belonged to Stratum E2. Parallels to pottery finds would place this locus in either Stratum E2 or E3. Fig. Among these finds was the fragment of a pottery vat used for purple dyeing (Chapter 16). LOCUS 855 IN SQUARE III In Square I II a floor (855) was found on the very edge of the hill. According to the level of both the lowest steps and the pebble floor (59. The room immediately north of these steps may have been part of the staircase. but the finds here are mixed and disturbed by later material. Wall W1330 in Squares P-Q17 runs exactly towards the corner ofW1949 which. Its stratigraphic relationship is uncertain. 4. 1309).99: Steps of a staircase in Locus 1318. On the same level as the first steps are remains of a pebble floor immediately south of the stairs.

Kloner and Olami 1980. In Assyrian sources. cf. Kabri was a significant strategic point in the northern Akko plain. many of the small Iron Age I villages were abandoned and new equally small villages were founded in the same hill and mountain areas. a tower like complex of the 10th and 9th centuries BCE at the edge of the Akko plain (Gal and Alexandre 2000). At Kabri this road was crossed by another route leading from the sea to Upper Galilee. In the lower Ottoman levels there were also some stray finds of Hellenistic pottery (Chapter 5:IV). The transition from Stratum 5 to Stratum 4. centralized settlement system (Lehmann 2001. Only a few installations. The territorial transformation of the Akko plain into an Assyrian province may have begun already in 701 BCE under Sennacherib and his campaign 2 Na'aman 1994. Kabri) points to an integration of the area into the Tyrian city-state and its economic system. probably ancient Kabul. SUMMARY After being one of the major urban centres in northern Palestine during the Middle Bronze Age. Stem 1990). Kabri was also important for controlling the all-weather route on the slopes leading from Rosh ha-Niqra south to Akko and the Carmel. Reallexikon der Assyriologie volume 1(1928)64. Kabri is situated exactly between the coastal plain with its emphasis on grain production and the hill-country which produced wine and oil. Bronze Age sites on a reduced scale and another situated on the hills and the mountain slopes in newlyfounded very small villages (Lehmann 2001). but earlier such site and collection point was Horvat Rosh Zayit. 1994. The stratigraphy reflects the historical events in this part of the Tyrian hinterland. The end of Stratum E4 and the beginning of Stratum E3 might reflect political events following the campaigns of Tiglatpileser III in 734 or 733 BCE (Tadmor 1994). where agricultural products from the hill-country might have been collected and stored before being shipped to places such as Akko or Akhziv. The large percentage of Tyrian pottery at these sites (e. In 1993 Mahmud Hawari excavated Ottoman remains in Square Q8 (Hawari 1994).apparently restricted to the small hill of et-Tell. but on different locations. Lehmann 1995. especially at the end of the 8th and the 7th century BCE. However.2001. Olami 1974). the settlement pattern of the Late Bronze Age collapsed at the end of this phase (Frankel 1986.STRATUM El Remains ofa village from the Ottoman period were uncovered between 1986 and 1992 in Squares K-MlI013 (living floors) and in Square III (tombs). At the end of Iron Age I and the beginning of Iron Age II the settlement pattern in the Akko plain changed. Thus. when the Assyrian king reached the Akko plain (Katzenstein 1997: 174-178). around 850 BCE according to the pottery. Ronen and Olami 1983. may have some connections with the campaign ofShalmaneser III in 841 BCE. the importance of Tel Kabri was reduced to a small rural site during the Late Bronze Age . floors and pits were identified. 85 . According to archaeological surveys.g. Akko became again the urban centre of an integrated. Another. all out of context. Frankel and Getzov 1997. the Akko plain appears as Tyrian territory? In Iron Age II. Large amounts of Ottoman pottery were found (mostly out of context) among which were many fragments of Rashayya al-Fukhar painted jugs. most of the Ottoman village in Squares N-Q14-8 was bulldozed before the excavations in order to reach the Iron Age levels. During Iron Age I the centralized urban system of the kingdom of Akko was replaced by two apparently independent settlement systems: one on the coastal plain using the Late . The remains of a fortress in Strata E3 and E2 point to a special function of the site. For Assyrian references to Akko see Parpola 1970: 11. Apparently the plain and the hills were newly organized and their agricultural production integrated into the economy of the city-state of Tyre.

Little is known about fortresses in Lebanon. However. 4. While Assyrian artistic representations and historical texts indicate that the Phoenician centres were fortified. None of the small fortresses on mountains in Upper Galilee (Frankel 1994:27) have a plan comparable to that at Tel Kabri. The end of the Stratum E3 fortress probably came during Ashurbanipal's third campaign. It was in the Assyrian interest to control the strategically important site of Kabri. 5. The revolt that Ashurbanipal suppressed in 644 BCE could be connected to the end of S1. The plan of this large fortress on a mound is quite different from the few fortresses known in Upper and Western Galilee such as those on Mount Adir (Davis et al. The political situation in Phoenicia remained unstable and in 677 BCE Esarhaddon conquered Sidon. Katzenstein 1997:289). Fig.31). the succession of the three floors in Stratum E3 may reflect repeated assaults on the small fortress. Some parallel features may be found in Israel. All these events may have had their impact on the stratigraphy of the fortress in Kabri area E. Gal 1993a:453). The casemate system of Kabri may have been incorporated into the settlement as in Beersheba Stratum II where the walls of the houses abut on the casemate walls using them as part of their construction (Herzog 1997:Fig. 4. the Phoenician homeland.ratumE2b. 1985. when he marched against Tyre ca. In particular. the fortress was immediately rebuilt.100). probably ancient Kabul (Gal and Alexandre 2000). Cecchini 1995.100: Schematic outline of the Stratum E2 fortress. Whether this pottery reflects Assyrian presence or a local imitation of Assyrian pottery remains uncertain. Mount Meiron (Druks 1964) and at Horvat Rosh Zayit. 660 BCE (Pritchard 1955:300. Akko was apparently not included in the territory of Tyre. Lamprichs 1995:173. Most of the Assyrianizing pottery found in Kabri dates to Stratum E2 or was found in the sounding in Squares O-P17 under Stratum E2b and may thus have started at the end of Stratum E3. Lipinski 1992.against Tyre (Pritchard 1955:287). The triple casemate wall system of Stratum E2a probably covered most of Area E (90 x 60 m) and shaped the rectangular form of et-Tell (Fig. Again there was no lasting peace and only a few years after their agreement Esarhaddon laid siege to Baal's Tyre in 671 BCE (Na'aman 1994: 6 and 1995:109). detailed studies of Phoenician architecture and fortifications in particular are still lacking (Leriche 1992. The fortress might have been in the hands of rebels and was destroyed by Ashurbanipal. The casemate fortifications of Stratum E3 were abandoned and a completely new fortress with new casemate walls was built (Stratum E2). Lancel 1995). The consumers of Assyrian style pottery may have attempted to copy the lifestyle of the predominant power of the Near East. or its colonies in the Western Mediterranean. The rectangular plan 86 .Esarhaddon and Baal of Tyre. According to the 675174 BCE treaty between.

1996. M. Excavations and Surveys in Israel 9:92. Fassuta. pp. Jerusalem. Davis. Muhly. D. 1995. The site was resettled only in the Ottoman period.R.H. Cleuziou. 2) even if not actually by Phoenicians with Cyprus and the presence repertoire in 604 BCE (Stager The pottery from the final levels has many parallels was most probably a result of the campaigns with that from the destruction of Nebuchadnezzar 1996). Dan 1. Bietak. Ben-Tor. The Middle Bronze fortifications in Palestine as a social phenomenon. 1994). Thus. A. In: Stem. Qashish. Bunimovitz. H. The New Encyclopedia Holy Land Vol. Architecture militaire. Braun. 1989/1990. when the Babylonians 1997:328). En Shadud: Salvage Excavations at a Farming Community in the Jezreel Valley. 1984. but the in (see wall for the style (cf. 1992. Ben-Tor. does not have casemates to the main fortification evidence now the summary 2001) but the way the rooms are attached the evidence The construction with ashlar piers and fieldstone fills. S. E. (Colloques intemationaux du CNRS No. Cultural Diversity and Change in the Early Bronze I of Israel and Jordan. 1985. Early Arad I. Pottery finds provide evidence at Kabri in its final years (Chapter of Greek mercenaries Stem 1992:Fig. Early Bronze Age Dwellings and Installations. pp. <Atiqot 3:1-24 (Hebrew). 1966. Leiden. Conder.is similar to that of the forts at Samaria metropolitan limited size (Meshel resembles building complex area excavated and Tel Jezreel. Yiftahel. 1994. (Ph. The Architecture of Ancient Israel. In: Krings. Braun. E. The Iron Age fortress was never rebuilt.. R. Cecchini. Biblical Dan. Biran. A. The contemporary of Fantalkin at Tel Kabri.. when a village was built here. V. S. 1200-1203. Small rural forts are best known to draw analogies fortress of Mezad Hashavyahu at Tel Kabri makes 1992). A. Oxford. Israel (British Archaeological Reports International Series 249). Tell el-Daba V.. Braun. eds. H.Tor. the pottery and the historical Akko plain support the assumption contacts Ashkelon that the Iron Age fortress at Tel Kabri was built in a Phoenician from Tyre. and Stech. Vienna. for close 5. In: Katzenstein. S. et aI. J. 1996. D. R. Tel Aviv 19:221-234. M. 4. 87 of Archaeological Excavations in the . 567) Paris. A. 60-67.. it difficult although this is a small rural fort and not a in the Negev. Ben. and Greenberg. leveling what remained of the stones of the ancient buildings (Hawaii REFERENCES Amiran. Han. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 44:41-51. A. Jerusalem. Maddin. In: Le plateau iranien et l'Asie centrale des origines ala conque islamique. 389-396. In the early Hellenistic the Iron Age architecture andre-using period graves were dug into its ruins. 1985. of except for the similarity as at these sites. 1983. R. ed. pp.D.. Israel Exploration Journal 34: 191-194. 1977. Les pointes de fleches "scythiques" au Proche et Moyen-Orient. The Survey of Western Palestine: Vol. Excavations at Horvat <U~a. dissertation. civile et domestique partim orient. 1991. E. D. Jerusalem. 187-199. Avia'am. pp. Jerusalem. 1978. 1993. A Steel Pick from Mount Adir in Palestine. the destruction to Tyre (Katzenstein and Palestine and occurred either as early as 604 BCE or later in 585 BCE. 1881. Tel. London. C. and Kitchener. ed.M. 1992. I: Galilee. La civilisation phenicienne et punique. Similar evidence was found at Tel Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:270against Syria laid siege 271). Jerusalem. Biran. Tel Aviv University) Tel Aviv. T. VII). E.

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The deep krater-Iike bowl with a sharp carination (Fig. Krater with a rolled rim (Fig. 1980:PI.. 35:6. 5.68:2.. 1980:Pls. 1980:Pls. 81 :14)... Tell Abu Hawam (Balensi 1980:PI..... 5. 5. 65:1-2. 1980:PI.. 66: 15.>.~ might be a Middle Bronze Age form. 5. 76:4). 5. 3) with matt red bands which have parallels in Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al.. 5. -. 71:1. 1980:PI. IRON AGE Gunnar Lehmann IRON AGE I Iron Age I pottery was relatively rare and found mixed with pottery from other periods. Although a krater or cooking-pot (Fig. Two bowls (Fig. Another similar vessel was found at Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al. Cooking-pots like Figs. 78:3-4. 1980:PI. 1980:Pls.~. 6 Fig. 5.66fr-t5) are typical for Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al.""""''''_'W<. 66:6a)... 5. 74:3.66:1) and Pilgrim Flasks (Fig.67:6 is a lamp similar to some from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al..67: 1 and one not illustrated) have parallels from Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et at.66: Iron Age I pottery from Area D.66:}6) may be compared to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al... ~~~~"&Si """""""~---'- ) 3 5 -l ') I l 2 ) . \ 4 ) -\ \ 7 I 10em.. 37:18.67:5 characterize the Late Bronze Age/Iron Age I strata (G2D2) at Sarepta (Anderson 1988:PI. second vessel from the right). 50:CP-I0a). 17). apparently from the destruction layer of the late 12th or early lIth century BCE (Gilboa 1998:413)...67:2) with a knob handle resembles a bowl from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. 78: 2).V. 5. 47 lower photo.. 39:28). 70. 5.. 5. 1980: PI. . Identical decoration on a closed vessel like Fig. 64:6). 4) resemble vessels from Iron Age I strata at Tell Keisan (Briend et al. . Other kraters (Fig. where it is identified as 'Sikil pottery' (Stern 1994:Fig. . """.6Ji*1. 64:1a). 178 . 5.67:3.. Fig. it is very similar to an Iron Age I vessel from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al..68:1 was found at Dor. 79:7.. 68:6). out of stratigraphic context. 1980:PI. Most typical are the Phoenician Monochrome juglets (Fig. 80:1) while another (Fig. 5. . 11: 160) and Tyre Stratum 13-14 (Bikai 1978: Pis.

2 In the tables accompanying the figures temper size is abbreviated as follows: f= fine grits (>0. 78:3-4). Keisan Stratum handle. core grey. Stratum Stratum 9c (Briend et al. 60712089 752/2609 255111 9198/1 607/2077 255112 Locus 607 751 727 1575 607 727 Description cf.6 mm). 2a). 9a-b (Briend et al. Red paint lOR5/6. and interior 10YR8/3.6 mm). core grey. temper: mg M. temper: mg M. core 5YR7/6.2 mm). 179 .0.67: Iron Age I pottery from Area D. No. 17). 1980:66: 15. interior 10YR7/3. No.5YR6/6. g = gross/coarse grits «0. 9a-b (Briend et al. interior 5YR7/6.67: IRON AGE I POTTERY FROM AREA 0 No. 1980:66:6a). 1980:64: la. Keisan with knob cf.2 . Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. interior 2. 9c (PI. Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. temper: m M. 1980:79:7). 2. FIGURE 5. 5YR7/4. interior 5YR7/6. core grey. 6 Fig.5YR6/6. cf. 5YR7/6.FIGURE 5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Type Juglet Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Cooking-pot Reg. 5403/3 5392/4 3304/1 3219/6 5378/2 3433/3 5423/2 Locus 1941 1973 0877 0864 1973 1313 1970 Description Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior 5YR7/6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type Bowl Bowl Krater Krater Cooking-pot Lamp Reg.66: IRON AGE I POTTERY FROM AREA 02 No. 5. } 3 f---d 2 -------ill II 4 lOcm. cf. M = mineral temper. m = medium grits (0. temper: m M. Colour description follows the Munsell colour charts. Keisan cf. temper: fm M. 1980:65:2).

Closed vessel with painted concentric circles.82:8-10. interior 7. Briend et al. Exterior 2.68: IRON AGE No. White-Painted II. core 2. interior 5YR6/4. White slip outside with red and black bands. Gjerstad 1948: Fig. temper: m M. FIGURE 5. Black paint. 1980: PI. interior 2. black paint.5YR7/2. Exterior 2. Red paint.5YR7/2. 5. 26:11. core 5YR7/6. Early Phoenician Bichrome. bands in black paint. Exterior 5YR7/6. 47: 3. core 10YR7/3.68: Iron Age 10cm. core 5YR6/6. Exterior 10YR8/3. black paint. White slip. temper: fm M. cf. 84: 259 (Abu Hawwam Stratum III). interior lOYR8/4. cf. core 5YR6/4. Bands in light greenish wash and black paint.5YR8/4. No. 9a-b). Cypriote WhitePainted V. temper: fM. core 5YR7/6. I I000o pottery from Area E. interior 2. Closed vessel. interior lOYR7/3. core lOYR8/4. temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR6/6.5YR7/2. interior 2. 61: 12 (Keisan Niv. 542617 5392/10 POTTERY FROM AREA E Locus 1941 1973 1941 0876 1968 1941 0888 0890 1970 1338 Description Exterior 2.5YR7/2. cf. core greyish. bands in black paint. Tyre Stratum 10-2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Jug let Pilgrim flask Pilgrim flask Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Krater or Jug Krater or Jug Jug Reg. Closed vessel with bands and concentric circles.5YR6/6.5YR7/2. temper: mg M.5YR7/6. temper: mg M.5YR7/2. Exterior 7. interior 5YR6/6. Exterior and interior 5YR7/6 and white. core 2. core 2. Exterior 5YR6/4. 19411177 3310/2 5402/5 5403/4 3388/8 3585/100 5346/2 3623/2 1 I Juglet 3145/3 0830 12 Transport jar 5443/100 1972 180 . black painted wavy line. Closed vessel with concentric circles. White slip outside and red paint.5YR7/2. 5.3 4 5 11 7 o Fig. Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. Closed vessel.5YR7/2. temper: fM.5YR8/4. temper: m M. Exterior 5YR7/6. Same type as Fig. Exterior 7. interior 5YR7/6. temper: m M. Cypriote White-Painted. temper: fM. interior 10YR7/3. Red brown paint. black paint. core grey. temper: fm M. Bikai 1978a: PI. Cypriote White-Painted.

1980:PI. Stratum Dl (ibid. There were 114 examples. 20 em in diameter.). Stratum 11 (ibid.:PI. x-15c). 5. 1050-850 BCE. :PI. 18a:16) and are dated to the 9th century BCE.69:1) has a flat base and an almost straight. 53: 10) and Tyre Stratum 6 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 5. :PI. 81: 15) and Tyre Stratum 17 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 29:4). 18a:4). Parallels come from Tell Keisan.5).69:1. :PI. 41 :9). Of special significance for the study of the Iron Age II in northern Israel is the wide range of vessels found in situ in the 7th century BCE destruction levels (Stratum E2) which represent pottery of this period. :PI. :PI. Stratum 10-2 (ibid. Tyre Stratum 6 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Transport jars from this context have a simple vertical rim rising from a sloping shoulder. Sarepta C2-F (Anderson 1988':type SJ-12A) and Tyre Strata 4-14 (Bikai 1978a:45-46 .IRON AGE II During the excavation of Area E (Chapter 4:IV) large amounts of pottery were found in situ in a series of fortresses. 1980).:PI. 31:12. a flat or convex base and reserved red slip decoration (Fig. 33:12-13). 1980:PI.70:11). 18a:5). Bikai 1978a:PI. Bowls like Fig. Those found in Stratum 4 are Bikai's first sub-type (1978a:26 Fine Ware Plate 2. 19:9-16).:PI. Stratum 7-11 (Briend et at. Stratum 10-1 (ibid. 5. 458. 850-750 BCE. 181 . 513). 32:10) and Tyre Stratum 4. The parallels connect the finds from below Stratum E4 with 11th-9th century strata at Tell Keisan. The body is sack-shaped. fragments and almost complete forms making up 4. 1987:37-38) which has a relatively short flaring rim. 16a:18-25. This type was in use over a very long span of time and fabric and surface treatment vary in different periods. 22:595. Sarepta Stratum C2-F (Anderson 1988:PI.3% of all diagnostics. 26: 1-4. STRATUM E4 BOWLS The simplest type of bowl in the Phoenician pottery repertoire (Fig. 6). Stratum 13 (ibid. a simple everted rim and red slip covering the rim inside and the complete vessel outside already occur in Iron Age I. the first of which was built in the 9th century BCE (Stratum E4) and the last probably destroyed in 604 BCE. A limited sounding below Stratum E4 produced only a small quantity of pottery. Stratum DI-E (Anderson 1988) and Tyre. They are comparable to examples from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Pls.69:4).69:2-3). Stratum 8-9 (ibid. :PI. ca. 33:2. Inside and outside are thin bands of black paint. 23 :3). :PI. 49:11). One of the most common bowl types found at Kabri has a flaring rim and was variously decorated in different periods. Parallels come from Cyprus ca. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's Kouklia Horizon. 3). Another type (Fig.70:13-19) and transport jars (Fig. 456. 5. 49: 2). 64: 97) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Thus.type SJ-9. 5. Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. ca. 48:4). They are similar to bowls from Keisan Stratum 10-11 (Brient et al. These bowls range in diameter from 18-25 ern. (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 4 nos. the lIth and 8th centuries BCE. cooking-pots (Fig. l1a: 2. 1980:PI. 47:type x-15a. 5). 9). 494-496. Stratum 7 (ibid. 1980:PI. Stratum 10-13 (Bikai 1978a). Stratum E (ibid. 511. 7). Tell Keisan Stratum 6-7 (Briend et at. 31: 1. 5. Among the few diagnostic sherds are various bowls (Figs. (Briend et al. triangular and sometimes has a slightly bulbous base. has a simple almost vertical rim. 470. 1980:PI. 23 :603). it covers the period between ca. Sarepta. Many of the vessels of this last phase were complete or restorable. 50:3. 600. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. Stratum 5. Stratum 12 (ibid. Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et at. sloping profile ending in a slightly thickened inverted rim. Stratum 7 (ibid.69:6 with a carinated shoulder. 5.

1980:PI. 74: 179). table 8A. Sarepta CI-C2 (Anderson 1988:type 13A) and Tyre Stratum 10-1 (Bikai 1978a: PI.f. 1980:Pls.47:8. 52: 8) and Stratum 8 (ibid.6. 23:611). It resembles a jug without slip from Cyprus dated to ca. PI. 850-750 BCE. 9:168-169. 1987). 92:jug 4). 5. 11. but may continue somewhat later as at Hazor Stratum VIII (Yadin et al. 268. Fig.70:9) was found out of its original context. table 8A. p. Such jars have been discussed in detail by Gal and Alexandre (2000:44-48) in their publication of the Phoenician fortress of Rosh Zayit. Four sub-types can be distinguished at Kabri. PI. It can be compared to examples from Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. p. JUGLETS AND JUGS A typical juglet of the 8th and 7th centuries BCE (Fig. Fig. 175. Juglets with a squared or thickened everted rim (Fig. Sarepta 01 (Anderson 1988:type OJ-2a). 12: 246. 2000:310. 39). No parallels were found for bowl types Fig. a neck ridge and a single handle are typically Phoenician. Juglets with a short mushroom rim (Fig.69: 18). They are dated from the end of the 10th to the first quarter of the 9th century BCE. KRATERS Only one such vessel was found in Stratum E4 (Fig. Another fragment (Fig. 5. 34. 82:242) and Tyre Stratum 4-9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 5. PI. 31 :15) and Tyre Stratum 2-4 (Bikai 1978a:33-35. 182 . The handle rises high above the low rim. 43:8).69:16-17 is a large bowl with an incurved rim which is sometimes painted red. 17 em. 177-178). 5. Similar bowls come from Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. 24:2). 5. 39. 5. 14:2-5. 5. This is a bichrome painted holemouth krater which resembles those from Rashidiya (Lipinski 1992:PI. 15:19-20. Their development has been discussed in detail by Bikai (1978a:37-40. type 244) in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI.70:12) occur since the second half of the 9th century BCE in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. Their diameter is ca. 190-206) and Tyre Stratum 4-9 (Bikai 1978a:type jug 8.Other carinated bowls (Fig. 55: 9). 10-12). 18a:7).70:7) is red-slipped and burnished. 5. 272). 1960:PI. 5. A jug with a high neck and a trefoil rim (Fig. 93:2 type juglet 2). Small juglets with a ring-base. but the rim is different.70:10) was found in Stratum E4 and two more in Stratum E3.70:3) begin in the second half of the 9th century BCE and continue until the second half of the 8th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:types 243. Parallels are found at Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. cf. Sarepta E (Anderson 1988:PI.71:9 of Stratum E3. The painted decoration of Fig.8) and Megiddo Stratum H-3 = Megiddo IVA (Finkelstein et al. 5.70:1-2) usually has a small bulge at the base. jug type 8. 5. 5. 14:383) and another from Tyre Stratum 9 (Bikai 1978a:PI.69:15 is similar to Fig. 4b) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990 :PI. 850-750 BCE (Bikai 1987:PI. Parallels from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Nos. Transport jars with a small triangular rim on a sloping shoulder (Fig. 5.f.25) and Stratum 5 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Sarepta Stratum B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type B-3A) and Tyre Strata 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. The first two have squared or thickened everted rims while the rims of the others are mushroom-like. and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI.69:7-14. 265. 20:8). 5:14-17. 18a:10) date this type to ca.69:5) have an everted rim which is somewhat thicker than the body wall. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS One rim fragment of what may be a 'Hippo Jar' (Fig.:PI.70:4-5) begin in the middle of the 8th century BCE and continue to the beginning of the 7th century BCE in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Pl. 69: 141-142). 60:1. 33:3.

5. 3. No parallels were found for a cooking-pot with a triangular rim (Fig. This type has many variants. 1980:PI. 11). A somewhat similar vessel was found at Rosh Zayit (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. ca.70 :21). One example (Fig.70:6) (cf.70:20). 33:10). 850-750 BCE. 35:1. The type occurs only once at Kabri.69:2). 52:13. They have a wide open body with a rounded base.70:3-5. Thus. 1980:9th century BCE) and Sarepta Stratum C2-Dl (Anderson 1988:ca. 81:8). Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's 'Salamis Horizon'. 63. 49:9. 46:1-2.COOKING-POTS Two main groups of cooking-pot types were distinguished: pots with triangular rims and pots with a ridged or 'modeled' rim. 5. 6. 12:27.69:6. 55:1-3.4) long pinched.70:12-13) and the cooking-pot rims (especially Fig.12:5) and Sarepta CI-Dl (Anderson 1988:type CP-IA). The body may be deep or shallow and has usually a sharp carination. 5.84:3-4). 750 BCE). 850-750 BCE. 3) long pinched. Stratum E4 may thus be dated to ca. the walls are either concave or sloping inward to the rim (see Gal and Alexandre 2000:40-42). Stratum E4 also has parallels with pottery from Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990). 27:9. Especially important for dating are the bowls with painted bands (Fig. The distribution of each echoes that of the group as a whole (Hunt 1987: 183). overlapping rim. Cooking-pot types with flat vertical rims become more frequent in the late 8th and 7th century BCE. 2) overlapping rim. Their value for dating pottery assemblages is thus limited. There are several sub-types of cooking-pots with triangular rims. 5. 5. 5. Cooking-pots with triangular rims are very common in Stratum E4 (Fig. Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 30:3) and Tyre Stratum 2-10 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 77:1-4. 28: 6). These sub-types have no chronological or regional significance in the Akko plain during Iron Age I through Iron Age IIC. 183 . 5. This cooking-pot type had a long life-span. 5.70:20) has a small edge on the rim immediately under the lip. These vessels are dated according to stratified comparisons from other sites which are contemporary with Stratum E4 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence at Tel Kabri. 34:10. One may distinguish between triangular rims with: 1) horizontal rim.23:13-15. 6. 17:2. where 33. They can be compared with vessels from TelI Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al.70:13-19) but continue in Stratum E3 and even into E2 (Figs. The pottery figures for this stratum include also some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context (Figs. One example of this type was found in Stratum E4. Above the carination. horizontal rim and 5) a short pinched rim (Hunt 1987:Fig. . the transport jars (Fig. 5. 33.12:5) where it is thought to be a krater. occurring first in the 12th century BCE. Gjerstad 1948 Fig. CYPRIOTE IMPORTS White-Painted IV jug (Fig. 1980:PI.73:3-5. Tell Keisan Stratum 6-7 (Briend et al. The examples at Kabri are clearly made of a cooking-pot fabric. there seems to have been close contacts between Kabri E4 and Tyre Stratum 4-12 (Bikai 1978a:9th century BCE to ca. one in E2 and 2 were unstratified. Sarepta Stratum F (Anderson 1988:PI. 5. 5. 950-830 BCE). Gal and Alexandre 2000:40-42) Comparisons come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4-11 (Briend et al. 9). SUMMARY Most paraIlels to the pottery assemblage from Kabri Stratum E4 are either found in the Akko plain or at Tyre and Sarepta.3% of Stratum E4 types have exact parallels. 18. 5.

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FIGURE 5.69: POTTERY OF STRATUM E4
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Type Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Krater Reg. No. 3251112 325112 3228/2 3251/7 3257/1 5392/9 3257/8 3256/2 325114 3242/1 3253/6 3253/3 3242/2 Locus 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 1973 .0866 0866 0866. 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 1958 0866 0866 Description Exterior 5YR6/6, interior 5YR7/3, core 5YR7/3, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/4, temper: m M, black paint. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core grey, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/2, temper: m M. Exterior 7.5YR8/6, interior 7.5YR8/6, core 7.5YR7/8, temper: fM, red slip lOR5/8. Exterior 7.5YR7/4, interior 7.5YR7/4, core 7.5YR7/4, temper: fM. Exterior 5YR6/8, interior 5YR6/8, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Bichrome? Exterior 2.5YR6/4, interior 2.5YR6/4, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior 10YR8/3, interior 10YR8/3, core greyish, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/6, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M, red paint. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/6, temper: m M, black paint. Exterior 5YR 7/6, interior 5YR 7/6, core 5YR 7/6, temper: fm M, red paint 10R5/6. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: m M, RSB 10R5/6.

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185

FIGURE 5.70: POTTERY OF STRATUM E4 AND FROM UNDERLYING DEBRIS
No. I 2 32 43 5 6 7 8 93 10 Il' 12 13 14 15 16' 17 18 19' 20 21 I 2 3 Type Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Jug Jug Juglet Juglet Jar Transport jar Transport jar Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. No. 3253/2 3232/1 3290/1 3338/8 3380/6 Locus Description 0866 0866 0873 0889 0888 0866 0855 0866 0803 0866 0871 0866 0866 0866 0866 0871 0866 0866 0871 0866 0866 Exterior 10R6/4, interior IOR6/4, core 2. 5YR6/4, temper: fm M Exterior IOR5/6, interior 10R5/6, core 10R5/6, temper: m M white grits. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fine mineral. Exterior, interior and core 7.5YR7/6, temper: fin M, decoration: red slip lOR5/6. Exterior 5YR7/8, interior and core 5YR7/4, temper: fM, decoration: bichrome red and black. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M, decoration: brown paint. Cypriote White-Painted III. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior IOR5/4, core grey, temper: fine mineral. Exterior 2.5YR6/4, interior 2.5YR6/4, core 2.5YR6/4, temper: m M white grits. Remarks: cf. Tyre Stratum V, Bikai 1978: PI. 18a: 10 (jug type 8). Exterior 2.5YR6/6, interior 2.5YR6/6, core grey black, temper: m M. Exterior 7.5YR7/6, interior 7.5YR7/6, core 7.5YR7/2, temper: mg M. Exterior 7.5YR6/4, interior 7.5YR6/4, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior IOR4/4, interior IOR4/4, core 10R4/4, temper: mg M white grits. Exterior 2.5YR4/4, interior 2.5YR4/4, core 2.5YR4/4, temper: mg M: Exterior black, interior black, core black, temper: mg M. Exterior 10R5/3, interior IOR5/3, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR4/1, interior 5YR6/3, core grey black, temper: black & white grits & mica Exterior 5YR5/4, interior 5YR5/4, core 5YR5/4, temper: mg M. Exterior 2.5YR5/4, interior 2.5YR5/4, core 2.5YR5/4, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Exterior 2.5YR5/4, interior 2.5YR5/4, core 2.5YR5/4, temper: mg M.

3251110
321111 3257/5 3027/1 3228/4 3262/3 325118 3248/2 3239/3 3228/1 3262/4 3226/3 3246/1 3262/2 325115

323911

Debris under Stratum E4 Stratum E3 Stratum E2

STRATUME3 BOWLS Only one example of a simple bowl with a flaring wall (Fig. 5.71:1) was found at Kabri. This type is very common in Tyre, where it was found in Strata 1-10, being most frequent in Strata 4-6 (Bikai 1978a: 23-24, type plate 8; PIs. 10:4,7; 16a:22-25; 18a:l; 19:9-12; 23:3). A flat plate or bowl (Fig. 5.71 :2; 5.76:4) has a sloping profile and a simple rim. It occurs in Stratum E3a and continues in Strata E2a-E2b. This vessel is very common in late-8th and 7th century BCE contexts on the Phoenician coast at Tyre in Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 1:13), Stratum 8 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 19:10 [similar]), Stratum 9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 19:16 [similar]) and in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. 20:519 [similar]). In Israel it is found at Dan Stratum II (Biran 1994:Fig. 167:1) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 73: 174 [similar]). A sub-type of the bowls with flaring rims (Fig. 5.71:3) which continues in Stratum E2 (Fig. 5.76:12) has a flat or convex base, reserve-slip and incised decoration on the outside of the base. Parallels come from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 3, Nos. 457, 462-469, 493, 510, 514), Sarepta CI-Dl (Anderson 1988:type F-IA), Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 63:76, 79, 81) and Tyre Strata 2-5 (Bikai 1978a:type Fine Ware Plate 2). Two bowl rims (Fig. 5.71 :4) seem to be a local imitation of the Black-on-Red Ic type at Horvat Rosh Zayit Stratum IIa (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 3.88:16, cf Fig. 3.77:14 Stratum IIb). A carinated bowl (Fig. 5.71 :5) has no exact parallel.
186

2. 6:16) and Stratum 8 (Lehmann 1996:PI.71:7) is similar to Fig. 5. 5. 15-16. Bikai 1978a:PI. Comparisons date this type to the end of the 8th and the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:383 form 122). 30: 1) and Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 18a:3) and Strata 8-9 (Bikai 1978a:PI.71: 19) resembles an Assyrianizing krater which becomes more common in Stratum E2 (cf. This type is very frequent at Tyre occurring in Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI.7) were found. Rosh Zayit Stratum lIb (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 16a:18-37). The fragment from Kabri was found in Stratum El.71:9 is very similar to one from Al Mina Stratum 5 (Lehmann 1996:PI. Several bowls (Fig. They are comparable to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. 33) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. typologically they belong to the assemblage of Stratum E3. With a narrow conical neck (cf. 31-34:Nos. This sub-type seems to be the older one (Bikai 1987:49-50). 72: 167). 5. 14:11). 5. 32: 316). A similar krater came from Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig.71: 16) with red and black bands on the shoulder has parallels at Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. 1987:4950. but no parallels could be found. out of its original context. 3.A deep red slipped bowl (Fig. 375). 19:9-16). 5. 5. lla:18). 5. 187 .71:1. They occur between 850-750 BCE in the Cypriote 'Salamis-Horizon' (Bikai 1987:PI. typologically this type should belong to Stratum E3 based on parallels from Al Mina Stratum 6-7 (Taylor 1959:Fig. 16 type 86d/l). 370. 30 :8). 750-680 BCE (Bikai 1978a:29. Ras al-Bassit phase 7 ensemble F (Braemer 1986:No. concave neck (for an example see Tyre Stratum 9. 391.72:36). Lehmann 1996:376 form 85). JUGLETS AND JUGS A number of Phoenician red slipped jugs with conical necks (Fig. The flat plate (Fig. 15: 19-20). While several were found out of their original stratigraphic context.81 :7-9). It is characterized by an incised ridge on the outer edge of the rim and is usually red-slipped. cf. The rim and profile of Fig.71:8 may be a local imitation of Black. The flat bowl or plate Fig. 5. Chapman 1972:Fig.71: 13 is very similar but has a red slip. but typologically seems to belong to Stratum E3. 10:23-25. 41 :3) and Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 1. A krater with grooves on the rim (Fig. 6.121:23) although it is larger and has a different rim. Stratum 5 (Bikai 1978a:PI. There are three sub-types of these jugs of which 13 fragments were found at Kabri. A parallel was found at Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 1980:PI.71:6) has almost vertical walls which turn with a carination into the base. 53 :8).71: 11-12) characterized by a rim that is drawn outward were found in strata E3 and E2. Fig. 5. A simple bowl (Fig.71: 14) is one of the most typical Phoenician fine ware plates of the 8th and early 7th century BCE. 1980:PI. Bikai 1987:PI. 20:1). Fig. 1980:PI. lla:19) and Stratum 3 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Similar vessels come from Al Mina Stratum 6-7 (Taylor 1959:Fig.on-Red bowls.71:17) has a parallel from Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a: PI.78:16) and Tyre Stratum 3-4 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 6. At Tyre this type of plate was found in Strata 2-5 (Bikai 1978a:29 fine ware plate 7). 3.72:1-4. Qasmiya. 17:85c/2). 3. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et aZ. 379. With an elongated. 5.71: 15 are somewhat similar. 5. With a slim conical neck that begins in the 8th century BCE (Bikai 1978a:36. for further sub-types and references see Lehmann 1996:416-418 types 300-307). KRATERS A large bowl or small krater (Fig. 1980:PI. Bowl Fig. The deep carinated bowl or krater (Fig. 14 no.11 :3). 5. Although out of its original stratigraphic context. 393-406. 5. The parallels date it to ca. 74:182). Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 5. Pis. but larger. 5. 40:9) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI.

5. 56:1). They have a wide distribution (Lehmann 1996:433-435. 52:24). 5. 42:4). 1960:Pl. Gjerstad 1948:Fig.6:13). COOKING-POTS For cooking-pots with triangular rims (Fig.28:16) and two Blackon-Red II(IV) bowls (Fig. There is one example of ajar (Fig. A decanter fragment (Fig. 5. 1980:PI. 1. The fabric is of medium mineral temper and reddish yellow (5YR7/6) with a grey or light red core (2. 5. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. The rim of a storage jar(Fig. 87:6) date this fragment to the second half of the 8th century BCE. The complete transport jar (Fig.7). types 383.73:1) was unstratified but has parallels at Tell Kazel Niveau 9-10 (Badre et al. Dor Area A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. GREEK AND CYPRIOTE IMPORTS There are few imports in StratumE3.72:14-17). are the type most frequently found in Phoenician contexts of the late 8th and early 7th centuries BCE. all found out of context: one single-strap handle (in Stratum E2a) and four double-strand handles ( There are four double-strand handles (three in Stratum E2a. They include the rim of a Greek amphora. The simple.72:18) decorated with black and red painted bands and a treelike motif. One very similar was found at Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 19:2. 5.73:9-11) in Stratum E3 is noteworthy.122:3). 52:21).122. The presence of simple cooking-pot lids (Fig. for example from Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig.5YR6/8). 8th century BCE).72:6) was found on the surface in Area E. Fig. 45:17). Gjerstad 1948:Fig.72: 10) (cf. 22:3). 19) and probably belongs to Kabri Stratum E3. 1980:Pl. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al.72:19) has many parallels in the 8th century BCE.Both the single strap and the double-strand handle occur at Kabri (Bikai 1978a:36).519. 12) similar to those from Tell Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. C. 3. Similar vessels have been found at Hazor Stratum IX (Yadin et al. 5. 5.72:21) have many parallels in the 9th and 8th centuries BCE. The Cypriote imports include the neck ofa Plain White IV amphora (Fig. 5. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS 'Crisp-ware' transport jars (Fig. 386-387) and establish contemporaneity between assemblages from Turkey. 5. Whether such decorated vessels were indeed used for transport jars or had a ceremonial character is not clear. one in Stratum El) and one single-strap handle (from Stratum E2a).72:9) (cf. the Levant. 5. 5. 750-680 BCE) (Culican 1982:Tf. dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE (Niemeier 1990:xxxv-xxxvi. 8ab). 1994:Fig.72:11. Cyprus. 188 . Ras al-Bassit tom be 12 (Courbin 1993:Fig. Egypt and the Aegean.6:6) and Hazor IX (Yadin et al. Galilean storage jars (Fig. A potter's workshop producing these jars was discovered at Tyre (Bikai 1985a) and two shipwrecks crammed with this type were recently found off the coast of Israel (Ballard. sack-shaped transport jar (Fig. also known as 'torpedo jars'. 1960:PI. At least some of these vessels were found in funerary contexts but may have been in secondary use. Comparison with decanters at Hazor Stratum VA (Yadin et al. A detailed typology of these jars was recently developed by Ayelet Gilboa (1995: 10-12). 5. 1. 3.72:20) resembles an example from Dor Area A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. 2002). 1960:PI.73:3-5) and cooking-pots with flat vertical rims in Stratum E3 see the discussion of this type under Stratum E4. There was also a small White-Painted III-IV barrel juglet (Fig. Stager et al. 90:296) and Tourabi-Tekke cemetery (ca. 11:1.

72:1-2. core SYR7/6. Thus Stratum E3 can be dated between ca.72:14-15. interior 7. interior 2. Parallels with Stratum E3 were found at Dor Area A phase 9 and Area Cl phase 6 (Gilboa 1995:720-650/630 BCE and 8th century BCE). Ras al-Bassit tomb 12 (Courbin 1993 :800-700 BCE). No. TJ!f!_e 1 Bowl 2 Bowl 3 Bowl 4 Bowl S 6 7 8 9 . Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990). core grey-black. temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/4.SUMMARY The bulk of the pottery found in Stratum E3 is of Phoenician or Tyrian character. Exterior SYR713.73:1). 16. S3061100 3474/2 3287/2 1965 1317 0873 0812 l3l3 0876 0861 0873 0896 0873 l3l3 1973 0841 l317 0896 l316 0866 30S3/1 342611 331611 32l3/2 3290/7 3378/3+8 3290/4 3433/2 11 12 13 14 Exterior SYR7/4. Fig. temper: fM. 5.71:6. temper: fM. core SYR7/4. core grey-black.71: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No.10 Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Reg_.SYRS/4.SYR7/4. temper: mg M. 12. temper: m M. core black. red slip 10RS16b.73:3-11). Most important for dating Stratum E3 are the cooking-pots (Fig. 750-650 BCE. temper: fM. S386/6 31S411 3474/1 3378/8 3448/1 IS Bowl 16 Krater 17 Krater 18 Krater 19 Krater 32S1111 189 . core grey. Exterior 2. 3290/S 337811 Locus 0873 0896 Description Exterior 10YR8/2 white. interior SYR7/6.SYRS/4.SYR6/6.SYR6/6. 5. temper: mg M. red slip 2. black & red paint (10RS/6). interior SYR7/3.SYR6/6.SYRS/4. interior 2. 5. temper: mg M. These are dated according to stratified parallels from other sites contemporary with Stratum E3 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence at Tel Kabri. this assemblage provides significant evidence for very close contacts with Tyre. interior 2. interior SYR7/6. black paint.SYR7/4. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. Most parallels are found in the Akko plain. core grey. core 7. red slip 10R4/6 inside wheel burnished. Exterior 2. Exterior SYR7/4. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's 'Kition Horizon'. the transport jars made of Bikai's 'crisp-ware' (Fig. interior 2.SYR6/4. temper: fine mineral. FIGURE 5. Hazor Stratum VA. core SYR7/6. Fig. burnished surface. in particular the PlainWhite IV rim (Fig. core grey. 14-15. temper: mg M.72:10-11). interior SYR7/4. 5. ' Exterior SYR7/4. 17) and the Cypriote imports. ca.6-9. Exterior SYR7/6. Exterior 7. temper: fM. interior SYR7/6. 5. 1980). interior SYR7/4. interior SYR7/4. core black. 5. Exterior 2.SYR6/4. core5YR7/4.SYR7/4. The pottery figures for this stratum include some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context (Figs. Exterior SYR7/6. interior 2. core 2. Exterior SYR7/3. Sarepta Stratum CI-C2 (Anderson 1988:8th century BCE) and Tyre Stratum 2-8 (Bikai 1978a:8th century BCE). red paint 10RS/8. temper: m M.4. 750-680 BCE. but particularly at Tyre and Sarepta where exact parallels were found for 30% of the types. temper: f111 M.SYR6/6.SYR6/6. As in the preceding stratum.

71: Pottery of Stratum E3.~17 2 3 \)-------1 \ \ 4 5 6 7 ~_17 i I " . t \ Fig. 7 l 9 10 ~ 12 _7 13 14 15 17 \ I 16 "/------r---~=========~ . 5. 190 .---.)-------/ f \ \ \ \ \ \ '- \\ 18 19 r= f 1 10cm..

.....-. ..... ....... I I . -9 15 I.21 ) f I \ 191 Fig.72: Pottery of Stratum E3... " /-l-~' \ \ \ I I ~ :I II I I 2 3 4 5 m / I . ~" /~~ «I '\1- 8 9 m 7 @)(ff}D 10 12 13 ~:z • 11 I I \ ' \.. 14 H 18 r 17 18 20 19 -EJ 10cm. \- ..._' _... _ '....... . 5.. I I ~.... '... .

5YR5/4.5YR7/4. Exterior 2. core 5YR7/6. cf. temper: m M. Exterior 2. temper: mg M.No. temper: g M. core 2. interior 5YR4/3. interior 5YR7/4.5YR4/4.5YR6/4. FIGURE 5. interior 2. red paint IOR5/6.72: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No.5YR6/4. interior 7. red slip IOR5/6.e Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jar Cypriote Cypriote Cypriote Cypriote Jug Transport Transport Transport Transport Transp~rt Reg No. interior 2. core grey.5YR3/4 . white grits. red slip IOR4/8.5YR7/4. similar to Gjerstad 1948: Fig. temper: mg M.5YR5/6. interior 2. core 7. temper: mg M. core 7. Exterior 5YR7/6. red slip IOR4/8. temper: fM. interior 7. temper: mg M. interior 5YR7/6. Exterior 2. Exterior 5YR7/4. core black. Exterior 5YR4/3. interior 5YR7/6. core black. core black. Exterior 7. core IOR6/4. Exterior 7. core 5YR7/6. core 5YR7/6. interior 2. interior IOYR7/4. temper: mg M. core grey. 14: 5. core grey.5YR7/4. Exterior 5YR7/4.2. 28: 16 (White Painted III-IV).5YR7/6. white grits. white grits. temper: m M. Gjerstad 1948: Fig.5YR7/4. red slip 2. temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR4/3. 45: 17. core 7. temper: mg M. temper: mg M black & white grits and mica. Bikai 1978: PI. white grits.5YR4/6. black & white grits and mica. temper: fm M.73: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No. red slip 2. core grey.5YR7/4.5YR7/4. black & white grits. 192 . core black. core grey. interior 2.5YR5/4.5YR5/6. 3309/4 3588/5 3283/5 3157/3 5455/5 3357/5+7 3055/1 3045/2 3215/1 3284/6 5416/10 3208/2 5432/1 5455/2 5215/1 3366/9 3307/1+2 3284/1 5455/1 319612 Locus 0879 1325 0873 0840 1970 0889 0812 0807 0864 0873 1941 0861 1970 1970 1941 0896 0876 0873 1970 0855 Descril?_tion Exterior 5YR7/6. core grey. core 5YR7/6. Exterior 2.FIGURE 5. Tyre Stratum 4.5YR6/6. Exterior 7. temper: mg M. cf. i import import import import j ar jar jar jar jar 19 Transport j ar 20 Storage jar 211 Storage jar Stratum EI Exterior 7. temper: fm M. interior 5YR6/4. Exterior 7. Exterior 2.5YR8/4. temper: fm M.5YR5/4.5YR8/4 . Exterior 5YR7/6. temper: mg M. large white grits.5YR7/4. 3647/100 339112 331811 3474/4 322112 542311 328811 3230/3 3474/14 3457/9 3296/1 Locus 0890 1302 0881 1317 0861 1970 0873 0864 1317 1317 0873 Descril?_tion Exterior 5YR7/4. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Type Transport j ar Transport j ar Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot lid Cooking-pot lid Cooking-pot lid Reg_. temper: fM. core 5YR7/6. interior 7. black & white grits. temper: fM. interior 7. grooves inside. temper: fm M. 19: 2. interior 7.5YR8/4. red slip IOR4/8. interior 5YR7/6.5YR7/4. Exterior 7.5YR5/4. interior IOR5/4.5YR6/6. Plain White IV.5YR8/4. interior 5YR7/6. II 21 3 41 5 6 81 91 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 TJP. interior 5YR7/6.5YR5/4.5YR4/4.5YR5/4. interior black. red slip IOR4/8. temper: fm M. Exterior black. core 5YR7/4. core 5YR6/4 black. interior 5YR6/4. black and red painted geometric design. Exterior 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR7/6. temper: fm M.

..73: Pottery of Stratum E3. I 8 I I f 6 .___. " I ~ r -4 5 ! \ I I =\ \ ! \ 7 ~ -: I 9 "/' o . 193 .. /' I n ~ Fig. 5. 10cm.o .. 2 3 ( F I 4 e . 10cm ....

STRATUME2 BOWLS There is a remarkable variety of bowl types in Stratum E2. 19:534-536. For their occurrence see Lehmann 1996:371-372 form 75b.1980:168-170. 5. Often they have a carination half way up the body.76:21. The former have a fine soft orange fabric whereas the clay of the latter is red brittle and coarse. Deep bowls with bichrome red and black painted decoration inside (Fig. 1980 :PI. 46:2) and Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. 5. 538). Sarepta C1 (Anderson 1988:type X-9A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 1. A sub-type of the group of bowls with flaring rims (Fig. p. 5.76:12) is similar to Fig.76:5-6). 40:12). 81: 15). The bowl with an S-shaped profile (Fig. 194 . as are bowls with a carinated or stepped profile inside and outside (Fig. but the fabric is very different.76:8) was first identified at Ras al-Bassit and is apparently a typical 7th century BCE form (Braemer 1986:Nos. 15: 13). called 'Salt and Pepper group' at Tell Abu Hawam. 31. Another sub-type (Fig. 5. 29:1-8). It has 'been reported from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 5 nos. A great many vessels of this class were found in Kabri . At Kabri several examples of both types have had a hole drilled in their centre after firing and were apparently in secondary use.76:7) has a particular fabric. fine and soft. 41: 12 similar. 5. Parallels come from I 3 4 For a detailed type study see Briend et al.76: 18-19) are of the type found at Sarepta Stratum C1-C2 (Anderson 1988: type F-7C).80. where it was assumed that drilled vessels were part of architectural construction (Lehmann 1996:363 form 17.3:24-25). 1980:166-168. several have either one hole drilled into the centre of the base or several holes all over the bottom.76:9) first seen in Stratum E4 (Fig. Like the bowls with a long overhanging rim.511.7% of all diagnostics.3 Parallels come from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. A number of red-slipped flat bowls and plates all have an accentuated everted rim (Figs. It might be dated as early as Late Bronze or Iron Age I and could be intrusive in Stratum E2a (cf. 38).76: 10-11). 5. 470. for example at Arqa 10AB (Thalmann 1978:Fig.71:3 discussed in Stratum E3. occur frequently on the Phoenician coast.24. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. For bowl Fig. 38:1-12).1:1). 1980: PI. 1980:PI.76:4) are very common. Bikai 1978a: PI. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl. 26:16-17) and bowls at Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. Tyre Stratum 5. 5. 1980:Pl. 5. 77. 471-473. differentiated by their rim forms. 494-496. 5. 5. SeeBriendetal. Tel Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. Carinated bowls with a simple rim (Fig. Bowls with a long overhanging rim (Fig. Some of these sub-types.77:1-6). 1.76:14 compare a Black-on-Red I(III) bowl at Cyprus (Gjerstad 1948:Fig. A similar phenomenon is known from central Syria in the late 8th century BCE. 63: 75.513). 5. Keisan Stratum 10-11 (Briend et al.76:20-25. 5. Maigret 1979).76:16-17) are typical of the late 8th and 7th century BCE (cf.82-85) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:type Fine Ware Plate 1). The fabric is orange. which constitute 3.98 examples.69:4) displays somewhat thicker walls and the red slip is thin and washy being band-burnished or unburnished. 5. 5. have previously been included in the so-called 'Samaria Ware' but should be referred to rather as 'Phoenician Fine Wares' (Bikai 1992:97) or 'Levantine Fine Wares'. Sarepta C1-D1 (Anderson 1988:type F-1A). Flat plates or bowls with a sloping profile and a simple rim (Fig. but without slip) and Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a: PI. The fabric of this sherd consists mainly of marl and may perhaps originate in northern Israel (Chapter 15:Table 15. 20-22). 20:531-533. 5. often red-slipped outside and/or inside.4 Their shape is very similar to Figs. The outer surface can often be cut with a knife. The bowl type with an uneven outer surface (Fig.

8-9) and Yoqne'am Stratum 10 (Ben-Tor et al. 38: 9-12) and Tyre Stratum 1-3 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 3. type with a horizontal long rim (Fig. 5. 8a:51.77:11). 5. 10:24-25). 30:8). 30:11et al. The rim is either horizontal from Tyre define Both examples found at Kabri are 'drooping'. Parallels from Tell Keisan Stratum 4(Anderson 1988:type F-2A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai are discussed below as a special type. 1996:Tf. 1. 1-4 at Tyre. A similar bowl (Fig.78: 10) has a paralJel at TelJ Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera The Assyrian-style deep bowl (Fig. deep bowls with handles assemblage and a carinated shoulder (Fig. 9:5-6. 5. include The comparisons burnished and very well finished and has a stepped at.9:6).'Plate 3' and 'Plate 4' (Bikai or slightly flat there are exceptions. 2 and 3 (Bikai 1978a:Pls.77:14 is a small bowl with an incurving rim. 8a:43.77:15) with an incurving rim has a number of parallels in Phoenician sites of the late 8th and 7th centuries BCE such as Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et at. 1987:9:10). The red slipped plate (Fig. 22. Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1988:PI. 38:22) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 72:164-166). Oxford 1954. 5. Fig. and Tyre Strata 1. come from and the time range of this type to Strata and the first part of 7th century 1-3 (Bikai 1978a:type the end of the 8th century Cyprus (Bikai 1987: no. 52:10). 1980:PI.7:8). p. Dor C2 phase 7 (ibid. The large plain bowl (Fig.77:16) has a carination directly under the rim and was found at Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et Large. 1980:PI. 5. 1980:PI.78:5-8) at. Plate 4 is a variant characterized 92/888/3356-2 by a step below the is broken here (no would breaks at this point. 5-6). effect (see Culican 1981). and indeed our example or 'drooping'. 1978a:type fine ware 4) date the type between the second half of the 8th and the 7th century BCE. 30:2-4. 15:9 respectively). 1980:PI. 5. Sarepta CI-Dl Assyrian-style DEEP BOWLS bowls (Figs.form 5 (Briend et al. This type is completely . 1980:PI. type plate 4). 41:7). was also found at Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al.78:1) were first recognized by Bikai (1985b) and many have been recorded since 1996:394 type 180). PI. 5. 27:4). The Fig. 41 :3a). 5. 1980:167 type c. GOBLETS AND PEDESTAL BOWLS Presentation (Lehmann stands (Fig. Al Mina Stratum (Bikai 1987:No. 28:5. PI. sometimes has a black band on the rim (Bikai 1978a:28 fine ware plate 4.Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. PI. 45.:Fig. 5. 45:4-4a). The plate usually illustration).77:9 has a parallel from Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al.77:7-8) seventy nine such bowls found at Kabri made up 3. 1995:Fig. 52: 8) Tell in the 7th profile (Fig.40:1-7) 1:12.78:9) is discussed 1990:PI. 1978:Fig. The bowl (Briend et al. convex base.77:10) has a cut rim. 28: 12. 195 . Sarepta Cl (Anderson 1988:PI. 42:3. 5.77:12) was also found at Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et The first type is always While the rim is usually rim. 30:180/2). 1978a:22-23).77:13 into two types . 12: 11). The deep bowl with a carinated 5. 1980:PI.12). et al. 1980:PI. 5. tomb 367/51-1 pottery during the 1968Ashmolean British Museum late 8th and the 7th century Museum.1 % of all diagnostics. 9:14). Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. Sarepta (Anderson 12. 33: 1- They occur at Kabri with different rim forms. They are one of the most typical features of Phoenician BCE. Lehmann 1996:386. Examples Amathus come from Al Mina (unpublished. 1. are common BCE Phoenician from Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend Gonzalez below. 25. 435). 32:3. creating a bar-handle-like Similar plates were found at Tyre in Strata 3 and 4 (Bikai 1978a:Pls.9:9-10. 69:141-142) and Tyre Stratum 10-2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. A small plate with a small accentuated band of red slip inside (Fig. 39:30). Comparisons which BCE. Al Mina Stratum 5 (Lehmann 8 (unpublished. Chambon 168). 1980:166rim and a 10:12-13).76:15. or partially red-slipped 145b). 1980:PI. 544) Tyre Stratum plate 3 and 4. Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI.348/3). Bikai divides plates like Fig. vessels nos. century 2. Tel Qiri Stratum VI (Ben-Tor Sarepta (Pritchard 1988:misc. 5. 5. studied in detail by A.

70:1-2 in Stratum -E4). This juglet may be an Assyrian-style vessel. 37:2-3) and Vroulia Tomb 6 on Rhodes (Kinch 1914:PI. Other larger jugs (Fig. Large jugs made of smooth yellowish fabric with dark painted lines (Fig. Similar juglets were found in Cyprus and labelled as White Painted V (Gjerstad 1948:Fig. The decoration and fabric are reminiscent of Assyrianizing pottery but the form is uncommon among Mesopotamian shapes as is the fine grit size of the temper. 5. 5. 4: 16). Juglets with a small bulge at the base (Fig. fabric and surface finish from contemporary decanter types in inland sites but is quite common along the northern Levantine coast.79:12-l3) and a polished or cut surface come from Strata E2-3. 25-28.78:14 (Chapter 15: Table 15.9). Lehmann 1996:Tf. 279) but most were found in Levantine sites such as Sidon Tomb 1 (Culican 1975:Fig.78:4) which occur in the 7th century BCE all over the Levant (Lehmann 1996:383-384 type 125). Salles 1985a. Tyre Stratum 2-3 (Bikai 1978a:33-35. fabric and decoration were also found at Sarepta Dl 196 . 5. Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:Fig. 25:type 159-163 and Tf. surface treatment and decoration and are comparable to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. JUGLETS AND JUGS A complete small juglet with black-brown bands (Fig. 5. The handle rises above the rim and the body of the vessel is slim and long.79:14) differs in form. The decanter (Fig. la). 6) similar in form. 5. 6-7) occur very frequently in 8th and 7th century BCE Phoenician pottery assemblages. 1960: PI. 750-680 BCE (Lehmann 1996: type 241 and cf.78:2-3) decorated in reserved red slip with painted black bands are unusual. Only the base distinguishes the early moratoria from those of the NeoBabylonian and Persian periods (cf Lehmann 1996:Tf. More frequent are goblets (Fig. 5.Stands or incense burners (Fig. 5. At Kabri three sub-types were distinguished on the basis of fabric: 1. 1980:PI. MORTARIA A large number of mortaria (Fig. 5. Fine yellowish smooth (5YR7/6) fabric (Fig. 36: 1-. 92:jug 5) and Hazor VA (Yadin et al. The vessels have a wide oval body and tall neck (cf. Sarepta B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type B-3A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:typejuglet 1).79:6-7). Most examples found at Kabri belong to the early Iron Age type. 2.79:8-10) can be dated by parallels to between ca.78:11-14) with a simple flat base were found at Kabri. 5:19-23. 5. 1980:Pl. PIs.79:5). Large jugs and bottles (Fig. Brown fabric (2. 43:8).80:5. 5.79:1) was found under the floor of Stratum E2.79:3-4).11. are discussed below. 5. B ikai 1978a:PI. 50). Sapin 1998). Petrographic analysis of Fig.1:2) shows that the fabric of this vessel is typical of Cypriote coastal sites like Amathus or Enkomi. 46:2). 87:l3. For comparisons see Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. Reddish coarse fabric (lOR5/6) (not illustrated. 19). 298. Juglets with a red slip and a wide overhanging mushroom lip (Fig. 221: 1) and Shiqmona Stratum 9 (Elgavish 1994:Fig.6:4-5. 38:6. 33:3.79:5. Tyre Stratum 3.80: 1. 27:169) while the rim fragments are often indistinguishable. 5. 285.90:3-4). Some examples were found in Iraq at Assur Tomb 547 (Haller1954) and Nimrud NTS15 (Mallowan 1966:Fig. 5."5. but there are also four examples of Persian period mortaria with a high pedestal ring-base (Fig. type 239). 5. but see Fig. The Assyrian-style juglets and jugs (Fig. Similar vessels from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Nos. 312. found under the floors of Stratum E2. The paint has a matt appearance. These bottles form a distinct group of pottery in terms of fabric. 3. 316).5YR6/6) with a rough surface (Fig. 5. Mortaria appear during the 7th century BCE for the first time and continue into the Hellenistic period (cf. 2) decorated with painted bichrome bands in red and black.

At Sarepta they occur in Strata B-C1 (Anderson 1988:505).78:9. Assyrian-style jug1ets and jugs (Fig. 3) Brown fabric (Fig. 44:5-8). 6:10). The surface is decorated with bichrome red and black bands. 6). but has small horizontal loop-handles.82:3) (cf.79:14. There is some similarity to Assyrian storage jars from Nimrud. Fort Shalmaneser Room T20 (Curtis et at. 49:8). 5.82:4). Dan Stratum II (Biran 1994:Fig. 88:285. 28:9). Briend et al.81 :6) has a different type of rim. 5. Anderson 1988:type L-9). 2) often have wide rectangular horizontal rims. Type L-9).82:1-4) are low in profile with a sharply formed rim and a somewhat flattened base (Anderson 1988:669. Unfortunately. 5. Briend et al.81:3 is similar to these.82:5) existed over a long span of time and may have been used in cultic contexts. 1. 212). KRATERS Kraters with vertical shoulders and a wide lower body (Fig. 1993:Fig. 197 . Bk).5:1~3) and Sarepta B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type SJ-18A). Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl. 5. :Pl. The large krater or deep bowl on Fig. 5. Large sack-shaped storage jars (Fig. Keisan Stratum 5. 5. No parallels were found for Fig. 5. Briend et al. Tel Qiri loci 682. Some vessels are decorated with a red slip on the rim. and another version (Fig.82:2) (cf. This is the most common type of krater in Stratum E2 at Kabri where fragments of 16 such vessels were found. 5. 91 :301). the rim is not preserved. but has horizontal handles. 43: 12).81: 1. 1980:Pl. 5. 1018 (Hunt 1987:Fig. 2) Smooth. There are four sub-types: 1) Reddish-yellow fabric (Fig. Jars with a stepped shoulder and vertical body walls (Fig.5 Thus. 43: 1) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl. Fig. 5. Such lamps appear at Tyre only after Stratum III (Bikai 1978a:Pl. 5. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS The tall storage vessel (Fig.82:6) with a fire-arm is discussed below. 1980:Pl. A holemouth krater with round shoulders and a wide curved profile (Fig. Tell Keisan Stratum 4. 287) and Tyre Stratum 3 (Bikai 1978a:P1s. Lamps of the so-called 'cup-and-saucer type' (Fig.80:10.81:5 is similar. 5. Similar vessels were found at Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. 1980:Pl. 5.9) are discussed below.80:9) has a cylindrical body and a round base.11) with their maximum width in the lower part of the vessel have no parallels. The Assyrian-style lamp (Fig. 32:8-9.(Anderson 1988:Pl. Tell Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et al. 4) Cooking-pot fabric which is red with black white grits and a rough surface (Fig. Sarepta B-C1. Stratum 5 (ibid.80:7) are more typical of inland assemblages and occur at Kabri only in very limited numbers. 27:1-3). 4:10.81 :4) has a flat oval-shaped rim.80:8. Fig.81 :7. 1980:Pl. 1980:Pl. Some 7th century BCE examples come from Achziv Tomb 3 (Culican 1975-76:Fig. 880. 5. 44:13-15) and Mtarfa tomb (Malta) (Culican 1982:Abb. Assyrian-style kraters (Figs. Type 429. 5 For further references from Syria and Lebanon see Lehmann 1996:447. 5. 33:4). pink fabric (Fig. 5. 5.80:3-4) are discussed below. 5. The fabric and the streak burnish are identical with fabric and surface finishing of decanter Fig. 7:5. 13d). LAMPS The late Iron Age lamps (Fig. Often the handle starts immediately at the rim. Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. 5. 5.81 :10 has a thick rim and is wheel burnished in the interior. Tell Keisan Stratum 5. 5.82: 1) which is sometimes almost white (cf. this type begins during the 8th century and continues into the Persian period. sometimes also extending over the inner parts of the vessel.

Basket-handle amphoras (Fig. Slightly sloping shoulders. Both Neutron Activation Analysis by Gunneweg and Perlman (1991) as well as petrographic analyses by Yuval Goren (Chapter 15:Table 15.24 examples (Fig. 4. There is a regular. Fifty seven vessels. light reddish to pink. These jars from Stratum E2 represent the earliest type which is confined to the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:443-445 type 421). Cyprus (Gjerstad 1948:Fig. At Kabri they constitute 40% of all transport jars in Stratum E2. However. 3. 'from the sea' (Zemer 1977:No. 300).While there were only some 10 types of transport jars found in Stratum E3. 33:6). 11).82:11. Salamis (Karageorghis 1967:97. a small and a large subtype. All in all 160 handles were counted which would point to at least 80 baskethandle amphoras in the limited excavation of Area E. These dimensions occur on both fabric groups 1 and 2. 1:16). 1980:Pls. vertical body walls below a shoulder carination and a pointed base (Fig. It has parallels at Achziv Stratum IV (Zemer 1977:18. 1. Similar jars have been reported from Arqa Stratum 9 D (Thalmann 1990:54 n. 5. Kamiros (Jacopi 1931:Tav. This is probably the most typical Phoenician transport jar of the late 7th century BCE. 27:9) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:Pl. 53) and Ras Shamra-Ugarit (Stucky 1983:Keramik Nr. 5.86:1). the handle is 17 ern high and its diameter is 5 ern. 5. The general shape resembles a bullet. 225:593. 1:14). The outside is red sometimes with a white self-slip. in the storage rooms (Fig. 12-14).74: Phoenician aleph incised on jar shoulder.6 examples (Fig. 9). Humbert (1991) dates the first appearance of this type to ca. Shiqmona Stratum 8 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. 5. light reddish.74. Less sharply carinated shoulders than Group 2 (Fig. Dafanna(Petrie 1888:PI. Similar vessels were found at Ashdod-Yam (Raban 1980:Fig. The handle joints on the shoulder are 21 em apart from each other. 5. Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. 33).82:15). 1980:Pls. Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. The yellowish. Sharply carinated shoulders and an S-shaped profile (Fig.82:13-14).8-9).84:1). Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. 47:1-2). The vessel is pink with a grey core. 5. 5. 26:2-7. 5. The fabric is medium to coarse with mineral temper. 5. 5. The fabric is orange pink. pink with black and white grits. The fabric is fine to medium with mineral temper and falls into four distinct colour groups: light grey or greenish with black arid brown grits.84:2). Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al.1:3) came to the same conclusion that this type of vessel was produced in II~_-• 198 . 25:2-3. No. 1980:PI. 650 BCE. On two jars of this type a Phoenician aleph was incised on the shoulder when the clay was still soft (Figs. 26:1. light orange or reddish fabric has a fine mineral temper. Fig. Similar to group 1 but with much thicker walls (up to 2cm) (Fig. Some of Humbert's types (1991) as defined at Tell Keisan were also found at Kabri: Type B-1 example. were recorded from Stratum E2. 23-24).82:8-10). Type D . 2.84:1-2). Type C . 12).88a) the majority were confined to 5 main types. 21 types were recorded in Stratum E2. 8:131). greenish grey. the matrix being fine with a fine to medium mineral temper. 57:23 [Plain White V]). many of them completely restorable. 5. 27:6. 5. Salamis (Karageorghis 1974:Pl. 101). 806-807) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:PI. The fabric is of fine to medium mineral temper. A significant number of handles of fabric groups 1 and 2 have the same dimensions. This type occurs from Carthage to Nimrud (Lehmann 1996:434 type 384). 1980:PI. 700 BCE but Salles (1985b) claims that this early type of basket-handle amphora reached the Akko plain only ca.

83:9). 5. With a flat rim and an edge slightly below the lip (Fig. At least some of these signs are in Cypriote Iron Age writing. Sarepta CI-Dl 2. 5. Several apparently examples in secondary of other types use as storage which vessels may have come as imports were also retrieved to the Kabri area and were (Fig. 5. 3. by the appearance between the periphery (35%) of cooking-pots in Stratum E2 (Figs. (Anderson 4 (Briend et at. Another 25 examples were found out of their original context in Stratum El. jars in a late 7th century BCE. 5. There was 1 example in Stratum E3b. There were 3 examples in Stratum E3b. and illustrates COOKING-POTS The majority 1. in the Mediterranean Crisp.Cyprus or the north Syrian coast.88b). 2 in E2b and 24 in E2a.5.75.84:7-9. 5. in E2 and 2 were unstratified.85:1). 2 in E2b and 12 in E2a. lIIIIIIII111111fM1*H1111IlmlfM1*H111. I 2:5 [early 9th century BCE to 732 BCE]) With a flat round rim without an edge (Fig.84:7).l\11\\I~l\Il\lll\fM1*H1I\\I\\\\\f 9 10 14 15 16 17 1~ Fig. 5. Thus. 1980 :PI. 220:3) and Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et at. Thus.g. of this sub-type Stratum at Tell Keisan under Stratum E4 (Fig. In addition. Comparable vessels.85:1) belong to a Phoenician One example type which already appears With a small discussed in Stratum E4. 5. all with a rough and uneven bas. were found at Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:Fig. There are several variations One example 2000:Fig. 2 in E3a. The chert composition suggests that Cyprus should be favoured as a place of origin and this is confirmed by the signs either incised on them after firing or in red paint (Figs. 3 in E3a. one edge on the rim immediately It has parallels CP-IA). the type dates to Strata E3 and E2 which 1988:Type CP-IA) is comparable to Sarepta type 4).84:8-9).75: Basket handle with incised Cypriote signs. the type dates to Strata E3 and E2. and sub-types: has been was found in Stratum E4. marked exchange BCE assemblage like that of Stratum wide trade contacts of the so-called and Tyre. 46:4). A few contemporary E2a is types came from the southern The diversity remarkable. 5. 31 examples were found out of their original context in Stratum E 1. 1980:PI. 5.e. 5. and Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 1988:Type 6. 199 Stratum CI-Dl (Anderson and Tyre Stratum 9-13 (Bikai 1978a: cooking-pot . of transport This variety part of the country (e.Ware found in seems to be due to the increasingly economic after the end of the 9th century Stratum E3. 28 :6).84:2). Fig. under the lip (Fig.70:20).

1980). cooking-pots with a ridged or modelled rim were found at many sites during the survey of the Akko hinterland (Lehmann 2001) and here at Kabri they constitute 11% of the kitchen vessels. Type See Fig.77:7 5 14 Bowl 5. Chambon 1980:165-166. This type does not occur at all at Tyre or Sarepta. It is usually a reserved slip decoration with a thin.84:8. The fabric of this class of pottery is almost uniform being mainly reddish yellow (5YR7/6) with some cases of pink (5YR7/4 and 5YR8/3). 5.6 Cooking-pots with a ridged or 'modelled' rim (Fig. Sometimes there is a black band on the rim of the bowls. Beginning at the end of the 9th century BCE. they replaced the triangular-rimmed cooking-pot almost everywhere except on the Akko plain.1: ASSYRIANIZING TYPES AND THEIR STRATIGRAPHIC CONNECTIONS. 5. bottles of type Lehmann 1996:Tf. deep bowls (Fig.76.81:7-8 3 3 Krater 5. This slip was used most frequently on bowls.VI). Lehmann 1996:Tf.80:3. jugs (Figs. probably wine (Stronach 1996). despite their apparent absence at Tell Keisan (Briend et at. ASSYRIANIZING POTTERY An interesting feature of the 7th century BCE assemblage of Tel Kabri is the presence of Assyrianizing pottery and imitations of Mesopotamian vessel shapes (Amiran 1969:291. 5. but also on juglets. 5. 5. Hunt 1987:203. 5.76:15 Bowl 5. TABLE 5.77). 58:351/1. DECORATION Red slip decoration was still popular at the end of the 7th century BCE (Figs.81 :7-9) and lamps (Fig. However.85:13-15) make up 6. The forms would seem to be mainly vessels for the consumption of liquids. 200 .77:7. Mattingly 1980.79:3).78:8 3 Bottle* Jug 5.79:12-13[?].Types with a triangular rim (Fig.81:9 4 2 Lamp 5. Stratum E2a-E2b UnderE2b Bowl 5. 5. Weippert 1988:647-648. At other sites in Israel this type is confined to Iron Age I and IIA-B. A few examples each of a variety of cooking-pot types together make up 13. 5. Pakman 1992. this form of decoration is a continuation of the Iron Age traditions in the preceding centuries. The repertoire consists of bowls (Figs. Jugs and juglets are often decorated with wide horizontal bands of red wash-like paint with black lines added parallel to the red bands. whereas on the Akko plain it continues into the 7th century BCE. 6 For a discussion of cooking-pots with triangular rims see the section on cooking-pots in Stratum E4. 5.80:3 5 7 Juglet 5. 5. Among the cooking-pots found in this stratum were some Greek imports (Chapter 5.84:3-4) make up 9% of the cooking-pots. 5. 5.82:6 Total 24 30 *For bottles of this type see cf.89). 58:351/1.77:8 1 2 Deep bowl 5. juglets (Fig.7% of the total.85:5). jugs and kraters. 8). Cooking-pot lids (Fig. Thus this decoration is some kind of 'Late Bichrome' style. There are no cooking-pots or transport jars in the Assyrianizing style at Kabri.79:3 Krater 5. 5. 4). Another feature typical of Kabri cooking-pots is a rough surface on the lower part of the body (Figs.78:8).82:6).84:5-6) are the commonest type throughout Israel during the Iron Age IIC (Fig. Although the wash-like appearance of the 7th century BCE red slip is clearly distinguishable from the heavy and thick earlier red slip techniques.5% of the kitchen assemblage of Stratum E2. kraters (Fig. Assyrianizing pottery occurs only in small amounts. The core is usually greyish but sometimes reddish yellow (5YR7/6) or pink (5YR7/4).76:15. 5. Hausleiter and Reiche 1999). 5. often wash-like slip (usually red 10 R5/6). 5. Gilboa 1996.

Exterior 2. Assyrian-style pottery was found in significant quantities in a sounding in Square OP7 (Chapter 4. red slip 2. red slip lOR5/6.5YR5/4. 'Assyrian bowl'. temper: mg M.5YR5/6. core 2. mainly in the Ottoman level (Stratum E 1) whose foundations were dug into the remains of Stratum E2. copying the life-style of the centre in Assyria. These vessels are dated according to stratified comparisons from other sites. No. white self slip. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 l3 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Type Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl BO'. interior 5YR7/6.5YR7/6. Thus it can be attributed to the first half of the 7th century BCE. Exterior 7.\lI Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Reg. Exterior. Black-on-Red I(III) bowl. Gjerstad 1948:Fig.76: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. Tyre Stratum II-III (Bikai 1978:PI. 5. interior 10YR7/4. temper: fM. the architectural 201 . Exterior 10YR7/4. temper: fM.1V).5YR7/6. FIGURE 5. 1980. red slip 10R5/6. interior 5YR7/6. core 7. red slip lOR516. and stratigraphic context of the finds under floor E2b is unclear. temper: mg M. An almost identical example. 539114 3590/3 5149/4 Exterior lOYR8/2 white. temper: m M. core 5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR7/6.7 No Assyrian-style pottery was found in Stratum E3. red slip. black & red paint lOR5/6. Exterior.82:6) are unusual in Israel (Lehmann 1996:T£ 82:430/2 with references to finds in Syria and Lebanon). interior 7. core 5YR7/6. red slip 10R516.5YR5/4. 3375/7 5324/100 3020/1 3024/3 5426/100 548515 19411190 542511 3386/100 3376/5 3347/1 Exterior. core grey. interior and core 7. SeE 4. core 5YR6/6. 26:16-17. interior 5YR7/6. temper: fm M. interior and core 5YR7/6. Chemical and petrographic analyses of Assyrianizing pottery from Tell Jemmeh have shown that this pottery was produced from local clay (Melson and van Beek 1992). Exterior 5YR7/6.5YR8/4. temper: fm M. core 10YR7/4. core grey. temper: fM. core 5YR7/3. interior and core 5YR7/6. Exterior. temper: m M. Analysis of Syrian and Lebanese pottery shows that Mesopotamian shapes went out of use immediately after the destruction of the Assyrian empire (Lehmann 1996:93-94). whose fire-arm was also broken off.2. From a macroscopic point of view. interior 2. Exterior 10YR7/4. temper: fM. this may also be the case for the coarser Assyrianizing vessels in Kabri. interior 5YR6/4. They are contemporary with Stratum E2 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence in Tel Kabri. 11A:2). cf. Gilboa 1995). interior and core 5YR7/4. red paint lOR5/6 Exterior 5YR7/6. but here on its periphery they are apparently objects of prestige. Exterior 5YR6/4. The pottery figures for this stratum include some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context. interior 5YR8/3. 3350/100 3224/2 3502/3 326011 3175/2 3358/102 3616/2+ 12 7 Since this operation was a probe and excavation was halted after reaching the foundations ofWl389. temper fM. comes from Tell Abu Danna Stratum A4 in northern Syria (Tefnin 1980:15:3).5YR5/4. Egg-shell thin vessels like those from Tell Jemmeh are missing from the Kabri material which very closely resembles the finds from Tell Keisan and Dor (Briend et al.Lamps with a 'fire-arm' (Fig. Most was found either in Stratum E2b or under the floors of that stratum. core 5YR6/4: temper: mg M. temper: fm M. black & white grits. temper: fM. 3447/3 3367/1 3434/100 195515 Locus Description 1315 0892 0890 1955 1970 l321 1927 0890 1970 0801 0802 1941 1984 1941 1971 0890 0892 0889 0889 0864 l308 0869 0849 0890 l334 Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. cf.5YR7/6.

) ~ '7 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 16 ~ r7 19 ) 15 ( 17 ..:I 7 ~ 6 4 ~7 C . "~ /' ~ 21 22 23 :7 10cm.d 2• 2 CC_ ~ 5 . • Fig.76: Pottery of Stratum E2.s. 5. 202 .

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Fig. 5.77: Pottery of Stratum E2.

203

FIGURE 5.77: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2
No. Type
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS 16 Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl

Reg_.No.
S49113 S012/3 S413/2 3374/1 S28616 327712 S3S9/4 S3911S S419/2 3S33/4 3602/1 3629/1 33S7/1 S472/100 S442/1 3219/S

Locus
1984 1911 1972 1300 1965 0872 1970 1970 1968 1321 1336 1338 0889 1976 1963 0864

Description
Exterior, interior and core SYR7/6, temper: fm M, decoration: black & red paint. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip 2.5YR6/8. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip lORS/6. Exterior and interior SYR7/4, core lORS/6, temper: m M. Hole drilled in the base. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip 10RS/6. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: m M. Exterior SYR7/4, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: m M.

Exterior SYR616, interior SYR616, core SYR616, temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: mg M, red slip 10RS/6. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, burnished. Exterior SYR7/8, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fin M, smoothed outside. Exterior SYR713, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: mg M.

FIGURE 5.78: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2
No. Type
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Mortarium Mortarium Mortarium Mortarium

Reg. No.
S112/100 3SS9/S 3S80/1 3646/101 S188/1 196616 S21111 3446/3 S012/1 19411104 3S7S/I 3S92/3 3S1113 S216/100

Locus Description
1913 1326 1326 0890 1938 1966 1948 131S 1911 1941 1333 133S 1321 1947 Exterior 2.SYRS/6, interior 2.5YRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: mg M white grits. Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior lOYR7/3, interior 2.SYRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: fin M, red slip 10RS/6. SYR7/4, interior SYR7/4, core grey, temper: fm M black grits. SYR6/4, interior SYR6/4, core grey black, temper: fm M. 2.SYRS/6, interior 2.SYRS/6, core grey; temper: m M black & white grits.

Exterior SYR7/4, interior SYR7/4, core SYR7/4, temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/4, interior lOYRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: m M.

Typical Cypriote fabric.

204

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Fig. 5.78: Pottery of Stratum E2

205

/ " ~.. '\ I r..rr@ . I I I I I " . <: i: ..79: Pottery of Stratum E2. \ 3 4 1IfJ' . 14 Fig. / I~...-_....2 . 206 .-..W 5 " 7 .. 11 9 10 12 8 13 10cm. .. ' ..... 5. ..

core 2. black lines. Exterior IOYR7/3. core 10R6/6. temper: fM.outside wheel burnished.5YR6/6. Exterior. interior 10R6/6. Exterior 5YR7/6. burnished.5YR6/6. Exterior and interior 2.5YR7/6. core grey.5YR8/4. red slip 10R5/8 with black line on mushroom lip. FIGURE 5. temper: m M black & white grits. Exterior 5YR7/6. core 5YR7/6.5YR6/6.5YR8/4. interior and core 7. red slip IOR5/8. temper: m M. "':!. interior 5YR7/4. 3353/7 3353/100 5306/1 3297/1 5413/3 5037/100 3293/1 5362/2 5073/100 5287/1 34651100 Locus 0892 0892 1965 0874 1972 1912 0874 1967 1912 1941 0890 Description Exterior 5YR7/4.FIGURE 5. temper: fm M. temper: fM. temper: fm M. red slip 10R5/6. Exterior. mg M. core 5YR7/6. interior 2. cf. interior and core 7. interior 10YR8/3. interior and core 10YR812 (white). Karageorghis 1970: PI.79: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. interior 5YR7/4. black bands. core 7. interior IOYR7/3. temper: grey. mg M. and interior 5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/6. core grey. TyPe 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Pot-stand Krater? Deep bowl Reg. red paint. black paint. temper: fM. Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Reg No. 212: 10 (Tomb 14). 'Assyrian bottle'. and interior 5YR7/6. temper: grey to 5YR7/6.5YR6/6.5YR6/6. M. 5013/200 5073/200 53201100 3119/5 3573/1 5209/1 5286/10 3142/4 5416/5 5235/1 Locus 1912 1912 1941 0825 1321 1941 1965 0835 1941 1955 Descrip_tion Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. temper: f M.5YR7/6. temper: fM. black & white grits. Exterior 2. wheel burnished. Exterior 2.5YR6/6. temper: fmM. inside mg M. Exterior 10R6/6. interior 5YR7/6 . core grey. interior and core 2. core 1OYR8/3. Type Juglet 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Reg. core 5YR7/4. Exterior 5YR7/6 -7.5YR8/4. temper: m M. temper: fm M.5YR6/6. 3618/100 349113 53911100 5238/1 5324/9 536711 5477/5 3279/16 3356/9 526117 3275/6 357211 3269/9 5324/1 5500/200 5330/2 Locus 1338 1308 1970 1956 1970 1967 1976 0872 0888 1956 0872 1326 0869 1970 1984 1967 1941 Descrip_tion Exterior. interior and core 1OYR8/3 white. temper: m M. burnished with black brown bands painted outside. 207 .7. Only 1 handle. temper: fm M. Exterior 10YR8/3. red paint 10R5/6. interior 7. Exterior 5YR7/6. interior 2.80: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Jug Jug Jug Decanter 12 13 14 529511+2 FIGURE 5. temper: mg M. and interior 5YR7/6. Exterior 7. temper: fM. red slip 10R5/8 with black lines.5YR7/6. core yellow greenish. interior 2. grey to 5YR7/6. Exterior 7. Exterior. interior 5YR7/6. temper: grey to 5YR7/6. temper: fM. core grey. core core core core core grey. Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. temper: g M large white grits. core dark. black & red paint IOR5/6. Exterior. core grey. temper: fm M. and interior 2. Exterior 5YR7/6.5YR6/6. temper: fig M. No. temper: m M.5YR7/6.5YR7/6.5YR6/6. temper:wg Brown painted band IOR5/4 weak red. core 5YR7/6.81: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. burnished. No.

..-. 5.-. 8 10cm.\ 3 \ r I 2 I ._.80: Pottery of Stratum E2 208 . \ 5 6 r L III '\.. • 7 I 9 10 11 o 10cm . .... .. Fig.

I I " .. Fig. 2 • 4 3 5 s 7 ) : =I. .---- I \ \ \ I \ \ \ \ '' I • / I\ \ .. T 8 9 -~10 10cm. I I . 209 . 5.81: Pottery of Stratum E2.

5YR7/6. No. Exterior 2. Red lamp type with rough surface. 210 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TJ:'J!. interior 2. core 2. 194117 550011 5447/2 5061/2 5309/200 52991100 53321100 36431100 5192/2 Locus 1941 1984 1963 1913 1941 1941 1941 0890 1941 Description Exterior 10YR6/2 . red & black paint. Cypriote import.5YR5/4 black.e Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Table amphora Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport jar j ar j ar j ar j ar jar jar jar Reg No. interior and core 7. Exterior. interior and core 7.10YR7/3.83: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No.5YR8/2 white.2. Exterior. temper: mg M. temper: fM. Pink lamp type with smooth surface. temper: mg M black & white grits.5YR6/6 .5YR6/6 . 3498/2 349811 527913 5258/3 3554/1 5302/100 35201100 549112 5245/4 548114 5287/2 3640/100 5437/1 524112 5180/2 5297/2 Locus 0890 0890 1963 1959 1321 1941 1941 1984 1941 1980 1941 0890 1968 1941 1914 1941 Description Exterior. interior 10YR6/2.2.FIGURE 5. Cooking-pot fabric.2. FIGURE 5.5YR5/4 grey.e Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport jar jar jar jar jar jar jar jar jar Reg. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 TJ:'J!.5YR5/4 black. Exterior. temper: fm M black & white grits.5YR6/6 . interior and core 5YR7/8 grey.82: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. temper: fM. interior and core 5YR7/6. core grey black. temper: fm M white grits.

I I / " I -.'" 2 3 e._---'- ----- --- ----' 6 -=~~~~_'~Ocm. \ \ . 14 12 a 10cm . .. \ \ I I I . '/ -. I / '.~ . . 211 . .I '\V/ / " 8 9 10 11 ~ 13 '1 I ~..---'. \I ' I 4 5 .82: Pottery of Stratum E2.. ._____. I I . I I . 7 • • I I I I \ \ \ \ \ I \ \ \ . ffi -... 15 Fig. 5...

Fig.2 • 3 • I I \ I I I \ \ \ \ \ 5 6 • I I I I . 5..83: Pottery of Stratum E2. \ \ \ ( t I I \ \ \ \ ) 7 6 9 o ------ 1Ocm. 212 .

/ / _- I ' 8 9 Fig. 213 .n ! \ 0 -.84: Pottery of Stratum E2. 5. ---- 10cm. 2 3 ~ ) 4 7 l \ ~ 5 6 7 " I I ..

5YR6/4. core black. interior and core 5YR6/6.5YR5/6. interior and core 2. temper: mg M black grits. temper: mg M black &white grits. 55 (Str.FIGURE 5. Exterior Exterior interiorand core 2. temper: mg M black and white grits. interior 7. core 7.5YR5/4. Exterior 7. temper: mg M white grits.85: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. temper: mg M white & black grits. core 2. This type of cooking-pot is characterised by a rough base. temper: fm M. temper: g M black & white grits. interior 7.5YR6/4. Handle h: 16. core grey black. 3602/2 5426/6 3270/1 362114 521112 5360/100 3367/2 5188/2 5499/3 545711 307511 5283/5 5422/1 1970/48 532311 Locus 1336 1941 0869 1338 1948 1967 0892 1938 1980 19B 0819 1941 1963 1970 1956 Description Exterior. core 5YR7/3. 8). Exterior 2.5YR5/6. core grey brown. No.pe Cooking-pot 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. temper: mg M black & white grits. 1980: PI.5YR7/6.5YR5/6. interior lOR5/4. interior 2. Locus 1941 1941 1941 1321 0855 0855 1941 1913 0890 Description Handle h: 17. temper: mg M. Exterior. interior 2. Exterior. core black. Sarepta type CP-IA (Anderson 1988). This type of cooking-pot is characterized by a rough lower part. interior 5YR7/4. 5YR7/6. temper: mg M black & white grits.5YR5/6. w: 21. Exterior. interior and core 2. interior 10R5/4. Briend et al. temper: mg M white grits.5YR7/6. interior and core 2.5YR5/6. No. temper: mg M black & white grits. w: 21.84: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No.5YR5/6.5YR5/4. Exterior.5YR5/4. temper: m M white grits.5YR512. lid lid lid lid lid lid lid lid 214 . TJl. core grey. temper: mg M black & white grits. Exterior 2. interior and core 2. Exterior IOR6/6. Remarks: cf. Exterior. Exterior.5YR7/6.5YR7/6. 10R5/4.5YR5/2. Exterior 2. Basket-handle amphora 53701100 Basket-handle amphora 522011 00 Cooking-pot 19411172 Cooking-pot 3526/4 Cooking-pot 3203/2 Cooking-pot 3203/1 Cooking-pot 5318/4 Cooking-pot 5115/100 Cooking-pot 344511 5 6 7 8 9 FIGURE 5. interior and core 2. incisions on handle. writing with red paint. interior 2. Exterior 10R4/3. temper: mg M. 1 2 3 4 Type Reg.

I '~ 11 ~I 12 / ~==~--~-----~ 14 1Ocm.) ( ~\ f22 2 \. 4 / 3 < t: ( " • 5 6 7 err .~.85: Pottery of Stratum E2. 215 . Fig. 9 10 / . 5.

1 ~. Only Stratum E2a.2: NUMBER OF VESSELS RECORDED BY TYPE AND STRATUM FORM CLASS £2 174 29 52 24 9 98 6 £3 34 2 7 1 8 £4 19 1 2 2 1 7 Debris under Stratum £4 2 Total 229 30 56 33 11 113 6 2 530 27 204 13 24 27 23 57 1385 Bowls Deep bowls Bowls with incurved rim Kraters Juglets Jugs Jars Pithoi Amphoras Lamps Cooking-pots Special forms Mortaria Greek imports Cypriote fine ware imports Cypriote basket-handle amphoras Total 2 511 26 157 12 24 25 13 57 1219 13 34 1 2 9 111 49 6 4 1 11 2 2 216 . Not all of these finds could be assigned to a particular pottery type. All diagnostic pottery fragments were recorded and 2625 vessels and fragments catalogued. FIGURE 5. Cypriote Basket-Handle with an engraved sign. E3 and E2a statistically due to the fact that the fortresses under Stratum E2a were cleared and rebuilt.. 1 2 3 Type Transport jar Basket-handle amphora Reg. Locus 890 1968 1309 Stratum Str. yielded a significant sample. E2b Description Transport jar type with an engraved sign "aleph".~I 'I 10cm. No. ' . 2 3 10cm. where much of the pottery was found in situ.86: IRON AGE POTTERY WITH INCISIONS AND INSCRIPTIONS No. E2a Str. TABLE 5. 3365/101 5402/100 3443/103 STATISTICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE POTTERY FROM STRATUM E2 Approximately 340 m. E2a Str. Body sherd with an engraved picture of a jar. It was impractical to analyze the pottery types in Strata E4.of Area E were excavated.86: Pottery with ins cis ions and inscriptions. 5. Fig.

Cypriote basket-handle amphoras are the major group.1% and Greek imports make up 2. 5. constituting 9. Figs. This may be partly due to the fact that the area excavated coincided with the storerooms of the fortress. 5. 5. These numbers should be compared with the finds from Mezad Hashavyahu. 5.88a: Main types of transport jars in Stratum E2. 5.87.83:8 Others 8% 6% 40% Basket-Handle amphoras 20% Fig.83:7 3% 10% 3% 9% Fig.4%. Greek imports to Mezad Hashavyahu are much more numerous (46%) than at Tel Kabri (Fantalkin 2001 :103-104). lamps 4%) (Fantalkin 2001:103-104).1% of the total pottery in Stratum E2. kraters constitute 2% of all vessels. Fig. 5. No Egyptian imports were found in Tel Kabri.83 :2-3 13% Others 35% 6% Fig. Fig. There were no Cypriote imports found at that site.2. Cypriote fine war~s are. 5. 5. The pottery count (Table 5. At Kabri. 217 . Among the imported wares.1%. transport jars (amphoras).103-104). the only other 7th century BCE fortress in Israel where statistics have been provided (Fantalkin 2001).88b: Other types of transport jars in Stratum E2.87: Pottery Repertoire of Stratum E2. Jugs are notably more numerous at Mezad Hashavyahu (19%) than at Kabri (8%). while Egyptian imports account for 1% of the finds there (Fantalkin 2001:97-98.Others 1% 4% Cooking-pots 13% Jugs 8% Mortaria 2% Transportjars 48% Fig.rare with a share of only 1. The numbers at Mezad Hashavyahu are not very different (kraters 2.88) reveals an extraordinarily high percentage of .

85:11 11% Fig. Achziv Tomb 3 has a number of good parallels to Stratum E2 (Culican 1975-76). 1997. In addition to excavations.89b: Other types of cooking-pots from Stratum E2. Some 52. 5. survey~ in the Akko plain have yielded new data about the coastal settlement system of the 7th century BCE in southern Phoenicia (Frankel 1986. CONCLUSIONS While Iron Age coastal (Phoenician) pottery of the 12th . 1980). 1994. 1978b. Another recent contribution to the study of 7th century BCE coastal pottery is Fantalkin's comprehensive publication of the excavations at Mezad Hashavyahu (2001).84: 5~ 11% With rough base (Fig. The excavations at Tel Kabri significantly complement these finds. a fortress stood at the extreme southern edge of the Phoenician homeland. 5. Frankel et al. While most types found in Stratum E2 also occur at nearby Tell Keisan Strata 4-5 (Briend et al. The closest parallels to the pottery of Stratum E2a come from sites in the vicinity of Tel Kabri. 5. 21% of all pottery types have exact parallels at either Tyre Strata 1-2 (Bikai 1978a) or Sarepta Stratum Cl (Anderson 218 .85:12 6% Fig.3% were vessels for storage of agricultural products collected in the nearby area. Fig 5. In Achziv Stratum IV the still unpublished fmds from a warehouse. From the end of the 8th through the 7th century BCE. 5.7% of the pottery assemblage from Kabri was used for the preparation (cooking) and consumption of food to serve the needs of the garrison. 1990. Wolff 1994:515-516). until recently the 7th century BCE was a more obscure phase in the archaeological research of the northern Levant. The numerous complete vessels from Tel Kabri's destruction level (Stratum 2a) enable us to study the typology of the 7th century BCE in detail. 5. The excavations at Tyre. while the other 47. near Achziv.8th centuries BCE has been studied in detail (Bikai 1978a. probably destroyed at the same time as the storerooms of the Tel Kabri fortress.84: 7-9 35% Others 27% 6% Fig.2001. 5. Lehmann 1995.89a: Main types of cooking-pots from Stratum 2a. 5. 5.85:6 11% Lids Fig. include the same transport jar types as those found in situ at the latter site (Zemer 1977:18). At Mezad Hashavyahu vessels for the consumption of food make up 60% of the repertoire and cooking-pots for its preparation 11%.84:8) 10% Fig. Sarepta and Tell Abu Hawam did not expose substantial levels of this date. 5. Anderson 1988.84: 3-4 9% Fig. 5.85: 13- Fig.Fig. The 7th century BCE pottery from Tell Keisan has been published by the French Expedition but till now this was the only major site to provide such information. Gal 1992. This leaves only 25% for storage vessels (Fantalkin 2001:103-104). 5.85:8 Fig. 5. 1987.85:10 17% Fig. Herrera Gonzalez 1990).85:7 6% 5.

The pottery is identical to that in Stratum E2a and it is impossible to distinguish any type development between the two phases. on the basis of pottery comparisons Stratum E2 at Tel Kabri can confidently be dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE. in Area D after the Middle Bronze Age. destroyed in ca. A number of the same pottery types came from the destruction level of Ashkelon. 50. 53 [8th-7th century BCE]). Reich 1989). The later fortress of Stratum E2a may have been destroyed during one of the campaigns of Nebuchadnezzar against Syria and Palestine.however did not destroy the fortress completely.6% of the all post-MB vessels recorded in Area D. There is a surprisingly high percentage of Cypriote fine wares. Courbin 1993).1988). 600 BCE come from Tell <Arqa Stratum 9D (Thalmann 1990) and Ras al-Bassit Phase 7 and Tomb 4 (Braemer 1986. Dan Stratum I. This points to very close contacts and exchange with Phoenicia and illustrates that the pottery repertoire of these two sites on the Akko plain is typical oflate Iron Age Phoenician pottery (cf. may be as early as 604 BCE or only later in 585 BCE (Katzenstein 1997: 328). which yielded a very similar pottery assemblage including Greek cooking-pots. Storage jars are completely missing.V). was dated recently to the years around 600 BCE (Wenning 1989). 650 and 600 BCE and might be connected with the campaign of Ashurbanipal in the year 644/43 BCE (Katzenstein 1997:293). Blackon-Red and White-Painted pottery. Similarities are seen at Tel Qiri Stratum VI (Ben-Tor et at. 650-575 BCE. The destruction of Mezad Hashavyahu (Fantalkin 2001. Additional parallels which date Stratum E2a to ca. Lehmann 1994a). Comparisons for many vessels in the Stratum E2a assemblage at Kabri can be found in the destruction levels at other sites in the Levant. Furthermore. Dor Area A Phase 9 (Gilboa 1995 [720-650/630 BCE]) and Shiqmona Stratum 8-9 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. Based on the above-mentioned comparisons. Cooking-pots form the largest functional group retrieved from the Iron Age II remains in this area. Pottery LB IA I IA II Krater Jugs/Juglets Cooking-pots Lamps Bowls Cypriote Imports TOTAL 4 1 3 3 2 2 29 4 14 51 4 10 219 . dated to the end of the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996). Thus. has many types in common with the destruction layer at Kabri. although on a smaller scale. There is evidence for an earlier destruction phase (Stratum E2b) which . there are several examples of'Wild-Goat'-Style II (Chapter 5. 1987 [710-650 BCE]). chronologically anchored on the campaigns of Nebuchadnezzar. dated to ca. the earlier destruction must have taken place between ca. dated to 604 BCE (Stager 1996) and from Stratum 5 at al-Mina in northern Syria. demonstrates that Late Bronze and Iron Age settlement was not confined to Area E. A total of 14 vessels of Cypriote fine wares accounts for 22. AREAD The evidence that occupation continued. Naveh 1962. 604 BCE (Biran 1994:270-271).

Fig . F 13 II II 15 16 17 19 18 lOcm... 220 . 4 5 7 9 10 11 f 12 14 ~'. .5 90· Iron Age II pottery from Area D.3 6 ~.

Cypriote Black-on-Red juglet (Gjerstad 1948: Fig. 1960:51:12). Kabri Area E. Stern 1978:53. 14:10). 25:10. 1998) 221 . the peculiar combination of cooking-pots and Cypriote fine wares may perhaps be explained if this area was associated wth the fortress complex in Area E for processing agricultural products. FIGURE 5. Keisan Stratum 5 (ibid. cf. Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. Hazor X (Yadin et al. 1961:209:11). 27:6] and XI [Bikai 1978: PI. 39:9]). cf.:57:15). cf. Type A. 1960:57:13). 14:10). Against such a rural background the relatively large amount of Cypriote fine wares is difficult to explain. 5. Red-slipped burnished bowl. Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. Cypriote Black-on-Red juglet or jug (very fine pink fabric with black lustrous bands on the rim inside). Kabri Stratum E3. cf. cf. Stem 1978:55/56. 38:9.224). Type Bowl 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Bowl Bowl Juglet Juglet Juglet/Jug Juglet Bowl Bowl Bowl Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl. Type 1). Hazor X (Yadin et al. cf.91 :3-4). 1980:56:6). 19 Cooking-pot PERSIAN AND HELLENISTIC PERIODS A small amount of late Persian period and Hellenistic pottery. Jezreel "Early Iron" (Zimhoni 1997: Fig. Such mortaria were first in use during the Persian period and continued into the early Hellenistic period (Salles 1985a. Abu Hawam Stratum III (Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. 11:238]) and the Iron Age. Stern 1978:54/55.The scant Iron Age II architectural remains in Area D are interpreted as a farmstead or some kind of rural settlement (Chapter 4. Abu Hawam Stratum III (Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. 2. There was one twisted handle of a Persian period transport jar (not illustrated.:41:6). cf. 1961:209:1). 1960:51:12) and VIII (ibid. was retrieved from Area E. Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et al. 'Samaria' Ware. 1960:57:4).:53:9-10). Hazor IX (Yadin et al. cf. Stratum E3 (a similar cooking-pot rim appears also during the Iron Age II A-B. Hazor X (Yadin et al.2. cf. Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. Tyre Stratum X-2 [Bikai 1978:PI. However. Abu Hawam Stratum IV (Balensi 1980: PI. cf. cf. 80:225). Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl. 1980:49:2) and Keisan Stratum 7 (ibid. Type E. Stern 1978:53. cf.9). cf. Artzy 1980) and several mortaria with a high ring base (Fig. Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. No. Kabri Stratum E3. Type A.90: IRON AGE II POTTERY FROM AREA D No.joins with 154119121/1. Hazor IX (Yadin et al. 80:221. cf. Persian period pottery was extremely rare. 1960:61:12).III). Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. 2525-1 2676/1 2630 2509 2669 2617 2542 2518/3 2525/2 2625 2534/3 2504/2 2518/2 9187 2636 2555/1 9256 9110/12 268111 Locus 715 750 745 703 744 713 721 715 715 715 721 715 715 1570 745 721 1554 1541 751 Description cf. Abu Hawam Stratum IV (Balensi 1980: PI. cf. 1960:57:13). apparently dumped at the site. Such pans were in use during the Late Bronze Age (Tell Abu Hawam Stratum V [Balensi 1980:PI. Pan type with vertical handle. 1980:56:8).

interior 5YR7/4. No.. 4 Fig. core grey. 3269/1a 326911b 3204/4 3490/2 Locus 0869 0869 0853 1321 Description 4 Exterior 7.The two Hellenistic unguentaria found were apparently associated with a disturbed grave (Fig. 3 2 '--"~~=--' 10cm. 34). 7:1-3. 5. temper: mg M white grits . All the pottery comes from disturbed layers between Strata E2 and E1. 222 . FIGURE 5.5YR8/4. The Ottoman village in Area E was excavated by Mahmud Hawari in 1993 (Hawari 1994). 1 2 3 Type Unguentarium Unguentarium Mortar Mortar Reg. 17:23-30). core grey. Transport jars of this class are especially numerous in the Akko plain during the Hellenistic period. interior IOYR8/3.91: HELLENISTIC POTTERY FROM AREA E No.91:1-2). Among the Hellenistic pottery was the rim of a white Hellenistic transport jar (not illustrated). temper: mg M. 1980:Pl. Exterior 5YR7/4. Further finds include a fragment of a stamped Rhodian amphora (Chapter 9:No.91: Hellenistic pottery from Area E. 5. This type of vessel was found in large numbers at Tell Keisan and nearby Khirbat Kinniya (Briend et al.

1. "the complete lack of Protocorinthian pottery of the late eighth through most of the . Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33-36 with references). 1997:252-255.1) and adopted by Waldbaum and Magness (1997:34) and Haider (1996:69) is. According to Coldstream (1968:298-301) the first stage of the Bird bowls is to be dated to ca. Gershuny (1987:69. Lehmann 1995. Tell Keisan.1995. The Archaic Greek pottery from Kabri is East Greek. Pastor 1991 :20*. Niemeier 1994). Kerschner We would like to thank M. simplifying the decoration and flattening the shape. the third ca. Schlotzhauer for important information and constructive discussions on the East Greek pottery found at Tel Kabri. cf. 42). Elsewhere in the Levant Corinthian pottery also is not abundant.E. Wenning 1995).V. Haider 1996:69) is too small to be more closely dated than between the later 8th and the first half of the 6th centuries BCE.2 The stratified pieces come from Stratum E2a (the destruction level of the Phoenician fortification) or from slightly earlier levels. 256. We are also grateful to A. Tel Batash. 42) is of special interest. 23. Fig. and the fourth to ca. date adopted by Waldbaum 1994:59. the profile is too curved to belong to a Late Geometric/Subgeometric skyphos but comes from an East Greek archaic Bird bowl. Figs. Fine decorated Greek pottery is more accurately datable than most of the local pottery and therefore important for absolute dating (see Cook. Fig. Tel Dan. Adelman 1995. 650-615 BCE. Boardman 1980:48). Haider 1996:69). Cook and Dupont 1998:8-10). according to Neutron Activation Analysis by H. The following sites in the Levant have produced Early Corinthian pottery: Tell Sukas. PI. BIRD BOWLS Five fragments (Figs.M.13). cf. Tell Abu Hawam. S. Kerschner. Thus no Corinthian pottery has been found at Tel Kabri. although the preserved decoration could be of late 8th/early 7th century date. 675-640 B. 2.93:1-4) come from East Greek so-called Bird bowls.C. Naso for his input regarding the fragment of an Etruscan Buchero vessel (No. Niemeier 1994:*31.1 More was found in the seasons of 1989. All pre-Hellenistic Greek pottery of Area E is to be dated between the second half of the 7th and the first half of the 6th centuries BCE. 2 3 223 . it almost certainly is contemporary with the East Greek pottery. Vessel No. 1) and Haider's summary (1996: 69) have to be corrected: There is no Geometric pottery from Kabri. 700-675 BCE. the second to ca. Fig. ARCHAIC GREEK AND ETRUSCAN POTTERY Barbara and Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier Archaic Greek pottery was first identified in Area E in 1986 byL. with the exception of a probably Attic SOS-amphora (No. R. Kaufler and U. No. 5. 25). also Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33-36) also applies to Tel Kabri-'.92:1-5. The "curious gap in the roster of early Greek pottery in Palestine". Fig. Recently the typology and chronology of the East Greek Bird bowls has been modified and refined by Kerschner (1995. Since there is no other 8th century Greek pottery from Kabri. Mommsen of Bonn University. Tell Jemmeh and Tell Sera' (Koehl 1985:138. not Corinthian but probably east Cypriot. IV. Reinvestigation of the sherd for the final publication demonstrated that. 19. 16. 22. The fragment of an oinochoe or olpe of Etruscan Bucchero (No. seventh centuries" (Waldbaum 1994:59. 1992 and 1993 (Niemeier 1990. despite its popularity in other areas of the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. The presence of these imports is of special significance for two reasons: 1. 5. 1990. The Bird bowl evolved from the Late Geometric Bird kotyle. Ashkelon.1 was earlier identified as belonging to a Late Geometric or Subgeometric skyphos with metope decoration (Niemeier 1990:xxxiv-xxxv. Al Mina is the only site from which Protocorinthian pottery is known (Robertson 1940:16-18. The unstratified fragment of an SOS-amphora (No. Thus Waldbaum's distribution map (1994:55. Sarepta. Niemeier 1995. They play an important role in discussions about contacts between the Levant and Greece and the possible presence of Greeks in the Levant (see Wenning 1991. The clay of a sherd tentatively ascribed to a Protocorinthian aryballos (Kempinski and Niemeier 1993b:259. 12. 615-600 BCE. 1997. Tel MiqneEkron. Waldbaum 1994. 25) (cf.

dated to the last third of the 7th century BCE (Boardman 1967:133. Decoration: Yellowish-red paint. 329711. 5. PI. 162. Date: The painted design puts the fragment in Coldstream's third group. Kerschner 1997:127 Cat. 224 . Outside: A ray with three horizontal lines above it in the lower part.dated to the last quarter of the 7th century BCE (cf. 5484. Stratum El. 162. is a rhomb filled with hatching. ca. Stratum El. 85). three vertical lines which meet three horizontal lines at an angle. Locus 833.93:3) Rim fragment. = 3. Bird bowl (Figs. 5. 3114.478. Bird bowl (Fig. Stratum El. Cat. 118-119:476. 650-615 BCE. Kerschner 1997:163. Reg. Outside: The tail of a bird above which is a triangle pendant from a painted lip band. 107. In Kerschner's typology our fragment forms a late example of his Type IV with a small groove at the mouth and a relatively deep bowl dated to the last third of the 7th century BCE (cf.8 em. Kerschner did not find Bird bowls from clear contexts before the second quarter of the 7th century BCE. 2.92:3. According to his studies.93:4) Rim fragment. VI). 'Fundgruppe XXVII' in the sanctuary of Hera on Samos. No. the first half of the 7th century BCE is still dominated by Bird kotylai and only from the middle of the century onwards do Bird bowls appear in larger quantities. Locus 874. from left to right. No. Inside: Solid. 5. 5. Date: The missing groove at the rim and the almost hemispherical profile of . A vertical stripe on the right. Locus'S24.92:4. Locus 802. Bird bowl (Figs. PI. Stratum El. Inside: Solid. Locus 1983. Reg. Stratum El. PI. dated to the middle to third quarter of the 7th century B. No. 5.92:1. 3. three vertical lines and the body and feet of a bird. D. Below this are void rays. Reg. 3. Decoration: Light reddish-brown paint. 43:452). The bird's tail is formed by extending the lower horizontal outline of the body. Above these. The style is less delicate than No.93:1) Rim fragment.1997). H. No. 3023/1. Inside: Solid. H = 2. 4. PI.the bowl are characteristics of Kerschner's Type V. Bird bowl (Figs. No. XIV). No. Date: The fragment is from a Bird bowl of Kerschner's Type II with empty bottom zone. 43. Outside: On the left.E (cf. H. H. 1. 3138. 17. 130. Inside: Solid. D. = ca. 5. PI. 109.92:5) Body fragment. Parallels: Phase IV at Emporio on Chios.2. No. Kerschner 1997:160. = 3. Outside: A group of three vertical lines on the left with a single vertical line on their right. No. H. =2 em. Reg.C. 5. 5.92:2. 5.8. Decoration: Reddish-brown paint. Reg. Bird bowl (Figs.5 em. dated before 600 BCE (Walter 1968:88. Decoration: Yellowish-red and black paint. XIV). Date: The fragment is too small for dating.3 ern.93:2) Rim fragment. 5. 11 em.

Fig. and the very useful concordance sanctuary of Hera on the island of Sam os (Furtwangler of Artemis at Ephesos (Kerschner ibid. = 3. a complete 1938:39-43 No. Boardman those applied to material from Megara Hyblaea in Sicily (Villard and Vallet 1955:18-33).219-234). However.6e) matches on Rhodes. Shipley 1989. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler 225 . other systems arranged These typologies from Tarsus in have been adopted in the study of the Ionian cups from Tell Sukas in by single sites (see Catling and to the typologies sequences 1973:27-38). There are. For many 1998:26). 13 = Alexandrescu 1978:57-58 No.200-202 Nos. (mouth) = Reg. The term 'Ionian rims. Furtwangler's level and just Type 3 and 16 cm. No. 1993). drinking cups with prominent and Shipley 1989). Fig. 6-18) form the largest group of Archaic Greek pottery . in a sacrificial complex in the sanctuary established by Schlotzhauer 1995 for the 1994:137-187. Locus 1941. fewer from Phase III (ca. H. The fragments of thirteen so-called Ionian cups (Nos. Outside: Type: Villard Schlotzhauer's and Vallet's below the lip. This is dated to ca.93:5) 15 fragments of mouth and wall (reconstructed). 630/20 BCE) and II (ca. 5. PI.5 em. Hayes' Type I-II. 610-590/80 BCE) (Furtwangler 1980:165. here the common English nomenclature Various systems of classification Cilicia (Hanfmann Hayes 1973:55-56). Other examples from the Samian Heraion come from the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building dated to ca. 53311100. bands just below the handle Group 3. 200. from Tel Kabri. 188-189 note 5. cups from Miletus) and in the Greek sanctuary at Gravisca in Etruria (Boldrini 6. 1999) suggests that the term 'Ionian called 'Knickrandschale' (cup with bent rim).1.ca. 610 BCE). Solid except for narrow Decoration: Black paint. Outside: by Kerschner as belonging Two vertical lines. the majority of the pieces of this type came from Phases I (before ca. were and Since this class is not restricted to Ionia (Catling cup' should be abandoned (1995. Delos found to be a Rhodian (Jones 1986:647. D. glazed all over except for a narrow reserved band at handle level. invention (cf. 197-199. 8.664). that neither parts of Ionia (Jones activation demonstrating that it was not produced at Miletus confirm of Bird bowls was this Ionian the production centre of Bird bowls (Kerschner et al. cups' is used for a class of two-handled bands. 13). Stratum E2a. 21). 625-590 BCE (cf. Inside: Solid with lines stripe. and from Tocra in Libya (Hayes 1966:111-16. Kerschner's neutron metropolis years the Bird bowls petrographic 1986:649. 'Ionian cup' (Figs. Of in the South Temenos of the are the series of Ionian cups found in good stratigraphic 1997. painted or reserved.. Inside: Solid except for a band just below the mouth.Decoration: Reddish-brown exception of a reserved and dark grey glossy paint. site of Bird However. however. Type AI. Cook and Dupont that found in Furthermore. One production bowls may perhaps have been located in northern 'IONIAN CUPS' Ionia (Jones 1986:697). has shown that the clay composition of a Bird bowl of Type IV from the Rheneia Pi. with simple horizontal or completely covered with dark paint and they should be is retained. analyses were considered analysis pit. Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Samian Heraion. Ploug's Group 6. 630/20 . Table 1). decorated Schlotzhauer (Cook and Dupont 1998:129-131). The most influential 120-125. I118-20. adopting the typology 1980:165). Syria (Ploug importance 1956:167-173) for this cup-type have been put forward. 5.92:7. to his latest Type VI without horizontal Date: It has been identified example from Histria: Lambrino DISCUSSION between the rays of the bottom zone and the main frieze. 7-8.

7 8 3cm.92: Bird bowls and Ionian cups. 11 Fig.2 ry3 5 4 _. 226 . 5.

5YR 3/1) paint.e Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Dorian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Reg_. = 4. E2a Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay.92: BIRD BOWLS AND IONIAN CUPS No. PI.tion See Fig. 19. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay.93:1 5. Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. 126:Fig. black (10YR 2/1) shiny paint. Locus 887.No. 29) date is 640/30 . E2blE3 Pink (5 YR7/4) lightly micaceous clay. 25. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 5. very dark brown (10YR 2/2) paint. Type: Villard and Vallet's Type A21B 2.600 BCE. Outside: Bands on rim and at handle level.93:4 2. reddish-brown (2. 610 BCE (Kerschner 1997:182). PI. Stratum El.5YR 6/4) clay. II. TJP. 213-214:Nos. 115 Cat. 12. PI. dark greyish-brown (10YR 3/2) paint. reddish-brown (5YR 4/4)/ dark grey (7. Hayes' (1966:112) late 7th century BCE.5/1) paint. D. E2a Very pale brown (IOYR 7/3)/grey (10YR 6/i) clay. Ionian cup Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. 19. 8. Reg. 5. No. 4. dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) paint. 545/535 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:7-8. No.2 em. III/8-9. 111 Fig. 7.5YR 4/1) shiny paint. Ploug's Group 5. Locus 1321. 9. 28). Inside: Solid except for a band just below the mouth.93:6 and Kienast 1989:4-5. No.93:3 5. 5. Stratum E2a. Outside and inside: Solid.FIGURE 5.5/1) paint.120. Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Heraion of Samos it occurs first in Phase III (ca. 23) and in the foundation of the North Building of ca. 5. No. III). III/I. Ionian cup. Cat. 11 PI. Cat. 12-13 PI. 33521100. Examples of this type were unearthed also in the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building of ca.92:8) Shoulder fragment. 21). Decoration: Glossy black paint.92:9. 111 Fig. 10. El Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. Date: Vallet and Villard's (1955:15-18. in the second levelling of ca. 1111.5YR 2. No. Surface Very pale brown (IOYR 7/4) clay. Reg.93:5 5. Cat. 3. Examples from Ephesos are dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE (Kerschner 1997:111.93:6) Mouth and wall fragment. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) paint. H. 6. 'Ionian cup' (Fig. Hanfmann's Type IV. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos which ends ca. black (7. yellowish-red (5YR 5/8)/black (5YR 2.93:2 5. 5. 1. 112. Ionian cup II. 570/550 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:5-7. (mouth) = 17. Hayes' Type VIII-IX. 1/3-4. Fig. Discussion: See No. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:4-5. 125. 7. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 3536/100.5YR 3/1) paint.3 em. H. reddish-brown (2. Cat.6. EI Light brown (7. 8. 227 . black (IOYR 2/1) paint. Cat. This type apparently lasted from the second half of the 7th to the early 6th century BCE. Decoration: Black paint. 18). 21). Nos.121:Fig. 3138 3114 3297/1 3023/1 5484 3500/101 53311100 3352/100 3536/100 2619 5034-6 Locus 833 824 874 802 1983 1321 1941 887 1321 737 1915 Stratum El E1 Descrip. No. Furtwangler's Type 5 and Boldrini's Type 1111 with glazed exterior except the rim and a band at handle level. (Figs. 117. 610-590/80 BCE) and was also found in Phase IV (a late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165. = 2. 5.

Type: Villard and Vallet's Furtwangler's Type A21B 2. 5. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 2. No. Hayes' Type VIII-IX. Locus 887. 28). 570/550 BCE (Furtwangler foundation of the North Building of ca. Fig. 1980:165. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 12. Cat. levelling of ca. D.5YR 3/1) paint. 1/3-4. 3138 3114 3297/1 3023/1 5484 3500/101 53311100 3352/100 3536/100 2619 5034-6 Locus 833 824 874 802 1983 1321 1941 887 1321 737 1915 Stratum El El Description See Fig. 10. 33521100. E2a Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay. 25. very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) paint. II11.5YR 6/4) clay. Hanfmann's Type IV.115 Cat. 126:Fig. E2a Very pale brown (10YR 7/3)/grey (10YR 6/i) clay. (mouth) = 17. 4. PI. 111 Fig. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos which ends 227 . reddish-brown (2.5YR 3/1) paint.FIGURE 5. 11. reddish-brown (2. Surface Very pale brown (IOYR 7/4) clay. No. Outside and inside: Solid. Examples (1955:15-18. PI. 545/535 BCE (Furtwangler ca. 19.92: BIRD BOWLS AND IONIAN CUPS No. III/8-9. 8. Discussion: See No. No. 7. H. 5. Date: Vallet and Villard's . 5. 23) and in the and Kienast 1989:7-8. No. dark greyish-brown (IOYR 3/2) paint. 120. Type 5 and Boldrini's Type II11 with glazed exterior except the rim and a band at handle level. 19. E2blE3 Pink (5 YR7/4) lightly micaceous clay. Cat. 6. 111 Fig. in the second and Kienast 1989:5-7. No.92:9.93:6 and Kienast 1989:4-5. 117. 610 BCE (Kerschner 1997:182).5/1) paint. 3536/100. No. Inside: Solid except for a Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Heraion of Sam os it occurs first in Phase III (ca. 29) date is 640/30 from Ephesos are dated to the (1966:112) late 7th second half of the 7th century BCE (Kerschner 1997:111. Cat.6. 610-590/80 BCE) and was also found in Phase IV (a late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler ca. 112. Outside: Bands on rim and at handle level. Decoration: Black paint. 5. Stratum E2a. Ionian cup Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay.93:3 5. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 5. 18). 11 PI. 1. III/I.93:4 11. Reg. Ploug's Group 5. 'Ionian cup' (Fig. 213-214:Nos. (Figs. dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) paint.93:5 5.5YR 4/1) shiny paint.93:1 5. PI.93:2 5. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) paint. 21).5YR 2. TJ:'I!. = 2. Nos. El Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay.2 band just below the mouth. 121 :Fig.93:6) Mouth and wall fragment. ern.5/1) paint. reddish-brown (5YR 4/4)/ dark grey (7. 9. El Light brown (7. black (1OYR 2/1) shiny paint.3 ern. 12-13 PI. 7. Decoration: Glossy black paint. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler Examples of this type were unearthed also in the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building of and Kienast 1989:4-5. 125. Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. yellowish-red (5YR 5/8)/black (5YR 2. Stratum El. Cat. Hayes' century BCE. H. 5.e Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Dorian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Reg. black (7.92:8) Shoulder fragment. 8.600 BCE. This type apparently lasted from the second half of the 7th to the early 6th century BCE. Locus 1321. Reg. 3. Ionian cup. black (IOYR 2/1) paint. Cat. No. = 4. III). 21).

95:16. 11) Fig. 2) Fig. 5) Fig. 6) Fig. 5.94:6. 5.92:7. 1) Fig. 5.94:8. 5.94:1. 5. 5.95:10. 7) Fig.2 3 4 5 II 14 11 12 Fig.92:3.94:5. 5. 228 .92:1. 8) Fig. 3) Fig. 5. 12) Fig. 10) Fig. 5. 4) Fig.92:2.92:9. 14) Fig. 13) Fig. 9) Fig.92:4. 5. 5.94:7.94:12. 5. 5. 5. 5.93: Bird bowls and Ionian cups.

Ionian cup (Fig. 9. it occurred in Deposit II of Level 8 (Hayes 1966:1i2. No.92:11) Foot fragment. Outside and inside bowl: solid. 5034-6. D = 6 em. Locus 1915. Type: Same as No. sometimes a band below handle level and glazed foot.3502/101. Reg. Reg.Date: The date of ca. H. Hayes (1966:113) and Ploug (1973:29-30) date this type to the first half of the 6th century BCE. Decoration: Design in brown (7. = 2. 13. Surface D. 229 . 120. 5345/100. Date: This type is dated by Villard and Vallet to ca. 5. = 5 em. = 1. Decoration: Very dark greyish-brown paint.4 ern. H.5YR 5/4). 12. Handles: solid black. with low foot. 7. 11. = 1.289) has suggested a date from the end of the 7th to the first half of the 6th century BCE. Reg. H. foot unpainted. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. glazed with two red lines framed by white lines painted on the glaze on the inside of the rim and the lower part of the bowl. Reg. Furtwangler's Type 6. Outside: black bands covering the mouth plus the upper part of the wall and the foot. except rim and shoulder. Locus 737. especially in regard to its end. Reg. No. Boldrini 1994: 149-150. Stratum E2a. Ionian cup (Fig. Outside and inside bowl: solid. Inside: solid black. 29) has been considered too restricted. Locus 1308. H. No. 620-580 BCE (1955:29). and Boldrini's Type Ill/I. Type: Villard and Vallet's Type B 1. Parallels: At Tocra.7 ern. 2619. 5. Stratum E2a.C. Hanfmann's Type II. 5389-3. Decoration: Glossy black paint. Type: cf. unglazed exterior. Inside: solid black.a group of almost completely preserved cups of this type have a reserved tondo on the base of the interior which is a 6th century feature. Foot: black with one red line on base.92:10) Foot fragment. wall. 565 B. Hanfmann (1956:170-173.3 cm.4 cm. Locus 1941. Nos.E (Hayes 1966:9). PI.94:1. At Tell Sukas. Decoration: Black and red paint. Locus 1971. Hayes Type V. 610 to 550 BCE. D of mouth = 11 ern. Ionian cup (Figs. Cat. = 2. Sounding between Strata E2b and E3. starting around 580 BCE.1199). 10. foot unpainted. Outside and inside: solid. Thus the type is to be dated from after ca. 1197. red (lOR 4/4) and white (lOR 8/1) paint.93:7) 15 fragments of rim. No. Ploug's Group 9. (reconstructed) = 5 ern. which ended ca. 5.(10YR 3/2). Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. Decoration: Very dark brown paint. two red lines below the mouth.9. 620-600 BCE for this type proposed by Villard and Vallet (1955: 18-19. No. 5. handle and foot. Furtwangler 1980: 164-166. 1963:285-287. H. Stratum E2a. Outside: three horizontal brown lines. three red lines on the lower part of the wall. black (10YR 2/1).

.. --' \ ' \\ ) I I \_---- ... <.94: Ionian cups. 1 230 .. I'.-- / <.:> J I ~~\ \ \ 8 I \ 9 6 F' 9.. 2 3 /... ..~. / \ \ .. \ ". . <..~--- . 5.

5YR 2.W2/29. 47. Reg.5/1) paint. 610 to 570/60 BCE.5YR 5/6) micaceous clay. Pink (7. 9. IV/9. 149.5YR 2. black (10YR 2/1)/red (lOR 4/6) paint.93:7 5. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) clay. brown (7. The mouth was cut away and the base knocked through for reuse (as a funnel?). Pink (7. 8. Stratum E2a. 610 BCE.5YR 5/2) lightly micaceous clay. No. Locus 1963. Fig. No. Beil.5YR 8/1) paint. III/ll12. 223. See Fig.5YR 7/4) clay. 1.5YR 7/4) micaceous clay. 213-214. 560 BCE (Isler 1978:93-94. 5. 10. No. Core red (2. PI. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) micaceous clay. IV/9. 5389-3. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) clay. 610-590/80 BCE) and also occurs in Phase IV (the late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165. Type Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Skyphos Jug Oinochoe Oinochoe Oinochoe? Reg.5YR 2. 1. this type first appears in Phase III (ca. ending ca. Date: The type apparently was in existence from after ca. Inside: solid black. Stratum E2a. 610 BCE. Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:77-78) and in well W 2 closed at about the same time (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:74-75.5/1) paint. yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) . 2. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos. Fig. glazed with two red lines framed by white lines painted on the glaze on the inside of the rim and the lower part of the bowl. white (IOYR 8/1) slip.94:2) 17 fragments of wall. black (7. black (7. black (lOYR 2/1). Reg. 7. 54141100.213-214.5YR 5/4) micaceous clay.5 em.3 ern. reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) . D (where mouth is cut away) = 13. = 1.93:10 5.5/2) paint.FIGURE 5. red (lOR 4/4) and white (lOR 8/1) paint.5/1) paint. 1. Outside: three horizontal brown lines. Beil. H. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos. Pale red (2. Decoration: Design in brown (7.511). red (lOR 4/6) .very dark grey (5YR 311) paint. PI. 13. 33). 3. III/II-12. 149.reddish-black (2. 150 Fig. 4. white (10YR 8/1) slip. 33). Other examples from the Heraion were found in a level dated ca.reddishbrown (5YR 4/4) paint. = 4. Other examples from the Heraion were found in a level dated ca. Cat. ending ca. white (2. dusky red (lOR 3/4).5YR4/4) paint. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. No. 22). Reddish-brown ((5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay. yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) paint. white (IOYR 8/1) slip. Date: The type apparently was in existence from after ca. 220:No.93:9 5.5YR 5/6).5YR 5/4).93:8 5. 231 . 610 to 570/60 BCE.94: IONIAN CUPS No. No. 150 Fig. No. Cat. 220:No. Locus 1971. No. 223.5YR 2. H. 560 BCE (Isler 1978:93-94.W2/29. this type first appears in Phase III (ca.93:11 3401/102 890 1916 1318 E2a E2b-E3 E4 5038 Oinochoe? SOS amphora 3470/100 Parallels: In the South Temenos in the Heraion on Samos. 6. Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:77-78) and in Well W 2 closed at about the same time (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:74-75.8 ern. 5. 610590/80 BCE) and also occurs in Phase IV (the late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165. foot and 1 handle. 5345/100 54141100 3571/100 3448/100 3616/100 3590/100 Locus 1941 1963 890 1316 1334 1321 Stratum E2a E2a E2a E3b E2a E2a E2a Description Red (2. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) micaceous clay. Parallels: In the South Temenos in the Heraion on Samos. 47. edges greyish-brown (2. 14. black (5YR 2. very dark brown (7. Ionian cup (Fig 5. 22).

43:23. 34-36. No. Dupont Vroulia-style the handle zone. Decoration: Reddish-yellow 18.94:4) Wall and handle fragment. centre of Asia Minor 1973:28) but does not. Stratum E3b. = 3. two blobs on inside.1 ern. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Handle fragment. = 0. Handle: solid on outside. Ploug Dupont 1983:28-29). Decoration: Black (7. 33). Length = 4. 15. 5248-2. Inside: solid. 10. Reg.5YR 2. Stratum E 2a. D. Type: Same type of cup as No. Outside: and Kerschner striated solid except for a very narrow Decoration: Dark reddish-brown Type: Identified by Schlotzhauer 'Dorian cups' by P. 17. H. 35711100. of finds (Furtwangler 1983:27. Pr. offer a consistent tradition (von Graeve 1973174:85. Reg. Ionian cup (Fig. Cook and Dupont 1998:114-115). No. Locus 1321.94:3) Rim and wall fragment. 3. (Kinch 1914:Pl. but they were also produced produced on Rhodes or Kos.2. 18 are paralleled 27:2-4. 38:6. Outside: band on foot and lower part of wall. 9.5. 5. 3500/101. 5. 32:f 1 and 3.1. 3448/100.92:6) 27 fragments D (mouth) of mouth. 19. D of mouth = 19 em. = Reg.1.5 em.4 em.5/1) paint. 37:4. Inside: unpainted. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Handle fragment. Solid. 5. D. (5YR 7/6) clay painted all over in very dark grey (5YR 3/1). DISCUSSION Rhodes has long been considered According analyses (Dupont to the frequency of the clay (Dupont 1983:28. wall and handles. Type: See No. Stratum E2a.Decoration: Yellowish-red and dark grey paint. Cook and Dupont cup' (No. band just below = 22 = 12 ern. 13 but with thicker walls and handles and are no painted lines on the interior. Inside: solid except for a band just below the mouth. No.4 em. the shoulder and the rigid outline of the conical body of No. No. termed examples are those of the so-called in cups of the Vroulia style The short rim not going beyond (1983:29) of which the most beautiful (cf. Outside: band covering the mouth and the upper part of the wall. 19) was most probably 232 . Locus 1941. Reg.4). 'Dorian' cup (Fig. Stratum E2a. Locus 1316. 14. Rec. a major production centre of 'Ionian cups' (Hayes 1980:150-161) 1966: 111-115. Outside: Horizontal stripe on lower edge of fragment. as belonging to a marginal group of 'Ionian cups'. 45:32. the island of Samos was an important at Miletus and in other workshops 1998:129). 39:8. H. = 0. 'Dorian' cup or skyphos (Fig. Decoration: Very dark brown paint.9 ern. Length Reg. paint. Kinch 1914:167-186.1. cm. No. Stratum 1. = 3. Locus 890. 11) and other more simply decorated cups from Vroulia on Rhodes (Kinch 1914:Pls. H. Locus 839. 18:9. 3156. Decoration: Red and reddish-black paint. 16.4. however. The 'Dorian as well as the results of petrographic production of southwestern these cups.

Type: These motifs first appear in Middle Wild Goat I (Cook and Dupont 1998:37.93:11) Body fragment. Reg. R. H. No. R. Decoration: White slip and black painted design. a rosette of concentric circles and a series of dots following the outermost circle as filling ornament. Type: All these motifs first appear in Middle Wild Goat I (Cook and Dupont 1998:37. = 2. Kardara 1963) is misleading. No.9 cm. Locus 1916. Stratum E2a. part of back and hind leg of a wild goat. Type: cf. On the left. 23. 5. oblique lines on surface of handle. 34011102.94:9) Shoulder fragment ofa closed vessel. Stratum E2a.JUGS. Decoration: White slip with horizontal stripes painted in black. 21-24) came from 'Wild Goat style' vessels. 2a-b).6) and continue into Middle Wild Goat II (Cook. DISCUSSION 'Wild Goat style' is the term used in the English speaking archaeological community for the style which emerged about the middle of the 7th century BCE. H. Jug (Figs. = 3. 5. Mouth and sides of handle solid black. The name comes from the animal friezes.94:8. 3616/100. cross with filling of spherical triangles on rote lIes. Reg. 5. = 4. decorating the main zone of the vessels. 21. Decoration: Yellowish-red paint. four fragments (Nos. H. 8. 233 . 5. Fig. Cook and Dupont 1998:42. Reg. Fig. H. POLYCHROME BLACK (SCHWARZBUNT) 20. Parallels: The sanctuary of Hera on Samos (Technau 1929:29).94:6. 5. Locus 890. 5. Fig. neck and handle fragments. Miletus (unpublished).6 em. 22. Date: The careless execution of the twisted band points to a dating in Middle Wild Goat II. 8. Locus 1334. 5. Locus 1321. Decoration: White slip and brown paint. Schiering 1957.6) and continue into Middle Wild Goat II (Cook. Cook and Dupont 1998:32-70). 8.10. Fig.M. H. Part of the back of a wild goat with part of a spiral quatrefoil above it.8 ern. 1933/34:90-91. WILD GOAT STYLE OINOCHOAI At Kabri. No. 5. R. 111-119. Reg. Stratum E2b-E 3. 2a-b). Oinochoe(?) (Fig. 3590/1 00. 1992:259. 1997:109. 5038.M. twisted band on neck. Oinochoe (Figs. and dominated the decoration of East Greek painted pottery for some three generations (Cook. RM.93:10) Neck fragment. No. 24. Date: The slightly careless execution of the filling ornaments points to a Middle Wild Goat II date. on the right. in which the goat became the most frequent species.92:9) Mouth. Stratum E2a.94:5.=9cm. Fig.94:7. Decoration: Painted solid black with two horizontal red lines and two horizontal white lines on shoulder. 1992:259. Oinochoe(?) (Figs. = 12.2 em. Trefoil mouthed oinochoe with triple-coil handle (Figs. 5. The old term 'Rhodian' (Cook.M.93:8) Shoulder and neck fragment.

Middle and Late. Moreover.M. 590 BCE (Hopper 1949:180. considerable amounts of Middle Wild Goat II style pottery have been found in the sanctuary of Athena at Assesos near Miletus (Lohmann 1995:313-314). Jones 1986:665-666). Chios. RM. 650 to 640 BCE (Cook. 1997:123.1. This transition is traditionally dated to about 600 BCE (payne 1931:57). Clazomenae and what Dupont calls North Ionian 2 (Dupont 1983:27-29. Schaus 1986:288-289). In Israel only a single sherd from Mezad Hasavyahu (Wenning 1989:186. PI. exports of Middle Wild Goat II style pottery to the Black Sea coasts. The Fikellura style which.P. R. The end of the Middle Wild Goat II style has been dated by R. RM. 1997:112. RM. Cook and Dupont 1998:61). the discussion in Niemeier 1999:404 with n.36-44). from ca. The Late Wild Goat Style is an invention of North Ionian schools which diverged from the South Ionian mainstream while Early Corinthian was still flourishing (Cook. 1992:262. 1997:112. overlapping and influencing the early stage of Fikellura. lOA) has come to light. Cook and Dupont 1998:33-36). 1992:260. according to R.M. Cook and Dupont 1998:5156). Cook and Dupont 1998:89) started ca. personal communication). 600 BCE for the end of Early Corinthian has been questioned by scholars who put it a little later. the Levant and North Africa come to an end and are replaced by North Ionian Late Wild Goat style ware (Schaus 1986:291. A problem under discussion is the date of the change from the Wild Goat style to the Fikellura style pottery mainly produced at Miletus (Dupont 1986:61. Cook to ca. 10. R. 1992:260. Jones 1986:665-671. SF 1. 1933/34:60. 264). RM. but dated the late style of his Camirus Group (comparable to Cook's Early Wild Goat . 550 BCE. Whereas relatively much Late Wild Goat Style pottery has been found in North Africa (Naucratis. Amyx 1988:428-429) as Payne (1931:57) previously suggested. when ornament and poses became more stereotyped (Cook. Later. Schiering (1957:11) did not see this as a decadent transitional style. he named this supposed decadent transitional style Wild Goat III (Cook. At about the same time. Tocra and Cyrene) very little is known in the Levant. and that the Fikellura style appeared with are-emergence of the industries at Miletus about 550 BCE. may have lasted into the first two decades of the 6th century BCE (Dupont 1986:65). 8-9 = Naveh 1962. 600 and 560 BCE as too long a phase for Cook's decadent transitional style. 34-36. but clay analyses demonstrate that the island imported the ware (Dupont 1983:28-29. 112 Fig.M. although Middle and Late are regional styles and overlap chronologically.Middle Wild Goat II) to 610-560 BCE. the traditional date of ca. Cook and Dupont 1998:56). A completely different solution has been proposed by Schaus (1986:289-292) who maintains that almost no fine ware was produced at Miletus in the first half of the 6th century BCE due to economic decline caused by internal civil conflicts (cf.1986:62-64. ca. Walter-Karydi 1986:73-80. Cook and Dupont 1998:34. RM. 1992:255-266). 1933/34:90-91. Cook. 67-71.Rhodes was the place where it was first found in quantity. Cook and Dupont 1998:77-81. Petrographic clay analyses and stylistic researches have demonstrated that three or four main production centres of Wild Goat style pottery existed: Miletus. Fig. Most recently. The chronological gap between the supposed end of the Middle Wild Goat II style ca. 560 BCE and according to G. Cook (1933/34:90. The Middle Wild Goat style is divided into I and II around 625 BCE. Dupont regards the 40 years between ca. W. since it is no longer found in graves on Rhodes at the time when Middle Corinthian was replacing Early Corinthian (Cook and Dupont 1998:44). 600 BCE. M. The Early Wild Goat style probably did not last very long. 560 BCE may have been filled by a decadent variation of the former which lingered on beside the Late Wild Goat style (Cook. Cook and Dupont 1998:44). 65-66. 1992:260. 600 BCE and the beginning of the Fikellura style ca. New evidence from Miletus disproves the theories of Cook and Schaus and confirms those of Schiering and Dupont (Schlotzhauer. is greatly indebted to the Middle Wild Goat II style (Cook. 91). He argued that the Middle Wild Goat II style. Schaus (1986:284-288) ca. According to Dupont's petrographic clay analyses the principal Middle Wild Goat II school is Milesian (Dupont 1986:60-64). Fine pottery did exist at Miletus in the first half of the 234 . The Wild Goat style has been divided into Early.

27. 235 . D. 26. 26 Trade amphora (Fig.2 ern. They demonstrate that the Fikellura style directly followed the Wild Goat II style and partly overlapped with it.first half of 6th century BCE.95:1) Neck and mouth fragment. 26. Trade amphora (Fig. No.94:10.6th century BCE and its decoration was not decadent. 5. D.5 ern. No. = Reg. 5035. 28.7 em. 1941-179. 5. H. = 6. Type: As No. in the northern Levant at Al Mina and in Egypt at Tell Defenneh (Johnston and Jones 1978:104-107. Parallels: SOS amphorae have been found outside of Greece at over forty Mediterranean sites. Trade amphora (Fig.reddish-brown paint. Stratum E2a. Type: Samian amphora of the early type with echinoid rim (Cook and Dupont 1998:164-165. Decoration: Unpainted.93:12) Neck and shoulder fragment. decorated on the outside in good Middle Wild Goat II style and on the inside in Fikellura style. Stratum E2. supposedly produced in Athens for the olive oil export market. No. (mouth) 13 ern. Locus 1318. Locus 1914. 5. Type: As No. D. has been interpreted as a manifestation of the Athenian export trade in the Mediterranean during the Archaic period. TRADE AMPHORAE 25. (mouth) 13 cm. Decoration: Unpainted. No. 112-122). 26. 3592/4. Locus 1912.95:4) Rim fragment. Jones 1986:708-712). Date: The SOS amphora was in use from the later 8th to the first half of the 6th century BCE. and in the east on the Black Sea at Histria. Reg. mostly in Italy and Sicily but as far west as Spain and Morocco. H. Decoration: Unpainted. Shoulder solid. = 7. = 7 ern. = Stratum E2a. 5. Type: As No. Fig. shoulder fragment = 15.8 ern. 5.95:3) Rim fragment. Date: End of 7th . Stratum E2a. 23. of rim fragment = 6 em. Decoration: Unpainted. H. = Reg. 5148-2. 29.95:2) Two fragments of rim and shoulder. Petrographic clay analyses have demonstrated that the majority of the SOS amphorae indeed are of Attic origin but imitations were also made at Chalkis and other places (Johnston and Jones 1978:122-128. 5051-1. Very important are fragments of 'bilingual' cups from Miletus. H. Stratum E 4. Thus at Miletus fine ware pottery production did not stop in the early 6th century BCE but it was not exported. (mouth) = 14 em. 166. Reg. This type of amphora. of mouth = 14 cm. H. Nos. Reg.6). Locus 1335. 5. 34701100. Type: This sherd comes from an SOS amphora which gets its name from the varied zig-zag and circle motifs on the neck resembling the Greek letters 'sigma omikron sigma' (Jones 1986:706). Part of '0' of the SOS motif on neck. Decoration: Reddish-yellow . D. Trade amphora (Fig. 5. SOSAmphora (Figs.

95: Amphorae and cooking-pots. 236 .2 4 5 rj~ 6 7 dl ~. 5.::jl n I ( 14 15 "rr 16 13 Fig. 8 9 W ~ )fJI \ n )lJI \ )(~J \11 c.

32. 2. D (foot) = 10 ern. No. (foot) = 5. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/8) clay. Locus 879.95:5) Neck and shoulder fragment. H. Decoration: Unpainted.5/1) paint. 23. 3592-4 5035. 5. 505114 1941/179 5148-2 5237-5 3309-3 3123-6 3335/10 3286-5 300112 3095/1 3437/100 3547/100. 3123-6. Red (2. 8. D. 1914 1958 879 823 889 874 Llll Kill 1309 1324 864 866 821 Red (2. Reg. Like No. Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. No.5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. D.FIGURE 5.95: AMPHORAE AND COOKING-POTS.95:7) Foot fragment. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) lightly micaceous clay. = 3 em. Decoration: Unpainted. 9. Locus 1958. Stratum El. 2. 12. D.3 cm. D (neck) = 15 ern. micaceous clay.5YR 5/6) . 5. light brownish-grey (1OYR 6/2) surface. Stratum E2a.6 em.brown )7. 4.95:6) Foot fragment.first half of 6th century BCE.5YR 5/6) micaceous clay. H. 237 . 14. Trade amphora (Fig. = 6 em. three grooves on upper part of neck. H. Like No. Reg.95:9) Foot and wall fragment. = 9 em. 5. No. 1. 3552/100 3222 3228 315113 Locus 1335 1912 Stratum Description E2 E2a E2a E2a E2a El El El El El EI E2a El El E3 El See Fig. 31.95:8) Foot fragment. 34.e Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. Type: Milesian amphora (cf.5YR 5/6) highly micaceous clay.7 a). II. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) core. lightly micaceous clay. No. One horizontal groove at base of neck. No. 5. Stratum El H. Figs. Amphora 5. 3335110. (foot) = 8 em. No. Reg. Reg. Decoration: Unpainted. 5. Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. Red (2. Bluish-grey (5PB 5/1) core.93:13 Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay.93:14 30. 6. Trade amphora (Fig. unpainted. Stratum El. Trade amphora (Fig. Cooking-pot 15. TJ!l!. Grey (5YR 5/1)core with reddish-yellow (5YR 6/8) surface. 5237-5. Date: End of 7th . Cook and Dupont 1998:170-174. = 3. (foot) = 6 em.5YR 5/6) . 5. Trade amphora (Fig. 10.5 YR 2. 3286-5. Decoration: Unpainted. Stratum El. Locus 889. Blue-grey (5 B 511) clay.5 em. 7. 2. 33. Locus 874.5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. Cooking bowl 16. 3309-3. 5. Reg. 3. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) surface.brown (7. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) lightly micaceous clay. 13. Red (2. H. shiny black (2. Locus 823. Decoration: Unpainted. Trade amphora (Fig. = 3. No.

95:15) 2 rim fragments. Reg. Stratum E 3. Brann 1961a:123124.1922. KUbler 1970:192. 75. Square Kill. Trade amphora.8 em. Reg. (not illustrated) Shoulder fragment.35. 37. 66). . PI. III. No. 153154 PI. The Kabri fragments have a profile similar to that of an example from Chios (Boardman 1967:146 Fig. Fig. described as "loaded with large flakes of silvery mica". D (mouth) = 19 ern. 371. 30 cm. PI. Nos. Surface. 38. 3547/100.5 em.482. H. 598). Nos. 136. 36. this is a bowl with an everted rim. No. Fig. ( 238 . PIs. Nos. 5.7. 5.93:13) Rim fragments of imported Greek cooking vessels of coarse highly micaceous clay with rolled out rim. = 5. They are unpainted. 127. COOKING VESSELS 36 . PI. 21-22. 493.93:14) The Etruscan bucchero sherd was a surprise. 1412-1413. 5. D = ca. dated between the end of the third quarter of the 7th to the tum of the 7th . No. Stratum E1. Surface partially blackened by fire. Date: Late 7th century BCE 41. 512 Cat. 86-91).5 em. PI. Its identification was secured by comparing the piece directly with fragments of Archaic Etruscan bucchero pottery in the collection of the Archaeological Institute of Heidelberg University.4 em. No. Nos. No. is very like that of the Kabri cooking jars and may indicate a southern Ionian origin. 136. to those from Ephesos and to two examples from the Greek settlement at Tocra in Libya dated by Hayes to the late 7th/early 6th century BCE and attributed to a possible Cycladic origin (Hayes 1966:135-137. XII). Locus 864. D (mouth) = 20 cm. 1961b:317. The surface is partially blackened by fire. 3222. According to its profile. Stratum E1. 3552/100. 39.40. Square Lll1. 19411178. Locus 1324.5 em. Parallels: East Greek examples have been published from the island of Chios (Boardman 1967:145-146.6th centuries BCE or shortly after (Rasmussen 1979:88-89. =8 cm. No. Reg. Cat. Reg. 116 PI. D (mouth) = 20 ern. the fabric of the latter. Cat. = 5. R. 11. Sparkes and Talcott 1970:224-225. = 6. 3228/1. Nos.7 ern. 139. 20. PI. 36-40. However. H =. Stratum E2a. No. Etruscan bucchero (Figs. = 6. Type: Ware similar to Nos. Type: Although no handles are preserved. Cat. 5. these rims undoubtedly come from one-handled cooking jugs (chytrai) which have a tradition going back to the Sub-Mycenaean period (Reber 1991:20-56). but their typological sequence can only be followed at Athens with the material from the Agora and the Kerameikos (Young 1939:189-190. 40. 42. 83. 18. Reg. Unpainted. Fig. 93. 5. Locus 866. 91-92. Stratum E1. 94) and from Ephesos (Kerschner 1997:115. D (mouth) = 20 ern. Figs. 155. Cooking-pots (Figs. Locus 1309. N 18.95:16. 145. common in the last quarter of the 7th century and in the first quarter of the 6th century BCE (Rasmussen 1979:78-79. 99. 300112. 597-604. Q 10. Cooking bowl (Fig. 130-131. Nos. H.203210. No. H. 1962:55. 94 No. 29-31) or from an olpe of his Type 1.95:10-15. No. H. H. Cat. 18. 3095-1. D (mouth) = 21 cm. Decoration: Unpainted. Reg. They are known from different areas in Greece. PIs. H. 34371100. = 4. 105). 7-8. 1932.038. 22:L 45-48.the Kabri sherd comes either from an oinochoe of Rasmussen's Type 3a.

66*. Fig. Nos. 131 Nos.6) and several others have been 1986:198 with note 65). 3). Boardman 1978b:41 PI. 72. 18). but the fragment example so far known from Israel. In Israel. PI.97:1) are rare in the Levant. 32. Wild Goat II style (Fig. 14). Boardman 1980:48). Fantalkin 2001:75-79. 1997:32-33. 22:1. 85. 1923:PI. 29.67*. PI.PIs. 6. Tel Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:126. Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:27-38). 1990:508). 'Ionian cups' (Fig. 69*. cf. Stager 1996a. 2. . Fig. 5.31 Jemmeh (Illiffe 1932:17. PI. for example. 14. Fig 9. No. such 1980:151. 86). 4. both from Mezad Hashavyahu 1914:190-191. .. . Fig. Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1986: 198. Fig.1).32.1-2l 35.322-323. Figs. IX-XI).5. Fig. Reich 1989:230 Fig. 5. Fig. Fig. East Greek trade amphorae (Fig. 13. mentioned by Waldbaum 1994:59) and possibly at (Naveh 1962:106-107.96:2) were unearthed at Al Mina (Robertson 1940:13. 14. 35). Waldbaum and Magness Ashkelon (Stager 1996a. 28:7-14). 7a-b). 5.96:3)pottery has been foundat Al Mina (Robertson 1940:8-16. 4). Ras Ibn Hani (Riis 1982:251-252).4). Figs. 67*). 10-11. Fig. Magness 1997:30 with note 56) and Tel Batash (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:30.(Riis 1982:251-252). 8 Nos.1-6. Figs. XV. Ashkelon (Pythian-Adams Fig. 1996b. 17. 5. 239 (Naveh 1962:108-109. of others at Dan. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:27-28. 114-117. In general. Tell Tel Malhata (Kochavi 1970:23 (below). No.Tel 2001:90-94. Keisan (Briend and Humbert Tel Batash (Waldbaum (Naveh 1962:104-105. Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:43-69. 11-12. 12.31 Fig. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:29. fragments of three Bird bowls were found at Tell Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:125. PI.10.ARCHAIC EAST GREEK AND ETRUSCAN POTTERY IN THE LEVANT in the Levant. 6). Bird bowls (Fig.35 Fig.387-389.1). 13. 10.a). Fig. IV:1. Akko. olive presses of the 7th century be due to the fact that this region had its own olive-oil by the numerous from Kabri is the only Levant may documented 1995:63-69).3.3-4). There are only two examples besides that from Kabri. Fig. . Dor and Ashkelon Mezad Hashavyahu (unpublished.3-3. this vessel type was seldomly exported like examples found at Vroulia in Rhodes (Kinch . pls. Fig. Mezad Hashavyahu (Naveh 1962 110-111. Tel (Gitin 1995:65. Iliffe 1932:17. Nos. 16. 5.1-12. Other classes are less known from the Levant. Figs. XIII). I-III. 5. 16. Fantalkin 2001:89-90. Sarepta (Koehl 1985:137-138. 9. 4. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33 with note 79).Ras Ibn Hani. 3). Fragments of four Bird bowls were unearthed at Tyre (Coldstream and Bikai 1988:43.23) and at a number of sites in Israel. Mezad Hashavyahu Miqne-Ekron (Naveh 1962:106-107. 11 Nos. 6g). PIs.97:1) have been found at Al Mina. amphorae Fantalkin 84-85. SOS amphorae (Fig. Nos. 49 Fig. 41 PI.1. 69*. Nos. PI. Boardman 1980:48. XX. PIs. PI. Mezad Hasavyahu and Magness 1997:33. Fig. colour photo. 120.2. Dan (pakman 1992:236 Fig. 10. following p. 34 Fig. 7.96:1) were frequent at Al Mina (Robertson Ras el-Bassit mentioned one example has been published (Courbin (Courbin 1940:14. of this type in the southern This is very impressively (Gitin BCE found at Tel Miqne-Ekron Polychrome black jugs (Fig. Tel Batash (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:28) and Ashkelon (Stager 1996a:67*.12). XIII) and in Israel at Tell Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:151. 251-255. 60. 7 No. PI. In Israel. 12) and have been found at. No Bird bowls were found at Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:41). from Al 1980:47-48). Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1978a:57.5:7-8). 6. 2). PI. V:a. 5. V. 32:2 and 35:10). Achzib (Culican 1982:67. 32. XVI.31.Tyre (Coldstream and Bikai 1988:42. No. 1978b.1-7. Tell el-ijesi (Risser and Blakely 1989:93.96:4) are known in the northern Levant from Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:72. Waldbaum and Magness':1997:29-30. . Tell er-Ruqeish (Waldbaumand Fantalkin 2001 :88-87. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:30. 32. PI. 1993:936). From Most of the classes of Archaic Greek pottery found at Tel Kabri are well distributed Mina in the north to the Negev in the south. The reason for the rareness industry. No. 1. Fantalkin 2001:Fig. Fig. PI. 6.5.

Top right) Ionian cups.96: Distribution of East Greek vessels in Israel: Top left) Bird bowls. 240 . Bottom right) Cooking vessels. ! TEL DAN ~ • TEL KfABR' TEL KEISAN JELL JEMMEH • l.lELL ER-RUQEISH'i TELL EL-HESI • T • ELL MALHATA Fig. Bottom left) Wild Goat II style. 5.SAREPTA I.

31.34 Fig. Imports of Etruscan bucchero have been found in greater quantities in the western Mediterranean. 12a-b. 63. 5. 60b. Fig. 92. 1977-78. 58.1. 1). 36). 4. Fragments of up to 18 Greek cooking-pots have been identified at Mezad Hashavyahu (Naveh 1962:104-105. the western coast of Asia Minor and in the Levant (see Rasmussen 1979:150-156.Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31. the Aegean islands. Fig. Fig.7-8.97: Distibution in the Levant of (left) SOS amphorae and polychrome black jugs.202 Fig.1-2. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31-32. in Sardinia. an oinochoe or olpe.33 Fig.7-8. in eastern Sicily and at Carthage. Greek cooking vessels (Fig. 5. von Hase 1971: 10-12. Fig. Rostovtzeff 1932:331-332. the only known examples in the Levant were two fragments of kantharoi of Rasmussen's Type 3e from Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1973:27. Fragments of one or two cooking-pots have been found at Tel Batash in the Stratum II destruction debris of Area F (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31. PI. PI. Fantalkin 2001 :86-87. 64. von Hase 1989:329. 1978a. 1986:201. Figs. 10) and numerous sherds of this ware have been found in the Late Iron Age destruction debris and the earlier construction fill at Ashkelon (Stager 1996a:67*. Fig. Fig. 11). Reich 1989:230 Fig.97:2) of this period are known from only a few Levantine sites. Before the find of the Kabri bucchero fragment. on p. two bronze objects should be mentioned which have been seen as Etruscan imports in the Levant: a belt buckle in the British Museum said to have been found in Syria (Hall 1929/30: 107. 8-9. PI. 2). Gras 1985 :672-674) and a bronze oinochoe of the so-called Rhodian type reportedly found 241 . Fewer have been unearthed on the Greek mainland. Fig. 30. in southern France. all in Israel. 12F. It is striking that the Kabri fragment comes from a closed shape. since almost all Etruscan bucchero vessels found in the eastern Mediterranean are kantharoi (Rasmussen 1979: 155). (right) Greek cooking vessels. Gras 1985:676-679. PI. 6.TEl KABRI • I ! ~J Fig. 7.eel' f . In this context.

It has been suggested that it was destroyed during the same campaign as Ashkelon (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:37-38). The date of the fall of Tel Miqne (Ekron) is not as assured. 77 with note 3. Shefton 1979:68 No. it is impossible to establish during which of these campaigns the Phoenician fortress of Stratum E2 in Area of Tel Kabri was destroyed. Unlike the garrison at Mezad Hashavyahu.. in 603 BCE (Malamat 1979:208. the Berlin jug is most probably of east Greek manufacture (Jacobsthal 1929:210. PIs. THE DESTRUCTION OF THE FORTRESS OF STRATUM E2 Like the Phoenician pottery (Chapter 5:1V). but without a representative from Philistia. n. the map Stager 1996b:58). 1996b:58. cf. 3. Thus neither object comes from a secure context. Thus the date of Ekron's destruction by the Babylonians falls most likely in the ten year-span of 604-595 BCE. Stager 1996a:72* with note 1. 68-69. Jacobsthal 1929:205-206 No. i. Since the latest Greek pottery from Kabri cannot be more accurately dated than between the last decade of the 7th century BCE and the first half of the 6th century BCE. Frey 1963:23. Rostovtzeff (1932:332) has suggested that the belt buckle from Syria probably was brought by an Etruscan slave or associate of a Phoenician merchant. these were single members of the elite. the conquest of Ashkelon is dated to the month of Kislev in the first year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II. one year later. No texts exist recording the destruction of the fortress at Tel Kabri. Moreover. 242 .1 and 4. in 60110BCE or even after 595 BCE when the chronicle ends (Na'aman 1992:43-44). 1995. According to the Babylonian Chronicle in the British Museum.4. 108-109). when the Babylonians destroyed Ashkelon. and Philistia apparently came totally under their control. it is improbable that the Babylonian destruction of Ekron happened after 595 BCE since. 2002). according to the text of Jeremiah 27 dated to 594 BCE describing a meeting in Jerusalem at which a rebellion against Babylon is planned. The implication is that the Philistines no longer posed a threat to Babylon at that time. driven from their homeland by many factors (Bettalli 1995 :26.1-2) and identified as an Etruscan import by Gras (1985:676). 2) has recently argued. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:37). caption) thinks that the two Ras el-Bassit kantharoi were brought by east Greek intermediaries.e.at Sidon which was acquired by the Berlin Museum from a Parisian art dealer (Furtwangler 1888:250 No. The excavators of both sites have convincingly attributed these destructions to the Babylonian invasions led by Nebuchadnezzar II. to November/December 604 BCE (Wiseman 1956:28. and M. I would agree with Gitin that the most convincing date is 604 BCE. Courbin (1978a:58. A 23). Gitin 1997:98-99). the imported Greek pottery of Stratum E2a also shows close relationships to the assemblage from the destruction levels at the end of the Iron II phase at Ashkelon and Tel Miqne (Ekron) (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:27-33). The few Etruscan objects from the Levant certainly do not provide evidence for direct Etruscan trade with the Near East. 10. The nature of the Greek presence in the Levant has been thoroughly discussed elsewhere (Neimeier 2001). The excavators of Tel Kabri contend that a small contingent of Greek mercenaries in the service of the Kingdom of Tyre was based in the fortress of Stratum E2 (Niemeier 1994. In all probability it occurred during one ofNebuchadnezzar's campaigns along the Phoenician and Philistine coast at the end of the 7th and in the first two decades of the 6th century BCE (Wiseman 1985:21-41. As Gitin (1998:276.

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