TEL KABRI

THE 1986-1993 EXCAVATION SEASONS
AHARON KEMPINSKI

Contributions by N. Angel-Zohar, R. Y. Bankirer, A. Cohen-Weinberger, P. Comale, C. Dauphin, M.Faerman, M. Fischer, L. Gershuny, S. Givon, Y. Goren, A. Horowitz, H. M. Khalaily, L. Kolska Horwitz, Z. Koren, G. Lehmann, O. Lemau, N. Liphschitz, O. Marder, H. Mienis, Y. Mizrachy, A. Nebel, B. Niemeier, W.-D. Niemeier, R. Oren, T. Oman, M. W. Prausnitz, A. Princivalle, P. Rosano, N. Scheftelowitz, S. Shalev, P. Smith, M. Tagliapietra, T. Tsuk, U. Yalcin. .

EDITED BY

NA' AMA SCHEFTELOWITZ AND RONIT OREN

EMERY AND CLAIRE YASS PUBLICATIONS IN ARCHAEOLOGY TEL AVIV 2002

IV. AREAE
Gunnar Lehmann

Area E lies on a small rectangular artificial hill measuring 100 x 150 m in the southwestern corner of the large Middle Bronze Age mound of Tel Kabri and rising some 12 m over it (Fig. 4.81). Until 1948 a small village called et-Tell occupied this area. The rich spring of <A a1-Fuwarah and the reservoir of <Ein Shefa' in (Birket Mefshukh) (Conder and Kitchener 1881:156, 158) lie to its northeast (Chapter 3). Excavation concentrated on the northwestern corner of the hill. The investigation, begun in 1986 under the supervision of Lilly Gershuny, was continued in 1989, 1990 and 1992 by Helena Pastor Borgonon. In 1993 this author supervised the excavations in Area E. Preliminary reports on the stratigraphy and finds for these seasons were published by the Kabri Expedition between 1990-1994 (Gershuny 1987; Kempinski 1987, 1991; Naveh and Kempinski 1991; Niemeier 1990, 1994; Pastor Borgonon 1990, 1991; Lehmann 1993).

Fig. 4.81: The mound of et-Tell showing the excavations in Area E.

Four main strata were discerned.
Stratum E1 E2 E3 E4 Date 19th century CE- 1948 Hellenistic period Iron Age" Iron Age" Iron Age" Description and Interpretation Village Some pottery finds from disturbed tombs Fortress Fortress Floors and debris

73

EARL Y BRONZE AGE
Pottery from this period was mixed into almost all lower Iron Age loci providing abundant evidence for occupation here at that time. However, no Early Bronze Age structures or layers were excavated.

MIDDLE AND LATE BRONZE AGE
These periods are represented by isolated sherds found in the debris below the lowest floors.

IRON AGE
The earliest Iron Age levels are debris layers (Locus 871) that were identified in a very limited sounding under Floor 870 of Stratum E4 (Fig. 4.82). There is no floor connected with this debris. STRATUME4 Remains of Stratum E4 appeared only in a sounding under Floor 866 of Stratum E3 in Square L 11.1 A plaster floor (870) at 55.00-55.10 m was discerned but its relationship to the casemate walls was not clear. However, the underlying locus (871) is already under the casemate walls and it seems probable that Stratum E4 predates the construction of the fortress. No other evidence of this stage was found, perhaps because excavation did not continue below Stratum 3 anywhere else. Pre-8th century BCE pottery (Figs. 5J50, 5.70) is associated with this stratum. STRATUME3 The structural piers remains of Stratum E3 are those of a fortress with casemate l312/816, l3111l344) are massive constructions, walls (858, fieldstone fills. Partition 878, 87~, 882, walls (Fig. 4.83, 4.84). The 1.60 m wide, built with ashlar l332) form a number of '
871

N
59.00

L11

s

Fig. 4.82: Schematic north-south section through Square Lll.

casemate walls (l343/863, and undressed compartments.

Casemate walls W816 and Wl311

of Stratum 3 are clearly cut in Square M9 by W131 0 of division (Fig. 4.85). only in Square

Stratum 2 (see below) providing us with a distinct stratigraphic LII at 55.90 m. Thus the earliest phase (E3c) is evident

Stratum E3 had at least three phases of floors (Fig. 4.85). Floor 866 was excavated is represented by floors at a level of about 57.00-15 by later building Metal fittings, activity m in the casemate rooms

only in one small room. The next phase (3b) 848, 876 and 883 in Almost (Locus all 873)

Squares Ll1, K-LlI2 was badly disturbed baskets century B.C.E.

and K13. The final phase (3a) at about 57.70 m (Loci 812, 813, 837, 1313, 1314) and the finds on and above them are mixed. Ottoman sherds together for a door, were found in the debris 3b and 3a contain probably with distinctive 8th-7th

of floor loci from phases pottery.

above the 3b floor 876. 1 Unfortunatelythe locusnumberwas not changedin 1990 so thatthe fmds from underthe floor are also numbered L. 866. It is howeverpossibleto isolatethe basketsL. 866 thatcontainedmaterialfrom StratumE4. 74

I~ It..J 75 . I I I I I ...

N t M N t M 10 N t M 10 Fig. 76 . E3b (centre) and E3c (bottom). 4.84: Schematicplans of Strata E3a (top).

4. STRATUME2 Only the northwestern part of this fortress was excavated (Squares L-Q/4-10) (Figs.89). 4. 4. looking east.86: Looking west over Squares 0-P/7-8. 4. looking south. Fig.88. 77 . W1310 of Stratum E2 (on right) cuts W1311/W1312 of Stratum 3 (on left).87. Room 1977 in foreground.Fig.87: Casemate rooms in Squares 0/4-8.85: Square M9. Fig. 4. 4.86. 4.

._ -1- _L I -I- -I- -i- I -1- N ~ -\- _L I -t~ V1 '+-< 0 ~ ~ e ..f z 0 0 ii: eO 78 .. 00 00 ." z o ..§ A-... .~· ------% -1. -1- -1- -1- -1- -1- -:--------:-:3t . I -j- ~~IM~. o ] ..

E2b N6 + 06 o:"'__~d' P6 B Destruction layer with Restorable Pottery 04 05 06 07 Fig. 4. A Destruction Layer with Restorable Pottery A L :---_ --I I 1 I I .. 79 .89: Schematic plan of Stratum E2 with Sections A-A and B-B. Str..SBm--+ B .'I .

Fortunately many floors were still deep enough to survive this leveling.g. its architectural context is unclear. 13. The sounding exposed remains ofa wall (WI926) in Square P7. 2b) represented by distinct floors. and found. The rich pottery repertoire retrieved comprises restorable types such as jugs. The beaten earth floor has an ash layer of up to 10 em on it. it is not clear to which stratum this wall belongs. 5. Below this was a further series of surfaces (1988. 5.1989. It may be the eastern continuation of the Stratum E2 casemate system or a reinforcement in Stratum E3 between walls W816 and W1343. 2). Stratum E2b in order to examine the foundations of W1389 but digging stopped before reaching their base. While most of the pottery from this sounding has parallels in both Strata E2 and E3.As in Stratum 3.90: W1340. Wall W1339 does not continue further east into Square L 11 but may have been robbed out. Two rows of rooms were excavated between the three walls. but thick layer of ash immediately north of it. The burnt contents of a transport jar were also collected. 1984) was exposed between walls W1331 and W897 in Square 0/5-6 (Fig. Under the lowest surface reached in the sounding (1992). In Square L 10 it disappears in pits which were dug by stone robbers in the Ottoman period when the remains of Stratum E2 were leveled and built over by a village.1992). Wall W1339 was built exactly between walls W816 and W1343. some of it (e.60 m wide. too remains obscure.79:12. adjusting to the topography of the mound. as were several additional rooms south of the innermost casemate wall (W897). Stratum E2. Since the foundation of W1339 was not excavated. About 10-15cm under the floor gravel bedding (Locus 1994) slopes downward from north to south. which may be the remains of a burnt beam. The ash and the restorable pottery from the casemate floor may indicate a destruction layer. looking None of the foundations of the three casemate walls were west. In Square OP7 a sounding was made under Floor 1987 of fieldstone fill.91). Other finds on the floor include iron objects. built with ashlar piers and undressed fieldstone fills (Fig. The outer casemate wall (W1382+WI986) turns northward after running for 25 m east-west. the casemate walls are 1. The structural context of this wall. Fig. This technique has been identified as a Phoenician architectural element (c£ Stem 1992:Fig.1990. 4. early mortaria types or transport jars (Fig. a wall (WI993) was found with a narrow. Although the excavations reached the western slopes of the hill. Note ashlar piers.82:8-10) and represents a typical assemblage of the mid-7th century BeE. 80 . 4. fragments of at least one large pottery basin and a concentration of shells. Phase E2b A floor of a casemate room of Stratum E2b (Loci 1961. 4. Assyrianizing types) appears only in Stratum E2. Two phases of use were discernible in most of them (2a. the northwestern corner of the casemate fortification system was not established. as does the floor. Only the northern part of this wall was excavated but as no floor connected with it was found.90).1991.

Since the pottery repertoire of Strata E2a and E2b is very similar. In Square Q7 two floors. which may have originally covered both rooms. Fig. Floor 1309 runs up to W1328 and joins floor 1987.86:3). Since the baulk between P7 and Q7 was not removed.Room 1969 in Square P6 has a floor at about 59. 4. South of Room 1987 is Room 1309. Locus 1333 east of W1330 and Locus 1334 to the west of this wall may belong to Stratum E2b. 1).92: Room 890. Destruction layer with restorable pottery. The entire central part of its plaster floor was destroyed by an Ottoman pit.42-59. possibly with the addition of some pit installations. Among the finds from. it was not established whether these floors are a continuation of floor 1309. Phase 2a The overall plan of this phase is virtually identical to that of its predecessor. such as ash and restorable pottery on the floors. There are some indications of destruction of Stratum E2b. the debris was apparently leveled immediately after the destruction raising the floor level of Stratum E2a to about 20 em above E2b. This material is apparently either from a destruction at the end of Stratum E2b or it is a fill to raise the level of Stratum E2b to that of Stratum E2a.55 m which yielded a large number of pottery finds.91: Room 1961. The pottery types resemble the types in Stratum E2a. Excavations continued some 20 em under floor 1966 (Locus 1963) until the end of the season interrupted operations. looking east. the undisturbed part of the floor is a fragment of a basket handle amphora with an engraved sign (Fig. 5. Fig. Pit 1936 was dug down from this floor. Only parts of the floor of Room 1987 in Square O-P/7 were exposed during the excavation. It was violently destroyed resulting in small finds and large amounts of restorable pottery being left in situ. The floor slopes down southward rather steeply from W897 to W1328/W1949 which was built on it (Kempinski and Niemeier 1994:Fig. 4. 81 . in Square P7.

The floor of Room 890 lay at 58. One of these had Cypriote letters incised on it (Fig.93: Destruction debris in Room 1948.92). a fragment of a pottery vat used for purple dyeing (Chapter 16) and a broken storage jar with an incised Phoenician letter.5:8) was found out of context but probably belongs to Stratum E2.50-55m (Fig. Floors 890. 4. It is a type with a long socket and an elaborated rib in the middle of the blade which has many parallels in the late Iron Age (Moorey 1980:64). 4. Peleg et al. It was severely disturbed by robber trenches and pits cutting through the loci immediately above it.30-1. In the destruction debris of Square 04 was a body sherd with an incision of a jar (Fig. 4.58 m. This type of arrowhead is well known from Syria and Palestine from the late 8th through the 4th centuries BeE (see Cleuziou 1977. Finds on its floor comprise late 7th century BCE transport jars. Other finds from this destruction debris include an Egyptian amulet (Fig. apparently an aleph (Fig.93). looking north. Trilobate arrowheads have been connected with Scythians in the 7th century BCE (Cleuziou 1977: I93) but were also later used by the Achaemenid army. on which lay a great deal of pottery. enclosed by W1310. 5. a floor. Oren 1984:28. 4. Fig. 8. 5.23). W1331 and W1342. looking west. According to the pottery and the small finds. 1941 and 1948 were identified between walls W1331 and W897 in Square 05-7. 10.00 m thick above them (Locus 1914) in which remains of plaster flooring were also mixed (Fig.94: Locus 1914. and of Room 1948 at 58.95. Fallen stones and broken mudbricks covered the floor of 1948 (Fig. This assortment of pottery and small finds does not rest immediately on the floors but in a layer of debris from 0.New floors were exposed in the casemate rooms. it may also be part of the same phase. 4. Also unearthed was an iron spearhead (Fig.87:2). Recovered from the floors of these rooms was a large quantity of restorable transport jars. Although Locus 1977 in Square 04 on the western edge of the mound between casemate walls W897 and W1331 is much lower than the above-mentioned floors of Stratum E2a. A bronze trilobate arrowhead with socket (Fig. this deposit of pottery and small finds was filled into the casemate rooms during the destruction of Stratum E2a (Figs.5:9) which may have been one of the weapons used during the destruction of the building.62 m. 82 . that of Room 1941 at 58. 4.94).53 m. many of them basket-handle amphoras from Cyprus. 1983).96).75). Moorey 1980:64-66. W1340 and W1995. was traced in Square N8-9 at 58. They are defined and separated from one another by partition walls W899. It is therefore possible that material from an upper storey collapsed into the rooms below and that the upper floors were used for storage. 8. 4.87:1). In Locus 1321. Fig. 5.

65-70 m (Fig. 4. Although cut by a number of Ottoman pits. As in Room 1960. looking east. East of this was a stone basin. The room was entered from the south through a doorway. South of this installation was a stone lined pit with an Assyrian bowl (Fig. east of 1960. looking south. A complete transport jar was sunk slightly into the floor which was plastered around the opening in order to facilitate pouring liquids into it. 4. W1950 and W1974. W1949 and W1950 with a floor at 59. the threshold survived.97). The floor of Room 1960 in Square P6.76:15) in it. W1329.97: Installations in Room 1960. close to wall W897. 4.96: Locus 1913. 4. Fig. enclosed by W897. was identified at 59. Room 1308.Fig. W1328. In the northern part of the room. Several rooms abutting on the southern side of W897 were excavated. is defined by W897. Fig. Fig. 83 .98: Destruction debris on the floor of Room 1308.69-73 m (Fig. including complete transport jars and an oven in the northeastern corner of the room.98). complete with threshold and door socket found in situ. 4. several in situ finds from the destruction of Stratum E2a were recorded.95: Locus 1912. looking east. 4. were a few installations. 5.

99: Steps of a staircase in Locus 1318. On the floor was a thick layer of ash.94 m). 1309). According to the level of both the lowest steps and the pebble floor (59. This locus was disturbed during the Ottoman period by stone-robbing.45 m and west ofW1330 at 59.South of Room 1960 there was probably a corridor (Locus 1963) but the area excavated is too small to clarify the plan in this part of the building. Unfortunately this area was so disturbed by Ottoman pits that there were almost no traces of Stratum E2a except for finds out of context. Material found in Locus 864 below this floor was also mixed. with W1328.52-63 m.3: 10). This corridor continued eastward into Square P7 where it may have linked up with a room between W1328. but the finds here are mixed and disturbed by later material. 4. Its stratigraphic relationship is uncertain. 5.99). This floor is connected to W860. 84 . LOCUS 855 IN SQUARE III In Square I II a floor (855) was found on the very edge of the hill. Wall W1330 in Squares P-Q17 runs exactly towards the corner ofW1949 which. Remains of additional floors were also found in Square Q7 west ofW1330 at 59. this floor connects with adjacent floors of Stratum E2a. Among the pottery finds from Room 1318 were fragments of a Greek SOS amphora (Fig. The room immediately north of these steps may have been part of the staircase. south of which were the remains of an oven. 4. forms an entrance to Room 1308. W1341 and W1330 (Loci 1305. Among these finds was the fragment of a pottery vat used for purple dyeing (Chapter 16). Fig. On the same level as the first steps are remains of a pebble floor immediately south of the stairs. It may have belonged to Stratum E2. W1329. Parallels to pottery finds would place this locus in either Stratum E2 or E3. Unfortunately a pit (Locus 1908 in Square P7) destroyed the northern part of W1330 and there is no evidence of any connection between these two walls. This floor was apparently in use with the steps. Large rectangular dressed stones found in situ in Square P8 in Room 1318 may have been the first steps of stairs leading into an upper storey (Fig.

Stem 1990). many of the small Iron Age I villages were abandoned and new equally small villages were founded in the same hill and mountain areas. but on different locations. At the end of Iron Age I and the beginning of Iron Age II the settlement pattern in the Akko plain changed. floors and pits were identified. The end of Stratum E4 and the beginning of Stratum E3 might reflect political events following the campaigns of Tiglatpileser III in 734 or 733 BCE (Tadmor 1994). Lehmann 1995. may have some connections with the campaign ofShalmaneser III in 841 BCE. Large amounts of Ottoman pottery were found (mostly out of context) among which were many fragments of Rashayya al-Fukhar painted jugs. In 1993 Mahmud Hawari excavated Ottoman remains in Square Q8 (Hawari 1994). The transition from Stratum 5 to Stratum 4. probably ancient Kabul.g. the settlement pattern of the Late Bronze Age collapsed at the end of this phase (Frankel 1986. around 850 BCE according to the pottery. During Iron Age I the centralized urban system of the kingdom of Akko was replaced by two apparently independent settlement systems: one on the coastal plain using the Late . Bronze Age sites on a reduced scale and another situated on the hills and the mountain slopes in newlyfounded very small villages (Lehmann 2001). Kabri is situated exactly between the coastal plain with its emphasis on grain production and the hill-country which produced wine and oil. the importance of Tel Kabri was reduced to a small rural site during the Late Bronze Age . Kabri was also important for controlling the all-weather route on the slopes leading from Rosh ha-Niqra south to Akko and the Carmel. most of the Ottoman village in Squares N-Q14-8 was bulldozed before the excavations in order to reach the Iron Age levels. Reallexikon der Assyriologie volume 1(1928)64. SUMMARY After being one of the major urban centres in northern Palestine during the Middle Bronze Age. The territorial transformation of the Akko plain into an Assyrian province may have begun already in 701 BCE under Sennacherib and his campaign 2 Na'aman 1994. Thus. Akko became again the urban centre of an integrated. For Assyrian references to Akko see Parpola 1970: 11. Only a few installations. Another. Olami 1974). especially at the end of the 8th and the 7th century BCE. 1994. cf. Kabri was a significant strategic point in the northern Akko plain. the Akko plain appears as Tyrian territory? In Iron Age II. centralized settlement system (Lehmann 2001. The large percentage of Tyrian pottery at these sites (e. Kloner and Olami 1980. but earlier such site and collection point was Horvat Rosh Zayit. all out of context.apparently restricted to the small hill of et-Tell. At Kabri this road was crossed by another route leading from the sea to Upper Galilee. where agricultural products from the hill-country might have been collected and stored before being shipped to places such as Akko or Akhziv. Ronen and Olami 1983. a tower like complex of the 10th and 9th centuries BCE at the edge of the Akko plain (Gal and Alexandre 2000). Apparently the plain and the hills were newly organized and their agricultural production integrated into the economy of the city-state of Tyre. The remains of a fortress in Strata E3 and E2 point to a special function of the site.2001. Kabri) points to an integration of the area into the Tyrian city-state and its economic system. According to archaeological surveys.STRATUM El Remains ofa village from the Ottoman period were uncovered between 1986 and 1992 in Squares K-MlI013 (living floors) and in Square III (tombs). However. when the Assyrian king reached the Akko plain (Katzenstein 1997: 174-178). Frankel and Getzov 1997. In the lower Ottoman levels there were also some stray finds of Hellenistic pottery (Chapter 5:IV). The stratigraphy reflects the historical events in this part of the Tyrian hinterland. 85 . In Assyrian sources.

The political situation in Phoenicia remained unstable and in 677 BCE Esarhaddon conquered Sidon. Again there was no lasting peace and only a few years after their agreement Esarhaddon laid siege to Baal's Tyre in 671 BCE (Na'aman 1994: 6 and 1995:109). detailed studies of Phoenician architecture and fortifications in particular are still lacking (Leriche 1992. The consumers of Assyrian style pottery may have attempted to copy the lifestyle of the predominant power of the Near East. probably ancient Kabul (Gal and Alexandre 2000). The rectangular plan 86 . Fig. All these events may have had their impact on the stratigraphy of the fortress in Kabri area E.100: Schematic outline of the Stratum E2 fortress.31). 5. The triple casemate wall system of Stratum E2a probably covered most of Area E (90 x 60 m) and shaped the rectangular form of et-Tell (Fig. Akko was apparently not included in the territory of Tyre. Mount Meiron (Druks 1964) and at Horvat Rosh Zayit. Lipinski 1992. 4. or its colonies in the Western Mediterranean. the Phoenician homeland. Katzenstein 1997:289). the fortress was immediately rebuilt. 1985. According to the 675174 BCE treaty between.against Tyre (Pritchard 1955:287). It was in the Assyrian interest to control the strategically important site of Kabri. However.100). The casemate fortifications of Stratum E3 were abandoned and a completely new fortress with new casemate walls was built (Stratum E2). None of the small fortresses on mountains in Upper Galilee (Frankel 1994:27) have a plan comparable to that at Tel Kabri.ratumE2b. Most of the Assyrianizing pottery found in Kabri dates to Stratum E2 or was found in the sounding in Squares O-P17 under Stratum E2b and may thus have started at the end of Stratum E3. 4. the succession of the three floors in Stratum E3 may reflect repeated assaults on the small fortress. Cecchini 1995. Lamprichs 1995:173. Whether this pottery reflects Assyrian presence or a local imitation of Assyrian pottery remains uncertain. While Assyrian artistic representations and historical texts indicate that the Phoenician centres were fortified. Lancel 1995). Gal 1993a:453). 660 BCE (Pritchard 1955:300. The end of the Stratum E3 fortress probably came during Ashurbanipal's third campaign. when he marched against Tyre ca. Little is known about fortresses in Lebanon. The revolt that Ashurbanipal suppressed in 644 BCE could be connected to the end of S1. The plan of this large fortress on a mound is quite different from the few fortresses known in Upper and Western Galilee such as those on Mount Adir (Davis et al. Some parallel features may be found in Israel.Esarhaddon and Baal of Tyre. The fortress might have been in the hands of rebels and was destroyed by Ashurbanipal. The casemate system of Kabri may have been incorporated into the settlement as in Beersheba Stratum II where the walls of the houses abut on the casemate walls using them as part of their construction (Herzog 1997:Fig. In particular.

1991.. the destruction to Tyre (Katzenstein and Palestine and occurred either as early as 604 BCE or later in 585 BCE. 567) Paris. Jerusalem. The contemporary of Fantalkin at Tel Kabri. Tel Aviv University) Tel Aviv. 1996. V. E. (Ph. Excavations and Surveys in Israel 9:92. 87 of Archaeological Excavations in the . Tell el-Daba V. The Architecture of Ancient Israel. Muhly. The Survey of Western Palestine: Vol. Pottery finds provide evidence at Kabri in its final years (Chapter of Greek mercenaries Stem 1992:Fig. Early Arad I. 1985. R. M. for close 5. Biran. H. In: Krings. 1985. Davis. Early Bronze Age Dwellings and Installations. A. M. 187-199. pp. when the Babylonians 1997:328). Leiden. pp. Jerusalem.. 1984. Jerusalem. The Middle Bronze fortifications in Palestine as a social phenomenon. eds. Yiftahel. 1989/1990. Small rural forts are best known to draw analogies fortress of Mezad Hashavyahu at Tel Kabri makes 1992). 1992. and Kitchener. The New Encyclopedia Holy Land Vol. S. Braun. Oxford. Fassuta. S. 1993. The site was resettled only in the Ottoman period. Jerusalem. E. I: Galilee. Braun. <Atiqot 3:1-24 (Hebrew). (Colloques intemationaux du CNRS No. Bunimovitz. T. civile et domestique partim orient.. Tel. H. et aI. In the early Hellenistic the Iron Age architecture andre-using period graves were dug into its ruins. Vienna. ed. A. ed. A. Han. D. S. E. E. C. it difficult although this is a small rural fort and not a in the Negev. La civilisation phenicienne et punique. Bietak.H. 1881. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 44:41-51. and Stech. Braun. In: Stem. 1994. 4. London. and Greenberg. Excavations at Horvat <U~a. 1994). D. R. 1978. Avia'am. Jerusalem. VII). Qashish. the pottery and the historical Akko plain support the assumption contacts Ashkelon that the Iron Age fortress at Tel Kabri was built in a Phoenician from Tyre. Cecchini.. Cleuziou. Similar evidence was found at Tel Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:270against Syria laid siege 271). pp. when a village was built here. Biblical Dan. does not have casemates to the main fortification evidence now the summary 2001) but the way the rooms are attached the evidence The construction with ashlar piers and fieldstone fills.is similar to that of the forts at Samaria metropolitan limited size (Meshel resembles building complex area excavated and Tel Jezreel. Israel (British Archaeological Reports International Series 249). but the in (see wall for the style (cf.M. Maddin. of except for the similarity as at these sites.R. 1200-1203.Tor. Ben-Tor. Israel Exploration Journal 34: 191-194. Tel Aviv 19:221-234. In: Katzenstein. 60-67.D. D. Dan 1. A Steel Pick from Mount Adir in Palestine. Cultural Diversity and Change in the Early Bronze I of Israel and Jordan. 1966. In: Le plateau iranien et l'Asie centrale des origines ala conque islamique. J. Ben. 1996. The Iron Age fortress was never rebuilt. 1995. Les pointes de fleches "scythiques" au Proche et Moyen-Orient. 1992. 2) even if not actually by Phoenicians with Cyprus and the presence repertoire in 604 BCE (Stager The pottery from the final levels has many parallels was most probably a result of the campaigns with that from the destruction of Nebuchadnezzar 1996). Architecture militaire. 1983. R. A. pp. leveling what remained of the stones of the ancient buildings (Hawaii REFERENCES Amiran. Biran. A. En Shadud: Salvage Excavations at a Farming Community in the Jezreel Valley. Conder. Thus. 389-396. dissertation.. 1977. Ben-Tor.

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1984. W. (Quaderni di Geografia storica 5) Roma. Jerusalem. A Phoenician Seal Impression from Area E. 1990. and Niemeier. Area A: Stratigraphy. R. Les Fouilles de Ras Shamra-Ugarit.F. Syria 16:1-28. xxxiv-xxxix. 1969. C. pp. H. E. Tel Aviv. The Inscriptions of Tiglat-Pileser IlL King (Hebrew) 0/ Assyria. M.D. 1958. Tel Aviv. 19) Tel Aviv. CL. 1983. 1973-1976. Tell Ta annek: Vienna.. xxix-xxxiv. E. Prausnitz. Hazor Ill-IV. E. Y. architecture and tombs. Prausnitz. A. A. W. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 256:7-44. W. 1936. Excavations at Kabri. 302-309. A. treaty with Baal and Assyrian provinces along the Phoenician Coast. 1991. Tel Aviv. F. y. (Qedem 18). 1977. eds. E. Jerusalem. A. 1994. The Stratigraphy and Finds. 1959. Sellin. Schaeffer.o. Parrot. 1989. M. 1994. Quarterly of the Department Parrot. H. J. Pastor Borgonon. neuvieme campagne (printemps 1937). Pottery and Small Finds. 1957-1958.D. E. 1937-1949. Yannai. Israel Exploration Journal 27:165-166. E. Syria 19:308-310. Beck. 1955. J. 1984. Tombs and Burial Customs at Tell el-Dab'a: Vienna. Niemeier (eds. The Architecture 0/ Ancient Israel. M. Ronen.C. 1956. Neo-Assyrian Geography. eds. Hazor 11. E. M. Rivista di Na'aman. and Niemeier. and Yadin. and Niemeier. Analysis of bronze Arrowheads of the Saite Period from the Nile Delta region.Na'aman. Tadmor. J. Naveh. 1979. in: A. ed. In: Kempinski.137-172. et al. Hyksos and Israelite Cities. 1995. M. Jerusalem.. Ory. Excavations at Tel Mevorakh. Excavations at Kabri. Jerusalem. Petrie. Excavations at Kabri. Woolley. Province system and settlement pattern in southern Syria and Palestine in the Neo-Assyrian period. pp. N. 1995. Yadin. M. M.D. Peleg. Thrane. 4: Preliminary Report of the 1989 Season. Oxford. Thureau-Dangin. 0/ Antiquities of Palestine 5:111-112. New evidence from Dor for the first appearance of the Phoenicians along the northern coast of Israel. Aphek-Antipatris 1. Tel Esur. Pastor Borgonon. pp. 1935. 1960. Oren. 103-115. pp. Hadashot Arkheologiot 90 104:67-69. Esarhaddon's Studi Fenici 22:3-8. 5: Preliminary Report of the 1990 Season. W. P. and Olami. and Dunand.. *11-*22. and Kochavi. Excavations at Kabri. Area E: Architecture and Stratigraphy. Til Barsib. In: Kempinski. Berytus 27: 29-55. M. In: Kempinski. E. Stekelis. Jerusalem. 2000. E. 1982. and Kempinski. W. pp. Migdol: A New Fortress on the edge of the Eastern Nile Delta. In: Kochavi. Eretz-IsraeI5:35-37 Stem. Yadin. and Oren. (Hebrew) . Eretz-IsraeI9:122-129. J. and Reich. H. Niemeier. van den Brink. Archaeological Survey of Israel: Map of Haifa-East (23). 1970. 1978. W. Tel Aviv. Copenhagen. 1904. A. Metallography 16:81-98. and Kempinski. M. Syria 19:193-255. Sukas IV: A Middle Bronze Age Collective Grave on Tall Sukas.W. Excavations at Ras el-SAin. 4: Preliminary Report of the 1989 Season. Jerusalem. (Hebrew) Prausnitz. 1992. et a!. pp. Stem. Mari et Chagar Bazar. Yadin. eds.D. (Monograph Series of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University No. Area E: The Greek Pottery.W. 1906. Kabri 1967. Jerusalem. Stem. Y.W.M.FA 1938.. An obsidian core found at Kibbutz Kabri. 1938. A. 1983.D. pp. (Bibliotheque archeologique et historique 23) Paris. A. 1991. 1990. A. Fouilles de Sidon-Dakerman: L'agglomeration chalcolithique. A. Prausnitz. Kempinski and W. Alalakh: An Account of the Excavations at Tell Atchana in the Hatay. An Account of the Second Season of Excavations. eds. The Phoenician architectural elements in Palestine during the Late Iron Age and the Persian period. N. Kabri. An Account of the Third and Fourth Seasons of Excavations. 1990. In: Kempinski. H. London. 1938. 32-36 (Hebrew).lsrael Exploration Journal 9:268-269. Saidah. In: Liverani. From Hunter to Farmer and Trader. Les fouilles de Mari.): Excavations at Kabri.. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 279:27-34. E. R. 5: Preliminary Report of the 1990 Season.D. Baram..

67:3.. 47 lower photo.~. out of stratigraphic context. 1980: PI.. Fig. 5..68:2..""""''''_'W<.66:1) and Pilgrim Flasks (Fig. second vessel from the right). 39:28).67:6 is a lamp similar to some from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. 1980:Pls. 5. it is very similar to an Iron Age I vessel from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. 68:6).. 35:6. 17). 37:18. 66: 15. 81 :14).67:5 characterize the Late Bronze Age/Iron Age I strata (G2D2) at Sarepta (Anderson 1988:PI. 1980:PI. . . 50:CP-I0a). 80:1) while another (Fig. Another similar vessel was found at Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al..68:1 was found at Dor... Cooking-pots like Figs. Two bowls (Fig. 71:1.. 5. The deep krater-Iike bowl with a sharp carination (Fig.>. 76:4). 5. 5.. 5. ~~~~"&Si """""""~---'- ) 3 5 -l ') I l 2 ) . Other kraters (Fig. 5. Although a krater or cooking-pot (Fig. 1980:PI. """. Tell Abu Hawam (Balensi 1980:PI.. 3) with matt red bands which have parallels in Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al. \ 4 ) -\ \ 7 I 10em. 64:1a).67:2) with a knob handle resembles a bowl from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al.. 5... 1980:Pls. 65:1-2.6Ji*1.. . 5.~ might be a Middle Bronze Age form.. 70. 78:3-4. 66:6a). 5. 1980:PI.66:}6) may be compared to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al.V.66fr-t5) are typical for Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al. 1980:PI. 4) resemble vessels from Iron Age I strata at Tell Keisan (Briend et al. 178 . IRON AGE Gunnar Lehmann IRON AGE I Iron Age I pottery was relatively rare and found mixed with pottery from other periods.... 11: 160) and Tyre Stratum 13-14 (Bikai 1978: Pis. 1980:PI. Krater with a rolled rim (Fig. Most typical are the Phoenician Monochrome juglets (Fig. -. apparently from the destruction layer of the late 12th or early lIth century BCE (Gilboa 1998:413). 5. 6 Fig. 64:6). 74:3.. where it is identified as 'Sikil pottery' (Stern 1994:Fig.66: Iron Age I pottery from Area D. .. 79:7... 1980:Pls.67: 1 and one not illustrated) have parallels from Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et at. 78: 2). Identical decoration on a closed vessel like Fig. 5. 5.

6 mm). Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. 5.67: Iron Age I pottery from Area D. interior 5YR7/6. g = gross/coarse grits «0. 2 In the tables accompanying the figures temper size is abbreviated as follows: f= fine grits (>0. temper: mg M. temper: fm M.2 . interior 10YR7/3. 60712089 752/2609 255111 9198/1 607/2077 255112 Locus 607 751 727 1575 607 727 Description cf.5YR6/6. core 5YR7/6. core grey.0. 1980:66: 15. 5403/3 5392/4 3304/1 3219/6 5378/2 3433/3 5423/2 Locus 1941 1973 0877 0864 1973 1313 1970 Description Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior 5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type Bowl Bowl Krater Krater Cooking-pot Lamp Reg.2 mm). Keisan Stratum handle. 5YR7/4.5YR6/6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Type Juglet Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Cooking-pot Reg. Keisan with knob cf. FIGURE 5. M = mineral temper. 1980:64: la. 1980:65:2). Red paint lOR5/6. 6 Fig. cf.67: IRON AGE I POTTERY FROM AREA 0 No. 2. 2a). temper: m M. 1980:79:7).66: IRON AGE I POTTERY FROM AREA 02 No. 17). 9a-b (Briend et al.FIGURE 5. Stratum Stratum 9c (Briend et al. 179 .6 mm). 78:3-4). interior 2. m = medium grits (0. No. core grey. 9a-b (Briend et al. temper: mg M. 5YR7/6. cf. Keisan cf. 1980:66:6a). temper: m M. and interior 10YR8/3. 9c (PI. core grey. No. } 3 f---d 2 -------ill II 4 lOcm. Colour description follows the Munsell colour charts. Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al.

Closed vessel. interior 10YR7/3. Exterior 2. Red brown paint.5YR7/2. 61: 12 (Keisan Niv. black paint. 26:11. Briend et al. temper: mg M. Bikai 1978a: PI. White slip. No. core 2. cf. Red paint. core 2. black paint. Early Phoenician Bichrome. FIGURE 5. 84: 259 (Abu Hawwam Stratum III). 1980: PI. Gjerstad 1948: Fig. Cypriote WhitePainted V.3 4 5 11 7 o Fig.5YR7/2.68: Iron Age 10cm. interior 5YR6/6.5YR7/2.5YR7/2. Closed vessel with concentric circles. temper: fm M. 47: 3. Exterior 5YR6/6. Exterior 7. Exterior 10YR8/3. core 5YR6/6. cf. temper: fM. bands in black paint.82:8-10.5YR7/2. interior 2. black painted wavy line.5YR7/6. Black paint. White-Painted II. Exterior 5YR7/6. core lOYR8/4. core 5YR6/4. Exterior 5YR7/6. 9a-b). temper: m M. core 5YR7/6.5YR8/4. interior 2. cf. 542617 5392/10 POTTERY FROM AREA E Locus 1941 1973 1941 0876 1968 1941 0888 0890 1970 1338 Description Exterior 2. Closed vessel.5YR7/2. temper: fM. 19411177 3310/2 5402/5 5403/4 3388/8 3585/100 5346/2 3623/2 1 I Juglet 3145/3 0830 12 Transport jar 5443/100 1972 180 .68: IRON AGE No. temper: m M. White slip outside and red paint. interior 2. Tyre Stratum 10-2. temper: mg M. Exterior and interior 5YR7/6 and white. Exterior 5YR6/4. temper: fM. interior 7. Closed vessel with bands and concentric circles. temper: m M. Same type as Fig. I I000o pottery from Area E. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Jug let Pilgrim flask Pilgrim flask Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Krater or Jug Krater or Jug Jug Reg. bands in black paint. Bands in light greenish wash and black paint. Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. core greyish. 5. temper: mg M.5YR7/2. core 5YR7/6. 5. Exterior 2. White slip outside with red and black bands.5YR6/6. black paint. interior lOYR8/4. interior lOYR7/3. Exterior 7. core 10YR7/3. core 2. Closed vessel with painted concentric circles. Cypriote White-Painted.5YR8/4. Cypriote White-Painted. temper: fm M. interior 5YR7/6. core grey. interior 5YR6/4.5YR7/2.

Stratum 12 (ibid. This type was in use over a very long span of time and fabric and surface treatment vary in different periods. Stratum E (ibid. 29:4). Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et at.69:4). Those found in Stratum 4 are Bikai's first sub-type (1978a:26 Fine Ware Plate 2. Stratum 7 (ibid. 64: 97) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 23 :3). 23 :603). (Briend et al. Sarepta Stratum C2-F (Anderson 1988:PI. 18a:5). 6). 1980). 5. :PI. 850-750 BCE. 458. 456. Parallels come from Tell Keisan. 5). 1980:PI. Another type (Fig. :PI. sloping profile ending in a slightly thickened inverted rim. Bowls like Fig. Transport jars from this context have a simple vertical rim rising from a sloping shoulder. fragments and almost complete forms making up 4. ca. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. triangular and sometimes has a slightly bulbous base.). 81: 15) and Tyre Stratum 17 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Sarepta C2-F (Anderson 1988':type SJ-12A) and Tyre Strata 4-14 (Bikai 1978a:45-46 .70:11). :PI. a simple everted rim and red slip covering the rim inside and the complete vessel outside already occur in Iron Age I. Stratum 11 (ibid. 53: 10) and Tyre Stratum 6 (Bikai 1978a:PI.69:2-3). 7).:PI. 1050-850 BCE. They are similar to bowls from Keisan Stratum 10-11 (Brient et al. They are comparable to examples from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Pls. 511. 31:12. the lIth and 8th centuries BCE. Stratum 5.69:1) has a flat base and an almost straight. 48:4). it covers the period between ca. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's Kouklia Horizon. 33:12-13). 49:11). :PI. Thus. 49: 2).3% of all diagnostics. :PI.IRON AGE II During the excavation of Area E (Chapter 4:IV) large amounts of pottery were found in situ in a series of fortresses. 5. Stratum 13 (ibid. Stratum 10-2 (ibid. Stratum DI-E (Anderson 1988) and Tyre. Stratum 10-1 (ibid. The body is sack-shaped. Tyre Stratum 6 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. 9). has a simple almost vertical rim. 19:9-16).type SJ-9. 32:10) and Tyre Stratum 4. ca. 470. There were 114 examples. Parallels come from Cyprus ca. Stratum 8-9 (ibid. 5. :PI. Stratum 7-11 (Briend et at. 18a:4). 1980:PI. Tell Keisan Stratum 6-7 (Briend et at. 47:type x-15a. Stratum 7 (ibid. a flat or convex base and reserved red slip decoration (Fig. Bikai 1978a:PI. 20 em in diameter. These bowls range in diameter from 18-25 ern. Stratum 10-13 (Bikai 1978a). 1980:PI. The parallels connect the finds from below Stratum E4 with 11th-9th century strata at Tell Keisan. 31: 1. 3). 181 . :PI. 33:2. Stratum Dl (ibid.70:13-19) and transport jars (Fig.:PI. 513). Inside and outside are thin bands of black paint. 41 :9). x-15c). 600. Of special significance for the study of the Iron Age II in northern Israel is the wide range of vessels found in situ in the 7th century BCE destruction levels (Stratum E2) which represent pottery of this period. STRATUM E4 BOWLS The simplest type of bowl in the Phoenician pottery repertoire (Fig.:PI. l1a: 2. 50:3. 1980:PI. (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 4 nos.69:1. Sarepta. A limited sounding below Stratum E4 produced only a small quantity of pottery.5).69:6 with a carinated shoulder. 26: 1-4. 18a:16) and are dated to the 9th century BCE. 22:595. 5. 5. 16a:18-25. 1987:37-38) which has a relatively short flaring rim. Among the few diagnostic sherds are various bowls (Figs. 5. One of the most common bowl types found at Kabri has a flaring rim and was variously decorated in different periods. 5. cooking-pots (Fig. the first of which was built in the 9th century BCE (Stratum E4) and the last probably destroyed in 604 BCE. 494-496. Many of the vessels of this last phase were complete or restorable. 1980:PI.

Juglets with a squared or thickened everted rim (Fig. 5. Transport jars with a small triangular rim on a sloping shoulder (Fig.f. cf. 34. Their development has been discussed in detail by Bikai (1978a:37-40. 14:2-5. 18a:10) date this type to ca. table 8A. 5. KRATERS Only one such vessel was found in Stratum E4 (Fig. 1960:PI. 2000:310. p. Parallels are found at Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. PI. type 244) in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. but the rim is different.70:10) was found in Stratum E4 and two more in Stratum E3. 31 :15) and Tyre Stratum 2-4 (Bikai 1978a:33-35. 5. 5. 52: 8) and Stratum 8 (ibid. 43:8). 265. 272).69:7-14. Fig. p. 5. a neck ridge and a single handle are typically Phoenician. but may continue somewhat later as at Hazor Stratum VIII (Yadin et al. This is a bichrome painted holemouth krater which resembles those from Rashidiya (Lipinski 1992:PI. 5. 15:19-20. jug type 8. PI. 5:14-17. 4b) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990 :PI.25) and Stratum 5 (Bikai 1978a:PI. The first two have squared or thickened everted rims while the rims of the others are mushroom-like. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 11. 268. It resembles a jug without slip from Cyprus dated to ca. 1980:PI. They are dated from the end of the 10th to the first quarter of the 9th century BCE. 17 em. Parallels from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Nos. 5. 177-178). 182 . 20:8). The painted decoration of Fig. 12: 246. It can be compared to examples from Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. JUGLETS AND JUGS A typical juglet of the 8th and 7th centuries BCE (Fig.6. 18a:7). 24:2). 5. 23:611).70:9) was found out of its original context. 92:jug 4). 39). 5. Small juglets with a ring-base.69:16-17 is a large bowl with an incurved rim which is sometimes painted red. A jug with a high neck and a trefoil rim (Fig. Fig. 82:242) and Tyre Stratum 4-9 (Bikai 1978a:PI.8) and Megiddo Stratum H-3 = Megiddo IVA (Finkelstein et al.Other carinated bowls (Fig.f. 850-750 BCE. 1987). 5. Juglets with a short mushroom rim (Fig. 14:383) and another from Tyre Stratum 9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. No parallels were found for bowl types Fig.70:7) is red-slipped and burnished. 69: 141-142).:PI. table 8A. Sarepta CI-C2 (Anderson 1988:type 13A) and Tyre Stratum 10-1 (Bikai 1978a: PI.70:12) occur since the second half of the 9th century BCE in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. 850-750 BCE (Bikai 1987:PI. 10-12). 60:1. Sarepta 01 (Anderson 1988:type OJ-2a).71:9 of Stratum E3. 74: 179).70:3) begin in the second half of the 9th century BCE and continue until the second half of the 8th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:types 243. 55: 9). 5. Sarepta E (Anderson 1988:PI. 9:168-169. 93:2 type juglet 2). PI. 33:3.69: 18). 175. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS One rim fragment of what may be a 'Hippo Jar' (Fig.70:4-5) begin in the middle of the 8th century BCE and continue to the beginning of the 7th century BCE in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Pl. Their diameter is ca. Another fragment (Fig. The handle rises high above the low rim. 190-206) and Tyre Stratum 4-9 (Bikai 1978a:type jug 8.69:5) have an everted rim which is somewhat thicker than the body wall. Sarepta Stratum B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type B-3A) and Tyre Strata 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 5. Similar bowls come from Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 39.70:1-2) usually has a small bulge at the base. 5. 1980:Pls.47:8.69:15 is similar to Fig. Four sub-types can be distinguished at Kabri. Such jars have been discussed in detail by Gal and Alexandre (2000:44-48) in their publication of the Phoenician fortress of Rosh Zayit.

5.23:13-15. 3. 33:10). 12:27. Tell Keisan Stratum 6-7 (Briend et al. Gjerstad 1948 Fig. The examples at Kabri are clearly made of a cooking-pot fabric. There are several sub-types of cooking-pots with triangular rims. They can be compared with vessels from TelI Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. ca. overlapping rim.70 :21). The type occurs only once at Kabri. These sub-types have no chronological or regional significance in the Akko plain during Iron Age I through Iron Age IIC. The pottery figures for this stratum include also some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context (Figs. the transport jars (Fig. 17:2. 5.84:3-4). 5. 5. The body may be deep or shallow and has usually a sharp carination. They have a wide open body with a rounded base. Sarepta Stratum F (Anderson 1988:PI. 6. 35:1. 81:8).12:5) and Sarepta CI-Dl (Anderson 1988:type CP-IA). 1980:PI. These vessels are dated according to stratified comparisons from other sites which are contemporary with Stratum E4 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence at Tel Kabri. 5. where 33. CYPRIOTE IMPORTS White-Painted IV jug (Fig. 30:3) and Tyre Stratum 2-10 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 46:1-2. This cooking-pot type had a long life-span. 52:13. 5. 27:9.69:2). Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's 'Salamis Horizon'. 34:10. the walls are either concave or sloping inward to the rim (see Gal and Alexandre 2000:40-42). This type has many variants.3% of Stratum E4 types have exact parallels. 18. . Stratum E4 also has parallels with pottery from Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990). Especially important for dating are the bowls with painted bands (Fig. Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig.12:5) where it is thought to be a krater. One may distinguish between triangular rims with: 1) horizontal rim. 750 BCE). 5. 5. horizontal rim and 5) a short pinched rim (Hunt 1987:Fig. 28: 6).70:20). 5. Thus. 55:1-3. Cooking-pots with triangular rims are very common in Stratum E4 (Fig. 5.70:13-19) but continue in Stratum E3 and even into E2 (Figs. 850-750 BCE. 2) overlapping rim. there seems to have been close contacts between Kabri E4 and Tyre Stratum 4-12 (Bikai 1978a:9th century BCE to ca. 6. 5.70:6) (cf. One example of this type was found in Stratum E4. Cooking-pot types with flat vertical rims become more frequent in the late 8th and 7th century BCE.70:3-5. SUMMARY Most paraIlels to the pottery assemblage from Kabri Stratum E4 are either found in the Akko plain or at Tyre and Sarepta.70:12-13) and the cooking-pot rims (especially Fig. 183 . 33. 1980:9th century BCE) and Sarepta Stratum C2-Dl (Anderson 1988:ca. Above the carination. No parallels were found for a cooking-pot with a triangular rim (Fig. 63. occurring first in the 12th century BCE.4) long pinched. 3) long pinched. 950-830 BCE). Stratum E4 may thus be dated to ca. 77:1-4. Gal and Alexandre 2000:40-42) Comparisons come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4-11 (Briend et al. 9).COOKING-POTS Two main groups of cooking-pot types were distinguished: pots with triangular rims and pots with a ridged or 'modeled' rim. 11). One example (Fig.69:6. 1980:PI. one in E2 and 2 were unstratified.73:3-5. A somewhat similar vessel was found at Rosh Zayit (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 5. Their value for dating pottery assemblages is thus limited. The distribution of each echoes that of the group as a whole (Hunt 1987: 183). 850-750 BCE. 49:9.70:20) has a small edge on the rim immediately under the lip.

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FIGURE 5.69: POTTERY OF STRATUM E4
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Type Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Krater Reg. No. 3251112 325112 3228/2 3251/7 3257/1 5392/9 3257/8 3256/2 325114 3242/1 3253/6 3253/3 3242/2 Locus 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 1973 .0866 0866 0866. 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 1958 0866 0866 Description Exterior 5YR6/6, interior 5YR7/3, core 5YR7/3, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/4, temper: m M, black paint. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core grey, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/2, temper: m M. Exterior 7.5YR8/6, interior 7.5YR8/6, core 7.5YR7/8, temper: fM, red slip lOR5/8. Exterior 7.5YR7/4, interior 7.5YR7/4, core 7.5YR7/4, temper: fM. Exterior 5YR6/8, interior 5YR6/8, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Bichrome? Exterior 2.5YR6/4, interior 2.5YR6/4, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior 10YR8/3, interior 10YR8/3, core greyish, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/6, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M, red paint. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/6, temper: m M, black paint. Exterior 5YR 7/6, interior 5YR 7/6, core 5YR 7/6, temper: fm M, red paint 10R5/6. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: m M, RSB 10R5/6.

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185

FIGURE 5.70: POTTERY OF STRATUM E4 AND FROM UNDERLYING DEBRIS
No. I 2 32 43 5 6 7 8 93 10 Il' 12 13 14 15 16' 17 18 19' 20 21 I 2 3 Type Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Jug Jug Juglet Juglet Jar Transport jar Transport jar Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. No. 3253/2 3232/1 3290/1 3338/8 3380/6 Locus Description 0866 0866 0873 0889 0888 0866 0855 0866 0803 0866 0871 0866 0866 0866 0866 0871 0866 0866 0871 0866 0866 Exterior 10R6/4, interior IOR6/4, core 2. 5YR6/4, temper: fm M Exterior IOR5/6, interior 10R5/6, core 10R5/6, temper: m M white grits. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fine mineral. Exterior, interior and core 7.5YR7/6, temper: fin M, decoration: red slip lOR5/6. Exterior 5YR7/8, interior and core 5YR7/4, temper: fM, decoration: bichrome red and black. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M, decoration: brown paint. Cypriote White-Painted III. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior IOR5/4, core grey, temper: fine mineral. Exterior 2.5YR6/4, interior 2.5YR6/4, core 2.5YR6/4, temper: m M white grits. Remarks: cf. Tyre Stratum V, Bikai 1978: PI. 18a: 10 (jug type 8). Exterior 2.5YR6/6, interior 2.5YR6/6, core grey black, temper: m M. Exterior 7.5YR7/6, interior 7.5YR7/6, core 7.5YR7/2, temper: mg M. Exterior 7.5YR6/4, interior 7.5YR6/4, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior IOR4/4, interior IOR4/4, core 10R4/4, temper: mg M white grits. Exterior 2.5YR4/4, interior 2.5YR4/4, core 2.5YR4/4, temper: mg M: Exterior black, interior black, core black, temper: mg M. Exterior 10R5/3, interior IOR5/3, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR4/1, interior 5YR6/3, core grey black, temper: black & white grits & mica Exterior 5YR5/4, interior 5YR5/4, core 5YR5/4, temper: mg M. Exterior 2.5YR5/4, interior 2.5YR5/4, core 2.5YR5/4, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Exterior 2.5YR5/4, interior 2.5YR5/4, core 2.5YR5/4, temper: mg M.

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323911

Debris under Stratum E4 Stratum E3 Stratum E2

STRATUME3 BOWLS Only one example of a simple bowl with a flaring wall (Fig. 5.71:1) was found at Kabri. This type is very common in Tyre, where it was found in Strata 1-10, being most frequent in Strata 4-6 (Bikai 1978a: 23-24, type plate 8; PIs. 10:4,7; 16a:22-25; 18a:l; 19:9-12; 23:3). A flat plate or bowl (Fig. 5.71 :2; 5.76:4) has a sloping profile and a simple rim. It occurs in Stratum E3a and continues in Strata E2a-E2b. This vessel is very common in late-8th and 7th century BCE contexts on the Phoenician coast at Tyre in Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 1:13), Stratum 8 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 19:10 [similar]), Stratum 9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 19:16 [similar]) and in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. 20:519 [similar]). In Israel it is found at Dan Stratum II (Biran 1994:Fig. 167:1) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 73: 174 [similar]). A sub-type of the bowls with flaring rims (Fig. 5.71:3) which continues in Stratum E2 (Fig. 5.76:12) has a flat or convex base, reserve-slip and incised decoration on the outside of the base. Parallels come from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 3, Nos. 457, 462-469, 493, 510, 514), Sarepta CI-Dl (Anderson 1988:type F-IA), Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 63:76, 79, 81) and Tyre Strata 2-5 (Bikai 1978a:type Fine Ware Plate 2). Two bowl rims (Fig. 5.71 :4) seem to be a local imitation of the Black-on-Red Ic type at Horvat Rosh Zayit Stratum IIa (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 3.88:16, cf Fig. 3.77:14 Stratum IIb). A carinated bowl (Fig. 5.71 :5) has no exact parallel.
186

74:182). 1980:PI. Several bowls (Fig. 750-680 BCE (Bikai 1978a:29.71:1. 370. A parallel was found at Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI.71: 15 are somewhat similar. 32: 316). They occur between 850-750 BCE in the Cypriote 'Salamis-Horizon' (Bikai 1987:PI. While several were found out of their original stratigraphic context.71:7) is similar to Fig.72:36). 5. 53 :8).71:17) has a parallel from Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a: PI. 30 :8). 1980:PI. 5. 5. 187 . Lehmann 1996:376 form 85). 5. Fig. 6.71:8 may be a local imitation of Black. Ras al-Bassit phase 7 ensemble F (Braemer 1986:No.7) were found. 15-16. The fragment from Kabri was found in Stratum El. but typologically seems to belong to Stratum E3. 5. Chapman 1972:Fig. Although out of its original stratigraphic context. 391.71:9 is very similar to one from Al Mina Stratum 5 (Lehmann 1996:PI. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et aZ. 2.71:6) has almost vertical walls which turn with a carination into the base. 5.71: 14) is one of the most typical Phoenician fine ware plates of the 8th and early 7th century BCE. JUGLETS AND JUGS A number of Phoenician red slipped jugs with conical necks (Fig. 16 type 86d/l). A krater with grooves on the rim (Fig.71: 13 is very similar but has a red slip. 16a:18-37). The flat plate (Fig. 375). Similar vessels come from Al Mina Stratum 6-7 (Taylor 1959:Fig. It is characterized by an incised ridge on the outer edge of the rim and is usually red-slipped. 20:1). 6:16) and Stratum 8 (Lehmann 1996:PI. The deep carinated bowl or krater (Fig. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. out of its original context.on-Red bowls. This sub-type seems to be the older one (Bikai 1987:49-50). There are three sub-types of these jugs of which 13 fragments were found at Kabri. 5. for further sub-types and references see Lehmann 1996:416-418 types 300-307). 14 no. 19:9-16). With an elongated. The rim and profile of Fig. but no parallels could be found. Qasmiya. 3. typologically this type should belong to Stratum E3 based on parallels from Al Mina Stratum 6-7 (Taylor 1959:Fig. Fig. 5. This type is very frequent at Tyre occurring in Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI.72:1-4. 1987:4950.81 :7-9). but larger. Pis. They are comparable to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. concave neck (for an example see Tyre Stratum 9. 1980:PI. A similar krater came from Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 17:85c/2). 5. 379. Stratum 5 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 5.71: 16) with red and black bands on the shoulder has parallels at Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al.71: 11-12) characterized by a rim that is drawn outward were found in strata E3 and E2. 33) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 31-34:Nos. Bikai 1978a:PI. 5. Rosh Zayit Stratum lIb (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 1. At Tyre this type of plate was found in Strata 2-5 (Bikai 1978a:29 fine ware plate 7). 5. 18a:3) and Strata 8-9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 5. lla:18).A deep red slipped bowl (Fig. 3.11 :3). cf. 30: 1) and Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 393-406. KRATERS A large bowl or small krater (Fig. 5. 14:11).78:16) and Tyre Stratum 3-4 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 6. With a narrow conical neck (cf. The flat bowl or plate Fig.121:23) although it is larger and has a different rim. The parallels date it to ca. 40:9) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 10:23-25. Comparisons date this type to the end of the 8th and the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:383 form 122). 41 :3) and Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 72: 167). With a slim conical neck that begins in the 8th century BCE (Bikai 1978a:36. 15: 19-20). 1980:PI. A simple bowl (Fig. typologically they belong to the assemblage of Stratum E3. Bikai 1987:PI. Bowl Fig. 5.71: 19) resembles an Assyrianizing krater which becomes more common in Stratum E2 (cf. 3. lla:19) and Stratum 3 (Bikai 1978a:PI.

19) and probably belongs to Kabri Stratum E3. Whether such decorated vessels were indeed used for transport jars or had a ceremonial character is not clear. At least some of these vessels were found in funerary contexts but may have been in secondary use. 5. 56:1).72:20) resembles an example from Dor Area A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. GREEK AND CYPRIOTE IMPORTS There are few imports in StratumE3. A decanter fragment (Fig. 45:17). 5. 42:4). 386-387) and establish contemporaneity between assemblages from Turkey. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. COOKING-POTS For cooking-pots with triangular rims (Fig. They include the rim of a Greek amphora. 750-680 BCE) (Culican 1982:Tf. 90:296) and Tourabi-Tekke cemetery (ca. Ras al-Bassit tom be 12 (Courbin 1993:Fig. 3. There was also a small White-Painted III-IV barrel juglet (Fig. 1960:PI. 5. 11:1. Galilean storage jars (Fig.73:9-11) in Stratum E3 is noteworthy.72:18) decorated with black and red painted bands and a treelike motif.72:19) has many parallels in the 8th century BCE. The complete transport jar (Fig. They have a wide distribution (Lehmann 1996:433-435. 12) similar to those from Tell Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. 5.72:6) was found on the surface in Area E.5YR6/8). 188 . Fig.Both the single strap and the double-strand handle occur at Kabri (Bikai 1978a:36). dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE (Niemeier 1990:xxxv-xxxvi. There is one example of ajar (Fig.72: 10) (cf. 5. all found out of context: one single-strap handle (in Stratum E2a) and four double-strand handles ( There are four double-strand handles (three in Stratum E2a. 1980:PI.72:21) have many parallels in the 9th and 8th centuries BCE. The rim of a storage jar(Fig. Gjerstad 1948:Fig. 1994:Fig. 1.72:9) (cf. types 383.122. 5. Gjerstad 1948:Fig. 52:24). one in Stratum El) and one single-strap handle (from Stratum E2a).7). Cyprus. 5. also known as 'torpedo jars'. The Cypriote imports include the neck ofa Plain White IV amphora (Fig. Egypt and the Aegean. A potter's workshop producing these jars was discovered at Tyre (Bikai 1985a) and two shipwrecks crammed with this type were recently found off the coast of Israel (Ballard. C. A detailed typology of these jars was recently developed by Ayelet Gilboa (1995: 10-12). 5.28:16) and two Blackon-Red II(IV) bowls (Fig. 1. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. Dor Area A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. One very similar was found at Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. The simple. 2002). 8ab). 22:3).6:6) and Hazor IX (Yadin et al. 52:21). sack-shaped transport jar (Fig. 5. 5. 1980:Pl. The fabric is of medium mineral temper and reddish yellow (5YR7/6) with a grey or light red core (2. 8th century BCE).73:3-5) and cooking-pots with flat vertical rims in Stratum E3 see the discussion of this type under Stratum E4. are the type most frequently found in Phoenician contexts of the late 8th and early 7th centuries BCE. Similar vessels have been found at Hazor Stratum IX (Yadin et al. The presence of simple cooking-pot lids (Fig. 1960:PI.6:13). 3. Stager et al. the Levant.72:11.122:3). 87:6) date this fragment to the second half of the 8th century BCE.73:1) was unstratified but has parallels at Tell Kazel Niveau 9-10 (Badre et al. 19:2. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS 'Crisp-ware' transport jars (Fig.72:14-17). Comparison with decanters at Hazor Stratum VA (Yadin et al. 1960:Pl. for example from Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 5.519. 5.

core 2. core grey-black.73:1). S386/6 31S411 3474/1 3378/8 3448/1 IS Bowl 16 Krater 17 Krater 18 Krater 19 Krater 32S1111 189 . Exterior SYR7/4. temper: fM. core 7. interior SYR7/4. core grey. 750-680 BCE.SYR6/6. temper: fM. Exterior 2. interior SYR7/3. These are dated according to stratified parallels from other sites contemporary with Stratum E3 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence at Tel Kabri.SYR6/6. Most important for dating Stratum E3 are the cooking-pots (Fig. interior SYR7/4.10 Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Reg_. temper: m M. burnished surface. but particularly at Tyre and Sarepta where exact parallels were found for 30% of the types. The pottery figures for this stratum include some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context (Figs. red slip 10R4/6 inside wheel burnished.71: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No. red paint 10RS/8. 17) and the Cypriote imports. Hazor Stratum VA. 5. core5YR7/4.SYRS/4. Most parallels are found in the Akko plain. interior 2. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. interior 2. interior SYR7/6. 5. ca. 750-650 BCE. the transport jars made of Bikai's 'crisp-ware' (Fig. Thus Stratum E3 can be dated between ca.SYR7/4.SYR7/4.72:1-2.SYR6/4. 5. core grey-black. 5. Exterior SYR7/6.72:14-15. Ras al-Bassit tomb 12 (Courbin 1993 :800-700 BCE).4.SYR7/4. red slip 2. core SYR7/6.SYR6/6. 5. temper: mg M. interior 2. interior 2.6-9. TJ!f!_e 1 Bowl 2 Bowl 3 Bowl 4 Bowl S 6 7 8 9 . 1980). 12.SUMMARY The bulk of the pottery found in Stratum E3 is of Phoenician or Tyrian character. in particular the PlainWhite IV rim (Fig. Exterior 2. interior SYR7/6. Exterior 7. No. temper: mg M. interior 7. Fig. interior SYR7/4. 14-15. As in the preceding stratum. Exterior SYR7/3. Parallels with Stratum E3 were found at Dor Area A phase 9 and Area Cl phase 6 (Gilboa 1995:720-650/630 BCE and 8th century BCE). 5.SYRS/4. core black.SYR6/6. black & red paint (10RS/6). FIGURE 5.71:6. 16.73:3-11). temper: f111 M. core grey. 3290/S 337811 Locus 0873 0896 Description Exterior 10YR8/2 white. core grey. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990). Exterior SYR713. red slip 10RS16b. Sarepta Stratum CI-C2 (Anderson 1988:8th century BCE) and Tyre Stratum 2-8 (Bikai 1978a:8th century BCE). temper: fine mineral. Exterior 2. black paint. temper: m M. core SYR7/6. interior SYR7/6. this assemblage provides significant evidence for very close contacts with Tyre. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's 'Kition Horizon'. temper: mg M. temper: mg M.SYR6/6. interior 2.SYRS/4. Exterior SYR7/4. Fig. ' Exterior SYR7/4. temper: fM. core black.SYR6/4. core SYR7/4. temper: mg M. temper: fM. Exterior SYR7/6.72:10-11). S3061100 3474/2 3287/2 1965 1317 0873 0812 l3l3 0876 0861 0873 0896 0873 l3l3 1973 0841 l317 0896 l316 0866 30S3/1 342611 331611 32l3/2 3290/7 3378/3+8 3290/4 3433/2 11 12 13 14 Exterior SYR7/4.

190 . 5.~17 2 3 \)-------1 \ \ 4 5 6 7 ~_17 i I " .71: Pottery of Stratum E3..---. 7 l 9 10 ~ 12 _7 13 14 15 17 \ I 16 "/------r---~=========~ .)-------/ f \ \ \ \ \ \ '- \\ 18 19 r= f 1 10cm. t \ Fig.

~" /~~ «I '\1- 8 9 m 7 @)(ff}D 10 12 13 ~:z • 11 I I \ ' \. " /-l-~' \ \ \ I I ~ :I II I I 2 3 4 5 m / I .72: Pottery of Stratum E3..-.... I I ... 14 H 18 r 17 18 20 19 -EJ 10cm.... ..... ..._' _.... 5.. ..... I I ~..... '... \- . ... -9 15 I...21 ) f I \ 191 Fig. _ '..

II 21 3 41 5 6 81 91 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 TJP. temper: mg M. temper: mg M black & white grits and mica.5YR5/4. interior 5YR7/6. 3647/100 339112 331811 3474/4 322112 542311 328811 3230/3 3474/14 3457/9 3296/1 Locus 0890 1302 0881 1317 0861 1970 0873 0864 1317 1317 0873 Descril?_tion Exterior 5YR7/4. Exterior 5YR7/4. temper: fm M. 14: 5. core grey. black & white grits and mica. white grits. Exterior 2. Exterior 5YR7/6. Tyre Stratum 4. red slip IOR4/8. core 5YR7/4. core 5YR7/6. interior 2.73: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No.5YR8/4 . Exterior 2.FIGURE 5. core 5YR7/6. red slip 2. core black. Exterior 7. red slip IOR4/8. Exterior 5YR7/6.5YR5/4. 28: 16 (White Painted III-IV). 3309/4 3588/5 3283/5 3157/3 5455/5 3357/5+7 3055/1 3045/2 3215/1 3284/6 5416/10 3208/2 5432/1 5455/2 5215/1 3366/9 3307/1+2 3284/1 5455/1 319612 Locus 0879 1325 0873 0840 1970 0889 0812 0807 0864 0873 1941 0861 1970 1970 1941 0896 0876 0873 1970 0855 Descril?_tion Exterior 5YR7/6. cf. Gjerstad 1948: Fig.5YR7/4.5YR6/4. temper: mg M. temper: m M. Exterior 2. temper: mg M.5YR7/4. interior 7.5YR6/6. core 5YR6/4 black. red slip IOR4/8. white grits. temper: fm M. interior black. temper: fM. core 7. temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/4. Exterior 5YR7/6. temper: mg M. interior 5YR6/4. interior 2. red paint IOR5/6. Exterior 7. interior 5YR7/4.5YR6/6. temper: fm M. temper: mg M. grooves inside.5YR3/4 . I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Type Transport j ar Transport j ar Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot lid Cooking-pot lid Cooking-pot lid Reg_. core grey. core grey.No.5YR7/4.5YR8/4. core grey. temper: g M.e Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jar Cypriote Cypriote Cypriote Cypriote Jug Transport Transport Transport Transport Transp~rt Reg No. interior 2. black and red painted geometric design. red slip 2. interior IOR5/4. core black.5YR4/6. temper: mg M. cf.2.5YR7/4. Exterior 5YR4/3. interior 7. core black. red slip IOR5/6.5YR8/4. interior 5YR7/6. core grey. Exterior black. core 2. core 5YR7/6. temper: mg M. interior 2.5YR5/6.5YR7/6. Exterior 2. core 5YR7/6. interior 2.5YR6/4. interior 5YR7/6. 19: 2.5YR5/4. interior 5YR6/4. black & white grits. temper: fM. FIGURE 5.5YR5/4. interior 7.5YR7/4.5YR5/4. Bikai 1978: PI.5YR5/4. Plain White IV. interior 5YR7/6. temper: fm M. core 7. Exterior 2.72: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No. 192 . large white grits. red slip IOR4/8. interior 5YR4/3.5YR7/4. white grits. interior IOYR7/4. core black. core 7. interior 7.5YR8/4.5YR4/4.5YR7/4. temper: mg M.5YR5/6. Exterior 5YR7/6. temper: m M. white grits.5YR4/4. Exterior 7.5YR7/4. core grey. temper: fm M. Exterior 7. 45: 17. interior 5YR7/6. similar to Gjerstad 1948: Fig. temper: fm M. black & white grits. core 5YR7/6. interior 7. Exterior 7. temper: fM. Exterior 5YR4/3. i import import import import j ar jar jar jar jar 19 Transport j ar 20 Storage jar 211 Storage jar Stratum EI Exterior 7. core IOR6/4.

I 8 I I f 6 .. 2 3 ( F I 4 e . 10cm . 5.. 10cm..___..73: Pottery of Stratum E3.o . " I ~ r -4 5 ! \ I I =\ \ ! \ 7 ~ -: I 9 "/' o .. /' I n ~ Fig.. 193 ..

538). Deep bowls with bichrome red and black painted decoration inside (Fig.7% of all diagnostics. A sub-type of the group of bowls with flaring rims (Fig. 194 .98 examples. The former have a fine soft orange fabric whereas the clay of the latter is red brittle and coarse. 31. Another sub-type (Fig. 1980 :PI.24. It has 'been reported from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 5 nos. 5.76: 18-19) are of the type found at Sarepta Stratum C1-C2 (Anderson 1988: type F-7C).76: 10-11). 5.77:1-6). At Kabri several examples of both types have had a hole drilled in their centre after firing and were apparently in secondary use.4 Their shape is very similar to Figs. 1. Carinated bowls with a simple rim (Fig.76:20-25. Tel Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. differentiated by their rim forms.76:8) was first identified at Ras al-Bassit and is apparently a typical 7th century BCE form (Braemer 1986:Nos. several have either one hole drilled into the centre of the base or several holes all over the bottom. Like the bowls with a long overhanging rim.76:21.76:5-6). 29:1-8). 1980: PI.513). SeeBriendetal. 77.71:3 discussed in Stratum E3. Keisan Stratum 10-11 (Briend et al. 40:12). occur frequently on the Phoenician coast.3:24-25). 1980:PI. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl. for example at Arqa 10AB (Thalmann 1978:Fig. Bowls with a long overhanging rim (Fig. 5. 5.STRATUME2 BOWLS There is a remarkable variety of bowl types in Stratum E2. 5.76:16-17) are typical of the late 8th and 7th century BCE (cf.82-85) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:type Fine Ware Plate 1). Bikai 1978a: PI. 26:16-17) and bowls at Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. For bowl Fig.3 Parallels come from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. 63: 75. 19:534-536.1:1). 20-22). 5. 20:531-533. Maigret 1979).76:14 compare a Black-on-Red I(III) bowl at Cyprus (Gjerstad 1948:Fig.76:9) first seen in Stratum E4 (Fig. 5. 471-473. 5.76:7) has a particular fabric. 5. p. The bowl type with an uneven outer surface (Fig. Tyre Stratum 5. 41: 12 similar. The fabric is orange. 470. The outer surface can often be cut with a knife. 38:1-12). A great many vessels of this class were found in Kabri .76:12) is similar to Fig. 1980:166-168. but the fabric is very different. The fabric of this sherd consists mainly of marl and may perhaps originate in northern Israel (Chapter 15:Table 15. 5.76:4) are very common. have previously been included in the so-called 'Samaria Ware' but should be referred to rather as 'Phoenician Fine Wares' (Bikai 1992:97) or 'Levantine Fine Wares'. fine and soft. Sarepta C1 (Anderson 1988:type X-9A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 1. called 'Salt and Pepper group' at Tell Abu Hawam. Often they have a carination half way up the body. 5. 46:2) and Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. 5. as are bowls with a carinated or stepped profile inside and outside (Fig. A number of red-slipped flat bowls and plates all have an accentuated everted rim (Figs. The bowl with an S-shaped profile (Fig. but without slip) and Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a: PI.80.1980:168-170. which constitute 3. 38). Sarepta C1-D1 (Anderson 1988:type F-1A).511. Some of these sub-types. 5. Parallels come from I 3 4 For a detailed type study see Briend et al. where it was assumed that drilled vessels were part of architectural construction (Lehmann 1996:363 form 17. 5. 15: 13). 5. It might be dated as early as Late Bronze or Iron Age I and could be intrusive in Stratum E2a (cf.69:4) displays somewhat thicker walls and the red slip is thin and washy being band-burnished or unburnished. Flat plates or bowls with a sloping profile and a simple rim (Fig. 81: 15). A similar phenomenon is known from central Syria in the late 8th century BCE. often red-slipped outside and/or inside. 1980:Pl. 494-496. For their occurrence see Lehmann 1996:371-372 form 75b.

5. et al. 30:8). Examples Amathus come from Al Mina (unpublished. 1980:PI. 1996:Tf. 8-9) and Yoqne'am Stratum 10 (Ben-Tor et al. A similar bowl (Fig. type with a horizontal long rim (Fig.77:7-8) seventy nine such bowls found at Kabri made up 3. 52:10). 5. 8a:43. 38:22) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 1980:166rim and a 10:12-13).77:14 is a small bowl with an incurving rim. 5. 1980:PI. 1978a:type fine ware 4) date the type between the second half of the 8th and the 7th century BCE. 544) Tyre Stratum plate 3 and 4. are common BCE Phoenician from Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend Gonzalez below. Dor C2 phase 7 (ibid.77:16) has a carination directly under the rim and was found at Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et Large. come from and the time range of this type to Strata and the first part of 7th century 1-3 (Bikai 1978a:type the end of the 8th century Cyprus (Bikai 1987: no. 1980:PI.7:8). The rim is either horizontal from Tyre define Both examples found at Kabri are 'drooping'. 25. 1978a:22-23). 22. creating a bar-handle-like Similar plates were found at Tyre in Strata 3 and 4 (Bikai 1978a:Pls. effect (see Culican 1981). 30:180/2).78:9) is discussed 1990:PI.12). century 2. 5.348/3). 1. 45:4-4a). 52: 8) Tell in the 7th profile (Fig. Tel Qiri Stratum VI (Ben-Tor Sarepta (Pritchard 1988:misc. 28:5.9:6). 9:14). The large plain bowl (Fig.77:11). Fig. 1995:Fig.'Plate 3' and 'Plate 4' (Bikai or slightly flat there are exceptions. Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1988:PI.77:15) with an incurving rim has a number of parallels in Phoenician sites of the late 8th and 7th centuries BCE such as Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et at. Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. 41 :3a). 435). 69:141-142) and Tyre Stratum 10-2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Oxford 1954. 5. The bowl (Briend et al. deep bowls with handles assemblage and a carinated shoulder (Fig. 5. 27:4). 39:30). type plate 4). 5. 5.78: 10) has a paralJel at TelJ Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera The Assyrian-style deep bowl (Fig. 1980:PI. Al Mina Stratum (Bikai 1987:No.77:13 into two types . 195 . 5. studied in detail by A.40:1-7) 1:12. vessels nos. convex base. 1980:PI. 1980:PI. 5. The deep bowl with a carinated 5. 30:11et al. Sarepta CI-Dl Assyrian-style DEEP BOWLS bowls (Figs. or partially red-slipped 145b). The red slipped plate (Fig. 1987:9:10). p. tomb 367/51-1 pottery during the 1968Ashmolean British Museum late 8th and the 7th century Museum. was also found at Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. A small plate with a small accentuated band of red slip inside (Fig. 9:5-6. PI. 5. Chambon 168).78:1) were first recognized by Bikai (1985b) and many have been recorded since 1996:394 type 180). Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. Lehmann 1996:386. 28: 12. 1. The plate usually illustration).form 5 (Briend et al. 5-6). 1980:PI. The Fig. and Tyre Strata 1. 8a:51. 72:164-166). They are one of the most typical features of Phoenician BCE. This type is completely . 32:3. 41:7).78:5-8) at.76:15. 1980:167 type c.Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. sometimes has a black band on the rim (Bikai 1978a:28 fine ware plate 4. PI. include The comparisons burnished and very well finished and has a stepped at. Sarepta Cl (Anderson 1988:PI. Parallels from Tell Keisan Stratum 4(Anderson 1988:type F-2A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai are discussed below as a special type. Al Mina Stratum 5 (Lehmann 8 (unpublished. 45. 38: 9-12) and Tyre Stratum 1-3 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 3. 42:3. Plate 4 is a variant characterized 92/888/3356-2 by a step below the is broken here (no would breaks at this point.77:9 has a parallel from Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 15:9 respectively). 1978:Fig. 33: 1- They occur at Kabri with different rim forms. 5. Sarepta (Anderson 12.77:10) has a cut rim. GOBLETS AND PEDESTAL BOWLS Presentation (Lehmann stands (Fig.:Fig. Comparisons which BCE. and indeed our example or 'drooping'. 10:24-25). 12: 11). Bikai divides plates like Fig. 2 and 3 (Bikai 1978a:Pls.77:12) was also found at Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et The first type is always While the rim is usually rim. 5.1 % of all diagnostics. 1-4 at Tyre.9:9-10. 1980:PI. 30:2-4. PI.

79:5). Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:Fig. Similar juglets were found in Cyprus and labelled as White Painted V (Gjerstad 1948:Fig. 33:3. 285. 4: 16). are discussed below. 5. 50). Brown fabric (2. Similar vessels from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Nos.79:3-4). 27:169) while the rim fragments are often indistinguishable. B ikai 1978a:PI. 43:8). found under the floors of Stratum E2.5YR6/6) with a rough surface (Fig. 6) similar in form. 750-680 BCE (Lehmann 1996: type 241 and cf.78:11-14) with a simple flat base were found at Kabri. 46:2). Lehmann 1996:Tf. Juglets with a red slip and a wide overhanging mushroom lip (Fig. Fine yellowish smooth (5YR7/6) fabric (Fig. Reddish coarse fabric (lOR5/6) (not illustrated.79:12-l3) and a polished or cut surface come from Strata E2-3. Juglets with a small bulge at the base (Fig.11. 5.79:6-7). Mortaria appear during the 7th century BCE for the first time and continue into the Hellenistic period (cf.6:4-5. 2. For comparisons see Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. Sarepta B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type B-3A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:typejuglet 1). 312.80: 1. 5. la).79:8-10) can be dated by parallels to between ca. 5. 19). 5. Tyre Stratum 2-3 (Bikai 1978a:33-35. 5. fabric and surface finish from contemporary decanter types in inland sites but is quite common along the northern Levantine coast. 5.9). 316). surface treatment and decoration and are comparable to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 37:2-3) and Vroulia Tomb 6 on Rhodes (Kinch 1914:PI.90:3-4). 1960: PI. 25-28. These bottles form a distinct group of pottery in terms of fabric.80:5. Other larger jugs (Fig. 5:19-23. but see Fig. fabric and decoration were also found at Sarepta Dl 196 . Large jugs and bottles (Fig. 5. 221: 1) and Shiqmona Stratum 9 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. 36: 1-.Stands or incense burners (Fig. 87:l3. More frequent are goblets (Fig. 5.1:2) shows that the fabric of this vessel is typical of Cypriote coastal sites like Amathus or Enkomi. 279) but most were found in Levantine sites such as Sidon Tomb 1 (Culican 1975:Fig. 5. The handle rises above the rim and the body of the vessel is slim and long.78:14 (Chapter 15: Table 15.79:14) differs in form. but there are also four examples of Persian period mortaria with a high pedestal ring-base (Fig. Salles 1985a. The paint has a matt appearance. 6-7) occur very frequently in 8th and 7th century BCE Phoenician pottery assemblages. 5.78:2-3) decorated in reserved red slip with painted black bands are unusual. 5. The decoration and fabric are reminiscent of Assyrianizing pottery but the form is uncommon among Mesopotamian shapes as is the fine grit size of the temper. Most examples found at Kabri belong to the early Iron Age type. 1980:Pl.70:1-2 in Stratum -E4)."5. Large jugs made of smooth yellowish fabric with dark painted lines (Fig. At Kabri three sub-types were distinguished on the basis of fabric: 1. 1980:PI. 3. PIs. 25:type 159-163 and Tf. The decanter (Fig. 92:jug 5) and Hazor VA (Yadin et al. This juglet may be an Assyrian-style vessel. 5. Sapin 1998). Petrographic analysis of Fig. type 239). Only the base distinguishes the early moratoria from those of the NeoBabylonian and Persian periods (cf Lehmann 1996:Tf. The vessels have a wide oval body and tall neck (cf. JUGLETS AND JUGS A complete small juglet with black-brown bands (Fig. 298. 2) decorated with painted bichrome bands in red and black.79:5. Tyre Stratum 3. 38:6. 5.78:4) which occur in the 7th century BCE all over the Levant (Lehmann 1996:383-384 type 125).79:1) was found under the floor of Stratum E2. The Assyrian-style juglets and jugs (Fig. MORTARIA A large number of mortaria (Fig. Some examples were found in Iraq at Assur Tomb 547 (Haller1954) and Nimrud NTS15 (Mallowan 1966:Fig. 5.

91 :301). sometimes also extending over the inner parts of the vessel. pink fabric (Fig. The fabric and the streak burnish are identical with fabric and surface finishing of decanter Fig. No parallels were found for Fig. 5. 5. 44:5-8). A holemouth krater with round shoulders and a wide curved profile (Fig. Often the handle starts immediately at the rim. but has horizontal handles.5:1~3) and Sarepta B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type SJ-18A). Large sack-shaped storage jars (Fig. 5.81 :6) has a different type of rim. Tell Keisan Stratum 4. 5. 13d). Briend et al. 1. 5. this type begins during the 8th century and continues into the Persian period.81 :10 has a thick rim and is wheel burnished in the interior. 1980:Pl.80:9) has a cylindrical body and a round base. 5. Tel Qiri loci 682. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS The tall storage vessel (Fig.80:7) are more typical of inland assemblages and occur at Kabri only in very limited numbers. This is the most common type of krater in Stratum E2 at Kabri where fragments of 16 such vessels were found. Some 7th century BCE examples come from Achziv Tomb 3 (Culican 1975-76:Fig.80:10. 5. 5. 1980:Pl. 1980:Pl.82:6) with a fire-arm is discussed below. Briend et al. There is some similarity to Assyrian storage jars from Nimrud. Stratum 5 (ibid. Fig. 3) Brown fabric (Fig. Jars with a stepped shoulder and vertical body walls (Fig. 1993:Fig.78:9.9) are discussed below.81 :4) has a flat oval-shaped rim. 5. The surface is decorated with bichrome red and black bands. 880. 28:9). 7:5. 5. 33:4). 88:285. 5. but has small horizontal loop-handles.80:8.82:1-4) are low in profile with a sharply formed rim and a somewhat flattened base (Anderson 1988:669. 6:10). the rim is not preserved. 5. Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. 1980:Pl. 287) and Tyre Stratum 3 (Bikai 1978a:P1s. Fort Shalmaneser Room T20 (Curtis et at. Similar vessels were found at Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig.81:3 is similar to these. Unfortunately. Sarepta B-C1. 6). Bk). 5. 5 For further references from Syria and Lebanon see Lehmann 1996:447. 43: 1) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl. Type L-9).82: 1) which is sometimes almost white (cf. Fig. :Pl. 4:10.81: 1. Assyrian-style jug1ets and jugs (Fig. 197 . 27:1-3). 2) often have wide rectangular horizontal rims. LAMPS The late Iron Age lamps (Fig. and another version (Fig.(Anderson 1988:Pl.81:5 is similar. Keisan Stratum 5. 5.79:14. 44:13-15) and Mtarfa tomb (Malta) (Culican 1982:Abb. Anderson 1988:type L-9). 5. 5. 2) Smooth. 212). Tell Keisan Stratum 5. Tell Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et al.5 Thus. 1980:Pl. 49:8).82:2) (cf. Lamps of the so-called 'cup-and-saucer type' (Fig. 5. Some vessels are decorated with a red slip on the rim. 5. The Assyrian-style lamp (Fig.80:3-4) are discussed below. 32:8-9. At Sarepta they occur in Strata B-C1 (Anderson 1988:505).81 :7. Dan Stratum II (Biran 1994:Fig. Type 429. The large krater or deep bowl on Fig. 1018 (Hunt 1987:Fig.82:4). There are four sub-types: 1) Reddish-yellow fabric (Fig. Assyrian-style kraters (Figs. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl. KRATERS Kraters with vertical shoulders and a wide lower body (Fig. 5. Briend et al.11) with their maximum width in the lower part of the vessel have no parallels.82:5) existed over a long span of time and may have been used in cultic contexts. 5. 4) Cooking-pot fabric which is red with black white grits and a rough surface (Fig. 43: 12). Such lamps appear at Tyre only after Stratum III (Bikai 1978a:Pl. 5.82:3) (cf.

5. Salamis (Karageorghis 1967:97. Dafanna(Petrie 1888:PI. 27:9) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:Pl.82:13-14). a small and a large subtype. 5. Less sharply carinated shoulders than Group 2 (Fig. Basket-handle amphoras (Fig. vertical body walls below a shoulder carination and a pointed base (Fig. 27:6.84:1-2). 5. 1:16). 700 BCE but Salles (1985b) claims that this early type of basket-handle amphora reached the Akko plain only ca. 11). 'from the sea' (Zemer 1977:No. 3. 12). 5. 5.8-9). There is a regular. 53) and Ras Shamra-Ugarit (Stucky 1983:Keramik Nr. Similar jars have been reported from Arqa Stratum 9 D (Thalmann 1990:54 n. the matrix being fine with a fine to medium mineral temper. 5. The yellowish. This is probably the most typical Phoenician transport jar of the late 7th century BCE. light orange or reddish fabric has a fine mineral temper.88a) the majority were confined to 5 main types. Fifty seven vessels. 1980:Pls. The fabric is medium to coarse with mineral temper. This type occurs from Carthage to Nimrud (Lehmann 1996:434 type 384). 2. 1980:PI.While there were only some 10 types of transport jars found in Stratum E3. 806-807) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. 5. 4. Sharply carinated shoulders and an S-shaped profile (Fig. Fig. Type C . 1980:PI. Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. 1. Slightly sloping shoulders.84:1). However. Type D . Similar vessels were found at Ashdod-Yam (Raban 1980:Fig. light reddish. were recorded from Stratum E2. 101). Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al.86:1). 57:23 [Plain White V]). Some of Humbert's types (1991) as defined at Tell Keisan were also found at Kabri: Type B-1 example. The vessel is pink with a grey core.82:8-10). 26:1.6 examples (Fig. The fabric is of fine to medium mineral temper. 8:131). The general shape resembles a bullet. 650 BCE. Both Neutron Activation Analysis by Gunneweg and Perlman (1991) as well as petrographic analyses by Yuval Goren (Chapter 15:Table 15.74: Phoenician aleph incised on jar shoulder. 12-14). These jars from Stratum E2 represent the earliest type which is confined to the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:443-445 type 421). Shiqmona Stratum 8 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. All in all 160 handles were counted which would point to at least 80 baskethandle amphoras in the limited excavation of Area E. 225:593. Humbert (1991) dates the first appearance of this type to ca. Similar to group 1 but with much thicker walls (up to 2cm) (Fig. Salamis (Karageorghis 1974:Pl. These dimensions occur on both fabric groups 1 and 2. 5. 1:14).84:2). The fabric is fine to medium with mineral temper and falls into four distinct colour groups: light grey or greenish with black arid brown grits. No. Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. Kamiros (Jacopi 1931:Tav. 33). It has parallels at Achziv Stratum IV (Zemer 1977:18. light reddish to pink.24 examples (Fig. 5. 33:6). 9).82:15). greenish grey. 25:2-3.1:3) came to the same conclusion that this type of vessel was produced in II~_-• 198 . 23-24). the handle is 17 ern high and its diameter is 5 ern. The fabric is orange pink. 5. in the storage rooms (Fig. At Kabri they constitute 40% of all transport jars in Stratum E2. The handle joints on the shoulder are 21 em apart from each other. pink with black and white grits. 26:2-7. A significant number of handles of fabric groups 1 and 2 have the same dimensions.74. 21 types were recorded in Stratum E2.82:11. 47:1-2). Cyprus (Gjerstad 1948:Fig. 5. 300). The outside is red sometimes with a white self-slip. 1980:Pls. many of them completely restorable. On two jars of this type a Phoenician aleph was incised on the shoulder when the clay was still soft (Figs. 5.

A few contemporary E2a is types came from the southern The diversity remarkable.e. Comparable vessels. Thus.Cyprus or the north Syrian coast. There were 3 examples in Stratum E3b. In addition.85:1) belong to a Phoenician One example type which already appears With a small discussed in Stratum E4. the type dates to Strata E3 and E2. marked exchange BCE assemblage like that of Stratum wide trade contacts of the so-called and Tyre. Fig. in E2 and 2 were unstratified. (Anderson 4 (Briend et at.88b). Sarepta CI-Dl 2. Thus.Ware found in seems to be due to the increasingly economic after the end of the 9th century Stratum E3. With a flat rim and an edge slightly below the lip (Fig. in the Mediterranean Crisp. 3 in E3a. I 2:5 [early 9th century BCE to 732 BCE]) With a flat round rim without an edge (Fig. by the appearance between the periphery (35%) of cooking-pots in Stratum E2 (Figs. 199 Stratum CI-Dl (Anderson and Tyre Stratum 9-13 (Bikai 1978a: cooking-pot . the type dates to Strata E3 and E2 which 1988:Type CP-IA) is comparable to Sarepta type 4). 1980 :PI. lIIIIIIII111111fM1*H1111IlmlfM1*H111.g. 5.5. 5. 5. 3.75.84:7-9. 5. 5. The chert composition suggests that Cyprus should be favoured as a place of origin and this is confirmed by the signs either incised on them after firing or in red paint (Figs. one edge on the rim immediately It has parallels CP-IA).85:1). jars in a late 7th century BCE. 5.83:9). At least some of these signs are in Cypriote Iron Age writing. 1980:PI. 5. 5. and illustrates COOKING-POTS The majority 1.l\11\\I~l\Il\lll\fM1*H1I\\I\\\\\f 9 10 14 15 16 17 1~ Fig. 28 :6). 2 in E3a.84:8-9). of this sub-type Stratum at Tell Keisan under Stratum E4 (Fig. and Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 1988:Type 6. 5.84:2).70:20). and sub-types: has been was found in Stratum E4. of transport This variety part of the country (e. 2 in E2b and 12 in E2a. 31 examples were found out of their original context in Stratum E 1.84:7). Several apparently examples in secondary of other types use as storage which vessels may have come as imports were also retrieved to the Kabri area and were (Fig. 220:3) and Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et at. There are several variations One example 2000:Fig. Another 25 examples were found out of their original context in Stratum El. 5. 46:4).75: Basket handle with incised Cypriote signs. There was 1 example in Stratum E3b. 2 in E2b and 24 in E2a. were found at Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:Fig. all with a rough and uneven bas. under the lip (Fig.

Among the cooking-pots found in this stratum were some Greek imports (Chapter 5.76:15.76. despite their apparent absence at Tell Keisan (Briend et at.79:3). The core is usually greyish but sometimes reddish yellow (5YR7/6) or pink (5YR7/4).77:7 5 14 Bowl 5.76:15 Bowl 5. 5. Lehmann 1996:Tf. 5. jugs (Figs.84:5-6) are the commonest type throughout Israel during the Iron Age IIC (Fig. 4).77:8 1 2 Deep bowl 5. 58:351/1. 58:351/1.5% of the kitchen assemblage of Stratum E2. Assyrianizing pottery occurs only in small amounts. Chambon 1980:165-166. Weippert 1988:647-648.78:8 3 Bottle* Jug 5. This type does not occur at all at Tyre or Sarepta. However. but also on juglets. 5. 5.89). The fabric of this class of pottery is almost uniform being mainly reddish yellow (5YR7/6) with some cases of pink (5YR7/4 and 5YR8/3).84:3-4) make up 9% of the cooking-pots. probably wine (Stronach 1996). Although the wash-like appearance of the 7th century BCE red slip is clearly distinguishable from the heavy and thick earlier red slip techniques. kraters (Fig.82:6 Total 24 30 *For bottles of this type see cf. 5. Jugs and juglets are often decorated with wide horizontal bands of red wash-like paint with black lines added parallel to the red bands. There are no cooking-pots or transport jars in the Assyrianizing style at Kabri. 5. The repertoire consists of bowls (Figs. jugs and kraters. juglets (Fig. It is usually a reserved slip decoration with a thin.79:3 Krater 5. Stratum E2a-E2b UnderE2b Bowl 5. 5. 5.1: ASSYRIANIZING TYPES AND THEIR STRATIGRAPHIC CONNECTIONS.85:5). Gilboa 1996.85:13-15) make up 6. 5.81 :7-9) and lamps (Fig. Beginning at the end of the 9th century BCE. they replaced the triangular-rimmed cooking-pot almost everywhere except on the Akko plain. 5.79:12-13[?]. this form of decoration is a continuation of the Iron Age traditions in the preceding centuries. ASSYRIANIZING POTTERY An interesting feature of the 7th century BCE assemblage of Tel Kabri is the presence of Assyrianizing pottery and imitations of Mesopotamian vessel shapes (Amiran 1969:291.84:8. A few examples each of a variety of cooking-pot types together make up 13. 5.81:9 4 2 Lamp 5. 6 For a discussion of cooking-pots with triangular rims see the section on cooking-pots in Stratum E4. Sometimes there is a black band on the rim of the bowls. often wash-like slip (usually red 10 R5/6). deep bowls (Fig.7% of the total. 5. Type See Fig. At other sites in Israel this type is confined to Iron Age I and IIA-B.78:8). Pakman 1992. cooking-pots with a ridged or modelled rim were found at many sites during the survey of the Akko hinterland (Lehmann 2001) and here at Kabri they constitute 11% of the kitchen vessels. This slip was used most frequently on bowls.77:7. TABLE 5. The forms would seem to be mainly vessels for the consumption of liquids.81:7-8 3 3 Krater 5.82:6).6 Cooking-pots with a ridged or 'modelled' rim (Fig. 5. 8). Another feature typical of Kabri cooking-pots is a rough surface on the lower part of the body (Figs.VI). whereas on the Akko plain it continues into the 7th century BCE. Hunt 1987:203. 5. Thus this decoration is some kind of 'Late Bichrome' style. Hausleiter and Reiche 1999).77). DECORATION Red slip decoration was still popular at the end of the 7th century BCE (Figs. 5.Types with a triangular rim (Fig. Mattingly 1980. Cooking-pot lids (Fig. 5.80:3. 200 . bottles of type Lehmann 1996:Tf.80:3 5 7 Juglet 5. 1980).

5YR5/6. temper: fm M. temper: fm M. red slip 2. 539114 3590/3 5149/4 Exterior lOYR8/2 white. red slip 10R516. The pottery figures for this stratum include some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context. Gilboa 1995). black & red paint lOR5/6. interior 7. core 5YR7/6. temper: fM.2.1V). temper: fm M.5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/6. red slip lOR516. interior 5YR7/6. temper: mg M. core grey. Black-on-Red I(III) bowl. red paint lOR5/6 Exterior 5YR7/6. core 5YR6/6. Exterior 10YR7/4. core 7. red slip 10R5/6. temper: mg M. interior 5YR7/6. 1980. interior 5YR8/3. interior and core 7. comes from Tell Abu Danna Stratum A4 in northern Syria (Tefnin 1980:15:3).5YR5/4. Exterior 10YR7/4. No. 3375/7 5324/100 3020/1 3024/3 5426/100 548515 19411190 542511 3386/100 3376/5 3347/1 Exterior. copying the life-style of the centre in Assyria. interior 10YR7/4. this may also be the case for the coarser Assyrianizing vessels in Kabri. temper: m M. 3447/3 3367/1 3434/100 195515 Locus Description 1315 0892 0890 1955 1970 l321 1927 0890 1970 0801 0802 1941 1984 1941 1971 0890 0892 0889 0889 0864 l308 0869 0849 0890 l334 Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. Tyre Stratum II-III (Bikai 1978:PI.\lI Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Reg.5YR8/4. Chemical and petrographic analyses of Assyrianizing pottery from Tell Jemmeh have shown that this pottery was produced from local clay (Melson and van Beek 1992). Thus it can be attributed to the first half of the 7th century BCE. 5. They are contemporary with Stratum E2 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence in Tel Kabri. Exterior. From a macroscopic point of view. Exterior. Analysis of Syrian and Lebanese pottery shows that Mesopotamian shapes went out of use immediately after the destruction of the Assyrian empire (Lehmann 1996:93-94). core 5YR7/6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 l3 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Type Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl BO'. the architectural 201 . Exterior 5YR7/6. temper: fM.5YR5/4. An almost identical example. 3350/100 3224/2 3502/3 326011 3175/2 3358/102 3616/2+ 12 7 Since this operation was a probe and excavation was halted after reaching the foundations ofWl389. temper fM. white self slip. red slip. interior 5YR6/4. Exterior 5YR7/6.5YR5/4. interior 2. Egg-shell thin vessels like those from Tell Jemmeh are missing from the Kabri material which very closely resembles the finds from Tell Keisan and Dor (Briend et al. Assyrian-style pottery was found in significant quantities in a sounding in Square OP7 (Chapter 4. core 5YR7/3. 26:16-17. core 5YR6/4: temper: mg M. whose fire-arm was also broken off. core grey. red slip lOR5/6.76: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No.82:6) are unusual in Israel (Lehmann 1996:T£ 82:430/2 with references to finds in Syria and Lebanon). and stratigraphic context of the finds under floor E2b is unclear. black & white grits. interior and core 5YR7/6. cf. temper: fM. 'Assyrian bowl'.Lamps with a 'fire-arm' (Fig.5YR7/6. FIGURE 5. cf. Most was found either in Stratum E2b or under the floors of that stratum. temper: fM. but here on its periphery they are apparently objects of prestige. temper: m M. Exterior 2. Exterior 5YR6/4.5YR7/6. Exterior. Gjerstad 1948:Fig. core 2. interior and core 5YR7/4. Exterior 7. SeE 4. core 10YR7/4. These vessels are dated according to stratified comparisons from other sites. interior and core 5YR7/6. temper: fM. 11A:2).7 No Assyrian-style pottery was found in Stratum E3. interior 5YR7/6. mainly in the Ottoman level (Stratum E 1) whose foundations were dug into the remains of Stratum E2.

) ~ '7 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 16 ~ r7 19 ) 15 ( 17 .d 2• 2 CC_ ~ 5 . 202 . • Fig.76: Pottery of Stratum E2. "~ /' ~ 21 22 23 :7 10cm. 5.s.:I 7 ~ 6 4 ~7 C ..

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Fig. 5.77: Pottery of Stratum E2.

203

FIGURE 5.77: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2
No. Type
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS 16 Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl

Reg_.No.
S49113 S012/3 S413/2 3374/1 S28616 327712 S3S9/4 S3911S S419/2 3S33/4 3602/1 3629/1 33S7/1 S472/100 S442/1 3219/S

Locus
1984 1911 1972 1300 1965 0872 1970 1970 1968 1321 1336 1338 0889 1976 1963 0864

Description
Exterior, interior and core SYR7/6, temper: fm M, decoration: black & red paint. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip 2.5YR6/8. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip lORS/6. Exterior and interior SYR7/4, core lORS/6, temper: m M. Hole drilled in the base. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip 10RS/6. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: m M. Exterior SYR7/4, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: m M.

Exterior SYR616, interior SYR616, core SYR616, temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: mg M, red slip 10RS/6. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, burnished. Exterior SYR7/8, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fin M, smoothed outside. Exterior SYR713, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: mg M.

FIGURE 5.78: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2
No. Type
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Mortarium Mortarium Mortarium Mortarium

Reg. No.
S112/100 3SS9/S 3S80/1 3646/101 S188/1 196616 S21111 3446/3 S012/1 19411104 3S7S/I 3S92/3 3S1113 S216/100

Locus Description
1913 1326 1326 0890 1938 1966 1948 131S 1911 1941 1333 133S 1321 1947 Exterior 2.SYRS/6, interior 2.5YRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: mg M white grits. Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior lOYR7/3, interior 2.SYRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: fin M, red slip 10RS/6. SYR7/4, interior SYR7/4, core grey, temper: fm M black grits. SYR6/4, interior SYR6/4, core grey black, temper: fm M. 2.SYRS/6, interior 2.SYRS/6, core grey; temper: m M black & white grits.

Exterior SYR7/4, interior SYR7/4, core SYR7/4, temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/4, interior lOYRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: m M.

Typical Cypriote fabric.

204

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Fig. 5.78: Pottery of Stratum E2

205

14 Fig... I I I I I " ...79: Pottery of Stratum E2. 11 9 10 12 8 13 10cm. 206 ./ " ~... .2 . <: i: . 5.-_... \ 3 4 1IfJ' ...rr@ .. ' .....-. '\ I r. / I~.W 5 " 7 .. .

core 5YR7/6. Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Reg No. Exterior IOYR7/3. wheel burnished. Type Juglet 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Reg. 212: 10 (Tomb 14). Exterior 5YR7/6. interior and core 2. and interior 5YR7/6. red slip 10R5/8 with black lines. temper: fm M.79: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. interior and core 1OYR8/3 white.5YR8/4. interior 5YR7/6. M. 207 . interior and core 7. cf. temper: m M. temper: fM.5YR8/4.5YR6/6.7. temper: fM. temper: fM. core 1OYR8/3. Exterior 5YR7/6. temper: m M. interior 5YR7/4. temper: fm M. interior 5YR7/6 . core dark. Exterior 7. temper: fm M. temper: mg M. temper: fm M. Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Jug Jug Jug Decanter 12 13 14 529511+2 FIGURE 5. interior 2. core 5YR7/6. core grey.5YR6/6. FIGURE 5. grey to 5YR7/6. interior 10YR8/3.5YR7/6. Exterior and interior 2. 3353/7 3353/100 5306/1 3297/1 5413/3 5037/100 3293/1 5362/2 5073/100 5287/1 34651100 Locus 0892 0892 1965 0874 1972 1912 0874 1967 1912 1941 0890 Description Exterior 5YR7/4. core 7.outside wheel burnished. temper: m M black & white grits. 'Assyrian bottle'. interior 2.5YR6/6. Only 1 handle. core 5YR7/6. burnished. temper: grey.FIGURE 5. temper: m M. "':!. temper: grey to 5YR7/6. mg M. temper: fM. Karageorghis 1970: PI. temper: fig M. Exterior. core grey.5YR6/6. 3618/100 349113 53911100 5238/1 5324/9 536711 5477/5 3279/16 3356/9 526117 3275/6 357211 3269/9 5324/1 5500/200 5330/2 Locus 1338 1308 1970 1956 1970 1967 1976 0872 0888 1956 0872 1326 0869 1970 1984 1967 1941 Descrip_tion Exterior. interior 5YR7/4. interior 7. black & red paint IOR5/6.5YR8/4. and interior 2. temper: fM. Exterior 10YR8/3. Exterior 5YR7/6. interior 10R6/6. Exterior. interior IOYR7/3. inside mg M. red slip IOR5/8. No. interior 2. core 2. black & white grits. temper: fm M.5YR6/6. Exterior 7. Exterior 5YR7/6 -7.5YR7/6. black bands.81: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. temper: g M large white grits. Exterior 2. Exterior 2. Exterior. black paint. Exterior.5YR7/6.5YR6/6. core grey. red slip 10R5/8 with black line on mushroom lip. temper: fmM. Exterior 5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/6. temper: grey to 5YR7/6. interior and core 7. temper: fM. No. black lines. core 10R6/6. red paint 10R5/6.5YR6/6. red slip 10R5/6. interior 5YR7/6. core core core core core grey. core grey.5YR6/6. interior and core 10YR812 (white). burnished with black brown bands painted outside.5YR7/6. and interior 5YR7/6. TyPe 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Pot-stand Krater? Deep bowl Reg. burnished. temper: m M. red paint. Exterior 10R6/6. 5013/200 5073/200 53201100 3119/5 3573/1 5209/1 5286/10 3142/4 5416/5 5235/1 Locus 1912 1912 1941 0825 1321 1941 1965 0835 1941 1955 Descrip_tion Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. mg M. core yellow greenish. and interior 5YR7/6. core 5YR7/4.80: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. core grey.5YR7/6. temper:wg Brown painted band IOR5/4 weak red. temper: f M.5YR6/6.

\ 5 6 r L III '\. Fig.80: Pottery of Stratum E2 208 .. .. • 7 I 9 10 11 o 10cm ._.-.. 8 10cm. 5.\ 3 \ r I 2 I ..-.... .

.---- I \ \ \ I \ \ \ \ '' I • / I\ \ . Fig.81: Pottery of Stratum E2. 209 . I I . 2 • 4 3 5 s 7 ) : =I. 5. I I " .. . T 8 9 -~10 10cm.

5YR7/6.82: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. 210 .10YR7/3. interior 2.e Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Table amphora Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport jar j ar j ar j ar j ar jar jar jar Reg No.2. FIGURE 5.e Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport jar jar jar jar jar jar jar jar jar Reg.2.2. interior and core 5YR7/6. Red lamp type with rough surface. temper: mg M. Pink lamp type with smooth surface. Exterior. interior 10YR6/2.5YR6/6 .83: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TJ:'J!. Exterior. temper: fM. temper: mg M black & white grits. interior and core 7. interior and core 5YR7/8 grey. temper: fm M black & white grits. temper: fM. Cypriote import.5YR6/6 .FIGURE 5.5YR5/4 black. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 TJ:'J!.5YR8/2 white. Exterior. interior and core 7. temper: fm M white grits. 3498/2 349811 527913 5258/3 3554/1 5302/100 35201100 549112 5245/4 548114 5287/2 3640/100 5437/1 524112 5180/2 5297/2 Locus 0890 0890 1963 1959 1321 1941 1941 1984 1941 1980 1941 0890 1968 1941 1914 1941 Description Exterior. core grey black. 194117 550011 5447/2 5061/2 5309/200 52991100 53321100 36431100 5192/2 Locus 1941 1984 1963 1913 1941 1941 1941 0890 1941 Description Exterior 10YR6/2 . core 2.5YR6/6 . Cooking-pot fabric. red & black paint. Exterior 2.5YR5/4 grey.5YR5/4 black.

I '\V/ / " 8 9 10 11 ~ 13 '1 I ~.. 14 12 a 10cm . 7 • • I I I I \ \ \ \ \ I \ \ \ . 5. 211 . 15 Fig. ._____. ._---'- ----- --- ----' 6 -=~~~~_'~Ocm. I I . . I I ...'" 2 3 e.---'. I I / " I -. ffi -. I / '.... \ \ . . '/ -. \ \ I I I . \I ' I 4 5 .~ ..82: Pottery of Stratum E2.

83: Pottery of Stratum E2. 5.2 • 3 • I I \ I I I \ \ \ \ \ 5 6 • I I I I . \ \ \ ( t I I \ \ \ \ ) 7 6 9 o ------ 1Ocm. Fig. 212 ..

n ! \ 0 -.84: Pottery of Stratum E2. / / _- I ' 8 9 Fig. 2 3 ~ ) 4 7 l \ ~ 5 6 7 " I I . 213 .. ---- 10cm. 5.

5YR6/4. 5YR7/6. Exterior IOR6/6. Exterior. This type of cooking-pot is characterised by a rough base.5YR7/6. Basket-handle amphora 53701100 Basket-handle amphora 522011 00 Cooking-pot 19411172 Cooking-pot 3526/4 Cooking-pot 3203/2 Cooking-pot 3203/1 Cooking-pot 5318/4 Cooking-pot 5115/100 Cooking-pot 344511 5 6 7 8 9 FIGURE 5.5YR5/4. w: 21.84: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. temper: mg M. Exterior Exterior interiorand core 2. core grey. Exterior 2. core grey black. temper: fm M. lid lid lid lid lid lid lid lid 214 . 1980: PI. temper: m M white grits. No. temper: mg M black & white grits. interior and core 2.5YR5/6. Handle h: 16. Locus 1941 1941 1941 1321 0855 0855 1941 1913 0890 Description Handle h: 17. 3602/2 5426/6 3270/1 362114 521112 5360/100 3367/2 5188/2 5499/3 545711 307511 5283/5 5422/1 1970/48 532311 Locus 1336 1941 0869 1338 1948 1967 0892 1938 1980 19B 0819 1941 1963 1970 1956 Description Exterior. interior 10R5/4. This type of cooking-pot is characterized by a rough lower part. interior and core 2. interior 5YR7/4. interior and core 2. interior lOR5/4. interior 7. Exterior 2. Exterior 7. 10R5/4.85: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. TJl. interior 2. temper: mg M black & white grits. Exterior.5YR5/6. core 5YR7/3. Exterior.5YR5/6.5YR5/6.5YR7/6. interior and core 2. 8). 1 2 3 4 Type Reg.5YR5/4.FIGURE 5. temper: mg M black &white grits. temper: mg M black & white grits. core 7. temper: g M black & white grits. Exterior. 55 (Str. Exterior.5YR7/6. interior and core 2. Briend et al. No. temper: mg M white grits. interior 2. incisions on handle. core black. Exterior 2. core 2. temper: mg M white grits. writing with red paint. core black. Exterior. core grey brown. temper: mg M.5YR6/4.5YR5/4. Remarks: cf. w: 21. Exterior 10R4/3. temper: mg M black and white grits. temper: mg M white & black grits.pe Cooking-pot 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. temper: mg M black grits.5YR512.5YR5/6.5YR5/2.5YR5/6. Sarepta type CP-IA (Anderson 1988). interior 2. temper: mg M black & white grits. interior and core 5YR6/6.5YR7/6. interior 7.

Fig. 4 / 3 < t: ( " • 5 6 7 err .~. 215 . 5.) ( ~\ f22 2 \. 9 10 / .85: Pottery of Stratum E2. I '~ 11 ~I 12 / ~==~--~-----~ 14 1Ocm.

5. E3 and E2a statistically due to the fact that the fortresses under Stratum E2a were cleared and rebuilt. 1 2 3 Type Transport jar Basket-handle amphora Reg.86: Pottery with ins cis ions and inscriptions. E2a Str. All diagnostic pottery fragments were recorded and 2625 vessels and fragments catalogued. E2a Str. No. ' .of Area E were excavated. TABLE 5. Locus 890 1968 1309 Stratum Str. Fig. Not all of these finds could be assigned to a particular pottery type. yielded a significant sample.~I 'I 10cm.2: NUMBER OF VESSELS RECORDED BY TYPE AND STRATUM FORM CLASS £2 174 29 52 24 9 98 6 £3 34 2 7 1 8 £4 19 1 2 2 1 7 Debris under Stratum £4 2 Total 229 30 56 33 11 113 6 2 530 27 204 13 24 27 23 57 1385 Bowls Deep bowls Bowls with incurved rim Kraters Juglets Jugs Jars Pithoi Amphoras Lamps Cooking-pots Special forms Mortaria Greek imports Cypriote fine ware imports Cypriote basket-handle amphoras Total 2 511 26 157 12 24 25 13 57 1219 13 34 1 2 9 111 49 6 4 1 11 2 2 216 . E2b Description Transport jar type with an engraved sign "aleph"..86: IRON AGE POTTERY WITH INCISIONS AND INSCRIPTIONS No. 3365/101 5402/100 3443/103 STATISTICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE POTTERY FROM STRATUM E2 Approximately 340 m. Only Stratum E2a. where much of the pottery was found in situ. Cypriote Basket-Handle with an engraved sign. 2 3 10cm. Body sherd with an engraved picture of a jar. 1 ~. FIGURE 5. It was impractical to analyze the pottery types in Strata E4.

Figs.Others 1% 4% Cooking-pots 13% Jugs 8% Mortaria 2% Transportjars 48% Fig. 5.1% of the total pottery in Stratum E2. 5. kraters constitute 2% of all vessels. transport jars (amphoras). constituting 9. Jugs are notably more numerous at Mezad Hashavyahu (19%) than at Kabri (8%).4%. while Egyptian imports account for 1% of the finds there (Fantalkin 2001:97-98.1%. 5. lamps 4%) (Fantalkin 2001:103-104).83:7 3% 10% 3% 9% Fig. 5.88b: Other types of transport jars in Stratum E2. Cypriote basket-handle amphoras are the major group. Greek imports to Mezad Hashavyahu are much more numerous (46%) than at Tel Kabri (Fantalkin 2001 :103-104). These numbers should be compared with the finds from Mezad Hashavyahu.103-104).83:8 Others 8% 6% 40% Basket-Handle amphoras 20% Fig. Among the imported wares.87: Pottery Repertoire of Stratum E2.1% and Greek imports make up 2. 5. No Egyptian imports were found in Tel Kabri.2. Fig. the only other 7th century BCE fortress in Israel where statistics have been provided (Fantalkin 2001).87.83 :2-3 13% Others 35% 6% Fig. 217 . The pottery count (Table 5. 5. There were no Cypriote imports found at that site. Cypriote fine war~s are.88a: Main types of transport jars in Stratum E2. At Kabri. The numbers at Mezad Hashavyahu are not very different (kraters 2.88) reveals an extraordinarily high percentage of . Fig. 5. 5. This may be partly due to the fact that the area excavated coincided with the storerooms of the fortress.rare with a share of only 1.

7% of the pottery assemblage from Kabri was used for the preparation (cooking) and consumption of food to serve the needs of the garrison.84:8) 10% Fig. 5. 5. The numerous complete vessels from Tel Kabri's destruction level (Stratum 2a) enable us to study the typology of the 7th century BCE in detail. 1978b. 1994. survey~ in the Akko plain have yielded new data about the coastal settlement system of the 7th century BCE in southern Phoenicia (Frankel 1986.84: 5~ 11% With rough base (Fig.85:8 Fig. CONCLUSIONS While Iron Age coastal (Phoenician) pottery of the 12th . probably destroyed at the same time as the storerooms of the Tel Kabri fortress.2001. 5. Anderson 1988. The excavations at Tel Kabri significantly complement these finds.3% were vessels for storage of agricultural products collected in the nearby area.84: 3-4 9% Fig.Fig. Some 52. 1980). 1990.85:11 11% Fig. 5. Lehmann 1995.89b: Other types of cooking-pots from Stratum E2. From the end of the 8th through the 7th century BCE. 5. Fig 5. 1997. Sarepta and Tell Abu Hawam did not expose substantial levels of this date.89a: Main types of cooking-pots from Stratum 2a. In Achziv Stratum IV the still unpublished fmds from a warehouse. 5. near Achziv. Frankel et al. 5. Wolff 1994:515-516). Gal 1992. While most types found in Stratum E2 also occur at nearby Tell Keisan Strata 4-5 (Briend et al.85:6 11% Lids Fig. Achziv Tomb 3 has a number of good parallels to Stratum E2 (Culican 1975-76). In addition to excavations. The excavations at Tyre.85:10 17% Fig. 5.84: 7-9 35% Others 27% 6% Fig. Herrera Gonzalez 1990). 5. 1987.85:12 6% Fig. The closest parallels to the pottery of Stratum E2a come from sites in the vicinity of Tel Kabri.8th centuries BCE has been studied in detail (Bikai 1978a. The 7th century BCE pottery from Tell Keisan has been published by the French Expedition but till now this was the only major site to provide such information.85: 13- Fig.85:7 6% 5. 5. while the other 47. Another recent contribution to the study of 7th century BCE coastal pottery is Fantalkin's comprehensive publication of the excavations at Mezad Hashavyahu (2001). include the same transport jar types as those found in situ at the latter site (Zemer 1977:18). 5. 21% of all pottery types have exact parallels at either Tyre Strata 1-2 (Bikai 1978a) or Sarepta Stratum Cl (Anderson 218 . a fortress stood at the extreme southern edge of the Phoenician homeland. This leaves only 25% for storage vessels (Fantalkin 2001:103-104). At Mezad Hashavyahu vessels for the consumption of food make up 60% of the repertoire and cooking-pots for its preparation 11%. 5. until recently the 7th century BCE was a more obscure phase in the archaeological research of the northern Levant.

The later fortress of Stratum E2a may have been destroyed during one of the campaigns of Nebuchadnezzar against Syria and Palestine. although on a smaller scale. Similarities are seen at Tel Qiri Stratum VI (Ben-Tor et at. 650-575 BCE. Pottery LB IA I IA II Krater Jugs/Juglets Cooking-pots Lamps Bowls Cypriote Imports TOTAL 4 1 3 3 2 2 29 4 14 51 4 10 219 .V).however did not destroy the fortress completely. Cooking-pots form the largest functional group retrieved from the Iron Age II remains in this area. may be as early as 604 BCE or only later in 585 BCE (Katzenstein 1997: 328). demonstrates that Late Bronze and Iron Age settlement was not confined to Area E. There is a surprisingly high percentage of Cypriote fine wares. Courbin 1993). 650 and 600 BCE and might be connected with the campaign of Ashurbanipal in the year 644/43 BCE (Katzenstein 1997:293). Reich 1989). dated to ca. the earlier destruction must have taken place between ca. chronologically anchored on the campaigns of Nebuchadnezzar. Additional parallels which date Stratum E2a to ca. The pottery is identical to that in Stratum E2a and it is impossible to distinguish any type development between the two phases. Lehmann 1994a).6% of the all post-MB vessels recorded in Area D. A total of 14 vessels of Cypriote fine wares accounts for 22. which yielded a very similar pottery assemblage including Greek cooking-pots. Blackon-Red and White-Painted pottery. destroyed in ca. 1987 [710-650 BCE]). Dor Area A Phase 9 (Gilboa 1995 [720-650/630 BCE]) and Shiqmona Stratum 8-9 (Elgavish 1994:Fig.1988). dated to the end of the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996). has many types in common with the destruction layer at Kabri. Furthermore. AREAD The evidence that occupation continued. There is evidence for an earlier destruction phase (Stratum E2b) which . dated to 604 BCE (Stager 1996) and from Stratum 5 at al-Mina in northern Syria. on the basis of pottery comparisons Stratum E2 at Tel Kabri can confidently be dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE. Storage jars are completely missing. Comparisons for many vessels in the Stratum E2a assemblage at Kabri can be found in the destruction levels at other sites in the Levant. Naveh 1962. was dated recently to the years around 600 BCE (Wenning 1989). Dan Stratum I. Thus. This points to very close contacts and exchange with Phoenicia and illustrates that the pottery repertoire of these two sites on the Akko plain is typical oflate Iron Age Phoenician pottery (cf. in Area D after the Middle Bronze Age. 50. 53 [8th-7th century BCE]). 600 BCE come from Tell <Arqa Stratum 9D (Thalmann 1990) and Ras al-Bassit Phase 7 and Tomb 4 (Braemer 1986. there are several examples of'Wild-Goat'-Style II (Chapter 5. A number of the same pottery types came from the destruction level of Ashkelon. Based on the above-mentioned comparisons. The destruction of Mezad Hashavyahu (Fantalkin 2001. 604 BCE (Biran 1994:270-271).

.5 90· Iron Age II pottery from Area D. 4 5 7 9 10 11 f 12 14 ~'. 220 . . F 13 II II 15 16 17 19 18 lOcm..3 6 ~. Fig .

2. Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. cf. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl.90: IRON AGE II POTTERY FROM AREA D No. 80:225). 11:238]) and the Iron Age. cf. 1980:49:2) and Keisan Stratum 7 (ibid. Cypriote Black-on-Red juglet or jug (very fine pink fabric with black lustrous bands on the rim inside).The scant Iron Age II architectural remains in Area D are interpreted as a farmstead or some kind of rural settlement (Chapter 4. 25:10. 1980:56:8). However. Hazor X (Yadin et al. Type 1). Tyre Stratum X-2 [Bikai 1978:PI. Pan type with vertical handle. cf. apparently dumped at the site. Persian period pottery was extremely rare. Stern 1978:53. 1960:57:4). Red-slipped burnished bowl. Stratum E3 (a similar cooking-pot rim appears also during the Iron Age II A-B. Abu Hawam Stratum IV (Balensi 1980: PI.9). 1980:56:6). Jezreel "Early Iron" (Zimhoni 1997: Fig. 1960:51:12) and VIII (ibid. cf. 1961:209:1). cf. Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. Hazor IX (Yadin et al. Keisan Stratum 5 (ibid. the peculiar combination of cooking-pots and Cypriote fine wares may perhaps be explained if this area was associated wth the fortress complex in Area E for processing agricultural products. Kabri Area E. 1960:51:12). 80:221. Stern 1978:53. 39:9]). Type A. cf.III). cf. Type E. Such mortaria were first in use during the Persian period and continued into the early Hellenistic period (Salles 1985a. 1960:57:13). 14:10). 14:10). 1960:57:13). Stern 1978:54/55. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl.2. Artzy 1980) and several mortaria with a high ring base (Fig. 1960:61:12). Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et al. 2525-1 2676/1 2630 2509 2669 2617 2542 2518/3 2525/2 2625 2534/3 2504/2 2518/2 9187 2636 2555/1 9256 9110/12 268111 Locus 715 750 745 703 744 713 721 715 715 715 721 715 715 1570 745 721 1554 1541 751 Description cf. Hazor VIII (Yadin et al.joins with 154119121/1. 'Samaria' Ware. 1961:209:11).:41:6). 27:6] and XI [Bikai 1978: PI.91 :3-4). Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. cf. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl. Cypriote Black-on-Red juglet (Gjerstad 1948: Fig. cf.:53:9-10). was retrieved from Area E. cf.224). There was one twisted handle of a Persian period transport jar (not illustrated. Hazor X (Yadin et al. cf. 5. Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. cf. 19 Cooking-pot PERSIAN AND HELLENISTIC PERIODS A small amount of late Persian period and Hellenistic pottery. Hazor X (Yadin et al. FIGURE 5. Stem 1978:55/56. cf. Such pans were in use during the Late Bronze Age (Tell Abu Hawam Stratum V [Balensi 1980:PI. Abu Hawam Stratum III (Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. Abu Hawam Stratum III (Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. Abu Hawam Stratum IV (Balensi 1980: PI. cf. Type Bowl 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Bowl Bowl Juglet Juglet Juglet/Jug Juglet Bowl Bowl Bowl Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. Hazor IX (Yadin et al. cf. Kabri Stratum E3. Type A. 1998) 221 . 38:9. No. Kabri Stratum E3. Against such a rural background the relatively large amount of Cypriote fine wares is difficult to explain.:57:15).

No. 4 Fig. All the pottery comes from disturbed layers between Strata E2 and E1. Exterior 5YR7/4. temper: mg M. 222 . temper: mg M white grits . The Ottoman village in Area E was excavated by Mahmud Hawari in 1993 (Hawari 1994). 34). FIGURE 5. 7:1-3. 3269/1a 326911b 3204/4 3490/2 Locus 0869 0869 0853 1321 Description 4 Exterior 7. 3 2 '--"~~=--' 10cm.91: Hellenistic pottery from Area E.91: HELLENISTIC POTTERY FROM AREA E No.5YR8/4. Transport jars of this class are especially numerous in the Akko plain during the Hellenistic period. 5. 1980:Pl.The two Hellenistic unguentaria found were apparently associated with a disturbed grave (Fig. interior 5YR7/4.91:1-2). Among the Hellenistic pottery was the rim of a white Hellenistic transport jar (not illustrated). core grey. 1 2 3 Type Unguentarium Unguentarium Mortar Mortar Reg.. 5. interior IOYR8/3. Further finds include a fragment of a stamped Rhodian amphora (Chapter 9:No. This type of vessel was found in large numbers at Tell Keisan and nearby Khirbat Kinniya (Briend et al. 17:23-30). core grey.

Naso for his input regarding the fragment of an Etruscan Buchero vessel (No. According to Coldstream (1968:298-301) the first stage of the Bird bowls is to be dated to ca. The unstratified fragment of an SOS-amphora (No. The fragment of an oinochoe or olpe of Etruscan Bucchero (No. Recently the typology and chronology of the East Greek Bird bowls has been modified and refined by Kerschner (1995. Haider 1996:69) is too small to be more closely dated than between the later 8th and the first half of the 6th centuries BCE. Since there is no other 8th century Greek pottery from Kabri. Lehmann 1995. Niemeier 1995. 42) is of special interest. PI. simplifying the decoration and flattening the shape. Kaufler and U.E. 5. 25) (cf.92:1-5. The Bird bowl evolved from the Late Geometric Bird kotyle.M. 650-615 BCE. No.1 was earlier identified as belonging to a Late Geometric or Subgeometric skyphos with metope decoration (Niemeier 1990:xxxiv-xxxv.93:1-4) come from East Greek so-called Bird bowls. The "curious gap in the roster of early Greek pottery in Palestine". Tel Dan. according to Neutron Activation Analysis by H. 1990. Tell Abu Hawam. The following sites in the Levant have produced Early Corinthian pottery: Tell Sukas. despite its popularity in other areas of the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. "the complete lack of Protocorinthian pottery of the late eighth through most of the . 2. Thus Waldbaum's distribution map (1994:55.1 More was found in the seasons of 1989. Fig. The clay of a sherd tentatively ascribed to a Protocorinthian aryballos (Kempinski and Niemeier 1993b:259. although the preserved decoration could be of late 8th/early 7th century date. 25). Gershuny (1987:69.1) and adopted by Waldbaum and Magness (1997:34) and Haider (1996:69) is. Ashkelon. Boardman 1980:48). 22. 1997:252-255. Fine decorated Greek pottery is more accurately datable than most of the local pottery and therefore important for absolute dating (see Cook. Mommsen of Bonn University.2 The stratified pieces come from Stratum E2a (the destruction level of the Phoenician fortification) or from slightly earlier levels. Tell Jemmeh and Tell Sera' (Koehl 1985:138. Tell Keisan. Haider 1996:69). date adopted by Waldbaum 1994:59. and the fourth to ca. 16. S. cf. 2 3 223 . Wenning 1995). Vessel No. All pre-Hellenistic Greek pottery of Area E is to be dated between the second half of the 7th and the first half of the 6th centuries BCE. 19. 1992 and 1993 (Niemeier 1990. the profile is too curved to belong to a Late Geometric/Subgeometric skyphos but comes from an East Greek archaic Bird bowl. BIRD BOWLS Five fragments (Figs. Tel Batash. it almost certainly is contemporary with the East Greek pottery. Fig. not Corinthian but probably east Cypriot.13). Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33-36 with references). 700-675 BCE. seventh centuries" (Waldbaum 1994:59. 1) and Haider's summary (1996: 69) have to be corrected: There is no Geometric pottery from Kabri. 12. The presence of these imports is of special significance for two reasons: 1. Niemeier 1994). 675-640 B. Pastor 1991 :20*. the third ca. 615-600 BCE. Schlotzhauer for important information and constructive discussions on the East Greek pottery found at Tel Kabri.C. Adelman 1995. Thus no Corinthian pottery has been found at Tel Kabri. We are also grateful to A. Al Mina is the only site from which Protocorinthian pottery is known (Robertson 1940:16-18. Sarepta. 5. 1997. Tel MiqneEkron. Waldbaum 1994. with the exception of a probably Attic SOS-amphora (No. IV. Kerschner We would like to thank M.V. 23. 256.1. cf. Kerschner. Reinvestigation of the sherd for the final publication demonstrated that. Elsewhere in the Levant Corinthian pottery also is not abundant. Figs. ARCHAIC GREEK AND ETRUSCAN POTTERY Barbara and Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier Archaic Greek pottery was first identified in Area E in 1986 byL. 42). R. the second to ca. Fig.1995. The Archaic Greek pottery from Kabri is East Greek. Niemeier 1994:*31. also Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33-36) also applies to Tel Kabri-'. Fig. They play an important role in discussions about contacts between the Levant and Greece and the possible presence of Greeks in the Levant (see Wenning 1991. Cook and Dupont 1998:8-10).

3. Stratum El. Outside: A group of three vertical lines on the left with a single vertical line on their right. 3023/1. =2 em. Locus 802. 43:452).478. the first half of the 7th century BCE is still dominated by Bird kotylai and only from the middle of the century onwards do Bird bowls appear in larger quantities. Date: The fragment is too small for dating. Stratum El. 1. Outside: A ray with three horizontal lines above it in the lower part. Reg.E (cf. Cat. 'Fundgruppe XXVII' in the sanctuary of Hera on Samos. 130. 650-615 BCE.8 em. Decoration: Yellowish-red and black paint.92:4.5 em. No. Below this are void rays.the bowl are characteristics of Kerschner's Type V. Parallels: Phase IV at Emporio on Chios. from left to right. ca. 5. Outside: The tail of a bird above which is a triangle pendant from a painted lip band. No. dated to the last third of the 7th century BCE (Boardman 1967:133. 3. XIV).8. VI). Decoration: Yellowish-red paint. Bird bowl (Fig. H = 2. 11 em. 5. three vertical lines which meet three horizontal lines at an angle. No. No.92:1. dated before 600 BCE (Walter 1968:88. In Kerschner's typology our fragment forms a late example of his Type IV with a small groove at the mouth and a relatively deep bowl dated to the last third of the 7th century BCE (cf. three vertical lines and the body and feet of a bird. According to his studies. 5. = 3. 5. Reg. A vertical stripe on the right. Reg. Kerschner 1997:163. Bird bowl (Figs. 3138. Reg.93:2) Rim fragment. Date: The fragment is from a Bird bowl of Kerschner's Type II with empty bottom zone. PI. Inside: Solid. Outside: On the left. 224 . 5. 5.93:3) Rim fragment. H. Stratum El. 5. 2.92:2. = 3. 3114. Reg. Kerschner 1997:127 Cat. Bird bowl (Figs. Decoration: Reddish-brown paint. Decoration: Light reddish-brown paint. 5.93:4) Rim fragment. 329711.C. Bird bowl (Figs. The bird's tail is formed by extending the lower horizontal outline of the body. Inside: Solid. D. 17. XIV). Locus 874. Stratum El. Date: The painted design puts the fragment in Coldstream's third group. Locus 1983. 5484. Date: The missing groove at the rim and the almost hemispherical profile of . 4. D. Above these. Inside: Solid. No. PI. Kerschner did not find Bird bowls from clear contexts before the second quarter of the 7th century BCE. 5.92:5) Body fragment. 5.92:3. The style is less delicate than No. is a rhomb filled with hatching. H. PI. 162. Locus 833.3 ern.1997). 43.dated to the last quarter of the 7th century BCE (cf. Inside: Solid. PI. No. 118-119:476. Bird bowl (Figs. PI. = ca. No. dated to the middle to third quarter of the 7th century B. 109. 162.93:1) Rim fragment. No. Stratum El. 85). H. 107. Kerschner 1997:160.2. H. Locus'S24.

5. 53311100. There are. Outside: Type: Villard Schlotzhauer's and Vallet's below the lip. PI. fewer from Phase III (ca.5 em. For many 1998:26). 7-8. (mouth) = Reg. in a sacrificial complex in the sanctuary established by Schlotzhauer 1995 for the 1994:137-187. has shown that the clay composition of a Bird bowl of Type IV from the Rheneia Pi. 6-18) form the largest group of Archaic Greek pottery . D. adopting the typology 1980:165). Fig. analyses were considered analysis pit. 1993). 188-189 note 5. The most influential 120-125.93:5) 15 fragments of mouth and wall (reconstructed). I118-20. decorated Schlotzhauer (Cook and Dupont 1998:129-131). Outside: by Kerschner as belonging Two vertical lines. invention (cf. 21). 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler 225 . Hayes' Type I-II.6e) matches on Rhodes. the majority of the pieces of this type came from Phases I (before ca. to his latest Type VI without horizontal Date: It has been identified example from Histria: Lambrino DISCUSSION between the rays of the bottom zone and the main frieze. a complete 1938:39-43 No.200-202 Nos. 200. Boardman those applied to material from Megara Hyblaea in Sicily (Villard and Vallet 1955:18-33). 13). 630/20 . Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Samian Heraion. 197-199. with simple horizontal or completely covered with dark paint and they should be is retained.Decoration: Reddish-brown exception of a reserved and dark grey glossy paint. site of Bird However. and from Tocra in Libya (Hayes 1966:111-16. Table 1). Type AI. drinking cups with prominent and Shipley 1989). 'Ionian cup' (Figs. Syria (Ploug importance 1956:167-173) for this cup-type have been put forward. H. 13 = Alexandrescu 1978:57-58 No. Of in the South Temenos of the are the series of Ionian cups found in good stratigraphic 1997. painted or reserved. bands just below the handle Group 3. Fig.219-234). Kerschner's neutron metropolis years the Bird bowls petrographic 1986:649. here the common English nomenclature Various systems of classification Cilicia (Hanfmann Hayes 1973:55-56). from Tel Kabri. 630/20 BCE) and II (ca. Shipley 1989. 610 BCE). Furtwangler's level and just Type 3 and 16 cm. Solid except for narrow Decoration: Black paint. Inside: Solid except for a band just below the mouth. Delos found to be a Rhodian (Jones 1986:647.1. were and Since this class is not restricted to Ionia (Catling cup' should be abandoned (1995. cups from Miletus) and in the Greek sanctuary at Gravisca in Etruria (Boldrini 6. cups' is used for a class of two-handled bands. and the very useful concordance sanctuary of Hera on the island of Sam os (Furtwangler of Artemis at Ephesos (Kerschner ibid. 1999) suggests that the term 'Ionian called 'Knickrandschale' (cup with bent rim). 8. The fragments of thirteen so-called Ionian cups (Nos. However.. Other examples from the Samian Heraion come from the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building dated to ca. The term 'Ionian rims. other systems arranged These typologies from Tarsus in have been adopted in the study of the Ionian cups from Tell Sukas in by single sites (see Catling and to the typologies sequences 1973:27-38). 5. Inside: Solid with lines stripe.92:7. Cook and Dupont that found in Furthermore. Locus 1941. One production bowls may perhaps have been located in northern 'IONIAN CUPS' Ionia (Jones 1986:697). No. that neither parts of Ionia (Jones activation demonstrating that it was not produced at Miletus confirm of Bird bowls was this Ionian the production centre of Bird bowls (Kerschner et al. Ploug's Group 6. 610-590/80 BCE) (Furtwangler 1980:165. This is dated to ca.ca. = 3.664). however. glazed all over except for a narrow reserved band at handle level. Stratum E2a. 625-590 BCE (cf.

2 ry3 5 4 _. 7 8 3cm. 226 .92: Bird bowls and Ionian cups. 11 Fig. 5.

El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. black (IOYR 2/1) paint. III/I.5YR 2. Reg. reddish-brown (2. 5. (mouth) = 17. 8. 545/535 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:7-8. PI. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 3138 3114 3297/1 3023/1 5484 3500/101 53311100 3352/100 3536/100 2619 5034-6 Locus 833 824 874 802 1983 1321 1941 887 1321 737 1915 Stratum El E1 Descrip.121:Fig. 610-590/80 BCE) and was also found in Phase IV (a late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165. dark greyish-brown (10YR 3/2) paint. 18).5YR 3/1) paint. No. = 4.93:4 2. Cat. TJP. 9. Stratum E2a. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos which ends ca. 227 . in the second levelling of ca. 126:Fig. 111 Fig. 1. 7.92:8) Shoulder fragment. Furtwangler's Type 5 and Boldrini's Type 1111 with glazed exterior except the rim and a band at handle level.5YR 6/4) clay.FIGURE 5. III/8-9.92: BIRD BOWLS AND IONIAN CUPS No. No. 33521100. = 2. 21). 12-13 PI. Inside: Solid except for a band just below the mouth. 11 PI. Outside: Bands on rim and at handle level. Hayes' (1966:112) late 7th century BCE. 'Ionian cup' (Fig.120. Locus 1321. 19.5/1) paint. Examples of this type were unearthed also in the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building of ca. Cat. PI. Ploug's Group 5. Hanfmann's Type IV. No. 19. 25. D. 12.93:3 5. Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. 117. Outside and inside: Solid. black (7. 4. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) paint.93:5 5.93:6 and Kienast 1989:4-5.600 BCE. Ionian cup II. Decoration: Glossy black paint. very dark brown (10YR 2/2) paint. Hayes' Type VIII-IX. 23) and in the foundation of the North Building of ca. Decoration: Black paint. This type apparently lasted from the second half of the 7th to the early 6th century BCE. Nos. Cat. E2a Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay. 28). 213-214:Nos. Type: Villard and Vallet's Type A21B 2. Surface Very pale brown (IOYR 7/4) clay. 5. No. Examples from Ephesos are dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE (Kerschner 1997:111. dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) paint. EI Light brown (7. 5. 570/550 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:5-7. 5. reddish-brown (5YR 4/4)/ dark grey (7.3 em. 3. 610 BCE (Kerschner 1997:182). II. 125. Reg. Ionian cup. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:4-5.93:2 5. 111 Fig. Date: Vallet and Villard's (1955:15-18. reddish-brown (2. 112. 1111. 115 Cat. yellowish-red (5YR 5/8)/black (5YR 2.92:9.5YR 4/1) shiny paint.No. Cat. 10. H. El Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay.5/1) paint. III).6. 5. 6. E2blE3 Pink (5 YR7/4) lightly micaceous clay. 8. 3536/100. 1/3-4. Cat. Fig. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay.5YR 3/1) paint. No. H. 29) date is 640/30 .93:1 5. 5. Locus 887.2 em. 7. black (10YR 2/1) shiny paint. E2a Very pale brown (IOYR 7/3)/grey (10YR 6/i) clay. Ionian cup Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. PI. 21). (Figs.93:6) Mouth and wall fragment. Discussion: See No.tion See Fig.e Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Dorian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Reg_. Stratum El. Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Heraion of Samos it occurs first in Phase III (ca. No.

Outside and inside: Solid. Fig. III/I. 19. Cat. Nos. Type 5 and Boldrini's Type II11 with glazed exterior except the rim and a band at handle level. 5. 111 Fig. 3. Hayes' Type VIII-IX. Ploug's Group 5. 111 Fig. 33521100.115 Cat. Surface Very pale brown (IOYR 7/4) clay. E2a Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay. 28). H. 1980:165. (mouth) = 17. 18). The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos which ends 227 . No.92:8) Shoulder fragment. PI. 121 :Fig. Outside: Bands on rim and at handle level.6. in the second and Kienast 1989:5-7. Reg. Reg. ern. 7. Decoration: Glossy black paint. 2.93:5 5. yellowish-red (5YR 5/8)/black (5YR 2. Discussion: See No.93:6) Mouth and wall fragment. Type: Villard and Vallet's Furtwangler's Type A21B 2. PI. dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) paint. 'Ionian cup' (Fig. 3138 3114 3297/1 3023/1 5484 3500/101 53311100 3352/100 3536/100 2619 5034-6 Locus 833 824 874 802 1983 1321 1941 887 1321 737 1915 Stratum El El Description See Fig. H.5/1) paint. III/8-9. Locus 1321. black (IOYR 2/1) paint. = 2. (Figs. 8. levelling of ca.93:6 and Kienast 1989:4-5. 545/535 BCE (Furtwangler ca. TJ:'I!. Stratum El. No. 5. 6. 9.93:3 5. 8. 12. 5. 3536/100. 7. dark greyish-brown (IOYR 3/2) paint.5/1) paint. El Light brown (7. 5. E2a Very pale brown (10YR 7/3)/grey (10YR 6/i) clay.600 BCE. Stratum E2a. reddish-brown (2. very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) paint. 11.FIGURE 5.93:2 5. 125. reddish-brown (5YR 4/4)/ dark grey (7.5YR 3/1) paint. 5. III). 213-214:Nos. 12-13 PI. 4.93:4 11. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler Examples of this type were unearthed also in the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building of and Kienast 1989:4-5. Ionian cup. Hayes' century BCE. E2blE3 Pink (5 YR7/4) lightly micaceous clay. 1/3-4. 610 BCE (Kerschner 1997:182). 29) date is 640/30 from Ephesos are dated to the (1966:112) late 7th second half of the 7th century BCE (Kerschner 1997:111. Locus 887. This type apparently lasted from the second half of the 7th to the early 6th century BCE. black (7. El Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. 112. Decoration: Black paint.3 ern. 21). No.5YR 3/1) paint.92: BIRD BOWLS AND IONIAN CUPS No. Date: Vallet and Villard's . 25. 23) and in the and Kienast 1989:7-8. PI. Inside: Solid except for a Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Heraion of Sam os it occurs first in Phase III (ca. D. Hanfmann's Type IV. No. No. Cat. 19.5YR 2. = 4. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. black (1OYR 2/1) shiny paint. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay.93:1 5. No. 126:Fig. Cat. No. Cat. 21). 11 PI. 1.2 band just below the mouth. reddish-brown (2.5YR 6/4) clay. Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. Ionian cup Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 117. Cat. II11.5YR 4/1) shiny paint. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) paint. 120.e Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Dorian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Reg. Examples (1955:15-18. 5. 10. 610-590/80 BCE) and was also found in Phase IV (a late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler ca.92:9. 570/550 BCE (Furtwangler foundation of the North Building of ca.

7) Fig.92:1. 6) Fig. 3) Fig. 13) Fig. 5.93: Bird bowls and Ionian cups. 5. 5. 5.92:4.92:7. 5.95:10. 5.94:12. 5. 5) Fig.94:7. 8) Fig. 5. 5.94:8.95:16. 5. 2) Fig. 14) Fig. 4) Fig. 5.94:1.94:6. 9) Fig.92:9. 11) Fig. 5.92:2.94:5. 228 .92:3. 12) Fig. 5. 10) Fig. 5. 5. 1) Fig.2 3 4 5 II 14 11 12 Fig.

1963:285-287. Locus 1941. glazed with two red lines framed by white lines painted on the glaze on the inside of the rim and the lower part of the bowl. Furtwangler 1980: 164-166.3 cm. D = 6 em. = 5 em. H. No. (reconstructed) = 5 ern. Thus the type is to be dated from after ca. Stratum E2a. Decoration: Black and red paint. black (10YR 2/1). No. 5. with low foot. Decoration: Glossy black paint. Stratum E2a. At Tell Sukas.93:7) 15 fragments of rim. Reg.4 cm. 610 to 550 BCE. it occurred in Deposit II of Level 8 (Hayes 1966:1i2. Decoration: Very dark brown paint. foot unpainted. Cat. Locus 1308. No. 229 . Ionian cup (Figs. = 2. Ploug's Group 9. 2619. wall. Foot: black with one red line on base.92:10) Foot fragment. Type: Villard and Vallet's Type B 1. 5345/100. Outside: black bands covering the mouth plus the upper part of the wall and the foot.5YR 5/4). three red lines on the lower part of the wall. H.C.9.1199). 11. 620-580 BCE (1955:29). Boldrini 1994: 149-150.3502/101. H. 565 B. Ionian cup (Fig. foot unpainted. Outside and inside bowl: solid. sometimes a band below handle level and glazed foot. Inside: solid black. Surface D. Locus 1915. Decoration: Design in brown (7. No. handle and foot.Date: The date of ca. = 1. which ended ca. Inside: solid black.a group of almost completely preserved cups of this type have a reserved tondo on the base of the interior which is a 6th century feature. 1197. and Boldrini's Type Ill/I. Locus 737. unglazed exterior. No. 5. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. Decoration: Very dark greyish-brown paint.(10YR 3/2). Hayes Type V. Sounding between Strata E2b and E3. Reg. 13.7 ern. red (lOR 4/4) and white (lOR 8/1) paint. Outside: three horizontal brown lines. H.92:11) Foot fragment. Type: cf. Stratum E2a. 120. = 2. 10. Hanfmann (1956:170-173. Reg. two red lines below the mouth. Outside and inside: solid. Nos. 12.289) has suggested a date from the end of the 7th to the first half of the 6th century BCE.E (Hayes 1966:9). Reg. Furtwangler's Type 6. 5034-6. 620-600 BCE for this type proposed by Villard and Vallet (1955: 18-19. Handles: solid black. 29) has been considered too restricted. Hayes (1966:113) and Ploug (1973:29-30) date this type to the first half of the 6th century BCE. 5. Outside and inside bowl: solid. especially in regard to its end. starting around 580 BCE. 9. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. Reg. 5389-3. Type: Same as No. except rim and shoulder. = 1.94:1. PI. Parallels: At Tocra. Hanfmann's Type II. H. Locus 1971. Ionian cup (Fig. 5.4 ern. 7. D of mouth = 11 ern. Date: This type is dated by Villard and Vallet to ca.

<..94: Ionian cups..-- / <.~. 2 3 /.. I'. 1 230 .:> J I ~~\ \ \ 8 I \ 9 6 F' 9.. --' \ ' \\ ) I I \_---- .~--- .. \ ".. .. / \ \ ... 5. . <...

Date: The type apparently was in existence from after ca. white (2. 150 Fig. 610 to 570/60 BCE. 149. D (where mouth is cut away) = 13.93:8 5. Date: The type apparently was in existence from after ca. 3. 149.511).5/1) paint. edges greyish-brown (2. 2. 6. Core red (2.5YR 2.93:10 5. Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:77-78) and in well W 2 closed at about the same time (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:74-75. See Fig. 10. Locus 1963.5/1) paint. 223. Stratum E2a. foot and 1 handle. black (7. white (IOYR 8/1) slip. Ionian cup (Fig 5. Pink (7. PI. 610 BCE. Type Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Skyphos Jug Oinochoe Oinochoe Oinochoe? Reg. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) clay. Fig. 8.94: IONIAN CUPS No. red (lOR 4/4) and white (lOR 8/1) paint. this type first appears in Phase III (ca. 7. 9. 47. Cat. 1. 54141100. 14.reddish-black (2. IV/9. No. white (IOYR 8/1) slip. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) clay. ending ca.5YR4/4) paint.5YR 8/1) paint. Other examples from the Heraion were found in a level dated ca. 610590/80 BCE) and also occurs in Phase IV (the late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165.93:7 5.5YR 5/2) lightly micaceous clay. dusky red (lOR 3/4). 47. 610-590/80 BCE) and also occurs in Phase IV (the late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165.reddishbrown (5YR 4/4) paint.W2/29.5YR 2.213-214. No. Reg. very dark brown (7.5YR 5/4) micaceous clay. Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:77-78) and in Well W 2 closed at about the same time (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:74-75. H. 13. 1. H. 610 to 570/60 BCE. white (10YR 8/1) slip.5YR 7/4) clay.3 ern. 5389-3. Reg. 22). yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) paint. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) micaceous clay. 150 Fig.5/2) paint.5 em. Beil. 213-214. = 1.FIGURE 5. 4. reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) . black (lOYR 2/1). No. 223. Decoration: Design in brown (7. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos.5YR 7/4) micaceous clay. 5. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos. Pale red (2. 560 BCE (Isler 1978:93-94. No.93:9 5.5YR 2. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. 5. Outside: three horizontal brown lines.W2/29. No. Other examples from the Heraion were found in a level dated ca.5YR 2. 220:No.5YR 5/6). ending ca. 1.5YR 5/4). 22). red (lOR 4/6) . PI. III/ll12. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) micaceous clay. 610 BCE. Stratum E2a. = 4. The mouth was cut away and the base knocked through for reuse (as a funnel?). 33). Inside: solid black. 33). yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) . brown (7. Fig.very dark grey (5YR 311) paint. glazed with two red lines framed by white lines painted on the glaze on the inside of the rim and the lower part of the bowl. black (7. this type first appears in Phase III (ca. Locus 1971. IV/9. Cat.94:2) 17 fragments of wall. Parallels: In the South Temenos in the Heraion on Samos. black (10YR 2/1)/red (lOR 4/6) paint. Beil. Pink (7. 560 BCE (Isler 1978:93-94.93:11 3401/102 890 1916 1318 E2a E2b-E3 E4 5038 Oinochoe? SOS amphora 3470/100 Parallels: In the South Temenos in the Heraion on Samos.5YR 5/6) micaceous clay. 5345/100 54141100 3571/100 3448/100 3616/100 3590/100 Locus 1941 1963 890 1316 1334 1321 Stratum E2a E2a E2a E3b E2a E2a E2a Description Red (2. No. 220:No. 231 . III/II-12.8 ern. No.5/1) paint. Reddish-brown ((5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay. black (5YR 2.

5 em. termed examples are those of the so-called in cups of the Vroulia style The short rim not going beyond (1983:29) of which the most beautiful (cf. 33).4 em. Stratum E3b. No. 43:23. Cook and Dupont cup' (No. Inside: solid except for a band just below the mouth. No. D. D of mouth = 19 em. Pr. band just below = 22 = 12 ern. Ploug Dupont 1983:28-29).4). 18:9.5YR 2. 3500/101. 3156. 3448/100. Dupont Vroulia-style the handle zone. Kinch 1914:167-186. H. Length = 4. H.4 em. Locus 1321. = Reg. H. Type: Same type of cup as No. 37:4.92:6) 27 fragments D (mouth) of mouth.4. two blobs on inside. however.5/1) paint. 5248-2. offer a consistent tradition (von Graeve 1973174:85. 9. Locus 839. Decoration: Red and reddish-black paint. 45:32. Outside: Horizontal stripe on lower edge of fragment. 'Dorian' cup (Fig. Stratum E2a. paint.9 ern. 5.94:4) Wall and handle fragment. Reg.5.1. but they were also produced produced on Rhodes or Kos. 5. No. = 3. the island of Samos was an important at Miletus and in other workshops 1998:129). Reg. Rec. Cook and Dupont 1998:114-115). of finds (Furtwangler 1983:27. 39:8.1. 32:f 1 and 3. wall and handles. Solid. Decoration: Reddish-yellow 18.Decoration: Yellowish-red and dark grey paint.1. 3. 17. Inside: solid. = 3. Stratum E 2a. Outside: band on foot and lower part of wall. cm. = 0. 34-36. Outside: band covering the mouth and the upper part of the wall.2. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Handle fragment. 18 are paralleled 27:2-4. D. a major production centre of 'Ionian cups' (Hayes 1980:150-161) 1966: 111-115. No. No. Length Reg. 5. Stratum 1. Stratum E2a. 15. Locus 1941. 'Dorian' cup or skyphos (Fig. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Handle fragment.1 ern. 38:6. Handle: solid on outside. the shoulder and the rigid outline of the conical body of No. 10. The 'Dorian as well as the results of petrographic production of southwestern these cups. (Kinch 1914:Pl. (5YR 7/6) clay painted all over in very dark grey (5YR 3/1). Ionian cup (Fig. 35711100. 19.94:3) Rim and wall fragment. Reg. centre of Asia Minor 1973:28) but does not. Type: See No. 16. Locus 890. Decoration: Very dark brown paint. 14. Outside: and Kerschner striated solid except for a very narrow Decoration: Dark reddish-brown Type: Identified by Schlotzhauer 'Dorian cups' by P. Decoration: Black (7. 13 but with thicker walls and handles and are no painted lines on the interior. Locus 1316. 19) was most probably 232 . = 0. 11) and other more simply decorated cups from Vroulia on Rhodes (Kinch 1914:Pls. DISCUSSION Rhodes has long been considered According analyses (Dupont to the frequency of the clay (Dupont 1983:28. as belonging to a marginal group of 'Ionian cups'. Inside: unpainted.

The old term 'Rhodian' (Cook.93:10) Neck fragment. Part of the back of a wild goat with part of a spiral quatrefoil above it.10. = 3. Stratum E2a. Decoration: White slip and brown paint. 24. = 4. 5038. Stratum E2a. RM. 5. Oinochoe(?) (Fig. 5. a rosette of concentric circles and a series of dots following the outermost circle as filling ornament. 1997:109. No. 21-24) came from 'Wild Goat style' vessels. neck and handle fragments. R. Type: cf. Jug (Figs.9 cm. R. Reg. part of back and hind leg of a wild goat. Stratum E2a. H. on the right. Miletus (unpublished). oblique lines on surface of handle. Cook and Dupont 1998:42. 8. Mouth and sides of handle solid black. four fragments (Nos. The name comes from the animal friezes. Fig. Oinochoe (Figs. decorating the main zone of the vessels. 5. 5. 1992:259. Date: The careless execution of the twisted band points to a dating in Middle Wild Goat II.M. Locus 890.94:7. 8. cross with filling of spherical triangles on rote lIes. Schiering 1957. 1933/34:90-91. Decoration: Painted solid black with two horizontal red lines and two horizontal white lines on shoulder. No. Stratum E2b-E 3. Fig. Type: These motifs first appear in Middle Wild Goat I (Cook and Dupont 1998:37. Reg. Locus 1334. = 12. DISCUSSION 'Wild Goat style' is the term used in the English speaking archaeological community for the style which emerged about the middle of the 7th century BCE.93:11) Body fragment.94:8. 1992:259.M. 233 . Kardara 1963) is misleading. Decoration: Yellowish-red paint. Date: The slightly careless execution of the filling ornaments points to a Middle Wild Goat II date. Fig. 5.=9cm. H.6) and continue into Middle Wild Goat II (Cook.94:5. 3590/1 00. Decoration: White slip and black painted design. twisted band on neck. Fig. Locus 1321. 2a-b). 111-119.2 em. Fig.8 ern. 22. 21. R. Trefoil mouthed oinochoe with triple-coil handle (Figs. 2a-b). 5. Reg. 8. 5. Decoration: White slip with horizontal stripes painted in black. Parallels: The sanctuary of Hera on Samos (Technau 1929:29).6) and continue into Middle Wild Goat II (Cook.94:9) Shoulder fragment ofa closed vessel.94:6.92:9) Mouth. in which the goat became the most frequent species.M. WILD GOAT STYLE OINOCHOAI At Kabri. No. H. On the left. 5. H. and dominated the decoration of East Greek painted pottery for some three generations (Cook. Locus 1916. No.6 em. Type: All these motifs first appear in Middle Wild Goat I (Cook and Dupont 1998:37. 3616/100. = 2. 23.JUGS.93:8) Shoulder and neck fragment. POLYCHROME BLACK (SCHWARZBUNT) 20. Oinochoe(?) (Figs. 5. 34011102. Cook and Dupont 1998:32-70). Reg. H.

1992:260. Schaus (1986:284-288) ca. Clazomenae and what Dupont calls North Ionian 2 (Dupont 1983:27-29.36-44). RM. Cook and Dupont 1998:44). 34-36. The chronological gap between the supposed end of the Middle Wild Goat II style ca. M. exports of Middle Wild Goat II style pottery to the Black Sea coasts. 1992:262. The Fikellura style which. A problem under discussion is the date of the change from the Wild Goat style to the Fikellura style pottery mainly produced at Miletus (Dupont 1986:61. 10. overlapping and influencing the early stage of Fikellura. 550 BCE. the discussion in Niemeier 1999:404 with n. ca. The end of the Middle Wild Goat II style has been dated by R. 91). RM. 8-9 = Naveh 1962. considerable amounts of Middle Wild Goat II style pottery have been found in the sanctuary of Athena at Assesos near Miletus (Lohmann 1995:313-314). RM. 112 Fig. 650 to 640 BCE (Cook. from ca. Cook and Dupont 1998:5156). but dated the late style of his Camirus Group (comparable to Cook's Early Wild Goat . Tocra and Cyrene) very little is known in the Levant. Dupont regards the 40 years between ca. 590 BCE (Hopper 1949:180. 560 BCE may have been filled by a decadent variation of the former which lingered on beside the Late Wild Goat style (Cook. Later. Cook and Dupont 1998:61). SF 1. Amyx 1988:428-429) as Payne (1931:57) previously suggested.P.M.M. lOA) has come to light. Moreover. 560 BCE and according to G. Fig. Cook and Dupont 1998:77-81. is greatly indebted to the Middle Wild Goat II style (Cook. Schaus 1986:288-289). Cook and Dupont 1998:89) started ca. R. but clay analyses demonstrate that the island imported the ware (Dupont 1983:28-29. Petrographic clay analyses and stylistic researches have demonstrated that three or four main production centres of Wild Goat style pottery existed: Miletus. 600 BCE and the beginning of the Fikellura style ca.Rhodes was the place where it was first found in quantity. Cook and Dupont 1998:34. Cook and Dupont 1998:33-36).M. The Wild Goat style has been divided into Early. and that the Fikellura style appeared with are-emergence of the industries at Miletus about 550 BCE. when ornament and poses became more stereotyped (Cook. the Levant and North Africa come to an end and are replaced by North Ionian Late Wild Goat style ware (Schaus 1986:291. 1992:260. since it is no longer found in graves on Rhodes at the time when Middle Corinthian was replacing Early Corinthian (Cook and Dupont 1998:44). Most recently. W. according to R. PI. 264). the traditional date of ca. 1933/34:90-91. Schiering (1957:11) did not see this as a decadent transitional style. New evidence from Miletus disproves the theories of Cook and Schaus and confirms those of Schiering and Dupont (Schlotzhauer. 1997:123. 1997:112. 600 and 560 BCE as too long a phase for Cook's decadent transitional style. In Israel only a single sherd from Mezad Hasavyahu (Wenning 1989:186. 600 BCE. although Middle and Late are regional styles and overlap chronologically. may have lasted into the first two decades of the 6th century BCE (Dupont 1986:65). Whereas relatively much Late Wild Goat Style pottery has been found in North Africa (Naucratis. A completely different solution has been proposed by Schaus (1986:289-292) who maintains that almost no fine ware was produced at Miletus in the first half of the 6th century BCE due to economic decline caused by internal civil conflicts (cf. personal communication). 600 BCE for the end of Early Corinthian has been questioned by scholars who put it a little later. 1992:255-266). 65-66. 1933/34:60.1. Cook.Middle Wild Goat II) to 610-560 BCE. The Middle Wild Goat style is divided into I and II around 625 BCE. RM. Cook and Dupont 1998:56). Cook to ca.1986:62-64. At about the same time. R. The Late Wild Goat Style is an invention of North Ionian schools which diverged from the South Ionian mainstream while Early Corinthian was still flourishing (Cook. RM. Fine pottery did exist at Miletus in the first half of the 234 . Cook (1933/34:90. He argued that the Middle Wild Goat II style. he named this supposed decadent transitional style Wild Goat III (Cook. Jones 1986:665-671. Walter-Karydi 1986:73-80. 1992:260. Jones 1986:665-666). Middle and Late. The Early Wild Goat style probably did not last very long. According to Dupont's petrographic clay analyses the principal Middle Wild Goat II school is Milesian (Dupont 1986:60-64). 67-71. This transition is traditionally dated to about 600 BCE (payne 1931:57). 1997:112. Chios.

has been interpreted as a manifestation of the Athenian export trade in the Mediterranean during the Archaic period. = 6.94:10. shoulder fragment = 15.95:4) Rim fragment. Locus 1914. decorated on the outside in good Middle Wild Goat II style and on the inside in Fikellura style. H. No. in the northern Levant at Al Mina and in Egypt at Tell Defenneh (Johnston and Jones 1978:104-107. of mouth = 14 cm. (mouth) = 14 em.5 ern. H. Type: As No.95:2) Two fragments of rim and shoulder. D. Date: The SOS amphora was in use from the later 8th to the first half of the 6th century BCE. of rim fragment = 6 em. 5. Decoration: Unpainted. Date: End of 7th . Trade amphora (Fig.reddish-brown paint.2 ern. Type: As No. H. D. 26. No. 28. TRADE AMPHORAE 25. 5. They demonstrate that the Fikellura style directly followed the Wild Goat II style and partly overlapped with it. and in the east on the Black Sea at Histria. Decoration: Unpainted. Reg.8 ern. Decoration: Unpainted. SOSAmphora (Figs.6). 5. Locus 1912.7 em. Stratum E 4. Stratum E2.93:12) Neck and shoulder fragment. Parallels: SOS amphorae have been found outside of Greece at over forty Mediterranean sites. = Reg. Fig. 5. Very important are fragments of 'bilingual' cups from Miletus. 5035. mostly in Italy and Sicily but as far west as Spain and Morocco. Decoration: Unpainted.95:1) Neck and mouth fragment. Type: As No. 26. (mouth) 13 ern.95:3) Rim fragment. Reg. This type of amphora. 34701100. Locus 1335. supposedly produced in Athens for the olive oil export market. = Reg. 27. Trade amphora (Fig. H. 5051-1. 5148-2. 1941-179. 5. 5. 26. 112-122). (mouth) 13 cm. Part of '0' of the SOS motif on neck. Stratum E2a. Shoulder solid. 26 Trade amphora (Fig. Locus 1318. Jones 1986:708-712). 23. Trade amphora (Fig. D. = 7. Stratum E2a. Thus at Miletus fine ware pottery production did not stop in the early 6th century BCE but it was not exported. 235 . H. Nos. 5. 166.first half of 6th century BCE. 29. = 7 ern. Reg. Decoration: Reddish-yellow .6th century BCE and its decoration was not decadent. No. = Stratum E2a. Type: This sherd comes from an SOS amphora which gets its name from the varied zig-zag and circle motifs on the neck resembling the Greek letters 'sigma omikron sigma' (Jones 1986:706). 3592/4. Petrographic clay analyses have demonstrated that the majority of the SOS amphorae indeed are of Attic origin but imitations were also made at Chalkis and other places (Johnston and Jones 1978:122-128. D. Type: Samian amphora of the early type with echinoid rim (Cook and Dupont 1998:164-165. No.

2 4 5 rj~ 6 7 dl ~. 236 . 5.::jl n I ( 14 15 "rr 16 13 Fig. 8 9 W ~ )fJI \ n )lJI \ )(~J \11 c.95: Amphorae and cooking-pots.

5. Stratum E2a. Reg. 2. No.95:9) Foot and wall fragment. TJ!l!. Red (2. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) surface. 3123-6. Cook and Dupont 1998:170-174. Like No. Decoration: Unpainted. Stratum El. Trade amphora (Fig.95:7) Foot fragment.3 cm. = 3. Decoration: Unpainted. 4.5YR 5/6) highly micaceous clay. H. II.7 a). Trade amphora (Fig. 5. 31. Cooking bowl 16. = 6 em. three grooves on upper part of neck.93:14 30. Locus 874. lightly micaceous clay. 10. Stratum El. 3335110. 13. 5. Locus 879.93:13 Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay.95: AMPHORAE AND COOKING-POTS. Date: End of 7th . Decoration: Unpainted. Reg. Trade amphora (Fig. 5. Trade amphora (Fig. 5. Red (2. 5. Locus 889. D.5YR 5/6) micaceous clay. Cooking-pot 15.brown (7. 3592-4 5035.95:8) Foot fragment.95:6) Foot fragment. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/8) clay. Figs. 3286-5. D (neck) = 15 ern. = 3. Reg.first half of 6th century BCE. One horizontal groove at base of neck. unpainted. (foot) = 5. Bluish-grey (5PB 5/1) core. micaceous clay. No. 7. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) core.5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. 32.5 em.5YR 5/6) . (foot) = 8 em. 5. Stratum El H. shiny black (2. Stratum El. D (foot) = 10 ern. 1914 1958 879 823 889 874 Llll Kill 1309 1324 864 866 821 Red (2. 23. 8. H.95:5) Neck and shoulder fragment. Blue-grey (5 B 511) clay. 12. Red (2. 3. No. Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay.5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. 505114 1941/179 5148-2 5237-5 3309-3 3123-6 3335/10 3286-5 300112 3095/1 3437/100 3547/100. 1. Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. D. Reg. 34. No. Amphora 5. No.5 YR 2. 33. 2. 3309-3.brown )7. 237 . = 3 em. D. light brownish-grey (1OYR 6/2) surface.5YR 5/6) . Like No. No. H. 6. Decoration: Unpainted. 2. 9. Trade amphora (Fig. Reg.FIGURE 5.5/1) paint. = 9 em. No. Grey (5YR 5/1)core with reddish-yellow (5YR 6/8) surface. 3552/100 3222 3228 315113 Locus 1335 1912 Stratum Description E2 E2a E2a E2a E2a El El El El El EI E2a El El E3 El See Fig. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) lightly micaceous clay. 14.6 em. H. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) lightly micaceous clay. (foot) = 6 em. Locus 1958. Locus 823. Decoration: Unpainted. Type: Milesian amphora (cf. 5237-5.e Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg.

5. 5. According to its profile. PIs. Reg. Reg. 40. Trade amphora. The surface is partially blackened by fire. 37. Nos. 91-92. Cooking bowl (Fig. D (mouth) = 21 cm. 136. H.95:10-15.40. PI. They are unpainted. 93. 94 No. 130-131. Locus 864. Q 10. ( 238 . 145. Cooking-pots (Figs.6th centuries BCE or shortly after (Rasmussen 1979:88-89. H. Square Lll1. 29-31) or from an olpe of his Type 1.7. 83. D (mouth) = 20 ern. 5. Fig. 19411178. Figs. Reg.5 em. 36-40. PI.7 ern. KUbler 1970:192. PI. Fig. Reg. 3222. 11. Cat. 94) and from Ephesos (Kerschner 1997:115.4 em. = 6. Its identification was secured by comparing the piece directly with fragments of Archaic Etruscan bucchero pottery in the collection of the Archaeological Institute of Heidelberg University. Nos. Fig. D = ca.5 em. Nos. 127. = 4. 3552/100. Cat. D (mouth) = 19 ern. =8 cm. 21-22. 99.1922. these rims undoubtedly come from one-handled cooking jugs (chytrai) which have a tradition going back to the Sub-Mycenaean period (Reber 1991:20-56). 1412-1413. 18. 36. Locus 866. Parallels: East Greek examples have been published from the island of Chios (Boardman 1967:145-146. Cat. 7-8. 34371100.93:13) Rim fragments of imported Greek cooking vessels of coarse highly micaceous clay with rolled out rim. 1961b:317.203210. Nos. this is a bowl with an everted rim.the Kabri sherd comes either from an oinochoe of Rasmussen's Type 3a. 136. Nos. 39. H. III. D (mouth) = 20 cm. 38. No. COOKING VESSELS 36 . dated between the end of the third quarter of the 7th to the tum of the 7th . No. PIs. 75. = 5. = 6. H. Decoration: Unpainted. 105). 155. However.038.482.95:15) 2 rim fragments. Surface. H. common in the last quarter of the 7th century and in the first quarter of the 6th century BCE (Rasmussen 1979:78-79. H =. Brann 1961a:123124. Stratum E2a. Reg. 139. Nos. Reg. Etruscan bucchero (Figs. Surface partially blackened by fire.5 em. R. Type: Although no handles are preserved. the fabric of the latter. Stratum E 3. No.35. The Kabri fragments have a profile similar to that of an example from Chios (Boardman 1967:146 Fig. 3547/100. 371. but their typological sequence can only be followed at Athens with the material from the Agora and the Kerameikos (Young 1939:189-190. Stratum E1. Stratum E1. No. Cat. Date: Late 7th century BCE 41. 20. Type: Ware similar to Nos. Stratum E1. 5. H. 5. 1932. 116 PI. Sparkes and Talcott 1970:224-225. XII). Square Kill. N 18. They are known from different areas in Greece. 3228/1. 597-604. 153154 PI. PI. 22:L 45-48. (not illustrated) Shoulder fragment. 86-91). PI. Unpainted. 42. = 5. No. No. 66). 512 Cat.93:14) The Etruscan bucchero sherd was a surprise. 1962:55. . described as "loaded with large flakes of silvery mica".95:16. is very like that of the Kabri cooking jars and may indicate a southern Ionian origin. 300112. 493. No. 3095-1. No. 598). Locus 1309. No. 18. Locus 1324. to those from Ephesos and to two examples from the Greek settlement at Tocra in Libya dated by Hayes to the late 7th/early 6th century BCE and attributed to a possible Cycladic origin (Hayes 1966:135-137. D (mouth) = 20 ern.8 em. 30 cm.

16. 3).1). 7. Figs. 66*. 14. 9. this vessel type was seldomly exported like examples found at Vroulia in Rhodes (Kinch . V:a. No. Tell Tel Malhata (Kochavi 1970:23 (below). 5. XIII) and in Israel at Tell Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:151. mentioned by Waldbaum 1994:59) and possibly at (Naveh 1962:106-107. PI. V. but the fragment example so far known from Israel.Ras Ibn Hani. 120. 1923:PI. . 85. PI. Other classes are less known from the Levant.5. PI. Ras Ibn Hani (Riis 1982:251-252). 5. Fantalkin 2001:89-90. Dan (pakman 1992:236 Fig.1-12. 32. PI. Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1978a:57. No Bird bowls were found at Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:41). From Most of the classes of Archaic Greek pottery found at Tel Kabri are well distributed Mina in the north to the Negev in the south. 131 Nos. 14). 114-117. 1993:936).3-4). Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1986: 198. cf. Fig. Fig 9. 5. XIII). PI. The reason for the rareness industry.2. PIs. 4.1-6. I-III. 11-12. 35). SOS amphorae (Fig. . PI. 12) and have been found at.96:2) were unearthed at Al Mina (Robertson 1940:13. No. 7a-b). 69*. 13. Mezad Hashavyahu Miqne-Ekron (Naveh 1962:106-107. Mezad Hashavyahu (Naveh 1962 110-111. PI.6) and several others have been 1986:198 with note 65). Ashkelon (Pythian-Adams Fig. 4. Mezad Hasavyahu and Magness 1997:33. 2). 34 Fig.322-323. XV. XX. Tel Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:126. Nos. Fragments of four Bird bowls were unearthed at Tyre (Coldstream and Bikai 1988:43.1). Fig. Fig. Fantalkin 2001:Fig. XVI. 5. 13. Waldbaum and Magness Ashkelon (Stager 1996a. olive presses of the 7th century be due to the fact that this region had its own olive-oil by the numerous from Kabri is the only Levant may documented 1995:63-69). Stager 1996a. 16. of others at Dan.12). Bird bowls (Fig. 10. Fantalkin 2001:75-79. 1978b. 11 Nos. Iliffe 1932:17. 6g). 12. 18).3. Fig. 60. 6). 1997:32-33. Figs. 32. colour photo. IX-XI). Boardman 1978b:41 PI.ARCHAIC EAST GREEK AND ETRUSCAN POTTERY IN THE LEVANT in the Levant. Tell er-Ruqeish (Waldbaumand Fantalkin 2001 :88-87.31.31 Jemmeh (Illiffe 1932:17.387-389. PI. 8 Nos. Fig. 49 Fig. such 1980:151.(Riis 1982:251-252). 86). Waldbaum and Magness 1997:27-28. 1996b.1-7. Wild Goat II style (Fig. 32:2 and 35:10).4). . In general.a).Tyre (Coldstream and Bikai 1988:42. In Israel. 10-11.PIs. Fig.10. Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:27-38). 6. Fig. 6. 5. 22:1. In Israel. East Greek trade amphorae (Fig. Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:43-69. PIs.5:7-8).23) and at a number of sites in Israel.96:3)pottery has been foundat Al Mina (Robertson 1940:8-16.67*. 67*). 72.35 Fig.1. 3). Figs. .96:1) were frequent at Al Mina (Robertson Ras el-Bassit mentioned one example has been published (Courbin (Courbin 1940:14. amphorae Fantalkin 84-85. Reich 1989:230 Fig. 5. Keisan (Briend and Humbert Tel Batash (Waldbaum (Naveh 1962:104-105.96:4) are known in the northern Levant from Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:72. Nos. 41 PI. 17. No. Fig. 6.97:1) have been found at Al Mina. Fig. There are only two examples besides that from Kabri. for example. 5. 2.32. Tel (Gitin 1995:65. 4). both from Mezad Hashavyahu 1914:190-191. Magness 1997:30 with note 56) and Tel Batash (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:30. Tel Batash (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:28) and Ashkelon (Stager 1996a:67*. 10.. 'Ionian cups' (Fig.31 Fig. from Al 1980:47-48). No. Boardman 1980:48. 14. 239 (Naveh 1962:108-109. Fig. Tell el-ijesi (Risser and Blakely 1989:93.Tel 2001:90-94. Waldbaum and Magness':1997:29-30. following p. Figs. 69*. Achzib (Culican 1982:67. pls. . 28:7-14). 32. 1. PI.5. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:29. fragments of three Bird bowls were found at Tell Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:125.97:1) are rare in the Levant. IV:1. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33 with note 79). Akko. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:30. Fig. Sarepta (Koehl 1985:137-138. Nos. Boardman 1980:48). Fig. Nos.1-2l 35.3-3. 1990:508). 7 No. Dor and Ashkelon Mezad Hashavyahu (unpublished. Fig. of this type in the southern This is very impressively (Gitin BCE found at Tel Miqne-Ekron Polychrome black jugs (Fig. PI. 29. 251-255.

96: Distribution of East Greek vessels in Israel: Top left) Bird bowls. Bottom left) Wild Goat II style.lELL ER-RUQEISH'i TELL EL-HESI • T • ELL MALHATA Fig. 5. ! TEL DAN ~ • TEL KfABR' TEL KEISAN JELL JEMMEH • l. 240 .SAREPTA I. Top right) Ionian cups. Bottom right) Cooking vessels.

PI. Fig.7-8. since almost all Etruscan bucchero vessels found in the eastern Mediterranean are kantharoi (Rasmussen 1979: 155). 36).1-2.eel' f .1. 12a-b. (right) Greek cooking vessels. 4. Greek cooking vessels (Fig. von Hase 1971: 10-12. Figs. on p. the western coast of Asia Minor and in the Levant (see Rasmussen 1979:150-156. the Aegean islands. Reich 1989:230 Fig.97: Distibution in the Levant of (left) SOS amphorae and polychrome black jugs. 10) and numerous sherds of this ware have been found in the Late Iron Age destruction debris and the earlier construction fill at Ashkelon (Stager 1996a:67*. 11). von Hase 1989:329.Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31. an oinochoe or olpe.TEl KABRI • I ! ~J Fig. Gras 1985:676-679.202 Fig. 7. 64. Fig.34 Fig. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31-32. Fewer have been unearthed on the Greek mainland. Fig. 8-9. 1). 1978a. all in Israel. In this context. Fantalkin 2001 :86-87. Fig. Fragments of up to 18 Greek cooking-pots have been identified at Mezad Hashavyahu (Naveh 1962:104-105. Imports of Etruscan bucchero have been found in greater quantities in the western Mediterranean. Before the find of the Kabri bucchero fragment. 1977-78. 92.31. 6. Fig. 58. Fragments of one or two cooking-pots have been found at Tel Batash in the Stratum II destruction debris of Area F (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31. the only known examples in the Levant were two fragments of kantharoi of Rasmussen's Type 3e from Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1973:27. Fig. in Sardinia.97:2) of this period are known from only a few Levantine sites. Fig. 5. It is striking that the Kabri fragment comes from a closed shape. Gras 1985 :672-674) and a bronze oinochoe of the so-called Rhodian type reportedly found 241 .33 Fig. 30. PI. 12F. 63. PI.7-8. 1986:201. Rostovtzeff 1932:331-332. 2). 60b. PI. in eastern Sicily and at Carthage. two bronze objects should be mentioned which have been seen as Etruscan imports in the Levant: a belt buckle in the British Museum said to have been found in Syria (Hall 1929/30: 107. in southern France. 5.

2) has recently argued. 68-69. Jacobsthal 1929:205-206 No. The nature of the Greek presence in the Levant has been thoroughly discussed elsewhere (Neimeier 2001). Thus neither object comes from a secure context. and Philistia apparently came totally under their control. cf. the map Stager 1996b:58). As Gitin (1998:276. No texts exist recording the destruction of the fortress at Tel Kabri. i. In all probability it occurred during one ofNebuchadnezzar's campaigns along the Phoenician and Philistine coast at the end of the 7th and in the first two decades of the 6th century BCE (Wiseman 1985:21-41. it is impossible to establish during which of these campaigns the Phoenician fortress of Stratum E2 in Area of Tel Kabri was destroyed. 3. to November/December 604 BCE (Wiseman 1956:28.. the conquest of Ashkelon is dated to the month of Kislev in the first year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II. one year later. A 23).1 and 4. The few Etruscan objects from the Levant certainly do not provide evidence for direct Etruscan trade with the Near East. and M. 10. Stager 1996a:72* with note 1. Gitin 1997:98-99). Frey 1963:23.at Sidon which was acquired by the Berlin Museum from a Parisian art dealer (Furtwangler 1888:250 No.4. the imported Greek pottery of Stratum E2a also shows close relationships to the assemblage from the destruction levels at the end of the Iron II phase at Ashkelon and Tel Miqne (Ekron) (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:27-33). 242 . 2002). Thus the date of Ekron's destruction by the Babylonians falls most likely in the ten year-span of 604-595 BCE. The excavators of both sites have convincingly attributed these destructions to the Babylonian invasions led by Nebuchadnezzar II.e. Since the latest Greek pottery from Kabri cannot be more accurately dated than between the last decade of the 7th century BCE and the first half of the 6th century BCE. according to the text of Jeremiah 27 dated to 594 BCE describing a meeting in Jerusalem at which a rebellion against Babylon is planned. Shefton 1979:68 No. Unlike the garrison at Mezad Hashavyahu.1-2) and identified as an Etruscan import by Gras (1985:676). It has been suggested that it was destroyed during the same campaign as Ashkelon (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:37-38). driven from their homeland by many factors (Bettalli 1995 :26. when the Babylonians destroyed Ashkelon. caption) thinks that the two Ras el-Bassit kantharoi were brought by east Greek intermediaries. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:37). The excavators of Tel Kabri contend that a small contingent of Greek mercenaries in the service of the Kingdom of Tyre was based in the fortress of Stratum E2 (Niemeier 1994. it is improbable that the Babylonian destruction of Ekron happened after 595 BCE since. Moreover. the Berlin jug is most probably of east Greek manufacture (Jacobsthal 1929:210. The implication is that the Philistines no longer posed a threat to Babylon at that time. PIs. 1996b:58. The date of the fall of Tel Miqne (Ekron) is not as assured. Courbin (1978a:58. but without a representative from Philistia. these were single members of the elite. in 603 BCE (Malamat 1979:208. 108-109). According to the Babylonian Chronicle in the British Museum. 77 with note 3. Rostovtzeff (1932:332) has suggested that the belt buckle from Syria probably was brought by an Etruscan slave or associate of a Phoenician merchant. I would agree with Gitin that the most convincing date is 604 BCE. THE DESTRUCTION OF THE FORTRESS OF STRATUM E2 Like the Phoenician pottery (Chapter 5:1V). n. in 60110BCE or even after 595 BCE when the chronicle ends (Na'aman 1992:43-44). 1995.

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