TEL KABRI

THE 1986-1993 EXCAVATION SEASONS
AHARON KEMPINSKI

Contributions by N. Angel-Zohar, R. Y. Bankirer, A. Cohen-Weinberger, P. Comale, C. Dauphin, M.Faerman, M. Fischer, L. Gershuny, S. Givon, Y. Goren, A. Horowitz, H. M. Khalaily, L. Kolska Horwitz, Z. Koren, G. Lehmann, O. Lemau, N. Liphschitz, O. Marder, H. Mienis, Y. Mizrachy, A. Nebel, B. Niemeier, W.-D. Niemeier, R. Oren, T. Oman, M. W. Prausnitz, A. Princivalle, P. Rosano, N. Scheftelowitz, S. Shalev, P. Smith, M. Tagliapietra, T. Tsuk, U. Yalcin. .

EDITED BY

NA' AMA SCHEFTELOWITZ AND RONIT OREN

EMERY AND CLAIRE YASS PUBLICATIONS IN ARCHAEOLOGY TEL AVIV 2002

IV. AREAE
Gunnar Lehmann

Area E lies on a small rectangular artificial hill measuring 100 x 150 m in the southwestern corner of the large Middle Bronze Age mound of Tel Kabri and rising some 12 m over it (Fig. 4.81). Until 1948 a small village called et-Tell occupied this area. The rich spring of <A a1-Fuwarah and the reservoir of <Ein Shefa' in (Birket Mefshukh) (Conder and Kitchener 1881:156, 158) lie to its northeast (Chapter 3). Excavation concentrated on the northwestern corner of the hill. The investigation, begun in 1986 under the supervision of Lilly Gershuny, was continued in 1989, 1990 and 1992 by Helena Pastor Borgonon. In 1993 this author supervised the excavations in Area E. Preliminary reports on the stratigraphy and finds for these seasons were published by the Kabri Expedition between 1990-1994 (Gershuny 1987; Kempinski 1987, 1991; Naveh and Kempinski 1991; Niemeier 1990, 1994; Pastor Borgonon 1990, 1991; Lehmann 1993).

Fig. 4.81: The mound of et-Tell showing the excavations in Area E.

Four main strata were discerned.
Stratum E1 E2 E3 E4 Date 19th century CE- 1948 Hellenistic period Iron Age" Iron Age" Iron Age" Description and Interpretation Village Some pottery finds from disturbed tombs Fortress Fortress Floors and debris

73

EARL Y BRONZE AGE
Pottery from this period was mixed into almost all lower Iron Age loci providing abundant evidence for occupation here at that time. However, no Early Bronze Age structures or layers were excavated.

MIDDLE AND LATE BRONZE AGE
These periods are represented by isolated sherds found in the debris below the lowest floors.

IRON AGE
The earliest Iron Age levels are debris layers (Locus 871) that were identified in a very limited sounding under Floor 870 of Stratum E4 (Fig. 4.82). There is no floor connected with this debris. STRATUME4 Remains of Stratum E4 appeared only in a sounding under Floor 866 of Stratum E3 in Square L 11.1 A plaster floor (870) at 55.00-55.10 m was discerned but its relationship to the casemate walls was not clear. However, the underlying locus (871) is already under the casemate walls and it seems probable that Stratum E4 predates the construction of the fortress. No other evidence of this stage was found, perhaps because excavation did not continue below Stratum 3 anywhere else. Pre-8th century BCE pottery (Figs. 5J50, 5.70) is associated with this stratum. STRATUME3 The structural piers remains of Stratum E3 are those of a fortress with casemate l312/816, l3111l344) are massive constructions, walls (858, fieldstone fills. Partition 878, 87~, 882, walls (Fig. 4.83, 4.84). The 1.60 m wide, built with ashlar l332) form a number of '
871

N
59.00

L11

s

Fig. 4.82: Schematic north-south section through Square Lll.

casemate walls (l343/863, and undressed compartments.

Casemate walls W816 and Wl311

of Stratum 3 are clearly cut in Square M9 by W131 0 of division (Fig. 4.85). only in Square

Stratum 2 (see below) providing us with a distinct stratigraphic LII at 55.90 m. Thus the earliest phase (E3c) is evident

Stratum E3 had at least three phases of floors (Fig. 4.85). Floor 866 was excavated is represented by floors at a level of about 57.00-15 by later building Metal fittings, activity m in the casemate rooms

only in one small room. The next phase (3b) 848, 876 and 883 in Almost (Locus all 873)

Squares Ll1, K-LlI2 was badly disturbed baskets century B.C.E.

and K13. The final phase (3a) at about 57.70 m (Loci 812, 813, 837, 1313, 1314) and the finds on and above them are mixed. Ottoman sherds together for a door, were found in the debris 3b and 3a contain probably with distinctive 8th-7th

of floor loci from phases pottery.

above the 3b floor 876. 1 Unfortunatelythe locusnumberwas not changedin 1990 so thatthe fmds from underthe floor are also numbered L. 866. It is howeverpossibleto isolatethe basketsL. 866 thatcontainedmaterialfrom StratumE4. 74

I I I I I .I~ It...J 75 ..

4.84: Schematicplans of Strata E3a (top). 76 .N t M N t M 10 N t M 10 Fig. E3b (centre) and E3c (bottom).

W1310 of Stratum E2 (on right) cuts W1311/W1312 of Stratum 3 (on left). 4. 4. 77 . STRATUME2 Only the northwestern part of this fortress was excavated (Squares L-Q/4-10) (Figs.87.86: Looking west over Squares 0-P/7-8.86.89). 4. 4.88. 4. looking south. 4.Fig. Room 1977 in foreground.87: Casemate rooms in Squares 0/4-8. looking east. Fig. 4. Fig.85: Square M9.

00 00 . I -j- ~~IM~.~· ------% -1. -1- -1- -1- -1- -1- -:--------:-:3t ..... o ] ._ -1- _L I -I- -I- -i- I -1- N ~ -\- _L I -t~ V1 '+-< 0 ~ ~ e ." z o ...§ A-. .f z 0 0 ii: eO 78 . .

'I .89: Schematic plan of Stratum E2 with Sections A-A and B-B.. A Destruction Layer with Restorable Pottery A L :---_ --I I 1 I I .. E2b N6 + 06 o:"'__~d' P6 B Destruction layer with Restorable Pottery 04 05 06 07 Fig.SBm--+ B . 4. Str. 79 .

it is not clear to which stratum this wall belongs. The sounding exposed remains ofa wall (WI926) in Square P7. Two phases of use were discernible in most of them (2a.90: W1340. Other finds on the floor include iron objects. In Square L 10 it disappears in pits which were dug by stone robbers in the Ottoman period when the remains of Stratum E2 were leveled and built over by a village. The beaten earth floor has an ash layer of up to 10 em on it.1990.90). a wall (WI993) was found with a narrow. Two rows of rooms were excavated between the three walls. Wall W1339 does not continue further east into Square L 11 but may have been robbed out. as does the floor.1991. 80 . adjusting to the topography of the mound. and found. early mortaria types or transport jars (Fig.79:12. Wall W1339 was built exactly between walls W816 and W1343.91).g. The structural context of this wall. the northwestern corner of the casemate fortification system was not established.1992). fragments of at least one large pottery basin and a concentration of shells. built with ashlar piers and undressed fieldstone fills (Fig. looking None of the foundations of the three casemate walls were west. Note ashlar piers. Assyrianizing types) appears only in Stratum E2. 2b) represented by distinct floors. The burnt contents of a transport jar were also collected. 4. some of it (e. While most of the pottery from this sounding has parallels in both Strata E2 and E3.60 m wide. which may be the remains of a burnt beam. Stratum E2b in order to examine the foundations of W1389 but digging stopped before reaching their base. Although the excavations reached the western slopes of the hill. Under the lowest surface reached in the sounding (1992). It may be the eastern continuation of the Stratum E2 casemate system or a reinforcement in Stratum E3 between walls W816 and W1343. This technique has been identified as a Phoenician architectural element (c£ Stem 1992:Fig. its architectural context is unclear. 5. 2).1989. Below this was a further series of surfaces (1988. Only the northern part of this wall was excavated but as no floor connected with it was found. 4. but thick layer of ash immediately north of it. as were several additional rooms south of the innermost casemate wall (W897). The rich pottery repertoire retrieved comprises restorable types such as jugs. In Square OP7 a sounding was made under Floor 1987 of fieldstone fill. About 10-15cm under the floor gravel bedding (Locus 1994) slopes downward from north to south.As in Stratum 3. 1984) was exposed between walls W1331 and W897 in Square 0/5-6 (Fig. Fig. the casemate walls are 1. Since the foundation of W1339 was not excavated. 5. too remains obscure. 13. Stratum E2. Fortunately many floors were still deep enough to survive this leveling.82:8-10) and represents a typical assemblage of the mid-7th century BeE. 4. The ash and the restorable pottery from the casemate floor may indicate a destruction layer. Phase E2b A floor of a casemate room of Stratum E2b (Loci 1961. The outer casemate wall (W1382+WI986) turns northward after running for 25 m east-west.

Destruction layer with restorable pottery. the undisturbed part of the floor is a fragment of a basket handle amphora with an engraved sign (Fig. 4. in Square P7. the debris was apparently leveled immediately after the destruction raising the floor level of Stratum E2a to about 20 em above E2b. 1). such as ash and restorable pottery on the floors.91: Room 1961.86:3). Since the pottery repertoire of Strata E2a and E2b is very similar. Locus 1333 east of W1330 and Locus 1334 to the west of this wall may belong to Stratum E2b.92: Room 890. possibly with the addition of some pit installations. In Square Q7 two floors.55 m which yielded a large number of pottery finds. Phase 2a The overall plan of this phase is virtually identical to that of its predecessor. looking east. Fig. Excavations continued some 20 em under floor 1966 (Locus 1963) until the end of the season interrupted operations. Since the baulk between P7 and Q7 was not removed. Only parts of the floor of Room 1987 in Square O-P/7 were exposed during the excavation. The pottery types resemble the types in Stratum E2a. 5. 4. This material is apparently either from a destruction at the end of Stratum E2b or it is a fill to raise the level of Stratum E2b to that of Stratum E2a. 81 . There are some indications of destruction of Stratum E2b. Among the finds from. Floor 1309 runs up to W1328 and joins floor 1987. Pit 1936 was dug down from this floor. It was violently destroyed resulting in small finds and large amounts of restorable pottery being left in situ. which may have originally covered both rooms.Room 1969 in Square P6 has a floor at about 59. The floor slopes down southward rather steeply from W897 to W1328/W1949 which was built on it (Kempinski and Niemeier 1994:Fig. it was not established whether these floors are a continuation of floor 1309.42-59. The entire central part of its plaster floor was destroyed by an Ottoman pit. South of Room 1987 is Room 1309. Fig.

This type of arrowhead is well known from Syria and Palestine from the late 8th through the 4th centuries BeE (see Cleuziou 1977.62 m.5:9) which may have been one of the weapons used during the destruction of the building. Trilobate arrowheads have been connected with Scythians in the 7th century BCE (Cleuziou 1977: I93) but were also later used by the Achaemenid army. 4.96). Recovered from the floors of these rooms was a large quantity of restorable transport jars.58 m. One of these had Cypriote letters incised on it (Fig.00 m thick above them (Locus 1914) in which remains of plaster flooring were also mixed (Fig. 1983). 1941 and 1948 were identified between walls W1331 and W897 in Square 05-7.30-1. Fig. many of them basket-handle amphoras from Cyprus.87:1). 10. They are defined and separated from one another by partition walls W899. W1340 and W1995.5:8) was found out of context but probably belongs to Stratum E2. looking north. Finds on its floor comprise late 7th century BCE transport jars. Also unearthed was an iron spearhead (Fig.93: Destruction debris in Room 1948. W1331 and W1342. In the destruction debris of Square 04 was a body sherd with an incision of a jar (Fig. Fallen stones and broken mudbricks covered the floor of 1948 (Fig.23). that of Room 1941 at 58.94: Locus 1914. a floor. According to the pottery and the small finds. 4. It is a type with a long socket and an elaborated rib in the middle of the blade which has many parallels in the late Iron Age (Moorey 1980:64). 4. Other finds from this destruction debris include an Egyptian amulet (Fig. 8. Moorey 1980:64-66. 5. This assortment of pottery and small finds does not rest immediately on the floors but in a layer of debris from 0. looking west.50-55m (Fig. Oren 1984:28. In Locus 1321.New floors were exposed in the casemate rooms.95. It is therefore possible that material from an upper storey collapsed into the rooms below and that the upper floors were used for storage. a fragment of a pottery vat used for purple dyeing (Chapter 16) and a broken storage jar with an incised Phoenician letter. Peleg et al. Floors 890. Although Locus 1977 in Square 04 on the western edge of the mound between casemate walls W897 and W1331 is much lower than the above-mentioned floors of Stratum E2a. enclosed by W1310. apparently an aleph (Fig.75). 4. A bronze trilobate arrowhead with socket (Fig. on which lay a great deal of pottery. The floor of Room 890 lay at 58. this deposit of pottery and small finds was filled into the casemate rooms during the destruction of Stratum E2a (Figs. 4. Fig.87:2). 8. 5.93). 4.53 m.94). 5. 4. it may also be part of the same phase. and of Room 1948 at 58. 82 . It was severely disturbed by robber trenches and pits cutting through the loci immediately above it.92). was traced in Square N8-9 at 58.

east of 1960. The floor of Room 1960 in Square P6.98). Although cut by a number of Ottoman pits. Fig. Fig. close to wall W897. 4. the threshold survived. In the northern part of the room. As in Room 1960. were a few installations. Several rooms abutting on the southern side of W897 were excavated.98: Destruction debris on the floor of Room 1308. including complete transport jars and an oven in the northeastern corner of the room. East of this was a stone basin.97). looking south. looking east. W1949 and W1950 with a floor at 59. 4. 4. enclosed by W897. W1329. 83 . was identified at 59.Fig. W1328.69-73 m (Fig. several in situ finds from the destruction of Stratum E2a were recorded. Fig.76:15) in it. The room was entered from the south through a doorway. looking east. 4. W1950 and W1974.96: Locus 1913. A complete transport jar was sunk slightly into the floor which was plastered around the opening in order to facilitate pouring liquids into it. complete with threshold and door socket found in situ. South of this installation was a stone lined pit with an Assyrian bowl (Fig. 4.95: Locus 1912. 4. Room 1308. 5.97: Installations in Room 1960.65-70 m (Fig. is defined by W897.

94 m). 1309). Large rectangular dressed stones found in situ in Square P8 in Room 1318 may have been the first steps of stairs leading into an upper storey (Fig. 84 . Fig. LOCUS 855 IN SQUARE III In Square I II a floor (855) was found on the very edge of the hill. with W1328. Among these finds was the fragment of a pottery vat used for purple dyeing (Chapter 16). south of which were the remains of an oven. Wall W1330 in Squares P-Q17 runs exactly towards the corner ofW1949 which. This floor is connected to W860. W1329. but the finds here are mixed and disturbed by later material.3: 10). this floor connects with adjacent floors of Stratum E2a.South of Room 1960 there was probably a corridor (Locus 1963) but the area excavated is too small to clarify the plan in this part of the building.99: Steps of a staircase in Locus 1318. Parallels to pottery finds would place this locus in either Stratum E2 or E3. forms an entrance to Room 1308. This floor was apparently in use with the steps. This locus was disturbed during the Ottoman period by stone-robbing. According to the level of both the lowest steps and the pebble floor (59.52-63 m. Unfortunately a pit (Locus 1908 in Square P7) destroyed the northern part of W1330 and there is no evidence of any connection between these two walls.99). W1341 and W1330 (Loci 1305. The room immediately north of these steps may have been part of the staircase. On the floor was a thick layer of ash. Remains of additional floors were also found in Square Q7 west ofW1330 at 59. Material found in Locus 864 below this floor was also mixed. On the same level as the first steps are remains of a pebble floor immediately south of the stairs. 5. Its stratigraphic relationship is uncertain. This corridor continued eastward into Square P7 where it may have linked up with a room between W1328.45 m and west ofW1330 at 59. Unfortunately this area was so disturbed by Ottoman pits that there were almost no traces of Stratum E2a except for finds out of context. Among the pottery finds from Room 1318 were fragments of a Greek SOS amphora (Fig. 4. It may have belonged to Stratum E2. 4.

where agricultural products from the hill-country might have been collected and stored before being shipped to places such as Akko or Akhziv.apparently restricted to the small hill of et-Tell. Olami 1974). 1994.2001. The territorial transformation of the Akko plain into an Assyrian province may have begun already in 701 BCE under Sennacherib and his campaign 2 Na'aman 1994. centralized settlement system (Lehmann 2001. floors and pits were identified. a tower like complex of the 10th and 9th centuries BCE at the edge of the Akko plain (Gal and Alexandre 2000). may have some connections with the campaign ofShalmaneser III in 841 BCE. Ronen and Olami 1983. Kloner and Olami 1980. However.STRATUM El Remains ofa village from the Ottoman period were uncovered between 1986 and 1992 in Squares K-MlI013 (living floors) and in Square III (tombs). Kabri is situated exactly between the coastal plain with its emphasis on grain production and the hill-country which produced wine and oil. Kabri) points to an integration of the area into the Tyrian city-state and its economic system. Kabri was also important for controlling the all-weather route on the slopes leading from Rosh ha-Niqra south to Akko and the Carmel. The remains of a fortress in Strata E3 and E2 point to a special function of the site. cf. but on different locations. The stratigraphy reflects the historical events in this part of the Tyrian hinterland. especially at the end of the 8th and the 7th century BCE. but earlier such site and collection point was Horvat Rosh Zayit. At the end of Iron Age I and the beginning of Iron Age II the settlement pattern in the Akko plain changed. the settlement pattern of the Late Bronze Age collapsed at the end of this phase (Frankel 1986. In 1993 Mahmud Hawari excavated Ottoman remains in Square Q8 (Hawari 1994). the importance of Tel Kabri was reduced to a small rural site during the Late Bronze Age . During Iron Age I the centralized urban system of the kingdom of Akko was replaced by two apparently independent settlement systems: one on the coastal plain using the Late . Another. Kabri was a significant strategic point in the northern Akko plain. Akko became again the urban centre of an integrated. the Akko plain appears as Tyrian territory? In Iron Age II. For Assyrian references to Akko see Parpola 1970: 11. 85 . many of the small Iron Age I villages were abandoned and new equally small villages were founded in the same hill and mountain areas. In the lower Ottoman levels there were also some stray finds of Hellenistic pottery (Chapter 5:IV). all out of context. around 850 BCE according to the pottery. In Assyrian sources. Thus. Stem 1990). Reallexikon der Assyriologie volume 1(1928)64. most of the Ottoman village in Squares N-Q14-8 was bulldozed before the excavations in order to reach the Iron Age levels. At Kabri this road was crossed by another route leading from the sea to Upper Galilee. Bronze Age sites on a reduced scale and another situated on the hills and the mountain slopes in newlyfounded very small villages (Lehmann 2001). The large percentage of Tyrian pottery at these sites (e. According to archaeological surveys. Only a few installations. Lehmann 1995. The end of Stratum E4 and the beginning of Stratum E3 might reflect political events following the campaigns of Tiglatpileser III in 734 or 733 BCE (Tadmor 1994).g. SUMMARY After being one of the major urban centres in northern Palestine during the Middle Bronze Age. The transition from Stratum 5 to Stratum 4. probably ancient Kabul. when the Assyrian king reached the Akko plain (Katzenstein 1997: 174-178). Large amounts of Ottoman pottery were found (mostly out of context) among which were many fragments of Rashayya al-Fukhar painted jugs. Frankel and Getzov 1997. Apparently the plain and the hills were newly organized and their agricultural production integrated into the economy of the city-state of Tyre.

The rectangular plan 86 . 5. It was in the Assyrian interest to control the strategically important site of Kabri. Lipinski 1992. The consumers of Assyrian style pottery may have attempted to copy the lifestyle of the predominant power of the Near East. Cecchini 1995. the succession of the three floors in Stratum E3 may reflect repeated assaults on the small fortress. Akko was apparently not included in the territory of Tyre. The revolt that Ashurbanipal suppressed in 644 BCE could be connected to the end of S1. Lamprichs 1995:173.100: Schematic outline of the Stratum E2 fortress. the Phoenician homeland. Some parallel features may be found in Israel. Katzenstein 1997:289). According to the 675174 BCE treaty between. The fortress might have been in the hands of rebels and was destroyed by Ashurbanipal. The end of the Stratum E3 fortress probably came during Ashurbanipal's third campaign. The casemate fortifications of Stratum E3 were abandoned and a completely new fortress with new casemate walls was built (Stratum E2). Most of the Assyrianizing pottery found in Kabri dates to Stratum E2 or was found in the sounding in Squares O-P17 under Stratum E2b and may thus have started at the end of Stratum E3. 4. 4. However.100).against Tyre (Pritchard 1955:287). when he marched against Tyre ca. detailed studies of Phoenician architecture and fortifications in particular are still lacking (Leriche 1992. The casemate system of Kabri may have been incorporated into the settlement as in Beersheba Stratum II where the walls of the houses abut on the casemate walls using them as part of their construction (Herzog 1997:Fig. None of the small fortresses on mountains in Upper Galilee (Frankel 1994:27) have a plan comparable to that at Tel Kabri. The triple casemate wall system of Stratum E2a probably covered most of Area E (90 x 60 m) and shaped the rectangular form of et-Tell (Fig. The plan of this large fortress on a mound is quite different from the few fortresses known in Upper and Western Galilee such as those on Mount Adir (Davis et al. Whether this pottery reflects Assyrian presence or a local imitation of Assyrian pottery remains uncertain.ratumE2b. Mount Meiron (Druks 1964) and at Horvat Rosh Zayit. Gal 1993a:453). In particular.Esarhaddon and Baal of Tyre. All these events may have had their impact on the stratigraphy of the fortress in Kabri area E. Again there was no lasting peace and only a few years after their agreement Esarhaddon laid siege to Baal's Tyre in 671 BCE (Na'aman 1994: 6 and 1995:109). Fig. 1985.31). Lancel 1995). or its colonies in the Western Mediterranean. the fortress was immediately rebuilt. Little is known about fortresses in Lebanon. The political situation in Phoenicia remained unstable and in 677 BCE Esarhaddon conquered Sidon. 660 BCE (Pritchard 1955:300. probably ancient Kabul (Gal and Alexandre 2000). While Assyrian artistic representations and historical texts indicate that the Phoenician centres were fortified.

Tell el-Daba V. Israel Exploration Journal 34: 191-194. Cleuziou. Jerusalem. 1995. H. The New Encyclopedia Holy Land Vol. 1989/1990. Tel Aviv 19:221-234. S.M.Tor. S. The Middle Bronze fortifications in Palestine as a social phenomenon. Early Bronze Age Dwellings and Installations. En Shadud: Salvage Excavations at a Farming Community in the Jezreel Valley. ed. Avia'am. In: Stem.is similar to that of the forts at Samaria metropolitan limited size (Meshel resembles building complex area excavated and Tel Jezreel.. E.D. Small rural forts are best known to draw analogies fortress of Mezad Hashavyahu at Tel Kabri makes 1992). of except for the similarity as at these sites. E. Cecchini. leveling what remained of the stones of the ancient buildings (Hawaii REFERENCES Amiran. The Iron Age fortress was never rebuilt. 1985. the pottery and the historical Akko plain support the assumption contacts Ashkelon that the Iron Age fortress at Tel Kabri was built in a Phoenician from Tyre. The Survey of Western Palestine: Vol. H. E. Fassuta. 1996. pp. R. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 44:41-51. Braun. when a village was built here. In: Le plateau iranien et l'Asie centrale des origines ala conque islamique. 1994). Architecture militaire. pp. Dan 1. Muhly. Maddin. Les pointes de fleches "scythiques" au Proche et Moyen-Orient. et aI. Vienna.H. 1992. Han.. R. Thus. Excavations and Surveys in Israel 9:92. 1985. 1996. Ben-Tor. 187-199. Braun. Early Arad I. Ben. Jerusalem. (Colloques intemationaux du CNRS No. 1992. Jerusalem. M. civile et domestique partim orient. 1983. and Stech. S. <Atiqot 3:1-24 (Hebrew). the destruction to Tyre (Katzenstein and Palestine and occurred either as early as 604 BCE or later in 585 BCE. D. 567) Paris. Conder. Leiden. The site was resettled only in the Ottoman period. Excavations at Horvat <U~a. In: Katzenstein. Jerusalem. 1991. V. Similar evidence was found at Tel Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:270against Syria laid siege 271). A. T. In: Krings. C. D.. 1881. A Steel Pick from Mount Adir in Palestine. ed. Pottery finds provide evidence at Kabri in its final years (Chapter of Greek mercenaries Stem 1992:Fig. Israel (British Archaeological Reports International Series 249). 87 of Archaeological Excavations in the . Braun. Biblical Dan. (Ph. 60-67. pp. I: Galilee. VII). A. Biran. 389-396. does not have casemates to the main fortification evidence now the summary 2001) but the way the rooms are attached the evidence The construction with ashlar piers and fieldstone fills. 1966. London. Yiftahel. Davis. La civilisation phenicienne et punique.. dissertation. 1984. Jerusalem. Biran. Ben-Tor. 4. J.R. Oxford. In the early Hellenistic the Iron Age architecture andre-using period graves were dug into its ruins. M. Cultural Diversity and Change in the Early Bronze I of Israel and Jordan. The Architecture of Ancient Israel. and Greenberg. D. A. Bunimovitz. 1977.. 1200-1203. and Kitchener. Tel. A. 1994. Tel Aviv University) Tel Aviv. for close 5. 1993. it difficult although this is a small rural fort and not a in the Negev. Bietak. Qashish. 2) even if not actually by Phoenicians with Cyprus and the presence repertoire in 604 BCE (Stager The pottery from the final levels has many parallels was most probably a result of the campaigns with that from the destruction of Nebuchadnezzar 1996). E. 1978. but the in (see wall for the style (cf. when the Babylonians 1997:328). pp. A. eds. R. The contemporary of Fantalkin at Tel Kabri.

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39:28). 5. 81 :14). 5. 70.. 68:6). 1980:PI.. 5.. apparently from the destruction layer of the late 12th or early lIth century BCE (Gilboa 1998:413).68:1 was found at Dor. 5..~.. 79:7.67:2) with a knob handle resembles a bowl from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. Cooking-pots like Figs.. . Identical decoration on a closed vessel like Fig. where it is identified as 'Sikil pottery' (Stern 1994:Fig. \ 4 ) -\ \ 7 I 10em. 5. 3) with matt red bands which have parallels in Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al. 1980:PI. it is very similar to an Iron Age I vessel from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. 4) resemble vessels from Iron Age I strata at Tell Keisan (Briend et al. 1980:Pls. 71:1. . Most typical are the Phoenician Monochrome juglets (Fig. 1980:Pls... 78: 2). out of stratigraphic context.. Other kraters (Fig. 78:3-4. 1980:PI. second vessel from the right).66: Iron Age I pottery from Area D.66:1) and Pilgrim Flasks (Fig. 76:4). Two bowls (Fig.67:5 characterize the Late Bronze Age/Iron Age I strata (G2D2) at Sarepta (Anderson 1988:PI.. 50:CP-I0a). 5. 1980:Pls. 5. 17). 47 lower photo. -.. 37:18. Fig. 5. 178 . """. IRON AGE Gunnar Lehmann IRON AGE I Iron Age I pottery was relatively rare and found mixed with pottery from other periods..6Ji*1. 1980:PI. 1980: PI. 80:1) while another (Fig. 65:1-2.67: 1 and one not illustrated) have parallels from Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et at. 6 Fig. 5. 5.""""''''_'W<. . 74:3.66:}6) may be compared to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. Another similar vessel was found at Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al. 64:1a).66fr-t5) are typical for Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al. 64:6).~ might be a Middle Bronze Age form. 35:6. 1980:PI. 5. ~~~~"&Si """""""~---'- ) 3 5 -l ') I l 2 ) .... 66:6a).. 5.. 66: 15..67:3.V.. Tell Abu Hawam (Balensi 1980:PI.. Although a krater or cooking-pot (Fig.>.. 11: 160) and Tyre Stratum 13-14 (Bikai 1978: Pis. 5.67:6 is a lamp similar to some from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. The deep krater-Iike bowl with a sharp carination (Fig.68:2.. . Krater with a rolled rim (Fig..

} 3 f---d 2 -------ill II 4 lOcm. interior 5YR7/6. Keisan cf. cf. 1980:66: 15. core grey. 2. interior 2.5YR6/6. Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. 5YR7/4. Stratum Stratum 9c (Briend et al. 1980:66:6a). 2a). cf. 1980:79:7). 6 Fig. 1980:65:2).0. interior 5YR7/6.2 mm). 179 . core grey. g = gross/coarse grits «0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type Bowl Bowl Krater Krater Cooking-pot Lamp Reg. 5YR7/6. 1980:64: la. Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al.FIGURE 5. Red paint lOR5/6. temper: m M. No.67: Iron Age I pottery from Area D.66: IRON AGE I POTTERY FROM AREA 02 No. No.6 mm). 9a-b (Briend et al. 9a-b (Briend et al. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Type Juglet Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Cooking-pot Reg. and interior 10YR8/3. Colour description follows the Munsell colour charts. temper: m M. Keisan with knob cf. temper: fm M. 5403/3 5392/4 3304/1 3219/6 5378/2 3433/3 5423/2 Locus 1941 1973 0877 0864 1973 1313 1970 Description Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior 5YR7/6. 78:3-4). 17). 2 In the tables accompanying the figures temper size is abbreviated as follows: f= fine grits (>0. Keisan Stratum handle. temper: mg M. 5.67: IRON AGE I POTTERY FROM AREA 0 No. core grey. M = mineral temper. FIGURE 5. core 5YR7/6. interior 10YR7/3.6 mm). temper: mg M. 60712089 752/2609 255111 9198/1 607/2077 255112 Locus 607 751 727 1575 607 727 Description cf. 9c (PI.5YR6/6.2 . m = medium grits (0.

core 5YR6/4. No. temper: m M.5YR7/2. interior 5YR6/4. cf.5YR7/6. 26:11.82:8-10.5YR7/2.68: IRON AGE No. temper: fM. 1980: PI. temper: mg M. black paint. Exterior 2. core greyish. core 5YR6/6. Exterior 5YR7/6. Closed vessel. Bands in light greenish wash and black paint. interior 7. Exterior and interior 5YR7/6 and white. Closed vessel with bands and concentric circles. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Jug let Pilgrim flask Pilgrim flask Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Krater or Jug Krater or Jug Jug Reg. core 10YR7/3. Same type as Fig. Closed vessel with concentric circles. interior 2. 61: 12 (Keisan Niv. temper: m M. core grey.68: Iron Age 10cm.5YR7/2. interior 10YR7/3. cf. 5. White slip. core 2. Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. White slip outside and red paint. temper: fM. 47: 3. black paint. interior lOYR7/3. Cypriote WhitePainted V. Exterior 2.5YR8/4.5YR7/2. FIGURE 5. White slip outside with red and black bands. Exterior 5YR6/6. Gjerstad 1948: Fig. interior 5YR7/6. temper: m M. Exterior 7. Exterior 5YR7/6. black painted wavy line. 84: 259 (Abu Hawwam Stratum III). interior 2. 19411177 3310/2 5402/5 5403/4 3388/8 3585/100 5346/2 3623/2 1 I Juglet 3145/3 0830 12 Transport jar 5443/100 1972 180 . black paint. I I000o pottery from Area E. Exterior 5YR6/4. Red paint. Bikai 1978a: PI. cf.5YR7/2. White-Painted II. Tyre Stratum 10-2.5YR7/2. temper: mg M.5YR8/4. Early Phoenician Bichrome. 9a-b). Closed vessel with painted concentric circles. interior 5YR6/6. interior 2. core lOYR8/4.5YR6/6.3 4 5 11 7 o Fig. 5. temper: fM.5YR7/2. core 2. Red brown paint. interior lOYR8/4. temper: fm M. Exterior 7. Cypriote White-Painted. temper: mg M. Black paint. Closed vessel.5YR7/2. temper: fm M. Exterior 10YR8/3. core 5YR7/6. 542617 5392/10 POTTERY FROM AREA E Locus 1941 1973 1941 0876 1968 1941 0888 0890 1970 1338 Description Exterior 2. bands in black paint. core 2. core 5YR7/6. Cypriote White-Painted. bands in black paint. Briend et al.

1980:PI. 64: 97) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 49:11). 23 :603). 33:2. 5. Stratum DI-E (Anderson 1988) and Tyre. a simple everted rim and red slip covering the rim inside and the complete vessel outside already occur in Iron Age I. There were 114 examples. 18a:5).:PI. l1a: 2. it covers the period between ca. ca. 850-750 BCE. has a simple almost vertical rim. Bikai 1978a:PI. x-15c). Parallels come from Tell Keisan. They are similar to bowls from Keisan Stratum 10-11 (Brient et al. 600. Stratum 10-1 (ibid. :PI. A limited sounding below Stratum E4 produced only a small quantity of pottery. 23 :3). :PI. Stratum 10-2 (ibid. 18a:16) and are dated to the 9th century BCE. The body is sack-shaped. 1050-850 BCE. Stratum 11 (ibid. The parallels connect the finds from below Stratum E4 with 11th-9th century strata at Tell Keisan. 18a:4). 1980:PI. 5. 7). Stratum 5.3% of all diagnostics. STRATUM E4 BOWLS The simplest type of bowl in the Phoenician pottery repertoire (Fig.5).type SJ-9. Sarepta Stratum C2-F (Anderson 1988:PI. 181 . 31: 1. 6). Among the few diagnostic sherds are various bowls (Figs. 31:12. Stratum 7 (ibid. 49: 2). 1980:PI. 5. 1980). Bowls like Fig. 50:3. Of special significance for the study of the Iron Age II in northern Israel is the wide range of vessels found in situ in the 7th century BCE destruction levels (Stratum E2) which represent pottery of this period. Stratum 7-11 (Briend et at. Transport jars from this context have a simple vertical rim rising from a sloping shoulder. 494-496.69:1) has a flat base and an almost straight. This type was in use over a very long span of time and fabric and surface treatment vary in different periods. 22:595. :PI. 456. Stratum 7 (ibid. (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 4 nos. 16a:18-25. 19:9-16).69:6 with a carinated shoulder. 470. 513). 5. (Briend et al. Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et at. 32:10) and Tyre Stratum 4. 9).69:4).:PI. Those found in Stratum 4 are Bikai's first sub-type (1978a:26 Fine Ware Plate 2. Thus. 3). cooking-pots (Fig. Tyre Stratum 6 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 1987:37-38) which has a relatively short flaring rim. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's Kouklia Horizon. Sarepta.:PI. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 511. 48:4).IRON AGE II During the excavation of Area E (Chapter 4:IV) large amounts of pottery were found in situ in a series of fortresses. 53: 10) and Tyre Stratum 6 (Bikai 1978a:PI. sloping profile ending in a slightly thickened inverted rim. Stratum 10-13 (Bikai 1978a). :PI. Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al.). 5. Inside and outside are thin bands of black paint. Stratum 8-9 (ibid. Stratum 13 (ibid. Sarepta C2-F (Anderson 1988':type SJ-12A) and Tyre Strata 4-14 (Bikai 1978a:45-46 . Stratum E (ibid. the lIth and 8th centuries BCE. 26: 1-4. 47:type x-15a. 33:12-13). 29:4). Parallels come from Cyprus ca. ca.69:2-3). 41 :9).69:1. 5. :PI. These bowls range in diameter from 18-25 ern. Many of the vessels of this last phase were complete or restorable. One of the most common bowl types found at Kabri has a flaring rim and was variously decorated in different periods. 5). 1980:PI. :PI.70:11). 20 em in diameter. Tell Keisan Stratum 6-7 (Briend et at. 458. a flat or convex base and reserved red slip decoration (Fig. They are comparable to examples from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Pls. Stratum 12 (ibid. 1980:PI. Stratum Dl (ibid. the first of which was built in the 9th century BCE (Stratum E4) and the last probably destroyed in 604 BCE. Another type (Fig. :PI. 81: 15) and Tyre Stratum 17 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 5. triangular and sometimes has a slightly bulbous base.70:13-19) and transport jars (Fig. fragments and almost complete forms making up 4.

Fig. 82:242) and Tyre Stratum 4-9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Juglets with a short mushroom rim (Fig.Other carinated bowls (Fig. 52: 8) and Stratum 8 (ibid.8) and Megiddo Stratum H-3 = Megiddo IVA (Finkelstein et al. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS One rim fragment of what may be a 'Hippo Jar' (Fig. PI. p. 268. 39).69:16-17 is a large bowl with an incurved rim which is sometimes painted red. Parallels from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Nos. 17 em.70:4-5) begin in the middle of the 8th century BCE and continue to the beginning of the 7th century BCE in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Pl. KRATERS Only one such vessel was found in Stratum E4 (Fig.69:15 is similar to Fig. The handle rises high above the low rim. It resembles a jug without slip from Cyprus dated to ca. 18a:10) date this type to ca. 24:2). 265.69:5) have an everted rim which is somewhat thicker than the body wall. 5.70:3) begin in the second half of the 9th century BCE and continue until the second half of the 8th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:types 243. 5. No parallels were found for bowl types Fig. 12: 246. 5. cf. 5:14-17. 5. table 8A. 1987). 5. 1980:Pls. Sarepta CI-C2 (Anderson 1988:type 13A) and Tyre Stratum 10-1 (Bikai 1978a: PI. a neck ridge and a single handle are typically Phoenician. Their diameter is ca. 1960:PI.f.25) and Stratum 5 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Another fragment (Fig. 14:383) and another from Tyre Stratum 9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 1980:PI. 2000:310. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 60:1.69:7-14. Sarepta 01 (Anderson 1988:type OJ-2a). 182 .71:9 of Stratum E3. 15:19-20. 850-750 BCE. table 8A. 69: 141-142).69: 18). p. 20:8). 93:2 type juglet 2). Parallels are found at Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. 34. 11. 5. 74: 179). 23:611).f. A jug with a high neck and a trefoil rim (Fig. 5. PI. jug type 8. Transport jars with a small triangular rim on a sloping shoulder (Fig. Four sub-types can be distinguished at Kabri. 4b) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990 :PI. but may continue somewhat later as at Hazor Stratum VIII (Yadin et al. Fig.70:12) occur since the second half of the 9th century BCE in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. Small juglets with a ring-base. 5.6. They are dated from the end of the 10th to the first quarter of the 9th century BCE. The painted decoration of Fig. 92:jug 4). It can be compared to examples from Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 5. 10-12). 5. 18a:7). type 244) in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. 43:8). 9:168-169. 55: 9). 5. 272).70:10) was found in Stratum E4 and two more in Stratum E3. Such jars have been discussed in detail by Gal and Alexandre (2000:44-48) in their publication of the Phoenician fortress of Rosh Zayit. 175. 850-750 BCE (Bikai 1987:PI.70:9) was found out of its original context. Juglets with a squared or thickened everted rim (Fig. The first two have squared or thickened everted rims while the rims of the others are mushroom-like. 33:3.70:7) is red-slipped and burnished. Similar bowls come from Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. 5.:PI. 190-206) and Tyre Stratum 4-9 (Bikai 1978a:type jug 8. PI. and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. Sarepta Stratum B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type B-3A) and Tyre Strata 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 39.70:1-2) usually has a small bulge at the base. Sarepta E (Anderson 1988:PI. Their development has been discussed in detail by Bikai (1978a:37-40. but the rim is different. 14:2-5. This is a bichrome painted holemouth krater which resembles those from Rashidiya (Lipinski 1992:PI.47:8. 5. 31 :15) and Tyre Stratum 2-4 (Bikai 1978a:33-35. 177-178). JUGLETS AND JUGS A typical juglet of the 8th and 7th centuries BCE (Fig.

There are several sub-types of cooking-pots with triangular rims. No parallels were found for a cooking-pot with a triangular rim (Fig. Sarepta Stratum F (Anderson 1988:PI. The body may be deep or shallow and has usually a sharp carination. 5. 5.12:5) where it is thought to be a krater. Tell Keisan Stratum 6-7 (Briend et al. These vessels are dated according to stratified comparisons from other sites which are contemporary with Stratum E4 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence at Tel Kabri. 30:3) and Tyre Stratum 2-10 (Bikai 1978a:PI.70:20) has a small edge on the rim immediately under the lip. overlapping rim. 33. 1980:9th century BCE) and Sarepta Stratum C2-Dl (Anderson 1988:ca. . 5. 5. Cooking-pots with triangular rims are very common in Stratum E4 (Fig. where 33.23:13-15. 55:1-3. The pottery figures for this stratum include also some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context (Figs.4) long pinched. ca. 5. occurring first in the 12th century BCE. the transport jars (Fig. These sub-types have no chronological or regional significance in the Akko plain during Iron Age I through Iron Age IIC. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's 'Salamis Horizon'. One example of this type was found in Stratum E4. 5.70:13-19) but continue in Stratum E3 and even into E2 (Figs. This type has many variants. 950-830 BCE). Gal and Alexandre 2000:40-42) Comparisons come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4-11 (Briend et al. 33:10). 1980:PI. 49:9. Gjerstad 1948 Fig. 11). 5. 52:13. 81:8). The distribution of each echoes that of the group as a whole (Hunt 1987: 183). 183 . 63. 2) overlapping rim. One may distinguish between triangular rims with: 1) horizontal rim. 34:10. Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. Their value for dating pottery assemblages is thus limited. Stratum E4 may thus be dated to ca. 5. 77:1-4. 28: 6). 850-750 BCE. CYPRIOTE IMPORTS White-Painted IV jug (Fig.70:12-13) and the cooking-pot rims (especially Fig. 12:27. 6.70:3-5. 5. They can be compared with vessels from TelI Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al.73:3-5.70 :21). The examples at Kabri are clearly made of a cooking-pot fabric. Especially important for dating are the bowls with painted bands (Fig. They have a wide open body with a rounded base. Stratum E4 also has parallels with pottery from Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990).70:6) (cf. A somewhat similar vessel was found at Rosh Zayit (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. This cooking-pot type had a long life-span. one in E2 and 2 were unstratified. there seems to have been close contacts between Kabri E4 and Tyre Stratum 4-12 (Bikai 1978a:9th century BCE to ca. 6. 27:9. 5. 46:1-2. 850-750 BCE.69:2). 5. 9).12:5) and Sarepta CI-Dl (Anderson 1988:type CP-IA).70:20). 17:2.84:3-4). Above the carination. 18. SUMMARY Most paraIlels to the pottery assemblage from Kabri Stratum E4 are either found in the Akko plain or at Tyre and Sarepta.3% of Stratum E4 types have exact parallels. horizontal rim and 5) a short pinched rim (Hunt 1987:Fig.69:6. One example (Fig. 1980:PI. 3. 750 BCE). The type occurs only once at Kabri. Thus.COOKING-POTS Two main groups of cooking-pot types were distinguished: pots with triangular rims and pots with a ridged or 'modeled' rim. Cooking-pot types with flat vertical rims become more frequent in the late 8th and 7th century BCE. 5. 35:1. 3) long pinched. the walls are either concave or sloping inward to the rim (see Gal and Alexandre 2000:40-42).

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FIGURE 5.69: POTTERY OF STRATUM E4
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Type Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Krater Reg. No. 3251112 325112 3228/2 3251/7 3257/1 5392/9 3257/8 3256/2 325114 3242/1 3253/6 3253/3 3242/2 Locus 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 1973 .0866 0866 0866. 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 1958 0866 0866 Description Exterior 5YR6/6, interior 5YR7/3, core 5YR7/3, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/4, temper: m M, black paint. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core grey, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/2, temper: m M. Exterior 7.5YR8/6, interior 7.5YR8/6, core 7.5YR7/8, temper: fM, red slip lOR5/8. Exterior 7.5YR7/4, interior 7.5YR7/4, core 7.5YR7/4, temper: fM. Exterior 5YR6/8, interior 5YR6/8, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Bichrome? Exterior 2.5YR6/4, interior 2.5YR6/4, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior 10YR8/3, interior 10YR8/3, core greyish, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/6, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M, red paint. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/6, temper: m M, black paint. Exterior 5YR 7/6, interior 5YR 7/6, core 5YR 7/6, temper: fm M, red paint 10R5/6. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: m M, RSB 10R5/6.

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185

FIGURE 5.70: POTTERY OF STRATUM E4 AND FROM UNDERLYING DEBRIS
No. I 2 32 43 5 6 7 8 93 10 Il' 12 13 14 15 16' 17 18 19' 20 21 I 2 3 Type Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Jug Jug Juglet Juglet Jar Transport jar Transport jar Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. No. 3253/2 3232/1 3290/1 3338/8 3380/6 Locus Description 0866 0866 0873 0889 0888 0866 0855 0866 0803 0866 0871 0866 0866 0866 0866 0871 0866 0866 0871 0866 0866 Exterior 10R6/4, interior IOR6/4, core 2. 5YR6/4, temper: fm M Exterior IOR5/6, interior 10R5/6, core 10R5/6, temper: m M white grits. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fine mineral. Exterior, interior and core 7.5YR7/6, temper: fin M, decoration: red slip lOR5/6. Exterior 5YR7/8, interior and core 5YR7/4, temper: fM, decoration: bichrome red and black. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M, decoration: brown paint. Cypriote White-Painted III. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior IOR5/4, core grey, temper: fine mineral. Exterior 2.5YR6/4, interior 2.5YR6/4, core 2.5YR6/4, temper: m M white grits. Remarks: cf. Tyre Stratum V, Bikai 1978: PI. 18a: 10 (jug type 8). Exterior 2.5YR6/6, interior 2.5YR6/6, core grey black, temper: m M. Exterior 7.5YR7/6, interior 7.5YR7/6, core 7.5YR7/2, temper: mg M. Exterior 7.5YR6/4, interior 7.5YR6/4, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior IOR4/4, interior IOR4/4, core 10R4/4, temper: mg M white grits. Exterior 2.5YR4/4, interior 2.5YR4/4, core 2.5YR4/4, temper: mg M: Exterior black, interior black, core black, temper: mg M. Exterior 10R5/3, interior IOR5/3, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR4/1, interior 5YR6/3, core grey black, temper: black & white grits & mica Exterior 5YR5/4, interior 5YR5/4, core 5YR5/4, temper: mg M. Exterior 2.5YR5/4, interior 2.5YR5/4, core 2.5YR5/4, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Exterior 2.5YR5/4, interior 2.5YR5/4, core 2.5YR5/4, temper: mg M.

3251110
321111 3257/5 3027/1 3228/4 3262/3 325118 3248/2 3239/3 3228/1 3262/4 3226/3 3246/1 3262/2 325115

323911

Debris under Stratum E4 Stratum E3 Stratum E2

STRATUME3 BOWLS Only one example of a simple bowl with a flaring wall (Fig. 5.71:1) was found at Kabri. This type is very common in Tyre, where it was found in Strata 1-10, being most frequent in Strata 4-6 (Bikai 1978a: 23-24, type plate 8; PIs. 10:4,7; 16a:22-25; 18a:l; 19:9-12; 23:3). A flat plate or bowl (Fig. 5.71 :2; 5.76:4) has a sloping profile and a simple rim. It occurs in Stratum E3a and continues in Strata E2a-E2b. This vessel is very common in late-8th and 7th century BCE contexts on the Phoenician coast at Tyre in Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 1:13), Stratum 8 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 19:10 [similar]), Stratum 9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 19:16 [similar]) and in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. 20:519 [similar]). In Israel it is found at Dan Stratum II (Biran 1994:Fig. 167:1) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 73: 174 [similar]). A sub-type of the bowls with flaring rims (Fig. 5.71:3) which continues in Stratum E2 (Fig. 5.76:12) has a flat or convex base, reserve-slip and incised decoration on the outside of the base. Parallels come from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 3, Nos. 457, 462-469, 493, 510, 514), Sarepta CI-Dl (Anderson 1988:type F-IA), Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 63:76, 79, 81) and Tyre Strata 2-5 (Bikai 1978a:type Fine Ware Plate 2). Two bowl rims (Fig. 5.71 :4) seem to be a local imitation of the Black-on-Red Ic type at Horvat Rosh Zayit Stratum IIa (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 3.88:16, cf Fig. 3.77:14 Stratum IIb). A carinated bowl (Fig. 5.71 :5) has no exact parallel.
186

393-406. They occur between 850-750 BCE in the Cypriote 'Salamis-Horizon' (Bikai 1987:PI. The deep carinated bowl or krater (Fig. Chapman 1972:Fig. While several were found out of their original stratigraphic context. lla:19) and Stratum 3 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Stratum 5 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 370. 5. They are comparable to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. Although out of its original stratigraphic context. Lehmann 1996:376 form 85). 5. but larger. 18a:3) and Strata 8-9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 379. 41 :3) and Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. Bikai 1987:PI. This type is very frequent at Tyre occurring in Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI.71: 19) resembles an Assyrianizing krater which becomes more common in Stratum E2 (cf. 1. 15: 19-20). 1980:PI.11 :3). With a narrow conical neck (cf. JUGLETS AND JUGS A number of Phoenician red slipped jugs with conical necks (Fig. At Tyre this type of plate was found in Strata 2-5 (Bikai 1978a:29 fine ware plate 7). 74:182). 53 :8). It is characterized by an incised ridge on the outer edge of the rim and is usually red-slipped. 5. 1987:4950. 5. A simple bowl (Fig. cf. 3.71: 14) is one of the most typical Phoenician fine ware plates of the 8th and early 7th century BCE. Bikai 1978a:PI.71: 15 are somewhat similar. 5.71: 16) with red and black bands on the shoulder has parallels at Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al.on-Red bowls. lla:18).72:36). KRATERS A large bowl or small krater (Fig.71: 11-12) characterized by a rim that is drawn outward were found in strata E3 and E2. for further sub-types and references see Lehmann 1996:416-418 types 300-307). A krater with grooves on the rim (Fig. 6. The flat bowl or plate Fig. 16 type 86d/l). 2. concave neck (for an example see Tyre Stratum 9. 6:16) and Stratum 8 (Lehmann 1996:PI.81 :7-9).A deep red slipped bowl (Fig. 5. 31-34:Nos. 3. but no parallels could be found.71:1. 17:85c/2). There are three sub-types of these jugs of which 13 fragments were found at Kabri. The rim and profile of Fig. 30 :8). The parallels date it to ca. 33) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 16a:18-37). out of its original context. Several bowls (Fig. 187 . 5. 750-680 BCE (Bikai 1978a:29.71:6) has almost vertical walls which turn with a carination into the base. The flat plate (Fig.71:7) is similar to Fig.71:17) has a parallel from Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a: PI. 14:11). 40:9) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI.78:16) and Tyre Stratum 3-4 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 6.7) were found. 5. 30: 1) and Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 5. Qasmiya. 5. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI.71:9 is very similar to one from Al Mina Stratum 5 (Lehmann 1996:PI. 5. Fig. Bowl Fig. typologically this type should belong to Stratum E3 based on parallels from Al Mina Stratum 6-7 (Taylor 1959:Fig.71:8 may be a local imitation of Black.71: 13 is very similar but has a red slip. 3. 1980:PI.121:23) although it is larger and has a different rim. typologically they belong to the assemblage of Stratum E3. 5. 1980:PI. 391. 19:9-16). Rosh Zayit Stratum lIb (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. Comparisons date this type to the end of the 8th and the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:383 form 122). 375). A similar krater came from Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et aZ. 5. Pis. 72: 167). This sub-type seems to be the older one (Bikai 1987:49-50). 14 no. With an elongated.72:1-4. 15-16. A parallel was found at Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. but typologically seems to belong to Stratum E3. 5. With a slim conical neck that begins in the 8th century BCE (Bikai 1978a:36. 20:1). The fragment from Kabri was found in Stratum El. Ras al-Bassit phase 7 ensemble F (Braemer 1986:No. 32: 316). 1980:PI. 10:23-25. Fig. 5. Similar vessels come from Al Mina Stratum 6-7 (Taylor 1959:Fig.

42:4). The complete transport jar (Fig. Gjerstad 1948:Fig. all found out of context: one single-strap handle (in Stratum E2a) and four double-strand handles ( There are four double-strand handles (three in Stratum E2a. One very similar was found at Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. Ras al-Bassit tom be 12 (Courbin 1993:Fig. The rim of a storage jar(Fig.73:1) was unstratified but has parallels at Tell Kazel Niveau 9-10 (Badre et al. At least some of these vessels were found in funerary contexts but may have been in secondary use. 1980:PI. 5. one in Stratum El) and one single-strap handle (from Stratum E2a). Cyprus. There was also a small White-Painted III-IV barrel juglet (Fig. The Cypriote imports include the neck ofa Plain White IV amphora (Fig. 5. COOKING-POTS For cooking-pots with triangular rims (Fig. GREEK AND CYPRIOTE IMPORTS There are few imports in StratumE3. There is one example of ajar (Fig. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI.73:3-5) and cooking-pots with flat vertical rims in Stratum E3 see the discussion of this type under Stratum E4. 52:21).Both the single strap and the double-strand handle occur at Kabri (Bikai 1978a:36).72:6) was found on the surface in Area E. Whether such decorated vessels were indeed used for transport jars or had a ceremonial character is not clear. sack-shaped transport jar (Fig.72: 10) (cf. Galilean storage jars (Fig.73:9-11) in Stratum E3 is noteworthy. The simple.7).122:3). 90:296) and Tourabi-Tekke cemetery (ca. A decanter fragment (Fig. Gjerstad 1948:Fig. 5. 386-387) and establish contemporaneity between assemblages from Turkey. 52:24). dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE (Niemeier 1990:xxxv-xxxvi. 87:6) date this fragment to the second half of the 8th century BCE. the Levant. Dor Area A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. 5. 5. for example from Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig.6:6) and Hazor IX (Yadin et al.28:16) and two Blackon-Red II(IV) bowls (Fig. 45:17).72:18) decorated with black and red painted bands and a treelike motif. A potter's workshop producing these jars was discovered at Tyre (Bikai 1985a) and two shipwrecks crammed with this type were recently found off the coast of Israel (Ballard.72:14-17). The presence of simple cooking-pot lids (Fig. Similar vessels have been found at Hazor Stratum IX (Yadin et al. 1994:Fig. Comparison with decanters at Hazor Stratum VA (Yadin et al.122. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS 'Crisp-ware' transport jars (Fig. The fabric is of medium mineral temper and reddish yellow (5YR7/6) with a grey or light red core (2. 5. 5. 1. 3. 19) and probably belongs to Kabri Stratum E3. 5.72:9) (cf. 188 . 8ab). 19:2. 1980:Pl.6:13). 5.72:20) resembles an example from Dor Area A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig.72:11. 1. 56:1). types 383. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. Fig. 750-680 BCE) (Culican 1982:Tf. 1960:Pl. also known as 'torpedo jars'.72:21) have many parallels in the 9th and 8th centuries BCE.519. 3. Stager et al. They have a wide distribution (Lehmann 1996:433-435. 8th century BCE). 11:1. 5. 12) similar to those from Tell Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. 5. are the type most frequently found in Phoenician contexts of the late 8th and early 7th centuries BCE. 22:3). 1960:PI. A detailed typology of these jars was recently developed by Ayelet Gilboa (1995: 10-12).72:19) has many parallels in the 8th century BCE. 1960:PI.5YR6/8). 5. They include the rim of a Greek amphora. 2002). C. Egypt and the Aegean.

71:6. Fig. interior 2. Ras al-Bassit tomb 12 (Courbin 1993 :800-700 BCE). core grey.72:14-15. this assemblage provides significant evidence for very close contacts with Tyre. Fig. temper: fM. black paint. in particular the PlainWhite IV rim (Fig. These are dated according to stratified parallels from other sites contemporary with Stratum E3 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence at Tel Kabri. core grey-black. black & red paint (10RS/6).SYR6/4.73:1). temper: mg M. core5YR7/4. core SYR7/4.4.72:10-11). burnished surface. interior 2. Exterior 7. 5. Most parallels are found in the Akko plain. Parallels with Stratum E3 were found at Dor Area A phase 9 and Area Cl phase 6 (Gilboa 1995:720-650/630 BCE and 8th century BCE). Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990).SYR6/6. interior 2. Exterior SYR7/4. interior SYR7/4. Exterior 2. 750-650 BCE. temper: mg M. 5.SYRS/4. temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/6.SYR6/6. 16.71: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No.SYR6/6. core SYR7/6.SYR6/4. Exterior 2. Most important for dating Stratum E3 are the cooking-pots (Fig. interior SYR7/6. red paint 10RS/8. temper: f111 M. interior SYR7/3. red slip 2. temper: fM. red slip 10RS16b. the transport jars made of Bikai's 'crisp-ware' (Fig. TJ!f!_e 1 Bowl 2 Bowl 3 Bowl 4 Bowl S 6 7 8 9 . 17) and the Cypriote imports. S3061100 3474/2 3287/2 1965 1317 0873 0812 l3l3 0876 0861 0873 0896 0873 l3l3 1973 0841 l317 0896 l316 0866 30S3/1 342611 331611 32l3/2 3290/7 3378/3+8 3290/4 3433/2 11 12 13 14 Exterior SYR7/4. core grey. core grey-black. S386/6 31S411 3474/1 3378/8 3448/1 IS Bowl 16 Krater 17 Krater 18 Krater 19 Krater 32S1111 189 .10 Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Reg_. temper: mg M. Hazor Stratum VA. Exterior SYR7/6. ca. core 2. Thus Stratum E3 can be dated between ca. interior 7. temper: fM. 5.SYR6/6. core grey.73:3-11).SYRS/4. ' Exterior SYR7/4. Exterior SYR713. 12. core SYR7/6. 5. No. temper: m M.72:1-2. interior SYR7/4. Exterior SYR7/4.SYRS/4. but particularly at Tyre and Sarepta where exact parallels were found for 30% of the types.SYR7/4. temper: fine mineral. interior SYR7/4. FIGURE 5. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's 'Kition Horizon'. 5. interior 2. temper: mg M. 5. 3290/S 337811 Locus 0873 0896 Description Exterior 10YR8/2 white. As in the preceding stratum. interior SYR7/6. core black.SYR7/4. Sarepta Stratum CI-C2 (Anderson 1988:8th century BCE) and Tyre Stratum 2-8 (Bikai 1978a:8th century BCE). interior 2.SUMMARY The bulk of the pottery found in Stratum E3 is of Phoenician or Tyrian character.SYR6/6.6-9. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. The pottery figures for this stratum include some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context (Figs. temper: m M. interior SYR7/6. temper: fM. 750-680 BCE. Exterior SYR7/3. 1980). core black. core 7.SYR7/4. red slip 10R4/6 inside wheel burnished. Exterior 2. 14-15.

~17 2 3 \)-------1 \ \ 4 5 6 7 ~_17 i I " .)-------/ f \ \ \ \ \ \ '- \\ 18 19 r= f 1 10cm..71: Pottery of Stratum E3. t \ Fig.---. 5. 190 . 7 l 9 10 ~ 12 _7 13 14 15 17 \ I 16 "/------r---~=========~ .

.-.. ~" /~~ «I '\1- 8 9 m 7 @)(ff}D 10 12 13 ~:z • 11 I I \ ' \... _ '. I I .. -9 15 I... ._' _.... " /-l-~' \ \ \ I I ~ :I II I I 2 3 4 5 m / I . \- .... ... 14 H 18 r 17 18 20 19 -EJ 10cm.. 5...21 ) f I \ 191 Fig.... '.. I I ~... .....72: Pottery of Stratum E3....... .

core black. temper: m M. Exterior 2. core 7. interior 5YR6/4. red slip IOR4/8. interior 5YR7/6. red slip 2. interior 7.5YR3/4 . temper: mg M. Exterior black. temper: mg M. temper: mg M black & white grits and mica.5YR8/4.5YR5/4. Exterior 5YR7/6.5YR7/4. i import import import import j ar jar jar jar jar 19 Transport j ar 20 Storage jar 211 Storage jar Stratum EI Exterior 7. grooves inside. interior 2. temper: mg M. temper: m M.5YR8/4 . temper: mg M. cf. interior 5YR7/6. interior 2. Plain White IV. Exterior 7. core 5YR7/4.5YR5/4. core grey. 19: 2. core 5YR7/6.5YR7/4. red slip IOR4/8.5YR7/4.No. cf. black and red painted geometric design. core black. Exterior 5YR7/6. red slip IOR5/6. interior IOYR7/4. Exterior 5YR7/6.5YR5/4. temper: mg M. temper: mg M. core 2.5YR5/6. core 7. red slip 2. Exterior 5YR7/6.5YR5/4. Exterior 7. interior 7. interior 7.5YR7/4. white grits. black & white grits and mica. Exterior 5YR7/4.5YR7/4. Exterior 7.5YR7/4. temper: fM. core grey. interior 2. Exterior 5YR7/4. Exterior 2. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Type Transport j ar Transport j ar Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot lid Cooking-pot lid Cooking-pot lid Reg_. core 7.5YR7/4. 192 . 14: 5. Exterior 7. core IOR6/4. core 5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/6.5YR5/4.5YR8/4. black & white grits. red slip IOR4/8. large white grits. temper: mg M. II 21 3 41 5 6 81 91 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 TJP.5YR5/4. temper: g M. core 5YR7/6. temper: fm M. interior 5YR6/4. Exterior 5YR4/3. white grits. 45: 17. interior black. core 5YR7/6. core black. Exterior 2.2. temper: mg M. Exterior 2. core grey. core grey. interior 7. black & white grits. Bikai 1978: PI. interior 5YR4/3.5YR8/4. temper: fm M. interior 5YR7/6.5YR7/4. similar to Gjerstad 1948: Fig. red slip IOR4/8.5YR6/4.72: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No. temper: fM.5YR4/4. core grey. temper: fm M.FIGURE 5.5YR6/4.e Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jar Cypriote Cypriote Cypriote Cypriote Jug Transport Transport Transport Transport Transp~rt Reg No. temper: fm M. Gjerstad 1948: Fig.5YR6/6. interior 7.5YR4/6. core grey. temper: mg M. 3309/4 3588/5 3283/5 3157/3 5455/5 3357/5+7 3055/1 3045/2 3215/1 3284/6 5416/10 3208/2 5432/1 5455/2 5215/1 3366/9 3307/1+2 3284/1 5455/1 319612 Locus 0879 1325 0873 0840 1970 0889 0812 0807 0864 0873 1941 0861 1970 1970 1941 0896 0876 0873 1970 0855 Descril?_tion Exterior 5YR7/6. Exterior 7.5YR7/6.5YR6/6. Tyre Stratum 4.5YR5/6. core black. interior 2. interior 5YR7/4.73: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No. interior 2. interior IOR5/4. interior 5YR7/6. core 5YR6/4 black. temper: fm M.5YR4/4. Exterior 5YR4/3. FIGURE 5. 28: 16 (White Painted III-IV). temper: fm M. temper: fM. red paint IOR5/6. 3647/100 339112 331811 3474/4 322112 542311 328811 3230/3 3474/14 3457/9 3296/1 Locus 0890 1302 0881 1317 0861 1970 0873 0864 1317 1317 0873 Descril?_tion Exterior 5YR7/4. core 5YR7/6. white grits. white grits. Exterior 2.

.___. 10cm . 193 .. I 8 I I f 6 .. 10cm. 5.. 2 3 ( F I 4 e ..73: Pottery of Stratum E3.. /' I n ~ Fig.o . " I ~ r -4 5 ! \ I I =\ \ ! \ 7 ~ -: I 9 "/' o ..

Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. but without slip) and Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a: PI.1980:168-170. Keisan Stratum 10-11 (Briend et al. 5. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl. For bowl Fig. 470. occur frequently on the Phoenician coast. 15: 13). Parallels come from I 3 4 For a detailed type study see Briend et al. 5. 81: 15). p.3:24-25). as are bowls with a carinated or stepped profile inside and outside (Fig.3 Parallels come from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. 29:1-8). 1. 5. Maigret 1979). 471-473. Bowls with a long overhanging rim (Fig. fine and soft.76:12) is similar to Fig. It has 'been reported from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 5 nos. 38). 5. 5.71:3 discussed in Stratum E3. 5. The fabric is orange. 538). 41: 12 similar. 63: 75. The outer surface can often be cut with a knife. For their occurrence see Lehmann 1996:371-372 form 75b. At Kabri several examples of both types have had a hole drilled in their centre after firing and were apparently in secondary use. 1980:Pl. Often they have a carination half way up the body. Tyre Stratum 5. 5.76:9) first seen in Stratum E4 (Fig.98 examples. 1980 :PI. where it was assumed that drilled vessels were part of architectural construction (Lehmann 1996:363 form 17. The fabric of this sherd consists mainly of marl and may perhaps originate in northern Israel (Chapter 15:Table 15. 5. 46:2) and Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. Sarepta C1-D1 (Anderson 1988:type F-1A). Flat plates or bowls with a sloping profile and a simple rim (Fig. 77.69:4) displays somewhat thicker walls and the red slip is thin and washy being band-burnished or unburnished.76:16-17) are typical of the late 8th and 7th century BCE (cf. 5. SeeBriendetal. 40:12). Like the bowls with a long overhanging rim. 194 . have previously been included in the so-called 'Samaria Ware' but should be referred to rather as 'Phoenician Fine Wares' (Bikai 1992:97) or 'Levantine Fine Wares'.76:4) are very common. 494-496. differentiated by their rim forms. A similar phenomenon is known from central Syria in the late 8th century BCE.4 Their shape is very similar to Figs. 5.76: 18-19) are of the type found at Sarepta Stratum C1-C2 (Anderson 1988: type F-7C). Carinated bowls with a simple rim (Fig. 5. Some of these sub-types. for example at Arqa 10AB (Thalmann 1978:Fig.76: 10-11). 38:1-12).80. The former have a fine soft orange fabric whereas the clay of the latter is red brittle and coarse. often red-slipped outside and/or inside. 1980:PI. called 'Salt and Pepper group' at Tell Abu Hawam.76:21.76:20-25. which constitute 3. The bowl with an S-shaped profile (Fig.513). Deep bowls with bichrome red and black painted decoration inside (Fig. 20-22). 1980:166-168.77:1-6).24. Bikai 1978a: PI.511. 5. 5.76:8) was first identified at Ras al-Bassit and is apparently a typical 7th century BCE form (Braemer 1986:Nos.76:7) has a particular fabric. 5. 31. 19:534-536. Tel Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al.1:1). It might be dated as early as Late Bronze or Iron Age I and could be intrusive in Stratum E2a (cf. 20:531-533. A sub-type of the group of bowls with flaring rims (Fig.76:5-6). The bowl type with an uneven outer surface (Fig. but the fabric is very different. 26:16-17) and bowls at Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. Another sub-type (Fig.STRATUME2 BOWLS There is a remarkable variety of bowl types in Stratum E2. A great many vessels of this class were found in Kabri . 5.82-85) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:type Fine Ware Plate 1).76:14 compare a Black-on-Red I(III) bowl at Cyprus (Gjerstad 1948:Fig. Sarepta C1 (Anderson 1988:type X-9A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 1. several have either one hole drilled into the centre of the base or several holes all over the bottom. 1980: PI.7% of all diagnostics. A number of red-slipped flat bowls and plates all have an accentuated everted rim (Figs.

The red slipped plate (Fig. Dor C2 phase 7 (ibid. 5. studied in detail by A. 30:11et al. Sarepta CI-Dl Assyrian-style DEEP BOWLS bowls (Figs. 5. 5. 22. include The comparisons burnished and very well finished and has a stepped at. 30:2-4. Chambon 168). The bowl (Briend et al. 2 and 3 (Bikai 1978a:Pls. This type is completely . vessels nos. 9:14). 72:164-166).77:7-8) seventy nine such bowls found at Kabri made up 3. 39:30). 1980:PI. 28: 12.Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. was also found at Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 52: 8) Tell in the 7th profile (Fig. The Fig. 1995:Fig. 38:22) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 28:5. 5. 69:141-142) and Tyre Stratum 10-2 (Bikai 1978a:PI.77:16) has a carination directly under the rim and was found at Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et Large. 41 :3a).77:12) was also found at Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et The first type is always While the rim is usually rim.77:10) has a cut rim.77:11).78:1) were first recognized by Bikai (1985b) and many have been recorded since 1996:394 type 180). 544) Tyre Stratum plate 3 and 4. Tel Qiri Stratum VI (Ben-Tor Sarepta (Pritchard 1988:misc. 1980:PI.40:1-7) 1:12. 5. 435). 5. 1980:PI. Sarepta (Anderson 12.78: 10) has a paralJel at TelJ Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera The Assyrian-style deep bowl (Fig. 5. 1980:PI. 1978a:type fine ware 4) date the type between the second half of the 8th and the 7th century BCE. are common BCE Phoenician from Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend Gonzalez below. 9:5-6.7:8). p.:Fig. Fig. Sarepta Cl (Anderson 1988:PI. 5. creating a bar-handle-like Similar plates were found at Tyre in Strata 3 and 4 (Bikai 1978a:Pls. 5.12). Al Mina Stratum (Bikai 1987:No. 15:9 respectively). 1. Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1988:PI. PI. A similar bowl (Fig. 32:3. 1980:PI. 25. 1996:Tf. et al. 1978a:22-23). Examples Amathus come from Al Mina (unpublished. Comparisons which BCE.77:9 has a parallel from Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al.78:5-8) at. and indeed our example or 'drooping'. 8-9) and Yoqne'am Stratum 10 (Ben-Tor et al. The large plain bowl (Fig. PI. 52:10). 1. Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. Lehmann 1996:386. Plate 4 is a variant characterized 92/888/3356-2 by a step below the is broken here (no would breaks at this point. 42:3. 5. century 2.1 % of all diagnostics. Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. GOBLETS AND PEDESTAL BOWLS Presentation (Lehmann stands (Fig. 8a:51. 45. 12: 11).'Plate 3' and 'Plate 4' (Bikai or slightly flat there are exceptions. 1980:PI. 10:24-25). Oxford 1954. come from and the time range of this type to Strata and the first part of 7th century 1-3 (Bikai 1978a:type the end of the 8th century Cyprus (Bikai 1987: no. and Tyre Strata 1. 33: 1- They occur at Kabri with different rim forms. tomb 367/51-1 pottery during the 1968Ashmolean British Museum late 8th and the 7th century Museum. 5.77:13 into two types .78:9) is discussed 1990:PI. The rim is either horizontal from Tyre define Both examples found at Kabri are 'drooping'.form 5 (Briend et al.77:15) with an incurving rim has a number of parallels in Phoenician sites of the late 8th and 7th centuries BCE such as Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et at. 30:180/2).9:6). convex base. They are one of the most typical features of Phoenician BCE. 8a:43. 1987:9:10). 1-4 at Tyre. 1980:PI. 30:8).77:14 is a small bowl with an incurving rim. deep bowls with handles assemblage and a carinated shoulder (Fig. or partially red-slipped 145b). 1978:Fig. 1980:166rim and a 10:12-13). Al Mina Stratum 5 (Lehmann 8 (unpublished. 41:7). 5. type plate 4). 5-6).348/3). 1980:PI. 195 . 27:4). type with a horizontal long rim (Fig.76:15. Parallels from Tell Keisan Stratum 4(Anderson 1988:type F-2A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai are discussed below as a special type. Bikai divides plates like Fig.9:9-10. 5. The deep bowl with a carinated 5. PI. A small plate with a small accentuated band of red slip inside (Fig. effect (see Culican 1981). 1980:167 type c. 45:4-4a). sometimes has a black band on the rim (Bikai 1978a:28 fine ware plate 4. 38: 9-12) and Tyre Stratum 1-3 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 3. The plate usually illustration).

80:5.78:2-3) decorated in reserved red slip with painted black bands are unusual. 6) similar in form. Other larger jugs (Fig. 27:169) while the rim fragments are often indistinguishable. The paint has a matt appearance. 5. 221: 1) and Shiqmona Stratum 9 (Elgavish 1994:Fig.79:8-10) can be dated by parallels to between ca.78:4) which occur in the 7th century BCE all over the Levant (Lehmann 1996:383-384 type 125). Similar juglets were found in Cyprus and labelled as White Painted V (Gjerstad 1948:Fig.78:11-14) with a simple flat base were found at Kabri. type 239). 4: 16).9).80: 1. 5. 285. but see Fig. Tyre Stratum 2-3 (Bikai 1978a:33-35. but there are also four examples of Persian period mortaria with a high pedestal ring-base (Fig. The Assyrian-style juglets and jugs (Fig. Tyre Stratum 3. 5. found under the floors of Stratum E2. Only the base distinguishes the early moratoria from those of the NeoBabylonian and Persian periods (cf Lehmann 1996:Tf.79:14) differs in form. B ikai 1978a:PI.79:12-l3) and a polished or cut surface come from Strata E2-3. la).79:1) was found under the floor of Stratum E2. 2. 2) decorated with painted bichrome bands in red and black. 5.79:5). JUGLETS AND JUGS A complete small juglet with black-brown bands (Fig. MORTARIA A large number of mortaria (Fig. Large jugs made of smooth yellowish fabric with dark painted lines (Fig. 5. 5. Most examples found at Kabri belong to the early Iron Age type. 5. 1980:Pl. 37:2-3) and Vroulia Tomb 6 on Rhodes (Kinch 1914:PI. More frequent are goblets (Fig. Sapin 1998). Juglets with a red slip and a wide overhanging mushroom lip (Fig. 25-28.1:2) shows that the fabric of this vessel is typical of Cypriote coastal sites like Amathus or Enkomi. are discussed below. 5.5YR6/6) with a rough surface (Fig. 36: 1-. surface treatment and decoration and are comparable to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al.70:1-2 in Stratum -E4). 87:l3. 316). Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:Fig. 33:3. 19). Brown fabric (2. 5. Mortaria appear during the 7th century BCE for the first time and continue into the Hellenistic period (cf. Large jugs and bottles (Fig."5.79:6-7). 50). The decoration and fabric are reminiscent of Assyrianizing pottery but the form is uncommon among Mesopotamian shapes as is the fine grit size of the temper. Fine yellowish smooth (5YR7/6) fabric (Fig.6:4-5. 1960: PI. 5. Juglets with a small bulge at the base (Fig. This juglet may be an Assyrian-style vessel. 3.Stands or incense burners (Fig. 6-7) occur very frequently in 8th and 7th century BCE Phoenician pottery assemblages. Reddish coarse fabric (lOR5/6) (not illustrated. 1980:PI.79:5. 279) but most were found in Levantine sites such as Sidon Tomb 1 (Culican 1975:Fig. 5. PIs. 5. 46:2). These bottles form a distinct group of pottery in terms of fabric. Sarepta B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type B-3A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:typejuglet 1). Similar vessels from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Nos. Lehmann 1996:Tf.90:3-4). The handle rises above the rim and the body of the vessel is slim and long.79:3-4). 298. 38:6. 43:8). For comparisons see Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al.11. 312. 5:19-23. 5. 750-680 BCE (Lehmann 1996: type 241 and cf. Salles 1985a. 92:jug 5) and Hazor VA (Yadin et al. The decanter (Fig. At Kabri three sub-types were distinguished on the basis of fabric: 1. Petrographic analysis of Fig. fabric and decoration were also found at Sarepta Dl 196 . 5. 5. Some examples were found in Iraq at Assur Tomb 547 (Haller1954) and Nimrud NTS15 (Mallowan 1966:Fig. 25:type 159-163 and Tf.78:14 (Chapter 15: Table 15. fabric and surface finish from contemporary decanter types in inland sites but is quite common along the northern Levantine coast. The vessels have a wide oval body and tall neck (cf.

81 :4) has a flat oval-shaped rim.80:3-4) are discussed below.80:8. Tel Qiri loci 682. 7:5. Dan Stratum II (Biran 1994:Fig. There is some similarity to Assyrian storage jars from Nimrud. Jars with a stepped shoulder and vertical body walls (Fig. Type L-9). the rim is not preserved.82:1-4) are low in profile with a sharply formed rim and a somewhat flattened base (Anderson 1988:669. 5. 33:4). 2) often have wide rectangular horizontal rims. 212). At Sarepta they occur in Strata B-C1 (Anderson 1988:505). Briend et al. Sarepta B-C1. 5. 44:5-8). A holemouth krater with round shoulders and a wide curved profile (Fig. 1980:Pl. 1993:Fig.79:14. sometimes also extending over the inner parts of the vessel. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl. this type begins during the 8th century and continues into the Persian period. but has small horizontal loop-handles. 5.81: 1. 5.5:1~3) and Sarepta B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type SJ-18A). Tell Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et al. 88:285. 5. 2) Smooth.78:9. LAMPS The late Iron Age lamps (Fig. Fig.80:9) has a cylindrical body and a round base.82:4). 3) Brown fabric (Fig. Unfortunately. 5. No parallels were found for Fig. 49:8). Fig. 5. Such lamps appear at Tyre only after Stratum III (Bikai 1978a:Pl. 5. Stratum 5 (ibid. The surface is decorated with bichrome red and black bands. 28:9). 43: 12). Bk). Briend et al.82:2) (cf. Type 429.81:3 is similar to these. 1980:Pl. 197 . 5. The fabric and the streak burnish are identical with fabric and surface finishing of decanter Fig. There are four sub-types: 1) Reddish-yellow fabric (Fig.9) are discussed below. 4:10. The Assyrian-style lamp (Fig. 5. 5 For further references from Syria and Lebanon see Lehmann 1996:447. 5. 1980:Pl. 5. KRATERS Kraters with vertical shoulders and a wide lower body (Fig. 880. 5. Keisan Stratum 5. Assyrian-style jug1ets and jugs (Fig. 5. 13d). Tell Keisan Stratum 4.11) with their maximum width in the lower part of the vessel have no parallels. 5. 5. Often the handle starts immediately at the rim. 32:8-9. 4) Cooking-pot fabric which is red with black white grits and a rough surface (Fig. This is the most common type of krater in Stratum E2 at Kabri where fragments of 16 such vessels were found. 6). STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS The tall storage vessel (Fig. 287) and Tyre Stratum 3 (Bikai 1978a:P1s. The large krater or deep bowl on Fig. Tell Keisan Stratum 5. Some 7th century BCE examples come from Achziv Tomb 3 (Culican 1975-76:Fig. 5. 5. 27:1-3). Fort Shalmaneser Room T20 (Curtis et at. 1980:Pl. and another version (Fig. Anderson 1988:type L-9). Assyrian-style kraters (Figs.(Anderson 1988:Pl. 6:10). 5. 5. Some vessels are decorated with a red slip on the rim. 5. 91 :301). but has horizontal handles. 1. Briend et al.80:7) are more typical of inland assemblages and occur at Kabri only in very limited numbers. :Pl. 44:13-15) and Mtarfa tomb (Malta) (Culican 1982:Abb.80:10.82:3) (cf. pink fabric (Fig.81 :7.82: 1) which is sometimes almost white (cf.82:6) with a fire-arm is discussed below.81 :6) has a different type of rim.82:5) existed over a long span of time and may have been used in cultic contexts. Large sack-shaped storage jars (Fig. Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. Similar vessels were found at Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig.5 Thus. Lamps of the so-called 'cup-and-saucer type' (Fig. 1018 (Hunt 1987:Fig.81:5 is similar. 43: 1) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl.81 :10 has a thick rim and is wheel burnished in the interior. 1980:Pl.

12-14).88a) the majority were confined to 5 main types. Fig. Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. All in all 160 handles were counted which would point to at least 80 baskethandle amphoras in the limited excavation of Area E. 12). 5. The general shape resembles a bullet. The outside is red sometimes with a white self-slip.1:3) came to the same conclusion that this type of vessel was produced in II~_-• 198 . The yellowish.82:15). 650 BCE. 1. However. Salamis (Karageorghis 1974:Pl. Kamiros (Jacopi 1931:Tav. 57:23 [Plain White V]). The handle joints on the shoulder are 21 em apart from each other. Both Neutron Activation Analysis by Gunneweg and Perlman (1991) as well as petrographic analyses by Yuval Goren (Chapter 15:Table 15. a small and a large subtype. 5. 33:6). greenish grey.82:13-14). Similar to group 1 but with much thicker walls (up to 2cm) (Fig. Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. Similar jars have been reported from Arqa Stratum 9 D (Thalmann 1990:54 n. 300). Humbert (1991) dates the first appearance of this type to ca. At Kabri they constitute 40% of all transport jars in Stratum E2. 11).74. Some of Humbert's types (1991) as defined at Tell Keisan were also found at Kabri: Type B-1 example. 5. light orange or reddish fabric has a fine mineral temper. vertical body walls below a shoulder carination and a pointed base (Fig. Less sharply carinated shoulders than Group 2 (Fig. Cyprus (Gjerstad 1948:Fig. 25:2-3. 33). These dimensions occur on both fabric groups 1 and 2.82:8-10). 225:593.24 examples (Fig. 5. 5. Sharply carinated shoulders and an S-shaped profile (Fig. 27:6. 1:14). the handle is 17 ern high and its diameter is 5 ern. the matrix being fine with a fine to medium mineral temper.6 examples (Fig. 9). 47:1-2). Slightly sloping shoulders. 27:9) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:Pl. light reddish to pink. 5. 5. 1980:Pls. Dafanna(Petrie 1888:PI. Basket-handle amphoras (Fig. 26:1. 5. No.74: Phoenician aleph incised on jar shoulder. 101). 23-24). pink with black and white grits. The fabric is orange pink. Similar vessels were found at Ashdod-Yam (Raban 1980:Fig. Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. The fabric is medium to coarse with mineral temper. 'from the sea' (Zemer 1977:No. 1:16). Shiqmona Stratum 8 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. Type C . Type D .While there were only some 10 types of transport jars found in Stratum E3. in the storage rooms (Fig. 5.84:1). This is probably the most typical Phoenician transport jar of the late 7th century BCE. It has parallels at Achziv Stratum IV (Zemer 1977:18. A significant number of handles of fabric groups 1 and 2 have the same dimensions. 3. 1980:PI.86:1). Fifty seven vessels. many of them completely restorable. There is a regular. This type occurs from Carthage to Nimrud (Lehmann 1996:434 type 384). 806-807) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:PI. light reddish. 53) and Ras Shamra-Ugarit (Stucky 1983:Keramik Nr. 1980:PI.84:1-2).82:11. 26:2-7.84:2). The vessel is pink with a grey core. 2. 700 BCE but Salles (1985b) claims that this early type of basket-handle amphora reached the Akko plain only ca. 4. 5. 1980:Pls.8-9). These jars from Stratum E2 represent the earliest type which is confined to the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:443-445 type 421). 8:131). The fabric is fine to medium with mineral temper and falls into four distinct colour groups: light grey or greenish with black arid brown grits. 5. On two jars of this type a Phoenician aleph was incised on the shoulder when the clay was still soft (Figs. Salamis (Karageorghis 1967:97. The fabric is of fine to medium mineral temper. 21 types were recorded in Stratum E2. 5. were recorded from Stratum E2. Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al.

84:2). 5. 28 :6). 1980:PI. Another 25 examples were found out of their original context in Stratum El. 2 in E2b and 12 in E2a. Sarepta CI-Dl 2.75: Basket handle with incised Cypriote signs. Comparable vessels.Ware found in seems to be due to the increasingly economic after the end of the 9th century Stratum E3. 220:3) and Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et at.75. Several apparently examples in secondary of other types use as storage which vessels may have come as imports were also retrieved to the Kabri area and were (Fig.Cyprus or the north Syrian coast.g. all with a rough and uneven bas. 5. lIIIIIIII111111fM1*H1111IlmlfM1*H111. A few contemporary E2a is types came from the southern The diversity remarkable. In addition.l\11\\I~l\Il\lll\fM1*H1I\\I\\\\\f 9 10 14 15 16 17 1~ Fig. 199 Stratum CI-Dl (Anderson and Tyre Stratum 9-13 (Bikai 1978a: cooking-pot . 1980 :PI. There are several variations One example 2000:Fig. At least some of these signs are in Cypriote Iron Age writing.5. under the lip (Fig. 5. Thus.e. were found at Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:Fig. 5. 31 examples were found out of their original context in Stratum E 1. of this sub-type Stratum at Tell Keisan under Stratum E4 (Fig. the type dates to Strata E3 and E2 which 1988:Type CP-IA) is comparable to Sarepta type 4). 5. 5. in E2 and 2 were unstratified.83:9). Fig. With a flat rim and an edge slightly below the lip (Fig. 5.70:20).84:7-9. and sub-types: has been was found in Stratum E4. 2 in E3a. jars in a late 7th century BCE. 5. of transport This variety part of the country (e. the type dates to Strata E3 and E2. 46:4). The chert composition suggests that Cyprus should be favoured as a place of origin and this is confirmed by the signs either incised on them after firing or in red paint (Figs. one edge on the rim immediately It has parallels CP-IA).88b). 5. marked exchange BCE assemblage like that of Stratum wide trade contacts of the so-called and Tyre. 2 in E2b and 24 in E2a.85:1). and Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 1988:Type 6. Thus.84:8-9). 3. I 2:5 [early 9th century BCE to 732 BCE]) With a flat round rim without an edge (Fig. by the appearance between the periphery (35%) of cooking-pots in Stratum E2 (Figs. and illustrates COOKING-POTS The majority 1.84:7). (Anderson 4 (Briend et at. in the Mediterranean Crisp. There was 1 example in Stratum E3b. There were 3 examples in Stratum E3b. 5.85:1) belong to a Phoenician One example type which already appears With a small discussed in Stratum E4. 3 in E3a.

Sometimes there is a black band on the rim of the bowls. A few examples each of a variety of cooking-pot types together make up 13.81 :7-9) and lamps (Fig.76:15. 5.1: ASSYRIANIZING TYPES AND THEIR STRATIGRAPHIC CONNECTIONS.82:6 Total 24 30 *For bottles of this type see cf. 200 . 58:351/1. Weippert 1988:647-648. Thus this decoration is some kind of 'Late Bichrome' style. they replaced the triangular-rimmed cooking-pot almost everywhere except on the Akko plain.76:15 Bowl 5. 5. Gilboa 1996.77:7. cooking-pots with a ridged or modelled rim were found at many sites during the survey of the Akko hinterland (Lehmann 2001) and here at Kabri they constitute 11% of the kitchen vessels.7% of the total. 5. 58:351/1. 5. Hausleiter and Reiche 1999).5% of the kitchen assemblage of Stratum E2.89).81:7-8 3 3 Krater 5. 5. juglets (Fig.79:12-13[?].Types with a triangular rim (Fig. Hunt 1987:203. jugs (Figs. Type See Fig.84:5-6) are the commonest type throughout Israel during the Iron Age IIC (Fig.84:8. 5. TABLE 5. Mattingly 1980. 5. The fabric of this class of pottery is almost uniform being mainly reddish yellow (5YR7/6) with some cases of pink (5YR7/4 and 5YR8/3). Jugs and juglets are often decorated with wide horizontal bands of red wash-like paint with black lines added parallel to the red bands. This slip was used most frequently on bowls. 5. At other sites in Israel this type is confined to Iron Age I and IIA-B. 5.78:8 3 Bottle* Jug 5.VI). 4).77:7 5 14 Bowl 5. 5. 5.79:3 Krater 5. but also on juglets. There are no cooking-pots or transport jars in the Assyrianizing style at Kabri. It is usually a reserved slip decoration with a thin.80:3 5 7 Juglet 5.84:3-4) make up 9% of the cooking-pots. The core is usually greyish but sometimes reddish yellow (5YR7/6) or pink (5YR7/4).77:8 1 2 Deep bowl 5.79:3). 5. 5.76. Cooking-pot lids (Fig. DECORATION Red slip decoration was still popular at the end of the 7th century BCE (Figs.81:9 4 2 Lamp 5. 5. Chambon 1980:165-166.80:3. 1980). Assyrianizing pottery occurs only in small amounts.82:6). despite their apparent absence at Tell Keisan (Briend et at. Although the wash-like appearance of the 7th century BCE red slip is clearly distinguishable from the heavy and thick earlier red slip techniques.85:5). The forms would seem to be mainly vessels for the consumption of liquids. 8).78:8). Lehmann 1996:Tf.85:13-15) make up 6. jugs and kraters. whereas on the Akko plain it continues into the 7th century BCE. 5. often wash-like slip (usually red 10 R5/6). However. 6 For a discussion of cooking-pots with triangular rims see the section on cooking-pots in Stratum E4. Another feature typical of Kabri cooking-pots is a rough surface on the lower part of the body (Figs. probably wine (Stronach 1996). deep bowls (Fig. ASSYRIANIZING POTTERY An interesting feature of the 7th century BCE assemblage of Tel Kabri is the presence of Assyrianizing pottery and imitations of Mesopotamian vessel shapes (Amiran 1969:291. Beginning at the end of the 9th century BCE. 5. Stratum E2a-E2b UnderE2b Bowl 5.6 Cooking-pots with a ridged or 'modelled' rim (Fig. bottles of type Lehmann 1996:Tf.77). The repertoire consists of bowls (Figs. Pakman 1992. kraters (Fig. This type does not occur at all at Tyre or Sarepta. Among the cooking-pots found in this stratum were some Greek imports (Chapter 5. this form of decoration is a continuation of the Iron Age traditions in the preceding centuries.

core grey. Thus it can be attributed to the first half of the 7th century BCE. 3447/3 3367/1 3434/100 195515 Locus Description 1315 0892 0890 1955 1970 l321 1927 0890 1970 0801 0802 1941 1984 1941 1971 0890 0892 0889 0889 0864 l308 0869 0849 0890 l334 Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. Gilboa 1995). interior 5YR7/6. interior and core 7. interior 7. interior and core 5YR7/6. An almost identical example. temper: fM. cf. red slip lOR516.Lamps with a 'fire-arm' (Fig. red paint lOR5/6 Exterior 5YR7/6. temper: fM. core 5YR7/6. 5.1V).76: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. cf. interior and core 5YR7/4. red slip 2. They are contemporary with Stratum E2 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence in Tel Kabri. Exterior 10YR7/4. 26:16-17. SeE 4. temper: mg M. comes from Tell Abu Danna Stratum A4 in northern Syria (Tefnin 1980:15:3).5YR7/6. interior 2. 11A:2). core 2. black & red paint lOR5/6. interior 10YR7/4. Exterior 10YR7/4. 'Assyrian bowl'. red slip lOR5/6. temper fM. Gjerstad 1948:Fig. red slip 10R516. the architectural 201 . core 5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/6. interior and core 5YR7/6. temper: m M. Assyrian-style pottery was found in significant quantities in a sounding in Square OP7 (Chapter 4. Analysis of Syrian and Lebanese pottery shows that Mesopotamian shapes went out of use immediately after the destruction of the Assyrian empire (Lehmann 1996:93-94). temper: m M. but here on its periphery they are apparently objects of prestige. temper: fM. FIGURE 5. red slip 10R5/6. interior 5YR7/6. white self slip. Chemical and petrographic analyses of Assyrianizing pottery from Tell Jemmeh have shown that this pottery was produced from local clay (Melson and van Beek 1992). 539114 3590/3 5149/4 Exterior lOYR8/2 white. Exterior. temper: fm M. Exterior 7. 3375/7 5324/100 3020/1 3024/3 5426/100 548515 19411190 542511 3386/100 3376/5 3347/1 Exterior. interior 5YR6/4. temper: fm M.82:6) are unusual in Israel (Lehmann 1996:T£ 82:430/2 with references to finds in Syria and Lebanon). interior 5YR8/3. core 5YR6/4: temper: mg M.2. core 7. whose fire-arm was also broken off. The pottery figures for this stratum include some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context. temper: fm M. 1980. 3350/100 3224/2 3502/3 326011 3175/2 3358/102 3616/2+ 12 7 Since this operation was a probe and excavation was halted after reaching the foundations ofWl389. These vessels are dated according to stratified comparisons from other sites. temper: fM. copying the life-style of the centre in Assyria. Most was found either in Stratum E2b or under the floors of that stratum. Exterior 5YR7/6. temper: fM. Exterior 5YR6/4. core 5YR7/3. this may also be the case for the coarser Assyrianizing vessels in Kabri. core grey. core 10YR7/4.5YR7/6. Exterior. mainly in the Ottoman level (Stratum E 1) whose foundations were dug into the remains of Stratum E2. black & white grits. From a macroscopic point of view.5YR5/6.5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR7/6. core 5YR6/6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 l3 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Type Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl BO'.5YR5/4. Egg-shell thin vessels like those from Tell Jemmeh are missing from the Kabri material which very closely resembles the finds from Tell Keisan and Dor (Briend et al. Exterior 2. temper: mg M. Black-on-Red I(III) bowl.7 No Assyrian-style pottery was found in Stratum E3.5YR8/4.5YR5/4.\lI Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Reg. Exterior. red slip. and stratigraphic context of the finds under floor E2b is unclear. interior 5YR7/6.5YR5/4. No. Tyre Stratum II-III (Bikai 1978:PI.

.) ~ '7 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 16 ~ r7 19 ) 15 ( 17 .s.d 2• 2 CC_ ~ 5 . 5.76: Pottery of Stratum E2. "~ /' ~ 21 22 23 :7 10cm.:I 7 ~ 6 4 ~7 C . • Fig. 202 .

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Fig. 5.77: Pottery of Stratum E2.

203

FIGURE 5.77: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2
No. Type
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS 16 Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl

Reg_.No.
S49113 S012/3 S413/2 3374/1 S28616 327712 S3S9/4 S3911S S419/2 3S33/4 3602/1 3629/1 33S7/1 S472/100 S442/1 3219/S

Locus
1984 1911 1972 1300 1965 0872 1970 1970 1968 1321 1336 1338 0889 1976 1963 0864

Description
Exterior, interior and core SYR7/6, temper: fm M, decoration: black & red paint. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip 2.5YR6/8. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip lORS/6. Exterior and interior SYR7/4, core lORS/6, temper: m M. Hole drilled in the base. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip 10RS/6. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: m M. Exterior SYR7/4, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: m M.

Exterior SYR616, interior SYR616, core SYR616, temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: mg M, red slip 10RS/6. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, burnished. Exterior SYR7/8, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fin M, smoothed outside. Exterior SYR713, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: mg M.

FIGURE 5.78: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2
No. Type
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Mortarium Mortarium Mortarium Mortarium

Reg. No.
S112/100 3SS9/S 3S80/1 3646/101 S188/1 196616 S21111 3446/3 S012/1 19411104 3S7S/I 3S92/3 3S1113 S216/100

Locus Description
1913 1326 1326 0890 1938 1966 1948 131S 1911 1941 1333 133S 1321 1947 Exterior 2.SYRS/6, interior 2.5YRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: mg M white grits. Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior lOYR7/3, interior 2.SYRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: fin M, red slip 10RS/6. SYR7/4, interior SYR7/4, core grey, temper: fm M black grits. SYR6/4, interior SYR6/4, core grey black, temper: fm M. 2.SYRS/6, interior 2.SYRS/6, core grey; temper: m M black & white grits.

Exterior SYR7/4, interior SYR7/4, core SYR7/4, temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/4, interior lOYRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: m M.

Typical Cypriote fabric.

204

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Fig. 5.78: Pottery of Stratum E2

205

..-_.. '\ I r. 5.....W 5 " 7 ... <: i: ..-. . I I I I I " . ' . . 14 Fig. / I~.... 206 ...rr@ .79: Pottery of Stratum E2.. \ 3 4 1IfJ' . 11 9 10 12 8 13 10cm.2 ./ " ~.

5YR6/6. black lines.5YR7/6. temper: fm M. interior 5YR7/6 . Exterior 5YR7/6. No. 5013/200 5073/200 53201100 3119/5 3573/1 5209/1 5286/10 3142/4 5416/5 5235/1 Locus 1912 1912 1941 0825 1321 1941 1965 0835 1941 1955 Descrip_tion Exterior and interior 5YR7/6.79: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. core grey.7. interior 5YR7/6.5YR8/4. red slip IOR5/8. core 1OYR8/3. burnished. core grey. red paint. temper: g M large white grits. core 5YR7/4. grey to 5YR7/6. core core core core core grey. Exterior 10R6/6. temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6 -7.5YR6/6. Only 1 handle. red paint 10R5/6. Karageorghis 1970: PI. Exterior. interior 5YR7/6. Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. mg M. temper: f M. core 5YR7/6. temper: fig M. Exterior 2. temper: m M.5YR6/6. temper: grey to 5YR7/6. Exterior 2. TyPe 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Pot-stand Krater? Deep bowl Reg. Exterior 5YR7/6. interior 2. interior 5YR7/6. burnished. Exterior 10YR8/3. temper: m M.5YR6/6.5YR6/6. interior and core 7. red slip 10R5/6. temper: fM. temper: m M. wheel burnished.5YR7/6. core 2. temper: fm M. 'Assyrian bottle'. inside mg M. interior 10YR8/3.5YR8/4. Exterior 5YR7/6.5YR6/6. interior and core 1OYR8/3 white. 212: 10 (Tomb 14). temper: fM. No. FIGURE 5. burnished with black brown bands painted outside. core 10R6/6. core dark. Exterior. interior 2. core 7. core grey. M.81: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. mg M. temper: fm M. and interior 5YR7/6. temper:wg Brown painted band IOR5/4 weak red. temper: fm M. temper: grey to 5YR7/6. temper: fM. Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Reg No. temper: m M black & white grits. and interior 5YR7/6. "':!. Exterior 5YR7/6.5YR6/6. interior and core 7. temper: fM. interior and core 2.FIGURE 5. Exterior. core 5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/4. 207 . black paint. temper: fmM. interior 2. black & red paint IOR5/6. black & white grits. cf. temper: fM. red slip 10R5/8 with black line on mushroom lip. and interior 2. Type Juglet 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Reg.5YR7/6. and interior 5YR7/6.5YR6/6. interior 10R6/6.5YR7/6. interior and core 10YR812 (white). core grey. Exterior IOYR7/3. temper: mg M.80: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. 3353/7 3353/100 5306/1 3297/1 5413/3 5037/100 3293/1 5362/2 5073/100 5287/1 34651100 Locus 0892 0892 1965 0874 1972 1912 0874 1967 1912 1941 0890 Description Exterior 5YR7/4.5YR8/4. Exterior and interior 2. Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Jug Jug Jug Decanter 12 13 14 529511+2 FIGURE 5. Exterior 7.outside wheel burnished. red slip 10R5/8 with black lines. core grey. interior 7. temper: m M. core 5YR7/6. core yellow greenish.5YR6/6.5YR7/6. temper: fM. Exterior. interior 5YR7/4. temper: grey. interior IOYR7/3. Exterior 7. black bands. 3618/100 349113 53911100 5238/1 5324/9 536711 5477/5 3279/16 3356/9 526117 3275/6 357211 3269/9 5324/1 5500/200 5330/2 Locus 1338 1308 1970 1956 1970 1967 1976 0872 0888 1956 0872 1326 0869 1970 1984 1967 1941 Descrip_tion Exterior.

_. 8 10cm..-.. 5.. . Fig... .-.80: Pottery of Stratum E2 208 .\ 3 \ r I 2 I . \ 5 6 r L III '\. • 7 I 9 10 11 o 10cm ...

I I . I I " ... T 8 9 -~10 10cm.81: Pottery of Stratum E2. 209 . 2 • 4 3 5 s 7 ) : =I. Fig.---- I \ \ \ I \ \ \ \ '' I • / I\ \ . . 5.

83: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. interior and core 7.5YR7/6. FIGURE 5.FIGURE 5. Cypriote import. 3498/2 349811 527913 5258/3 3554/1 5302/100 35201100 549112 5245/4 548114 5287/2 3640/100 5437/1 524112 5180/2 5297/2 Locus 0890 0890 1963 1959 1321 1941 1941 1984 1941 1980 1941 0890 1968 1941 1914 1941 Description Exterior. temper: fM. core 2.5YR6/6 .82: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. 210 . interior and core 5YR7/6. Exterior 2.5YR6/6 . Red lamp type with rough surface. temper: fM.2. interior and core 5YR7/8 grey. No. interior 2.10YR7/3. temper: mg M black & white grits. Exterior. interior and core 7.5YR5/4 black.e Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Table amphora Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport jar j ar j ar j ar j ar jar jar jar Reg No.5YR8/2 white. core grey black. Pink lamp type with smooth surface. Exterior.e Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport jar jar jar jar jar jar jar jar jar Reg. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TJ:'J!. 194117 550011 5447/2 5061/2 5309/200 52991100 53321100 36431100 5192/2 Locus 1941 1984 1963 1913 1941 1941 1941 0890 1941 Description Exterior 10YR6/2 .5YR6/6 . Cooking-pot fabric.5YR5/4 black.5YR5/4 grey.2. temper: fm M white grits.2. red & black paint. temper: fm M black & white grits. Exterior. interior 10YR6/2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 TJ:'J!. temper: mg M.

82: Pottery of Stratum E2. 5. 211 . 7 • • I I I I \ \ \ \ \ I \ \ \ . I I . . \I ' I 4 5 .'" 2 3 e.I '\V/ / " 8 9 10 11 ~ 13 '1 I ~. I I / " I -.... '/ -. . I I . 14 12 a 10cm .---'. .~ ._---'- ----- --- ----' 6 -=~~~~_'~Ocm.. I / '.. ffi -.. 15 Fig. \ \ ._____. .. \ \ I I I .

2 • 3 • I I \ I I I \ \ \ \ \ 5 6 • I I I I . 212 . Fig.. 5. \ \ \ ( t I I \ \ \ \ ) 7 6 9 o ------ 1Ocm.83: Pottery of Stratum E2.

84: Pottery of Stratum E2. / / _- I ' 8 9 Fig. ---- 10cm. 5. 2 3 ~ ) 4 7 l \ ~ 5 6 7 " I I ..n ! \ 0 -. 213 .

5YR512.5YR5/4. core grey black. Exterior 7.5YR6/4. interior and core 2. temper: m M white grits. Exterior. interior and core 2.5YR5/6. temper: mg M black & white grits.5YR7/6. temper: mg M black and white grits.5YR5/2. temper: mg M black & white grits. Handle h: 16.5YR5/6.FIGURE 5. Exterior.5YR5/6. Exterior 2. Exterior 10R4/3. writing with red paint. temper: fm M. core black. 55 (Str. interior 2. Exterior. w: 21. temper: mg M black grits. This type of cooking-pot is characterized by a rough lower part. interior 7.5YR5/4.5YR5/6. This type of cooking-pot is characterised by a rough base.5YR6/4. Exterior. core grey brown. w: 21. temper: mg M. 8). TJl. core black. core 5YR7/3. Exterior Exterior interiorand core 2. Exterior. temper: mg M black &white grits.5YR7/6. temper: mg M. interior and core 2. interior 2. temper: mg M black & white grits. lid lid lid lid lid lid lid lid 214 . interior 10R5/4. temper: mg M white grits. temper: mg M white grits. core 2. Sarepta type CP-IA (Anderson 1988). incisions on handle. interior 2.85: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No.5YR5/6. Briend et al. 10R5/4. core 7. Locus 1941 1941 1941 1321 0855 0855 1941 1913 0890 Description Handle h: 17.84: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No.5YR5/4. Basket-handle amphora 53701100 Basket-handle amphora 522011 00 Cooking-pot 19411172 Cooking-pot 3526/4 Cooking-pot 3203/2 Cooking-pot 3203/1 Cooking-pot 5318/4 Cooking-pot 5115/100 Cooking-pot 344511 5 6 7 8 9 FIGURE 5. 1 2 3 4 Type Reg. interior and core 2. interior 7.5YR7/6. temper: mg M white & black grits. core grey. Exterior 2. 3602/2 5426/6 3270/1 362114 521112 5360/100 3367/2 5188/2 5499/3 545711 307511 5283/5 5422/1 1970/48 532311 Locus 1336 1941 0869 1338 1948 1967 0892 1938 1980 19B 0819 1941 1963 1970 1956 Description Exterior. interior 5YR7/4. No. 1980: PI. interior and core 5YR6/6.5YR5/6. interior and core 2. Exterior IOR6/6.pe Cooking-pot 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg.5YR7/6. No. Exterior 2. temper: mg M black & white grits. 5YR7/6. temper: g M black & white grits. Remarks: cf. interior lOR5/4. Exterior.

) ( ~\ f22 2 \. 9 10 / . 5. Fig.~.85: Pottery of Stratum E2. 215 . I '~ 11 ~I 12 / ~==~--~-----~ 14 1Ocm. 4 / 3 < t: ( " • 5 6 7 err .

Not all of these finds could be assigned to a particular pottery type. TABLE 5. E2b Description Transport jar type with an engraved sign "aleph". 1 2 3 Type Transport jar Basket-handle amphora Reg. All diagnostic pottery fragments were recorded and 2625 vessels and fragments catalogued.~I 'I 10cm. where much of the pottery was found in situ. Locus 890 1968 1309 Stratum Str. FIGURE 5. Body sherd with an engraved picture of a jar. E3 and E2a statistically due to the fact that the fortresses under Stratum E2a were cleared and rebuilt. It was impractical to analyze the pottery types in Strata E4. Cypriote Basket-Handle with an engraved sign. 2 3 10cm.of Area E were excavated. E2a Str.86: Pottery with ins cis ions and inscriptions. ' . Fig. 3365/101 5402/100 3443/103 STATISTICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE POTTERY FROM STRATUM E2 Approximately 340 m. No. E2a Str. 1 ~. yielded a significant sample. Only Stratum E2a.2: NUMBER OF VESSELS RECORDED BY TYPE AND STRATUM FORM CLASS £2 174 29 52 24 9 98 6 £3 34 2 7 1 8 £4 19 1 2 2 1 7 Debris under Stratum £4 2 Total 229 30 56 33 11 113 6 2 530 27 204 13 24 27 23 57 1385 Bowls Deep bowls Bowls with incurved rim Kraters Juglets Jugs Jars Pithoi Amphoras Lamps Cooking-pots Special forms Mortaria Greek imports Cypriote fine ware imports Cypriote basket-handle amphoras Total 2 511 26 157 12 24 25 13 57 1219 13 34 1 2 9 111 49 6 4 1 11 2 2 216 .86: IRON AGE POTTERY WITH INCISIONS AND INSCRIPTIONS No.. 5.

Fig. These numbers should be compared with the finds from Mezad Hashavyahu. There were no Cypriote imports found at that site. the only other 7th century BCE fortress in Israel where statistics have been provided (Fantalkin 2001). Jugs are notably more numerous at Mezad Hashavyahu (19%) than at Kabri (8%).83:8 Others 8% 6% 40% Basket-Handle amphoras 20% Fig.88a: Main types of transport jars in Stratum E2.1% and Greek imports make up 2. while Egyptian imports account for 1% of the finds there (Fantalkin 2001:97-98. At Kabri.Others 1% 4% Cooking-pots 13% Jugs 8% Mortaria 2% Transportjars 48% Fig. transport jars (amphoras).1% of the total pottery in Stratum E2. Figs.4%. 5. 5.88b: Other types of transport jars in Stratum E2.2. This may be partly due to the fact that the area excavated coincided with the storerooms of the fortress. Cypriote basket-handle amphoras are the major group. 217 . kraters constitute 2% of all vessels.83 :2-3 13% Others 35% 6% Fig. 5.rare with a share of only 1. 5. 5. constituting 9. Greek imports to Mezad Hashavyahu are much more numerous (46%) than at Tel Kabri (Fantalkin 2001 :103-104). Among the imported wares.88) reveals an extraordinarily high percentage of . lamps 4%) (Fantalkin 2001:103-104). The pottery count (Table 5. Fig. No Egyptian imports were found in Tel Kabri.1%.87: Pottery Repertoire of Stratum E2.103-104). 5. 5. 5. Cypriote fine war~s are. The numbers at Mezad Hashavyahu are not very different (kraters 2.83:7 3% 10% 3% 9% Fig.87.

From the end of the 8th through the 7th century BCE. The excavations at Tyre. Wolff 1994:515-516). Fig 5. In addition to excavations. while the other 47.89b: Other types of cooking-pots from Stratum E2. 5.Fig. 1990. The excavations at Tel Kabri significantly complement these finds.85:6 11% Lids Fig.85:8 Fig. survey~ in the Akko plain have yielded new data about the coastal settlement system of the 7th century BCE in southern Phoenicia (Frankel 1986.85:11 11% Fig. until recently the 7th century BCE was a more obscure phase in the archaeological research of the northern Levant. Achziv Tomb 3 has a number of good parallels to Stratum E2 (Culican 1975-76).85:7 6% 5. a fortress stood at the extreme southern edge of the Phoenician homeland.84:8) 10% Fig. 5. Lehmann 1995. CONCLUSIONS While Iron Age coastal (Phoenician) pottery of the 12th . Gal 1992. 1994. In Achziv Stratum IV the still unpublished fmds from a warehouse. 5. 1978b. 5. 1997.84: 7-9 35% Others 27% 6% Fig.85:12 6% Fig. The closest parallels to the pottery of Stratum E2a come from sites in the vicinity of Tel Kabri. Frankel et al. While most types found in Stratum E2 also occur at nearby Tell Keisan Strata 4-5 (Briend et al. Herrera Gonzalez 1990). 5. 5. 5. 5.89a: Main types of cooking-pots from Stratum 2a. Anderson 1988. Some 52.8th centuries BCE has been studied in detail (Bikai 1978a. include the same transport jar types as those found in situ at the latter site (Zemer 1977:18). 1980).85:10 17% Fig. 5. 5. Another recent contribution to the study of 7th century BCE coastal pottery is Fantalkin's comprehensive publication of the excavations at Mezad Hashavyahu (2001).3% were vessels for storage of agricultural products collected in the nearby area.2001. 5. 1987.7% of the pottery assemblage from Kabri was used for the preparation (cooking) and consumption of food to serve the needs of the garrison. This leaves only 25% for storage vessels (Fantalkin 2001:103-104). near Achziv.85: 13- Fig. 5.84: 3-4 9% Fig. The numerous complete vessels from Tel Kabri's destruction level (Stratum 2a) enable us to study the typology of the 7th century BCE in detail. The 7th century BCE pottery from Tell Keisan has been published by the French Expedition but till now this was the only major site to provide such information. Sarepta and Tell Abu Hawam did not expose substantial levels of this date. 21% of all pottery types have exact parallels at either Tyre Strata 1-2 (Bikai 1978a) or Sarepta Stratum Cl (Anderson 218 .84: 5~ 11% With rough base (Fig. At Mezad Hashavyahu vessels for the consumption of food make up 60% of the repertoire and cooking-pots for its preparation 11%. probably destroyed at the same time as the storerooms of the Tel Kabri fortress.

Dor Area A Phase 9 (Gilboa 1995 [720-650/630 BCE]) and Shiqmona Stratum 8-9 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. There is evidence for an earlier destruction phase (Stratum E2b) which . although on a smaller scale. Similarities are seen at Tel Qiri Stratum VI (Ben-Tor et at. Reich 1989). dated to 604 BCE (Stager 1996) and from Stratum 5 at al-Mina in northern Syria. Based on the above-mentioned comparisons. Additional parallels which date Stratum E2a to ca. may be as early as 604 BCE or only later in 585 BCE (Katzenstein 1997: 328). 600 BCE come from Tell <Arqa Stratum 9D (Thalmann 1990) and Ras al-Bassit Phase 7 and Tomb 4 (Braemer 1986. has many types in common with the destruction layer at Kabri. Furthermore. on the basis of pottery comparisons Stratum E2 at Tel Kabri can confidently be dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE. 50. Courbin 1993). dated to the end of the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996). Comparisons for many vessels in the Stratum E2a assemblage at Kabri can be found in the destruction levels at other sites in the Levant. chronologically anchored on the campaigns of Nebuchadnezzar. 53 [8th-7th century BCE]). was dated recently to the years around 600 BCE (Wenning 1989).V). Storage jars are completely missing. The later fortress of Stratum E2a may have been destroyed during one of the campaigns of Nebuchadnezzar against Syria and Palestine. AREAD The evidence that occupation continued. in Area D after the Middle Bronze Age. This points to very close contacts and exchange with Phoenicia and illustrates that the pottery repertoire of these two sites on the Akko plain is typical oflate Iron Age Phoenician pottery (cf. dated to ca. Thus. which yielded a very similar pottery assemblage including Greek cooking-pots. 604 BCE (Biran 1994:270-271). A total of 14 vessels of Cypriote fine wares accounts for 22. 1987 [710-650 BCE]). destroyed in ca. 650-575 BCE. Lehmann 1994a). Naveh 1962.however did not destroy the fortress completely. demonstrates that Late Bronze and Iron Age settlement was not confined to Area E. Blackon-Red and White-Painted pottery. The destruction of Mezad Hashavyahu (Fantalkin 2001. A number of the same pottery types came from the destruction level of Ashkelon. Pottery LB IA I IA II Krater Jugs/Juglets Cooking-pots Lamps Bowls Cypriote Imports TOTAL 4 1 3 3 2 2 29 4 14 51 4 10 219 . 650 and 600 BCE and might be connected with the campaign of Ashurbanipal in the year 644/43 BCE (Katzenstein 1997:293). the earlier destruction must have taken place between ca. There is a surprisingly high percentage of Cypriote fine wares.1988). Cooking-pots form the largest functional group retrieved from the Iron Age II remains in this area. The pottery is identical to that in Stratum E2a and it is impossible to distinguish any type development between the two phases. Dan Stratum I. there are several examples of'Wild-Goat'-Style II (Chapter 5.6% of the all post-MB vessels recorded in Area D.

220 ... .5 90· Iron Age II pottery from Area D. 4 5 7 9 10 11 f 12 14 ~'. F 13 II II 15 16 17 19 18 lOcm.3 6 ~. Fig .

Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. cf. 19 Cooking-pot PERSIAN AND HELLENISTIC PERIODS A small amount of late Persian period and Hellenistic pottery. 2525-1 2676/1 2630 2509 2669 2617 2542 2518/3 2525/2 2625 2534/3 2504/2 2518/2 9187 2636 2555/1 9256 9110/12 268111 Locus 715 750 745 703 744 713 721 715 715 715 721 715 715 1570 745 721 1554 1541 751 Description cf. 11:238]) and the Iron Age. Cypriote Black-on-Red juglet (Gjerstad 1948: Fig.:41:6). cf. Such pans were in use during the Late Bronze Age (Tell Abu Hawam Stratum V [Balensi 1980:PI. Hazor IX (Yadin et al. Abu Hawam Stratum III (Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. Stem 1978:55/56. 1980:49:2) and Keisan Stratum 7 (ibid. 1960:57:13). There was one twisted handle of a Persian period transport jar (not illustrated. Hazor IX (Yadin et al.224). Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al.90: IRON AGE II POTTERY FROM AREA D No. 1960:61:12). Hazor X (Yadin et al.9).joins with 154119121/1. 14:10).2. Tyre Stratum X-2 [Bikai 1978:PI.:53:9-10). 1980:56:8). Type A. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl. 1960:57:13). However. cf. 39:9]). 'Samaria' Ware. Keisan Stratum 5 (ibid. Stern 1978:53. Artzy 1980) and several mortaria with a high ring base (Fig. 2. Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. Hazor X (Yadin et al. Jezreel "Early Iron" (Zimhoni 1997: Fig. 1961:209:1). 14:10). cf. cf. 27:6] and XI [Bikai 1978: PI. Type Bowl 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Bowl Bowl Juglet Juglet Juglet/Jug Juglet Bowl Bowl Bowl Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. Type A. cf.III). Against such a rural background the relatively large amount of Cypriote fine wares is difficult to explain. Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et al. No. cf. 25:10. Red-slipped burnished bowl. Stern 1978:53. 80:221. Persian period pottery was extremely rare. Cypriote Black-on-Red juglet or jug (very fine pink fabric with black lustrous bands on the rim inside). Abu Hawam Stratum III (Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. Kabri Stratum E3. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl. cf. Type E. Stratum E3 (a similar cooking-pot rim appears also during the Iron Age II A-B. 1960:51:12). Abu Hawam Stratum IV (Balensi 1980: PI. the peculiar combination of cooking-pots and Cypriote fine wares may perhaps be explained if this area was associated wth the fortress complex in Area E for processing agricultural products. 1960:51:12) and VIII (ibid. cf. cf.91 :3-4).The scant Iron Age II architectural remains in Area D are interpreted as a farmstead or some kind of rural settlement (Chapter 4. Hazor X (Yadin et al. Pan type with vertical handle. cf. Type 1). 1961:209:11). cf. Kabri Stratum E3. 1960:57:4). FIGURE 5. Such mortaria were first in use during the Persian period and continued into the early Hellenistic period (Salles 1985a. apparently dumped at the site.:57:15). 1980:56:6). 5. cf. cf. Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. 80:225). cf. Stern 1978:54/55. 38:9. was retrieved from Area E. Abu Hawam Stratum IV (Balensi 1980: PI. Kabri Area E. 1998) 221 .

FIGURE 5. No. core grey.91: HELLENISTIC POTTERY FROM AREA E No. 1 2 3 Type Unguentarium Unguentarium Mortar Mortar Reg. 4 Fig. The Ottoman village in Area E was excavated by Mahmud Hawari in 1993 (Hawari 1994). temper: mg M white grits . 7:1-3. Further finds include a fragment of a stamped Rhodian amphora (Chapter 9:No. 5. 1980:Pl. Exterior 5YR7/4. 222 . 3 2 '--"~~=--' 10cm.91: Hellenistic pottery from Area E. temper: mg M.5YR8/4. All the pottery comes from disturbed layers between Strata E2 and E1. core grey. interior 5YR7/4. interior IOYR8/3. This type of vessel was found in large numbers at Tell Keisan and nearby Khirbat Kinniya (Briend et al.91:1-2). 3269/1a 326911b 3204/4 3490/2 Locus 0869 0869 0853 1321 Description 4 Exterior 7.The two Hellenistic unguentaria found were apparently associated with a disturbed grave (Fig.. 5. 17:23-30). Transport jars of this class are especially numerous in the Akko plain during the Hellenistic period. Among the Hellenistic pottery was the rim of a white Hellenistic transport jar (not illustrated). 34).

12. No. 2 3 223 . Fig. Tell Jemmeh and Tell Sera' (Koehl 1985:138. also Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33-36) also applies to Tel Kabri-'. Waldbaum 1994.E. and the fourth to ca. Lehmann 1995. 1990. The following sites in the Levant have produced Early Corinthian pottery: Tell Sukas. according to Neutron Activation Analysis by H. Fine decorated Greek pottery is more accurately datable than most of the local pottery and therefore important for absolute dating (see Cook. Fig.2 The stratified pieces come from Stratum E2a (the destruction level of the Phoenician fortification) or from slightly earlier levels.1995. 42). Tell Keisan.C. cf. R. Pastor 1991 :20*.1 was earlier identified as belonging to a Late Geometric or Subgeometric skyphos with metope decoration (Niemeier 1990:xxxiv-xxxv.M. 25) (cf. 42) is of special interest. Gershuny (1987:69. The fragment of an oinochoe or olpe of Etruscan Bucchero (No. simplifying the decoration and flattening the shape.13). Figs. Niemeier 1994:*31. They play an important role in discussions about contacts between the Levant and Greece and the possible presence of Greeks in the Levant (see Wenning 1991. BIRD BOWLS Five fragments (Figs. 16. cf. the third ca. Ashkelon. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33-36 with references). although the preserved decoration could be of late 8th/early 7th century date. The clay of a sherd tentatively ascribed to a Protocorinthian aryballos (Kempinski and Niemeier 1993b:259. 5. Tel Batash. Niemeier 1995. Elsewhere in the Levant Corinthian pottery also is not abundant. 1992 and 1993 (Niemeier 1990. Niemeier 1994). Cook and Dupont 1998:8-10). Fig. According to Coldstream (1968:298-301) the first stage of the Bird bowls is to be dated to ca. PI. 1997:252-255. 5. not Corinthian but probably east Cypriot. All pre-Hellenistic Greek pottery of Area E is to be dated between the second half of the 7th and the first half of the 6th centuries BCE. Reinvestigation of the sherd for the final publication demonstrated that. The Archaic Greek pottery from Kabri is East Greek. 2. Tel MiqneEkron. Thus no Corinthian pottery has been found at Tel Kabri. despite its popularity in other areas of the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. 23. Recently the typology and chronology of the East Greek Bird bowls has been modified and refined by Kerschner (1995. Boardman 1980:48). the profile is too curved to belong to a Late Geometric/Subgeometric skyphos but comes from an East Greek archaic Bird bowl. Tell Abu Hawam. Kerschner We would like to thank M. 1997.93:1-4) come from East Greek so-called Bird bowls. 675-640 B. 19.1. 700-675 BCE. the second to ca. 22. The Bird bowl evolved from the Late Geometric Bird kotyle. Haider 1996:69). 256.1 More was found in the seasons of 1989. ARCHAIC GREEK AND ETRUSCAN POTTERY Barbara and Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier Archaic Greek pottery was first identified in Area E in 1986 byL. The "curious gap in the roster of early Greek pottery in Palestine".V. Sarepta.1) and adopted by Waldbaum and Magness (1997:34) and Haider (1996:69) is. Mommsen of Bonn University. 1) and Haider's summary (1996: 69) have to be corrected: There is no Geometric pottery from Kabri. "the complete lack of Protocorinthian pottery of the late eighth through most of the . with the exception of a probably Attic SOS-amphora (No. Kerschner. 650-615 BCE. Thus Waldbaum's distribution map (1994:55.92:1-5. We are also grateful to A. Schlotzhauer for important information and constructive discussions on the East Greek pottery found at Tel Kabri. The presence of these imports is of special significance for two reasons: 1. Fig. Kaufler and U. The unstratified fragment of an SOS-amphora (No. date adopted by Waldbaum 1994:59. IV. Since there is no other 8th century Greek pottery from Kabri. 615-600 BCE. 25). seventh centuries" (Waldbaum 1994:59. Tel Dan. Vessel No. Wenning 1995). Al Mina is the only site from which Protocorinthian pottery is known (Robertson 1940:16-18. Naso for his input regarding the fragment of an Etruscan Buchero vessel (No. it almost certainly is contemporary with the East Greek pottery. Haider 1996:69) is too small to be more closely dated than between the later 8th and the first half of the 6th centuries BCE. Adelman 1995. S.

92:5) Body fragment. No. XIV). XIV). PI. 43. 85). three vertical lines and the body and feet of a bird. the first half of the 7th century BCE is still dominated by Bird kotylai and only from the middle of the century onwards do Bird bowls appear in larger quantities.C. dated before 600 BCE (Walter 1968:88. According to his studies. Locus'S24. PI. ca. 1. Reg. H = 2. 3. 11 em. three vertical lines which meet three horizontal lines at an angle. 5. is a rhomb filled with hatching. 5. Inside: Solid. No. dated to the last third of the 7th century BCE (Boardman 1967:133. 5. = 3. The style is less delicate than No. PI.8. 2. A vertical stripe on the right. Decoration: Light reddish-brown paint. PI.dated to the last quarter of the 7th century BCE (cf. Outside: On the left. Kerschner 1997:127 Cat. Stratum El. from left to right. Inside: Solid. Stratum El. Stratum El. =2 em. 5. 162. Locus 802. dated to the middle to third quarter of the 7th century B. 109. Reg. No. D. 5. Kerschner did not find Bird bowls from clear contexts before the second quarter of the 7th century BCE. The bird's tail is formed by extending the lower horizontal outline of the body. 107. 5. Bird bowl (Figs. 5. Below this are void rays. Decoration: Yellowish-red paint. 329711. Decoration: Reddish-brown paint. Decoration: Yellowish-red and black paint.478. 650-615 BCE. 5. 3.93:1) Rim fragment. Kerschner 1997:160. 224 . 3023/1. H. 5.2. Stratum El. Bird bowl (Fig. Bird bowl (Figs. 43:452). Date: The fragment is from a Bird bowl of Kerschner's Type II with empty bottom zone.3 ern. Date: The fragment is too small for dating.92:3. No. Date: The painted design puts the fragment in Coldstream's third group. No.92:4.92:1. 'Fundgruppe XXVII' in the sanctuary of Hera on Samos. No. H. Outside: A ray with three horizontal lines above it in the lower part. 17. Inside: Solid. 5. 4. 3114. Stratum El.5 em. Reg.1997).93:2) Rim fragment. Kerschner 1997:163. Reg. No. Parallels: Phase IV at Emporio on Chios. 162. Date: The missing groove at the rim and the almost hemispherical profile of . 5484. H.the bowl are characteristics of Kerschner's Type V.8 em. = ca.E (cf. Locus 874. Reg. D. Inside: Solid. VI). Locus 833. 118-119:476. Cat. H. Outside: A group of three vertical lines on the left with a single vertical line on their right. PI. In Kerschner's typology our fragment forms a late example of his Type IV with a small groove at the mouth and a relatively deep bowl dated to the last third of the 7th century BCE (cf. Locus 1983.93:4) Rim fragment. 130. = 3. Outside: The tail of a bird above which is a triangle pendant from a painted lip band. Above these.93:3) Rim fragment. 3138. Bird bowl (Figs. No.92:2. Bird bowl (Figs.

glazed all over except for a narrow reserved band at handle level.219-234). 7-8. Syria (Ploug importance 1956:167-173) for this cup-type have been put forward. the majority of the pieces of this type came from Phases I (before ca. Outside: by Kerschner as belonging Two vertical lines. decorated Schlotzhauer (Cook and Dupont 1998:129-131). D. Fig. 5. cups' is used for a class of two-handled bands. painted or reserved. 630/20 . = 3. There are. Hayes' Type I-II. 197-199.. 1993). Furtwangler's level and just Type 3 and 16 cm. Table 1). with simple horizontal or completely covered with dark paint and they should be is retained. and from Tocra in Libya (Hayes 1966:111-16. here the common English nomenclature Various systems of classification Cilicia (Hanfmann Hayes 1973:55-56). a complete 1938:39-43 No. Inside: Solid except for a band just below the mouth. 188-189 note 5. were and Since this class is not restricted to Ionia (Catling cup' should be abandoned (1995.200-202 Nos. 610 BCE). 610-590/80 BCE) (Furtwangler 1980:165. Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Samian Heraion. 5. from Tel Kabri. Shipley 1989. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler 225 . that neither parts of Ionia (Jones activation demonstrating that it was not produced at Miletus confirm of Bird bowls was this Ionian the production centre of Bird bowls (Kerschner et al. analyses were considered analysis pit. 13 = Alexandrescu 1978:57-58 No. Outside: Type: Villard Schlotzhauer's and Vallet's below the lip. other systems arranged These typologies from Tarsus in have been adopted in the study of the Ionian cups from Tell Sukas in by single sites (see Catling and to the typologies sequences 1973:27-38). 21). For many 1998:26). I118-20. Solid except for narrow Decoration: Black paint.6e) matches on Rhodes. 53311100. H. 625-590 BCE (cf. site of Bird However. drinking cups with prominent and Shipley 1989). bands just below the handle Group 3. Delos found to be a Rhodian (Jones 1986:647. Type AI. invention (cf. 630/20 BCE) and II (ca. Boardman those applied to material from Megara Hyblaea in Sicily (Villard and Vallet 1955:18-33). PI. Other examples from the Samian Heraion come from the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building dated to ca. No.93:5) 15 fragments of mouth and wall (reconstructed). 200. 8. The most influential 120-125. The term 'Ionian rims.Decoration: Reddish-brown exception of a reserved and dark grey glossy paint. Locus 1941.1. Ploug's Group 6. in a sacrificial complex in the sanctuary established by Schlotzhauer 1995 for the 1994:137-187.92:7. Of in the South Temenos of the are the series of Ionian cups found in good stratigraphic 1997.ca. to his latest Type VI without horizontal Date: It has been identified example from Histria: Lambrino DISCUSSION between the rays of the bottom zone and the main frieze. cups from Miletus) and in the Greek sanctuary at Gravisca in Etruria (Boldrini 6. Cook and Dupont that found in Furthermore. This is dated to ca. 6-18) form the largest group of Archaic Greek pottery . One production bowls may perhaps have been located in northern 'IONIAN CUPS' Ionia (Jones 1986:697).5 em. adopting the typology 1980:165). has shown that the clay composition of a Bird bowl of Type IV from the Rheneia Pi. 1999) suggests that the term 'Ionian called 'Knickrandschale' (cup with bent rim). The fragments of thirteen so-called Ionian cups (Nos. (mouth) = Reg. Stratum E2a.664). 'Ionian cup' (Figs. however. and the very useful concordance sanctuary of Hera on the island of Sam os (Furtwangler of Artemis at Ephesos (Kerschner ibid. Inside: Solid with lines stripe. fewer from Phase III (ca. 13). Kerschner's neutron metropolis years the Bird bowls petrographic 1986:649. However. Fig.

2 ry3 5 4 _. 5.92: Bird bowls and Ionian cups. 11 Fig. 226 . 7 8 3cm.

12-13 PI. PI. 18). (Figs. 25. 115 Cat.93:1 5. Locus 1321. Date: Vallet and Villard's (1955:15-18. reddish-brown (5YR 4/4)/ dark grey (7. Outside and inside: Solid. 19. 3.120. 1111. PI. 10. El Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. Furtwangler's Type 5 and Boldrini's Type 1111 with glazed exterior except the rim and a band at handle level. Locus 887.93:5 5. III/8-9. 8. 117.93:4 2. reddish-brown (2. 610 BCE (Kerschner 1997:182). III/I. No. II. Fig. H.5/1) paint. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) paint. 'Ionian cup' (Fig. 1. Stratum El. No. black (7. 5. black (10YR 2/1) shiny paint. 5. Ionian cup. Cat.5YR 3/1) paint. Cat. 21). Examples of this type were unearthed also in the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building of ca. dark greyish-brown (10YR 3/2) paint.5YR 6/4) clay. Nos. Cat. E2a Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay. Ionian cup Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. = 2. Discussion: See No. very dark brown (10YR 2/2) paint. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay.tion See Fig. Reg. Cat.92:8) Shoulder fragment. E2blE3 Pink (5 YR7/4) lightly micaceous clay. 21). 29) date is 640/30 . EI Light brown (7. Hayes' (1966:112) late 7th century BCE.5/1) paint. 5. 33521100. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos which ends ca. Hanfmann's Type IV. Ionian cup II. 5. = 4. H.5YR 3/1) paint. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:4-5. 8.2 em. reddish-brown (2.600 BCE.92: BIRD BOWLS AND IONIAN CUPS No. 570/550 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:5-7. No. 545/535 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:7-8.93:3 5. Stratum E2a. 3536/100. Decoration: Black paint. Inside: Solid except for a band just below the mouth. Surface Very pale brown (IOYR 7/4) clay. 1/3-4. 19.3 em. 125. E2a Very pale brown (IOYR 7/3)/grey (10YR 6/i) clay. 4. Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Heraion of Samos it occurs first in Phase III (ca. Reg. No. 610-590/80 BCE) and was also found in Phase IV (a late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165. PI.6. 3138 3114 3297/1 3023/1 5484 3500/101 53311100 3352/100 3536/100 2619 5034-6 Locus 833 824 874 802 1983 1321 1941 887 1321 737 1915 Stratum El E1 Descrip.5YR 4/1) shiny paint. yellowish-red (5YR 5/8)/black (5YR 2. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 5. dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) paint. D. 6.92:9. Decoration: Glossy black paint. black (IOYR 2/1) paint. No. 12.5YR 2. Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. Ploug's Group 5. TJP.FIGURE 5. No.93:2 5. 112. 111 Fig.No. Outside: Bands on rim and at handle level. 23) and in the foundation of the North Building of ca. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay.93:6) Mouth and wall fragment. 7. 11 PI. Examples from Ephesos are dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE (Kerschner 1997:111. 28). III).121:Fig. 227 . 9. 213-214:Nos. Cat.93:6 and Kienast 1989:4-5.e Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Dorian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Reg_. Type: Villard and Vallet's Type A21B 2. (mouth) = 17. 5. 7. This type apparently lasted from the second half of the 7th to the early 6th century BCE. 126:Fig. Hayes' Type VIII-IX. in the second levelling of ca. 111 Fig.

19. 570/550 BCE (Furtwangler foundation of the North Building of ca. Locus 887.5/1) paint. dark greyish-brown (IOYR 3/2) paint. Fig. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. Nos. 213-214:Nos. 5. H.e Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Dorian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Reg.92: BIRD BOWLS AND IONIAN CUPS No. No.93:6 and Kienast 1989:4-5. reddish-brown (5YR 4/4)/ dark grey (7. No. 545/535 BCE (Furtwangler ca. Reg. Reg. 7. 5.5YR 3/1) paint. 19. H. 5.92:9. No. 126:Fig. ern. Outside: Bands on rim and at handle level. 5.5YR 3/1) paint. This type apparently lasted from the second half of the 7th to the early 6th century BCE. D. 28). black (7. E2blE3 Pink (5 YR7/4) lightly micaceous clay. Cat. (mouth) = 17. Cat.600 BCE. Date: Vallet and Villard's . Stratum El. 11 PI. No. 125. reddish-brown (2. (Figs.93:2 5.5YR 6/4) clay. Discussion: See No. 5. black (IOYR 2/1) paint. 21). Ionian cup Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. 111 Fig. PI. Surface Very pale brown (IOYR 7/4) clay. Cat. 111 Fig. No. 6. 18). 11. 1/3-4. 1980:165.93:6) Mouth and wall fragment. No. Hayes' century BCE. 5. Decoration: Black paint. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 33521100. reddish-brown (2. 12-13 PI. Outside and inside: Solid.93:5 5. 12. Decoration: Glossy black paint. Hayes' Type VIII-IX. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) paint. Cat. 112. Ionian cup. 2. 4.93:1 5.93:4 11. PI. No. III). 3536/100. E2a Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos which ends 227 . 121 :Fig. Inside: Solid except for a Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Heraion of Sam os it occurs first in Phase III (ca.5YR 4/1) shiny paint.5YR 2.6. 'Ionian cup' (Fig.115 Cat. Examples (1955:15-18. Type 5 and Boldrini's Type II11 with glazed exterior except the rim and a band at handle level. 25. 8.92:8) Shoulder fragment. Ploug's Group 5.2 band just below the mouth.FIGURE 5. III/8-9. 120. 8. very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) paint. Type: Villard and Vallet's Furtwangler's Type A21B 2. 23) and in the and Kienast 1989:7-8. II11. 7. 29) date is 640/30 from Ephesos are dated to the (1966:112) late 7th second half of the 7th century BCE (Kerschner 1997:111. Stratum E2a. 610-590/80 BCE) and was also found in Phase IV (a late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler ca. 610 BCE (Kerschner 1997:182). El Light brown (7. 9. dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) paint. 3. yellowish-red (5YR 5/8)/black (5YR 2. TJ:'I!. levelling of ca. 21). Locus 1321. E2a Very pale brown (10YR 7/3)/grey (10YR 6/i) clay. 3138 3114 3297/1 3023/1 5484 3500/101 53311100 3352/100 3536/100 2619 5034-6 Locus 833 824 874 802 1983 1321 1941 887 1321 737 1915 Stratum El El Description See Fig. in the second and Kienast 1989:5-7.3 ern.93:3 5. 1. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler Examples of this type were unearthed also in the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building of and Kienast 1989:4-5. 10.5/1) paint. = 4. black (1OYR 2/1) shiny paint. III/I. = 2. Cat. Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. Hanfmann's Type IV. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. El Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. 117. PI.

92:1. 14) Fig. 5) Fig. 6) Fig. 5. 7) Fig.95:16. 5.94:12. 5.2 3 4 5 II 14 11 12 Fig. 12) Fig. 9) Fig. 10) Fig. 5.92:4. 5. 5. 4) Fig. 5.92:7. 5.94:7.92:9. 5. 2) Fig. 5. 8) Fig. 3) Fig. 5.95:10.94:5.93: Bird bowls and Ionian cups.92:3. 5.94:6. 1) Fig.94:1. 11) Fig. 5.94:8.92:2. 13) Fig. 5. 5. 228 .

289) has suggested a date from the end of the 7th to the first half of the 6th century BCE. starting around 580 BCE. D of mouth = 11 ern. Locus 1941.92:11) Foot fragment. black (10YR 2/1). Sounding between Strata E2b and E3. red (lOR 4/4) and white (lOR 8/1) paint. No. three red lines on the lower part of the wall. Outside and inside bowl: solid. = 1. Reg. Ionian cup (Figs. foot unpainted. Date: This type is dated by Villard and Vallet to ca. Decoration: Black and red paint. 229 .C.(10YR 3/2). Decoration: Very dark brown paint. Type: Villard and Vallet's Type B 1.93:7) 15 fragments of rim. = 5 em. Reg. = 2. Locus 1308. (reconstructed) = 5 ern. = 1. Stratum E2a. Outside: three horizontal brown lines. Furtwangler 1980: 164-166. 12. Reg. 9. and Boldrini's Type Ill/I. D = 6 em. Type: Same as No. Cat. Decoration: Very dark greyish-brown paint. 5. Reg. Handles: solid black. except rim and shoulder.5YR 5/4). 565 B. Ionian cup (Fig. Furtwangler's Type 6. Decoration: Glossy black paint.7 ern. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. Hanfmann's Type II. H. No. Nos. 11. two red lines below the mouth. 5. Inside: solid black. it occurred in Deposit II of Level 8 (Hayes 1966:1i2. = 2. which ended ca. Hayes Type V.94:1. 1963:285-287. Surface D. Parallels: At Tocra. 5. Locus 737. foot unpainted. 5389-3. 10. Locus 1915. No. PI. Outside and inside bowl: solid. Hanfmann (1956:170-173. Ploug's Group 9. 1197. Reg. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. At Tell Sukas. 620-600 BCE for this type proposed by Villard and Vallet (1955: 18-19.4 cm. 620-580 BCE (1955:29). Locus 1971. handle and foot. wall. 29) has been considered too restricted. 2619. Foot: black with one red line on base. 5034-6. unglazed exterior. Ionian cup (Fig. H. 13.3502/101.3 cm.92:10) Foot fragment. Outside: black bands covering the mouth plus the upper part of the wall and the foot. Thus the type is to be dated from after ca. especially in regard to its end. Stratum E2a. Outside and inside: solid. 610 to 550 BCE. H. No.Date: The date of ca.E (Hayes 1966:9). glazed with two red lines framed by white lines painted on the glaze on the inside of the rim and the lower part of the bowl.9. H. Hayes (1966:113) and Ploug (1973:29-30) date this type to the first half of the 6th century BCE. Boldrini 1994: 149-150. Inside: solid black.4 ern. 5345/100. H. sometimes a band below handle level and glazed foot. No. Type: cf.a group of almost completely preserved cups of this type have a reserved tondo on the base of the interior which is a 6th century feature. Decoration: Design in brown (7. with low foot. Stratum E2a. 120. 5.1199). 7.

. 1 230 ..... . <. <.-- / <.. . --' \ ' \\ ) I I \_---- . 2 3 /... 5. \ "..~. I'. / \ \ .~--- ..94: Ionian cups..:> J I ~~\ \ \ 8 I \ 9 6 F' 9.

93:8 5. No.93:10 5. red (lOR 4/6) . 220:No. PI. 149. Inside: solid black. 560 BCE (Isler 1978:93-94.5YR4/4) paint. Decoration: Design in brown (7.5/1) paint.213-214.5 em.5YR 2. 22). Yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) clay. 1.93:11 3401/102 890 1916 1318 E2a E2b-E3 E4 5038 Oinochoe? SOS amphora 3470/100 Parallels: In the South Temenos in the Heraion on Samos. No. 9. 610 BCE.5/1) paint. glazed with two red lines framed by white lines painted on the glaze on the inside of the rim and the lower part of the bowl. 213-214.5YR 2. 610590/80 BCE) and also occurs in Phase IV (the late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165. 4. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos. D (where mouth is cut away) = 13. white (10YR 8/1) slip. 5389-3. Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:77-78) and in Well W 2 closed at about the same time (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:74-75. 54141100. No.FIGURE 5. No. ending ca. Other examples from the Heraion were found in a level dated ca. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) micaceous clay.5YR 7/4) clay. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) micaceous clay. Reg.5YR 5/2) lightly micaceous clay. Date: The type apparently was in existence from after ca. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. No.reddish-black (2.5YR 7/4) micaceous clay. dusky red (lOR 3/4). Fig.94:2) 17 fragments of wall. Outside: three horizontal brown lines. 1. 150 Fig. 13. 5.5YR 5/4).93:7 5. Pink (7. 6. 1. Cat.3 ern. 150 Fig. 5345/100 54141100 3571/100 3448/100 3616/100 3590/100 Locus 1941 1963 890 1316 1334 1321 Stratum E2a E2a E2a E3b E2a E2a E2a Description Red (2. Stratum E2a. IV/9. Locus 1963. 560 BCE (Isler 1978:93-94. 5. 33). No. = 1. Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:77-78) and in well W 2 closed at about the same time (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:74-75. 3.W2/29. 220:No. red (lOR 4/4) and white (lOR 8/1) paint. 47. No. black (lOYR 2/1). 2.5YR 5/6) micaceous clay. yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) paint. PI. III/II-12. Type Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Skyphos Jug Oinochoe Oinochoe Oinochoe? Reg. Date: The type apparently was in existence from after ca. 149. Pale red (2. 610 BCE. Reddish-brown ((5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay.5YR 8/1) paint. Ionian cup (Fig 5. edges greyish-brown (2. Fig.5/2) paint. very dark brown (7. 22). Beil.94: IONIAN CUPS No. black (5YR 2. Reg.5YR 5/4) micaceous clay. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos. See Fig. Other examples from the Heraion were found in a level dated ca.5YR 2. 231 . The mouth was cut away and the base knocked through for reuse (as a funnel?). 47. 223.5YR 5/6). 8. Beil. Locus 1971. 14. white (IOYR 8/1) slip.511). 33). 610 to 570/60 BCE. Pink (7.very dark grey (5YR 311) paint. foot and 1 handle. H. black (10YR 2/1)/red (lOR 4/6) paint. black (7. 7. IV/9.5/1) paint. III/ll12.reddishbrown (5YR 4/4) paint. this type first appears in Phase III (ca. Cat. 223. = 4. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) clay. this type first appears in Phase III (ca. black (7.8 ern.93:9 5. Parallels: In the South Temenos in the Heraion on Samos. Stratum E2a. ending ca.5YR 2. H. 610 to 570/60 BCE. 610-590/80 BCE) and also occurs in Phase IV (the late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165. white (2. white (IOYR 8/1) slip.W2/29. reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) . Core red (2. yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) . 10. brown (7.

centre of Asia Minor 1973:28) but does not. Length = 4. D of mouth = 19 em. DISCUSSION Rhodes has long been considered According analyses (Dupont to the frequency of the clay (Dupont 1983:28. offer a consistent tradition (von Graeve 1973174:85. 3500/101. two blobs on inside. of finds (Furtwangler 1983:27. 43:23.1. = 0. Stratum 1. The 'Dorian as well as the results of petrographic production of southwestern these cups. 32:f 1 and 3. (5YR 7/6) clay painted all over in very dark grey (5YR 3/1). 35711100. Handle: solid on outside. = 0.94:3) Rim and wall fragment.92:6) 27 fragments D (mouth) of mouth. 39:8. 10. 38:6. 'Dorian' cup (Fig. Dupont Vroulia-style the handle zone. Outside: and Kerschner striated solid except for a very narrow Decoration: Dark reddish-brown Type: Identified by Schlotzhauer 'Dorian cups' by P. 3156. D. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Handle fragment. Decoration: Red and reddish-black paint. as belonging to a marginal group of 'Ionian cups'. Rec. Locus 890. Stratum E2a. band just below = 22 = 12 ern. 3448/100. D. No. Inside: solid except for a band just below the mouth. a major production centre of 'Ionian cups' (Hayes 1980:150-161) 1966: 111-115. the shoulder and the rigid outline of the conical body of No.5 em. Outside: Horizontal stripe on lower edge of fragment.1. 34-36.2. Pr. however. 5. Ionian cup (Fig. 3. paint. Type: Same type of cup as No. Stratum E 2a. No. Outside: band covering the mouth and the upper part of the wall. 13 but with thicker walls and handles and are no painted lines on the interior. 16. Stratum E3b. Cook and Dupont cup' (No.5YR 2. H. Kinch 1914:167-186. Decoration: Black (7.4 em. = 3. 5248-2. Locus 1316. No. Cook and Dupont 1998:114-115).Decoration: Yellowish-red and dark grey paint. Inside: solid.1 ern. H. 37:4. No. Type: See No. H. Solid.94:4) Wall and handle fragment. 18:9. Locus 1321. 5. cm. Outside: band on foot and lower part of wall. termed examples are those of the so-called in cups of the Vroulia style The short rim not going beyond (1983:29) of which the most beautiful (cf. 15. Reg. 'Dorian' cup or skyphos (Fig. Decoration: Very dark brown paint. 45:32. 19) was most probably 232 . 19.4 em. (Kinch 1914:Pl. 9. 14. Inside: unpainted. 33).9 ern. wall and handles. Reg. 18 are paralleled 27:2-4. Reg. Length Reg.5. 11) and other more simply decorated cups from Vroulia on Rhodes (Kinch 1914:Pls. No. the island of Samos was an important at Miletus and in other workshops 1998:129).1.4).4. Locus 839. 17. = Reg. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Handle fragment. Decoration: Reddish-yellow 18. = 3. but they were also produced produced on Rhodes or Kos. Locus 1941. Stratum E2a.5/1) paint. Ploug Dupont 1983:28-29). 5.

93:8) Shoulder and neck fragment. R. Trefoil mouthed oinochoe with triple-coil handle (Figs. Decoration: White slip with horizontal stripes painted in black. Reg.6) and continue into Middle Wild Goat II (Cook. H. 2a-b). four fragments (Nos. a rosette of concentric circles and a series of dots following the outermost circle as filling ornament. H. Type: All these motifs first appear in Middle Wild Goat I (Cook and Dupont 1998:37.94:9) Shoulder fragment ofa closed vessel. part of back and hind leg of a wild goat. Fig.94:7.8 ern. 34011102. Reg. 3616/100.92:9) Mouth. 8. H. 21. 2a-b).JUGS. RM.6 em. Miletus (unpublished). 22. 1997:109. 8. The name comes from the animal friezes. 5038. Locus 890. Stratum E2a. 5. No. POLYCHROME BLACK (SCHWARZBUNT) 20. 5. DISCUSSION 'Wild Goat style' is the term used in the English speaking archaeological community for the style which emerged about the middle of the 7th century BCE. Cook and Dupont 1998:42. Decoration: Yellowish-red paint. = 3.93:10) Neck fragment. 5. oblique lines on surface of handle. Stratum E2a.=9cm.M. No. Locus 1916. Stratum E2a. 5.M. Fig. Type: These motifs first appear in Middle Wild Goat I (Cook and Dupont 1998:37. R. Date: The slightly careless execution of the filling ornaments points to a Middle Wild Goat II date. and dominated the decoration of East Greek painted pottery for some three generations (Cook. 1933/34:90-91. 1992:259. Parallels: The sanctuary of Hera on Samos (Technau 1929:29). On the left. Fig. Decoration: White slip and brown paint. Mouth and sides of handle solid black. The old term 'Rhodian' (Cook. Stratum E2b-E 3. Type: cf.2 em. Fig.9 cm. 5. 5.6) and continue into Middle Wild Goat II (Cook. Cook and Dupont 1998:32-70). = 4. 233 . Oinochoe (Figs. in which the goat became the most frequent species. Fig. 111-119. = 12. on the right.93:11) Body fragment. Kardara 1963) is misleading. 5. WILD GOAT STYLE OINOCHOAI At Kabri. 21-24) came from 'Wild Goat style' vessels. cross with filling of spherical triangles on rote lIes. R. Locus 1334.94:8. Jug (Figs. 3590/1 00. Decoration: Painted solid black with two horizontal red lines and two horizontal white lines on shoulder. Reg. Oinochoe(?) (Figs. 5. Locus 1321.94:6. neck and handle fragments. Part of the back of a wild goat with part of a spiral quatrefoil above it. Decoration: White slip and black painted design. Schiering 1957. 24.94:5.M. Reg. = 2.10. No. Oinochoe(?) (Fig. 1992:259. H. H. decorating the main zone of the vessels. No. Date: The careless execution of the twisted band points to a dating in Middle Wild Goat II. 5. twisted band on neck. 23. 8.

RM. 1992:260. lOA) has come to light. Cook and Dupont 1998:44).M. Whereas relatively much Late Wild Goat Style pottery has been found in North Africa (Naucratis. Most recently. At about the same time.1986:62-64.P. Later. Cook to ca. Cook and Dupont 1998:5156). overlapping and influencing the early stage of Fikellura. He argued that the Middle Wild Goat II style. Fine pottery did exist at Miletus in the first half of the 234 . In Israel only a single sherd from Mezad Hasavyahu (Wenning 1989:186. 1997:123. 1992:262. Walter-Karydi 1986:73-80. but dated the late style of his Camirus Group (comparable to Cook's Early Wild Goat . Schiering (1957:11) did not see this as a decadent transitional style. but clay analyses demonstrate that the island imported the ware (Dupont 1983:28-29. 590 BCE (Hopper 1949:180. RM. from ca. Amyx 1988:428-429) as Payne (1931:57) previously suggested. The end of the Middle Wild Goat II style has been dated by R. 1933/34:90-91. 1997:112. Cook and Dupont 1998:33-36). the Levant and North Africa come to an end and are replaced by North Ionian Late Wild Goat style ware (Schaus 1986:291. Cook and Dupont 1998:56). Jones 1986:665-666). 264). RM. 600 BCE for the end of Early Corinthian has been questioned by scholars who put it a little later. Cook and Dupont 1998:77-81. The chronological gap between the supposed end of the Middle Wild Goat II style ca. Cook. 10. According to Dupont's petrographic clay analyses the principal Middle Wild Goat II school is Milesian (Dupont 1986:60-64). RM. A problem under discussion is the date of the change from the Wild Goat style to the Fikellura style pottery mainly produced at Miletus (Dupont 1986:61.Middle Wild Goat II) to 610-560 BCE. Cook and Dupont 1998:34. 550 BCE.M. may have lasted into the first two decades of the 6th century BCE (Dupont 1986:65). SF 1. 1992:255-266). Cook and Dupont 1998:61). Clazomenae and what Dupont calls North Ionian 2 (Dupont 1983:27-29. Schaus (1986:284-288) ca. 1933/34:60. is greatly indebted to the Middle Wild Goat II style (Cook. 1997:112. according to R. PI. 65-66. The Early Wild Goat style probably did not last very long. since it is no longer found in graves on Rhodes at the time when Middle Corinthian was replacing Early Corinthian (Cook and Dupont 1998:44).36-44). 600 and 560 BCE as too long a phase for Cook's decadent transitional style. ca. Tocra and Cyrene) very little is known in the Levant.M. The Middle Wild Goat style is divided into I and II around 625 BCE. The Late Wild Goat Style is an invention of North Ionian schools which diverged from the South Ionian mainstream while Early Corinthian was still flourishing (Cook. The Fikellura style which. Cook (1933/34:90. 560 BCE and according to G. New evidence from Miletus disproves the theories of Cook and Schaus and confirms those of Schiering and Dupont (Schlotzhauer. 1992:260. W. Moreover. he named this supposed decadent transitional style Wild Goat III (Cook. when ornament and poses became more stereotyped (Cook.Rhodes was the place where it was first found in quantity. exports of Middle Wild Goat II style pottery to the Black Sea coasts. 1992:260. Fig. M. The Wild Goat style has been divided into Early. the traditional date of ca. R. 67-71. Cook and Dupont 1998:89) started ca. 650 to 640 BCE (Cook.1. considerable amounts of Middle Wild Goat II style pottery have been found in the sanctuary of Athena at Assesos near Miletus (Lohmann 1995:313-314). Chios. although Middle and Late are regional styles and overlap chronologically. 91). 112 Fig. 600 BCE and the beginning of the Fikellura style ca. 600 BCE. Middle and Late. A completely different solution has been proposed by Schaus (1986:289-292) who maintains that almost no fine ware was produced at Miletus in the first half of the 6th century BCE due to economic decline caused by internal civil conflicts (cf. 34-36. 8-9 = Naveh 1962. and that the Fikellura style appeared with are-emergence of the industries at Miletus about 550 BCE. Petrographic clay analyses and stylistic researches have demonstrated that three or four main production centres of Wild Goat style pottery existed: Miletus. the discussion in Niemeier 1999:404 with n. 560 BCE may have been filled by a decadent variation of the former which lingered on beside the Late Wild Goat style (Cook. Schaus 1986:288-289). Jones 1986:665-671. personal communication). Dupont regards the 40 years between ca. This transition is traditionally dated to about 600 BCE (payne 1931:57). R. RM.

Very important are fragments of 'bilingual' cups from Miletus. Thus at Miletus fine ware pottery production did not stop in the early 6th century BCE but it was not exported. 3592/4.8 ern. 5. Decoration: Reddish-yellow . They demonstrate that the Fikellura style directly followed the Wild Goat II style and partly overlapped with it. Reg. Decoration: Unpainted. H.2 ern. Stratum E2a.6).first half of 6th century BCE. Locus 1335. Trade amphora (Fig. 5. SOSAmphora (Figs. TRADE AMPHORAE 25. 5035. 1941-179. 166. H. and in the east on the Black Sea at Histria.6th century BCE and its decoration was not decadent.7 em. Type: As No. Stratum E2a. 26. = Reg. D. of mouth = 14 cm. No. Shoulder solid. Fig. 5148-2. = Stratum E2a. Date: The SOS amphora was in use from the later 8th to the first half of the 6th century BCE. Locus 1914. No. (mouth) 13 ern.94:10. 112-122). Stratum E2. Reg. D. Type: As No. 5. 5051-1. H. Trade amphora (Fig. Jones 1986:708-712). Decoration: Unpainted. 29. 26.93:12) Neck and shoulder fragment. D. No. Reg. has been interpreted as a manifestation of the Athenian export trade in the Mediterranean during the Archaic period. decorated on the outside in good Middle Wild Goat II style and on the inside in Fikellura style. 26 Trade amphora (Fig. shoulder fragment = 15. H.5 ern. Stratum E 4. Locus 1912. Nos. No.95:4) Rim fragment. 23. supposedly produced in Athens for the olive oil export market. Locus 1318. Type: This sherd comes from an SOS amphora which gets its name from the varied zig-zag and circle motifs on the neck resembling the Greek letters 'sigma omikron sigma' (Jones 1986:706). 5. D. 28. Decoration: Unpainted. Type: Samian amphora of the early type with echinoid rim (Cook and Dupont 1998:164-165. Decoration: Unpainted. This type of amphora. Date: End of 7th . = Reg. 5. of rim fragment = 6 em. Petrographic clay analyses have demonstrated that the majority of the SOS amphorae indeed are of Attic origin but imitations were also made at Chalkis and other places (Johnston and Jones 1978:122-128. Part of '0' of the SOS motif on neck. 235 . = 7.95:2) Two fragments of rim and shoulder. mostly in Italy and Sicily but as far west as Spain and Morocco.95:3) Rim fragment.95:1) Neck and mouth fragment. 27. = 6. (mouth) = 14 em. in the northern Levant at Al Mina and in Egypt at Tell Defenneh (Johnston and Jones 1978:104-107.reddish-brown paint. Parallels: SOS amphorae have been found outside of Greece at over forty Mediterranean sites. Type: As No. H. 5. 5. (mouth) 13 cm. 26. = 7 ern. 34701100. Trade amphora (Fig.

236 .2 4 5 rj~ 6 7 dl ~.::jl n I ( 14 15 "rr 16 13 Fig.95: Amphorae and cooking-pots. 5. 8 9 W ~ )fJI \ n )lJI \ )(~J \11 c.

shiny black (2. Red (2. D. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) lightly micaceous clay. 9.first half of 6th century BCE. 34. Locus 879. micaceous clay. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/8) clay.5YR 5/6) . H.95:8) Foot fragment.5/1) paint. Locus 889. 3335110.95: AMPHORAE AND COOKING-POTS. Locus 1958. 3552/100 3222 3228 315113 Locus 1335 1912 Stratum Description E2 E2a E2a E2a E2a El El El El El EI E2a El El E3 El See Fig. Cooking-pot 15.95:9) Foot and wall fragment. II. 3286-5. No. 23. 8. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) core. D.5YR 5/6) . Cooking bowl 16. No. Decoration: Unpainted. Reg. Locus 823. 3. 13. = 3. 7. light brownish-grey (1OYR 6/2) surface. Cook and Dupont 1998:170-174. Figs. 33. Stratum El. Reg. = 9 em. Red (2. Reg. 505114 1941/179 5148-2 5237-5 3309-3 3123-6 3335/10 3286-5 300112 3095/1 3437/100 3547/100. 4. Decoration: Unpainted. Like No. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) lightly micaceous clay. Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. Stratum El.93:13 Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay.5 em. 5. Reg. 6. Stratum El H. Locus 874. Bluish-grey (5PB 5/1) core. D (neck) = 15 ern. Blue-grey (5 B 511) clay.FIGURE 5. Decoration: Unpainted. Trade amphora (Fig.95:6) Foot fragment. three grooves on upper part of neck. 5. 3592-4 5035. Decoration: Unpainted. 5. H.95:5) Neck and shoulder fragment. Trade amphora (Fig.6 em. 3123-6. 12. No. 3309-3. Date: End of 7th . 237 . No. TJ!l!. 31.5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. = 3. 10. No. 1. H. Type: Milesian amphora (cf. Reg. Trade amphora (Fig. 2. Grey (5YR 5/1)core with reddish-yellow (5YR 6/8) surface. 5. 5237-5. 2. Like No.5YR 5/6) highly micaceous clay. No. 1914 1958 879 823 889 874 Llll Kill 1309 1324 864 866 821 Red (2. Trade amphora (Fig.93:14 30.5 YR 2. Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. 32.5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay.3 cm. 5. 2. D (foot) = 10 ern.95:7) Foot fragment.e Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. (foot) = 6 em. 5.7 a). Stratum El.5YR 5/6) micaceous clay. Decoration: Unpainted. = 6 em. 5. lightly micaceous clay.brown )7. Stratum E2a. (foot) = 5. (foot) = 8 em. Red (2. Amphora 5. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) surface. D. H. No.brown (7. unpainted. = 3 em. 14. Trade amphora (Fig. One horizontal groove at base of neck.

66). D (mouth) = 20 cm. PI. Square Lll1. 127. the fabric of the latter. described as "loaded with large flakes of silvery mica". 21-22. 40. However. No. = 5. 3222. 29-31) or from an olpe of his Type 1. No. Reg. 22:L 45-48. H. 597-604. No. The surface is partially blackened by fire. 1961b:317. No. 153154 PI. Reg. = 6. =8 cm. D (mouth) = 21 cm.7. Figs. H. Trade amphora. Locus 1309. 42. 99. 20. No. 34371100. D (mouth) = 20 ern. = 5. 36-40.the Kabri sherd comes either from an oinochoe of Rasmussen's Type 3a.93:13) Rim fragments of imported Greek cooking vessels of coarse highly micaceous clay with rolled out rim. Cat. 371. 86-91). H. Decoration: Unpainted. Reg. Fig. 18.203210. 91-92. but their typological sequence can only be followed at Athens with the material from the Agora and the Kerameikos (Young 1939:189-190.7 ern. The Kabri fragments have a profile similar to that of an example from Chios (Boardman 1967:146 Fig. 19411178. 94 No. 38. Nos. H. ( 238 . 1932. No. R. 1412-1413. 11. H.1922. PI. 39. Locus 866. Fig.5 em. H. Etruscan bucchero (Figs.038. Brann 1961a:123124. Square Kill.5 em. XII). dated between the end of the third quarter of the 7th to the tum of the 7th .4 em. Date: Late 7th century BCE 41. 136. Reg. this is a bowl with an everted rim. 7-8.93:14) The Etruscan bucchero sherd was a surprise. 105). 36. Nos. KUbler 1970:192. Stratum E 3. Q 10. Reg. Type: Ware similar to Nos. 3552/100. 3228/1. Locus 864. D (mouth) = 19 ern. to those from Ephesos and to two examples from the Greek settlement at Tocra in Libya dated by Hayes to the late 7th/early 6th century BCE and attributed to a possible Cycladic origin (Hayes 1966:135-137. Nos. 30 cm. They are known from different areas in Greece. (not illustrated) Shoulder fragment. 37. H =. 598). 145. PI. 116 PI. 300112. is very like that of the Kabri cooking jars and may indicate a southern Ionian origin. Surface. No. PIs.95:15) 2 rim fragments. Reg.40. 5. Cooking-pots (Figs. = 4. 5. Fig. D = ca. 5. Locus 1324. 1962:55. PIs. Nos. Type: Although no handles are preserved. PI. Cat.35. III. 3095-1. 155. Stratum E1. Stratum E1. D (mouth) = 20 ern. 130-131. COOKING VESSELS 36 . 5. 493. 136. 5. They are unpainted. 75.8 em. Its identification was secured by comparing the piece directly with fragments of Archaic Etruscan bucchero pottery in the collection of the Archaeological Institute of Heidelberg University. Nos. = 6.95:10-15. Cooking bowl (Fig.482. . these rims undoubtedly come from one-handled cooking jugs (chytrai) which have a tradition going back to the Sub-Mycenaean period (Reber 1991:20-56). 139. Nos. Cat. 512 Cat. 83.6th centuries BCE or shortly after (Rasmussen 1979:88-89. Stratum E1. Sparkes and Talcott 1970:224-225.5 em. Unpainted. common in the last quarter of the 7th century and in the first quarter of the 6th century BCE (Rasmussen 1979:78-79. No. Cat. PI. Stratum E2a. No. According to its profile. 94) and from Ephesos (Kerschner 1997:115.95:16. 18. Surface partially blackened by fire. 3547/100. 93. N 18. Parallels: East Greek examples have been published from the island of Chios (Boardman 1967:145-146.

11 Nos. 28:7-14). Figs. 10. PI. In general. 13. 72. 10. 6). East Greek trade amphorae (Fig. Boardman 1980:48. Fig. PI. Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1986: 198. IX-XI). Fantalkin 2001:75-79. such 1980:151. 3). Fragments of four Bird bowls were unearthed at Tyre (Coldstream and Bikai 1988:43. 5. 239 (Naveh 1962:108-109. 4. Fig. 12) and have been found at. 22:1. Fantalkin 2001:Fig. Stager 1996a.96:2) were unearthed at Al Mina (Robertson 1940:13. Boardman 1980:48).2. I-III.a). PI. 32. PIs. Fig. Fig 9.31.1-2l 35. PI. From Most of the classes of Archaic Greek pottery found at Tel Kabri are well distributed Mina in the north to the Negev in the south.96:3)pottery has been foundat Al Mina (Robertson 1940:8-16. Fig.1-7. No. . 7a-b).Tel 2001:90-94. Nos. 14.5.31 Jemmeh (Illiffe 1932:17. PI. . 1. Nos. Iliffe 1932:17. Figs.1-12. 85. for example. Bird bowls (Fig. 86). No. Fig.31 Fig. 6. 1978b. Fig. Mezad Hasavyahu and Magness 1997:33. 5. Boardman 1978b:41 PI. Fig. 5. 14). 114-117. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33 with note 79). Fig. this vessel type was seldomly exported like examples found at Vroulia in Rhodes (Kinch .PIs. . 4.6) and several others have been 1986:198 with note 65). 1993:936). both from Mezad Hashavyahu 1914:190-191. Keisan (Briend and Humbert Tel Batash (Waldbaum (Naveh 1962:104-105.3-3. 18). Tell er-Ruqeish (Waldbaumand Fantalkin 2001 :88-87. Fig. but the fragment example so far known from Israel. Figs. Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1978a:57.67*.1-6. Ras Ibn Hani (Riis 1982:251-252). pls. Other classes are less known from the Levant. 'Ionian cups' (Fig. PI. 120.(Riis 1982:251-252). Tel Batash (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:28) and Ashkelon (Stager 1996a:67*.5:7-8). 1997:32-33.1. In Israel. Mezad Hashavyahu Miqne-Ekron (Naveh 1962:106-107. V.97:1) are rare in the Levant. Tel Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:126. colour photo. 32. Dan (pakman 1992:236 Fig. XX.96:1) were frequent at Al Mina (Robertson Ras el-Bassit mentioned one example has been published (Courbin (Courbin 1940:14. V:a. Tell el-ijesi (Risser and Blakely 1989:93.96:4) are known in the northern Levant from Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:72. IV:1. 1990:508). amphorae Fantalkin 84-85. Tell Tel Malhata (Kochavi 1970:23 (below). 17. of others at Dan. 12. PIs. 49 Fig. 13. olive presses of the 7th century be due to the fact that this region had its own olive-oil by the numerous from Kabri is the only Levant may documented 1995:63-69). Tel (Gitin 1995:65. 251-255. SOS amphorae (Fig. 10-11.5. Fig. following p.12). Figs. 29.3. .Ras Ibn Hani.10. Magness 1997:30 with note 56) and Tel Batash (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:30. Mezad Hashavyahu (Naveh 1962 110-111.Tyre (Coldstream and Bikai 1988:42.23) and at a number of sites in Israel. Ashkelon (Pythian-Adams Fig. 9. of this type in the southern This is very impressively (Gitin BCE found at Tel Miqne-Ekron Polychrome black jugs (Fig. 6. mentioned by Waldbaum 1994:59) and possibly at (Naveh 1962:106-107. No. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:29. No. Achzib (Culican 1982:67. Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:43-69. XVI. XV. PI. Fig. 6g). 5. XIII) and in Israel at Tell Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:151. 32. 14. In Israel. 35). There are only two examples besides that from Kabri. 7. Waldbaum and Magness':1997:29-30. 41 PI. 131 Nos. Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:27-38). PI. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:30.322-323. 66*.4). Reich 1989:230 Fig. PI.ARCHAIC EAST GREEK AND ETRUSCAN POTTERY IN THE LEVANT in the Levant. 67*). Fantalkin 2001:89-90.1). XIII). 32:2 and 35:10). fragments of three Bird bowls were found at Tell Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:125. 11-12. 5. 69*. Nos. Dor and Ashkelon Mezad Hashavyahu (unpublished. 60. 1923:PI. .32. cf. Akko.35 Fig.3-4). The reason for the rareness industry. 7 No. Nos. PI. 3). No Bird bowls were found at Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:41)..1). Wild Goat II style (Fig. 8 Nos. 69*. Sarepta (Koehl 1985:137-138. 6. 2). 5. Fig. 16.97:1) have been found at Al Mina. 1996b. Waldbaum and Magness Ashkelon (Stager 1996a. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:27-28. Fig.387-389. 34 Fig. 2. 5. 4). 16. from Al 1980:47-48).

SAREPTA I. 5. Bottom left) Wild Goat II style.96: Distribution of East Greek vessels in Israel: Top left) Bird bowls.lELL ER-RUQEISH'i TELL EL-HESI • T • ELL MALHATA Fig. Bottom right) Cooking vessels. 240 . ! TEL DAN ~ • TEL KfABR' TEL KEISAN JELL JEMMEH • l. Top right) Ionian cups.

PI. Fragments of up to 18 Greek cooking-pots have been identified at Mezad Hashavyahu (Naveh 1962:104-105. Gras 1985 :672-674) and a bronze oinochoe of the so-called Rhodian type reportedly found 241 .97:2) of this period are known from only a few Levantine sites. 2). It is striking that the Kabri fragment comes from a closed shape. 8-9. an oinochoe or olpe. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31-32.202 Fig. 12a-b. the only known examples in the Levant were two fragments of kantharoi of Rasmussen's Type 3e from Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1973:27.33 Fig.7-8. the Aegean islands. 1986:201. Fig. 60b. Fantalkin 2001 :86-87. Fewer have been unearthed on the Greek mainland. Fig. 4. 7. In this context. 63. on p. 64.31. 36). Fig.1-2. Gras 1985:676-679. the western coast of Asia Minor and in the Levant (see Rasmussen 1979:150-156. Fragments of one or two cooking-pots have been found at Tel Batash in the Stratum II destruction debris of Area F (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31.97: Distibution in the Levant of (left) SOS amphorae and polychrome black jugs. von Hase 1989:329. Imports of Etruscan bucchero have been found in greater quantities in the western Mediterranean. 1977-78. since almost all Etruscan bucchero vessels found in the eastern Mediterranean are kantharoi (Rasmussen 1979: 155).Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31. two bronze objects should be mentioned which have been seen as Etruscan imports in the Levant: a belt buckle in the British Museum said to have been found in Syria (Hall 1929/30: 107. 6. PI. 10) and numerous sherds of this ware have been found in the Late Iron Age destruction debris and the earlier construction fill at Ashkelon (Stager 1996a:67*. in southern France. Figs. PI.eel' f . Before the find of the Kabri bucchero fragment. 30. all in Israel. 1).7-8. Fig. in eastern Sicily and at Carthage. 12F. 5. von Hase 1971: 10-12. in Sardinia. Rostovtzeff 1932:331-332. Fig. 5. Fig. 11).1. Reich 1989:230 Fig. PI.34 Fig.TEl KABRI • I ! ~J Fig. Greek cooking vessels (Fig. 1978a. 58. Fig. 92. (right) Greek cooking vessels.

these were single members of the elite. the imported Greek pottery of Stratum E2a also shows close relationships to the assemblage from the destruction levels at the end of the Iron II phase at Ashkelon and Tel Miqne (Ekron) (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:27-33). in 60110BCE or even after 595 BCE when the chronicle ends (Na'aman 1992:43-44). Stager 1996a:72* with note 1. when the Babylonians destroyed Ashkelon.. The date of the fall of Tel Miqne (Ekron) is not as assured. it is impossible to establish during which of these campaigns the Phoenician fortress of Stratum E2 in Area of Tel Kabri was destroyed.1-2) and identified as an Etruscan import by Gras (1985:676). the Berlin jug is most probably of east Greek manufacture (Jacobsthal 1929:210. The few Etruscan objects from the Levant certainly do not provide evidence for direct Etruscan trade with the Near East. A 23). Shefton 1979:68 No. 68-69. Thus neither object comes from a secure context.4. PIs. THE DESTRUCTION OF THE FORTRESS OF STRATUM E2 Like the Phoenician pottery (Chapter 5:1V). Jacobsthal 1929:205-206 No. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:37).e. and Philistia apparently came totally under their control. i. It has been suggested that it was destroyed during the same campaign as Ashkelon (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:37-38).1 and 4. according to the text of Jeremiah 27 dated to 594 BCE describing a meeting in Jerusalem at which a rebellion against Babylon is planned. driven from their homeland by many factors (Bettalli 1995 :26. 108-109). the map Stager 1996b:58). The excavators of both sites have convincingly attributed these destructions to the Babylonian invasions led by Nebuchadnezzar II. The implication is that the Philistines no longer posed a threat to Babylon at that time. but without a representative from Philistia. 10. 242 . Thus the date of Ekron's destruction by the Babylonians falls most likely in the ten year-span of 604-595 BCE. 77 with note 3. Gitin 1997:98-99). the conquest of Ashkelon is dated to the month of Kislev in the first year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II. and M. 2) has recently argued. 3. In all probability it occurred during one ofNebuchadnezzar's campaigns along the Phoenician and Philistine coast at the end of the 7th and in the first two decades of the 6th century BCE (Wiseman 1985:21-41. No texts exist recording the destruction of the fortress at Tel Kabri. to November/December 604 BCE (Wiseman 1956:28.at Sidon which was acquired by the Berlin Museum from a Parisian art dealer (Furtwangler 1888:250 No. in 603 BCE (Malamat 1979:208. As Gitin (1998:276. The excavators of Tel Kabri contend that a small contingent of Greek mercenaries in the service of the Kingdom of Tyre was based in the fortress of Stratum E2 (Niemeier 1994. one year later. Courbin (1978a:58. According to the Babylonian Chronicle in the British Museum. The nature of the Greek presence in the Levant has been thoroughly discussed elsewhere (Neimeier 2001). Unlike the garrison at Mezad Hashavyahu. it is improbable that the Babylonian destruction of Ekron happened after 595 BCE since. cf. caption) thinks that the two Ras el-Bassit kantharoi were brought by east Greek intermediaries. Since the latest Greek pottery from Kabri cannot be more accurately dated than between the last decade of the 7th century BCE and the first half of the 6th century BCE. Frey 1963:23. 1995. 1996b:58. n. Rostovtzeff (1932:332) has suggested that the belt buckle from Syria probably was brought by an Etruscan slave or associate of a Phoenician merchant. 2002). Moreover. I would agree with Gitin that the most convincing date is 604 BCE.

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