Lehmann G 2002 Kabri Area E Architecture and Pottery

TEL KABRI

THE 1986-1993 EXCAVATION SEASONS
AHARON KEMPINSKI

Contributions by N. Angel-Zohar, R. Y. Bankirer, A. Cohen-Weinberger, P. Comale, C. Dauphin, M.Faerman, M. Fischer, L. Gershuny, S. Givon, Y. Goren, A. Horowitz, H. M. Khalaily, L. Kolska Horwitz, Z. Koren, G. Lehmann, O. Lemau, N. Liphschitz, O. Marder, H. Mienis, Y. Mizrachy, A. Nebel, B. Niemeier, W.-D. Niemeier, R. Oren, T. Oman, M. W. Prausnitz, A. Princivalle, P. Rosano, N. Scheftelowitz, S. Shalev, P. Smith, M. Tagliapietra, T. Tsuk, U. Yalcin. .

EDITED BY

NA' AMA SCHEFTELOWITZ AND RONIT OREN

EMERY AND CLAIRE YASS PUBLICATIONS IN ARCHAEOLOGY TEL AVIV 2002

IV. AREAE
Gunnar Lehmann

Area E lies on a small rectangular artificial hill measuring 100 x 150 m in the southwestern corner of the large Middle Bronze Age mound of Tel Kabri and rising some 12 m over it (Fig. 4.81). Until 1948 a small village called et-Tell occupied this area. The rich spring of <A a1-Fuwarah and the reservoir of <Ein Shefa' in (Birket Mefshukh) (Conder and Kitchener 1881:156, 158) lie to its northeast (Chapter 3). Excavation concentrated on the northwestern corner of the hill. The investigation, begun in 1986 under the supervision of Lilly Gershuny, was continued in 1989, 1990 and 1992 by Helena Pastor Borgonon. In 1993 this author supervised the excavations in Area E. Preliminary reports on the stratigraphy and finds for these seasons were published by the Kabri Expedition between 1990-1994 (Gershuny 1987; Kempinski 1987, 1991; Naveh and Kempinski 1991; Niemeier 1990, 1994; Pastor Borgonon 1990, 1991; Lehmann 1993).

Fig. 4.81: The mound of et-Tell showing the excavations in Area E.

Four main strata were discerned.
Stratum E1 E2 E3 E4 Date 19th century CE- 1948 Hellenistic period Iron Age" Iron Age" Iron Age" Description and Interpretation Village Some pottery finds from disturbed tombs Fortress Fortress Floors and debris

73

EARL Y BRONZE AGE
Pottery from this period was mixed into almost all lower Iron Age loci providing abundant evidence for occupation here at that time. However, no Early Bronze Age structures or layers were excavated.

MIDDLE AND LATE BRONZE AGE
These periods are represented by isolated sherds found in the debris below the lowest floors.

IRON AGE
The earliest Iron Age levels are debris layers (Locus 871) that were identified in a very limited sounding under Floor 870 of Stratum E4 (Fig. 4.82). There is no floor connected with this debris. STRATUME4 Remains of Stratum E4 appeared only in a sounding under Floor 866 of Stratum E3 in Square L 11.1 A plaster floor (870) at 55.00-55.10 m was discerned but its relationship to the casemate walls was not clear. However, the underlying locus (871) is already under the casemate walls and it seems probable that Stratum E4 predates the construction of the fortress. No other evidence of this stage was found, perhaps because excavation did not continue below Stratum 3 anywhere else. Pre-8th century BCE pottery (Figs. 5J50, 5.70) is associated with this stratum. STRATUME3 The structural piers remains of Stratum E3 are those of a fortress with casemate l312/816, l3111l344) are massive constructions, walls (858, fieldstone fills. Partition 878, 87~, 882, walls (Fig. 4.83, 4.84). The 1.60 m wide, built with ashlar l332) form a number of '
871

N
59.00

L11

s

Fig. 4.82: Schematic north-south section through Square Lll.

casemate walls (l343/863, and undressed compartments.

Casemate walls W816 and Wl311

of Stratum 3 are clearly cut in Square M9 by W131 0 of division (Fig. 4.85). only in Square

Stratum 2 (see below) providing us with a distinct stratigraphic LII at 55.90 m. Thus the earliest phase (E3c) is evident

Stratum E3 had at least three phases of floors (Fig. 4.85). Floor 866 was excavated is represented by floors at a level of about 57.00-15 by later building Metal fittings, activity m in the casemate rooms

only in one small room. The next phase (3b) 848, 876 and 883 in Almost (Locus all 873)

Squares Ll1, K-LlI2 was badly disturbed baskets century B.C.E.

and K13. The final phase (3a) at about 57.70 m (Loci 812, 813, 837, 1313, 1314) and the finds on and above them are mixed. Ottoman sherds together for a door, were found in the debris 3b and 3a contain probably with distinctive 8th-7th

of floor loci from phases pottery.

above the 3b floor 876. 1 Unfortunatelythe locusnumberwas not changedin 1990 so thatthe fmds from underthe floor are also numbered L. 866. It is howeverpossibleto isolatethe basketsL. 866 thatcontainedmaterialfrom StratumE4. 74

I~ It..J 75 ... I I I I I .

E3b (centre) and E3c (bottom).N t M N t M 10 N t M 10 Fig. 76 .84: Schematicplans of Strata E3a (top). 4.

89). 4.87: Casemate rooms in Squares 0/4-8. 4. W1310 of Stratum E2 (on right) cuts W1311/W1312 of Stratum 3 (on left).Fig. 4. 4. STRATUME2 Only the northwestern part of this fortress was excavated (Squares L-Q/4-10) (Figs. 4.87. looking east. Room 1977 in foreground.88. Fig. looking south. 4.85: Square M9. 4. 77 .86. Fig.86: Looking west over Squares 0-P/7-8.

.. -1- -1- -1- -1- -1- -:--------:-:3t . .§ A-." z o .~· ------% -1. . o ] . I -j- ~~IM~..f z 0 0 ii: eO 78 ... 00 00 .._ -1- _L I -I- -I- -i- I -1- N ~ -\- _L I -t~ V1 '+-< 0 ~ ~ e .

89: Schematic plan of Stratum E2 with Sections A-A and B-B. A Destruction Layer with Restorable Pottery A L :---_ --I I 1 I I . E2b N6 + 06 o:"'__~d' P6 B Destruction layer with Restorable Pottery 04 05 06 07 Fig. 4. 79 .'I ..SBm--+ B .. Str.

early mortaria types or transport jars (Fig. The structural context of this wall. Fortunately many floors were still deep enough to survive this leveling. 5. looking None of the foundations of the three casemate walls were west. Assyrianizing types) appears only in Stratum E2. Since the foundation of W1339 was not excavated. the casemate walls are 1. Although the excavations reached the western slopes of the hill. Only the northern part of this wall was excavated but as no floor connected with it was found. The ash and the restorable pottery from the casemate floor may indicate a destruction layer. It may be the eastern continuation of the Stratum E2 casemate system or a reinforcement in Stratum E3 between walls W816 and W1343. fragments of at least one large pottery basin and a concentration of shells.1989. 1984) was exposed between walls W1331 and W897 in Square 0/5-6 (Fig. a wall (WI993) was found with a narrow. The burnt contents of a transport jar were also collected. Two rows of rooms were excavated between the three walls. Under the lowest surface reached in the sounding (1992). The outer casemate wall (W1382+WI986) turns northward after running for 25 m east-west.91). Note ashlar piers.g. Below this was a further series of surfaces (1988.79:12. Phase E2b A floor of a casemate room of Stratum E2b (Loci 1961. The beaten earth floor has an ash layer of up to 10 em on it. some of it (e. The rich pottery repertoire retrieved comprises restorable types such as jugs. The sounding exposed remains ofa wall (WI926) in Square P7. as were several additional rooms south of the innermost casemate wall (W897).90). 80 . adjusting to the topography of the mound. 5. Wall W1339 was built exactly between walls W816 and W1343. too remains obscure. While most of the pottery from this sounding has parallels in both Strata E2 and E3. In Square OP7 a sounding was made under Floor 1987 of fieldstone fill. 4. 4.82:8-10) and represents a typical assemblage of the mid-7th century BeE. its architectural context is unclear. Stratum E2b in order to examine the foundations of W1389 but digging stopped before reaching their base. built with ashlar piers and undressed fieldstone fills (Fig.As in Stratum 3. it is not clear to which stratum this wall belongs. the northwestern corner of the casemate fortification system was not established. Wall W1339 does not continue further east into Square L 11 but may have been robbed out.90: W1340.1990. In Square L 10 it disappears in pits which were dug by stone robbers in the Ottoman period when the remains of Stratum E2 were leveled and built over by a village. Stratum E2.1991. Other finds on the floor include iron objects. About 10-15cm under the floor gravel bedding (Locus 1994) slopes downward from north to south. Fig. 4. but thick layer of ash immediately north of it. Two phases of use were discernible in most of them (2a. 13. and found.1992). which may be the remains of a burnt beam. as does the floor. 2).60 m wide. This technique has been identified as a Phoenician architectural element (c£ Stem 1992:Fig. 2b) represented by distinct floors.

looking east. possibly with the addition of some pit installations. There are some indications of destruction of Stratum E2b. Since the baulk between P7 and Q7 was not removed. 81 . Destruction layer with restorable pottery. Fig. in Square P7. Fig. Locus 1333 east of W1330 and Locus 1334 to the west of this wall may belong to Stratum E2b.86:3). Excavations continued some 20 em under floor 1966 (Locus 1963) until the end of the season interrupted operations. It was violently destroyed resulting in small finds and large amounts of restorable pottery being left in situ.Room 1969 in Square P6 has a floor at about 59. The floor slopes down southward rather steeply from W897 to W1328/W1949 which was built on it (Kempinski and Niemeier 1994:Fig. Only parts of the floor of Room 1987 in Square O-P/7 were exposed during the excavation.42-59. the undisturbed part of the floor is a fragment of a basket handle amphora with an engraved sign (Fig. Pit 1936 was dug down from this floor. Among the finds from. 4. In Square Q7 two floors. This material is apparently either from a destruction at the end of Stratum E2b or it is a fill to raise the level of Stratum E2b to that of Stratum E2a.55 m which yielded a large number of pottery finds. it was not established whether these floors are a continuation of floor 1309. 4. which may have originally covered both rooms. 1). Phase 2a The overall plan of this phase is virtually identical to that of its predecessor. Since the pottery repertoire of Strata E2a and E2b is very similar. South of Room 1987 is Room 1309. such as ash and restorable pottery on the floors. the debris was apparently leveled immediately after the destruction raising the floor level of Stratum E2a to about 20 em above E2b.91: Room 1961. The entire central part of its plaster floor was destroyed by an Ottoman pit. Floor 1309 runs up to W1328 and joins floor 1987.92: Room 890. The pottery types resemble the types in Stratum E2a. 5.

was traced in Square N8-9 at 58.5:9) which may have been one of the weapons used during the destruction of the building. W1340 and W1995. that of Room 1941 at 58. this deposit of pottery and small finds was filled into the casemate rooms during the destruction of Stratum E2a (Figs. It is a type with a long socket and an elaborated rib in the middle of the blade which has many parallels in the late Iron Age (Moorey 1980:64). 5. 4. Trilobate arrowheads have been connected with Scythians in the 7th century BCE (Cleuziou 1977: I93) but were also later used by the Achaemenid army.30-1.New floors were exposed in the casemate rooms.95. looking north. Moorey 1980:64-66. a fragment of a pottery vat used for purple dyeing (Chapter 16) and a broken storage jar with an incised Phoenician letter. Fallen stones and broken mudbricks covered the floor of 1948 (Fig. 1941 and 1948 were identified between walls W1331 and W897 in Square 05-7. Fig.93). This type of arrowhead is well known from Syria and Palestine from the late 8th through the 4th centuries BeE (see Cleuziou 1977. Fig. 8. In the destruction debris of Square 04 was a body sherd with an incision of a jar (Fig. The floor of Room 890 lay at 58.50-55m (Fig.00 m thick above them (Locus 1914) in which remains of plaster flooring were also mixed (Fig. Peleg et al. Also unearthed was an iron spearhead (Fig. 5. on which lay a great deal of pottery. a floor. Although Locus 1977 in Square 04 on the western edge of the mound between casemate walls W897 and W1331 is much lower than the above-mentioned floors of Stratum E2a.96). They are defined and separated from one another by partition walls W899. and of Room 1948 at 58. 4.94: Locus 1914. It was severely disturbed by robber trenches and pits cutting through the loci immediately above it. 82 .62 m.94). enclosed by W1310. Other finds from this destruction debris include an Egyptian amulet (Fig. Finds on its floor comprise late 7th century BCE transport jars. One of these had Cypriote letters incised on it (Fig. 5. This assortment of pottery and small finds does not rest immediately on the floors but in a layer of debris from 0. it may also be part of the same phase. 1983). 4.93: Destruction debris in Room 1948.87:2). Oren 1984:28. It is therefore possible that material from an upper storey collapsed into the rooms below and that the upper floors were used for storage. 4. looking west. many of them basket-handle amphoras from Cyprus. A bronze trilobate arrowhead with socket (Fig.87:1).75).53 m. Floors 890.23). 4. 4. 10. According to the pottery and the small finds. 8.58 m.92). 4. apparently an aleph (Fig. Recovered from the floors of these rooms was a large quantity of restorable transport jars. W1331 and W1342.5:8) was found out of context but probably belongs to Stratum E2. In Locus 1321.

looking east. looking east. close to wall W897. East of this was a stone basin.97: Installations in Room 1960. several in situ finds from the destruction of Stratum E2a were recorded. including complete transport jars and an oven in the northeastern corner of the room. In the northern part of the room.98: Destruction debris on the floor of Room 1308. 4. 4. W1328.Fig. complete with threshold and door socket found in situ. 4. 4. Although cut by a number of Ottoman pits. east of 1960. were a few installations. The floor of Room 1960 in Square P6. looking south. Room 1308.96: Locus 1913. Several rooms abutting on the southern side of W897 were excavated. Fig. As in Room 1960.76:15) in it. 4.69-73 m (Fig. Fig. 83 . 4. W1950 and W1974. A complete transport jar was sunk slightly into the floor which was plastered around the opening in order to facilitate pouring liquids into it. W1329.65-70 m (Fig. Fig.97). was identified at 59.95: Locus 1912. enclosed by W897. is defined by W897. The room was entered from the south through a doorway. W1949 and W1950 with a floor at 59. the threshold survived. 5.98). South of this installation was a stone lined pit with an Assyrian bowl (Fig.

It may have belonged to Stratum E2. On the same level as the first steps are remains of a pebble floor immediately south of the stairs. This corridor continued eastward into Square P7 where it may have linked up with a room between W1328.45 m and west ofW1330 at 59. Among these finds was the fragment of a pottery vat used for purple dyeing (Chapter 16).3: 10). On the floor was a thick layer of ash.52-63 m. Among the pottery finds from Room 1318 were fragments of a Greek SOS amphora (Fig. 4. W1341 and W1330 (Loci 1305. Wall W1330 in Squares P-Q17 runs exactly towards the corner ofW1949 which. Unfortunately this area was so disturbed by Ottoman pits that there were almost no traces of Stratum E2a except for finds out of context. south of which were the remains of an oven. Remains of additional floors were also found in Square Q7 west ofW1330 at 59. This floor is connected to W860. 84 .94 m). 5. Parallels to pottery finds would place this locus in either Stratum E2 or E3. this floor connects with adjacent floors of Stratum E2a.99). The room immediately north of these steps may have been part of the staircase. with W1328.South of Room 1960 there was probably a corridor (Locus 1963) but the area excavated is too small to clarify the plan in this part of the building. This locus was disturbed during the Ottoman period by stone-robbing. Large rectangular dressed stones found in situ in Square P8 in Room 1318 may have been the first steps of stairs leading into an upper storey (Fig. Fig. but the finds here are mixed and disturbed by later material. This floor was apparently in use with the steps. LOCUS 855 IN SQUARE III In Square I II a floor (855) was found on the very edge of the hill.99: Steps of a staircase in Locus 1318. Unfortunately a pit (Locus 1908 in Square P7) destroyed the northern part of W1330 and there is no evidence of any connection between these two walls. W1329. 4. forms an entrance to Room 1308. Material found in Locus 864 below this floor was also mixed. According to the level of both the lowest steps and the pebble floor (59. 1309). Its stratigraphic relationship is uncertain.

The large percentage of Tyrian pottery at these sites (e.apparently restricted to the small hill of et-Tell. Large amounts of Ottoman pottery were found (mostly out of context) among which were many fragments of Rashayya al-Fukhar painted jugs. The end of Stratum E4 and the beginning of Stratum E3 might reflect political events following the campaigns of Tiglatpileser III in 734 or 733 BCE (Tadmor 1994).2001. Kabri was also important for controlling the all-weather route on the slopes leading from Rosh ha-Niqra south to Akko and the Carmel. Olami 1974). According to archaeological surveys. Stem 1990). centralized settlement system (Lehmann 2001. when the Assyrian king reached the Akko plain (Katzenstein 1997: 174-178).STRATUM El Remains ofa village from the Ottoman period were uncovered between 1986 and 1992 in Squares K-MlI013 (living floors) and in Square III (tombs). probably ancient Kabul. where agricultural products from the hill-country might have been collected and stored before being shipped to places such as Akko or Akhziv. the importance of Tel Kabri was reduced to a small rural site during the Late Bronze Age . Thus. For Assyrian references to Akko see Parpola 1970: 11. but earlier such site and collection point was Horvat Rosh Zayit. Another. During Iron Age I the centralized urban system of the kingdom of Akko was replaced by two apparently independent settlement systems: one on the coastal plain using the Late . Apparently the plain and the hills were newly organized and their agricultural production integrated into the economy of the city-state of Tyre. especially at the end of the 8th and the 7th century BCE. Kloner and Olami 1980. the Akko plain appears as Tyrian territory? In Iron Age II. Kabri) points to an integration of the area into the Tyrian city-state and its economic system. Kabri was a significant strategic point in the northern Akko plain. The territorial transformation of the Akko plain into an Assyrian province may have begun already in 701 BCE under Sennacherib and his campaign 2 Na'aman 1994. The transition from Stratum 5 to Stratum 4. 1994. floors and pits were identified. At the end of Iron Age I and the beginning of Iron Age II the settlement pattern in the Akko plain changed. around 850 BCE according to the pottery. 85 . a tower like complex of the 10th and 9th centuries BCE at the edge of the Akko plain (Gal and Alexandre 2000). but on different locations. However. At Kabri this road was crossed by another route leading from the sea to Upper Galilee. Lehmann 1995. In the lower Ottoman levels there were also some stray finds of Hellenistic pottery (Chapter 5:IV). Bronze Age sites on a reduced scale and another situated on the hills and the mountain slopes in newlyfounded very small villages (Lehmann 2001). In 1993 Mahmud Hawari excavated Ottoman remains in Square Q8 (Hawari 1994). In Assyrian sources. all out of context.g. Akko became again the urban centre of an integrated. Ronen and Olami 1983. Only a few installations. Kabri is situated exactly between the coastal plain with its emphasis on grain production and the hill-country which produced wine and oil. the settlement pattern of the Late Bronze Age collapsed at the end of this phase (Frankel 1986. cf. SUMMARY After being one of the major urban centres in northern Palestine during the Middle Bronze Age. many of the small Iron Age I villages were abandoned and new equally small villages were founded in the same hill and mountain areas. may have some connections with the campaign ofShalmaneser III in 841 BCE. Reallexikon der Assyriologie volume 1(1928)64. most of the Ottoman village in Squares N-Q14-8 was bulldozed before the excavations in order to reach the Iron Age levels. The stratigraphy reflects the historical events in this part of the Tyrian hinterland. The remains of a fortress in Strata E3 and E2 point to a special function of the site. Frankel and Getzov 1997.

The rectangular plan 86 . According to the 675174 BCE treaty between. Katzenstein 1997:289). All these events may have had their impact on the stratigraphy of the fortress in Kabri area E. 660 BCE (Pritchard 1955:300.100: Schematic outline of the Stratum E2 fortress.100). Fig. Mount Meiron (Druks 1964) and at Horvat Rosh Zayit. the fortress was immediately rebuilt.31). Lipinski 1992. or its colonies in the Western Mediterranean. Most of the Assyrianizing pottery found in Kabri dates to Stratum E2 or was found in the sounding in Squares O-P17 under Stratum E2b and may thus have started at the end of Stratum E3. Lamprichs 1995:173. The political situation in Phoenicia remained unstable and in 677 BCE Esarhaddon conquered Sidon. The consumers of Assyrian style pottery may have attempted to copy the lifestyle of the predominant power of the Near East. The triple casemate wall system of Stratum E2a probably covered most of Area E (90 x 60 m) and shaped the rectangular form of et-Tell (Fig. The casemate fortifications of Stratum E3 were abandoned and a completely new fortress with new casemate walls was built (Stratum E2). In particular. Lancel 1995). Gal 1993a:453). detailed studies of Phoenician architecture and fortifications in particular are still lacking (Leriche 1992. 1985. The fortress might have been in the hands of rebels and was destroyed by Ashurbanipal. The casemate system of Kabri may have been incorporated into the settlement as in Beersheba Stratum II where the walls of the houses abut on the casemate walls using them as part of their construction (Herzog 1997:Fig. The plan of this large fortress on a mound is quite different from the few fortresses known in Upper and Western Galilee such as those on Mount Adir (Davis et al. Akko was apparently not included in the territory of Tyre. Again there was no lasting peace and only a few years after their agreement Esarhaddon laid siege to Baal's Tyre in 671 BCE (Na'aman 1994: 6 and 1995:109).Esarhaddon and Baal of Tyre. None of the small fortresses on mountains in Upper Galilee (Frankel 1994:27) have a plan comparable to that at Tel Kabri. It was in the Assyrian interest to control the strategically important site of Kabri.against Tyre (Pritchard 1955:287). Whether this pottery reflects Assyrian presence or a local imitation of Assyrian pottery remains uncertain. 4. The revolt that Ashurbanipal suppressed in 644 BCE could be connected to the end of S1.ratumE2b. probably ancient Kabul (Gal and Alexandre 2000). the Phoenician homeland. However. The end of the Stratum E3 fortress probably came during Ashurbanipal's third campaign. Cecchini 1995. Some parallel features may be found in Israel. when he marched against Tyre ca. Little is known about fortresses in Lebanon. the succession of the three floors in Stratum E3 may reflect repeated assaults on the small fortress. While Assyrian artistic representations and historical texts indicate that the Phoenician centres were fortified. 4. 5.

Fassuta. Israel (British Archaeological Reports International Series 249). I: Galilee. M. Excavations at Horvat <U~a. 1200-1203. 1994. T. Avia'am. Oxford.is similar to that of the forts at Samaria metropolitan limited size (Meshel resembles building complex area excavated and Tel Jezreel.M. Cultural Diversity and Change in the Early Bronze I of Israel and Jordan. Les pointes de fleches "scythiques" au Proche et Moyen-Orient. 87 of Archaeological Excavations in the . E. A. The Iron Age fortress was never rebuilt. ed. Ben-Tor. The New Encyclopedia Holy Land Vol. 187-199. for close 5. Biran. 1977. Maddin. 1985. and Greenberg. Qashish. Tel Aviv University) Tel Aviv. 1995. (Ph. Jerusalem. Vienna. In: Krings. eds. 1989/1990.. 1996.. 1992. ed. the destruction to Tyre (Katzenstein and Palestine and occurred either as early as 604 BCE or later in 585 BCE. Jerusalem. R. H. pp. Early Arad I. The Architecture of Ancient Israel. and Kitchener. R. Braun. Tell el-Daba V. V.R. 4. Jerusalem. En Shadud: Salvage Excavations at a Farming Community in the Jezreel Valley. Han. 2) even if not actually by Phoenicians with Cyprus and the presence repertoire in 604 BCE (Stager The pottery from the final levels has many parallels was most probably a result of the campaigns with that from the destruction of Nebuchadnezzar 1996). Similar evidence was found at Tel Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:270against Syria laid siege 271). E. J. Leiden. pp. the pottery and the historical Akko plain support the assumption contacts Ashkelon that the Iron Age fortress at Tel Kabri was built in a Phoenician from Tyre. Yiftahel. The Survey of Western Palestine: Vol. Ben-Tor. H. 1993. Cecchini. Davis. Cleuziou. Architecture militaire. when the Babylonians 1997:328). Excavations and Surveys in Israel 9:92.Tor. 60-67. dissertation. M. VII). 1994). In the early Hellenistic the Iron Age architecture andre-using period graves were dug into its ruins. 1881. S. E. A. Biran. A. Pottery finds provide evidence at Kabri in its final years (Chapter of Greek mercenaries Stem 1992:Fig. et aI. The contemporary of Fantalkin at Tel Kabri. Tel.H. of except for the similarity as at these sites. 1996. Jerusalem. (Colloques intemationaux du CNRS No. R. Israel Exploration Journal 34: 191-194. In: Le plateau iranien et l'Asie centrale des origines ala conque islamique. 389-396.. A. 1992. Muhly. 1991. The Middle Bronze fortifications in Palestine as a social phenomenon.D. Early Bronze Age Dwellings and Installations. does not have casemates to the main fortification evidence now the summary 2001) but the way the rooms are attached the evidence The construction with ashlar piers and fieldstone fills. S.. when a village was built here. In: Katzenstein. London. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 44:41-51. D. and Stech. D. D. Braun.. Tel Aviv 19:221-234. Bunimovitz. Small rural forts are best known to draw analogies fortress of Mezad Hashavyahu at Tel Kabri makes 1992). In: Stem. The site was resettled only in the Ottoman period. C. La civilisation phenicienne et punique. pp. Biblical Dan. S. 1985. 1983. A Steel Pick from Mount Adir in Palestine. Jerusalem. 567) Paris. but the in (see wall for the style (cf. E. 1978. Dan 1. Braun. it difficult although this is a small rural fort and not a in the Negev. Bietak. <Atiqot 3:1-24 (Hebrew). 1984. Ben. A. Thus. pp. Conder. leveling what remained of the stones of the ancient buildings (Hawaii REFERENCES Amiran. 1966. civile et domestique partim orient.

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5.. it is very similar to an Iron Age I vessel from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. ~~~~"&Si """""""~---'- ) 3 5 -l ') I l 2 ) . out of stratigraphic context. 5. 74:3.66fr-t5) are typical for Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al. 66: 15. 11: 160) and Tyre Stratum 13-14 (Bikai 1978: Pis. Tell Abu Hawam (Balensi 1980:PI. 1980:PI. 5.68:2. 78: 2). 78:3-4. 5. IRON AGE Gunnar Lehmann IRON AGE I Iron Age I pottery was relatively rare and found mixed with pottery from other periods.. 65:1-2. 80:1) while another (Fig. 5. 66:6a). Cooking-pots like Figs.. 5. second vessel from the right)..68:1 was found at Dor.. 5. 35:6.67:6 is a lamp similar to some from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. 39:28).. 1980:Pls.. Krater with a rolled rim (Fig.V.. 1980:PI.. The deep krater-Iike bowl with a sharp carination (Fig. Fig. 5.66:}6) may be compared to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al.6Ji*1. apparently from the destruction layer of the late 12th or early lIth century BCE (Gilboa 1998:413). 6 Fig.. 81 :14). 64:6). 1980:Pls. 4) resemble vessels from Iron Age I strata at Tell Keisan (Briend et al. Another similar vessel was found at Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al.~ might be a Middle Bronze Age form.. Identical decoration on a closed vessel like Fig... 1980:PI. 5.66: Iron Age I pottery from Area D. where it is identified as 'Sikil pottery' (Stern 1994:Fig. 79:7.. 68:6).. 1980:PI. 178 . 5. . 5.. 47 lower photo. Other kraters (Fig. 64:1a). 1980:PI.~. 1980: PI. . . 70.. Two bowls (Fig. . \ 4 ) -\ \ 7 I 10em. -. 71:1.>. 1980:Pls. """.67:3. 76:4).67:5 characterize the Late Bronze Age/Iron Age I strata (G2D2) at Sarepta (Anderson 1988:PI. 37:18..""""''''_'W<..67:2) with a knob handle resembles a bowl from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. Although a krater or cooking-pot (Fig... 17).. 5.67: 1 and one not illustrated) have parallels from Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et at.66:1) and Pilgrim Flasks (Fig. 50:CP-I0a). Most typical are the Phoenician Monochrome juglets (Fig. 3) with matt red bands which have parallels in Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al.. 5.

interior 5YR7/6. core grey. } 3 f---d 2 -------ill II 4 lOcm. interior 2. Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. 60712089 752/2609 255111 9198/1 607/2077 255112 Locus 607 751 727 1575 607 727 Description cf. 179 . 2 In the tables accompanying the figures temper size is abbreviated as follows: f= fine grits (>0.FIGURE 5. core grey. 5YR7/6.5YR6/6. interior 5YR7/6. M = mineral temper.6 mm). 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type Bowl Bowl Krater Krater Cooking-pot Lamp Reg. 1980:66: 15. Stratum Stratum 9c (Briend et al. temper: mg M. 5. Keisan Stratum handle.66: IRON AGE I POTTERY FROM AREA 02 No. No. g = gross/coarse grits «0.6 mm).2 . temper: m M. 9a-b (Briend et al. 1980:79:7). 6 Fig. Red paint lOR5/6. temper: fm M. Keisan cf. 1980:65:2). 1980:66:6a).0. 2a). 2. Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. and interior 10YR8/3. 1980:64: la. interior 10YR7/3. core 5YR7/6. Keisan with knob cf. 5YR7/4. core grey.2 mm). 5403/3 5392/4 3304/1 3219/6 5378/2 3433/3 5423/2 Locus 1941 1973 0877 0864 1973 1313 1970 Description Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior 5YR7/6. 17). FIGURE 5.67: IRON AGE I POTTERY FROM AREA 0 No. cf. No. Colour description follows the Munsell colour charts. 9a-b (Briend et al. 78:3-4). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Type Juglet Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Cooking-pot Reg.5YR6/6. temper: m M. m = medium grits (0.67: Iron Age I pottery from Area D. cf. temper: mg M. 9c (PI.

Exterior 5YR6/4. White slip. core 2.68: IRON AGE No. interior 2. black painted wavy line. temper: fm M. Cypriote White-Painted. 19411177 3310/2 5402/5 5403/4 3388/8 3585/100 5346/2 3623/2 1 I Juglet 3145/3 0830 12 Transport jar 5443/100 1972 180 . temper: fM. interior 7.82:8-10. core 5YR7/6. White slip outside with red and black bands. 61: 12 (Keisan Niv. Gjerstad 1948: Fig. temper: mg M. core 2. Closed vessel with bands and concentric circles. 542617 5392/10 POTTERY FROM AREA E Locus 1941 1973 1941 0876 1968 1941 0888 0890 1970 1338 Description Exterior 2. interior 2. Exterior 10YR8/3. bands in black paint. Exterior 5YR7/6. interior 2. temper: fM. Tyre Stratum 10-2. black paint. core grey. interior 5YR6/4. black paint. core 5YR6/6. 26:11. interior 5YR7/6. 5. temper: m M. core 5YR6/4. Bikai 1978a: PI. 84: 259 (Abu Hawwam Stratum III). Closed vessel. core 10YR7/3. black paint. cf.5YR8/4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Jug let Pilgrim flask Pilgrim flask Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Krater or Jug Krater or Jug Jug Reg. cf.5YR6/6. Closed vessel.3 4 5 11 7 o Fig.5YR7/2.5YR7/2. Exterior 2. Exterior and interior 5YR7/6 and white. White slip outside and red paint. core greyish. temper: m M. core 2.5YR7/2. interior 5YR6/6. Exterior 5YR6/6.68: Iron Age 10cm.5YR7/2. Red paint. interior 10YR7/3. temper: fm M. interior lOYR8/4. temper: mg M. Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. core 5YR7/6. Exterior 7. Exterior 5YR7/6. FIGURE 5. 5. Cypriote White-Painted. No. temper: fM. Same type as Fig. I I000o pottery from Area E. Black paint.5YR7/2. Bands in light greenish wash and black paint. 1980: PI.5YR8/4. temper: mg M. Closed vessel with concentric circles. bands in black paint. 47: 3. core lOYR8/4. Early Phoenician Bichrome. Cypriote WhitePainted V. cf. Exterior 7.5YR7/2.5YR7/2. Red brown paint. Closed vessel with painted concentric circles.5YR7/6. White-Painted II. 9a-b).5YR7/2. temper: m M. interior lOYR7/3. Briend et al. Exterior 2.

53: 10) and Tyre Stratum 6 (Bikai 1978a:PI.5).type SJ-9. 181 . They are comparable to examples from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Pls. Inside and outside are thin bands of black paint. 26: 1-4. l1a: 2. 33:2.3% of all diagnostics. 1980:PI. 5. 64: 97) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. (Briend et al. Sarepta. Bikai 1978a:PI.:PI. Transport jars from this context have a simple vertical rim rising from a sloping shoulder. 850-750 BCE. Parallels come from Tell Keisan. Stratum Dl (ibid.IRON AGE II During the excavation of Area E (Chapter 4:IV) large amounts of pottery were found in situ in a series of fortresses.70:11). Many of the vessels of this last phase were complete or restorable. Stratum 7 (ibid. ca. 23 :3). :PI. 16a:18-25. 470. 29:4). a simple everted rim and red slip covering the rim inside and the complete vessel outside already occur in Iron Age I. 5. Parallels come from Cyprus ca. 18a:16) and are dated to the 9th century BCE. 1980:PI. :PI. 5. There were 114 examples. 1980:PI.:PI. triangular and sometimes has a slightly bulbous base. 50:3. 49: 2). it covers the period between ca. 600. the first of which was built in the 9th century BCE (Stratum E4) and the last probably destroyed in 604 BCE. 19:9-16). 456. Stratum 8-9 (ibid. 3). 5. 5. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's Kouklia Horizon.69:2-3). Bowls like Fig. Tyre Stratum 6 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. 1980:PI. Stratum DI-E (Anderson 1988) and Tyre. This type was in use over a very long span of time and fabric and surface treatment vary in different periods. Sarepta Stratum C2-F (Anderson 1988:PI. Stratum 10-1 (ibid.:PI. Thus. The parallels connect the finds from below Stratum E4 with 11th-9th century strata at Tell Keisan. Stratum 7 (ibid. 1980). 20 em in diameter. has a simple almost vertical rim. 31: 1. 5. :PI. 31:12. fragments and almost complete forms making up 4. Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et at. 81: 15) and Tyre Stratum 17 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Stratum 13 (ibid. 7). Stratum 10-13 (Bikai 1978a). 494-496. Of special significance for the study of the Iron Age II in northern Israel is the wide range of vessels found in situ in the 7th century BCE destruction levels (Stratum E2) which represent pottery of this period. 1987:37-38) which has a relatively short flaring rim. a flat or convex base and reserved red slip decoration (Fig. One of the most common bowl types found at Kabri has a flaring rim and was variously decorated in different periods. Stratum 7-11 (Briend et at. Stratum 10-2 (ibid. the lIth and 8th centuries BCE. 18a:4). They are similar to bowls from Keisan Stratum 10-11 (Brient et al. :PI. Stratum E (ibid. Stratum 12 (ibid. :PI.69:6 with a carinated shoulder. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 47:type x-15a. Tell Keisan Stratum 6-7 (Briend et at. sloping profile ending in a slightly thickened inverted rim. STRATUM E4 BOWLS The simplest type of bowl in the Phoenician pottery repertoire (Fig. 18a:5). These bowls range in diameter from 18-25 ern.69:1. Sarepta C2-F (Anderson 1988':type SJ-12A) and Tyre Strata 4-14 (Bikai 1978a:45-46 . Another type (Fig. 22:595. 511. :PI. 458. 5). 1980:PI.70:13-19) and transport jars (Fig. :PI.). 23 :603).69:1) has a flat base and an almost straight. ca. 49:11). 9). (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 4 nos. 48:4). x-15c). Those found in Stratum 4 are Bikai's first sub-type (1978a:26 Fine Ware Plate 2. Stratum 5. 1050-850 BCE. 32:10) and Tyre Stratum 4. 5. A limited sounding below Stratum E4 produced only a small quantity of pottery. 41 :9). 33:12-13). Among the few diagnostic sherds are various bowls (Figs. 6). 513).69:4). The body is sack-shaped. Stratum 11 (ibid. cooking-pots (Fig.

Their diameter is ca.69:7-14.70:10) was found in Stratum E4 and two more in Stratum E3. 15:19-20.:PI. 43:8).8) and Megiddo Stratum H-3 = Megiddo IVA (Finkelstein et al. 177-178). p. Juglets with a short mushroom rim (Fig. PI. 12: 246. 23:611). 69: 141-142). 1987). 74: 179).69: 18).70:4-5) begin in the middle of the 8th century BCE and continue to the beginning of the 7th century BCE in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Pl. PI. and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. The first two have squared or thickened everted rims while the rims of the others are mushroom-like. Their development has been discussed in detail by Bikai (1978a:37-40.70:9) was found out of its original context. Another fragment (Fig. 850-750 BCE. 5. 4b) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990 :PI.70:3) begin in the second half of the 9th century BCE and continue until the second half of the 8th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:types 243. JUGLETS AND JUGS A typical juglet of the 8th and 7th centuries BCE (Fig.25) and Stratum 5 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 20:8).70:7) is red-slipped and burnished. 55: 9). 18a:10) date this type to ca. 5. 5. It can be compared to examples from Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Sarepta Stratum B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type B-3A) and Tyre Strata 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Sarepta CI-C2 (Anderson 1988:type 13A) and Tyre Stratum 10-1 (Bikai 1978a: PI. 1960:PI. Sarepta 01 (Anderson 1988:type OJ-2a).f. PI. 268. 93:2 type juglet 2). but the rim is different. Parallels from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Nos. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI.69:5) have an everted rim which is somewhat thicker than the body wall. 39).6. 1980:Pls. 82:242) and Tyre Stratum 4-9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Parallels are found at Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al.Other carinated bowls (Fig. 33:3. 5. jug type 8. 5.70:12) occur since the second half of the 9th century BCE in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. cf. Juglets with a squared or thickened everted rim (Fig. 34. Fig. 265. Transport jars with a small triangular rim on a sloping shoulder (Fig. 5. 18a:7). KRATERS Only one such vessel was found in Stratum E4 (Fig. 14:383) and another from Tyre Stratum 9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 5. 5. 17 em. table 8A. p. 60:1.69:15 is similar to Fig. type 244) in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. Small juglets with a ring-base. 11.69:16-17 is a large bowl with an incurved rim which is sometimes painted red.71:9 of Stratum E3. 31 :15) and Tyre Stratum 2-4 (Bikai 1978a:33-35. 14:2-5. 39. The handle rises high above the low rim. 2000:310. 9:168-169. This is a bichrome painted holemouth krater which resembles those from Rashidiya (Lipinski 1992:PI. 24:2). Fig. 5. 52: 8) and Stratum 8 (ibid. 5. 5. 175. 1980:PI.47:8. 10-12).70:1-2) usually has a small bulge at the base. 272). but may continue somewhat later as at Hazor Stratum VIII (Yadin et al. They are dated from the end of the 10th to the first quarter of the 9th century BCE. 190-206) and Tyre Stratum 4-9 (Bikai 1978a:type jug 8. 850-750 BCE (Bikai 1987:PI. 92:jug 4). No parallels were found for bowl types Fig. 182 .f. Such jars have been discussed in detail by Gal and Alexandre (2000:44-48) in their publication of the Phoenician fortress of Rosh Zayit. 5:14-17. Four sub-types can be distinguished at Kabri. 5. A jug with a high neck and a trefoil rim (Fig. It resembles a jug without slip from Cyprus dated to ca. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS One rim fragment of what may be a 'Hippo Jar' (Fig. 5. The painted decoration of Fig. table 8A. Sarepta E (Anderson 1988:PI. Similar bowls come from Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. a neck ridge and a single handle are typically Phoenician.

49:9.70:3-5. Sarepta Stratum F (Anderson 1988:PI. Thus. There are several sub-types of cooking-pots with triangular rims.84:3-4). Stratum E4 may thus be dated to ca. 5. 12:27. One may distinguish between triangular rims with: 1) horizontal rim. 35:1. 5.70:12-13) and the cooking-pot rims (especially Fig. Gal and Alexandre 2000:40-42) Comparisons come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4-11 (Briend et al.3% of Stratum E4 types have exact parallels. 52:13. 1980:9th century BCE) and Sarepta Stratum C2-Dl (Anderson 1988:ca. 5. 6. One example (Fig. The type occurs only once at Kabri.69:6.COOKING-POTS Two main groups of cooking-pot types were distinguished: pots with triangular rims and pots with a ridged or 'modeled' rim. overlapping rim. A somewhat similar vessel was found at Rosh Zayit (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 81:8). one in E2 and 2 were unstratified. 5. 11).12:5) where it is thought to be a krater. 33.69:2). The examples at Kabri are clearly made of a cooking-pot fabric. 9). horizontal rim and 5) a short pinched rim (Hunt 1987:Fig. 5. 27:9. 55:1-3. The distribution of each echoes that of the group as a whole (Hunt 1987: 183). 63. This type has many variants.73:3-5. 5.23:13-15. 5. 77:1-4. 30:3) and Tyre Stratum 2-10 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. Above the carination. Stratum E4 also has parallels with pottery from Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990). 33:10). Tell Keisan Stratum 6-7 (Briend et al. These sub-types have no chronological or regional significance in the Akko plain during Iron Age I through Iron Age IIC. Their value for dating pottery assemblages is thus limited.4) long pinched. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's 'Salamis Horizon'. SUMMARY Most paraIlels to the pottery assemblage from Kabri Stratum E4 are either found in the Akko plain or at Tyre and Sarepta. These vessels are dated according to stratified comparisons from other sites which are contemporary with Stratum E4 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence at Tel Kabri. ca. the walls are either concave or sloping inward to the rim (see Gal and Alexandre 2000:40-42). 46:1-2. 3) long pinched. 5. 2) overlapping rim. the transport jars (Fig.70:20) has a small edge on the rim immediately under the lip. occurring first in the 12th century BCE. 5. 850-750 BCE. 183 . 750 BCE). 18. Especially important for dating are the bowls with painted bands (Fig. They have a wide open body with a rounded base.70:6) (cf. where 33. 3. Gjerstad 1948 Fig. 5. The body may be deep or shallow and has usually a sharp carination. Cooking-pot types with flat vertical rims become more frequent in the late 8th and 7th century BCE. They can be compared with vessels from TelI Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. The pottery figures for this stratum include also some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context (Figs. One example of this type was found in Stratum E4. 5. .70:20). 5. This cooking-pot type had a long life-span. 1980:PI. 6.70:13-19) but continue in Stratum E3 and even into E2 (Figs. 17:2.12:5) and Sarepta CI-Dl (Anderson 1988:type CP-IA). Cooking-pots with triangular rims are very common in Stratum E4 (Fig. 950-830 BCE). CYPRIOTE IMPORTS White-Painted IV jug (Fig.70 :21). there seems to have been close contacts between Kabri E4 and Tyre Stratum 4-12 (Bikai 1978a:9th century BCE to ca. 34:10. No parallels were found for a cooking-pot with a triangular rim (Fig. 1980:PI. 28: 6). 850-750 BCE.

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FIGURE 5.69: POTTERY OF STRATUM E4
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Type Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Krater Reg. No. 3251112 325112 3228/2 3251/7 3257/1 5392/9 3257/8 3256/2 325114 3242/1 3253/6 3253/3 3242/2 Locus 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 1973 .0866 0866 0866. 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 1958 0866 0866 Description Exterior 5YR6/6, interior 5YR7/3, core 5YR7/3, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/4, temper: m M, black paint. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core grey, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/2, temper: m M. Exterior 7.5YR8/6, interior 7.5YR8/6, core 7.5YR7/8, temper: fM, red slip lOR5/8. Exterior 7.5YR7/4, interior 7.5YR7/4, core 7.5YR7/4, temper: fM. Exterior 5YR6/8, interior 5YR6/8, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Bichrome? Exterior 2.5YR6/4, interior 2.5YR6/4, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior 10YR8/3, interior 10YR8/3, core greyish, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/6, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M, red paint. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/6, temper: m M, black paint. Exterior 5YR 7/6, interior 5YR 7/6, core 5YR 7/6, temper: fm M, red paint 10R5/6. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: m M, RSB 10R5/6.

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185

FIGURE 5.70: POTTERY OF STRATUM E4 AND FROM UNDERLYING DEBRIS
No. I 2 32 43 5 6 7 8 93 10 Il' 12 13 14 15 16' 17 18 19' 20 21 I 2 3 Type Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Jug Jug Juglet Juglet Jar Transport jar Transport jar Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. No. 3253/2 3232/1 3290/1 3338/8 3380/6 Locus Description 0866 0866 0873 0889 0888 0866 0855 0866 0803 0866 0871 0866 0866 0866 0866 0871 0866 0866 0871 0866 0866 Exterior 10R6/4, interior IOR6/4, core 2. 5YR6/4, temper: fm M Exterior IOR5/6, interior 10R5/6, core 10R5/6, temper: m M white grits. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fine mineral. Exterior, interior and core 7.5YR7/6, temper: fin M, decoration: red slip lOR5/6. Exterior 5YR7/8, interior and core 5YR7/4, temper: fM, decoration: bichrome red and black. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M, decoration: brown paint. Cypriote White-Painted III. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior IOR5/4, core grey, temper: fine mineral. Exterior 2.5YR6/4, interior 2.5YR6/4, core 2.5YR6/4, temper: m M white grits. Remarks: cf. Tyre Stratum V, Bikai 1978: PI. 18a: 10 (jug type 8). Exterior 2.5YR6/6, interior 2.5YR6/6, core grey black, temper: m M. Exterior 7.5YR7/6, interior 7.5YR7/6, core 7.5YR7/2, temper: mg M. Exterior 7.5YR6/4, interior 7.5YR6/4, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior IOR4/4, interior IOR4/4, core 10R4/4, temper: mg M white grits. Exterior 2.5YR4/4, interior 2.5YR4/4, core 2.5YR4/4, temper: mg M: Exterior black, interior black, core black, temper: mg M. Exterior 10R5/3, interior IOR5/3, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR4/1, interior 5YR6/3, core grey black, temper: black & white grits & mica Exterior 5YR5/4, interior 5YR5/4, core 5YR5/4, temper: mg M. Exterior 2.5YR5/4, interior 2.5YR5/4, core 2.5YR5/4, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Exterior 2.5YR5/4, interior 2.5YR5/4, core 2.5YR5/4, temper: mg M.

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321111 3257/5 3027/1 3228/4 3262/3 325118 3248/2 3239/3 3228/1 3262/4 3226/3 3246/1 3262/2 325115

323911

Debris under Stratum E4 Stratum E3 Stratum E2

STRATUME3 BOWLS Only one example of a simple bowl with a flaring wall (Fig. 5.71:1) was found at Kabri. This type is very common in Tyre, where it was found in Strata 1-10, being most frequent in Strata 4-6 (Bikai 1978a: 23-24, type plate 8; PIs. 10:4,7; 16a:22-25; 18a:l; 19:9-12; 23:3). A flat plate or bowl (Fig. 5.71 :2; 5.76:4) has a sloping profile and a simple rim. It occurs in Stratum E3a and continues in Strata E2a-E2b. This vessel is very common in late-8th and 7th century BCE contexts on the Phoenician coast at Tyre in Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 1:13), Stratum 8 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 19:10 [similar]), Stratum 9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 19:16 [similar]) and in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. 20:519 [similar]). In Israel it is found at Dan Stratum II (Biran 1994:Fig. 167:1) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 73: 174 [similar]). A sub-type of the bowls with flaring rims (Fig. 5.71:3) which continues in Stratum E2 (Fig. 5.76:12) has a flat or convex base, reserve-slip and incised decoration on the outside of the base. Parallels come from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 3, Nos. 457, 462-469, 493, 510, 514), Sarepta CI-Dl (Anderson 1988:type F-IA), Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 63:76, 79, 81) and Tyre Strata 2-5 (Bikai 1978a:type Fine Ware Plate 2). Two bowl rims (Fig. 5.71 :4) seem to be a local imitation of the Black-on-Red Ic type at Horvat Rosh Zayit Stratum IIa (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 3.88:16, cf Fig. 3.77:14 Stratum IIb). A carinated bowl (Fig. 5.71 :5) has no exact parallel.
186

5. typologically this type should belong to Stratum E3 based on parallels from Al Mina Stratum 6-7 (Taylor 1959:Fig. Similar vessels come from Al Mina Stratum 6-7 (Taylor 1959:Fig. While several were found out of their original stratigraphic context. 391.11 :3).121:23) although it is larger and has a different rim. Bikai 1987:PI. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 5. typologically they belong to the assemblage of Stratum E3. 6:16) and Stratum 8 (Lehmann 1996:PI. Although out of its original stratigraphic context. 5. Bowl Fig. Stratum 5 (Bikai 1978a:PI.78:16) and Tyre Stratum 3-4 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 6. lla:19) and Stratum 3 (Bikai 1978a:PI. This sub-type seems to be the older one (Bikai 1987:49-50). 20:1). 2.81 :7-9). 5. There are three sub-types of these jugs of which 13 fragments were found at Kabri. 10:23-25. 74:182). 30 :8). 5. 187 . Qasmiya. 393-406. 370. 3. 1980:PI. 5.on-Red bowls.71: 19) resembles an Assyrianizing krater which becomes more common in Stratum E2 (cf. 40:9) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 750-680 BCE (Bikai 1978a:29. 5. The fragment from Kabri was found in Stratum El. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et aZ. 17:85c/2). Bikai 1978a:PI. lla:18).71:7) is similar to Fig. Several bowls (Fig.71: 11-12) characterized by a rim that is drawn outward were found in strata E3 and E2. 14:11).7) were found. 1. The deep carinated bowl or krater (Fig. 5. 19:9-16). but typologically seems to belong to Stratum E3. KRATERS A large bowl or small krater (Fig. 31-34:Nos. cf. At Tyre this type of plate was found in Strata 2-5 (Bikai 1978a:29 fine ware plate 7). 1980:PI. 5.71: 13 is very similar but has a red slip.A deep red slipped bowl (Fig. but no parallels could be found. concave neck (for an example see Tyre Stratum 9. for further sub-types and references see Lehmann 1996:416-418 types 300-307).71: 16) with red and black bands on the shoulder has parallels at Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. 18a:3) and Strata 8-9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 6. 379. 14 no. 5. out of its original context. 33) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. A similar krater came from Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 16 type 86d/l). A krater with grooves on the rim (Fig. Rosh Zayit Stratum lIb (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. It is characterized by an incised ridge on the outer edge of the rim and is usually red-slipped. 1980:PI. JUGLETS AND JUGS A number of Phoenician red slipped jugs with conical necks (Fig. They are comparable to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. 15-16. This type is very frequent at Tyre occurring in Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI.72:36). A simple bowl (Fig. Fig. With a narrow conical neck (cf. 5.71:1. A parallel was found at Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 41 :3) and Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 72: 167). The rim and profile of Fig.71: 14) is one of the most typical Phoenician fine ware plates of the 8th and early 7th century BCE. 5. The flat bowl or plate Fig. 1987:4950. 1980:PI. 3. Fig. 375). The flat plate (Fig.71: 15 are somewhat similar. 3. Comparisons date this type to the end of the 8th and the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:383 form 122). The parallels date it to ca.72:1-4.71:6) has almost vertical walls which turn with a carination into the base. 30: 1) and Stratum 5 (Briend et al.71:8 may be a local imitation of Black. 15: 19-20).71:9 is very similar to one from Al Mina Stratum 5 (Lehmann 1996:PI. Pis. Lehmann 1996:376 form 85). 5. 5.71:17) has a parallel from Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a: PI. With an elongated. but larger. 53 :8). With a slim conical neck that begins in the 8th century BCE (Bikai 1978a:36. They occur between 850-750 BCE in the Cypriote 'Salamis-Horizon' (Bikai 1987:PI. 5. Ras al-Bassit phase 7 ensemble F (Braemer 1986:No. Chapman 1972:Fig. 16a:18-37). 32: 316).

72:19) has many parallels in the 8th century BCE. COOKING-POTS For cooking-pots with triangular rims (Fig.122:3). 1994:Fig.72:21) have many parallels in the 9th and 8th centuries BCE. There was also a small White-Painted III-IV barrel juglet (Fig.73:9-11) in Stratum E3 is noteworthy.6:13). 42:4). One very similar was found at Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig.72:14-17). one in Stratum El) and one single-strap handle (from Stratum E2a). The presence of simple cooking-pot lids (Fig.5YR6/8). 1980:Pl. C.72:18) decorated with black and red painted bands and a treelike motif. Similar vessels have been found at Hazor Stratum IX (Yadin et al. The rim of a storage jar(Fig. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 5.72:20) resembles an example from Dor Area A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig.72: 10) (cf. sack-shaped transport jar (Fig. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS 'Crisp-ware' transport jars (Fig. 56:1). 1980:PI. are the type most frequently found in Phoenician contexts of the late 8th and early 7th centuries BCE. Cyprus. A detailed typology of these jars was recently developed by Ayelet Gilboa (1995: 10-12).Both the single strap and the double-strand handle occur at Kabri (Bikai 1978a:36). dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE (Niemeier 1990:xxxv-xxxvi. 5. 8ab). The fabric is of medium mineral temper and reddish yellow (5YR7/6) with a grey or light red core (2. 5. Ras al-Bassit tom be 12 (Courbin 1993:Fig.122. 1960:PI. Comparison with decanters at Hazor Stratum VA (Yadin et al. Stager et al. GREEK AND CYPRIOTE IMPORTS There are few imports in StratumE3. The simple. 3. 5. At least some of these vessels were found in funerary contexts but may have been in secondary use. The complete transport jar (Fig. 5. 2002). 87:6) date this fragment to the second half of the 8th century BCE. 22:3). They include the rim of a Greek amphora. Gjerstad 1948:Fig. A potter's workshop producing these jars was discovered at Tyre (Bikai 1985a) and two shipwrecks crammed with this type were recently found off the coast of Israel (Ballard. Fig. 386-387) and establish contemporaneity between assemblages from Turkey.519. 188 . 5. 5. Galilean storage jars (Fig.72:9) (cf. 5. There is one example of ajar (Fig. 750-680 BCE) (Culican 1982:Tf. 11:1. 90:296) and Tourabi-Tekke cemetery (ca.7).72:11. 1.72:6) was found on the surface in Area E. 52:21).73:3-5) and cooking-pots with flat vertical rims in Stratum E3 see the discussion of this type under Stratum E4. for example from Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig.73:1) was unstratified but has parallels at Tell Kazel Niveau 9-10 (Badre et al. also known as 'torpedo jars'. 5. 8th century BCE). 12) similar to those from Tell Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. 45:17). They have a wide distribution (Lehmann 1996:433-435. all found out of context: one single-strap handle (in Stratum E2a) and four double-strand handles ( There are four double-strand handles (three in Stratum E2a. Dor Area A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. types 383. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 5. the Levant.6:6) and Hazor IX (Yadin et al.28:16) and two Blackon-Red II(IV) bowls (Fig. Whether such decorated vessels were indeed used for transport jars or had a ceremonial character is not clear. 19:2. 1960:PI. 1. Egypt and the Aegean. 5. 19) and probably belongs to Kabri Stratum E3. Gjerstad 1948:Fig. A decanter fragment (Fig. The Cypriote imports include the neck ofa Plain White IV amphora (Fig. 1960:Pl. 3. 52:24). 5.

Thus Stratum E3 can be dated between ca. Most important for dating Stratum E3 are the cooking-pots (Fig. The pottery figures for this stratum include some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context (Figs. temper: mg M. S386/6 31S411 3474/1 3378/8 3448/1 IS Bowl 16 Krater 17 Krater 18 Krater 19 Krater 32S1111 189 . Exterior 2. interior SYR7/6.SUMMARY The bulk of the pottery found in Stratum E3 is of Phoenician or Tyrian character. S3061100 3474/2 3287/2 1965 1317 0873 0812 l3l3 0876 0861 0873 0896 0873 l3l3 1973 0841 l317 0896 l316 0866 30S3/1 342611 331611 32l3/2 3290/7 3378/3+8 3290/4 3433/2 11 12 13 14 Exterior SYR7/4.71:6. core grey-black. 12. interior 2. Exterior SYR7/3. temper: m M.73:1). 17) and the Cypriote imports. Exterior SYR713. core SYR7/6. temper: fM. interior 7. core5YR7/4.SYR7/4.SYR7/4.SYR6/6. core grey-black. Exterior SYR7/4.SYRS/4. Exterior 2. Exterior SYR7/6. temper: m M.71: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No.4. 5.72:10-11). but particularly at Tyre and Sarepta where exact parallels were found for 30% of the types. temper: fM.SYR7/4. temper: mg M. Fig. interior 2.6-9.72:1-2.SYR6/6. red slip 10R4/6 inside wheel burnished. interior SYR7/4. temper: fM. temper: fine mineral. As in the preceding stratum. 1980). core black. interior SYR7/4. Exterior SYR7/4. Exterior 7. Exterior 2. red paint 10RS/8. FIGURE 5.SYR6/6. 3290/S 337811 Locus 0873 0896 Description Exterior 10YR8/2 white. the transport jars made of Bikai's 'crisp-ware' (Fig. temper: mg M. Parallels with Stratum E3 were found at Dor Area A phase 9 and Area Cl phase 6 (Gilboa 1995:720-650/630 BCE and 8th century BCE). interior 2. black & red paint (10RS/6). temper: f111 M. core grey. Most parallels are found in the Akko plain. 5. 5. 5.SYR6/6. red slip 10RS16b. core SYR7/4. Sarepta Stratum CI-C2 (Anderson 1988:8th century BCE) and Tyre Stratum 2-8 (Bikai 1978a:8th century BCE). interior 2. core SYR7/6.SYR6/6. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's 'Kition Horizon'. burnished surface. Ras al-Bassit tomb 12 (Courbin 1993 :800-700 BCE). interior SYR7/3. 5.SYRS/4. Hazor Stratum VA. ' Exterior SYR7/4. interior 2. 750-650 BCE.SYRS/4.10 Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Reg_. 16. 5. interior SYR7/4. core 7. core grey. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. Exterior SYR7/6. interior SYR7/6.73:3-11). interior SYR7/6. These are dated according to stratified parallels from other sites contemporary with Stratum E3 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence at Tel Kabri. temper: mg M.SYR6/4. 750-680 BCE. ca. black paint. Fig. No. temper: mg M. temper: fM.SYR6/4. core black. core grey. 14-15. this assemblage provides significant evidence for very close contacts with Tyre. core 2. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990). in particular the PlainWhite IV rim (Fig. red slip 2.72:14-15. TJ!f!_e 1 Bowl 2 Bowl 3 Bowl 4 Bowl S 6 7 8 9 .

190 . 7 l 9 10 ~ 12 _7 13 14 15 17 \ I 16 "/------r---~=========~ .. t \ Fig.---. 5.~17 2 3 \)-------1 \ \ 4 5 6 7 ~_17 i I " .71: Pottery of Stratum E3.)-------/ f \ \ \ \ \ \ '- \\ 18 19 r= f 1 10cm.

~" /~~ «I '\1- 8 9 m 7 @)(ff}D 10 12 13 ~:z • 11 I I \ ' \.... " /-l-~' \ \ \ I I ~ :I II I I 2 3 4 5 m / I . -9 15 I.. I I ...._' _..-. '.21 ) f I \ 191 Fig. 14 H 18 r 17 18 20 19 -EJ 10cm..72: Pottery of Stratum E3... . . I I ~. _ '........... . 5..... \- ......... ..

red slip IOR4/8. white grits. 192 . Exterior 5YR7/4. temper: fM. interior IOYR7/4. interior 5YR7/6. core grey. cf. black & white grits. core black. white grits.73: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No. interior 2. grooves inside. core 5YR7/6. core 5YR7/4.5YR8/4. Exterior 7. red slip 2.FIGURE 5. temper: fm M. temper: mg M.2.5YR5/4. Exterior 5YR7/6.5YR5/4. temper: m M. Gjerstad 1948: Fig. Exterior 5YR7/4. interior 7. Exterior 2. red slip IOR4/8.5YR4/4.5YR6/4. 3309/4 3588/5 3283/5 3157/3 5455/5 3357/5+7 3055/1 3045/2 3215/1 3284/6 5416/10 3208/2 5432/1 5455/2 5215/1 3366/9 3307/1+2 3284/1 5455/1 319612 Locus 0879 1325 0873 0840 1970 0889 0812 0807 0864 0873 1941 0861 1970 1970 1941 0896 0876 0873 1970 0855 Descril?_tion Exterior 5YR7/6. core 5YR7/6. Exterior 2. core grey.5YR8/4. Exterior black. temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6. Exterior 7. 19: 2. Exterior 2. red paint IOR5/6. temper: mg M. Exterior 7. white grits. black & white grits and mica.72: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No.5YR7/4.5YR5/4. core 7. interior 2. Exterior 5YR7/6. red slip IOR5/6. FIGURE 5. 3647/100 339112 331811 3474/4 322112 542311 328811 3230/3 3474/14 3457/9 3296/1 Locus 0890 1302 0881 1317 0861 1970 0873 0864 1317 1317 0873 Descril?_tion Exterior 5YR7/4.5YR7/4. core grey.5YR8/4. temper: mg M. temper: fM.5YR5/4. core 5YR6/4 black. interior 2. interior 5YR6/4. core 5YR7/6.5YR6/4. interior 7. Exterior 7. interior black.5YR5/4.5YR7/4. interior 2. core 5YR7/6. Exterior 7. red slip IOR4/8.5YR5/4. interior 7. Exterior 2. interior 2. red slip 2. core 7. black & white grits. core grey. i import import import import j ar jar jar jar jar 19 Transport j ar 20 Storage jar 211 Storage jar Stratum EI Exterior 7. temper: fM.5YR7/4. core black. temper: fm M. core 2. interior 5YR7/6. 28: 16 (White Painted III-IV).5YR6/6.5YR5/6. temper: fm M. interior 5YR7/6. temper: fm M. interior IOR5/4. interior 5YR6/4. temper: mg M.5YR7/6. temper: mg M. core 7. Exterior 5YR7/6. temper: mg M black & white grits and mica. interior 5YR7/4. temper: mg M. interior 7.5YR6/6.5YR5/6. Tyre Stratum 4.5YR3/4 . temper: fm M. temper: m M. similar to Gjerstad 1948: Fig. temper: mg M. interior 5YR4/3. 45: 17. II 21 3 41 5 6 81 91 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 TJP. core grey. Exterior 5YR4/3. black and red painted geometric design.5YR7/4. white grits.5YR4/6. core 5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/6.5YR7/4. temper: mg M.No. Exterior 5YR4/3. large white grits. core grey. cf.5YR7/4. red slip IOR4/8. temper: mg M. Exterior 2. interior 5YR7/6. core black.5YR4/4. core IOR6/4.5YR8/4 . Bikai 1978: PI.e Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jar Cypriote Cypriote Cypriote Cypriote Jug Transport Transport Transport Transport Transp~rt Reg No. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Type Transport j ar Transport j ar Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot lid Cooking-pot lid Cooking-pot lid Reg_. interior 7. Plain White IV. temper: g M.5YR7/4. 14: 5. core black.

193 . I 8 I I f 6 .o ..___. 5. 2 3 ( F I 4 e ... /' I n ~ Fig..73: Pottery of Stratum E3. " I ~ r -4 5 ! \ I I =\ \ ! \ 7 ~ -: I 9 "/' o .... 10cm . 10cm.

538). It might be dated as early as Late Bronze or Iron Age I and could be intrusive in Stratum E2a (cf. Sarepta C1 (Anderson 1988:type X-9A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 1. 5.3:24-25). 5.3 Parallels come from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. Bowls with a long overhanging rim (Fig.76:20-25. Tel Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al.80. 1980 :PI. 40:12). 15: 13). 5. 5. 5.76: 18-19) are of the type found at Sarepta Stratum C1-C2 (Anderson 1988: type F-7C). 5. The former have a fine soft orange fabric whereas the clay of the latter is red brittle and coarse. 5. 41: 12 similar. but the fabric is very different.76: 10-11).513).76:14 compare a Black-on-Red I(III) bowl at Cyprus (Gjerstad 1948:Fig.4 Their shape is very similar to Figs. Bikai 1978a: PI. 194 . 5. 5. The fabric of this sherd consists mainly of marl and may perhaps originate in northern Israel (Chapter 15:Table 15. 38).1:1). 494-496. Some of these sub-types. 81: 15). For bowl Fig. 5.76:12) is similar to Fig.24.76:9) first seen in Stratum E4 (Fig. 19:534-536. 20:531-533. Tyre Stratum 5. 5. Sarepta C1-D1 (Anderson 1988:type F-1A). Maigret 1979). several have either one hole drilled into the centre of the base or several holes all over the bottom. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl. 5. 29:1-8). 470. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 5. The bowl with an S-shaped profile (Fig.82-85) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:type Fine Ware Plate 1). 31. SeeBriendetal.1980:168-170. 1. Parallels come from I 3 4 For a detailed type study see Briend et al.76:8) was first identified at Ras al-Bassit and is apparently a typical 7th century BCE form (Braemer 1986:Nos.76:7) has a particular fabric. where it was assumed that drilled vessels were part of architectural construction (Lehmann 1996:363 form 17. 38:1-12). 1980:PI. Carinated bowls with a simple rim (Fig. 63: 75. 26:16-17) and bowls at Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. A similar phenomenon is known from central Syria in the late 8th century BCE. Flat plates or bowls with a sloping profile and a simple rim (Fig. A number of red-slipped flat bowls and plates all have an accentuated everted rim (Figs.69:4) displays somewhat thicker walls and the red slip is thin and washy being band-burnished or unburnished. 1980:Pl.76:5-6). A sub-type of the group of bowls with flaring rims (Fig. 20-22). At Kabri several examples of both types have had a hole drilled in their centre after firing and were apparently in secondary use. Another sub-type (Fig. The outer surface can often be cut with a knife. often red-slipped outside and/or inside.98 examples. The bowl type with an uneven outer surface (Fig. fine and soft.76:21. which constitute 3. For their occurrence see Lehmann 1996:371-372 form 75b.STRATUME2 BOWLS There is a remarkable variety of bowl types in Stratum E2. 471-473. have previously been included in the so-called 'Samaria Ware' but should be referred to rather as 'Phoenician Fine Wares' (Bikai 1992:97) or 'Levantine Fine Wares'. 77. p. Often they have a carination half way up the body. occur frequently on the Phoenician coast. Keisan Stratum 10-11 (Briend et al. differentiated by their rim forms.511.76:16-17) are typical of the late 8th and 7th century BCE (cf. It has 'been reported from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 5 nos. 5. but without slip) and Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a: PI. Deep bowls with bichrome red and black painted decoration inside (Fig.71:3 discussed in Stratum E3. 1980:166-168. The fabric is orange.76:4) are very common.77:1-6). for example at Arqa 10AB (Thalmann 1978:Fig. 46:2) and Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. 5. as are bowls with a carinated or stepped profile inside and outside (Fig. Like the bowls with a long overhanging rim. A great many vessels of this class were found in Kabri . called 'Salt and Pepper group' at Tell Abu Hawam.7% of all diagnostics. 1980: PI.

Al Mina Stratum 5 (Lehmann 8 (unpublished. 41:7). Lehmann 1996:386. 30:2-4.77:9 has a parallel from Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al.'Plate 3' and 'Plate 4' (Bikai or slightly flat there are exceptions.form 5 (Briend et al.Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. come from and the time range of this type to Strata and the first part of 7th century 1-3 (Bikai 1978a:type the end of the 8th century Cyprus (Bikai 1987: no. Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1988:PI. 22. 39:30). Parallels from Tell Keisan Stratum 4(Anderson 1988:type F-2A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai are discussed below as a special type. Al Mina Stratum (Bikai 1987:No. 12: 11). The bowl (Briend et al. 28: 12.348/3). tomb 367/51-1 pottery during the 1968Ashmolean British Museum late 8th and the 7th century Museum. sometimes has a black band on the rim (Bikai 1978a:28 fine ware plate 4.78:9) is discussed 1990:PI. or partially red-slipped 145b). 5. 1. and Tyre Strata 1. 72:164-166). PI. PI. 544) Tyre Stratum plate 3 and 4. 38: 9-12) and Tyre Stratum 1-3 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 3. 41 :3a). 1980:PI. 5. 5. 5. 5.:Fig. 1980:PI. A similar bowl (Fig. 5-6).76:15. 69:141-142) and Tyre Stratum 10-2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. The Fig. 435). 33: 1- They occur at Kabri with different rim forms.9:9-10. 30:8).77:7-8) seventy nine such bowls found at Kabri made up 3. include The comparisons burnished and very well finished and has a stepped at. effect (see Culican 1981). 27:4). 1987:9:10). 8a:43.77:16) has a carination directly under the rim and was found at Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et Large. 1978a:type fine ware 4) date the type between the second half of the 8th and the 7th century BCE. convex base.77:15) with an incurving rim has a number of parallels in Phoenician sites of the late 8th and 7th centuries BCE such as Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et at. The red slipped plate (Fig. 1-4 at Tyre. Dor C2 phase 7 (ibid. The large plain bowl (Fig. 42:3. 1980:PI. et al.77:12) was also found at Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et The first type is always While the rim is usually rim. 1980:PI. This type is completely . 38:22) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. 30:180/2). 1980:PI. vessels nos. type with a horizontal long rim (Fig. 8-9) and Yoqne'am Stratum 10 (Ben-Tor et al. 1995:Fig.40:1-7) 1:12. 195 . 5. 1980:167 type c.1 % of all diagnostics. 45:4-4a). 1. They are one of the most typical features of Phoenician BCE.78:1) were first recognized by Bikai (1985b) and many have been recorded since 1996:394 type 180). and indeed our example or 'drooping'. Fig. 5. 9:14). Oxford 1954. 15:9 respectively). 1978a:22-23). 5. 1980:166rim and a 10:12-13). was also found at Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 1980:PI. 5. studied in detail by A. 2 and 3 (Bikai 1978a:Pls. Sarepta (Anderson 12.7:8). A small plate with a small accentuated band of red slip inside (Fig. century 2. 1978:Fig. 9:5-6. 5.77:10) has a cut rim. 5.12). Plate 4 is a variant characterized 92/888/3356-2 by a step below the is broken here (no would breaks at this point. 8a:51. Sarepta Cl (Anderson 1988:PI. deep bowls with handles assemblage and a carinated shoulder (Fig. 52: 8) Tell in the 7th profile (Fig. creating a bar-handle-like Similar plates were found at Tyre in Strata 3 and 4 (Bikai 1978a:Pls.78: 10) has a paralJel at TelJ Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera The Assyrian-style deep bowl (Fig. 5. 1980:PI.77:11).9:6). The plate usually illustration). 5. GOBLETS AND PEDESTAL BOWLS Presentation (Lehmann stands (Fig. 52:10). 1996:Tf. Bikai divides plates like Fig. 28:5. 1980:PI. The rim is either horizontal from Tyre define Both examples found at Kabri are 'drooping'.77:14 is a small bowl with an incurving rim. 32:3.78:5-8) at. p. type plate 4). 10:24-25). Chambon 168).77:13 into two types . The deep bowl with a carinated 5. are common BCE Phoenician from Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend Gonzalez below. PI. 45. Comparisons which BCE. Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. Examples Amathus come from Al Mina (unpublished. Tel Qiri Stratum VI (Ben-Tor Sarepta (Pritchard 1988:misc. 25. 30:11et al. Sarepta CI-Dl Assyrian-style DEEP BOWLS bowls (Figs.

1:2) shows that the fabric of this vessel is typical of Cypriote coastal sites like Amathus or Enkomi. 25-28. fabric and surface finish from contemporary decanter types in inland sites but is quite common along the northern Levantine coast.79:5). 6-7) occur very frequently in 8th and 7th century BCE Phoenician pottery assemblages. The Assyrian-style juglets and jugs (Fig.6:4-5. 6) similar in form. 2. Tyre Stratum 3. found under the floors of Stratum E2. 5. 5. 5."5. Large jugs and bottles (Fig. 5. B ikai 1978a:PI. Reddish coarse fabric (lOR5/6) (not illustrated. Fine yellowish smooth (5YR7/6) fabric (Fig. 37:2-3) and Vroulia Tomb 6 on Rhodes (Kinch 1914:PI. 33:3.11.78:4) which occur in the 7th century BCE all over the Levant (Lehmann 1996:383-384 type 125). 36: 1-. 1980:Pl. 50). 25:type 159-163 and Tf. 5. Some examples were found in Iraq at Assur Tomb 547 (Haller1954) and Nimrud NTS15 (Mallowan 1966:Fig. 19). 3.5YR6/6) with a rough surface (Fig. 5:19-23. 5. MORTARIA A large number of mortaria (Fig. PIs. surface treatment and decoration and are comparable to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. Tyre Stratum 2-3 (Bikai 1978a:33-35. 5.70:1-2 in Stratum -E4). Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:Fig. Sarepta B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type B-3A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:typejuglet 1). 38:6. The handle rises above the rim and the body of the vessel is slim and long. 279) but most were found in Levantine sites such as Sidon Tomb 1 (Culican 1975:Fig. 87:l3. Other larger jugs (Fig. 221: 1) and Shiqmona Stratum 9 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. but see Fig. 43:8). Similar juglets were found in Cyprus and labelled as White Painted V (Gjerstad 1948:Fig.79:1) was found under the floor of Stratum E2. The paint has a matt appearance. la).79:14) differs in form. type 239). 46:2). Juglets with a red slip and a wide overhanging mushroom lip (Fig. are discussed below. 5. The decanter (Fig. This juglet may be an Assyrian-style vessel. 5.79:5. Sapin 1998). 27:169) while the rim fragments are often indistinguishable.79:3-4). Mortaria appear during the 7th century BCE for the first time and continue into the Hellenistic period (cf. For comparisons see Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. Only the base distinguishes the early moratoria from those of the NeoBabylonian and Persian periods (cf Lehmann 1996:Tf.90:3-4).79:12-l3) and a polished or cut surface come from Strata E2-3. 1960: PI.78:2-3) decorated in reserved red slip with painted black bands are unusual. 298. fabric and decoration were also found at Sarepta Dl 196 . Petrographic analysis of Fig. 285. More frequent are goblets (Fig.Stands or incense burners (Fig. Similar vessels from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Nos. Juglets with a small bulge at the base (Fig. 5. Brown fabric (2. but there are also four examples of Persian period mortaria with a high pedestal ring-base (Fig. 1980:PI. Most examples found at Kabri belong to the early Iron Age type. The decoration and fabric are reminiscent of Assyrianizing pottery but the form is uncommon among Mesopotamian shapes as is the fine grit size of the temper. Salles 1985a. 5.79:8-10) can be dated by parallels to between ca.78:14 (Chapter 15: Table 15. 2) decorated with painted bichrome bands in red and black. 4: 16). 750-680 BCE (Lehmann 1996: type 241 and cf. 312.79:6-7). 5.78:11-14) with a simple flat base were found at Kabri. JUGLETS AND JUGS A complete small juglet with black-brown bands (Fig. 92:jug 5) and Hazor VA (Yadin et al. At Kabri three sub-types were distinguished on the basis of fabric: 1. 316).80: 1. Lehmann 1996:Tf. These bottles form a distinct group of pottery in terms of fabric.9). 5. Large jugs made of smooth yellowish fabric with dark painted lines (Fig. 5.80:5. The vessels have a wide oval body and tall neck (cf. 5.

81:3 is similar to these. 5. 44:13-15) and Mtarfa tomb (Malta) (Culican 1982:Abb. pink fabric (Fig.80:3-4) are discussed below. 1. 6:10). Tell Keisan Stratum 4.80:7) are more typical of inland assemblages and occur at Kabri only in very limited numbers. Lamps of the so-called 'cup-and-saucer type' (Fig. Such lamps appear at Tyre only after Stratum III (Bikai 1978a:Pl.(Anderson 1988:Pl. LAMPS The late Iron Age lamps (Fig. 287) and Tyre Stratum 3 (Bikai 1978a:P1s. Stratum 5 (ibid. Anderson 1988:type L-9).81 :4) has a flat oval-shaped rim.80:10. Fig. 5.79:14. Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. 5. 4) Cooking-pot fabric which is red with black white grits and a rough surface (Fig.81: 1. 5.9) are discussed below. 13d). 1980:Pl. 5. Briend et al. 1980:Pl. 44:5-8). 43: 12). 49:8).78:9. Sarepta B-C1. Fig. Briend et al. 4:10.82:2) (cf. 880. 43: 1) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl. Tell Keisan Stratum 5. 5. 1980:Pl. Some vessels are decorated with a red slip on the rim. Briend et al. 1980:Pl. 88:285. Type 429. Fort Shalmaneser Room T20 (Curtis et at. 5.82:1-4) are low in profile with a sharply formed rim and a somewhat flattened base (Anderson 1988:669. Some 7th century BCE examples come from Achziv Tomb 3 (Culican 1975-76:Fig. 3) Brown fabric (Fig. but has small horizontal loop-handles. 91 :301). 5.82:3) (cf. The large krater or deep bowl on Fig. 5 For further references from Syria and Lebanon see Lehmann 1996:447.81 :7. 5. 212).82:4). but has horizontal handles. the rim is not preserved. No parallels were found for Fig. The surface is decorated with bichrome red and black bands. sometimes also extending over the inner parts of the vessel. 5. Tell Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et al. Often the handle starts immediately at the rim. Unfortunately. There are four sub-types: 1) Reddish-yellow fabric (Fig. 1018 (Hunt 1987:Fig. 1980:Pl.81 :10 has a thick rim and is wheel burnished in the interior. Type L-9).82:6) with a fire-arm is discussed below. Tel Qiri loci 682. KRATERS Kraters with vertical shoulders and a wide lower body (Fig. 28:9). Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl. 5. 5. 5. this type begins during the 8th century and continues into the Persian period.81:5 is similar. 2) Smooth. Assyrian-style jug1ets and jugs (Fig. Large sack-shaped storage jars (Fig. This is the most common type of krater in Stratum E2 at Kabri where fragments of 16 such vessels were found. A holemouth krater with round shoulders and a wide curved profile (Fig. The fabric and the streak burnish are identical with fabric and surface finishing of decanter Fig.5:1~3) and Sarepta B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type SJ-18A). 6). At Sarepta they occur in Strata B-C1 (Anderson 1988:505). Jars with a stepped shoulder and vertical body walls (Fig. Assyrian-style kraters (Figs.82: 1) which is sometimes almost white (cf. 197 .11) with their maximum width in the lower part of the vessel have no parallels. 5. 33:4). 32:8-9. 5. Keisan Stratum 5. :Pl.80:9) has a cylindrical body and a round base. There is some similarity to Assyrian storage jars from Nimrud.82:5) existed over a long span of time and may have been used in cultic contexts. 27:1-3). Similar vessels were found at Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. 1993:Fig.80:8. 5.5 Thus. 2) often have wide rectangular horizontal rims. 5. 5. Bk). The Assyrian-style lamp (Fig. and another version (Fig. 5. Dan Stratum II (Biran 1994:Fig. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS The tall storage vessel (Fig.81 :6) has a different type of rim. 7:5. 5. 5.

5. The vessel is pink with a grey core. 33:6).82:8-10). 225:593. 650 BCE. Sharply carinated shoulders and an S-shaped profile (Fig.8-9). a small and a large subtype. The handle joints on the shoulder are 21 em apart from each other. Fig.While there were only some 10 types of transport jars found in Stratum E3. 300). These jars from Stratum E2 represent the earliest type which is confined to the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:443-445 type 421).24 examples (Fig. 700 BCE but Salles (1985b) claims that this early type of basket-handle amphora reached the Akko plain only ca. These dimensions occur on both fabric groups 1 and 2. 53) and Ras Shamra-Ugarit (Stucky 1983:Keramik Nr. Kamiros (Jacopi 1931:Tav. The fabric is fine to medium with mineral temper and falls into four distinct colour groups: light grey or greenish with black arid brown grits. Cyprus (Gjerstad 1948:Fig. 21 types were recorded in Stratum E2.88a) the majority were confined to 5 main types. 5. 12-14). Both Neutron Activation Analysis by Gunneweg and Perlman (1991) as well as petrographic analyses by Yuval Goren (Chapter 15:Table 15. 5. the matrix being fine with a fine to medium mineral temper. The fabric is orange pink. No. The yellowish. 'from the sea' (Zemer 1977:No. 1. 5. 1980:PI. Similar to group 1 but with much thicker walls (up to 2cm) (Fig. Basket-handle amphoras (Fig. 5.82:15). 4. It has parallels at Achziv Stratum IV (Zemer 1977:18. At Kabri they constitute 40% of all transport jars in Stratum E2. Some of Humbert's types (1991) as defined at Tell Keisan were also found at Kabri: Type B-1 example. 101). All in all 160 handles were counted which would point to at least 80 baskethandle amphoras in the limited excavation of Area E. Salamis (Karageorghis 1967:97. Type D . 5. 26:1. Fifty seven vessels. Humbert (1991) dates the first appearance of this type to ca. 1:14). 11). 5.84:1-2). 25:2-3. The general shape resembles a bullet. Salamis (Karageorghis 1974:Pl. were recorded from Stratum E2.74: Phoenician aleph incised on jar shoulder. Dafanna(Petrie 1888:PI. light orange or reddish fabric has a fine mineral temper. light reddish to pink. Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. 1980:Pls. 5. 12). On two jars of this type a Phoenician aleph was incised on the shoulder when the clay was still soft (Figs. 27:6. Less sharply carinated shoulders than Group 2 (Fig. Similar jars have been reported from Arqa Stratum 9 D (Thalmann 1990:54 n.82:11. Type C . However. Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. 5. 57:23 [Plain White V]). A significant number of handles of fabric groups 1 and 2 have the same dimensions. Similar vessels were found at Ashdod-Yam (Raban 1980:Fig. 26:2-7. This is probably the most typical Phoenician transport jar of the late 7th century BCE.84:2). 5. vertical body walls below a shoulder carination and a pointed base (Fig. This type occurs from Carthage to Nimrud (Lehmann 1996:434 type 384). 33). greenish grey.1:3) came to the same conclusion that this type of vessel was produced in II~_-• 198 . 1980:Pls. light reddish. 8:131). pink with black and white grits.82:13-14). in the storage rooms (Fig. 23-24). many of them completely restorable. There is a regular. Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. 3. 1980:PI. 5. Shiqmona Stratum 8 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. 27:9) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:Pl.86:1). The outside is red sometimes with a white self-slip. Slightly sloping shoulders. The fabric is medium to coarse with mineral temper. 47:1-2). the handle is 17 ern high and its diameter is 5 ern.6 examples (Fig. 5. Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. 806-807) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:PI. The fabric is of fine to medium mineral temper.74. 9).84:1). 2. 1:16).

Sarepta CI-Dl 2. At least some of these signs are in Cypriote Iron Age writing. 5. 46:4).l\11\\I~l\Il\lll\fM1*H1I\\I\\\\\f 9 10 14 15 16 17 1~ Fig. by the appearance between the periphery (35%) of cooking-pots in Stratum E2 (Figs. in E2 and 2 were unstratified.Ware found in seems to be due to the increasingly economic after the end of the 9th century Stratum E3. one edge on the rim immediately It has parallels CP-IA). The chert composition suggests that Cyprus should be favoured as a place of origin and this is confirmed by the signs either incised on them after firing or in red paint (Figs. 31 examples were found out of their original context in Stratum E 1.70:20).75. There are several variations One example 2000:Fig.83:9). In addition. 2 in E3a. There were 3 examples in Stratum E3b. I 2:5 [early 9th century BCE to 732 BCE]) With a flat round rim without an edge (Fig.84:7). Thus. Comparable vessels. 5. 3. under the lip (Fig. Thus. 5. jars in a late 7th century BCE. the type dates to Strata E3 and E2.5. 1980 :PI.84:2). of transport This variety part of the country (e. 220:3) and Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et at. Another 25 examples were found out of their original context in Stratum El. 5. 5. were found at Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:Fig.Cyprus or the north Syrian coast. 3 in E3a. There was 1 example in Stratum E3b.84:8-9). and Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 1988:Type 6. and sub-types: has been was found in Stratum E4. 2 in E2b and 12 in E2a. the type dates to Strata E3 and E2 which 1988:Type CP-IA) is comparable to Sarepta type 4).85:1). marked exchange BCE assemblage like that of Stratum wide trade contacts of the so-called and Tyre. 2 in E2b and 24 in E2a.85:1) belong to a Phoenician One example type which already appears With a small discussed in Stratum E4. 28 :6). With a flat rim and an edge slightly below the lip (Fig. in the Mediterranean Crisp. lIIIIIIII111111fM1*H1111IlmlfM1*H111.75: Basket handle with incised Cypriote signs. A few contemporary E2a is types came from the southern The diversity remarkable. 5. Several apparently examples in secondary of other types use as storage which vessels may have come as imports were also retrieved to the Kabri area and were (Fig. 5.88b). 5. Fig. and illustrates COOKING-POTS The majority 1. 5.84:7-9. all with a rough and uneven bas.g. of this sub-type Stratum at Tell Keisan under Stratum E4 (Fig. 5.e. (Anderson 4 (Briend et at. 1980:PI. 199 Stratum CI-Dl (Anderson and Tyre Stratum 9-13 (Bikai 1978a: cooking-pot .

The repertoire consists of bowls (Figs.Types with a triangular rim (Fig. Jugs and juglets are often decorated with wide horizontal bands of red wash-like paint with black lines added parallel to the red bands. 5. This slip was used most frequently on bowls.77:7. 5. jugs (Figs. whereas on the Akko plain it continues into the 7th century BCE. Mattingly 1980. 5.76. 5.81:9 4 2 Lamp 5. The forms would seem to be mainly vessels for the consumption of liquids.5% of the kitchen assemblage of Stratum E2. probably wine (Stronach 1996). Hunt 1987:203. 5. 1980). 58:351/1. Beginning at the end of the 9th century BCE. Assyrianizing pottery occurs only in small amounts.84:8. juglets (Fig.76:15 Bowl 5. DECORATION Red slip decoration was still popular at the end of the 7th century BCE (Figs.77:7 5 14 Bowl 5. 5.7% of the total. 5.1: ASSYRIANIZING TYPES AND THEIR STRATIGRAPHIC CONNECTIONS.82:6 Total 24 30 *For bottles of this type see cf.79:3 Krater 5. 6 For a discussion of cooking-pots with triangular rims see the section on cooking-pots in Stratum E4. deep bowls (Fig.78:8 3 Bottle* Jug 5.84:5-6) are the commonest type throughout Israel during the Iron Age IIC (Fig. ASSYRIANIZING POTTERY An interesting feature of the 7th century BCE assemblage of Tel Kabri is the presence of Assyrianizing pottery and imitations of Mesopotamian vessel shapes (Amiran 1969:291.81 :7-9) and lamps (Fig. It is usually a reserved slip decoration with a thin.84:3-4) make up 9% of the cooking-pots.80:3.81:7-8 3 3 Krater 5. However. Gilboa 1996. 5.78:8). 5. Type See Fig. Another feature typical of Kabri cooking-pots is a rough surface on the lower part of the body (Figs. 8). often wash-like slip (usually red 10 R5/6). jugs and kraters. Chambon 1980:165-166. they replaced the triangular-rimmed cooking-pot almost everywhere except on the Akko plain.79:3). Cooking-pot lids (Fig. 5. cooking-pots with a ridged or modelled rim were found at many sites during the survey of the Akko hinterland (Lehmann 2001) and here at Kabri they constitute 11% of the kitchen vessels. The fabric of this class of pottery is almost uniform being mainly reddish yellow (5YR7/6) with some cases of pink (5YR7/4 and 5YR8/3). this form of decoration is a continuation of the Iron Age traditions in the preceding centuries. Sometimes there is a black band on the rim of the bowls. 5. Stratum E2a-E2b UnderE2b Bowl 5. Hausleiter and Reiche 1999). There are no cooking-pots or transport jars in the Assyrianizing style at Kabri. A few examples each of a variety of cooking-pot types together make up 13. TABLE 5.76:15. Lehmann 1996:Tf.77:8 1 2 Deep bowl 5.80:3 5 7 Juglet 5. 200 .82:6). This type does not occur at all at Tyre or Sarepta.79:12-13[?]. Among the cooking-pots found in this stratum were some Greek imports (Chapter 5. 4).VI). 5.89). bottles of type Lehmann 1996:Tf.77). but also on juglets. Although the wash-like appearance of the 7th century BCE red slip is clearly distinguishable from the heavy and thick earlier red slip techniques. 5. Weippert 1988:647-648. The core is usually greyish but sometimes reddish yellow (5YR7/6) or pink (5YR7/4). At other sites in Israel this type is confined to Iron Age I and IIA-B. 5.6 Cooking-pots with a ridged or 'modelled' rim (Fig. Thus this decoration is some kind of 'Late Bichrome' style. 5. Pakman 1992.85:13-15) make up 6. 5.85:5). despite their apparent absence at Tell Keisan (Briend et at. kraters (Fig. 58:351/1.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 l3 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Type Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl BO'. copying the life-style of the centre in Assyria.76: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. temper: fM. interior and core 5YR7/6. core 10YR7/4. interior and core 5YR7/6. Thus it can be attributed to the first half of the 7th century BCE. Exterior 10YR7/4. temper: fM. interior and core 7. red slip 10R516.2. Gjerstad 1948:Fig. comes from Tell Abu Danna Stratum A4 in northern Syria (Tefnin 1980:15:3).5YR5/4. interior 5YR7/6.5YR5/6. Exterior.5YR7/6. core 7. core 5YR7/6. red paint lOR5/6 Exterior 5YR7/6.5YR5/4. 1980. mainly in the Ottoman level (Stratum E 1) whose foundations were dug into the remains of Stratum E2. core 5YR7/6. Assyrian-style pottery was found in significant quantities in a sounding in Square OP7 (Chapter 4. temper: fM. No. Black-on-Red I(III) bowl. Exterior 5YR6/4. interior 5YR7/6. They are contemporary with Stratum E2 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence in Tel Kabri. red slip 10R5/6. 3350/100 3224/2 3502/3 326011 3175/2 3358/102 3616/2+ 12 7 Since this operation was a probe and excavation was halted after reaching the foundations ofWl389. Exterior 5YR7/6. this may also be the case for the coarser Assyrianizing vessels in Kabri. Analysis of Syrian and Lebanese pottery shows that Mesopotamian shapes went out of use immediately after the destruction of the Assyrian empire (Lehmann 1996:93-94). core 2. 'Assyrian bowl'. red slip lOR5/6. From a macroscopic point of view. cf. interior 5YR6/4. red slip. interior 5YR7/6.7 No Assyrian-style pottery was found in Stratum E3. the architectural 201 . These vessels are dated according to stratified comparisons from other sites. Egg-shell thin vessels like those from Tell Jemmeh are missing from the Kabri material which very closely resembles the finds from Tell Keisan and Dor (Briend et al. interior and core 5YR7/4. black & red paint lOR5/6.Lamps with a 'fire-arm' (Fig. Tyre Stratum II-III (Bikai 1978:PI. core 5YR6/4: temper: mg M. temper: fm M. interior 2. interior 7. interior 5YR8/3. An almost identical example. temper: m M. Exterior 7. temper: fm M. temper: m M.5YR7/6. core grey. 11A:2). FIGURE 5. Gilboa 1995). but here on its periphery they are apparently objects of prestige. red slip lOR516. core grey. 3447/3 3367/1 3434/100 195515 Locus Description 1315 0892 0890 1955 1970 l321 1927 0890 1970 0801 0802 1941 1984 1941 1971 0890 0892 0889 0889 0864 l308 0869 0849 0890 l334 Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. black & white grits. whose fire-arm was also broken off. 3375/7 5324/100 3020/1 3024/3 5426/100 548515 19411190 542511 3386/100 3376/5 3347/1 Exterior. and stratigraphic context of the finds under floor E2b is unclear.82:6) are unusual in Israel (Lehmann 1996:T£ 82:430/2 with references to finds in Syria and Lebanon).\lI Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Reg. temper: fM. temper: fM. The pottery figures for this stratum include some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context. Exterior 2. temper: mg M. Exterior 10YR7/4. temper fM. Most was found either in Stratum E2b or under the floors of that stratum. core 5YR7/3.5YR8/4. Chemical and petrographic analyses of Assyrianizing pottery from Tell Jemmeh have shown that this pottery was produced from local clay (Melson and van Beek 1992). 26:16-17. temper: fm M. Exterior. cf. interior 10YR7/4. core 5YR6/6. Exterior.5YR5/4. interior 5YR7/6. SeE 4. temper: mg M. 539114 3590/3 5149/4 Exterior lOYR8/2 white. white self slip.5YR7/6. 5. red slip 2.1V). Exterior 5YR7/6.

5.:I 7 ~ 6 4 ~7 C . • Fig. "~ /' ~ 21 22 23 :7 10cm.d 2• 2 CC_ ~ 5 .76: Pottery of Stratum E2.) ~ '7 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 16 ~ r7 19 ) 15 ( 17 .s.. 202 .

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Fig. 5.77: Pottery of Stratum E2.

203

FIGURE 5.77: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2
No. Type
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS 16 Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl

Reg_.No.
S49113 S012/3 S413/2 3374/1 S28616 327712 S3S9/4 S3911S S419/2 3S33/4 3602/1 3629/1 33S7/1 S472/100 S442/1 3219/S

Locus
1984 1911 1972 1300 1965 0872 1970 1970 1968 1321 1336 1338 0889 1976 1963 0864

Description
Exterior, interior and core SYR7/6, temper: fm M, decoration: black & red paint. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip 2.5YR6/8. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip lORS/6. Exterior and interior SYR7/4, core lORS/6, temper: m M. Hole drilled in the base. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip 10RS/6. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: m M. Exterior SYR7/4, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: m M.

Exterior SYR616, interior SYR616, core SYR616, temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: mg M, red slip 10RS/6. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, burnished. Exterior SYR7/8, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fin M, smoothed outside. Exterior SYR713, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: mg M.

FIGURE 5.78: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2
No. Type
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Mortarium Mortarium Mortarium Mortarium

Reg. No.
S112/100 3SS9/S 3S80/1 3646/101 S188/1 196616 S21111 3446/3 S012/1 19411104 3S7S/I 3S92/3 3S1113 S216/100

Locus Description
1913 1326 1326 0890 1938 1966 1948 131S 1911 1941 1333 133S 1321 1947 Exterior 2.SYRS/6, interior 2.5YRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: mg M white grits. Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior lOYR7/3, interior 2.SYRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: fin M, red slip 10RS/6. SYR7/4, interior SYR7/4, core grey, temper: fm M black grits. SYR6/4, interior SYR6/4, core grey black, temper: fm M. 2.SYRS/6, interior 2.SYRS/6, core grey; temper: m M black & white grits.

Exterior SYR7/4, interior SYR7/4, core SYR7/4, temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/4, interior lOYRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: m M.

Typical Cypriote fabric.

204

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Fig. 5.78: Pottery of Stratum E2

205

11 9 10 12 8 13 10cm. <: i: .-. / I~./ " ~.2 .... ... ' ...W 5 " 7 .....-_.rr@ . 5. \ 3 4 1IfJ' . .... 206 . 14 Fig.79: Pottery of Stratum E2. '\ I r. I I I I I " ...

inside mg M. Exterior and interior 2. interior and core 1OYR8/3 white. Exterior 5YR7/6. interior 2. interior and core 10YR812 (white). temper: mg M. interior 5YR7/4. core 5YR7/6. black & red paint IOR5/6. 207 . core grey. red slip 10R5/8 with black line on mushroom lip. temper: fm M. core 7.5YR8/4.81: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. core dark. Exterior 7. temper:wg Brown painted band IOR5/4 weak red.79: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. temper: fM. Exterior.5YR7/6. mg M. Exterior IOYR7/3. temper: m M black & white grits. Exterior 2. temper: m M. and interior 5YR7/6. temper: f M. burnished. Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. temper: fM. interior 5YR7/6. interior 2.FIGURE 5. core grey. temper: fM. core 5YR7/6. temper: fM. temper: grey to 5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/6.5YR6/6.5YR7/6.outside wheel burnished. core grey. 3353/7 3353/100 5306/1 3297/1 5413/3 5037/100 3293/1 5362/2 5073/100 5287/1 34651100 Locus 0892 0892 1965 0874 1972 1912 0874 1967 1912 1941 0890 Description Exterior 5YR7/4. core 10R6/6. 5013/200 5073/200 53201100 3119/5 3573/1 5209/1 5286/10 3142/4 5416/5 5235/1 Locus 1912 1912 1941 0825 1321 1941 1965 0835 1941 1955 Descrip_tion Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. burnished.5YR6/6. Exterior 10YR8/3. No. core 2. interior and core 7. Only 1 handle. burnished with black brown bands painted outside. interior 2. core 5YR7/4. temper: fM. 'Assyrian bottle'. Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Jug Jug Jug Decanter 12 13 14 529511+2 FIGURE 5. interior 5YR7/6.7. temper: fig M. Type Juglet 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Reg. black paint. Exterior 10R6/6. 212: 10 (Tomb 14).5YR7/6. temper: fmM. and interior 5YR7/6. core 1OYR8/3. grey to 5YR7/6.5YR6/6. red slip 10R5/6. temper: fm M. Karageorghis 1970: PI. red slip 10R5/8 with black lines.5YR7/6. temper: fM. "':!. red paint 10R5/6. temper: m M. temper: grey. Exterior 5YR7/6. interior and core 2. temper: m M. and interior 2. Exterior 5YR7/6.5YR6/6. red slip IOR5/8.5YR8/4.80: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. No.5YR6/6. Exterior 2.5YR8/4. 3618/100 349113 53911100 5238/1 5324/9 536711 5477/5 3279/16 3356/9 526117 3275/6 357211 3269/9 5324/1 5500/200 5330/2 Locus 1338 1308 1970 1956 1970 1967 1976 0872 0888 1956 0872 1326 0869 1970 1984 1967 1941 Descrip_tion Exterior. Exterior. red paint. Exterior 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR7/6 -7. Exterior.5YR6/6. black & white grits. temper: grey to 5YR7/6. wheel burnished. core grey. M. interior IOYR7/3. core 5YR7/6. mg M. and interior 5YR7/6. Exterior 7. temper: fm M. black lines. temper: m M. Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Reg No.5YR6/6.5YR6/6. interior 5YR7/4.5YR6/6. temper: fm M. interior 10YR8/3. cf. TyPe 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Pot-stand Krater? Deep bowl Reg. core grey. interior and core 7. interior 5YR7/6 .5YR7/6. interior 10R6/6. interior 7. core core core core core grey. Exterior. FIGURE 5. temper: g M large white grits. black bands. core yellow greenish. temper: fm M.

5... 8 10cm.-..80: Pottery of Stratum E2 208 ..\ 3 \ r I 2 I . ._. \ 5 6 r L III '\. Fig.-. .... • 7 I 9 10 11 o 10cm .

T 8 9 -~10 10cm. I I . 209 ..---- I \ \ \ I \ \ \ \ '' I • / I\ \ .. . 2 • 4 3 5 s 7 ) : =I. Fig.81: Pottery of Stratum E2. I I " . 5.

interior and core 7.e Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport jar jar jar jar jar jar jar jar jar Reg. 194117 550011 5447/2 5061/2 5309/200 52991100 53321100 36431100 5192/2 Locus 1941 1984 1963 1913 1941 1941 1941 0890 1941 Description Exterior 10YR6/2 . temper: fm M white grits. temper: fM. interior 2.e Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Table amphora Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport jar j ar j ar j ar j ar jar jar jar Reg No.5YR8/2 white.5YR7/6. core grey black. red & black paint.5YR5/4 black. temper: fm M black & white grits. 210 . interior 10YR6/2. interior and core 5YR7/6. Exterior.5YR6/6 . Exterior 2. temper: fM.83: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. FIGURE 5. Red lamp type with rough surface. interior and core 5YR7/8 grey.FIGURE 5. Cypriote import. No. Pink lamp type with smooth surface. 3498/2 349811 527913 5258/3 3554/1 5302/100 35201100 549112 5245/4 548114 5287/2 3640/100 5437/1 524112 5180/2 5297/2 Locus 0890 0890 1963 1959 1321 1941 1941 1984 1941 1980 1941 0890 1968 1941 1914 1941 Description Exterior.5YR6/6 . temper: mg M. Cooking-pot fabric. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 TJ:'J!.82: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No.2.5YR5/4 grey.5YR5/4 black.10YR7/3. Exterior.5YR6/6 . core 2.2.2. interior and core 7. Exterior. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TJ:'J!. temper: mg M black & white grits.

. I I .~ .. 5. . 15 Fig._---'- ----- --- ----' 6 -=~~~~_'~Ocm.. \ \ . I I / " I -... I / '. \I ' I 4 5 . 211 .I '\V/ / " 8 9 10 11 ~ 13 '1 I ~. 14 12 a 10cm . \ \ I I I ._____. I I .. ffi -. . .---'. .. '/ -. 7 • • I I I I \ \ \ \ \ I \ \ \ .'" 2 3 e.82: Pottery of Stratum E2.

2 • 3 • I I \ I I I \ \ \ \ \ 5 6 • I I I I . 212 . Fig..83: Pottery of Stratum E2. 5. \ \ \ ( t I I \ \ \ \ ) 7 6 9 o ------ 1Ocm.

5. ---- 10cm.n ! \ 0 -. 213 ..84: Pottery of Stratum E2. / / _- I ' 8 9 Fig. 2 3 ~ ) 4 7 l \ ~ 5 6 7 " I I .

Exterior.5YR5/6. temper: mg M black & white grits. Exterior 10R4/3. temper: m M white grits.85: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. temper: mg M white grits.5YR5/2. core black. temper: mg M black & white grits. 1980: PI.FIGURE 5. core grey brown. Locus 1941 1941 1941 1321 0855 0855 1941 1913 0890 Description Handle h: 17. interior 7.5YR7/6. 5YR7/6. This type of cooking-pot is characterized by a rough lower part. 1 2 3 4 Type Reg. temper: mg M white & black grits. core black.5YR5/4. interior 7. 8). Briend et al. temper: mg M black & white grits. temper: mg M black & white grits. temper: mg M. core 5YR7/3. interior and core 2. Exterior 2. core 7. No.5YR5/4. Exterior 2. w: 21. This type of cooking-pot is characterised by a rough base. Exterior IOR6/6. No. temper: g M black & white grits.5YR512. temper: mg M white grits. core 2.5YR7/6. interior 2. temper: fm M. Sarepta type CP-IA (Anderson 1988). interior 2.5YR6/4. Exterior. Exterior. temper: mg M black &white grits. interior and core 2. temper: mg M black and white grits. interior 5YR7/4. Exterior.5YR6/4. Remarks: cf. interior and core 2. interior and core 5YR6/6. Exterior 2. w: 21. interior 10R5/4. incisions on handle. Exterior 7.5YR5/6. Exterior Exterior interiorand core 2.5YR7/6. lid lid lid lid lid lid lid lid 214 . TJl. Handle h: 16. interior 2. Basket-handle amphora 53701100 Basket-handle amphora 522011 00 Cooking-pot 19411172 Cooking-pot 3526/4 Cooking-pot 3203/2 Cooking-pot 3203/1 Cooking-pot 5318/4 Cooking-pot 5115/100 Cooking-pot 344511 5 6 7 8 9 FIGURE 5. temper: mg M black grits. core grey.5YR5/4. interior lOR5/4.5YR5/6. interior and core 2. interior and core 2. temper: mg M. Exterior.5YR5/6. 3602/2 5426/6 3270/1 362114 521112 5360/100 3367/2 5188/2 5499/3 545711 307511 5283/5 5422/1 1970/48 532311 Locus 1336 1941 0869 1338 1948 1967 0892 1938 1980 19B 0819 1941 1963 1970 1956 Description Exterior. 10R5/4. 55 (Str. writing with red paint.5YR5/6.5YR5/6.84: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No.5YR7/6. core grey black. Exterior.pe Cooking-pot 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg.

215 . 4 / 3 < t: ( " • 5 6 7 err .~. 9 10 / .85: Pottery of Stratum E2. 5. I '~ 11 ~I 12 / ~==~--~-----~ 14 1Ocm. Fig.) ( ~\ f22 2 \.

of Area E were excavated. ' . E3 and E2a statistically due to the fact that the fortresses under Stratum E2a were cleared and rebuilt. Body sherd with an engraved picture of a jar. All diagnostic pottery fragments were recorded and 2625 vessels and fragments catalogued. 5. where much of the pottery was found in situ. 3365/101 5402/100 3443/103 STATISTICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE POTTERY FROM STRATUM E2 Approximately 340 m.~I 'I 10cm.. Only Stratum E2a.86: IRON AGE POTTERY WITH INCISIONS AND INSCRIPTIONS No.2: NUMBER OF VESSELS RECORDED BY TYPE AND STRATUM FORM CLASS £2 174 29 52 24 9 98 6 £3 34 2 7 1 8 £4 19 1 2 2 1 7 Debris under Stratum £4 2 Total 229 30 56 33 11 113 6 2 530 27 204 13 24 27 23 57 1385 Bowls Deep bowls Bowls with incurved rim Kraters Juglets Jugs Jars Pithoi Amphoras Lamps Cooking-pots Special forms Mortaria Greek imports Cypriote fine ware imports Cypriote basket-handle amphoras Total 2 511 26 157 12 24 25 13 57 1219 13 34 1 2 9 111 49 6 4 1 11 2 2 216 . yielded a significant sample. TABLE 5. E2b Description Transport jar type with an engraved sign "aleph". Fig. E2a Str. Locus 890 1968 1309 Stratum Str. No. Not all of these finds could be assigned to a particular pottery type. Cypriote Basket-Handle with an engraved sign. 2 3 10cm. 1 ~. FIGURE 5. It was impractical to analyze the pottery types in Strata E4.86: Pottery with ins cis ions and inscriptions. E2a Str. 1 2 3 Type Transport jar Basket-handle amphora Reg.

Among the imported wares. The pottery count (Table 5. Figs. The numbers at Mezad Hashavyahu are not very different (kraters 2.83 :2-3 13% Others 35% 6% Fig. kraters constitute 2% of all vessels. These numbers should be compared with the finds from Mezad Hashavyahu.1% of the total pottery in Stratum E2.87: Pottery Repertoire of Stratum E2. 5. No Egyptian imports were found in Tel Kabri. lamps 4%) (Fantalkin 2001:103-104).rare with a share of only 1.4%. 5.2. 5. while Egyptian imports account for 1% of the finds there (Fantalkin 2001:97-98. At Kabri. 5.88) reveals an extraordinarily high percentage of .83:7 3% 10% 3% 9% Fig. 5. 5.87.1%. 5. 217 . Cypriote basket-handle amphoras are the major group. constituting 9.Others 1% 4% Cooking-pots 13% Jugs 8% Mortaria 2% Transportjars 48% Fig. Jugs are notably more numerous at Mezad Hashavyahu (19%) than at Kabri (8%). 5. Cypriote fine war~s are. Fig.88a: Main types of transport jars in Stratum E2. transport jars (amphoras). the only other 7th century BCE fortress in Israel where statistics have been provided (Fantalkin 2001).83:8 Others 8% 6% 40% Basket-Handle amphoras 20% Fig. This may be partly due to the fact that the area excavated coincided with the storerooms of the fortress.1% and Greek imports make up 2. There were no Cypriote imports found at that site. Greek imports to Mezad Hashavyahu are much more numerous (46%) than at Tel Kabri (Fantalkin 2001 :103-104).88b: Other types of transport jars in Stratum E2.103-104). Fig.

85:8 Fig. 5.8th centuries BCE has been studied in detail (Bikai 1978a. 5. Lehmann 1995. From the end of the 8th through the 7th century BCE.84: 5~ 11% With rough base (Fig. The excavations at Tyre.84:8) 10% Fig.85:11 11% Fig. Herrera Gonzalez 1990). 5.85:10 17% Fig.85:7 6% 5. 5.84: 3-4 9% Fig. The numerous complete vessels from Tel Kabri's destruction level (Stratum 2a) enable us to study the typology of the 7th century BCE in detail.85: 13- Fig. 1994. Achziv Tomb 3 has a number of good parallels to Stratum E2 (Culican 1975-76). 5.89a: Main types of cooking-pots from Stratum 2a. 5. The 7th century BCE pottery from Tell Keisan has been published by the French Expedition but till now this was the only major site to provide such information. At Mezad Hashavyahu vessels for the consumption of food make up 60% of the repertoire and cooking-pots for its preparation 11%. 5. The excavations at Tel Kabri significantly complement these finds. until recently the 7th century BCE was a more obscure phase in the archaeological research of the northern Levant. 1978b. The closest parallels to the pottery of Stratum E2a come from sites in the vicinity of Tel Kabri. In Achziv Stratum IV the still unpublished fmds from a warehouse. a fortress stood at the extreme southern edge of the Phoenician homeland. CONCLUSIONS While Iron Age coastal (Phoenician) pottery of the 12th . Frankel et al. Gal 1992. In addition to excavations.85:12 6% Fig. Fig 5. 21% of all pottery types have exact parallels at either Tyre Strata 1-2 (Bikai 1978a) or Sarepta Stratum Cl (Anderson 218 .89b: Other types of cooking-pots from Stratum E2. 1987. 5. survey~ in the Akko plain have yielded new data about the coastal settlement system of the 7th century BCE in southern Phoenicia (Frankel 1986. 1990.84: 7-9 35% Others 27% 6% Fig.7% of the pottery assemblage from Kabri was used for the preparation (cooking) and consumption of food to serve the needs of the garrison.2001. Wolff 1994:515-516). near Achziv. 5. This leaves only 25% for storage vessels (Fantalkin 2001:103-104). probably destroyed at the same time as the storerooms of the Tel Kabri fortress. 1980).Fig. Some 52. 5. 1997. 5. Sarepta and Tell Abu Hawam did not expose substantial levels of this date.3% were vessels for storage of agricultural products collected in the nearby area. While most types found in Stratum E2 also occur at nearby Tell Keisan Strata 4-5 (Briend et al. include the same transport jar types as those found in situ at the latter site (Zemer 1977:18). while the other 47. Another recent contribution to the study of 7th century BCE coastal pottery is Fantalkin's comprehensive publication of the excavations at Mezad Hashavyahu (2001).85:6 11% Lids Fig. Anderson 1988. 5.

although on a smaller scale.V). Lehmann 1994a). Additional parallels which date Stratum E2a to ca. dated to 604 BCE (Stager 1996) and from Stratum 5 at al-Mina in northern Syria. Based on the above-mentioned comparisons. The destruction of Mezad Hashavyahu (Fantalkin 2001. dated to ca. chronologically anchored on the campaigns of Nebuchadnezzar. the earlier destruction must have taken place between ca.however did not destroy the fortress completely. Dor Area A Phase 9 (Gilboa 1995 [720-650/630 BCE]) and Shiqmona Stratum 8-9 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. 50. on the basis of pottery comparisons Stratum E2 at Tel Kabri can confidently be dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE. Blackon-Red and White-Painted pottery. 1987 [710-650 BCE]). Similarities are seen at Tel Qiri Stratum VI (Ben-Tor et at.1988). A total of 14 vessels of Cypriote fine wares accounts for 22. A number of the same pottery types came from the destruction level of Ashkelon. Furthermore. there are several examples of'Wild-Goat'-Style II (Chapter 5. This points to very close contacts and exchange with Phoenicia and illustrates that the pottery repertoire of these two sites on the Akko plain is typical oflate Iron Age Phoenician pottery (cf. There is a surprisingly high percentage of Cypriote fine wares. was dated recently to the years around 600 BCE (Wenning 1989). Cooking-pots form the largest functional group retrieved from the Iron Age II remains in this area. Dan Stratum I. Pottery LB IA I IA II Krater Jugs/Juglets Cooking-pots Lamps Bowls Cypriote Imports TOTAL 4 1 3 3 2 2 29 4 14 51 4 10 219 . destroyed in ca. Storage jars are completely missing. 650-575 BCE. The later fortress of Stratum E2a may have been destroyed during one of the campaigns of Nebuchadnezzar against Syria and Palestine. The pottery is identical to that in Stratum E2a and it is impossible to distinguish any type development between the two phases.6% of the all post-MB vessels recorded in Area D. has many types in common with the destruction layer at Kabri. dated to the end of the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996). Reich 1989). Thus. may be as early as 604 BCE or only later in 585 BCE (Katzenstein 1997: 328). which yielded a very similar pottery assemblage including Greek cooking-pots. AREAD The evidence that occupation continued. 600 BCE come from Tell <Arqa Stratum 9D (Thalmann 1990) and Ras al-Bassit Phase 7 and Tomb 4 (Braemer 1986. Comparisons for many vessels in the Stratum E2a assemblage at Kabri can be found in the destruction levels at other sites in the Levant. demonstrates that Late Bronze and Iron Age settlement was not confined to Area E. Courbin 1993). Naveh 1962. in Area D after the Middle Bronze Age. 650 and 600 BCE and might be connected with the campaign of Ashurbanipal in the year 644/43 BCE (Katzenstein 1997:293). 604 BCE (Biran 1994:270-271). There is evidence for an earlier destruction phase (Stratum E2b) which . 53 [8th-7th century BCE]).

. 4 5 7 9 10 11 f 12 14 ~'. 220 .3 6 ~. Fig .5 90· Iron Age II pottery from Area D. F 13 II II 15 16 17 19 18 lOcm.. .

Stern 1978:54/55. 1960:57:13). cf. 1960:51:12). 1998) 221 . cf. Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. 14:10). cf. 5.90: IRON AGE II POTTERY FROM AREA D No. Type 1). the peculiar combination of cooking-pots and Cypriote fine wares may perhaps be explained if this area was associated wth the fortress complex in Area E for processing agricultural products. FIGURE 5.9). Cypriote Black-on-Red juglet (Gjerstad 1948: Fig. Kabri Area E.III). Kabri Stratum E3.:41:6). 27:6] and XI [Bikai 1978: PI. 1960:51:12) and VIII (ibid. 2525-1 2676/1 2630 2509 2669 2617 2542 2518/3 2525/2 2625 2534/3 2504/2 2518/2 9187 2636 2555/1 9256 9110/12 268111 Locus 715 750 745 703 744 713 721 715 715 715 721 715 715 1570 745 721 1554 1541 751 Description cf. cf. 1980:56:6). Persian period pottery was extremely rare. Abu Hawam Stratum IV (Balensi 1980: PI.The scant Iron Age II architectural remains in Area D are interpreted as a farmstead or some kind of rural settlement (Chapter 4.2. 11:238]) and the Iron Age. Tyre Stratum X-2 [Bikai 1978:PI. cf. 19 Cooking-pot PERSIAN AND HELLENISTIC PERIODS A small amount of late Persian period and Hellenistic pottery. Jezreel "Early Iron" (Zimhoni 1997: Fig. Hazor IX (Yadin et al. However. Type A. 1961:209:1). There was one twisted handle of a Persian period transport jar (not illustrated. apparently dumped at the site. Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. cf. Stern 1978:53. 1960:57:13). cf.joins with 154119121/1.224). cf. Cypriote Black-on-Red juglet or jug (very fine pink fabric with black lustrous bands on the rim inside). Pan type with vertical handle. Such mortaria were first in use during the Persian period and continued into the early Hellenistic period (Salles 1985a. cf. Abu Hawam Stratum III (Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. cf. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl. Keisan Stratum 5 (ibid. 1960:61:12). Such pans were in use during the Late Bronze Age (Tell Abu Hawam Stratum V [Balensi 1980:PI. Type Bowl 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Bowl Bowl Juglet Juglet Juglet/Jug Juglet Bowl Bowl Bowl Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. 1960:57:4). 'Samaria' Ware. cf. Against such a rural background the relatively large amount of Cypriote fine wares is difficult to explain. Stern 1978:53. cf. 1980:49:2) and Keisan Stratum 7 (ibid. Abu Hawam Stratum IV (Balensi 1980: PI.91 :3-4). Hazor X (Yadin et al. 1961:209:11). No.:57:15). Stem 1978:55/56. Artzy 1980) and several mortaria with a high ring base (Fig. 38:9. 39:9]). 25:10. Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. Abu Hawam Stratum III (Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI.:53:9-10). Type E. Kabri Stratum E3. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl. Stratum E3 (a similar cooking-pot rim appears also during the Iron Age II A-B. 14:10). 80:221. Hazor X (Yadin et al. was retrieved from Area E. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl. cf. Type A. cf. Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et al. Hazor X (Yadin et al. Red-slipped burnished bowl. cf. Hazor IX (Yadin et al. 2. 80:225). Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. 1980:56:8).

Transport jars of this class are especially numerous in the Akko plain during the Hellenistic period.91: HELLENISTIC POTTERY FROM AREA E No.The two Hellenistic unguentaria found were apparently associated with a disturbed grave (Fig. 1980:Pl.91: Hellenistic pottery from Area E. temper: mg M white grits . All the pottery comes from disturbed layers between Strata E2 and E1. Exterior 5YR7/4. FIGURE 5. interior IOYR8/3. 17:23-30). 1 2 3 Type Unguentarium Unguentarium Mortar Mortar Reg.91:1-2). 3 2 '--"~~=--' 10cm. No. 5. 34). This type of vessel was found in large numbers at Tell Keisan and nearby Khirbat Kinniya (Briend et al.. 222 . The Ottoman village in Area E was excavated by Mahmud Hawari in 1993 (Hawari 1994). 4 Fig. temper: mg M. 5. 7:1-3. interior 5YR7/4.5YR8/4. 3269/1a 326911b 3204/4 3490/2 Locus 0869 0869 0853 1321 Description 4 Exterior 7. core grey. Further finds include a fragment of a stamped Rhodian amphora (Chapter 9:No. Among the Hellenistic pottery was the rim of a white Hellenistic transport jar (not illustrated). core grey.

cf.92:1-5. 25) (cf. The "curious gap in the roster of early Greek pottery in Palestine". Boardman 1980:48). "the complete lack of Protocorinthian pottery of the late eighth through most of the . 19. 700-675 BCE.1 More was found in the seasons of 1989. 42) is of special interest. Mommsen of Bonn University. Tel Dan. Niemeier 1994). Recently the typology and chronology of the East Greek Bird bowls has been modified and refined by Kerschner (1995. Tell Abu Hawam. with the exception of a probably Attic SOS-amphora (No. cf. Tel MiqneEkron.1) and adopted by Waldbaum and Magness (1997:34) and Haider (1996:69) is. the profile is too curved to belong to a Late Geometric/Subgeometric skyphos but comes from an East Greek archaic Bird bowl. despite its popularity in other areas of the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. Tell Keisan. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33-36 with references).V. 5.E. 675-640 B. Kaufler and U. The fragment of an oinochoe or olpe of Etruscan Bucchero (No. S. Elsewhere in the Levant Corinthian pottery also is not abundant. and the fourth to ca. seventh centuries" (Waldbaum 1994:59. The presence of these imports is of special significance for two reasons: 1. 25).M. 12. IV. simplifying the decoration and flattening the shape. Thus Waldbaum's distribution map (1994:55. Fig. Kerschner We would like to thank M. the third ca. Schlotzhauer for important information and constructive discussions on the East Greek pottery found at Tel Kabri. Al Mina is the only site from which Protocorinthian pottery is known (Robertson 1940:16-18. Tel Batash. Sarepta. Fig. 615-600 BCE. 5. The Archaic Greek pottery from Kabri is East Greek. Gershuny (1987:69. Waldbaum 1994. 1997:252-255. ARCHAIC GREEK AND ETRUSCAN POTTERY Barbara and Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier Archaic Greek pottery was first identified in Area E in 1986 byL. Adelman 1995. No. Niemeier 1995. 23. also Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33-36) also applies to Tel Kabri-'.2 The stratified pieces come from Stratum E2a (the destruction level of the Phoenician fortification) or from slightly earlier levels. 16. Lehmann 1995. R.1995. Tell Jemmeh and Tell Sera' (Koehl 1985:138. Haider 1996:69) is too small to be more closely dated than between the later 8th and the first half of the 6th centuries BCE. 2. The following sites in the Levant have produced Early Corinthian pottery: Tell Sukas. BIRD BOWLS Five fragments (Figs. Thus no Corinthian pottery has been found at Tel Kabri. We are also grateful to A. 1992 and 1993 (Niemeier 1990.1 was earlier identified as belonging to a Late Geometric or Subgeometric skyphos with metope decoration (Niemeier 1990:xxxiv-xxxv. Cook and Dupont 1998:8-10). Reinvestigation of the sherd for the final publication demonstrated that. Fine decorated Greek pottery is more accurately datable than most of the local pottery and therefore important for absolute dating (see Cook. The unstratified fragment of an SOS-amphora (No.1. Ashkelon. it almost certainly is contemporary with the East Greek pottery. 22. date adopted by Waldbaum 1994:59. Pastor 1991 :20*. The Bird bowl evolved from the Late Geometric Bird kotyle. 42). Niemeier 1994:*31. Figs.13). 1997. not Corinthian but probably east Cypriot. 650-615 BCE. Fig. 2 3 223 . 256. 1990.93:1-4) come from East Greek so-called Bird bowls. Wenning 1995). Naso for his input regarding the fragment of an Etruscan Buchero vessel (No. Vessel No. the second to ca. Haider 1996:69). Kerschner. Fig. According to Coldstream (1968:298-301) the first stage of the Bird bowls is to be dated to ca. Since there is no other 8th century Greek pottery from Kabri. All pre-Hellenistic Greek pottery of Area E is to be dated between the second half of the 7th and the first half of the 6th centuries BCE. although the preserved decoration could be of late 8th/early 7th century date. The clay of a sherd tentatively ascribed to a Protocorinthian aryballos (Kempinski and Niemeier 1993b:259. 1) and Haider's summary (1996: 69) have to be corrected: There is no Geometric pottery from Kabri.C. according to Neutron Activation Analysis by H. They play an important role in discussions about contacts between the Levant and Greece and the possible presence of Greeks in the Levant (see Wenning 1991. PI.

the bowl are characteristics of Kerschner's Type V. D. dated to the middle to third quarter of the 7th century B.C.93:2) Rim fragment.478. three vertical lines which meet three horizontal lines at an angle. the first half of the 7th century BCE is still dominated by Bird kotylai and only from the middle of the century onwards do Bird bowls appear in larger quantities. No. =2 em. three vertical lines and the body and feet of a bird. No. 1. Decoration: Yellowish-red and black paint. PI. Reg. 5. dated before 600 BCE (Walter 1968:88. Inside: Solid. Inside: Solid. Bird bowl (Fig. Kerschner 1997:163. Decoration: Light reddish-brown paint. 5. 3. Inside: Solid. Kerschner 1997:127 Cat. 5. Stratum El. H = 2. H. dated to the last third of the 7th century BCE (Boardman 1967:133. 5. Inside: Solid. Decoration: Reddish-brown paint.2. Stratum El. 5484. 3114. PI. Reg. Stratum El. = 3. 11 em. 43. D. Outside: A group of three vertical lines on the left with a single vertical line on their right. 2. XIV).E (cf. 329711. 5.93:1) Rim fragment. Cat. 5. = 3. 43:452). is a rhomb filled with hatching. 5. 5. 17. 'Fundgruppe XXVII' in the sanctuary of Hera on Samos. In Kerschner's typology our fragment forms a late example of his Type IV with a small groove at the mouth and a relatively deep bowl dated to the last third of the 7th century BCE (cf. Below this are void rays. No. Date: The painted design puts the fragment in Coldstream's third group. 109.92:4. No. Date: The missing groove at the rim and the almost hemispherical profile of . Above these. The style is less delicate than No. 4.92:2. 130. Locus 874. According to his studies.8. VI). Locus 802. No.92:3. 3138. No.5 em. Bird bowl (Figs.92:1. H.93:4) Rim fragment. Locus 1983. PI. 3. A vertical stripe on the right. from left to right. Bird bowl (Figs. Outside: The tail of a bird above which is a triangle pendant from a painted lip band. 5. Parallels: Phase IV at Emporio on Chios. Date: The fragment is too small for dating. Stratum El. 107. The bird's tail is formed by extending the lower horizontal outline of the body. PI. ca. 118-119:476. 162. Locus'S24. 3023/1.dated to the last quarter of the 7th century BCE (cf. Kerschner did not find Bird bowls from clear contexts before the second quarter of the 7th century BCE. H. Reg. Bird bowl (Figs. Date: The fragment is from a Bird bowl of Kerschner's Type II with empty bottom zone. Locus 833. Reg. XIV). PI. 650-615 BCE. No. 162. 85). Kerschner 1997:160. 224 .1997). 5.8 em. Outside: A ray with three horizontal lines above it in the lower part. No.3 ern.92:5) Body fragment. = ca. Outside: On the left. Decoration: Yellowish-red paint. Stratum El. H. Bird bowl (Figs. Reg.93:3) Rim fragment.

Shipley 1989. One production bowls may perhaps have been located in northern 'IONIAN CUPS' Ionia (Jones 1986:697). Outside: by Kerschner as belonging Two vertical lines. glazed all over except for a narrow reserved band at handle level. cups from Miletus) and in the Greek sanctuary at Gravisca in Etruria (Boldrini 6. bands just below the handle Group 3.219-234). Furtwangler's level and just Type 3 and 16 cm. to his latest Type VI without horizontal Date: It has been identified example from Histria: Lambrino DISCUSSION between the rays of the bottom zone and the main frieze. Inside: Solid except for a band just below the mouth. 197-199. This is dated to ca. site of Bird However. however. analyses were considered analysis pit. 53311100. However.5 em. cups' is used for a class of two-handled bands. 'Ionian cup' (Figs. I118-20. decorated Schlotzhauer (Cook and Dupont 1998:129-131). 8. fewer from Phase III (ca. 13 = Alexandrescu 1978:57-58 No. = 3. in a sacrificial complex in the sanctuary established by Schlotzhauer 1995 for the 1994:137-187. Fig. painted or reserved. Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Samian Heraion. a complete 1938:39-43 No.664). There are.6e) matches on Rhodes. 1999) suggests that the term 'Ionian called 'Knickrandschale' (cup with bent rim).ca. 188-189 note 5. Locus 1941.. 630/20 BCE) and II (ca. Fig. here the common English nomenclature Various systems of classification Cilicia (Hanfmann Hayes 1973:55-56). with simple horizontal or completely covered with dark paint and they should be is retained. Table 1). Other examples from the Samian Heraion come from the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building dated to ca. Stratum E2a. The term 'Ionian rims. has shown that the clay composition of a Bird bowl of Type IV from the Rheneia Pi. Type AI. 625-590 BCE (cf. The most influential 120-125. 200.93:5) 15 fragments of mouth and wall (reconstructed). Syria (Ploug importance 1956:167-173) for this cup-type have been put forward. Boardman those applied to material from Megara Hyblaea in Sicily (Villard and Vallet 1955:18-33). 21). invention (cf. Cook and Dupont that found in Furthermore. drinking cups with prominent and Shipley 1989). Hayes' Type I-II. 610 BCE). Ploug's Group 6. 630/20 . The fragments of thirteen so-called Ionian cups (Nos.200-202 Nos. H. and from Tocra in Libya (Hayes 1966:111-16. For many 1998:26). Delos found to be a Rhodian (Jones 1986:647. Of in the South Temenos of the are the series of Ionian cups found in good stratigraphic 1997. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler 225 . 610-590/80 BCE) (Furtwangler 1980:165. D. Outside: Type: Villard Schlotzhauer's and Vallet's below the lip.92:7.1. other systems arranged These typologies from Tarsus in have been adopted in the study of the Ionian cups from Tell Sukas in by single sites (see Catling and to the typologies sequences 1973:27-38). the majority of the pieces of this type came from Phases I (before ca. were and Since this class is not restricted to Ionia (Catling cup' should be abandoned (1995. Kerschner's neutron metropolis years the Bird bowls petrographic 1986:649. 7-8. 5. and the very useful concordance sanctuary of Hera on the island of Sam os (Furtwangler of Artemis at Ephesos (Kerschner ibid. 5. (mouth) = Reg. PI. Solid except for narrow Decoration: Black paint. 1993). 13). Inside: Solid with lines stripe.Decoration: Reddish-brown exception of a reserved and dark grey glossy paint. No. 6-18) form the largest group of Archaic Greek pottery . that neither parts of Ionia (Jones activation demonstrating that it was not produced at Miletus confirm of Bird bowls was this Ionian the production centre of Bird bowls (Kerschner et al. adopting the typology 1980:165). from Tel Kabri.

7 8 3cm. 11 Fig. 5. 226 .92: Bird bowls and Ionian cups.2 ry3 5 4 _.

Locus 1321. 115 Cat.FIGURE 5. Cat. Reg. Cat. E2blE3 Pink (5 YR7/4) lightly micaceous clay. 213-214:Nos.93:6) Mouth and wall fragment. Cat. No. 5. black (IOYR 2/1) paint. (mouth) = 17. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. D. 545/535 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:7-8. This type apparently lasted from the second half of the 7th to the early 6th century BCE. 111 Fig. Cat. Inside: Solid except for a band just below the mouth.5YR 2.600 BCE. yellowish-red (5YR 5/8)/black (5YR 2. Furtwangler's Type 5 and Boldrini's Type 1111 with glazed exterior except the rim and a band at handle level. 6. reddish-brown (5YR 4/4)/ dark grey (7. Decoration: Black paint. Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Heraion of Samos it occurs first in Phase III (ca. 1/3-4. El Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) paint. Reg. 10. Outside and inside: Solid. 5. 1.92: BIRD BOWLS AND IONIAN CUPS No.120. 21). black (7.2 em. 8. 3138 3114 3297/1 3023/1 5484 3500/101 53311100 3352/100 3536/100 2619 5034-6 Locus 833 824 874 802 1983 1321 1941 887 1321 737 1915 Stratum El E1 Descrip. 3536/100. Examples of this type were unearthed also in the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building of ca. III/I. 3.93:6 and Kienast 1989:4-5. 5. E2a Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay. 5. III). PI. 7. Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. Stratum E2a. PI. 28). 227 .5YR 6/4) clay. Outside: Bands on rim and at handle level. 7. 11 PI.93:1 5. II. Cat.6. 19. very dark brown (10YR 2/2) paint. 4.5/1) paint. Nos. 18). black (10YR 2/1) shiny paint. 8.92:8) Shoulder fragment.5YR 3/1) paint. Date: Vallet and Villard's (1955:15-18. reddish-brown (2.92:9. 9. = 4.93:5 5.5/1) paint. 125. H. 12. = 2. No. (Figs. reddish-brown (2. Surface Very pale brown (IOYR 7/4) clay. Ploug's Group 5.93:2 5. Hayes' (1966:112) late 7th century BCE. 25. 112. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. H. TJP. Decoration: Glossy black paint. Locus 887.121:Fig. 5. 23) and in the foundation of the North Building of ca. 570/550 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:5-7.e Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Dorian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Reg_. 126:Fig. No. 29) date is 640/30 .93:3 5. 21). 5. Hanfmann's Type IV. PI.93:4 2. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:4-5. No. 1111. in the second levelling of ca. 33521100. dark greyish-brown (10YR 3/2) paint. EI Light brown (7. 19. Ionian cup.5YR 3/1) paint. Discussion: See No.3 em. 12-13 PI. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos which ends ca. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) paint. No. No. Type: Villard and Vallet's Type A21B 2. Ionian cup Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. Hayes' Type VIII-IX. 610 BCE (Kerschner 1997:182). Stratum El. 610-590/80 BCE) and was also found in Phase IV (a late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165.No. III/8-9. 117.5YR 4/1) shiny paint. 111 Fig. 'Ionian cup' (Fig. Ionian cup II. Fig.tion See Fig. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. E2a Very pale brown (IOYR 7/3)/grey (10YR 6/i) clay. Examples from Ephesos are dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE (Kerschner 1997:111.

Hayes' Type VIII-IX. 125. 21). 9. black (1OYR 2/1) shiny paint. 7.92:9. 21). 5. Nos. 117. Hayes' century BCE. Type: Villard and Vallet's Furtwangler's Type A21B 2. = 2. 7. Locus 1321. Surface Very pale brown (IOYR 7/4) clay. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 12. ern. (mouth) = 17. 3.115 Cat. black (7. 5. No. 4.93:4 11.5YR 2. reddish-brown (2. No. 120. (Figs. D. No. PI. in the second and Kienast 1989:5-7. E2blE3 Pink (5 YR7/4) lightly micaceous clay. Cat. Date: Vallet and Villard's . 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler Examples of this type were unearthed also in the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building of and Kienast 1989:4-5. 'Ionian cup' (Fig. H. TJ:'I!. Fig. No. 5. 1/3-4. reddish-brown (2. 5. PI. 570/550 BCE (Furtwangler foundation of the North Building of ca. 33521100.5YR 4/1) shiny paint. yellowish-red (5YR 5/8)/black (5YR 2. Decoration: Glossy black paint. Reg.92: BIRD BOWLS AND IONIAN CUPS No. Cat. 8. 3138 3114 3297/1 3023/1 5484 3500/101 53311100 3352/100 3536/100 2619 5034-6 Locus 833 824 874 802 1983 1321 1941 887 1321 737 1915 Stratum El El Description See Fig. 112. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos which ends 227 . H. II11. III/8-9.93:6 and Kienast 1989:4-5. 213-214:Nos. Inside: Solid except for a Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Heraion of Sam os it occurs first in Phase III (ca.93:2 5.5/1) paint. Discussion: See No. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 11 PI. 12-13 PI.3 ern. Locus 887. Stratum El. PI. 18). E2a Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay. 23) and in the and Kienast 1989:7-8.5YR 3/1) paint. No. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. Cat.e Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Dorian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Reg. very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) paint. 3536/100. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) paint. Cat. Ionian cup Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. reddish-brown (5YR 4/4)/ dark grey (7.600 BCE. E2a Very pale brown (10YR 7/3)/grey (10YR 6/i) clay. Ionian cup. black (IOYR 2/1) paint. 5. dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) paint.5YR 6/4) clay.93:1 5. 11. 111 Fig. 545/535 BCE (Furtwangler ca. 126:Fig. 1980:165. Ploug's Group 5.93:6) Mouth and wall fragment.92:8) Shoulder fragment. El Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. No.6. 8. III). III/I. Examples (1955:15-18. Cat. 5. 28). 19. 1. No. Stratum E2a. Type 5 and Boldrini's Type II11 with glazed exterior except the rim and a band at handle level.FIGURE 5. 2.5/1) paint.93:5 5. 610-590/80 BCE) and was also found in Phase IV (a late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler ca. 25.2 band just below the mouth.93:3 5.5YR 3/1) paint. 19. 610 BCE (Kerschner 1997:182). El Light brown (7. 10. 121 :Fig. 111 Fig. Hanfmann's Type IV. 6. = 4. Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. Reg. Outside and inside: Solid. Outside: Bands on rim and at handle level. This type apparently lasted from the second half of the 7th to the early 6th century BCE. levelling of ca. dark greyish-brown (IOYR 3/2) paint. 29) date is 640/30 from Ephesos are dated to the (1966:112) late 7th second half of the 7th century BCE (Kerschner 1997:111. Decoration: Black paint.

92:1. 5. 9) Fig. 228 . 5. 3) Fig.95:16. 5. 1) Fig.94:6.94:5.94:1. 5.92:3.94:12. 10) Fig. 5. 5. 5. 8) Fig. 5.94:7.2 3 4 5 II 14 11 12 Fig. 5. 5.94:8. 4) Fig.92:2. 5. 5. 12) Fig.93: Bird bowls and Ionian cups. 2) Fig.92:4. 7) Fig.92:9. 14) Fig. 6) Fig.92:7. 13) Fig. 11) Fig. 5) Fig.95:10. 5. 5. 5.

Nos. with low foot. 7. = 1.3 cm.4 cm. Outside and inside: solid. Type: Villard and Vallet's Type B 1. 565 B. Ploug's Group 9. D of mouth = 11 ern. Decoration: Very dark greyish-brown paint.C. Type: Same as No. At Tell Sukas.92:10) Foot fragment. wall. 5. Decoration: Black and red paint. it occurred in Deposit II of Level 8 (Hayes 1966:1i2. Decoration: Design in brown (7.4 ern. Handles: solid black. Date: This type is dated by Villard and Vallet to ca. 5. Reg. No. 1197. unglazed exterior. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. No. 620-600 BCE for this type proposed by Villard and Vallet (1955: 18-19. Parallels: At Tocra. Hayes Type V. Outside: three horizontal brown lines. H. Locus 1915. Thus the type is to be dated from after ca. = 2. 5.a group of almost completely preserved cups of this type have a reserved tondo on the base of the interior which is a 6th century feature. foot unpainted. Reg. Sounding between Strata E2b and E3. 229 .1199).5YR 5/4). Outside and inside bowl: solid. 1963:285-287. three red lines on the lower part of the wall. Inside: solid black. Locus 1941. = 5 em. = 2. starting around 580 BCE. Surface D.E (Hayes 1966:9).289) has suggested a date from the end of the 7th to the first half of the 6th century BCE. No. Stratum E2a. red (lOR 4/4) and white (lOR 8/1) paint. 10.Date: The date of ca. glazed with two red lines framed by white lines painted on the glaze on the inside of the rim and the lower part of the bowl. Ionian cup (Fig. foot unpainted. Cat. except rim and shoulder.92:11) Foot fragment. 120.7 ern. especially in regard to its end. Ionian cup (Figs. Locus 1308. handle and foot.93:7) 15 fragments of rim. = 1. Hayes (1966:113) and Ploug (1973:29-30) date this type to the first half of the 6th century BCE. 13. Reg. (reconstructed) = 5 ern. two red lines below the mouth.(10YR 3/2). Outside: black bands covering the mouth plus the upper part of the wall and the foot. 5389-3.94:1. 5345/100. 11. No. 620-580 BCE (1955:29). Stratum E2a. Decoration: Glossy black paint. Foot: black with one red line on base. 12. H. Reg. Inside: solid black. Boldrini 1994: 149-150. Stratum E2a. 5034-6. 2619. Ionian cup (Fig. sometimes a band below handle level and glazed foot. Outside and inside bowl: solid. Reg. H. Locus 1971. 9. Hanfmann (1956:170-173. Locus 737. Furtwangler's Type 6.3502/101. Decoration: Very dark brown paint. 5. H. and Boldrini's Type Ill/I. H. 610 to 550 BCE. No.9. Furtwangler 1980: 164-166. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. black (10YR 2/1). which ended ca. 29) has been considered too restricted. D = 6 em. Type: cf. PI. Hanfmann's Type II.

. . \ ".. ... 2 3 /. --' \ ' \\ ) I I \_---- . 5. <..~--- . 1 230 .. I'...-- / <. <..~.:> J I ~~\ \ \ 8 I \ 9 6 F' 9.. / \ \ .94: Ionian cups..

3. black (lOYR 2/1). Date: The type apparently was in existence from after ca. ending ca. reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) . Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:77-78) and in well W 2 closed at about the same time (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:74-75. Pink (7.5/1) paint. Fig. Fig. this type first appears in Phase III (ca. 610 to 570/60 BCE. Parallels: In the South Temenos in the Heraion on Samos. 213-214. Core red (2. No. glazed with two red lines framed by white lines painted on the glaze on the inside of the rim and the lower part of the bowl.5 em. Reddish-brown ((5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay.5YR 2.W2/29. 5345/100 54141100 3571/100 3448/100 3616/100 3590/100 Locus 1941 1963 890 1316 1334 1321 Stratum E2a E2a E2a E3b E2a E2a E2a Description Red (2.93:9 5. Inside: solid black. white (2. 610590/80 BCE) and also occurs in Phase IV (the late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165.3 ern. 7. edges greyish-brown (2. No. = 1. 610 BCE.5YR 2. yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) . 220:No. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) micaceous clay. Outside: three horizontal brown lines. black (5YR 2. dusky red (lOR 3/4). The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos. Date: The type apparently was in existence from after ca. Decoration: Design in brown (7.5YR 2. H. Beil. 560 BCE (Isler 1978:93-94.5YR 5/4). 47.5/1) paint.very dark grey (5YR 311) paint. The mouth was cut away and the base knocked through for reuse (as a funnel?). Type Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Skyphos Jug Oinochoe Oinochoe Oinochoe? Reg. 5389-3. Stratum E2a.93:7 5. No. 22).5YR 5/6) micaceous clay.93:8 5. 610 BCE. 220:No.5YR 5/6). Ionian cup (Fig 5. 47. 610 to 570/60 BCE. IV/9. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) clay.reddishbrown (5YR 4/4) paint. brown (7. 149. 1. ending ca. Pale red (2. 150 Fig. Reg. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. white (IOYR 8/1) slip. 5.5YR4/4) paint. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos. 223. Other examples from the Heraion were found in a level dated ca. D (where mouth is cut away) = 13. No.511). Reg. 610-590/80 BCE) and also occurs in Phase IV (the late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165. 9. this type first appears in Phase III (ca. Beil. black (7.W2/29. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) clay.93:11 3401/102 890 1916 1318 E2a E2b-E3 E4 5038 Oinochoe? SOS amphora 3470/100 Parallels: In the South Temenos in the Heraion on Samos. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) micaceous clay.213-214. No.94: IONIAN CUPS No. Stratum E2a. 560 BCE (Isler 1978:93-94. 54141100. PI. 22). red (lOR 4/6) . yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) paint. Other examples from the Heraion were found in a level dated ca. foot and 1 handle. red (lOR 4/4) and white (lOR 8/1) paint.5YR 2.8 ern.reddish-black (2.5/2) paint. 14. Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:77-78) and in Well W 2 closed at about the same time (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:74-75. white (IOYR 8/1) slip. IV/9. Locus 1963. 8. 1. 1. white (10YR 8/1) slip. 231 . H.5YR 8/1) paint. 150 Fig. 5. Pink (7. 6. 2. 10. No. 33).FIGURE 5. III/ll12. PI. 13. = 4. 223. See Fig.5YR 5/2) lightly micaceous clay.94:2) 17 fragments of wall. 149.5/1) paint. III/II-12. Cat. 4. 33). Cat.5YR 5/4) micaceous clay.5YR 7/4) micaceous clay.5YR 7/4) clay. black (7.93:10 5. black (10YR 2/1)/red (lOR 4/6) paint. No. Locus 1971. very dark brown (7.

3156. 5.5 em. 32:f 1 and 3. D. Locus 1316. two blobs on inside. 16.5YR 2. Outside: band covering the mouth and the upper part of the wall. the shoulder and the rigid outline of the conical body of No. 10. Reg. = 0. Stratum E2a.9 ern. No. Stratum E3b. centre of Asia Minor 1973:28) but does not. D of mouth = 19 em. (Kinch 1914:Pl. No. 19) was most probably 232 .1. Ploug Dupont 1983:28-29). 38:6. Outside: band on foot and lower part of wall.1 ern. Decoration: Reddish-yellow 18. Reg. Locus 839.Decoration: Yellowish-red and dark grey paint. D. Length = 4. H. the island of Samos was an important at Miletus and in other workshops 1998:129). Handle: solid on outside.4 em. however.1. H. 11) and other more simply decorated cups from Vroulia on Rhodes (Kinch 1914:Pls. Inside: solid. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Handle fragment. Outside: and Kerschner striated solid except for a very narrow Decoration: Dark reddish-brown Type: Identified by Schlotzhauer 'Dorian cups' by P.94:4) Wall and handle fragment. Inside: unpainted. of finds (Furtwangler 1983:27. = 3. cm. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Handle fragment.1.4 em. Stratum E2a. 3500/101.4. 9. 18:9. as belonging to a marginal group of 'Ionian cups'.4). 15. termed examples are those of the so-called in cups of the Vroulia style The short rim not going beyond (1983:29) of which the most beautiful (cf. Locus 1321. 34-36. No. paint. 5248-2. wall and handles. Stratum 1. band just below = 22 = 12 ern. Cook and Dupont 1998:114-115). Stratum E 2a. Locus 1941. offer a consistent tradition (von Graeve 1973174:85. 45:32. a major production centre of 'Ionian cups' (Hayes 1980:150-161) 1966: 111-115. 13 but with thicker walls and handles and are no painted lines on the interior. = Reg.5/1) paint. Rec. Length Reg.92:6) 27 fragments D (mouth) of mouth. 'Dorian' cup or skyphos (Fig. 'Dorian' cup (Fig. 18 are paralleled 27:2-4. 3.94:3) Rim and wall fragment. 33). Inside: solid except for a band just below the mouth. Ionian cup (Fig. Kinch 1914:167-186. but they were also produced produced on Rhodes or Kos. H. The 'Dorian as well as the results of petrographic production of southwestern these cups. 3448/100. 43:23. Decoration: Very dark brown paint. No. Type: See No. No. 5. Decoration: Black (7. Dupont Vroulia-style the handle zone. Decoration: Red and reddish-black paint.2. = 3. 5. Solid. Outside: Horizontal stripe on lower edge of fragment. (5YR 7/6) clay painted all over in very dark grey (5YR 3/1).5. Reg. Cook and Dupont cup' (No. 39:8. 14. Pr. = 0. 37:4. 19. 35711100. 17. Type: Same type of cup as No. DISCUSSION Rhodes has long been considered According analyses (Dupont to the frequency of the clay (Dupont 1983:28. Locus 890.

5. R. Locus 1916.=9cm. 5. Fig. Decoration: Yellowish-red paint. H. Date: The careless execution of the twisted band points to a dating in Middle Wild Goat II. H. cross with filling of spherical triangles on rote lIes. POLYCHROME BLACK (SCHWARZBUNT) 20. Type: All these motifs first appear in Middle Wild Goat I (Cook and Dupont 1998:37. H. 21-24) came from 'Wild Goat style' vessels.8 ern. WILD GOAT STYLE OINOCHOAI At Kabri. and dominated the decoration of East Greek painted pottery for some three generations (Cook.94:8. 111-119. Oinochoe(?) (Fig. = 3.9 cm. Stratum E2b-E 3.93:11) Body fragment. 5. a rosette of concentric circles and a series of dots following the outermost circle as filling ornament. RM. Oinochoe (Figs. 21. 233 . 5. Reg.94:7. 24. 23. H.6) and continue into Middle Wild Goat II (Cook.94:6. 5. Locus 1321. 8.94:9) Shoulder fragment ofa closed vessel. 8. neck and handle fragments. Decoration: White slip and black painted design. No. Reg. Kardara 1963) is misleading. Oinochoe(?) (Figs. The name comes from the animal friezes. Fig. Parallels: The sanctuary of Hera on Samos (Technau 1929:29).93:10) Neck fragment. oblique lines on surface of handle. Stratum E2a.M. 5. Stratum E2a.6 em. On the left. Fig. Jug (Figs. 5. twisted band on neck. Mouth and sides of handle solid black. 3616/100. R. part of back and hind leg of a wild goat. 5. Schiering 1957. Date: The slightly careless execution of the filling ornaments points to a Middle Wild Goat II date. Locus 1334. on the right. 5038.6) and continue into Middle Wild Goat II (Cook. Decoration: White slip and brown paint. Reg. Cook and Dupont 1998:42. Fig. = 12. 1933/34:90-91. Locus 890. Type: These motifs first appear in Middle Wild Goat I (Cook and Dupont 1998:37. four fragments (Nos.10. Fig. R. Part of the back of a wild goat with part of a spiral quatrefoil above it. Stratum E2a. 8. No. decorating the main zone of the vessels. 22. = 4.JUGS. DISCUSSION 'Wild Goat style' is the term used in the English speaking archaeological community for the style which emerged about the middle of the 7th century BCE.M.2 em. 5. = 2.94:5. 1997:109. 3590/1 00. 1992:259.92:9) Mouth.M. Trefoil mouthed oinochoe with triple-coil handle (Figs. Cook and Dupont 1998:32-70). 2a-b). Reg. 1992:259. in which the goat became the most frequent species. 34011102. 2a-b). Miletus (unpublished). The old term 'Rhodian' (Cook.93:8) Shoulder and neck fragment. No. Decoration: White slip with horizontal stripes painted in black. Type: cf. No. H. Decoration: Painted solid black with two horizontal red lines and two horizontal white lines on shoulder.

Tocra and Cyrene) very little is known in the Levant.1. This transition is traditionally dated to about 600 BCE (payne 1931:57). A completely different solution has been proposed by Schaus (1986:289-292) who maintains that almost no fine ware was produced at Miletus in the first half of the 6th century BCE due to economic decline caused by internal civil conflicts (cf. the traditional date of ca. 600 BCE for the end of Early Corinthian has been questioned by scholars who put it a little later. Most recently.1986:62-64. from ca. R. 600 BCE and the beginning of the Fikellura style ca. SF 1. A problem under discussion is the date of the change from the Wild Goat style to the Fikellura style pottery mainly produced at Miletus (Dupont 1986:61. 1992:255-266). Cook and Dupont 1998:34. Cook and Dupont 1998:33-36). but dated the late style of his Camirus Group (comparable to Cook's Early Wild Goat . but clay analyses demonstrate that the island imported the ware (Dupont 1983:28-29. In Israel only a single sherd from Mezad Hasavyahu (Wenning 1989:186. although Middle and Late are regional styles and overlap chronologically. the Levant and North Africa come to an end and are replaced by North Ionian Late Wild Goat style ware (Schaus 1986:291. lOA) has come to light. personal communication). Jones 1986:665-671. The Fikellura style which. R. Whereas relatively much Late Wild Goat Style pottery has been found in North Africa (Naucratis. M. Petrographic clay analyses and stylistic researches have demonstrated that three or four main production centres of Wild Goat style pottery existed: Miletus. Cook and Dupont 1998:61). 65-66. he named this supposed decadent transitional style Wild Goat III (Cook. Later. exports of Middle Wild Goat II style pottery to the Black Sea coasts. Middle and Late. 600 and 560 BCE as too long a phase for Cook's decadent transitional style. Cook. Chios. The Middle Wild Goat style is divided into I and II around 625 BCE. and that the Fikellura style appeared with are-emergence of the industries at Miletus about 550 BCE. RM.Rhodes was the place where it was first found in quantity. considerable amounts of Middle Wild Goat II style pottery have been found in the sanctuary of Athena at Assesos near Miletus (Lohmann 1995:313-314). may have lasted into the first two decades of the 6th century BCE (Dupont 1986:65). 264).Middle Wild Goat II) to 610-560 BCE. The Early Wild Goat style probably did not last very long. Schaus (1986:284-288) ca. Cook and Dupont 1998:77-81. 1992:262. the discussion in Niemeier 1999:404 with n. 600 BCE. 112 Fig. Cook (1933/34:90. when ornament and poses became more stereotyped (Cook. The Late Wild Goat Style is an invention of North Ionian schools which diverged from the South Ionian mainstream while Early Corinthian was still flourishing (Cook. PI. Schaus 1986:288-289). He argued that the Middle Wild Goat II style. Schiering (1957:11) did not see this as a decadent transitional style. 550 BCE. 1997:123. 1997:112. The chronological gap between the supposed end of the Middle Wild Goat II style ca. is greatly indebted to the Middle Wild Goat II style (Cook. 650 to 640 BCE (Cook. 1992:260. 560 BCE and according to G. since it is no longer found in graves on Rhodes at the time when Middle Corinthian was replacing Early Corinthian (Cook and Dupont 1998:44).M.36-44). W. 1997:112.M. overlapping and influencing the early stage of Fikellura. 67-71.P. Walter-Karydi 1986:73-80. Fine pottery did exist at Miletus in the first half of the 234 . RM. 1933/34:90-91. 91). Cook and Dupont 1998:89) started ca. 1992:260. New evidence from Miletus disproves the theories of Cook and Schaus and confirms those of Schiering and Dupont (Schlotzhauer. ca. At about the same time. Moreover. Clazomenae and what Dupont calls North Ionian 2 (Dupont 1983:27-29. Cook and Dupont 1998:5156). 590 BCE (Hopper 1949:180. The end of the Middle Wild Goat II style has been dated by R. 1992:260. RM. 560 BCE may have been filled by a decadent variation of the former which lingered on beside the Late Wild Goat style (Cook. 10. Cook and Dupont 1998:56). Amyx 1988:428-429) as Payne (1931:57) previously suggested. According to Dupont's petrographic clay analyses the principal Middle Wild Goat II school is Milesian (Dupont 1986:60-64). RM. RM. according to R. 34-36. Cook to ca. The Wild Goat style has been divided into Early. Fig. Dupont regards the 40 years between ca. 8-9 = Naveh 1962. 1933/34:60. Jones 1986:665-666).M. Cook and Dupont 1998:44).

27. Type: As No.5 ern. (mouth) 13 ern.95:2) Two fragments of rim and shoulder. 3592/4. 26 Trade amphora (Fig. of rim fragment = 6 em. Locus 1318. Decoration: Unpainted. H. 5. Trade amphora (Fig. H. 5.7 em. 26. H. = 7. Reg. Locus 1914. This type of amphora. SOSAmphora (Figs.93:12) Neck and shoulder fragment. Part of '0' of the SOS motif on neck. 34701100. Shoulder solid. H. Type: As No.95:1) Neck and mouth fragment. D. Jones 1986:708-712). No. Thus at Miletus fine ware pottery production did not stop in the early 6th century BCE but it was not exported. Type: This sherd comes from an SOS amphora which gets its name from the varied zig-zag and circle motifs on the neck resembling the Greek letters 'sigma omikron sigma' (Jones 1986:706).reddish-brown paint. 235 . Trade amphora (Fig. 23. Locus 1335. 29. Type: Samian amphora of the early type with echinoid rim (Cook and Dupont 1998:164-165. in the northern Levant at Al Mina and in Egypt at Tell Defenneh (Johnston and Jones 1978:104-107. No. Decoration: Unpainted. D.6th century BCE and its decoration was not decadent. of mouth = 14 cm. Very important are fragments of 'bilingual' cups from Miletus. 1941-179. D.6). They demonstrate that the Fikellura style directly followed the Wild Goat II style and partly overlapped with it.8 ern. D. = Stratum E2a. 26. No. 5. Nos. 26. 5. Decoration: Reddish-yellow . Stratum E2a. 5. Stratum E 4.95:3) Rim fragment. Trade amphora (Fig. has been interpreted as a manifestation of the Athenian export trade in the Mediterranean during the Archaic period. TRADE AMPHORAE 25.first half of 6th century BCE. 5. Reg. = Reg. 166. (mouth) = 14 em. Stratum E2a. Date: The SOS amphora was in use from the later 8th to the first half of the 6th century BCE. = 7 ern. Type: As No.94:10. supposedly produced in Athens for the olive oil export market. Decoration: Unpainted. shoulder fragment = 15. 28. No. Decoration: Unpainted. 5148-2. (mouth) 13 cm. 5051-1. Locus 1912. 5. 112-122). = 6. Fig. Petrographic clay analyses have demonstrated that the majority of the SOS amphorae indeed are of Attic origin but imitations were also made at Chalkis and other places (Johnston and Jones 1978:122-128. Stratum E2. = Reg. Reg. H. mostly in Italy and Sicily but as far west as Spain and Morocco. Date: End of 7th . and in the east on the Black Sea at Histria. Parallels: SOS amphorae have been found outside of Greece at over forty Mediterranean sites. 5035.95:4) Rim fragment.2 ern. decorated on the outside in good Middle Wild Goat II style and on the inside in Fikellura style.

236 . 8 9 W ~ )fJI \ n )lJI \ )(~J \11 c.::jl n I ( 14 15 "rr 16 13 Fig.2 4 5 rj~ 6 7 dl ~.95: Amphorae and cooking-pots. 5.

12.95:9) Foot and wall fragment. 505114 1941/179 5148-2 5237-5 3309-3 3123-6 3335/10 3286-5 300112 3095/1 3437/100 3547/100. One horizontal groove at base of neck. Stratum El H. Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. = 9 em. Bluish-grey (5PB 5/1) core. 5. Cooking-pot 15.e Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg.5YR 5/6) . Locus 823. 5. Stratum El. 3552/100 3222 3228 315113 Locus 1335 1912 Stratum Description E2 E2a E2a E2a E2a El El El El El EI E2a El El E3 El See Fig. Decoration: Unpainted. Stratum E2a. 5. II. Reg. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/8) clay. lightly micaceous clay.7 a). No. 3309-3. 23. Reg. 9. Like No. H. 3.5YR 5/6) . D (neck) = 15 ern. Trade amphora (Fig. 2. Type: Milesian amphora (cf.FIGURE 5. No. Locus 874. D. = 3 em. Locus 889. three grooves on upper part of neck. D. 2. 4.6 em. No. 13.5 em. Decoration: Unpainted. (foot) = 5. Decoration: Unpainted. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) lightly micaceous clay. 14. 5237-5. 237 . Figs.5YR 5/6) highly micaceous clay. Red (2. D. Reg. Stratum El.95:6) Foot fragment. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) core. H. 6. (foot) = 8 em.95: AMPHORAE AND COOKING-POTS. Trade amphora (Fig. 32. 2. 34. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) surface. Trade amphora (Fig. light brownish-grey (1OYR 6/2) surface. Red (2. 31. 7. H. Red (2. Like No. No. unpainted. 1.5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. Reg. 8. 3123-6. Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. Cook and Dupont 1998:170-174.5 YR 2. Locus 1958.93:14 30. Stratum El. 3592-4 5035. 5. Cooking bowl 16. Locus 879. 33. shiny black (2. Decoration: Unpainted.5YR 5/6) micaceous clay. 1914 1958 879 823 889 874 Llll Kill 1309 1324 864 866 821 Red (2. 3335110. Grey (5YR 5/1)core with reddish-yellow (5YR 6/8) surface. H. Reg. D (foot) = 10 ern. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) lightly micaceous clay. 3286-5. = 6 em.first half of 6th century BCE. No. Amphora 5. 5. 10.95:8) Foot fragment.brown )7. 5.brown (7. micaceous clay.95:7) Foot fragment.5/1) paint.5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay.93:13 Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. No. Date: End of 7th . 5. Trade amphora (Fig. Decoration: Unpainted.95:5) Neck and shoulder fragment. = 3. = 3. TJ!l!. Blue-grey (5 B 511) clay. No. Trade amphora (Fig. (foot) = 6 em.3 cm.

39. Nos. KUbler 1970:192. 99. III. Fig. Fig. Stratum E1. = 5. 94 No. 38.35. PIs. Nos. Trade amphora. 5. Reg. Surface. They are known from different areas in Greece. The surface is partially blackened by fire. PI. 5. = 4. 1412-1413. Fig.95:10-15. 130-131. Parallels: East Greek examples have been published from the island of Chios (Boardman 1967:145-146.95:15) 2 rim fragments. these rims undoubtedly come from one-handled cooking jugs (chytrai) which have a tradition going back to the Sub-Mycenaean period (Reber 1991:20-56). Cat. Its identification was secured by comparing the piece directly with fragments of Archaic Etruscan bucchero pottery in the collection of the Archaeological Institute of Heidelberg University. 29-31) or from an olpe of his Type 1. Nos. No. 3552/100. Reg. Cooking bowl (Fig. ( 238 .5 em. N 18.482. Reg. D (mouth) = 20 cm.8 em. 598). 91-92.038. 3547/100. 139. = 6. 37. = 5. PIs. 30 cm. No. Reg. No.93:14) The Etruscan bucchero sherd was a surprise.5 em. 11. 5. 105). 18. 22:L 45-48. PI. According to its profile. to those from Ephesos and to two examples from the Greek settlement at Tocra in Libya dated by Hayes to the late 7th/early 6th century BCE and attributed to a possible Cycladic origin (Hayes 1966:135-137. Locus 1309. R. 34371100. Locus 866. 493. H =.1922. PI. Date: Late 7th century BCE 41. No. 21-22. 136. No. Stratum E1. Locus 864. Square Kill. 300112. Cooking-pots (Figs.7. 18. Type: Ware similar to Nos.95:16. dated between the end of the third quarter of the 7th to the tum of the 7th . Decoration: Unpainted. Type: Although no handles are preserved. 3222. 512 Cat. 371.203210. Nos. Brann 1961a:123124. this is a bowl with an everted rim. 153154 PI. Stratum E 3. = 6. 155. H. but their typological sequence can only be followed at Athens with the material from the Agora and the Kerameikos (Young 1939:189-190.40. the fabric of the latter. 36. H. 136. described as "loaded with large flakes of silvery mica". D = ca. Stratum E2a.7 ern. =8 cm. 75. Cat. D (mouth) = 20 ern. H. 1932.4 em. (not illustrated) Shoulder fragment. No. 1961b:317. Stratum E1. Reg.5 em. is very like that of the Kabri cooking jars and may indicate a southern Ionian origin. Nos. Reg. No. 83. 19411178. The Kabri fragments have a profile similar to that of an example from Chios (Boardman 1967:146 Fig.the Kabri sherd comes either from an oinochoe of Rasmussen's Type 3a. No. H. No. PI. Nos. Square Lll1. D (mouth) = 20 ern. 1962:55. 86-91). 66). 40. Q 10. 145. 116 PI. 5. 597-604. 3095-1. Surface partially blackened by fire. PI. Unpainted. 5. 94) and from Ephesos (Kerschner 1997:115. . Cat. 93. H. Figs. Sparkes and Talcott 1970:224-225. They are unpainted. 42.93:13) Rim fragments of imported Greek cooking vessels of coarse highly micaceous clay with rolled out rim. Etruscan bucchero (Figs. Locus 1324. However. 127. 20.6th centuries BCE or shortly after (Rasmussen 1979:88-89. 36-40. D (mouth) = 19 ern. 7-8. common in the last quarter of the 7th century and in the first quarter of the 6th century BCE (Rasmussen 1979:78-79. COOKING VESSELS 36 . Cat. XII). 3228/1. D (mouth) = 21 cm. H.

'Ionian cups' (Fig.32. PI. V:a. .(Riis 1982:251-252). PI. Fig. 14). of this type in the southern This is very impressively (Gitin BCE found at Tel Miqne-Ekron Polychrome black jugs (Fig. Fig. Tel Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:126. 14. 7a-b). this vessel type was seldomly exported like examples found at Vroulia in Rhodes (Kinch . 49 Fig. Figs. 6. 10.PIs. of others at Dan. Dor and Ashkelon Mezad Hashavyahu (unpublished. PIs. 2). Fig 9. PI.31 Jemmeh (Illiffe 1932:17.12). 251-255. 6). 13. both from Mezad Hashavyahu 1914:190-191.Ras Ibn Hani. 17. 5. Achzib (Culican 1982:67. PI. Iliffe 1932:17. Fig. 5. No. 69*. Figs. 28:7-14). Fig. 32.Tel 2001:90-94. from Al 1980:47-48). Mezad Hasavyahu and Magness 1997:33. No. pls. 5.96:1) were frequent at Al Mina (Robertson Ras el-Bassit mentioned one example has been published (Courbin (Courbin 1940:14. 1923:PI. Ashkelon (Pythian-Adams Fig. following p. Waldbaum and Magness Ashkelon (Stager 1996a. Reich 1989:230 Fig.10. PIs.96:4) are known in the northern Levant from Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:72. Fragments of four Bird bowls were unearthed at Tyre (Coldstream and Bikai 1988:43. amphorae Fantalkin 84-85. 4. Fig. 32.6) and several others have been 1986:198 with note 65). V. colour photo. Figs. Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1978a:57. 35). Fantalkin 2001:89-90.67*.31. Mezad Hashavyahu (Naveh 1962 110-111. Tel (Gitin 1995:65. Magness 1997:30 with note 56) and Tel Batash (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:30.4).a). 239 (Naveh 1962:108-109. 86). Sarepta (Koehl 1985:137-138. Fantalkin 2001:Fig. 1. 72. No Bird bowls were found at Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:41).5.3. 6. In general. 12. Boardman 1978b:41 PI. There are only two examples besides that from Kabri. Waldbaum and Magness':1997:29-30. for example. 12) and have been found at. From Most of the classes of Archaic Greek pottery found at Tel Kabri are well distributed Mina in the north to the Negev in the south. Tell er-Ruqeish (Waldbaumand Fantalkin 2001 :88-87. Fig. Keisan (Briend and Humbert Tel Batash (Waldbaum (Naveh 1962:104-105. 3). such 1980:151. 4). Wild Goat II style (Fig. XIII).387-389. but the fragment example so far known from Israel. . 6g). Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:27-38). 85. 7 No. Other classes are less known from the Levant.2. XIII) and in Israel at Tell Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:151. 1993:936). 120.35 Fig. PI. 7. 2. 5. 18).96:2) were unearthed at Al Mina (Robertson 1940:13. 16. Fig. 1990:508). Nos. No.1). PI. 67*). 10-11. 10.3-4). 5. IV:1. 6.31 Fig. olive presses of the 7th century be due to the fact that this region had its own olive-oil by the numerous from Kabri is the only Levant may documented 1995:63-69). Ras Ibn Hani (Riis 1982:251-252).96:3)pottery has been foundat Al Mina (Robertson 1940:8-16. SOS amphorae (Fig. I-III.1. 5. 3). XVI. Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:43-69. 8 Nos.5. IX-XI). 16. Nos. Nos. . 32:2 and 35:10). 60. Fig. Fantalkin 2001:75-79. PI. 29. The reason for the rareness industry. 9. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33 with note 79). 66*. 13. PI. Tell el-ijesi (Risser and Blakely 1989:93. 1996b. Tel Batash (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:28) and Ashkelon (Stager 1996a:67*. 11-12.5:7-8). XV. . 4. In Israel.97:1) have been found at Al Mina. Tell Tel Malhata (Kochavi 1970:23 (below). Waldbaum and Magness 1997:27-28. cf. XX. 14. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:30. 34 Fig.322-323.ARCHAIC EAST GREEK AND ETRUSCAN POTTERY IN THE LEVANT in the Levant. PI. East Greek trade amphorae (Fig.. Mezad Hashavyahu Miqne-Ekron (Naveh 1962:106-107.Tyre (Coldstream and Bikai 1988:42. Nos.1). Bird bowls (Fig. No.1-6. 32.97:1) are rare in the Levant. Akko. 131 Nos. Boardman 1980:48. PI. 11 Nos. 41 PI. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:29. 1978b. Fig.1-12. mentioned by Waldbaum 1994:59) and possibly at (Naveh 1962:106-107.3-3. 5. Stager 1996a. In Israel. . 1997:32-33. Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1986: 198.1-2l 35. 69*. Dan (pakman 1992:236 Fig.1-7. Fig. Fig. 22:1.23) and at a number of sites in Israel. 114-117. fragments of three Bird bowls were found at Tell Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:125. Fig. Figs. Boardman 1980:48). Fig.

240 . Bottom left) Wild Goat II style.96: Distribution of East Greek vessels in Israel: Top left) Bird bowls.lELL ER-RUQEISH'i TELL EL-HESI • T • ELL MALHATA Fig. 5.SAREPTA I. ! TEL DAN ~ • TEL KfABR' TEL KEISAN JELL JEMMEH • l. Top right) Ionian cups. Bottom right) Cooking vessels.

10) and numerous sherds of this ware have been found in the Late Iron Age destruction debris and the earlier construction fill at Ashkelon (Stager 1996a:67*. Fantalkin 2001 :86-87. 5.7-8.Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31. Fig. Fragments of up to 18 Greek cooking-pots have been identified at Mezad Hashavyahu (Naveh 1962:104-105. 4. 1977-78. 12a-b. Reich 1989:230 Fig. Rostovtzeff 1932:331-332. in Sardinia.202 Fig. 30. (right) Greek cooking vessels. Fig. Fewer have been unearthed on the Greek mainland. 7. Greek cooking vessels (Fig.34 Fig. the only known examples in the Levant were two fragments of kantharoi of Rasmussen's Type 3e from Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1973:27.97:2) of this period are known from only a few Levantine sites. von Hase 1989:329.7-8. Fig. PI. Fig. 12F. Fig. Fragments of one or two cooking-pots have been found at Tel Batash in the Stratum II destruction debris of Area F (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31. Fig. Before the find of the Kabri bucchero fragment. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31-32.31. an oinochoe or olpe. 1978a. 11). PI. all in Israel. In this context. 60b.33 Fig. PI.1. two bronze objects should be mentioned which have been seen as Etruscan imports in the Levant: a belt buckle in the British Museum said to have been found in Syria (Hall 1929/30: 107. on p. It is striking that the Kabri fragment comes from a closed shape. 5. Fig. von Hase 1971: 10-12. in eastern Sicily and at Carthage. 8-9. Imports of Etruscan bucchero have been found in greater quantities in the western Mediterranean.eel' f . in southern France. Figs.97: Distibution in the Levant of (left) SOS amphorae and polychrome black jugs.TEl KABRI • I ! ~J Fig.1-2. the Aegean islands. Gras 1985:676-679. the western coast of Asia Minor and in the Levant (see Rasmussen 1979:150-156. 2). since almost all Etruscan bucchero vessels found in the eastern Mediterranean are kantharoi (Rasmussen 1979: 155). 64. PI. 63. 1). 1986:201. Gras 1985 :672-674) and a bronze oinochoe of the so-called Rhodian type reportedly found 241 . 36). 6. 58. 92.

The nature of the Greek presence in the Levant has been thoroughly discussed elsewhere (Neimeier 2001). PIs. Courbin (1978a:58. The few Etruscan objects from the Levant certainly do not provide evidence for direct Etruscan trade with the Near East. Gitin 1997:98-99). it is improbable that the Babylonian destruction of Ekron happened after 595 BCE since. Moreover.1-2) and identified as an Etruscan import by Gras (1985:676). it is impossible to establish during which of these campaigns the Phoenician fortress of Stratum E2 in Area of Tel Kabri was destroyed. I would agree with Gitin that the most convincing date is 604 BCE. Stager 1996a:72* with note 1. The date of the fall of Tel Miqne (Ekron) is not as assured. caption) thinks that the two Ras el-Bassit kantharoi were brought by east Greek intermediaries. to November/December 604 BCE (Wiseman 1956:28. As Gitin (1998:276. The excavators of Tel Kabri contend that a small contingent of Greek mercenaries in the service of the Kingdom of Tyre was based in the fortress of Stratum E2 (Niemeier 1994. Unlike the garrison at Mezad Hashavyahu. The implication is that the Philistines no longer posed a threat to Babylon at that time. driven from their homeland by many factors (Bettalli 1995 :26. in 603 BCE (Malamat 1979:208. No texts exist recording the destruction of the fortress at Tel Kabri. Frey 1963:23. 1995. Jacobsthal 1929:205-206 No. 68-69. one year later. n. 1996b:58. 77 with note 3. 2002).1 and 4. the imported Greek pottery of Stratum E2a also shows close relationships to the assemblage from the destruction levels at the end of the Iron II phase at Ashkelon and Tel Miqne (Ekron) (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:27-33). A 23). According to the Babylonian Chronicle in the British Museum. THE DESTRUCTION OF THE FORTRESS OF STRATUM E2 Like the Phoenician pottery (Chapter 5:1V).e.at Sidon which was acquired by the Berlin Museum from a Parisian art dealer (Furtwangler 1888:250 No. but without a representative from Philistia. and M. cf. in 60110BCE or even after 595 BCE when the chronicle ends (Na'aman 1992:43-44). i. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:37). when the Babylonians destroyed Ashkelon. Shefton 1979:68 No. 108-109). the Berlin jug is most probably of east Greek manufacture (Jacobsthal 1929:210. Rostovtzeff (1932:332) has suggested that the belt buckle from Syria probably was brought by an Etruscan slave or associate of a Phoenician merchant. 10. according to the text of Jeremiah 27 dated to 594 BCE describing a meeting in Jerusalem at which a rebellion against Babylon is planned. It has been suggested that it was destroyed during the same campaign as Ashkelon (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:37-38).4. and Philistia apparently came totally under their control. 242 . the conquest of Ashkelon is dated to the month of Kislev in the first year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II. Since the latest Greek pottery from Kabri cannot be more accurately dated than between the last decade of the 7th century BCE and the first half of the 6th century BCE. In all probability it occurred during one ofNebuchadnezzar's campaigns along the Phoenician and Philistine coast at the end of the 7th and in the first two decades of the 6th century BCE (Wiseman 1985:21-41. 3. The excavators of both sites have convincingly attributed these destructions to the Babylonian invasions led by Nebuchadnezzar II. the map Stager 1996b:58).. Thus the date of Ekron's destruction by the Babylonians falls most likely in the ten year-span of 604-595 BCE. 2) has recently argued. these were single members of the elite. Thus neither object comes from a secure context.

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