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THE 1986-1993 EXCAVATION SEASONS
Contributions by N. Angel-Zohar, R. Y. Bankirer, A. Cohen-Weinberger, P. Comale, C. Dauphin, M.Faerman, M. Fischer, L. Gershuny, S. Givon, Y. Goren, A. Horowitz, H. M. Khalaily, L. Kolska Horwitz, Z. Koren, G. Lehmann, O. Lemau, N. Liphschitz, O. Marder, H. Mienis, Y. Mizrachy, A. Nebel, B. Niemeier, W.-D. Niemeier, R. Oren, T. Oman, M. W. Prausnitz, A. Princivalle, P. Rosano, N. Scheftelowitz, S. Shalev, P. Smith, M. Tagliapietra, T. Tsuk, U. Yalcin. .
NA' AMA SCHEFTELOWITZ AND RONIT OREN
EMERY AND CLAIRE YASS PUBLICATIONS IN ARCHAEOLOGY TEL AVIV 2002
Area E lies on a small rectangular artificial hill measuring 100 x 150 m in the southwestern corner of the large Middle Bronze Age mound of Tel Kabri and rising some 12 m over it (Fig. 4.81). Until 1948 a small village called et-Tell occupied this area. The rich spring of <A a1-Fuwarah and the reservoir of <Ein Shefa' in (Birket Mefshukh) (Conder and Kitchener 1881:156, 158) lie to its northeast (Chapter 3). Excavation concentrated on the northwestern corner of the hill. The investigation, begun in 1986 under the supervision of Lilly Gershuny, was continued in 1989, 1990 and 1992 by Helena Pastor Borgonon. In 1993 this author supervised the excavations in Area E. Preliminary reports on the stratigraphy and finds for these seasons were published by the Kabri Expedition between 1990-1994 (Gershuny 1987; Kempinski 1987, 1991; Naveh and Kempinski 1991; Niemeier 1990, 1994; Pastor Borgonon 1990, 1991; Lehmann 1993).
Fig. 4.81: The mound of et-Tell showing the excavations in Area E.
Four main strata were discerned.
Stratum E1 E2 E3 E4 Date 19th century CE- 1948 Hellenistic period Iron Age" Iron Age" Iron Age" Description and Interpretation Village Some pottery finds from disturbed tombs Fortress Fortress Floors and debris
EARL Y BRONZE AGE
Pottery from this period was mixed into almost all lower Iron Age loci providing abundant evidence for occupation here at that time. However, no Early Bronze Age structures or layers were excavated.
MIDDLE AND LATE BRONZE AGE
These periods are represented by isolated sherds found in the debris below the lowest floors.
The earliest Iron Age levels are debris layers (Locus 871) that were identified in a very limited sounding under Floor 870 of Stratum E4 (Fig. 4.82). There is no floor connected with this debris. STRATUME4 Remains of Stratum E4 appeared only in a sounding under Floor 866 of Stratum E3 in Square L 11.1 A plaster floor (870) at 55.00-55.10 m was discerned but its relationship to the casemate walls was not clear. However, the underlying locus (871) is already under the casemate walls and it seems probable that Stratum E4 predates the construction of the fortress. No other evidence of this stage was found, perhaps because excavation did not continue below Stratum 3 anywhere else. Pre-8th century BCE pottery (Figs. 5J50, 5.70) is associated with this stratum. STRATUME3 The structural piers remains of Stratum E3 are those of a fortress with casemate l312/816, l3111l344) are massive constructions, walls (858, fieldstone fills. Partition 878, 87~, 882, walls (Fig. 4.83, 4.84). The 1.60 m wide, built with ashlar l332) form a number of '
Fig. 4.82: Schematic north-south section through Square Lll.
casemate walls (l343/863, and undressed compartments.
Casemate walls W816 and Wl311
of Stratum 3 are clearly cut in Square M9 by W131 0 of division (Fig. 4.85). only in Square
Stratum 2 (see below) providing us with a distinct stratigraphic LII at 55.90 m. Thus the earliest phase (E3c) is evident
Stratum E3 had at least three phases of floors (Fig. 4.85). Floor 866 was excavated is represented by floors at a level of about 57.00-15 by later building Metal fittings, activity m in the casemate rooms
only in one small room. The next phase (3b) 848, 876 and 883 in Almost (Locus all 873)
Squares Ll1, K-LlI2 was badly disturbed baskets century B.C.E.
and K13. The final phase (3a) at about 57.70 m (Loci 812, 813, 837, 1313, 1314) and the finds on and above them are mixed. Ottoman sherds together for a door, were found in the debris 3b and 3a contain probably with distinctive 8th-7th
of floor loci from phases pottery.
above the 3b floor 876. 1 Unfortunatelythe locusnumberwas not changedin 1990 so thatthe fmds from underthe floor are also numbered L. 866. It is howeverpossibleto isolatethe basketsL. 866 thatcontainedmaterialfrom StratumE4. 74
I I I I I ..I~ It.J 75 ...
E3b (centre) and E3c (bottom). 76 .N t M N t M 10 N t M 10 Fig.84: Schematicplans of Strata E3a (top). 4.
Fig. Fig. looking east. 4. W1310 of Stratum E2 (on right) cuts W1311/W1312 of Stratum 3 (on left).89).88. 77 . 4.86: Looking west over Squares 0-P/7-8. Fig.87: Casemate rooms in Squares 0/4-8.85: Square M9. Room 1977 in foreground.87. 4. looking south. 4. 4.86. STRATUME2 Only the northwestern part of this fortress was excavated (Squares L-Q/4-10) (Figs. 4. 4.
00 00 ....~· ------% -1.." z o . I -j- ~~IM~. -1- -1- -1- -1- -1- -:--------:-:3t .f z 0 0 ii: eO 78 . o ] .§ A-.._ -1- _L I -I- -I- -i- I -1- N ~ -\- _L I -t~ V1 '+-< 0 ~ ~ e . . ..
79 . A Destruction Layer with Restorable Pottery A L :---_ --I I 1 I I . Str.SBm--+ B ..'I .. 4. E2b N6 + 06 o:"'__~d' P6 B Destruction layer with Restorable Pottery 04 05 06 07 Fig.89: Schematic plan of Stratum E2 with Sections A-A and B-B.
82:8-10) and represents a typical assemblage of the mid-7th century BeE. Below this was a further series of surfaces (1988.1992). Only the northern part of this wall was excavated but as no floor connected with it was found. Fig. The sounding exposed remains ofa wall (WI926) in Square P7. Under the lowest surface reached in the sounding (1992). The rich pottery repertoire retrieved comprises restorable types such as jugs. the casemate walls are 1. the northwestern corner of the casemate fortification system was not established. as were several additional rooms south of the innermost casemate wall (W897). Note ashlar piers. Assyrianizing types) appears only in Stratum E2. early mortaria types or transport jars (Fig. but thick layer of ash immediately north of it. Wall W1339 was built exactly between walls W816 and W1343. While most of the pottery from this sounding has parallels in both Strata E2 and E3. 13. as does the floor.90: W1340.90).60 m wide. 1984) was exposed between walls W1331 and W897 in Square 0/5-6 (Fig. 80 . Wall W1339 does not continue further east into Square L 11 but may have been robbed out.g. The beaten earth floor has an ash layer of up to 10 em on it. too remains obscure. 4. 4. adjusting to the topography of the mound. which may be the remains of a burnt beam. Two phases of use were discernible in most of them (2a. This technique has been identified as a Phoenician architectural element (c£ Stem 1992:Fig. The burnt contents of a transport jar were also collected. a wall (WI993) was found with a narrow. 4. Stratum E2b in order to examine the foundations of W1389 but digging stopped before reaching their base. It may be the eastern continuation of the Stratum E2 casemate system or a reinforcement in Stratum E3 between walls W816 and W1343. 2).1989.1990. built with ashlar piers and undressed fieldstone fills (Fig. its architectural context is unclear. Two rows of rooms were excavated between the three walls. looking None of the foundations of the three casemate walls were west. and found. Other finds on the floor include iron objects. fragments of at least one large pottery basin and a concentration of shells. The ash and the restorable pottery from the casemate floor may indicate a destruction layer. The structural context of this wall. it is not clear to which stratum this wall belongs.As in Stratum 3. 5.79:12.1991. Fortunately many floors were still deep enough to survive this leveling. Stratum E2. 2b) represented by distinct floors.91). Phase E2b A floor of a casemate room of Stratum E2b (Loci 1961. Since the foundation of W1339 was not excavated. The outer casemate wall (W1382+WI986) turns northward after running for 25 m east-west. In Square L 10 it disappears in pits which were dug by stone robbers in the Ottoman period when the remains of Stratum E2 were leveled and built over by a village. Although the excavations reached the western slopes of the hill. About 10-15cm under the floor gravel bedding (Locus 1994) slopes downward from north to south. 5. In Square OP7 a sounding was made under Floor 1987 of fieldstone fill. some of it (e.
Floor 1309 runs up to W1328 and joins floor 1987. it was not established whether these floors are a continuation of floor 1309.91: Room 1961. Only parts of the floor of Room 1987 in Square O-P/7 were exposed during the excavation. The pottery types resemble the types in Stratum E2a. The entire central part of its plaster floor was destroyed by an Ottoman pit. Pit 1936 was dug down from this floor. There are some indications of destruction of Stratum E2b. Since the pottery repertoire of Strata E2a and E2b is very similar. Phase 2a The overall plan of this phase is virtually identical to that of its predecessor. which may have originally covered both rooms.42-59. 5. South of Room 1987 is Room 1309. In Square Q7 two floors. Locus 1333 east of W1330 and Locus 1334 to the west of this wall may belong to Stratum E2b. possibly with the addition of some pit installations. Among the finds from. such as ash and restorable pottery on the floors. Since the baulk between P7 and Q7 was not removed. Fig.86:3). the undisturbed part of the floor is a fragment of a basket handle amphora with an engraved sign (Fig. in Square P7. looking east. Destruction layer with restorable pottery.92: Room 890. It was violently destroyed resulting in small finds and large amounts of restorable pottery being left in situ. Excavations continued some 20 em under floor 1966 (Locus 1963) until the end of the season interrupted operations.55 m which yielded a large number of pottery finds. 1). Fig. the debris was apparently leveled immediately after the destruction raising the floor level of Stratum E2a to about 20 em above E2b.Room 1969 in Square P6 has a floor at about 59. 81 . The floor slopes down southward rather steeply from W897 to W1328/W1949 which was built on it (Kempinski and Niemeier 1994:Fig. 4. 4. This material is apparently either from a destruction at the end of Stratum E2b or it is a fill to raise the level of Stratum E2b to that of Stratum E2a.
a floor.62 m.5:8) was found out of context but probably belongs to Stratum E2. Trilobate arrowheads have been connected with Scythians in the 7th century BCE (Cleuziou 1977: I93) but were also later used by the Achaemenid army. apparently an aleph (Fig. 4. One of these had Cypriote letters incised on it (Fig. Other finds from this destruction debris include an Egyptian amulet (Fig. A bronze trilobate arrowhead with socket (Fig. it may also be part of the same phase. 4. 4. 82 . this deposit of pottery and small finds was filled into the casemate rooms during the destruction of Stratum E2a (Figs.50-55m (Fig. 10.95. many of them basket-handle amphoras from Cyprus. 8. In Locus 1321. 1941 and 1948 were identified between walls W1331 and W897 in Square 05-7. Fig.92). looking west. 4. W1340 and W1995. enclosed by W1310. 5. The floor of Room 890 lay at 58.96).5:9) which may have been one of the weapons used during the destruction of the building.00 m thick above them (Locus 1914) in which remains of plaster flooring were also mixed (Fig. on which lay a great deal of pottery. 8. was traced in Square N8-9 at 58.30-1. Finds on its floor comprise late 7th century BCE transport jars. This type of arrowhead is well known from Syria and Palestine from the late 8th through the 4th centuries BeE (see Cleuziou 1977. 5. This assortment of pottery and small finds does not rest immediately on the floors but in a layer of debris from 0. Recovered from the floors of these rooms was a large quantity of restorable transport jars. Although Locus 1977 in Square 04 on the western edge of the mound between casemate walls W897 and W1331 is much lower than the above-mentioned floors of Stratum E2a. Also unearthed was an iron spearhead (Fig. Oren 1984:28.New floors were exposed in the casemate rooms. Peleg et al.94: Locus 1914.94). looking north. W1331 and W1342. a fragment of a pottery vat used for purple dyeing (Chapter 16) and a broken storage jar with an incised Phoenician letter. It is a type with a long socket and an elaborated rib in the middle of the blade which has many parallels in the late Iron Age (Moorey 1980:64). 4.87:2). 4. Fig. 1983). Fallen stones and broken mudbricks covered the floor of 1948 (Fig. 5.23). 4. that of Room 1941 at 58.87:1). Moorey 1980:64-66.93: Destruction debris in Room 1948. and of Room 1948 at 58. It is therefore possible that material from an upper storey collapsed into the rooms below and that the upper floors were used for storage. They are defined and separated from one another by partition walls W899. Floors 890. It was severely disturbed by robber trenches and pits cutting through the loci immediately above it.53 m. In the destruction debris of Square 04 was a body sherd with an incision of a jar (Fig.93).75).58 m. According to the pottery and the small finds.
4. were a few installations. looking east. A complete transport jar was sunk slightly into the floor which was plastered around the opening in order to facilitate pouring liquids into it. Fig. East of this was a stone basin. As in Room 1960. was identified at 59. Fig. looking south. W1328. The room was entered from the south through a doorway.97). 5.95: Locus 1912. W1950 and W1974. close to wall W897. is defined by W897. the threshold survived. 4.65-70 m (Fig.98: Destruction debris on the floor of Room 1308. east of 1960. 4.97: Installations in Room 1960. 4. The floor of Room 1960 in Square P6.98). complete with threshold and door socket found in situ. South of this installation was a stone lined pit with an Assyrian bowl (Fig. Room 1308.76:15) in it.69-73 m (Fig. 4. 83 . Although cut by a number of Ottoman pits. W1949 and W1950 with a floor at 59.96: Locus 1913. In the northern part of the room. including complete transport jars and an oven in the northeastern corner of the room. Fig. several in situ finds from the destruction of Stratum E2a were recorded. looking east. W1329.Fig. enclosed by W897. Several rooms abutting on the southern side of W897 were excavated. 4.
This corridor continued eastward into Square P7 where it may have linked up with a room between W1328.45 m and west ofW1330 at 59. Large rectangular dressed stones found in situ in Square P8 in Room 1318 may have been the first steps of stairs leading into an upper storey (Fig. but the finds here are mixed and disturbed by later material. This floor was apparently in use with the steps. 5. 84 . Wall W1330 in Squares P-Q17 runs exactly towards the corner ofW1949 which. forms an entrance to Room 1308. The room immediately north of these steps may have been part of the staircase. On the floor was a thick layer of ash. It may have belonged to Stratum E2. LOCUS 855 IN SQUARE III In Square I II a floor (855) was found on the very edge of the hill.99: Steps of a staircase in Locus 1318. this floor connects with adjacent floors of Stratum E2a.52-63 m.94 m). This floor is connected to W860. W1341 and W1330 (Loci 1305. with W1328.99). Remains of additional floors were also found in Square Q7 west ofW1330 at 59. According to the level of both the lowest steps and the pebble floor (59. On the same level as the first steps are remains of a pebble floor immediately south of the stairs. Among the pottery finds from Room 1318 were fragments of a Greek SOS amphora (Fig. Material found in Locus 864 below this floor was also mixed. Fig. Its stratigraphic relationship is uncertain. 1309). Among these finds was the fragment of a pottery vat used for purple dyeing (Chapter 16). south of which were the remains of an oven. 4. 4. W1329. Parallels to pottery finds would place this locus in either Stratum E2 or E3. Unfortunately a pit (Locus 1908 in Square P7) destroyed the northern part of W1330 and there is no evidence of any connection between these two walls. Unfortunately this area was so disturbed by Ottoman pits that there were almost no traces of Stratum E2a except for finds out of context. This locus was disturbed during the Ottoman period by stone-robbing.South of Room 1960 there was probably a corridor (Locus 1963) but the area excavated is too small to clarify the plan in this part of the building.3: 10).
According to archaeological surveys. Bronze Age sites on a reduced scale and another situated on the hills and the mountain slopes in newlyfounded very small villages (Lehmann 2001). Kabri was also important for controlling the all-weather route on the slopes leading from Rosh ha-Niqra south to Akko and the Carmel. During Iron Age I the centralized urban system of the kingdom of Akko was replaced by two apparently independent settlement systems: one on the coastal plain using the Late . In 1993 Mahmud Hawari excavated Ottoman remains in Square Q8 (Hawari 1994). The end of Stratum E4 and the beginning of Stratum E3 might reflect political events following the campaigns of Tiglatpileser III in 734 or 733 BCE (Tadmor 1994). most of the Ottoman village in Squares N-Q14-8 was bulldozed before the excavations in order to reach the Iron Age levels. the importance of Tel Kabri was reduced to a small rural site during the Late Bronze Age . Stem 1990). when the Assyrian king reached the Akko plain (Katzenstein 1997: 174-178). probably ancient Kabul. The territorial transformation of the Akko plain into an Assyrian province may have begun already in 701 BCE under Sennacherib and his campaign 2 Na'aman 1994. floors and pits were identified. where agricultural products from the hill-country might have been collected and stored before being shipped to places such as Akko or Akhziv.g. Lehmann 1995. cf. Apparently the plain and the hills were newly organized and their agricultural production integrated into the economy of the city-state of Tyre. Ronen and Olami 1983. Kloner and Olami 1980. In Assyrian sources. Only a few installations. but on different locations. 85 . all out of context. The transition from Stratum 5 to Stratum 4. Another.STRATUM El Remains ofa village from the Ottoman period were uncovered between 1986 and 1992 in Squares K-MlI013 (living floors) and in Square III (tombs). the Akko plain appears as Tyrian territory? In Iron Age II. For Assyrian references to Akko see Parpola 1970: 11. At the end of Iron Age I and the beginning of Iron Age II the settlement pattern in the Akko plain changed. Kabri is situated exactly between the coastal plain with its emphasis on grain production and the hill-country which produced wine and oil. the settlement pattern of the Late Bronze Age collapsed at the end of this phase (Frankel 1986. Reallexikon der Assyriologie volume 1(1928)64.2001. SUMMARY After being one of the major urban centres in northern Palestine during the Middle Bronze Age. However. The remains of a fortress in Strata E3 and E2 point to a special function of the site. a tower like complex of the 10th and 9th centuries BCE at the edge of the Akko plain (Gal and Alexandre 2000). 1994. may have some connections with the campaign ofShalmaneser III in 841 BCE. In the lower Ottoman levels there were also some stray finds of Hellenistic pottery (Chapter 5:IV). Large amounts of Ottoman pottery were found (mostly out of context) among which were many fragments of Rashayya al-Fukhar painted jugs. At Kabri this road was crossed by another route leading from the sea to Upper Galilee. Kabri) points to an integration of the area into the Tyrian city-state and its economic system. Olami 1974). many of the small Iron Age I villages were abandoned and new equally small villages were founded in the same hill and mountain areas. especially at the end of the 8th and the 7th century BCE. around 850 BCE according to the pottery. Kabri was a significant strategic point in the northern Akko plain. The stratigraphy reflects the historical events in this part of the Tyrian hinterland. centralized settlement system (Lehmann 2001. but earlier such site and collection point was Horvat Rosh Zayit. Thus. Akko became again the urban centre of an integrated. The large percentage of Tyrian pottery at these sites (e.apparently restricted to the small hill of et-Tell. Frankel and Getzov 1997.
In particular. Akko was apparently not included in the territory of Tyre. All these events may have had their impact on the stratigraphy of the fortress in Kabri area E. Little is known about fortresses in Lebanon. The political situation in Phoenicia remained unstable and in 677 BCE Esarhaddon conquered Sidon. The casemate fortifications of Stratum E3 were abandoned and a completely new fortress with new casemate walls was built (Stratum E2). The revolt that Ashurbanipal suppressed in 644 BCE could be connected to the end of S1. The plan of this large fortress on a mound is quite different from the few fortresses known in Upper and Western Galilee such as those on Mount Adir (Davis et al. Lamprichs 1995:173. or its colonies in the Western Mediterranean.31).100: Schematic outline of the Stratum E2 fortress. the fortress was immediately rebuilt. Katzenstein 1997:289). Whether this pottery reflects Assyrian presence or a local imitation of Assyrian pottery remains uncertain. Lipinski 1992.against Tyre (Pritchard 1955:287). Again there was no lasting peace and only a few years after their agreement Esarhaddon laid siege to Baal's Tyre in 671 BCE (Na'aman 1994: 6 and 1995:109). 5. Mount Meiron (Druks 1964) and at Horvat Rosh Zayit. 660 BCE (Pritchard 1955:300. None of the small fortresses on mountains in Upper Galilee (Frankel 1994:27) have a plan comparable to that at Tel Kabri. According to the 675174 BCE treaty between.100). Gal 1993a:453). 1985.Esarhaddon and Baal of Tyre. It was in the Assyrian interest to control the strategically important site of Kabri. the succession of the three floors in Stratum E3 may reflect repeated assaults on the small fortress. Lancel 1995). Most of the Assyrianizing pottery found in Kabri dates to Stratum E2 or was found in the sounding in Squares O-P17 under Stratum E2b and may thus have started at the end of Stratum E3.ratumE2b. The triple casemate wall system of Stratum E2a probably covered most of Area E (90 x 60 m) and shaped the rectangular form of et-Tell (Fig. However. Cecchini 1995. While Assyrian artistic representations and historical texts indicate that the Phoenician centres were fortified. Fig. when he marched against Tyre ca. The casemate system of Kabri may have been incorporated into the settlement as in Beersheba Stratum II where the walls of the houses abut on the casemate walls using them as part of their construction (Herzog 1997:Fig. the Phoenician homeland. The rectangular plan 86 . The end of the Stratum E3 fortress probably came during Ashurbanipal's third campaign. detailed studies of Phoenician architecture and fortifications in particular are still lacking (Leriche 1992. Some parallel features may be found in Israel. 4. The consumers of Assyrian style pottery may have attempted to copy the lifestyle of the predominant power of the Near East. 4. The fortress might have been in the hands of rebels and was destroyed by Ashurbanipal. probably ancient Kabul (Gal and Alexandre 2000).
Qashish. leveling what remained of the stones of the ancient buildings (Hawaii REFERENCES Amiran. 1983. Maddin. D. 1996. D. Davis. Early Arad I. Avia'am. Biran. 1881. Ben-Tor. 2) even if not actually by Phoenicians with Cyprus and the presence repertoire in 604 BCE (Stager The pottery from the final levels has many parallels was most probably a result of the campaigns with that from the destruction of Nebuchadnezzar 1996). Early Bronze Age Dwellings and Installations. E. H.. and Stech. 389-396. ed. Bunimovitz. (Ph.. Les pointes de fleches "scythiques" au Proche et Moyen-Orient. does not have casemates to the main fortification evidence now the summary 2001) but the way the rooms are attached the evidence The construction with ashlar piers and fieldstone fills. Biblical Dan. Tel Aviv University) Tel Aviv. Han. H. when the Babylonians 1997:328). eds. The site was resettled only in the Ottoman period. A. R.M. 1991. for close 5.. Excavations at Horvat <U~a. when a village was built here. Tell el-Daba V. The contemporary of Fantalkin at Tel Kabri. M. Bietak. Ben. 567) Paris. and Kitchener. 1993. R. ed.. Vienna. 1994. pp. Biran. In the early Hellenistic the Iron Age architecture andre-using period graves were dug into its ruins. (Colloques intemationaux du CNRS No. A. Muhly. and Greenberg. <Atiqot 3:1-24 (Hebrew). Thus.H. The Architecture of Ancient Israel. 1996. Tel. 1989/1990. S. the pottery and the historical Akko plain support the assumption contacts Ashkelon that the Iron Age fortress at Tel Kabri was built in a Phoenician from Tyre. pp. Ben-Tor. Oxford.D. pp. E. En Shadud: Salvage Excavations at a Farming Community in the Jezreel Valley. 1984. The Iron Age fortress was never rebuilt. The New Encyclopedia Holy Land Vol. T. VII). 87 of Archaeological Excavations in the . S. A. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 44:41-51. R. C.. In: Le plateau iranien et l'Asie centrale des origines ala conque islamique. dissertation. In: Stem. Small rural forts are best known to draw analogies fortress of Mezad Hashavyahu at Tel Kabri makes 1992). La civilisation phenicienne et punique. it difficult although this is a small rural fort and not a in the Negev. Yiftahel. but the in (see wall for the style (cf. 1977. Israel (British Archaeological Reports International Series 249). Jerusalem. I: Galilee. 1985. A Steel Pick from Mount Adir in Palestine. E. Jerusalem.R. Braun. J. The Survey of Western Palestine: Vol. In: Katzenstein. London. Architecture militaire. civile et domestique partim orient. of except for the similarity as at these sites. V.Tor. 1966. A. M. Dan 1. D. et aI. 1994). the destruction to Tyre (Katzenstein and Palestine and occurred either as early as 604 BCE or later in 585 BCE. Excavations and Surveys in Israel 9:92. Tel Aviv 19:221-234. 1200-1203. 1995. Leiden. E. 60-67. Fassuta. 1992. 1992. Jerusalem. S.is similar to that of the forts at Samaria metropolitan limited size (Meshel resembles building complex area excavated and Tel Jezreel. Cultural Diversity and Change in the Early Bronze I of Israel and Jordan. Israel Exploration Journal 34: 191-194. pp. Braun. Braun. Conder. The Middle Bronze fortifications in Palestine as a social phenomenon. 187-199. Pottery finds provide evidence at Kabri in its final years (Chapter of Greek mercenaries Stem 1992:Fig. In: Krings. Cecchini. Jerusalem. 4. Similar evidence was found at Tel Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:270against Syria laid siege 271). Cleuziou. A. 1985. Jerusalem. 1978.
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.. 66:6a). 47 lower photo. Tell Abu Hawam (Balensi 1980:PI. 1980:Pls. 5.. 64:1a). 37:18. 5.. 1980:PI.. 1980: PI.. 5. out of stratigraphic context. apparently from the destruction layer of the late 12th or early lIth century BCE (Gilboa 1998:413). 4) resemble vessels from Iron Age I strata at Tell Keisan (Briend et al.66:1) and Pilgrim Flasks (Fig..68:2. 5.67:5 characterize the Late Bronze Age/Iron Age I strata (G2D2) at Sarepta (Anderson 1988:PI. 64:6). IRON AGE Gunnar Lehmann IRON AGE I Iron Age I pottery was relatively rare and found mixed with pottery from other periods. where it is identified as 'Sikil pottery' (Stern 1994:Fig.68:1 was found at Dor. """... 81 :14).. it is very similar to an Iron Age I vessel from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al.67: 1 and one not illustrated) have parallels from Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et at.66fr-t5) are typical for Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al. Identical decoration on a closed vessel like Fig. 79:7.67:6 is a lamp similar to some from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al.. \ 4 ) -\ \ 7 I 10em. . 80:1) while another (Fig. -. Most typical are the Phoenician Monochrome juglets (Fig. 17). 76:4). 78: 2). ..67:3. 5. 66: 15.~ might be a Middle Bronze Age form.V. 178 . 11: 160) and Tyre Stratum 13-14 (Bikai 1978: Pis. . Two bowls (Fig... Other kraters (Fig. 71:1.~. Another similar vessel was found at Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al. 5. . 39:28). 35:6. 70. 1980:Pls.>.. 74:3. Fig. 3) with matt red bands which have parallels in Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al... 5. second vessel from the right). Cooking-pots like Figs..""""''''_'W<. 1980:PI.. 1980:PI.66:}6) may be compared to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. 1980:PI. ~~~~"&Si """""""~---'- ) 3 5 -l ') I l 2 ) . 78:3-4. 50:CP-I0a). 5. 1980:Pls.. 68:6).. 5.6Ji*1. 5. 5..66: Iron Age I pottery from Area D. The deep krater-Iike bowl with a sharp carination (Fig. 5. 6 Fig.67:2) with a knob handle resembles a bowl from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. Krater with a rolled rim (Fig. 1980:PI. Although a krater or cooking-pot (Fig. 65:1-2. 5..
FIGURE 5. 2 In the tables accompanying the figures temper size is abbreviated as follows: f= fine grits (>0. FIGURE 5. 1980:66: 15. 1980:66:6a). core 5YR7/6. 60712089 752/2609 255111 9198/1 607/2077 255112 Locus 607 751 727 1575 607 727 Description cf.5YR6/6. M = mineral temper. 9a-b (Briend et al. No. temper: m M.5YR6/6. 1980:79:7). 17). Stratum Stratum 9c (Briend et al. Keisan cf. Red paint lOR5/6. 1980:65:2). interior 10YR7/3. 5. 2a). 9c (PI. 179 . 1980:64: la.2 . 5YR7/4. cf. interior 2. core grey. temper: mg M. Keisan Stratum handle. and interior 10YR8/3. temper: fm M. g = gross/coarse grits «0.6 mm). interior 5YR7/6. m = medium grits (0. } 3 f---d 2 -------ill II 4 lOcm. 5YR7/6. 5403/3 5392/4 3304/1 3219/6 5378/2 3433/3 5423/2 Locus 1941 1973 0877 0864 1973 1313 1970 Description Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior 5YR7/6. 9a-b (Briend et al. temper: m M. Colour description follows the Munsell colour charts. 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Type Juglet Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Cooking-pot Reg. core grey. core grey. 78:3-4).0.67: IRON AGE I POTTERY FROM AREA 0 No.2 mm).66: IRON AGE I POTTERY FROM AREA 02 No. temper: mg M. No. 6 Fig. Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. interior 5YR7/6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type Bowl Bowl Krater Krater Cooking-pot Lamp Reg.67: Iron Age I pottery from Area D. cf. Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al.6 mm). Keisan with knob cf.
black paint. interior 7.5YR7/2. FIGURE 5. black paint. temper: fm M. interior 10YR7/3. 26:11. temper: m M. core lOYR8/4. temper: fM. Red paint. Bikai 1978a: PI. core 5YR7/6. interior 2. Closed vessel with bands and concentric circles. core 2. temper: fM. Exterior 5YR7/6. White-Painted II.5YR7/2. Exterior and interior 5YR7/6 and white. Cypriote White-Painted. temper: mg M.5YR7/2. Exterior 10YR8/3.5YR7/2. core 5YR7/6. 542617 5392/10 POTTERY FROM AREA E Locus 1941 1973 1941 0876 1968 1941 0888 0890 1970 1338 Description Exterior 2. 19411177 3310/2 5402/5 5403/4 3388/8 3585/100 5346/2 3623/2 1 I Juglet 3145/3 0830 12 Transport jar 5443/100 1972 180 . temper: fm M. 5. cf. interior 5YR7/6. interior lOYR7/3.82:8-10. Exterior 2. core 2. interior 2. Cypriote WhitePainted V. temper: mg M. 1980: PI. White slip outside with red and black bands. temper: fM. Exterior 5YR6/4. Gjerstad 1948: Fig.5YR7/2. Red brown paint.68: Iron Age 10cm. Cypriote White-Painted. Same type as Fig.68: IRON AGE No.5YR7/6. black painted wavy line. Exterior 7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Jug let Pilgrim flask Pilgrim flask Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Krater or Jug Krater or Jug Jug Reg. I I000o pottery from Area E. core 5YR6/4. Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. interior lOYR8/4. temper: mg M. Exterior 7.5YR7/2. Closed vessel. cf. No. 84: 259 (Abu Hawwam Stratum III). core greyish. Exterior 5YR7/6. Exterior 2. 5. Closed vessel with painted concentric circles.3 4 5 11 7 o Fig.5YR8/4. 47: 3. White slip. core 2. core 10YR7/3.5YR7/2. cf. Black paint. core grey. interior 5YR6/6. Closed vessel. interior 5YR6/4. White slip outside and red paint. Tyre Stratum 10-2. core 5YR6/6.5YR8/4. black paint. bands in black paint.5YR7/2. bands in black paint. Bands in light greenish wash and black paint. Exterior 5YR6/6. Early Phoenician Bichrome. temper: m M.5YR6/6. 9a-b). Briend et al. Closed vessel with concentric circles. 61: 12 (Keisan Niv. interior 2. temper: m M.
:PI. 31: 1.69:1) has a flat base and an almost straight. 9). Parallels come from Tell Keisan. Stratum E (ibid. Stratum 13 (ibid. Stratum Dl (ibid. l1a: 2. 1987:37-38) which has a relatively short flaring rim. Sarepta C2-F (Anderson 1988':type SJ-12A) and Tyre Strata 4-14 (Bikai 1978a:45-46 . 850-750 BCE. Stratum 12 (ibid. 513). 18a:5). 49:11). Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. The parallels connect the finds from below Stratum E4 with 11th-9th century strata at Tell Keisan. Bikai 1978a:PI. the lIth and 8th centuries BCE. 19:9-16). 31:12. a flat or convex base and reserved red slip decoration (Fig. fragments and almost complete forms making up 4. 16a:18-25. The body is sack-shaped. 494-496. 1980:PI. sloping profile ending in a slightly thickened inverted rim. 33:2. 41 :9). Sarepta.:PI. the first of which was built in the 9th century BCE (Stratum E4) and the last probably destroyed in 604 BCE. a simple everted rim and red slip covering the rim inside and the complete vessel outside already occur in Iron Age I. 7). STRATUM E4 BOWLS The simplest type of bowl in the Phoenician pottery repertoire (Fig. 49: 2). 48:4). Stratum DI-E (Anderson 1988) and Tyre. :PI.IRON AGE II During the excavation of Area E (Chapter 4:IV) large amounts of pottery were found in situ in a series of fortresses. 29:4). Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et at. 5. Sarepta Stratum C2-F (Anderson 1988:PI.69:2-3).69:6 with a carinated shoulder. 1050-850 BCE. 5). 458. 26: 1-4. 5. These bowls range in diameter from 18-25 ern. Bowls like Fig. 33:12-13). 23 :603).:PI. 47:type x-15a. 1980:PI. x-15c). (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 4 nos. 20 em in diameter. 81: 15) and Tyre Stratum 17 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Parallels come from Cyprus ca. 32:10) and Tyre Stratum 4. Inside and outside are thin bands of black paint. Thus. Stratum 7 (ibid. Tell Keisan Stratum 6-7 (Briend et at. 470.69:4). One of the most common bowl types found at Kabri has a flaring rim and was variously decorated in different periods. Stratum 5. 5. Stratum 8-9 (ibid.69:1. 1980:PI. it covers the period between ca. 18a:4). This type was in use over a very long span of time and fabric and surface treatment vary in different periods. Many of the vessels of this last phase were complete or restorable. 18a:16) and are dated to the 9th century BCE. 1980:PI.70:11). :PI. 600. Stratum 10-1 (ibid. :PI. ca. Transport jars from this context have a simple vertical rim rising from a sloping shoulder. cooking-pots (Fig. They are similar to bowls from Keisan Stratum 10-11 (Brient et al. 22:595. 6). Stratum 10-13 (Bikai 1978a). Stratum 7 (ibid. Of special significance for the study of the Iron Age II in northern Israel is the wide range of vessels found in situ in the 7th century BCE destruction levels (Stratum E2) which represent pottery of this period. triangular and sometimes has a slightly bulbous base. Among the few diagnostic sherds are various bowls (Figs. Another type (Fig. 64: 97) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI.3% of all diagnostics. Stratum 10-2 (ibid. 5. :PI. ca.:PI.type SJ-9. A limited sounding below Stratum E4 produced only a small quantity of pottery. :PI. 5. 5.70:13-19) and transport jars (Fig. 3). 50:3. Those found in Stratum 4 are Bikai's first sub-type (1978a:26 Fine Ware Plate 2. 23 :3). Tyre Stratum 6 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Stratum 7-11 (Briend et at.5). 1980). 181 . 511. 53: 10) and Tyre Stratum 6 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. :PI. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's Kouklia Horizon. Stratum 11 (ibid. 5. They are comparable to examples from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Pls.). has a simple almost vertical rim. (Briend et al. 456. 1980:PI. There were 114 examples.
69:7-14. 9:168-169. Juglets with a squared or thickened everted rim (Fig.70:10) was found in Stratum E4 and two more in Stratum E3. No parallels were found for bowl types Fig. The painted decoration of Fig.71:9 of Stratum E3. cf.70:9) was found out of its original context. Fig. 177-178).70:7) is red-slipped and burnished. 268. PI. 5. p.70:4-5) begin in the middle of the 8th century BCE and continue to the beginning of the 7th century BCE in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Pl. Sarepta CI-C2 (Anderson 1988:type 13A) and Tyre Stratum 10-1 (Bikai 1978a: PI. 5. 20:8).69:5) have an everted rim which is somewhat thicker than the body wall. Another fragment (Fig. 5. Transport jars with a small triangular rim on a sloping shoulder (Fig.8) and Megiddo Stratum H-3 = Megiddo IVA (Finkelstein et al. The handle rises high above the low rim. Parallels from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Nos. Such jars have been discussed in detail by Gal and Alexandre (2000:44-48) in their publication of the Phoenician fortress of Rosh Zayit. 10-12).69:16-17 is a large bowl with an incurved rim which is sometimes painted red. 190-206) and Tyre Stratum 4-9 (Bikai 1978a:type jug 8. Juglets with a short mushroom rim (Fig. 5. 1987). 43:8). but the rim is different. 265. and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. table 8A.:PI.Other carinated bowls (Fig. 1960:PI.f. 15:19-20. PI.70:3) begin in the second half of the 9th century BCE and continue until the second half of the 8th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:types 243. 2000:310. 5. Fig. 5. A jug with a high neck and a trefoil rim (Fig. 1980:PI. 5. 5. 18a:10) date this type to ca. 92:jug 4). 82:242) and Tyre Stratum 4-9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 14:383) and another from Tyre Stratum 9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 18a:7). Their diameter is ca. 33:3. a neck ridge and a single handle are typically Phoenician. Small juglets with a ring-base. 31 :15) and Tyre Stratum 2-4 (Bikai 1978a:33-35.69:15 is similar to Fig.70:1-2) usually has a small bulge at the base. 5. PI. 182 . 14:2-5. 12: 246.f. The first two have squared or thickened everted rims while the rims of the others are mushroom-like. 34. This is a bichrome painted holemouth krater which resembles those from Rashidiya (Lipinski 1992:PI. 5. 4b) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990 :PI. 60:1. 5:14-17. It can be compared to examples from Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. JUGLETS AND JUGS A typical juglet of the 8th and 7th centuries BCE (Fig. 850-750 BCE (Bikai 1987:PI. 55: 9). 93:2 type juglet 2). 272).25) and Stratum 5 (Bikai 1978a:PI. They are dated from the end of the 10th to the first quarter of the 9th century BCE. 39. 39). 69: 141-142). but may continue somewhat later as at Hazor Stratum VIII (Yadin et al. Their development has been discussed in detail by Bikai (1978a:37-40. jug type 8. Four sub-types can be distinguished at Kabri.6. 850-750 BCE. table 8A.47:8. Parallels are found at Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al.69: 18). p. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS One rim fragment of what may be a 'Hippo Jar' (Fig. Sarepta E (Anderson 1988:PI. 24:2). type 244) in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. 11. 52: 8) and Stratum 8 (ibid. Similar bowls come from Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. 5. Sarepta 01 (Anderson 1988:type OJ-2a).70:12) occur since the second half of the 9th century BCE in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. 5. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 1980:Pls. 23:611). 74: 179). Sarepta Stratum B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type B-3A) and Tyre Strata 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. It resembles a jug without slip from Cyprus dated to ca. 17 em. 175. 5. KRATERS Only one such vessel was found in Stratum E4 (Fig.
ca. The examples at Kabri are clearly made of a cooking-pot fabric. These sub-types have no chronological or regional significance in the Akko plain during Iron Age I through Iron Age IIC. . One example (Fig. There are several sub-types of cooking-pots with triangular rims. Above the carination.70:20). 2) overlapping rim. Especially important for dating are the bowls with painted bands (Fig. Cooking-pot types with flat vertical rims become more frequent in the late 8th and 7th century BCE. 850-750 BCE. 5. 46:1-2. 17:2. Their value for dating pottery assemblages is thus limited. This cooking-pot type had a long life-span. Stratum E4 may thus be dated to ca. the walls are either concave or sloping inward to the rim (see Gal and Alexandre 2000:40-42). Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 52:13.73:3-5.70 :21). Gjerstad 1948 Fig. SUMMARY Most paraIlels to the pottery assemblage from Kabri Stratum E4 are either found in the Akko plain or at Tyre and Sarepta. 5.70:13-19) but continue in Stratum E3 and even into E2 (Figs. 11).70:12-13) and the cooking-pot rims (especially Fig. 5. Stratum E4 also has parallels with pottery from Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990). 5. 5. 49:9. 27:9.12:5) where it is thought to be a krater.23:13-15. Thus. overlapping rim.COOKING-POTS Two main groups of cooking-pot types were distinguished: pots with triangular rims and pots with a ridged or 'modeled' rim. 33:10). Cooking-pots with triangular rims are very common in Stratum E4 (Fig.70:3-5. 63. 30:3) and Tyre Stratum 2-10 (Bikai 1978a:PI. occurring first in the 12th century BCE. 950-830 BCE). They have a wide open body with a rounded base. The distribution of each echoes that of the group as a whole (Hunt 1987: 183). 1980:9th century BCE) and Sarepta Stratum C2-Dl (Anderson 1988:ca. 55:1-3. 1980:PI. One may distinguish between triangular rims with: 1) horizontal rim.12:5) and Sarepta CI-Dl (Anderson 1988:type CP-IA). 9). 750 BCE). The pottery figures for this stratum include also some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context (Figs. 183 . 34:10.70:20) has a small edge on the rim immediately under the lip. 12:27. CYPRIOTE IMPORTS White-Painted IV jug (Fig. 81:8).84:3-4). Sarepta Stratum F (Anderson 1988:PI. This type has many variants. 3) long pinched. there seems to have been close contacts between Kabri E4 and Tyre Stratum 4-12 (Bikai 1978a:9th century BCE to ca. 28: 6). Tell Keisan Stratum 6-7 (Briend et al. horizontal rim and 5) a short pinched rim (Hunt 1987:Fig.70:6) (cf. 77:1-4. 5. They can be compared with vessels from TelI Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. 5. where 33. 6. 5. one in E2 and 2 were unstratified. One example of this type was found in Stratum E4. 18. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's 'Salamis Horizon'. 5.69:6. 6. These vessels are dated according to stratified comparisons from other sites which are contemporary with Stratum E4 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence at Tel Kabri. 5. 5. Gal and Alexandre 2000:40-42) Comparisons come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4-11 (Briend et al. No parallels were found for a cooking-pot with a triangular rim (Fig.69:2). 35:1. 1980:PI.3% of Stratum E4 types have exact parallels. 33. 850-750 BCE. The body may be deep or shallow and has usually a sharp carination. the transport jars (Fig. The type occurs only once at Kabri. 3. 5.4) long pinched. A somewhat similar vessel was found at Rosh Zayit (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig.
FIGURE 5.69: POTTERY OF STRATUM E4
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Type Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Krater Reg. No. 3251112 325112 3228/2 3251/7 3257/1 5392/9 3257/8 3256/2 325114 3242/1 3253/6 3253/3 3242/2 Locus 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 1973 .0866 0866 0866. 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 1958 0866 0866 Description Exterior 5YR6/6, interior 5YR7/3, core 5YR7/3, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/4, temper: m M, black paint. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core grey, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/2, temper: m M. Exterior 7.5YR8/6, interior 7.5YR8/6, core 7.5YR7/8, temper: fM, red slip lOR5/8. Exterior 7.5YR7/4, interior 7.5YR7/4, core 7.5YR7/4, temper: fM. Exterior 5YR6/8, interior 5YR6/8, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Bichrome? Exterior 2.5YR6/4, interior 2.5YR6/4, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior 10YR8/3, interior 10YR8/3, core greyish, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/6, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M, red paint. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/6, temper: m M, black paint. Exterior 5YR 7/6, interior 5YR 7/6, core 5YR 7/6, temper: fm M, red paint 10R5/6. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: m M, RSB 10R5/6.
3251/3 5237/1 3257/4 3251/1
4 5 3
19 20 21 ~(---
Fig. 5.70: Pottery of Stratum E4 and from debris below it.
FIGURE 5.70: POTTERY OF STRATUM E4 AND FROM UNDERLYING DEBRIS
No. I 2 32 43 5 6 7 8 93 10 Il' 12 13 14 15 16' 17 18 19' 20 21 I 2 3 Type Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Jug Jug Juglet Juglet Jar Transport jar Transport jar Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. No. 3253/2 3232/1 3290/1 3338/8 3380/6 Locus Description 0866 0866 0873 0889 0888 0866 0855 0866 0803 0866 0871 0866 0866 0866 0866 0871 0866 0866 0871 0866 0866 Exterior 10R6/4, interior IOR6/4, core 2. 5YR6/4, temper: fm M Exterior IOR5/6, interior 10R5/6, core 10R5/6, temper: m M white grits. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fine mineral. Exterior, interior and core 7.5YR7/6, temper: fin M, decoration: red slip lOR5/6. Exterior 5YR7/8, interior and core 5YR7/4, temper: fM, decoration: bichrome red and black. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M, decoration: brown paint. Cypriote White-Painted III. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior IOR5/4, core grey, temper: fine mineral. Exterior 2.5YR6/4, interior 2.5YR6/4, core 2.5YR6/4, temper: m M white grits. Remarks: cf. Tyre Stratum V, Bikai 1978: PI. 18a: 10 (jug type 8). Exterior 2.5YR6/6, interior 2.5YR6/6, core grey black, temper: m M. Exterior 7.5YR7/6, interior 7.5YR7/6, core 7.5YR7/2, temper: mg M. Exterior 7.5YR6/4, interior 7.5YR6/4, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior IOR4/4, interior IOR4/4, core 10R4/4, temper: mg M white grits. Exterior 2.5YR4/4, interior 2.5YR4/4, core 2.5YR4/4, temper: mg M: Exterior black, interior black, core black, temper: mg M. Exterior 10R5/3, interior IOR5/3, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR4/1, interior 5YR6/3, core grey black, temper: black & white grits & mica Exterior 5YR5/4, interior 5YR5/4, core 5YR5/4, temper: mg M. Exterior 2.5YR5/4, interior 2.5YR5/4, core 2.5YR5/4, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Exterior 2.5YR5/4, interior 2.5YR5/4, core 2.5YR5/4, temper: mg M.
321111 3257/5 3027/1 3228/4 3262/3 325118 3248/2 3239/3 3228/1 3262/4 3226/3 3246/1 3262/2 325115
Debris under Stratum E4 Stratum E3 Stratum E2
STRATUME3 BOWLS Only one example of a simple bowl with a flaring wall (Fig. 5.71:1) was found at Kabri. This type is very common in Tyre, where it was found in Strata 1-10, being most frequent in Strata 4-6 (Bikai 1978a: 23-24, type plate 8; PIs. 10:4,7; 16a:22-25; 18a:l; 19:9-12; 23:3). A flat plate or bowl (Fig. 5.71 :2; 5.76:4) has a sloping profile and a simple rim. It occurs in Stratum E3a and continues in Strata E2a-E2b. This vessel is very common in late-8th and 7th century BCE contexts on the Phoenician coast at Tyre in Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 1:13), Stratum 8 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 19:10 [similar]), Stratum 9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 19:16 [similar]) and in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. 20:519 [similar]). In Israel it is found at Dan Stratum II (Biran 1994:Fig. 167:1) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 73: 174 [similar]). A sub-type of the bowls with flaring rims (Fig. 5.71:3) which continues in Stratum E2 (Fig. 5.76:12) has a flat or convex base, reserve-slip and incised decoration on the outside of the base. Parallels come from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 3, Nos. 457, 462-469, 493, 510, 514), Sarepta CI-Dl (Anderson 1988:type F-IA), Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 63:76, 79, 81) and Tyre Strata 2-5 (Bikai 1978a:type Fine Ware Plate 2). Two bowl rims (Fig. 5.71 :4) seem to be a local imitation of the Black-on-Red Ic type at Horvat Rosh Zayit Stratum IIa (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 3.88:16, cf Fig. 3.77:14 Stratum IIb). A carinated bowl (Fig. 5.71 :5) has no exact parallel.
5. 6:16) and Stratum 8 (Lehmann 1996:PI.121:23) although it is larger and has a different rim. 5. 187 . The deep carinated bowl or krater (Fig. 17:85c/2).11 :3).A deep red slipped bowl (Fig. 3. Fig. out of its original context. With a slim conical neck that begins in the 8th century BCE (Bikai 1978a:36.71: 14) is one of the most typical Phoenician fine ware plates of the 8th and early 7th century BCE. The parallels date it to ca. A similar krater came from Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig.on-Red bowls. 15: 19-20). Bikai 1987:PI. There are three sub-types of these jugs of which 13 fragments were found at Kabri. 53 :8). Although out of its original stratigraphic context. While several were found out of their original stratigraphic context. 1980:PI. 5. 33) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 5. KRATERS A large bowl or small krater (Fig.71: 15 are somewhat similar. Rosh Zayit Stratum lIb (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig.72:1-4. 1980:PI. but no parallels could be found. Stratum 5 (Bikai 1978a:PI.71:6) has almost vertical walls which turn with a carination into the base. 5. 1980:PI. Chapman 1972:Fig. 3. This sub-type seems to be the older one (Bikai 1987:49-50). 3. A simple bowl (Fig. They occur between 850-750 BCE in the Cypriote 'Salamis-Horizon' (Bikai 1987:PI. 30 :8). 20:1). At Tyre this type of plate was found in Strata 2-5 (Bikai 1978a:29 fine ware plate 7). 5. 370. 40:9) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 2. 1980:PI.71:17) has a parallel from Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a: PI. With an elongated. 5.81 :7-9).7) were found. 72: 167). 6. 16a:18-37). 10:23-25. Several bowls (Fig. A parallel was found at Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI.71:7) is similar to Fig.71: 19) resembles an Assyrianizing krater which becomes more common in Stratum E2 (cf. The rim and profile of Fig. lla:18). 16 type 86d/l). The flat plate (Fig. Pis.71:8 may be a local imitation of Black. With a narrow conical neck (cf. lla:19) and Stratum 3 (Bikai 1978a:PI. JUGLETS AND JUGS A number of Phoenician red slipped jugs with conical necks (Fig. 1.71: 16) with red and black bands on the shoulder has parallels at Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. Ras al-Bassit phase 7 ensemble F (Braemer 1986:No. 750-680 BCE (Bikai 1978a:29. typologically this type should belong to Stratum E3 based on parallels from Al Mina Stratum 6-7 (Taylor 1959:Fig. It is characterized by an incised ridge on the outer edge of the rim and is usually red-slipped. They are comparable to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. 30: 1) and Stratum 5 (Briend et al. typologically they belong to the assemblage of Stratum E3. 5. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. This type is very frequent at Tyre occurring in Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI.71:1.71: 13 is very similar but has a red slip. 5. 1987:4950. Fig. Bowl Fig. for further sub-types and references see Lehmann 1996:416-418 types 300-307). 375). 32: 316). 31-34:Nos. 14:11). Similar vessels come from Al Mina Stratum 6-7 (Taylor 1959:Fig. 5. 5. Qasmiya. 14 no. 19:9-16). Lehmann 1996:376 form 85). 15-16. A krater with grooves on the rim (Fig.71: 11-12) characterized by a rim that is drawn outward were found in strata E3 and E2. 5.78:16) and Tyre Stratum 3-4 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 6. Bikai 1978a:PI. 5. but typologically seems to belong to Stratum E3. 379. 74:182). 393-406. The flat bowl or plate Fig. 18a:3) and Strata 8-9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 5. 5. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et aZ. The fragment from Kabri was found in Stratum El. 391. but larger.72:36). Comparisons date this type to the end of the 8th and the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:383 form 122). concave neck (for an example see Tyre Stratum 9. cf.71:9 is very similar to one from Al Mina Stratum 5 (Lehmann 1996:PI. 41 :3) and Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig.
73:1) was unstratified but has parallels at Tell Kazel Niveau 9-10 (Badre et al. Fig.72:19) has many parallels in the 8th century BCE. 2002). the Levant. 1980:Pl. 56:1). The Cypriote imports include the neck ofa Plain White IV amphora (Fig. 1960:PI. for example from Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig.7).Both the single strap and the double-strand handle occur at Kabri (Bikai 1978a:36). 5. Comparison with decanters at Hazor Stratum VA (Yadin et al. 5.72:11. C. 5. The fabric is of medium mineral temper and reddish yellow (5YR7/6) with a grey or light red core (2. 5. 3.72:21) have many parallels in the 9th and 8th centuries BCE. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 45:17). A decanter fragment (Fig. are the type most frequently found in Phoenician contexts of the late 8th and early 7th centuries BCE. The simple. 1960:Pl. dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE (Niemeier 1990:xxxv-xxxvi. 8th century BCE). 8ab). GREEK AND CYPRIOTE IMPORTS There are few imports in StratumE3. There is one example of ajar (Fig. They have a wide distribution (Lehmann 1996:433-435. types 383. 1994:Fig.5YR6/8). Stager et al. sack-shaped transport jar (Fig. 5. 3. 90:296) and Tourabi-Tekke cemetery (ca. 750-680 BCE) (Culican 1982:Tf.122:3). all found out of context: one single-strap handle (in Stratum E2a) and four double-strand handles ( There are four double-strand handles (three in Stratum E2a. At least some of these vessels were found in funerary contexts but may have been in secondary use. 42:4). Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI.72:14-17). 19:2. There was also a small White-Painted III-IV barrel juglet (Fig. 22:3). A potter's workshop producing these jars was discovered at Tyre (Bikai 1985a) and two shipwrecks crammed with this type were recently found off the coast of Israel (Ballard. Whether such decorated vessels were indeed used for transport jars or had a ceremonial character is not clear. One very similar was found at Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 5. 87:6) date this fragment to the second half of the 8th century BCE. Gjerstad 1948:Fig. 52:21).73:3-5) and cooking-pots with flat vertical rims in Stratum E3 see the discussion of this type under Stratum E4.72:18) decorated with black and red painted bands and a treelike motif. The complete transport jar (Fig.6:6) and Hazor IX (Yadin et al. Dor Area A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. 5. The presence of simple cooking-pot lids (Fig. 11:1. Ras al-Bassit tom be 12 (Courbin 1993:Fig. They include the rim of a Greek amphora. 188 . Gjerstad 1948:Fig. one in Stratum El) and one single-strap handle (from Stratum E2a).6:13). STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS 'Crisp-ware' transport jars (Fig.72: 10) (cf.73:9-11) in Stratum E3 is noteworthy. 1960:PI.519. 1. Similar vessels have been found at Hazor Stratum IX (Yadin et al.72:9) (cf. Galilean storage jars (Fig. 5.28:16) and two Blackon-Red II(IV) bowls (Fig. 5. COOKING-POTS For cooking-pots with triangular rims (Fig. A detailed typology of these jars was recently developed by Ayelet Gilboa (1995: 10-12). 5. 5. Egypt and the Aegean. 5. Cyprus. 12) similar to those from Tell Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. also known as 'torpedo jars'.72:20) resembles an example from Dor Area A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. 19) and probably belongs to Kabri Stratum E3.72:6) was found on the surface in Area E. The rim of a storage jar(Fig. 52:24).122. 386-387) and establish contemporaneity between assemblages from Turkey. 1. 1980:PI.
core 2. 5. Exterior 2. TJ!f!_e 1 Bowl 2 Bowl 3 Bowl 4 Bowl S 6 7 8 9 . temper: fM.SYR6/4. Hazor Stratum VA. interior 2.SYR6/6. interior 2.10 Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Reg_. 5. Exterior 2. Exterior SYR713.72:1-2. interior SYR7/6.71: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No. 5. core SYR7/4. core grey. FIGURE 5. core black.SYR7/4. temper: mg M.SYRS/4. 1980).SYR6/6. Exterior 2. black paint.6-9. temper: m M.SYRS/4. black & red paint (10RS/6). core5YR7/4.SYR7/4. interior SYR7/4. Exterior SYR7/6. temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/3. temper: fM. core grey-black. S386/6 31S411 3474/1 3378/8 3448/1 IS Bowl 16 Krater 17 Krater 18 Krater 19 Krater 32S1111 189 . the transport jars made of Bikai's 'crisp-ware' (Fig. 3290/S 337811 Locus 0873 0896 Description Exterior 10YR8/2 white. Exterior SYR7/4. temper: fine mineral. Thus Stratum E3 can be dated between ca.72:10-11). ca. Ras al-Bassit tomb 12 (Courbin 1993 :800-700 BCE). interior SYR7/4. core grey-black. core grey. Parallels with Stratum E3 were found at Dor Area A phase 9 and Area Cl phase 6 (Gilboa 1995:720-650/630 BCE and 8th century BCE). These are dated according to stratified parallels from other sites contemporary with Stratum E3 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence at Tel Kabri.SYR6/6. temper: f111 M. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's 'Kition Horizon'. core SYR7/6. core SYR7/6. temper: mg M. red slip 2. interior SYR7/6.73:3-11). interior 2. Sarepta Stratum CI-C2 (Anderson 1988:8th century BCE) and Tyre Stratum 2-8 (Bikai 1978a:8th century BCE). 5. interior SYR7/6. interior SYR7/3. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990). Exterior SYR7/6. temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/4. red paint 10RS/8. S3061100 3474/2 3287/2 1965 1317 0873 0812 l3l3 0876 0861 0873 0896 0873 l3l3 1973 0841 l317 0896 l316 0866 30S3/1 342611 331611 32l3/2 3290/7 3378/3+8 3290/4 3433/2 11 12 13 14 Exterior SYR7/4. No. burnished surface. temper: fM.SYR6/6. 750-680 BCE. Most important for dating Stratum E3 are the cooking-pots (Fig.SYR7/4. 17) and the Cypriote imports. As in the preceding stratum.SYRS/4. 16. 5. 750-650 BCE. core black. core 7. Fig. red slip 10RS16b. interior 2. core grey. Fig.SYR6/4. temper: mg M. in particular the PlainWhite IV rim (Fig. 12.SYR6/6. Most parallels are found in the Akko plain.73:1).71:6. red slip 10R4/6 inside wheel burnished.4. 5. this assemblage provides significant evidence for very close contacts with Tyre.72:14-15. The pottery figures for this stratum include some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context (Figs. but particularly at Tyre and Sarepta where exact parallels were found for 30% of the types. interior SYR7/4. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. interior 2. 14-15. interior 7.SUMMARY The bulk of the pottery found in Stratum E3 is of Phoenician or Tyrian character. Exterior 7. temper: m M. ' Exterior SYR7/4. temper: fM.
~17 2 3 \)-------1 \ \ 4 5 6 7 ~_17 i I " .)-------/ f \ \ \ \ \ \ '- \\ 18 19 r= f 1 10cm. 5.71: Pottery of Stratum E3. t \ Fig.. 190 . 7 l 9 10 ~ 12 _7 13 14 15 17 \ I 16 "/------r---~=========~ .---.
.... \- .. ~" /~~ «I '\1- 8 9 m 7 @)(ff}D 10 12 13 ~:z • 11 I I \ ' \..... 5.... I I ~.. . .. ..-. _ '.. 14 H 18 r 17 18 20 19 -EJ 10cm. -9 15 I...._' _.... I I . " /-l-~' \ \ \ I I ~ :I II I I 2 3 4 5 m / I ..... '..72: Pottery of Stratum E3.21 ) f I \ 191 Fig.... .....
5YR7/4.5YR6/6. core 5YR6/4 black. interior 2.5YR6/4. black & white grits. 192 . core 7.5YR7/4. Exterior 2.FIGURE 5. core grey.e Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jar Cypriote Cypriote Cypriote Cypriote Jug Transport Transport Transport Transport Transp~rt Reg No. red paint IOR5/6. Exterior 2.5YR5/4. core black. interior 5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/4. Exterior 7. Exterior 2. temper: fm M. interior black.5YR6/4. 28: 16 (White Painted III-IV). red slip 2. temper: fm M.2. interior 7. core black.73: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No. Exterior 5YR7/6.5YR5/4. temper: fm M. temper: mg M. grooves inside. black & white grits and mica.5YR4/4.5YR5/4. interior 5YR4/3. core grey. temper: mg M. Exterior 2. core IOR6/4. interior 2. core 7. white grits. Bikai 1978: PI. i import import import import j ar jar jar jar jar 19 Transport j ar 20 Storage jar 211 Storage jar Stratum EI Exterior 7. Exterior black. Plain White IV. core grey.5YR5/4.5YR6/6.72: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No. interior 7.5YR8/4. red slip IOR4/8. Exterior 7. interior IOYR7/4. Exterior 5YR7/4.5YR7/4.5YR8/4.5YR5/6.5YR7/4. core 7. temper: fm M. temper: mg M. red slip IOR4/8. core 5YR7/6. core grey. cf. core 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR7/6.5YR8/4.5YR4/4. Exterior 5YR7/4. white grits.5YR7/4. temper: g M. white grits. Exterior 2. Exterior 5YR4/3. temper: mg M.5YR5/6.5YR7/4. Exterior 7. interior 5YR6/4. Exterior 7.5YR5/4. core 5YR7/4. temper: fm M. interior 5YR6/4. large white grits. temper: m M. temper: m M. red slip IOR4/8. core black. white grits. 19: 2. 45: 17. interior 5YR7/6. temper: fM.5YR4/6. interior 2. red slip IOR5/6. interior 2.5YR5/4. core 5YR7/6.No. interior 7. temper: fM.5YR7/4. core grey. core 5YR7/6. 14: 5. temper: mg M. core black. Exterior 5YR4/3. Exterior 7. red slip IOR4/8. black and red painted geometric design. temper: fM. temper: mg M.5YR7/6. interior 7. cf. Tyre Stratum 4.5YR7/4. core 5YR7/6. temper: fm M. interior IOR5/4. interior 7. 3309/4 3588/5 3283/5 3157/3 5455/5 3357/5+7 3055/1 3045/2 3215/1 3284/6 5416/10 3208/2 5432/1 5455/2 5215/1 3366/9 3307/1+2 3284/1 5455/1 319612 Locus 0879 1325 0873 0840 1970 0889 0812 0807 0864 0873 1941 0861 1970 1970 1941 0896 0876 0873 1970 0855 Descril?_tion Exterior 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR7/6. Gjerstad 1948: Fig. red slip 2. interior 5YR7/6. 3647/100 339112 331811 3474/4 322112 542311 328811 3230/3 3474/14 3457/9 3296/1 Locus 0890 1302 0881 1317 0861 1970 0873 0864 1317 1317 0873 Descril?_tion Exterior 5YR7/4. temper: mg M black & white grits and mica. temper: mg M. black & white grits. temper: mg M. interior 2. core 2. II 21 3 41 5 6 81 91 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 TJP.5YR8/4 . interior 5YR7/6. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Type Transport j ar Transport j ar Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot lid Cooking-pot lid Cooking-pot lid Reg_.5YR3/4 . core grey. similar to Gjerstad 1948: Fig. temper: mg M. interior 5YR7/6. FIGURE 5.
I 8 I I f 6 .. 10cm . 5. 10cm. /' I n ~ Fig.... " I ~ r -4 5 ! \ I I =\ \ ! \ 7 ~ -: I 9 "/' o . 193 .___...73: Pottery of Stratum E3..o . 2 3 ( F I 4 e .
p.71:3 discussed in Stratum E3. Flat plates or bowls with a sloping profile and a simple rim (Fig. It has 'been reported from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 5 nos. A sub-type of the group of bowls with flaring rims (Fig.76:21. Parallels come from I 3 4 For a detailed type study see Briend et al. 5. 5.3:24-25). The former have a fine soft orange fabric whereas the clay of the latter is red brittle and coarse.98 examples.76:14 compare a Black-on-Red I(III) bowl at Cyprus (Gjerstad 1948:Fig. but without slip) and Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a: PI. called 'Salt and Pepper group' at Tell Abu Hawam. 5. 77.4 Their shape is very similar to Figs. 5. 494-496. 1980 :PI. 5. 1980:166-168. 29:1-8).82-85) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:type Fine Ware Plate 1).80. For bowl Fig. 1980:Pl. often red-slipped outside and/or inside. 5. 38). 31. 5.69:4) displays somewhat thicker walls and the red slip is thin and washy being band-burnished or unburnished. occur frequently on the Phoenician coast.76:9) first seen in Stratum E4 (Fig.76:12) is similar to Fig. At Kabri several examples of both types have had a hole drilled in their centre after firing and were apparently in secondary use. 1.76:7) has a particular fabric. Bowls with a long overhanging rim (Fig. which constitute 3. differentiated by their rim forms. 26:16-17) and bowls at Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 5. 538). 41: 12 similar. Maigret 1979).76:20-25. Some of these sub-types. 1980: PI. Another sub-type (Fig. 20-22). Tyre Stratum 5.1980:168-170. 1980:PI. 15: 13). A similar phenomenon is known from central Syria in the late 8th century BCE. 5. A great many vessels of this class were found in Kabri . 194 .511. Carinated bowls with a simple rim (Fig.STRATUME2 BOWLS There is a remarkable variety of bowl types in Stratum E2. A number of red-slipped flat bowls and plates all have an accentuated everted rim (Figs. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. It might be dated as early as Late Bronze or Iron Age I and could be intrusive in Stratum E2a (cf. Tel Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 63: 75. 471-473.76:8) was first identified at Ras al-Bassit and is apparently a typical 7th century BCE form (Braemer 1986:Nos. SeeBriendetal. 38:1-12). 20:531-533.7% of all diagnostics. 5. Bikai 1978a: PI. The bowl with an S-shaped profile (Fig. Often they have a carination half way up the body.76:16-17) are typical of the late 8th and 7th century BCE (cf. The fabric of this sherd consists mainly of marl and may perhaps originate in northern Israel (Chapter 15:Table 15. 5. Deep bowls with bichrome red and black painted decoration inside (Fig. as are bowls with a carinated or stepped profile inside and outside (Fig. 46:2) and Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. have previously been included in the so-called 'Samaria Ware' but should be referred to rather as 'Phoenician Fine Wares' (Bikai 1992:97) or 'Levantine Fine Wares'. The outer surface can often be cut with a knife. For their occurrence see Lehmann 1996:371-372 form 75b.76: 10-11). Keisan Stratum 10-11 (Briend et al. 5. where it was assumed that drilled vessels were part of architectural construction (Lehmann 1996:363 form 17. 40:12). 81: 15).3 Parallels come from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. Sarepta C1 (Anderson 1988:type X-9A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 1. several have either one hole drilled into the centre of the base or several holes all over the bottom. Like the bowls with a long overhanging rim.77:1-6). 5. 470. but the fabric is very different.76: 18-19) are of the type found at Sarepta Stratum C1-C2 (Anderson 1988: type F-7C).24. 5. Sarepta C1-D1 (Anderson 1988:type F-1A). The bowl type with an uneven outer surface (Fig.76:5-6). fine and soft. 5.513). Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl.76:4) are very common.1:1). for example at Arqa 10AB (Thalmann 1978:Fig. 19:534-536. The fabric is orange.
41 :3a). effect (see Culican 1981). 8-9) and Yoqne'am Stratum 10 (Ben-Tor et al. 1980:166rim and a 10:12-13). 5. 22. studied in detail by A. 5-6). 5. 5.form 5 (Briend et al. sometimes has a black band on the rim (Bikai 1978a:28 fine ware plate 4. Sarepta (Anderson 12.78:9) is discussed 1990:PI. Tel Qiri Stratum VI (Ben-Tor Sarepta (Pritchard 1988:misc. Plate 4 is a variant characterized 92/888/3356-2 by a step below the is broken here (no would breaks at this point. 1978a:type fine ware 4) date the type between the second half of the 8th and the 7th century BCE. 5. 1980:167 type c. Sarepta CI-Dl Assyrian-style DEEP BOWLS bowls (Figs. 45:4-4a). The large plain bowl (Fig. tomb 367/51-1 pottery during the 1968Ashmolean British Museum late 8th and the 7th century Museum. 1980:PI. PI. 8a:43. PI. 1978a:22-23). 5. 39:30).Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. 72:164-166). 1. Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 1980:PI.77:12) was also found at Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et The first type is always While the rim is usually rim. The bowl (Briend et al. deep bowls with handles assemblage and a carinated shoulder (Fig. type plate 4). 1980:PI. A small plate with a small accentuated band of red slip inside (Fig.'Plate 3' and 'Plate 4' (Bikai or slightly flat there are exceptions. GOBLETS AND PEDESTAL BOWLS Presentation (Lehmann stands (Fig. The Fig. The plate usually illustration). 32:3. 9:5-6. 5.78:5-8) at.348/3).9:6). 5. They are one of the most typical features of Phoenician BCE. 1980:PI. 10:24-25).40:1-7) 1:12. Al Mina Stratum 5 (Lehmann 8 (unpublished. 1987:9:10). include The comparisons burnished and very well finished and has a stepped at.78:1) were first recognized by Bikai (1985b) and many have been recorded since 1996:394 type 180). 2 and 3 (Bikai 1978a:Pls. Sarepta Cl (Anderson 1988:PI. Bikai divides plates like Fig. or partially red-slipped 145b). 5. 33: 1- They occur at Kabri with different rim forms. 1. Examples Amathus come from Al Mina (unpublished. Al Mina Stratum (Bikai 1987:No. 38:22) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI.77:7-8) seventy nine such bowls found at Kabri made up 3. 30:180/2). 69:141-142) and Tyre Stratum 10-2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. This type is completely . was also found at Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al.7:8).12). 38: 9-12) and Tyre Stratum 1-3 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 3. 27:4). Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. 41:7). 8a:51. 15:9 respectively).1 % of all diagnostics.76:15. The red slipped plate (Fig. Oxford 1954. 435). 5. 1980:PI. 1978:Fig. creating a bar-handle-like Similar plates were found at Tyre in Strata 3 and 4 (Bikai 1978a:Pls. The rim is either horizontal from Tyre define Both examples found at Kabri are 'drooping'. and indeed our example or 'drooping'.77:16) has a carination directly under the rim and was found at Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et Large. 9:14). 30:8). Comparisons which BCE. 28:5. 52:10). 1980:PI.77:11). come from and the time range of this type to Strata and the first part of 7th century 1-3 (Bikai 1978a:type the end of the 8th century Cyprus (Bikai 1987: no. 45. 5. Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1988:PI. type with a horizontal long rim (Fig. p. 25.77:13 into two types .77:10) has a cut rim. 1980:PI. 5. century 2. et al. Fig. Dor C2 phase 7 (ibid. 30:2-4. and Tyre Strata 1.77:15) with an incurving rim has a number of parallels in Phoenician sites of the late 8th and 7th centuries BCE such as Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et at. 1996:Tf. 12: 11). The deep bowl with a carinated 5. 1-4 at Tyre. A similar bowl (Fig. 5. PI. vessels nos. 544) Tyre Stratum plate 3 and 4. Parallels from Tell Keisan Stratum 4(Anderson 1988:type F-2A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai are discussed below as a special type.:Fig. 195 . are common BCE Phoenician from Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend Gonzalez below. Chambon 168). 5.9:9-10. convex base. 1980:PI. 42:3.77:9 has a parallel from Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al.78: 10) has a paralJel at TelJ Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera The Assyrian-style deep bowl (Fig. 30:11et al.77:14 is a small bowl with an incurving rim. 1995:Fig. 52: 8) Tell in the 7th profile (Fig. Lehmann 1996:386. 28: 12.
37:2-3) and Vroulia Tomb 6 on Rhodes (Kinch 1914:PI."5. 25:type 159-163 and Tf.79:12-l3) and a polished or cut surface come from Strata E2-3.79:5). 5. la). Other larger jugs (Fig.79:1) was found under the floor of Stratum E2. Sarepta B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type B-3A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:typejuglet 1). Petrographic analysis of Fig. The vessels have a wide oval body and tall neck (cf. 2) decorated with painted bichrome bands in red and black. 5. Juglets with a red slip and a wide overhanging mushroom lip (Fig. 36: 1-. 2. 5. B ikai 1978a:PI. fabric and surface finish from contemporary decanter types in inland sites but is quite common along the northern Levantine coast. Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:Fig. JUGLETS AND JUGS A complete small juglet with black-brown bands (Fig. The paint has a matt appearance. PIs. 279) but most were found in Levantine sites such as Sidon Tomb 1 (Culican 1975:Fig.79:8-10) can be dated by parallels to between ca. Large jugs made of smooth yellowish fabric with dark painted lines (Fig. 38:6. Tyre Stratum 3. 298.1:2) shows that the fabric of this vessel is typical of Cypriote coastal sites like Amathus or Enkomi. 5. 5. For comparisons see Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. 27:169) while the rim fragments are often indistinguishable.78:11-14) with a simple flat base were found at Kabri. 5. 19). 6) similar in form.11. These bottles form a distinct group of pottery in terms of fabric. 5. 316). 46:2).90:3-4). 285. 92:jug 5) and Hazor VA (Yadin et al. Large jugs and bottles (Fig. 5.9).79:6-7).79:14) differs in form. This juglet may be an Assyrian-style vessel. Most examples found at Kabri belong to the early Iron Age type. Juglets with a small bulge at the base (Fig.Stands or incense burners (Fig. surface treatment and decoration and are comparable to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. The handle rises above the rim and the body of the vessel is slim and long. 50). 221: 1) and Shiqmona Stratum 9 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. 87:l3. Reddish coarse fabric (lOR5/6) (not illustrated. At Kabri three sub-types were distinguished on the basis of fabric: 1.6:4-5. Similar juglets were found in Cyprus and labelled as White Painted V (Gjerstad 1948:Fig. but there are also four examples of Persian period mortaria with a high pedestal ring-base (Fig. are discussed below. Sapin 1998). 1980:PI. Similar vessels from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Nos. 6-7) occur very frequently in 8th and 7th century BCE Phoenician pottery assemblages. Only the base distinguishes the early moratoria from those of the NeoBabylonian and Persian periods (cf Lehmann 1996:Tf. 5. 5. The decoration and fabric are reminiscent of Assyrianizing pottery but the form is uncommon among Mesopotamian shapes as is the fine grit size of the temper. Some examples were found in Iraq at Assur Tomb 547 (Haller1954) and Nimrud NTS15 (Mallowan 1966:Fig. 3. Tyre Stratum 2-3 (Bikai 1978a:33-35. 4: 16). 1960: PI. 25-28. 5. 5:19-23. The decanter (Fig.79:3-4). found under the floors of Stratum E2. 5.70:1-2 in Stratum -E4). 5. 5. Fine yellowish smooth (5YR7/6) fabric (Fig.78:2-3) decorated in reserved red slip with painted black bands are unusual. 43:8). 1980:Pl. 750-680 BCE (Lehmann 1996: type 241 and cf. 33:3. Salles 1985a. type 239).78:14 (Chapter 15: Table 15. The Assyrian-style juglets and jugs (Fig.80:5. fabric and decoration were also found at Sarepta Dl 196 . Mortaria appear during the 7th century BCE for the first time and continue into the Hellenistic period (cf. Brown fabric (2.80: 1. 312.79:5. Lehmann 1996:Tf. MORTARIA A large number of mortaria (Fig.78:4) which occur in the 7th century BCE all over the Levant (Lehmann 1996:383-384 type 125).5YR6/6) with a rough surface (Fig. More frequent are goblets (Fig. 5. but see Fig.
81 :7. 49:8). 5. 3) Brown fabric (Fig. and another version (Fig. Some 7th century BCE examples come from Achziv Tomb 3 (Culican 1975-76:Fig. 4:10.81 :4) has a flat oval-shaped rim. 5. 28:9). 5. pink fabric (Fig.81 :10 has a thick rim and is wheel burnished in the interior. Dan Stratum II (Biran 1994:Fig. 1.82:6) with a fire-arm is discussed below. Tel Qiri loci 682.11) with their maximum width in the lower part of the vessel have no parallels. Unfortunately. 5. 32:8-9. the rim is not preserved. Assyrian-style kraters (Figs.81 :6) has a different type of rim. Tell Keisan Stratum 4.78:9. 1980:Pl. 5. 5. Large sack-shaped storage jars (Fig. There are four sub-types: 1) Reddish-yellow fabric (Fig. 5. Briend et al. 197 .80:7) are more typical of inland assemblages and occur at Kabri only in very limited numbers.82:5) existed over a long span of time and may have been used in cultic contexts. Jars with a stepped shoulder and vertical body walls (Fig.81: 1. Tell Keisan Stratum 5. 5 For further references from Syria and Lebanon see Lehmann 1996:447. Fort Shalmaneser Room T20 (Curtis et at. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl.82:1-4) are low in profile with a sharply formed rim and a somewhat flattened base (Anderson 1988:669. 5. The surface is decorated with bichrome red and black bands. 5. 1993:Fig.5 Thus.80:3-4) are discussed below. sometimes also extending over the inner parts of the vessel. Briend et al. but has small horizontal loop-handles. Such lamps appear at Tyre only after Stratum III (Bikai 1978a:Pl. There is some similarity to Assyrian storage jars from Nimrud.82: 1) which is sometimes almost white (cf. Fig. 1980:Pl. 44:5-8). 7:5. KRATERS Kraters with vertical shoulders and a wide lower body (Fig.5:1~3) and Sarepta B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type SJ-18A). 33:4). 43: 1) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl.79:14. 4) Cooking-pot fabric which is red with black white grits and a rough surface (Fig.9) are discussed below. 5. Often the handle starts immediately at the rim. 2) often have wide rectangular horizontal rims. 1980:Pl. 5. Briend et al.80:10. but has horizontal handles. Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. 1980:Pl. 5. 91 :301). 5. 88:285. 5. 2) Smooth. :Pl. Anderson 1988:type L-9).82:3) (cf. Similar vessels were found at Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. Tell Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et al. This is the most common type of krater in Stratum E2 at Kabri where fragments of 16 such vessels were found. LAMPS The late Iron Age lamps (Fig. 5.80:9) has a cylindrical body and a round base. 880.80:8.81:5 is similar. 6). Bk).(Anderson 1988:Pl. No parallels were found for Fig. The Assyrian-style lamp (Fig. Type L-9). 5. 13d). At Sarepta they occur in Strata B-C1 (Anderson 1988:505).82:4). Assyrian-style jug1ets and jugs (Fig. 43: 12). 5. 1980:Pl. 5. 5. Type 429. 27:1-3). 5. 212). 5. Stratum 5 (ibid. 6:10). 287) and Tyre Stratum 3 (Bikai 1978a:P1s. 1018 (Hunt 1987:Fig. A holemouth krater with round shoulders and a wide curved profile (Fig. Some vessels are decorated with a red slip on the rim.82:2) (cf. Fig.81:3 is similar to these. Lamps of the so-called 'cup-and-saucer type' (Fig. Keisan Stratum 5. The large krater or deep bowl on Fig. this type begins during the 8th century and continues into the Persian period. Sarepta B-C1. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS The tall storage vessel (Fig. 44:13-15) and Mtarfa tomb (Malta) (Culican 1982:Abb. The fabric and the streak burnish are identical with fabric and surface finishing of decanter Fig.
Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. The outside is red sometimes with a white self-slip. 1. There is a regular.74. 225:593.82:11. These dimensions occur on both fabric groups 1 and 2. The handle joints on the shoulder are 21 em apart from each other.82:8-10). Slightly sloping shoulders. All in all 160 handles were counted which would point to at least 80 baskethandle amphoras in the limited excavation of Area E. 5. 5. 27:9) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:Pl. The general shape resembles a bullet. a small and a large subtype. Similar vessels were found at Ashdod-Yam (Raban 1980:Fig. Type D . The vessel is pink with a grey core. in the storage rooms (Fig. These jars from Stratum E2 represent the earliest type which is confined to the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:443-445 type 421). 57:23 [Plain White V]). 5. 1:16).While there were only some 10 types of transport jars found in Stratum E3.84:1-2). The fabric is fine to medium with mineral temper and falls into four distinct colour groups: light grey or greenish with black arid brown grits. light reddish. No. Basket-handle amphoras (Fig. The fabric is of fine to medium mineral temper. Fifty seven vessels. Fig.1:3) came to the same conclusion that this type of vessel was produced in II~_-• 198 . 25:2-3. The fabric is orange pink. It has parallels at Achziv Stratum IV (Zemer 1977:18. 'from the sea' (Zemer 1977:No.86:1).88a) the majority were confined to 5 main types. light orange or reddish fabric has a fine mineral temper. 1:14). Type C .6 examples (Fig. were recorded from Stratum E2. 3. 26:1. 5. Similar jars have been reported from Arqa Stratum 9 D (Thalmann 1990:54 n.24 examples (Fig. 47:1-2). 33:6). light reddish to pink.82:13-14).84:1). 12). Sharply carinated shoulders and an S-shaped profile (Fig. 1980:PI. 5. Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al.74: Phoenician aleph incised on jar shoulder. Cyprus (Gjerstad 1948:Fig. 5. 806-807) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 2. 5. pink with black and white grits. The yellowish. the matrix being fine with a fine to medium mineral temper. 1980:PI. 5. On two jars of this type a Phoenician aleph was incised on the shoulder when the clay was still soft (Figs. The fabric is medium to coarse with mineral temper. Humbert (1991) dates the first appearance of this type to ca. Less sharply carinated shoulders than Group 2 (Fig. 1980:Pls. Salamis (Karageorghis 1974:Pl. 1980:Pls. 650 BCE. 27:6. Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. Some of Humbert's types (1991) as defined at Tell Keisan were also found at Kabri: Type B-1 example. This type occurs from Carthage to Nimrud (Lehmann 1996:434 type 384). 9). 53) and Ras Shamra-Ugarit (Stucky 1983:Keramik Nr. greenish grey. 21 types were recorded in Stratum E2. 33).8-9). 11). At Kabri they constitute 40% of all transport jars in Stratum E2. Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. 8:131). Kamiros (Jacopi 1931:Tav. 23-24).82:15). many of them completely restorable. Both Neutron Activation Analysis by Gunneweg and Perlman (1991) as well as petrographic analyses by Yuval Goren (Chapter 15:Table 15. 5. Salamis (Karageorghis 1967:97. the handle is 17 ern high and its diameter is 5 ern. However. Dafanna(Petrie 1888:PI. A significant number of handles of fabric groups 1 and 2 have the same dimensions. 4. Shiqmona Stratum 8 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. 5. 12-14). 300). 26:2-7. This is probably the most typical Phoenician transport jar of the late 7th century BCE. 5.84:2). 700 BCE but Salles (1985b) claims that this early type of basket-handle amphora reached the Akko plain only ca. 5. vertical body walls below a shoulder carination and a pointed base (Fig. 101). Similar to group 1 but with much thicker walls (up to 2cm) (Fig.
With a flat rim and an edge slightly below the lip (Fig. 5.g. I 2:5 [early 9th century BCE to 732 BCE]) With a flat round rim without an edge (Fig. were found at Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:Fig. There are several variations One example 2000:Fig. under the lip (Fig.75: Basket handle with incised Cypriote signs. all with a rough and uneven bas. one edge on the rim immediately It has parallels CP-IA). 31 examples were found out of their original context in Stratum E 1. 1980 :PI. lIIIIIIII111111fM1*H1111IlmlfM1*H111. In addition.84:7). At least some of these signs are in Cypriote Iron Age writing.70:20).83:9). There was 1 example in Stratum E3b. 28 :6). and sub-types: has been was found in Stratum E4.84:7-9. 3.e. A few contemporary E2a is types came from the southern The diversity remarkable.75. Thus. 2 in E2b and 12 in E2a.Ware found in seems to be due to the increasingly economic after the end of the 9th century Stratum E3. 5. There were 3 examples in Stratum E3b. marked exchange BCE assemblage like that of Stratum wide trade contacts of the so-called and Tyre.88b).85:1) belong to a Phoenician One example type which already appears With a small discussed in Stratum E4. 5. 5. 5.l\11\\I~l\Il\lll\fM1*H1I\\I\\\\\f 9 10 14 15 16 17 1~ Fig.5. Another 25 examples were found out of their original context in Stratum El. of this sub-type Stratum at Tell Keisan under Stratum E4 (Fig. 5.85:1). 3 in E3a. Sarepta CI-Dl 2. 199 Stratum CI-Dl (Anderson and Tyre Stratum 9-13 (Bikai 1978a: cooking-pot . 2 in E3a. Several apparently examples in secondary of other types use as storage which vessels may have come as imports were also retrieved to the Kabri area and were (Fig. 220:3) and Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et at.84:8-9).Cyprus or the north Syrian coast. 46:4). 1980:PI. in the Mediterranean Crisp. by the appearance between the periphery (35%) of cooking-pots in Stratum E2 (Figs. Comparable vessels. and Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 1988:Type 6. Fig. (Anderson 4 (Briend et at. 5. the type dates to Strata E3 and E2. The chert composition suggests that Cyprus should be favoured as a place of origin and this is confirmed by the signs either incised on them after firing or in red paint (Figs. the type dates to Strata E3 and E2 which 1988:Type CP-IA) is comparable to Sarepta type 4). in E2 and 2 were unstratified. 5. and illustrates COOKING-POTS The majority 1. 5. 2 in E2b and 24 in E2a. of transport This variety part of the country (e. Thus. jars in a late 7th century BCE.84:2). 5.
76:15 Bowl 5. Although the wash-like appearance of the 7th century BCE red slip is clearly distinguishable from the heavy and thick earlier red slip techniques. Weippert 1988:647-648. Chambon 1980:165-166.5% of the kitchen assemblage of Stratum E2. 5. It is usually a reserved slip decoration with a thin.6 Cooking-pots with a ridged or 'modelled' rim (Fig. 4).76. 5. deep bowls (Fig. jugs and kraters.7% of the total.80:3 5 7 Juglet 5. A few examples each of a variety of cooking-pot types together make up 13. 58:351/1. Jugs and juglets are often decorated with wide horizontal bands of red wash-like paint with black lines added parallel to the red bands. Pakman 1992. but also on juglets. The repertoire consists of bowls (Figs. 5. Among the cooking-pots found in this stratum were some Greek imports (Chapter 5.80:3.81:9 4 2 Lamp 5. 5. bottles of type Lehmann 1996:Tf. Sometimes there is a black band on the rim of the bowls.79:3 Krater 5. Another feature typical of Kabri cooking-pots is a rough surface on the lower part of the body (Figs. cooking-pots with a ridged or modelled rim were found at many sites during the survey of the Akko hinterland (Lehmann 2001) and here at Kabri they constitute 11% of the kitchen vessels. this form of decoration is a continuation of the Iron Age traditions in the preceding centuries.85:5). 6 For a discussion of cooking-pots with triangular rims see the section on cooking-pots in Stratum E4.79:12-13[?]. 5.81:7-8 3 3 Krater 5. Hunt 1987:203. TABLE 5. 5.Types with a triangular rim (Fig. DECORATION Red slip decoration was still popular at the end of the 7th century BCE (Figs. probably wine (Stronach 1996). 5.84:5-6) are the commonest type throughout Israel during the Iron Age IIC (Fig. Mattingly 1980.78:8 3 Bottle* Jug 5. 5. 1980). 5.77:8 1 2 Deep bowl 5. Cooking-pot lids (Fig.84:8.82:6 Total 24 30 *For bottles of this type see cf. 5. jugs (Figs.78:8). 8).1: ASSYRIANIZING TYPES AND THEIR STRATIGRAPHIC CONNECTIONS.85:13-15) make up 6. kraters (Fig. This slip was used most frequently on bowls. despite their apparent absence at Tell Keisan (Briend et at. whereas on the Akko plain it continues into the 7th century BCE. This type does not occur at all at Tyre or Sarepta. There are no cooking-pots or transport jars in the Assyrianizing style at Kabri. Hausleiter and Reiche 1999). Assyrianizing pottery occurs only in small amounts. Beginning at the end of the 9th century BCE. However. ASSYRIANIZING POTTERY An interesting feature of the 7th century BCE assemblage of Tel Kabri is the presence of Assyrianizing pottery and imitations of Mesopotamian vessel shapes (Amiran 1969:291.84:3-4) make up 9% of the cooking-pots.77:7 5 14 Bowl 5. The core is usually greyish but sometimes reddish yellow (5YR7/6) or pink (5YR7/4). The fabric of this class of pottery is almost uniform being mainly reddish yellow (5YR7/6) with some cases of pink (5YR7/4 and 5YR8/3). 5. they replaced the triangular-rimmed cooking-pot almost everywhere except on the Akko plain.79:3).76:15. 5. Type See Fig. 5.82:6). often wash-like slip (usually red 10 R5/6). At other sites in Israel this type is confined to Iron Age I and IIA-B. Lehmann 1996:Tf. 5.77:7. 5. The forms would seem to be mainly vessels for the consumption of liquids. 200 . Thus this decoration is some kind of 'Late Bichrome' style.77).VI). Gilboa 1996. juglets (Fig.81 :7-9) and lamps (Fig. 5. 58:351/1. Stratum E2a-E2b UnderE2b Bowl 5.89).
Most was found either in Stratum E2b or under the floors of that stratum. These vessels are dated according to stratified comparisons from other sites. Assyrian-style pottery was found in significant quantities in a sounding in Square OP7 (Chapter 4.5YR7/6.1V). mainly in the Ottoman level (Stratum E 1) whose foundations were dug into the remains of Stratum E2. An almost identical example.5YR5/4. temper: mg M. interior 5YR7/6. Exterior 10YR7/4. core 5YR6/4: temper: mg M. 11A:2). The pottery figures for this stratum include some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context.5YR7/6. core grey. cf. temper: fM. cf.5YR7/6. 5. 26:16-17. Exterior 5YR7/6. core 5YR6/6. Thus it can be attributed to the first half of the 7th century BCE. core 5YR7/6. Exterior. black & red paint lOR5/6. temper: fM. Exterior. interior 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR7/6. Gjerstad 1948:Fig. temper: fm M. From a macroscopic point of view.82:6) are unusual in Israel (Lehmann 1996:T£ 82:430/2 with references to finds in Syria and Lebanon). Exterior. red slip lOR5/6. 3375/7 5324/100 3020/1 3024/3 5426/100 548515 19411190 542511 3386/100 3376/5 3347/1 Exterior. interior 5YR7/6. red slip lOR516. They are contemporary with Stratum E2 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence in Tel Kabri.2. temper: fM.5YR8/4. black & white grits. Exterior 10YR7/4. Exterior 2.5YR5/6. red slip 2. 539114 3590/3 5149/4 Exterior lOYR8/2 white. interior 5YR6/4. core 7. temper fM. comes from Tell Abu Danna Stratum A4 in northern Syria (Tefnin 1980:15:3).5YR5/4. temper: fM. 'Assyrian bowl'. Analysis of Syrian and Lebanese pottery shows that Mesopotamian shapes went out of use immediately after the destruction of the Assyrian empire (Lehmann 1996:93-94). No.7 No Assyrian-style pottery was found in Stratum E3. but here on its periphery they are apparently objects of prestige. core 5YR7/6. temper: fM. whose fire-arm was also broken off. red slip 10R5/6. core 10YR7/4. the architectural 201 . temper: fm M. 1980. interior and core 5YR7/4. copying the life-style of the centre in Assyria. red slip. interior 7. Exterior 5YR6/4.5YR5/4. interior 5YR7/6. temper: mg M. Gilboa 1995). temper: fm M.\lI Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Reg. 3447/3 3367/1 3434/100 195515 Locus Description 1315 0892 0890 1955 1970 l321 1927 0890 1970 0801 0802 1941 1984 1941 1971 0890 0892 0889 0889 0864 l308 0869 0849 0890 l334 Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. Exterior 7. Tyre Stratum II-III (Bikai 1978:PI. and stratigraphic context of the finds under floor E2b is unclear. interior and core 7. core 5YR7/3. red paint lOR5/6 Exterior 5YR7/6. interior and core 5YR7/6. Egg-shell thin vessels like those from Tell Jemmeh are missing from the Kabri material which very closely resembles the finds from Tell Keisan and Dor (Briend et al.Lamps with a 'fire-arm' (Fig. FIGURE 5. temper: m M. temper: m M. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 l3 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Type Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl BO'.76: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. interior 10YR7/4. interior 2. white self slip. core grey. interior and core 5YR7/6. SeE 4. this may also be the case for the coarser Assyrianizing vessels in Kabri. core 2. 3350/100 3224/2 3502/3 326011 3175/2 3358/102 3616/2+ 12 7 Since this operation was a probe and excavation was halted after reaching the foundations ofWl389. Chemical and petrographic analyses of Assyrianizing pottery from Tell Jemmeh have shown that this pottery was produced from local clay (Melson and van Beek 1992). interior 5YR8/3. Black-on-Red I(III) bowl. red slip 10R516.
202 .) ~ '7 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 16 ~ r7 19 ) 15 ( 17 .76: Pottery of Stratum E2. "~ /' ~ 21 22 23 :7 10cm.d 2• 2 CC_ ~ 5 ..:I 7 ~ 6 4 ~7 C . 5. • Fig.s.
10 11 12
Fig. 5.77: Pottery of Stratum E2.
FIGURE 5.77: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS 16 Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl
S49113 S012/3 S413/2 3374/1 S28616 327712 S3S9/4 S3911S S419/2 3S33/4 3602/1 3629/1 33S7/1 S472/100 S442/1 3219/S
1984 1911 1972 1300 1965 0872 1970 1970 1968 1321 1336 1338 0889 1976 1963 0864
Exterior, interior and core SYR7/6, temper: fm M, decoration: black & red paint. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip 2.5YR6/8. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip lORS/6. Exterior and interior SYR7/4, core lORS/6, temper: m M. Hole drilled in the base. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip 10RS/6. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: m M. Exterior SYR7/4, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: m M.
Exterior SYR616, interior SYR616, core SYR616, temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: mg M, red slip 10RS/6. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, burnished. Exterior SYR7/8, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fin M, smoothed outside. Exterior SYR713, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: mg M.
FIGURE 5.78: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Mortarium Mortarium Mortarium Mortarium
S112/100 3SS9/S 3S80/1 3646/101 S188/1 196616 S21111 3446/3 S012/1 19411104 3S7S/I 3S92/3 3S1113 S216/100
1913 1326 1326 0890 1938 1966 1948 131S 1911 1941 1333 133S 1321 1947 Exterior 2.SYRS/6, interior 2.5YRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: mg M white grits. Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior lOYR7/3, interior 2.SYRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: fin M, red slip 10RS/6. SYR7/4, interior SYR7/4, core grey, temper: fm M black grits. SYR6/4, interior SYR6/4, core grey black, temper: fm M. 2.SYRS/6, interior 2.SYRS/6, core grey; temper: m M black & white grits.
Exterior SYR7/4, interior SYR7/4, core SYR7/4, temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/4, interior lOYRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: m M.
Typical Cypriote fabric.
Fig. 5.78: Pottery of Stratum E2
. 206 ... / I~.. 14 Fig. \ 3 4 1IfJ' .. '\ I r...-..79: Pottery of Stratum E2... ' .-_... <: i: .. 11 9 10 12 8 13 10cm.W 5 " 7 . . ...2 .rr@ .. 5. I I I I I " ./ " ~.
Exterior. core grey.outside wheel burnished. Exterior 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR7/6.7.5YR8/4. interior and core 7.80: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. interior 5YR7/4. interior 2. interior and core 10YR812 (white). and interior 5YR7/6. TyPe 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Pot-stand Krater? Deep bowl Reg.5YR7/6. core core core core core grey. Exterior 5YR7/6. No. Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Reg No. Type Juglet 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Reg.5YR8/4. temper:wg Brown painted band IOR5/4 weak red. core 7. and interior 5YR7/6. Exterior. inside mg M. black lines.5YR6/6. interior and core 2. core 10R6/6.81: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. black paint. wheel burnished. black & red paint IOR5/6. core grey. burnished. Exterior. temper: fM.5YR6/6. 207 . burnished. temper: fM. temper: fm M. grey to 5YR7/6. red paint. Exterior 2. interior 10R6/6. interior 5YR7/6. 3353/7 3353/100 5306/1 3297/1 5413/3 5037/100 3293/1 5362/2 5073/100 5287/1 34651100 Locus 0892 0892 1965 0874 1972 1912 0874 1967 1912 1941 0890 Description Exterior 5YR7/4. red slip 10R5/8 with black line on mushroom lip. temper: fM. red paint 10R5/6. and interior 2. mg M.5YR6/6. Exterior 10R6/6. temper: m M. Only 1 handle. temper: fM. temper: grey to 5YR7/6. temper: fM. Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. core 2. red slip 10R5/8 with black lines.FIGURE 5. temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/6 -7. interior and core 1OYR8/3 white.5YR8/4. 'Assyrian bottle'.5YR6/6. Exterior. core 5YR7/6. "':!. core 5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/6. interior 2. black & white grits. temper: fm M.5YR7/6. temper: m M. Exterior 7. black bands. interior 5YR7/6. interior 2. temper: fig M. interior and core 7. interior IOYR7/3. 212: 10 (Tomb 14). Exterior IOYR7/3. temper: m M. Exterior and interior 2. core 1OYR8/3.5YR7/6. red slip IOR5/8. temper: f M. Exterior 7. 3618/100 349113 53911100 5238/1 5324/9 536711 5477/5 3279/16 3356/9 526117 3275/6 357211 3269/9 5324/1 5500/200 5330/2 Locus 1338 1308 1970 1956 1970 1967 1976 0872 0888 1956 0872 1326 0869 1970 1984 1967 1941 Descrip_tion Exterior. Exterior 2.5YR6/6. cf. temper: fM. core grey. No. core yellow greenish. core grey. temper: fmM. temper: fm M.5YR6/6. Exterior 5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/4. temper: m M black & white grits. M. and interior 5YR7/6.79: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. core dark. interior 5YR7/6 . temper: g M large white grits.5YR6/6. temper: fm M.5YR7/6. interior 10YR8/3. temper: grey to 5YR7/6. Karageorghis 1970: PI. FIGURE 5.5YR7/6. core 5YR7/6. core grey. temper: fm M. 5013/200 5073/200 53201100 3119/5 3573/1 5209/1 5286/10 3142/4 5416/5 5235/1 Locus 1912 1912 1941 0825 1321 1941 1965 0835 1941 1955 Descrip_tion Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. mg M. burnished with black brown bands painted outside. Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Jug Jug Jug Decanter 12 13 14 529511+2 FIGURE 5. red slip 10R5/6.5YR6/6. temper: grey. interior 7.5YR6/6. Exterior 10YR8/3. core 5YR7/4. temper: m M.
_. ... 8 10cm.. \ 5 6 r L III '\... . • 7 I 9 10 11 o 10cm . Fig..\ 3 \ r I 2 I . 5.80: Pottery of Stratum E2 208 .-.-..
Fig. . 5... 2 • 4 3 5 s 7 ) : =I. 209 .---- I \ \ \ I \ \ \ \ '' I • / I\ \ . I I " . I I .81: Pottery of Stratum E2. T 8 9 -~10 10cm.
temper: mg M black & white grits.82: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. Exterior 2. temper: fm M black & white grits. 194117 550011 5447/2 5061/2 5309/200 52991100 53321100 36431100 5192/2 Locus 1941 1984 1963 1913 1941 1941 1941 0890 1941 Description Exterior 10YR6/2 . temper: mg M. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TJ:'J!.5YR5/4 grey.e Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Table amphora Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport jar j ar j ar j ar j ar jar jar jar Reg No. 3498/2 349811 527913 5258/3 3554/1 5302/100 35201100 549112 5245/4 548114 5287/2 3640/100 5437/1 524112 5180/2 5297/2 Locus 0890 0890 1963 1959 1321 1941 1941 1984 1941 1980 1941 0890 1968 1941 1914 1941 Description Exterior. FIGURE 5. 210 .e Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport jar jar jar jar jar jar jar jar jar Reg.5YR6/6 . temper: fM. temper: fM. interior 10YR6/2.5YR6/6 . core 2. Cypriote import.5YR6/6 . Cooking-pot fabric. temper: fm M white grits.10YR7/3.5YR8/2 white.2.83: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. interior and core 7. interior and core 5YR7/8 grey.5YR5/4 black. interior and core 5YR7/6. Exterior. Exterior. Pink lamp type with smooth surface. Red lamp type with rough surface. Exterior.2.5YR7/6. interior and core 7. No. interior 2.FIGURE 5. core grey black. red & black paint.2.5YR5/4 black. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 TJ:'J!.
_---'- ----- --- ----' 6 -=~~~~_'~Ocm.---'. I I . 7 • • I I I I \ \ \ \ \ I \ \ \ . \ \ . . . 15 Fig. I / '. I I / " I -.~ . '/ -..'" 2 3 e. \I ' I 4 5 .. 5.I '\V/ / " 8 9 10 11 ~ 13 '1 I ~.. 211 .. I I . 14 12 a 10cm ..82: Pottery of Stratum E2._____.. ffi -. . . \ \ I I I ..
212 .2 • 3 • I I \ I I I \ \ \ \ \ 5 6 • I I I I .83: Pottery of Stratum E2. \ \ \ ( t I I \ \ \ \ ) 7 6 9 o ------ 1Ocm. 5.. Fig.
84: Pottery of Stratum E2.n ! \ 0 -. / / _- I ' 8 9 Fig.. ---- 10cm. 2 3 ~ ) 4 7 l \ ~ 5 6 7 " I I . 5. 213 .
core 5YR7/3. core 2.pe Cooking-pot 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. Exterior. Exterior 7. temper: mg M black &white grits.5YR5/4. temper: mg M black & white grits. temper: mg M black and white grits. No. Exterior 2. 10R5/4. 8). interior 7. interior and core 2. interior 10R5/4. temper: fm M.5YR7/6. interior 2. Remarks: cf. Handle h: 16. interior 2. interior 5YR7/4. temper: mg M white grits.5YR5/6. temper: g M black & white grits. temper: mg M.5YR7/6. temper: mg M black & white grits. interior and core 2. Exterior 2. interior lOR5/4. core black. interior and core 2.5YR7/6. incisions on handle. core grey. interior and core 5YR6/6.5YR5/6. 55 (Str. Sarepta type CP-IA (Anderson 1988). Basket-handle amphora 53701100 Basket-handle amphora 522011 00 Cooking-pot 19411172 Cooking-pot 3526/4 Cooking-pot 3203/2 Cooking-pot 3203/1 Cooking-pot 5318/4 Cooking-pot 5115/100 Cooking-pot 344511 5 6 7 8 9 FIGURE 5.5YR5/4. temper: m M white grits. Exterior. 5YR7/6. Exterior 10R4/3. interior 7.5YR7/6. Exterior Exterior interiorand core 2.FIGURE 5. Exterior.5YR5/6. TJl. core grey brown. lid lid lid lid lid lid lid lid 214 . temper: mg M black grits. temper: mg M white & black grits. interior and core 2. 1 2 3 4 Type Reg. Exterior 2. temper: mg M black & white grits. temper: mg M black & white grits. Locus 1941 1941 1941 1321 0855 0855 1941 1913 0890 Description Handle h: 17. interior 2. temper: mg M. Exterior IOR6/6.5YR5/6. Exterior.5YR6/4. w: 21. writing with red paint. 1980: PI. This type of cooking-pot is characterised by a rough base. interior and core 2.5YR5/2.5YR6/4.5YR5/6.5YR512. core grey black. Exterior. Briend et al.5YR5/4. core black. 3602/2 5426/6 3270/1 362114 521112 5360/100 3367/2 5188/2 5499/3 545711 307511 5283/5 5422/1 1970/48 532311 Locus 1336 1941 0869 1338 1948 1967 0892 1938 1980 19B 0819 1941 1963 1970 1956 Description Exterior.84: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No.5YR5/6.85: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. No. This type of cooking-pot is characterized by a rough lower part. temper: mg M white grits. Exterior. w: 21. core 7.
) ( ~\ f22 2 \. I '~ 11 ~I 12 / ~==~--~-----~ 14 1Ocm. 215 . 4 / 3 < t: ( " • 5 6 7 err .85: Pottery of Stratum E2. 5. 9 10 / .~. Fig.
where much of the pottery was found in situ. ' . Only Stratum E2a. E2b Description Transport jar type with an engraved sign "aleph". Body sherd with an engraved picture of a jar. 5.. yielded a significant sample. Cypriote Basket-Handle with an engraved sign. It was impractical to analyze the pottery types in Strata E4.2: NUMBER OF VESSELS RECORDED BY TYPE AND STRATUM FORM CLASS £2 174 29 52 24 9 98 6 £3 34 2 7 1 8 £4 19 1 2 2 1 7 Debris under Stratum £4 2 Total 229 30 56 33 11 113 6 2 530 27 204 13 24 27 23 57 1385 Bowls Deep bowls Bowls with incurved rim Kraters Juglets Jugs Jars Pithoi Amphoras Lamps Cooking-pots Special forms Mortaria Greek imports Cypriote fine ware imports Cypriote basket-handle amphoras Total 2 511 26 157 12 24 25 13 57 1219 13 34 1 2 9 111 49 6 4 1 11 2 2 216 .~I 'I 10cm. TABLE 5. 1 2 3 Type Transport jar Basket-handle amphora Reg. 2 3 10cm. E3 and E2a statistically due to the fact that the fortresses under Stratum E2a were cleared and rebuilt. All diagnostic pottery fragments were recorded and 2625 vessels and fragments catalogued. Locus 890 1968 1309 Stratum Str. Fig.86: Pottery with ins cis ions and inscriptions.86: IRON AGE POTTERY WITH INCISIONS AND INSCRIPTIONS No. E2a Str.of Area E were excavated. No. E2a Str. 1 ~. FIGURE 5. 3365/101 5402/100 3443/103 STATISTICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE POTTERY FROM STRATUM E2 Approximately 340 m. Not all of these finds could be assigned to a particular pottery type.
No Egyptian imports were found in Tel Kabri.4%. Cypriote basket-handle amphoras are the major group.83:7 3% 10% 3% 9% Fig. while Egyptian imports account for 1% of the finds there (Fantalkin 2001:97-98. Cypriote fine war~s are.2. transport jars (amphoras). Figs.Others 1% 4% Cooking-pots 13% Jugs 8% Mortaria 2% Transportjars 48% Fig.1% and Greek imports make up 2. Jugs are notably more numerous at Mezad Hashavyahu (19%) than at Kabri (8%).1%. Fig. 5. Among the imported wares. 5. Fig.83:8 Others 8% 6% 40% Basket-Handle amphoras 20% Fig. constituting 9. kraters constitute 2% of all vessels.88b: Other types of transport jars in Stratum E2. 5. There were no Cypriote imports found at that site.87. 5. 5.87: Pottery Repertoire of Stratum E2. The numbers at Mezad Hashavyahu are not very different (kraters 2. At Kabri.88a: Main types of transport jars in Stratum E2. The pottery count (Table 5. the only other 7th century BCE fortress in Israel where statistics have been provided (Fantalkin 2001).83 :2-3 13% Others 35% 6% Fig. 217 . lamps 4%) (Fantalkin 2001:103-104).103-104). 5.1% of the total pottery in Stratum E2. 5. These numbers should be compared with the finds from Mezad Hashavyahu. Greek imports to Mezad Hashavyahu are much more numerous (46%) than at Tel Kabri (Fantalkin 2001 :103-104).rare with a share of only 1. This may be partly due to the fact that the area excavated coincided with the storerooms of the fortress. 5.88) reveals an extraordinarily high percentage of .
5.85:10 17% Fig. 5. 1994. The closest parallels to the pottery of Stratum E2a come from sites in the vicinity of Tel Kabri. Another recent contribution to the study of 7th century BCE coastal pottery is Fantalkin's comprehensive publication of the excavations at Mezad Hashavyahu (2001).3% were vessels for storage of agricultural products collected in the nearby area. 5. Some 52. This leaves only 25% for storage vessels (Fantalkin 2001:103-104). Anderson 1988.85:12 6% Fig. while the other 47. From the end of the 8th through the 7th century BCE. Gal 1992. 5. 5.85:6 11% Lids Fig. 21% of all pottery types have exact parallels at either Tyre Strata 1-2 (Bikai 1978a) or Sarepta Stratum Cl (Anderson 218 .89a: Main types of cooking-pots from Stratum 2a. 5. 5.85:7 6% 5.Fig. Sarepta and Tell Abu Hawam did not expose substantial levels of this date. The numerous complete vessels from Tel Kabri's destruction level (Stratum 2a) enable us to study the typology of the 7th century BCE in detail. CONCLUSIONS While Iron Age coastal (Phoenician) pottery of the 12th . 5.85:11 11% Fig. survey~ in the Akko plain have yielded new data about the coastal settlement system of the 7th century BCE in southern Phoenicia (Frankel 1986. Frankel et al. In addition to excavations. 1987. a fortress stood at the extreme southern edge of the Phoenician homeland. While most types found in Stratum E2 also occur at nearby Tell Keisan Strata 4-5 (Briend et al. At Mezad Hashavyahu vessels for the consumption of food make up 60% of the repertoire and cooking-pots for its preparation 11%. The excavations at Tyre.89b: Other types of cooking-pots from Stratum E2. 1990.84:8) 10% Fig. Herrera Gonzalez 1990). 1980). The 7th century BCE pottery from Tell Keisan has been published by the French Expedition but till now this was the only major site to provide such information. probably destroyed at the same time as the storerooms of the Tel Kabri fortress. near Achziv. Wolff 1994:515-516).85: 13- Fig. 5.2001. until recently the 7th century BCE was a more obscure phase in the archaeological research of the northern Levant.85:8 Fig. 5.7% of the pottery assemblage from Kabri was used for the preparation (cooking) and consumption of food to serve the needs of the garrison.84: 7-9 35% Others 27% 6% Fig. 5. Achziv Tomb 3 has a number of good parallels to Stratum E2 (Culican 1975-76).8th centuries BCE has been studied in detail (Bikai 1978a. 1978b. Fig 5.84: 3-4 9% Fig. In Achziv Stratum IV the still unpublished fmds from a warehouse. 1997. The excavations at Tel Kabri significantly complement these finds.84: 5~ 11% With rough base (Fig. include the same transport jar types as those found in situ at the latter site (Zemer 1977:18). Lehmann 1995. 5.
650-575 BCE. Dor Area A Phase 9 (Gilboa 1995 [720-650/630 BCE]) and Shiqmona Stratum 8-9 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. There is a surprisingly high percentage of Cypriote fine wares. dated to the end of the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996). Storage jars are completely missing. demonstrates that Late Bronze and Iron Age settlement was not confined to Area E. Lehmann 1994a). A number of the same pottery types came from the destruction level of Ashkelon. Furthermore. Reich 1989). dated to ca. chronologically anchored on the campaigns of Nebuchadnezzar.6% of the all post-MB vessels recorded in Area D. dated to 604 BCE (Stager 1996) and from Stratum 5 at al-Mina in northern Syria. The later fortress of Stratum E2a may have been destroyed during one of the campaigns of Nebuchadnezzar against Syria and Palestine. This points to very close contacts and exchange with Phoenicia and illustrates that the pottery repertoire of these two sites on the Akko plain is typical oflate Iron Age Phoenician pottery (cf. Comparisons for many vessels in the Stratum E2a assemblage at Kabri can be found in the destruction levels at other sites in the Levant. Pottery LB IA I IA II Krater Jugs/Juglets Cooking-pots Lamps Bowls Cypriote Imports TOTAL 4 1 3 3 2 2 29 4 14 51 4 10 219 . 604 BCE (Biran 1994:270-271). 650 and 600 BCE and might be connected with the campaign of Ashurbanipal in the year 644/43 BCE (Katzenstein 1997:293). AREAD The evidence that occupation continued. Naveh 1962. A total of 14 vessels of Cypriote fine wares accounts for 22. The destruction of Mezad Hashavyahu (Fantalkin 2001.however did not destroy the fortress completely. Based on the above-mentioned comparisons. The pottery is identical to that in Stratum E2a and it is impossible to distinguish any type development between the two phases. destroyed in ca. although on a smaller scale. in Area D after the Middle Bronze Age. Additional parallels which date Stratum E2a to ca. the earlier destruction must have taken place between ca. was dated recently to the years around 600 BCE (Wenning 1989). Cooking-pots form the largest functional group retrieved from the Iron Age II remains in this area. 53 [8th-7th century BCE]). Courbin 1993). Blackon-Red and White-Painted pottery. Dan Stratum I. 1987 [710-650 BCE]).V). on the basis of pottery comparisons Stratum E2 at Tel Kabri can confidently be dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE. 50.1988). there are several examples of'Wild-Goat'-Style II (Chapter 5. Thus. 600 BCE come from Tell <Arqa Stratum 9D (Thalmann 1990) and Ras al-Bassit Phase 7 and Tomb 4 (Braemer 1986. which yielded a very similar pottery assemblage including Greek cooking-pots. Similarities are seen at Tel Qiri Stratum VI (Ben-Tor et at. has many types in common with the destruction layer at Kabri. There is evidence for an earlier destruction phase (Stratum E2b) which . may be as early as 604 BCE or only later in 585 BCE (Katzenstein 1997: 328).
.. 4 5 7 9 10 11 f 12 14 ~'. F 13 II II 15 16 17 19 18 lOcm. 220 .5 90· Iron Age II pottery from Area D..3 6 ~. Fig .
Abu Hawam Stratum IV (Balensi 1980: PI. 1960:57:13). Type A. Jezreel "Early Iron" (Zimhoni 1997: Fig. Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. 80:225). 1960:57:13). cf. 1961:209:11). Tyre Stratum X-2 [Bikai 1978:PI.joins with 154119121/1.90: IRON AGE II POTTERY FROM AREA D No. 27:6] and XI [Bikai 1978: PI. Such mortaria were first in use during the Persian period and continued into the early Hellenistic period (Salles 1985a. 1961:209:1). Hazor X (Yadin et al. Type Bowl 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Bowl Bowl Juglet Juglet Juglet/Jug Juglet Bowl Bowl Bowl Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. 11:238]) and the Iron Age. 1960:61:12). 25:10.:53:9-10). 'Samaria' Ware. Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et al. 1980:49:2) and Keisan Stratum 7 (ibid. 1980:56:8). cf. Type A. cf. Stern 1978:53. Stem 1978:55/56. Cypriote Black-on-Red juglet (Gjerstad 1948: Fig. 1960:51:12). the peculiar combination of cooking-pots and Cypriote fine wares may perhaps be explained if this area was associated wth the fortress complex in Area E for processing agricultural products. cf. 39:9]). Such pans were in use during the Late Bronze Age (Tell Abu Hawam Stratum V [Balensi 1980:PI.9).91 :3-4). cf. 1960:51:12) and VIII (ibid.:41:6). Type E. cf. Red-slipped burnished bowl. cf. cf. 19 Cooking-pot PERSIAN AND HELLENISTIC PERIODS A small amount of late Persian period and Hellenistic pottery. Artzy 1980) and several mortaria with a high ring base (Fig. 80:221.The scant Iron Age II architectural remains in Area D are interpreted as a farmstead or some kind of rural settlement (Chapter 4. Keisan Stratum 5 (ibid. 14:10). Against such a rural background the relatively large amount of Cypriote fine wares is difficult to explain.2. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl. Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. Kabri Stratum E3. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl. Kabri Area E. cf. Pan type with vertical handle. Hazor X (Yadin et al. Abu Hawam Stratum III (Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. Abu Hawam Stratum III (Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. was retrieved from Area E. cf. Hazor X (Yadin et al. No. Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. Stern 1978:54/55. 1980:56:6). cf. Stern 1978:53. cf.224). 38:9. Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. FIGURE 5. However.:57:15). Persian period pottery was extremely rare. Type 1). 2525-1 2676/1 2630 2509 2669 2617 2542 2518/3 2525/2 2625 2534/3 2504/2 2518/2 9187 2636 2555/1 9256 9110/12 268111 Locus 715 750 745 703 744 713 721 715 715 715 721 715 715 1570 745 721 1554 1541 751 Description cf. Abu Hawam Stratum IV (Balensi 1980: PI. Hazor IX (Yadin et al.III). Kabri Stratum E3. 5. 1998) 221 . 1960:57:4). Stratum E3 (a similar cooking-pot rim appears also during the Iron Age II A-B. cf. Hazor IX (Yadin et al. cf. cf. 2. There was one twisted handle of a Persian period transport jar (not illustrated. 14:10). apparently dumped at the site. Cypriote Black-on-Red juglet or jug (very fine pink fabric with black lustrous bands on the rim inside). Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl.
interior IOYR8/3. 1 2 3 Type Unguentarium Unguentarium Mortar Mortar Reg. temper: mg M white grits . 7:1-3.91: HELLENISTIC POTTERY FROM AREA E No. Further finds include a fragment of a stamped Rhodian amphora (Chapter 9:No. Exterior 5YR7/4. No. interior 5YR7/4. 34).91:1-2).5YR8/4. 4 Fig. temper: mg M.. Among the Hellenistic pottery was the rim of a white Hellenistic transport jar (not illustrated). 5. The Ottoman village in Area E was excavated by Mahmud Hawari in 1993 (Hawari 1994). 3269/1a 326911b 3204/4 3490/2 Locus 0869 0869 0853 1321 Description 4 Exterior 7. 222 . 5. All the pottery comes from disturbed layers between Strata E2 and E1. This type of vessel was found in large numbers at Tell Keisan and nearby Khirbat Kinniya (Briend et al. 1980:Pl. 17:23-30). 3 2 '--"~~=--' 10cm. Transport jars of this class are especially numerous in the Akko plain during the Hellenistic period. core grey.The two Hellenistic unguentaria found were apparently associated with a disturbed grave (Fig. core grey.91: Hellenistic pottery from Area E. FIGURE 5.
According to Coldstream (1968:298-301) the first stage of the Bird bowls is to be dated to ca.1. The unstratified fragment of an SOS-amphora (No. not Corinthian but probably east Cypriot. Boardman 1980:48). Niemeier 1994). The presence of these imports is of special significance for two reasons: 1. Kerschner. Haider 1996:69) is too small to be more closely dated than between the later 8th and the first half of the 6th centuries BCE. Cook and Dupont 1998:8-10). 1997. We are also grateful to A. Fig. The Bird bowl evolved from the Late Geometric Bird kotyle. Kaufler and U. Sarepta.C. Mommsen of Bonn University. 23. R. according to Neutron Activation Analysis by H. cf. Niemeier 1995. PI. 42) is of special interest. Kerschner We would like to thank M. Thus Waldbaum's distribution map (1994:55. S. 12. the profile is too curved to belong to a Late Geometric/Subgeometric skyphos but comes from an East Greek archaic Bird bowl. 2. Fig. Al Mina is the only site from which Protocorinthian pottery is known (Robertson 1940:16-18. with the exception of a probably Attic SOS-amphora (No. the third ca. All pre-Hellenistic Greek pottery of Area E is to be dated between the second half of the 7th and the first half of the 6th centuries BCE.1 More was found in the seasons of 1989. The clay of a sherd tentatively ascribed to a Protocorinthian aryballos (Kempinski and Niemeier 1993b:259. Tel Batash. Since there is no other 8th century Greek pottery from Kabri.V.1995. Adelman 1995. Wenning 1995). 256. Tell Jemmeh and Tell Sera' (Koehl 1985:138.92:1-5. despite its popularity in other areas of the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. Naso for his input regarding the fragment of an Etruscan Buchero vessel (No. simplifying the decoration and flattening the shape. and the fourth to ca.2 The stratified pieces come from Stratum E2a (the destruction level of the Phoenician fortification) or from slightly earlier levels. 16. Pastor 1991 :20*. BIRD BOWLS Five fragments (Figs. ARCHAIC GREEK AND ETRUSCAN POTTERY Barbara and Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier Archaic Greek pottery was first identified in Area E in 1986 byL. The Archaic Greek pottery from Kabri is East Greek. 2 3 223 . Haider 1996:69). the second to ca. 1990. 1997:252-255. 1992 and 1993 (Niemeier 1990. 675-640 B. 650-615 BCE. The fragment of an oinochoe or olpe of Etruscan Bucchero (No. Fig. seventh centuries" (Waldbaum 1994:59. 25) (cf. Fig. Tell Keisan. Recently the typology and chronology of the East Greek Bird bowls has been modified and refined by Kerschner (1995. Tell Abu Hawam. Ashkelon. Lehmann 1995. Reinvestigation of the sherd for the final publication demonstrated that. Tel MiqneEkron. 25). it almost certainly is contemporary with the East Greek pottery. 5. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33-36 with references). Tel Dan. The following sites in the Levant have produced Early Corinthian pottery: Tell Sukas. IV. 1) and Haider's summary (1996: 69) have to be corrected: There is no Geometric pottery from Kabri. The "curious gap in the roster of early Greek pottery in Palestine". No. 615-600 BCE.1 was earlier identified as belonging to a Late Geometric or Subgeometric skyphos with metope decoration (Niemeier 1990:xxxiv-xxxv. Waldbaum 1994.M. also Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33-36) also applies to Tel Kabri-'. Schlotzhauer for important information and constructive discussions on the East Greek pottery found at Tel Kabri. Elsewhere in the Levant Corinthian pottery also is not abundant. although the preserved decoration could be of late 8th/early 7th century date. Fine decorated Greek pottery is more accurately datable than most of the local pottery and therefore important for absolute dating (see Cook. "the complete lack of Protocorinthian pottery of the late eighth through most of the . Thus no Corinthian pottery has been found at Tel Kabri. Vessel No. 19.E. 22. 700-675 BCE. 5. cf. date adopted by Waldbaum 1994:59. 42). Niemeier 1994:*31. They play an important role in discussions about contacts between the Levant and Greece and the possible presence of Greeks in the Levant (see Wenning 1991. Gershuny (1987:69.1) and adopted by Waldbaum and Magness (1997:34) and Haider (1996:69) is.13).93:1-4) come from East Greek so-called Bird bowls. Figs.
Decoration: Reddish-brown paint. Bird bowl (Figs. from left to right. dated to the last third of the 7th century BCE (Boardman 1967:133. 224 .92:2.92:5) Body fragment. No. 17. 5. Parallels: Phase IV at Emporio on Chios.3 ern. Locus 802. 5.dated to the last quarter of the 7th century BCE (cf.92:1. 5. 107. Locus 833. D. H. 5.93:2) Rim fragment. PI. No.478. Below this are void rays. Date: The fragment is from a Bird bowl of Kerschner's Type II with empty bottom zone. Inside: Solid. three vertical lines and the body and feet of a bird. Locus 874. Outside: The tail of a bird above which is a triangle pendant from a painted lip band. the first half of the 7th century BCE is still dominated by Bird kotylai and only from the middle of the century onwards do Bird bowls appear in larger quantities. Stratum El. Stratum El. No. dated to the middle to third quarter of the 7th century B.8 em. Cat. Bird bowl (Figs. 1. is a rhomb filled with hatching. Kerschner 1997:160.92:4. XIV). Outside: A group of three vertical lines on the left with a single vertical line on their right. Stratum El. Stratum El. 162. Inside: Solid. 85).2. 3114. 43. three vertical lines which meet three horizontal lines at an angle. 3023/1. =2 em. Decoration: Light reddish-brown paint. No. The style is less delicate than No. PI. Kerschner 1997:127 Cat. 5. 5. In Kerschner's typology our fragment forms a late example of his Type IV with a small groove at the mouth and a relatively deep bowl dated to the last third of the 7th century BCE (cf. No.E (cf. 118-119:476. Outside: On the left. Bird bowl (Figs. The bird's tail is formed by extending the lower horizontal outline of the body. 162. 329711.1997). 650-615 BCE.5 em. dated before 600 BCE (Walter 1968:88.C. = 3. VI). Inside: Solid. Reg. Kerschner 1997:163. 5. Bird bowl (Fig. 5484. Outside: A ray with three horizontal lines above it in the lower part. Reg. 3.93:3) Rim fragment. PI. = 3. Reg. 3. D. 43:452). No.the bowl are characteristics of Kerschner's Type V. = ca. 'Fundgruppe XXVII' in the sanctuary of Hera on Samos. Decoration: Yellowish-red and black paint. 5. Bird bowl (Figs. PI. Inside: Solid.92:3. ca. No. According to his studies. 11 em. 130. Date: The painted design puts the fragment in Coldstream's third group.93:4) Rim fragment. Reg. 5. A vertical stripe on the right.8. Stratum El. Above these. Locus 1983. XIV). 4. Date: The missing groove at the rim and the almost hemispherical profile of . 109. H.93:1) Rim fragment. Date: The fragment is too small for dating. Locus'S24. 5. H = 2. Reg. Decoration: Yellowish-red paint. No. Kerschner did not find Bird bowls from clear contexts before the second quarter of the 7th century BCE. H. 2. PI. H. 3138.
Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Samian Heraion.1. 1999) suggests that the term 'Ionian called 'Knickrandschale' (cup with bent rim). The term 'Ionian rims. bands just below the handle Group 3.. 630/20 .Decoration: Reddish-brown exception of a reserved and dark grey glossy paint. Delos found to be a Rhodian (Jones 1986:647. with simple horizontal or completely covered with dark paint and they should be is retained. invention (cf. However. 630/20 BCE) and II (ca. however. Fig. Inside: Solid with lines stripe.664). cups from Miletus) and in the Greek sanctuary at Gravisca in Etruria (Boldrini 6. 13 = Alexandrescu 1978:57-58 No. 21).93:5) 15 fragments of mouth and wall (reconstructed). that neither parts of Ionia (Jones activation demonstrating that it was not produced at Miletus confirm of Bird bowls was this Ionian the production centre of Bird bowls (Kerschner et al. Outside: by Kerschner as belonging Two vertical lines. The most influential 120-125. Stratum E2a. 610-590/80 BCE) (Furtwangler 1980:165. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler 225 . Shipley 1989. Solid except for narrow Decoration: Black paint. Inside: Solid except for a band just below the mouth. drinking cups with prominent and Shipley 1989). 13).5 em. in a sacrificial complex in the sanctuary established by Schlotzhauer 1995 for the 1994:137-187. 197-199. Fig.ca. Table 1). has shown that the clay composition of a Bird bowl of Type IV from the Rheneia Pi. Boardman those applied to material from Megara Hyblaea in Sicily (Villard and Vallet 1955:18-33). here the common English nomenclature Various systems of classification Cilicia (Hanfmann Hayes 1973:55-56). For many 1998:26). No. 6-18) form the largest group of Archaic Greek pottery . adopting the typology 1980:165). analyses were considered analysis pit. This is dated to ca.200-202 Nos.6e) matches on Rhodes. 53311100. Type AI. Other examples from the Samian Heraion come from the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building dated to ca. other systems arranged These typologies from Tarsus in have been adopted in the study of the Ionian cups from Tell Sukas in by single sites (see Catling and to the typologies sequences 1973:27-38). from Tel Kabri. Of in the South Temenos of the are the series of Ionian cups found in good stratigraphic 1997. Furtwangler's level and just Type 3 and 16 cm. 5. 625-590 BCE (cf. decorated Schlotzhauer (Cook and Dupont 1998:129-131). the majority of the pieces of this type came from Phases I (before ca. 5. H. were and Since this class is not restricted to Ionia (Catling cup' should be abandoned (1995. Hayes' Type I-II. 'Ionian cup' (Figs. 7-8. fewer from Phase III (ca. Ploug's Group 6. PI. a complete 1938:39-43 No. = 3. 188-189 note 5. site of Bird However. (mouth) = Reg. 610 BCE). 1993). and the very useful concordance sanctuary of Hera on the island of Sam os (Furtwangler of Artemis at Ephesos (Kerschner ibid. and from Tocra in Libya (Hayes 1966:111-16. Cook and Dupont that found in Furthermore. painted or reserved. Syria (Ploug importance 1956:167-173) for this cup-type have been put forward. 8.219-234). One production bowls may perhaps have been located in northern 'IONIAN CUPS' Ionia (Jones 1986:697). D.92:7. 200. glazed all over except for a narrow reserved band at handle level. Outside: Type: Villard Schlotzhauer's and Vallet's below the lip. Kerschner's neutron metropolis years the Bird bowls petrographic 1986:649. The fragments of thirteen so-called Ionian cups (Nos. to his latest Type VI without horizontal Date: It has been identified example from Histria: Lambrino DISCUSSION between the rays of the bottom zone and the main frieze. cups' is used for a class of two-handled bands. There are. Locus 1941. I118-20.
226 . 5.92: Bird bowls and Ionian cups.2 ry3 5 4 _. 11 Fig. 7 8 3cm.
(Figs. 9. 5. H. Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. 213-214:Nos.5YR 3/1) paint. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 227 . dark greyish-brown (10YR 3/2) paint. Furtwangler's Type 5 and Boldrini's Type 1111 with glazed exterior except the rim and a band at handle level. 23) and in the foundation of the North Building of ca. dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) paint. 'Ionian cup' (Fig.93:4 2. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 5. Surface Very pale brown (IOYR 7/4) clay. 570/550 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:5-7. TJP. Examples of this type were unearthed also in the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building of ca. Discussion: See No. 33521100. Cat. Hanfmann's Type IV. Ionian cup II. 6. Reg. 610-590/80 BCE) and was also found in Phase IV (a late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165. black (10YR 2/1) shiny paint. 111 Fig.FIGURE 5.5/1) paint. Outside: Bands on rim and at handle level. yellowish-red (5YR 5/8)/black (5YR 2. 5.120.tion See Fig. E2a Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay. No. 3. 5. 8. 117.93:3 5. Nos. 18).5YR 4/1) shiny paint. PI.5YR 2. Locus 887. No. 12. D. Inside: Solid except for a band just below the mouth. No. El Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. This type apparently lasted from the second half of the 7th to the early 6th century BCE. E2a Very pale brown (IOYR 7/3)/grey (10YR 6/i) clay. Ionian cup. 21). EI Light brown (7. 125. Date: Vallet and Villard's (1955:15-18.e Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Dorian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Reg_.93:6 and Kienast 1989:4-5. 1. (mouth) = 17. in the second levelling of ca. 28). Hayes' (1966:112) late 7th century BCE. Type: Villard and Vallet's Type A21B 2. black (7. Reg. Cat. Cat. 126:Fig. 1111. 12-13 PI.5YR 3/1) paint. very dark brown (10YR 2/2) paint. 25. III/I.92:9. 19. = 2. III/8-9. 11 PI. Examples from Ephesos are dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE (Kerschner 1997:111. 19. 8. reddish-brown (2. Cat. 3536/100.121:Fig. Ionian cup Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. 5. No. Stratum El.2 em.93:6) Mouth and wall fragment.6. Decoration: Glossy black paint.No. No. 610 BCE (Kerschner 1997:182). II. Ploug's Group 5. 4. Locus 1321.92:8) Shoulder fragment.600 BCE. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:4-5.93:1 5. Stratum E2a. black (IOYR 2/1) paint. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) paint.93:5 5. 7. 115 Cat. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. PI. 1/3-4. No. 7. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos which ends ca. 10. 111 Fig. reddish-brown (2. PI. = 4. III). Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Heraion of Samos it occurs first in Phase III (ca. 29) date is 640/30 . 545/535 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:7-8. 3138 3114 3297/1 3023/1 5484 3500/101 53311100 3352/100 3536/100 2619 5034-6 Locus 833 824 874 802 1983 1321 1941 887 1321 737 1915 Stratum El E1 Descrip. 112. E2blE3 Pink (5 YR7/4) lightly micaceous clay.3 em. reddish-brown (5YR 4/4)/ dark grey (7.5YR 6/4) clay. Fig. Cat. Decoration: Black paint. 5. 21).92: BIRD BOWLS AND IONIAN CUPS No. Hayes' Type VIII-IX. H. Outside and inside: Solid.93:2 5.5/1) paint.
93:5 5. Inside: Solid except for a Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Heraion of Sam os it occurs first in Phase III (ca. Discussion: See No. III/I. 6. reddish-brown (5YR 4/4)/ dark grey (7. 2.5YR 4/1) shiny paint.93:6) Mouth and wall fragment. 570/550 BCE (Furtwangler foundation of the North Building of ca. This type apparently lasted from the second half of the 7th to the early 6th century BCE.6.93:1 5. No. TJ:'I!. 112.5YR 6/4) clay. Reg. E2a Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay. 8.600 BCE.5YR 2. very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) paint. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. H. Nos. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. PI. 5. reddish-brown (2. Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. 3536/100. 19. PI. dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) paint. (Figs.FIGURE 5.e Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Dorian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Reg. Examples (1955:15-18. levelling of ca. PI. 'Ionian cup' (Fig. H.5/1) paint. 3. Hanfmann's Type IV. in the second and Kienast 1989:5-7.93:3 5. 9. 126:Fig. Reg. 545/535 BCE (Furtwangler ca.92:8) Shoulder fragment. 5. Outside: Bands on rim and at handle level. Stratum E2a.5YR 3/1) paint. 33521100. Ionian cup Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. Type 5 and Boldrini's Type II11 with glazed exterior except the rim and a band at handle level. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler Examples of this type were unearthed also in the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building of and Kienast 1989:4-5. II11. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos which ends 227 . 12-13 PI. III/8-9. No. Outside and inside: Solid. 610-590/80 BCE) and was also found in Phase IV (a late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler ca. (mouth) = 17. D.3 ern. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay.115 Cat. Fig. 1980:165. El Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. = 2. Cat. Stratum El. Locus 1321. Cat.92: BIRD BOWLS AND IONIAN CUPS No. III). Decoration: Black paint. 18). 4. 125. 3138 3114 3297/1 3023/1 5484 3500/101 53311100 3352/100 3536/100 2619 5034-6 Locus 833 824 874 802 1983 1321 1941 887 1321 737 1915 Stratum El El Description See Fig. No. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) paint. Hayes' century BCE. Locus 887. No.92:9. 121 :Fig. 5. 7. 1/3-4. 21). 10. 213-214:Nos. 19. 111 Fig. reddish-brown (2. Cat. Hayes' Type VIII-IX. 23) and in the and Kienast 1989:7-8. E2a Very pale brown (10YR 7/3)/grey (10YR 6/i) clay. 12. black (1OYR 2/1) shiny paint.93:4 11. 1. yellowish-red (5YR 5/8)/black (5YR 2.93:6 and Kienast 1989:4-5. 117. Type: Villard and Vallet's Furtwangler's Type A21B 2.5YR 3/1) paint. No. Ionian cup.5/1) paint. 5. 8. 25. 120.93:2 5. E2blE3 Pink (5 YR7/4) lightly micaceous clay. black (IOYR 2/1) paint. 28). 5. 11 PI. 7. Ploug's Group 5. Decoration: Glossy black paint. 29) date is 640/30 from Ephesos are dated to the (1966:112) late 7th second half of the 7th century BCE (Kerschner 1997:111. 111 Fig. 21). dark greyish-brown (IOYR 3/2) paint. ern. 11. El Light brown (7.2 band just below the mouth. 5. Cat. No. Date: Vallet and Villard's . black (7. Surface Very pale brown (IOYR 7/4) clay. = 4. No. Cat. 610 BCE (Kerschner 1997:182).
92:7.92:3.94:6. 13) Fig.95:16. 8) Fig.94:8.92:9. 1) Fig.92:2. 10) Fig.94:5.94:7. 5. 5.94:1. 5. 9) Fig. 5.92:1. 5. 2) Fig. 5. 5.94:12.93: Bird bowls and Ionian cups. 5. 5. 5. 7) Fig.2 3 4 5 II 14 11 12 Fig. 5. 3) Fig. 11) Fig. 5. 14) Fig.92:4. 228 .95:10. 6) Fig. 5. 5. 4) Fig. 5) Fig. 5. 12) Fig.
H.92:11) Foot fragment. = 1. H.94:1. 11. No. Ionian cup (Fig.5YR 5/4). with low foot.3502/101.289) has suggested a date from the end of the 7th to the first half of the 6th century BCE. Inside: solid black. Outside and inside bowl: solid. 620-580 BCE (1955:29).C. Decoration: Very dark brown paint. starting around 580 BCE. D = 6 em. Furtwangler's Type 6. two red lines below the mouth. 13. Locus 737. Inside: solid black. No. except rim and shoulder. Locus 1941. No. glazed with two red lines framed by white lines painted on the glaze on the inside of the rim and the lower part of the bowl. No.(10YR 3/2). foot unpainted. = 2. wall. Reg. Ionian cup (Fig. 5. At Tell Sukas.1199). 610 to 550 BCE. = 2. Reg. PI. Locus 1971. 5. handle and foot. 1963:285-287. Locus 1308. foot unpainted. Hayes Type V. red (lOR 4/4) and white (lOR 8/1) paint. black (10YR 2/1).3 cm. D of mouth = 11 ern. Reg. Decoration: Glossy black paint. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. Outside and inside: solid.4 cm. Outside: three horizontal brown lines. Date: This type is dated by Villard and Vallet to ca. 29) has been considered too restricted. = 5 em. sometimes a band below handle level and glazed foot. Furtwangler 1980: 164-166. H. Surface D. Outside and inside bowl: solid.7 ern. 12. 120. 5034-6. it occurred in Deposit II of Level 8 (Hayes 1966:1i2. Decoration: Design in brown (7. H. Decoration: Black and red paint. 229 . Type: Villard and Vallet's Type B 1. Thus the type is to be dated from after ca. Stratum E2a. 7. Type: cf. Handles: solid black.4 ern.a group of almost completely preserved cups of this type have a reserved tondo on the base of the interior which is a 6th century feature. Stratum E2a. No. 2619. 5.93:7) 15 fragments of rim. Foot: black with one red line on base. 9. Sounding between Strata E2b and E3. 10. 5389-3. H. Locus 1915. three red lines on the lower part of the wall. 1197. Type: Same as No. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. Parallels: At Tocra. Boldrini 1994: 149-150. (reconstructed) = 5 ern.9. Reg. 620-600 BCE for this type proposed by Villard and Vallet (1955: 18-19. Ionian cup (Figs. Cat. Nos. and Boldrini's Type Ill/I. which ended ca. Decoration: Very dark greyish-brown paint.Date: The date of ca.E (Hayes 1966:9). = 1. Outside: black bands covering the mouth plus the upper part of the wall and the foot. especially in regard to its end. 5. Hayes (1966:113) and Ploug (1973:29-30) date this type to the first half of the 6th century BCE. 5345/100.92:10) Foot fragment. Stratum E2a. Hanfmann's Type II. Ploug's Group 9. Reg. 565 B. unglazed exterior. Hanfmann (1956:170-173.
\ ". 2 3 /. .. --' \ ' \\ ) I I \_---- .-- / <. <...~. I'..:> J I ~~\ \ \ 8 I \ 9 6 F' 9. 5..... 1 230 .94: Ionian cups. <.~--- . .. / \ \ ...
149.5YR 7/4) micaceous clay. No. red (lOR 4/4) and white (lOR 8/1) paint. 14. 610 to 570/60 BCE. white (10YR 8/1) slip.5YR 2. white (IOYR 8/1) slip. 6. Parallels: In the South Temenos in the Heraion on Samos.5YR 2.8 ern. reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) .W2/29. No. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment.5YR 2. Reg. Date: The type apparently was in existence from after ca. 560 BCE (Isler 1978:93-94. 560 BCE (Isler 1978:93-94. 150 Fig. 213-214.5/1) paint. 3.5/1) paint. Ionian cup (Fig 5. 47. H. Fig. black (10YR 2/1)/red (lOR 4/6) paint. No. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) clay. Core red (2. 54141100. yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) .5YR 5/6). Stratum E2a. black (7. = 4.5YR 8/1) paint. Beil. 223. Pink (7. = 1.94:2) 17 fragments of wall. The mouth was cut away and the base knocked through for reuse (as a funnel?). No. 22). The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos. 610590/80 BCE) and also occurs in Phase IV (the late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165. Cat. 9. Other examples from the Heraion were found in a level dated ca. PI. 33). ending ca. H. III/II-12. glazed with two red lines framed by white lines painted on the glaze on the inside of the rim and the lower part of the bowl.5YR 7/4) clay. 47. D (where mouth is cut away) = 13. black (5YR 2. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) micaceous clay.5YR 2. 223.W2/29. ending ca. foot and 1 handle. 4. Outside: three horizontal brown lines.reddishbrown (5YR 4/4) paint. 220:No. 5. No. Locus 1971. dusky red (lOR 3/4). Cat. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos.93:11 3401/102 890 1916 1318 E2a E2b-E3 E4 5038 Oinochoe? SOS amphora 3470/100 Parallels: In the South Temenos in the Heraion on Samos. 610 BCE.5YR 5/4).FIGURE 5.5YR 5/2) lightly micaceous clay. this type first appears in Phase III (ca. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) micaceous clay. IV/9.93:8 5. white (IOYR 8/1) slip. 10. black (lOYR 2/1). 5345/100 54141100 3571/100 3448/100 3616/100 3590/100 Locus 1941 1963 890 1316 1334 1321 Stratum E2a E2a E2a E3b E2a E2a E2a Description Red (2. very dark brown (7.93:7 5. 33). IV/9. 610 to 570/60 BCE. 5389-3.reddish-black (2. 1. 5. No. edges greyish-brown (2. 610-590/80 BCE) and also occurs in Phase IV (the late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165.213-214. 1. PI. 610 BCE.93:10 5. Locus 1963. Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:77-78) and in well W 2 closed at about the same time (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:74-75. Beil.511). Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:77-78) and in Well W 2 closed at about the same time (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:74-75. red (lOR 4/6) . III/ll12. yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) paint. 7. Stratum E2a. 1. 8. 220:No. black (7. Other examples from the Heraion were found in a level dated ca. Date: The type apparently was in existence from after ca. Reg.93:9 5. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) clay. 2.5/1) paint. 22). Pink (7.5YR 5/6) micaceous clay.5YR 5/4) micaceous clay. brown (7. See Fig.3 ern. white (2. 13. Fig. this type first appears in Phase III (ca.very dark grey (5YR 311) paint.5/2) paint. 150 Fig. Pale red (2. No.5YR4/4) paint. Decoration: Design in brown (7. 231 .94: IONIAN CUPS No. Inside: solid black. 149. Reddish-brown ((5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay.5 em. Type Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Skyphos Jug Oinochoe Oinochoe Oinochoe? Reg.
43:23.4 em. Decoration: Very dark brown paint. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Handle fragment. 'Dorian' cup or skyphos (Fig. 37:4.1. the island of Samos was an important at Miletus and in other workshops 1998:129). 39:8.5YR 2. D. H. Stratum E2a. 3500/101. 'Dorian' cup (Fig. Decoration: Reddish-yellow 18. 32:f 1 and 3. Type: Same type of cup as No. 5. 9. No. = 3. Cook and Dupont cup' (No. Stratum E3b.Decoration: Yellowish-red and dark grey paint. 19) was most probably 232 . 35711100. Type: See No. 16. The 'Dorian as well as the results of petrographic production of southwestern these cups. (Kinch 1914:Pl. cm. Stratum E 2a. Decoration: Black (7. 3448/100.92:6) 27 fragments D (mouth) of mouth. 10. 33). H. Handle: solid on outside. Reg. D. Cook and Dupont 1998:114-115). Solid. Dupont Vroulia-style the handle zone. 3. No. No. band just below = 22 = 12 ern. Locus 1941. (5YR 7/6) clay painted all over in very dark grey (5YR 3/1). = Reg. Outside: and Kerschner striated solid except for a very narrow Decoration: Dark reddish-brown Type: Identified by Schlotzhauer 'Dorian cups' by P. 13 but with thicker walls and handles and are no painted lines on the interior.1 ern. Outside: band on foot and lower part of wall. centre of Asia Minor 1973:28) but does not. D of mouth = 19 em. H.94:3) Rim and wall fragment. Locus 839. but they were also produced produced on Rhodes or Kos. Stratum E2a. 19. DISCUSSION Rhodes has long been considered According analyses (Dupont to the frequency of the clay (Dupont 1983:28. Reg. wall and handles. Locus 1321. 17.5/1) paint. Outside: band covering the mouth and the upper part of the wall. = 3. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Handle fragment. 18 are paralleled 27:2-4. 15. 5.1. Ploug Dupont 1983:28-29). termed examples are those of the so-called in cups of the Vroulia style The short rim not going beyond (1983:29) of which the most beautiful (cf. Reg.2. of finds (Furtwangler 1983:27.5 em. Stratum 1. Inside: unpainted. Locus 1316. 14. 45:32. Locus 890. 5248-2.9 ern. Kinch 1914:167-186. Outside: Horizontal stripe on lower edge of fragment. Pr. Inside: solid. = 0. Rec.94:4) Wall and handle fragment. 11) and other more simply decorated cups from Vroulia on Rhodes (Kinch 1914:Pls. the shoulder and the rigid outline of the conical body of No. No. Decoration: Red and reddish-black paint. paint. 3156.5. 38:6.4.4 em. 5. as belonging to a marginal group of 'Ionian cups'.4). however.1. 18:9. Inside: solid except for a band just below the mouth. Ionian cup (Fig. a major production centre of 'Ionian cups' (Hayes 1980:150-161) 1966: 111-115. Length = 4. offer a consistent tradition (von Graeve 1973174:85. No. = 0. 34-36. two blobs on inside. Length Reg.
1992:259. Parallels: The sanctuary of Hera on Samos (Technau 1929:29). H. 2a-b). Trefoil mouthed oinochoe with triple-coil handle (Figs. On the left. Reg. Type: cf. 5038.M. Stratum E2b-E 3. Oinochoe(?) (Figs. Fig.94:9) Shoulder fragment ofa closed vessel. R. Locus 1334. = 2. Date: The careless execution of the twisted band points to a dating in Middle Wild Goat II.94:5. Decoration: White slip and brown paint. 8. Fig. H. 8. on the right. Stratum E2a. Stratum E2a. Mouth and sides of handle solid black. Decoration: White slip and black painted design.6) and continue into Middle Wild Goat II (Cook. 5. WILD GOAT STYLE OINOCHOAI At Kabri. Type: All these motifs first appear in Middle Wild Goat I (Cook and Dupont 1998:37. Fig. 2a-b). 5.9 cm. oblique lines on surface of handle. Locus 1321. 5. No. No. R. = 12.M.93:8) Shoulder and neck fragment. Stratum E2a. in which the goat became the most frequent species. Locus 1916. Jug (Figs. cross with filling of spherical triangles on rote lIes. Reg. neck and handle fragments.94:7. 3616/100. 1997:109. Reg. Cook and Dupont 1998:32-70).2 em. 5. Locus 890. The old term 'Rhodian' (Cook. Schiering 1957. Miletus (unpublished). 5.94:8. and dominated the decoration of East Greek painted pottery for some three generations (Cook. decorating the main zone of the vessels. Fig.M. part of back and hind leg of a wild goat. Fig. four fragments (Nos.94:6. 5. H. 5. No. 233 . 111-119. No. Oinochoe (Figs.10.6 em. Date: The slightly careless execution of the filling ornaments points to a Middle Wild Goat II date. a rosette of concentric circles and a series of dots following the outermost circle as filling ornament. 24. 5. 3590/1 00. Kardara 1963) is misleading.93:10) Neck fragment. Reg. H. 23. Decoration: Yellowish-red paint.93:11) Body fragment. = 4. R. 8. 1992:259. 21-24) came from 'Wild Goat style' vessels. H. Cook and Dupont 1998:42. = 3. Type: These motifs first appear in Middle Wild Goat I (Cook and Dupont 1998:37. 1933/34:90-91.6) and continue into Middle Wild Goat II (Cook.=9cm.8 ern. Decoration: White slip with horizontal stripes painted in black. POLYCHROME BLACK (SCHWARZBUNT) 20. Oinochoe(?) (Fig. Part of the back of a wild goat with part of a spiral quatrefoil above it.92:9) Mouth. DISCUSSION 'Wild Goat style' is the term used in the English speaking archaeological community for the style which emerged about the middle of the 7th century BCE. 22. 34011102. The name comes from the animal friezes.JUGS. 21. Decoration: Painted solid black with two horizontal red lines and two horizontal white lines on shoulder. RM. twisted band on neck. 5.
600 and 560 BCE as too long a phase for Cook's decadent transitional style. SF 1. Dupont regards the 40 years between ca. Cook and Dupont 1998:61). Schaus 1986:288-289). The end of the Middle Wild Goat II style has been dated by R. 1992:260. Cook and Dupont 1998:33-36). 91). considerable amounts of Middle Wild Goat II style pottery have been found in the sanctuary of Athena at Assesos near Miletus (Lohmann 1995:313-314). since it is no longer found in graves on Rhodes at the time when Middle Corinthian was replacing Early Corinthian (Cook and Dupont 1998:44). Most recently. 1933/34:90-91. R. He argued that the Middle Wild Goat II style. Cook to ca. 1997:112. Whereas relatively much Late Wild Goat Style pottery has been found in North Africa (Naucratis. 560 BCE may have been filled by a decadent variation of the former which lingered on beside the Late Wild Goat style (Cook. the Levant and North Africa come to an end and are replaced by North Ionian Late Wild Goat style ware (Schaus 1986:291. At about the same time.1. lOA) has come to light. Cook and Dupont 1998:5156). 1992:260. he named this supposed decadent transitional style Wild Goat III (Cook. Amyx 1988:428-429) as Payne (1931:57) previously suggested. 1992:262. RM. Middle and Late. Clazomenae and what Dupont calls North Ionian 2 (Dupont 1983:27-29. 1997:112. when ornament and poses became more stereotyped (Cook. Cook and Dupont 1998:34. but clay analyses demonstrate that the island imported the ware (Dupont 1983:28-29. PI. R. although Middle and Late are regional styles and overlap chronologically. 264). Later. 600 BCE for the end of Early Corinthian has been questioned by scholars who put it a little later. Cook and Dupont 1998:89) started ca. is greatly indebted to the Middle Wild Goat II style (Cook. This transition is traditionally dated to about 600 BCE (payne 1931:57). Cook. Petrographic clay analyses and stylistic researches have demonstrated that three or four main production centres of Wild Goat style pottery existed: Miletus. W. 1933/34:60.Middle Wild Goat II) to 610-560 BCE. 1992:255-266). 1997:123. M. The Late Wild Goat Style is an invention of North Ionian schools which diverged from the South Ionian mainstream while Early Corinthian was still flourishing (Cook. Tocra and Cyrene) very little is known in the Levant. 112 Fig. A problem under discussion is the date of the change from the Wild Goat style to the Fikellura style pottery mainly produced at Miletus (Dupont 1986:61. In Israel only a single sherd from Mezad Hasavyahu (Wenning 1989:186.1986:62-64. Moreover. 10.36-44).Rhodes was the place where it was first found in quantity. and that the Fikellura style appeared with are-emergence of the industries at Miletus about 550 BCE. The Wild Goat style has been divided into Early. 34-36. RM.M.M.M. New evidence from Miletus disproves the theories of Cook and Schaus and confirms those of Schiering and Dupont (Schlotzhauer. may have lasted into the first two decades of the 6th century BCE (Dupont 1986:65). The Early Wild Goat style probably did not last very long. exports of Middle Wild Goat II style pottery to the Black Sea coasts. Cook and Dupont 1998:56). ca. but dated the late style of his Camirus Group (comparable to Cook's Early Wild Goat . RM. The Middle Wild Goat style is divided into I and II around 625 BCE. the discussion in Niemeier 1999:404 with n. Cook and Dupont 1998:44). RM. 600 BCE. According to Dupont's petrographic clay analyses the principal Middle Wild Goat II school is Milesian (Dupont 1986:60-64). Cook and Dupont 1998:77-81. The Fikellura style which. 550 BCE. Walter-Karydi 1986:73-80. according to R. the traditional date of ca. RM. Jones 1986:665-671. 67-71. A completely different solution has been proposed by Schaus (1986:289-292) who maintains that almost no fine ware was produced at Miletus in the first half of the 6th century BCE due to economic decline caused by internal civil conflicts (cf. 65-66. from ca. Fig. Chios. Schiering (1957:11) did not see this as a decadent transitional style. personal communication). 590 BCE (Hopper 1949:180. The chronological gap between the supposed end of the Middle Wild Goat II style ca. Fine pottery did exist at Miletus in the first half of the 234 . 600 BCE and the beginning of the Fikellura style ca. Jones 1986:665-666). overlapping and influencing the early stage of Fikellura.P. Schaus (1986:284-288) ca. 8-9 = Naveh 1962. Cook (1933/34:90. 560 BCE and according to G. 650 to 640 BCE (Cook. 1992:260.
Thus at Miletus fine ware pottery production did not stop in the early 6th century BCE but it was not exported. Type: As No. 5. Type: As No. 112-122). 26. = 7. in the northern Levant at Al Mina and in Egypt at Tell Defenneh (Johnston and Jones 1978:104-107. 235 . Shoulder solid. Decoration: Reddish-yellow . Locus 1912. 5. (mouth) 13 ern. Nos. Stratum E2. (mouth) 13 cm. 23. This type of amphora. (mouth) = 14 em. Decoration: Unpainted. 166. H.7 em. 26 Trade amphora (Fig. 5. Locus 1914. Parallels: SOS amphorae have been found outside of Greece at over forty Mediterranean sites. = 7 ern. of mouth = 14 cm. No. Decoration: Unpainted. 3592/4.93:12) Neck and shoulder fragment. Stratum E2a. Locus 1335. Decoration: Unpainted.95:3) Rim fragment. = Reg. Type: Samian amphora of the early type with echinoid rim (Cook and Dupont 1998:164-165. They demonstrate that the Fikellura style directly followed the Wild Goat II style and partly overlapped with it. of rim fragment = 6 em. Reg. 5. Type: This sherd comes from an SOS amphora which gets its name from the varied zig-zag and circle motifs on the neck resembling the Greek letters 'sigma omikron sigma' (Jones 1986:706). Trade amphora (Fig.95:4) Rim fragment. Trade amphora (Fig.6). No. decorated on the outside in good Middle Wild Goat II style and on the inside in Fikellura style. H. 26. = Reg. Trade amphora (Fig.8 ern. has been interpreted as a manifestation of the Athenian export trade in the Mediterranean during the Archaic period. Fig. 27. No. and in the east on the Black Sea at Histria.2 ern. 5. D. mostly in Italy and Sicily but as far west as Spain and Morocco. Date: End of 7th . Reg. 34701100. H.6th century BCE and its decoration was not decadent. Very important are fragments of 'bilingual' cups from Miletus. Type: As No. Date: The SOS amphora was in use from the later 8th to the first half of the 6th century BCE. D. H. Locus 1318. 26. Stratum E2a. 5. H.95:1) Neck and mouth fragment.reddish-brown paint. Decoration: Unpainted. D. TRADE AMPHORAE 25.5 ern. 28. D.94:10. = 6.first half of 6th century BCE. 5. No. SOSAmphora (Figs. Part of '0' of the SOS motif on neck. Jones 1986:708-712).95:2) Two fragments of rim and shoulder. supposedly produced in Athens for the olive oil export market. Stratum E 4. Reg. 29. 5035. = Stratum E2a. Petrographic clay analyses have demonstrated that the majority of the SOS amphorae indeed are of Attic origin but imitations were also made at Chalkis and other places (Johnston and Jones 1978:122-128. 5148-2. shoulder fragment = 15. 1941-179. 5051-1.
::jl n I ( 14 15 "rr 16 13 Fig.95: Amphorae and cooking-pots. 236 . 5. 8 9 W ~ )fJI \ n )lJI \ )(~J \11 c.2 4 5 rj~ 6 7 dl ~.
Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay.93:13 Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. H. No. 5. Decoration: Unpainted. unpainted.7 a). = 3 em. Type: Milesian amphora (cf. Red (2. = 9 em. No. Locus 889. No. No. Decoration: Unpainted.5YR 5/6) highly micaceous clay. 33. 3335110. 34. Red (2.5/1) paint. 5.95:9) Foot and wall fragment. Reg. light brownish-grey (1OYR 6/2) surface. 3309-3. Stratum E2a. Bluish-grey (5PB 5/1) core. No. Reg. 13. 5. = 6 em. 2.95:8) Foot fragment. 6.FIGURE 5. 3. Date: End of 7th .brown (7. II. 12. three grooves on upper part of neck. 505114 1941/179 5148-2 5237-5 3309-3 3123-6 3335/10 3286-5 300112 3095/1 3437/100 3547/100. = 3.5 em. Cook and Dupont 1998:170-174. H. Stratum El. Red (2. Cooking bowl 16. Like No. Blue-grey (5 B 511) clay. 1914 1958 879 823 889 874 Llll Kill 1309 1324 864 866 821 Red (2. Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. 2. Reg. 7.95: AMPHORAE AND COOKING-POTS. Trade amphora (Fig.first half of 6th century BCE. Reg.5YR 5/6) micaceous clay.95:7) Foot fragment. Stratum El H.brown )7. D (neck) = 15 ern. No. Locus 1958. D. D.5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. 3123-6. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/8) clay. Grey (5YR 5/1)core with reddish-yellow (5YR 6/8) surface. D. Stratum El. 3552/100 3222 3228 315113 Locus 1335 1912 Stratum Description E2 E2a E2a E2a E2a El El El El El EI E2a El El E3 El See Fig. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) lightly micaceous clay. TJ!l!. 5. Decoration: Unpainted.95:6) Foot fragment. 23.5 YR 2. Locus 823. 5237-5. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) lightly micaceous clay.5YR 5/6) . Locus 879. D (foot) = 10 ern. One horizontal groove at base of neck. Figs. Like No. 237 . Trade amphora (Fig. Trade amphora (Fig. Decoration: Unpainted. 14. Locus 874.95:5) Neck and shoulder fragment. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) surface. Reg. (foot) = 6 em. H. 9. 31. Stratum El. 32. 2.6 em. = 3. 3286-5. 4. 5. lightly micaceous clay. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) core.5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. Trade amphora (Fig.3 cm. 5. 1. Trade amphora (Fig.e Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. (foot) = 5. 10. 3592-4 5035.93:14 30. shiny black (2. (foot) = 8 em. 5. No. Cooking-pot 15.5YR 5/6) . 8. H. micaceous clay. Amphora 5. Decoration: Unpainted.
=8 cm. Nos. 18. Reg. 493. H =. 66). Locus 864. Figs. 21-22. 5. Trade amphora. Q 10. to those from Ephesos and to two examples from the Greek settlement at Tocra in Libya dated by Hayes to the late 7th/early 6th century BCE and attributed to a possible Cycladic origin (Hayes 1966:135-137. N 18. 3222. = 5.93:13) Rim fragments of imported Greek cooking vessels of coarse highly micaceous clay with rolled out rim. Cat. Fig. 3547/100.8 em. H. 19411178. Nos. Etruscan bucchero (Figs. H.40. 5. 94) and from Ephesos (Kerschner 1997:115. Cooking-pots (Figs. 22:L 45-48. 598). 153154 PI. 130-131. No.7. 116 PI. No. D = ca. Reg.95:15) 2 rim fragments. 36-40. No. 127. H. this is a bowl with an everted rim. Decoration: Unpainted. Reg. Sparkes and Talcott 1970:224-225. R. However. 7-8.038. 155. 5. Locus 1324. 94 No. 18.the Kabri sherd comes either from an oinochoe of Rasmussen's Type 3a. 93. Stratum E1. No. Locus 1309. = 6. H.1922. 36.4 em.5 em. No. 3552/100. 136. Nos. The surface is partially blackened by fire. 3228/1. 145. 5. XII).5 em.203210. 5. Fig. 136. Cat. 20. these rims undoubtedly come from one-handled cooking jugs (chytrai) which have a tradition going back to the Sub-Mycenaean period (Reber 1991:20-56). Type: Although no handles are preserved. Reg. Surface partially blackened by fire. Reg. PI. 91-92.7 ern. 1932. Stratum E 3. Unpainted. 3095-1. D (mouth) = 20 cm. Cooking bowl (Fig. . No. PI. Type: Ware similar to Nos. D (mouth) = 20 ern. 30 cm. Date: Late 7th century BCE 41. Parallels: East Greek examples have been published from the island of Chios (Boardman 1967:145-146. D (mouth) = 19 ern. 29-31) or from an olpe of his Type 1. H. 139. 83.482. PIs. 39. H. Its identification was secured by comparing the piece directly with fragments of Archaic Etruscan bucchero pottery in the collection of the Archaeological Institute of Heidelberg University. COOKING VESSELS 36 . 512 Cat. Cat. Nos. dated between the end of the third quarter of the 7th to the tum of the 7th .35. ( 238 . PI. Surface.95:16. is very like that of the Kabri cooking jars and may indicate a southern Ionian origin. 371. PIs. PI. common in the last quarter of the 7th century and in the first quarter of the 6th century BCE (Rasmussen 1979:78-79. 75. No. (not illustrated) Shoulder fragment.93:14) The Etruscan bucchero sherd was a surprise. Fig. 99. No. PI. KUbler 1970:192. Stratum E1. 40. Locus 866. Stratum E1.95:10-15. Stratum E2a. They are known from different areas in Greece. but their typological sequence can only be followed at Athens with the material from the Agora and the Kerameikos (Young 1939:189-190. The Kabri fragments have a profile similar to that of an example from Chios (Boardman 1967:146 Fig. = 5. According to its profile. 1962:55. D (mouth) = 20 ern. Nos. Nos. Brann 1961a:123124. III. 37. Square Kill. described as "loaded with large flakes of silvery mica". Cat. D (mouth) = 21 cm. the fabric of the latter. 1412-1413. 34371100. 38. 86-91).5 em. 1961b:317. 105). 11.6th centuries BCE or shortly after (Rasmussen 1979:88-89. 597-604. = 6. No. = 4. Reg. They are unpainted. Square Lll1. 300112. 42.
Figs. Figs. Fig.97:1) have been found at Al Mina. Fantalkin 2001:Fig. 5. Nos. PI. Fantalkin 2001:75-79. Ras Ibn Hani (Riis 1982:251-252). 1. fragments of three Bird bowls were found at Tell Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:125. Stager 1996a. XVI.35 Fig. Fig. PIs. PIs. Fig. East Greek trade amphorae (Fig. 10. amphorae Fantalkin 84-85. 131 Nos. 67*). Fig. Boardman 1980:48. Tel Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:126. cf. such 1980:151. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33 with note 79). 9. XIII) and in Israel at Tell Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:151. 5.1-6.Ras Ibn Hani. 6).10. Fig. Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1986: 198. 32. Fig. 6. 2). 120. PI. In general. this vessel type was seldomly exported like examples found at Vroulia in Rhodes (Kinch . XIII). 12) and have been found at. 114-117. 3). Other classes are less known from the Levant. 1978b.32.3-4).4). PI. IX-XI). 16. Tell Tel Malhata (Kochavi 1970:23 (below). Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1978a:57. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:27-28. Fig 9. 7a-b).PIs. No.12). 5.ARCHAIC EAST GREEK AND ETRUSCAN POTTERY IN THE LEVANT in the Levant. 72. 1996b. XX. 32. PI. 22:1. PI. 8 Nos. The reason for the rareness industry. I-III. 11 Nos. 35). Dan (pakman 1992:236 Fig. 6g). PI. Bird bowls (Fig. 251-255. 66*. 13.96:1) were frequent at Al Mina (Robertson Ras el-Bassit mentioned one example has been published (Courbin (Courbin 1940:14. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:29. 18). colour photo. 1993:936). 32:2 and 35:10). 1923:PI. 5. 29. 4).96:2) were unearthed at Al Mina (Robertson 1940:13. Waldbaum and Magness Ashkelon (Stager 1996a. Reich 1989:230 Fig. Sarepta (Koehl 1985:137-138. 14. olive presses of the 7th century be due to the fact that this region had its own olive-oil by the numerous from Kabri is the only Levant may documented 1995:63-69). There are only two examples besides that from Kabri. 4.1-2l 35. Nos. Dor and Ashkelon Mezad Hashavyahu (unpublished. 17. 10. Wild Goat II style (Fig. V:a. Magness 1997:30 with note 56) and Tel Batash (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:30. 49 Fig. 13. Boardman 1980:48). Ashkelon (Pythian-Adams Fig. . 7.31. mentioned by Waldbaum 1994:59) and possibly at (Naveh 1962:106-107. of this type in the southern This is very impressively (Gitin BCE found at Tel Miqne-Ekron Polychrome black jugs (Fig.5. V. for example. 12. XV. 41 PI. 69*. 16. IV:1. Fragments of four Bird bowls were unearthed at Tyre (Coldstream and Bikai 1988:43. 6. Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:43-69. 5. No.1.3. Mezad Hashavyahu Miqne-Ekron (Naveh 1962:106-107. Keisan (Briend and Humbert Tel Batash (Waldbaum (Naveh 1962:104-105. 86). Fig. 7 No. 2. 85. Achzib (Culican 1982:67.97:1) are rare in the Levant.322-323. No. Fig. 1997:32-33.Tel 2001:90-94. Boardman 1978b:41 PI. PI.67*. 1990:508). Akko.Tyre (Coldstream and Bikai 1988:42. Waldbaum and Magness':1997:29-30.1-12. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:30. 32. In Israel. 3). Tell er-Ruqeish (Waldbaumand Fantalkin 2001 :88-87.5:7-8). Fig.(Riis 1982:251-252). Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:27-38). Fig. Fig..3-3. In Israel.387-389. . . Tel (Gitin 1995:65. 34 Fig. 11-12. Mezad Hasavyahu and Magness 1997:33. PI. Iliffe 1932:17. 'Ionian cups' (Fig. No.31 Jemmeh (Illiffe 1932:17. Tel Batash (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:28) and Ashkelon (Stager 1996a:67*. from Al 1980:47-48). . 69*.1-7. SOS amphorae (Fig. 14).1).5. No Bird bowls were found at Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:41). Tell el-ijesi (Risser and Blakely 1989:93.1). 14. . 4. 5. but the fragment example so far known from Israel. Fig. From Most of the classes of Archaic Greek pottery found at Tel Kabri are well distributed Mina in the north to the Negev in the south. Fig. PI.a). following p. 28:7-14). of others at Dan. Fantalkin 2001:89-90.96:4) are known in the northern Levant from Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:72. both from Mezad Hashavyahu 1914:190-191. 239 (Naveh 1962:108-109. Figs. Nos. PI. 10-11.6) and several others have been 1986:198 with note 65).2. 6. Mezad Hashavyahu (Naveh 1962 110-111. 5. Nos. 60.31 Fig.23) and at a number of sites in Israel. pls. Figs.96:3)pottery has been foundat Al Mina (Robertson 1940:8-16.
lELL ER-RUQEISH'i TELL EL-HESI • T • ELL MALHATA Fig. Bottom right) Cooking vessels. 5. 240 . Bottom left) Wild Goat II style. ! TEL DAN ~ • TEL KfABR' TEL KEISAN JELL JEMMEH • l.96: Distribution of East Greek vessels in Israel: Top left) Bird bowls. Top right) Ionian cups.SAREPTA I.
Fragments of one or two cooking-pots have been found at Tel Batash in the Stratum II destruction debris of Area F (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31. It is striking that the Kabri fragment comes from a closed shape.33 Fig. (right) Greek cooking vessels. 63. Fewer have been unearthed on the Greek mainland. 92. 12a-b.34 Fig. Reich 1989:230 Fig. 8-9.1. 5. Gras 1985 :672-674) and a bronze oinochoe of the so-called Rhodian type reportedly found 241 . In this context. 5. in southern France. Fragments of up to 18 Greek cooking-pots have been identified at Mezad Hashavyahu (Naveh 1962:104-105. 11). Greek cooking vessels (Fig. 36). 1978a. Fig. Fig. Fig.TEl KABRI • I ! ~J Fig. Fig. 1986:201. an oinochoe or olpe. Gras 1985:676-679. 58. 60b. the western coast of Asia Minor and in the Levant (see Rasmussen 1979:150-156.7-8. PI. 1977-78.1-2. Fig. since almost all Etruscan bucchero vessels found in the eastern Mediterranean are kantharoi (Rasmussen 1979: 155). Imports of Etruscan bucchero have been found in greater quantities in the western Mediterranean. in Sardinia. 10) and numerous sherds of this ware have been found in the Late Iron Age destruction debris and the earlier construction fill at Ashkelon (Stager 1996a:67*. PI. 2). 12F. Fig.31.7-8. Fantalkin 2001 :86-87. von Hase 1971: 10-12.97:2) of this period are known from only a few Levantine sites.eel' f . Before the find of the Kabri bucchero fragment. PI. 64. 6. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31-32.Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31. Fig.97: Distibution in the Levant of (left) SOS amphorae and polychrome black jugs.202 Fig. von Hase 1989:329. 30. two bronze objects should be mentioned which have been seen as Etruscan imports in the Levant: a belt buckle in the British Museum said to have been found in Syria (Hall 1929/30: 107. all in Israel. the Aegean islands. 1). the only known examples in the Levant were two fragments of kantharoi of Rasmussen's Type 3e from Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1973:27. Figs. 7. 4. on p. PI. in eastern Sicily and at Carthage. Rostovtzeff 1932:331-332.
1995. driven from their homeland by many factors (Bettalli 1995 :26. No texts exist recording the destruction of the fortress at Tel Kabri.at Sidon which was acquired by the Berlin Museum from a Parisian art dealer (Furtwangler 1888:250 No. n. and Philistia apparently came totally under their control. 10. 3. Jacobsthal 1929:205-206 No. I would agree with Gitin that the most convincing date is 604 BCE. The excavators of Tel Kabri contend that a small contingent of Greek mercenaries in the service of the Kingdom of Tyre was based in the fortress of Stratum E2 (Niemeier 1994. It has been suggested that it was destroyed during the same campaign as Ashkelon (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:37-38). Courbin (1978a:58. to November/December 604 BCE (Wiseman 1956:28. 2002). and M. Unlike the garrison at Mezad Hashavyahu. The excavators of both sites have convincingly attributed these destructions to the Babylonian invasions led by Nebuchadnezzar II. when the Babylonians destroyed Ashkelon. 1996b:58. Since the latest Greek pottery from Kabri cannot be more accurately dated than between the last decade of the 7th century BCE and the first half of the 6th century BCE. Thus neither object comes from a secure context. In all probability it occurred during one ofNebuchadnezzar's campaigns along the Phoenician and Philistine coast at the end of the 7th and in the first two decades of the 6th century BCE (Wiseman 1985:21-41. As Gitin (1998:276. According to the Babylonian Chronicle in the British Museum.. in 60110BCE or even after 595 BCE when the chronicle ends (Na'aman 1992:43-44). Stager 1996a:72* with note 1. The nature of the Greek presence in the Levant has been thoroughly discussed elsewhere (Neimeier 2001). these were single members of the elite. The implication is that the Philistines no longer posed a threat to Babylon at that time. The date of the fall of Tel Miqne (Ekron) is not as assured. PIs. A 23). but without a representative from Philistia. Thus the date of Ekron's destruction by the Babylonians falls most likely in the ten year-span of 604-595 BCE. it is impossible to establish during which of these campaigns the Phoenician fortress of Stratum E2 in Area of Tel Kabri was destroyed.1 and 4. 2) has recently argued. Moreover. Gitin 1997:98-99). the map Stager 1996b:58). 108-109). the Berlin jug is most probably of east Greek manufacture (Jacobsthal 1929:210. one year later.1-2) and identified as an Etruscan import by Gras (1985:676). i. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:37). 68-69. caption) thinks that the two Ras el-Bassit kantharoi were brought by east Greek intermediaries. in 603 BCE (Malamat 1979:208. THE DESTRUCTION OF THE FORTRESS OF STRATUM E2 Like the Phoenician pottery (Chapter 5:1V). the imported Greek pottery of Stratum E2a also shows close relationships to the assemblage from the destruction levels at the end of the Iron II phase at Ashkelon and Tel Miqne (Ekron) (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:27-33). it is improbable that the Babylonian destruction of Ekron happened after 595 BCE since. according to the text of Jeremiah 27 dated to 594 BCE describing a meeting in Jerusalem at which a rebellion against Babylon is planned. cf. Frey 1963:23.4. 77 with note 3. the conquest of Ashkelon is dated to the month of Kislev in the first year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II. The few Etruscan objects from the Levant certainly do not provide evidence for direct Etruscan trade with the Near East. Shefton 1979:68 No. Rostovtzeff (1932:332) has suggested that the belt buckle from Syria probably was brought by an Etruscan slave or associate of a Phoenician merchant.e. 242 .
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