TEL KABRI

THE 1986-1993 EXCAVATION SEASONS
AHARON KEMPINSKI

Contributions by N. Angel-Zohar, R. Y. Bankirer, A. Cohen-Weinberger, P. Comale, C. Dauphin, M.Faerman, M. Fischer, L. Gershuny, S. Givon, Y. Goren, A. Horowitz, H. M. Khalaily, L. Kolska Horwitz, Z. Koren, G. Lehmann, O. Lemau, N. Liphschitz, O. Marder, H. Mienis, Y. Mizrachy, A. Nebel, B. Niemeier, W.-D. Niemeier, R. Oren, T. Oman, M. W. Prausnitz, A. Princivalle, P. Rosano, N. Scheftelowitz, S. Shalev, P. Smith, M. Tagliapietra, T. Tsuk, U. Yalcin. .

EDITED BY

NA' AMA SCHEFTELOWITZ AND RONIT OREN

EMERY AND CLAIRE YASS PUBLICATIONS IN ARCHAEOLOGY TEL AVIV 2002

IV. AREAE
Gunnar Lehmann

Area E lies on a small rectangular artificial hill measuring 100 x 150 m in the southwestern corner of the large Middle Bronze Age mound of Tel Kabri and rising some 12 m over it (Fig. 4.81). Until 1948 a small village called et-Tell occupied this area. The rich spring of <A a1-Fuwarah and the reservoir of <Ein Shefa' in (Birket Mefshukh) (Conder and Kitchener 1881:156, 158) lie to its northeast (Chapter 3). Excavation concentrated on the northwestern corner of the hill. The investigation, begun in 1986 under the supervision of Lilly Gershuny, was continued in 1989, 1990 and 1992 by Helena Pastor Borgonon. In 1993 this author supervised the excavations in Area E. Preliminary reports on the stratigraphy and finds for these seasons were published by the Kabri Expedition between 1990-1994 (Gershuny 1987; Kempinski 1987, 1991; Naveh and Kempinski 1991; Niemeier 1990, 1994; Pastor Borgonon 1990, 1991; Lehmann 1993).

Fig. 4.81: The mound of et-Tell showing the excavations in Area E.

Four main strata were discerned.
Stratum E1 E2 E3 E4 Date 19th century CE- 1948 Hellenistic period Iron Age" Iron Age" Iron Age" Description and Interpretation Village Some pottery finds from disturbed tombs Fortress Fortress Floors and debris

73

EARL Y BRONZE AGE
Pottery from this period was mixed into almost all lower Iron Age loci providing abundant evidence for occupation here at that time. However, no Early Bronze Age structures or layers were excavated.

MIDDLE AND LATE BRONZE AGE
These periods are represented by isolated sherds found in the debris below the lowest floors.

IRON AGE
The earliest Iron Age levels are debris layers (Locus 871) that were identified in a very limited sounding under Floor 870 of Stratum E4 (Fig. 4.82). There is no floor connected with this debris. STRATUME4 Remains of Stratum E4 appeared only in a sounding under Floor 866 of Stratum E3 in Square L 11.1 A plaster floor (870) at 55.00-55.10 m was discerned but its relationship to the casemate walls was not clear. However, the underlying locus (871) is already under the casemate walls and it seems probable that Stratum E4 predates the construction of the fortress. No other evidence of this stage was found, perhaps because excavation did not continue below Stratum 3 anywhere else. Pre-8th century BCE pottery (Figs. 5J50, 5.70) is associated with this stratum. STRATUME3 The structural piers remains of Stratum E3 are those of a fortress with casemate l312/816, l3111l344) are massive constructions, walls (858, fieldstone fills. Partition 878, 87~, 882, walls (Fig. 4.83, 4.84). The 1.60 m wide, built with ashlar l332) form a number of '
871

N
59.00

L11

s

Fig. 4.82: Schematic north-south section through Square Lll.

casemate walls (l343/863, and undressed compartments.

Casemate walls W816 and Wl311

of Stratum 3 are clearly cut in Square M9 by W131 0 of division (Fig. 4.85). only in Square

Stratum 2 (see below) providing us with a distinct stratigraphic LII at 55.90 m. Thus the earliest phase (E3c) is evident

Stratum E3 had at least three phases of floors (Fig. 4.85). Floor 866 was excavated is represented by floors at a level of about 57.00-15 by later building Metal fittings, activity m in the casemate rooms

only in one small room. The next phase (3b) 848, 876 and 883 in Almost (Locus all 873)

Squares Ll1, K-LlI2 was badly disturbed baskets century B.C.E.

and K13. The final phase (3a) at about 57.70 m (Loci 812, 813, 837, 1313, 1314) and the finds on and above them are mixed. Ottoman sherds together for a door, were found in the debris 3b and 3a contain probably with distinctive 8th-7th

of floor loci from phases pottery.

above the 3b floor 876. 1 Unfortunatelythe locusnumberwas not changedin 1990 so thatthe fmds from underthe floor are also numbered L. 866. It is howeverpossibleto isolatethe basketsL. 866 thatcontainedmaterialfrom StratumE4. 74

..I~ It.. I I I I I .J 75 .

4.N t M N t M 10 N t M 10 Fig. E3b (centre) and E3c (bottom). 76 .84: Schematicplans of Strata E3a (top).

Fig. 4.87. 4. looking south. 4. Room 1977 in foreground.89). 4. 77 . Fig. W1310 of Stratum E2 (on right) cuts W1311/W1312 of Stratum 3 (on left).87: Casemate rooms in Squares 0/4-8. 4. STRATUME2 Only the northwestern part of this fortress was excavated (Squares L-Q/4-10) (Figs. 4.Fig.85: Square M9. looking east.86: Looking west over Squares 0-P/7-8. 4.86.88.

_ -1- _L I -I- -I- -i- I -1- N ~ -\- _L I -t~ V1 '+-< 0 ~ ~ e ..~· ------% -1.f z 0 0 ii: eO 78 ..§ A-. .. I -j- ~~IM~. o ] ..." z o . . -1- -1- -1- -1- -1- -:--------:-:3t . 00 00 ..

79 . Str..'I .. E2b N6 + 06 o:"'__~d' P6 B Destruction layer with Restorable Pottery 04 05 06 07 Fig.89: Schematic plan of Stratum E2 with Sections A-A and B-B. 4.SBm--+ B . A Destruction Layer with Restorable Pottery A L :---_ --I I 1 I I .

Below this was a further series of surfaces (1988. but thick layer of ash immediately north of it. the casemate walls are 1. Stratum E2. Wall W1339 does not continue further east into Square L 11 but may have been robbed out. adjusting to the topography of the mound. The structural context of this wall. which may be the remains of a burnt beam. It may be the eastern continuation of the Stratum E2 casemate system or a reinforcement in Stratum E3 between walls W816 and W1343. 2b) represented by distinct floors. The sounding exposed remains ofa wall (WI926) in Square P7. as does the floor. Stratum E2b in order to examine the foundations of W1389 but digging stopped before reaching their base. 5. The rich pottery repertoire retrieved comprises restorable types such as jugs. 4. While most of the pottery from this sounding has parallels in both Strata E2 and E3. looking None of the foundations of the three casemate walls were west.g. 1984) was exposed between walls W1331 and W897 in Square 0/5-6 (Fig.90). early mortaria types or transport jars (Fig. In Square L 10 it disappears in pits which were dug by stone robbers in the Ottoman period when the remains of Stratum E2 were leveled and built over by a village. Two rows of rooms were excavated between the three walls. too remains obscure. Phase E2b A floor of a casemate room of Stratum E2b (Loci 1961.82:8-10) and represents a typical assemblage of the mid-7th century BeE. 80 . Fig. 2). The beaten earth floor has an ash layer of up to 10 em on it. a wall (WI993) was found with a narrow.1989. as were several additional rooms south of the innermost casemate wall (W897). the northwestern corner of the casemate fortification system was not established. Although the excavations reached the western slopes of the hill. some of it (e. built with ashlar piers and undressed fieldstone fills (Fig. 4.As in Stratum 3. it is not clear to which stratum this wall belongs.60 m wide.1992).1991. Since the foundation of W1339 was not excavated. Only the northern part of this wall was excavated but as no floor connected with it was found. 5. Assyrianizing types) appears only in Stratum E2. its architectural context is unclear. The burnt contents of a transport jar were also collected. and found.1990. fragments of at least one large pottery basin and a concentration of shells. Fortunately many floors were still deep enough to survive this leveling. The ash and the restorable pottery from the casemate floor may indicate a destruction layer. The outer casemate wall (W1382+WI986) turns northward after running for 25 m east-west. Other finds on the floor include iron objects.79:12.91).90: W1340. 13. 4. Under the lowest surface reached in the sounding (1992). Note ashlar piers. This technique has been identified as a Phoenician architectural element (c£ Stem 1992:Fig. About 10-15cm under the floor gravel bedding (Locus 1994) slopes downward from north to south. Two phases of use were discernible in most of them (2a. In Square OP7 a sounding was made under Floor 1987 of fieldstone fill. Wall W1339 was built exactly between walls W816 and W1343.

4. 4. which may have originally covered both rooms. Since the baulk between P7 and Q7 was not removed. The floor slopes down southward rather steeply from W897 to W1328/W1949 which was built on it (Kempinski and Niemeier 1994:Fig. The entire central part of its plaster floor was destroyed by an Ottoman pit. the undisturbed part of the floor is a fragment of a basket handle amphora with an engraved sign (Fig. looking east. There are some indications of destruction of Stratum E2b.42-59. South of Room 1987 is Room 1309.86:3). Only parts of the floor of Room 1987 in Square O-P/7 were exposed during the excavation. Destruction layer with restorable pottery. The pottery types resemble the types in Stratum E2a. Locus 1333 east of W1330 and Locus 1334 to the west of this wall may belong to Stratum E2b. the debris was apparently leveled immediately after the destruction raising the floor level of Stratum E2a to about 20 em above E2b.55 m which yielded a large number of pottery finds. Among the finds from. 81 . Fig. such as ash and restorable pottery on the floors. in Square P7. It was violently destroyed resulting in small finds and large amounts of restorable pottery being left in situ.91: Room 1961. 5. Fig. Pit 1936 was dug down from this floor. In Square Q7 two floors.Room 1969 in Square P6 has a floor at about 59. it was not established whether these floors are a continuation of floor 1309. Since the pottery repertoire of Strata E2a and E2b is very similar. Excavations continued some 20 em under floor 1966 (Locus 1963) until the end of the season interrupted operations. possibly with the addition of some pit installations. Phase 2a The overall plan of this phase is virtually identical to that of its predecessor. Floor 1309 runs up to W1328 and joins floor 1987. 1).92: Room 890. This material is apparently either from a destruction at the end of Stratum E2b or it is a fill to raise the level of Stratum E2b to that of Stratum E2a.

a fragment of a pottery vat used for purple dyeing (Chapter 16) and a broken storage jar with an incised Phoenician letter.58 m. The floor of Room 890 lay at 58.23). Finds on its floor comprise late 7th century BCE transport jars. 4.96). 5.87:1). Also unearthed was an iron spearhead (Fig. Peleg et al. They are defined and separated from one another by partition walls W899. Oren 1984:28. 5. on which lay a great deal of pottery. it may also be part of the same phase. This type of arrowhead is well known from Syria and Palestine from the late 8th through the 4th centuries BeE (see Cleuziou 1977. this deposit of pottery and small finds was filled into the casemate rooms during the destruction of Stratum E2a (Figs. Trilobate arrowheads have been connected with Scythians in the 7th century BCE (Cleuziou 1977: I93) but were also later used by the Achaemenid army.75).New floors were exposed in the casemate rooms.93). 5.53 m.00 m thick above them (Locus 1914) in which remains of plaster flooring were also mixed (Fig. many of them basket-handle amphoras from Cyprus. a floor.92).87:2).62 m. Although Locus 1977 in Square 04 on the western edge of the mound between casemate walls W897 and W1331 is much lower than the above-mentioned floors of Stratum E2a.5:8) was found out of context but probably belongs to Stratum E2. Floors 890. Fig. 8. Recovered from the floors of these rooms was a large quantity of restorable transport jars. 8. 4. Fallen stones and broken mudbricks covered the floor of 1948 (Fig. 4. Moorey 1980:64-66. 4. and of Room 1948 at 58. looking north. Fig. W1331 and W1342. It is therefore possible that material from an upper storey collapsed into the rooms below and that the upper floors were used for storage. This assortment of pottery and small finds does not rest immediately on the floors but in a layer of debris from 0. A bronze trilobate arrowhead with socket (Fig. 10.93: Destruction debris in Room 1948.94). looking west. apparently an aleph (Fig. that of Room 1941 at 58. 82 .95. was traced in Square N8-9 at 58. One of these had Cypriote letters incised on it (Fig.50-55m (Fig. enclosed by W1310. It is a type with a long socket and an elaborated rib in the middle of the blade which has many parallels in the late Iron Age (Moorey 1980:64). In the destruction debris of Square 04 was a body sherd with an incision of a jar (Fig. It was severely disturbed by robber trenches and pits cutting through the loci immediately above it. 4. 1983). 4. According to the pottery and the small finds. 1941 and 1948 were identified between walls W1331 and W897 in Square 05-7.94: Locus 1914. 4. Other finds from this destruction debris include an Egyptian amulet (Fig. W1340 and W1995.30-1. In Locus 1321.5:9) which may have been one of the weapons used during the destruction of the building.

83 . 4. 4. Fig. 5. was identified at 59.98). Several rooms abutting on the southern side of W897 were excavated.Fig. is defined by W897. east of 1960. 4.65-70 m (Fig. Room 1308. South of this installation was a stone lined pit with an Assyrian bowl (Fig. In the northern part of the room.95: Locus 1912.96: Locus 1913.76:15) in it.97: Installations in Room 1960. East of this was a stone basin. W1329. 4. close to wall W897. were a few installations. Fig. complete with threshold and door socket found in situ. including complete transport jars and an oven in the northeastern corner of the room. W1950 and W1974.97). looking east. 4. As in Room 1960. the threshold survived.69-73 m (Fig.98: Destruction debris on the floor of Room 1308. W1328. several in situ finds from the destruction of Stratum E2a were recorded. 4. looking east. The floor of Room 1960 in Square P6. A complete transport jar was sunk slightly into the floor which was plastered around the opening in order to facilitate pouring liquids into it. Although cut by a number of Ottoman pits. looking south. The room was entered from the south through a doorway. W1949 and W1950 with a floor at 59. enclosed by W897. Fig.

This corridor continued eastward into Square P7 where it may have linked up with a room between W1328. It may have belonged to Stratum E2. LOCUS 855 IN SQUARE III In Square I II a floor (855) was found on the very edge of the hill. 1309). Remains of additional floors were also found in Square Q7 west ofW1330 at 59. This floor is connected to W860. 5.South of Room 1960 there was probably a corridor (Locus 1963) but the area excavated is too small to clarify the plan in this part of the building. W1329. 84 . Its stratigraphic relationship is uncertain. forms an entrance to Room 1308. On the floor was a thick layer of ash. 4. Unfortunately a pit (Locus 1908 in Square P7) destroyed the northern part of W1330 and there is no evidence of any connection between these two walls.99: Steps of a staircase in Locus 1318. this floor connects with adjacent floors of Stratum E2a. Unfortunately this area was so disturbed by Ottoman pits that there were almost no traces of Stratum E2a except for finds out of context.52-63 m. This locus was disturbed during the Ottoman period by stone-robbing.3: 10).99). Material found in Locus 864 below this floor was also mixed. south of which were the remains of an oven. Wall W1330 in Squares P-Q17 runs exactly towards the corner ofW1949 which. On the same level as the first steps are remains of a pebble floor immediately south of the stairs. The room immediately north of these steps may have been part of the staircase. Large rectangular dressed stones found in situ in Square P8 in Room 1318 may have been the first steps of stairs leading into an upper storey (Fig. but the finds here are mixed and disturbed by later material.94 m). According to the level of both the lowest steps and the pebble floor (59. W1341 and W1330 (Loci 1305. Among the pottery finds from Room 1318 were fragments of a Greek SOS amphora (Fig. 4.45 m and west ofW1330 at 59. with W1328. Among these finds was the fragment of a pottery vat used for purple dyeing (Chapter 16). Parallels to pottery finds would place this locus in either Stratum E2 or E3. Fig. This floor was apparently in use with the steps.

Only a few installations. In Assyrian sources. cf. probably ancient Kabul. Akko became again the urban centre of an integrated. Stem 1990).STRATUM El Remains ofa village from the Ottoman period were uncovered between 1986 and 1992 in Squares K-MlI013 (living floors) and in Square III (tombs). Thus. The remains of a fortress in Strata E3 and E2 point to a special function of the site. Apparently the plain and the hills were newly organized and their agricultural production integrated into the economy of the city-state of Tyre. During Iron Age I the centralized urban system of the kingdom of Akko was replaced by two apparently independent settlement systems: one on the coastal plain using the Late . In 1993 Mahmud Hawari excavated Ottoman remains in Square Q8 (Hawari 1994). the Akko plain appears as Tyrian territory? In Iron Age II. all out of context. most of the Ottoman village in Squares N-Q14-8 was bulldozed before the excavations in order to reach the Iron Age levels. At the end of Iron Age I and the beginning of Iron Age II the settlement pattern in the Akko plain changed. Lehmann 1995. when the Assyrian king reached the Akko plain (Katzenstein 1997: 174-178). around 850 BCE according to the pottery. Kabri was also important for controlling the all-weather route on the slopes leading from Rosh ha-Niqra south to Akko and the Carmel. but earlier such site and collection point was Horvat Rosh Zayit. 1994. Kabri is situated exactly between the coastal plain with its emphasis on grain production and the hill-country which produced wine and oil. The end of Stratum E4 and the beginning of Stratum E3 might reflect political events following the campaigns of Tiglatpileser III in 734 or 733 BCE (Tadmor 1994). may have some connections with the campaign ofShalmaneser III in 841 BCE. Large amounts of Ottoman pottery were found (mostly out of context) among which were many fragments of Rashayya al-Fukhar painted jugs. Kabri was a significant strategic point in the northern Akko plain. 85 . The stratigraphy reflects the historical events in this part of the Tyrian hinterland. Reallexikon der Assyriologie volume 1(1928)64. Frankel and Getzov 1997. The territorial transformation of the Akko plain into an Assyrian province may have begun already in 701 BCE under Sennacherib and his campaign 2 Na'aman 1994. the settlement pattern of the Late Bronze Age collapsed at the end of this phase (Frankel 1986.2001. The transition from Stratum 5 to Stratum 4. However. many of the small Iron Age I villages were abandoned and new equally small villages were founded in the same hill and mountain areas. SUMMARY After being one of the major urban centres in northern Palestine during the Middle Bronze Age. where agricultural products from the hill-country might have been collected and stored before being shipped to places such as Akko or Akhziv. a tower like complex of the 10th and 9th centuries BCE at the edge of the Akko plain (Gal and Alexandre 2000). At Kabri this road was crossed by another route leading from the sea to Upper Galilee. In the lower Ottoman levels there were also some stray finds of Hellenistic pottery (Chapter 5:IV). Kabri) points to an integration of the area into the Tyrian city-state and its economic system. especially at the end of the 8th and the 7th century BCE. but on different locations.apparently restricted to the small hill of et-Tell. centralized settlement system (Lehmann 2001. According to archaeological surveys. floors and pits were identified. Another. Bronze Age sites on a reduced scale and another situated on the hills and the mountain slopes in newlyfounded very small villages (Lehmann 2001). the importance of Tel Kabri was reduced to a small rural site during the Late Bronze Age . Olami 1974). The large percentage of Tyrian pottery at these sites (e.g. Ronen and Olami 1983. For Assyrian references to Akko see Parpola 1970: 11. Kloner and Olami 1980.

when he marched against Tyre ca. While Assyrian artistic representations and historical texts indicate that the Phoenician centres were fortified.against Tyre (Pritchard 1955:287). The casemate fortifications of Stratum E3 were abandoned and a completely new fortress with new casemate walls was built (Stratum E2). Fig. Lancel 1995). The plan of this large fortress on a mound is quite different from the few fortresses known in Upper and Western Galilee such as those on Mount Adir (Davis et al. The triple casemate wall system of Stratum E2a probably covered most of Area E (90 x 60 m) and shaped the rectangular form of et-Tell (Fig. According to the 675174 BCE treaty between. The casemate system of Kabri may have been incorporated into the settlement as in Beersheba Stratum II where the walls of the houses abut on the casemate walls using them as part of their construction (Herzog 1997:Fig. Most of the Assyrianizing pottery found in Kabri dates to Stratum E2 or was found in the sounding in Squares O-P17 under Stratum E2b and may thus have started at the end of Stratum E3. Katzenstein 1997:289).100). Gal 1993a:453). Again there was no lasting peace and only a few years after their agreement Esarhaddon laid siege to Baal's Tyre in 671 BCE (Na'aman 1994: 6 and 1995:109). However. probably ancient Kabul (Gal and Alexandre 2000). Lamprichs 1995:173. Akko was apparently not included in the territory of Tyre. the Phoenician homeland. Whether this pottery reflects Assyrian presence or a local imitation of Assyrian pottery remains uncertain. In particular. detailed studies of Phoenician architecture and fortifications in particular are still lacking (Leriche 1992. 1985. Lipinski 1992. The fortress might have been in the hands of rebels and was destroyed by Ashurbanipal.100: Schematic outline of the Stratum E2 fortress.31). Some parallel features may be found in Israel. 4. Cecchini 1995. the fortress was immediately rebuilt. All these events may have had their impact on the stratigraphy of the fortress in Kabri area E. the succession of the three floors in Stratum E3 may reflect repeated assaults on the small fortress. The revolt that Ashurbanipal suppressed in 644 BCE could be connected to the end of S1. Little is known about fortresses in Lebanon. 4.ratumE2b. 660 BCE (Pritchard 1955:300.Esarhaddon and Baal of Tyre. The political situation in Phoenicia remained unstable and in 677 BCE Esarhaddon conquered Sidon. 5. None of the small fortresses on mountains in Upper Galilee (Frankel 1994:27) have a plan comparable to that at Tel Kabri. It was in the Assyrian interest to control the strategically important site of Kabri. or its colonies in the Western Mediterranean. The rectangular plan 86 . The end of the Stratum E3 fortress probably came during Ashurbanipal's third campaign. Mount Meiron (Druks 1964) and at Horvat Rosh Zayit. The consumers of Assyrian style pottery may have attempted to copy the lifestyle of the predominant power of the Near East.

1881. 567) Paris. it difficult although this is a small rural fort and not a in the Negev. of except for the similarity as at these sites. 1985. D. M. does not have casemates to the main fortification evidence now the summary 2001) but the way the rooms are attached the evidence The construction with ashlar piers and fieldstone fills. 2) even if not actually by Phoenicians with Cyprus and the presence repertoire in 604 BCE (Stager The pottery from the final levels has many parallels was most probably a result of the campaigns with that from the destruction of Nebuchadnezzar 1996). Ben-Tor. Fassuta. Braun. Cecchini. D. The contemporary of Fantalkin at Tel Kabri. Maddin. 1992. Avia'am. <Atiqot 3:1-24 (Hebrew). 1996. In: Katzenstein. Early Bronze Age Dwellings and Installations.D. (Ph. H. the destruction to Tyre (Katzenstein and Palestine and occurred either as early as 604 BCE or later in 585 BCE. London. E. 1995. the pottery and the historical Akko plain support the assumption contacts Ashkelon that the Iron Age fortress at Tel Kabri was built in a Phoenician from Tyre.. Excavations at Horvat <U~a. (Colloques intemationaux du CNRS No. Tell el-Daba V.H. D. 389-396. Early Arad I.. S. Conder. Biran. T. Oxford. 1994). and Stech. 4. Leiden. In the early Hellenistic the Iron Age architecture andre-using period graves were dug into its ruins. I: Galilee. pp. when the Babylonians 1997:328). when a village was built here. Ben-Tor. Biran. A. pp. Davis. Thus. In: Stem. Bunimovitz. H. Han. The site was resettled only in the Ottoman period. The Survey of Western Palestine: Vol. 1994. Israel (British Archaeological Reports International Series 249). and Greenberg. 1989/1990. A. Cultural Diversity and Change in the Early Bronze I of Israel and Jordan. Biblical Dan. VII). Bietak. Jerusalem. Tel Aviv 19:221-234. C. Cleuziou. 1200-1203. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 44:41-51. E. Architecture militaire. Jerusalem. Israel Exploration Journal 34: 191-194. Vienna. S. La civilisation phenicienne et punique. Jerusalem. The Architecture of Ancient Israel. Tel Aviv University) Tel Aviv. R. eds. 1977. Dan 1. civile et domestique partim orient. The Iron Age fortress was never rebuilt. Les pointes de fleches "scythiques" au Proche et Moyen-Orient. A. leveling what remained of the stones of the ancient buildings (Hawaii REFERENCES Amiran. 1991. A.. 60-67.R. 1996. Braun. dissertation. Muhly. In: Le plateau iranien et l'Asie centrale des origines ala conque islamique. for close 5. A. 1992. Tel.. In: Krings. and Kitchener. M. 1983. Jerusalem. V. The Middle Bronze fortifications in Palestine as a social phenomenon.Tor. 1966. Similar evidence was found at Tel Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:270against Syria laid siege 271). S. Ben. R. En Shadud: Salvage Excavations at a Farming Community in the Jezreel Valley. Small rural forts are best known to draw analogies fortress of Mezad Hashavyahu at Tel Kabri makes 1992).is similar to that of the forts at Samaria metropolitan limited size (Meshel resembles building complex area excavated and Tel Jezreel. Braun.. E. 1978. but the in (see wall for the style (cf. The New Encyclopedia Holy Land Vol. ed. J. 187-199. R. 1985. ed. A Steel Pick from Mount Adir in Palestine. Pottery finds provide evidence at Kabri in its final years (Chapter of Greek mercenaries Stem 1992:Fig. Excavations and Surveys in Israel 9:92. 1984. pp. et aI. Qashish. E. Jerusalem. 1993.M. 87 of Archaeological Excavations in the . pp. Yiftahel.

A. Tel Aviv. R. Hadashot Arkheologiot 2:95.M. Gonen. In: Kempinski. Rapport preliminaire sur les 7e. 1991. 450-453 Gal. In: Stem. 4. Engberg. and Goren. 1961. Jerusalem. Finkelstein. I. (Hebrew) Gerstenblith. Sadeh. Mezad Hasavyahu: Its material culture and historical background. Fouilles de Byblos V.Euphrates Valley. The pottery assemblage of Nahal Beset I: A Neolithic site in the Upper Galilee. A. de Vaux. Baghouz. Burial Patterns and Cultural Diversity in Late Bronze Age Canaan. Winona Lake. 1993. 1993. Ten seasons of excavation of ancient Acco. Haifa. N. 1973.M. Israel Exploration Journal 9: 13-29. Hebrew University of Jerusalem) Jerusalem. Leiden. In: Stem. 1: Preliminary Report of the 1986 Season. E. 1993a. sixieme campagne. Galilee: Chalcolithic to Persian Periods. 1987. The Pottery from Area E. Garfinkel. M. Gal. 1948. Z. Chicago. Winona Lake.. Excavations and Surveys in Israel 10: 99-100. Horbat Rosh Zayit: An Iron Age Storage Fort and Village. Tombs and burial customs of the MB IIA period in Gesher. New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. Y. Excavations and Surveys in Israel 13:30-31. 1993b. Middle Bronze Age fortifications: A reflection of social organization and political formation. and Braun. 1997. 2000. 1992. Jerusalem. 1976-1979. 1992. E. Qiryat Ata. Dothan. Hadashot Arkheologiot 9:22-24. Les fouilles de Tell el-Far-ah. Y. Golani. Notes on the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age Pottery ofMegiddo. Syria. (Hebrew) Golani. 1289-1291. and Getzov. Y. R. 1985. (Qedem 39) Jerusalem. Vol. The Antiquities of Western Galilee. and Naaman. Neolithic and Chalcolithic Pottery of the Southern Levant. N. Paris. Archaeological reports from the Tabqa Dam project . 1957. pres Naplouse.l:Iorvat 'Uza Excavations and Surveys in Israel. M. A. ed. G. Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 44:113-151. 1957. 13:19-21. P. Tel Aviv. 1934. A. Givon. L. Gopher. (Hebrew) du Mesnil du Buisson Le Comte R. Z. 1948. ge campagnes. 1994. Excavations at Kabri. pp. Dothan. Nahal Zahura II. 66-69. pres Naplouse. l'ancienne Corsote. Jerusalem. pp.Iron I transition. E. The Material Culture of the Middle Jordan Valley in the Pottery Neolithic and Chalcolithic Periods. 2001. Tel Aviv 19:201-220. 8e. 1990. (ASOR Research Dissertation Series 5). In: Yedaya. R. New Encyclopedia Excavations in the Holy Land. Revue Biblique 55: 544-580. A. Revue Biblique 68:557-592. Y. 18-34. Archaeological Survey of Israel: Maps of Akhziv (1) and Han ita (2). Frankel. Garfinkel. A Survey in the Meron Region. N. Les fouilles de Tell el-Far-ah. 1979. Getzov. Jerusalem. Druks. Tell Hadidi: a millennium of Bronze Age city occupation. R. 1959. S. Z. Domemann. 1992. dissertation. (Hebrew). Frankel. Excavations at Meser. Fantalkin. Qiryat Ata. (Hebrew) Garfinkel. (Hebrew) Gopher. and Alexandre. Revue Biblique 64: 552-500.. R. The Excavations at Bet ha-sEmeq.. Qadmoniot 18: 2-14. 1986. La seconde campagne de fouilles a Tell el-Far-ah pres Naplouse. (Ph. R. 1993. of Archaeological 88 . Israel Exploration Journal 42:4-16. de Vaux. Preliminary report on the survey of Western Galilee.. 1.de Vaux. A. S. 1999. R. (Israel Antiquities Authority Reports 8) Jerusalem. pp.D. and Bonfil. M. Gal. ed. and Shipton. 1. 1992. Upper Galilee in the Late Bronze . 1983.H. From Nomadism to Monarchy. Eretz-Israel 21:132-147. R. 304-317. 1964. 19581960. The Levant at the Beginning of the Middle Bronze Age. A. Vol. (Hebrew) Gershuny. Tel Aviv 28:3-165. In: Finkelstein. M. (Hebrew) Frankel. Y. R. Dunand. R. pp.l:lorvat Rosh Zayit. ed. pp. 1991.

K. 294-301. A. Tel Aviv. A and Niemeier. 89 . 7-8: Preliminary Report of the 1992-1993 Seasons. A and Niemeier. P. Tel Aviv. Architecture and Stratigraphy. Leriche. pp. 1992. eds. civile et domestique partim occident. In: Krings. Z. Z.0. A. 63-65. 1989. Excavations at Kabri: Preliminary Report of 1989 Season. pp. Early and Middle Bronze Age lithic assemblages. 1994. Kabri and its vicinity in the Middle Bronze Age II. London. Lancel. Western Galilee Antiquities. *13-*20. The Akko. V. 1992. Herzog. pp. Ein el-Jerbeh: Chalcolithic Remains in the Jezreel Valley. 1948. A 1987. W-D. Kempinski. eds. W. Dan and Kabri: A note on the planning of two cities. M. 127-142. H adashot Arkheologiyot Lehmann. pp. Architecture militaire. Studies in the Archaeology of the Iron Age in Israel and Jordan.. Kenyon. 1994. pp. near Carchemish. (Monograph Series of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University No.8) Minneapolis. Israel. pp. Kempinski.-D. The architecture of the Israelite fortresses in the Negev. Cathedra 24:79-114.. 19&. S. Meshel. A. At-Tall: Architecture. stratigraphy and finds. In: Kempinski. A. 397-410. 1986. Archaeology of the City: Urban Planning in Ancient Israel and its Social Implications. Jr. E. 1990. In: Dictionnalre de la Civilisation Phenicienne et Punique. D. Supplement 331) Sheffield. (Hebrew) Kempinski. eds. The Hyksos: A view from northern Canaan and Syria. Architecture of Ancient Israel. The 1966 excavations at Tell Ta' annek. Excavations at Kabri.. Fortifications. Tel Aviv. 1967. Tel Aviv. (Publications of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University No. Kempinski. Kempinski. Hirschfeld. G. P. W. Y.. pp.Hawari. Excavations at Kabri. eds. 36-37. Lehmann. A. The rural dwelling house in the Hebron region . Pottery from Square 1111. M. 1969. 66-77. Tel Aviv. Philadelphia. and Reich. R. 1992. 1: Preliminary Report of the 1986 Season. Beer Sheva. P. pp. Kloner. 1995. G. In: Kempinski. Fortifications. 1991. 1994. A. (Hebrew) 2001. ed.. Eretz Israel 23:76-81.J. 1990. Cemeteries of the First Millennium B.Occident. eds. The Hyksos: New Historical and Archaeological perspectives. and Olami. Tel Aviv. ed. In: Dictionnaire de la CivilisationPhenicienne et Punique. 5: Preliminary Report of the 1990 Season. Aand Kipnis.W. Lehmann. Kempinski. A.D. Leiden. eds. Tumhout. In: Oren. Archaeology in the Holy Land. G. *47-*51. 327-334. 7-8: Preliminary Report of the 1992-1993 Seasons.S. The History ofTyre. 1992a. Excavations at Kabri. pp.. In: Soffer. *22-*23. W-D. A 1997. D.. Areas D and E..D.. W.. Excavations at Kabri. La civilisation phenicienne et punique. Tel Aviv. eds. 3rd Edition. E. 1980. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 185:2-39. Y. Loud. Moorey. Tumhout. 103: 110 . 175-176. Lipinski. Lawrence and CL. Z. 1970. 1997. (Hebrew) Kaplan. Hershman.R. pp. Middle and Late Bronze Age fortifications. Pottery and Small Finds. eds. pp. M. Tel Aviv. Orient. eds. A and Niemeier. Tel Aviv.. A. Megiddo 11.In: Kempinski. Excavations at Tel Michal. 172-175. 65-112. Lapp. ed. Herzog. pp. and Negbi. and Niemeier. ed.. (Journal of the Study of the Old Testament. In: Yedaya. Phoenicians in Western Galilee: First Results of an archaeological survey in the hinterland of In: Kempinski. Excavations at Kabri: Preliminary Report of the 1989 Season. 1997. 0.C at Deve Huyuk. (Hebrew) Kempinski. G. In: Mazar. R. Kempinski. Woolley in 1913. Haifa.. A. (British Archaeological Reports International Series 87) Oxford. A 1992b. H. and Niemeier. and Reich. pp.a case study of traditional type of building in Eretz-Israel. A and Niemeier. The Late Bronze Age and Iron Age periods.T. Tel Aviv. eds. (Hebrew) Katzenstein. Atlas of Haifa and Mount Carmel. 1995. *23-*29. B. The Architecture of Ancient Israel. W-D.. Jerusalem. salvaged by TE. 1982. Rapp. 13)Tel Aviv. In: Kempinski. Survey of map Ahihud.G. Excavations at Kabri: Preliminary Report of 1992-93 Seasons. In: Kempinski. pp. Chicago.

J. Province system and settlement pattern in southern Syria and Palestine in the Neo-Assyrian period. W. J. neuvieme campagne (printemps 1937).o. 1955. M. A. The Phoenician architectural elements in Palestine during the Late Iron Age and the Persian period. Saidah. M. New evidence from Dor for the first appearance of the Phoenicians along the northern coast of Israel. M. and Yadin. and Niemeier. Metallography 16:81-98. Parrot. Area E: Architecture and Stratigraphy. M.): Excavations at Kabri. 1973-1976. Yannai. 1984. Prausnitz. 1938. 2000. Kabri. 5: Preliminary Report of the 1990 Season. A. 1982. 1983. W. 302-309. Tombs and Burial Customs at Tell el-Dab'a: Vienna. Mari et Chagar Bazar. 1957-1958. (Hebrew) . *11-*22.W. 0/ Antiquities of Palestine 5:111-112. E. Excavations at Kabri. pp. 4: Preliminary Report of the 1989 Season. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 279:27-34. pp. eds. 1970. (Qedem 18). 1994. Y. 1992. Oxford. (Monograph Series of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University No. The Architecture 0/ Ancient Israel. Til Barsib. 4: Preliminary Report of the 1989 Season. Hyksos and Israelite Cities. 1995.D. Area E: The Greek Pottery. Tel Aviv. Syria 19:193-255. CL. and Kempinski. and Dunand. Pastor Borgonon. In: Kempinski. Jerusalem. Pottery and Small Finds. 1937-1949. 1994. From Hunter to Farmer and Trader. Eretz-IsraeI9:122-129. 1991. In: Kempinski. In: Liverani. Excavations at Tel Mevorakh.W. A.F. Stekelis. Woolley. Y. 19) Tel Aviv. 1935. Schaeffer. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 256:7-44.D. 1960. Peleg. Ory. W.D.D. E. In: Kempinski. Stem. A. Tel Aviv. W. Oren. Sukas IV: A Middle Bronze Age Collective Grave on Tall Sukas. 1995. 1936. Hazor Ill-IV. 1904. London.W. Fouilles de Sidon-Dakerman: L'agglomeration chalcolithique. M. y.. Excavations at Ras el-SAin. treaty with Baal and Assyrian provinces along the Phoenician Coast. P. C.. Jerusalem. E. ed. H.Na'aman. (Quaderni di Geografia storica 5) Roma. et a!. Analysis of bronze Arrowheads of the Saite Period from the Nile Delta region. J. Niemeier. Quarterly of the Department Parrot. 1978. H. 5: Preliminary Report of the 1990 Season. Tel Aviv. Jerusalem. Kempinski and W. E. Syria 16:1-28. Ronen. 103-115. H. E. W. 1959. R. Excavations at Kabri. In: Kochavi. An Account of the Second Season of Excavations. Beck. xxxiv-xxxix. pp. In: Kempinski. Copenhagen. The Inscriptions of Tiglat-Pileser IlL King (Hebrew) 0/ Assyria. F. 1990. Eretz-IsraeI5:35-37 Stem. Kabri 1967. Prausnitz.C.M.. Jerusalem. N. (Hebrew) Prausnitz. eds. and Olami. 1938. A. Neo-Assyrian Geography. Rivista di Na'aman. E. Aphek-Antipatris 1. pp... Hazor 11. 32-36 (Hebrew). A. (Bibliotheque archeologique et historique 23) Paris. Jerusalem. pp. Tel Aviv. M. Prausnitz. Jerusalem. Tel Esur. 1990. Alalakh: An Account of the Excavations at Tell Atchana in the Hatay. 1991. xxix-xxxiv. van den Brink. Area A: Stratigraphy. and Reich. and Kempinski. A. An obsidian core found at Kibbutz Kabri. Les fouilles de Mari. Stem. Thrane. An Account of the Third and Fourth Seasons of Excavations. and Niemeier. 1958. W.D. Hadashot Arkheologiot 90 104:67-69. Archaeological Survey of Israel: Map of Haifa-East (23). M.137-172. Excavations at Kabri. 1983. eds. et al. 1956. Sellin. Berytus 27: 29-55. 1990. E. Jerusalem. Excavations at Kabri. E. R. Pastor Borgonon.D. Les Fouilles de Ras Shamra-Ugarit. M. architecture and tombs. A Phoenician Seal Impression from Area E. 1989. Syria 19:308-310. M. Yadin. Israel Exploration Journal 27:165-166. Migdol: A New Fortress on the edge of the Eastern Nile Delta. Yadin. Yadin. Naveh. and Kochavi. 1977. A. The Stratigraphy and Finds. pp. E. A. N..lsrael Exploration Journal 9:268-269. in: A. Tadmor. Niemeier (eds. and Oren. pp. Tell Ta annek: Vienna. J. Petrie. and Niemeier. 1969. eds. 1979. H. Baram. 1984. E. Esarhaddon's Studi Fenici 22:3-8. Thureau-Dangin. 1906.FA 1938.

Identical decoration on a closed vessel like Fig.. 50:CP-I0a). 3) with matt red bands which have parallels in Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al. 1980:PI. Most typical are the Phoenician Monochrome juglets (Fig. 35:6.. 64:1a). 76:4). -. 1980:PI.~. 5. Fig.. 178 .6Ji*1. 1980: PI. 71:1. where it is identified as 'Sikil pottery' (Stern 1994:Fig. 6 Fig.66:}6) may be compared to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. """. The deep krater-Iike bowl with a sharp carination (Fig. 17). Tell Abu Hawam (Balensi 1980:PI. 66:6a). 1980:Pls. 37:18.67: 1 and one not illustrated) have parallels from Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et at. out of stratigraphic context.67:2) with a knob handle resembles a bowl from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. 68:6).... Krater with a rolled rim (Fig. 5. 80:1) while another (Fig.. second vessel from the right). it is very similar to an Iron Age I vessel from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al..V.. 64:6).67:3. Two bowls (Fig. 78: 2). Cooking-pots like Figs. 70. apparently from the destruction layer of the late 12th or early lIth century BCE (Gilboa 1998:413). 1980:PI. 66: 15. 5.67:6 is a lamp similar to some from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al.. 5. 78:3-4. 5. Although a krater or cooking-pot (Fig. 1980:Pls.. 81 :14)..67:5 characterize the Late Bronze Age/Iron Age I strata (G2D2) at Sarepta (Anderson 1988:PI. 5.. 47 lower photo.. 1980:PI. . ... 5. 39:28). 79:7. 1980:Pls.66fr-t5) are typical for Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al. 11: 160) and Tyre Stratum 13-14 (Bikai 1978: Pis. 65:1-2. ~~~~"&Si """""""~---'- ) 3 5 -l ') I l 2 ) . \ 4 ) -\ \ 7 I 10em. 74:3.. IRON AGE Gunnar Lehmann IRON AGE I Iron Age I pottery was relatively rare and found mixed with pottery from other periods.66:1) and Pilgrim Flasks (Fig. ..~ might be a Middle Bronze Age form..68:1 was found at Dor. Other kraters (Fig. 1980:PI. 5.68:2.""""''''_'W<.>.. 5.. Another similar vessel was found at Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al.66: Iron Age I pottery from Area D. 5.. 4) resemble vessels from Iron Age I strata at Tell Keisan (Briend et al. 5. . 5. 5..

5YR7/6.5YR6/6. interior 2. Stratum Stratum 9c (Briend et al. No.5YR6/6. 5. 2. temper: m M. 5YR7/4. temper: m M. 1980:64: la. Colour description follows the Munsell colour charts. 2 In the tables accompanying the figures temper size is abbreviated as follows: f= fine grits (>0.6 mm). 6 Fig. 78:3-4). 9c (PI. 2a).2 mm). 60712089 752/2609 255111 9198/1 607/2077 255112 Locus 607 751 727 1575 607 727 Description cf.6 mm). m = medium grits (0. 9a-b (Briend et al. 5403/3 5392/4 3304/1 3219/6 5378/2 3433/3 5423/2 Locus 1941 1973 0877 0864 1973 1313 1970 Description Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior 5YR7/6.FIGURE 5. and interior 10YR8/3. interior 5YR7/6. 1980:66: 15. core grey. cf. 179 . 1980:66:6a). core grey. Red paint lOR5/6.66: IRON AGE I POTTERY FROM AREA 02 No. g = gross/coarse grits «0. Keisan with knob cf. No. Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. temper: fm M. Keisan Stratum handle. temper: mg M. interior 5YR7/6. } 3 f---d 2 -------ill II 4 lOcm.67: Iron Age I pottery from Area D. M = mineral temper.0.67: IRON AGE I POTTERY FROM AREA 0 No. core 5YR7/6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Type Juglet Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Cooking-pot Reg. cf.2 . 1980:65:2). FIGURE 5. 17). Keisan cf. 1980:79:7). temper: mg M. 9a-b (Briend et al. interior 10YR7/3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type Bowl Bowl Krater Krater Cooking-pot Lamp Reg. core grey. Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al.

68: IRON AGE No. temper: m M. White slip outside and red paint. Black paint. White-Painted II. Red paint. core 5YR6/6. core 5YR6/4. Closed vessel with painted concentric circles. interior 5YR6/4. temper: mg M. No. temper: fM. core lOYR8/4. Exterior and interior 5YR7/6 and white. 26:11. core grey.68: Iron Age 10cm. I I000o pottery from Area E.5YR7/2. interior 7. cf. Closed vessel. core greyish. core 5YR7/6.5YR7/2. temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6. 5. core 2.5YR7/2.5YR7/6. interior 10YR7/3.5YR6/6. 47: 3. 1980: PI. Exterior 5YR6/6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Jug let Pilgrim flask Pilgrim flask Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Krater or Jug Krater or Jug Jug Reg. cf. Exterior 5YR7/6. temper: mg M. temper: mg M. black paint. White slip outside with red and black bands. Cypriote White-Painted.3 4 5 11 7 o Fig. interior 2. 19411177 3310/2 5402/5 5403/4 3388/8 3585/100 5346/2 3623/2 1 I Juglet 3145/3 0830 12 Transport jar 5443/100 1972 180 . core 2. temper: fm M. Exterior 7. interior 2. Red brown paint. core 5YR7/6. Tyre Stratum 10-2. 61: 12 (Keisan Niv. black paint. White slip. temper: m M. 9a-b). Exterior 5YR6/4. cf. black paint. Closed vessel. temper: fM. Exterior 10YR8/3.5YR7/2. Exterior 2.5YR8/4. Gjerstad 1948: Fig. Bands in light greenish wash and black paint. interior 5YR7/6. Exterior 2. core 2. Closed vessel with bands and concentric circles. 84: 259 (Abu Hawwam Stratum III). 542617 5392/10 POTTERY FROM AREA E Locus 1941 1973 1941 0876 1968 1941 0888 0890 1970 1338 Description Exterior 2. core 10YR7/3. interior 5YR6/6. bands in black paint. Briend et al. Cypriote White-Painted. Exterior 7. temper: m M. interior 2. Cypriote WhitePainted V.5YR8/4.5YR7/2. Same type as Fig. black painted wavy line.82:8-10. Closed vessel with concentric circles. FIGURE 5.5YR7/2.5YR7/2.5YR7/2. bands in black paint. Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. temper: fM. Bikai 1978a: PI. Early Phoenician Bichrome. interior lOYR8/4. interior lOYR7/3. 5.

Stratum 12 (ibid. Stratum 8-9 (ibid. :PI. The parallels connect the finds from below Stratum E4 with 11th-9th century strata at Tell Keisan. 33:12-13). 50:3. 600. :PI.70:13-19) and transport jars (Fig.:PI.69:2-3). Stratum 7 (ibid. Sarepta C2-F (Anderson 1988':type SJ-12A) and Tyre Strata 4-14 (Bikai 1978a:45-46 .5). :PI. 1987:37-38) which has a relatively short flaring rim. 5. 49: 2). They are comparable to examples from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Pls. cooking-pots (Fig. Bikai 1978a:PI. a flat or convex base and reserved red slip decoration (Fig. Tyre Stratum 6 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 23 :3). 7). 5. ca. 5. Inside and outside are thin bands of black paint. 29:4). 1980:PI. 850-750 BCE. Stratum Dl (ibid. :PI. 18a:16) and are dated to the 9th century BCE. Stratum 7 (ibid. Stratum DI-E (Anderson 1988) and Tyre. 470. 1980:PI. One of the most common bowl types found at Kabri has a flaring rim and was variously decorated in different periods. 18a:5). 1980:PI. 511. 22:595. 20 em in diameter. the first of which was built in the 9th century BCE (Stratum E4) and the last probably destroyed in 604 BCE. 47:type x-15a. triangular and sometimes has a slightly bulbous base. 1980). Stratum 13 (ibid. 31:12. The body is sack-shaped. 456. Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. Sarepta Stratum C2-F (Anderson 1988:PI.IRON AGE II During the excavation of Area E (Chapter 4:IV) large amounts of pottery were found in situ in a series of fortresses. Stratum 10-13 (Bikai 1978a). Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 5. Those found in Stratum 4 are Bikai's first sub-type (1978a:26 Fine Ware Plate 2. Stratum 7-11 (Briend et at. 1050-850 BCE. Stratum 10-1 (ibid. 181 . These bowls range in diameter from 18-25 ern.69:1) has a flat base and an almost straight. 9). Of special significance for the study of the Iron Age II in northern Israel is the wide range of vessels found in situ in the 7th century BCE destruction levels (Stratum E2) which represent pottery of this period. 6). 49:11). 53: 10) and Tyre Stratum 6 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 41 :9). Sarepta. 513).type SJ-9. There were 114 examples. :PI. 19:9-16).69:4). Parallels come from Cyprus ca. x-15c).69:6 with a carinated shoulder. 26: 1-4. Stratum 11 (ibid.3% of all diagnostics. 31: 1. fragments and almost complete forms making up 4. (Briend et al. 81: 15) and Tyre Stratum 17 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 1980:PI. Thus. has a simple almost vertical rim. 5).70:11).69:1.:PI. a simple everted rim and red slip covering the rim inside and the complete vessel outside already occur in Iron Age I. :PI. l1a: 2. A limited sounding below Stratum E4 produced only a small quantity of pottery. Many of the vessels of this last phase were complete or restorable. Among the few diagnostic sherds are various bowls (Figs. 5. ca. 48:4). the lIth and 8th centuries BCE. sloping profile ending in a slightly thickened inverted rim. Parallels come from Tell Keisan. 458. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's Kouklia Horizon. 5. Transport jars from this context have a simple vertical rim rising from a sloping shoulder. 18a:4). :PI. Tell Keisan Stratum 6-7 (Briend et at. 32:10) and Tyre Stratum 4. Bowls like Fig. They are similar to bowls from Keisan Stratum 10-11 (Brient et al. This type was in use over a very long span of time and fabric and surface treatment vary in different periods. 5. 33:2. 3). 494-496. 16a:18-25. Stratum 5.:PI. it covers the period between ca. Stratum 10-2 (ibid. STRATUM E4 BOWLS The simplest type of bowl in the Phoenician pottery repertoire (Fig. 23 :603). 64: 97) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Stratum E (ibid. Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et at.). Another type (Fig. 1980:PI. (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 4 nos.

70:12) occur since the second half of the 9th century BCE in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. Similar bowls come from Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al.69:16-17 is a large bowl with an incurved rim which is sometimes painted red. 69: 141-142). table 8A. 182 . 14:2-5. 268. 20:8). Parallels are found at Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. table 8A. Parallels from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Nos. 93:2 type juglet 2). It resembles a jug without slip from Cyprus dated to ca. No parallels were found for bowl types Fig. JUGLETS AND JUGS A typical juglet of the 8th and 7th centuries BCE (Fig. Sarepta 01 (Anderson 1988:type OJ-2a). and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. but may continue somewhat later as at Hazor Stratum VIII (Yadin et al. type 244) in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI.69: 18).8) and Megiddo Stratum H-3 = Megiddo IVA (Finkelstein et al. 1980:Pls. but the rim is different. This is a bichrome painted holemouth krater which resembles those from Rashidiya (Lipinski 1992:PI. 18a:7). 55: 9). A jug with a high neck and a trefoil rim (Fig. 4b) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990 :PI. Transport jars with a small triangular rim on a sloping shoulder (Fig. Their diameter is ca. 850-750 BCE. Fig. 1960:PI. jug type 8. The handle rises high above the low rim. KRATERS Only one such vessel was found in Stratum E4 (Fig. 11. 15:19-20. PI. 23:611). 14:383) and another from Tyre Stratum 9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 92:jug 4).6. 24:2).70:1-2) usually has a small bulge at the base. 39). 5.f.25) and Stratum 5 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Such jars have been discussed in detail by Gal and Alexandre (2000:44-48) in their publication of the Phoenician fortress of Rosh Zayit. The painted decoration of Fig. 1987). PI. 190-206) and Tyre Stratum 4-9 (Bikai 1978a:type jug 8.f. 5. 5. 31 :15) and Tyre Stratum 2-4 (Bikai 1978a:33-35. 850-750 BCE (Bikai 1987:PI. 34. 5. 5. The first two have squared or thickened everted rims while the rims of the others are mushroom-like.:PI. 265. Another fragment (Fig. 175.Other carinated bowls (Fig. 74: 179). 272). Sarepta CI-C2 (Anderson 1988:type 13A) and Tyre Stratum 10-1 (Bikai 1978a: PI. 9:168-169. 177-178). 60:1. 5:14-17. p. 5. They are dated from the end of the 10th to the first quarter of the 9th century BCE. PI. 52: 8) and Stratum 8 (ibid.71:9 of Stratum E3.70:10) was found in Stratum E4 and two more in Stratum E3. Sarepta E (Anderson 1988:PI. 10-12).70:9) was found out of its original context. Four sub-types can be distinguished at Kabri. Juglets with a squared or thickened everted rim (Fig. 12: 246. Fig. 5. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS One rim fragment of what may be a 'Hippo Jar' (Fig.69:15 is similar to Fig. 5. 5. a neck ridge and a single handle are typically Phoenician. Sarepta Stratum B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type B-3A) and Tyre Strata 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 1980:PI.69:5) have an everted rim which is somewhat thicker than the body wall. 18a:10) date this type to ca. 5. Their development has been discussed in detail by Bikai (1978a:37-40. p. 5.47:8. 5. Small juglets with a ring-base. 43:8). cf.70:7) is red-slipped and burnished.69:7-14. 5. 2000:310. 17 em. 82:242) and Tyre Stratum 4-9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 39. Juglets with a short mushroom rim (Fig.70:4-5) begin in the middle of the 8th century BCE and continue to the beginning of the 7th century BCE in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Pl. 33:3. It can be compared to examples from Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI.70:3) begin in the second half of the 9th century BCE and continue until the second half of the 8th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:types 243.

18. Cooking-pot types with flat vertical rims become more frequent in the late 8th and 7th century BCE. 28: 6). 33. Their value for dating pottery assemblages is thus limited. Tell Keisan Stratum 6-7 (Briend et al. 5. Cooking-pots with triangular rims are very common in Stratum E4 (Fig. SUMMARY Most paraIlels to the pottery assemblage from Kabri Stratum E4 are either found in the Akko plain or at Tyre and Sarepta. where 33. Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. CYPRIOTE IMPORTS White-Painted IV jug (Fig. 5.23:13-15. Gjerstad 1948 Fig. Gal and Alexandre 2000:40-42) Comparisons come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4-11 (Briend et al. Thus. Especially important for dating are the bowls with painted bands (Fig. Above the carination.12:5) where it is thought to be a krater. The distribution of each echoes that of the group as a whole (Hunt 1987: 183). there seems to have been close contacts between Kabri E4 and Tyre Stratum 4-12 (Bikai 1978a:9th century BCE to ca.69:2).73:3-5.70:20).12:5) and Sarepta CI-Dl (Anderson 1988:type CP-IA). 77:1-4.3% of Stratum E4 types have exact parallels. 1980:PI. 35:1. 6. One example of this type was found in Stratum E4.70:3-5. 81:8).84:3-4). 5. 55:1-3. horizontal rim and 5) a short pinched rim (Hunt 1987:Fig. 2) overlapping rim. 5. occurring first in the 12th century BCE. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's 'Salamis Horizon'. 30:3) and Tyre Stratum 2-10 (Bikai 1978a:PI.69:6. They have a wide open body with a rounded base. 49:9. ca. 5. . Stratum E4 also has parallels with pottery from Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990).COOKING-POTS Two main groups of cooking-pot types were distinguished: pots with triangular rims and pots with a ridged or 'modeled' rim.70 :21). The body may be deep or shallow and has usually a sharp carination. Stratum E4 may thus be dated to ca. 850-750 BCE. This cooking-pot type had a long life-span.70:6) (cf. 3. One may distinguish between triangular rims with: 1) horizontal rim. One example (Fig. overlapping rim. 5. A somewhat similar vessel was found at Rosh Zayit (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. They can be compared with vessels from TelI Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. 5.70:20) has a small edge on the rim immediately under the lip. 6. 63.4) long pinched. Sarepta Stratum F (Anderson 1988:PI. There are several sub-types of cooking-pots with triangular rims. 5. 27:9. 850-750 BCE. The examples at Kabri are clearly made of a cooking-pot fabric. 9).70:12-13) and the cooking-pot rims (especially Fig. 33:10). 750 BCE). 5. The pottery figures for this stratum include also some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context (Figs. 3) long pinched. the transport jars (Fig. 11).70:13-19) but continue in Stratum E3 and even into E2 (Figs. 1980:9th century BCE) and Sarepta Stratum C2-Dl (Anderson 1988:ca. the walls are either concave or sloping inward to the rim (see Gal and Alexandre 2000:40-42). No parallels were found for a cooking-pot with a triangular rim (Fig. 183 . 17:2. 1980:PI. one in E2 and 2 were unstratified. The type occurs only once at Kabri. 52:13. 34:10. 12:27. 5. 5. 46:1-2. This type has many variants. These vessels are dated according to stratified comparisons from other sites which are contemporary with Stratum E4 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence at Tel Kabri. 5. 950-830 BCE). These sub-types have no chronological or regional significance in the Akko plain during Iron Age I through Iron Age IIC.

,7
\
4

2\
\
5

!

"""
~

tI

'"

-,

=,
\7

J

t
3

\

,

7
==J
I

6

7

10

\C

,
,

7

8

~

9\
<\\
11
-,

,
I

\
12

~
14

r'-- ~%-'%7
f

7

ZC
13 (

\
15

(
16

,

,J
18
10cm.

r

I
17

\,

,

FIGURE 5.69: POTTERY OF STRATUM E4
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Type Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Krater Reg. No. 3251112 325112 3228/2 3251/7 3257/1 5392/9 3257/8 3256/2 325114 3242/1 3253/6 3253/3 3242/2 Locus 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 1973 .0866 0866 0866. 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 1958 0866 0866 Description Exterior 5YR6/6, interior 5YR7/3, core 5YR7/3, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/4, temper: m M, black paint. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core grey, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/2, temper: m M. Exterior 7.5YR8/6, interior 7.5YR8/6, core 7.5YR7/8, temper: fM, red slip lOR5/8. Exterior 7.5YR7/4, interior 7.5YR7/4, core 7.5YR7/4, temper: fM. Exterior 5YR6/8, interior 5YR6/8, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Bichrome? Exterior 2.5YR6/4, interior 2.5YR6/4, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior 10YR8/3, interior 10YR8/3, core greyish, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/6, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M, red paint. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/6, temper: m M, black paint. Exterior 5YR 7/6, interior 5YR 7/6, core 5YR 7/6, temper: fm M, red paint 10R5/6. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: m M, RSB 10R5/6.

325119
3251/3 5237/1 3257/4 3251/1

184

2

W
I

rTf:)
.0"


4 5 3

, ~
. ~.

.

]I.

8

rwr
9 10

W
I

H

,
t
\

til ••
6

"

~

~
7

_)
11 12

)
I

,
14

i

\,
1,

13

15

<
(
I ,

~,

,
I

/

ttl

5

{
I

17

18

\,
19 20 21 ~(---

/

/

,

,

\
I

10cm.

Fig. 5.70: Pottery of Stratum E4 and from debris below it.

185

FIGURE 5.70: POTTERY OF STRATUM E4 AND FROM UNDERLYING DEBRIS
No. I 2 32 43 5 6 7 8 93 10 Il' 12 13 14 15 16' 17 18 19' 20 21 I 2 3 Type Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Jug Jug Juglet Juglet Jar Transport jar Transport jar Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. No. 3253/2 3232/1 3290/1 3338/8 3380/6 Locus Description 0866 0866 0873 0889 0888 0866 0855 0866 0803 0866 0871 0866 0866 0866 0866 0871 0866 0866 0871 0866 0866 Exterior 10R6/4, interior IOR6/4, core 2. 5YR6/4, temper: fm M Exterior IOR5/6, interior 10R5/6, core 10R5/6, temper: m M white grits. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fine mineral. Exterior, interior and core 7.5YR7/6, temper: fin M, decoration: red slip lOR5/6. Exterior 5YR7/8, interior and core 5YR7/4, temper: fM, decoration: bichrome red and black. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M, decoration: brown paint. Cypriote White-Painted III. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior IOR5/4, core grey, temper: fine mineral. Exterior 2.5YR6/4, interior 2.5YR6/4, core 2.5YR6/4, temper: m M white grits. Remarks: cf. Tyre Stratum V, Bikai 1978: PI. 18a: 10 (jug type 8). Exterior 2.5YR6/6, interior 2.5YR6/6, core grey black, temper: m M. Exterior 7.5YR7/6, interior 7.5YR7/6, core 7.5YR7/2, temper: mg M. Exterior 7.5YR6/4, interior 7.5YR6/4, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior IOR4/4, interior IOR4/4, core 10R4/4, temper: mg M white grits. Exterior 2.5YR4/4, interior 2.5YR4/4, core 2.5YR4/4, temper: mg M: Exterior black, interior black, core black, temper: mg M. Exterior 10R5/3, interior IOR5/3, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR4/1, interior 5YR6/3, core grey black, temper: black & white grits & mica Exterior 5YR5/4, interior 5YR5/4, core 5YR5/4, temper: mg M. Exterior 2.5YR5/4, interior 2.5YR5/4, core 2.5YR5/4, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Exterior 2.5YR5/4, interior 2.5YR5/4, core 2.5YR5/4, temper: mg M.

3251110
321111 3257/5 3027/1 3228/4 3262/3 325118 3248/2 3239/3 3228/1 3262/4 3226/3 3246/1 3262/2 325115

323911

Debris under Stratum E4 Stratum E3 Stratum E2

STRATUME3 BOWLS Only one example of a simple bowl with a flaring wall (Fig. 5.71:1) was found at Kabri. This type is very common in Tyre, where it was found in Strata 1-10, being most frequent in Strata 4-6 (Bikai 1978a: 23-24, type plate 8; PIs. 10:4,7; 16a:22-25; 18a:l; 19:9-12; 23:3). A flat plate or bowl (Fig. 5.71 :2; 5.76:4) has a sloping profile and a simple rim. It occurs in Stratum E3a and continues in Strata E2a-E2b. This vessel is very common in late-8th and 7th century BCE contexts on the Phoenician coast at Tyre in Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 1:13), Stratum 8 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 19:10 [similar]), Stratum 9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 19:16 [similar]) and in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. 20:519 [similar]). In Israel it is found at Dan Stratum II (Biran 1994:Fig. 167:1) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 73: 174 [similar]). A sub-type of the bowls with flaring rims (Fig. 5.71:3) which continues in Stratum E2 (Fig. 5.76:12) has a flat or convex base, reserve-slip and incised decoration on the outside of the base. Parallels come from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 3, Nos. 457, 462-469, 493, 510, 514), Sarepta CI-Dl (Anderson 1988:type F-IA), Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 63:76, 79, 81) and Tyre Strata 2-5 (Bikai 1978a:type Fine Ware Plate 2). Two bowl rims (Fig. 5.71 :4) seem to be a local imitation of the Black-on-Red Ic type at Horvat Rosh Zayit Stratum IIa (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 3.88:16, cf Fig. 3.77:14 Stratum IIb). A carinated bowl (Fig. 5.71 :5) has no exact parallel.
186

Bikai 1987:PI. Fig. The rim and profile of Fig. 1980:PI. Lehmann 1996:376 form 85). lla:18). 1980:PI. out of its original context.71: 15 are somewhat similar. 3. 3. They occur between 850-750 BCE in the Cypriote 'Salamis-Horizon' (Bikai 1987:PI. With a narrow conical neck (cf. Similar vessels come from Al Mina Stratum 6-7 (Taylor 1959:Fig.121:23) although it is larger and has a different rim.71: 16) with red and black bands on the shoulder has parallels at Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. 10:23-25. 17:85c/2). 20:1).71: 11-12) characterized by a rim that is drawn outward were found in strata E3 and E2. 53 :8). There are three sub-types of these jugs of which 13 fragments were found at Kabri.71: 13 is very similar but has a red slip.78:16) and Tyre Stratum 3-4 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 6. 30: 1) and Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 16a:18-37). The flat plate (Fig.71:7) is similar to Fig. 18a:3) and Strata 8-9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 1980:PI. 375). This type is very frequent at Tyre occurring in Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 40:9) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 5. 1987:4950.on-Red bowls. 15-16.7) were found. but no parallels could be found. 187 . 5. 391. The deep carinated bowl or krater (Fig. 16 type 86d/l). 1. 5. but typologically seems to belong to Stratum E3. but larger.11 :3).81 :7-9). 72: 167). Chapman 1972:Fig. 30 :8). 5. 5.71: 14) is one of the most typical Phoenician fine ware plates of the 8th and early 7th century BCE. 2. 14:11). 41 :3) and Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 15: 19-20). 74:182). It is characterized by an incised ridge on the outer edge of the rim and is usually red-slipped. lla:19) and Stratum 3 (Bikai 1978a:PI. typologically they belong to the assemblage of Stratum E3. 31-34:Nos. The fragment from Kabri was found in Stratum El. 393-406. JUGLETS AND JUGS A number of Phoenician red slipped jugs with conical necks (Fig. Fig. Ras al-Bassit phase 7 ensemble F (Braemer 1986:No. 750-680 BCE (Bikai 1978a:29. 3. While several were found out of their original stratigraphic context. Bowl Fig.71:9 is very similar to one from Al Mina Stratum 5 (Lehmann 1996:PI. KRATERS A large bowl or small krater (Fig. 6.A deep red slipped bowl (Fig. 14 no.72:36). 5. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et aZ. The flat bowl or plate Fig.72:1-4. They are comparable to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. A similar krater came from Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 5. 33) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Several bowls (Fig. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 5. 5. 19:9-16). for further sub-types and references see Lehmann 1996:416-418 types 300-307). 5. 5. concave neck (for an example see Tyre Stratum 9. cf.71:17) has a parallel from Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a: PI. Bikai 1978a:PI. Rosh Zayit Stratum lIb (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. The parallels date it to ca. A parallel was found at Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Comparisons date this type to the end of the 8th and the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:383 form 122). 6:16) and Stratum 8 (Lehmann 1996:PI. With a slim conical neck that begins in the 8th century BCE (Bikai 1978a:36. 379. 5. 5.71:8 may be a local imitation of Black. With an elongated. This sub-type seems to be the older one (Bikai 1987:49-50). 1980:PI. typologically this type should belong to Stratum E3 based on parallels from Al Mina Stratum 6-7 (Taylor 1959:Fig. 5. 370.71: 19) resembles an Assyrianizing krater which becomes more common in Stratum E2 (cf. Although out of its original stratigraphic context. Qasmiya. A simple bowl (Fig. A krater with grooves on the rim (Fig. 5.71:6) has almost vertical walls which turn with a carination into the base. At Tyre this type of plate was found in Strata 2-5 (Bikai 1978a:29 fine ware plate 7). Stratum 5 (Bikai 1978a:PI.71:1. Pis. 32: 316).

52:24). A detailed typology of these jars was recently developed by Ayelet Gilboa (1995: 10-12).72:21) have many parallels in the 9th and 8th centuries BCE. sack-shaped transport jar (Fig. 22:3). 5. 8th century BCE). Fig. Gjerstad 1948:Fig. 1960:PI. 5. GREEK AND CYPRIOTE IMPORTS There are few imports in StratumE3. 90:296) and Tourabi-Tekke cemetery (ca. There was also a small White-Painted III-IV barrel juglet (Fig. the Levant. C. 5. 1. also known as 'torpedo jars'. At least some of these vessels were found in funerary contexts but may have been in secondary use.122.122:3).72:19) has many parallels in the 8th century BCE.72:14-17). 386-387) and establish contemporaneity between assemblages from Turkey. 3. The complete transport jar (Fig.5YR6/8). Whether such decorated vessels were indeed used for transport jars or had a ceremonial character is not clear. A decanter fragment (Fig.7). all found out of context: one single-strap handle (in Stratum E2a) and four double-strand handles ( There are four double-strand handles (three in Stratum E2a. There is one example of ajar (Fig. 1. Egypt and the Aegean.73:1) was unstratified but has parallels at Tell Kazel Niveau 9-10 (Badre et al. Ras al-Bassit tom be 12 (Courbin 1993:Fig. for example from Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 5. types 383. 8ab). Stager et al.72:9) (cf. 45:17).72:20) resembles an example from Dor Area A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig.73:9-11) in Stratum E3 is noteworthy.72:18) decorated with black and red painted bands and a treelike motif.72:11. Cyprus. 188 .28:16) and two Blackon-Red II(IV) bowls (Fig. 56:1). Galilean storage jars (Fig. 52:21). 1994:Fig. Comparison with decanters at Hazor Stratum VA (Yadin et al. 5. One very similar was found at Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 19:2.72: 10) (cf. The rim of a storage jar(Fig. 5. Gjerstad 1948:Fig. 5. 12) similar to those from Tell Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 2002).73:3-5) and cooking-pots with flat vertical rims in Stratum E3 see the discussion of this type under Stratum E4. The presence of simple cooking-pot lids (Fig.Both the single strap and the double-strand handle occur at Kabri (Bikai 1978a:36). Similar vessels have been found at Hazor Stratum IX (Yadin et al.6:13).519. The fabric is of medium mineral temper and reddish yellow (5YR7/6) with a grey or light red core (2. 5. The Cypriote imports include the neck ofa Plain White IV amphora (Fig. 1980:PI. 1980:Pl. Dor Area A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. 5. COOKING-POTS For cooking-pots with triangular rims (Fig. 5. A potter's workshop producing these jars was discovered at Tyre (Bikai 1985a) and two shipwrecks crammed with this type were recently found off the coast of Israel (Ballard. 5. 1960:Pl. 19) and probably belongs to Kabri Stratum E3. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS 'Crisp-ware' transport jars (Fig. The simple. dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE (Niemeier 1990:xxxv-xxxvi. 750-680 BCE) (Culican 1982:Tf. 5. 3. They have a wide distribution (Lehmann 1996:433-435. 11:1. 42:4). 87:6) date this fragment to the second half of the 8th century BCE. one in Stratum El) and one single-strap handle (from Stratum E2a). 1960:PI. are the type most frequently found in Phoenician contexts of the late 8th and early 7th centuries BCE. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al.72:6) was found on the surface in Area E.6:6) and Hazor IX (Yadin et al. They include the rim of a Greek amphora.

SYR6/6. 16. 1980). interior 7. temper: m M. core 7. Most parallels are found in the Akko plain.4. ca. core black. temper: mg M. 14-15. Exterior SYR713. As in the preceding stratum. S3061100 3474/2 3287/2 1965 1317 0873 0812 l3l3 0876 0861 0873 0896 0873 l3l3 1973 0841 l317 0896 l316 0866 30S3/1 342611 331611 32l3/2 3290/7 3378/3+8 3290/4 3433/2 11 12 13 14 Exterior SYR7/4. core grey.73:1). Exterior 7. Exterior 2. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's 'Kition Horizon'. 3290/S 337811 Locus 0873 0896 Description Exterior 10YR8/2 white. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990). core grey.71: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No. core SYR7/6.SYR6/4.73:3-11). Exterior 2.SYR6/6.SYRS/4.SYR7/4. interior SYR7/3. red paint 10RS/8. burnished surface. red slip 10R4/6 inside wheel burnished. black & red paint (10RS/6). Exterior SYR7/6. temper: fM.SYR6/6. temper: fine mineral.10 Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Reg_. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. Fig. temper: mg M. FIGURE 5.SYR6/6.SYR6/4. Ras al-Bassit tomb 12 (Courbin 1993 :800-700 BCE). temper: mg M. 5. temper: mg M.SUMMARY The bulk of the pottery found in Stratum E3 is of Phoenician or Tyrian character. interior 2. temper: fM.72:10-11). interior 2. 5. core black. Exterior SYR7/6. Fig. Parallels with Stratum E3 were found at Dor Area A phase 9 and Area Cl phase 6 (Gilboa 1995:720-650/630 BCE and 8th century BCE). core SYR7/4. core5YR7/4. temper: fM. temper: f111 M. core grey-black.71:6.72:1-2.SYR7/4. interior SYR7/4. Exterior SYR7/3. The pottery figures for this stratum include some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context (Figs. in particular the PlainWhite IV rim (Fig. Hazor Stratum VA. 5. 5. 12.6-9. temper: mg M. TJ!f!_e 1 Bowl 2 Bowl 3 Bowl 4 Bowl S 6 7 8 9 . interior SYR7/6. ' Exterior SYR7/4. 750-680 BCE. Sarepta Stratum CI-C2 (Anderson 1988:8th century BCE) and Tyre Stratum 2-8 (Bikai 1978a:8th century BCE). 5. this assemblage provides significant evidence for very close contacts with Tyre. temper: fM. interior SYR7/6. core grey. core grey-black.SYRS/4. Most important for dating Stratum E3 are the cooking-pots (Fig. No. core SYR7/6.SYRS/4. Thus Stratum E3 can be dated between ca. the transport jars made of Bikai's 'crisp-ware' (Fig. interior SYR7/6. interior 2. black paint. but particularly at Tyre and Sarepta where exact parallels were found for 30% of the types.SYR7/4. 750-650 BCE. These are dated according to stratified parallels from other sites contemporary with Stratum E3 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence at Tel Kabri. 5. interior SYR7/4. red slip 2.72:14-15. interior 2. temper: m M. S386/6 31S411 3474/1 3378/8 3448/1 IS Bowl 16 Krater 17 Krater 18 Krater 19 Krater 32S1111 189 . red slip 10RS16b. Exterior 2. interior 2. 17) and the Cypriote imports.SYR6/6. Exterior SYR7/4. core 2. Exterior SYR7/4. interior SYR7/4.

5. 190 . t \ Fig.71: Pottery of Stratum E3. 7 l 9 10 ~ 12 _7 13 14 15 17 \ I 16 "/------r---~=========~ ..~17 2 3 \)-------1 \ \ 4 5 6 7 ~_17 i I " .)-------/ f \ \ \ \ \ \ '- \\ 18 19 r= f 1 10cm.---.

._' _... '. _ '...... ~" /~~ «I '\1- 8 9 m 7 @)(ff}D 10 12 13 ~:z • 11 I I \ ' \. .. 5.... .... . -9 15 I.......... I I ~.... ..21 ) f I \ 191 Fig. \- .72: Pottery of Stratum E3.. 14 H 18 r 17 18 20 19 -EJ 10cm. I I .. " /-l-~' \ \ \ I I ~ :I II I I 2 3 4 5 m / I ....-..

Exterior 7.5YR6/4. black & white grits and mica.5YR3/4 . core 5YR7/6. red slip IOR5/6. Exterior 7. core black. interior 5YR7/6.5YR7/6. white grits. cf. Exterior 5YR7/4. Plain White IV. core grey. Bikai 1978: PI. Exterior 5YR4/3. 28: 16 (White Painted III-IV). temper: m M. core 5YR7/6. core grey.5YR5/4. core grey.5YR7/4.5YR5/4. temper: mg M black & white grits and mica. interior 5YR4/3. core grey. interior 2. core 5YR7/6. interior 5YR6/4. 19: 2.2.e Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jar Cypriote Cypriote Cypriote Cypriote Jug Transport Transport Transport Transport Transp~rt Reg No.5YR5/4. temper: fm M.5YR8/4 . core black.73: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No.5YR4/4.5YR7/4.5YR7/4. core 5YR7/4.FIGURE 5.5YR6/6. Exterior 2. FIGURE 5. 45: 17.5YR5/4.5YR5/6. core 7.5YR6/4. 3647/100 339112 331811 3474/4 322112 542311 328811 3230/3 3474/14 3457/9 3296/1 Locus 0890 1302 0881 1317 0861 1970 0873 0864 1317 1317 0873 Descril?_tion Exterior 5YR7/4. red slip IOR4/8.No. temper: fM. interior IOR5/4. black & white grits. red slip 2.5YR7/4. interior 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR7/6. black & white grits. temper: mg M.5YR5/4. core 5YR7/6. cf. temper: mg M. Tyre Stratum 4. core grey. temper: fm M. temper: mg M.5YR8/4. Exterior 7. temper: mg M. core IOR6/4. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Type Transport j ar Transport j ar Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot lid Cooking-pot lid Cooking-pot lid Reg_. white grits. interior 5YR7/6. interior 7. red slip 2. Exterior 7. core 5YR6/4 black. interior 5YR7/6. interior 7. interior 2. interior 2. temper: mg M. interior 5YR6/4. core grey. Exterior black. similar to Gjerstad 1948: Fig. interior 5YR7/4. temper: g M. temper: fM. Exterior 2. 14: 5. core 2. temper: m M. Exterior 5YR7/6. II 21 3 41 5 6 81 91 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 TJP. temper: fm M. temper: mg M. grooves inside. interior IOYR7/4. interior 2.72: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No. interior 7. i import import import import j ar jar jar jar jar 19 Transport j ar 20 Storage jar 211 Storage jar Stratum EI Exterior 7. core 7. interior 2. temper: mg M. Exterior 2. temper: mg M.5YR6/6. core 7.5YR7/4. temper: fm M. black and red painted geometric design. Exterior 5YR4/3. interior 5YR7/6. interior black. Gjerstad 1948: Fig. core black. Exterior 5YR7/6. white grits. red paint IOR5/6. Exterior 2. red slip IOR4/8.5YR5/6. 3309/4 3588/5 3283/5 3157/3 5455/5 3357/5+7 3055/1 3045/2 3215/1 3284/6 5416/10 3208/2 5432/1 5455/2 5215/1 3366/9 3307/1+2 3284/1 5455/1 319612 Locus 0879 1325 0873 0840 1970 0889 0812 0807 0864 0873 1941 0861 1970 1970 1941 0896 0876 0873 1970 0855 Descril?_tion Exterior 5YR7/6.5YR7/4. core black. Exterior 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR7/4.5YR4/6. temper: mg M. Exterior 7. interior 7. core 5YR7/6. large white grits. interior 7. red slip IOR4/8.5YR8/4. white grits.5YR8/4. red slip IOR4/8. temper: fm M.5YR7/4.5YR4/4. temper: fM. 192 .5YR7/4. temper: fm M. Exterior 2.5YR5/4.

193 . 10cm ... 5.o .... 2 3 ( F I 4 e . 10cm. /' I n ~ Fig.73: Pottery of Stratum E3.. " I ~ r -4 5 ! \ I I =\ \ ! \ 7 ~ -: I 9 "/' o . I 8 I I f 6 ..___.

194 . but the fabric is very different. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl. Another sub-type (Fig. For bowl Fig. SeeBriendetal. 471-473. Parallels come from I 3 4 For a detailed type study see Briend et al. 1980:PI.77:1-6). several have either one hole drilled into the centre of the base or several holes all over the bottom. Bowls with a long overhanging rim (Fig. 41: 12 similar.71:3 discussed in Stratum E3.3:24-25).76:16-17) are typical of the late 8th and 7th century BCE (cf. 5.76:7) has a particular fabric. p. 1980:Pl. 5. Maigret 1979). 5. The outer surface can often be cut with a knife. It might be dated as early as Late Bronze or Iron Age I and could be intrusive in Stratum E2a (cf.1:1). It has 'been reported from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 5 nos. which constitute 3.511. 538). 5. 40:12). 29:1-8). Tel Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. have previously been included in the so-called 'Samaria Ware' but should be referred to rather as 'Phoenician Fine Wares' (Bikai 1992:97) or 'Levantine Fine Wares'. Like the bowls with a long overhanging rim. 5. 15: 13). Tyre Stratum 5.4 Their shape is very similar to Figs. 38).STRATUME2 BOWLS There is a remarkable variety of bowl types in Stratum E2.76:21. 5. as are bowls with a carinated or stepped profile inside and outside (Fig.76:4) are very common.513).76: 18-19) are of the type found at Sarepta Stratum C1-C2 (Anderson 1988: type F-7C). The former have a fine soft orange fabric whereas the clay of the latter is red brittle and coarse. 5. 5.7% of all diagnostics. Often they have a carination half way up the body.76:20-25. 5.24. 46:2) and Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. where it was assumed that drilled vessels were part of architectural construction (Lehmann 1996:363 form 17. 19:534-536. Flat plates or bowls with a sloping profile and a simple rim (Fig. Bikai 1978a: PI. 20:531-533. 31. 5. differentiated by their rim forms. 1980 :PI. for example at Arqa 10AB (Thalmann 1978:Fig. 5. At Kabri several examples of both types have had a hole drilled in their centre after firing and were apparently in secondary use. Keisan Stratum 10-11 (Briend et al.80.98 examples. A great many vessels of this class were found in Kabri . For their occurrence see Lehmann 1996:371-372 form 75b.69:4) displays somewhat thicker walls and the red slip is thin and washy being band-burnished or unburnished. The fabric is orange. Deep bowls with bichrome red and black painted decoration inside (Fig. 470. Carinated bowls with a simple rim (Fig.76:12) is similar to Fig. called 'Salt and Pepper group' at Tell Abu Hawam. The fabric of this sherd consists mainly of marl and may perhaps originate in northern Israel (Chapter 15:Table 15. The bowl with an S-shaped profile (Fig. but without slip) and Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a: PI. 1980:166-168. 81: 15).1980:168-170. 5. occur frequently on the Phoenician coast. 20-22).76:8) was first identified at Ras al-Bassit and is apparently a typical 7th century BCE form (Braemer 1986:Nos.76:5-6). A number of red-slipped flat bowls and plates all have an accentuated everted rim (Figs.76:14 compare a Black-on-Red I(III) bowl at Cyprus (Gjerstad 1948:Fig. 38:1-12). 1980: PI. fine and soft. 1. 26:16-17) and bowls at Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. Sarepta C1 (Anderson 1988:type X-9A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 1. Sarepta C1-D1 (Anderson 1988:type F-1A). Some of these sub-types.3 Parallels come from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. A similar phenomenon is known from central Syria in the late 8th century BCE. 5. 5. The bowl type with an uneven outer surface (Fig. 5. A sub-type of the group of bowls with flaring rims (Fig. often red-slipped outside and/or inside.76:9) first seen in Stratum E4 (Fig.76: 10-11). Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 63: 75.82-85) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:type Fine Ware Plate 1). 77. 494-496.

78:9) is discussed 1990:PI. The rim is either horizontal from Tyre define Both examples found at Kabri are 'drooping'. 15:9 respectively). Al Mina Stratum 5 (Lehmann 8 (unpublished. Comparisons which BCE. The Fig. studied in detail by A. The large plain bowl (Fig. or partially red-slipped 145b). 12: 11). The bowl (Briend et al. 1980:166rim and a 10:12-13). 30:180/2).9:6). 435). 1987:9:10).form 5 (Briend et al. 72:164-166). 8-9) and Yoqne'am Stratum 10 (Ben-Tor et al. 9:14). 5. 1978a:22-23). A similar bowl (Fig.77:11). 30:8). 28: 12. 2 and 3 (Bikai 1978a:Pls. 1980:PI. Bikai divides plates like Fig. tomb 367/51-1 pottery during the 1968Ashmolean British Museum late 8th and the 7th century Museum. Oxford 1954. 9:5-6. 5. Sarepta Cl (Anderson 1988:PI.77:14 is a small bowl with an incurving rim. was also found at Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 10:24-25). 41 :3a).9:9-10. 30:11et al. 544) Tyre Stratum plate 3 and 4. creating a bar-handle-like Similar plates were found at Tyre in Strata 3 and 4 (Bikai 1978a:Pls. vessels nos.Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al.7:8).77:10) has a cut rim. A small plate with a small accentuated band of red slip inside (Fig. and indeed our example or 'drooping'. 5.'Plate 3' and 'Plate 4' (Bikai or slightly flat there are exceptions. 32:3. 25. 1980:PI. They are one of the most typical features of Phoenician BCE. PI. 41:7). Examples Amathus come from Al Mina (unpublished. 45:4-4a). 30:2-4. 38:22) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 69:141-142) and Tyre Stratum 10-2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 38: 9-12) and Tyre Stratum 1-3 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 3.40:1-7) 1:12.77:15) with an incurving rim has a number of parallels in Phoenician sites of the late 8th and 7th centuries BCE such as Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et at.78:1) were first recognized by Bikai (1985b) and many have been recorded since 1996:394 type 180). 1980:PI. The deep bowl with a carinated 5. 1-4 at Tyre. 1978:Fig. century 2. effect (see Culican 1981). 5. sometimes has a black band on the rim (Bikai 1978a:28 fine ware plate 4. Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al.77:12) was also found at Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et The first type is always While the rim is usually rim. The red slipped plate (Fig. 52: 8) Tell in the 7th profile (Fig.77:7-8) seventy nine such bowls found at Kabri made up 3. Dor C2 phase 7 (ibid. and Tyre Strata 1. 5. 39:30). 5-6). 1978a:type fine ware 4) date the type between the second half of the 8th and the 7th century BCE. 1. 5. 1980:PI. Al Mina Stratum (Bikai 1987:No. Parallels from Tell Keisan Stratum 4(Anderson 1988:type F-2A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai are discussed below as a special type. 5. 1980:PI. 1995:Fig. 5. Tel Qiri Stratum VI (Ben-Tor Sarepta (Pritchard 1988:misc. type plate 4).77:16) has a carination directly under the rim and was found at Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et Large.:Fig.1 % of all diagnostics. 33: 1- They occur at Kabri with different rim forms. PI. 1996:Tf. Chambon 168).348/3). PI. deep bowls with handles assemblage and a carinated shoulder (Fig.78: 10) has a paralJel at TelJ Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera The Assyrian-style deep bowl (Fig. 1980:PI. 1980:167 type c. Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1988:PI.12). 1. 5. Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. Sarepta CI-Dl Assyrian-style DEEP BOWLS bowls (Figs. come from and the time range of this type to Strata and the first part of 7th century 1-3 (Bikai 1978a:type the end of the 8th century Cyprus (Bikai 1987: no.76:15. 8a:43. et al. 27:4). Sarepta (Anderson 12. 42:3. Fig. 5. include The comparisons burnished and very well finished and has a stepped at. GOBLETS AND PEDESTAL BOWLS Presentation (Lehmann stands (Fig. 8a:51. 52:10). 195 . 5. 22. 1980:PI. type with a horizontal long rim (Fig.78:5-8) at. 1980:PI. 45. 5. convex base.77:9 has a parallel from Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. This type is completely .77:13 into two types . 5. 28:5. p. Plate 4 is a variant characterized 92/888/3356-2 by a step below the is broken here (no would breaks at this point. Lehmann 1996:386. The plate usually illustration). are common BCE Phoenician from Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend Gonzalez below.

la). At Kabri three sub-types were distinguished on the basis of fabric: 1. Some examples were found in Iraq at Assur Tomb 547 (Haller1954) and Nimrud NTS15 (Mallowan 1966:Fig. 5. type 239).70:1-2 in Stratum -E4). The decoration and fabric are reminiscent of Assyrianizing pottery but the form is uncommon among Mesopotamian shapes as is the fine grit size of the temper. 5. More frequent are goblets (Fig. Tyre Stratum 2-3 (Bikai 1978a:33-35.78:4) which occur in the 7th century BCE all over the Levant (Lehmann 1996:383-384 type 125). 5."5.Stands or incense burners (Fig. The decanter (Fig.79:5. 298. 46:2).78:14 (Chapter 15: Table 15. 5. Large jugs made of smooth yellowish fabric with dark painted lines (Fig.79:8-10) can be dated by parallels to between ca.80:5. 87:l3. 43:8). Large jugs and bottles (Fig. 279) but most were found in Levantine sites such as Sidon Tomb 1 (Culican 1975:Fig.79:3-4). 6-7) occur very frequently in 8th and 7th century BCE Phoenician pottery assemblages. PIs. are discussed below. 5:19-23. 1960: PI. 38:6. Similar vessels from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Nos. Sarepta B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type B-3A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:typejuglet 1). but there are also four examples of Persian period mortaria with a high pedestal ring-base (Fig. Other larger jugs (Fig. Juglets with a small bulge at the base (Fig. Sapin 1998). 5. For comparisons see Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al.78:2-3) decorated in reserved red slip with painted black bands are unusual. found under the floors of Stratum E2. Tyre Stratum 3. 2) decorated with painted bichrome bands in red and black. The Assyrian-style juglets and jugs (Fig. 25:type 159-163 and Tf. 50). 5. Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:Fig. 92:jug 5) and Hazor VA (Yadin et al. 5. 5. 2.79:5). Only the base distinguishes the early moratoria from those of the NeoBabylonian and Persian periods (cf Lehmann 1996:Tf.79:1) was found under the floor of Stratum E2. 25-28. surface treatment and decoration and are comparable to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al.9). 37:2-3) and Vroulia Tomb 6 on Rhodes (Kinch 1914:PI. 4: 16). Juglets with a red slip and a wide overhanging mushroom lip (Fig. Petrographic analysis of Fig.80: 1. The vessels have a wide oval body and tall neck (cf.79:14) differs in form. 221: 1) and Shiqmona Stratum 9 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. 5. 27:169) while the rim fragments are often indistinguishable. The handle rises above the rim and the body of the vessel is slim and long. 5. 5. 6) similar in form. 19). 36: 1-.5YR6/6) with a rough surface (Fig. Reddish coarse fabric (lOR5/6) (not illustrated. 5. Most examples found at Kabri belong to the early Iron Age type. 5. Lehmann 1996:Tf. 285.79:12-l3) and a polished or cut surface come from Strata E2-3.79:6-7). 3. 1980:PI. fabric and decoration were also found at Sarepta Dl 196 . JUGLETS AND JUGS A complete small juglet with black-brown bands (Fig. fabric and surface finish from contemporary decanter types in inland sites but is quite common along the northern Levantine coast. Fine yellowish smooth (5YR7/6) fabric (Fig. 5.90:3-4). 750-680 BCE (Lehmann 1996: type 241 and cf. but see Fig. Brown fabric (2. 5. These bottles form a distinct group of pottery in terms of fabric. B ikai 1978a:PI. The paint has a matt appearance. Salles 1985a.6:4-5.11. 316). 1980:Pl. Similar juglets were found in Cyprus and labelled as White Painted V (Gjerstad 1948:Fig.1:2) shows that the fabric of this vessel is typical of Cypriote coastal sites like Amathus or Enkomi.78:11-14) with a simple flat base were found at Kabri. This juglet may be an Assyrian-style vessel. MORTARIA A large number of mortaria (Fig. Mortaria appear during the 7th century BCE for the first time and continue into the Hellenistic period (cf. 312. 33:3.

5 Thus. 1018 (Hunt 1987:Fig. A holemouth krater with round shoulders and a wide curved profile (Fig. Such lamps appear at Tyre only after Stratum III (Bikai 1978a:Pl. KRATERS Kraters with vertical shoulders and a wide lower body (Fig. 27:1-3). Dan Stratum II (Biran 1994:Fig. 287) and Tyre Stratum 3 (Bikai 1978a:P1s. 5. Unfortunately. 33:4). 43: 12). 5.81 :10 has a thick rim and is wheel burnished in the interior. 5. Briend et al.(Anderson 1988:Pl.81:3 is similar to these. 6). 5. Tell Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et al. sometimes also extending over the inner parts of the vessel. Jars with a stepped shoulder and vertical body walls (Fig.82:2) (cf. 5. 5.80:10.82:6) with a fire-arm is discussed below. Large sack-shaped storage jars (Fig. Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al.81: 1. 1980:Pl. 5. pink fabric (Fig.82:5) existed over a long span of time and may have been used in cultic contexts. 5. The Assyrian-style lamp (Fig. 49:8). Briend et al. Some vessels are decorated with a red slip on the rim. 1980:Pl. but has horizontal handles. 5. 4) Cooking-pot fabric which is red with black white grits and a rough surface (Fig. 1. 1980:Pl. and another version (Fig. 13d). 7:5. Tel Qiri loci 682. Assyrian-style kraters (Figs. Bk).81:5 is similar. Assyrian-style jug1ets and jugs (Fig. Often the handle starts immediately at the rim.82:4). 4:10. 5. At Sarepta they occur in Strata B-C1 (Anderson 1988:505). 5. Fig. 43: 1) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl. 88:285.80:3-4) are discussed below. The surface is decorated with bichrome red and black bands. Type 429. 28:9).11) with their maximum width in the lower part of the vessel have no parallels. This is the most common type of krater in Stratum E2 at Kabri where fragments of 16 such vessels were found. this type begins during the 8th century and continues into the Persian period. 44:13-15) and Mtarfa tomb (Malta) (Culican 1982:Abb. The fabric and the streak burnish are identical with fabric and surface finishing of decanter Fig. No parallels were found for Fig. LAMPS The late Iron Age lamps (Fig. 32:8-9. Keisan Stratum 5. 6:10). but has small horizontal loop-handles.82:3) (cf.80:8. 197 .81 :6) has a different type of rim. 1980:Pl. Anderson 1988:type L-9).82: 1) which is sometimes almost white (cf. 5. Lamps of the so-called 'cup-and-saucer type' (Fig. Briend et al. Similar vessels were found at Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. :Pl. 2) often have wide rectangular horizontal rims. Fig. 212). Fort Shalmaneser Room T20 (Curtis et at. The large krater or deep bowl on Fig. 44:5-8). 5. Some 7th century BCE examples come from Achziv Tomb 3 (Culican 1975-76:Fig.78:9. Sarepta B-C1. 880.81 :7. 5. 5. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl. Stratum 5 (ibid. 91 :301). 5 For further references from Syria and Lebanon see Lehmann 1996:447.80:7) are more typical of inland assemblages and occur at Kabri only in very limited numbers. 2) Smooth.81 :4) has a flat oval-shaped rim. the rim is not preserved.79:14. There is some similarity to Assyrian storage jars from Nimrud. 5. Tell Keisan Stratum 4. There are four sub-types: 1) Reddish-yellow fabric (Fig. 1993:Fig. 5.80:9) has a cylindrical body and a round base. 3) Brown fabric (Fig. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS The tall storage vessel (Fig.82:1-4) are low in profile with a sharply formed rim and a somewhat flattened base (Anderson 1988:669. Tell Keisan Stratum 5. 5. 1980:Pl. 5.5:1~3) and Sarepta B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type SJ-18A). Type L-9). 5. 5.9) are discussed below.

Some of Humbert's types (1991) as defined at Tell Keisan were also found at Kabri: Type B-1 example. 53) and Ras Shamra-Ugarit (Stucky 1983:Keramik Nr. many of them completely restorable. Similar vessels were found at Ashdod-Yam (Raban 1980:Fig. 23-24). the matrix being fine with a fine to medium mineral temper. 1:14). the handle is 17 ern high and its diameter is 5 ern. 5. Fifty seven vessels. A significant number of handles of fabric groups 1 and 2 have the same dimensions. 1980:Pls. Salamis (Karageorghis 1974:Pl. There is a regular. Salamis (Karageorghis 1967:97. 21 types were recorded in Stratum E2.82:15). light reddish. Sharply carinated shoulders and an S-shaped profile (Fig. were recorded from Stratum E2.82:11. 33:6).84:1-2). Similar to group 1 but with much thicker walls (up to 2cm) (Fig. Fig. pink with black and white grits. 5. 5. 1. 225:593. 700 BCE but Salles (1985b) claims that this early type of basket-handle amphora reached the Akko plain only ca. 5. 11). 1980:Pls. 'from the sea' (Zemer 1977:No. 300). 12).24 examples (Fig. Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. 5. The fabric is of fine to medium mineral temper. This type occurs from Carthage to Nimrud (Lehmann 1996:434 type 384). Slightly sloping shoulders. 1980:PI. It has parallels at Achziv Stratum IV (Zemer 1977:18. Dafanna(Petrie 1888:PI. Type C . 5. The yellowish. The general shape resembles a bullet. 27:9) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:Pl. 25:2-3. Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. Type D . The vessel is pink with a grey core.86:1). 1980:PI. 9). 5. The fabric is orange pink. The handle joints on the shoulder are 21 em apart from each other.74: Phoenician aleph incised on jar shoulder.While there were only some 10 types of transport jars found in Stratum E3. The fabric is medium to coarse with mineral temper. light reddish to pink. 806-807) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. vertical body walls below a shoulder carination and a pointed base (Fig. 26:2-7. Kamiros (Jacopi 1931:Tav. greenish grey.6 examples (Fig. 8:131). Less sharply carinated shoulders than Group 2 (Fig.88a) the majority were confined to 5 main types. Shiqmona Stratum 8 (Elgavish 1994:Fig.1:3) came to the same conclusion that this type of vessel was produced in II~_-• 198 . 5. light orange or reddish fabric has a fine mineral temper. 33). Cyprus (Gjerstad 1948:Fig. 5.8-9). At Kabri they constitute 40% of all transport jars in Stratum E2. 57:23 [Plain White V]). The fabric is fine to medium with mineral temper and falls into four distinct colour groups: light grey or greenish with black arid brown grits. The outside is red sometimes with a white self-slip. Basket-handle amphoras (Fig. a small and a large subtype. 650 BCE. 5. 26:1. 3. However. 1:16). Both Neutron Activation Analysis by Gunneweg and Perlman (1991) as well as petrographic analyses by Yuval Goren (Chapter 15:Table 15. No. 12-14). 5. 47:1-2). These jars from Stratum E2 represent the earliest type which is confined to the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:443-445 type 421). This is probably the most typical Phoenician transport jar of the late 7th century BCE. 27:6. On two jars of this type a Phoenician aleph was incised on the shoulder when the clay was still soft (Figs. in the storage rooms (Fig. 101).82:8-10).84:1).84:2). 4. All in all 160 handles were counted which would point to at least 80 baskethandle amphoras in the limited excavation of Area E. Humbert (1991) dates the first appearance of this type to ca. These dimensions occur on both fabric groups 1 and 2. 5. 2.82:13-14). Similar jars have been reported from Arqa Stratum 9 D (Thalmann 1990:54 n.74.

A few contemporary E2a is types came from the southern The diversity remarkable. 5.88b). 46:4).75: Basket handle with incised Cypriote signs. Several apparently examples in secondary of other types use as storage which vessels may have come as imports were also retrieved to the Kabri area and were (Fig. 5. under the lip (Fig. were found at Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:Fig. I 2:5 [early 9th century BCE to 732 BCE]) With a flat round rim without an edge (Fig.5. At least some of these signs are in Cypriote Iron Age writing.85:1) belong to a Phoenician One example type which already appears With a small discussed in Stratum E4. 199 Stratum CI-Dl (Anderson and Tyre Stratum 9-13 (Bikai 1978a: cooking-pot . 28 :6). of this sub-type Stratum at Tell Keisan under Stratum E4 (Fig. 5. 1980:PI.84:8-9). There was 1 example in Stratum E3b. 5.g. in the Mediterranean Crisp. in E2 and 2 were unstratified. 220:3) and Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et at. 5. of transport This variety part of the country (e.84:7-9.75.84:7). by the appearance between the periphery (35%) of cooking-pots in Stratum E2 (Figs. (Anderson 4 (Briend et at. The chert composition suggests that Cyprus should be favoured as a place of origin and this is confirmed by the signs either incised on them after firing or in red paint (Figs.85:1). 2 in E2b and 24 in E2a. the type dates to Strata E3 and E2 which 1988:Type CP-IA) is comparable to Sarepta type 4). In addition. 2 in E2b and 12 in E2a. Thus. marked exchange BCE assemblage like that of Stratum wide trade contacts of the so-called and Tyre. lIIIIIIII111111fM1*H1111IlmlfM1*H111. 5.l\11\\I~l\Il\lll\fM1*H1I\\I\\\\\f 9 10 14 15 16 17 1~ Fig. 1980 :PI. 5. 2 in E3a. 5.84:2).e. 5.70:20). Thus. and sub-types: has been was found in Stratum E4.83:9). Another 25 examples were found out of their original context in Stratum El. With a flat rim and an edge slightly below the lip (Fig. jars in a late 7th century BCE. and Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 1988:Type 6. Comparable vessels.Ware found in seems to be due to the increasingly economic after the end of the 9th century Stratum E3. one edge on the rim immediately It has parallels CP-IA). and illustrates COOKING-POTS The majority 1. 31 examples were found out of their original context in Stratum E 1. Fig. 3 in E3a. Sarepta CI-Dl 2. There were 3 examples in Stratum E3b. the type dates to Strata E3 and E2. 3. all with a rough and uneven bas. There are several variations One example 2000:Fig. 5.Cyprus or the north Syrian coast.

77). 5. 5. At other sites in Israel this type is confined to Iron Age I and IIA-B. Another feature typical of Kabri cooking-pots is a rough surface on the lower part of the body (Figs. Type See Fig. Stratum E2a-E2b UnderE2b Bowl 5. The fabric of this class of pottery is almost uniform being mainly reddish yellow (5YR7/6) with some cases of pink (5YR7/4 and 5YR8/3).77:8 1 2 Deep bowl 5. Hausleiter and Reiche 1999). TABLE 5.81:9 4 2 Lamp 5.80:3. It is usually a reserved slip decoration with a thin.76:15 Bowl 5. they replaced the triangular-rimmed cooking-pot almost everywhere except on the Akko plain.77:7. this form of decoration is a continuation of the Iron Age traditions in the preceding centuries.Types with a triangular rim (Fig. However. The forms would seem to be mainly vessels for the consumption of liquids. but also on juglets. Beginning at the end of the 9th century BCE.5% of the kitchen assemblage of Stratum E2.79:12-13[?].82:6).1: ASSYRIANIZING TYPES AND THEIR STRATIGRAPHIC CONNECTIONS. juglets (Fig. 58:351/1. 5. jugs (Figs.81:7-8 3 3 Krater 5. There are no cooking-pots or transport jars in the Assyrianizing style at Kabri.78:8 3 Bottle* Jug 5.85:5). 5. Pakman 1992. 5. 5. 5. cooking-pots with a ridged or modelled rim were found at many sites during the survey of the Akko hinterland (Lehmann 2001) and here at Kabri they constitute 11% of the kitchen vessels. 6 For a discussion of cooking-pots with triangular rims see the section on cooking-pots in Stratum E4. The repertoire consists of bowls (Figs. jugs and kraters. Mattingly 1980. 5.78:8).7% of the total. 5.76. 5. Assyrianizing pottery occurs only in small amounts. The core is usually greyish but sometimes reddish yellow (5YR7/6) or pink (5YR7/4). Gilboa 1996. DECORATION Red slip decoration was still popular at the end of the 7th century BCE (Figs. probably wine (Stronach 1996). Among the cooking-pots found in this stratum were some Greek imports (Chapter 5. Chambon 1980:165-166. whereas on the Akko plain it continues into the 7th century BCE. ASSYRIANIZING POTTERY An interesting feature of the 7th century BCE assemblage of Tel Kabri is the presence of Assyrianizing pottery and imitations of Mesopotamian vessel shapes (Amiran 1969:291.79:3 Krater 5.6 Cooking-pots with a ridged or 'modelled' rim (Fig.80:3 5 7 Juglet 5. This type does not occur at all at Tyre or Sarepta.85:13-15) make up 6. deep bowls (Fig. Cooking-pot lids (Fig. 8). 5. bottles of type Lehmann 1996:Tf. Lehmann 1996:Tf.77:7 5 14 Bowl 5.84:5-6) are the commonest type throughout Israel during the Iron Age IIC (Fig. 5. Jugs and juglets are often decorated with wide horizontal bands of red wash-like paint with black lines added parallel to the red bands. despite their apparent absence at Tell Keisan (Briend et at. 5. 1980). 200 . Sometimes there is a black band on the rim of the bowls. kraters (Fig. 58:351/1. This slip was used most frequently on bowls. A few examples each of a variety of cooking-pot types together make up 13.84:3-4) make up 9% of the cooking-pots.84:8. Although the wash-like appearance of the 7th century BCE red slip is clearly distinguishable from the heavy and thick earlier red slip techniques. 5.79:3). 4).76:15. Hunt 1987:203.82:6 Total 24 30 *For bottles of this type see cf. Weippert 1988:647-648. 5.VI).89). often wash-like slip (usually red 10 R5/6). Thus this decoration is some kind of 'Late Bichrome' style. 5.81 :7-9) and lamps (Fig.

Exterior 10YR7/4. These vessels are dated according to stratified comparisons from other sites.5YR7/6. FIGURE 5. this may also be the case for the coarser Assyrianizing vessels in Kabri. interior and core 5YR7/6. temper: fM. temper: mg M. temper: m M. comes from Tell Abu Danna Stratum A4 in northern Syria (Tefnin 1980:15:3).5YR5/6. temper: m M. Exterior. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 l3 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Type Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl BO'.5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/6. core 7. Most was found either in Stratum E2b or under the floors of that stratum. 1980.82:6) are unusual in Israel (Lehmann 1996:T£ 82:430/2 with references to finds in Syria and Lebanon).76: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. No.7 No Assyrian-style pottery was found in Stratum E3.\lI Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Reg. interior 5YR7/6.5YR5/4. Egg-shell thin vessels like those from Tell Jemmeh are missing from the Kabri material which very closely resembles the finds from Tell Keisan and Dor (Briend et al. Assyrian-style pottery was found in significant quantities in a sounding in Square OP7 (Chapter 4. core 10YR7/4. core 5YR7/6. red slip lOR5/6. core 5YR7/3. temper: mg M. core 2. red slip 10R5/6. Chemical and petrographic analyses of Assyrianizing pottery from Tell Jemmeh have shown that this pottery was produced from local clay (Melson and van Beek 1992). Gjerstad 1948:Fig. Tyre Stratum II-III (Bikai 1978:PI. and stratigraphic context of the finds under floor E2b is unclear. From a macroscopic point of view. Exterior 7. temper: fm M. temper fM. Thus it can be attributed to the first half of the 7th century BCE. interior 5YR6/4. interior 7. interior and core 5YR7/6. red paint lOR5/6 Exterior 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR6/4. 26:16-17. red slip. mainly in the Ottoman level (Stratum E 1) whose foundations were dug into the remains of Stratum E2. 11A:2). temper: fM. Exterior 5YR7/6. cf.5YR5/4. Exterior 2. interior 10YR7/4. temper: fM. Gilboa 1995). temper: fm M. white self slip. 'Assyrian bowl'. An almost identical example. Analysis of Syrian and Lebanese pottery shows that Mesopotamian shapes went out of use immediately after the destruction of the Assyrian empire (Lehmann 1996:93-94). copying the life-style of the centre in Assyria. cf. black & white grits. whose fire-arm was also broken off. core 5YR6/6. black & red paint lOR5/6.1V). 3350/100 3224/2 3502/3 326011 3175/2 3358/102 3616/2+ 12 7 Since this operation was a probe and excavation was halted after reaching the foundations ofWl389. 3447/3 3367/1 3434/100 195515 Locus Description 1315 0892 0890 1955 1970 l321 1927 0890 1970 0801 0802 1941 1984 1941 1971 0890 0892 0889 0889 0864 l308 0869 0849 0890 l334 Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. The pottery figures for this stratum include some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context.5YR5/4.2. Exterior. Black-on-Red I(III) bowl. core 5YR6/4: temper: mg M. 5. temper: fm M. but here on its periphery they are apparently objects of prestige. core grey. They are contemporary with Stratum E2 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence in Tel Kabri. Exterior 10YR7/4. interior 5YR8/3.5YR8/4. SeE 4. 539114 3590/3 5149/4 Exterior lOYR8/2 white. 3375/7 5324/100 3020/1 3024/3 5426/100 548515 19411190 542511 3386/100 3376/5 3347/1 Exterior. core 5YR7/6. Exterior. interior 2. core grey. interior and core 7. red slip 2. interior 5YR7/6.5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR7/6. red slip lOR516. interior and core 5YR7/4. red slip 10R516.Lamps with a 'fire-arm' (Fig. interior 5YR7/6. the architectural 201 . temper: fM. temper: fM.

) ~ '7 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 16 ~ r7 19 ) 15 ( 17 .76: Pottery of Stratum E2.s. 202 . • Fig.. "~ /' ~ 21 22 23 :7 10cm. 5.:I 7 ~ 6 4 ~7 C .d 2• 2 CC_ ~ 5 .

/

"\ ,

-

_J
3

\

"\ ,

;

2

~
4

I
C,

7
1

(

C

l---/
6

5

7

8

~

,

I

7

9

\,

-'

,

c:
10 11 12

13

14

(
15

\
<,

~
16

1/
10cm.

Fig. 5.77: Pottery of Stratum E2.

203

FIGURE 5.77: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2
No. Type
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS 16 Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl

Reg_.No.
S49113 S012/3 S413/2 3374/1 S28616 327712 S3S9/4 S3911S S419/2 3S33/4 3602/1 3629/1 33S7/1 S472/100 S442/1 3219/S

Locus
1984 1911 1972 1300 1965 0872 1970 1970 1968 1321 1336 1338 0889 1976 1963 0864

Description
Exterior, interior and core SYR7/6, temper: fm M, decoration: black & red paint. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip 2.5YR6/8. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip lORS/6. Exterior and interior SYR7/4, core lORS/6, temper: m M. Hole drilled in the base. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip 10RS/6. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: m M. Exterior SYR7/4, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: m M.

Exterior SYR616, interior SYR616, core SYR616, temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: mg M, red slip 10RS/6. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, burnished. Exterior SYR7/8, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fin M, smoothed outside. Exterior SYR713, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: mg M.

FIGURE 5.78: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2
No. Type
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Mortarium Mortarium Mortarium Mortarium

Reg. No.
S112/100 3SS9/S 3S80/1 3646/101 S188/1 196616 S21111 3446/3 S012/1 19411104 3S7S/I 3S92/3 3S1113 S216/100

Locus Description
1913 1326 1326 0890 1938 1966 1948 131S 1911 1941 1333 133S 1321 1947 Exterior 2.SYRS/6, interior 2.5YRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: mg M white grits. Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior lOYR7/3, interior 2.SYRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: fin M, red slip 10RS/6. SYR7/4, interior SYR7/4, core grey, temper: fm M black grits. SYR6/4, interior SYR6/4, core grey black, temper: fm M. 2.SYRS/6, interior 2.SYRS/6, core grey; temper: m M black & white grits.

Exterior SYR7/4, interior SYR7/4, core SYR7/4, temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/4, interior lOYRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: m M.

Typical Cypriote fabric.

204

2

3

4

J
5 7

/1
6

»:
\
\
'

8

9

I

\

,

10

~l
11 13

12

~_1_7

1Oem,

Fig. 5.78: Pottery of Stratum E2

205

. / I~.W 5 " 7 ... <: i: .. '\ I r.. ..rr@ . 206 . I I I I I " .-_... \ 3 4 1IfJ' .....-.79: Pottery of Stratum E2. 11 9 10 12 8 13 10cm. ... 14 Fig.2 ../ " ~. 5.. ' .

temper: fig M. Exterior 5YR7/6. grey to 5YR7/6. and interior 5YR7/6. temper: fM. interior 2. temper: fm M. temper: m M. temper: fM. and interior 2. temper: fm M. core 5YR7/4. temper: fM. interior 10YR8/3. temper: fM.5YR8/4.5YR7/6.5YR6/6. interior 5YR7/4. temper: grey to 5YR7/6. Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Jug Jug Jug Decanter 12 13 14 529511+2 FIGURE 5. core grey. interior 5YR7/6. black paint. core grey. Only 1 handle. mg M. core 5YR7/6. temper: fm M. temper: mg M. temper:wg Brown painted band IOR5/4 weak red. temper: fm M. temper: m M. red slip 10R5/8 with black lines. black bands. temper: grey to 5YR7/6.5YR8/4. black & white grits. temper: grey. core 1OYR8/3. Exterior 5YR7/6. temper: m M black & white grits. burnished with black brown bands painted outside. and interior 5YR7/6. Exterior 7. wheel burnished. Exterior and interior 2. red slip IOR5/8. 3618/100 349113 53911100 5238/1 5324/9 536711 5477/5 3279/16 3356/9 526117 3275/6 357211 3269/9 5324/1 5500/200 5330/2 Locus 1338 1308 1970 1956 1970 1967 1976 0872 0888 1956 0872 1326 0869 1970 1984 1967 1941 Descrip_tion Exterior. temper: fM. Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Reg No. Exterior 5YR7/6. 5013/200 5073/200 53201100 3119/5 3573/1 5209/1 5286/10 3142/4 5416/5 5235/1 Locus 1912 1912 1941 0825 1321 1941 1965 0835 1941 1955 Descrip_tion Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. mg M. Exterior.5YR7/6. "':!. interior 5YR7/6. black & red paint IOR5/6. Exterior.5YR8/4. core 7. temper: fM. FIGURE 5. inside mg M. TyPe 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Pot-stand Krater? Deep bowl Reg.5YR6/6. interior and core 10YR812 (white). interior 5YR7/4. Karageorghis 1970: PI. 207 . core dark. core 2. core 5YR7/6.79: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. M.81: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. interior 5YR7/6 .5YR7/6. Exterior 7. Exterior 2. red slip 10R5/8 with black line on mushroom lip. Exterior IOYR7/3. interior IOYR7/3. No.7. core 10R6/6. interior 5YR7/6. 212: 10 (Tomb 14). Exterior. red paint.5YR7/6. red slip 10R5/6.5YR7/6. 3353/7 3353/100 5306/1 3297/1 5413/3 5037/100 3293/1 5362/2 5073/100 5287/1 34651100 Locus 0892 0892 1965 0874 1972 1912 0874 1967 1912 1941 0890 Description Exterior 5YR7/4. interior and core 2.80: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. Exterior. core grey. Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. Exterior 10YR8/3. core core core core core grey. and interior 5YR7/6.outside wheel burnished. core yellow greenish. temper: fmM. temper: m M. Type Juglet 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Reg. interior 2. interior 10R6/6. Exterior 10R6/6. Exterior 5YR7/6. interior 2. core 5YR7/6. interior and core 7. 'Assyrian bottle'.5YR6/6.FIGURE 5. burnished. temper: fm M.5YR6/6. interior and core 7. red paint 10R5/6. Exterior 2. core grey. temper: g M large white grits. temper: m M.5YR6/6.5YR6/6.5YR6/6. No. interior 7. black lines.5YR6/6. interior and core 1OYR8/3 white.5YR6/6. core grey. cf. burnished. temper: f M. Exterior 5YR7/6 -7.

• 7 I 9 10 11 o 10cm . \ 5 6 r L III '\. Fig.-.. 8 10cm...-. 5. .80: Pottery of Stratum E2 208 . ..\ 3 \ r I 2 I ._....

I I " . 209 .81: Pottery of Stratum E2..---- I \ \ \ I \ \ \ \ '' I • / I\ \ .. 2 • 4 3 5 s 7 ) : =I. I I . T 8 9 -~10 10cm. 5. Fig. .

5YR6/6 . Cypriote import. 3498/2 349811 527913 5258/3 3554/1 5302/100 35201100 549112 5245/4 548114 5287/2 3640/100 5437/1 524112 5180/2 5297/2 Locus 0890 0890 1963 1959 1321 1941 1941 1984 1941 1980 1941 0890 1968 1941 1914 1941 Description Exterior. interior and core 5YR7/8 grey.5YR5/4 black. 210 . interior 2.82: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. core 2.e Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport jar jar jar jar jar jar jar jar jar Reg. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TJ:'J!. interior and core 5YR7/6. temper: mg M. temper: fM. temper: fm M white grits.10YR7/3.5YR7/6. Exterior. 194117 550011 5447/2 5061/2 5309/200 52991100 53321100 36431100 5192/2 Locus 1941 1984 1963 1913 1941 1941 1941 0890 1941 Description Exterior 10YR6/2 . Pink lamp type with smooth surface. FIGURE 5. Exterior. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 TJ:'J!. core grey black. temper: fm M black & white grits. red & black paint.2. temper: mg M black & white grits.5YR5/4 grey. interior 10YR6/2. Exterior. interior and core 7.e Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Table amphora Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport jar j ar j ar j ar j ar jar jar jar Reg No. interior and core 7.5YR6/6 .5YR8/2 white.2.FIGURE 5.2.83: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. Exterior 2.5YR6/6 . temper: fM. Red lamp type with rough surface.5YR5/4 black. Cooking-pot fabric. No.

~ . 15 Fig.'" 2 3 e._____._---'- ----- --- ----' 6 -=~~~~_'~Ocm.---'. \I ' I 4 5 . . 7 • • I I I I \ \ \ \ \ I \ \ \ . 211 . I / '. 5..I '\V/ / " 8 9 10 11 ~ 13 '1 I ~.. I I . .. . . 14 12 a 10cm . \ \ . '/ -.. \ \ I I I . I I ....82: Pottery of Stratum E2. ffi -. I I / " I -.

.83: Pottery of Stratum E2.2 • 3 • I I \ I I I \ \ \ \ \ 5 6 • I I I I . 212 . 5. \ \ \ ( t I I \ \ \ \ ) 7 6 9 o ------ 1Ocm. Fig.

. 2 3 ~ ) 4 7 l \ ~ 5 6 7 " I I . ---- 10cm.n ! \ 0 -. 5. 213 . / / _- I ' 8 9 Fig.84: Pottery of Stratum E2.

temper: mg M white & black grits. 55 (Str.5YR7/6.5YR512. temper: mg M black and white grits. interior lOR5/4. interior 5YR7/4. Exterior. Locus 1941 1941 1941 1321 0855 0855 1941 1913 0890 Description Handle h: 17. interior 7. temper: mg M white grits. Exterior. Exterior 7.5YR5/6.5YR5/6. Exterior IOR6/6. Remarks: cf. temper: m M white grits.5YR5/4. temper: mg M white grits. Exterior 2. Exterior 10R4/3. Briend et al. lid lid lid lid lid lid lid lid 214 .5YR7/6.5YR5/6. interior and core 2. w: 21.FIGURE 5.5YR5/6. Exterior 2. interior 2. core 5YR7/3. w: 21. Exterior Exterior interiorand core 2. temper: mg M black grits. Basket-handle amphora 53701100 Basket-handle amphora 522011 00 Cooking-pot 19411172 Cooking-pot 3526/4 Cooking-pot 3203/2 Cooking-pot 3203/1 Cooking-pot 5318/4 Cooking-pot 5115/100 Cooking-pot 344511 5 6 7 8 9 FIGURE 5. Exterior. Exterior. temper: mg M black & white grits. Exterior 2. temper: mg M black & white grits. This type of cooking-pot is characterised by a rough base. 1 2 3 4 Type Reg.5YR5/6. Exterior. temper: mg M. No. core black.5YR7/6. temper: mg M black & white grits.5YR5/4.5YR6/4. interior 2. interior 2.5YR5/2.85: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. 5YR7/6.5YR6/4. No. interior and core 2. 10R5/4. interior and core 2. interior 10R5/4. temper: mg M black &white grits. temper: g M black & white grits. temper: mg M.5YR5/6. Sarepta type CP-IA (Anderson 1988). interior and core 2. interior and core 2. TJl. interior 7. Exterior. Handle h: 16. This type of cooking-pot is characterized by a rough lower part.84: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No.5YR5/4. writing with red paint. core black. core grey. 8).pe Cooking-pot 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. 3602/2 5426/6 3270/1 362114 521112 5360/100 3367/2 5188/2 5499/3 545711 307511 5283/5 5422/1 1970/48 532311 Locus 1336 1941 0869 1338 1948 1967 0892 1938 1980 19B 0819 1941 1963 1970 1956 Description Exterior. temper: mg M black & white grits. core 2. incisions on handle. interior and core 5YR6/6. core 7.5YR7/6. core grey black. core grey brown. 1980: PI. temper: fm M.

~. 215 .) ( ~\ f22 2 \. 4 / 3 < t: ( " • 5 6 7 err .85: Pottery of Stratum E2. Fig. 9 10 / . 5. I '~ 11 ~I 12 / ~==~--~-----~ 14 1Ocm.

Fig. E2b Description Transport jar type with an engraved sign "aleph". No. 2 3 10cm. TABLE 5. Cypriote Basket-Handle with an engraved sign.2: NUMBER OF VESSELS RECORDED BY TYPE AND STRATUM FORM CLASS £2 174 29 52 24 9 98 6 £3 34 2 7 1 8 £4 19 1 2 2 1 7 Debris under Stratum £4 2 Total 229 30 56 33 11 113 6 2 530 27 204 13 24 27 23 57 1385 Bowls Deep bowls Bowls with incurved rim Kraters Juglets Jugs Jars Pithoi Amphoras Lamps Cooking-pots Special forms Mortaria Greek imports Cypriote fine ware imports Cypriote basket-handle amphoras Total 2 511 26 157 12 24 25 13 57 1219 13 34 1 2 9 111 49 6 4 1 11 2 2 216 .86: IRON AGE POTTERY WITH INCISIONS AND INSCRIPTIONS No. ' . FIGURE 5. 5. 1 ~.~I 'I 10cm. Only Stratum E2a. All diagnostic pottery fragments were recorded and 2625 vessels and fragments catalogued. E3 and E2a statistically due to the fact that the fortresses under Stratum E2a were cleared and rebuilt.86: Pottery with ins cis ions and inscriptions. where much of the pottery was found in situ. Not all of these finds could be assigned to a particular pottery type. Body sherd with an engraved picture of a jar. E2a Str. yielded a significant sample.. Locus 890 1968 1309 Stratum Str. 3365/101 5402/100 3443/103 STATISTICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE POTTERY FROM STRATUM E2 Approximately 340 m.of Area E were excavated. 1 2 3 Type Transport jar Basket-handle amphora Reg. It was impractical to analyze the pottery types in Strata E4. E2a Str.

The numbers at Mezad Hashavyahu are not very different (kraters 2. There were no Cypriote imports found at that site. Fig. 5. These numbers should be compared with the finds from Mezad Hashavyahu.83:8 Others 8% 6% 40% Basket-Handle amphoras 20% Fig. kraters constitute 2% of all vessels. transport jars (amphoras). Jugs are notably more numerous at Mezad Hashavyahu (19%) than at Kabri (8%).1% of the total pottery in Stratum E2.4%.87: Pottery Repertoire of Stratum E2. 5. 5. Greek imports to Mezad Hashavyahu are much more numerous (46%) than at Tel Kabri (Fantalkin 2001 :103-104). 5.87.103-104). Cypriote basket-handle amphoras are the major group.88) reveals an extraordinarily high percentage of .rare with a share of only 1. 217 .1%.88b: Other types of transport jars in Stratum E2. Figs. No Egyptian imports were found in Tel Kabri.2. This may be partly due to the fact that the area excavated coincided with the storerooms of the fortress. Among the imported wares. while Egyptian imports account for 1% of the finds there (Fantalkin 2001:97-98.83:7 3% 10% 3% 9% Fig. The pottery count (Table 5. 5. 5.Others 1% 4% Cooking-pots 13% Jugs 8% Mortaria 2% Transportjars 48% Fig. 5. lamps 4%) (Fantalkin 2001:103-104). Cypriote fine war~s are.88a: Main types of transport jars in Stratum E2. Fig. 5. the only other 7th century BCE fortress in Israel where statistics have been provided (Fantalkin 2001). constituting 9.1% and Greek imports make up 2. At Kabri.83 :2-3 13% Others 35% 6% Fig.

5. In Achziv Stratum IV the still unpublished fmds from a warehouse.85:12 6% Fig. Some 52. Wolff 1994:515-516). Sarepta and Tell Abu Hawam did not expose substantial levels of this date. The closest parallels to the pottery of Stratum E2a come from sites in the vicinity of Tel Kabri. 5. until recently the 7th century BCE was a more obscure phase in the archaeological research of the northern Levant.85:7 6% 5. 21% of all pottery types have exact parallels at either Tyre Strata 1-2 (Bikai 1978a) or Sarepta Stratum Cl (Anderson 218 . 1997. At Mezad Hashavyahu vessels for the consumption of food make up 60% of the repertoire and cooking-pots for its preparation 11%.84: 3-4 9% Fig. near Achziv.Fig.85:11 11% Fig. survey~ in the Akko plain have yielded new data about the coastal settlement system of the 7th century BCE in southern Phoenicia (Frankel 1986. 5.89b: Other types of cooking-pots from Stratum E2. From the end of the 8th through the 7th century BCE. 5. a fortress stood at the extreme southern edge of the Phoenician homeland.3% were vessels for storage of agricultural products collected in the nearby area. 5. while the other 47. Gal 1992.84: 7-9 35% Others 27% 6% Fig. Lehmann 1995. 5.8th centuries BCE has been studied in detail (Bikai 1978a. 5. The 7th century BCE pottery from Tell Keisan has been published by the French Expedition but till now this was the only major site to provide such information. The excavations at Tel Kabri significantly complement these finds.85:8 Fig. The excavations at Tyre. 5. 1994. Anderson 1988. 5. 5.85: 13- Fig. 5. Another recent contribution to the study of 7th century BCE coastal pottery is Fantalkin's comprehensive publication of the excavations at Mezad Hashavyahu (2001). Achziv Tomb 3 has a number of good parallels to Stratum E2 (Culican 1975-76).7% of the pottery assemblage from Kabri was used for the preparation (cooking) and consumption of food to serve the needs of the garrison.89a: Main types of cooking-pots from Stratum 2a. The numerous complete vessels from Tel Kabri's destruction level (Stratum 2a) enable us to study the typology of the 7th century BCE in detail. While most types found in Stratum E2 also occur at nearby Tell Keisan Strata 4-5 (Briend et al. Herrera Gonzalez 1990).84:8) 10% Fig. 1987. Fig 5. This leaves only 25% for storage vessels (Fantalkin 2001:103-104). include the same transport jar types as those found in situ at the latter site (Zemer 1977:18). In addition to excavations. 5. probably destroyed at the same time as the storerooms of the Tel Kabri fortress.84: 5~ 11% With rough base (Fig. 1980).2001. Frankel et al.85:10 17% Fig. CONCLUSIONS While Iron Age coastal (Phoenician) pottery of the 12th . 1990. 1978b.85:6 11% Lids Fig.

however did not destroy the fortress completely. destroyed in ca. has many types in common with the destruction layer at Kabri. the earlier destruction must have taken place between ca. on the basis of pottery comparisons Stratum E2 at Tel Kabri can confidently be dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE. 50. A number of the same pottery types came from the destruction level of Ashkelon. A total of 14 vessels of Cypriote fine wares accounts for 22. AREAD The evidence that occupation continued. 1987 [710-650 BCE]). 53 [8th-7th century BCE]). dated to the end of the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996). The later fortress of Stratum E2a may have been destroyed during one of the campaigns of Nebuchadnezzar against Syria and Palestine. There is a surprisingly high percentage of Cypriote fine wares. which yielded a very similar pottery assemblage including Greek cooking-pots. Similarities are seen at Tel Qiri Stratum VI (Ben-Tor et at. 650 and 600 BCE and might be connected with the campaign of Ashurbanipal in the year 644/43 BCE (Katzenstein 1997:293). there are several examples of'Wild-Goat'-Style II (Chapter 5. There is evidence for an earlier destruction phase (Stratum E2b) which . was dated recently to the years around 600 BCE (Wenning 1989). in Area D after the Middle Bronze Age. Pottery LB IA I IA II Krater Jugs/Juglets Cooking-pots Lamps Bowls Cypriote Imports TOTAL 4 1 3 3 2 2 29 4 14 51 4 10 219 .6% of the all post-MB vessels recorded in Area D. dated to ca. demonstrates that Late Bronze and Iron Age settlement was not confined to Area E. Comparisons for many vessels in the Stratum E2a assemblage at Kabri can be found in the destruction levels at other sites in the Levant. Dor Area A Phase 9 (Gilboa 1995 [720-650/630 BCE]) and Shiqmona Stratum 8-9 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. Blackon-Red and White-Painted pottery. chronologically anchored on the campaigns of Nebuchadnezzar. 600 BCE come from Tell <Arqa Stratum 9D (Thalmann 1990) and Ras al-Bassit Phase 7 and Tomb 4 (Braemer 1986. Furthermore. 604 BCE (Biran 1994:270-271). Lehmann 1994a). Dan Stratum I. 650-575 BCE.1988). Cooking-pots form the largest functional group retrieved from the Iron Age II remains in this area. Courbin 1993). The pottery is identical to that in Stratum E2a and it is impossible to distinguish any type development between the two phases. Reich 1989). Based on the above-mentioned comparisons. Storage jars are completely missing. Additional parallels which date Stratum E2a to ca. dated to 604 BCE (Stager 1996) and from Stratum 5 at al-Mina in northern Syria. although on a smaller scale. Naveh 1962. Thus. The destruction of Mezad Hashavyahu (Fantalkin 2001. may be as early as 604 BCE or only later in 585 BCE (Katzenstein 1997: 328).V). This points to very close contacts and exchange with Phoenicia and illustrates that the pottery repertoire of these two sites on the Akko plain is typical oflate Iron Age Phoenician pottery (cf.

..3 6 ~. Fig .5 90· Iron Age II pottery from Area D.. 220 . 4 5 7 9 10 11 f 12 14 ~'. F 13 II II 15 16 17 19 18 lOcm.

Jezreel "Early Iron" (Zimhoni 1997: Fig. Pan type with vertical handle. Abu Hawam Stratum III (Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. cf. Hazor X (Yadin et al. 14:10).:57:15). Kabri Stratum E3. 19 Cooking-pot PERSIAN AND HELLENISTIC PERIODS A small amount of late Persian period and Hellenistic pottery. 80:221. 14:10). Such mortaria were first in use during the Persian period and continued into the early Hellenistic period (Salles 1985a.90: IRON AGE II POTTERY FROM AREA D No. cf. 1960:57:4). Hazor IX (Yadin et al. 'Samaria' Ware. Abu Hawam Stratum III (Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. 11:238]) and the Iron Age. cf. 1998) 221 . Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. 1960:57:13). Tyre Stratum X-2 [Bikai 1978:PI. Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et al. Persian period pottery was extremely rare.9). the peculiar combination of cooking-pots and Cypriote fine wares may perhaps be explained if this area was associated wth the fortress complex in Area E for processing agricultural products. cf. cf. cf. No. cf. Stern 1978:54/55. 1960:51:12). 1960:51:12) and VIII (ibid. Type A. Stern 1978:53. Abu Hawam Stratum IV (Balensi 1980: PI. 25:10.joins with 154119121/1. cf. Hazor IX (Yadin et al. apparently dumped at the site. Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. Red-slipped burnished bowl. cf. Abu Hawam Stratum IV (Balensi 1980: PI. Keisan Stratum 5 (ibid. cf. Hazor X (Yadin et al. However. Against such a rural background the relatively large amount of Cypriote fine wares is difficult to explain. 1980:56:8). Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. There was one twisted handle of a Persian period transport jar (not illustrated. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl. 2525-1 2676/1 2630 2509 2669 2617 2542 2518/3 2525/2 2625 2534/3 2504/2 2518/2 9187 2636 2555/1 9256 9110/12 268111 Locus 715 750 745 703 744 713 721 715 715 715 721 715 715 1570 745 721 1554 1541 751 Description cf. was retrieved from Area E. Stem 1978:55/56. 1961:209:11).:53:9-10). 5. cf. 38:9. cf. 80:225). 39:9]). Type Bowl 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Bowl Bowl Juglet Juglet Juglet/Jug Juglet Bowl Bowl Bowl Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. Hazor X (Yadin et al.91 :3-4). Stern 1978:53. Type A. cf. cf. Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. 1961:209:1). cf. Kabri Area E. Such pans were in use during the Late Bronze Age (Tell Abu Hawam Stratum V [Balensi 1980:PI. 1960:61:12). Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl. Type 1). Stratum E3 (a similar cooking-pot rim appears also during the Iron Age II A-B. 2. 1960:57:13). Cypriote Black-on-Red juglet or jug (very fine pink fabric with black lustrous bands on the rim inside). Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl.2.The scant Iron Age II architectural remains in Area D are interpreted as a farmstead or some kind of rural settlement (Chapter 4.:41:6). 1980:56:6). 27:6] and XI [Bikai 1978: PI.224). 1980:49:2) and Keisan Stratum 7 (ibid. Kabri Stratum E3. Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. Type E. Artzy 1980) and several mortaria with a high ring base (Fig. Cypriote Black-on-Red juglet (Gjerstad 1948: Fig.III). FIGURE 5.

. temper: mg M white grits . 7:1-3. core grey. 5.5YR8/4. Transport jars of this class are especially numerous in the Akko plain during the Hellenistic period. 17:23-30).91: Hellenistic pottery from Area E.91:1-2). 3269/1a 326911b 3204/4 3490/2 Locus 0869 0869 0853 1321 Description 4 Exterior 7. core grey. 1980:Pl. interior 5YR7/4. 34).The two Hellenistic unguentaria found were apparently associated with a disturbed grave (Fig. All the pottery comes from disturbed layers between Strata E2 and E1. The Ottoman village in Area E was excavated by Mahmud Hawari in 1993 (Hawari 1994). Among the Hellenistic pottery was the rim of a white Hellenistic transport jar (not illustrated).91: HELLENISTIC POTTERY FROM AREA E No. interior IOYR8/3. 1 2 3 Type Unguentarium Unguentarium Mortar Mortar Reg. 5. Exterior 5YR7/4. temper: mg M. 4 Fig. No. 222 . FIGURE 5. 3 2 '--"~~=--' 10cm. This type of vessel was found in large numbers at Tell Keisan and nearby Khirbat Kinniya (Briend et al. Further finds include a fragment of a stamped Rhodian amphora (Chapter 9:No.

1) and Haider's summary (1996: 69) have to be corrected: There is no Geometric pottery from Kabri. cf.93:1-4) come from East Greek so-called Bird bowls. Kerschner. Thus no Corinthian pottery has been found at Tel Kabri. Fig.1 was earlier identified as belonging to a Late Geometric or Subgeometric skyphos with metope decoration (Niemeier 1990:xxxiv-xxxv. 23. 19.2 The stratified pieces come from Stratum E2a (the destruction level of the Phoenician fortification) or from slightly earlier levels.M. 42). The following sites in the Levant have produced Early Corinthian pottery: Tell Sukas. 1992 and 1993 (Niemeier 1990. according to Neutron Activation Analysis by H. Boardman 1980:48).C. cf. Elsewhere in the Levant Corinthian pottery also is not abundant.V. The fragment of an oinochoe or olpe of Etruscan Bucchero (No. "the complete lack of Protocorinthian pottery of the late eighth through most of the . 2 3 223 . Tel MiqneEkron. 25) (cf. Tell Jemmeh and Tell Sera' (Koehl 1985:138. Sarepta. IV. Niemeier 1994). 16. Kerschner We would like to thank M. Tell Abu Hawam.1995. The Archaic Greek pottery from Kabri is East Greek. Adelman 1995. S. R. Schlotzhauer for important information and constructive discussions on the East Greek pottery found at Tel Kabri. 5. The clay of a sherd tentatively ascribed to a Protocorinthian aryballos (Kempinski and Niemeier 1993b:259. and the fourth to ca. Tel Dan. 256. PI.E. the profile is too curved to belong to a Late Geometric/Subgeometric skyphos but comes from an East Greek archaic Bird bowl. the third ca. Thus Waldbaum's distribution map (1994:55. Wenning 1995). also Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33-36) also applies to Tel Kabri-'. 1997. No. The Bird bowl evolved from the Late Geometric Bird kotyle. The "curious gap in the roster of early Greek pottery in Palestine". Mommsen of Bonn University. the second to ca. Haider 1996:69). The unstratified fragment of an SOS-amphora (No. date adopted by Waldbaum 1994:59. Fig. All pre-Hellenistic Greek pottery of Area E is to be dated between the second half of the 7th and the first half of the 6th centuries BCE. Reinvestigation of the sherd for the final publication demonstrated that.92:1-5. Vessel No. 1997:252-255. despite its popularity in other areas of the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. ARCHAIC GREEK AND ETRUSCAN POTTERY Barbara and Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier Archaic Greek pottery was first identified in Area E in 1986 byL. Al Mina is the only site from which Protocorinthian pottery is known (Robertson 1940:16-18. 25). 700-675 BCE. Tell Keisan. Fine decorated Greek pottery is more accurately datable than most of the local pottery and therefore important for absolute dating (see Cook. with the exception of a probably Attic SOS-amphora (No. They play an important role in discussions about contacts between the Levant and Greece and the possible presence of Greeks in the Levant (see Wenning 1991. Fig. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33-36 with references). BIRD BOWLS Five fragments (Figs. 675-640 B. Ashkelon. seventh centuries" (Waldbaum 1994:59. Fig. 2. 5. 22. Cook and Dupont 1998:8-10). 1990.1 More was found in the seasons of 1989.13). Niemeier 1995. not Corinthian but probably east Cypriot.1) and adopted by Waldbaum and Magness (1997:34) and Haider (1996:69) is. Pastor 1991 :20*. Tel Batash. 650-615 BCE. Naso for his input regarding the fragment of an Etruscan Buchero vessel (No. Recently the typology and chronology of the East Greek Bird bowls has been modified and refined by Kerschner (1995. 12. Waldbaum 1994. 42) is of special interest. Figs. We are also grateful to A. simplifying the decoration and flattening the shape. Niemeier 1994:*31. The presence of these imports is of special significance for two reasons: 1. Kaufler and U. Since there is no other 8th century Greek pottery from Kabri. Lehmann 1995. Haider 1996:69) is too small to be more closely dated than between the later 8th and the first half of the 6th centuries BCE. 615-600 BCE. although the preserved decoration could be of late 8th/early 7th century date. Gershuny (1987:69. it almost certainly is contemporary with the East Greek pottery.1. According to Coldstream (1968:298-301) the first stage of the Bird bowls is to be dated to ca.

Outside: A group of three vertical lines on the left with a single vertical line on their right.dated to the last quarter of the 7th century BCE (cf. XIV).3 ern. 3138. Reg. = 3. =2 em.1997). 130. 85). Kerschner 1997:127 Cat. VI).93:4) Rim fragment. Decoration: Reddish-brown paint. = 3. 43. 5. A vertical stripe on the right.93:1) Rim fragment. Inside: Solid. Bird bowl (Fig. 43:452).5 em. 5.92:3. 5. Outside: A ray with three horizontal lines above it in the lower part. 162. PI. Reg. 329711. No. Kerschner 1997:163. PI. Decoration: Yellowish-red and black paint. The style is less delicate than No. H. 'Fundgruppe XXVII' in the sanctuary of Hera on Samos. Decoration: Yellowish-red paint.478. No. D. No. PI. No. dated before 600 BCE (Walter 1968:88. PI. 224 . Inside: Solid. 3.8. Parallels: Phase IV at Emporio on Chios. XIV). 5.92:2. Date: The missing groove at the rim and the almost hemispherical profile of . Stratum El. 3023/1. H. the first half of the 7th century BCE is still dominated by Bird kotylai and only from the middle of the century onwards do Bird bowls appear in larger quantities. Above these. PI. three vertical lines which meet three horizontal lines at an angle. No.2. 5. D. H = 2. dated to the middle to third quarter of the 7th century B. The bird's tail is formed by extending the lower horizontal outline of the body. Stratum El. H. Locus 833. Stratum El.93:2) Rim fragment. Decoration: Light reddish-brown paint. In Kerschner's typology our fragment forms a late example of his Type IV with a small groove at the mouth and a relatively deep bowl dated to the last third of the 7th century BCE (cf. dated to the last third of the 7th century BCE (Boardman 1967:133. Outside: The tail of a bird above which is a triangle pendant from a painted lip band. 109. 5484. 5.the bowl are characteristics of Kerschner's Type V. Inside: Solid. 17. 5. is a rhomb filled with hatching. 107. Outside: On the left. Reg. 162. 5. Reg. 3. 5. Stratum El.C.92:1. No. Date: The fragment is from a Bird bowl of Kerschner's Type II with empty bottom zone. Cat. Inside: Solid. Date: The fragment is too small for dating. three vertical lines and the body and feet of a bird. 1.92:5) Body fragment. from left to right. Reg. 2. Stratum El. Locus 802. No. 11 em.92:4. Locus'S24.8 em. Bird bowl (Figs. Bird bowl (Figs. Locus 874.E (cf. 118-119:476. Below this are void rays.93:3) Rim fragment. Locus 1983. According to his studies. Kerschner did not find Bird bowls from clear contexts before the second quarter of the 7th century BCE. 3114. = ca. Date: The painted design puts the fragment in Coldstream's third group. 5. ca. Kerschner 1997:160. Bird bowl (Figs. Bird bowl (Figs. 650-615 BCE. 4. H. No.

D. 610 BCE). 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler 225 . 13 = Alexandrescu 1978:57-58 No. For many 1998:26). painted or reserved.1. cups from Miletus) and in the Greek sanctuary at Gravisca in Etruria (Boldrini 6. Delos found to be a Rhodian (Jones 1986:647. Locus 1941. This is dated to ca. analyses were considered analysis pit. H. 1993). The fragments of thirteen so-called Ionian cups (Nos. 610-590/80 BCE) (Furtwangler 1980:165. fewer from Phase III (ca. Solid except for narrow Decoration: Black paint. to his latest Type VI without horizontal Date: It has been identified example from Histria: Lambrino DISCUSSION between the rays of the bottom zone and the main frieze. The term 'Ionian rims. were and Since this class is not restricted to Ionia (Catling cup' should be abandoned (1995. Inside: Solid except for a band just below the mouth. No. decorated Schlotzhauer (Cook and Dupont 1998:129-131). (mouth) = Reg. here the common English nomenclature Various systems of classification Cilicia (Hanfmann Hayes 1973:55-56). in a sacrificial complex in the sanctuary established by Schlotzhauer 1995 for the 1994:137-187. Stratum E2a. Syria (Ploug importance 1956:167-173) for this cup-type have been put forward.200-202 Nos. Boardman those applied to material from Megara Hyblaea in Sicily (Villard and Vallet 1955:18-33). adopting the typology 1980:165). with simple horizontal or completely covered with dark paint and they should be is retained. bands just below the handle Group 3. 6-18) form the largest group of Archaic Greek pottery . Fig.ca. Fig. site of Bird However.219-234). The most influential 120-125. Inside: Solid with lines stripe. PI. Kerschner's neutron metropolis years the Bird bowls petrographic 1986:649.Decoration: Reddish-brown exception of a reserved and dark grey glossy paint. glazed all over except for a narrow reserved band at handle level.664). other systems arranged These typologies from Tarsus in have been adopted in the study of the Ionian cups from Tell Sukas in by single sites (see Catling and to the typologies sequences 1973:27-38). 7-8. Table 1). 630/20 BCE) and II (ca.6e) matches on Rhodes. 188-189 note 5. 5. 21). Hayes' Type I-II. Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Samian Heraion. 5.5 em. Other examples from the Samian Heraion come from the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building dated to ca. Cook and Dupont that found in Furthermore. a complete 1938:39-43 No. Outside: Type: Villard Schlotzhauer's and Vallet's below the lip. I118-20. One production bowls may perhaps have been located in northern 'IONIAN CUPS' Ionia (Jones 1986:697). 197-199. Type AI. Shipley 1989. Ploug's Group 6. from Tel Kabri. 'Ionian cup' (Figs. and the very useful concordance sanctuary of Hera on the island of Sam os (Furtwangler of Artemis at Ephesos (Kerschner ibid. 1999) suggests that the term 'Ionian called 'Knickrandschale' (cup with bent rim). Furtwangler's level and just Type 3 and 16 cm. There are. However. cups' is used for a class of two-handled bands.93:5) 15 fragments of mouth and wall (reconstructed). 630/20 . drinking cups with prominent and Shipley 1989).. invention (cf. 625-590 BCE (cf. = 3. has shown that the clay composition of a Bird bowl of Type IV from the Rheneia Pi.92:7. that neither parts of Ionia (Jones activation demonstrating that it was not produced at Miletus confirm of Bird bowls was this Ionian the production centre of Bird bowls (Kerschner et al. 13). 53311100. 200. and from Tocra in Libya (Hayes 1966:111-16. 8. Outside: by Kerschner as belonging Two vertical lines. however. Of in the South Temenos of the are the series of Ionian cups found in good stratigraphic 1997. the majority of the pieces of this type came from Phases I (before ca.

2 ry3 5 4 _. 11 Fig.92: Bird bowls and Ionian cups. 5. 7 8 3cm. 226 .

5YR 4/1) shiny paint. 19. 1. Date: Vallet and Villard's (1955:15-18. Type: Villard and Vallet's Type A21B 2. E2a Very pale brown (IOYR 7/3)/grey (10YR 6/i) clay. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay.93:3 5. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos which ends ca. No. 11 PI. 5. Ionian cup II. PI. Cat. Fig. 10.600 BCE. Cat.2 em.93:6) Mouth and wall fragment. 111 Fig. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) paint. Nos. Cat. Ploug's Group 5. black (7. 3536/100. PI. E2a Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay. 8. No. 4.92:8) Shoulder fragment. 7. 'Ionian cup' (Fig.92:9. = 2. PI. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. reddish-brown (2. TJP. Stratum El. reddish-brown (2. Locus 887. 25. Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. Stratum E2a. II. Outside: Bands on rim and at handle level. yellowish-red (5YR 5/8)/black (5YR 2. 610 BCE (Kerschner 1997:182). Ionian cup Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay.5YR 6/4) clay. reddish-brown (5YR 4/4)/ dark grey (7. very dark brown (10YR 2/2) paint. El Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. Reg. No. Hanfmann's Type IV. Locus 1321. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:4-5. Cat.5YR 2. 111 Fig. No. 545/535 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:7-8. No. dark greyish-brown (10YR 3/2) paint. This type apparently lasted from the second half of the 7th to the early 6th century BCE. 12. E2blE3 Pink (5 YR7/4) lightly micaceous clay. Hayes' (1966:112) late 7th century BCE. 227 . (Figs. Furtwangler's Type 5 and Boldrini's Type 1111 with glazed exterior except the rim and a band at handle level. D. Ionian cup. 126:Fig. black (IOYR 2/1) paint. 5.5YR 3/1) paint. Discussion: See No. H. 3138 3114 3297/1 3023/1 5484 3500/101 53311100 3352/100 3536/100 2619 5034-6 Locus 833 824 874 802 1983 1321 1941 887 1321 737 1915 Stratum El E1 Descrip. 125. 115 Cat. 23) and in the foundation of the North Building of ca.5/1) paint. 12-13 PI.6.tion See Fig. No. Outside and inside: Solid.93:5 5.93:6 and Kienast 1989:4-5. 610-590/80 BCE) and was also found in Phase IV (a late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165. 21).93:1 5. Surface Very pale brown (IOYR 7/4) clay. Reg. 19. Examples of this type were unearthed also in the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building of ca. 33521100. 1111. III/I.121:Fig.92: BIRD BOWLS AND IONIAN CUPS No.e Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Dorian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Reg_. = 4. 5.5YR 3/1) paint. H. 28). Decoration: Black paint. III).93:2 5.3 em. black (10YR 2/1) shiny paint. 8. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay.FIGURE 5. 5. 18). 7. Cat. Decoration: Glossy black paint. Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Heraion of Samos it occurs first in Phase III (ca.120. 117. 5. dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) paint. Hayes' Type VIII-IX. Examples from Ephesos are dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE (Kerschner 1997:111. EI Light brown (7. 9. in the second levelling of ca. Inside: Solid except for a band just below the mouth. 213-214:Nos.93:4 2. 5. 3. (mouth) = 17. 21). III/8-9. 29) date is 640/30 .No. 6. 570/550 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:5-7. 112.5/1) paint. 1/3-4.

3 ern. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) paint. 4. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos which ends 227 .115 Cat. 1980:165. Decoration: Black paint. III/8-9. 610 BCE (Kerschner 1997:182). 545/535 BCE (Furtwangler ca. E2a Very pale brown (10YR 7/3)/grey (10YR 6/i) clay. Surface Very pale brown (IOYR 7/4) clay. E2blE3 Pink (5 YR7/4) lightly micaceous clay. 5.2 band just below the mouth. Hayes' century BCE. 5.5YR 3/1) paint. 12. 28). reddish-brown (2. 3536/100. No. 121 :Fig. Reg. Cat. Cat. 19.93:5 5. Stratum E2a. dark greyish-brown (IOYR 3/2) paint. Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. black (IOYR 2/1) paint. PI.5/1) paint. 126:Fig. 3138 3114 3297/1 3023/1 5484 3500/101 53311100 3352/100 3536/100 2619 5034-6 Locus 833 824 874 802 1983 1321 1941 887 1321 737 1915 Stratum El El Description See Fig. 1. Outside: Bands on rim and at handle level. Nos. black (1OYR 2/1) shiny paint. Ploug's Group 5.5YR 4/1) shiny paint. yellowish-red (5YR 5/8)/black (5YR 2. No. Examples (1955:15-18.600 BCE. Outside and inside: Solid. Hanfmann's Type IV. Discussion: See No. reddish-brown (2. 21). levelling of ca.93:3 5. H. Cat. 11. 9. 610-590/80 BCE) and was also found in Phase IV (a late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler ca. 213-214:Nos. Hayes' Type VIII-IX. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler Examples of this type were unearthed also in the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building of and Kienast 1989:4-5. 6. Ionian cup.93:6 and Kienast 1989:4-5. El Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. Date: Vallet and Villard's . Stratum El. black (7. 19.e Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Dorian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Reg. very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) paint. 21). Ionian cup Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. 111 Fig. Locus 1321. 570/550 BCE (Furtwangler foundation of the North Building of ca. III). 125. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 8. ern. 117.5/1) paint. dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) paint. 7. 112. 25. PI. II11. D.5YR 3/1) paint.92:8) Shoulder fragment. 5. 120. No. 10. III/I.5YR 2. 111 Fig. 5. No. 1/3-4.92: BIRD BOWLS AND IONIAN CUPS No. No. No. 5. (Figs. 33521100. 23) and in the and Kienast 1989:7-8. H. 18).93:4 11. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay.92:9. Fig. 11 PI. 8.FIGURE 5.93:1 5. = 4. in the second and Kienast 1989:5-7. 29) date is 640/30 from Ephesos are dated to the (1966:112) late 7th second half of the 7th century BCE (Kerschner 1997:111. El Light brown (7. reddish-brown (5YR 4/4)/ dark grey (7. E2a Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay. Inside: Solid except for a Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Heraion of Sam os it occurs first in Phase III (ca. Cat. 5. Cat. Decoration: Glossy black paint. No.5YR 6/4) clay.6. 2. (mouth) = 17. Reg. 7. TJ:'I!.93:2 5. 'Ionian cup' (Fig. Type 5 and Boldrini's Type II11 with glazed exterior except the rim and a band at handle level. 12-13 PI. This type apparently lasted from the second half of the 7th to the early 6th century BCE.93:6) Mouth and wall fragment. 3. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. = 2. Type: Villard and Vallet's Furtwangler's Type A21B 2. Locus 887. PI.

94:7. 5.92:3.94:8. 13) Fig. 12) Fig.94:5. 3) Fig.94:12.92:2. 5.2 3 4 5 II 14 11 12 Fig. 7) Fig. 14) Fig. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 1) Fig. 5. 5.93: Bird bowls and Ionian cups. 6) Fig. 11) Fig. 5) Fig. 5. 5. 10) Fig.92:9.95:10.94:1. 9) Fig.92:7. 228 . 5. 5.94:6.95:16.92:4. 5. 4) Fig.92:1. 2) Fig. 5. 8) Fig.

1199). Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. Outside: black bands covering the mouth plus the upper part of the wall and the foot. 9.Date: The date of ca. Reg. Hayes Type V. Stratum E2a. which ended ca. 11. = 2. 5. Outside: three horizontal brown lines. Stratum E2a. black (10YR 2/1).93:7) 15 fragments of rim. 5389-3. Thus the type is to be dated from after ca. 2619.4 cm. especially in regard to its end.289) has suggested a date from the end of the 7th to the first half of the 6th century BCE. Decoration: Glossy black paint. At Tell Sukas. No. 12.C. Type: Villard and Vallet's Type B 1.94:1. Locus 1941. Inside: solid black. 620-600 BCE for this type proposed by Villard and Vallet (1955: 18-19. Foot: black with one red line on base. Furtwangler 1980: 164-166. Locus 737. H. 29) has been considered too restricted. Decoration: Very dark greyish-brown paint. No. Outside and inside bowl: solid. PI. Hanfmann (1956:170-173. except rim and shoulder.5YR 5/4).3 cm. Decoration: Design in brown (7. Ploug's Group 9. Sounding between Strata E2b and E3. unglazed exterior. foot unpainted. 10. 610 to 550 BCE. Type: Same as No. sometimes a band below handle level and glazed foot. H.92:11) Foot fragment. 565 B. Ionian cup (Figs. 5. two red lines below the mouth. Locus 1915. red (lOR 4/4) and white (lOR 8/1) paint. H. 13. = 5 em. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. with low foot. 120. and Boldrini's Type Ill/I. Ionian cup (Fig. Parallels: At Tocra. Boldrini 1994: 149-150. Date: This type is dated by Villard and Vallet to ca. (reconstructed) = 5 ern.(10YR 3/2). glazed with two red lines framed by white lines painted on the glaze on the inside of the rim and the lower part of the bowl. wall. 5034-6. Cat. No. Outside and inside bowl: solid. Inside: solid black. Reg. 5. Outside and inside: solid.3502/101. Locus 1971. three red lines on the lower part of the wall. Reg. Ionian cup (Fig. 5. foot unpainted. Locus 1308.E (Hayes 1966:9).92:10) Foot fragment. H. = 1. = 1. Hayes (1966:113) and Ploug (1973:29-30) date this type to the first half of the 6th century BCE. 1963:285-287. Hanfmann's Type II.9. starting around 580 BCE. 7. D = 6 em. Decoration: Very dark brown paint.4 ern. handle and foot. No. 1197.7 ern. No. 229 . it occurred in Deposit II of Level 8 (Hayes 1966:1i2. Reg. Reg. Decoration: Black and red paint. Handles: solid black. D of mouth = 11 ern. 5345/100. H. = 2. Surface D. Nos. Furtwangler's Type 6. 620-580 BCE (1955:29). Type: cf. Stratum E2a.a group of almost completely preserved cups of this type have a reserved tondo on the base of the interior which is a 6th century feature.

..~. <. . / \ \ ..~--- . 2 3 /. I'. 1 230 .:> J I ~~\ \ \ 8 I \ 9 6 F' 9.-- / <.. .. 5..94: Ionian cups. <. --' \ ' \\ ) I I \_---- ...... \ ".

white (IOYR 8/1) slip. brown (7. this type first appears in Phase III (ca.W2/29. Inside: solid black. No. 47.3 ern. Stratum E2a. III/ll12. 13.5/1) paint.5YR 5/4) micaceous clay. 213-214.5YR4/4) paint.5YR 8/1) paint.5YR 5/6).93:8 5. 231 . 610-590/80 BCE) and also occurs in Phase IV (the late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165.5YR 7/4) micaceous clay. Locus 1971.5/1) paint. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos.5YR 2. 223. 149. 560 BCE (Isler 1978:93-94. very dark brown (7. No. 2. dusky red (lOR 3/4). Cat. 6. 149.94:2) 17 fragments of wall.511). 150 Fig. 33). 150 Fig.W2/29. black (7. Fig. 5. 22). 610 to 570/60 BCE. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) clay. Other examples from the Heraion were found in a level dated ca. 10. edges greyish-brown (2. 14.5YR 5/4). 54141100. 1.93:7 5. Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:77-78) and in well W 2 closed at about the same time (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:74-75. 220:No. Fig. 610 to 570/60 BCE. 4. 9. Reg. Pale red (2. black (10YR 2/1)/red (lOR 4/6) paint. D (where mouth is cut away) = 13. white (10YR 8/1) slip. 220:No. Ionian cup (Fig 5. No. red (lOR 4/4) and white (lOR 8/1) paint. this type first appears in Phase III (ca. 610 BCE. black (7. No. reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) . Beil. No.5 em. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. Date: The type apparently was in existence from after ca.5YR 2. No.5/1) paint. Pink (7. Cat.5/2) paint. Date: The type apparently was in existence from after ca. 223. 5389-3. See Fig. Decoration: Design in brown (7.5YR 2. H. PI. black (lOYR 2/1). Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) micaceous clay. black (5YR 2.very dark grey (5YR 311) paint. ending ca.reddishbrown (5YR 4/4) paint. 560 BCE (Isler 1978:93-94. Stratum E2a. white (IOYR 8/1) slip. PI. No.93:10 5.FIGURE 5.93:9 5. H. 1. Locus 1963.5YR 5/2) lightly micaceous clay. white (2. Beil.5YR 7/4) clay.5YR 2. 7. = 1. glazed with two red lines framed by white lines painted on the glaze on the inside of the rim and the lower part of the bowl. foot and 1 handle. Pink (7. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos. Outside: three horizontal brown lines. 5. Reddish-brown ((5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay. IV/9. 8. red (lOR 4/6) . ending ca. yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) . Yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) clay. 610 BCE. Core red (2. Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:77-78) and in Well W 2 closed at about the same time (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:74-75. Other examples from the Heraion were found in a level dated ca. 5345/100 54141100 3571/100 3448/100 3616/100 3590/100 Locus 1941 1963 890 1316 1334 1321 Stratum E2a E2a E2a E3b E2a E2a E2a Description Red (2. IV/9. Reg. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) micaceous clay. yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) paint. 33). The mouth was cut away and the base knocked through for reuse (as a funnel?).94: IONIAN CUPS No.reddish-black (2. 47.5YR 5/6) micaceous clay. 610590/80 BCE) and also occurs in Phase IV (the late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165.93:11 3401/102 890 1916 1318 E2a E2b-E3 E4 5038 Oinochoe? SOS amphora 3470/100 Parallels: In the South Temenos in the Heraion on Samos. = 4.8 ern. 22). III/II-12. 1. Parallels: In the South Temenos in the Heraion on Samos. 3.213-214. Type Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Skyphos Jug Oinochoe Oinochoe Oinochoe? Reg.

Cook and Dupont cup' (No. 3156. cm. 13 but with thicker walls and handles and are no painted lines on the interior.1 ern. Locus 1941. 32:f 1 and 3. = Reg.1. Ionian cup (Fig. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Handle fragment. of finds (Furtwangler 1983:27. the island of Samos was an important at Miletus and in other workshops 1998:129).5.4). Locus 1321. a major production centre of 'Ionian cups' (Hayes 1980:150-161) 1966: 111-115.9 ern. No. 17. Outside: and Kerschner striated solid except for a very narrow Decoration: Dark reddish-brown Type: Identified by Schlotzhauer 'Dorian cups' by P. Stratum E 2a. Solid. 'Dorian' cup or skyphos (Fig. = 3.4 em. 3. but they were also produced produced on Rhodes or Kos. 16. Outside: band on foot and lower part of wall. 19. Decoration: Reddish-yellow 18.94:4) Wall and handle fragment.5 em. No. Rec. D. Handle: solid on outside. Locus 890. No. Inside: unpainted. 35711100. 5. (Kinch 1914:Pl. Stratum E2a. = 0. Locus 839. Cook and Dupont 1998:114-115).92:6) 27 fragments D (mouth) of mouth.Decoration: Yellowish-red and dark grey paint. D. D of mouth = 19 em. Reg. offer a consistent tradition (von Graeve 1973174:85. Outside: Horizontal stripe on lower edge of fragment. Type: Same type of cup as No. 39:8. 10. Locus 1316. H.94:3) Rim and wall fragment.4 em.1. 15. however. Kinch 1914:167-186. 3448/100.1. No. Decoration: Very dark brown paint. wall and handles. the shoulder and the rigid outline of the conical body of No. 38:6. 'Dorian' cup (Fig. Decoration: Black (7. Length Reg. Inside: solid. centre of Asia Minor 1973:28) but does not.4. (5YR 7/6) clay painted all over in very dark grey (5YR 3/1). 37:4. Stratum 1. 5. band just below = 22 = 12 ern.2. Length = 4. Type: See No. Stratum E3b. = 0. The 'Dorian as well as the results of petrographic production of southwestern these cups. Outside: band covering the mouth and the upper part of the wall. Reg. 9. DISCUSSION Rhodes has long been considered According analyses (Dupont to the frequency of the clay (Dupont 1983:28. = 3. Inside: solid except for a band just below the mouth. paint. H. 3500/101. Pr.5/1) paint. Ploug Dupont 1983:28-29). 5. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Handle fragment. Decoration: Red and reddish-black paint. No. 43:23. 5248-2. 18 are paralleled 27:2-4. two blobs on inside. Dupont Vroulia-style the handle zone. 14. 33).5YR 2. Stratum E2a. 19) was most probably 232 . termed examples are those of the so-called in cups of the Vroulia style The short rim not going beyond (1983:29) of which the most beautiful (cf. 45:32. 18:9. 11) and other more simply decorated cups from Vroulia on Rhodes (Kinch 1914:Pls. as belonging to a marginal group of 'Ionian cups'. Reg. H. 34-36.

5. 8. On the left. H. No. Type: These motifs first appear in Middle Wild Goat I (Cook and Dupont 1998:37. WILD GOAT STYLE OINOCHOAI At Kabri. Date: The careless execution of the twisted band points to a dating in Middle Wild Goat II. 5. H.94:7.=9cm. Cook and Dupont 1998:42. Locus 1321. 24. Locus 1916. Fig. 111-119. 2a-b). 34011102. Oinochoe (Figs. Decoration: White slip with horizontal stripes painted in black.M. twisted band on neck. Stratum E2a. Stratum E2a. RM. and dominated the decoration of East Greek painted pottery for some three generations (Cook. 5. Oinochoe(?) (Figs. 1997:109.93:11) Body fragment.M. H.9 cm. Stratum E2b-E 3. Date: The slightly careless execution of the filling ornaments points to a Middle Wild Goat II date. Schiering 1957. Decoration: Yellowish-red paint. Trefoil mouthed oinochoe with triple-coil handle (Figs. 1992:259.6) and continue into Middle Wild Goat II (Cook. = 2. Cook and Dupont 1998:32-70). 22. Reg. Reg.92:9) Mouth.10. 5. POLYCHROME BLACK (SCHWARZBUNT) 20. Part of the back of a wild goat with part of a spiral quatrefoil above it. Decoration: Painted solid black with two horizontal red lines and two horizontal white lines on shoulder. Oinochoe(?) (Fig. The old term 'Rhodian' (Cook. 233 . 3616/100. 8. No. Locus 1334. Decoration: White slip and brown paint. 5038. 21. 5. H. R. Stratum E2a.JUGS. Fig. = 12. oblique lines on surface of handle. R. Type: All these motifs first appear in Middle Wild Goat I (Cook and Dupont 1998:37. Mouth and sides of handle solid black. Kardara 1963) is misleading. 21-24) came from 'Wild Goat style' vessels. 5. Decoration: White slip and black painted design. part of back and hind leg of a wild goat. 5.94:5. Locus 890. No.94:9) Shoulder fragment ofa closed vessel. Parallels: The sanctuary of Hera on Samos (Technau 1929:29). = 3.94:6. The name comes from the animal friezes. decorating the main zone of the vessels. Fig. Fig.6 em. 1992:259. four fragments (Nos. 5. 3590/1 00.93:8) Shoulder and neck fragment.93:10) Neck fragment. cross with filling of spherical triangles on rote lIes. DISCUSSION 'Wild Goat style' is the term used in the English speaking archaeological community for the style which emerged about the middle of the 7th century BCE. 2a-b). 1933/34:90-91. Jug (Figs. = 4. in which the goat became the most frequent species.6) and continue into Middle Wild Goat II (Cook. H. Fig. R. Miletus (unpublished). 5. on the right. neck and handle fragments. 8.8 ern. Reg. Reg.2 em. Type: cf.M.94:8. No. 23. a rosette of concentric circles and a series of dots following the outermost circle as filling ornament.

1992:260. RM. New evidence from Miletus disproves the theories of Cook and Schaus and confirms those of Schiering and Dupont (Schlotzhauer. Cook and Dupont 1998:34. 1992:260. Jones 1986:665-666). 650 to 640 BCE (Cook. Cook (1933/34:90. He argued that the Middle Wild Goat II style. Cook and Dupont 1998:89) started ca. Most recently. Walter-Karydi 1986:73-80. he named this supposed decadent transitional style Wild Goat III (Cook. 91). RM. Moreover. 1997:112. R.Rhodes was the place where it was first found in quantity. RM. 550 BCE. 8-9 = Naveh 1962. Whereas relatively much Late Wild Goat Style pottery has been found in North Africa (Naucratis. 1992:255-266). 600 BCE.M. A problem under discussion is the date of the change from the Wild Goat style to the Fikellura style pottery mainly produced at Miletus (Dupont 1986:61. 67-71.1. Cook and Dupont 1998:61). considerable amounts of Middle Wild Goat II style pottery have been found in the sanctuary of Athena at Assesos near Miletus (Lohmann 1995:313-314). Later.36-44). 112 Fig. Schaus 1986:288-289). RM.M. when ornament and poses became more stereotyped (Cook. 1992:262. Amyx 1988:428-429) as Payne (1931:57) previously suggested. Cook and Dupont 1998:33-36). 600 and 560 BCE as too long a phase for Cook's decadent transitional style. 1997:123. A completely different solution has been proposed by Schaus (1986:289-292) who maintains that almost no fine ware was produced at Miletus in the first half of the 6th century BCE due to economic decline caused by internal civil conflicts (cf. Fine pottery did exist at Miletus in the first half of the 234 . 600 BCE and the beginning of the Fikellura style ca. 1992:260. 600 BCE for the end of Early Corinthian has been questioned by scholars who put it a little later. personal communication). 560 BCE may have been filled by a decadent variation of the former which lingered on beside the Late Wild Goat style (Cook. Schiering (1957:11) did not see this as a decadent transitional style. from ca. Cook. is greatly indebted to the Middle Wild Goat II style (Cook. 34-36. The end of the Middle Wild Goat II style has been dated by R. The Wild Goat style has been divided into Early. PI. Fig. Cook and Dupont 1998:56). Schaus (1986:284-288) ca. The Middle Wild Goat style is divided into I and II around 625 BCE. The chronological gap between the supposed end of the Middle Wild Goat II style ca. the discussion in Niemeier 1999:404 with n. exports of Middle Wild Goat II style pottery to the Black Sea coasts. 1997:112. Clazomenae and what Dupont calls North Ionian 2 (Dupont 1983:27-29. Cook to ca. ca. 1933/34:90-91. At about the same time. 264). The Late Wild Goat Style is an invention of North Ionian schools which diverged from the South Ionian mainstream while Early Corinthian was still flourishing (Cook. In Israel only a single sherd from Mezad Hasavyahu (Wenning 1989:186. Tocra and Cyrene) very little is known in the Levant. Jones 1986:665-671. 590 BCE (Hopper 1949:180.Middle Wild Goat II) to 610-560 BCE. Cook and Dupont 1998:5156). The Fikellura style which. the traditional date of ca. The Early Wild Goat style probably did not last very long. and that the Fikellura style appeared with are-emergence of the industries at Miletus about 550 BCE.P. 560 BCE and according to G. RM. According to Dupont's petrographic clay analyses the principal Middle Wild Goat II school is Milesian (Dupont 1986:60-64). Chios. SF 1.M. although Middle and Late are regional styles and overlap chronologically. 10. M. according to R. Cook and Dupont 1998:77-81. Dupont regards the 40 years between ca. This transition is traditionally dated to about 600 BCE (payne 1931:57).1986:62-64. 65-66. R. but clay analyses demonstrate that the island imported the ware (Dupont 1983:28-29. since it is no longer found in graves on Rhodes at the time when Middle Corinthian was replacing Early Corinthian (Cook and Dupont 1998:44). may have lasted into the first two decades of the 6th century BCE (Dupont 1986:65). Cook and Dupont 1998:44). 1933/34:60. W. Middle and Late. Petrographic clay analyses and stylistic researches have demonstrated that three or four main production centres of Wild Goat style pottery existed: Miletus. overlapping and influencing the early stage of Fikellura. lOA) has come to light. but dated the late style of his Camirus Group (comparable to Cook's Early Wild Goat . the Levant and North Africa come to an end and are replaced by North Ionian Late Wild Goat style ware (Schaus 1986:291.

27. Locus 1318. 26. Date: End of 7th . 5. No. 34701100. = Reg. They demonstrate that the Fikellura style directly followed the Wild Goat II style and partly overlapped with it.first half of 6th century BCE. H. decorated on the outside in good Middle Wild Goat II style and on the inside in Fikellura style. Type: As No. Reg. D. Thus at Miletus fine ware pottery production did not stop in the early 6th century BCE but it was not exported. Decoration: Reddish-yellow . Nos.8 ern. Decoration: Unpainted. mostly in Italy and Sicily but as far west as Spain and Morocco. Locus 1912.95:1) Neck and mouth fragment. Stratum E2a.93:12) Neck and shoulder fragment. Shoulder solid. Type: As No. Jones 1986:708-712). This type of amphora. Stratum E 4. Decoration: Unpainted. 5. 5. 5051-1. 5035. SOSAmphora (Figs. Parallels: SOS amphorae have been found outside of Greece at over forty Mediterranean sites. No. 235 . Locus 1335. 5. D. Decoration: Unpainted.95:3) Rim fragment. H. No. = 7. Locus 1914. D.2 ern. Decoration: Unpainted. D. 1941-179.7 em.6). 166. = 6. 26. 26.6th century BCE and its decoration was not decadent. has been interpreted as a manifestation of the Athenian export trade in the Mediterranean during the Archaic period. 5. = 7 ern. Date: The SOS amphora was in use from the later 8th to the first half of the 6th century BCE. Part of '0' of the SOS motif on neck. H. Stratum E2. (mouth) 13 cm. in the northern Levant at Al Mina and in Egypt at Tell Defenneh (Johnston and Jones 1978:104-107. Trade amphora (Fig. Reg.94:10. 3592/4. Type: Samian amphora of the early type with echinoid rim (Cook and Dupont 1998:164-165. TRADE AMPHORAE 25. = Reg. Trade amphora (Fig. (mouth) = 14 em. 28. Petrographic clay analyses have demonstrated that the majority of the SOS amphorae indeed are of Attic origin but imitations were also made at Chalkis and other places (Johnston and Jones 1978:122-128. of mouth = 14 cm. and in the east on the Black Sea at Histria. H. Type: As No. 5148-2.reddish-brown paint. Very important are fragments of 'bilingual' cups from Miletus. Stratum E2a. 29.95:4) Rim fragment. Fig.5 ern. supposedly produced in Athens for the olive oil export market. Trade amphora (Fig. 112-122). 5. Type: This sherd comes from an SOS amphora which gets its name from the varied zig-zag and circle motifs on the neck resembling the Greek letters 'sigma omikron sigma' (Jones 1986:706). shoulder fragment = 15. 23. of rim fragment = 6 em. Reg. 5. No. = Stratum E2a. 26 Trade amphora (Fig. H.95:2) Two fragments of rim and shoulder. (mouth) 13 ern.

2 4 5 rj~ 6 7 dl ~.::jl n I ( 14 15 "rr 16 13 Fig.95: Amphorae and cooking-pots. 236 . 8 9 W ~ )fJI \ n )lJI \ )(~J \11 c. 5.

No.FIGURE 5. Like No. H. D. Type: Milesian amphora (cf.5YR 5/6) .brown (7.5YR 5/6) highly micaceous clay. Reg. Locus 1958. Red (2. micaceous clay. Trade amphora (Fig.5 em.7 a). Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. 32. 23. Red (2. One horizontal groove at base of neck.5 YR 2. H. (foot) = 8 em. Trade amphora (Fig. 3592-4 5035.95:9) Foot and wall fragment. Date: End of 7th . Cooking bowl 16. D (neck) = 15 ern. 7.95:5) Neck and shoulder fragment. Decoration: Unpainted. 237 . 3286-5. 13. 31. Locus 879. Stratum El H.5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay.6 em.3 cm. (foot) = 5. shiny black (2. Amphora 5. Stratum E2a. TJ!l!.95:6) Foot fragment. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/8) clay. 34. 8. Cooking-pot 15. Stratum El. Reg. 3552/100 3222 3228 315113 Locus 1335 1912 Stratum Description E2 E2a E2a E2a E2a El El El El El EI E2a El El E3 El See Fig. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) surface. Reg. = 9 em. Locus 889. 4. Reg. 2. lightly micaceous clay. = 3.95: AMPHORAE AND COOKING-POTS.5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. (foot) = 6 em. Trade amphora (Fig. Reg. 1914 1958 879 823 889 874 Llll Kill 1309 1324 864 866 821 Red (2. 9. Like No. Decoration: Unpainted. No. 2. 5. Decoration: Unpainted. 12. Cook and Dupont 1998:170-174. H. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) core. Trade amphora (Fig. 5. D (foot) = 10 ern. Grey (5YR 5/1)core with reddish-yellow (5YR 6/8) surface. D. = 6 em. 5. light brownish-grey (1OYR 6/2) surface. H. 5. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) lightly micaceous clay. 1. No. 14. 5.brown )7. 5237-5. = 3. Figs.e Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. Decoration: Unpainted. D. 505114 1941/179 5148-2 5237-5 3309-3 3123-6 3335/10 3286-5 300112 3095/1 3437/100 3547/100.first half of 6th century BCE. 6. Locus 874. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) lightly micaceous clay. 5. Red (2.95:8) Foot fragment. 5.5/1) paint. 3123-6. No.5YR 5/6) . 3. Bluish-grey (5PB 5/1) core. = 3 em. No. Trade amphora (Fig. Decoration: Unpainted.93:14 30. 3335110.95:7) Foot fragment. 33. Locus 823.93:13 Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay.5YR 5/6) micaceous clay. Blue-grey (5 B 511) clay. Stratum El. three grooves on upper part of neck. 3309-3. 10. unpainted. 2. Stratum El. Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. II. No. No.

99. According to its profile. XII). 22:L 45-48. common in the last quarter of the 7th century and in the first quarter of the 6th century BCE (Rasmussen 1979:78-79.the Kabri sherd comes either from an oinochoe of Rasmussen's Type 3a. 3095-1. Stratum E1.93:14) The Etruscan bucchero sherd was a surprise. 34371100. Locus 1309. 11. Locus 864. 5. 1412-1413. but their typological sequence can only be followed at Athens with the material from the Agora and the Kerameikos (Young 1939:189-190. D (mouth) = 20 ern. D (mouth) = 20 ern. Q 10. Fig.8 em. Reg. Decoration: Unpainted.35. 1932. 19411178. ( 238 . R. Stratum E1.482. N 18. 127. 94 No. 5. 5. 3547/100. 139.1922. COOKING VESSELS 36 . 7-8. (not illustrated) Shoulder fragment. 1961b:317. dated between the end of the third quarter of the 7th to the tum of the 7th . H. = 6. 598). 93. However.203210. Figs. No. Locus 866. described as "loaded with large flakes of silvery mica". Parallels: East Greek examples have been published from the island of Chios (Boardman 1967:145-146.95:10-15. Cat. Square Lll1. 21-22. Stratum E2a. Etruscan bucchero (Figs. Cat. No. 5. H. Reg. 145. 66). 105). Stratum E1. D (mouth) = 21 cm. 38. Fig. Date: Late 7th century BCE 41. 493. Fig. PIs. H. 597-604. these rims undoubtedly come from one-handled cooking jugs (chytrai) which have a tradition going back to the Sub-Mycenaean period (Reber 1991:20-56). 5. Nos. Surface partially blackened by fire. 37. Brann 1961a:123124. No. 3552/100. 300112.7. Nos. Surface. is very like that of the Kabri cooking jars and may indicate a southern Ionian origin. Unpainted. They are known from different areas in Greece. PIs. 36. Sparkes and Talcott 1970:224-225. 42. PI. Nos. Nos. Reg. = 4. 29-31) or from an olpe of his Type 1. Nos. 94) and from Ephesos (Kerschner 1997:115. Cooking bowl (Fig. 36-40. D = ca. this is a bowl with an everted rim. PI. 40. H. 136. 75. Type: Ware similar to Nos. No. Reg. KUbler 1970:192. 18. 371. 83. 20. 3222. D (mouth) = 20 cm. Reg. Square Kill. PI. 30 cm. = 6. 86-91). 18. PI. 153154 PI. = 5. No. H =. III. H.95:15) 2 rim fragments. 512 Cat. D (mouth) = 19 ern. the fabric of the latter. The Kabri fragments have a profile similar to that of an example from Chios (Boardman 1967:146 Fig. Cat. They are unpainted.7 ern. 91-92.4 em. Cat. 116 PI. 3228/1. . 136. PI.93:13) Rim fragments of imported Greek cooking vessels of coarse highly micaceous clay with rolled out rim. to those from Ephesos and to two examples from the Greek settlement at Tocra in Libya dated by Hayes to the late 7th/early 6th century BCE and attributed to a possible Cycladic origin (Hayes 1966:135-137.6th centuries BCE or shortly after (Rasmussen 1979:88-89. No. 1962:55. No. Cooking-pots (Figs. 39.5 em. 130-131.5 em. Trade amphora.038. Type: Although no handles are preserved. Its identification was secured by comparing the piece directly with fragments of Archaic Etruscan bucchero pottery in the collection of the Archaeological Institute of Heidelberg University. Reg.5 em. =8 cm.95:16. Nos. Locus 1324. The surface is partially blackened by fire. Stratum E 3. = 5. H. No.40. 155. No.

.1. 5. 1978b. 5. Tel Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:126. 6. Mezad Hashavyahu Miqne-Ekron (Naveh 1962:106-107. East Greek trade amphorae (Fig. this vessel type was seldomly exported like examples found at Vroulia in Rhodes (Kinch . Nos. Fig. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33 with note 79).3. 85. 1993:936). 4. cf. PIs. colour photo. 239 (Naveh 1962:108-109.1-12. No. In Israel. 120. .5:7-8). Fig. Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1986: 198.5. Dor and Ashkelon Mezad Hashavyahu (unpublished. 2. Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:27-38). Bird bowls (Fig. In Israel.(Riis 1982:251-252). XV. 49 Fig. 6. XX.97:1) are rare in the Levant. 'Ionian cups' (Fig. 29. IV:1.ARCHAIC EAST GREEK AND ETRUSCAN POTTERY IN THE LEVANT in the Levant. 67*). 16. 12. XVI. 9. PI. 60. Akko. Ashkelon (Pythian-Adams Fig. Fig. of this type in the southern This is very impressively (Gitin BCE found at Tel Miqne-Ekron Polychrome black jugs (Fig. 3).23) and at a number of sites in Israel. 13. 34 Fig.67*. Ras Ibn Hani (Riis 1982:251-252).Ras Ibn Hani. Fig. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:27-28. 11 Nos. 2). . but the fragment example so far known from Israel. 7. No Bird bowls were found at Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:41).4). Figs. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:30. Waldbaum and Magness Ashkelon (Stager 1996a. PI. Tel (Gitin 1995:65. Nos. 4. from Al 1980:47-48). PI. I-III. such 1980:151. Tell el-ijesi (Risser and Blakely 1989:93.1).1-2l 35. IX-XI). Tell er-Ruqeish (Waldbaumand Fantalkin 2001 :88-87. 5.96:1) were frequent at Al Mina (Robertson Ras el-Bassit mentioned one example has been published (Courbin (Courbin 1940:14.10.1-6. 6. 32.32. Figs. No. Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:43-69. Wild Goat II style (Fig. Fig. Waldbaum and Magness':1997:29-30. The reason for the rareness industry. PI.1-7.96:4) are known in the northern Levant from Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:72. 1997:32-33. PI. Nos. 22:1. Fantalkin 2001:89-90.96:2) were unearthed at Al Mina (Robertson 1940:13.3-3. There are only two examples besides that from Kabri.31 Fig.Tel 2001:90-94. Fig 9. 28:7-14).322-323. V. 251-255.PIs. PI. XIII) and in Israel at Tell Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:151. PI. 14. olive presses of the 7th century be due to the fact that this region had its own olive-oil by the numerous from Kabri is the only Levant may documented 1995:63-69). pls.96:3)pottery has been foundat Al Mina (Robertson 1940:8-16. 13. 10-11. 18). 1996b. 17. Boardman 1980:48. 5. Boardman 1980:48). Fig. Sarepta (Koehl 1985:137-138. for example. . 6g). 10. 5. . fragments of three Bird bowls were found at Tell Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:125. PI. Iliffe 1932:17. Nos. 69*. 69*. V:a. No. Fantalkin 2001:75-79. 32:2 and 35:10). 5.12).5. 3). 41 PI. Figs. Stager 1996a. From Most of the classes of Archaic Greek pottery found at Tel Kabri are well distributed Mina in the north to the Negev in the south. Fig. 16. 8 Nos. PIs. 14). 7a-b). Fig.Tyre (Coldstream and Bikai 1988:42.31. Fig. 14. both from Mezad Hashavyahu 1914:190-191.387-389. Tel Batash (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:28) and Ashkelon (Stager 1996a:67*. 4). Fantalkin 2001:Fig. 10. 6).6) and several others have been 1986:198 with note 65). No. Other classes are less known from the Levant. Reich 1989:230 Fig.2. XIII). 1923:PI. SOS amphorae (Fig. amphorae Fantalkin 84-85. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:29.3-4). Mezad Hashavyahu (Naveh 1962 110-111. of others at Dan.97:1) have been found at Al Mina. 11-12. Figs. 12) and have been found at. Fig. Fig. 86). Fig. 5. 32.1).31 Jemmeh (Illiffe 1932:17. Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1978a:57. 114-117. mentioned by Waldbaum 1994:59) and possibly at (Naveh 1962:106-107. In general. Magness 1997:30 with note 56) and Tel Batash (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:30. 1990:508). Tell Tel Malhata (Kochavi 1970:23 (below). 72. Achzib (Culican 1982:67. PI.a).35 Fig. 66*. following p. PI. Boardman 1978b:41 PI. Mezad Hasavyahu and Magness 1997:33. 1. 35). Fragments of four Bird bowls were unearthed at Tyre (Coldstream and Bikai 1988:43. Dan (pakman 1992:236 Fig. 7 No. . Fig. 32. 131 Nos. Keisan (Briend and Humbert Tel Batash (Waldbaum (Naveh 1962:104-105.

5. Bottom left) Wild Goat II style. 240 . Bottom right) Cooking vessels.96: Distribution of East Greek vessels in Israel: Top left) Bird bowls.lELL ER-RUQEISH'i TELL EL-HESI • T • ELL MALHATA Fig.SAREPTA I. ! TEL DAN ~ • TEL KfABR' TEL KEISAN JELL JEMMEH • l. Top right) Ionian cups.

Fig. Fig. 10) and numerous sherds of this ware have been found in the Late Iron Age destruction debris and the earlier construction fill at Ashkelon (Stager 1996a:67*. two bronze objects should be mentioned which have been seen as Etruscan imports in the Levant: a belt buckle in the British Museum said to have been found in Syria (Hall 1929/30: 107. Before the find of the Kabri bucchero fragment. 30. 1978a. 8-9. 1). PI.33 Fig. Rostovtzeff 1932:331-332. In this context. 63. the western coast of Asia Minor and in the Levant (see Rasmussen 1979:150-156. PI.7-8.Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31. Fig.97: Distibution in the Levant of (left) SOS amphorae and polychrome black jugs. Fig. 1977-78. Gras 1985:676-679. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31-32. the Aegean islands. Imports of Etruscan bucchero have been found in greater quantities in the western Mediterranean. Figs. 5. Fig. 92. Gras 1985 :672-674) and a bronze oinochoe of the so-called Rhodian type reportedly found 241 . Reich 1989:230 Fig. 12a-b. 7.34 Fig. Fig. the only known examples in the Levant were two fragments of kantharoi of Rasmussen's Type 3e from Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1973:27.7-8. Greek cooking vessels (Fig. 2). Fragments of up to 18 Greek cooking-pots have been identified at Mezad Hashavyahu (Naveh 1962:104-105. an oinochoe or olpe. 4.eel' f . 60b. Fewer have been unearthed on the Greek mainland. all in Israel. in southern France. Fantalkin 2001 :86-87. von Hase 1971: 10-12. PI. since almost all Etruscan bucchero vessels found in the eastern Mediterranean are kantharoi (Rasmussen 1979: 155).97:2) of this period are known from only a few Levantine sites. in Sardinia. (right) Greek cooking vessels. 64.1-2. 11). It is striking that the Kabri fragment comes from a closed shape. Fragments of one or two cooking-pots have been found at Tel Batash in the Stratum II destruction debris of Area F (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31. 6. 1986:201. 12F. 5. 36). Fig. on p. 58. PI. in eastern Sicily and at Carthage.1.202 Fig.TEl KABRI • I ! ~J Fig.31. von Hase 1989:329.

1 and 4.. Since the latest Greek pottery from Kabri cannot be more accurately dated than between the last decade of the 7th century BCE and the first half of the 6th century BCE. Gitin 1997:98-99). when the Babylonians destroyed Ashkelon. Unlike the garrison at Mezad Hashavyahu. but without a representative from Philistia. 242 . 10. Courbin (1978a:58. caption) thinks that the two Ras el-Bassit kantharoi were brought by east Greek intermediaries. the imported Greek pottery of Stratum E2a also shows close relationships to the assemblage from the destruction levels at the end of the Iron II phase at Ashkelon and Tel Miqne (Ekron) (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:27-33). and Philistia apparently came totally under their control. The few Etruscan objects from the Levant certainly do not provide evidence for direct Etruscan trade with the Near East. Thus the date of Ekron's destruction by the Babylonians falls most likely in the ten year-span of 604-595 BCE. i. 108-109). As Gitin (1998:276. the Berlin jug is most probably of east Greek manufacture (Jacobsthal 1929:210. these were single members of the elite.e. according to the text of Jeremiah 27 dated to 594 BCE describing a meeting in Jerusalem at which a rebellion against Babylon is planned. 68-69. it is impossible to establish during which of these campaigns the Phoenician fortress of Stratum E2 in Area of Tel Kabri was destroyed. No texts exist recording the destruction of the fortress at Tel Kabri. Thus neither object comes from a secure context. A 23). The nature of the Greek presence in the Levant has been thoroughly discussed elsewhere (Neimeier 2001). driven from their homeland by many factors (Bettalli 1995 :26. cf. It has been suggested that it was destroyed during the same campaign as Ashkelon (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:37-38). In all probability it occurred during one ofNebuchadnezzar's campaigns along the Phoenician and Philistine coast at the end of the 7th and in the first two decades of the 6th century BCE (Wiseman 1985:21-41. The excavators of both sites have convincingly attributed these destructions to the Babylonian invasions led by Nebuchadnezzar II. 2002). PIs. 1995. The implication is that the Philistines no longer posed a threat to Babylon at that time. the conquest of Ashkelon is dated to the month of Kislev in the first year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II. The excavators of Tel Kabri contend that a small contingent of Greek mercenaries in the service of the Kingdom of Tyre was based in the fortress of Stratum E2 (Niemeier 1994. 2) has recently argued. 3. n. and M. THE DESTRUCTION OF THE FORTRESS OF STRATUM E2 Like the Phoenician pottery (Chapter 5:1V). it is improbable that the Babylonian destruction of Ekron happened after 595 BCE since. Frey 1963:23. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:37). According to the Babylonian Chronicle in the British Museum. Stager 1996a:72* with note 1. Shefton 1979:68 No.at Sidon which was acquired by the Berlin Museum from a Parisian art dealer (Furtwangler 1888:250 No. in 60110BCE or even after 595 BCE when the chronicle ends (Na'aman 1992:43-44). I would agree with Gitin that the most convincing date is 604 BCE. 77 with note 3. to November/December 604 BCE (Wiseman 1956:28. The date of the fall of Tel Miqne (Ekron) is not as assured. 1996b:58. in 603 BCE (Malamat 1979:208. Rostovtzeff (1932:332) has suggested that the belt buckle from Syria probably was brought by an Etruscan slave or associate of a Phoenician merchant. Jacobsthal 1929:205-206 No.4. one year later. Moreover.1-2) and identified as an Etruscan import by Gras (1985:676). the map Stager 1996b:58).

1991. P. Pisa. pp. <Atiqot 3: 1-24. Lund. Tell EI-Dab'a V. J. P. E. Lesfouilles du Department de R. (Monograph Series of the Institute of Archaeology. 1978. Astrom.A. style.. Dossier sur I 'histoire d'un port mediterraneen durant les Ages du Bronze et du Fer (? 1600-950 environ avo Ji-C) (Ph. Beck. P. 173-238. The Pottery ofTyre. In: Kochavi. Tel Aviv 12:181-203. 1972-1984: First Summary. Lund. Ancient Pottery of the Holy Land. 1978b. and Panayot. 1990. Syria 71:259-346. Antiquities in Palestine 14:1-41. M. 71-72 The Quarterly of the Department of . Early Arad I. 1969.M. 2000a. Livadhia "Kokotes". (Qedem 24) Jerusalem. IVlb) Lund.The first season at Tel Yoqne'am. P. 19). Astrom.. Ancient Pottery of the Holy Land. 1988. 1980. The Middle Bronze AgeIlA Pottery from Aphek. Warminster. Capet. M.M. P. 1978. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 258. 19). eds. Ramat Gan. 243 representation Evidence for the Trade between Israel and Tyre: Short stand from Amathus. W. Vol. 1985b. Corinthian Vase-Painting of the Archaic Period II. E. Alexandrescu. A Middle Bronze Age Temple at Nahariya. I mercenari nel mondo greco I: Daile origini alia fine del V. Ben-Tor. D. Bikai. Area B: Pottery. (The Swedish Cyprus Expedition. P. Area A: Middle Bronze Age lIA Pottery. American Journal of Archaeology 99:305. Cyprus 239-241. N. 1988. 2000b. Report of the Department of Antiquities Cyprus pp. The Middle Cypriote Bronze Age. 1972. Sarepta 1: A Stratigraphic and Ceramic Analysis of the Late Bronze and Iron Age Strata of Sounding Yat Sarepta (Sarepta. The beginnings of Phoenician pottery. R.M. Excavations at Horvat 'Uza. (Hebrew) Ben-Tor. (Monograph Series of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University No. M. a. Tell Kazel (Syrie): Rapport preliminaire sur les 4e8e campagnes de fouilles (1988-1992). Israel: hints of presence. 1977. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 279:35-54. Berkley. Tell Qiri: A Village in the Jezreel Valley. 1985. Artzy. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 229:47-56. L. vol II. thesis. P. pp. 1950. The Late Phoenician pottery complex and chronology. P. 1978a. Bettalli. Balensi. 1985a. 1994. Bietak. 1966. La ceramique d'epoque archaique et classique. C. (Hebrew) Amiran. Anderson. W Hamilton des Antiquites a Tell Abu Hawam effectuies en 1932-1933 pour Ie compte Niveaux IV et V: de la Palestine sous Ie Mandat Britannique. University ofStrasbourg). 51-59. The Middle Cypriote Bronze Age. Tomb 1. 1980. A. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 238:69-73. Tel Aviv University No. Bucharest.M. Aphek-Antipatris l. Bikai. 1995. Ben-Tor. M.. 1987. Report of the Department of Note. 112-133. Astrom. A Phoenician Antiquities. Aphek-Antipatris l. P. Histria IV. M. eds. Israel Exploration Journal 28:57-82. Badre. et al. 1966. 1957. R: et al. Beck. 1974. 1995. I. Jerusalem. Bikai. Amyx. A. Anderson. Jerusalem Amiran. Gubel. In: Kochavi.c. Observation on Archaeological Bikai. Astrom.P. SIMA.Greek pottery from Ashkelon.M. 1978.REFERENCES Adelman. 1971.P. Beck.. Amiran. The utilitarian "Persian" storejar handles. Tel Aviv. A. P. P. and ceramic technology in the early phases of the Phoenician Iron Age. Ben Dor. Vienna. Excavations at Kalopsidha andAyios lakovos in Cyprus. et al. W. Beirut. pp. R. P.D. sec. Lebanon). Vessel shape. Tel Aviv.

) London and New York. Gravisca.F. Tel Aviv. PM. D. 1. D. Greek Geometric Pottery. Ras el Bassit. 1961a. M. Cook. The Archaic Deposits II and Later Deposits. Naples: 41-42 244 . Excavations in Chios 1952 -1955: Greek Emporio.Arch. 6) London. Greek Painted Pottery. P. London. 116:48-62. P. 1980. 1963-1965. 1. 1939. 1992. Tel Aviv University). 1986. Cook. Fikellura pottery. Biran.M. 1967. La ceramique a engobe rouge de l'age du fer a Bassit. P. Courbin.P. R. 1996. 1978a. I. D. In: Finkelstein. 1997. P. Brann. Archeologia Courbin.M. Braemer. Boardman. En Shadud: Salvage Excavations at a Farming Community in the Jezreel Valley. E. 1) Gottingen . Oxford Journal of Archaeology 11:255-266. S. pp. Winona Lake. A. and Finkelstein. and Dupont. Bunimovitz. Rapport sur la sixierne campagne de fouilles (1976) archeologiques arabes syriennes 27-28:29-40: Courbin. 96-98. 1998.M. D. East Greek Pottery. 1988. Melanges Syriennes. Hesperia 30:93-146. a Ras el Bassit (Syrie).V. Cook. 1973. La ceramique de la Grece de l'est Courbin. and Hayes.G. and Shipley. E. Suppl. Israel (British Archaeological Reports International Series 249) Oxford. Annual of the British School at Athens 34: 1-98. S. London and New York. 1989. Dan I Jerusalem. 1972. Boldrini. The Athenian Agora VIII: Late Geometric and Proto-Attic Pottery. 1968. Fouilles de Bassit: Tombes du Fer. ed. Scavi nel santuario greco: Le ceramiche ioniche. Coldstream. Bari.P. (British School at Athens Supplementary Volume 10) London. F. 81-196. P. Courbin. The Greeks Overseas. en Galilee. The Phoenician Pottery of Cyprus. R. Biblical Dan. 1962. 1985. Catling. The Wild Goat and Fikellura Styles: Some Speculations. Cyprus Part 2:35-44.V. Courbin.Paris. Shechem I. Institute Francais de Naples. and Greenberg. 1933/34. 1986. Proto-Attic well groups from the Athenian agora. (3rd ed.M. Qraye and Qasmieh of south Lebanon. 1987. 1961b. Cole. Cultural Diversity and Change in the Early Bronze I of Israel and Jordan. RM. Centre Jean Berard.. 1993. Bikai.M. 1978b. Cook. Boardman. A. Biran. A catalogue of Iron Age pottery from the cemeteries of Khirbet Silm. and Bikai. Excavations at Tocra. 1. In: Les ceramiques de la Grece de l'est et leur diffusion en occidente. Paris. (Ph. 1980. Tombe phenicienne de Sin el Fil. Joya. Turnhout. Ilan.. In: Dictionnaire de la civilisation phenicienne et punique. S. Messapian Zeus: An early Sixth-century inscribed cup from Lakonia.W. Jerusalem. Braun. R. (Orbis biblicus et r Chapman. P. E. Ceramique: Orient. and Humbert. Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 84:187-200. Nicosia. E. Braun. 1. P. P. Tel Aviv. Annales archeologiques arabes syriennes 23:25-38. 1. Briend. Report of the Department of Antiquities. A-t-on retrouve l'antique Posideion it Ras el Bassit.1. R. 1977-78. Princeton. 1993.Bikai. 1996. pp. Chehab. Brann. (Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens. Bassit.1. 1984. dissertation. E. 1992.. Late Geometric well groups from the Athenian agora. London.N. R. Syria 63:221-246. I. Paris: 803-810. Pottery. 1994. Rapport sur la campagne de 1972. Early Greek Pottery in Tyre and Cyprus: Some preliminary comparisons. II. Boardman. 6-9 Juillet 1976. Shiloh: The Archaeology of a Biblical Site. 1994. Coldstream. Annales a Ras el Bassit. 1973. Syria 63:175-220. Tell Keisan (1971-1976): Une cite phenicienne orientalis Ser. Brann. 1. Hesperia 30: 305-379. Berytus 21 :55-194. IN.

1958-59. 245 . P. Zu den 'rhodischen' Bronzekannen aus Hallstattgrabem. 1993. Haifa. I. 45-82. B. Tubingen. 1996. 'Atiqot 7:13-39. 1. 1994. Pres naplouse. Berytus 24:47-87. pp. Dupont. Zefat (Wadi Hamra). Cairo-London. Frey. 0. In: Finkelstein. 1956..O. Some Phoenician masks and other terracottas. A 2001. Hama.Culican. A. 1976-1979. 1980. Epstein. Collon. AM. Athenische Abteilung 95: 149-224. Canaan. Tel Aviv. Chicago. W.und Baubefund. A. Frankel. (Hebrew) Fantalkin. 1997. In: Finkelstein. W. R. Kafri. Fugman. Finkelstein.. British Museum Excavations atNimrud and Balawat in 1989. W. Milet Kolloquium Franlifurt am Main 1899-1980: Ergebnisse. In: Niemeyer. I-III.G. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 224: 1-48. 1975-76. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archaologischen Institutes. Map of Akhziv (1). 1994. Biblique 55:544-580.-H. Sidonian bottles.M. pp. pp.Iron I Transition. Classification d'lstros. 1986. Beitrage 8. ed. J. Middle Bronze Age Tombs at Kfar Szold and Ginnosar. Frankel. Dothan. 18-34. 1948. and Steve. 18) Tel Aviv. Tel Aviv Megiddo III: The 1992-1996 Seasons. Map of Hanita (2).11:1: L 'architecture des periodes pre-hellenistiques. 2000. 1973/4. E. Marburger Winckelmann-Programm: 18-26. Tel Aviv 28:3-165.. ed. Mezad Hasavyahu: Its material culture and historical background. E. Fantalkin. 31. 1958. 1934. and Halpern. ed. Great Tombs of the First Dynasty. And Na'aman. W. Akko: Interim Excavation Report First Season. I. From \ Nomadism to Monarchy. Ussishkin. M. Damati.B. Mezad Hashavyahu: Its material culture and historical background. 1986 Naturwissenschaftliche Bestimmung der archaischen Keramik. Levant 7:145-150. Dacia 27:19-43.. E. W. 1938. Furtwangler. Copenhagen. Rivista di Studi Fenici 9. D. Israel Exploration Journal 6:14-25. 2001.. N.. Elgavish. 1975. 1980 . R. (Monograph University No. P. D. M. pp. Heraion von Samos: Grabungen im Sudtemenos 1977. M. In: Yedaya. pp. Notes on the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age Pottery of Megiddo. Revue Dothan. Istanbuler Mitteilungen. R. 1963. A Middle Bronze Age II burial cave on Mt. and Green A 'Atiqot XXIX: 1*-29*. and Shipton. Acco. A 1988. La Seconde Campagne de fouilles A Tell el-Far'ah. I. Furtwangler. Phoenician Aegis jugs.... Engberg. In: Stem. Archaeological Survey of Israel. I. 1976. Upper Galilee in the Late Bronze . and Getzov. Erwerbungen der Koniglichen Museen zu Berlin 1887. Y. (Hebrew) Emery. W. M. 304-317. and Stepanski. Culican. K and H and their stratigraphic and chronological implications. 1931-1938. eds. 1981. Probleme und Perspektiven einer Ausgrabung. 1982. C. A. 1993. Culican. Jerusalem. 244-324. Schicht. 57-71. 1974. Madrider LCurtis. Zimhoni. Culican. H.M. Dothan. The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Vol. Preliminary Series of the Institute of Archaeology. The Excavations at Nahariyah: Preliminary Report (Season 1954/55).2:169-175. W. The Iron Age pottery assemblages from Areas F. Keramik. Shiqmona on the Seacoast of Mount Carmel. Fouilles et recherches. R. Jerusalem. Cairo Emery. report on the survey of Western Galilee. et determination de provenance de ceramiques grecs orientales archaiques Excavations in the Holy Land Dupont. G. De Vaux. R. 16-24. The repertoire of Phoenician pottery. The Tomb of Hem aka. Iraq 55:1-37. The Antiquities of Western Galilee. Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archaologischen Institutes 3:245-254.B. Suppl. Phonizier im Westen. In: MUller-Wiener. pp. J. Mainz. 1983. Washington. N. (Hebrew) Frankel. Tel Aviv 28:3-165.

Gopher. The typology and chronology of the Iron Age pottery and the chronology of Iron Age assemblages. (Hebrew). 1989. 1985. The Philistines in the Prophetic Texts: An archaeological perspective. A. 1941. Iron I-IIA Pottery evolution at Dor: regional contexts and the Cypriote connection. with a focus on Philistine Ekron. V. Z. Stockholm. 4. Frerichs. (ed. A. Chronology. 1948. Gershuny.R. (Acta Instituti Atheniensis Regni Sueciae 20) Stockhohn. 1996. Gal. I B: Areas A and C: The Finds. dissertation. 1990. S. Gilboa. 'Atiqot 5:1-13. S.. In: Kempinski. Recent Excavations in Israel: A View to the Institute of America. pp. 1993. R. and Sussman. 1992. A. and Bonfil. A Middle Bronze Age burial cave at Tur-an. eds. Garfinkel. Tel Aviv. <Atiqot. Y. The Neolothic and Chalcolithic Pottery of the Southern Levant. 1987. Gal. Eretz Israel 25: 122-135. Studies in Honor of Ernest S. 1998. eds. ed. 1-49. 1998. 1995. Givon.. 1992. 93-160. 1997. Israel Exploration Journal 42:4-16. In: Parpola. Hebrew University of Jerusalem) Jerusalem. In: Gitin.. Samos III: Der Nordbau im Heraion von Sam os. In: Gitin. Dan I.. 1998. Mediterranean Peoples in Transition: Thirteenth to Early Tenth Centuries BCE. 1971. Jerusalem. R. E. E. In: Magness.. 1995. pp.. Samian amphoras.92*. S. Horbat Rosh Zayit: An Iron Age Storage Fort and Village. Gras. and Goren. and Eisenberg. N. J. Gerstenblith. Gitin. pp. A. R. :77-104. A. The Neo-Assyrian vassal state. S. D. The Pottery Assemblage of Nahal Beset I: A Neolithic Site in the Upper Galilee. 1983. Y. Trafics Thyrrheniens Archaiques. (Hebrew) Grace. Getzov. A.2: The Cypro-Geometric. P. Schools of Oriental Cathedra 88:7-14. Graves and Burial Customs of the MB IIA Period in Gesher. The Levant at the Beginning of the Middle Bronze Age. The pottery from Area E. 66-69.Furtwangler. (Hebrew) Garfinkel. R. Winona Lake. (Ph.M. (Archaeological Gitin. S. V. Helsinki. Authority. Assyrian type pottery at Dor and the status of the town during the Assyrian occupation period. Z. (Qedem Reports 2) Jerusalem.. HESED VEEMET. H.J. A Middle Bronze Age Tomb at Barqa'i. A.8) Jerusalem. In: Biran. and Kienast. Colloquia and Conference Papers No. eds. 1993. and Stem. 1999. pp. Gjerstad. The Material Culture of the Middle Jordan Valley in the Pottery Neolithic and Chalcolithic Periods. Final Report. 1996. Tel Miqne-Ekron in the 7th century BCE: The impact of economic innovation and foreign cultural influences on a Neo-Assyrian West. (Qedem 39) Jerusalem. Alexandre. Preliminary Report of 1986 Season. Forthcoming. Tel Aviv. The Swedish Cyprus Expedition Classical Periods. Vol. Gophna.) Excavations at Dor. S. Winona Lake. Phoenicians and Israelites in the "Land ofCabul". pp. 1969. The Excavations at Bet Ha'emek. I. 2.1) Dubuque.. S. Mazar. Y. Gitin. Gilboa. A.D. Greenberg. and Whiting. (American Research Dissertation Series 5). Sadeh. Gilboa. and Gitin. Horvat -Uza Excavations and Surveys in Israel. Cypro-Archaic and Cypro- 246 . pp 61-79. 273-290. Analysis and Classification. Z. (Israel Antiquities Empire and Its western periphery: The Levant. The Early Bronze Age levels.. Eretz-Israel 21:132-147. S. Jerusalem. Assyria 1995. pp. R. Gal. 413-425. E. M. In: Stem. Garfinkel. and Greenberg. L. L. Bonn. ed. 13: 19-21. Atlanta. Excavations at Kabri 1. (Hebrew) Y. S. Y. Reports No.. Mycenaean Pottery: 1. Furumark. 1992. Ilan. 2000. A. Hesperia 40: 52-95. Lower Galilee during the Iron Age. Rome. (Hebrew) Gershuny.

In: Weinberg. P. And Reiche.New Hanfmann. J. A. Guy. Annual of the British School at Athens 73:103-141. (Hebrew) Kaplan. H. In: Kempinski. F. J. 574-590. Rhodos Johnson. pp. and Porat. Tell Qiri: A Village in the Jezreel Valley. 1929/30. Griechen im Vorderen Orient und in Agypten.E. A and Niemeier. In: Biran. The origin of the 'Loop-Handle Jars' from Tell Keisan. 1987. Essai de classification des amphores dites (Qedem 24) Jerusalem. 1969. Ilan. eds. 1937. 1966. Kaplan. 1. Tel Aviv.W. Levant 28: 157-172. Ch.O. R. at Gozlu Kule.Greenberg. R. In: Ulf. 19-148. Athens. Jacopi. J. Bulletin du Musee de Gunneweg. 1978. 1982. pp. Hamilton en Tell Abu Hawam. and Jones. J. R. P. London. pp. P. Neolithic and Chalco lithic Remains at Lod. A Third Millennium American Schools of Oriental Research 301 :5-24. Revue Biblique 98. 18-332. A. pp. (British School at Athens. eds.M. In: Goldman. Greek and Cypriot Pottery: A Review of Scientific Studies. Opuscula Atheniensia XIV:49-72. lIan. and Perlman.L. D. *47-*51 Hayes. The Origins and Distribution of Tell el-Yahudiyeh Ware. 1949.P. P.E.W. The Middle Cypriote Pottery found in Palestine. 1996. Middle Bronze Age painted pottery from Tel Dan.. D. Excavations Hausleiter. Jerusalem. 165-184. At-Tall: Architecture. G.H. 1958... 4) London. et al. Verxffentlichungen der Deutschen Orient Hall. I. Excavations at Wadi Rabah. Lebe'a. de R. Las excavaciones Historia del puerto fenicio durante los siglos X.. A bronze buckle from Syria. Kafer-garra. Iron Age Pottery in Northern Mesopotamia. The pottery. R. In: Boardman. Santander. Johnston.B. 1991. A. Kaplan. Naomi. 59-115. The Middle Bronze Age tombs. Clara Rhodos 4: Scavi nelle necropoli Camiresi 1929-1930. H. Annualofthe Humbert. lIan. J. G. eds. 1977. J. Rhodische Bronzekannen Institutes 44:198-223. and Hayes.H. 1963. The Foreign Relations of Palestine during the Early Bronze Age. Ein el-Jerbeh: Chalcolithic Remains in the Jezreel Valley. 1956. W. Eretz-Israel13 :57-75. Hennessy. Qraye. York.. Jones. 1996b. Berlin. 1990. 1. Addenda to Necrocorinthia. Thinitische Topfmarken.E. A. P. 1980. Tel Aviv. Quarterly of the Department of Antiquities in Palestine 2: 15-26. Wiesbaden.A Tarsus III: The Iron Age . ed. and Greenberg.W. Studies Presented to Hetty Goldman. The Iron Age: the pottery. Eastern Anatolia. 139-223. Guigues. 1999. Petrography and Provenance of the Metallic Ware of Northern Israel and Adjacent Regions. Northern Syria. 1967. S. Universidad de Cantabria. The 'SOS' Amphora. . The Aegean and the Near East. A 1954. Gothenburg. pp. 1991. Haider. The British Museum Quarterly 4: 107.J. Supplementary Vol. G.A. 1929. M. Israel Exploration Journal 8: 149-160. R. Revue Biblique 98 :591-599. Megiddo Tombs. M.Princeton. pp.VIII a. Altertumskunde Hawari. at Tocra 1963-1965: The Archaic Excavations at Kabri. Samos IV: Das Archaische Nordtor und seine Umgebung im Heraion von Samos. 1986. W. Iliffe. Bulletin of the de la region sidonienne. Beyrouth 1: 35-76. Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archaologischen "a anses de panier". Isler. Bonn. 1978. Helck. Pre-Hellenistic Greek Pottery in Palestine. (Hebrew) Kaplan.B. Chicago. de C.. D. Hunt. ed. 1990. 1996. D. On Some Eastern Greek Wares Found at Tarsus. 161-329.M. (Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft 65) Berlin. Haifa: EI stratum III: British School at Athens 44:162-257. Jacobsthal. Herrera Gonzalez. J. 7-8: Preliminary Report of the 1992-1993 Seasons. 1931. R. Dan!. J. and Southdes Vorderen Orients 10: 127r 147 stratigraphy and fmds. ed. Excavations Deposits!.-D. 1932. Hopper. Haller. In: Ben-Tor. Hanfmann. Wege zur Genese griechischer Identitat: Die Bedeutung der fruharchaischen Zeit. pp. Die Graber und Grufte von Assur. The Iron Age pottery of Tarsus. 1996a. M. 1994. 247 aus Halstattgrabern. necropoles Levantine Pottery Production Center: Typology. A. 1938.

Aphek-Antipatris I. Area E. Fouilles de Vroulia (Rhodes). Tel Aviv.. The Bronze AgeNecropolis at Ayia Paraskevi. Warminster. M. (Alten Orient und Altes Testament239) Neukirchen. Karageorghis.1. Karageorghis. Berlin. Syrien und Palastina (Kanaan) in der Letzten Phase der Mittelbronze II B Zeit (Agypten und Altes Testament 4). X Beyrouth. The History ofTyre. 1970. 2000. Die Westexpansion des neuassyrischen Reiches: Eine Strukturanalyse. 1970.. Jhs. 1997. 1995. eds.R. A. 1995.Chr. 1961. 5. (Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 17) Gothenberg. Kromholz. dissertation. Archaeology in Israel: Hinterland of Akko (Map 20). (Aegaeum Kitchen. Israel Exploration Journal 39: 129-148. 1993. eds. 1996. 1938. Katzenstein. K. Lehmann. Beiblatt: 84-226. Qadmoniot 9:22-24. 1963.B. K. Kempinski. Ein stratifizierter Jahreshefte des Osterreichischen archaologischen Institutes in Wien 66. Bucharest. 1974. Chronoque des Fouilles a Chypre en 1960. Studien zu Chronologie und Verbreitung der Opferkomplex des 7. Jhs.A. H. V. aus dem Artemision von Ephesos. 934-936. Bird Bowls and related Archaic ceramics from Miletus. 1982. Athens. 1995.1989. V.v. Killebrew. Excavations in the Necropolis of Salamis II. In: Stem. The first season of excavation at Tell Malhata. A. American Journal of Archaeology 98:481-519. G. T.-D. 19). pp. 1983. Kerameikos VI. 1997. Tel. Archaeometry 35:197-210. R. 1994. Complexity and Collapse in the North Jordan Valley: Archaeometry Late Bronze Ages. Kinch. A. Kabri 1992.-D. C. 1970. Kempinski. Heimermann. University of Bochum) M. Excavations at Kabri: The Iron Age Tell. ed. A. and Niemeier. Israel Exploration Journal 43 :181-184. pp. Neutron Activation Analysis of Kerschner. Untersuchungen zur Spiiten Eisenzeit in Syrien und Libanon: Stratigraphie und Keramiliformen zwischen ca.Karageorghis. Kempinski. The 1972-1976 Seasons. Beersheba. S. Beier. Salamis Vol. bis fruhen 6. and Niemeier. (Altertumskunde des Vorderen Orients 5) MUnster. Unpublished Tombs in the Cyprus Museum. 1: Die Nekropole des spaten 8. G. Lehmann. Kochavi. 1914. and Hein. 3.. (Monograph Series of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University No. Lehmann. 1998. V. A. E. Tel Aviv. Karageorghis. Ostgriechische Kerschner.E. Mommsen. of Archaeological Excavations in the and Social in the Middle- 248 .B.H. and Harris-Cline. Nicosia.F. M. H. Kochavi. D. Excavations at Kabri 7-8: Preliminary Report of the 1992-1993 Seasons. Les vases archaiques d' Histria. Nicosia. E. Bulletin de Correspondance hellenique 85:256-315. W. A. Jerusalem. Wiesbaden. 1967. Wolff. Chr. Chr. Excavations in the Necropolis of Salam is III. Lambrino. 1993a. Knapp. The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt. Excavation of Areas A and B. Nicosia. M. Salamis Vol. v. K. The New Encyclopedia Holy Land. pottery in Canaan during the 14th-12th centuries BC. 4. 1973. Kardara. Kabri 1993. 720 bis 300 v. 1994a. 1993. W. M.. G.F. A. W.-D. Excavations in the Necropolis of Salam is I. Sarepta III: The Imported Bronze and Iron Age Wares from Area II. (Hebrew) Kochavi. Salamis Vol.. and Niemeier. In: Cline.159-169. Vol. Vogelschalen und Verwandtes. Lamprichs. In: Kempinski.Vluyn. The Aegean and the Orient in the Second Millennium. R. American Journal of Archaeology 99:305-306. M. Kubler. Malhata.. Berlin. East Greek or Eastern Levantine? Simple painted decorated pottery in the eastern Levant during the Achaemenid period. Rodiake Aggeiographia.D. Mycenaean and Aegean-style 18) Liege. 1993b. M. V. Koehl. D. 3. (Nicosia). Kerschner. ostgriechischen Keramik (Ph. S. Israel Exploration Journal 43:257-259. 1985.

11*-22*.Chr. A Cautious Approach to the Middle Bronze AgeChronology Levante 3:115-121. Excavations und Milet in in Phoenicia: New Evidence from Tel Kabri. IV. W. Imported Cypriote Pottery from Middle Bronze Age Levels at Kabri. Archaologischer Anzeiger Heft 2:293-328. 1992.-D. Archaic Greeks in the Orient: Textual and archaeological evidence. pp. Merrillees.. (Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology XXXIX) Lund. Vo!' 1. Israel: A preliminary Report.-D. 1992. Oxford University) Oxford. Greek Mercenaries Archaeology 99:304-305. Naveh. at Kabri 5. eds. Preliminary Report of the 1986 Season. Supplement 331) Sheffield. D. L. M.v. Merrillees. A. dissertation. H. Turnhout survey in the hinterland of Akko. ed. pp. W.. E.. E.S. G. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 322: 11-32. pp. Marcus. S. 1997. G. Chicago. (Ph. 1979. R. and Niemeier..-D. Megiddo II. Philadelphia. eds. Israel Exploration Journal 12:89-113. In: Kempinski. de. Eretz Israel 23:230-240 (Hebrew with English summary) Paley. W. Niemeier. Excavations at Kabri 4. La cittadella di Hama: Attivita. and Porat. ed. A. 1992.-D. London. Pastor. Tel Nami: A Study of a Middle Bronze IIA Period Coastal Settlement. pp.M. of Cyprus. 31*-38*. (Journal of the Lohmann. A. In: Oren. (Orientis Antiqui Collectio 15) Roma. Excavations at Mesad Hashavyahu: Preliminary report. 1995. and Niemeier.. Area E .L. R. ed. Series 1. N. 1987. Tel Aviv 29:328-331. W. G.-D. E.-D. 1979. Late Iron Age pottery vessels from Tel Dan. Malamat. Lipinski. Nimrud and Its Remains. Maguire. A. Neo-Assyrian Influence at Tell Jemmeh.A. xxxiv-xxxix. Niemeier. ed. Phoenicians in western Galilee: First results of an archaeological Study of the Old Testament. 1968. G. 1990. 65-112.funzioni e comportamento. 1998. A. Melson. Dictionnaire de la civilisation phenicienne et punique. The Greek Pottery. Preliminary Report of 1990 Season. Mallowan.D. Geoarchaeology 7. Geology and the loessial soils.G. A. 1. (Studies in Mediterranean XVIII). W. W. 1994. In: Trade and Transcendence in the Bronze Age Levant. 1999. Survey in der Chora von Milet. 1980. Excavations alKabri.. American Journal of Archaeology Earliest Times through the Middle Bronze IIa (M. Y. W. Mattingly. L. Excavations at Kabri 7-8. Preliminary Report of the 1992-1993 Seasons. 1992. eds.L.2:121-147. pp. Greek mercenaries at Tel Kabri and other sites in the Levant. H. 1995. Jerusalem. 1966. W. The World History of the Jewish People: Ancient Times. W.E. 1962. Eretz Israel 23:230-240. Niemeier. 2001. The last years of the kingdom of Judah. Tel Aviv.-D. Pakman. Evidence for Greek Mercenaries at Kabri? In: Kempinski. pp. Greek Pottery.S. and Niemeier..D. Early Middle Bronze Age IIA Remains at Tell el-Ifshar. Tell Gemmeh. 2001.S. 1991. Tel Aviv. Near East Archaeological Society Bulletin 15-16:33-49. 44-51. Nebuchadnezzar's Campaign in the Year 603 Be. Pakman.Lehmann. Lund.C. A. Niemeier.. 1992. A. pp. 2002. Aegypten und 249 . University of Haifa) Haifa. W. The Hyksos: New Historical and Archaeological perspectives. 1992. ed. Studies in the Archaeology of the Iron Age in Israel and Jordan. Jhs.1. Tel Aviv. Niemeier. 43-79. 1948. Die 'Zierde Ioniens': Ein archaischer Brunnen. In: Mazar. In: Kempinski. Maigret. Maguire. Late Iron Age pottery vessels at Tel Dan. A Middle Cypriote III Tomb Group from Arpera Mosphilos. Archaologischer Anzeiger (in press). Niemeier. 1974. Marcus. D. 1991. thesis. Loud. van Beek. der jungere Athenatempel der zweiten Halfte des 6. The Cypriote Bronze Age Pottery Found in Egypt. E.-D. Maritime Trade in the Southern Levantfrom Period.-D..S. Biblische Notizen 62:41-44. Preliminary Report of the 1989 Season.. In: Kempinski.The Stratigraphy and Finds. 205-221. Tel Aviv. In: Malamat. Na'aman. Israel.C.

1957. L.. amongst the (Hebrew) a la memoire de Jean Deshayes. Stratigraphie comparee et chronologie de Asie Occidentale. De I 'Indus aux Balkans: Recueil les Civilisations) Paris. (Madrider Beitrage 8) Mainz. Beirut. Rostovtzeff. pp. C. Stager.237-260. B. thesis. Stager. 1948. 1. London. G.P. Berlin. Die 'rhodischen' Bronzekannen. Princeton. 1995.K. Chicago. Schaeffer. Syria 13:321-333. M. Jonsered. H. lL. 1985b.. Paris. Cambridge.A. Schaus. 1996. Kislev 604 BCE. L. lB. M. dissertation. U.A.B. Schiering. London. W. M. Eretz-IsraeI20:228-232.J. (Hebrew) protogeometrischen und der geometrischen Zeit. Ploug. K. Yon. Winona Lake. Necrocorinthia: A Study in Corinthian Art in the Archaic Period Oxford. X Sarepta 4. (Ph. G. The Objects from Area II. 1888. Bucchero Pottery from Southern Etruria. W. C. Ashkelon and the Archaeology of Destruction. Imported Aegean Fine Ware in the first millenium BCE. 1989. "Mortaria": Un lot inedit de Tell Keisan: Essai d'interpretation fonctionnelle. 1973. IF.A. Petrie. G. 1969.C. Salles. The Commercial Jar in the Ancient Near East: Its Evidence for Interconnections Biblical Lands. Pritchard. 1999. Sparkes. 1938. 1991. Preliminary Report on the Sixth Season of Excavation by the University of Sydney at Pella in Jordan 1983/84. PJ.76-77. Palestine Exploration Fund. 1970. eds. J. In: Huot. pp. Robertson.1:56-69. Die Knickrandschalen Schlotzhauer.W. Eretz-IsraeI25:61 Stager. Y. (Hebrew) Rasmussen.D. Cuvettes et "mortiers" du Levant au ler millenaire avant lC.B.F. W. Two Fikellura vase painters. Schaeffer. Shipton. 1985a. Excavations at Kabri. and Edwards. Annual of the British School at Athens 81:251-295. Petrie. Archaologischer Anzeiger. American Department of Antiquities of Jordan 29: 181-210.. Hebrew University) Jerusalem. In: Bennett.M. 69-137. The excavations at Al Mina. C. Sondagen des Jahres 1995. Sueidia IV: The Early Greek vases. Knickrandskyphoi 1997: Das Artemisheiligtum aus Milet. Milet 1996und Keramikfunde der Stratigraphie und -schalen aus der Nordhangsondage. 1982.Payne. R. 1939. S. Eretz-IsraeI9:122-129. (Unpublished M. pp. H.-G. eds.. 21-23. 1900-01. Shefton.E. M. Levant 17:203-204. 1989. T. Schlotzhauer. *-74 *. Les Fouilles de Ras-Shamra 1937. L. 5th and 4th Centuries B. and Blakely.A.M. Mainz. 1932. A third season of excavations at Mezad Hasavyahu.F. 1998. Untersuchungen zur handgemachten Keramik Griechenlands in der submykenischen. Tanis II.M. and Calvet. Tel el-Hesi: The Persian Period (Stratum V). Syria 19:193-255.F. 1986.E. Copenhagen. Prausnitz. Ashkelon and the archaeology of destruction: Kislev 604 BCE. University ofBochum) In: Kerschner. L. C. 1979. Transeuphratene 16:87-120. (Editions Recherche sur auf der Ostterrasse des Kalabaktepe. 1923.. Eretz-IsraeI25:61 Review 22. M. 1996b. Reich. Potts. Report on the stratification of Askalon. Werkstatten orientalisierender Keramik aufRhodos. Reber. Ugaritica II. Pythian-Adams. J. Oxford. 1996a. and Blakely. P. Phonizier im Westen.A. U. Journal of Hellenic Studies 60:2-21. Sukas II: The Aegean. B. lA. pp. The fury of Baby Ion: Ashkelon and the archaeology of destruction. 1979. A. W.A. Biblical Archaeological 250 . Notes on the Megiddo Pottery of Strata VI-XX. T. Schaeffer.F. 1931. 1980. *-74*. Risser. Raban. and Talcott. A propos du niveau 4 de Tell Keisan. The Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty.F. The Athenian Agora XII: Black and Plain Pottery of the 6th. Sapin. In: Niemeyer. M. 1940. Colledge. 1985.M. Quarterly Statement :53-84.F. Riis.l Jr.F. 1988. 1949. Griechen in Phonizien. 199-212 Salles. ed. W. Corinthian and Eastern Greek Pottery and Terracottas. Notes d'archeologie orientale.

Thalmann. ein Stiitzpunkt des Jojakim? In: Hossfeld.-6. Stem. in Mittelitalien. 1977-78. 1980. Waldbaum. 1968.E. H. Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archdologischen Institutes 86:1-59. Palastina in vorhellenistischer Zeit (Handbuch der Archaologie. 1959. Early Greek contacts with the southern Levant. H. 169-196. The Inscriptions of Tiglat-Pileser III. pp. Amsterdam. Suppl. 1997. 1929. V.: The eastern perspective. R. Walter. 1989. eds. Berytus 18:5-33. Mitteilungen Institutes. Levant 15: 49-62. The Origins and Ancient History of Wine. ed.Stem. 1955. The chronology of Early Greek pottery: New evidence from seventhcentury B.. Jhs.1) Munchen. Copenhagen. O. S. H. R. Ras ShamralLeukos 11. 1994. 1988. Kolloquium Franlifurt am Main 1980. The imagery of the wine bowl: wine in Assyria in the early first millennium Nutrition in History and Anthropology Stucky. Jerusalem. Tefnin. Tadmor. lC. ed. and Magness.E. 1995. The Courtyard Cemetery at Tell el-(Ajjul.-W. 31) Tubingen.. R.-L. Mesad Hasavyahu. Palestine. Thalmann. and Vallet. Stationen alttestamentlicher Glaubensgeschichte. lC. LC. 1000-600 B. Syro-Mesopotamian 3.. von Graeve. Waldbaum. Jahrhundert v. Jerusalem. J. E. Sukas IV: A Middle Bronze Age Collective Grave. Studies des Deutschen Archaologischen . Bulletin of the University of London Institute of Archaeology 3: 1-37. Melanges d archeologie et d'histoire 65:7-34. P. G. von Hase. Tell <Arqa it l'epoque perse.J. S. Greeks in the East or Greeks and the East? Problems in the defmition and recognition of presence. Waldbaum. Excavations at Tel Mevorakh (1973-1976): Part 1: From the Iron Age to the Roman Period (Qedem 9) Jerusalem. Bericht uber die Arbeiten am Sudschnitt an der hellenistischen Istanbuler Mitteilungen 23/24: 63-115. 1978. 1983. F. Fleming. The MB IIA Period in Palestine: Its Relationship with Syria and its Origin. von Hase. W. J. Samos V: Fruhe samische Gefasse. Ecole Francaise de Rome. 1978. 1971. Tell 'Arqa (Liban nord): Campagnes I-III (1972-1974): Chantier I: Rapport preliminaire. Greeks and graves in the coastal Levant. Iraq 21:62-92. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 305: 1-17. Syria. O. H. und 6.3:110-168. Megara Hyblaea V: Lampes du VIle siecle et chronologie des coupes ioniennes. Tubb. In: McGovern. Ein Beitrag zu den fruhen Handelsbeziehungen Mainz 36:327-410. In: Muller-Wiener.. The pottery from the Royal Tombs I-II at Byblos. D. 1986. 73-80. J. F. Transeuphratene 2:51-57. 1997. 1996. King of Assyria. 1969. Technau. Villard.P. American Journal of Archaeology 101:23-40. 1994. Tufnell.C. H. Weippert. The Cypriote and Syrian pottery from al Mina. Les niveaux superieurs du Tell Abou Danne Chantier A. Milet.P. ca. Giirtelschliessen des 7. 1962. Milet 1899-1980: Ergebnisse. Waldbaum. Jahrbuch des Romisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Stadtmauer 1963. (Istanbuler Mitteilungen. W. Chr. Syria'55:1-151. E.A. J. destruction levels in Israel. pp. F. Chronologie und Landschcftsstile ostgriechischer GefaJ3e. Wtirzburg. Der etruskische Bucchero aus Karthago. 1990. du Plat. Thrane. Taylor. 1978. Stronach. LC. Vom Sinai zum Horeb. J. B. Food and Limen. American Journal of Archaeology 99:306. and Katz. 1989. 1973/74. Probleme und Perspektiven einer Ausgrabung. Wenning.H.Bonn. Walter-Karydi.C. Athenische Abteilung 54:6-64. Paris. 1983. F. 1994. 251 im westlichen Mittelmeergebiet (7. Griechische Keramik im samischen Heraion. Tufnell. Dor: Ruler of the Seas. Zur archaischen Keramik Ostioniens.).C. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 293 :53-66. Vorderasien 2.-W. Bibliotheque d'Archaeologie et d'Histoire 110.

J. In: Fossey. Zevulun. Y.S. Juglets from a Potter's Refuse Pit at <Afula. D. R. Late Geometric Graves and a Seventh Century Well in the Agora. Vol. 1939. 1977. 1990. A. 1961. S. Hazor. pp. 1956. 1998. R. The Greek imports in Palestine: Aspects of function and decoration. Chronicles of the Chaldaean Kings (626-556 B.J. Nebuchadnezzar and Babylon. (Hesperia Suppl. Storage Jars in Ancient Sea Trade. Yadin. II: An Account of the 2nd Season of Excavations 1956. eds. Amsterdam. American Journal of Archaeology 99:305.M. R. III-IV An Account of the 3rd and 4th Seasons of Excavations 1957-1958.) in the British Museum. Y. I: From \ 252 . 207-219. The National Maritime Museum. Hadashot Arkheologiot 188:31-33.l 1985. D. Hazor. (Schweich Lectures in Biblical Archaeology 1983) Oxford.Wenning. eds. et al. Wenning.. Young. Tel Megadim (Tel Sahar). Eretz-IsraeI21:174-190 Antiquity to Modern Times. Jerusalem. et al. Wolff. ed. 1960. Proceedings of the First International Congress on the Hellenic Diasporafrom Antiquity to 1453. Wiseman. Nachrichten tiber Griechen in Palastina in der Eisenzeit. 1995. Zemer. Wiseman. Jerusalem. Vol. Vol. Tell el-Yahudiyeh (Hebrew). U. London. 1991. Yadin. Haifa. II) Athens.C.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful