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THE 1986-1993 EXCAVATION SEASONS
Contributions by N. Angel-Zohar, R. Y. Bankirer, A. Cohen-Weinberger, P. Comale, C. Dauphin, M.Faerman, M. Fischer, L. Gershuny, S. Givon, Y. Goren, A. Horowitz, H. M. Khalaily, L. Kolska Horwitz, Z. Koren, G. Lehmann, O. Lemau, N. Liphschitz, O. Marder, H. Mienis, Y. Mizrachy, A. Nebel, B. Niemeier, W.-D. Niemeier, R. Oren, T. Oman, M. W. Prausnitz, A. Princivalle, P. Rosano, N. Scheftelowitz, S. Shalev, P. Smith, M. Tagliapietra, T. Tsuk, U. Yalcin. .
NA' AMA SCHEFTELOWITZ AND RONIT OREN
EMERY AND CLAIRE YASS PUBLICATIONS IN ARCHAEOLOGY TEL AVIV 2002
Area E lies on a small rectangular artificial hill measuring 100 x 150 m in the southwestern corner of the large Middle Bronze Age mound of Tel Kabri and rising some 12 m over it (Fig. 4.81). Until 1948 a small village called et-Tell occupied this area. The rich spring of <A a1-Fuwarah and the reservoir of <Ein Shefa' in (Birket Mefshukh) (Conder and Kitchener 1881:156, 158) lie to its northeast (Chapter 3). Excavation concentrated on the northwestern corner of the hill. The investigation, begun in 1986 under the supervision of Lilly Gershuny, was continued in 1989, 1990 and 1992 by Helena Pastor Borgonon. In 1993 this author supervised the excavations in Area E. Preliminary reports on the stratigraphy and finds for these seasons were published by the Kabri Expedition between 1990-1994 (Gershuny 1987; Kempinski 1987, 1991; Naveh and Kempinski 1991; Niemeier 1990, 1994; Pastor Borgonon 1990, 1991; Lehmann 1993).
Fig. 4.81: The mound of et-Tell showing the excavations in Area E.
Four main strata were discerned.
Stratum E1 E2 E3 E4 Date 19th century CE- 1948 Hellenistic period Iron Age" Iron Age" Iron Age" Description and Interpretation Village Some pottery finds from disturbed tombs Fortress Fortress Floors and debris
EARL Y BRONZE AGE
Pottery from this period was mixed into almost all lower Iron Age loci providing abundant evidence for occupation here at that time. However, no Early Bronze Age structures or layers were excavated.
MIDDLE AND LATE BRONZE AGE
These periods are represented by isolated sherds found in the debris below the lowest floors.
The earliest Iron Age levels are debris layers (Locus 871) that were identified in a very limited sounding under Floor 870 of Stratum E4 (Fig. 4.82). There is no floor connected with this debris. STRATUME4 Remains of Stratum E4 appeared only in a sounding under Floor 866 of Stratum E3 in Square L 11.1 A plaster floor (870) at 55.00-55.10 m was discerned but its relationship to the casemate walls was not clear. However, the underlying locus (871) is already under the casemate walls and it seems probable that Stratum E4 predates the construction of the fortress. No other evidence of this stage was found, perhaps because excavation did not continue below Stratum 3 anywhere else. Pre-8th century BCE pottery (Figs. 5J50, 5.70) is associated with this stratum. STRATUME3 The structural piers remains of Stratum E3 are those of a fortress with casemate l312/816, l3111l344) are massive constructions, walls (858, fieldstone fills. Partition 878, 87~, 882, walls (Fig. 4.83, 4.84). The 1.60 m wide, built with ashlar l332) form a number of '
Fig. 4.82: Schematic north-south section through Square Lll.
casemate walls (l343/863, and undressed compartments.
Casemate walls W816 and Wl311
of Stratum 3 are clearly cut in Square M9 by W131 0 of division (Fig. 4.85). only in Square
Stratum 2 (see below) providing us with a distinct stratigraphic LII at 55.90 m. Thus the earliest phase (E3c) is evident
Stratum E3 had at least three phases of floors (Fig. 4.85). Floor 866 was excavated is represented by floors at a level of about 57.00-15 by later building Metal fittings, activity m in the casemate rooms
only in one small room. The next phase (3b) 848, 876 and 883 in Almost (Locus all 873)
Squares Ll1, K-LlI2 was badly disturbed baskets century B.C.E.
and K13. The final phase (3a) at about 57.70 m (Loci 812, 813, 837, 1313, 1314) and the finds on and above them are mixed. Ottoman sherds together for a door, were found in the debris 3b and 3a contain probably with distinctive 8th-7th
of floor loci from phases pottery.
above the 3b floor 876. 1 Unfortunatelythe locusnumberwas not changedin 1990 so thatthe fmds from underthe floor are also numbered L. 866. It is howeverpossibleto isolatethe basketsL. 866 thatcontainedmaterialfrom StratumE4. 74
.I~ It.J 75 . I I I I I ...
84: Schematicplans of Strata E3a (top). 76 .N t M N t M 10 N t M 10 Fig. 4. E3b (centre) and E3c (bottom).
87. 4. Fig. looking east.89). 4. 4. 4. Fig. 77 .85: Square M9.87: Casemate rooms in Squares 0/4-8.Fig.88. Room 1977 in foreground. W1310 of Stratum E2 (on right) cuts W1311/W1312 of Stratum 3 (on left).86. 4. 4. looking south. 4.86: Looking west over Squares 0-P/7-8. STRATUME2 Only the northwestern part of this fortress was excavated (Squares L-Q/4-10) (Figs.
" z o . o ] .. -1- -1- -1- -1- -1- -:--------:-:3t .~· ------% -1. 00 00 .f z 0 0 ii: eO 78 .. I -j- ~~IM~.._ -1- _L I -I- -I- -i- I -1- N ~ -\- _L I -t~ V1 '+-< 0 ~ ~ e .§ A-... . ..
. A Destruction Layer with Restorable Pottery A L :---_ --I I 1 I I . E2b N6 + 06 o:"'__~d' P6 B Destruction layer with Restorable Pottery 04 05 06 07 Fig.89: Schematic plan of Stratum E2 with Sections A-A and B-B. Str. 4.'I .SBm--+ B .. 79 .
too remains obscure. While most of the pottery from this sounding has parallels in both Strata E2 and E3. The rich pottery repertoire retrieved comprises restorable types such as jugs. 4.90: W1340. The outer casemate wall (W1382+WI986) turns northward after running for 25 m east-west. Wall W1339 was built exactly between walls W816 and W1343. as were several additional rooms south of the innermost casemate wall (W897). Stratum E2. The ash and the restorable pottery from the casemate floor may indicate a destruction layer. This technique has been identified as a Phoenician architectural element (c£ Stem 1992:Fig. 5. Two phases of use were discernible in most of them (2a. and found. Note ashlar piers. 4. Under the lowest surface reached in the sounding (1992). but thick layer of ash immediately north of it. early mortaria types or transport jars (Fig. it is not clear to which stratum this wall belongs.1991. 5. which may be the remains of a burnt beam. a wall (WI993) was found with a narrow. 4. the casemate walls are 1.60 m wide. The beaten earth floor has an ash layer of up to 10 em on it.1990.1989. 13. Fig. adjusting to the topography of the mound.1992).82:8-10) and represents a typical assemblage of the mid-7th century BeE.g. Wall W1339 does not continue further east into Square L 11 but may have been robbed out. The burnt contents of a transport jar were also collected. Only the northern part of this wall was excavated but as no floor connected with it was found. looking None of the foundations of the three casemate walls were west. Assyrianizing types) appears only in Stratum E2. 80 . some of it (e. Other finds on the floor include iron objects.As in Stratum 3. Two rows of rooms were excavated between the three walls. About 10-15cm under the floor gravel bedding (Locus 1994) slopes downward from north to south. its architectural context is unclear.90). the northwestern corner of the casemate fortification system was not established. It may be the eastern continuation of the Stratum E2 casemate system or a reinforcement in Stratum E3 between walls W816 and W1343. The sounding exposed remains ofa wall (WI926) in Square P7. Although the excavations reached the western slopes of the hill. 2b) represented by distinct floors. Below this was a further series of surfaces (1988. 1984) was exposed between walls W1331 and W897 in Square 0/5-6 (Fig. Fortunately many floors were still deep enough to survive this leveling. Since the foundation of W1339 was not excavated. Phase E2b A floor of a casemate room of Stratum E2b (Loci 1961. built with ashlar piers and undressed fieldstone fills (Fig. The structural context of this wall.79:12. as does the floor. Stratum E2b in order to examine the foundations of W1389 but digging stopped before reaching their base. In Square L 10 it disappears in pits which were dug by stone robbers in the Ottoman period when the remains of Stratum E2 were leveled and built over by a village. fragments of at least one large pottery basin and a concentration of shells.91). 2). In Square OP7 a sounding was made under Floor 1987 of fieldstone fill.
the undisturbed part of the floor is a fragment of a basket handle amphora with an engraved sign (Fig. Since the baulk between P7 and Q7 was not removed. In Square Q7 two floors. The pottery types resemble the types in Stratum E2a. The entire central part of its plaster floor was destroyed by an Ottoman pit. Excavations continued some 20 em under floor 1966 (Locus 1963) until the end of the season interrupted operations.42-59. 81 . Locus 1333 east of W1330 and Locus 1334 to the west of this wall may belong to Stratum E2b. Since the pottery repertoire of Strata E2a and E2b is very similar. This material is apparently either from a destruction at the end of Stratum E2b or it is a fill to raise the level of Stratum E2b to that of Stratum E2a. Destruction layer with restorable pottery. in Square P7. The floor slopes down southward rather steeply from W897 to W1328/W1949 which was built on it (Kempinski and Niemeier 1994:Fig. 1). the debris was apparently leveled immediately after the destruction raising the floor level of Stratum E2a to about 20 em above E2b. 4. Phase 2a The overall plan of this phase is virtually identical to that of its predecessor.86:3). It was violently destroyed resulting in small finds and large amounts of restorable pottery being left in situ. 4. it was not established whether these floors are a continuation of floor 1309.55 m which yielded a large number of pottery finds. There are some indications of destruction of Stratum E2b. looking east.91: Room 1961. which may have originally covered both rooms.Room 1969 in Square P6 has a floor at about 59. Fig. South of Room 1987 is Room 1309.92: Room 890. such as ash and restorable pottery on the floors. Pit 1936 was dug down from this floor. Floor 1309 runs up to W1328 and joins floor 1987. Among the finds from. Fig. Only parts of the floor of Room 1987 in Square O-P/7 were exposed during the excavation. 5. possibly with the addition of some pit installations.
Trilobate arrowheads have been connected with Scythians in the 7th century BCE (Cleuziou 1977: I93) but were also later used by the Achaemenid army. In the destruction debris of Square 04 was a body sherd with an incision of a jar (Fig.50-55m (Fig. Oren 1984:28.87:2). 5. 8. 5. 4. Fig.00 m thick above them (Locus 1914) in which remains of plaster flooring were also mixed (Fig. 4. many of them basket-handle amphoras from Cyprus.87:1). Finds on its floor comprise late 7th century BCE transport jars.94). it may also be part of the same phase. Recovered from the floors of these rooms was a large quantity of restorable transport jars. 4. They are defined and separated from one another by partition walls W899. W1331 and W1342.30-1. This assortment of pottery and small finds does not rest immediately on the floors but in a layer of debris from 0. 5. 4.95. 8. Floors 890. Other finds from this destruction debris include an Egyptian amulet (Fig. W1340 and W1995. Peleg et al. Also unearthed was an iron spearhead (Fig. on which lay a great deal of pottery.62 m. looking north. enclosed by W1310. looking west.5:9) which may have been one of the weapons used during the destruction of the building. 82 . 1983). Although Locus 1977 in Square 04 on the western edge of the mound between casemate walls W897 and W1331 is much lower than the above-mentioned floors of Stratum E2a. It is a type with a long socket and an elaborated rib in the middle of the blade which has many parallels in the late Iron Age (Moorey 1980:64). apparently an aleph (Fig. that of Room 1941 at 58.93). this deposit of pottery and small finds was filled into the casemate rooms during the destruction of Stratum E2a (Figs. The floor of Room 890 lay at 58. 1941 and 1948 were identified between walls W1331 and W897 in Square 05-7. 4. a fragment of a pottery vat used for purple dyeing (Chapter 16) and a broken storage jar with an incised Phoenician letter.5:8) was found out of context but probably belongs to Stratum E2. 4. 4. and of Room 1948 at 58. A bronze trilobate arrowhead with socket (Fig.96). Moorey 1980:64-66. According to the pottery and the small finds. One of these had Cypriote letters incised on it (Fig.53 m.92). It was severely disturbed by robber trenches and pits cutting through the loci immediately above it. a floor.94: Locus 1914. 10. This type of arrowhead is well known from Syria and Palestine from the late 8th through the 4th centuries BeE (see Cleuziou 1977.23).58 m. was traced in Square N8-9 at 58. Fig. Fallen stones and broken mudbricks covered the floor of 1948 (Fig. In Locus 1321.75).93: Destruction debris in Room 1948. It is therefore possible that material from an upper storey collapsed into the rooms below and that the upper floors were used for storage.New floors were exposed in the casemate rooms.
the threshold survived. 4. 4. 83 . 4.98: Destruction debris on the floor of Room 1308. The floor of Room 1960 in Square P6. looking east. The room was entered from the south through a doorway. W1949 and W1950 with a floor at 59.69-73 m (Fig.98). Although cut by a number of Ottoman pits.96: Locus 1913. 5. complete with threshold and door socket found in situ. South of this installation was a stone lined pit with an Assyrian bowl (Fig. looking east. Room 1308. enclosed by W897. several in situ finds from the destruction of Stratum E2a were recorded. east of 1960. As in Room 1960.97). W1950 and W1974. Fig.76:15) in it.65-70 m (Fig. was identified at 59. 4. is defined by W897. were a few installations. Fig. W1328. W1329. Fig. In the northern part of the room. including complete transport jars and an oven in the northeastern corner of the room. looking south. close to wall W897. A complete transport jar was sunk slightly into the floor which was plastered around the opening in order to facilitate pouring liquids into it. 4.Fig.97: Installations in Room 1960. 4. East of this was a stone basin. Several rooms abutting on the southern side of W897 were excavated.95: Locus 1912.
This floor is connected to W860.52-63 m.45 m and west ofW1330 at 59. Its stratigraphic relationship is uncertain. This floor was apparently in use with the steps. Material found in Locus 864 below this floor was also mixed. Parallels to pottery finds would place this locus in either Stratum E2 or E3. LOCUS 855 IN SQUARE III In Square I II a floor (855) was found on the very edge of the hill. 4.South of Room 1960 there was probably a corridor (Locus 1963) but the area excavated is too small to clarify the plan in this part of the building. W1341 and W1330 (Loci 1305. This locus was disturbed during the Ottoman period by stone-robbing. with W1328.99). south of which were the remains of an oven. According to the level of both the lowest steps and the pebble floor (59. Among these finds was the fragment of a pottery vat used for purple dyeing (Chapter 16). Wall W1330 in Squares P-Q17 runs exactly towards the corner ofW1949 which. It may have belonged to Stratum E2. 5. this floor connects with adjacent floors of Stratum E2a. 84 . 4. This corridor continued eastward into Square P7 where it may have linked up with a room between W1328.99: Steps of a staircase in Locus 1318.3: 10). W1329. On the same level as the first steps are remains of a pebble floor immediately south of the stairs. Fig. The room immediately north of these steps may have been part of the staircase.94 m). but the finds here are mixed and disturbed by later material. On the floor was a thick layer of ash. Remains of additional floors were also found in Square Q7 west ofW1330 at 59. Unfortunately this area was so disturbed by Ottoman pits that there were almost no traces of Stratum E2a except for finds out of context. 1309). Among the pottery finds from Room 1318 were fragments of a Greek SOS amphora (Fig. Unfortunately a pit (Locus 1908 in Square P7) destroyed the northern part of W1330 and there is no evidence of any connection between these two walls. Large rectangular dressed stones found in situ in Square P8 in Room 1318 may have been the first steps of stairs leading into an upper storey (Fig. forms an entrance to Room 1308.
probably ancient Kabul. 1994. when the Assyrian king reached the Akko plain (Katzenstein 1997: 174-178). The remains of a fortress in Strata E3 and E2 point to a special function of the site. Akko became again the urban centre of an integrated. Frankel and Getzov 1997.2001. SUMMARY After being one of the major urban centres in northern Palestine during the Middle Bronze Age. Apparently the plain and the hills were newly organized and their agricultural production integrated into the economy of the city-state of Tyre.g. At Kabri this road was crossed by another route leading from the sea to Upper Galilee.apparently restricted to the small hill of et-Tell. Reallexikon der Assyriologie volume 1(1928)64. floors and pits were identified. cf. Kabri was also important for controlling the all-weather route on the slopes leading from Rosh ha-Niqra south to Akko and the Carmel. centralized settlement system (Lehmann 2001. may have some connections with the campaign ofShalmaneser III in 841 BCE. The territorial transformation of the Akko plain into an Assyrian province may have begun already in 701 BCE under Sennacherib and his campaign 2 Na'aman 1994. In the lower Ottoman levels there were also some stray finds of Hellenistic pottery (Chapter 5:IV). However. Stem 1990). many of the small Iron Age I villages were abandoned and new equally small villages were founded in the same hill and mountain areas. At the end of Iron Age I and the beginning of Iron Age II the settlement pattern in the Akko plain changed. but earlier such site and collection point was Horvat Rosh Zayit. the Akko plain appears as Tyrian territory? In Iron Age II. Ronen and Olami 1983. Large amounts of Ottoman pottery were found (mostly out of context) among which were many fragments of Rashayya al-Fukhar painted jugs. The large percentage of Tyrian pottery at these sites (e. Olami 1974). a tower like complex of the 10th and 9th centuries BCE at the edge of the Akko plain (Gal and Alexandre 2000).STRATUM El Remains ofa village from the Ottoman period were uncovered between 1986 and 1992 in Squares K-MlI013 (living floors) and in Square III (tombs). For Assyrian references to Akko see Parpola 1970: 11. Only a few installations. In 1993 Mahmud Hawari excavated Ottoman remains in Square Q8 (Hawari 1994). During Iron Age I the centralized urban system of the kingdom of Akko was replaced by two apparently independent settlement systems: one on the coastal plain using the Late . The stratigraphy reflects the historical events in this part of the Tyrian hinterland. Lehmann 1995. Bronze Age sites on a reduced scale and another situated on the hills and the mountain slopes in newlyfounded very small villages (Lehmann 2001). Kabri is situated exactly between the coastal plain with its emphasis on grain production and the hill-country which produced wine and oil. especially at the end of the 8th and the 7th century BCE. most of the Ottoman village in Squares N-Q14-8 was bulldozed before the excavations in order to reach the Iron Age levels. Thus. Kabri) points to an integration of the area into the Tyrian city-state and its economic system. Another. Kabri was a significant strategic point in the northern Akko plain. all out of context. the settlement pattern of the Late Bronze Age collapsed at the end of this phase (Frankel 1986. 85 . The transition from Stratum 5 to Stratum 4. where agricultural products from the hill-country might have been collected and stored before being shipped to places such as Akko or Akhziv. but on different locations. Kloner and Olami 1980. the importance of Tel Kabri was reduced to a small rural site during the Late Bronze Age . In Assyrian sources. According to archaeological surveys. around 850 BCE according to the pottery. The end of Stratum E4 and the beginning of Stratum E3 might reflect political events following the campaigns of Tiglatpileser III in 734 or 733 BCE (Tadmor 1994).
According to the 675174 BCE treaty between.against Tyre (Pritchard 1955:287). The end of the Stratum E3 fortress probably came during Ashurbanipal's third campaign. All these events may have had their impact on the stratigraphy of the fortress in Kabri area E. when he marched against Tyre ca.100: Schematic outline of the Stratum E2 fortress. Most of the Assyrianizing pottery found in Kabri dates to Stratum E2 or was found in the sounding in Squares O-P17 under Stratum E2b and may thus have started at the end of Stratum E3. In particular. the fortress was immediately rebuilt. Lancel 1995). Mount Meiron (Druks 1964) and at Horvat Rosh Zayit. The rectangular plan 86 . The consumers of Assyrian style pottery may have attempted to copy the lifestyle of the predominant power of the Near East.31). The revolt that Ashurbanipal suppressed in 644 BCE could be connected to the end of S1. The fortress might have been in the hands of rebels and was destroyed by Ashurbanipal. Fig. 4. the Phoenician homeland. probably ancient Kabul (Gal and Alexandre 2000). Gal 1993a:453). 5.100). The triple casemate wall system of Stratum E2a probably covered most of Area E (90 x 60 m) and shaped the rectangular form of et-Tell (Fig. The casemate system of Kabri may have been incorporated into the settlement as in Beersheba Stratum II where the walls of the houses abut on the casemate walls using them as part of their construction (Herzog 1997:Fig. Katzenstein 1997:289). The political situation in Phoenicia remained unstable and in 677 BCE Esarhaddon conquered Sidon. While Assyrian artistic representations and historical texts indicate that the Phoenician centres were fortified.Esarhaddon and Baal of Tyre. the succession of the three floors in Stratum E3 may reflect repeated assaults on the small fortress. Some parallel features may be found in Israel. detailed studies of Phoenician architecture and fortifications in particular are still lacking (Leriche 1992. Whether this pottery reflects Assyrian presence or a local imitation of Assyrian pottery remains uncertain. The plan of this large fortress on a mound is quite different from the few fortresses known in Upper and Western Galilee such as those on Mount Adir (Davis et al. Little is known about fortresses in Lebanon. Cecchini 1995. Again there was no lasting peace and only a few years after their agreement Esarhaddon laid siege to Baal's Tyre in 671 BCE (Na'aman 1994: 6 and 1995:109). Lamprichs 1995:173. 660 BCE (Pritchard 1955:300.ratumE2b. Akko was apparently not included in the territory of Tyre. The casemate fortifications of Stratum E3 were abandoned and a completely new fortress with new casemate walls was built (Stratum E2). 4. None of the small fortresses on mountains in Upper Galilee (Frankel 1994:27) have a plan comparable to that at Tel Kabri. It was in the Assyrian interest to control the strategically important site of Kabri. 1985. or its colonies in the Western Mediterranean. However. Lipinski 1992.
Journal of Near Eastern Studies 44:41-51. 1996. for close 5. 389-396. when the Babylonians 1997:328). Han. pp. Excavations at Horvat <U~a. does not have casemates to the main fortification evidence now the summary 2001) but the way the rooms are attached the evidence The construction with ashlar piers and fieldstone fills. Bunimovitz. et aI. Jerusalem. Ben-Tor.R. and Kitchener. Cecchini. M. Bietak. Maddin. R. In: Krings. V. ed. The Survey of Western Palestine: Vol. A. C. 187-199. H. Oxford. ed. 1881. Small rural forts are best known to draw analogies fortress of Mezad Hashavyahu at Tel Kabri makes 1992). Architecture militaire. In the early Hellenistic the Iron Age architecture andre-using period graves were dug into its ruins. The Middle Bronze fortifications in Palestine as a social phenomenon. R. D. Jerusalem. A Steel Pick from Mount Adir in Palestine. and Greenberg.M. 60-67. Braun. In: Stem. when a village was built here. Biran. The Iron Age fortress was never rebuilt. Early Bronze Age Dwellings and Installations. 1992. A. Biran. but the in (see wall for the style (cf. Braun. Jerusalem. 2) even if not actually by Phoenicians with Cyprus and the presence repertoire in 604 BCE (Stager The pottery from the final levels has many parallels was most probably a result of the campaigns with that from the destruction of Nebuchadnezzar 1996). Conder.Tor. E. In: Katzenstein. dissertation. A. Ben-Tor. Muhly. Leiden. The New Encyclopedia Holy Land Vol. VII). 87 of Archaeological Excavations in the . T. eds. Avia'am.is similar to that of the forts at Samaria metropolitan limited size (Meshel resembles building complex area excavated and Tel Jezreel. (Ph. 1984. pp. M. <Atiqot 3:1-24 (Hebrew).. of except for the similarity as at these sites. La civilisation phenicienne et punique. S.. E. Similar evidence was found at Tel Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:270against Syria laid siege 271). R. Cleuziou.. The Architecture of Ancient Israel. 1977. I: Galilee. 1994). Fassuta. H. 1983. 567) Paris. In: Le plateau iranien et l'Asie centrale des origines ala conque islamique. D. Cultural Diversity and Change in the Early Bronze I of Israel and Jordan. London.D. Jerusalem. D. 1996. civile et domestique partim orient. 1991. 1200-1203. Israel Exploration Journal 34: 191-194. Tel Aviv University) Tel Aviv. Vienna. 1994. Tel. Les pointes de fleches "scythiques" au Proche et Moyen-Orient. 1966. the pottery and the historical Akko plain support the assumption contacts Ashkelon that the Iron Age fortress at Tel Kabri was built in a Phoenician from Tyre. Yiftahel. The contemporary of Fantalkin at Tel Kabri. Pottery finds provide evidence at Kabri in its final years (Chapter of Greek mercenaries Stem 1992:Fig. Tell el-Daba V. S. A. Israel (British Archaeological Reports International Series 249). S. E. Davis. Dan 1. Early Arad I. Qashish. leveling what remained of the stones of the ancient buildings (Hawaii REFERENCES Amiran. pp. Ben. En Shadud: Salvage Excavations at a Farming Community in the Jezreel Valley.H. 1985. Tel Aviv 19:221-234. A. and Stech. 1993. it difficult although this is a small rural fort and not a in the Negev. Thus. the destruction to Tyre (Katzenstein and Palestine and occurred either as early as 604 BCE or later in 585 BCE. Braun. Jerusalem. Biblical Dan. 1985. The site was resettled only in the Ottoman period. 1992. (Colloques intemationaux du CNRS No. 1989/1990. 1995. Excavations and Surveys in Israel 9:92. pp. 4. 1978.. J. E..
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... 5..67:2) with a knob handle resembles a bowl from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. it is very similar to an Iron Age I vessel from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. out of stratigraphic context. 5. 39:28). 1980:Pls. -. 1980: PI. 1980:PI. second vessel from the right). 1980:PI.V.>. 81 :14).. 50:CP-I0a). 78:3-4.67:5 characterize the Late Bronze Age/Iron Age I strata (G2D2) at Sarepta (Anderson 1988:PI. 11: 160) and Tyre Stratum 13-14 (Bikai 1978: Pis. 4) resemble vessels from Iron Age I strata at Tell Keisan (Briend et al.. 6 Fig. 5. 47 lower photo.. 1980:PI.""""''''_'W<.68:1 was found at Dor. 1980:PI.67:6 is a lamp similar to some from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. 5. .. 5.~ might be a Middle Bronze Age form.66:}6) may be compared to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al..66fr-t5) are typical for Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al. Another similar vessel was found at Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al. Tell Abu Hawam (Balensi 1980:PI. 5. 5. 3) with matt red bands which have parallels in Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al. 1980:Pls. 5. 65:1-2. Krater with a rolled rim (Fig. ~~~~"&Si """""""~---'- ) 3 5 -l ') I l 2 ) . 1980:Pls. .68:2. where it is identified as 'Sikil pottery' (Stern 1994:Fig. 64:1a). 5. Fig. 17). 5. 1980:PI.. 74:3. 178 . . Cooking-pots like Figs..~.6Ji*1. 37:18.. 66:6a). Identical decoration on a closed vessel like Fig.. . 78: 2). 66: 15.. 80:1) while another (Fig. 76:4).. Most typical are the Phoenician Monochrome juglets (Fig. apparently from the destruction layer of the late 12th or early lIth century BCE (Gilboa 1998:413).67: 1 and one not illustrated) have parallels from Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et at....67:3. 70.. 64:6).. """.. \ 4 ) -\ \ 7 I 10em.66: Iron Age I pottery from Area D. 35:6. Two bowls (Fig. IRON AGE Gunnar Lehmann IRON AGE I Iron Age I pottery was relatively rare and found mixed with pottery from other periods. The deep krater-Iike bowl with a sharp carination (Fig.66:1) and Pilgrim Flasks (Fig. 5. 5... Other kraters (Fig. 79:7. 68:6). 5. Although a krater or cooking-pot (Fig. 71:1.
temper: mg M. No.5YR6/6. g = gross/coarse grits «0. core 5YR7/6. Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. 2 In the tables accompanying the figures temper size is abbreviated as follows: f= fine grits (>0. interior 5YR7/6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type Bowl Bowl Krater Krater Cooking-pot Lamp Reg.2 . M = mineral temper. 60712089 752/2609 255111 9198/1 607/2077 255112 Locus 607 751 727 1575 607 727 Description cf. 5YR7/6. FIGURE 5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Type Juglet Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Cooking-pot Reg. } 3 f---d 2 -------ill II 4 lOcm.0. 1980:66:6a). temper: mg M. Keisan cf.6 mm). temper: m M. No.67: Iron Age I pottery from Area D. Keisan with knob cf.6 mm). Stratum Stratum 9c (Briend et al.5YR6/6. 1980:65:2). 5. cf. temper: m M. temper: fm M. 9c (PI. Red paint lOR5/6. core grey. 5403/3 5392/4 3304/1 3219/6 5378/2 3433/3 5423/2 Locus 1941 1973 0877 0864 1973 1313 1970 Description Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior 5YR7/6. cf. 1980:79:7). 9a-b (Briend et al. 2a). interior 5YR7/6. Keisan Stratum handle. 2. 1980:66: 15. m = medium grits (0. 5YR7/4. 6 Fig. 179 . 9a-b (Briend et al. Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al.FIGURE 5. interior 10YR7/3.67: IRON AGE I POTTERY FROM AREA 0 No.66: IRON AGE I POTTERY FROM AREA 02 No. interior 2. core grey. 17). core grey. 78:3-4). Colour description follows the Munsell colour charts. and interior 10YR8/3. 1980:64: la.2 mm).
bands in black paint. black painted wavy line. Cypriote White-Painted. Exterior 5YR7/6.5YR7/2.3 4 5 11 7 o Fig. Closed vessel with painted concentric circles. interior 5YR6/4. core 2. cf. bands in black paint.68: IRON AGE No.68: Iron Age 10cm. core grey. White-Painted II. 1980: PI. core 2. Red paint. temper: m M. Early Phoenician Bichrome. Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. 9a-b). 5. 84: 259 (Abu Hawwam Stratum III). Exterior 7. black paint. Closed vessel. temper: fM. temper: mg M. 542617 5392/10 POTTERY FROM AREA E Locus 1941 1973 1941 0876 1968 1941 0888 0890 1970 1338 Description Exterior 2. temper: fM.5YR7/2. interior 2.5YR8/4. Same type as Fig. 47: 3. Bikai 1978a: PI. White slip outside and red paint. 61: 12 (Keisan Niv. temper: mg M. Bands in light greenish wash and black paint.5YR7/2. Exterior 7. Exterior 10YR8/3. temper: fM. interior 2. interior 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR6/6. temper: fm M. interior 5YR6/6. temper: fm M.5YR7/2.82:8-10. Red brown paint.5YR7/2.5YR7/2. temper: m M. Closed vessel.5YR6/6. Briend et al. FIGURE 5. interior lOYR8/4. Exterior 5YR6/4. Black paint. temper: mg M.5YR8/4. core greyish. Exterior 2.5YR7/2. interior 2. White slip outside with red and black bands. Closed vessel with concentric circles. cf. Exterior 2. 26:11. black paint. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Jug let Pilgrim flask Pilgrim flask Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Krater or Jug Krater or Jug Jug Reg. White slip. No.5YR7/6. temper: m M. black paint. Exterior and interior 5YR7/6 and white. Gjerstad 1948: Fig. core 5YR7/6. core 2. Cypriote WhitePainted V. interior 7. interior lOYR7/3. Cypriote White-Painted. core 10YR7/3. core lOYR8/4.5YR7/2. core 5YR6/6. 5. Tyre Stratum 10-2. Closed vessel with bands and concentric circles. 19411177 3310/2 5402/5 5403/4 3388/8 3585/100 5346/2 3623/2 1 I Juglet 3145/3 0830 12 Transport jar 5443/100 1972 180 . core 5YR7/6. cf. core 5YR6/4. interior 10YR7/3. I I000o pottery from Area E.
69:1. Among the few diagnostic sherds are various bowls (Figs. The body is sack-shaped. it covers the period between ca. 26: 1-4. 19:9-16). Many of the vessels of this last phase were complete or restorable. 3). 1980). Stratum 7 (ibid. STRATUM E4 BOWLS The simplest type of bowl in the Phoenician pottery repertoire (Fig. Stratum 12 (ibid. Stratum 10-2 (ibid. 18a:4). 49:11). 1980:PI. 5). 5. 456. :PI. 22:595. 5. Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. These bowls range in diameter from 18-25 ern. One of the most common bowl types found at Kabri has a flaring rim and was variously decorated in different periods. triangular and sometimes has a slightly bulbous base. 49: 2). Of special significance for the study of the Iron Age II in northern Israel is the wide range of vessels found in situ in the 7th century BCE destruction levels (Stratum E2) which represent pottery of this period. cooking-pots (Fig.5). 1980:PI. a flat or convex base and reserved red slip decoration (Fig. Stratum 11 (ibid. (Briend et al. fragments and almost complete forms making up 4. :PI. :PI. 33:12-13). 20 em in diameter. Stratum 10-13 (Bikai 1978a). 5. Stratum 7 (ibid. Stratum 5. 16a:18-25. Transport jars from this context have a simple vertical rim rising from a sloping shoulder. :PI. Stratum Dl (ibid.70:13-19) and transport jars (Fig. A limited sounding below Stratum E4 produced only a small quantity of pottery. 33:2. Bikai 1978a:PI. 18a:5). Tell Keisan Stratum 6-7 (Briend et at. Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et at. 41 :9). 31:12. They are similar to bowls from Keisan Stratum 10-11 (Brient et al. 31: 1. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI.70:11). has a simple almost vertical rim. 23 :3). 64: 97) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 5. Stratum 13 (ibid. Stratum E (ibid.IRON AGE II During the excavation of Area E (Chapter 4:IV) large amounts of pottery were found in situ in a series of fortresses.69:6 with a carinated shoulder. This type was in use over a very long span of time and fabric and surface treatment vary in different periods. the lIth and 8th centuries BCE. 53: 10) and Tyre Stratum 6 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Those found in Stratum 4 are Bikai's first sub-type (1978a:26 Fine Ware Plate 2.69:1) has a flat base and an almost straight. 5. Sarepta C2-F (Anderson 1988':type SJ-12A) and Tyre Strata 4-14 (Bikai 1978a:45-46 . Parallels come from Cyprus ca. Sarepta. 513). 181 . 50:3. :PI. 850-750 BCE. ca. 5. ca. (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 4 nos. 7). 1050-850 BCE. They are comparable to examples from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Pls. 5. a simple everted rim and red slip covering the rim inside and the complete vessel outside already occur in Iron Age I. 23 :603). 32:10) and Tyre Stratum 4. There were 114 examples. Tyre Stratum 6 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Thus. the first of which was built in the 9th century BCE (Stratum E4) and the last probably destroyed in 604 BCE. The parallels connect the finds from below Stratum E4 with 11th-9th century strata at Tell Keisan. 48:4). 29:4). 81: 15) and Tyre Stratum 17 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 18a:16) and are dated to the 9th century BCE. Inside and outside are thin bands of black paint. Stratum 10-1 (ibid.:PI. Stratum DI-E (Anderson 1988) and Tyre. Stratum 7-11 (Briend et at. 511. x-15c).:PI. 47:type x-15a. 9).69:4).:PI. 6). Parallels come from Tell Keisan. :PI. 458.3% of all diagnostics. 1980:PI. l1a: 2. 1980:PI. 494-496. 1987:37-38) which has a relatively short flaring rim.69:2-3). Stratum 8-9 (ibid. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's Kouklia Horizon. :PI. 1980:PI. 470. sloping profile ending in a slightly thickened inverted rim. 600.). Sarepta Stratum C2-F (Anderson 1988:PI. Bowls like Fig.type SJ-9. Another type (Fig.
and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI.69:5) have an everted rim which is somewhat thicker than the body wall. JUGLETS AND JUGS A typical juglet of the 8th and 7th centuries BCE (Fig.f. 33:3. Another fragment (Fig.69:15 is similar to Fig. 55: 9). It resembles a jug without slip from Cyprus dated to ca. a neck ridge and a single handle are typically Phoenician. Sarepta CI-C2 (Anderson 1988:type 13A) and Tyre Stratum 10-1 (Bikai 1978a: PI. 31 :15) and Tyre Stratum 2-4 (Bikai 1978a:33-35. 69: 141-142). 190-206) and Tyre Stratum 4-9 (Bikai 1978a:type jug 8. 175. The handle rises high above the low rim.71:9 of Stratum E3. Parallels from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Nos. 93:2 type juglet 2). 14:383) and another from Tyre Stratum 9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 17 em. 92:jug 4). Juglets with a short mushroom rim (Fig. 60:1.70:4-5) begin in the middle of the 8th century BCE and continue to the beginning of the 7th century BCE in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Pl.69: 18). 850-750 BCE (Bikai 1987:PI. 23:611). Sarepta E (Anderson 1988:PI. 9:168-169. PI. 5. PI. 15:19-20. Transport jars with a small triangular rim on a sloping shoulder (Fig. 39. Such jars have been discussed in detail by Gal and Alexandre (2000:44-48) in their publication of the Phoenician fortress of Rosh Zayit. 5. 5. type 244) in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. This is a bichrome painted holemouth krater which resembles those from Rashidiya (Lipinski 1992:PI. The painted decoration of Fig. Their diameter is ca. Small juglets with a ring-base. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 5. 1980:PI. Four sub-types can be distinguished at Kabri. 5. table 8A. 5. 5. 39). 43:8). Similar bowls come from Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al.f. They are dated from the end of the 10th to the first quarter of the 9th century BCE. p. cf.70:3) begin in the second half of the 9th century BCE and continue until the second half of the 8th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:types 243. 1987). Sarepta Stratum B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type B-3A) and Tyre Strata 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 82:242) and Tyre Stratum 4-9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Fig. No parallels were found for bowl types Fig. 5. p.6. 20:8). 74: 179).70:12) occur since the second half of the 9th century BCE in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. It can be compared to examples from Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 34. 12: 246. 14:2-5. 5. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS One rim fragment of what may be a 'Hippo Jar' (Fig. 2000:310. 10-12).69:7-14. 850-750 BCE.70:7) is red-slipped and burnished. Parallels are found at Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. 5. Juglets with a squared or thickened everted rim (Fig.8) and Megiddo Stratum H-3 = Megiddo IVA (Finkelstein et al. 4b) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990 :PI.70:9) was found out of its original context.69:16-17 is a large bowl with an incurved rim which is sometimes painted red. 268. 272). 24:2). 177-178). A jug with a high neck and a trefoil rim (Fig. but may continue somewhat later as at Hazor Stratum VIII (Yadin et al. 1960:PI. 1980:Pls. but the rim is different. 52: 8) and Stratum 8 (ibid. Sarepta 01 (Anderson 1988:type OJ-2a). 5.70:1-2) usually has a small bulge at the base.47:8. 11. 265. jug type 8. KRATERS Only one such vessel was found in Stratum E4 (Fig. 5. Fig. Their development has been discussed in detail by Bikai (1978a:37-40. 5. 182 . 5:14-17. table 8A. PI. The first two have squared or thickened everted rims while the rims of the others are mushroom-like.70:10) was found in Stratum E4 and two more in Stratum E3.:PI.Other carinated bowls (Fig. 18a:10) date this type to ca.25) and Stratum 5 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 18a:7).
Gjerstad 1948 Fig.4) long pinched. 5. ca. Their value for dating pottery assemblages is thus limited. 11). .70:20) has a small edge on the rim immediately under the lip. SUMMARY Most paraIlels to the pottery assemblage from Kabri Stratum E4 are either found in the Akko plain or at Tyre and Sarepta. 18.12:5) and Sarepta CI-Dl (Anderson 1988:type CP-IA). The type occurs only once at Kabri. 52:13. one in E2 and 2 were unstratified. One example of this type was found in Stratum E4. 35:1. 49:9.70:13-19) but continue in Stratum E3 and even into E2 (Figs. 1980:9th century BCE) and Sarepta Stratum C2-Dl (Anderson 1988:ca. 12:27. 5. These sub-types have no chronological or regional significance in the Akko plain during Iron Age I through Iron Age IIC. overlapping rim.69:6. 3. 850-750 BCE. 3) long pinched. 6. 34:10.3% of Stratum E4 types have exact parallels. Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 6. One may distinguish between triangular rims with: 1) horizontal rim. where 33. Cooking-pot types with flat vertical rims become more frequent in the late 8th and 7th century BCE. 5. 30:3) and Tyre Stratum 2-10 (Bikai 1978a:PI.70 :21). The body may be deep or shallow and has usually a sharp carination.84:3-4). 183 . Cooking-pots with triangular rims are very common in Stratum E4 (Fig. horizontal rim and 5) a short pinched rim (Hunt 1987:Fig.70:3-5. 9). 33. Gal and Alexandre 2000:40-42) Comparisons come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4-11 (Briend et al. 1980:PI. They have a wide open body with a rounded base. 2) overlapping rim. 5.73:3-5. 5. the transport jars (Fig. They can be compared with vessels from TelI Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. 5. 5. The examples at Kabri are clearly made of a cooking-pot fabric. occurring first in the 12th century BCE. 1980:PI.70:6) (cf. 950-830 BCE). These vessels are dated according to stratified comparisons from other sites which are contemporary with Stratum E4 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence at Tel Kabri. Stratum E4 may thus be dated to ca. A somewhat similar vessel was found at Rosh Zayit (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. The pottery figures for this stratum include also some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context (Figs. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's 'Salamis Horizon'. Above the carination. 77:1-4. 5.12:5) where it is thought to be a krater.70:20). 5. 850-750 BCE. Tell Keisan Stratum 6-7 (Briend et al. there seems to have been close contacts between Kabri E4 and Tyre Stratum 4-12 (Bikai 1978a:9th century BCE to ca. 81:8). Thus. There are several sub-types of cooking-pots with triangular rims. 5.70:12-13) and the cooking-pot rims (especially Fig. the walls are either concave or sloping inward to the rim (see Gal and Alexandre 2000:40-42). 55:1-3.69:2). 28: 6). Sarepta Stratum F (Anderson 1988:PI.COOKING-POTS Two main groups of cooking-pot types were distinguished: pots with triangular rims and pots with a ridged or 'modeled' rim.23:13-15. 46:1-2. 33:10). CYPRIOTE IMPORTS White-Painted IV jug (Fig. This cooking-pot type had a long life-span. 63. The distribution of each echoes that of the group as a whole (Hunt 1987: 183). 5. 27:9. This type has many variants. 5. Stratum E4 also has parallels with pottery from Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990). 750 BCE). No parallels were found for a cooking-pot with a triangular rim (Fig. 17:2. One example (Fig. Especially important for dating are the bowls with painted bands (Fig.
FIGURE 5.69: POTTERY OF STRATUM E4
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Type Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Krater Reg. No. 3251112 325112 3228/2 3251/7 3257/1 5392/9 3257/8 3256/2 325114 3242/1 3253/6 3253/3 3242/2 Locus 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 1973 .0866 0866 0866. 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 1958 0866 0866 Description Exterior 5YR6/6, interior 5YR7/3, core 5YR7/3, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/4, temper: m M, black paint. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core grey, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/2, temper: m M. Exterior 7.5YR8/6, interior 7.5YR8/6, core 7.5YR7/8, temper: fM, red slip lOR5/8. Exterior 7.5YR7/4, interior 7.5YR7/4, core 7.5YR7/4, temper: fM. Exterior 5YR6/8, interior 5YR6/8, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Bichrome? Exterior 2.5YR6/4, interior 2.5YR6/4, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior 10YR8/3, interior 10YR8/3, core greyish, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/6, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M, red paint. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/6, temper: m M, black paint. Exterior 5YR 7/6, interior 5YR 7/6, core 5YR 7/6, temper: fm M, red paint 10R5/6. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: m M, RSB 10R5/6.
3251/3 5237/1 3257/4 3251/1
4 5 3
19 20 21 ~(---
Fig. 5.70: Pottery of Stratum E4 and from debris below it.
FIGURE 5.70: POTTERY OF STRATUM E4 AND FROM UNDERLYING DEBRIS
No. I 2 32 43 5 6 7 8 93 10 Il' 12 13 14 15 16' 17 18 19' 20 21 I 2 3 Type Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Jug Jug Juglet Juglet Jar Transport jar Transport jar Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. No. 3253/2 3232/1 3290/1 3338/8 3380/6 Locus Description 0866 0866 0873 0889 0888 0866 0855 0866 0803 0866 0871 0866 0866 0866 0866 0871 0866 0866 0871 0866 0866 Exterior 10R6/4, interior IOR6/4, core 2. 5YR6/4, temper: fm M Exterior IOR5/6, interior 10R5/6, core 10R5/6, temper: m M white grits. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fine mineral. Exterior, interior and core 7.5YR7/6, temper: fin M, decoration: red slip lOR5/6. Exterior 5YR7/8, interior and core 5YR7/4, temper: fM, decoration: bichrome red and black. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M, decoration: brown paint. Cypriote White-Painted III. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior IOR5/4, core grey, temper: fine mineral. Exterior 2.5YR6/4, interior 2.5YR6/4, core 2.5YR6/4, temper: m M white grits. Remarks: cf. Tyre Stratum V, Bikai 1978: PI. 18a: 10 (jug type 8). Exterior 2.5YR6/6, interior 2.5YR6/6, core grey black, temper: m M. Exterior 7.5YR7/6, interior 7.5YR7/6, core 7.5YR7/2, temper: mg M. Exterior 7.5YR6/4, interior 7.5YR6/4, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior IOR4/4, interior IOR4/4, core 10R4/4, temper: mg M white grits. Exterior 2.5YR4/4, interior 2.5YR4/4, core 2.5YR4/4, temper: mg M: Exterior black, interior black, core black, temper: mg M. Exterior 10R5/3, interior IOR5/3, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR4/1, interior 5YR6/3, core grey black, temper: black & white grits & mica Exterior 5YR5/4, interior 5YR5/4, core 5YR5/4, temper: mg M. Exterior 2.5YR5/4, interior 2.5YR5/4, core 2.5YR5/4, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Exterior 2.5YR5/4, interior 2.5YR5/4, core 2.5YR5/4, temper: mg M.
321111 3257/5 3027/1 3228/4 3262/3 325118 3248/2 3239/3 3228/1 3262/4 3226/3 3246/1 3262/2 325115
Debris under Stratum E4 Stratum E3 Stratum E2
STRATUME3 BOWLS Only one example of a simple bowl with a flaring wall (Fig. 5.71:1) was found at Kabri. This type is very common in Tyre, where it was found in Strata 1-10, being most frequent in Strata 4-6 (Bikai 1978a: 23-24, type plate 8; PIs. 10:4,7; 16a:22-25; 18a:l; 19:9-12; 23:3). A flat plate or bowl (Fig. 5.71 :2; 5.76:4) has a sloping profile and a simple rim. It occurs in Stratum E3a and continues in Strata E2a-E2b. This vessel is very common in late-8th and 7th century BCE contexts on the Phoenician coast at Tyre in Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 1:13), Stratum 8 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 19:10 [similar]), Stratum 9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 19:16 [similar]) and in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. 20:519 [similar]). In Israel it is found at Dan Stratum II (Biran 1994:Fig. 167:1) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 73: 174 [similar]). A sub-type of the bowls with flaring rims (Fig. 5.71:3) which continues in Stratum E2 (Fig. 5.76:12) has a flat or convex base, reserve-slip and incised decoration on the outside of the base. Parallels come from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 3, Nos. 457, 462-469, 493, 510, 514), Sarepta CI-Dl (Anderson 1988:type F-IA), Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 63:76, 79, 81) and Tyre Strata 2-5 (Bikai 1978a:type Fine Ware Plate 2). Two bowl rims (Fig. 5.71 :4) seem to be a local imitation of the Black-on-Red Ic type at Horvat Rosh Zayit Stratum IIa (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 3.88:16, cf Fig. 3.77:14 Stratum IIb). A carinated bowl (Fig. 5.71 :5) has no exact parallel.
Stratum 5 (Bikai 1978a:PI. The fragment from Kabri was found in Stratum El. Although out of its original stratigraphic context. The flat plate (Fig.71:6) has almost vertical walls which turn with a carination into the base. A parallel was found at Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI.71: 19) resembles an Assyrianizing krater which becomes more common in Stratum E2 (cf. A similar krater came from Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. Bikai 1987:PI.11 :3). 16a:18-37). Bowl Fig. typologically they belong to the assemblage of Stratum E3.71: 15 are somewhat similar. 5.A deep red slipped bowl (Fig. 391. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. With a slim conical neck that begins in the 8th century BCE (Bikai 1978a:36. typologically this type should belong to Stratum E3 based on parallels from Al Mina Stratum 6-7 (Taylor 1959:Fig. 53 :8). 10:23-25. 5. 16 type 86d/l). This type is very frequent at Tyre occurring in Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 5. 40:9) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 2. At Tyre this type of plate was found in Strata 2-5 (Bikai 1978a:29 fine ware plate 7). Fig. 30 :8).72:1-4. They occur between 850-750 BCE in the Cypriote 'Salamis-Horizon' (Bikai 1987:PI. 31-34:Nos. 370. A krater with grooves on the rim (Fig. 74:182). Lehmann 1996:376 form 85). Fig. 30: 1) and Stratum 5 (Briend et al.71: 13 is very similar but has a red slip. 3. 3. 19:9-16). but larger. Bikai 1978a:PI. Qasmiya. Chapman 1972:Fig.121:23) although it is larger and has a different rim. The parallels date it to ca. With an elongated. Similar vessels come from Al Mina Stratum 6-7 (Taylor 1959:Fig. 379. 15-16. 33) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI.71:1. JUGLETS AND JUGS A number of Phoenician red slipped jugs with conical necks (Fig. 18a:3) and Strata 8-9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 5. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et aZ. 3. 393-406. 375). 17:85c/2). 32: 316). 14 no. but typologically seems to belong to Stratum E3. out of its original context. but no parallels could be found. 41 :3) and Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig.71:17) has a parallel from Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a: PI.71:9 is very similar to one from Al Mina Stratum 5 (Lehmann 1996:PI.81 :7-9). Rosh Zayit Stratum lIb (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. With a narrow conical neck (cf. 1980:PI.7) were found. Ras al-Bassit phase 7 ensemble F (Braemer 1986:No. 750-680 BCE (Bikai 1978a:29. 5. lla:18). The flat bowl or plate Fig. The deep carinated bowl or krater (Fig. It is characterized by an incised ridge on the outer edge of the rim and is usually red-slipped. 5. 6:16) and Stratum 8 (Lehmann 1996:PI. 72: 167).72:36). 5. A simple bowl (Fig. 1987:4950. 1980:PI. While several were found out of their original stratigraphic context.71: 14) is one of the most typical Phoenician fine ware plates of the 8th and early 7th century BCE. cf. Pis.71: 11-12) characterized by a rim that is drawn outward were found in strata E3 and E2. 1980:PI.71: 16) with red and black bands on the shoulder has parallels at Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. There are three sub-types of these jugs of which 13 fragments were found at Kabri. Several bowls (Fig. 5. Comparisons date this type to the end of the 8th and the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:383 form 122). The rim and profile of Fig. 5.71:7) is similar to Fig. 5. 15: 19-20). 5. This sub-type seems to be the older one (Bikai 1987:49-50). 5. concave neck (for an example see Tyre Stratum 9. 187 . 20:1). 5. 6.78:16) and Tyre Stratum 3-4 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 6. for further sub-types and references see Lehmann 1996:416-418 types 300-307). 1. 1980:PI. 5. 5. 14:11). lla:19) and Stratum 3 (Bikai 1978a:PI.on-Red bowls. KRATERS A large bowl or small krater (Fig. They are comparable to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al.71:8 may be a local imitation of Black.
There was also a small White-Painted III-IV barrel juglet (Fig. 5. 1994:Fig. The rim of a storage jar(Fig.6:13). 5.72:6) was found on the surface in Area E. 1960:PI.28:16) and two Blackon-Red II(IV) bowls (Fig. Stager et al. There is one example of ajar (Fig. 12) similar to those from Tell Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. 188 . 5.72:11. Whether such decorated vessels were indeed used for transport jars or had a ceremonial character is not clear. 3. sack-shaped transport jar (Fig.72:20) resembles an example from Dor Area A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. 19:2. for example from Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 1.7). types 383. dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE (Niemeier 1990:xxxv-xxxvi.122:3).5YR6/8).73:3-5) and cooking-pots with flat vertical rims in Stratum E3 see the discussion of this type under Stratum E4. The fabric is of medium mineral temper and reddish yellow (5YR7/6) with a grey or light red core (2. 1980:Pl. 45:17). 5. Egypt and the Aegean. 56:1). 1960:Pl.72:21) have many parallels in the 9th and 8th centuries BCE. A detailed typology of these jars was recently developed by Ayelet Gilboa (1995: 10-12).6:6) and Hazor IX (Yadin et al. Cyprus. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. are the type most frequently found in Phoenician contexts of the late 8th and early 7th centuries BCE. 5. 5.122.72: 10) (cf.72:9) (cf. 1960:PI. They include the rim of a Greek amphora. C. Comparison with decanters at Hazor Stratum VA (Yadin et al. They have a wide distribution (Lehmann 1996:433-435. Dor Area A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. GREEK AND CYPRIOTE IMPORTS There are few imports in StratumE3.72:14-17).72:18) decorated with black and red painted bands and a treelike motif. Fig. 5. 5. 386-387) and establish contemporaneity between assemblages from Turkey. A potter's workshop producing these jars was discovered at Tyre (Bikai 1985a) and two shipwrecks crammed with this type were recently found off the coast of Israel (Ballard. 5. Gjerstad 1948:Fig.73:1) was unstratified but has parallels at Tell Kazel Niveau 9-10 (Badre et al. The simple.73:9-11) in Stratum E3 is noteworthy.519. 42:4). 5. 3. Galilean storage jars (Fig. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS 'Crisp-ware' transport jars (Fig. 2002). 90:296) and Tourabi-Tekke cemetery (ca. One very similar was found at Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 5. 87:6) date this fragment to the second half of the 8th century BCE. all found out of context: one single-strap handle (in Stratum E2a) and four double-strand handles ( There are four double-strand handles (three in Stratum E2a. 8th century BCE). A decanter fragment (Fig. The complete transport jar (Fig. one in Stratum El) and one single-strap handle (from Stratum E2a). 8ab). Ras al-Bassit tom be 12 (Courbin 1993:Fig. 19) and probably belongs to Kabri Stratum E3. The presence of simple cooking-pot lids (Fig.72:19) has many parallels in the 8th century BCE. 52:21). 11:1. 52:24). 1. Similar vessels have been found at Hazor Stratum IX (Yadin et al. the Levant. 1980:PI. COOKING-POTS For cooking-pots with triangular rims (Fig. Gjerstad 1948:Fig. 750-680 BCE) (Culican 1982:Tf.Both the single strap and the double-strand handle occur at Kabri (Bikai 1978a:36). Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. also known as 'torpedo jars'. At least some of these vessels were found in funerary contexts but may have been in secondary use. 5. 22:3). The Cypriote imports include the neck ofa Plain White IV amphora (Fig.
Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al.SYR6/6. Fig. Sarepta Stratum CI-C2 (Anderson 1988:8th century BCE) and Tyre Stratum 2-8 (Bikai 1978a:8th century BCE). Most parallels are found in the Akko plain. Thus Stratum E3 can be dated between ca. temper: mg M. Parallels with Stratum E3 were found at Dor Area A phase 9 and Area Cl phase 6 (Gilboa 1995:720-650/630 BCE and 8th century BCE). temper: f111 M. interior SYR7/6. Ras al-Bassit tomb 12 (Courbin 1993 :800-700 BCE). core grey-black. core SYR7/6. S386/6 31S411 3474/1 3378/8 3448/1 IS Bowl 16 Krater 17 Krater 18 Krater 19 Krater 32S1111 189 . The pottery figures for this stratum include some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context (Figs. core black. 16.SUMMARY The bulk of the pottery found in Stratum E3 is of Phoenician or Tyrian character. but particularly at Tyre and Sarepta where exact parallels were found for 30% of the types.73:1). Exterior SYR7/6. Hazor Stratum VA. temper: m M.SYR6/6. interior SYR7/4. interior SYR7/6.73:3-11). core grey. 5. core SYR7/4. Exterior 2. 750-650 BCE. 3290/S 337811 Locus 0873 0896 Description Exterior 10YR8/2 white.SYRS/4. core black. 14-15. red slip 10R4/6 inside wheel burnished. 5. Exterior SYR7/4. Exterior 7. red slip 10RS16b.71:6. S3061100 3474/2 3287/2 1965 1317 0873 0812 l3l3 0876 0861 0873 0896 0873 l3l3 1973 0841 l317 0896 l316 0866 30S3/1 342611 331611 32l3/2 3290/7 3378/3+8 3290/4 3433/2 11 12 13 14 Exterior SYR7/4. core SYR7/6.SYRS/4. burnished surface. interior 2. Exterior 2. temper: fM.10 Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Reg_. 12. interior SYR7/3.72:14-15. 5. temper: m M. temper: fM. TJ!f!_e 1 Bowl 2 Bowl 3 Bowl 4 Bowl S 6 7 8 9 . 5. temper: fM. in particular the PlainWhite IV rim (Fig. core grey-black. 5.4. interior 2.SYR6/6. Exterior SYR7/4. temper: mg M. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990). core grey. this assemblage provides significant evidence for very close contacts with Tyre. red slip 2. red paint 10RS/8. Fig.SYR7/4. interior 7. the transport jars made of Bikai's 'crisp-ware' (Fig. black & red paint (10RS/6). interior SYR7/6. temper: fM.SYR6/4. temper: mg M.SYR7/4. interior SYR7/4. interior 2. temper: mg M. ca.72:1-2. interior SYR7/4. interior 2.71: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No. Exterior SYR7/6. Most important for dating Stratum E3 are the cooking-pots (Fig. 750-680 BCE. Exterior 2. Exterior SYR7/3.SYR7/4. No. As in the preceding stratum. core5YR7/4. core grey. These are dated according to stratified parallels from other sites contemporary with Stratum E3 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence at Tel Kabri. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's 'Kition Horizon'.SYR6/4. FIGURE 5. 1980). core 2. temper: fine mineral. 5.SYR6/6.6-9. Exterior SYR713. 17) and the Cypriote imports. ' Exterior SYR7/4.72:10-11). black paint. core 7.SYRS/4. interior 2.SYR6/6. temper: mg M.
190 .)-------/ f \ \ \ \ \ \ '- \\ 18 19 r= f 1 10cm.---.~17 2 3 \)-------1 \ \ 4 5 6 7 ~_17 i I " . 5. 7 l 9 10 ~ 12 _7 13 14 15 17 \ I 16 "/------r---~=========~ . t \ Fig.71: Pottery of Stratum E3..
14 H 18 r 17 18 20 19 -EJ 10cm. I I ~... \- ... I I ... .... _ '...-... -9 15 I....... 5. " /-l-~' \ \ \ I I ~ :I II I I 2 3 4 5 m / I . . ...72: Pottery of Stratum E3..... ~" /~~ «I '\1- 8 9 m 7 @)(ff}D 10 12 13 ~:z • 11 I I \ ' \..21 ) f I \ 191 Fig._' _. '........ ..
red paint IOR5/6. interior 5YR7/6.5YR7/4. black & white grits.5YR3/4 . interior 2. Exterior 2. interior 2. interior 7. interior 5YR7/6. Gjerstad 1948: Fig. core grey. Exterior 2.5YR5/4. black and red painted geometric design. temper: fm M. Exterior black. interior IOR5/4. Exterior 7.5YR6/4.5YR6/6. temper: mg M. red slip IOR4/8. Exterior 2. interior 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR4/3. II 21 3 41 5 6 81 91 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 TJP. core 5YR7/4. interior 5YR4/3. core 5YR6/4 black. temper: fm M. Bikai 1978: PI. Exterior 7. black & white grits. 3647/100 339112 331811 3474/4 322112 542311 328811 3230/3 3474/14 3457/9 3296/1 Locus 0890 1302 0881 1317 0861 1970 0873 0864 1317 1317 0873 Descril?_tion Exterior 5YR7/4. interior black. Exterior 5YR7/4.5YR5/4. Exterior 5YR7/6.5YR7/4.5YR5/6. 3309/4 3588/5 3283/5 3157/3 5455/5 3357/5+7 3055/1 3045/2 3215/1 3284/6 5416/10 3208/2 5432/1 5455/2 5215/1 3366/9 3307/1+2 3284/1 5455/1 319612 Locus 0879 1325 0873 0840 1970 0889 0812 0807 0864 0873 1941 0861 1970 1970 1941 0896 0876 0873 1970 0855 Descril?_tion Exterior 5YR7/6. Exterior 2. black & white grits and mica. interior 5YR6/4. core grey. core black. temper: mg M. core 5YR7/6. red slip IOR4/8. interior 2. temper: fM. core grey.5YR5/6. core 5YR7/6. interior 7. temper: m M. red slip 2. core 7. interior 5YR7/6. FIGURE 5. temper: fm M.5YR7/4. 192 . temper: fM. temper: mg M. core grey. Exterior 5YR7/6. temper: mg M.5YR5/4. 19: 2. core grey. core 7.5YR5/4.5YR8/4. cf.5YR5/4. interior 7. core 5YR7/6.5YR7/4.5YR6/6. Exterior 7. Tyre Stratum 4. red slip 2. red slip IOR4/8.5YR7/6. temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR4/3. interior 5YR6/4.No. temper: mg M black & white grits and mica. Plain White IV. core 2. interior 2. core grey. interior 5YR7/4. red slip IOR4/8. red slip IOR5/6. temper: fm M.5YR7/4. white grits. Exterior 5YR7/6. 28: 16 (White Painted III-IV).2. core black.5YR7/4. Exterior 7.5YR8/4. grooves inside. interior 7.e Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jar Cypriote Cypriote Cypriote Cypriote Jug Transport Transport Transport Transport Transp~rt Reg No.FIGURE 5.5YR8/4 . temper: m M. temper: fM.5YR4/6. core 5YR7/6.5YR7/4. white grits. similar to Gjerstad 1948: Fig.5YR5/4. temper: mg M. Exterior 2.5YR7/4.5YR4/4. large white grits. temper: fm M. temper: g M. core 5YR7/6. temper: mg M. temper: mg M. interior 2.5YR8/4. Exterior 5YR7/6.73: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No. Exterior 5YR7/4. temper: mg M. interior IOYR7/4. 14: 5. 45: 17.5YR6/4. interior 5YR7/6. interior 7. temper: fm M. white grits. white grits. core black. i import import import import j ar jar jar jar jar 19 Transport j ar 20 Storage jar 211 Storage jar Stratum EI Exterior 7. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Type Transport j ar Transport j ar Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot lid Cooking-pot lid Cooking-pot lid Reg_. core black. Exterior 7. core 7. cf. core IOR6/4.72: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No.5YR4/4.
. 10cm .... " I ~ r -4 5 ! \ I I =\ \ ! \ 7 ~ -: I 9 "/' o . I 8 I I f 6 .73: Pottery of Stratum E3... /' I n ~ Fig..o . 5.___. 193 . 2 3 ( F I 4 e . 10cm.
Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al.69:4) displays somewhat thicker walls and the red slip is thin and washy being band-burnished or unburnished. 63: 75.76:16-17) are typical of the late 8th and 7th century BCE (cf. Parallels come from I 3 4 For a detailed type study see Briend et al. 471-473. Tyre Stratum 5.76:21.511.24. for example at Arqa 10AB (Thalmann 1978:Fig. 5. p. 5. Often they have a carination half way up the body. called 'Salt and Pepper group' at Tell Abu Hawam.76:8) was first identified at Ras al-Bassit and is apparently a typical 7th century BCE form (Braemer 1986:Nos.82-85) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:type Fine Ware Plate 1).513). The fabric of this sherd consists mainly of marl and may perhaps originate in northern Israel (Chapter 15:Table 15.76: 10-11). 1980: PI. where it was assumed that drilled vessels were part of architectural construction (Lehmann 1996:363 form 17. 31. 20:531-533. 5. A number of red-slipped flat bowls and plates all have an accentuated everted rim (Figs.76:20-25. 5. Flat plates or bowls with a sloping profile and a simple rim (Fig.4 Their shape is very similar to Figs.3 Parallels come from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI.76:7) has a particular fabric. Carinated bowls with a simple rim (Fig. Keisan Stratum 10-11 (Briend et al.STRATUME2 BOWLS There is a remarkable variety of bowl types in Stratum E2. 5. have previously been included in the so-called 'Samaria Ware' but should be referred to rather as 'Phoenician Fine Wares' (Bikai 1992:97) or 'Levantine Fine Wares'. For their occurrence see Lehmann 1996:371-372 form 75b.76:9) first seen in Stratum E4 (Fig. 38). A sub-type of the group of bowls with flaring rims (Fig.76:5-6). It has 'been reported from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 5 nos. SeeBriendetal. 5. 29:1-8). Bikai 1978a: PI. 19:534-536. A great many vessels of this class were found in Kabri .7% of all diagnostics. Bowls with a long overhanging rim (Fig.76:14 compare a Black-on-Red I(III) bowl at Cyprus (Gjerstad 1948:Fig.3:24-25). 5.80. Deep bowls with bichrome red and black painted decoration inside (Fig. but without slip) and Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a: PI. differentiated by their rim forms. For bowl Fig. Sarepta C1 (Anderson 1988:type X-9A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 1. 26:16-17) and bowls at Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 1. 1980:Pl. 5. Maigret 1979). 81: 15).1980:168-170. as are bowls with a carinated or stepped profile inside and outside (Fig. Tel Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 5. The bowl type with an uneven outer surface (Fig. At Kabri several examples of both types have had a hole drilled in their centre after firing and were apparently in secondary use. several have either one hole drilled into the centre of the base or several holes all over the bottom. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl. 38:1-12). The bowl with an S-shaped profile (Fig. 5. but the fabric is very different.1:1). Sarepta C1-D1 (Anderson 1988:type F-1A). It might be dated as early as Late Bronze or Iron Age I and could be intrusive in Stratum E2a (cf. 15: 13).76:12) is similar to Fig. 1980:166-168.77:1-6). which constitute 3. Like the bowls with a long overhanging rim. 5.76: 18-19) are of the type found at Sarepta Stratum C1-C2 (Anderson 1988: type F-7C). 5. often red-slipped outside and/or inside. 194 . 1980 :PI. 46:2) and Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. 20-22). 538). 1980:PI. The outer surface can often be cut with a knife. 5. 5. The fabric is orange. 5. 77. 494-496. 41: 12 similar. fine and soft. 40:12).98 examples. A similar phenomenon is known from central Syria in the late 8th century BCE. 470.76:4) are very common. occur frequently on the Phoenician coast. The former have a fine soft orange fabric whereas the clay of the latter is red brittle and coarse.71:3 discussed in Stratum E3. Another sub-type (Fig. Some of these sub-types.
or partially red-slipped 145b). and indeed our example or 'drooping'.76:15. 5. 1. 72:164-166). sometimes has a black band on the rim (Bikai 1978a:28 fine ware plate 4. 5. are common BCE Phoenician from Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend Gonzalez below. 1980:167 type c.:Fig. 5. 38: 9-12) and Tyre Stratum 1-3 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 3. 195 . 27:4).77:9 has a parallel from Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al.form 5 (Briend et al. 1980:PI. 1980:166rim and a 10:12-13).77:16) has a carination directly under the rim and was found at Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et Large. 435). The red slipped plate (Fig. 8a:43.77:7-8) seventy nine such bowls found at Kabri made up 3. Plate 4 is a variant characterized 92/888/3356-2 by a step below the is broken here (no would breaks at this point. 28: 12. 25. 42:3.9:9-10.77:14 is a small bowl with an incurving rim. 12: 11). 1-4 at Tyre. 45:4-4a). tomb 367/51-1 pottery during the 1968Ashmolean British Museum late 8th and the 7th century Museum. 33: 1- They occur at Kabri with different rim forms.40:1-7) 1:12. 5. Sarepta Cl (Anderson 1988:PI. They are one of the most typical features of Phoenician BCE. 1980:PI. 5. 5. 22. 5. 5. 1996:Tf. Tel Qiri Stratum VI (Ben-Tor Sarepta (Pritchard 1988:misc. Comparisons which BCE. 8a:51.78:9) is discussed 1990:PI. 1995:Fig. Al Mina Stratum (Bikai 1987:No. 30:180/2). Oxford 1954. 2 and 3 (Bikai 1978a:Pls. Parallels from Tell Keisan Stratum 4(Anderson 1988:type F-2A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai are discussed below as a special type. 45. Bikai divides plates like Fig. 9:5-6. 69:141-142) and Tyre Stratum 10-2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. convex base. 10:24-25).77:15) with an incurving rim has a number of parallels in Phoenician sites of the late 8th and 7th centuries BCE such as Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et at. studied in detail by A. The plate usually illustration). 30:11et al. 5. type with a horizontal long rim (Fig. A small plate with a small accentuated band of red slip inside (Fig. The Fig. 1978a:22-23). creating a bar-handle-like Similar plates were found at Tyre in Strata 3 and 4 (Bikai 1978a:Pls. Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1988:PI. century 2.'Plate 3' and 'Plate 4' (Bikai or slightly flat there are exceptions. 15:9 respectively). GOBLETS AND PEDESTAL BOWLS Presentation (Lehmann stands (Fig. 1980:PI. effect (see Culican 1981). Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI.Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. 1978:Fig. Sarepta CI-Dl Assyrian-style DEEP BOWLS bowls (Figs. 30:8). 1980:PI. Sarepta (Anderson 12. Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al.1 % of all diagnostics. PI. 39:30). Lehmann 1996:386. 28:5. Fig.78:1) were first recognized by Bikai (1985b) and many have been recorded since 1996:394 type 180).78: 10) has a paralJel at TelJ Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera The Assyrian-style deep bowl (Fig. type plate 4). 52:10). 32:3. This type is completely . PI. 5-6). 544) Tyre Stratum plate 3 and 4. 8-9) and Yoqne'am Stratum 10 (Ben-Tor et al. 1980:PI. Al Mina Stratum 5 (Lehmann 8 (unpublished.77:13 into two types . 1980:PI. 5. Chambon 168). The deep bowl with a carinated 5. The large plain bowl (Fig. A similar bowl (Fig.9:6). et al.78:5-8) at. 1987:9:10).77:11). 41 :3a). 38:22) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. PI. include The comparisons burnished and very well finished and has a stepped at. and Tyre Strata 1. 1978a:type fine ware 4) date the type between the second half of the 8th and the 7th century BCE.12).77:10) has a cut rim. vessels nos. 5. The bowl (Briend et al. 9:14). 1980:PI. 5. was also found at Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. The rim is either horizontal from Tyre define Both examples found at Kabri are 'drooping'. 5. p. deep bowls with handles assemblage and a carinated shoulder (Fig. 1980:PI. Dor C2 phase 7 (ibid. come from and the time range of this type to Strata and the first part of 7th century 1-3 (Bikai 1978a:type the end of the 8th century Cyprus (Bikai 1987: no.7:8). 1.348/3). 52: 8) Tell in the 7th profile (Fig.77:12) was also found at Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et The first type is always While the rim is usually rim. 30:2-4. 41:7). Examples Amathus come from Al Mina (unpublished.
87:l3. 279) but most were found in Levantine sites such as Sidon Tomb 1 (Culican 1975:Fig. 5.79:12-l3) and a polished or cut surface come from Strata E2-3. 5. The vessels have a wide oval body and tall neck (cf. 33:3. 25-28. are discussed below. Mortaria appear during the 7th century BCE for the first time and continue into the Hellenistic period (cf. 5. 5. 2.79:6-7). 50). 6-7) occur very frequently in 8th and 7th century BCE Phoenician pottery assemblages.90:3-4). 46:2).78:2-3) decorated in reserved red slip with painted black bands are unusual. 221: 1) and Shiqmona Stratum 9 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. B ikai 1978a:PI. found under the floors of Stratum E2. 5. 27:169) while the rim fragments are often indistinguishable. 37:2-3) and Vroulia Tomb 6 on Rhodes (Kinch 1914:PI. 750-680 BCE (Lehmann 1996: type 241 and cf. 19). 43:8). surface treatment and decoration and are comparable to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 6) similar in form. la). but see Fig.79:8-10) can be dated by parallels to between ca. Reddish coarse fabric (lOR5/6) (not illustrated. 5. 5. Tyre Stratum 2-3 (Bikai 1978a:33-35. 92:jug 5) and Hazor VA (Yadin et al. 36: 1-. The handle rises above the rim and the body of the vessel is slim and long. The decanter (Fig. Salles 1985a.5YR6/6) with a rough surface (Fig. JUGLETS AND JUGS A complete small juglet with black-brown bands (Fig. but there are also four examples of Persian period mortaria with a high pedestal ring-base (Fig. The paint has a matt appearance. 5. Similar juglets were found in Cyprus and labelled as White Painted V (Gjerstad 1948:Fig. Tyre Stratum 3. This juglet may be an Assyrian-style vessel. PIs. 5. Lehmann 1996:Tf. Sapin 1998). 3. 298.78:11-14) with a simple flat base were found at Kabri. 5:19-23. 5. Other larger jugs (Fig.1:2) shows that the fabric of this vessel is typical of Cypriote coastal sites like Amathus or Enkomi.11. Petrographic analysis of Fig. fabric and decoration were also found at Sarepta Dl 196 . type 239).79:14) differs in form. For comparisons see Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al.Stands or incense burners (Fig. 5.80: 1. 38:6.79:1) was found under the floor of Stratum E2. Similar vessels from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Nos. 2) decorated with painted bichrome bands in red and black. Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:Fig. Juglets with a red slip and a wide overhanging mushroom lip (Fig. 4: 16). Large jugs and bottles (Fig. 316).70:1-2 in Stratum -E4)."5. These bottles form a distinct group of pottery in terms of fabric. 1980:Pl.79:5).9). Sarepta B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type B-3A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:typejuglet 1). Some examples were found in Iraq at Assur Tomb 547 (Haller1954) and Nimrud NTS15 (Mallowan 1966:Fig. Fine yellowish smooth (5YR7/6) fabric (Fig. Large jugs made of smooth yellowish fabric with dark painted lines (Fig. Only the base distinguishes the early moratoria from those of the NeoBabylonian and Persian periods (cf Lehmann 1996:Tf.6:4-5. 285. 5. Juglets with a small bulge at the base (Fig. 1980:PI. At Kabri three sub-types were distinguished on the basis of fabric: 1. 5.79:5. More frequent are goblets (Fig. Brown fabric (2.78:4) which occur in the 7th century BCE all over the Levant (Lehmann 1996:383-384 type 125). 5. MORTARIA A large number of mortaria (Fig. The decoration and fabric are reminiscent of Assyrianizing pottery but the form is uncommon among Mesopotamian shapes as is the fine grit size of the temper. 1960: PI.80:5. 312.78:14 (Chapter 15: Table 15. Most examples found at Kabri belong to the early Iron Age type. fabric and surface finish from contemporary decanter types in inland sites but is quite common along the northern Levantine coast.79:3-4). The Assyrian-style juglets and jugs (Fig. 5. 25:type 159-163 and Tf.
5. There is some similarity to Assyrian storage jars from Nimrud. 33:4). Similar vessels were found at Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. Tell Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et al. The surface is decorated with bichrome red and black bands. 5. 5. 2) often have wide rectangular horizontal rims.11) with their maximum width in the lower part of the vessel have no parallels. 91 :301). 6:10). Sarepta B-C1. The fabric and the streak burnish are identical with fabric and surface finishing of decanter Fig. At Sarepta they occur in Strata B-C1 (Anderson 1988:505).80:10. Fig. 1980:Pl.80:8. 1980:Pl. 5. 5 For further references from Syria and Lebanon see Lehmann 1996:447. 4:10. 1980:Pl. There are four sub-types: 1) Reddish-yellow fabric (Fig. sometimes also extending over the inner parts of the vessel. 5. 5. 5. KRATERS Kraters with vertical shoulders and a wide lower body (Fig. 1. Briend et al. 32:8-9.82:1-4) are low in profile with a sharply formed rim and a somewhat flattened base (Anderson 1988:669. 5. Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. Keisan Stratum 5. 1980:Pl.82:3) (cf.9) are discussed below. 5.78:9. Fig. the rim is not preserved. 5. LAMPS The late Iron Age lamps (Fig. 287) and Tyre Stratum 3 (Bikai 1978a:P1s. Unfortunately. 3) Brown fabric (Fig. pink fabric (Fig. 5. 1980:Pl.82:4). Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl.81 :10 has a thick rim and is wheel burnished in the interior. The Assyrian-style lamp (Fig. 5. 49:8). 6). 5. Often the handle starts immediately at the rim. Some 7th century BCE examples come from Achziv Tomb 3 (Culican 1975-76:Fig. 28:9).82:5) existed over a long span of time and may have been used in cultic contexts. 5. Tel Qiri loci 682. Briend et al. 1993:Fig. Large sack-shaped storage jars (Fig. Anderson 1988:type L-9). Stratum 5 (ibid.5:1~3) and Sarepta B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type SJ-18A). Bk). 43: 12).5 Thus. A holemouth krater with round shoulders and a wide curved profile (Fig. 5. 7:5. Tell Keisan Stratum 5. 880. 4) Cooking-pot fabric which is red with black white grits and a rough surface (Fig. Lamps of the so-called 'cup-and-saucer type' (Fig.81:3 is similar to these. 5. :Pl. Fort Shalmaneser Room T20 (Curtis et at. this type begins during the 8th century and continues into the Persian period. Assyrian-style jug1ets and jugs (Fig. 2) Smooth.80:3-4) are discussed below. No parallels were found for Fig. 43: 1) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl. Type 429.81: 1. 5. Such lamps appear at Tyre only after Stratum III (Bikai 1978a:Pl. 5. 5. Some vessels are decorated with a red slip on the rim.81 :4) has a flat oval-shaped rim. 197 . Type L-9). 1018 (Hunt 1987:Fig. The large krater or deep bowl on Fig. Tell Keisan Stratum 4.81:5 is similar. but has horizontal handles. Jars with a stepped shoulder and vertical body walls (Fig. 27:1-3). STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS The tall storage vessel (Fig.81 :7.81 :6) has a different type of rim. and another version (Fig.82:6) with a fire-arm is discussed below.82:2) (cf. 5. Assyrian-style kraters (Figs.80:9) has a cylindrical body and a round base.80:7) are more typical of inland assemblages and occur at Kabri only in very limited numbers.79:14. Briend et al.82: 1) which is sometimes almost white (cf. 44:13-15) and Mtarfa tomb (Malta) (Culican 1982:Abb. 5.(Anderson 1988:Pl. 88:285. Dan Stratum II (Biran 1994:Fig. This is the most common type of krater in Stratum E2 at Kabri where fragments of 16 such vessels were found. but has small horizontal loop-handles. 44:5-8). 13d). 212).
light orange or reddish fabric has a fine mineral temper. 4. 'from the sea' (Zemer 1977:No.82:15). Less sharply carinated shoulders than Group 2 (Fig. Similar jars have been reported from Arqa Stratum 9 D (Thalmann 1990:54 n. 5. pink with black and white grits. This is probably the most typical Phoenician transport jar of the late 7th century BCE. 27:9) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:Pl. 1980:PI. The handle joints on the shoulder are 21 em apart from each other.84:2). light reddish to pink. Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. 5. On two jars of this type a Phoenician aleph was incised on the shoulder when the clay was still soft (Figs. There is a regular.82:8-10).82:11. Type C . Similar vessels were found at Ashdod-Yam (Raban 1980:Fig. 12). 5. 5.8-9). Slightly sloping shoulders. were recorded from Stratum E2. The fabric is fine to medium with mineral temper and falls into four distinct colour groups: light grey or greenish with black arid brown grits. Sharply carinated shoulders and an S-shaped profile (Fig. Basket-handle amphoras (Fig. This type occurs from Carthage to Nimrud (Lehmann 1996:434 type 384). Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. many of them completely restorable. These dimensions occur on both fabric groups 1 and 2. The fabric is orange pink.1:3) came to the same conclusion that this type of vessel was produced in II~_-• 198 . 650 BCE. 57:23 [Plain White V]). 225:593. 5. Dafanna(Petrie 1888:PI. the matrix being fine with a fine to medium mineral temper. 1:14). All in all 160 handles were counted which would point to at least 80 baskethandle amphoras in the limited excavation of Area E. 5. Some of Humbert's types (1991) as defined at Tell Keisan were also found at Kabri: Type B-1 example. 11). The general shape resembles a bullet.6 examples (Fig.While there were only some 10 types of transport jars found in Stratum E3. 806-807) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:PI.82:13-14). Humbert (1991) dates the first appearance of this type to ca. It has parallels at Achziv Stratum IV (Zemer 1977:18. 3. 9).24 examples (Fig.74. Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. 700 BCE but Salles (1985b) claims that this early type of basket-handle amphora reached the Akko plain only ca. Salamis (Karageorghis 1967:97. Similar to group 1 but with much thicker walls (up to 2cm) (Fig.88a) the majority were confined to 5 main types. The yellowish. Cyprus (Gjerstad 1948:Fig.84:1). 27:6. 1. A significant number of handles of fabric groups 1 and 2 have the same dimensions. Fifty seven vessels. in the storage rooms (Fig. The outside is red sometimes with a white self-slip. vertical body walls below a shoulder carination and a pointed base (Fig. The fabric is medium to coarse with mineral temper. Salamis (Karageorghis 1974:Pl. 1980:Pls. a small and a large subtype. 33). 5. These jars from Stratum E2 represent the earliest type which is confined to the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:443-445 type 421). 5. 33:6). Type D . 5. 23-24).86:1). Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. 1:16). 1980:Pls. 53) and Ras Shamra-Ugarit (Stucky 1983:Keramik Nr. However. 8:131). 21 types were recorded in Stratum E2. 25:2-3. 5. 12-14). The fabric is of fine to medium mineral temper. Both Neutron Activation Analysis by Gunneweg and Perlman (1991) as well as petrographic analyses by Yuval Goren (Chapter 15:Table 15. Kamiros (Jacopi 1931:Tav. light reddish. 47:1-2). 300). The vessel is pink with a grey core. 26:2-7. 2. At Kabri they constitute 40% of all transport jars in Stratum E2. Shiqmona Stratum 8 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. Fig. 5.84:1-2). 5. 26:1. 101).74: Phoenician aleph incised on jar shoulder. 1980:PI. No. greenish grey. the handle is 17 ern high and its diameter is 5 ern.
in the Mediterranean Crisp. 5. Thus. marked exchange BCE assemblage like that of Stratum wide trade contacts of the so-called and Tyre. 2 in E3a. 5. At least some of these signs are in Cypriote Iron Age writing. 5. 46:4). by the appearance between the periphery (35%) of cooking-pots in Stratum E2 (Figs. 28 :6). There were 3 examples in Stratum E3b. A few contemporary E2a is types came from the southern The diversity remarkable.5. 5.83:9).g. jars in a late 7th century BCE. of transport This variety part of the country (e. Several apparently examples in secondary of other types use as storage which vessels may have come as imports were also retrieved to the Kabri area and were (Fig. Comparable vessels. 2 in E2b and 12 in E2a. With a flat rim and an edge slightly below the lip (Fig. 1980 :PI. one edge on the rim immediately It has parallels CP-IA).84:7-9. lIIIIIIII111111fM1*H1111IlmlfM1*H111.85:1). and sub-types: has been was found in Stratum E4. were found at Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:Fig. in E2 and 2 were unstratified.70:20). Fig. and Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 1988:Type 6. I 2:5 [early 9th century BCE to 732 BCE]) With a flat round rim without an edge (Fig.Cyprus or the north Syrian coast. Thus. 31 examples were found out of their original context in Stratum E 1.84:7). Sarepta CI-Dl 2. all with a rough and uneven bas. The chert composition suggests that Cyprus should be favoured as a place of origin and this is confirmed by the signs either incised on them after firing or in red paint (Figs. 5.75. 3 in E3a. 5. Another 25 examples were found out of their original context in Stratum El. 5. 5. (Anderson 4 (Briend et at.84:8-9). the type dates to Strata E3 and E2 which 1988:Type CP-IA) is comparable to Sarepta type 4).88b).l\11\\I~l\Il\lll\fM1*H1I\\I\\\\\f 9 10 14 15 16 17 1~ Fig. 5. 199 Stratum CI-Dl (Anderson and Tyre Stratum 9-13 (Bikai 1978a: cooking-pot .84:2). There are several variations One example 2000:Fig. 1980:PI.75: Basket handle with incised Cypriote signs.e.Ware found in seems to be due to the increasingly economic after the end of the 9th century Stratum E3. 220:3) and Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et at. the type dates to Strata E3 and E2. 2 in E2b and 24 in E2a. and illustrates COOKING-POTS The majority 1. of this sub-type Stratum at Tell Keisan under Stratum E4 (Fig. In addition. under the lip (Fig. 3. 5. There was 1 example in Stratum E3b.85:1) belong to a Phoenician One example type which already appears With a small discussed in Stratum E4.
5. 5. A few examples each of a variety of cooking-pot types together make up 13. 5. Lehmann 1996:Tf. The repertoire consists of bowls (Figs. Cooking-pot lids (Fig.78:8 3 Bottle* Jug 5. Sometimes there is a black band on the rim of the bowls.VI). Beginning at the end of the 9th century BCE.84:5-6) are the commonest type throughout Israel during the Iron Age IIC (Fig.84:3-4) make up 9% of the cooking-pots. bottles of type Lehmann 1996:Tf.80:3. 5.80:3 5 7 Juglet 5. Although the wash-like appearance of the 7th century BCE red slip is clearly distinguishable from the heavy and thick earlier red slip techniques. Hunt 1987:203. DECORATION Red slip decoration was still popular at the end of the 7th century BCE (Figs. 5. 58:351/1. Mattingly 1980. Weippert 1988:647-648.7% of the total.76:15.81 :7-9) and lamps (Fig. 5.81:9 4 2 Lamp 5. 4). 5. 5. At other sites in Israel this type is confined to Iron Age I and IIA-B. jugs (Figs. It is usually a reserved slip decoration with a thin. Pakman 1992. This type does not occur at all at Tyre or Sarepta. 5. Gilboa 1996. 5. However. 5. probably wine (Stronach 1996).77).6 Cooking-pots with a ridged or 'modelled' rim (Fig. but also on juglets.76.79:3). Hausleiter and Reiche 1999).77:8 1 2 Deep bowl 5.81:7-8 3 3 Krater 5.78:8). kraters (Fig. The fabric of this class of pottery is almost uniform being mainly reddish yellow (5YR7/6) with some cases of pink (5YR7/4 and 5YR8/3). juglets (Fig. 5. 1980). jugs and kraters.76:15 Bowl 5. Among the cooking-pots found in this stratum were some Greek imports (Chapter 5.82:6 Total 24 30 *For bottles of this type see cf.79:3 Krater 5. they replaced the triangular-rimmed cooking-pot almost everywhere except on the Akko plain. ASSYRIANIZING POTTERY An interesting feature of the 7th century BCE assemblage of Tel Kabri is the presence of Assyrianizing pottery and imitations of Mesopotamian vessel shapes (Amiran 1969:291. 5. Assyrianizing pottery occurs only in small amounts. TABLE 5.85:5).82:6). Jugs and juglets are often decorated with wide horizontal bands of red wash-like paint with black lines added parallel to the red bands.89).1: ASSYRIANIZING TYPES AND THEIR STRATIGRAPHIC CONNECTIONS. Chambon 1980:165-166. 6 For a discussion of cooking-pots with triangular rims see the section on cooking-pots in Stratum E4.Types with a triangular rim (Fig. often wash-like slip (usually red 10 R5/6). This slip was used most frequently on bowls. deep bowls (Fig. The core is usually greyish but sometimes reddish yellow (5YR7/6) or pink (5YR7/4).77:7 5 14 Bowl 5.84:8.5% of the kitchen assemblage of Stratum E2. There are no cooking-pots or transport jars in the Assyrianizing style at Kabri. this form of decoration is a continuation of the Iron Age traditions in the preceding centuries. whereas on the Akko plain it continues into the 7th century BCE. The forms would seem to be mainly vessels for the consumption of liquids.85:13-15) make up 6. Type See Fig. 5. Thus this decoration is some kind of 'Late Bichrome' style. cooking-pots with a ridged or modelled rim were found at many sites during the survey of the Akko hinterland (Lehmann 2001) and here at Kabri they constitute 11% of the kitchen vessels. 8).77:7. 5. Another feature typical of Kabri cooking-pots is a rough surface on the lower part of the body (Figs. 200 . 5.79:12-13[?]. Stratum E2a-E2b UnderE2b Bowl 5. 58:351/1. despite their apparent absence at Tell Keisan (Briend et at.
Exterior 5YR7/6. white self slip. 3375/7 5324/100 3020/1 3024/3 5426/100 548515 19411190 542511 3386/100 3376/5 3347/1 Exterior. temper: fM. Exterior 7. Gilboa 1995). the architectural 201 . interior 5YR7/6. interior 2. black & white grits. From a macroscopic point of view. temper: mg M. interior 5YR7/6.5YR7/6.7 No Assyrian-style pottery was found in Stratum E3.76: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No.Lamps with a 'fire-arm' (Fig. 11A:2). core 7. core 5YR7/6. Exterior. Analysis of Syrian and Lebanese pottery shows that Mesopotamian shapes went out of use immediately after the destruction of the Assyrian empire (Lehmann 1996:93-94). core grey. red slip. core 5YR6/6. temper: mg M. 'Assyrian bowl'. An almost identical example. 26:16-17. red slip lOR516. Assyrian-style pottery was found in significant quantities in a sounding in Square OP7 (Chapter 4. cf.1V). Exterior. 1980. temper: fM. These vessels are dated according to stratified comparisons from other sites. interior 7.5YR5/4. temper: m M. Most was found either in Stratum E2b or under the floors of that stratum. temper fM. core 5YR6/4: temper: mg M. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 l3 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Type Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl BO'. temper: fm M. interior and core 5YR7/6. interior 10YR7/4. copying the life-style of the centre in Assyria. interior and core 7. The pottery figures for this stratum include some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context. 5. Thus it can be attributed to the first half of the 7th century BCE. Exterior 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR6/4. mainly in the Ottoman level (Stratum E 1) whose foundations were dug into the remains of Stratum E2. 3447/3 3367/1 3434/100 195515 Locus Description 1315 0892 0890 1955 1970 l321 1927 0890 1970 0801 0802 1941 1984 1941 1971 0890 0892 0889 0889 0864 l308 0869 0849 0890 l334 Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. core 5YR7/3. 3350/100 3224/2 3502/3 326011 3175/2 3358/102 3616/2+ 12 7 Since this operation was a probe and excavation was halted after reaching the foundations ofWl389. temper: fM. FIGURE 5.5YR8/4. core grey. interior and core 5YR7/6.5YR5/4.82:6) are unusual in Israel (Lehmann 1996:T£ 82:430/2 with references to finds in Syria and Lebanon). red slip 10R5/6. Tyre Stratum II-III (Bikai 1978:PI. black & red paint lOR5/6.\lI Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Reg. Exterior. Exterior 10YR7/4. comes from Tell Abu Danna Stratum A4 in northern Syria (Tefnin 1980:15:3). Gjerstad 1948:Fig. Black-on-Red I(III) bowl. and stratigraphic context of the finds under floor E2b is unclear. core 2. SeE 4.5YR5/6. temper: m M. No. but here on its periphery they are apparently objects of prestige. red slip 2. Egg-shell thin vessels like those from Tell Jemmeh are missing from the Kabri material which very closely resembles the finds from Tell Keisan and Dor (Briend et al. Chemical and petrographic analyses of Assyrianizing pottery from Tell Jemmeh have shown that this pottery was produced from local clay (Melson and van Beek 1992). core 5YR7/6. Exterior 2. temper: fM.5YR5/4. this may also be the case for the coarser Assyrianizing vessels in Kabri. red paint lOR5/6 Exterior 5YR7/6. They are contemporary with Stratum E2 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence in Tel Kabri. core 10YR7/4.5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/6. interior 5YR8/3. whose fire-arm was also broken off.2. temper: fm M. red slip lOR5/6. interior 5YR7/6. cf. temper: fM. interior 5YR6/4. red slip 10R516. interior and core 5YR7/4. 539114 3590/3 5149/4 Exterior lOYR8/2 white. Exterior 10YR7/4.5YR7/6. temper: fm M.
"~ /' ~ 21 22 23 :7 10cm.s.. 5. 202 .) ~ '7 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 16 ~ r7 19 ) 15 ( 17 .d 2• 2 CC_ ~ 5 .:I 7 ~ 6 4 ~7 C .76: Pottery of Stratum E2. • Fig.
10 11 12
Fig. 5.77: Pottery of Stratum E2.
FIGURE 5.77: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS 16 Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl
S49113 S012/3 S413/2 3374/1 S28616 327712 S3S9/4 S3911S S419/2 3S33/4 3602/1 3629/1 33S7/1 S472/100 S442/1 3219/S
1984 1911 1972 1300 1965 0872 1970 1970 1968 1321 1336 1338 0889 1976 1963 0864
Exterior, interior and core SYR7/6, temper: fm M, decoration: black & red paint. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip 2.5YR6/8. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip lORS/6. Exterior and interior SYR7/4, core lORS/6, temper: m M. Hole drilled in the base. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip 10RS/6. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: m M. Exterior SYR7/4, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: m M.
Exterior SYR616, interior SYR616, core SYR616, temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: mg M, red slip 10RS/6. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, burnished. Exterior SYR7/8, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fin M, smoothed outside. Exterior SYR713, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: mg M.
FIGURE 5.78: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Mortarium Mortarium Mortarium Mortarium
S112/100 3SS9/S 3S80/1 3646/101 S188/1 196616 S21111 3446/3 S012/1 19411104 3S7S/I 3S92/3 3S1113 S216/100
1913 1326 1326 0890 1938 1966 1948 131S 1911 1941 1333 133S 1321 1947 Exterior 2.SYRS/6, interior 2.5YRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: mg M white grits. Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior lOYR7/3, interior 2.SYRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: fin M, red slip 10RS/6. SYR7/4, interior SYR7/4, core grey, temper: fm M black grits. SYR6/4, interior SYR6/4, core grey black, temper: fm M. 2.SYRS/6, interior 2.SYRS/6, core grey; temper: m M black & white grits.
Exterior SYR7/4, interior SYR7/4, core SYR7/4, temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/4, interior lOYRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: m M.
Typical Cypriote fabric.
Fig. 5.78: Pottery of Stratum E2
' ...-. 5.... ..W 5 " 7 . 14 Fig.-_./ " ~. '\ I r..79: Pottery of Stratum E2..rr@ .2 . <: i: .. 11 9 10 12 8 13 10cm.. I I I I I " .. / I~.. 206 . ..... \ 3 4 1IfJ' .
mg M. interior 5YR7/6. interior 7. red paint 10R5/6. core 5YR7/6. Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Reg No. No. and interior 5YR7/6.FIGURE 5.81: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. 207 . Exterior 5YR7/6. core grey. Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Jug Jug Jug Decanter 12 13 14 529511+2 FIGURE 5. FIGURE 5. temper: fM.5YR7/6. temper: grey to 5YR7/6. Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. and interior 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR7/6. temper: fM. core grey. Exterior IOYR7/3. interior and core 10YR812 (white). Exterior 2. Exterior. interior 5YR7/6.5YR7/6. wheel burnished. temper: fM. interior 5YR7/4. temper: fM. Only 1 handle.79: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. No.5YR8/4. interior 2. Exterior. temper: m M.5YR6/6. interior and core 7. interior 2. core 10R6/6. core grey. M. core 2. Exterior 10YR8/3. temper: grey. black & red paint IOR5/6.5YR7/6.5YR6/6.5YR6/6. Exterior 5YR7/6.5YR6/6. temper: m M. black lines. Exterior. core 5YR7/6. Exterior 7. temper: fm M. mg M. 'Assyrian bottle'. interior IOYR7/3. temper: grey to 5YR7/6. interior and core 1OYR8/3 white. Karageorghis 1970: PI. core grey. and interior 5YR7/6. interior 2. red slip 10R5/8 with black line on mushroom lip. 212: 10 (Tomb 14). temper: fm M.5YR7/6. burnished. Exterior 2. Type Juglet 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Reg. core yellow greenish. red slip 10R5/6. core 1OYR8/3. cf. inside mg M. red slip 10R5/8 with black lines. temper: mg M. Exterior and interior 2. red paint. temper: f M. core dark. core 5YR7/6. temper: fM. TyPe 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Pot-stand Krater? Deep bowl Reg.5YR6/6. temper: fm M. Exterior 7. Exterior 10R6/6. Exterior 5YR7/6 -7.5YR8/4. temper: fig M. temper: m M. 5013/200 5073/200 53201100 3119/5 3573/1 5209/1 5286/10 3142/4 5416/5 5235/1 Locus 1912 1912 1941 0825 1321 1941 1965 0835 1941 1955 Descrip_tion Exterior and interior 5YR7/6.5YR6/6. burnished.5YR6/6. temper: g M large white grits. interior 10YR8/3. interior 5YR7/4. Exterior 5YR7/6. 3353/7 3353/100 5306/1 3297/1 5413/3 5037/100 3293/1 5362/2 5073/100 5287/1 34651100 Locus 0892 0892 1965 0874 1972 1912 0874 1967 1912 1941 0890 Description Exterior 5YR7/4.outside wheel burnished. interior and core 7. interior and core 2.7.5YR8/4.5YR7/6. "':!. Exterior. temper: fm M.5YR6/6. black & white grits. temper: fM. temper: fm M. core grey. temper: m M. burnished with black brown bands painted outside. temper: m M black & white grits. interior 5YR7/6 . grey to 5YR7/6. and interior 2. black bands. interior 10R6/6. core core core core core grey.80: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. 3618/100 349113 53911100 5238/1 5324/9 536711 5477/5 3279/16 3356/9 526117 3275/6 357211 3269/9 5324/1 5500/200 5330/2 Locus 1338 1308 1970 1956 1970 1967 1976 0872 0888 1956 0872 1326 0869 1970 1984 1967 1941 Descrip_tion Exterior. temper: fmM.5YR6/6. core 5YR7/4. interior 5YR7/6. black paint. temper:wg Brown painted band IOR5/4 weak red. core 7. red slip IOR5/8.
. Fig.\ 3 \ r I 2 I ..80: Pottery of Stratum E2 208 .-. 5. . • 7 I 9 10 11 o 10cm .. 8 10cm....._. \ 5 6 r L III '\.-. .
I I " . 5. T 8 9 -~10 10cm. ...---- I \ \ \ I \ \ \ \ '' I • / I\ \ . Fig. I I . 2 • 4 3 5 s 7 ) : =I.81: Pottery of Stratum E2. 209 .
82: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No.FIGURE 5.5YR5/4 grey.5YR6/6 .5YR5/4 black.5YR6/6 . temper: fM. temper: fm M white grits.10YR7/3.e Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Table amphora Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport jar j ar j ar j ar j ar jar jar jar Reg No. Cypriote import. Exterior.e Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport jar jar jar jar jar jar jar jar jar Reg.83: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. No. Red lamp type with rough surface.5YR7/6. core 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 TJ:'J!.5YR5/4 black.5YR6/6 .2.2. Exterior. 210 . interior 10YR6/2. interior 2.5YR8/2 white. Pink lamp type with smooth surface. 3498/2 349811 527913 5258/3 3554/1 5302/100 35201100 549112 5245/4 548114 5287/2 3640/100 5437/1 524112 5180/2 5297/2 Locus 0890 0890 1963 1959 1321 1941 1941 1984 1941 1980 1941 0890 1968 1941 1914 1941 Description Exterior. interior and core 5YR7/6. FIGURE 5. red & black paint. Exterior.2. temper: fM. interior and core 5YR7/8 grey. 194117 550011 5447/2 5061/2 5309/200 52991100 53321100 36431100 5192/2 Locus 1941 1984 1963 1913 1941 1941 1941 0890 1941 Description Exterior 10YR6/2 . core grey black. interior and core 7. temper: fm M black & white grits. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TJ:'J!. temper: mg M black & white grits. Cooking-pot fabric. interior and core 7. Exterior 2. temper: mg M.
.. I I .~ .. . 5. ffi -.I '\V/ / " 8 9 10 11 ~ 13 '1 I ~. \ \ . I / '. . \I ' I 4 5 . 14 12 a 10cm . I I . \ \ I I I ._---'- ----- --- ----' 6 -=~~~~_'~Ocm. 15 Fig..'" 2 3 e.82: Pottery of Stratum E2. . I I / " I -. 211 ..---'. 7 • • I I I I \ \ \ \ \ I \ \ \ . '/ -._____... .
5.2 • 3 • I I \ I I I \ \ \ \ \ 5 6 • I I I I .83: Pottery of Stratum E2. \ \ \ ( t I I \ \ \ \ ) 7 6 9 o ------ 1Ocm. Fig. 212 ..
n ! \ 0 -.. ---- 10cm. 5. 2 3 ~ ) 4 7 l \ ~ 5 6 7 " I I . / / _- I ' 8 9 Fig.84: Pottery of Stratum E2. 213 .
interior 2. Exterior 2. Exterior. interior 5YR7/4. core black. interior 10R5/4. Exterior. Exterior Exterior interiorand core 2.5YR5/4. temper: mg M black grits. This type of cooking-pot is characterized by a rough lower part. No. interior and core 2. interior and core 5YR6/6. interior and core 2. temper: g M black & white grits. Sarepta type CP-IA (Anderson 1988).5YR6/4. lid lid lid lid lid lid lid lid 214 . w: 21. temper: mg M black &white grits. 10R5/4.5YR5/6. interior and core 2. TJl. Locus 1941 1941 1941 1321 0855 0855 1941 1913 0890 Description Handle h: 17. core 5YR7/3. interior 7. core grey black. 5YR7/6. core 2. temper: fm M.5YR5/6. interior and core 2. interior and core 2. Exterior 10R4/3. interior 7. Exterior.5YR512.pe Cooking-pot 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. temper: mg M. temper: mg M black & white grits.5YR5/6.5YR7/6. Exterior. Exterior IOR6/6.85: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. 1 2 3 4 Type Reg. temper: mg M black & white grits. Exterior 7. interior 2.5YR7/6. core black. core 7. core grey.5YR7/6. Exterior.84: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. temper: mg M white grits. 3602/2 5426/6 3270/1 362114 521112 5360/100 3367/2 5188/2 5499/3 545711 307511 5283/5 5422/1 1970/48 532311 Locus 1336 1941 0869 1338 1948 1967 0892 1938 1980 19B 0819 1941 1963 1970 1956 Description Exterior. interior lOR5/4. Handle h: 16. w: 21. Exterior 2. Remarks: cf. temper: mg M white grits. temper: mg M black & white grits. temper: m M white grits. No. temper: mg M black & white grits. 1980: PI. core grey brown. Basket-handle amphora 53701100 Basket-handle amphora 522011 00 Cooking-pot 19411172 Cooking-pot 3526/4 Cooking-pot 3203/2 Cooking-pot 3203/1 Cooking-pot 5318/4 Cooking-pot 5115/100 Cooking-pot 344511 5 6 7 8 9 FIGURE 5.5YR5/4. This type of cooking-pot is characterised by a rough base.5YR5/6. Exterior. 55 (Str. incisions on handle.5YR5/2. temper: mg M black and white grits. temper: mg M white & black grits.5YR5/4. temper: mg M. Exterior 2.FIGURE 5. Briend et al. writing with red paint.5YR5/6. 8).5YR5/6.5YR6/4. interior 2.5YR7/6.
~.) ( ~\ f22 2 \. 4 / 3 < t: ( " • 5 6 7 err .85: Pottery of Stratum E2. Fig. 5. 9 10 / . 215 . I '~ 11 ~I 12 / ~==~--~-----~ 14 1Ocm.
Fig. E2b Description Transport jar type with an engraved sign "aleph". Only Stratum E2a. ' . FIGURE 5.. 5.~I 'I 10cm. Not all of these finds could be assigned to a particular pottery type.86: Pottery with ins cis ions and inscriptions. TABLE 5. where much of the pottery was found in situ. E2a Str. yielded a significant sample. Body sherd with an engraved picture of a jar. Locus 890 1968 1309 Stratum Str. 1 2 3 Type Transport jar Basket-handle amphora Reg.86: IRON AGE POTTERY WITH INCISIONS AND INSCRIPTIONS No. E3 and E2a statistically due to the fact that the fortresses under Stratum E2a were cleared and rebuilt. 3365/101 5402/100 3443/103 STATISTICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE POTTERY FROM STRATUM E2 Approximately 340 m. 1 ~. E2a Str. No. All diagnostic pottery fragments were recorded and 2625 vessels and fragments catalogued. It was impractical to analyze the pottery types in Strata E4.of Area E were excavated. Cypriote Basket-Handle with an engraved sign.2: NUMBER OF VESSELS RECORDED BY TYPE AND STRATUM FORM CLASS £2 174 29 52 24 9 98 6 £3 34 2 7 1 8 £4 19 1 2 2 1 7 Debris under Stratum £4 2 Total 229 30 56 33 11 113 6 2 530 27 204 13 24 27 23 57 1385 Bowls Deep bowls Bowls with incurved rim Kraters Juglets Jugs Jars Pithoi Amphoras Lamps Cooking-pots Special forms Mortaria Greek imports Cypriote fine ware imports Cypriote basket-handle amphoras Total 2 511 26 157 12 24 25 13 57 1219 13 34 1 2 9 111 49 6 4 1 11 2 2 216 . 2 3 10cm.
while Egyptian imports account for 1% of the finds there (Fantalkin 2001:97-98. the only other 7th century BCE fortress in Israel where statistics have been provided (Fantalkin 2001).87: Pottery Repertoire of Stratum E2. 5. Jugs are notably more numerous at Mezad Hashavyahu (19%) than at Kabri (8%).4%. Cypriote basket-handle amphoras are the major group. Fig. Cypriote fine war~s are. Among the imported wares.1%. 5.2. The numbers at Mezad Hashavyahu are not very different (kraters 2. Fig.88a: Main types of transport jars in Stratum E2. 217 .83:7 3% 10% 3% 9% Fig.83:8 Others 8% 6% 40% Basket-Handle amphoras 20% Fig. 5. kraters constitute 2% of all vessels.rare with a share of only 1. The pottery count (Table 5.Others 1% 4% Cooking-pots 13% Jugs 8% Mortaria 2% Transportjars 48% Fig.1% of the total pottery in Stratum E2.88) reveals an extraordinarily high percentage of . 5. No Egyptian imports were found in Tel Kabri. These numbers should be compared with the finds from Mezad Hashavyahu. 5. lamps 4%) (Fantalkin 2001:103-104). This may be partly due to the fact that the area excavated coincided with the storerooms of the fortress. 5.103-104). transport jars (amphoras). There were no Cypriote imports found at that site. 5. constituting 9.87.1% and Greek imports make up 2. Greek imports to Mezad Hashavyahu are much more numerous (46%) than at Tel Kabri (Fantalkin 2001 :103-104). At Kabri.88b: Other types of transport jars in Stratum E2. 5.83 :2-3 13% Others 35% 6% Fig. Figs.
Fig.7% of the pottery assemblage from Kabri was used for the preparation (cooking) and consumption of food to serve the needs of the garrison.85:11 11% Fig. Another recent contribution to the study of 7th century BCE coastal pottery is Fantalkin's comprehensive publication of the excavations at Mezad Hashavyahu (2001). The excavations at Tyre. while the other 47.85: 13- Fig. 5. Fig 5. Frankel et al. 5. Achziv Tomb 3 has a number of good parallels to Stratum E2 (Culican 1975-76). near Achziv. 1994. 5. While most types found in Stratum E2 also occur at nearby Tell Keisan Strata 4-5 (Briend et al. Wolff 1994:515-516). 5.85:6 11% Lids Fig. until recently the 7th century BCE was a more obscure phase in the archaeological research of the northern Levant. include the same transport jar types as those found in situ at the latter site (Zemer 1977:18). 21% of all pottery types have exact parallels at either Tyre Strata 1-2 (Bikai 1978a) or Sarepta Stratum Cl (Anderson 218 . Sarepta and Tell Abu Hawam did not expose substantial levels of this date.85:7 6% 5. 5. a fortress stood at the extreme southern edge of the Phoenician homeland.84:8) 10% Fig. The 7th century BCE pottery from Tell Keisan has been published by the French Expedition but till now this was the only major site to provide such information. 5. 1997. 1978b. probably destroyed at the same time as the storerooms of the Tel Kabri fortress.85:12 6% Fig.85:10 17% Fig.89a: Main types of cooking-pots from Stratum 2a.85:8 Fig. Some 52. 5. 5. The closest parallels to the pottery of Stratum E2a come from sites in the vicinity of Tel Kabri. 1980). The numerous complete vessels from Tel Kabri's destruction level (Stratum 2a) enable us to study the typology of the 7th century BCE in detail. 5.84: 7-9 35% Others 27% 6% Fig. Gal 1992. 1987. 1990. CONCLUSIONS While Iron Age coastal (Phoenician) pottery of the 12th . 5. At Mezad Hashavyahu vessels for the consumption of food make up 60% of the repertoire and cooking-pots for its preparation 11%. Lehmann 1995.3% were vessels for storage of agricultural products collected in the nearby area. 5. 5.84: 5~ 11% With rough base (Fig. In addition to excavations.84: 3-4 9% Fig. In Achziv Stratum IV the still unpublished fmds from a warehouse. The excavations at Tel Kabri significantly complement these finds.8th centuries BCE has been studied in detail (Bikai 1978a.89b: Other types of cooking-pots from Stratum E2. Anderson 1988. Herrera Gonzalez 1990). From the end of the 8th through the 7th century BCE. survey~ in the Akko plain have yielded new data about the coastal settlement system of the 7th century BCE in southern Phoenicia (Frankel 1986. This leaves only 25% for storage vessels (Fantalkin 2001:103-104).2001.
however did not destroy the fortress completely. has many types in common with the destruction layer at Kabri. 50. A number of the same pottery types came from the destruction level of Ashkelon. There is evidence for an earlier destruction phase (Stratum E2b) which . although on a smaller scale. Dor Area A Phase 9 (Gilboa 1995 [720-650/630 BCE]) and Shiqmona Stratum 8-9 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. Cooking-pots form the largest functional group retrieved from the Iron Age II remains in this area. Naveh 1962. which yielded a very similar pottery assemblage including Greek cooking-pots. Lehmann 1994a). Blackon-Red and White-Painted pottery. Thus. 650-575 BCE. Additional parallels which date Stratum E2a to ca. may be as early as 604 BCE or only later in 585 BCE (Katzenstein 1997: 328).V). Courbin 1993). 650 and 600 BCE and might be connected with the campaign of Ashurbanipal in the year 644/43 BCE (Katzenstein 1997:293). There is a surprisingly high percentage of Cypriote fine wares. on the basis of pottery comparisons Stratum E2 at Tel Kabri can confidently be dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE. Furthermore. chronologically anchored on the campaigns of Nebuchadnezzar. in Area D after the Middle Bronze Age. AREAD The evidence that occupation continued. Storage jars are completely missing. demonstrates that Late Bronze and Iron Age settlement was not confined to Area E. was dated recently to the years around 600 BCE (Wenning 1989). 604 BCE (Biran 1994:270-271). The pottery is identical to that in Stratum E2a and it is impossible to distinguish any type development between the two phases. Pottery LB IA I IA II Krater Jugs/Juglets Cooking-pots Lamps Bowls Cypriote Imports TOTAL 4 1 3 3 2 2 29 4 14 51 4 10 219 . Reich 1989). The destruction of Mezad Hashavyahu (Fantalkin 2001. Based on the above-mentioned comparisons. 600 BCE come from Tell <Arqa Stratum 9D (Thalmann 1990) and Ras al-Bassit Phase 7 and Tomb 4 (Braemer 1986. dated to the end of the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996). destroyed in ca. Dan Stratum I. A total of 14 vessels of Cypriote fine wares accounts for 22. This points to very close contacts and exchange with Phoenicia and illustrates that the pottery repertoire of these two sites on the Akko plain is typical oflate Iron Age Phoenician pottery (cf. the earlier destruction must have taken place between ca. The later fortress of Stratum E2a may have been destroyed during one of the campaigns of Nebuchadnezzar against Syria and Palestine. 1987 [710-650 BCE]). Comparisons for many vessels in the Stratum E2a assemblage at Kabri can be found in the destruction levels at other sites in the Levant. dated to ca. Similarities are seen at Tel Qiri Stratum VI (Ben-Tor et at. dated to 604 BCE (Stager 1996) and from Stratum 5 at al-Mina in northern Syria.1988). 53 [8th-7th century BCE]). there are several examples of'Wild-Goat'-Style II (Chapter 5.6% of the all post-MB vessels recorded in Area D.
4 5 7 9 10 11 f 12 14 ~'. Fig . 220 . .3 6 ~... F 13 II II 15 16 17 19 18 lOcm.5 90· Iron Age II pottery from Area D.
Cypriote Black-on-Red juglet or jug (very fine pink fabric with black lustrous bands on the rim inside). cf. cf. cf. Pan type with vertical handle. cf. 80:221. Hazor X (Yadin et al.joins with 154119121/1. Type A. 19 Cooking-pot PERSIAN AND HELLENISTIC PERIODS A small amount of late Persian period and Hellenistic pottery. There was one twisted handle of a Persian period transport jar (not illustrated. cf. 25:10. Hazor VIII (Yadin et al.:41:6). 1961:209:1). 2525-1 2676/1 2630 2509 2669 2617 2542 2518/3 2525/2 2625 2534/3 2504/2 2518/2 9187 2636 2555/1 9256 9110/12 268111 Locus 715 750 745 703 744 713 721 715 715 715 721 715 715 1570 745 721 1554 1541 751 Description cf. 1980:49:2) and Keisan Stratum 7 (ibid. Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. Type 1). 38:9. Persian period pottery was extremely rare. cf. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl.:53:9-10). apparently dumped at the site. Abu Hawam Stratum III (Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. cf. Stem 1978:55/56. Red-slipped burnished bowl. No. cf. cf. Such mortaria were first in use during the Persian period and continued into the early Hellenistic period (Salles 1985a. Stern 1978:53. cf. 11:238]) and the Iron Age. Abu Hawam Stratum IV (Balensi 1980: PI. Abu Hawam Stratum IV (Balensi 1980: PI. However.The scant Iron Age II architectural remains in Area D are interpreted as a farmstead or some kind of rural settlement (Chapter 4. Kabri Area E. 1960:57:13). 1998) 221 . 14:10). 'Samaria' Ware. Stratum E3 (a similar cooking-pot rim appears also during the Iron Age II A-B. Hazor X (Yadin et al. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl. 1980:56:6). FIGURE 5. Keisan Stratum 5 (ibid. Such pans were in use during the Late Bronze Age (Tell Abu Hawam Stratum V [Balensi 1980:PI. 1960:57:13). cf.2.224). 5. Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et al. cf. 1960:61:12). Artzy 1980) and several mortaria with a high ring base (Fig. 1980:56:8).III). Cypriote Black-on-Red juglet (Gjerstad 1948: Fig. 1960:51:12) and VIII (ibid. cf. 27:6] and XI [Bikai 1978: PI. 1960:57:4). 80:225). Stern 1978:53. Stern 1978:54/55. Jezreel "Early Iron" (Zimhoni 1997: Fig. 1961:209:11). Type A. 1960:51:12). cf.:57:15). 14:10). Abu Hawam Stratum III (Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl. Against such a rural background the relatively large amount of Cypriote fine wares is difficult to explain.9). 39:9]). the peculiar combination of cooking-pots and Cypriote fine wares may perhaps be explained if this area was associated wth the fortress complex in Area E for processing agricultural products. Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. 2. Tyre Stratum X-2 [Bikai 1978:PI. Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. Hazor X (Yadin et al.91 :3-4). Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. was retrieved from Area E.90: IRON AGE II POTTERY FROM AREA D No. cf. Kabri Stratum E3. Hazor IX (Yadin et al. Type E. Kabri Stratum E3. Type Bowl 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Bowl Bowl Juglet Juglet Juglet/Jug Juglet Bowl Bowl Bowl Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. Hazor IX (Yadin et al.
Transport jars of this class are especially numerous in the Akko plain during the Hellenistic period.. 3 2 '--"~~=--' 10cm. 1980:Pl. All the pottery comes from disturbed layers between Strata E2 and E1. core grey. interior 5YR7/4. Among the Hellenistic pottery was the rim of a white Hellenistic transport jar (not illustrated).5YR8/4. temper: mg M.91: Hellenistic pottery from Area E. interior IOYR8/3. temper: mg M white grits . 17:23-30).The two Hellenistic unguentaria found were apparently associated with a disturbed grave (Fig. FIGURE 5. 5. 5. core grey. 4 Fig. The Ottoman village in Area E was excavated by Mahmud Hawari in 1993 (Hawari 1994). Exterior 5YR7/4. 7:1-3. 222 .91: HELLENISTIC POTTERY FROM AREA E No. Further finds include a fragment of a stamped Rhodian amphora (Chapter 9:No. 34). No. 3269/1a 326911b 3204/4 3490/2 Locus 0869 0869 0853 1321 Description 4 Exterior 7.91:1-2). 1 2 3 Type Unguentarium Unguentarium Mortar Mortar Reg. This type of vessel was found in large numbers at Tell Keisan and nearby Khirbat Kinniya (Briend et al.
256. Waldbaum 1994. The following sites in the Levant have produced Early Corinthian pottery: Tell Sukas. Al Mina is the only site from which Protocorinthian pottery is known (Robertson 1940:16-18.1. and the fourth to ca. ARCHAIC GREEK AND ETRUSCAN POTTERY Barbara and Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier Archaic Greek pottery was first identified in Area E in 1986 byL. Haider 1996:69) is too small to be more closely dated than between the later 8th and the first half of the 6th centuries BCE. Fig. 1992 and 1993 (Niemeier 1990. 700-675 BCE.1) and adopted by Waldbaum and Magness (1997:34) and Haider (1996:69) is.C. Niemeier 1994). 615-600 BCE. also Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33-36) also applies to Tel Kabri-'. They play an important role in discussions about contacts between the Levant and Greece and the possible presence of Greeks in the Levant (see Wenning 1991.2 The stratified pieces come from Stratum E2a (the destruction level of the Phoenician fortification) or from slightly earlier levels. 1997. it almost certainly is contemporary with the East Greek pottery. the second to ca. BIRD BOWLS Five fragments (Figs. Cook and Dupont 1998:8-10).92:1-5. according to Neutron Activation Analysis by H. 2 3 223 . Naso for his input regarding the fragment of an Etruscan Buchero vessel (No. Mommsen of Bonn University. Boardman 1980:48). 650-615 BCE. The Bird bowl evolved from the Late Geometric Bird kotyle. Fig. The presence of these imports is of special significance for two reasons: 1. 2. 12. Vessel No. Fig.1 was earlier identified as belonging to a Late Geometric or Subgeometric skyphos with metope decoration (Niemeier 1990:xxxiv-xxxv.1995. seventh centuries" (Waldbaum 1994:59. Ashkelon. cf. 1997:252-255. Tel Dan. The "curious gap in the roster of early Greek pottery in Palestine". Elsewhere in the Levant Corinthian pottery also is not abundant. with the exception of a probably Attic SOS-amphora (No. No.13). although the preserved decoration could be of late 8th/early 7th century date. IV. cf. 22.V. Tell Keisan. despite its popularity in other areas of the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. Tel MiqneEkron. Reinvestigation of the sherd for the final publication demonstrated that. The Archaic Greek pottery from Kabri is East Greek. 1) and Haider's summary (1996: 69) have to be corrected: There is no Geometric pottery from Kabri.E. Kerschner. According to Coldstream (1968:298-301) the first stage of the Bird bowls is to be dated to ca. simplifying the decoration and flattening the shape. Fine decorated Greek pottery is more accurately datable than most of the local pottery and therefore important for absolute dating (see Cook. Tell Abu Hawam.93:1-4) come from East Greek so-called Bird bowls. The fragment of an oinochoe or olpe of Etruscan Bucchero (No. Kaufler and U.1 More was found in the seasons of 1989. Niemeier 1995. Schlotzhauer for important information and constructive discussions on the East Greek pottery found at Tel Kabri. 42) is of special interest. S. Figs. 23. The clay of a sherd tentatively ascribed to a Protocorinthian aryballos (Kempinski and Niemeier 1993b:259. 1990. Sarepta. PI. Gershuny (1987:69. "the complete lack of Protocorinthian pottery of the late eighth through most of the . Since there is no other 8th century Greek pottery from Kabri. The unstratified fragment of an SOS-amphora (No. Niemeier 1994:*31. Tel Batash. 5. 675-640 B. 25). 42). Adelman 1995. R. Fig. 16. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33-36 with references). 5. date adopted by Waldbaum 1994:59. Haider 1996:69). Lehmann 1995. the third ca. Wenning 1995). not Corinthian but probably east Cypriot. the profile is too curved to belong to a Late Geometric/Subgeometric skyphos but comes from an East Greek archaic Bird bowl. 19. Tell Jemmeh and Tell Sera' (Koehl 1985:138. Thus Waldbaum's distribution map (1994:55. All pre-Hellenistic Greek pottery of Area E is to be dated between the second half of the 7th and the first half of the 6th centuries BCE.M. We are also grateful to A. Pastor 1991 :20*. 25) (cf. Recently the typology and chronology of the East Greek Bird bowls has been modified and refined by Kerschner (1995. Thus no Corinthian pottery has been found at Tel Kabri. Kerschner We would like to thank M.
Reg.1997). 85). In Kerschner's typology our fragment forms a late example of his Type IV with a small groove at the mouth and a relatively deep bowl dated to the last third of the 7th century BCE (cf. dated to the last third of the 7th century BCE (Boardman 1967:133. No. PI.2. 107. Inside: Solid. 3. three vertical lines which meet three horizontal lines at an angle.E (cf. The bird's tail is formed by extending the lower horizontal outline of the body. 1. Locus 874. XIV). PI.dated to the last quarter of the 7th century BCE (cf. Outside: A ray with three horizontal lines above it in the lower part. 5. = ca. 3023/1. =2 em. Decoration: Yellowish-red paint. dated to the middle to third quarter of the 7th century B. 130.478. 3114. XIV).93:3) Rim fragment. No. 11 em. the first half of the 7th century BCE is still dominated by Bird kotylai and only from the middle of the century onwards do Bird bowls appear in larger quantities. Bird bowl (Figs.92:5) Body fragment. Outside: On the left. Bird bowl (Figs. 17. Stratum El. Outside: The tail of a bird above which is a triangle pendant from a painted lip band. from left to right. Above these.92:4. three vertical lines and the body and feet of a bird. Kerschner 1997:127 Cat.93:1) Rim fragment. Kerschner 1997:160. 5. Inside: Solid. Bird bowl (Figs. Below this are void rays. Date: The painted design puts the fragment in Coldstream's third group.8. PI. Parallels: Phase IV at Emporio on Chios. Bird bowl (Figs. Stratum El. is a rhomb filled with hatching. 224 . No. Inside: Solid. H. Bird bowl (Fig. No. Date: The fragment is too small for dating. Stratum El. 5. 162. PI. Reg. H. 2. 'Fundgruppe XXVII' in the sanctuary of Hera on Samos. 118-119:476. dated before 600 BCE (Walter 1968:88.92:2. No. H = 2. According to his studies. No. Decoration: Light reddish-brown paint. Reg. 43. 5. 109. 5. = 3. Decoration: Reddish-brown paint. 4. Decoration: Yellowish-red and black paint. Locus 833. Date: The fragment is from a Bird bowl of Kerschner's Type II with empty bottom zone. 5484.8 em. H. Outside: A group of three vertical lines on the left with a single vertical line on their right. Reg. 5. 5. Kerschner 1997:163. Date: The missing groove at the rim and the almost hemispherical profile of . Cat. Kerschner did not find Bird bowls from clear contexts before the second quarter of the 7th century BCE. 329711. A vertical stripe on the right.C. H. D. Locus 802. Inside: Solid. 43:452). 162. 650-615 BCE.93:2) Rim fragment. D. No. Stratum El.3 ern. Locus'S24. Stratum El. 5. VI). 3.93:4) Rim fragment. Reg.the bowl are characteristics of Kerschner's Type V. ca. 5. PI. 5.92:3. Locus 1983.5 em. = 3. No.92:1. 3138. The style is less delicate than No.
Outside: Type: Villard Schlotzhauer's and Vallet's below the lip. drinking cups with prominent and Shipley 1989).1. Hayes' Type I-II. = 3. has shown that the clay composition of a Bird bowl of Type IV from the Rheneia Pi.200-202 Nos. 53311100. Stratum E2a. 5. Outside: by Kerschner as belonging Two vertical lines. cups' is used for a class of two-handled bands. Furtwangler's level and just Type 3 and 16 cm. here the common English nomenclature Various systems of classification Cilicia (Hanfmann Hayes 1973:55-56). This is dated to ca. Boardman those applied to material from Megara Hyblaea in Sicily (Villard and Vallet 1955:18-33). 1993). 7-8. The fragments of thirteen so-called Ionian cups (Nos. 'Ionian cup' (Figs. that neither parts of Ionia (Jones activation demonstrating that it was not produced at Miletus confirm of Bird bowls was this Ionian the production centre of Bird bowls (Kerschner et al. Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Samian Heraion. from Tel Kabri. 610-590/80 BCE) (Furtwangler 1980:165. One production bowls may perhaps have been located in northern 'IONIAN CUPS' Ionia (Jones 1986:697). I118-20. 1999) suggests that the term 'Ionian called 'Knickrandschale' (cup with bent rim). 8.92:7. with simple horizontal or completely covered with dark paint and they should be is retained. 200. in a sacrificial complex in the sanctuary established by Schlotzhauer 1995 for the 1994:137-187. painted or reserved. However. 630/20 BCE) and II (ca. invention (cf. The term 'Ionian rims. 5.219-234).Decoration: Reddish-brown exception of a reserved and dark grey glossy paint. site of Bird However. glazed all over except for a narrow reserved band at handle level.6e) matches on Rhodes. bands just below the handle Group 3. 197-199.664). Kerschner's neutron metropolis years the Bird bowls petrographic 1986:649. Fig. Type AI. There are. Locus 1941. Other examples from the Samian Heraion come from the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building dated to ca. Cook and Dupont that found in Furthermore. 13 = Alexandrescu 1978:57-58 No. (mouth) = Reg. H. however. Table 1). adopting the typology 1980:165). Solid except for narrow Decoration: Black paint. 21). Fig. Inside: Solid with lines stripe.ca.. Of in the South Temenos of the are the series of Ionian cups found in good stratigraphic 1997.93:5) 15 fragments of mouth and wall (reconstructed). PI. Shipley 1989. and the very useful concordance sanctuary of Hera on the island of Sam os (Furtwangler of Artemis at Ephesos (Kerschner ibid. 6-18) form the largest group of Archaic Greek pottery . fewer from Phase III (ca. Ploug's Group 6. Inside: Solid except for a band just below the mouth. 610 BCE). For many 1998:26). 630/20 . a complete 1938:39-43 No.5 em. Syria (Ploug importance 1956:167-173) for this cup-type have been put forward. were and Since this class is not restricted to Ionia (Catling cup' should be abandoned (1995. the majority of the pieces of this type came from Phases I (before ca. analyses were considered analysis pit. and from Tocra in Libya (Hayes 1966:111-16. to his latest Type VI without horizontal Date: It has been identified example from Histria: Lambrino DISCUSSION between the rays of the bottom zone and the main frieze. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler 225 . No. 188-189 note 5. Delos found to be a Rhodian (Jones 1986:647. decorated Schlotzhauer (Cook and Dupont 1998:129-131). 625-590 BCE (cf. 13). The most influential 120-125. other systems arranged These typologies from Tarsus in have been adopted in the study of the Ionian cups from Tell Sukas in by single sites (see Catling and to the typologies sequences 1973:27-38). cups from Miletus) and in the Greek sanctuary at Gravisca in Etruria (Boldrini 6. D.
11 Fig. 5. 226 . 7 8 3cm.92: Bird bowls and Ionian cups.2 ry3 5 4 _.
5YR 2. = 2. E2a Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay. E2blE3 Pink (5 YR7/4) lightly micaceous clay.5YR 3/1) paint.e Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Dorian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Reg_. 115 Cat. dark greyish-brown (10YR 3/2) paint. Reg. 111 Fig. Hayes' (1966:112) late 7th century BCE.93:3 5. 1. Fig. H. Reg. = 4. 5. 1/3-4. Cat. 112. Nos. Type: Villard and Vallet's Type A21B 2. Ploug's Group 5. 18).92: BIRD BOWLS AND IONIAN CUPS No. black (7.600 BCE. Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Heraion of Samos it occurs first in Phase III (ca. yellowish-red (5YR 5/8)/black (5YR 2. 9. No. 5. Cat.120. D.tion See Fig. 8. 19.92:9. Examples from Ephesos are dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE (Kerschner 1997:111. 7. 3. 10. II. 5. H. 6. 12-13 PI. E2a Very pale brown (IOYR 7/3)/grey (10YR 6/i) clay. in the second levelling of ca. Inside: Solid except for a band just below the mouth. 23) and in the foundation of the North Building of ca.93:2 5. 19.93:6) Mouth and wall fragment. 12.93:5 5. Ionian cup. PI. dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) paint. No. PI. Cat.93:4 2. 7. Cat. reddish-brown (5YR 4/4)/ dark grey (7. No. Locus 887. Stratum El. This type apparently lasted from the second half of the 7th to the early 6th century BCE.5/1) paint. PI.5/1) paint.3 em. 213-214:Nos. Ionian cup Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay.93:1 5. No.93:6 and Kienast 1989:4-5. very dark brown (10YR 2/2) paint.No.5YR 4/1) shiny paint. 21). Locus 1321. Ionian cup II. III/I. 21).5YR 6/4) clay. 11 PI. 25. 125. III). 545/535 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:7-8. 3536/100. 126:Fig. Hayes' Type VIII-IX. Outside and inside: Solid. No. 610-590/80 BCE) and was also found in Phase IV (a late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165. 5. 117.FIGURE 5. Furtwangler's Type 5 and Boldrini's Type 1111 with glazed exterior except the rim and a band at handle level. 3138 3114 3297/1 3023/1 5484 3500/101 53311100 3352/100 3536/100 2619 5034-6 Locus 833 824 874 802 1983 1321 1941 887 1321 737 1915 Stratum El E1 Descrip.6. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) paint. Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. Hanfmann's Type IV. Examples of this type were unearthed also in the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building of ca. Decoration: Glossy black paint. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:4-5. Surface Very pale brown (IOYR 7/4) clay. 227 .2 em. El Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. 1111. Stratum E2a. 610 BCE (Kerschner 1997:182). Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 111 Fig. 4. 5. black (IOYR 2/1) paint. 8. 5. 33521100. Date: Vallet and Villard's (1955:15-18. Decoration: Black paint. 570/550 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:5-7. 28). (Figs. EI Light brown (7. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos which ends ca. 'Ionian cup' (Fig.5YR 3/1) paint.121:Fig. reddish-brown (2. III/8-9.92:8) Shoulder fragment. Cat. Outside: Bands on rim and at handle level. (mouth) = 17. black (10YR 2/1) shiny paint. reddish-brown (2. No. TJP. Discussion: See No. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 29) date is 640/30 . El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay.
93:1 5. 5. PI. = 2. E2a Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay. 3. 11 PI. 213-214:Nos. PI. 6. Cat. dark greyish-brown (IOYR 3/2) paint. 9. E2a Very pale brown (10YR 7/3)/grey (10YR 6/i) clay. 1/3-4.93:6 and Kienast 1989:4-5. (Figs. Cat. 111 Fig. No. Stratum E2a. = 4. H.600 BCE. 5. 21). II11. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. D. 126:Fig. 5. III). levelling of ca. 'Ionian cup' (Fig. 5. 19. 23) and in the and Kienast 1989:7-8. 12-13 PI. 570/550 BCE (Furtwangler foundation of the North Building of ca. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 610-590/80 BCE) and was also found in Phase IV (a late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler ca. 12. Fig. black (IOYR 2/1) paint. 10. Nos. dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) paint. 1. 18).e Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Dorian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Reg.93:4 11. Surface Very pale brown (IOYR 7/4) clay. 4. 111 Fig. 3536/100. 21). reddish-brown (2. Inside: Solid except for a Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Heraion of Sam os it occurs first in Phase III (ca.FIGURE 5. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler Examples of this type were unearthed also in the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building of and Kienast 1989:4-5.5YR 3/1) paint. 1980:165. 25. 11.5YR 3/1) paint. Cat. 121 :Fig. ern. El Light brown (7. Examples (1955:15-18. Locus 887. 5. 7. Ionian cup Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. This type apparently lasted from the second half of the 7th to the early 6th century BCE. Reg. 3138 3114 3297/1 3023/1 5484 3500/101 53311100 3352/100 3536/100 2619 5034-6 Locus 833 824 874 802 1983 1321 1941 887 1321 737 1915 Stratum El El Description See Fig.3 ern. 29) date is 640/30 from Ephesos are dated to the (1966:112) late 7th second half of the 7th century BCE (Kerschner 1997:111. 7.93:6) Mouth and wall fragment. (mouth) = 17.93:3 5. yellowish-red (5YR 5/8)/black (5YR 2.6. 117. in the second and Kienast 1989:5-7. 33521100. black (7. Decoration: Black paint. 5. Outside: Bands on rim and at handle level. reddish-brown (2.5YR 6/4) clay. Reg. black (1OYR 2/1) shiny paint. Hayes' Type VIII-IX. Type: Villard and Vallet's Furtwangler's Type A21B 2.5/1) paint. Discussion: See No. III/I. No. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) paint. Stratum El. No.5YR 2. TJ:'I!.5YR 4/1) shiny paint. Ploug's Group 5. Hanfmann's Type IV.93:5 5. Hayes' century BCE. 8.2 band just below the mouth.92: BIRD BOWLS AND IONIAN CUPS No. Ionian cup. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos which ends 227 . 19. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. No. Date: Vallet and Villard's . 112.92:9. No. III/8-9. 120. Outside and inside: Solid. Locus 1321.93:2 5. 125. 8. very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) paint. reddish-brown (5YR 4/4)/ dark grey (7. 545/535 BCE (Furtwangler ca. El Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. Cat. No.115 Cat. H. Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. 2. Decoration: Glossy black paint.92:8) Shoulder fragment. 28). Type 5 and Boldrini's Type II11 with glazed exterior except the rim and a band at handle level. E2blE3 Pink (5 YR7/4) lightly micaceous clay. Cat. 610 BCE (Kerschner 1997:182). No.5/1) paint. PI.
228 .2 3 4 5 II 14 11 12 Fig. 5. 3) Fig. 6) Fig.92:3.93: Bird bowls and Ionian cups.94:6.94:5. 5) Fig.95:10.92:4.94:12. 5. 7) Fig. 5.92:9. 8) Fig.94:8. 13) Fig. 12) Fig. 5. 5.92:2. 1) Fig. 5. 14) Fig. 5. 5. 5. 5.92:1. 10) Fig. 5.92:7.95:16.94:1. 4) Fig. 9) Fig. 2) Fig. 5.94:7. 11) Fig. 5. 5. 5.
No.94:1. and Boldrini's Type Ill/I. Reg. At Tell Sukas. 7. Stratum E2a.9. Outside and inside bowl: solid. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment.1199). 11. H. PI. especially in regard to its end. 229 . Type: Villard and Vallet's Type B 1. Stratum E2a. foot unpainted.4 ern. Decoration: Design in brown (7. Locus 1308. starting around 580 BCE. Ionian cup (Fig. Handles: solid black. 620-580 BCE (1955:29). H. Ionian cup (Figs. D of mouth = 11 ern. Type: cf. 610 to 550 BCE. 9. Locus 1941. wall. 5389-3. 5. Furtwangler's Type 6. Type: Same as No. 10. 5. Ionian cup (Fig. Decoration: Very dark greyish-brown paint. with low foot. red (lOR 4/4) and white (lOR 8/1) paint.7 ern.(10YR 3/2). Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. Inside: solid black. Reg. Boldrini 1994: 149-150. Hanfmann (1956:170-173. Reg.289) has suggested a date from the end of the 7th to the first half of the 6th century BCE. Reg. 5. Sounding between Strata E2b and E3. H.93:7) 15 fragments of rim. 5. = 1. Reg.3 cm. = 2. Outside and inside bowl: solid. Hayes Type V. 565 B. Outside: black bands covering the mouth plus the upper part of the wall and the foot. which ended ca. = 2. 12. Outside and inside: solid. H. except rim and shoulder. Surface D. = 1. Cat. H. Decoration: Glossy black paint. sometimes a band below handle level and glazed foot.5YR 5/4). 13.C. glazed with two red lines framed by white lines painted on the glaze on the inside of the rim and the lower part of the bowl. 2619. Outside: three horizontal brown lines.4 cm.a group of almost completely preserved cups of this type have a reserved tondo on the base of the interior which is a 6th century feature. No. it occurred in Deposit II of Level 8 (Hayes 1966:1i2. = 5 em. 1963:285-287. No.E (Hayes 1966:9). 5345/100. black (10YR 2/1). Parallels: At Tocra. 620-600 BCE for this type proposed by Villard and Vallet (1955: 18-19.3502/101. Furtwangler 1980: 164-166. Decoration: Black and red paint. Locus 737. Foot: black with one red line on base. 29) has been considered too restricted. Inside: solid black. 5034-6. Date: This type is dated by Villard and Vallet to ca. Stratum E2a. No. foot unpainted.92:11) Foot fragment. Hanfmann's Type II. Locus 1971. three red lines on the lower part of the wall. 120.92:10) Foot fragment. Locus 1915. D = 6 em. 1197. Nos. (reconstructed) = 5 ern. Hayes (1966:113) and Ploug (1973:29-30) date this type to the first half of the 6th century BCE. Thus the type is to be dated from after ca. handle and foot. No. Ploug's Group 9.Date: The date of ca. unglazed exterior. two red lines below the mouth. Decoration: Very dark brown paint.
<.94: Ionian cups. \ "...~--- . 2 3 /.. . / \ \ .. <.. 1 230 .:> J I ~~\ \ \ 8 I \ 9 6 F' 9... --' \ ' \\ ) I I \_---- . I'.. 5..-- / <. ...~.
very dark brown (7. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) clay.5YR 2.5YR 7/4) micaceous clay. Core red (2. 10. 610 BCE. Inside: solid black. Other examples from the Heraion were found in a level dated ca. black (10YR 2/1)/red (lOR 4/6) paint. black (5YR 2. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment.5/1) paint. black (7. PI. brown (7.reddish-black (2. No.5YR 5/6). Fig. white (10YR 8/1) slip.511). Parallels: In the South Temenos in the Heraion on Samos. 6. 1.5YR 5/4) micaceous clay. red (lOR 4/6) . Beil. yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) paint. 223. 22). Locus 1963.5/2) paint.5/1) paint. Pink (7. 610-590/80 BCE) and also occurs in Phase IV (the late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos. 47. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) clay. 33). H.93:8 5.93:11 3401/102 890 1916 1318 E2a E2b-E3 E4 5038 Oinochoe? SOS amphora 3470/100 Parallels: In the South Temenos in the Heraion on Samos. 5. Pink (7. 13. Ionian cup (Fig 5.W2/29. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) micaceous clay. See Fig. reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) . 610 to 570/60 BCE. 220:No. Other examples from the Heraion were found in a level dated ca. black (lOYR 2/1). Reddish-brown ((5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay. glazed with two red lines framed by white lines painted on the glaze on the inside of the rim and the lower part of the bowl. 150 Fig. 1. 33). = 1. white (IOYR 8/1) slip. The mouth was cut away and the base knocked through for reuse (as a funnel?). 5345/100 54141100 3571/100 3448/100 3616/100 3590/100 Locus 1941 1963 890 1316 1334 1321 Stratum E2a E2a E2a E3b E2a E2a E2a Description Red (2. Date: The type apparently was in existence from after ca.FIGURE 5. 1. Cat. Beil. 560 BCE (Isler 1978:93-94.5YR 5/2) lightly micaceous clay. white (2. Pale red (2. 610 to 570/60 BCE.5YR4/4) paint. 213-214. dusky red (lOR 3/4). D (where mouth is cut away) = 13. III/ll12. 7. 8. Date: The type apparently was in existence from after ca.very dark grey (5YR 311) paint. 220:No. 14. No. 5389-3.5YR 5/6) micaceous clay. 9. red (lOR 4/4) and white (lOR 8/1) paint. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos.3 ern. Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:77-78) and in Well W 2 closed at about the same time (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:74-75. PI.93:10 5.5YR 2. 4.93:9 5.5 em. H. 5. 149. 22).W2/29. black (7.94: IONIAN CUPS No.5/1) paint. No. Locus 1971.93:7 5. this type first appears in Phase III (ca. 560 BCE (Isler 1978:93-94. ending ca. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) micaceous clay. Cat. = 4. edges greyish-brown (2. IV/9. 610590/80 BCE) and also occurs in Phase IV (the late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165.5YR 2. No. yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) .94:2) 17 fragments of wall. No.5YR 5/4).8 ern. 47.5YR 2.reddishbrown (5YR 4/4) paint. Decoration: Design in brown (7. Fig. ending ca. Stratum E2a. Type Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Skyphos Jug Oinochoe Oinochoe Oinochoe? Reg. Outside: three horizontal brown lines. Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:77-78) and in well W 2 closed at about the same time (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:74-75. white (IOYR 8/1) slip.5YR 8/1) paint. 231 .213-214. IV/9. III/II-12. this type first appears in Phase III (ca. foot and 1 handle. No. No. Reg. 149. 610 BCE. Stratum E2a. 2. 3. 223. Reg. 150 Fig.5YR 7/4) clay. 54141100.
Inside: solid. D of mouth = 19 em. D. Pr. Handle: solid on outside. 'Dorian' cup or skyphos (Fig. 5. H. No. two blobs on inside. 17. Locus 890. 19) was most probably 232 . Reg. Locus 1321. Locus 1941.5/1) paint.5. Outside: and Kerschner striated solid except for a very narrow Decoration: Dark reddish-brown Type: Identified by Schlotzhauer 'Dorian cups' by P. 38:6. No. Reg. Stratum E2a. No. No. Inside: solid except for a band just below the mouth. Length Reg. the island of Samos was an important at Miletus and in other workshops 1998:129). 34-36. Stratum 1. Dupont Vroulia-style the handle zone. offer a consistent tradition (von Graeve 1973174:85. a major production centre of 'Ionian cups' (Hayes 1980:150-161) 1966: 111-115.1. Decoration: Red and reddish-black paint. = 0. H. 3500/101. = 0. Decoration: Reddish-yellow 18. Length = 4. 35711100. Cook and Dupont cup' (No. 11) and other more simply decorated cups from Vroulia on Rhodes (Kinch 1914:Pls. but they were also produced produced on Rhodes or Kos. 15. D.5YR 2. 43:23. 19.9 ern. 13 but with thicker walls and handles and are no painted lines on the interior. Type: Same type of cup as No. Locus 1316.2. 33).Decoration: Yellowish-red and dark grey paint. wall and handles.4. Ploug Dupont 1983:28-29). Outside: band covering the mouth and the upper part of the wall.94:4) Wall and handle fragment. termed examples are those of the so-called in cups of the Vroulia style The short rim not going beyond (1983:29) of which the most beautiful (cf.4 em. 10. Stratum E3b. 32:f 1 and 3.1. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Handle fragment. 14.92:6) 27 fragments D (mouth) of mouth. DISCUSSION Rhodes has long been considered According analyses (Dupont to the frequency of the clay (Dupont 1983:28. the shoulder and the rigid outline of the conical body of No. 5. Decoration: Very dark brown paint. = 3. Locus 839. 45:32. = Reg. No.1. H. of finds (Furtwangler 1983:27. band just below = 22 = 12 ern. Decoration: Black (7.94:3) Rim and wall fragment. 3156. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Handle fragment. cm. 9. however. centre of Asia Minor 1973:28) but does not.5 em. The 'Dorian as well as the results of petrographic production of southwestern these cups. 37:4. Reg. Type: See No. 16. paint. (Kinch 1914:Pl. 18:9. 18 are paralleled 27:2-4. Cook and Dupont 1998:114-115). 39:8. Ionian cup (Fig.4 em. = 3. Rec. 3448/100. 3. 5248-2. Outside: band on foot and lower part of wall. Kinch 1914:167-186. (5YR 7/6) clay painted all over in very dark grey (5YR 3/1). 'Dorian' cup (Fig.1 ern. 5. Stratum E2a. Outside: Horizontal stripe on lower edge of fragment. as belonging to a marginal group of 'Ionian cups'. Inside: unpainted.4). Solid. Stratum E 2a.
RM. Locus 1321. Stratum E2b-E 3. H. Part of the back of a wild goat with part of a spiral quatrefoil above it.94:7. Fig. 5. 233 . R. Decoration: Painted solid black with two horizontal red lines and two horizontal white lines on shoulder. POLYCHROME BLACK (SCHWARZBUNT) 20. Fig. Stratum E2a.M. decorating the main zone of the vessels.6 em. No. 5. Stratum E2a. 5. Miletus (unpublished). four fragments (Nos.M. a rosette of concentric circles and a series of dots following the outermost circle as filling ornament.93:8) Shoulder and neck fragment. in which the goat became the most frequent species. On the left. H.94:8. 2a-b).10. Type: These motifs first appear in Middle Wild Goat I (Cook and Dupont 1998:37.94:6. Decoration: White slip and brown paint. 1933/34:90-91. 5. Reg. = 4. 22. 8. Type: cf.M. Decoration: White slip and black painted design. 5. Mouth and sides of handle solid black.93:10) Neck fragment. WILD GOAT STYLE OINOCHOAI At Kabri. Reg. Reg. Locus 1334.6) and continue into Middle Wild Goat II (Cook. 5. Reg. Trefoil mouthed oinochoe with triple-coil handle (Figs. Cook and Dupont 1998:42.9 cm. No. 24. Parallels: The sanctuary of Hera on Samos (Technau 1929:29). 3590/1 00. Locus 890. 8. No. Date: The careless execution of the twisted band points to a dating in Middle Wild Goat II. Date: The slightly careless execution of the filling ornaments points to a Middle Wild Goat II date. 2a-b). = 3. The old term 'Rhodian' (Cook. 34011102. Fig. twisted band on neck. on the right. Schiering 1957.94:5. R.8 ern.JUGS.93:11) Body fragment. 5. R. No. Decoration: Yellowish-red paint. 1992:259. 1997:109.6) and continue into Middle Wild Goat II (Cook. neck and handle fragments. = 2.2 em. Decoration: White slip with horizontal stripes painted in black. 8. oblique lines on surface of handle.92:9) Mouth.94:9) Shoulder fragment ofa closed vessel. H. The name comes from the animal friezes. part of back and hind leg of a wild goat. Fig. Oinochoe(?) (Fig. 5. Cook and Dupont 1998:32-70). 111-119. Locus 1916. cross with filling of spherical triangles on rote lIes. 21-24) came from 'Wild Goat style' vessels. 1992:259. = 12. 21. H. 5.=9cm. 23. Kardara 1963) is misleading. Oinochoe (Figs. and dominated the decoration of East Greek painted pottery for some three generations (Cook. Jug (Figs. Stratum E2a. 5038. Fig. DISCUSSION 'Wild Goat style' is the term used in the English speaking archaeological community for the style which emerged about the middle of the 7th century BCE. 3616/100. H. Oinochoe(?) (Figs. Type: All these motifs first appear in Middle Wild Goat I (Cook and Dupont 1998:37.
Cook (1933/34:90. considerable amounts of Middle Wild Goat II style pottery have been found in the sanctuary of Athena at Assesos near Miletus (Lohmann 1995:313-314). 264). RM. Later. 1933/34:60. 1933/34:90-91. Cook and Dupont 1998:56). 112 Fig. R. from ca. but clay analyses demonstrate that the island imported the ware (Dupont 1983:28-29. Fine pottery did exist at Miletus in the first half of the 234 . Cook and Dupont 1998:34. 1992:260. Most recently. 1992:260. Jones 1986:665-671.1. In Israel only a single sherd from Mezad Hasavyahu (Wenning 1989:186. 560 BCE may have been filled by a decadent variation of the former which lingered on beside the Late Wild Goat style (Cook. Cook and Dupont 1998:5156). Cook and Dupont 1998:44). He argued that the Middle Wild Goat II style. Cook. The Early Wild Goat style probably did not last very long. Cook and Dupont 1998:61). Cook to ca. but dated the late style of his Camirus Group (comparable to Cook's Early Wild Goat . RM. Amyx 1988:428-429) as Payne (1931:57) previously suggested. Schiering (1957:11) did not see this as a decadent transitional style. 8-9 = Naveh 1962. The chronological gap between the supposed end of the Middle Wild Goat II style ca. At about the same time. The Fikellura style which. he named this supposed decadent transitional style Wild Goat III (Cook. This transition is traditionally dated to about 600 BCE (payne 1931:57). 550 BCE. 1997:112. RM. The Middle Wild Goat style is divided into I and II around 625 BCE.Middle Wild Goat II) to 610-560 BCE. Moreover. RM. 600 and 560 BCE as too long a phase for Cook's decadent transitional style. 600 BCE for the end of Early Corinthian has been questioned by scholars who put it a little later. M. the discussion in Niemeier 1999:404 with n. exports of Middle Wild Goat II style pottery to the Black Sea coasts. According to Dupont's petrographic clay analyses the principal Middle Wild Goat II school is Milesian (Dupont 1986:60-64). A completely different solution has been proposed by Schaus (1986:289-292) who maintains that almost no fine ware was produced at Miletus in the first half of the 6th century BCE due to economic decline caused by internal civil conflicts (cf. and that the Fikellura style appeared with are-emergence of the industries at Miletus about 550 BCE. Schaus 1986:288-289). Schaus (1986:284-288) ca.P.Rhodes was the place where it was first found in quantity. Middle and Late. 65-66. Whereas relatively much Late Wild Goat Style pottery has been found in North Africa (Naucratis. Walter-Karydi 1986:73-80. 91). Cook and Dupont 1998:89) started ca. although Middle and Late are regional styles and overlap chronologically. Jones 1986:665-666). 590 BCE (Hopper 1949:180. Chios. 1992:262. Dupont regards the 40 years between ca. overlapping and influencing the early stage of Fikellura. The Late Wild Goat Style is an invention of North Ionian schools which diverged from the South Ionian mainstream while Early Corinthian was still flourishing (Cook. ca. 10.M. Tocra and Cyrene) very little is known in the Levant. Clazomenae and what Dupont calls North Ionian 2 (Dupont 1983:27-29. A problem under discussion is the date of the change from the Wild Goat style to the Fikellura style pottery mainly produced at Miletus (Dupont 1986:61. Cook and Dupont 1998:77-81. 1997:112. New evidence from Miletus disproves the theories of Cook and Schaus and confirms those of Schiering and Dupont (Schlotzhauer. W. 34-36.M. personal communication). 560 BCE and according to G. the traditional date of ca. Fig. RM. 1992:255-266). since it is no longer found in graves on Rhodes at the time when Middle Corinthian was replacing Early Corinthian (Cook and Dupont 1998:44). Petrographic clay analyses and stylistic researches have demonstrated that three or four main production centres of Wild Goat style pottery existed: Miletus. is greatly indebted to the Middle Wild Goat II style (Cook. Cook and Dupont 1998:33-36). SF 1. the Levant and North Africa come to an end and are replaced by North Ionian Late Wild Goat style ware (Schaus 1986:291. 67-71. The end of the Middle Wild Goat II style has been dated by R. 600 BCE and the beginning of the Fikellura style ca. R. PI. when ornament and poses became more stereotyped (Cook. 600 BCE. 1992:260. The Wild Goat style has been divided into Early. according to R.1986:62-64.36-44). 650 to 640 BCE (Cook. lOA) has come to light. 1997:123.M. may have lasted into the first two decades of the 6th century BCE (Dupont 1986:65).
Date: The SOS amphora was in use from the later 8th to the first half of the 6th century BCE. 5148-2. D. Stratum E 4.2 ern. Decoration: Unpainted. 3592/4.5 ern. SOSAmphora (Figs. Reg. TRADE AMPHORAE 25. Very important are fragments of 'bilingual' cups from Miletus. This type of amphora.94:10. 5.first half of 6th century BCE. Petrographic clay analyses have demonstrated that the majority of the SOS amphorae indeed are of Attic origin but imitations were also made at Chalkis and other places (Johnston and Jones 1978:122-128. Stratum E2a. Locus 1335. D. Reg. of rim fragment = 6 em. No. of mouth = 14 cm. 26.95:1) Neck and mouth fragment.8 ern. 26. 26. Reg.95:4) Rim fragment. H. 5035.7 em. Thus at Miletus fine ware pottery production did not stop in the early 6th century BCE but it was not exported. 5051-1. Type: This sherd comes from an SOS amphora which gets its name from the varied zig-zag and circle motifs on the neck resembling the Greek letters 'sigma omikron sigma' (Jones 1986:706). 5. = Reg. 5. Shoulder solid. = Stratum E2a.reddish-brown paint. H. (mouth) = 14 em. Locus 1912. Trade amphora (Fig. H.6th century BCE and its decoration was not decadent. 27. 5. Decoration: Unpainted. Part of '0' of the SOS motif on neck. 166. 5. shoulder fragment = 15.95:2) Two fragments of rim and shoulder. Trade amphora (Fig. D. = 7. Stratum E2. Decoration: Reddish-yellow . Type: As No. D. Type: As No. They demonstrate that the Fikellura style directly followed the Wild Goat II style and partly overlapped with it. No. 28. (mouth) 13 ern. = 6. Jones 1986:708-712). H.93:12) Neck and shoulder fragment. Locus 1914. Nos. 5. H. = Reg. Decoration: Unpainted. Locus 1318. Trade amphora (Fig. Decoration: Unpainted. Parallels: SOS amphorae have been found outside of Greece at over forty Mediterranean sites. Type: Samian amphora of the early type with echinoid rim (Cook and Dupont 1998:164-165. = 7 ern. in the northern Levant at Al Mina and in Egypt at Tell Defenneh (Johnston and Jones 1978:104-107.6). 5. 29. has been interpreted as a manifestation of the Athenian export trade in the Mediterranean during the Archaic period. Type: As No. Stratum E2a. supposedly produced in Athens for the olive oil export market. No. 23. 1941-179. (mouth) 13 cm. 235 . and in the east on the Black Sea at Histria. No. 26 Trade amphora (Fig.95:3) Rim fragment. mostly in Italy and Sicily but as far west as Spain and Morocco. Date: End of 7th . Fig. 34701100. decorated on the outside in good Middle Wild Goat II style and on the inside in Fikellura style. 112-122).
95: Amphorae and cooking-pots.::jl n I ( 14 15 "rr 16 13 Fig. 8 9 W ~ )fJI \ n )lJI \ )(~J \11 c. 236 .2 4 5 rj~ 6 7 dl ~. 5.
Red (2. = 3 em. Trade amphora (Fig. Cooking-pot 15.5YR 5/6) .95:7) Foot fragment. No. 3552/100 3222 3228 315113 Locus 1335 1912 Stratum Description E2 E2a E2a E2a E2a El El El El El EI E2a El El E3 El See Fig.5YR 5/6) highly micaceous clay.5 em. D.5YR 5/6) micaceous clay.95: AMPHORAE AND COOKING-POTS. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) surface. One horizontal groove at base of neck. 5. H. Stratum El H. Decoration: Unpainted.95:8) Foot fragment. Locus 874. 10. Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. 14. No. Reg. No. Trade amphora (Fig. H. 31. 9. 7. 3123-6.5 YR 2. 34. Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. Stratum El.5/1) paint. Reg. 23. 237 . Decoration: Unpainted. 5. 32. Blue-grey (5 B 511) clay. Cooking bowl 16. 13. 5. 4.5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. H.6 em. 2.93:13 Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. Locus 823. 3309-3. No. D. Figs. 5. = 6 em. Locus 1958. Bluish-grey (5PB 5/1) core. 1914 1958 879 823 889 874 Llll Kill 1309 1324 864 866 821 Red (2. Cook and Dupont 1998:170-174. D (neck) = 15 ern.5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay.7 a).95:6) Foot fragment. D (foot) = 10 ern. (foot) = 6 em. lightly micaceous clay. 33. 5. 3. Locus 889. Grey (5YR 5/1)core with reddish-yellow (5YR 6/8) surface. 3286-5.95:9) Foot and wall fragment. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) lightly micaceous clay. = 9 em.93:14 30. unpainted. Like No. Trade amphora (Fig. micaceous clay. 6. D.5YR 5/6) . 1. 5237-5. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/8) clay. Type: Milesian amphora (cf. Stratum E2a. shiny black (2.e Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. = 3. (foot) = 5. = 3. Locus 879. Trade amphora (Fig.FIGURE 5.3 cm. Like No. Decoration: Unpainted. Reg. II. No. 5. Reg.first half of 6th century BCE. light brownish-grey (1OYR 6/2) surface. (foot) = 8 em. Date: End of 7th . 12. 5. Reg. 2. Amphora 5. Trade amphora (Fig. 8. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) core. Red (2. 505114 1941/179 5148-2 5237-5 3309-3 3123-6 3335/10 3286-5 300112 3095/1 3437/100 3547/100. 3335110. 2.brown )7. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) lightly micaceous clay. Stratum El. Stratum El. three grooves on upper part of neck. Decoration: Unpainted. No.95:5) Neck and shoulder fragment. H. TJ!l!. 3592-4 5035. Red (2.brown (7. No. Decoration: Unpainted.
H =. Decoration: Unpainted.95:15) 2 rim fragments. H.95:16. 597-604. 38. 1962:55. Fig. Reg. dated between the end of the third quarter of the 7th to the tum of the 7th . Cooking-pots (Figs.5 em. = 5. this is a bowl with an everted rim. 136. Locus 866. 18. Stratum E2a. Nos.4 em. Reg.203210. 130-131. 300112. 83. 3228/1. Nos. No. Reg. Cat. Its identification was secured by comparing the piece directly with fragments of Archaic Etruscan bucchero pottery in the collection of the Archaeological Institute of Heidelberg University. Reg. 598). =8 cm. 7-8.5 em.6th centuries BCE or shortly after (Rasmussen 1979:88-89. 37.038.482. D (mouth) = 20 ern. 75. 34371100. XII). Locus 1324. 127.5 em. 39. PI. D (mouth) = 21 cm. 19411178. Stratum E1. Figs.93:13) Rim fragments of imported Greek cooking vessels of coarse highly micaceous clay with rolled out rim.7 ern. 42. 94 No. common in the last quarter of the 7th century and in the first quarter of the 6th century BCE (Rasmussen 1979:78-79. 22:L 45-48. = 6. Type: Although no handles are preserved. Reg. COOKING VESSELS 36 . 99. (not illustrated) Shoulder fragment. According to its profile. Fig. Type: Ware similar to Nos. to those from Ephesos and to two examples from the Greek settlement at Tocra in Libya dated by Hayes to the late 7th/early 6th century BCE and attributed to a possible Cycladic origin (Hayes 1966:135-137. Nos.40. 40. 11. = 5. However. PI. H. H. Locus 864.1922. ( 238 . described as "loaded with large flakes of silvery mica". 5. . 116 PI. Locus 1309. 5. Parallels: East Greek examples have been published from the island of Chios (Boardman 1967:145-146. Square Kill. the fabric of the latter. D (mouth) = 20 ern. N 18. but their typological sequence can only be followed at Athens with the material from the Agora and the Kerameikos (Young 1939:189-190. Surface. Square Lll1. Nos.7. H. 5. 93.35. Nos. No. 1961b:317. Reg. Stratum E 3. 136. 91-92. Q 10. 21-22. D = ca. Fig. 18. H. Surface partially blackened by fire. R. 493. Cat. H. 5. No. PI. D (mouth) = 20 cm. 3095-1. D (mouth) = 19 ern. Cat. 86-91). 139. 155. = 4. KUbler 1970:192. 105). Stratum E1. Etruscan bucchero (Figs. PI. The surface is partially blackened by fire. 36-40. 1412-1413. Cooking bowl (Fig. 512 Cat. Brann 1961a:123124. No. Date: Late 7th century BCE 41. Stratum E1. 371. 3547/100. Nos. 36. They are known from different areas in Greece. They are unpainted. No. PI. PIs. 145.95:10-15. Unpainted. No. 3552/100. 29-31) or from an olpe of his Type 1. = 6. Trade amphora. 66). No. 94) and from Ephesos (Kerschner 1997:115.93:14) The Etruscan bucchero sherd was a surprise. 20. 5. III. The Kabri fragments have a profile similar to that of an example from Chios (Boardman 1967:146 Fig. No. No. 153154 PI.the Kabri sherd comes either from an oinochoe of Rasmussen's Type 3a.8 em. is very like that of the Kabri cooking jars and may indicate a southern Ionian origin. Sparkes and Talcott 1970:224-225. 30 cm. PIs. Cat. 1932. 3222. these rims undoubtedly come from one-handled cooking jugs (chytrai) which have a tradition going back to the Sub-Mycenaean period (Reber 1991:20-56).
12) and have been found at. Iliffe 1932:17. 16. 32.2.31 Fig. Waldbaum and Magness Ashkelon (Stager 1996a. this vessel type was seldomly exported like examples found at Vroulia in Rhodes (Kinch . No Bird bowls were found at Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:41).5. PIs. fragments of three Bird bowls were found at Tell Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:125. V:a. Fig. 13. Tel Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:126. 1996b. There are only two examples besides that from Kabri. 4. .1. The reason for the rareness industry. 6. 131 Nos. PI. 1978b. Tel (Gitin 1995:65. Fig.4). from Al 1980:47-48). V. 6). Nos. PI. but the fragment example so far known from Israel.97:1) are rare in the Levant. pls. 72. PI. 32.96:4) are known in the northern Levant from Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:72. 1990:508). 2). XVI.35 Fig.a). IX-XI).1-7. 7. No. No.1). 14). East Greek trade amphorae (Fig. Waldbaum and Magness':1997:29-30. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:30. Nos.5. 4). Ashkelon (Pythian-Adams Fig. 1997:32-33. Reich 1989:230 Fig. 22:1. 14. Figs. Mezad Hashavyahu (Naveh 1962 110-111. cf.1-6. 11 Nos. Fig. olive presses of the 7th century be due to the fact that this region had its own olive-oil by the numerous from Kabri is the only Levant may documented 1995:63-69). Tell er-Ruqeish (Waldbaumand Fantalkin 2001 :88-87. I-III. Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1986: 198. . Bird bowls (Fig.1-2l 35.32. Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:43-69. 3). PI. From Most of the classes of Archaic Greek pottery found at Tel Kabri are well distributed Mina in the north to the Negev in the south. Other classes are less known from the Levant. PI. 49 Fig. 5.10. 6. 114-117. Mezad Hashavyahu Miqne-Ekron (Naveh 1962:106-107. Wild Goat II style (Fig. 10. Fantalkin 2001:89-90. 66*. 9. XV.5:7-8). . 251-255. Fig 9. 3). Dan (pakman 1992:236 Fig. 28:7-14). 34 Fig. Fragments of four Bird bowls were unearthed at Tyre (Coldstream and Bikai 1988:43. 5. PI. 85. 60. PIs.97:1) have been found at Al Mina. 1.3-4). Keisan (Briend and Humbert Tel Batash (Waldbaum (Naveh 1962:104-105. amphorae Fantalkin 84-85. 2. Fig.322-323. 1993:936).31 Jemmeh (Illiffe 1932:17. 5.Ras Ibn Hani. 4.96:3)pottery has been foundat Al Mina (Robertson 1940:8-16. In general. for example. 69*. Tell el-ijesi (Risser and Blakely 1989:93. 32. Fig. 7 No. In Israel. 17. In Israel. 13. 67*). 8 Nos. No. 239 (Naveh 1962:108-109.96:2) were unearthed at Al Mina (Robertson 1940:13.3. 5.12). Figs. 6. Boardman 1978b:41 PI. 120. PI. 5. 5. following p. PI. Figs. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:29. 14. both from Mezad Hashavyahu 1914:190-191.23) and at a number of sites in Israel.6) and several others have been 1986:198 with note 65). Fantalkin 2001:Fig.Tel 2001:90-94. Sarepta (Koehl 1985:137-138. XIII) and in Israel at Tell Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:151. Fig..Tyre (Coldstream and Bikai 1988:42. . Achzib (Culican 1982:67. 5. Fig. Mezad Hasavyahu and Magness 1997:33. No.1-12.67*. PI.31.387-389. Fig. Fig. SOS amphorae (Fig. XX. Fig. 32:2 and 35:10).PIs. mentioned by Waldbaum 1994:59) and possibly at (Naveh 1962:106-107. Boardman 1980:48). PI. 18). Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1978a:57. 6g). 16. Figs. 12. Tell Tel Malhata (Kochavi 1970:23 (below). Akko. 'Ionian cups' (Fig. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:27-28. 86). Fig. Fig. Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:27-38). Dor and Ashkelon Mezad Hashavyahu (unpublished. Boardman 1980:48. 69*. 11-12.ARCHAIC EAST GREEK AND ETRUSCAN POTTERY IN THE LEVANT in the Levant. . XIII). Nos. Fig.1). of this type in the southern This is very impressively (Gitin BCE found at Tel Miqne-Ekron Polychrome black jugs (Fig. 35). of others at Dan. IV:1. such 1980:151. 10-11. Magness 1997:30 with note 56) and Tel Batash (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:30. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33 with note 79).(Riis 1982:251-252). colour photo. 10. 29. Tel Batash (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:28) and Ashkelon (Stager 1996a:67*. Fantalkin 2001:75-79.96:1) were frequent at Al Mina (Robertson Ras el-Bassit mentioned one example has been published (Courbin (Courbin 1940:14. Stager 1996a.3-3. 41 PI. Ras Ibn Hani (Riis 1982:251-252). 7a-b). Nos. 1923:PI.
Bottom right) Cooking vessels. Bottom left) Wild Goat II style. 5. ! TEL DAN ~ • TEL KfABR' TEL KEISAN JELL JEMMEH • l.lELL ER-RUQEISH'i TELL EL-HESI • T • ELL MALHATA Fig.SAREPTA I.96: Distribution of East Greek vessels in Israel: Top left) Bird bowls. 240 . Top right) Ionian cups.
Rostovtzeff 1932:331-332. Fragments of one or two cooking-pots have been found at Tel Batash in the Stratum II destruction debris of Area F (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31. 60b. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31-32.eel' f . PI. von Hase 1971: 10-12. 92. the western coast of Asia Minor and in the Levant (see Rasmussen 1979:150-156. since almost all Etruscan bucchero vessels found in the eastern Mediterranean are kantharoi (Rasmussen 1979: 155). 1977-78. 58. Gras 1985:676-679. Fig.1. (right) Greek cooking vessels. 7.7-8. 11). 1986:201. 4. Greek cooking vessels (Fig. 5. 64.1-2. 36). 2). in southern France. Reich 1989:230 Fig.Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31. It is striking that the Kabri fragment comes from a closed shape. 6.97:2) of this period are known from only a few Levantine sites. Fig. In this context. Before the find of the Kabri bucchero fragment. in Sardinia.34 Fig. 8-9.33 Fig. Fewer have been unearthed on the Greek mainland. an oinochoe or olpe. 10) and numerous sherds of this ware have been found in the Late Iron Age destruction debris and the earlier construction fill at Ashkelon (Stager 1996a:67*. the only known examples in the Levant were two fragments of kantharoi of Rasmussen's Type 3e from Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1973:27. 63. PI.202 Fig. Fragments of up to 18 Greek cooking-pots have been identified at Mezad Hashavyahu (Naveh 1962:104-105.7-8. von Hase 1989:329. PI. Fig. Fig. Fig. in eastern Sicily and at Carthage. Figs. 1978a.31. Fig. Fantalkin 2001 :86-87. 30. on p. Gras 1985 :672-674) and a bronze oinochoe of the so-called Rhodian type reportedly found 241 .TEl KABRI • I ! ~J Fig. 12F. all in Israel.97: Distibution in the Levant of (left) SOS amphorae and polychrome black jugs. the Aegean islands. Imports of Etruscan bucchero have been found in greater quantities in the western Mediterranean. 12a-b. 5. Fig. two bronze objects should be mentioned which have been seen as Etruscan imports in the Levant: a belt buckle in the British Museum said to have been found in Syria (Hall 1929/30: 107. PI. 1).
one year later. The nature of the Greek presence in the Levant has been thoroughly discussed elsewhere (Neimeier 2001). According to the Babylonian Chronicle in the British Museum. in 603 BCE (Malamat 1979:208. Thus neither object comes from a secure context. to November/December 604 BCE (Wiseman 1956:28.4. it is impossible to establish during which of these campaigns the Phoenician fortress of Stratum E2 in Area of Tel Kabri was destroyed.1 and 4. 68-69. Jacobsthal 1929:205-206 No. Gitin 1997:98-99). these were single members of the elite. Moreover. the conquest of Ashkelon is dated to the month of Kislev in the first year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II. THE DESTRUCTION OF THE FORTRESS OF STRATUM E2 Like the Phoenician pottery (Chapter 5:1V). 1995. No texts exist recording the destruction of the fortress at Tel Kabri. driven from their homeland by many factors (Bettalli 1995 :26. In all probability it occurred during one ofNebuchadnezzar's campaigns along the Phoenician and Philistine coast at the end of the 7th and in the first two decades of the 6th century BCE (Wiseman 1985:21-41. but without a representative from Philistia. cf. 108-109). The implication is that the Philistines no longer posed a threat to Babylon at that time. when the Babylonians destroyed Ashkelon. 242 .1-2) and identified as an Etruscan import by Gras (1985:676). I would agree with Gitin that the most convincing date is 604 BCE. PIs. Since the latest Greek pottery from Kabri cannot be more accurately dated than between the last decade of the 7th century BCE and the first half of the 6th century BCE. it is improbable that the Babylonian destruction of Ekron happened after 595 BCE since.. 3. 1996b:58. and M. n. Shefton 1979:68 No. the map Stager 1996b:58). the imported Greek pottery of Stratum E2a also shows close relationships to the assemblage from the destruction levels at the end of the Iron II phase at Ashkelon and Tel Miqne (Ekron) (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:27-33). The few Etruscan objects from the Levant certainly do not provide evidence for direct Etruscan trade with the Near East.e. 10. and Philistia apparently came totally under their control. The excavators of both sites have convincingly attributed these destructions to the Babylonian invasions led by Nebuchadnezzar II. in 60110BCE or even after 595 BCE when the chronicle ends (Na'aman 1992:43-44). the Berlin jug is most probably of east Greek manufacture (Jacobsthal 1929:210. according to the text of Jeremiah 27 dated to 594 BCE describing a meeting in Jerusalem at which a rebellion against Babylon is planned. The excavators of Tel Kabri contend that a small contingent of Greek mercenaries in the service of the Kingdom of Tyre was based in the fortress of Stratum E2 (Niemeier 1994. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:37). The date of the fall of Tel Miqne (Ekron) is not as assured. i.at Sidon which was acquired by the Berlin Museum from a Parisian art dealer (Furtwangler 1888:250 No. 77 with note 3. Unlike the garrison at Mezad Hashavyahu. caption) thinks that the two Ras el-Bassit kantharoi were brought by east Greek intermediaries. It has been suggested that it was destroyed during the same campaign as Ashkelon (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:37-38). Rostovtzeff (1932:332) has suggested that the belt buckle from Syria probably was brought by an Etruscan slave or associate of a Phoenician merchant. Stager 1996a:72* with note 1. As Gitin (1998:276. 2002). Courbin (1978a:58. A 23). Frey 1963:23. Thus the date of Ekron's destruction by the Babylonians falls most likely in the ten year-span of 604-595 BCE. 2) has recently argued.
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