TEL KABRI

THE 1986-1993 EXCAVATION SEASONS
AHARON KEMPINSKI

Contributions by N. Angel-Zohar, R. Y. Bankirer, A. Cohen-Weinberger, P. Comale, C. Dauphin, M.Faerman, M. Fischer, L. Gershuny, S. Givon, Y. Goren, A. Horowitz, H. M. Khalaily, L. Kolska Horwitz, Z. Koren, G. Lehmann, O. Lemau, N. Liphschitz, O. Marder, H. Mienis, Y. Mizrachy, A. Nebel, B. Niemeier, W.-D. Niemeier, R. Oren, T. Oman, M. W. Prausnitz, A. Princivalle, P. Rosano, N. Scheftelowitz, S. Shalev, P. Smith, M. Tagliapietra, T. Tsuk, U. Yalcin. .

EDITED BY

NA' AMA SCHEFTELOWITZ AND RONIT OREN

EMERY AND CLAIRE YASS PUBLICATIONS IN ARCHAEOLOGY TEL AVIV 2002

IV. AREAE
Gunnar Lehmann

Area E lies on a small rectangular artificial hill measuring 100 x 150 m in the southwestern corner of the large Middle Bronze Age mound of Tel Kabri and rising some 12 m over it (Fig. 4.81). Until 1948 a small village called et-Tell occupied this area. The rich spring of <A a1-Fuwarah and the reservoir of <Ein Shefa' in (Birket Mefshukh) (Conder and Kitchener 1881:156, 158) lie to its northeast (Chapter 3). Excavation concentrated on the northwestern corner of the hill. The investigation, begun in 1986 under the supervision of Lilly Gershuny, was continued in 1989, 1990 and 1992 by Helena Pastor Borgonon. In 1993 this author supervised the excavations in Area E. Preliminary reports on the stratigraphy and finds for these seasons were published by the Kabri Expedition between 1990-1994 (Gershuny 1987; Kempinski 1987, 1991; Naveh and Kempinski 1991; Niemeier 1990, 1994; Pastor Borgonon 1990, 1991; Lehmann 1993).

Fig. 4.81: The mound of et-Tell showing the excavations in Area E.

Four main strata were discerned.
Stratum E1 E2 E3 E4 Date 19th century CE- 1948 Hellenistic period Iron Age" Iron Age" Iron Age" Description and Interpretation Village Some pottery finds from disturbed tombs Fortress Fortress Floors and debris

73

EARL Y BRONZE AGE
Pottery from this period was mixed into almost all lower Iron Age loci providing abundant evidence for occupation here at that time. However, no Early Bronze Age structures or layers were excavated.

MIDDLE AND LATE BRONZE AGE
These periods are represented by isolated sherds found in the debris below the lowest floors.

IRON AGE
The earliest Iron Age levels are debris layers (Locus 871) that were identified in a very limited sounding under Floor 870 of Stratum E4 (Fig. 4.82). There is no floor connected with this debris. STRATUME4 Remains of Stratum E4 appeared only in a sounding under Floor 866 of Stratum E3 in Square L 11.1 A plaster floor (870) at 55.00-55.10 m was discerned but its relationship to the casemate walls was not clear. However, the underlying locus (871) is already under the casemate walls and it seems probable that Stratum E4 predates the construction of the fortress. No other evidence of this stage was found, perhaps because excavation did not continue below Stratum 3 anywhere else. Pre-8th century BCE pottery (Figs. 5J50, 5.70) is associated with this stratum. STRATUME3 The structural piers remains of Stratum E3 are those of a fortress with casemate l312/816, l3111l344) are massive constructions, walls (858, fieldstone fills. Partition 878, 87~, 882, walls (Fig. 4.83, 4.84). The 1.60 m wide, built with ashlar l332) form a number of '
871

N
59.00

L11

s

Fig. 4.82: Schematic north-south section through Square Lll.

casemate walls (l343/863, and undressed compartments.

Casemate walls W816 and Wl311

of Stratum 3 are clearly cut in Square M9 by W131 0 of division (Fig. 4.85). only in Square

Stratum 2 (see below) providing us with a distinct stratigraphic LII at 55.90 m. Thus the earliest phase (E3c) is evident

Stratum E3 had at least three phases of floors (Fig. 4.85). Floor 866 was excavated is represented by floors at a level of about 57.00-15 by later building Metal fittings, activity m in the casemate rooms

only in one small room. The next phase (3b) 848, 876 and 883 in Almost (Locus all 873)

Squares Ll1, K-LlI2 was badly disturbed baskets century B.C.E.

and K13. The final phase (3a) at about 57.70 m (Loci 812, 813, 837, 1313, 1314) and the finds on and above them are mixed. Ottoman sherds together for a door, were found in the debris 3b and 3a contain probably with distinctive 8th-7th

of floor loci from phases pottery.

above the 3b floor 876. 1 Unfortunatelythe locusnumberwas not changedin 1990 so thatthe fmds from underthe floor are also numbered L. 866. It is howeverpossibleto isolatethe basketsL. 866 thatcontainedmaterialfrom StratumE4. 74

..J 75 .I~ It.. I I I I I .

E3b (centre) and E3c (bottom).84: Schematicplans of Strata E3a (top). 4. 76 .N t M N t M 10 N t M 10 Fig.

Fig. 77 .89).86. Fig. 4.87: Casemate rooms in Squares 0/4-8.85: Square M9. 4. STRATUME2 Only the northwestern part of this fortress was excavated (Squares L-Q/4-10) (Figs. 4. 4. looking east. W1310 of Stratum E2 (on right) cuts W1311/W1312 of Stratum 3 (on left). looking south. 4. 4. 4.88.87.86: Looking west over Squares 0-P/7-8. Room 1977 in foreground.Fig.

I -j- ~~IM~.f z 0 0 ii: eO 78 . .... 00 00 .~· ------% -1._ -1- _L I -I- -I- -i- I -1- N ~ -\- _L I -t~ V1 '+-< 0 ~ ~ e .§ A-. -1- -1- -1- -1- -1- -:--------:-:3t . o ] . ...." z o .

.SBm--+ B . E2b N6 + 06 o:"'__~d' P6 B Destruction layer with Restorable Pottery 04 05 06 07 Fig. A Destruction Layer with Restorable Pottery A L :---_ --I I 1 I I . 79 .'I . Str..89: Schematic plan of Stratum E2 with Sections A-A and B-B. 4.

The beaten earth floor has an ash layer of up to 10 em on it. 1984) was exposed between walls W1331 and W897 in Square 0/5-6 (Fig. early mortaria types or transport jars (Fig. It may be the eastern continuation of the Stratum E2 casemate system or a reinforcement in Stratum E3 between walls W816 and W1343. This technique has been identified as a Phoenician architectural element (c£ Stem 1992:Fig. Under the lowest surface reached in the sounding (1992).60 m wide. Note ashlar piers. Two rows of rooms were excavated between the three walls. 4.90). but thick layer of ash immediately north of it. In Square OP7 a sounding was made under Floor 1987 of fieldstone fill. the northwestern corner of the casemate fortification system was not established. Only the northern part of this wall was excavated but as no floor connected with it was found. its architectural context is unclear. Stratum E2b in order to examine the foundations of W1389 but digging stopped before reaching their base. 4.79:12. The sounding exposed remains ofa wall (WI926) in Square P7. Since the foundation of W1339 was not excavated. Phase E2b A floor of a casemate room of Stratum E2b (Loci 1961. 5.1989. The ash and the restorable pottery from the casemate floor may indicate a destruction layer. Although the excavations reached the western slopes of the hill. Wall W1339 does not continue further east into Square L 11 but may have been robbed out. While most of the pottery from this sounding has parallels in both Strata E2 and E3. and found. fragments of at least one large pottery basin and a concentration of shells. the casemate walls are 1. 2). About 10-15cm under the floor gravel bedding (Locus 1994) slopes downward from north to south. too remains obscure. 80 . 5. Wall W1339 was built exactly between walls W816 and W1343. The outer casemate wall (W1382+WI986) turns northward after running for 25 m east-west.1990. 2b) represented by distinct floors. 4. some of it (e. Other finds on the floor include iron objects. In Square L 10 it disappears in pits which were dug by stone robbers in the Ottoman period when the remains of Stratum E2 were leveled and built over by a village. as were several additional rooms south of the innermost casemate wall (W897). Assyrianizing types) appears only in Stratum E2.g. Two phases of use were discernible in most of them (2a. Below this was a further series of surfaces (1988. as does the floor. The rich pottery repertoire retrieved comprises restorable types such as jugs.1991. The structural context of this wall. adjusting to the topography of the mound. The burnt contents of a transport jar were also collected. Stratum E2.1992). which may be the remains of a burnt beam.82:8-10) and represents a typical assemblage of the mid-7th century BeE. Fig. 13. built with ashlar piers and undressed fieldstone fills (Fig. Fortunately many floors were still deep enough to survive this leveling. it is not clear to which stratum this wall belongs.As in Stratum 3. a wall (WI993) was found with a narrow.90: W1340.91). looking None of the foundations of the three casemate walls were west.

such as ash and restorable pottery on the floors. Among the finds from. possibly with the addition of some pit installations. Phase 2a The overall plan of this phase is virtually identical to that of its predecessor. Floor 1309 runs up to W1328 and joins floor 1987. the undisturbed part of the floor is a fragment of a basket handle amphora with an engraved sign (Fig.55 m which yielded a large number of pottery finds. in Square P7. The pottery types resemble the types in Stratum E2a. 81 .86:3). Excavations continued some 20 em under floor 1966 (Locus 1963) until the end of the season interrupted operations. which may have originally covered both rooms.Room 1969 in Square P6 has a floor at about 59. The entire central part of its plaster floor was destroyed by an Ottoman pit.42-59. Fig. looking east. South of Room 1987 is Room 1309. This material is apparently either from a destruction at the end of Stratum E2b or it is a fill to raise the level of Stratum E2b to that of Stratum E2a. 1). Since the baulk between P7 and Q7 was not removed. In Square Q7 two floors. Since the pottery repertoire of Strata E2a and E2b is very similar. There are some indications of destruction of Stratum E2b. Only parts of the floor of Room 1987 in Square O-P/7 were exposed during the excavation. Destruction layer with restorable pottery. Pit 1936 was dug down from this floor.91: Room 1961. it was not established whether these floors are a continuation of floor 1309. the debris was apparently leveled immediately after the destruction raising the floor level of Stratum E2a to about 20 em above E2b. 4. Locus 1333 east of W1330 and Locus 1334 to the west of this wall may belong to Stratum E2b. It was violently destroyed resulting in small finds and large amounts of restorable pottery being left in situ. The floor slopes down southward rather steeply from W897 to W1328/W1949 which was built on it (Kempinski and Niemeier 1994:Fig. 5. 4. Fig.92: Room 890.

94: Locus 1914. Trilobate arrowheads have been connected with Scythians in the 7th century BCE (Cleuziou 1977: I93) but were also later used by the Achaemenid army. W1340 and W1995. Fig. 1941 and 1948 were identified between walls W1331 and W897 in Square 05-7. and of Room 1948 at 58. Also unearthed was an iron spearhead (Fig. Finds on its floor comprise late 7th century BCE transport jars. 4. 4. They are defined and separated from one another by partition walls W899. enclosed by W1310. Other finds from this destruction debris include an Egyptian amulet (Fig. Peleg et al. 1983). W1331 and W1342.53 m.58 m. 4. this deposit of pottery and small finds was filled into the casemate rooms during the destruction of Stratum E2a (Figs.62 m. 8. 5. According to the pottery and the small finds. looking north. looking west. Although Locus 1977 in Square 04 on the western edge of the mound between casemate walls W897 and W1331 is much lower than the above-mentioned floors of Stratum E2a. Floors 890.5:8) was found out of context but probably belongs to Stratum E2. on which lay a great deal of pottery.87:2). 5. 4.87:1). A bronze trilobate arrowhead with socket (Fig. Moorey 1980:64-66. Recovered from the floors of these rooms was a large quantity of restorable transport jars. This assortment of pottery and small finds does not rest immediately on the floors but in a layer of debris from 0. a floor. apparently an aleph (Fig.96). In Locus 1321. was traced in Square N8-9 at 58. 5. The floor of Room 890 lay at 58.95. it may also be part of the same phase. One of these had Cypriote letters incised on it (Fig. In the destruction debris of Square 04 was a body sherd with an incision of a jar (Fig. Fig.93). Fallen stones and broken mudbricks covered the floor of 1948 (Fig.93: Destruction debris in Room 1948. It is a type with a long socket and an elaborated rib in the middle of the blade which has many parallels in the late Iron Age (Moorey 1980:64).5:9) which may have been one of the weapons used during the destruction of the building. 4. 4. 8.50-55m (Fig. 82 .92).00 m thick above them (Locus 1914) in which remains of plaster flooring were also mixed (Fig.75).94). It is therefore possible that material from an upper storey collapsed into the rooms below and that the upper floors were used for storage. 10. It was severely disturbed by robber trenches and pits cutting through the loci immediately above it.New floors were exposed in the casemate rooms. a fragment of a pottery vat used for purple dyeing (Chapter 16) and a broken storage jar with an incised Phoenician letter.23). 4. that of Room 1941 at 58. This type of arrowhead is well known from Syria and Palestine from the late 8th through the 4th centuries BeE (see Cleuziou 1977. many of them basket-handle amphoras from Cyprus. Oren 1984:28.30-1.

A complete transport jar was sunk slightly into the floor which was plastered around the opening in order to facilitate pouring liquids into it. looking east.65-70 m (Fig. In the northern part of the room.96: Locus 1913. W1329. 4. close to wall W897. is defined by W897. the threshold survived. Fig. W1949 and W1950 with a floor at 59. East of this was a stone basin. 83 .95: Locus 1912.97). 4. W1950 and W1974. 4. several in situ finds from the destruction of Stratum E2a were recorded. were a few installations. 4. 5.98). The room was entered from the south through a doorway. enclosed by W897. east of 1960. W1328.97: Installations in Room 1960. Although cut by a number of Ottoman pits. looking south. As in Room 1960.Fig. Room 1308. Fig. looking east. 4. Several rooms abutting on the southern side of W897 were excavated. including complete transport jars and an oven in the northeastern corner of the room.69-73 m (Fig. Fig. was identified at 59.98: Destruction debris on the floor of Room 1308. South of this installation was a stone lined pit with an Assyrian bowl (Fig. complete with threshold and door socket found in situ. The floor of Room 1960 in Square P6.76:15) in it. 4.

Large rectangular dressed stones found in situ in Square P8 in Room 1318 may have been the first steps of stairs leading into an upper storey (Fig. this floor connects with adjacent floors of Stratum E2a. Fig. Among these finds was the fragment of a pottery vat used for purple dyeing (Chapter 16). 1309). 4. 5.South of Room 1960 there was probably a corridor (Locus 1963) but the area excavated is too small to clarify the plan in this part of the building. Material found in Locus 864 below this floor was also mixed. Remains of additional floors were also found in Square Q7 west ofW1330 at 59. forms an entrance to Room 1308.45 m and west ofW1330 at 59. 84 . south of which were the remains of an oven. but the finds here are mixed and disturbed by later material. 4. This locus was disturbed during the Ottoman period by stone-robbing.52-63 m.3: 10). The room immediately north of these steps may have been part of the staircase. Unfortunately a pit (Locus 1908 in Square P7) destroyed the northern part of W1330 and there is no evidence of any connection between these two walls. It may have belonged to Stratum E2.99). Unfortunately this area was so disturbed by Ottoman pits that there were almost no traces of Stratum E2a except for finds out of context. W1329. This corridor continued eastward into Square P7 where it may have linked up with a room between W1328. LOCUS 855 IN SQUARE III In Square I II a floor (855) was found on the very edge of the hill. On the floor was a thick layer of ash. This floor was apparently in use with the steps. According to the level of both the lowest steps and the pebble floor (59. This floor is connected to W860. Parallels to pottery finds would place this locus in either Stratum E2 or E3.99: Steps of a staircase in Locus 1318. Its stratigraphic relationship is uncertain. Among the pottery finds from Room 1318 were fragments of a Greek SOS amphora (Fig. Wall W1330 in Squares P-Q17 runs exactly towards the corner ofW1949 which.94 m). with W1328. On the same level as the first steps are remains of a pebble floor immediately south of the stairs. W1341 and W1330 (Loci 1305.

2001. when the Assyrian king reached the Akko plain (Katzenstein 1997: 174-178). Akko became again the urban centre of an integrated. The remains of a fortress in Strata E3 and E2 point to a special function of the site. Kloner and Olami 1980. Another. Apparently the plain and the hills were newly organized and their agricultural production integrated into the economy of the city-state of Tyre. most of the Ottoman village in Squares N-Q14-8 was bulldozed before the excavations in order to reach the Iron Age levels. Stem 1990). The large percentage of Tyrian pottery at these sites (e. Kabri is situated exactly between the coastal plain with its emphasis on grain production and the hill-country which produced wine and oil. Kabri was also important for controlling the all-weather route on the slopes leading from Rosh ha-Niqra south to Akko and the Carmel. At Kabri this road was crossed by another route leading from the sea to Upper Galilee. floors and pits were identified. Bronze Age sites on a reduced scale and another situated on the hills and the mountain slopes in newlyfounded very small villages (Lehmann 2001). many of the small Iron Age I villages were abandoned and new equally small villages were founded in the same hill and mountain areas. During Iron Age I the centralized urban system of the kingdom of Akko was replaced by two apparently independent settlement systems: one on the coastal plain using the Late . The territorial transformation of the Akko plain into an Assyrian province may have begun already in 701 BCE under Sennacherib and his campaign 2 Na'aman 1994. around 850 BCE according to the pottery. Olami 1974). 1994. In Assyrian sources. Frankel and Getzov 1997. Large amounts of Ottoman pottery were found (mostly out of context) among which were many fragments of Rashayya al-Fukhar painted jugs. the importance of Tel Kabri was reduced to a small rural site during the Late Bronze Age . For Assyrian references to Akko see Parpola 1970: 11. Reallexikon der Assyriologie volume 1(1928)64. The transition from Stratum 5 to Stratum 4. 85 . Kabri was a significant strategic point in the northern Akko plain. may have some connections with the campaign ofShalmaneser III in 841 BCE. However.apparently restricted to the small hill of et-Tell. Thus. The stratigraphy reflects the historical events in this part of the Tyrian hinterland. where agricultural products from the hill-country might have been collected and stored before being shipped to places such as Akko or Akhziv. all out of context. probably ancient Kabul. the settlement pattern of the Late Bronze Age collapsed at the end of this phase (Frankel 1986. In 1993 Mahmud Hawari excavated Ottoman remains in Square Q8 (Hawari 1994). but on different locations. the Akko plain appears as Tyrian territory? In Iron Age II. especially at the end of the 8th and the 7th century BCE. At the end of Iron Age I and the beginning of Iron Age II the settlement pattern in the Akko plain changed. centralized settlement system (Lehmann 2001. Ronen and Olami 1983.STRATUM El Remains ofa village from the Ottoman period were uncovered between 1986 and 1992 in Squares K-MlI013 (living floors) and in Square III (tombs). Kabri) points to an integration of the area into the Tyrian city-state and its economic system. a tower like complex of the 10th and 9th centuries BCE at the edge of the Akko plain (Gal and Alexandre 2000).g. but earlier such site and collection point was Horvat Rosh Zayit. According to archaeological surveys. In the lower Ottoman levels there were also some stray finds of Hellenistic pottery (Chapter 5:IV). The end of Stratum E4 and the beginning of Stratum E3 might reflect political events following the campaigns of Tiglatpileser III in 734 or 733 BCE (Tadmor 1994). Lehmann 1995. SUMMARY After being one of the major urban centres in northern Palestine during the Middle Bronze Age. Only a few installations. cf.

The rectangular plan 86 . probably ancient Kabul (Gal and Alexandre 2000). All these events may have had their impact on the stratigraphy of the fortress in Kabri area E.ratumE2b. According to the 675174 BCE treaty between.against Tyre (Pritchard 1955:287). 660 BCE (Pritchard 1955:300. The consumers of Assyrian style pottery may have attempted to copy the lifestyle of the predominant power of the Near East. Cecchini 1995. the fortress was immediately rebuilt. None of the small fortresses on mountains in Upper Galilee (Frankel 1994:27) have a plan comparable to that at Tel Kabri. The triple casemate wall system of Stratum E2a probably covered most of Area E (90 x 60 m) and shaped the rectangular form of et-Tell (Fig. or its colonies in the Western Mediterranean. Most of the Assyrianizing pottery found in Kabri dates to Stratum E2 or was found in the sounding in Squares O-P17 under Stratum E2b and may thus have started at the end of Stratum E3. Lancel 1995). 1985. Fig. It was in the Assyrian interest to control the strategically important site of Kabri. Little is known about fortresses in Lebanon. The casemate fortifications of Stratum E3 were abandoned and a completely new fortress with new casemate walls was built (Stratum E2). the Phoenician homeland. The plan of this large fortress on a mound is quite different from the few fortresses known in Upper and Western Galilee such as those on Mount Adir (Davis et al. 4. Whether this pottery reflects Assyrian presence or a local imitation of Assyrian pottery remains uncertain. The end of the Stratum E3 fortress probably came during Ashurbanipal's third campaign. Mount Meiron (Druks 1964) and at Horvat Rosh Zayit. Akko was apparently not included in the territory of Tyre. the succession of the three floors in Stratum E3 may reflect repeated assaults on the small fortress. The political situation in Phoenicia remained unstable and in 677 BCE Esarhaddon conquered Sidon. While Assyrian artistic representations and historical texts indicate that the Phoenician centres were fortified.100). detailed studies of Phoenician architecture and fortifications in particular are still lacking (Leriche 1992.Esarhaddon and Baal of Tyre. The casemate system of Kabri may have been incorporated into the settlement as in Beersheba Stratum II where the walls of the houses abut on the casemate walls using them as part of their construction (Herzog 1997:Fig. Lamprichs 1995:173. The fortress might have been in the hands of rebels and was destroyed by Ashurbanipal. Katzenstein 1997:289). Some parallel features may be found in Israel. Again there was no lasting peace and only a few years after their agreement Esarhaddon laid siege to Baal's Tyre in 671 BCE (Na'aman 1994: 6 and 1995:109). 5. In particular.100: Schematic outline of the Stratum E2 fortress. when he marched against Tyre ca. Gal 1993a:453). The revolt that Ashurbanipal suppressed in 644 BCE could be connected to the end of S1. 4. However. Lipinski 1992.31).

Jerusalem. 1984. H. S. In: Le plateau iranien et l'Asie centrale des origines ala conque islamique. Tel. V.. 1992. In: Katzenstein. Maddin. leveling what remained of the stones of the ancient buildings (Hawaii REFERENCES Amiran. In: Stem. 1985. pp. The Survey of Western Palestine: Vol. 2) even if not actually by Phoenicians with Cyprus and the presence repertoire in 604 BCE (Stager The pottery from the final levels has many parallels was most probably a result of the campaigns with that from the destruction of Nebuchadnezzar 1996). S. VII). Yiftahel. The site was resettled only in the Ottoman period. Excavations at Horvat <U~a. Excavations and Surveys in Israel 9:92. Jerusalem. and Stech. and Greenberg.is similar to that of the forts at Samaria metropolitan limited size (Meshel resembles building complex area excavated and Tel Jezreel. when a village was built here. Biran. A. Conder. Leiden. 1966. 1991. Les pointes de fleches "scythiques" au Proche et Moyen-Orient. 4. Architecture militaire. Tel Aviv University) Tel Aviv. Vienna. Ben-Tor. Fassuta. when the Babylonians 1997:328). Cleuziou. D. D. 1978. Han. A. Oxford. En Shadud: Salvage Excavations at a Farming Community in the Jezreel Valley. it difficult although this is a small rural fort and not a in the Negev. Biran. Braun. E. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 44:41-51. M. Avia'am. In the early Hellenistic the Iron Age architecture andre-using period graves were dug into its ruins. Muhly. ed. Braun. Similar evidence was found at Tel Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:270against Syria laid siege 271).. I: Galilee. Cecchini. (Ph.Tor. T. 1200-1203. Tell el-Daba V. M. Dan 1. R. La civilisation phenicienne et punique. <Atiqot 3:1-24 (Hebrew). Jerusalem. Thus. pp. 1995. London. and Kitchener. civile et domestique partim orient. 1994). Tel Aviv 19:221-234. does not have casemates to the main fortification evidence now the summary 2001) but the way the rooms are attached the evidence The construction with ashlar piers and fieldstone fills. A Steel Pick from Mount Adir in Palestine.M. Early Arad I. D. eds. et aI. 1993. (Colloques intemationaux du CNRS No. Ben-Tor..D..R. pp. R. The Iron Age fortress was never rebuilt. Pottery finds provide evidence at Kabri in its final years (Chapter of Greek mercenaries Stem 1992:Fig. Jerusalem. Davis. the pottery and the historical Akko plain support the assumption contacts Ashkelon that the Iron Age fortress at Tel Kabri was built in a Phoenician from Tyre. C. R. In: Krings. Early Bronze Age Dwellings and Installations.H. E. Israel Exploration Journal 34: 191-194. J. ed. dissertation. The Architecture of Ancient Israel.. but the in (see wall for the style (cf. Ben. 1983. 1881. A. The Middle Bronze fortifications in Palestine as a social phenomenon. Cultural Diversity and Change in the Early Bronze I of Israel and Jordan. E. The contemporary of Fantalkin at Tel Kabri. 567) Paris. Bunimovitz. 389-396. 1992. H. pp. Small rural forts are best known to draw analogies fortress of Mezad Hashavyahu at Tel Kabri makes 1992). 187-199. 1996. A. 1989/1990. The New Encyclopedia Holy Land Vol. of except for the similarity as at these sites. 1977. Jerusalem. the destruction to Tyre (Katzenstein and Palestine and occurred either as early as 604 BCE or later in 585 BCE. Bietak. 1994. 60-67. E. Qashish. Braun. for close 5. 87 of Archaeological Excavations in the . Biblical Dan. Israel (British Archaeological Reports International Series 249). S. 1996. 1985. A.

and Alexandre. 1976-1979. Mezad Hasavyahu: Its material culture and historical background. In: Stem. Burial Patterns and Cultural Diversity in Late Bronze Age Canaan. Fouilles de Byblos V. M. 1961. Dothan.M. (Hebrew) Gershuny. 1997. de Vaux. 1993b. In: Kempinski. In: Yedaya. Z. L. Galilee: Chalcolithic to Persian Periods. Tombs and burial customs of the MB IIA period in Gesher. A. 1992. 1. S. 1934. Frankel. 1986. 4. Tell Hadidi: a millennium of Bronze Age city occupation. 13:19-21. G. (Qedem 39) Jerusalem. In: Stem. Winona Lake. Garfinkel. Archaeological reports from the Tabqa Dam project . R. pres Naplouse. sixieme campagne. N. Getzov. R. A. Gopher. pp. 1979. Hadashot Arkheologiot 9:22-24. 2000. Excavations at Meser. 19581960. 1985. Y. Middle Bronze Age fortifications: A reflection of social organization and political formation. 1992. (Hebrew) du Mesnil du Buisson Le Comte R. ed. Frankel. New Encyclopedia Excavations in the Holy Land. A. P. Sadeh. Preliminary report on the survey of Western Galilee. of Archaeological 88 . Excavations and Surveys in Israel 10: 99-100. Rapport preliminaire sur les 7e. 1948. 1. Excavations and Surveys in Israel 13:30-31. ge campagnes. pp. R. M. 1992.l:lorvat Rosh Zayit. Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 44:113-151. 1993. In: Finkelstein. Jerusalem. Excavations at Kabri. La seconde campagne de fouilles a Tell el-Far-ah pres Naplouse. The Excavations at Bet ha-sEmeq. (ASOR Research Dissertation Series 5). l'ancienne Corsote. Z. Chicago. pp. (Hebrew) Golani.D.Euphrates Valley. Qiryat Ata. 1983. Tel Aviv 19:201-220. 66-69.. 1: Preliminary Report of the 1986 Season.M. Domemann. Finkelstein. I. A.Iron I transition. de Vaux. Gal. R. Jerusalem. 1964. Les fouilles de Tell el-Far-ah.de Vaux. Tel Aviv 28:3-165. A. M. 1959. Leiden. N. Y. Tel Aviv. 1993. R. Jerusalem. 450-453 Gal. A Survey in the Meron Region. Ten seasons of excavation of ancient Acco. Baghouz. Druks. Z. 1987.. and Getzov. dissertation. The Levant at the Beginning of the Middle Bronze Age. 1973. (Hebrew). 8e. 1957. and Braun. R. R. Revue Biblique 64: 552-500. Syria. 1991. Archaeological Survey of Israel: Maps of Akhziv (1) and Han ita (2). 1994. Gonen. (Hebrew) Garfinkel. Givon. 1289-1291. The Material Culture of the Middle Jordan Valley in the Pottery Neolithic and Chalcolithic Periods. Jerusalem. Upper Galilee in the Late Bronze . From Nomadism to Monarchy. Revue Biblique 68:557-592. Neolithic and Chalcolithic Pottery of the Southern Levant. (Israel Antiquities Authority Reports 8) Jerusalem. A. R. 1991.. 1999. Dothan. 1992. E. ed. The pottery assemblage of Nahal Beset I: A Neolithic site in the Upper Galilee. Revue Biblique 55: 544-580. Gal. N. Hadashot Arkheologiot 2:95. Vol. pres Naplouse. E. Fantalkin. M. Y. Qiryat Ata. 1957. Y. Nahal Zahura II. Garfinkel. Qadmoniot 18: 2-14. (Hebrew) Gopher. A. Tel Aviv. Eretz-Israel 21:132-147. (Hebrew) Gerstenblith. 1948. R. Les fouilles de Tell el-Far-ah. Notes on the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age Pottery ofMegiddo. New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. Israel Exploration Journal 9: 13-29. S. 1990. Vol. Winona Lake. Haifa. Y. (Ph. and Bonfil. pp.H. (Hebrew) Frankel. Hebrew University of Jerusalem) Jerusalem. pp. 2001. E.l:Iorvat 'Uza Excavations and Surveys in Israel.. Israel Exploration Journal 42:4-16. and Goren. ed. and Naaman. The Antiquities of Western Galilee. Engberg. Horbat Rosh Zayit: An Iron Age Storage Fort and Village. The Pottery from Area E. 304-317. Paris. and Shipton. 1993a. R. 18-34. Golani. Dunand. 1993.

V. and Niemeier. 1967. Western Galilee Antiquities. Woolley in 1913. London. 1989. In: Yedaya. A. 19&. pp. A. 1969. Herzog.. A 1992b. Tumhout. Kenyon. Excavations at Kabri: Preliminary Report of 1989 Season. 1982. *47-*51. Tel Aviv. Areas D and E. 1992a. pp. Kempinski. 327-334. Excavations at Kabri. P. Leiden. In: Soffer. In: Dictionnalre de la Civilisation Phenicienne et Punique. 1970. 0. Orient. M. E.. stratigraphy and finds. 1992. Tel Aviv. pp.. 1995. eds. Fortifications. Haifa. *22-*23. (Journal of the Study of the Old Testament. Israel. *13-*20.G. R. Atlas of Haifa and Mount Carmel. The Akko. 1997. 1990.... (British Archaeological Reports International Series 87) Oxford. The History ofTyre. Lipinski. 1994. eds. pp. Fortifications. W. The 1966 excavations at Tell Ta' annek. ed. salvaged by TE.. and Niemeier. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 185:2-39. Beer Sheva. 1990. 1986.-D. A. 7-8: Preliminary Report of the 1992-1993 Seasons. Aand Kipnis. Eretz Israel 23:76-81. Ein el-Jerbeh: Chalcolithic Remains in the Jezreel Valley. Phoenicians in Western Galilee: First Results of an archaeological survey in the hinterland of In: Kempinski. Philadelphia. A. (Hebrew) Kempinski. Supplement 331) Sheffield. P. Kempinski. civile et domestique partim occident. ed. Z. Excavations at Kabri. near Carchemish. Loud. Chicago. pp. E. Studies in the Archaeology of the Iron Age in Israel and Jordan. Lawrence and CL. R. 1: Preliminary Report of the 1986 Season. 294-301. Z. pp. Archaeology in the Holy Land. Tel Aviv. 5: Preliminary Report of the 1990 Season.. Z. In: Kempinski. 89 . In: Kempinski. A and Niemeier. Tumhout.. G. *23-*29. P. A. ed. eds. eds.C at Deve Huyuk. eds. Kloner. A 1997. 66-77. In: Oren. 172-175. W-D. La civilisation phenicienne et punique. 175-176. pp. 3rd Edition. Pottery and Small Finds. A and Niemeier. 63-65. The Hyksos: A view from northern Canaan and Syria. H. Excavations at Tel Michal. Moorey.D. Kempinski. In: Dictionnaire de la CivilisationPhenicienne et Punique. Megiddo 11. Excavations at Kabri.In: Kempinski. Early and Middle Bronze Age lithic assemblages.W. Kempinski.. Y. Lapp. G. (Monograph Series of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University No. Tel Aviv. W-D.. Y. Architecture of Ancient Israel. (Hebrew) 2001. pp. Lehmann. Excavations at Kabri. 1992. and Negbi. 397-410. Middle and Late Bronze Age fortifications. The rural dwelling house in the Hebron region .J. Kempinski. Tel Aviv. Hershman. W-D. Leriche. pp. Tel Aviv. 127-142.Hawari. Tel Aviv. At-Tall: Architecture. 1994. In: Kempinski. W.8) Minneapolis. Kabri and its vicinity in the Middle Bronze Age II. A and Niemeier. In: Mazar. 36-37. 7-8: Preliminary Report of the 1992-1993 Seasons. Tel Aviv. pp. pp. A and Niemeier. Jr. Hirschfeld. A. 1994. pp.. 1992. 1980. Cemeteries of the First Millennium B. eds. Archaeology of the City: Urban Planning in Ancient Israel and its Social Implications.T. In: Kempinski. Tel Aviv. Tel Aviv. A 1987. ed. 103: 110 . A. Lancel. B. and Reich. Jerusalem. pp. (Hebrew) Katzenstein. 65-112. M. eds.. and Reich. S. eds. 1991. Cathedra 24:79-114. D. W. and Olami. K. A..a case study of traditional type of building in Eretz-Israel.Occident.0. Lehmann. pp. The architecture of the Israelite fortresses in the Negev.R. eds. H adashot Arkheologiyot Lehmann. 13)Tel Aviv. (Hebrew) Kaplan. Rapp. 1997. Pottery from Square 1111. (Hebrew) Kempinski. Survey of map Ahihud. (Publications of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University No. Architecture and Stratigraphy. 1995. Dan and Kabri: A note on the planning of two cities. D. The Hyksos: New Historical and Archaeological perspectives. M. 1948. Architecture militaire.S. Meshel. G. Excavations at Kabri: Preliminary Report of 1992-93 Seasons. Herzog. The Architecture of Ancient Israel. Kempinski. eds. G.D. Excavations at Kabri: Preliminary Report of the 1989 Season. The Late Bronze Age and Iron Age periods. In: Krings. A.

eds. The Stratigraphy and Finds.137-172. W. 1956.. M.D. Stem. E. 1995. and Yadin. 1978. 19) Tel Aviv. Yannai. 1995. E. E. Les Fouilles de Ras Shamra-Ugarit. 1955.C. xxix-xxxiv. W. and Olami. E.D. 5: Preliminary Report of the 1990 Season. 1973-1976.D. (Qedem 18). in: A. Thureau-Dangin. Prausnitz. neuvieme campagne (printemps 1937). An Account of the Second Season of Excavations. M. Tombs and Burial Customs at Tell el-Dab'a: Vienna. Berytus 27: 29-55. 1938. Migdol: A New Fortress on the edge of the Eastern Nile Delta. Jerusalem. 1990. and Kempinski. Tel Aviv.D. A.Na'aman. Woolley. Tel Aviv. van den Brink. E. eds. pp. E. Stekelis. London. Til Barsib.F.W.W.D. Area E: The Greek Pottery. Eretz-IsraeI5:35-37 Stem. Yadin. Metallography 16:81-98. Sukas IV: A Middle Bronze Age Collective Grave on Tall Sukas. M. An Account of the Third and Fourth Seasons of Excavations. 1938. and Niemeier. 4: Preliminary Report of the 1989 Season. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 256:7-44. 103-115.lsrael Exploration Journal 9:268-269. M. Area A: Stratigraphy. 1935. pp. Thrane. 5: Preliminary Report of the 1990 Season. Alalakh: An Account of the Excavations at Tell Atchana in the Hatay. Jerusalem. Hyksos and Israelite Cities. Excavations at Kabri. W. Hazor Ill-IV. pp. Esarhaddon's Studi Fenici 22:3-8. y. and Kochavi. A. P. Syria 19:308-310. Sellin. architecture and tombs. pp. N. In: Kempinski.D. 1991. Y. Hadashot Arkheologiot 90 104:67-69. Jerusalem. pp. eds. M. 1958. 1979. N. Tel Aviv. 0/ Antiquities of Palestine 5:111-112. Area E: Architecture and Stratigraphy. Baram. Saidah. Parrot. H. pp. Excavations at Kabri. eds. 1984. Tel Esur. 2000. 4: Preliminary Report of the 1989 Season. Mari et Chagar Bazar... Beck. H. J. 1994. New evidence from Dor for the first appearance of the Phoenicians along the northern coast of Israel. R. Prausnitz. Aphek-Antipatris 1. Schaeffer. Analysis of bronze Arrowheads of the Saite Period from the Nile Delta region. 302-309. Province system and settlement pattern in southern Syria and Palestine in the Neo-Assyrian period. H. W. 1936. Tel Aviv. and Reich. Eretz-IsraeI9:122-129. 1970. A.M. H. The Architecture 0/ Ancient Israel. and Dunand. Oren. Pastor Borgonon. 1984. Yadin. The Phoenician architectural elements in Palestine during the Late Iron Age and the Persian period. Jerusalem. Niemeier. E. W. In: Liverani. 1906.. Fouilles de Sidon-Dakerman: L'agglomeration chalcolithique. A. Hazor 11. Syria 16:1-28. M. Ronen. 1982. A.. 32-36 (Hebrew). and Oren. A.FA 1938. Les fouilles de Mari. A Phoenician Seal Impression from Area E. 1994. 1992. and Niemeier. M. Jerusalem. J. A. In: Kochavi. 1990. (Bibliotheque archeologique et historique 23) Paris. Neo-Assyrian Geography. Jerusalem. A. ed. E. Excavations at Ras el-SAin. In: Kempinski. Jerusalem. 1960. Israel Exploration Journal 27:165-166. Excavations at Kabri. E.W. 1983. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 279:27-34. 1977. M. J. Tell Ta annek: Vienna. Niemeier (eds. et al. 1959. Excavations at Kabri.. A. 1989. 1904. treaty with Baal and Assyrian provinces along the Phoenician Coast.): Excavations at Kabri. Oxford. Stem. F. Kabri 1967. *11-*22. 1990. Tadmor. (Hebrew) Prausnitz. An obsidian core found at Kibbutz Kabri. xxxiv-xxxix. and Kempinski. CL. Naveh. 1937-1949. Pottery and Small Finds.o. Yadin. pp. Quarterly of the Department Parrot. In: Kempinski. 1957-1958. Kabri. The Inscriptions of Tiglat-Pileser IlL King (Hebrew) 0/ Assyria. R. (Quaderni di Geografia storica 5) Roma. and Niemeier. Kempinski and W. 1991. Syria 19:193-255. Prausnitz. 1983. Rivista di Na'aman. E. Peleg. In: Kempinski. et a!. Y. C. Copenhagen. Petrie. J. W. Excavations at Tel Mevorakh. 1969. Ory. From Hunter to Farmer and Trader. (Monograph Series of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University No. (Hebrew) . Pastor Borgonon. M. Archaeological Survey of Israel: Map of Haifa-East (23).

1980:Pls. 5. 3) with matt red bands which have parallels in Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al. 1980:PI. 79:7.>. 5.66:1) and Pilgrim Flasks (Fig.68:2. apparently from the destruction layer of the late 12th or early lIth century BCE (Gilboa 1998:413).. second vessel from the right).68:1 was found at Dor. ... Other kraters (Fig. 5. 1980:Pls. 78: 2). Two bowls (Fig.67:6 is a lamp similar to some from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. 66: 15.. The deep krater-Iike bowl with a sharp carination (Fig. Krater with a rolled rim (Fig.V. 50:CP-I0a).. 5.~ might be a Middle Bronze Age form. 39:28). 65:1-2. Although a krater or cooking-pot (Fig... Most typical are the Phoenician Monochrome juglets (Fig. ~~~~"&Si """""""~---'- ) 3 5 -l ') I l 2 ) . it is very similar to an Iron Age I vessel from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. 47 lower photo. 70. 1980:PI. where it is identified as 'Sikil pottery' (Stern 1994:Fig. 5.. 37:18. 17)... 1980:Pls. Fig... \ 4 ) -\ \ 7 I 10em. """. 1980:PI. Another similar vessel was found at Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al. . 6 Fig.6Ji*1.67:3. 68:6). 64:6). 5. 178 .. 81 :14). 64:1a).""""''''_'W<.. 76:4). 4) resemble vessels from Iron Age I strata at Tell Keisan (Briend et al.. 35:6. 1980: PI. 5. -. 71:1.67:2) with a knob handle resembles a bowl from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. 5. Cooking-pots like Figs.. . out of stratigraphic context.. 66:6a). 5... Tell Abu Hawam (Balensi 1980:PI. 80:1) while another (Fig.66: Iron Age I pottery from Area D.~. IRON AGE Gunnar Lehmann IRON AGE I Iron Age I pottery was relatively rare and found mixed with pottery from other periods.67:5 characterize the Late Bronze Age/Iron Age I strata (G2D2) at Sarepta (Anderson 1988:PI. 5.67: 1 and one not illustrated) have parallels from Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et at. Identical decoration on a closed vessel like Fig.. .. 78:3-4.66:}6) may be compared to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. 74:3. 1980:PI.. 11: 160) and Tyre Stratum 13-14 (Bikai 1978: Pis. 1980:PI.. 5. 5. 5.66fr-t5) are typical for Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al.

2a). m = medium grits (0. 179 . temper: m M. core 5YR7/6. Colour description follows the Munsell colour charts. 17). 9c (PI.67: Iron Age I pottery from Area D. FIGURE 5. M = mineral temper. 6 Fig. 2 In the tables accompanying the figures temper size is abbreviated as follows: f= fine grits (>0.2 . 9a-b (Briend et al. cf. interior 5YR7/6. Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al.6 mm). temper: mg M. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type Bowl Bowl Krater Krater Cooking-pot Lamp Reg. interior 2.66: IRON AGE I POTTERY FROM AREA 02 No. 78:3-4).67: IRON AGE I POTTERY FROM AREA 0 No. 2. 5YR7/6. No. g = gross/coarse grits «0. core grey. Keisan with knob cf. Keisan Stratum handle. interior 10YR7/3. 5. Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al.0. cf. temper: m M. temper: mg M. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Type Juglet Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Cooking-pot Reg. 1980:66:6a). temper: fm M. Red paint lOR5/6. 5YR7/4. Stratum Stratum 9c (Briend et al. 1980:64: la. 9a-b (Briend et al.5YR6/6. and interior 10YR8/3. 1980:79:7). 1980:66: 15. 1980:65:2).FIGURE 5.6 mm).5YR6/6. core grey. 60712089 752/2609 255111 9198/1 607/2077 255112 Locus 607 751 727 1575 607 727 Description cf. Keisan cf. interior 5YR7/6.2 mm). } 3 f---d 2 -------ill II 4 lOcm. 5403/3 5392/4 3304/1 3219/6 5378/2 3433/3 5423/2 Locus 1941 1973 0877 0864 1973 1313 1970 Description Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior 5YR7/6. core grey. No.

Exterior and interior 5YR7/6 and white. temper: m M. black painted wavy line. Red paint. interior 7. temper: fm M.5YR7/2. bands in black paint. White slip outside with red and black bands. core 5YR6/6. 47: 3. 542617 5392/10 POTTERY FROM AREA E Locus 1941 1973 1941 0876 1968 1941 0888 0890 1970 1338 Description Exterior 2.5YR7/2. core 5YR7/6.5YR7/2.5YR7/2. temper: fM. interior 5YR6/4. Closed vessel with concentric circles. Exterior 5YR6/4. temper: mg M. temper: mg M. core 2.5YR7/2. temper: mg M. temper: fM. interior 10YR7/3. Closed vessel with painted concentric circles. core lOYR8/4.5YR7/2. Black paint. Cypriote WhitePainted V. interior lOYR7/3.5YR7/2. interior 5YR6/6. cf. Bikai 1978a: PI. Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. FIGURE 5.68: Iron Age 10cm. Exterior 7. Exterior 10YR8/3. core greyish.5YR8/4. Same type as Fig. interior 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Jug let Pilgrim flask Pilgrim flask Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Krater or Jug Krater or Jug Jug Reg. temper: m M. 1980: PI. Closed vessel. Tyre Stratum 10-2. Closed vessel. White-Painted II. black paint.68: IRON AGE No. core 2. temper: fm M. 5. Exterior 5YR7/6. Briend et al. I I000o pottery from Area E. Exterior 2. core 10YR7/3. core grey. interior 5YR7/6. core 5YR7/6. 19411177 3310/2 5402/5 5403/4 3388/8 3585/100 5346/2 3623/2 1 I Juglet 3145/3 0830 12 Transport jar 5443/100 1972 180 . bands in black paint. Bands in light greenish wash and black paint. 61: 12 (Keisan Niv. Exterior 7. Gjerstad 1948: Fig.82:8-10. 9a-b). cf. Red brown paint. 5. temper: m M. Cypriote White-Painted. 84: 259 (Abu Hawwam Stratum III). Closed vessel with bands and concentric circles. black paint.5YR8/4. interior lOYR8/4. interior 2. White slip outside and red paint. Early Phoenician Bichrome. 26:11. No. White slip. cf. core 2.5YR7/2. Exterior 2.3 4 5 11 7 o Fig. interior 2. Cypriote White-Painted. Exterior 5YR7/6. core 5YR6/4. Exterior 5YR6/6. temper: fM. black paint.5YR7/6.5YR6/6.

9). They are comparable to examples from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Pls. 41 :9). The parallels connect the finds from below Stratum E4 with 11th-9th century strata at Tell Keisan. 49: 2). :PI. 29:4). 19:9-16). Tell Keisan Stratum 6-7 (Briend et at. :PI. Sarepta Stratum C2-F (Anderson 1988:PI.5). 23 :3). 1980:PI. 511. Stratum 11 (ibid. 31:12. 5). fragments and almost complete forms making up 4. 513). Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's Kouklia Horizon. x-15c). Inside and outside are thin bands of black paint. Sarepta.:PI.70:11). 33:2. There were 114 examples. 47:type x-15a. Stratum 8-9 (ibid. Stratum 10-13 (Bikai 1978a). 600. Of special significance for the study of the Iron Age II in northern Israel is the wide range of vessels found in situ in the 7th century BCE destruction levels (Stratum E2) which represent pottery of this period. 26: 1-4. Stratum 7 (ibid. Stratum E (ibid. 1980:PI. A limited sounding below Stratum E4 produced only a small quantity of pottery. Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et at. :PI. 22:595. Stratum 5. cooking-pots (Fig. 1980).). 18a:16) and are dated to the 9th century BCE. Stratum 10-1 (ibid. the lIth and 8th centuries BCE. 6).69:2-3). :PI. Another type (Fig. ca. 48:4). 458. Bowls like Fig. l1a: 2. 5. 1987:37-38) which has a relatively short flaring rim.3% of all diagnostics. 1980:PI.69:1) has a flat base and an almost straight. :PI. Stratum 12 (ibid. 1980:PI. 16a:18-25. 5. 50:3. Sarepta C2-F (Anderson 1988':type SJ-12A) and Tyre Strata 4-14 (Bikai 1978a:45-46 . Parallels come from Tell Keisan. Among the few diagnostic sherds are various bowls (Figs.IRON AGE II During the excavation of Area E (Chapter 4:IV) large amounts of pottery were found in situ in a series of fortresses. They are similar to bowls from Keisan Stratum 10-11 (Brient et al. 1050-850 BCE. :PI. 64: 97) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 32:10) and Tyre Stratum 4. 5. Many of the vessels of this last phase were complete or restorable. 49:11). a flat or convex base and reserved red slip decoration (Fig. has a simple almost vertical rim. :PI. Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. Stratum DI-E (Anderson 1988) and Tyre. 456. ca. 5. One of the most common bowl types found at Kabri has a flaring rim and was variously decorated in different periods. These bowls range in diameter from 18-25 ern. 1980:PI. 20 em in diameter. it covers the period between ca. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. triangular and sometimes has a slightly bulbous base. Bikai 1978a:PI.70:13-19) and transport jars (Fig.:PI. (Briend et al. Stratum Dl (ibid. 18a:4). 5. Tyre Stratum 6 (Bikai 1978a:PI.type SJ-9. 3). Those found in Stratum 4 are Bikai's first sub-type (1978a:26 Fine Ware Plate 2. 33:12-13). Stratum 7-11 (Briend et at. This type was in use over a very long span of time and fabric and surface treatment vary in different periods. the first of which was built in the 9th century BCE (Stratum E4) and the last probably destroyed in 604 BCE.69:4). 5. 23 :603). (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 4 nos. a simple everted rim and red slip covering the rim inside and the complete vessel outside already occur in Iron Age I. Thus.:PI. 7). 5. Stratum 7 (ibid.69:1. 181 . Parallels come from Cyprus ca. 494-496. 18a:5). 53: 10) and Tyre Stratum 6 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Transport jars from this context have a simple vertical rim rising from a sloping shoulder. Stratum 13 (ibid.69:6 with a carinated shoulder. STRATUM E4 BOWLS The simplest type of bowl in the Phoenician pottery repertoire (Fig. The body is sack-shaped. 31: 1. Stratum 10-2 (ibid. sloping profile ending in a slightly thickened inverted rim. 81: 15) and Tyre Stratum 17 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 470. 850-750 BCE.

5. 5. Four sub-types can be distinguished at Kabri. 1960:PI. 268. Their diameter is ca. 34. 4b) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990 :PI.70:7) is red-slipped and burnished.25) and Stratum 5 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Another fragment (Fig. Fig.71:9 of Stratum E3. jug type 8. Fig. 5. The painted decoration of Fig. 272). Juglets with a short mushroom rim (Fig. p.70:1-2) usually has a small bulge at the base. type 244) in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. 175. Parallels are found at Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al.f. 31 :15) and Tyre Stratum 2-4 (Bikai 1978a:33-35. 60:1. JUGLETS AND JUGS A typical juglet of the 8th and 7th centuries BCE (Fig. Such jars have been discussed in detail by Gal and Alexandre (2000:44-48) in their publication of the Phoenician fortress of Rosh Zayit. 850-750 BCE (Bikai 1987:PI. 5:14-17. 5. and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 1987). table 8A. 182 . STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS One rim fragment of what may be a 'Hippo Jar' (Fig. 5. Juglets with a squared or thickened everted rim (Fig. No parallels were found for bowl types Fig. Sarepta CI-C2 (Anderson 1988:type 13A) and Tyre Stratum 10-1 (Bikai 1978a: PI. Sarepta E (Anderson 1988:PI.47:8.69:15 is similar to Fig. 1980:PI. It resembles a jug without slip from Cyprus dated to ca. 1980:Pls.6.8) and Megiddo Stratum H-3 = Megiddo IVA (Finkelstein et al. This is a bichrome painted holemouth krater which resembles those from Rashidiya (Lipinski 1992:PI.f. 2000:310. The handle rises high above the low rim.69:5) have an everted rim which is somewhat thicker than the body wall. p. 15:19-20. It can be compared to examples from Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Transport jars with a small triangular rim on a sloping shoulder (Fig. 5. 23:611). a neck ridge and a single handle are typically Phoenician. 39. KRATERS Only one such vessel was found in Stratum E4 (Fig. 52: 8) and Stratum 8 (ibid. 12: 246. 5. 39). 93:2 type juglet 2). 55: 9). Small juglets with a ring-base. 177-178). 5. but may continue somewhat later as at Hazor Stratum VIII (Yadin et al. Sarepta 01 (Anderson 1988:type OJ-2a). 14:383) and another from Tyre Stratum 9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 5.69:7-14. 10-12). PI. 265.:PI.70:10) was found in Stratum E4 and two more in Stratum E3. Sarepta Stratum B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type B-3A) and Tyre Strata 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. They are dated from the end of the 10th to the first quarter of the 9th century BCE. 18a:10) date this type to ca.69:16-17 is a large bowl with an incurved rim which is sometimes painted red. A jug with a high neck and a trefoil rim (Fig. 5. 20:8).70:12) occur since the second half of the 9th century BCE in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. 18a:7). Parallels from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Nos. 14:2-5. 9:168-169. PI.70:4-5) begin in the middle of the 8th century BCE and continue to the beginning of the 7th century BCE in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Pl. 24:2). 69: 141-142). 17 em. Similar bowls come from Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. table 8A. 5. 850-750 BCE. 5. but the rim is different.70:3) begin in the second half of the 9th century BCE and continue until the second half of the 8th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:types 243.70:9) was found out of its original context. 5.Other carinated bowls (Fig. 92:jug 4). 190-206) and Tyre Stratum 4-9 (Bikai 1978a:type jug 8.69: 18). Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 33:3. 11. 74: 179). PI. cf. 82:242) and Tyre Stratum 4-9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. The first two have squared or thickened everted rims while the rims of the others are mushroom-like. 43:8). Their development has been discussed in detail by Bikai (1978a:37-40.

52:13. Cooking-pot types with flat vertical rims become more frequent in the late 8th and 7th century BCE. Sarepta Stratum F (Anderson 1988:PI. 5. 5. CYPRIOTE IMPORTS White-Painted IV jug (Fig.70 :21). Tell Keisan Stratum 6-7 (Briend et al. 6. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's 'Salamis Horizon'. 183 . Gal and Alexandre 2000:40-42) Comparisons come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4-11 (Briend et al. Above the carination. A somewhat similar vessel was found at Rosh Zayit (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 81:8).COOKING-POTS Two main groups of cooking-pot types were distinguished: pots with triangular rims and pots with a ridged or 'modeled' rim. The examples at Kabri are clearly made of a cooking-pot fabric. 46:1-2. 5. the transport jars (Fig. The body may be deep or shallow and has usually a sharp carination. the walls are either concave or sloping inward to the rim (see Gal and Alexandre 2000:40-42). These sub-types have no chronological or regional significance in the Akko plain during Iron Age I through Iron Age IIC. 63. where 33. This type has many variants.70:20). Especially important for dating are the bowls with painted bands (Fig. horizontal rim and 5) a short pinched rim (Hunt 1987:Fig. 1980:PI. One example of this type was found in Stratum E4.70:12-13) and the cooking-pot rims (especially Fig.84:3-4). 950-830 BCE).70:3-5. overlapping rim. 11). One may distinguish between triangular rims with: 1) horizontal rim. Thus. SUMMARY Most paraIlels to the pottery assemblage from Kabri Stratum E4 are either found in the Akko plain or at Tyre and Sarepta. 18. 49:9. Their value for dating pottery assemblages is thus limited. No parallels were found for a cooking-pot with a triangular rim (Fig.70:13-19) but continue in Stratum E3 and even into E2 (Figs. Stratum E4 may thus be dated to ca. This cooking-pot type had a long life-span. occurring first in the 12th century BCE. Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. there seems to have been close contacts between Kabri E4 and Tyre Stratum 4-12 (Bikai 1978a:9th century BCE to ca. 6. 1980:9th century BCE) and Sarepta Stratum C2-Dl (Anderson 1988:ca.3% of Stratum E4 types have exact parallels. 27:9.23:13-15. 850-750 BCE. 77:1-4. 750 BCE). 5. 2) overlapping rim. 1980:PI. 9). 5.70:20) has a small edge on the rim immediately under the lip. 17:2. One example (Fig. 5. 5. ca. The distribution of each echoes that of the group as a whole (Hunt 1987: 183). 5. 5. Cooking-pots with triangular rims are very common in Stratum E4 (Fig. 5. one in E2 and 2 were unstratified. They have a wide open body with a rounded base. 28: 6).4) long pinched. 33:10). . The type occurs only once at Kabri. 30:3) and Tyre Stratum 2-10 (Bikai 1978a:PI.12:5) and Sarepta CI-Dl (Anderson 1988:type CP-IA). 33. 850-750 BCE. Stratum E4 also has parallels with pottery from Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990).12:5) where it is thought to be a krater. Gjerstad 1948 Fig. 3. 5. 3) long pinched. They can be compared with vessels from TelI Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al.73:3-5. 34:10.69:6. These vessels are dated according to stratified comparisons from other sites which are contemporary with Stratum E4 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence at Tel Kabri. The pottery figures for this stratum include also some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context (Figs. 55:1-3. 35:1.70:6) (cf. 12:27. There are several sub-types of cooking-pots with triangular rims.69:2). 5.

,7
\
4

2\
\
5

!

"""
~

tI

'"

-,

=,
\7

J

t
3

\

,

7
==J
I

6

7

10

\C

,
,

7

8

~

9\
<\\
11
-,

,
I

\
12

~
14

r'-- ~%-'%7
f

7

ZC
13 (

\
15

(
16

,

,J
18
10cm.

r

I
17

\,

,

FIGURE 5.69: POTTERY OF STRATUM E4
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Type Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Krater Reg. No. 3251112 325112 3228/2 3251/7 3257/1 5392/9 3257/8 3256/2 325114 3242/1 3253/6 3253/3 3242/2 Locus 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 1973 .0866 0866 0866. 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 1958 0866 0866 Description Exterior 5YR6/6, interior 5YR7/3, core 5YR7/3, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/4, temper: m M, black paint. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core grey, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/2, temper: m M. Exterior 7.5YR8/6, interior 7.5YR8/6, core 7.5YR7/8, temper: fM, red slip lOR5/8. Exterior 7.5YR7/4, interior 7.5YR7/4, core 7.5YR7/4, temper: fM. Exterior 5YR6/8, interior 5YR6/8, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Bichrome? Exterior 2.5YR6/4, interior 2.5YR6/4, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior 10YR8/3, interior 10YR8/3, core greyish, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/6, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M, red paint. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/6, temper: m M, black paint. Exterior 5YR 7/6, interior 5YR 7/6, core 5YR 7/6, temper: fm M, red paint 10R5/6. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: m M, RSB 10R5/6.

325119
3251/3 5237/1 3257/4 3251/1

184

2

W
I

rTf:)
.0"


4 5 3

, ~
. ~.

.

]I.

8

rwr
9 10

W
I

H

,
t
\

til ••
6

"

~

~
7

_)
11 12

)
I

,
14

i

\,
1,

13

15

<
(
I ,

~,

,
I

/

ttl

5

{
I

17

18

\,
19 20 21 ~(---

/

/

,

,

\
I

10cm.

Fig. 5.70: Pottery of Stratum E4 and from debris below it.

185

FIGURE 5.70: POTTERY OF STRATUM E4 AND FROM UNDERLYING DEBRIS
No. I 2 32 43 5 6 7 8 93 10 Il' 12 13 14 15 16' 17 18 19' 20 21 I 2 3 Type Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Jug Jug Juglet Juglet Jar Transport jar Transport jar Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. No. 3253/2 3232/1 3290/1 3338/8 3380/6 Locus Description 0866 0866 0873 0889 0888 0866 0855 0866 0803 0866 0871 0866 0866 0866 0866 0871 0866 0866 0871 0866 0866 Exterior 10R6/4, interior IOR6/4, core 2. 5YR6/4, temper: fm M Exterior IOR5/6, interior 10R5/6, core 10R5/6, temper: m M white grits. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fine mineral. Exterior, interior and core 7.5YR7/6, temper: fin M, decoration: red slip lOR5/6. Exterior 5YR7/8, interior and core 5YR7/4, temper: fM, decoration: bichrome red and black. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M, decoration: brown paint. Cypriote White-Painted III. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior IOR5/4, core grey, temper: fine mineral. Exterior 2.5YR6/4, interior 2.5YR6/4, core 2.5YR6/4, temper: m M white grits. Remarks: cf. Tyre Stratum V, Bikai 1978: PI. 18a: 10 (jug type 8). Exterior 2.5YR6/6, interior 2.5YR6/6, core grey black, temper: m M. Exterior 7.5YR7/6, interior 7.5YR7/6, core 7.5YR7/2, temper: mg M. Exterior 7.5YR6/4, interior 7.5YR6/4, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior IOR4/4, interior IOR4/4, core 10R4/4, temper: mg M white grits. Exterior 2.5YR4/4, interior 2.5YR4/4, core 2.5YR4/4, temper: mg M: Exterior black, interior black, core black, temper: mg M. Exterior 10R5/3, interior IOR5/3, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR4/1, interior 5YR6/3, core grey black, temper: black & white grits & mica Exterior 5YR5/4, interior 5YR5/4, core 5YR5/4, temper: mg M. Exterior 2.5YR5/4, interior 2.5YR5/4, core 2.5YR5/4, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Exterior 2.5YR5/4, interior 2.5YR5/4, core 2.5YR5/4, temper: mg M.

3251110
321111 3257/5 3027/1 3228/4 3262/3 325118 3248/2 3239/3 3228/1 3262/4 3226/3 3246/1 3262/2 325115

323911

Debris under Stratum E4 Stratum E3 Stratum E2

STRATUME3 BOWLS Only one example of a simple bowl with a flaring wall (Fig. 5.71:1) was found at Kabri. This type is very common in Tyre, where it was found in Strata 1-10, being most frequent in Strata 4-6 (Bikai 1978a: 23-24, type plate 8; PIs. 10:4,7; 16a:22-25; 18a:l; 19:9-12; 23:3). A flat plate or bowl (Fig. 5.71 :2; 5.76:4) has a sloping profile and a simple rim. It occurs in Stratum E3a and continues in Strata E2a-E2b. This vessel is very common in late-8th and 7th century BCE contexts on the Phoenician coast at Tyre in Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 1:13), Stratum 8 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 19:10 [similar]), Stratum 9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 19:16 [similar]) and in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. 20:519 [similar]). In Israel it is found at Dan Stratum II (Biran 1994:Fig. 167:1) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 73: 174 [similar]). A sub-type of the bowls with flaring rims (Fig. 5.71:3) which continues in Stratum E2 (Fig. 5.76:12) has a flat or convex base, reserve-slip and incised decoration on the outside of the base. Parallels come from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 3, Nos. 457, 462-469, 493, 510, 514), Sarepta CI-Dl (Anderson 1988:type F-IA), Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 63:76, 79, 81) and Tyre Strata 2-5 (Bikai 1978a:type Fine Ware Plate 2). Two bowl rims (Fig. 5.71 :4) seem to be a local imitation of the Black-on-Red Ic type at Horvat Rosh Zayit Stratum IIa (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 3.88:16, cf Fig. 3.77:14 Stratum IIb). A carinated bowl (Fig. 5.71 :5) has no exact parallel.
186

Chapman 1972:Fig. Although out of its original stratigraphic context. Bikai 1987:PI.A deep red slipped bowl (Fig. 5. 5. 20:1). The deep carinated bowl or krater (Fig. 40:9) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. lla:18). 1980:PI. 6:16) and Stratum 8 (Lehmann 1996:PI. 3.72:1-4. A parallel was found at Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. but typologically seems to belong to Stratum E3. 750-680 BCE (Bikai 1978a:29. 15: 19-20). 1. 1980:PI. Lehmann 1996:376 form 85). Several bowls (Fig. The parallels date it to ca. It is characterized by an incised ridge on the outer edge of the rim and is usually red-slipped.71: 16) with red and black bands on the shoulder has parallels at Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. 10:23-25. 5. 1980:PI. 5. 14:11). but no parallels could be found. 5. 5. The flat bowl or plate Fig. There are three sub-types of these jugs of which 13 fragments were found at Kabri.71:1. Fig. 379. 375). Bikai 1978a:PI. 1987:4950. Bowl Fig. With a narrow conical neck (cf. 31-34:Nos. out of its original context. 18a:3) and Strata 8-9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 33) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Pis.71: 14) is one of the most typical Phoenician fine ware plates of the 8th and early 7th century BCE. 391. 5.72:36).11 :3). 5. 5. With a slim conical neck that begins in the 8th century BCE (Bikai 1978a:36. The rim and profile of Fig. concave neck (for an example see Tyre Stratum 9. 16 type 86d/l). 5. 19:9-16). 41 :3) and Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. Ras al-Bassit phase 7 ensemble F (Braemer 1986:No.71: 19) resembles an Assyrianizing krater which becomes more common in Stratum E2 (cf. They are comparable to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et aZ.71: 15 are somewhat similar.78:16) and Tyre Stratum 3-4 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 6. 5. A krater with grooves on the rim (Fig. for further sub-types and references see Lehmann 1996:416-418 types 300-307). 1980:PI. 393-406. This sub-type seems to be the older one (Bikai 1987:49-50). They occur between 850-750 BCE in the Cypriote 'Salamis-Horizon' (Bikai 1987:PI. 16a:18-37). 14 no. This type is very frequent at Tyre occurring in Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Fig. 17:85c/2). Qasmiya. 72: 167).71: 11-12) characterized by a rim that is drawn outward were found in strata E3 and E2. The flat plate (Fig. With an elongated.71:8 may be a local imitation of Black. 5.121:23) although it is larger and has a different rim. 30 :8).71:9 is very similar to one from Al Mina Stratum 5 (Lehmann 1996:PI.71:6) has almost vertical walls which turn with a carination into the base. JUGLETS AND JUGS A number of Phoenician red slipped jugs with conical necks (Fig. 2. KRATERS A large bowl or small krater (Fig.7) were found. A similar krater came from Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. typologically this type should belong to Stratum E3 based on parallels from Al Mina Stratum 6-7 (Taylor 1959:Fig. Comparisons date this type to the end of the 8th and the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:383 form 122). While several were found out of their original stratigraphic context. 74:182).71:17) has a parallel from Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a: PI. 5. but larger. lla:19) and Stratum 3 (Bikai 1978a:PI.71:7) is similar to Fig. Similar vessels come from Al Mina Stratum 6-7 (Taylor 1959:Fig. A simple bowl (Fig. 3. Stratum 5 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 30: 1) and Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 3.71: 13 is very similar but has a red slip. 5. typologically they belong to the assemblage of Stratum E3. 53 :8). 15-16. 32: 316). At Tyre this type of plate was found in Strata 2-5 (Bikai 1978a:29 fine ware plate 7). 370. Rosh Zayit Stratum lIb (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. cf. 5. 6. 187 .on-Red bowls. The fragment from Kabri was found in Stratum El.81 :7-9).

5. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI.72:19) has many parallels in the 8th century BCE. 56:1).73:3-5) and cooking-pots with flat vertical rims in Stratum E3 see the discussion of this type under Stratum E4. 188 . 1960:PI. At least some of these vessels were found in funerary contexts but may have been in secondary use.72: 10) (cf.519. 5. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS 'Crisp-ware' transport jars (Fig. There is one example of ajar (Fig.72:6) was found on the surface in Area E. 22:3). The complete transport jar (Fig. all found out of context: one single-strap handle (in Stratum E2a) and four double-strand handles ( There are four double-strand handles (three in Stratum E2a. dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE (Niemeier 1990:xxxv-xxxvi. 8ab). 1. 5.72:11. 5. One very similar was found at Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. Ras al-Bassit tom be 12 (Courbin 1993:Fig. types 383. 90:296) and Tourabi-Tekke cemetery (ca. 3. Galilean storage jars (Fig. 1994:Fig. There was also a small White-Painted III-IV barrel juglet (Fig.Both the single strap and the double-strand handle occur at Kabri (Bikai 1978a:36). 750-680 BCE) (Culican 1982:Tf. Similar vessels have been found at Hazor Stratum IX (Yadin et al. 11:1. C. 1960:PI. 1980:Pl. A potter's workshop producing these jars was discovered at Tyre (Bikai 1985a) and two shipwrecks crammed with this type were recently found off the coast of Israel (Ballard. Dor Area A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig.122:3). Whether such decorated vessels were indeed used for transport jars or had a ceremonial character is not clear. 42:4). The Cypriote imports include the neck ofa Plain White IV amphora (Fig.72:21) have many parallels in the 9th and 8th centuries BCE. 5. sack-shaped transport jar (Fig. for example from Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. Gjerstad 1948:Fig. Gjerstad 1948:Fig.72:18) decorated with black and red painted bands and a treelike motif. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 5. one in Stratum El) and one single-strap handle (from Stratum E2a). 19:2. A detailed typology of these jars was recently developed by Ayelet Gilboa (1995: 10-12). 5. The rim of a storage jar(Fig.72:9) (cf. Comparison with decanters at Hazor Stratum VA (Yadin et al. The simple. are the type most frequently found in Phoenician contexts of the late 8th and early 7th centuries BCE.28:16) and two Blackon-Red II(IV) bowls (Fig. 5. 3. 52:24).6:6) and Hazor IX (Yadin et al.73:9-11) in Stratum E3 is noteworthy. 1980:PI. 19) and probably belongs to Kabri Stratum E3. A decanter fragment (Fig. 52:21). The presence of simple cooking-pot lids (Fig. 5. GREEK AND CYPRIOTE IMPORTS There are few imports in StratumE3. The fabric is of medium mineral temper and reddish yellow (5YR7/6) with a grey or light red core (2. 2002). Cyprus. 5.6:13). 5.73:1) was unstratified but has parallels at Tell Kazel Niveau 9-10 (Badre et al. Fig.122.72:14-17). 5. the Levant. 12) similar to those from Tell Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al.5YR6/8).7). Stager et al. 1. 87:6) date this fragment to the second half of the 8th century BCE. also known as 'torpedo jars'. COOKING-POTS For cooking-pots with triangular rims (Fig. 45:17). They have a wide distribution (Lehmann 1996:433-435. 1960:Pl. 386-387) and establish contemporaneity between assemblages from Turkey.72:20) resembles an example from Dor Area A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. Egypt and the Aegean. They include the rim of a Greek amphora. 8th century BCE).

3290/S 337811 Locus 0873 0896 Description Exterior 10YR8/2 white.SYR6/4. 5. 750-650 BCE. interior 2.SYRS/4. temper: m M. core black. interior SYR7/6. Exterior SYR7/3.73:3-11). Hazor Stratum VA.SYR6/4. red slip 2. No. red paint 10RS/8. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990). core grey. Exterior 2. interior SYR7/6.4. burnished surface. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's 'Kition Horizon'. Exterior 7. Most parallels are found in the Akko plain. 14-15. 5. temper: mg M. 750-680 BCE. temper: fM. but particularly at Tyre and Sarepta where exact parallels were found for 30% of the types. Exterior 2.SYRS/4. red slip 10R4/6 inside wheel burnished. core grey. interior SYR7/4. 1980). in particular the PlainWhite IV rim (Fig.SYR6/6. temper: mg M. core SYR7/6. core grey. temper: fM.10 Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Reg_. interior SYR7/4.72:14-15. black paint.SYR7/4. red slip 10RS16b. interior SYR7/6. core SYR7/6.SYRS/4. Fig. black & red paint (10RS/6). 16. core grey-black. Exterior 2. core 7. FIGURE 5. core SYR7/4. temper: fM. As in the preceding stratum. interior SYR7/4. 5. temper: m M. 5. 5.SUMMARY The bulk of the pottery found in Stratum E3 is of Phoenician or Tyrian character. interior 2. Ras al-Bassit tomb 12 (Courbin 1993 :800-700 BCE). temper: fine mineral. core grey-black. Sarepta Stratum CI-C2 (Anderson 1988:8th century BCE) and Tyre Stratum 2-8 (Bikai 1978a:8th century BCE). temper: mg M. interior 7. TJ!f!_e 1 Bowl 2 Bowl 3 Bowl 4 Bowl S 6 7 8 9 . interior SYR7/3. Exterior SYR7/6. The pottery figures for this stratum include some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context (Figs.6-9.SYR6/6. Exterior SYR7/6. interior 2. S386/6 31S411 3474/1 3378/8 3448/1 IS Bowl 16 Krater 17 Krater 18 Krater 19 Krater 32S1111 189 . Most important for dating Stratum E3 are the cooking-pots (Fig. 17) and the Cypriote imports. ca.73:1). ' Exterior SYR7/4. the transport jars made of Bikai's 'crisp-ware' (Fig. interior 2. core5YR7/4.72:1-2.SYR7/4. Thus Stratum E3 can be dated between ca. temper: mg M.SYR6/6. S3061100 3474/2 3287/2 1965 1317 0873 0812 l3l3 0876 0861 0873 0896 0873 l3l3 1973 0841 l317 0896 l316 0866 30S3/1 342611 331611 32l3/2 3290/7 3378/3+8 3290/4 3433/2 11 12 13 14 Exterior SYR7/4.SYR7/4. Exterior SYR7/4. this assemblage provides significant evidence for very close contacts with Tyre. Fig.SYR6/6.71:6.72:10-11). Parallels with Stratum E3 were found at Dor Area A phase 9 and Area Cl phase 6 (Gilboa 1995:720-650/630 BCE and 8th century BCE). temper: f111 M. core black. 5. Exterior SYR713. These are dated according to stratified parallels from other sites contemporary with Stratum E3 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence at Tel Kabri. temper: mg M. core 2. 12.SYR6/6. Exterior SYR7/4. temper: fM.71: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No. interior 2.

)-------/ f \ \ \ \ \ \ '- \\ 18 19 r= f 1 10cm.---.71: Pottery of Stratum E3. t \ Fig. 190 .. 5. 7 l 9 10 ~ 12 _7 13 14 15 17 \ I 16 "/------r---~=========~ .~17 2 3 \)-------1 \ \ 4 5 6 7 ~_17 i I " .

._' _....... 14 H 18 r 17 18 20 19 -EJ 10cm........ " /-l-~' \ \ \ I I ~ :I II I I 2 3 4 5 m / I .... . ..... 5. -9 15 I... I I .. '....72: Pottery of Stratum E3.. \- . . ~" /~~ «I '\1- 8 9 m 7 @)(ff}D 10 12 13 ~:z • 11 I I \ ' \..... _ '..21 ) f I \ 191 Fig. .-. I I ~..

5YR5/4. black & white grits.5YR3/4 . core grey. Exterior 7. 14: 5. Exterior 7. Exterior 7. 45: 17. white grits. core 5YR7/6.5YR7/4.5YR5/4. red slip 2.5YR7/4. interior black. interior 5YR7/6. i import import import import j ar jar jar jar jar 19 Transport j ar 20 Storage jar 211 Storage jar Stratum EI Exterior 7.5YR6/4. temper: fm M. interior 2.5YR8/4 . red paint IOR5/6. interior 5YR7/4. interior 5YR6/4. core grey. core 5YR6/4 black. white grits. temper: fm M. interior 7. temper: fm M. Exterior 2. Exterior 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR7/4. core 7. core 5YR7/6. Exterior 2. interior 2. white grits.5YR7/4. interior 5YR4/3. Exterior black. 192 .73: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No. white grits. black & white grits. interior IOR5/4. core grey. temper: mg M. temper: mg M. interior 5YR7/6. cf. similar to Gjerstad 1948: Fig. core black. temper: m M. interior IOYR7/4. temper: mg M. core black. temper: fm M. interior 2. interior 5YR6/4.5YR6/6. large white grits.5YR4/4.2.5YR4/4.5YR8/4. black and red painted geometric design. Exterior 5YR7/6. temper: mg M. temper: mg M black & white grits and mica. interior 2. 28: 16 (White Painted III-IV).5YR7/4.5YR5/4. temper: fM. Exterior 2. core 5YR7/4. 19: 2. interior 7.5YR5/6. Exterior 5YR4/3. red slip IOR5/6.No. interior 5YR7/6. Exterior 7.5YR5/4.5YR5/4. red slip 2. interior 5YR7/6. II 21 3 41 5 6 81 91 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 TJP. core grey. red slip IOR4/8. Exterior 7.5YR6/4. core 7. Exterior 5YR4/3.5YR7/4. Plain White IV. Exterior 5YR7/6. temper: fm M. 3309/4 3588/5 3283/5 3157/3 5455/5 3357/5+7 3055/1 3045/2 3215/1 3284/6 5416/10 3208/2 5432/1 5455/2 5215/1 3366/9 3307/1+2 3284/1 5455/1 319612 Locus 0879 1325 0873 0840 1970 0889 0812 0807 0864 0873 1941 0861 1970 1970 1941 0896 0876 0873 1970 0855 Descril?_tion Exterior 5YR7/6.72: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No.5YR6/6. cf. temper: mg M. core 2.5YR4/6. temper: g M.5YR8/4. core 5YR7/6. temper: m M. 3647/100 339112 331811 3474/4 322112 542311 328811 3230/3 3474/14 3457/9 3296/1 Locus 0890 1302 0881 1317 0861 1970 0873 0864 1317 1317 0873 Descril?_tion Exterior 5YR7/4. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Type Transport j ar Transport j ar Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot lid Cooking-pot lid Cooking-pot lid Reg_. interior 5YR7/6. grooves inside.5YR5/6. red slip IOR4/8. temper: fM. core black. core 5YR7/6. red slip IOR4/8. Tyre Stratum 4.FIGURE 5. core 5YR7/6. Exterior 2. black & white grits and mica.5YR7/4. core black. Exterior 5YR7/4. interior 2. Exterior 2. temper: fm M. core IOR6/4. FIGURE 5.5YR7/4. temper: mg M.5YR7/4. interior 7. temper: mg M. red slip IOR4/8. interior 7. temper: mg M. temper: fM. Gjerstad 1948: Fig. Bikai 1978: PI.e Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jar Cypriote Cypriote Cypriote Cypriote Jug Transport Transport Transport Transport Transp~rt Reg No. interior 7. core grey.5YR5/4. core grey. temper: mg M.5YR8/4. Exterior 5YR7/6. core 7.5YR7/6.

193 . 2 3 ( F I 4 e .... /' I n ~ Fig. 5... I 8 I I f 6 .o .___. 10cm .73: Pottery of Stratum E3.. " I ~ r -4 5 ! \ I I =\ \ ! \ 7 ~ -: I 9 "/' o .. 10cm.

40:12). A sub-type of the group of bowls with flaring rims (Fig. 5. 77. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl.77:1-6). 5. differentiated by their rim forms. It might be dated as early as Late Bronze or Iron Age I and could be intrusive in Stratum E2a (cf. 470. 46:2) and Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig.513). called 'Salt and Pepper group' at Tell Abu Hawam.76:4) are very common.4 Their shape is very similar to Figs.82-85) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:type Fine Ware Plate 1). 5. At Kabri several examples of both types have had a hole drilled in their centre after firing and were apparently in secondary use. Deep bowls with bichrome red and black painted decoration inside (Fig. Bowls with a long overhanging rim (Fig.76:14 compare a Black-on-Red I(III) bowl at Cyprus (Gjerstad 1948:Fig. 5.3 Parallels come from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. Tel Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al.76:5-6). For bowl Fig. Sarepta C1-D1 (Anderson 1988:type F-1A). 81: 15). 5. 494-496.76:21. Tyre Stratum 5. The bowl type with an uneven outer surface (Fig. 31. 1980:PI. 63: 75. 5. often red-slipped outside and/or inside. The bowl with an S-shaped profile (Fig. 1980: PI. Another sub-type (Fig. 19:534-536. Parallels come from I 3 4 For a detailed type study see Briend et al. 1980 :PI. Keisan Stratum 10-11 (Briend et al.98 examples. 20-22). A number of red-slipped flat bowls and plates all have an accentuated everted rim (Figs. 5. several have either one hole drilled into the centre of the base or several holes all over the bottom. Maigret 1979). 1980:166-168. 5. 38). The fabric of this sherd consists mainly of marl and may perhaps originate in northern Israel (Chapter 15:Table 15.71:3 discussed in Stratum E3. 26:16-17) and bowls at Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. as are bowls with a carinated or stepped profile inside and outside (Fig. 5.1:1). 1980:Pl.1980:168-170. Bikai 1978a: PI. fine and soft.3:24-25). Some of these sub-types.80.76:7) has a particular fabric.69:4) displays somewhat thicker walls and the red slip is thin and washy being band-burnished or unburnished. but without slip) and Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a: PI. Flat plates or bowls with a sloping profile and a simple rim (Fig.7% of all diagnostics. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al.76:9) first seen in Stratum E4 (Fig.76: 10-11). which constitute 3. have previously been included in the so-called 'Samaria Ware' but should be referred to rather as 'Phoenician Fine Wares' (Bikai 1992:97) or 'Levantine Fine Wares'. for example at Arqa 10AB (Thalmann 1978:Fig.76:20-25. 15: 13). 1. 29:1-8). Often they have a carination half way up the body. 5. p. For their occurrence see Lehmann 1996:371-372 form 75b.76: 18-19) are of the type found at Sarepta Stratum C1-C2 (Anderson 1988: type F-7C).76:16-17) are typical of the late 8th and 7th century BCE (cf.76:8) was first identified at Ras al-Bassit and is apparently a typical 7th century BCE form (Braemer 1986:Nos. A similar phenomenon is known from central Syria in the late 8th century BCE. 538).24.STRATUME2 BOWLS There is a remarkable variety of bowl types in Stratum E2. The former have a fine soft orange fabric whereas the clay of the latter is red brittle and coarse. 5. but the fabric is very different. SeeBriendetal. It has 'been reported from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 5 nos. 41: 12 similar. 471-473. 5. where it was assumed that drilled vessels were part of architectural construction (Lehmann 1996:363 form 17. 5. The fabric is orange. The outer surface can often be cut with a knife. 38:1-12). occur frequently on the Phoenician coast. A great many vessels of this class were found in Kabri . 20:531-533. 5. Like the bowls with a long overhanging rim.511.76:12) is similar to Fig. 5. Carinated bowls with a simple rim (Fig. Sarepta C1 (Anderson 1988:type X-9A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 1. 194 .

15:9 respectively). 435).9:6). 544) Tyre Stratum plate 3 and 4. PI. Al Mina Stratum (Bikai 1987:No. tomb 367/51-1 pottery during the 1968Ashmolean British Museum late 8th and the 7th century Museum.7:8). 1996:Tf. 30:180/2). 1978:Fig.78:5-8) at. PI. The Fig. 1995:Fig. was also found at Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 1. and indeed our example or 'drooping'.77:14 is a small bowl with an incurving rim. and Tyre Strata 1. The rim is either horizontal from Tyre define Both examples found at Kabri are 'drooping'. 1980:PI. Dor C2 phase 7 (ibid.77:12) was also found at Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et The first type is always While the rim is usually rim. Al Mina Stratum 5 (Lehmann 8 (unpublished. The plate usually illustration). Tel Qiri Stratum VI (Ben-Tor Sarepta (Pritchard 1988:misc. 72:164-166). 1-4 at Tyre.348/3).form 5 (Briend et al. 33: 1- They occur at Kabri with different rim forms. studied in detail by A. Sarepta Cl (Anderson 1988:PI. creating a bar-handle-like Similar plates were found at Tyre in Strata 3 and 4 (Bikai 1978a:Pls. PI. or partially red-slipped 145b). 5. convex base. 5. deep bowls with handles assemblage and a carinated shoulder (Fig. Oxford 1954.40:1-7) 1:12. 5. 1980:PI. 1980:166rim and a 10:12-13). 30:2-4. Parallels from Tell Keisan Stratum 4(Anderson 1988:type F-2A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai are discussed below as a special type. 195 . 38:22) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI.Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. sometimes has a black band on the rim (Bikai 1978a:28 fine ware plate 4. 5. 5-6). Examples Amathus come from Al Mina (unpublished. 5. 1978a:22-23). include The comparisons burnished and very well finished and has a stepped at. 52: 8) Tell in the 7th profile (Fig. Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. 9:5-6. The red slipped plate (Fig. 1980:PI. Sarepta (Anderson 12. A small plate with a small accentuated band of red slip inside (Fig. come from and the time range of this type to Strata and the first part of 7th century 1-3 (Bikai 1978a:type the end of the 8th century Cyprus (Bikai 1987: no. 28: 12. 2 and 3 (Bikai 1978a:Pls.77:13 into two types .77:11). effect (see Culican 1981). 5.78: 10) has a paralJel at TelJ Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera The Assyrian-style deep bowl (Fig. 25. They are one of the most typical features of Phoenician BCE.9:9-10.1 % of all diagnostics.76:15. 5. Comparisons which BCE. 1987:9:10). Fig. 41:7). 52:10). 5. 1980:PI.77:10) has a cut rim. GOBLETS AND PEDESTAL BOWLS Presentation (Lehmann stands (Fig. 5. are common BCE Phoenician from Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend Gonzalez below. 32:3.78:9) is discussed 1990:PI. Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1988:PI.77:7-8) seventy nine such bowls found at Kabri made up 3. A similar bowl (Fig. 41 :3a). 5. 69:141-142) and Tyre Stratum 10-2 (Bikai 1978a:PI.:Fig. 8a:51. 10:24-25). et al. Sarepta CI-Dl Assyrian-style DEEP BOWLS bowls (Figs. 28:5. 30:11et al. type with a horizontal long rim (Fig. Plate 4 is a variant characterized 92/888/3356-2 by a step below the is broken here (no would breaks at this point.'Plate 3' and 'Plate 4' (Bikai or slightly flat there are exceptions. 5. 30:8). 5. 1. The bowl (Briend et al.78:1) were first recognized by Bikai (1985b) and many have been recorded since 1996:394 type 180). 39:30). 1980:PI. 45:4-4a).77:9 has a parallel from Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 1978a:type fine ware 4) date the type between the second half of the 8th and the 7th century BCE. p. The deep bowl with a carinated 5. 1980:PI. century 2.77:16) has a carination directly under the rim and was found at Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et Large. type plate 4).12). 1980:167 type c. 8-9) and Yoqne'am Stratum 10 (Ben-Tor et al. 5. Chambon 168). 8a:43. 1980:PI. 1980:PI. The large plain bowl (Fig. 45. 12: 11). 22. 27:4). Lehmann 1996:386. 42:3. Bikai divides plates like Fig.77:15) with an incurving rim has a number of parallels in Phoenician sites of the late 8th and 7th centuries BCE such as Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et at. vessels nos. 38: 9-12) and Tyre Stratum 1-3 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 3. 9:14). This type is completely .

Brown fabric (2.79:6-7). At Kabri three sub-types were distinguished on the basis of fabric: 1.78:2-3) decorated in reserved red slip with painted black bands are unusual. la).79:1) was found under the floor of Stratum E2. Reddish coarse fabric (lOR5/6) (not illustrated. fabric and decoration were also found at Sarepta Dl 196 . Only the base distinguishes the early moratoria from those of the NeoBabylonian and Persian periods (cf Lehmann 1996:Tf.6:4-5.79:5.78:14 (Chapter 15: Table 15. 6-7) occur very frequently in 8th and 7th century BCE Phoenician pottery assemblages. 5. Similar vessels from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Nos.90:3-4). Some examples were found in Iraq at Assur Tomb 547 (Haller1954) and Nimrud NTS15 (Mallowan 1966:Fig.5YR6/6) with a rough surface (Fig.78:11-14) with a simple flat base were found at Kabri. 2. 5. 5. 5. 750-680 BCE (Lehmann 1996: type 241 and cf. 279) but most were found in Levantine sites such as Sidon Tomb 1 (Culican 1975:Fig. 312.1:2) shows that the fabric of this vessel is typical of Cypriote coastal sites like Amathus or Enkomi. Large jugs and bottles (Fig. Large jugs made of smooth yellowish fabric with dark painted lines (Fig. For comparisons see Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al.79:14) differs in form. 5. Salles 1985a. 4: 16). B ikai 1978a:PI."5. Juglets with a red slip and a wide overhanging mushroom lip (Fig. type 239). Lehmann 1996:Tf. 36: 1-. found under the floors of Stratum E2. 6) similar in form. 5. 92:jug 5) and Hazor VA (Yadin et al. The Assyrian-style juglets and jugs (Fig. The decoration and fabric are reminiscent of Assyrianizing pottery but the form is uncommon among Mesopotamian shapes as is the fine grit size of the temper. 25:type 159-163 and Tf. 1960: PI. These bottles form a distinct group of pottery in terms of fabric. The vessels have a wide oval body and tall neck (cf. The decanter (Fig. 5. are discussed below. 5. 50). Tyre Stratum 3. 5. 43:8). 5. 5. PIs. Mortaria appear during the 7th century BCE for the first time and continue into the Hellenistic period (cf. Fine yellowish smooth (5YR7/6) fabric (Fig. The paint has a matt appearance. Other larger jugs (Fig. 5. 1980:PI. More frequent are goblets (Fig.79:5).70:1-2 in Stratum -E4).80: 1. 5. Similar juglets were found in Cyprus and labelled as White Painted V (Gjerstad 1948:Fig. 2) decorated with painted bichrome bands in red and black.11. Sarepta B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type B-3A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:typejuglet 1). 33:3. 37:2-3) and Vroulia Tomb 6 on Rhodes (Kinch 1914:PI. 316). Juglets with a small bulge at the base (Fig. Petrographic analysis of Fig. but see Fig. 5. 3. 38:6.79:8-10) can be dated by parallels to between ca.79:12-l3) and a polished or cut surface come from Strata E2-3. but there are also four examples of Persian period mortaria with a high pedestal ring-base (Fig.80:5. Tyre Stratum 2-3 (Bikai 1978a:33-35. The handle rises above the rim and the body of the vessel is slim and long. 1980:Pl. Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:Fig. JUGLETS AND JUGS A complete small juglet with black-brown bands (Fig. surface treatment and decoration and are comparable to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 25-28.9).Stands or incense burners (Fig. 5:19-23. 19). 285. 46:2). fabric and surface finish from contemporary decanter types in inland sites but is quite common along the northern Levantine coast. 221: 1) and Shiqmona Stratum 9 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. 298.79:3-4). MORTARIA A large number of mortaria (Fig. Sapin 1998). 27:169) while the rim fragments are often indistinguishable.78:4) which occur in the 7th century BCE all over the Levant (Lehmann 1996:383-384 type 125). This juglet may be an Assyrian-style vessel. 87:l3. 5. Most examples found at Kabri belong to the early Iron Age type.

5.81:3 is similar to these. 5. 5.82:5) existed over a long span of time and may have been used in cultic contexts. 44:13-15) and Mtarfa tomb (Malta) (Culican 1982:Abb. 5. 5.81 :10 has a thick rim and is wheel burnished in the interior. 43: 12). 5. 1. Stratum 5 (ibid. Bk). 13d). The surface is decorated with bichrome red and black bands. Tell Keisan Stratum 5. 7:5. Some vessels are decorated with a red slip on the rim. 4:10. 43: 1) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl. 5. 5. Fig. 5. 32:8-9. No parallels were found for Fig. 2) Smooth.5 Thus. There is some similarity to Assyrian storage jars from Nimrud. pink fabric (Fig.5:1~3) and Sarepta B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type SJ-18A). but has small horizontal loop-handles. Fig. 1993:Fig. Keisan Stratum 5.82: 1) which is sometimes almost white (cf. 197 . Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. Briend et al. this type begins during the 8th century and continues into the Persian period. 5. 1980:Pl. 4) Cooking-pot fabric which is red with black white grits and a rough surface (Fig.81 :7. The Assyrian-style lamp (Fig. Large sack-shaped storage jars (Fig. There are four sub-types: 1) Reddish-yellow fabric (Fig. Briend et al.79:14.80:10. LAMPS The late Iron Age lamps (Fig. Dan Stratum II (Biran 1994:Fig. and another version (Fig. 88:285. 6). KRATERS Kraters with vertical shoulders and a wide lower body (Fig. The large krater or deep bowl on Fig. 5. 5. This is the most common type of krater in Stratum E2 at Kabri where fragments of 16 such vessels were found. 1018 (Hunt 1987:Fig. Lamps of the so-called 'cup-and-saucer type' (Fig.82:1-4) are low in profile with a sharply formed rim and a somewhat flattened base (Anderson 1988:669. Tell Keisan Stratum 4. 5.(Anderson 1988:Pl. Assyrian-style jug1ets and jugs (Fig.82:4). 5. Type 429. 5. Tel Qiri loci 682. 27:1-3). Similar vessels were found at Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig.81 :6) has a different type of rim. 5. 5. 212).78:9. Anderson 1988:type L-9). but has horizontal handles. 33:4). 5 For further references from Syria and Lebanon see Lehmann 1996:447. Fort Shalmaneser Room T20 (Curtis et at.80:3-4) are discussed below.81:5 is similar.82:3) (cf. 5. Some 7th century BCE examples come from Achziv Tomb 3 (Culican 1975-76:Fig. A holemouth krater with round shoulders and a wide curved profile (Fig. 880. :Pl. Assyrian-style kraters (Figs. Such lamps appear at Tyre only after Stratum III (Bikai 1978a:Pl.80:8. 5. Often the handle starts immediately at the rim.82:6) with a fire-arm is discussed below. 5. 1980:Pl. the rim is not preserved. 28:9). Sarepta B-C1. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS The tall storage vessel (Fig. The fabric and the streak burnish are identical with fabric and surface finishing of decanter Fig. 1980:Pl. sometimes also extending over the inner parts of the vessel. 44:5-8).81 :4) has a flat oval-shaped rim.9) are discussed below. At Sarepta they occur in Strata B-C1 (Anderson 1988:505). Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl.11) with their maximum width in the lower part of the vessel have no parallels.82:2) (cf. 91 :301). 287) and Tyre Stratum 3 (Bikai 1978a:P1s. 1980:Pl. 1980:Pl. Unfortunately. Jars with a stepped shoulder and vertical body walls (Fig. 3) Brown fabric (Fig.80:7) are more typical of inland assemblages and occur at Kabri only in very limited numbers. 5. Type L-9). Tell Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et al. 49:8).80:9) has a cylindrical body and a round base.81: 1. Briend et al. 2) often have wide rectangular horizontal rims. 6:10).

Fig. The fabric is of fine to medium mineral temper. a small and a large subtype. 5.74. 1:14). light reddish to pink. 4. The vessel is pink with a grey core.24 examples (Fig.84:2). light orange or reddish fabric has a fine mineral temper.82:15). The outside is red sometimes with a white self-slip.8-9). There is a regular.86:1). 5.82:8-10). 5. Salamis (Karageorghis 1967:97. On two jars of this type a Phoenician aleph was incised on the shoulder when the clay was still soft (Figs. 1. All in all 160 handles were counted which would point to at least 80 baskethandle amphoras in the limited excavation of Area E. 5. Humbert (1991) dates the first appearance of this type to ca.6 examples (Fig. These dimensions occur on both fabric groups 1 and 2.1:3) came to the same conclusion that this type of vessel was produced in II~_-• 198 . 5. The fabric is orange pink. 5. 'from the sea' (Zemer 1977:No. Some of Humbert's types (1991) as defined at Tell Keisan were also found at Kabri: Type B-1 example. 27:9) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:Pl. The fabric is fine to medium with mineral temper and falls into four distinct colour groups: light grey or greenish with black arid brown grits. 26:2-7. This is probably the most typical Phoenician transport jar of the late 7th century BCE. 5. vertical body walls below a shoulder carination and a pointed base (Fig. 21 types were recorded in Stratum E2. It has parallels at Achziv Stratum IV (Zemer 1977:18. The fabric is medium to coarse with mineral temper. light reddish. 33).88a) the majority were confined to 5 main types. A significant number of handles of fabric groups 1 and 2 have the same dimensions. These jars from Stratum E2 represent the earliest type which is confined to the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:443-445 type 421). 700 BCE but Salles (1985b) claims that this early type of basket-handle amphora reached the Akko plain only ca. 26:1.84:1-2). This type occurs from Carthage to Nimrud (Lehmann 1996:434 type 384). Kamiros (Jacopi 1931:Tav. The general shape resembles a bullet.74: Phoenician aleph incised on jar shoulder. Both Neutron Activation Analysis by Gunneweg and Perlman (1991) as well as petrographic analyses by Yuval Goren (Chapter 15:Table 15. Salamis (Karageorghis 1974:Pl. Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. 11). 53) and Ras Shamra-Ugarit (Stucky 1983:Keramik Nr. 3.While there were only some 10 types of transport jars found in Stratum E3. 23-24). 9). The yellowish. Dafanna(Petrie 1888:PI. 2. 300). the matrix being fine with a fine to medium mineral temper. 12-14). 8:131). 5. Similar vessels were found at Ashdod-Yam (Raban 1980:Fig.82:11. 101). 225:593. 1980:Pls. greenish grey. 1:16).84:1). 5. Sharply carinated shoulders and an S-shaped profile (Fig. in the storage rooms (Fig. No. many of them completely restorable. Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. Type C . 1980:PI. 27:6. 33:6). 5. Shiqmona Stratum 8 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. However. 25:2-3. 47:1-2). Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. Less sharply carinated shoulders than Group 2 (Fig. The handle joints on the shoulder are 21 em apart from each other. Cyprus (Gjerstad 1948:Fig. 1980:PI. 806-807) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Similar to group 1 but with much thicker walls (up to 2cm) (Fig. 5. the handle is 17 ern high and its diameter is 5 ern. At Kabri they constitute 40% of all transport jars in Stratum E2. Basket-handle amphoras (Fig. 12).82:13-14). Fifty seven vessels. 1980:Pls. 5. Type D . were recorded from Stratum E2. Similar jars have been reported from Arqa Stratum 9 D (Thalmann 1990:54 n. Slightly sloping shoulders. 650 BCE. pink with black and white grits. 57:23 [Plain White V]).

84:8-9). marked exchange BCE assemblage like that of Stratum wide trade contacts of the so-called and Tyre. (Anderson 4 (Briend et at.84:7).75: Basket handle with incised Cypriote signs. jars in a late 7th century BCE.84:7-9. 5. and Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 1988:Type 6. Comparable vessels.75. 3 in E3a. 5. Thus. There are several variations One example 2000:Fig.84:2). In addition. under the lip (Fig. 28 :6). The chert composition suggests that Cyprus should be favoured as a place of origin and this is confirmed by the signs either incised on them after firing or in red paint (Figs. 5. in E2 and 2 were unstratified. lIIIIIIII111111fM1*H1111IlmlfM1*H111.e. 199 Stratum CI-Dl (Anderson and Tyre Stratum 9-13 (Bikai 1978a: cooking-pot . and illustrates COOKING-POTS The majority 1.70:20).88b). At least some of these signs are in Cypriote Iron Age writing. 5. by the appearance between the periphery (35%) of cooking-pots in Stratum E2 (Figs. in the Mediterranean Crisp. 5. 2 in E2b and 24 in E2a.Cyprus or the north Syrian coast. A few contemporary E2a is types came from the southern The diversity remarkable. the type dates to Strata E3 and E2. Sarepta CI-Dl 2. With a flat rim and an edge slightly below the lip (Fig. of transport This variety part of the country (e. and sub-types: has been was found in Stratum E4.85:1). all with a rough and uneven bas. 5.83:9). 220:3) and Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et at. of this sub-type Stratum at Tell Keisan under Stratum E4 (Fig. 31 examples were found out of their original context in Stratum E 1. There was 1 example in Stratum E3b.85:1) belong to a Phoenician One example type which already appears With a small discussed in Stratum E4. 1980 :PI. Another 25 examples were found out of their original context in Stratum El. Thus. 1980:PI. one edge on the rim immediately It has parallels CP-IA).l\11\\I~l\Il\lll\fM1*H1I\\I\\\\\f 9 10 14 15 16 17 1~ Fig. 3. 5. 2 in E3a. 2 in E2b and 12 in E2a. were found at Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:Fig. Several apparently examples in secondary of other types use as storage which vessels may have come as imports were also retrieved to the Kabri area and were (Fig. I 2:5 [early 9th century BCE to 732 BCE]) With a flat round rim without an edge (Fig.g. the type dates to Strata E3 and E2 which 1988:Type CP-IA) is comparable to Sarepta type 4). 46:4). 5.5. There were 3 examples in Stratum E3b. 5. 5.Ware found in seems to be due to the increasingly economic after the end of the 9th century Stratum E3. Fig.

5. Weippert 1988:647-648. 5. 5. Hausleiter and Reiche 1999).81:9 4 2 Lamp 5. Mattingly 1980. 5.82:6 Total 24 30 *For bottles of this type see cf. deep bowls (Fig. 5. but also on juglets.81 :7-9) and lamps (Fig. 58:351/1. The fabric of this class of pottery is almost uniform being mainly reddish yellow (5YR7/6) with some cases of pink (5YR7/4 and 5YR8/3). 5. 8). However. Pakman 1992. Thus this decoration is some kind of 'Late Bichrome' style. This slip was used most frequently on bowls. often wash-like slip (usually red 10 R5/6).84:8.76:15. Lehmann 1996:Tf. Chambon 1980:165-166.78:8 3 Bottle* Jug 5. juglets (Fig. Gilboa 1996. 5. The forms would seem to be mainly vessels for the consumption of liquids. 5. Cooking-pot lids (Fig.81:7-8 3 3 Krater 5.77:7 5 14 Bowl 5. jugs and kraters. they replaced the triangular-rimmed cooking-pot almost everywhere except on the Akko plain. whereas on the Akko plain it continues into the 7th century BCE.85:5).Types with a triangular rim (Fig. 1980).80:3.76.89). despite their apparent absence at Tell Keisan (Briend et at.79:3 Krater 5. 5. Assyrianizing pottery occurs only in small amounts. The core is usually greyish but sometimes reddish yellow (5YR7/6) or pink (5YR7/4).77). Sometimes there is a black band on the rim of the bowls. Although the wash-like appearance of the 7th century BCE red slip is clearly distinguishable from the heavy and thick earlier red slip techniques. Beginning at the end of the 9th century BCE. this form of decoration is a continuation of the Iron Age traditions in the preceding centuries. It is usually a reserved slip decoration with a thin. A few examples each of a variety of cooking-pot types together make up 13. 5.84:5-6) are the commonest type throughout Israel during the Iron Age IIC (Fig. At other sites in Israel this type is confined to Iron Age I and IIA-B. Type See Fig. TABLE 5. 200 . jugs (Figs.78:8).77:7. There are no cooking-pots or transport jars in the Assyrianizing style at Kabri.5% of the kitchen assemblage of Stratum E2. Stratum E2a-E2b UnderE2b Bowl 5. kraters (Fig. The repertoire consists of bowls (Figs.76:15 Bowl 5.79:12-13[?]. 4). 5.80:3 5 7 Juglet 5. 5. This type does not occur at all at Tyre or Sarepta. cooking-pots with a ridged or modelled rim were found at many sites during the survey of the Akko hinterland (Lehmann 2001) and here at Kabri they constitute 11% of the kitchen vessels.84:3-4) make up 9% of the cooking-pots. 5.7% of the total. Among the cooking-pots found in this stratum were some Greek imports (Chapter 5. Hunt 1987:203. 5.1: ASSYRIANIZING TYPES AND THEIR STRATIGRAPHIC CONNECTIONS. bottles of type Lehmann 1996:Tf. 6 For a discussion of cooking-pots with triangular rims see the section on cooking-pots in Stratum E4. 58:351/1. DECORATION Red slip decoration was still popular at the end of the 7th century BCE (Figs.6 Cooking-pots with a ridged or 'modelled' rim (Fig. 5. ASSYRIANIZING POTTERY An interesting feature of the 7th century BCE assemblage of Tel Kabri is the presence of Assyrianizing pottery and imitations of Mesopotamian vessel shapes (Amiran 1969:291. 5. Jugs and juglets are often decorated with wide horizontal bands of red wash-like paint with black lines added parallel to the red bands. Another feature typical of Kabri cooking-pots is a rough surface on the lower part of the body (Figs. probably wine (Stronach 1996).85:13-15) make up 6.79:3).82:6).VI).77:8 1 2 Deep bowl 5.

FIGURE 5. Exterior 2. Gjerstad 1948:Fig. interior and core 5YR7/6. red slip lOR516. 3447/3 3367/1 3434/100 195515 Locus Description 1315 0892 0890 1955 1970 l321 1927 0890 1970 0801 0802 1941 1984 1941 1971 0890 0892 0889 0889 0864 l308 0869 0849 0890 l334 Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. From a macroscopic point of view. 26:16-17. 'Assyrian bowl'. temper: m M. 5. temper: mg M. the architectural 201 . Exterior 5YR7/6. core 7. interior 5YR6/4.7 No Assyrian-style pottery was found in Stratum E3. temper: fM.5YR5/4. copying the life-style of the centre in Assyria. SeE 4. cf. comes from Tell Abu Danna Stratum A4 in northern Syria (Tefnin 1980:15:3). Analysis of Syrian and Lebanese pottery shows that Mesopotamian shapes went out of use immediately after the destruction of the Assyrian empire (Lehmann 1996:93-94). but here on its periphery they are apparently objects of prestige. Egg-shell thin vessels like those from Tell Jemmeh are missing from the Kabri material which very closely resembles the finds from Tell Keisan and Dor (Briend et al. Exterior 5YR7/6. Exterior 7. red slip 2. Exterior 5YR6/4. core 5YR7/3.76: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No.5YR7/6. 1980. interior 5YR8/3. Black-on-Red I(III) bowl. interior 5YR7/6. Gilboa 1995). temper: fm M. These vessels are dated according to stratified comparisons from other sites.5YR7/6. white self slip. core 10YR7/4. Most was found either in Stratum E2b or under the floors of that stratum. Exterior. interior 5YR7/6. core 5YR7/6.5YR5/4. cf. temper: m M. interior and core 5YR7/6. An almost identical example. mainly in the Ottoman level (Stratum E 1) whose foundations were dug into the remains of Stratum E2. core 5YR6/6. 539114 3590/3 5149/4 Exterior lOYR8/2 white. interior and core 5YR7/4. Exterior.5YR5/4. No. 3350/100 3224/2 3502/3 326011 3175/2 3358/102 3616/2+ 12 7 Since this operation was a probe and excavation was halted after reaching the foundations ofWl389. red slip 10R516.\lI Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Reg. red slip lOR5/6. black & white grits. Exterior 10YR7/4. and stratigraphic context of the finds under floor E2b is unclear. core 5YR6/4: temper: mg M. temper: fM. 11A:2).1V). temper: fm M. Chemical and petrographic analyses of Assyrianizing pottery from Tell Jemmeh have shown that this pottery was produced from local clay (Melson and van Beek 1992). The pottery figures for this stratum include some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context. temper: fM.5YR5/6. interior 7. whose fire-arm was also broken off. core grey. core 2. Exterior. interior 10YR7/4.2. black & red paint lOR5/6. red slip 10R5/6. interior 5YR7/6. Assyrian-style pottery was found in significant quantities in a sounding in Square OP7 (Chapter 4. interior 5YR7/6. red slip. interior 2. core grey. Thus it can be attributed to the first half of the 7th century BCE. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 l3 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Type Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl BO'.82:6) are unusual in Israel (Lehmann 1996:T£ 82:430/2 with references to finds in Syria and Lebanon). temper: fM.Lamps with a 'fire-arm' (Fig.5YR7/6. Exterior 10YR7/4. Tyre Stratum II-III (Bikai 1978:PI. temper: fm M. core 5YR7/6. 3375/7 5324/100 3020/1 3024/3 5426/100 548515 19411190 542511 3386/100 3376/5 3347/1 Exterior. interior and core 7. red paint lOR5/6 Exterior 5YR7/6. They are contemporary with Stratum E2 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence in Tel Kabri. temper: fM.5YR8/4. temper fM. this may also be the case for the coarser Assyrianizing vessels in Kabri. temper: mg M.

5. "~ /' ~ 21 22 23 :7 10cm.76: Pottery of Stratum E2.:I 7 ~ 6 4 ~7 C . 202 .) ~ '7 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 16 ~ r7 19 ) 15 ( 17 .d 2• 2 CC_ ~ 5 .s. • Fig..

/

"\ ,

-

_J
3

\

"\ ,

;

2

~
4

I
C,

7
1

(

C

l---/
6

5

7

8

~

,

I

7

9

\,

-'

,

c:
10 11 12

13

14

(
15

\
<,

~
16

1/
10cm.

Fig. 5.77: Pottery of Stratum E2.

203

FIGURE 5.77: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2
No. Type
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS 16 Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl

Reg_.No.
S49113 S012/3 S413/2 3374/1 S28616 327712 S3S9/4 S3911S S419/2 3S33/4 3602/1 3629/1 33S7/1 S472/100 S442/1 3219/S

Locus
1984 1911 1972 1300 1965 0872 1970 1970 1968 1321 1336 1338 0889 1976 1963 0864

Description
Exterior, interior and core SYR7/6, temper: fm M, decoration: black & red paint. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip 2.5YR6/8. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip lORS/6. Exterior and interior SYR7/4, core lORS/6, temper: m M. Hole drilled in the base. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip 10RS/6. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: m M. Exterior SYR7/4, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: m M.

Exterior SYR616, interior SYR616, core SYR616, temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: mg M, red slip 10RS/6. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, burnished. Exterior SYR7/8, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fin M, smoothed outside. Exterior SYR713, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: mg M.

FIGURE 5.78: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2
No. Type
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Mortarium Mortarium Mortarium Mortarium

Reg. No.
S112/100 3SS9/S 3S80/1 3646/101 S188/1 196616 S21111 3446/3 S012/1 19411104 3S7S/I 3S92/3 3S1113 S216/100

Locus Description
1913 1326 1326 0890 1938 1966 1948 131S 1911 1941 1333 133S 1321 1947 Exterior 2.SYRS/6, interior 2.5YRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: mg M white grits. Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior lOYR7/3, interior 2.SYRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: fin M, red slip 10RS/6. SYR7/4, interior SYR7/4, core grey, temper: fm M black grits. SYR6/4, interior SYR6/4, core grey black, temper: fm M. 2.SYRS/6, interior 2.SYRS/6, core grey; temper: m M black & white grits.

Exterior SYR7/4, interior SYR7/4, core SYR7/4, temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/4, interior lOYRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: m M.

Typical Cypriote fabric.

204

2

3

4

J
5 7

/1
6

»:
\
\
'

8

9

I

\

,

10

~l
11 13

12

~_1_7

1Oem,

Fig. 5.78: Pottery of Stratum E2

205

.-. . 11 9 10 12 8 13 10cm..-_. / I~. <: i: ... 206 .... '\ I r...2 ..rr@ ./ " ~. 5. 14 Fig...W 5 " 7 . ' ... .. \ 3 4 1IfJ' . I I I I I " .79: Pottery of Stratum E2..

black bands. temper: m M. core grey.5YR6/6. core grey. mg M. interior 10R6/6. interior and core 1OYR8/3 white. cf. core 7.5YR8/4. temper: m M.5YR7/6. interior and core 10YR812 (white).5YR7/6. temper: fig M. core grey. 'Assyrian bottle'. core grey. and interior 5YR7/6. Type Juglet 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Reg. Exterior 5YR7/6 -7. temper: fm M. temper: m M black & white grits. TyPe 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Pot-stand Krater? Deep bowl Reg. Exterior 10R6/6. core 5YR7/6. 207 . interior 10YR8/3. black & white grits. Exterior 5YR7/6.5YR6/6. 5013/200 5073/200 53201100 3119/5 3573/1 5209/1 5286/10 3142/4 5416/5 5235/1 Locus 1912 1912 1941 0825 1321 1941 1965 0835 1941 1955 Descrip_tion Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. FIGURE 5. 3353/7 3353/100 5306/1 3297/1 5413/3 5037/100 3293/1 5362/2 5073/100 5287/1 34651100 Locus 0892 0892 1965 0874 1972 1912 0874 1967 1912 1941 0890 Description Exterior 5YR7/4. red paint 10R5/6. core dark. red slip IOR5/8. temper: f M. Exterior. Only 1 handle. temper: fm M.7. burnished. 3618/100 349113 53911100 5238/1 5324/9 536711 5477/5 3279/16 3356/9 526117 3275/6 357211 3269/9 5324/1 5500/200 5330/2 Locus 1338 1308 1970 1956 1970 1967 1976 0872 0888 1956 0872 1326 0869 1970 1984 1967 1941 Descrip_tion Exterior. inside mg M. temper: fM. Exterior. interior 2.5YR7/6. Karageorghis 1970: PI. core grey. red slip 10R5/8 with black line on mushroom lip. temper: fM. temper: fm M. Exterior 2. Exterior 2.5YR6/6. core 2. interior 5YR7/4. Exterior. burnished with black brown bands painted outside. Exterior 5YR7/6. mg M. interior 7. and interior 2.5YR6/6.5YR6/6. black & red paint IOR5/6. interior and core 7.79: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. temper: grey to 5YR7/6.5YR8/4. interior 5YR7/6 .5YR6/6. burnished. temper: m M.5YR6/6. Exterior.5YR7/6.outside wheel burnished. temper: fM. Exterior and interior 2. temper: fM. grey to 5YR7/6. temper: fmM. temper: fM. temper: grey. black lines. red paint. Exterior 10YR8/3. red slip 10R5/8 with black lines. wheel burnished. Exterior 5YR7/6. temper: fM. 212: 10 (Tomb 14).81: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. temper: grey to 5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/6. black paint. core 10R6/6. interior 5YR7/4. interior 5YR7/6. temper: mg M. No. Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. interior 2. interior 5YR7/6. Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Jug Jug Jug Decanter 12 13 14 529511+2 FIGURE 5. core 5YR7/6. temper: fm M. interior and core 7. core 1OYR8/3. red slip 10R5/6.5YR6/6. Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Reg No. Exterior 7. Exterior IOYR7/3. temper: fm M. temper:wg Brown painted band IOR5/4 weak red. core yellow greenish. No.5YR6/6. Exterior 5YR7/6. and interior 5YR7/6. interior IOYR7/3. core core core core core grey.FIGURE 5. core 5YR7/4. temper: g M large white grits.80: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. M. and interior 5YR7/6.5YR7/6. interior and core 2. interior 2. temper: m M. "':!. Exterior 7. core 5YR7/6.5YR8/4.

_.. Fig...80: Pottery of Stratum E2 208 .-.-.. • 7 I 9 10 11 o 10cm .. .\ 3 \ r I 2 I . 5. \ 5 6 r L III '\. 8 10cm.. ..

---- I \ \ \ I \ \ \ \ '' I • / I\ \ . 209 . I I . T 8 9 -~10 10cm.81: Pottery of Stratum E2. I I " . Fig.. 5. 2 • 4 3 5 s 7 ) : =I.. .

interior and core 7.5YR5/4 black. Exterior.5YR8/2 white. Cooking-pot fabric. core 2.5YR6/6 .2.5YR6/6 . interior and core 5YR7/6. 210 .10YR7/3.2. Exterior. 3498/2 349811 527913 5258/3 3554/1 5302/100 35201100 549112 5245/4 548114 5287/2 3640/100 5437/1 524112 5180/2 5297/2 Locus 0890 0890 1963 1959 1321 1941 1941 1984 1941 1980 1941 0890 1968 1941 1914 1941 Description Exterior. Cypriote import.FIGURE 5.2. interior and core 7. core grey black.5YR5/4 black.5YR6/6 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TJ:'J!. interior and core 5YR7/8 grey.83: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. temper: fM. FIGURE 5. temper: fm M black & white grits. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 TJ:'J!. interior 10YR6/2. Red lamp type with rough surface. 194117 550011 5447/2 5061/2 5309/200 52991100 53321100 36431100 5192/2 Locus 1941 1984 1963 1913 1941 1941 1941 0890 1941 Description Exterior 10YR6/2 . No. Exterior. Exterior 2. temper: fm M white grits.5YR7/6. red & black paint. temper: mg M black & white grits.82: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. temper: fM. temper: mg M.e Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport jar jar jar jar jar jar jar jar jar Reg.5YR5/4 grey. interior 2.e Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Table amphora Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport jar j ar j ar j ar j ar jar jar jar Reg No. Pink lamp type with smooth surface.

. .I '\V/ / " 8 9 10 11 ~ 13 '1 I ~. I / '. '/ -.. \I ' I 4 5 . \ \ I I I .. I I . ffi -. 15 Fig. ._____._---'- ----- --- ----' 6 -=~~~~_'~Ocm.---'. I I .82: Pottery of Stratum E2... . \ \ .. 14 12 a 10cm ..~ . I I / " I -. 7 • • I I I I \ \ \ \ \ I \ \ \ .'" 2 3 e.. 211 . 5.

2 • 3 • I I \ I I I \ \ \ \ \ 5 6 • I I I I .83: Pottery of Stratum E2. Fig. \ \ \ ( t I I \ \ \ \ ) 7 6 9 o ------ 1Ocm. 5.. 212 .

---- 10cm. 5.n ! \ 0 -..84: Pottery of Stratum E2. 2 3 ~ ) 4 7 l \ ~ 5 6 7 " I I . / / _- I ' 8 9 Fig. 213 .

core black.5YR7/6. interior 2. Locus 1941 1941 1941 1321 0855 0855 1941 1913 0890 Description Handle h: 17. temper: m M white grits.5YR5/4. Remarks: cf. w: 21. 1980: PI. core grey.5YR5/4.5YR5/2.5YR6/4.5YR5/6. Exterior 7. temper: mg M black & white grits. 10R5/4. interior and core 5YR6/6. core 5YR7/3. temper: mg M. writing with red paint. temper: mg M black & white grits.5YR5/6. interior and core 2. temper: mg M black & white grits. interior and core 2. temper: g M black & white grits. w: 21. temper: mg M black and white grits. interior 2. interior 10R5/4. 55 (Str. interior and core 2. Sarepta type CP-IA (Anderson 1988).FIGURE 5. Exterior IOR6/6.5YR5/6. temper: fm M. This type of cooking-pot is characterized by a rough lower part. No. Exterior. interior 7. incisions on handle. Exterior 2. 8). Exterior. TJl. temper: mg M. temper: mg M black & white grits.pe Cooking-pot 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. interior and core 2. temper: mg M black grits. interior lOR5/4. Exterior 10R4/3. core 2. Handle h: 16. Exterior. Briend et al. interior 7.5YR5/4. core grey brown. Basket-handle amphora 53701100 Basket-handle amphora 522011 00 Cooking-pot 19411172 Cooking-pot 3526/4 Cooking-pot 3203/2 Cooking-pot 3203/1 Cooking-pot 5318/4 Cooking-pot 5115/100 Cooking-pot 344511 5 6 7 8 9 FIGURE 5. No. 3602/2 5426/6 3270/1 362114 521112 5360/100 3367/2 5188/2 5499/3 545711 307511 5283/5 5422/1 1970/48 532311 Locus 1336 1941 0869 1338 1948 1967 0892 1938 1980 19B 0819 1941 1963 1970 1956 Description Exterior.5YR7/6.5YR6/4. interior and core 2. core black. temper: mg M white & black grits.5YR7/6. Exterior. 5YR7/6.5YR5/6. temper: mg M white grits.5YR5/6.5YR512. Exterior. lid lid lid lid lid lid lid lid 214 . 1 2 3 4 Type Reg. Exterior 2. core grey black. core 7. interior 5YR7/4. Exterior. Exterior Exterior interiorand core 2. Exterior 2.84: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. interior 2.5YR7/6.5YR5/6. temper: mg M black &white grits.85: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. temper: mg M white grits. This type of cooking-pot is characterised by a rough base.

5. 4 / 3 < t: ( " • 5 6 7 err . 215 . Fig.~.85: Pottery of Stratum E2. 9 10 / .) ( ~\ f22 2 \. I '~ 11 ~I 12 / ~==~--~-----~ 14 1Ocm.

Fig. 3365/101 5402/100 3443/103 STATISTICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE POTTERY FROM STRATUM E2 Approximately 340 m.2: NUMBER OF VESSELS RECORDED BY TYPE AND STRATUM FORM CLASS £2 174 29 52 24 9 98 6 £3 34 2 7 1 8 £4 19 1 2 2 1 7 Debris under Stratum £4 2 Total 229 30 56 33 11 113 6 2 530 27 204 13 24 27 23 57 1385 Bowls Deep bowls Bowls with incurved rim Kraters Juglets Jugs Jars Pithoi Amphoras Lamps Cooking-pots Special forms Mortaria Greek imports Cypriote fine ware imports Cypriote basket-handle amphoras Total 2 511 26 157 12 24 25 13 57 1219 13 34 1 2 9 111 49 6 4 1 11 2 2 216 . E2b Description Transport jar type with an engraved sign "aleph".. Locus 890 1968 1309 Stratum Str. Cypriote Basket-Handle with an engraved sign.~I 'I 10cm. It was impractical to analyze the pottery types in Strata E4. E2a Str. TABLE 5. yielded a significant sample. Body sherd with an engraved picture of a jar. No. 2 3 10cm. Not all of these finds could be assigned to a particular pottery type. All diagnostic pottery fragments were recorded and 2625 vessels and fragments catalogued. E3 and E2a statistically due to the fact that the fortresses under Stratum E2a were cleared and rebuilt. 1 ~. where much of the pottery was found in situ.of Area E were excavated. E2a Str. ' . 5.86: Pottery with ins cis ions and inscriptions.86: IRON AGE POTTERY WITH INCISIONS AND INSCRIPTIONS No. 1 2 3 Type Transport jar Basket-handle amphora Reg. FIGURE 5. Only Stratum E2a.

transport jars (amphoras). At Kabri.103-104).83:8 Others 8% 6% 40% Basket-Handle amphoras 20% Fig.88b: Other types of transport jars in Stratum E2. Greek imports to Mezad Hashavyahu are much more numerous (46%) than at Tel Kabri (Fantalkin 2001 :103-104). These numbers should be compared with the finds from Mezad Hashavyahu.88) reveals an extraordinarily high percentage of .Others 1% 4% Cooking-pots 13% Jugs 8% Mortaria 2% Transportjars 48% Fig.rare with a share of only 1.1% and Greek imports make up 2. 5. Among the imported wares. 5. while Egyptian imports account for 1% of the finds there (Fantalkin 2001:97-98. This may be partly due to the fact that the area excavated coincided with the storerooms of the fortress.87.2. There were no Cypriote imports found at that site. lamps 4%) (Fantalkin 2001:103-104). 5.83:7 3% 10% 3% 9% Fig. the only other 7th century BCE fortress in Israel where statistics have been provided (Fantalkin 2001). 5. Figs. Fig.88a: Main types of transport jars in Stratum E2. Cypriote basket-handle amphoras are the major group. Cypriote fine war~s are. kraters constitute 2% of all vessels. 5. constituting 9. The pottery count (Table 5. 5.4%. 217 . 5.1% of the total pottery in Stratum E2. 5. The numbers at Mezad Hashavyahu are not very different (kraters 2. Fig. Jugs are notably more numerous at Mezad Hashavyahu (19%) than at Kabri (8%). No Egyptian imports were found in Tel Kabri.87: Pottery Repertoire of Stratum E2.1%.83 :2-3 13% Others 35% 6% Fig.

Gal 1992. Fig 5. 5. 5. Herrera Gonzalez 1990). probably destroyed at the same time as the storerooms of the Tel Kabri fortress. until recently the 7th century BCE was a more obscure phase in the archaeological research of the northern Levant. This leaves only 25% for storage vessels (Fantalkin 2001:103-104). Sarepta and Tell Abu Hawam did not expose substantial levels of this date. 5. The 7th century BCE pottery from Tell Keisan has been published by the French Expedition but till now this was the only major site to provide such information.85:11 11% Fig.8th centuries BCE has been studied in detail (Bikai 1978a. survey~ in the Akko plain have yielded new data about the coastal settlement system of the 7th century BCE in southern Phoenicia (Frankel 1986.85:10 17% Fig. 5.2001. 5. 1997. while the other 47. 5. Achziv Tomb 3 has a number of good parallels to Stratum E2 (Culican 1975-76). Some 52. Lehmann 1995. 1990.84: 3-4 9% Fig. 5.7% of the pottery assemblage from Kabri was used for the preparation (cooking) and consumption of food to serve the needs of the garrison.84: 7-9 35% Others 27% 6% Fig. 5. 1987.84: 5~ 11% With rough base (Fig. Another recent contribution to the study of 7th century BCE coastal pottery is Fantalkin's comprehensive publication of the excavations at Mezad Hashavyahu (2001). The numerous complete vessels from Tel Kabri's destruction level (Stratum 2a) enable us to study the typology of the 7th century BCE in detail.85:8 Fig.Fig. 5. include the same transport jar types as those found in situ at the latter site (Zemer 1977:18).89b: Other types of cooking-pots from Stratum E2. 1978b. The closest parallels to the pottery of Stratum E2a come from sites in the vicinity of Tel Kabri.3% were vessels for storage of agricultural products collected in the nearby area. 21% of all pottery types have exact parallels at either Tyre Strata 1-2 (Bikai 1978a) or Sarepta Stratum Cl (Anderson 218 . 5. 5. Frankel et al.85:12 6% Fig. In addition to excavations. 5.85:6 11% Lids Fig. In Achziv Stratum IV the still unpublished fmds from a warehouse. At Mezad Hashavyahu vessels for the consumption of food make up 60% of the repertoire and cooking-pots for its preparation 11%. 1994. The excavations at Tel Kabri significantly complement these finds. CONCLUSIONS While Iron Age coastal (Phoenician) pottery of the 12th .85: 13- Fig. a fortress stood at the extreme southern edge of the Phoenician homeland. Wolff 1994:515-516). 1980). Anderson 1988. From the end of the 8th through the 7th century BCE. While most types found in Stratum E2 also occur at nearby Tell Keisan Strata 4-5 (Briend et al.85:7 6% 5. The excavations at Tyre.84:8) 10% Fig. near Achziv.89a: Main types of cooking-pots from Stratum 2a.

The destruction of Mezad Hashavyahu (Fantalkin 2001. Blackon-Red and White-Painted pottery. A total of 14 vessels of Cypriote fine wares accounts for 22. may be as early as 604 BCE or only later in 585 BCE (Katzenstein 1997: 328). which yielded a very similar pottery assemblage including Greek cooking-pots. 650-575 BCE. Thus. has many types in common with the destruction layer at Kabri. dated to ca. The pottery is identical to that in Stratum E2a and it is impossible to distinguish any type development between the two phases. Storage jars are completely missing. Furthermore. AREAD The evidence that occupation continued. although on a smaller scale.1988). 1987 [710-650 BCE]).V). Reich 1989). Pottery LB IA I IA II Krater Jugs/Juglets Cooking-pots Lamps Bowls Cypriote Imports TOTAL 4 1 3 3 2 2 29 4 14 51 4 10 219 . 50. was dated recently to the years around 600 BCE (Wenning 1989). 53 [8th-7th century BCE]). on the basis of pottery comparisons Stratum E2 at Tel Kabri can confidently be dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE. Dor Area A Phase 9 (Gilboa 1995 [720-650/630 BCE]) and Shiqmona Stratum 8-9 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. there are several examples of'Wild-Goat'-Style II (Chapter 5. 650 and 600 BCE and might be connected with the campaign of Ashurbanipal in the year 644/43 BCE (Katzenstein 1997:293). Cooking-pots form the largest functional group retrieved from the Iron Age II remains in this area. Lehmann 1994a). Dan Stratum I. 604 BCE (Biran 1994:270-271).6% of the all post-MB vessels recorded in Area D. Naveh 1962. There is a surprisingly high percentage of Cypriote fine wares. Courbin 1993). in Area D after the Middle Bronze Age. dated to the end of the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996). the earlier destruction must have taken place between ca. 600 BCE come from Tell <Arqa Stratum 9D (Thalmann 1990) and Ras al-Bassit Phase 7 and Tomb 4 (Braemer 1986. Additional parallels which date Stratum E2a to ca.however did not destroy the fortress completely. dated to 604 BCE (Stager 1996) and from Stratum 5 at al-Mina in northern Syria. Comparisons for many vessels in the Stratum E2a assemblage at Kabri can be found in the destruction levels at other sites in the Levant. There is evidence for an earlier destruction phase (Stratum E2b) which . Based on the above-mentioned comparisons. This points to very close contacts and exchange with Phoenicia and illustrates that the pottery repertoire of these two sites on the Akko plain is typical oflate Iron Age Phoenician pottery (cf. destroyed in ca. Similarities are seen at Tel Qiri Stratum VI (Ben-Tor et at. demonstrates that Late Bronze and Iron Age settlement was not confined to Area E. A number of the same pottery types came from the destruction level of Ashkelon. The later fortress of Stratum E2a may have been destroyed during one of the campaigns of Nebuchadnezzar against Syria and Palestine. chronologically anchored on the campaigns of Nebuchadnezzar.

3 6 ~. F 13 II II 15 16 17 19 18 lOcm. 4 5 7 9 10 11 f 12 14 ~'. . Fig ...5 90· Iron Age II pottery from Area D. 220 .

cf. FIGURE 5.:57:15). 1980:49:2) and Keisan Stratum 7 (ibid. 80:225). cf. Abu Hawam Stratum IV (Balensi 1980: PI. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl. Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. 1980:56:6). cf. Kabri Area E. 1961:209:11). 11:238]) and the Iron Age. 27:6] and XI [Bikai 1978: PI. Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. 39:9]). 14:10).:41:6). Red-slipped burnished bowl.90: IRON AGE II POTTERY FROM AREA D No. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl. Such pans were in use during the Late Bronze Age (Tell Abu Hawam Stratum V [Balensi 1980:PI. cf. cf. cf. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl. Jezreel "Early Iron" (Zimhoni 1997: Fig. 1980:56:8). Pan type with vertical handle. 1960:57:4). Artzy 1980) and several mortaria with a high ring base (Fig.91 :3-4). cf. 1960:51:12). 'Samaria' Ware. There was one twisted handle of a Persian period transport jar (not illustrated. 38:9. Type A. Hazor IX (Yadin et al.:53:9-10). Tyre Stratum X-2 [Bikai 1978:PI. 1960:57:13). cf. 80:221. 19 Cooking-pot PERSIAN AND HELLENISTIC PERIODS A small amount of late Persian period and Hellenistic pottery. Such mortaria were first in use during the Persian period and continued into the early Hellenistic period (Salles 1985a.224).joins with 154119121/1. Stratum E3 (a similar cooking-pot rim appears also during the Iron Age II A-B. 2. Against such a rural background the relatively large amount of Cypriote fine wares is difficult to explain. Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et al. Type Bowl 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Bowl Bowl Juglet Juglet Juglet/Jug Juglet Bowl Bowl Bowl Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. 14:10). Type E. cf. 1998) 221 . Stern 1978:53.9). 2525-1 2676/1 2630 2509 2669 2617 2542 2518/3 2525/2 2625 2534/3 2504/2 2518/2 9187 2636 2555/1 9256 9110/12 268111 Locus 715 750 745 703 744 713 721 715 715 715 721 715 715 1570 745 721 1554 1541 751 Description cf. 1960:61:12). However. Hazor X (Yadin et al. Kabri Stratum E3. Stern 1978:53. 1960:51:12) and VIII (ibid. No. Abu Hawam Stratum IV (Balensi 1980: PI. Hazor X (Yadin et al. Cypriote Black-on-Red juglet or jug (very fine pink fabric with black lustrous bands on the rim inside). the peculiar combination of cooking-pots and Cypriote fine wares may perhaps be explained if this area was associated wth the fortress complex in Area E for processing agricultural products. apparently dumped at the site. Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. was retrieved from Area E. cf. Stern 1978:54/55. Abu Hawam Stratum III (Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI.2. cf. 25:10. Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. Abu Hawam Stratum III (Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. cf. Kabri Stratum E3. Type A. Keisan Stratum 5 (ibid.The scant Iron Age II architectural remains in Area D are interpreted as a farmstead or some kind of rural settlement (Chapter 4. Type 1). 5.III). 1960:57:13). Hazor X (Yadin et al. cf. Cypriote Black-on-Red juglet (Gjerstad 1948: Fig. Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. 1961:209:1). Stem 1978:55/56. Hazor IX (Yadin et al. cf. Persian period pottery was extremely rare. cf.

The Ottoman village in Area E was excavated by Mahmud Hawari in 1993 (Hawari 1994). No. 3269/1a 326911b 3204/4 3490/2 Locus 0869 0869 0853 1321 Description 4 Exterior 7. 1980:Pl.91:1-2). 222 .91: HELLENISTIC POTTERY FROM AREA E No. 5. Further finds include a fragment of a stamped Rhodian amphora (Chapter 9:No. 3 2 '--"~~=--' 10cm. interior 5YR7/4. Transport jars of this class are especially numerous in the Akko plain during the Hellenistic period.. core grey. temper: mg M white grits .91: Hellenistic pottery from Area E.The two Hellenistic unguentaria found were apparently associated with a disturbed grave (Fig. 7:1-3. 4 Fig. temper: mg M. 17:23-30). Among the Hellenistic pottery was the rim of a white Hellenistic transport jar (not illustrated). 34).5YR8/4. All the pottery comes from disturbed layers between Strata E2 and E1. This type of vessel was found in large numbers at Tell Keisan and nearby Khirbat Kinniya (Briend et al. FIGURE 5. 1 2 3 Type Unguentarium Unguentarium Mortar Mortar Reg. core grey. 5. interior IOYR8/3. Exterior 5YR7/4.

675-640 B. No. Fine decorated Greek pottery is more accurately datable than most of the local pottery and therefore important for absolute dating (see Cook. Waldbaum 1994. Fig. 22. The "curious gap in the roster of early Greek pottery in Palestine". 2 3 223 . Fig. 615-600 BCE. Tell Jemmeh and Tell Sera' (Koehl 1985:138. Pastor 1991 :20*. Vessel No. Tel Dan. Reinvestigation of the sherd for the final publication demonstrated that. Kerschner We would like to thank M. 1) and Haider's summary (1996: 69) have to be corrected: There is no Geometric pottery from Kabri. Tell Keisan. Niemeier 1994).E. Wenning 1995). 256. 42) is of special interest. also Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33-36) also applies to Tel Kabri-'. Ashkelon. BIRD BOWLS Five fragments (Figs. Recently the typology and chronology of the East Greek Bird bowls has been modified and refined by Kerschner (1995. according to Neutron Activation Analysis by H. the second to ca. 5. 1997:252-255. not Corinthian but probably east Cypriot. date adopted by Waldbaum 1994:59. although the preserved decoration could be of late 8th/early 7th century date. 1992 and 1993 (Niemeier 1990. Boardman 1980:48).1995. 19. Tell Abu Hawam. 5. IV. with the exception of a probably Attic SOS-amphora (No. the profile is too curved to belong to a Late Geometric/Subgeometric skyphos but comes from an East Greek archaic Bird bowl. They play an important role in discussions about contacts between the Levant and Greece and the possible presence of Greeks in the Levant (see Wenning 1991. seventh centuries" (Waldbaum 1994:59. 23. Schlotzhauer for important information and constructive discussions on the East Greek pottery found at Tel Kabri. despite its popularity in other areas of the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. and the fourth to ca. the third ca. 25).C. PI. The presence of these imports is of special significance for two reasons: 1. Figs. We are also grateful to A.2 The stratified pieces come from Stratum E2a (the destruction level of the Phoenician fortification) or from slightly earlier levels. simplifying the decoration and flattening the shape. 16.1) and adopted by Waldbaum and Magness (1997:34) and Haider (1996:69) is. The clay of a sherd tentatively ascribed to a Protocorinthian aryballos (Kempinski and Niemeier 1993b:259. Thus no Corinthian pottery has been found at Tel Kabri. 25) (cf. Adelman 1995. The unstratified fragment of an SOS-amphora (No. Fig.1 More was found in the seasons of 1989. Gershuny (1987:69. According to Coldstream (1968:298-301) the first stage of the Bird bowls is to be dated to ca. Mommsen of Bonn University. Al Mina is the only site from which Protocorinthian pottery is known (Robertson 1940:16-18. Tel Batash. cf. 650-615 BCE. Kaufler and U. Since there is no other 8th century Greek pottery from Kabri. "the complete lack of Protocorinthian pottery of the late eighth through most of the .M.92:1-5. 2. Kerschner. 700-675 BCE. Niemeier 1994:*31. The fragment of an oinochoe or olpe of Etruscan Bucchero (No. 12. The following sites in the Levant have produced Early Corinthian pottery: Tell Sukas. ARCHAIC GREEK AND ETRUSCAN POTTERY Barbara and Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier Archaic Greek pottery was first identified in Area E in 1986 byL. Tel MiqneEkron. Haider 1996:69) is too small to be more closely dated than between the later 8th and the first half of the 6th centuries BCE. The Archaic Greek pottery from Kabri is East Greek. cf. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33-36 with references).13). The Bird bowl evolved from the Late Geometric Bird kotyle. Sarepta. All pre-Hellenistic Greek pottery of Area E is to be dated between the second half of the 7th and the first half of the 6th centuries BCE. 42). S. Fig. Naso for his input regarding the fragment of an Etruscan Buchero vessel (No.93:1-4) come from East Greek so-called Bird bowls. Cook and Dupont 1998:8-10). Thus Waldbaum's distribution map (1994:55. 1997. R. it almost certainly is contemporary with the East Greek pottery.1.V. 1990. Niemeier 1995. Lehmann 1995. Elsewhere in the Levant Corinthian pottery also is not abundant. Haider 1996:69).1 was earlier identified as belonging to a Late Geometric or Subgeometric skyphos with metope decoration (Niemeier 1990:xxxiv-xxxv.

PI. 5. 85).the bowl are characteristics of Kerschner's Type V. 5. Stratum El. Stratum El. 3.93:2) Rim fragment. No.93:1) Rim fragment. No. Below this are void rays. 130. Date: The painted design puts the fragment in Coldstream's third group. 'Fundgruppe XXVII' in the sanctuary of Hera on Samos.8 em. = 3. Outside: The tail of a bird above which is a triangle pendant from a painted lip band. 3114. 11 em. from left to right. Date: The fragment is too small for dating. 5. H. 2. 3023/1. The bird's tail is formed by extending the lower horizontal outline of the body. H. 3138. 4. According to his studies. The style is less delicate than No.92:5) Body fragment. D. No. Inside: Solid. Locus 874. Reg. VI).dated to the last quarter of the 7th century BCE (cf.93:4) Rim fragment. No. dated before 600 BCE (Walter 1968:88.93:3) Rim fragment. 43:452). PI. Parallels: Phase IV at Emporio on Chios. Bird bowl (Figs.2. Kerschner 1997:127 Cat. PI. 5.92:1. Inside: Solid. 17. 107. H. Date: The missing groove at the rim and the almost hemispherical profile of . 43. 5. Outside: A group of three vertical lines on the left with a single vertical line on their right. Locus 802. Bird bowl (Fig. No. No. 5. three vertical lines and the body and feet of a bird. XIV). Decoration: Light reddish-brown paint. Inside: Solid. Outside: On the left.E (cf. Decoration: Yellowish-red paint. PI. A vertical stripe on the right. Locus 1983. Stratum El. Reg. 1. D. =2 em. 109. = ca.C. No. ca. Inside: Solid. Date: The fragment is from a Bird bowl of Kerschner's Type II with empty bottom zone. 5. Reg.92:2. Cat. dated to the middle to third quarter of the 7th century B. 118-119:476.1997). Kerschner 1997:160.478. 162. 224 . Reg. H.92:3. 5484.5 em. 650-615 BCE. = 3. Outside: A ray with three horizontal lines above it in the lower part. 162. H = 2. Locus 833. Bird bowl (Figs. Decoration: Reddish-brown paint. Bird bowl (Figs. PI. 5. 5. three vertical lines which meet three horizontal lines at an angle. Decoration: Yellowish-red and black paint.3 ern. No. Stratum El. Locus'S24. the first half of the 7th century BCE is still dominated by Bird kotylai and only from the middle of the century onwards do Bird bowls appear in larger quantities. Bird bowl (Figs. 5. is a rhomb filled with hatching. In Kerschner's typology our fragment forms a late example of his Type IV with a small groove at the mouth and a relatively deep bowl dated to the last third of the 7th century BCE (cf. 329711. Stratum El. Above these. dated to the last third of the 7th century BCE (Boardman 1967:133. Kerschner 1997:163.8. Reg. XIV). Kerschner did not find Bird bowls from clear contexts before the second quarter of the 7th century BCE.92:4. 3.

5. cups' is used for a class of two-handled bands. There are. 13 = Alexandrescu 1978:57-58 No. from Tel Kabri. other systems arranged These typologies from Tarsus in have been adopted in the study of the Ionian cups from Tell Sukas in by single sites (see Catling and to the typologies sequences 1973:27-38).219-234).93:5) 15 fragments of mouth and wall (reconstructed). bands just below the handle Group 3. analyses were considered analysis pit. 200. The most influential 120-125. Type AI. 625-590 BCE (cf. Inside: Solid with lines stripe.1. site of Bird However. Ploug's Group 6. Kerschner's neutron metropolis years the Bird bowls petrographic 1986:649.ca. 610 BCE). Furtwangler's level and just Type 3 and 16 cm. 21).92:7. D. were and Since this class is not restricted to Ionia (Catling cup' should be abandoned (1995. 188-189 note 5.664). One production bowls may perhaps have been located in northern 'IONIAN CUPS' Ionia (Jones 1986:697). 7-8. invention (cf. Of in the South Temenos of the are the series of Ionian cups found in good stratigraphic 1997. with simple horizontal or completely covered with dark paint and they should be is retained. and the very useful concordance sanctuary of Hera on the island of Sam os (Furtwangler of Artemis at Ephesos (Kerschner ibid. a complete 1938:39-43 No. decorated Schlotzhauer (Cook and Dupont 1998:129-131). Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Samian Heraion. I118-20. The fragments of thirteen so-called Ionian cups (Nos. Syria (Ploug importance 1956:167-173) for this cup-type have been put forward. Inside: Solid except for a band just below the mouth.5 em. No. however. Outside: by Kerschner as belonging Two vertical lines.200-202 Nos. 5. fewer from Phase III (ca. painted or reserved. 'Ionian cup' (Figs.. Outside: Type: Villard Schlotzhauer's and Vallet's below the lip. Hayes' Type I-II. and from Tocra in Libya (Hayes 1966:111-16. PI. 13). This is dated to ca. Fig. Locus 1941. Solid except for narrow Decoration: Black paint. glazed all over except for a narrow reserved band at handle level. Stratum E2a. 630/20 BCE) and II (ca. Other examples from the Samian Heraion come from the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building dated to ca. adopting the typology 1980:165). Cook and Dupont that found in Furthermore. Delos found to be a Rhodian (Jones 1986:647. 610-590/80 BCE) (Furtwangler 1980:165. = 3. here the common English nomenclature Various systems of classification Cilicia (Hanfmann Hayes 1973:55-56). 1999) suggests that the term 'Ionian called 'Knickrandschale' (cup with bent rim). the majority of the pieces of this type came from Phases I (before ca. cups from Miletus) and in the Greek sanctuary at Gravisca in Etruria (Boldrini 6.6e) matches on Rhodes. 6-18) form the largest group of Archaic Greek pottery . For many 1998:26). 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler 225 . Fig. 53311100. that neither parts of Ionia (Jones activation demonstrating that it was not produced at Miletus confirm of Bird bowls was this Ionian the production centre of Bird bowls (Kerschner et al. drinking cups with prominent and Shipley 1989). in a sacrificial complex in the sanctuary established by Schlotzhauer 1995 for the 1994:137-187.Decoration: Reddish-brown exception of a reserved and dark grey glossy paint. to his latest Type VI without horizontal Date: It has been identified example from Histria: Lambrino DISCUSSION between the rays of the bottom zone and the main frieze. 630/20 . (mouth) = Reg. Table 1). H. Boardman those applied to material from Megara Hyblaea in Sicily (Villard and Vallet 1955:18-33). However. Shipley 1989. 197-199. 1993). 8. The term 'Ionian rims. has shown that the clay composition of a Bird bowl of Type IV from the Rheneia Pi.

92: Bird bowls and Ionian cups.2 ry3 5 4 _. 5. 7 8 3cm. 226 . 11 Fig.

5YR 2. 10. Inside: Solid except for a band just below the mouth. Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Heraion of Samos it occurs first in Phase III (ca.e Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Dorian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Reg_. 610 BCE (Kerschner 1997:182). Stratum E2a. 1111. Ionian cup. = 2. Examples from Ephesos are dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE (Kerschner 1997:111. 570/550 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:5-7.93:6 and Kienast 1989:4-5. very dark brown (10YR 2/2) paint. Fig. 111 Fig.93:6) Mouth and wall fragment. 29) date is 640/30 . 3. PI. 7. El Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. 3536/100. Cat.5YR 3/1) paint. Nos. E2a Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay. 12. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos which ends ca. Reg. 125. 112. 4. PI. II. = 4. Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. Locus 887. Type: Villard and Vallet's Type A21B 2. 8. 126:Fig. 3138 3114 3297/1 3023/1 5484 3500/101 53311100 3352/100 3536/100 2619 5034-6 Locus 833 824 874 802 1983 1321 1941 887 1321 737 1915 Stratum El E1 Descrip. Reg. Ionian cup Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. 28). Date: Vallet and Villard's (1955:15-18.92:8) Shoulder fragment.121:Fig. 545/535 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:7-8. Outside and inside: Solid. No. 117. E2a Very pale brown (IOYR 7/3)/grey (10YR 6/i) clay. No. Ionian cup II. 12-13 PI. 21). III). black (7.92: BIRD BOWLS AND IONIAN CUPS No. reddish-brown (5YR 4/4)/ dark grey (7. Furtwangler's Type 5 and Boldrini's Type 1111 with glazed exterior except the rim and a band at handle level. 18). reddish-brown (2.No. 5.93:5 5. dark greyish-brown (10YR 3/2) paint. 213-214:Nos. 33521100.3 em. 5. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:4-5. H. Cat. This type apparently lasted from the second half of the 7th to the early 6th century BCE. Cat.93:2 5. Hayes' Type VIII-IX.600 BCE.5/1) paint. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 1/3-4. 1. black (10YR 2/1) shiny paint. Discussion: See No. Decoration: Glossy black paint. 5.5YR 4/1) shiny paint. dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) paint. black (IOYR 2/1) paint. in the second levelling of ca. D. 6.5YR 6/4) clay. Hayes' (1966:112) late 7th century BCE.5YR 3/1) paint. 610-590/80 BCE) and was also found in Phase IV (a late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165. H. Locus 1321.tion See Fig. Surface Very pale brown (IOYR 7/4) clay. No. Decoration: Black paint. 5. (mouth) = 17. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 'Ionian cup' (Fig.93:4 2. No.5/1) paint. III/I. 115 Cat. No. EI Light brown (7.6. Hanfmann's Type IV. Stratum El.FIGURE 5.93:1 5. 11 PI.2 em. 9. Ploug's Group 5. 21). No. TJP. reddish-brown (2. III/8-9. 19. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) paint. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. yellowish-red (5YR 5/8)/black (5YR 2. 7. E2blE3 Pink (5 YR7/4) lightly micaceous clay. Examples of this type were unearthed also in the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building of ca. Cat. 111 Fig. PI. Cat. 5. 227 .120. 25. Outside: Bands on rim and at handle level. 8.93:3 5. 19. 23) and in the foundation of the North Building of ca. (Figs.92:9. 5.

No. III/8-9. No. Nos. 5. 1. Type 5 and Boldrini's Type II11 with glazed exterior except the rim and a band at handle level. Cat. E2a Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay. 5. = 4. Discussion: See No. Cat. Stratum El. black (7. Fig. No. reddish-brown (2.3 ern.93:2 5. yellowish-red (5YR 5/8)/black (5YR 2. 213-214:Nos. Surface Very pale brown (IOYR 7/4) clay. D. E2a Very pale brown (10YR 7/3)/grey (10YR 6/i) clay.93:3 5. Hanfmann's Type IV.e Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Dorian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Reg. Locus 1321. Locus 887. E2blE3 Pink (5 YR7/4) lightly micaceous clay. 21). Outside and inside: Solid. Hayes' century BCE. 610 BCE (Kerschner 1997:182). 19. 1/3-4. 33521100. 18).2 band just below the mouth. Stratum E2a. reddish-brown (5YR 4/4)/ dark grey (7. Date: Vallet and Villard's . 19. Reg. III/I. 9. 126:Fig. 11 PI. 117. Hayes' Type VIII-IX. 3536/100. No.93:5 5. in the second and Kienast 1989:5-7. very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) paint. Ionian cup. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler Examples of this type were unearthed also in the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building of and Kienast 1989:4-5. 7. black (IOYR 2/1) paint.5YR 6/4) clay. 6. Ionian cup Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. TJ:'I!. 12. 120. 25. 121 :Fig. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. reddish-brown (2. Outside: Bands on rim and at handle level. 570/550 BCE (Furtwangler foundation of the North Building of ca.93:6) Mouth and wall fragment. PI. 8. Decoration: Glossy black paint.6. Cat. 112. 4. PI.93:6 and Kienast 1989:4-5. (Figs. 610-590/80 BCE) and was also found in Phase IV (a late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler ca.5/1) paint. 'Ionian cup' (Fig. 29) date is 640/30 from Ephesos are dated to the (1966:112) late 7th second half of the 7th century BCE (Kerschner 1997:111. dark greyish-brown (IOYR 3/2) paint. Cat. ern. This type apparently lasted from the second half of the 7th to the early 6th century BCE. Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos which ends 227 . 111 Fig. No. 10.600 BCE. 5. 12-13 PI. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay.93:1 5. levelling of ca. PI. III). 21).115 Cat. 23) and in the and Kienast 1989:7-8.5YR 2. 111 Fig. Ploug's Group 5. 3.5YR 3/1) paint. 5. 5. II11. 5.5YR 3/1) paint. El Light brown (7. = 2. 28).92:9. H. No. 125. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) paint. black (1OYR 2/1) shiny paint. Inside: Solid except for a Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Heraion of Sam os it occurs first in Phase III (ca.93:4 11. 11. Cat. 1980:165.92:8) Shoulder fragment. dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) paint.92: BIRD BOWLS AND IONIAN CUPS No. Decoration: Black paint. No.5/1) paint.FIGURE 5. 7. H. El Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. Reg. 545/535 BCE (Furtwangler ca. 2. Examples (1955:15-18. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. (mouth) = 17. 8. 3138 3114 3297/1 3023/1 5484 3500/101 53311100 3352/100 3536/100 2619 5034-6 Locus 833 824 874 802 1983 1321 1941 887 1321 737 1915 Stratum El El Description See Fig.5YR 4/1) shiny paint. Type: Villard and Vallet's Furtwangler's Type A21B 2.

94:6. 10) Fig.92:9. 5.92:7.94:5.94:12.94:1. 5. 9) Fig. 13) Fig. 3) Fig. 5. 5. 5) Fig. 5. 11) Fig. 5. 6) Fig. 5. 14) Fig. 5.95:10. 5. 5. 2) Fig.92:3. 4) Fig. 1) Fig. 5. 228 . 5. 7) Fig. 5.95:16. 12) Fig.92:2.2 3 4 5 II 14 11 12 Fig.93: Bird bowls and Ionian cups.94:7.92:1.92:4. 8) Fig. 5. 5.94:8.

5. Hanfmann's Type II. which ended ca. Decoration: Black and red paint. Reg. Outside and inside: solid. Outside: black bands covering the mouth plus the upper part of the wall and the foot. unglazed exterior. Foot: black with one red line on base. especially in regard to its end. Hanfmann (1956:170-173. Reg.5YR 5/4). Outside: three horizontal brown lines. Ionian cup (Fig.9. Type: cf. 9. (reconstructed) = 5 ern. Type: Villard and Vallet's Type B 1. = 1. = 5 em. Hayes Type V. 5. red (lOR 4/4) and white (lOR 8/1) paint. 5345/100. Stratum E2a. Locus 1308. 1963:285-287. 620-600 BCE for this type proposed by Villard and Vallet (1955: 18-19. Furtwangler 1980: 164-166. Thus the type is to be dated from after ca. Sounding between Strata E2b and E3. Ionian cup (Figs. Nos. At Tell Sukas. H.94:1. Locus 1941. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. H. Reg. 120. 610 to 550 BCE. except rim and shoulder. H. Decoration: Glossy black paint.Date: The date of ca. = 2.4 cm.C. black (10YR 2/1). Decoration: Design in brown (7. sometimes a band below handle level and glazed foot. Locus 737. No. Handles: solid black. 7.92:11) Foot fragment. Stratum E2a. wall. 10. Inside: solid black. 5. Decoration: Very dark greyish-brown paint. 5389-3. 29) has been considered too restricted. foot unpainted. = 1. Ploug's Group 9. Type: Same as No. two red lines below the mouth. three red lines on the lower part of the wall. Reg. 565 B.289) has suggested a date from the end of the 7th to the first half of the 6th century BCE. 5034-6. Outside and inside bowl: solid. H.(10YR 3/2).4 ern. Date: This type is dated by Villard and Vallet to ca. and Boldrini's Type Ill/I. Boldrini 1994: 149-150. PI. No. Cat. Decoration: Very dark brown paint. D = 6 em. starting around 580 BCE.3 cm. No. Outside and inside bowl: solid. Locus 1971.7 ern.3502/101. Ionian cup (Fig. Locus 1915. D of mouth = 11 ern. handle and foot. 1197. = 2. 620-580 BCE (1955:29). H. No. glazed with two red lines framed by white lines painted on the glaze on the inside of the rim and the lower part of the bowl. 11. Parallels: At Tocra.92:10) Foot fragment. Furtwangler's Type 6. 229 .a group of almost completely preserved cups of this type have a reserved tondo on the base of the interior which is a 6th century feature. Hayes (1966:113) and Ploug (1973:29-30) date this type to the first half of the 6th century BCE. Inside: solid black.1199). 12.E (Hayes 1966:9). foot unpainted. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. Stratum E2a. 5. it occurred in Deposit II of Level 8 (Hayes 1966:1i2. Surface D. 2619.93:7) 15 fragments of rim. No. 13. Reg. with low foot.

<.:> J I ~~\ \ \ 8 I \ 9 6 F' 9.-- / <. . \ ". I'..... 5. .94: Ionian cups...... 2 3 /. / \ \ . <. 1 230 .~... --' \ ' \\ ) I I \_---- .~--- .

Fig. No. Outside: three horizontal brown lines.5/2) paint. Type Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Skyphos Jug Oinochoe Oinochoe Oinochoe? Reg. dusky red (lOR 3/4).94: IONIAN CUPS No.5YR 5/6) micaceous clay. 6. black (10YR 2/1)/red (lOR 4/6) paint. very dark brown (7. black (lOYR 2/1). Locus 1963.5YR 5/4) micaceous clay. 10. 5. Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:77-78) and in well W 2 closed at about the same time (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:74-75. Date: The type apparently was in existence from after ca. ending ca. 2. 610590/80 BCE) and also occurs in Phase IV (the late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165. Cat. 149. Other examples from the Heraion were found in a level dated ca. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos. 5345/100 54141100 3571/100 3448/100 3616/100 3590/100 Locus 1941 1963 890 1316 1334 1321 Stratum E2a E2a E2a E3b E2a E2a E2a Description Red (2. 3.FIGURE 5. this type first appears in Phase III (ca.5YR 5/6).5YR 2. 5. edges greyish-brown (2. Ionian cup (Fig 5.5YR4/4) paint. 223.W2/29. 22). yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) .93:7 5. Other examples from the Heraion were found in a level dated ca. 47. red (lOR 4/6) . Reg. 1.reddish-black (2.8 ern. 54141100. 610 to 570/60 BCE. glazed with two red lines framed by white lines painted on the glaze on the inside of the rim and the lower part of the bowl. 560 BCE (Isler 1978:93-94. 47. Fig. ending ca.5YR 5/2) lightly micaceous clay. H. white (IOYR 8/1) slip.93:10 5.3 ern. 610 BCE. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) clay.94:2) 17 fragments of wall. this type first appears in Phase III (ca. Reddish-brown ((5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay.5YR 2. III/ll12. Date: The type apparently was in existence from after ca. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos. white (2. 610 BCE. white (IOYR 8/1) slip. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) clay. Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:77-78) and in Well W 2 closed at about the same time (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:74-75.W2/29. Reg. red (lOR 4/4) and white (lOR 8/1) paint. 560 BCE (Isler 1978:93-94. 33). Beil. 4. Stratum E2a. Decoration: Design in brown (7. brown (7.5YR 5/4). 8. No.93:8 5. 22).93:11 3401/102 890 1916 1318 E2a E2b-E3 E4 5038 Oinochoe? SOS amphora 3470/100 Parallels: In the South Temenos in the Heraion on Samos. 149. 5389-3. PI. Inside: solid black. No.5YR 8/1) paint.5/1) paint. No. Locus 1971. black (5YR 2. 610 to 570/60 BCE. 1. 150 Fig.very dark grey (5YR 311) paint. reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) . Parallels: In the South Temenos in the Heraion on Samos. 220:No.511). III/II-12. IV/9.5YR 2.reddishbrown (5YR 4/4) paint. 13.5YR 7/4) clay. 9. 231 .5YR 7/4) micaceous clay. 223. foot and 1 handle. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) micaceous clay. 610-590/80 BCE) and also occurs in Phase IV (the late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165. 150 Fig. black (7. D (where mouth is cut away) = 13. No.5/1) paint. white (10YR 8/1) slip. IV/9.5 em. Pink (7. Cat.5/1) paint. 14. H. yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) paint. The mouth was cut away and the base knocked through for reuse (as a funnel?). 220:No. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. Stratum E2a. Beil. Pale red (2.5YR 2. No.213-214. PI. No. See Fig. Pink (7. = 1. 33). black (7.93:9 5. 1. 213-214. 7. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) micaceous clay. = 4. Core red (2.

Dupont Vroulia-style the handle zone. 14. Solid.1. Locus 1316.5. 13 but with thicker walls and handles and are no painted lines on the interior. two blobs on inside. 33). 9. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Handle fragment.5YR 2. 3156.2. = 0.Decoration: Yellowish-red and dark grey paint. 19.4 em. band just below = 22 = 12 ern. offer a consistent tradition (von Graeve 1973174:85.92:6) 27 fragments D (mouth) of mouth.5/1) paint. Outside: Horizontal stripe on lower edge of fragment.1. 38:6. 5. Reg. Stratum 1. Kinch 1914:167-186.4. Reg. No. = 3.94:4) Wall and handle fragment. 5. termed examples are those of the so-called in cups of the Vroulia style The short rim not going beyond (1983:29) of which the most beautiful (cf. D. H. paint. however. Decoration: Reddish-yellow 18. 39:8. Handle: solid on outside. Stratum E2a. No. 35711100. 17. Type: Same type of cup as No. Stratum E 2a. 43:23. Stratum E2a. Inside: solid. Outside: band on foot and lower part of wall. 16. D. Ionian cup (Fig. cm. Cook and Dupont 1998:114-115). Locus 890.1. Pr. the shoulder and the rigid outline of the conical body of No. 3500/101. Cook and Dupont cup' (No. Ploug Dupont 1983:28-29). 5248-2. The 'Dorian as well as the results of petrographic production of southwestern these cups.9 ern. Type: See No. centre of Asia Minor 1973:28) but does not. 5. Outside: band covering the mouth and the upper part of the wall. 32:f 1 and 3. Rec.1 ern. Length Reg. 10. 11) and other more simply decorated cups from Vroulia on Rhodes (Kinch 1914:Pls. = 0. No. 19) was most probably 232 . No. DISCUSSION Rhodes has long been considered According analyses (Dupont to the frequency of the clay (Dupont 1983:28. (5YR 7/6) clay painted all over in very dark grey (5YR 3/1). 'Dorian' cup (Fig. 3448/100.5 em. Locus 1941. 18:9.94:3) Rim and wall fragment. Outside: and Kerschner striated solid except for a very narrow Decoration: Dark reddish-brown Type: Identified by Schlotzhauer 'Dorian cups' by P. a major production centre of 'Ionian cups' (Hayes 1980:150-161) 1966: 111-115. Locus 839. (Kinch 1914:Pl. 'Dorian' cup or skyphos (Fig. = Reg. 37:4. 45:32. Stratum E3b. as belonging to a marginal group of 'Ionian cups'. H. 34-36. 18 are paralleled 27:2-4. Decoration: Very dark brown paint.4 em. of finds (Furtwangler 1983:27. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Handle fragment. Locus 1321. Length = 4. wall and handles. the island of Samos was an important at Miletus and in other workshops 1998:129).4). but they were also produced produced on Rhodes or Kos. Decoration: Black (7. H. Reg. Decoration: Red and reddish-black paint. No. Inside: solid except for a band just below the mouth. = 3. 15. 3. Inside: unpainted. D of mouth = 19 em.

Part of the back of a wild goat with part of a spiral quatrefoil above it. 23. decorating the main zone of the vessels.9 cm. Locus 1321. Reg. 5. Kardara 1963) is misleading. = 3. H. and dominated the decoration of East Greek painted pottery for some three generations (Cook. oblique lines on surface of handle. 24. The old term 'Rhodian' (Cook. four fragments (Nos. Locus 1916. R. Fig. Decoration: White slip and brown paint. Type: cf. POLYCHROME BLACK (SCHWARZBUNT) 20. Mouth and sides of handle solid black. No. No. Parallels: The sanctuary of Hera on Samos (Technau 1929:29). 5.93:8) Shoulder and neck fragment. Fig. Date: The careless execution of the twisted band points to a dating in Middle Wild Goat II. Type: All these motifs first appear in Middle Wild Goat I (Cook and Dupont 1998:37. 5. Stratum E2a. 5. H. H.94:9) Shoulder fragment ofa closed vessel. on the right. 34011102.6 em. WILD GOAT STYLE OINOCHOAI At Kabri. = 2. 111-119. Fig. Decoration: Yellowish-red paint. Reg. Miletus (unpublished). Oinochoe(?) (Fig.93:11) Body fragment.6) and continue into Middle Wild Goat II (Cook. 22. H. 1997:109.92:9) Mouth. 1933/34:90-91. twisted band on neck. Stratum E2a. 3590/1 00. 3616/100. 2a-b). H. Type: These motifs first appear in Middle Wild Goat I (Cook and Dupont 1998:37. 21-24) came from 'Wild Goat style' vessels. Locus 890. Fig. Fig. Stratum E2b-E 3.M. 5. 1992:259. Cook and Dupont 1998:32-70).6) and continue into Middle Wild Goat II (Cook. = 12. RM. Locus 1334. 5. 8. 8.94:5. No. 5038.2 em. 8. = 4.10. Date: The slightly careless execution of the filling ornaments points to a Middle Wild Goat II date.93:10) Neck fragment. Jug (Figs. a rosette of concentric circles and a series of dots following the outermost circle as filling ornament.8 ern. Oinochoe (Figs. The name comes from the animal friezes. part of back and hind leg of a wild goat. Reg.=9cm. Decoration: White slip and black painted design. 233 . neck and handle fragments. 1992:259. DISCUSSION 'Wild Goat style' is the term used in the English speaking archaeological community for the style which emerged about the middle of the 7th century BCE. Reg.94:7. On the left. Decoration: White slip with horizontal stripes painted in black.M.94:8. 2a-b). 5. Trefoil mouthed oinochoe with triple-coil handle (Figs.94:6. R. Stratum E2a. Oinochoe(?) (Figs. Cook and Dupont 1998:42. Schiering 1957. 5. 21. in which the goat became the most frequent species. No.JUGS. Decoration: Painted solid black with two horizontal red lines and two horizontal white lines on shoulder.M. R. cross with filling of spherical triangles on rote lIes. 5.

Chios. 65-66. 1992:260. 560 BCE may have been filled by a decadent variation of the former which lingered on beside the Late Wild Goat style (Cook. 8-9 = Naveh 1962. He argued that the Middle Wild Goat II style. Jones 1986:665-666). 67-71.M. 650 to 640 BCE (Cook. since it is no longer found in graves on Rhodes at the time when Middle Corinthian was replacing Early Corinthian (Cook and Dupont 1998:44). Fig. Cook (1933/34:90. Dupont regards the 40 years between ca. but clay analyses demonstrate that the island imported the ware (Dupont 1983:28-29. 1997:123. PI. New evidence from Miletus disproves the theories of Cook and Schaus and confirms those of Schiering and Dupont (Schlotzhauer. 1933/34:60. Cook and Dupont 1998:33-36). Cook and Dupont 1998:56). Cook and Dupont 1998:34. 91). Schaus 1986:288-289). 1992:260. Walter-Karydi 1986:73-80. RM. is greatly indebted to the Middle Wild Goat II style (Cook. 34-36. Fine pottery did exist at Miletus in the first half of the 234 . exports of Middle Wild Goat II style pottery to the Black Sea coasts. Cook and Dupont 1998:5156). Whereas relatively much Late Wild Goat Style pottery has been found in North Africa (Naucratis. RM. Schaus (1986:284-288) ca. 600 and 560 BCE as too long a phase for Cook's decadent transitional style. 590 BCE (Hopper 1949:180. W. lOA) has come to light. Cook and Dupont 1998:61). 600 BCE and the beginning of the Fikellura style ca. when ornament and poses became more stereotyped (Cook.M. Cook. 1933/34:90-91. A problem under discussion is the date of the change from the Wild Goat style to the Fikellura style pottery mainly produced at Miletus (Dupont 1986:61. Petrographic clay analyses and stylistic researches have demonstrated that three or four main production centres of Wild Goat style pottery existed: Miletus. Jones 1986:665-671. 112 Fig. Most recently. The Fikellura style which. Clazomenae and what Dupont calls North Ionian 2 (Dupont 1983:27-29. The Late Wild Goat Style is an invention of North Ionian schools which diverged from the South Ionian mainstream while Early Corinthian was still flourishing (Cook. although Middle and Late are regional styles and overlap chronologically. overlapping and influencing the early stage of Fikellura.P. but dated the late style of his Camirus Group (comparable to Cook's Early Wild Goat . 264). he named this supposed decadent transitional style Wild Goat III (Cook. The end of the Middle Wild Goat II style has been dated by R. 1992:262. In Israel only a single sherd from Mezad Hasavyahu (Wenning 1989:186. Middle and Late. The chronological gap between the supposed end of the Middle Wild Goat II style ca. the Levant and North Africa come to an end and are replaced by North Ionian Late Wild Goat style ware (Schaus 1986:291.M. According to Dupont's petrographic clay analyses the principal Middle Wild Goat II school is Milesian (Dupont 1986:60-64). 550 BCE. according to R. RM. 10.1986:62-64. 1997:112. RM. Later.Rhodes was the place where it was first found in quantity. 560 BCE and according to G. 600 BCE for the end of Early Corinthian has been questioned by scholars who put it a little later. This transition is traditionally dated to about 600 BCE (payne 1931:57). A completely different solution has been proposed by Schaus (1986:289-292) who maintains that almost no fine ware was produced at Miletus in the first half of the 6th century BCE due to economic decline caused by internal civil conflicts (cf. The Middle Wild Goat style is divided into I and II around 625 BCE. considerable amounts of Middle Wild Goat II style pottery have been found in the sanctuary of Athena at Assesos near Miletus (Lohmann 1995:313-314). 1997:112. personal communication). Amyx 1988:428-429) as Payne (1931:57) previously suggested. ca. 1992:260. The Early Wild Goat style probably did not last very long. may have lasted into the first two decades of the 6th century BCE (Dupont 1986:65). SF 1. and that the Fikellura style appeared with are-emergence of the industries at Miletus about 550 BCE. Cook and Dupont 1998:77-81.1. R. the traditional date of ca. from ca. The Wild Goat style has been divided into Early. Schiering (1957:11) did not see this as a decadent transitional style. 600 BCE. 1992:255-266).36-44). R. Cook to ca. M. Cook and Dupont 1998:44). At about the same time. Cook and Dupont 1998:89) started ca. the discussion in Niemeier 1999:404 with n.Middle Wild Goat II) to 610-560 BCE. RM. Moreover. Tocra and Cyrene) very little is known in the Levant.

5051-1. = 7 ern. 26 Trade amphora (Fig. 5. No. 5. 235 . (mouth) = 14 em. Stratum E2a.2 ern. 5. D.93:12) Neck and shoulder fragment. 5035. Locus 1335. Locus 1912. Reg. 5. D. Parallels: SOS amphorae have been found outside of Greece at over forty Mediterranean sites.95:4) Rim fragment. TRADE AMPHORAE 25. = Reg. Reg. supposedly produced in Athens for the olive oil export market.reddish-brown paint. 166. and in the east on the Black Sea at Histria. mostly in Italy and Sicily but as far west as Spain and Morocco. Locus 1318. Petrographic clay analyses have demonstrated that the majority of the SOS amphorae indeed are of Attic origin but imitations were also made at Chalkis and other places (Johnston and Jones 1978:122-128.5 ern.95:1) Neck and mouth fragment. = 7. Type: As No. (mouth) 13 cm. 27. Type: This sherd comes from an SOS amphora which gets its name from the varied zig-zag and circle motifs on the neck resembling the Greek letters 'sigma omikron sigma' (Jones 1986:706).94:10. 5. in the northern Levant at Al Mina and in Egypt at Tell Defenneh (Johnston and Jones 1978:104-107. Type: As No. Trade amphora (Fig. Stratum E2a. D. has been interpreted as a manifestation of the Athenian export trade in the Mediterranean during the Archaic period. Type: As No. Jones 1986:708-712).first half of 6th century BCE. Shoulder solid. 29. Type: Samian amphora of the early type with echinoid rim (Cook and Dupont 1998:164-165. No. (mouth) 13 ern. of rim fragment = 6 em. No. 28. 5. = Stratum E2a. Nos. 1941-179. Thus at Miletus fine ware pottery production did not stop in the early 6th century BCE but it was not exported. H. 23. Locus 1914. Very important are fragments of 'bilingual' cups from Miletus. SOSAmphora (Figs. 26. of mouth = 14 cm.6). No. Decoration: Reddish-yellow . This type of amphora. Stratum E2. 34701100. Decoration: Unpainted.7 em. 5148-2. Trade amphora (Fig. 112-122). 3592/4. Part of '0' of the SOS motif on neck.95:2) Two fragments of rim and shoulder. D. Reg. Decoration: Unpainted.95:3) Rim fragment. 5. H. Stratum E 4. 26. = Reg. shoulder fragment = 15. They demonstrate that the Fikellura style directly followed the Wild Goat II style and partly overlapped with it. = 6. Date: The SOS amphora was in use from the later 8th to the first half of the 6th century BCE. decorated on the outside in good Middle Wild Goat II style and on the inside in Fikellura style. H. Fig. Decoration: Unpainted.8 ern. H. Trade amphora (Fig. 26. Date: End of 7th . Decoration: Unpainted.6th century BCE and its decoration was not decadent. H.

236 . 8 9 W ~ )fJI \ n )lJI \ )(~J \11 c.2 4 5 rj~ 6 7 dl ~. 5.95: Amphorae and cooking-pots.::jl n I ( 14 15 "rr 16 13 Fig.

Yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) core.5YR 5/6) . 2. = 6 em. 10. 5. Bluish-grey (5PB 5/1) core.e Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. (foot) = 8 em.95: AMPHORAE AND COOKING-POTS. = 9 em. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/8) clay. Grey (5YR 5/1)core with reddish-yellow (5YR 6/8) surface. 3. 13. Cooking bowl 16. = 3.5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. (foot) = 5. No.5 em. Cook and Dupont 1998:170-174. Type: Milesian amphora (cf. 6.95:7) Foot fragment. Red (2. Decoration: Unpainted. No. shiny black (2. light brownish-grey (1OYR 6/2) surface. 5. 33. No. Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. No. 5. Reg. 8. Locus 879. D.brown (7. Decoration: Unpainted. H. 23.FIGURE 5. 4. micaceous clay. Locus 823. Stratum El.7 a). = 3. = 3 em.5/1) paint. Trade amphora (Fig. Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. 5237-5. TJ!l!.93:13 Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay.95:8) Foot fragment. 34. 2.93:14 30. 237 . Decoration: Unpainted. 9. Blue-grey (5 B 511) clay. Trade amphora (Fig.5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. H. H. No. unpainted. Like No. Reg. One horizontal groove at base of neck. Stratum El H. Reg. Stratum El. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) lightly micaceous clay. 3309-3. Locus 889. Amphora 5. No.brown )7. Stratum El. Locus 1958. 12. 5. D (foot) = 10 ern.5 YR 2. 32. 3592-4 5035. Like No. 1914 1958 879 823 889 874 Llll Kill 1309 1324 864 866 821 Red (2. Locus 874. II.first half of 6th century BCE. No. Reg.3 cm. D (neck) = 15 ern. three grooves on upper part of neck. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) surface. 3286-5. 14. Red (2. Date: End of 7th .95:5) Neck and shoulder fragment.6 em. D. 3552/100 3222 3228 315113 Locus 1335 1912 Stratum Description E2 E2a E2a E2a E2a El El El El El EI E2a El El E3 El See Fig. 505114 1941/179 5148-2 5237-5 3309-3 3123-6 3335/10 3286-5 300112 3095/1 3437/100 3547/100. 1. Decoration: Unpainted. D. 3123-6. lightly micaceous clay. Trade amphora (Fig. 5.95:6) Foot fragment. 5. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) lightly micaceous clay. 3335110.5YR 5/6) highly micaceous clay.95:9) Foot and wall fragment. 7. Cooking-pot 15. Trade amphora (Fig. Trade amphora (Fig. Red (2.5YR 5/6) . (foot) = 6 em. 31. Decoration: Unpainted. Figs. Stratum E2a. 2. Reg.5YR 5/6) micaceous clay. 5. H.

XII). Cat.95:15) 2 rim fragments. PI. III. 145. 66). The surface is partially blackened by fire. Cat. Nos. Reg. 39. COOKING VESSELS 36 . Its identification was secured by comparing the piece directly with fragments of Archaic Etruscan bucchero pottery in the collection of the Archaeological Institute of Heidelberg University. No. Cat. Trade amphora. common in the last quarter of the 7th century and in the first quarter of the 6th century BCE (Rasmussen 1979:78-79.7. H. PI. Cooking-pots (Figs. = 4. 116 PI. 153154 PI. Stratum E 3. D = ca. No. these rims undoubtedly come from one-handled cooking jugs (chytrai) which have a tradition going back to the Sub-Mycenaean period (Reber 1991:20-56). H. Fig.482. 136. Reg. 18. 94) and from Ephesos (Kerschner 1997:115. 22:L 45-48. described as "loaded with large flakes of silvery mica". is very like that of the Kabri cooking jars and may indicate a southern Ionian origin. 300112. but their typological sequence can only be followed at Athens with the material from the Agora and the Kerameikos (Young 1939:189-190. No. Surface. 34371100. 3552/100. 11. PI. Reg.35. No. Fig. 75. H.4 em. Type: Ware similar to Nos.203210.5 em. 83. 5. (not illustrated) Shoulder fragment. H =. N 18. Reg. Fig. Date: Late 7th century BCE 41. 37.the Kabri sherd comes either from an oinochoe of Rasmussen's Type 3a. Stratum E1. D (mouth) = 20 ern. PI. 493. 3222.5 em. Nos. Nos. 1962:55. this is a bowl with an everted rim. 99. the fabric of the latter. 3228/1. 94 No. D (mouth) = 20 cm. Locus 1309. dated between the end of the third quarter of the 7th to the tum of the 7th . 38. = 6.7 ern. Surface partially blackened by fire. Locus 864. According to its profile. = 6.038. 130-131. No. 1932. Locus 866. to those from Ephesos and to two examples from the Greek settlement at Tocra in Libya dated by Hayes to the late 7th/early 6th century BCE and attributed to a possible Cycladic origin (Hayes 1966:135-137. Q 10.1922.5 em. Nos.93:14) The Etruscan bucchero sherd was a surprise. 512 Cat. Parallels: East Greek examples have been published from the island of Chios (Boardman 1967:145-146. 1412-1413. The Kabri fragments have a profile similar to that of an example from Chios (Boardman 1967:146 Fig. Sparkes and Talcott 1970:224-225. 139. 155. = 5.93:13) Rim fragments of imported Greek cooking vessels of coarse highly micaceous clay with rolled out rim. 7-8. Unpainted. Nos. Figs. Cat. Brann 1961a:123124. R. Stratum E1. 42. 5.95:16. 5. 371. 93. PI. PIs. 30 cm. 29-31) or from an olpe of his Type 1. H. H. 5. Etruscan bucchero (Figs. 136. ( 238 . No. 21-22.40.95:10-15. No. Stratum E2a. 20. =8 cm. Type: Although no handles are preserved. . However. Nos. 3547/100. Cooking bowl (Fig. H. D (mouth) = 20 ern. Stratum E1. D (mouth) = 19 ern. 598). Reg. 36-40. 5. KUbler 1970:192. 597-604. 3095-1. 127. 18. D (mouth) = 21 cm. PIs. Square Kill. No. 91-92. They are known from different areas in Greece. 36. Reg. 105). = 5. 40. 19411178.8 em. 86-91). Square Lll1. 1961b:317. Locus 1324.6th centuries BCE or shortly after (Rasmussen 1979:88-89. Decoration: Unpainted. They are unpainted. No.

1). XIII). 32.96:1) were frequent at Al Mina (Robertson Ras el-Bassit mentioned one example has been published (Courbin (Courbin 1940:14. 6). 16. No. 7a-b).PIs. Fig. Keisan (Briend and Humbert Tel Batash (Waldbaum (Naveh 1962:104-105. 49 Fig. I-III. Akko. Fig. 7 No. 1923:PI. olive presses of the 7th century be due to the fact that this region had its own olive-oil by the numerous from Kabri is the only Levant may documented 1995:63-69). 32. 239 (Naveh 1962:108-109. mentioned by Waldbaum 1994:59) and possibly at (Naveh 1962:106-107. 2). 'Ionian cups' (Fig.a).96:2) were unearthed at Al Mina (Robertson 1940:13. Fig. PIs. Tel Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:126. 3).97:1) have been found at Al Mina. Tel Batash (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:28) and Ashkelon (Stager 1996a:67*. Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1986: 198. 114-117.3.96:4) are known in the northern Levant from Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:72.Tel 2001:90-94. In general. pls. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:27-28. Nos. No. 1993:936). Mezad Hashavyahu (Naveh 1962 110-111. Other classes are less known from the Levant.10. 86).31. Boardman 1978b:41 PI. Nos. 5. IV:1. In Israel. cf. 11 Nos.31 Jemmeh (Illiffe 1932:17. 4). following p. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33 with note 79). 18). PI. Tell er-Ruqeish (Waldbaumand Fantalkin 2001 :88-87. 14). Fragments of four Bird bowls were unearthed at Tyre (Coldstream and Bikai 1988:43. Mezad Hashavyahu Miqne-Ekron (Naveh 1962:106-107. Tell el-ijesi (Risser and Blakely 1989:93.1. Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:27-38). 85. Figs. There are only two examples besides that from Kabri.3-4).35 Fig. 9. Boardman 1980:48). PIs. Fig. 13. 10.5.1). 72. such 1980:151. 34 Fig.Ras Ibn Hani. Boardman 1980:48. 1996b. 32:2 and 35:10). 28:7-14). Fig. V:a. Dan (pakman 1992:236 Fig. East Greek trade amphorae (Fig. . 12) and have been found at. 5. . SOS amphorae (Fig.Tyre (Coldstream and Bikai 1988:42. Wild Goat II style (Fig. Figs. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:30. Fig. Fig. 22:1. PI. XVI. 7. 5. Nos. Dor and Ashkelon Mezad Hashavyahu (unpublished.12). Fig. amphorae Fantalkin 84-85.67*. PI. 5.1-12. XX.1-7. No Bird bowls were found at Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:41). PI. Waldbaum and Magness':1997:29-30.5. . but the fragment example so far known from Israel. 4. 12. 66*. 6. Fig. PI. 251-255. 16. 14.4).1-6. Fig. 69*. 5.32.23) and at a number of sites in Israel.31 Fig. In Israel. both from Mezad Hashavyahu 1914:190-191. Magness 1997:30 with note 56) and Tel Batash (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:30. 5. Tel (Gitin 1995:65. V. this vessel type was seldomly exported like examples found at Vroulia in Rhodes (Kinch . Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:43-69. . 11-12. Fig. of this type in the southern This is very impressively (Gitin BCE found at Tel Miqne-Ekron Polychrome black jugs (Fig. 10-11. Figs. Waldbaum and Magness Ashkelon (Stager 1996a. 8 Nos. The reason for the rareness industry. No. Ashkelon (Pythian-Adams Fig. From Most of the classes of Archaic Greek pottery found at Tel Kabri are well distributed Mina in the north to the Negev in the south.5:7-8). 13. PI. Fig 9. Bird bowls (Fig. XV.6) and several others have been 1986:198 with note 65). Achzib (Culican 1982:67.ARCHAIC EAST GREEK AND ETRUSCAN POTTERY IN THE LEVANT in the Levant. 1990:508). Mezad Hasavyahu and Magness 1997:33. Tell Tel Malhata (Kochavi 1970:23 (below).2. Nos.97:1) are rare in the Levant. from Al 1980:47-48). 17. Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1978a:57. 1997:32-33. 2. Iliffe 1932:17.387-389. 4. Fig.1-2l 35. PI.3-3.322-323. 69*. Fantalkin 2001:75-79. 14. . PI. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:29. 10. Fantalkin 2001:Fig. fragments of three Bird bowls were found at Tell Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:125. 6g). of others at Dan. 35). Ras Ibn Hani (Riis 1982:251-252). for example. 6. 67*).(Riis 1982:251-252). Stager 1996a. No. 41 PI. colour photo. IX-XI).. Reich 1989:230 Fig. 5. Fantalkin 2001:89-90. XIII) and in Israel at Tell Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:151. 1.96:3)pottery has been foundat Al Mina (Robertson 1940:8-16. Figs. 1978b. 60. 29. 3). Fig. 6. Sarepta (Koehl 1985:137-138. 120. 131 Nos. 32. PI. PI.

5. Bottom right) Cooking vessels.lELL ER-RUQEISH'i TELL EL-HESI • T • ELL MALHATA Fig.96: Distribution of East Greek vessels in Israel: Top left) Bird bowls. Top right) Ionian cups. Bottom left) Wild Goat II style. 240 . ! TEL DAN ~ • TEL KfABR' TEL KEISAN JELL JEMMEH • l.SAREPTA I.

Fig. 5.97:2) of this period are known from only a few Levantine sites. Fragments of one or two cooking-pots have been found at Tel Batash in the Stratum II destruction debris of Area F (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31. on p. Rostovtzeff 1932:331-332.202 Fig. von Hase 1971: 10-12. Fragments of up to 18 Greek cooking-pots have been identified at Mezad Hashavyahu (Naveh 1962:104-105.97: Distibution in the Levant of (left) SOS amphorae and polychrome black jugs. the Aegean islands. 1978a. 58. 92.34 Fig.1-2.31. 12a-b. in southern France. 36).33 Fig. Fig. 4. 64.eel' f . Gras 1985 :672-674) and a bronze oinochoe of the so-called Rhodian type reportedly found 241 .7-8. in Sardinia. 63. in eastern Sicily and at Carthage. 7. 5. PI. PI. Fig. (right) Greek cooking vessels. Greek cooking vessels (Fig. 2). all in Israel. the western coast of Asia Minor and in the Levant (see Rasmussen 1979:150-156. 11). von Hase 1989:329. Fig. 60b. 30. the only known examples in the Levant were two fragments of kantharoi of Rasmussen's Type 3e from Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1973:27. Imports of Etruscan bucchero have been found in greater quantities in the western Mediterranean. Fig. 10) and numerous sherds of this ware have been found in the Late Iron Age destruction debris and the earlier construction fill at Ashkelon (Stager 1996a:67*. PI. Gras 1985:676-679. PI. 12F. Fig.1.Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31. 8-9. an oinochoe or olpe. In this context. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31-32. two bronze objects should be mentioned which have been seen as Etruscan imports in the Levant: a belt buckle in the British Museum said to have been found in Syria (Hall 1929/30: 107. since almost all Etruscan bucchero vessels found in the eastern Mediterranean are kantharoi (Rasmussen 1979: 155). 1). 6. Figs.7-8. It is striking that the Kabri fragment comes from a closed shape.TEl KABRI • I ! ~J Fig. Reich 1989:230 Fig. 1986:201. Fewer have been unearthed on the Greek mainland. Fig. 1977-78. Before the find of the Kabri bucchero fragment. Fantalkin 2001 :86-87.

Frey 1963:23. I would agree with Gitin that the most convincing date is 604 BCE. Gitin 1997:98-99). 1996b:58. driven from their homeland by many factors (Bettalli 1995 :26. 3. The date of the fall of Tel Miqne (Ekron) is not as assured. 2) has recently argued. The few Etruscan objects from the Levant certainly do not provide evidence for direct Etruscan trade with the Near East. one year later.4. Stager 1996a:72* with note 1. Thus the date of Ekron's destruction by the Babylonians falls most likely in the ten year-span of 604-595 BCE. The nature of the Greek presence in the Levant has been thoroughly discussed elsewhere (Neimeier 2001). 77 with note 3. n. Since the latest Greek pottery from Kabri cannot be more accurately dated than between the last decade of the 7th century BCE and the first half of the 6th century BCE. Shefton 1979:68 No.e. 242 . A 23). the Berlin jug is most probably of east Greek manufacture (Jacobsthal 1929:210. PIs.1-2) and identified as an Etruscan import by Gras (1985:676). i. Jacobsthal 1929:205-206 No. It has been suggested that it was destroyed during the same campaign as Ashkelon (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:37-38). these were single members of the elite. and M. and Philistia apparently came totally under their control. to November/December 604 BCE (Wiseman 1956:28. 108-109). According to the Babylonian Chronicle in the British Museum. 1995.. the conquest of Ashkelon is dated to the month of Kislev in the first year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II. but without a representative from Philistia.at Sidon which was acquired by the Berlin Museum from a Parisian art dealer (Furtwangler 1888:250 No. THE DESTRUCTION OF THE FORTRESS OF STRATUM E2 Like the Phoenician pottery (Chapter 5:1V). 2002). according to the text of Jeremiah 27 dated to 594 BCE describing a meeting in Jerusalem at which a rebellion against Babylon is planned. 10. The implication is that the Philistines no longer posed a threat to Babylon at that time. Thus neither object comes from a secure context. in 603 BCE (Malamat 1979:208. Courbin (1978a:58. it is improbable that the Babylonian destruction of Ekron happened after 595 BCE since. In all probability it occurred during one ofNebuchadnezzar's campaigns along the Phoenician and Philistine coast at the end of the 7th and in the first two decades of the 6th century BCE (Wiseman 1985:21-41. when the Babylonians destroyed Ashkelon.1 and 4. the imported Greek pottery of Stratum E2a also shows close relationships to the assemblage from the destruction levels at the end of the Iron II phase at Ashkelon and Tel Miqne (Ekron) (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:27-33). The excavators of both sites have convincingly attributed these destructions to the Babylonian invasions led by Nebuchadnezzar II. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:37). The excavators of Tel Kabri contend that a small contingent of Greek mercenaries in the service of the Kingdom of Tyre was based in the fortress of Stratum E2 (Niemeier 1994. it is impossible to establish during which of these campaigns the Phoenician fortress of Stratum E2 in Area of Tel Kabri was destroyed. Unlike the garrison at Mezad Hashavyahu. caption) thinks that the two Ras el-Bassit kantharoi were brought by east Greek intermediaries. in 60110BCE or even after 595 BCE when the chronicle ends (Na'aman 1992:43-44). cf. No texts exist recording the destruction of the fortress at Tel Kabri. Moreover. the map Stager 1996b:58). Rostovtzeff (1932:332) has suggested that the belt buckle from Syria probably was brought by an Etruscan slave or associate of a Phoenician merchant. As Gitin (1998:276. 68-69.

1994. Dossier sur I 'histoire d'un port mediterraneen durant les Ages du Bronze et du Fer (? 1600-950 environ avo Ji-C) (Ph. IVlb) Lund. P. 1980. Tel Aviv. Tel Aviv 12:181-203. (Hebrew) Ben-Tor. Capet. Observation on Archaeological Bikai. SIMA. The beginnings of Phoenician pottery. La ceramique d'epoque archaique et classique. Lesfouilles du Department de R. Tel Aviv University No. M. 1978. Cyprus 239-241. Israel: hints of presence. 1966. Aphek-Antipatris l.P. 1978. M.c. Israel Exploration Journal 28:57-82. pp. American Journal of Archaeology 99:305. Astrom. Gubel. eds. P. Area A: Middle Bronze Age lIA Pottery. Beirut. Jerusalem. Area B: Pottery. 51-59. vol II. A. Tell EI-Dab'a V. 1990. R. 1985b. The Late Phoenician pottery complex and chronology. 1987. Balensi. D. Early Arad I. (Qedem 24) Jerusalem. Bietak. 19). 1995.The first season at Tel Yoqne'am. I. 1966. Lund. Report of the Department of Antiquities Cyprus pp. The Middle Bronze AgeIlA Pottery from Aphek. (Monograph Series of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University No. Beck. In: Kochavi. Ben Dor. 1972. 1978. 1950.M..D. eds. 1978b. <Atiqot 3: 1-24. W. Pisa. 112-133. thesis. 173-238. Ancient Pottery of the Holy Land. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 229:47-56. A Middle Bronze Age Temple at Nahariya. Ben-Tor. Excavations at Horvat 'Uza. Astrom.A. Tomb 1. M. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 279:35-54... 1995. pp.REFERENCES Adelman. Report of the Department of Note.M. Ancient Pottery of the Holy Land. P. Amiran. Sarepta 1: A Stratigraphic and Ceramic Analysis of the Late Bronze and Iron Age Strata of Sounding Yat Sarepta (Sarepta. The utilitarian "Persian" storejar handles. style. et al. Antiquities in Palestine 14:1-41. Astrom. and Panayot. N. Syria 71:259-346. Bucharest. Beck.M. 1980. P. 2000a. 1969. A. P.M. P. a. 1974. Tell Qiri: A Village in the Jezreel Valley.. The Middle Cypriote Bronze Age. 1985a. A. Anderson. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 258. 1991. Artzy. Astrom. Tell Kazel (Syrie): Rapport preliminaire sur les 4e8e campagnes de fouilles (1988-1992). 1977. sec. Bikai. P. Anderson. C. and ceramic technology in the early phases of the Phoenician Iron Age. Vienna. University ofStrasbourg). P. (Monograph Series of the Institute of Archaeology. In: Kochavi. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 238:69-73. Bikai. Vessel shape. pp. Ramat Gan. 1971. Corinthian Vase-Painting of the Archaic Period II. 1972-1984: First Summary. R: et al. I mercenari nel mondo greco I: Daile origini alia fine del V. Aphek-Antipatris l. Histria IV. P. The Pottery ofTyre. (Hebrew) Amiran. Bikai. Excavations at Kalopsidha andAyios lakovos in Cyprus. Tel Aviv. E. 1978a. P. 1957. E. 2000b. A Phoenician Antiquities. 1988. Jerusalem Amiran.M.Greek pottery from Ashkelon. L. Berkley. (The Swedish Cyprus Expedition. 243 representation Evidence for the Trade between Israel and Tyre: Short stand from Amathus. Amyx.P. J. The Middle Cypriote Bronze Age. W. et al. P. 71-72 The Quarterly of the Department of . M. Badre. Vol. M. Beck. Bettalli. Ben-Tor. 1988. 1985. Lund. P. Alexandrescu. W Hamilton des Antiquites a Tell Abu Hawam effectuies en 1932-1933 pour Ie compte Niveaux IV et V: de la Palestine sous Ie Mandat Britannique. R. 19). Warminster. Lebanon). Livadhia "Kokotes".

E.F. Biblical Dan. Proto-Attic well groups from the Athenian agora. London. Centre Jean Berard. 1) Gottingen . Tel Aviv University). 1996. 116:48-62. and Greenberg. 1984. P. Turnhout. En Shadud: Salvage Excavations at a Farming Community in the Jezreel Valley. (Ph.M. Excavations in Chios 1952 -1955: Greek Emporio. Qraye and Qasmieh of south Lebanon. The Archaic Deposits II and Later Deposits. P. PM. F. 1988. 1993. E.P. P. 1933/34. Braun. 1961a.V. and Bikai. Institute Francais de Naples. M. RM. 1. 1998. I. Braemer.V. Biran. Ceramique: Orient. Cyprus Part 2:35-44. 1. ed. Boardman. Pottery. (British School at Athens Supplementary Volume 10) London. Messapian Zeus: An early Sixth-century inscribed cup from Lakonia. 1993. A. The Athenian Agora VIII: Late Geometric and Proto-Attic Pottery. IN. 1978a. S. In: Dictionnaire de la civilisation phenicienne et punique. pp. 1. Bikai. Jerusalem. D. London. D. Princeton. Paris. 1994.. A catalogue of Iron Age pottery from the cemeteries of Khirbet Silm. R. S. and Humbert.1. 81-196. 1994. Tombe phenicienne de Sin el Fil. Winona Lake. Rapport sur la sixierne campagne de fouilles (1976) archeologiques arabes syriennes 27-28:29-40: Courbin. 1. D.) London and New York. The Greeks Overseas. 1939. A. and Finkelstein. P. Dan I Jerusalem. pp. Fouilles de Bassit: Tombes du Fer. 1997. Tel Aviv. 1. (3rd ed. Nicosia. Briend. London and New York. R. 6-9 Juillet 1976. 1968.M. Suppl. Annales a Ras el Bassit. 1980. Rapport sur la campagne de 1972. and Hayes.M. 1973. 1972. Coldstream..M. Shiloh: The Archaeology of a Biblical Site. Joya. P. Naples: 41-42 244 . D. La ceramique de la Grece de l'est Courbin. R. 96-98. E. II. R. Fikellura pottery. 1980. Israel (British Archaeological Reports International Series 249) Oxford. 1973. In: Les ceramiques de la Grece de l'est et leur diffusion en occidente. E. (Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens. Biran. Late Geometric well groups from the Athenian agora. 1978b. Cook. and Shipley.Paris.N. 1986. 1963-1965. Catling. E.P. Boardman. Ilan. Bassit. 1967. A-t-on retrouve l'antique Posideion it Ras el Bassit. Ras el Bassit. Cook. Berytus 21 :55-194.1. a Ras el Bassit (Syrie). Annales archeologiques arabes syriennes 23:25-38. 1986.W. Cole. Courbin. dissertation. and Dupont. Braun. Cook. Greek Painted Pottery. Bunimovitz. Paris: 803-810. Greek Geometric Pottery. 6) London. Brann. P. Syria 63:175-220. Chehab. La ceramique a engobe rouge de l'age du fer a Bassit. Bari. 1977-78. 1992. 1. P. Boldrini.Arch. Courbin. Syria 63:221-246.G. I.M. R. Annual of the British School at Athens 34: 1-98. Cook. The Phoenician Pottery of Cyprus. Hesperia 30: 305-379. Cultural Diversity and Change in the Early Bronze I of Israel and Jordan. Hesperia 30:93-146. Scavi nel santuario greco: Le ceramiche ioniche. Courbin. Shechem I.. Annual of the British School of Archaeology at Athens 84:187-200. In: Finkelstein. en Galilee. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 11:255-266. Tell Keisan (1971-1976): Une cite phenicienne orientalis Ser. 1989. Early Greek Pottery in Tyre and Cyprus: Some preliminary comparisons. Melanges Syriennes. Brann. 1961b. Boardman. Gravisca. S. Archeologia Courbin. Tel Aviv. 1992. Report of the Department of Antiquities. Brann. Excavations at Tocra. P. (Orbis biblicus et r Chapman.Bikai. 1996. 1962. 1987. 1985. Coldstream. The Wild Goat and Fikellura Styles: Some Speculations. East Greek Pottery.

Istanbuler Mitteilungen. Zu den 'rhodischen' Bronzekannen aus Hallstattgrabem. Ussishkin. Phonizier im Westen. and Green A 'Atiqot XXIX: 1*-29*. Keramik. 1958. ed. Dupont. D. Mezad Hashavyahu: Its material culture and historical background. Elgavish. 1980. Schicht. Furtwangler. In: Yedaya. E. Marburger Winckelmann-Programm: 18-26. The repertoire of Phoenician pottery. Akko: Interim Excavation Report First Season. And Na'aman. De Vaux. W. Tel Aviv 28:3-165. E. Archaeological Survey of Israel. (Hebrew) Emery. Athenische Abteilung 95: 149-224. Milet Kolloquium Franlifurt am Main 1899-1980: Ergebnisse. I. 1963.M. 1948. 31. Culican. 1973/4. Jerusalem. In: Finkelstein. Mezad Hasavyahu: Its material culture and historical background.und Baubefund. Finkelstein. AM. Rivista di Studi Fenici 9. report on the survey of Western Galilee. R. In: Niemeyer. Dothan. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 224: 1-48. Notes on the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age Pottery of Megiddo. M. W. A. 1931-1938. In: Finkelstein. I. British Museum Excavations atNimrud and Balawat in 1989. N. eds. 16-24. and Shipton. Classification d'lstros. 244-324. 2001. Zefat (Wadi Hamra). Damati. 1986 Naturwissenschaftliche Bestimmung der archaischen Keramik. Collon. W.2:169-175. Fantalkin. ed. Beitrage 8. Culican. Revue Dothan. 1980 . The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Vol. K and H and their stratigraphic and chronological implications. Hama. 1994. 1934. Levant 7:145-150. Erwerbungen der Koniglichen Museen zu Berlin 1887. Tel Aviv 28:3-165. Middle Bronze Age Tombs at Kfar Szold and Ginnosar.. 1994. I. W.. 1976-1979. The Tomb of Hem aka. Jerusalem. Phoenician Aegis jugs. Haifa. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archaologischen Institutes. and Halpern. I. ed.. Frankel. W. Fugman. Copenhagen. 1975. Sidonian bottles. A. The Excavations at Nahariyah: Preliminary Report (Season 1954/55). Fouilles et recherches. 1974. R. 1993. Upper Galilee in the Late Bronze . J. 45-82. Tubingen. Suppl. (Hebrew) Frankel. D. The Iron Age pottery assemblages from Areas F. R. Tel Aviv.B. M. 245 . Mainz. Shiqmona on the Seacoast of Mount Carmel.. Engberg. pp. R. A Middle Bronze Age II burial cave on Mt. From \ Nomadism to Monarchy.M. Dacia 27:19-43.. 18) Tel Aviv. 1982. Some Phoenician masks and other terracottas. 1996. M. P. Cairo Emery. Y. Chicago. Madrider LCurtis. Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archaologischen Institutes 3:245-254..G. pp. In: Stem. Israel Exploration Journal 6:14-25. Berytus 24:47-87. Cairo-London. Pres naplouse. Acco. 1983.11:1: L 'architecture des periodes pre-hellenistiques. P. pp. Probleme und Perspektiven einer Ausgrabung. Map of Akhziv (1). 1986. 'Atiqot 7:13-39. Epstein. C. pp. 1993. 1. 1958-59. Dothan. Zimhoni. pp. E. Frey. 304-317. In: MUller-Wiener. B. and Steve. Heraion von Samos: Grabungen im Sudtemenos 1977. Biblique 55:544-580. Furtwangler. W. A 1988. pp. and Stepanski. The Antiquities of Western Galilee. Canaan. Tel Aviv Megiddo III: The 1992-1996 Seasons. I-III. Iraq 55:1-37. H. Culican. (Monograph University No.. Map of Hanita (2). La Seconde Campagne de fouilles A Tell el-Far'ah. (Hebrew) Fantalkin. J. 2000. M. 1975-76. 1997.Culican. 1981.B. N.O.-H. 1956. and Getzov.Iron I Transition. W. 18-34. Kafri. Great Tombs of the First Dynasty. 1976. R. A... A 2001. 1938. Frankel. 57-71. 0. Preliminary Series of the Institute of Archaeology. G. Washington. et determination de provenance de ceramiques grecs orientales archaiques Excavations in the Holy Land Dupont.

D.. 2000. R. 2. The Material Culture of the Middle Jordan Valley in the Pottery Neolithic and Chalcolithic Periods. pp 61-79. L. (Hebrew) Garfinkel.. Samos III: Der Nordbau im Heraion von Sam os. Gerstenblith. Dan I. 1996. L. Sadeh. A. R. R. (Hebrew) Grace. Ilan. Forthcoming. (Hebrew). 13: 19-21. Israel Exploration Journal 42:4-16. H. Helsinki. E.. Eretz Israel 25: 122-135. S. Studies in Honor of Ernest S. A. Mazar. E. The Swedish Cyprus Expedition Classical Periods. Colloquia and Conference Papers No. P. pp. Cypro-Archaic and Cypro- 246 .92*. eds. (Qedem Reports 2) Jerusalem. In: Stem. Vol. Jerusalem. Horvat -Uza Excavations and Surveys in Israel. (Israel Antiquities Empire and Its western periphery: The Levant. S. A Middle Bronze Age burial cave at Tur-an. 93-160. Recent Excavations in Israel: A View to the Institute of America. The Excavations at Bet Ha'emek. Greenberg. 1997. Atlanta. In: Kempinski.. and Bonfil. D. I. A Middle Bronze Age Tomb at Barqa'i. and Sussman. Frerichs. 1993. A. Preliminary Report of 1986 Season. <Atiqot. Gal. Gal. (Hebrew) Y. 1992. Tel Aviv. S. Gitin. Samian amphoras. Tel Aviv. 4. Gras. S. S. I B: Areas A and C: The Finds. R. E. Y. Mycenaean Pottery: 1. A. The Philistines in the Prophetic Texts: An archaeological perspective. Reports No. S. Garfinkel. Tel Miqne-Ekron in the 7th century BCE: The impact of economic innovation and foreign cultural influences on a Neo-Assyrian West. (ed. and Greenberg.2: The Cypro-Geometric. Getzov. 1995. 1989. (Hebrew) Gershuny. dissertation.Furtwangler. Assyrian type pottery at Dor and the status of the town during the Assyrian occupation period. Iron I-IIA Pottery evolution at Dor: regional contexts and the Cypriote connection. Winona Lake. Stockholm. A. and Eisenberg. 1993. 1985. Rome. The Levant at the Beginning of the Middle Bronze Age. Gopher. Hebrew University of Jerusalem) Jerusalem.J. Y. 1971. 1969. Bonn. V. R. 1992. The Neo-Assyrian vassal state. 413-425. Winona Lake.. Gershuny. :77-104. (Acta Instituti Atheniensis Regni Sueciae 20) Stockhohn. A. 1995. N. (Archaeological Gitin. A. A. 1998. V. Phoenicians and Israelites in the "Land ofCabul". Lower Galilee during the Iron Age. In: Gitin. Chronology. (Qedem 39) Jerusalem.. ed. Trafics Thyrrheniens Archaiques.. Final Report. S. pp.8) Jerusalem. In: Gitin. A. Y. Assyria 1995. Mediterranean Peoples in Transition: Thirteenth to Early Tenth Centuries BCE. pp. pp. 'Atiqot 5:1-13. HESED VEEMET. Z. eds. and Goren. eds. with a focus on Philistine Ekron.1) Dubuque. 1941. J. (American Research Dissertation Series 5). Givon. Y. Analysis and Classification. The pottery from Area E. 1996. Gitin. 1948. pp. Alexandre. Jerusalem. ed. Gjerstad. 1992. and Whiting. Schools of Oriental Cathedra 88:7-14. S.M. S. Garfinkel. Authority. Z. and Kienast. Z. Gilboa. 273-290. Gilboa. The Neolothic and Chalcolithic Pottery of the Southern Levant. Eretz-Israel 21:132-147.. The Early Bronze Age levels.R. pp. Furumark. Gophna. 1987. In: Magness. In: Biran. and Gitin. 1998. 1983. The Pottery Assemblage of Nahal Beset I: A Neolithic Site in the Upper Galilee. Gilboa. The typology and chronology of the Iron Age pottery and the chronology of Iron Age assemblages. 1990. Excavations at Kabri 1. 1999. Graves and Burial Customs of the MB IIA Period in Gesher. Gal. 1998. 1-49.. (Ph.) Excavations at Dor. In: Parpola. Horbat Rosh Zayit: An Iron Age Storage Fort and Village. and Stem.. 66-69. M. Hesperia 40: 52-95.

Universidad de Cantabria. at Gozlu Kule.New Hanfmann. H. The Middle Bronze Age tombs. J. The origin of the 'Loop-Handle Jars' from Tell Keisan. 1990. and Southdes Vorderen Orients 10: 127r 147 stratigraphy and fmds. J. In: Ben-Tor. 1929. 1966. G.VIII a. Isler. A. (Hebrew) Kaplan. necropoles Levantine Pottery Production Center: Typology. M. The Aegean and the Near East. M. 7-8: Preliminary Report of the 1992-1993 Seasons. lIan. Excavations at Wadi Rabah. Annualofthe Humbert.B. J. A and Niemeier. Tel Aviv. In: Weinberg. 19-148. pp. Iron Age Pottery in Northern Mesopotamia. 161-329. Middle Bronze Age painted pottery from Tel Dan. S. Rhodos Johnson. I. R. 1932. (British School at Athens. and Hayes. Haifa: EI stratum III: British School at Athens 44:162-257. 1929/30. In: Biran. Bulletin of the de la region sidonienne. J. Kaplan. and Porat.H. Opuscula Atheniensia XIV:49-72. The British Museum Quarterly 4: 107. Kafer-garra. 1978. Thinitische Topfmarken. Kaplan. The Middle Cypriote Pottery found in Palestine. Hanfmann.. In: Boardman.A. On Some Eastern Greek Wares Found at Tarsus. P. 1. Ilan. W. P. M. P. 1931. Gothenburg. pp. 1980. P. A bronze buckle from Syria. (Hebrew) Kaplan. Johnston. Neolithic and Chalco lithic Remains at Lod. Eretz-Israel13 :57-75. Bonn. Haller.O. Hennessy. Israel Exploration Journal 8: 149-160.E. Chicago. pp. P. Athens. Helck. Haider.M. Excavations Deposits!. 1990. A. In: Ulf.. 165-184. J. Essai de classification des amphores dites (Qedem 24) Jerusalem. A. Wege zur Genese griechischer Identitat: Die Bedeutung der fruharchaischen Zeit. and Perlman. D. 247 aus Halstattgrabern. Wiesbaden. at Tocra 1963-1965: The Archaic Excavations at Kabri. A. Bulletin du Musee de Gunneweg. D. J. Jerusalem. Tell Qiri: A Village in the Jezreel Valley. Jones. Megiddo Tombs.Greenberg. (Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft 65) Berlin. The 'SOS' Amphora. F. pp. 1986. 1996a. 1958. de C. Herrera Gonzalez. Studies Presented to Hetty Goldman.B. 139-223. Verxffentlichungen der Deutschen Orient Hall. And Reiche. Greek and Cypriot Pottery: A Review of Scientific Studies. Die Graber und Grufte von Assur. Clara Rhodos 4: Scavi nelle necropoli Camiresi 1929-1930. Jacopi. Excavations Hausleiter. In: Kempinski.J. Petrography and Provenance of the Metallic Ware of Northern Israel and Adjacent Regions. 18-332. Revue Biblique 98 :591-599. York.. R. Pre-Hellenistic Greek Pottery in Palestine. Revue Biblique 98. R. 1978. 1937. Levant 28: 157-172. 1991. 1977. Samos IV: Das Archaische Nordtor und seine Umgebung im Heraion von Samos. ed. 1963. Quarterly of the Department of Antiquities in Palestine 2: 15-26. et al. R. Lebe'a. The Iron Age pottery of Tarsus. pp. 1996. Supplementary Vol. 1. Griechen im Vorderen Orient und in Agypten. Hopper. Las excavaciones Historia del puerto fenicio durante los siglos X. 1967.. A. eds. 59-115. Hamilton en Tell Abu Hawam. eds.W. Iliffe.A Tarsus III: The Iron Age . 1996. In: Goldman. J. Ein el-Jerbeh: Chalcolithic Remains in the Jezreel Valley. D.P. 1994. 1949. The pottery. 1956.W. pp. W. Altertumskunde Hawari. lIan. pp. 1991. 4) London. 1987. Hunt. H.M. ed.E. Berlin. A 1954. and Greenberg. G. The Origins and Distribution of Tell el-Yahudiyeh Ware. de R. The Foreign Relations of Palestine during the Early Bronze Age. Eastern Anatolia. G. 1996b. eds. Northern Syria.H. Tel Aviv. ed.L. 1999. R. Naomi. The Iron Age: the pottery.Princeton. J. and Jones. *47-*51 Hayes. Qraye.. 1982.E. Beyrouth 1: 35-76. Addenda to Necrocorinthia. London. Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archaologischen "a anses de panier". R. 1938. A Third Millennium American Schools of Oriental Research 301 :5-24.W. 1969. Guy. Ch. Jacobsthal. At-Tall: Architecture. Santander. D. Dan!. Annual of the British School at Athens 73:103-141.. 574-590. .-D. Guigues. Rhodische Bronzekannen Institutes 44:198-223.

-D. Lambrino. A. E. 1914. (Hebrew) Kochavi. M.Chr. Studien zu Chronologie und Verbreitung der Opferkomplex des 7. eds. Kabri 1993. Bird Bowls and related Archaic ceramics from Miletus. Kochavi. University of Bochum) M. V. 1985. V.159-169.F. 1993. 1: Die Nekropole des spaten 8. Salamis Vol.-D. and Niemeier. Chr. Neutron Activation Analysis of Kerschner. C. Berlin. Jhs. Berlin. 3. Jhs.D. ostgriechischen Keramik (Ph. Nicosia. Beiblatt: 84-226. Qadmoniot 9:22-24. 1970. Lehmann.B. (Altertumskunde des Vorderen Orients 5) MUnster. M. (Aegaeum Kitchen. R. Excavations in the Necropolis of Salamis II. 1996. The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt.. The 1972-1976 Seasons. pottery in Canaan during the 14th-12th centuries BC. Excavation of Areas A and B. In: Cline. 5. Archaeology in Israel: Hinterland of Akko (Map 20). Karageorghis. American Journal of Archaeology 98:481-519. Kempinski. Unpublished Tombs in the Cyprus Museum. 934-936. and Harris-Cline. Chronoque des Fouilles a Chypre en 1960. Kerschner. eds. Excavations at Kabri 7-8: Preliminary Report of the 1992-1993 Seasons. ed. K. Nicosia. Mycenaean and Aegean-style 18) Liege. dissertation. Israel Exploration Journal 43 :181-184. and Niemeier. D. Kabri 1992. 1993a.-D. pp. Nicosia. S. 3. v. W. Karageorghis. Karageorghis.A. Koehl. Rodiake Aggeiographia. Fouilles de Vroulia (Rhodes). 1998. (Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 17) Gothenberg. Mommsen. 19). Kinch. pp. Tel Aviv. Lamprichs. Kubler. Les vases archaiques d' Histria. 1997. (Alten Orient und Altes Testament239) Neukirchen.. of Archaeological Excavations in the and Social in the Middle- 248 . Tel. and Hein. Ostgriechische Kerschner. Syrien und Palastina (Kanaan) in der Letzten Phase der Mittelbronze II B Zeit (Agypten und Altes Testament 4). Knapp.. 4. Complexity and Collapse in the North Jordan Valley: Archaeometry Late Bronze Ages. East Greek or Eastern Levantine? Simple painted decorated pottery in the eastern Levant during the Achaemenid period. W. Kardara. M. Excavations in the Necropolis of Salam is I. H. aus dem Artemision von Ephesos. The Bronze AgeNecropolis at Ayia Paraskevi. Die Westexpansion des neuassyrischen Reiches: Eine Strukturanalyse..E. Vol. 1938. The first season of excavation at Tell Malhata.v. 1967.Vluyn. 2000. 1970. K. Lehmann. 1983. R. Wiesbaden. A. and Niemeier. Tel Aviv. Kochavi.H. Bucharest. X Beyrouth. 1997. Heimermann. 1970. Beersheba. M. H. V. T. 1993b. American Journal of Archaeology 99:305-306. Aphek-Antipatris I. 1963. Bulletin de Correspondance hellenique 85:256-315. Kempinski. M. 1961. Athens. (Nicosia). G. Kromholz. Katzenstein. Beier. The New Encyclopedia Holy Land. W..F. 1973. S. A. A. Chr. Lehmann. M. A. V. Salamis Vol. D. 1982. Area E. Ein stratifizierter Jahreshefte des Osterreichischen archaologischen Institutes in Wien 66. G. 1974.. bis fruhen 6. Israel Exploration Journal 39: 129-148.B.1989. Salamis Vol. Excavations at Kabri: The Iron Age Tell. Excavations in the Necropolis of Salam is III. Untersuchungen zur Spiiten Eisenzeit in Syrien und Libanon: Stratigraphie und Keramiliformen zwischen ca. The History ofTyre. 1995. 1993.R. Warminster. (Monograph Series of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University No. E. Wolff. Kerameikos VI. 1994. Jerusalem. 1995. In: Stem.Karageorghis. Sarepta III: The Imported Bronze and Iron Age Wares from Area II. Israel Exploration Journal 43:257-259. K. The Aegean and the Orient in the Second Millennium. 1995. Vogelschalen und Verwandtes. Kempinski. A. In: Kempinski. A. 720 bis 300 v. Killebrew. 1994a.1. Archaeometry 35:197-210. Malhata. G.

In: Oren. Biblische Notizen 62:41-44. In: Mazar. ed. (Studies in Mediterranean XVIII). E. Excavations und Milet in in Phoenicia: New Evidence from Tel Kabri. Tel Aviv 29:328-331. Naveh. Area E . Excavations at Mesad Hashavyahu: Preliminary report. Supplement 331) Sheffield. Jhs. 1995. pp. pp. A.L. and Porat. Philadelphia. 1968. 1987. 1992. A. Phoenicians in western Galilee: First results of an archaeological Study of the Old Testament. 1966. 43-79. A Cautious Approach to the Middle Bronze AgeChronology Levante 3:115-121. Jerusalem. Excavations at Kabri 4. G. Maigret. Tel Aviv. (Ph. Maguire. W.M. eds. 1998.. Die 'Zierde Ioniens': Ein archaischer Brunnen. R. Neo-Assyrian Influence at Tell Jemmeh. D. Mallowan. Lipinski. Early Middle Bronze Age IIA Remains at Tell el-Ifshar.. In: Malamat. Vo!' 1.. 2001. (Orientis Antiqui Collectio 15) Roma. 1962. Preliminary Report of the 1986 Season. Y. 1992. Israel. Studies in the Archaeology of the Iron Age in Israel and Jordan. ed.funzioni e comportamento.L. 1974. ed. Pastor. pp. E. H. Chicago. 1979. Dictionnaire de la civilisation phenicienne et punique. Niemeier. Tel Aviv. Maritime Trade in the Southern Levantfrom Period. Tel Aviv. E. W.C. and Niemeier. 1992. Israel: A preliminary Report. 1995. Imported Cypriote Pottery from Middle Bronze Age Levels at Kabri. Aegypten und 249 . Preliminary Report of the 1989 Season. ed. Niemeier. IV. 1991.. Oxford University) Oxford. E. W. La cittadella di Hama: Attivita.. Lund. (Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology XXXIX) Lund. 1992. Pakman. 2001. W. xxxiv-xxxix. Greek Pottery. W.A. Tell Gemmeh. In: Kempinski. Megiddo II.-D. Tel Aviv. W.v. Survey in der Chora von Milet.. W. 1991. Archaic Greeks in the Orient: Textual and archaeological evidence. pp. and Niemeier.2:121-147. Evidence for Greek Mercenaries at Kabri? In: Kempinski. Late Iron Age pottery vessels at Tel Dan.S. A. and Niemeier. Geology and the loessial soils.-D. 1990. 11*-22*. dissertation. S. W.. H.C. eds. Niemeier. Na'aman. Israel Exploration Journal 12:89-113. G. 1997. Excavations alKabri. Niemeier.Chr.S. In: Kempinski. Nimrud and Its Remains. Niemeier. W. Tel Nami: A Study of a Middle Bronze IIA Period Coastal Settlement. The World History of the Jewish People: Ancient Times. L. A. Maguire.-D. pp.D.-D.. Malamat. Geoarchaeology 7. Eretz Israel 23:230-240 (Hebrew with English summary) Paley. Pakman.S.S. G. at Kabri 5. 1980. pp. (Journal of the Lohmann. A. The Greek Pottery.. Excavations at Kabri 7-8. Greek Mercenaries Archaeology 99:304-305. 44-51. A.G. Archaologischer Anzeiger (in press). 1. Niemeier.The Stratigraphy and Finds. Series 1. eds. A. of Cyprus.-D. 2002. In: Trade and Transcendence in the Bronze Age Levant.-D. 1992. Merrillees. L. Marcus. London. Preliminary Report of 1990 Season.1. D. Melson. 205-221. 1999. Greek mercenaries at Tel Kabri and other sites in the Levant. ed. Mattingly. 1948. Eretz Israel 23:230-240.. A Middle Cypriote III Tomb Group from Arpera Mosphilos. 1979. der jungere Athenatempel der zweiten Halfte des 6. de. 65-112. Nebuchadnezzar's Campaign in the Year 603 Be.E. 1994. R. A. Late Iron Age pottery vessels from Tel Dan. van Beek. The last years of the kingdom of Judah. In: Kempinski. Loud.-D. thesis.-D. N. 31*-38*. M. Near East Archaeological Society Bulletin 15-16:33-49. The Cypriote Bronze Age Pottery Found in Egypt. American Journal of Archaeology Earliest Times through the Middle Bronze IIa (M. G. W. Marcus.D. Preliminary Report of the 1992-1993 Seasons. Turnhout survey in the hinterland of Akko. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 322: 11-32. pp. Merrillees. 1992. Archaologischer Anzeiger Heft 2:293-328.Lehmann. The Hyksos: New Historical and Archaeological perspectives.-D. University of Haifa) Haifa.

Necrocorinthia: A Study in Corinthian Art in the Archaic Period Oxford. Schaeffer. Levant 17:203-204. Risser. C. *-74 *. 1995. Jonsered. In: Bennett. Milet 1996und Keramikfunde der Stratigraphie und -schalen aus der Nordhangsondage.M. Eretz-IsraeI25:61 Stager. eds. 1999. 1980. Chicago. De I 'Indus aux Balkans: Recueil les Civilisations) Paris. L. (Ph. Les Fouilles de Ras-Shamra 1937. Transeuphratene 16:87-120. H. T. Sukas II: The Aegean.E. 1900-01. W. Imported Aegean Fine Ware in the first millenium BCE. The fury of Baby Ion: Ashkelon and the archaeology of destruction. Sapin. London.1:56-69. 1989.F. 1888. A third season of excavations at Mezad Hasavyahu. M. 1970. 1938..237-260. U. The Commercial Jar in the Ancient Near East: Its Evidence for Interconnections Biblical Lands. 1931. lB. 1973. 1939. 1985a.Payne. Cambridge. thesis. (Hebrew) protogeometrischen und der geometrischen Zeit. ed. dissertation. C. Notes on the Megiddo Pottery of Strata VI-XX. Copenhagen.F. In: Huot. and Edwards. Raban. Untersuchungen zur handgemachten Keramik Griechenlands in der submykenischen. Eretz-IsraeI25:61 Review 22. American Department of Antiquities of Jordan 29: 181-210. 1991. eds. Werkstatten orientalisierender Keramik aufRhodos. Die 'rhodischen' Bronzekannen. Pythian-Adams. S. Syria 13:321-333. "Mortaria": Un lot inedit de Tell Keisan: Essai d'interpretation fonctionnelle. Colledge. L. 1996. 199-212 Salles. Salles. *-74*. Eretz-IsraeI9:122-129. London. L. Corinthian and Eastern Greek Pottery and Terracottas. M. B. University ofBochum) In: Kerschner. PJ. Sueidia IV: The Early Greek vases.D. Eretz-IsraeI20:228-232.F.B. Schlotzhauer. Report on the stratification of Askalon. Princeton. pp. 21-23. Griechen in Phonizien.A. 1969. lL. 1940. 1985b.A. Oxford. Riis.F. W. U. Ploug. and Blakely. Reber. M. R. The excavations at Al Mina. Kislev 604 BCE. 1986. C. Winona Lake. T.F. G. Mainz.C. 69-137. L. Shipton.W. C.F. Sparkes. H. 1. Syria 19:193-255. Stager. Phonizier im Westen. Cuvettes et "mortiers" du Levant au ler millenaire avant lC. W. Petrie.K.E.F.M. Robertson.M. Ashkelon and the archaeology of destruction: Kislev 604 BCE. 1957. 1989. Yon.P. amongst the (Hebrew) a la memoire de Jean Deshayes. 1998. Schaeffer. pp.l Jr. Annual of the British School at Athens 81:251-295. Journal of Hellenic Studies 60:2-21. Knickrandskyphoi 1997: Das Artemisheiligtum aus Milet.A. Preliminary Report on the Sixth Season of Excavation by the University of Sydney at Pella in Jordan 1983/84. Sondagen des Jahres 1995. Stratigraphie comparee et chronologie de Asie Occidentale. G. 1932. A propos du niveau 4 de Tell Keisan. 1982. Y. Tel el-Hesi: The Persian Period (Stratum V). M. Rostovtzeff. pp. The Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty. and Calvet. J. 1979. Shefton. 1949.M. Schaeffer.A. Excavations at Kabri.. (Unpublished M. 1988. Biblical Archaeological 250 . Palestine Exploration Fund. Tanis II. IF. Pritchard. pp. 1979. X Sarepta 4. Petrie.A. Hebrew University) Jerusalem. 1923. M. Reich. M. Bucchero Pottery from Southern Etruria. 1948. The Objects from Area II. K.76-77. (Hebrew) Rasmussen. lA.J. Two Fikellura vase painters. Schaus. W.B. (Editions Recherche sur auf der Ostterrasse des Kalabaktepe. Berlin. P. Stager. The Athenian Agora XII: Black and Plain Pottery of the 6th. Beirut. Prausnitz. Ashkelon and the Archaeology of Destruction. 1996a. 5th and 4th Centuries B. and Blakely. 1985. In: Niemeyer.A. J.-G. Ugaritica II. (Madrider Beitrage 8) Mainz. and Talcott. Paris. W. Die Knickrandschalen Schlotzhauer. Notes d'archeologie orientale. Quarterly Statement :53-84. Archaologischer Anzeiger. 1996b... A.. Schiering. G. Potts. B.

Syria'55:1-151. F. 169-196. Walter-Karydi.). 1988. H. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 305: 1-17. Mesad Hasavyahu. Ecole Francaise de Rome. Early Greek contacts with the southern Levant.E. O. 31) Tubingen. and Vallet. Tell <Arqa it l'epoque perse. Studies des Deutschen Archaologischen . H. Syro-Mesopotamian 3..Stem. E. J. W. and Katz. 1977-78.P. 73-80.. Syria. J. Thrane. Ras ShamralLeukos 11. 1000-600 B. Copenhagen. Walter. 1990. G. Tubb. Food and Limen. O. P. Jhs.1) Munchen. W. Melanges d archeologie et d'histoire 65:7-34. Dor: Ruler of the Seas. V. 1968. Palestine. 1995.-W. Taylor.3:110-168. Zur archaischen Keramik Ostioniens. (Istanbuler Mitteilungen. The imagery of the wine bowl: wine in Assyria in the early first millennium Nutrition in History and Anthropology Stucky. Mitteilungen Institutes. pp. und 6. Greeks and graves in the coastal Levant. LC. Stronach.H. Jahrhundert v. du Plat. Ein Beitrag zu den fruhen Handelsbeziehungen Mainz 36:327-410. Excavations at Tel Mevorakh (1973-1976): Part 1: From the Iron Age to the Roman Period (Qedem 9) Jerusalem.C. F. Megara Hyblaea V: Lampes du VIle siecle et chronologie des coupes ioniennes. Milet 1899-1980: Ergebnisse. Jerusalem. Stem. Tefnin. 1959. B. 1989. 1983. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 293 :53-66. 1978. Giirtelschliessen des 7. Vom Sinai zum Horeb. H. Thalmann.C.-L. Samos V: Fruhe samische Gefasse. The Courtyard Cemetery at Tell el-(Ajjul. The pottery from the Royal Tombs I-II at Byblos. J. 1971. Waldbaum. Thalmann. ed. Wtirzburg.J. The Cypriote and Syrian pottery from al Mina. Milet. F. Levant 15: 49-62. lC. destruction levels in Israel. Athenische Abteilung 54:6-64. Amsterdam. Tell 'Arqa (Liban nord): Campagnes I-III (1972-1974): Chantier I: Rapport preliminaire. 1989. Bericht uber die Arbeiten am Sudschnitt an der hellenistischen Istanbuler Mitteilungen 23/24: 63-115. S. in Mittelitalien. 1996.-W. von Hase. Bulletin of the University of London Institute of Archaeology 3: 1-37. J. Chronologie und Landschcftsstile ostgriechischer GefaJ3e. LC. 1997. 1980. Greeks in the East or Greeks and the East? Problems in the defmition and recognition of presence. Palastina in vorhellenistischer Zeit (Handbuch der Archaologie. Stationen alttestamentlicher Glaubensgeschichte. D. Wenning. Der etruskische Bucchero aus Karthago. von Hase.E.-6. Suppl. 1986.. H. H. Griechische Keramik im samischen Heraion.Bonn. In: McGovern. Tufnell. The Origins and Ancient History of Wine. Probleme und Perspektiven einer Ausgrabung. ein Stiitzpunkt des Jojakim? In: Hossfeld. Jahrbuch des Romisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Stadtmauer 1963. The Inscriptions of Tiglat-Pileser III. R. pp. S. ca. 251 im westlichen Mittelmeergebiet (7. 1997. 1978. J.: The eastern perspective. lC. eds. 1973/74. Waldbaum.C. Chr. Kolloquium Franlifurt am Main 1980. Waldbaum. 1955. Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archdologischen Institutes 86:1-59. R. Vorderasien 2. 1962. Tufnell. 1929. The chronology of Early Greek pottery: New evidence from seventhcentury B. The MB IIA Period in Palestine: Its Relationship with Syria and its Origin. Les niveaux superieurs du Tell Abou Danne Chantier A. Transeuphratene 2:51-57. Iraq 21:62-92. and Magness. F. 1983. Fleming. Paris. Berytus 18:5-33. 1994. E. Weippert. Jerusalem. 1994. Technau. 1994.P. King of Assyria. ed. Sukas IV: A Middle Bronze Age Collective Grave. Waldbaum. American Journal of Archaeology 99:306. Tadmor. von Graeve.A. American Journal of Archaeology 101:23-40.. Villard. 1978. Bibliotheque d'Archaeologie et d'Histoire 110. R. In: Muller-Wiener. 1969.

) in the British Museum.S. Storage Jars in Ancient Sea Trade. Yadin. Vol. Chronicles of the Chaldaean Kings (626-556 B. pp. Hadashot Arkheologiot 188:31-33. American Journal of Archaeology 99:305. ed. Wiseman. 1939. 1956. Y. Juglets from a Potter's Refuse Pit at <Afula. Wiseman. R. 1995. Jerusalem. 1960. Tell el-Yahudiyeh (Hebrew).Wenning.l 1985. The Greek imports in Palestine: Aspects of function and decoration.J. D. Young. R. Amsterdam. J. Yadin.M. Wenning. Nachrichten tiber Griechen in Palastina in der Eisenzeit. U. III-IV An Account of the 3rd and 4th Seasons of Excavations 1957-1958. et al. (Hesperia Suppl. 207-219. Zevulun. Proceedings of the First International Congress on the Hellenic Diasporafrom Antiquity to 1453. II) Athens.. eds. Hazor. The National Maritime Museum. S. Tel Megadim (Tel Sahar). Jerusalem. Zemer. 1991. Haifa. Late Geometric Graves and a Seventh Century Well in the Agora. In: Fossey. Eretz-IsraeI21:174-190 Antiquity to Modern Times. 1998. Wolff. London. 1977. R. Nebuchadnezzar and Babylon. 1961. Vol. et al. 1990. eds. D. A. Y. (Schweich Lectures in Biblical Archaeology 1983) Oxford.C. I: From \ 252 . Hazor. II: An Account of the 2nd Season of Excavations 1956. Vol.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful