TEL KABRI

THE 1986-1993 EXCAVATION SEASONS
AHARON KEMPINSKI

Contributions by N. Angel-Zohar, R. Y. Bankirer, A. Cohen-Weinberger, P. Comale, C. Dauphin, M.Faerman, M. Fischer, L. Gershuny, S. Givon, Y. Goren, A. Horowitz, H. M. Khalaily, L. Kolska Horwitz, Z. Koren, G. Lehmann, O. Lemau, N. Liphschitz, O. Marder, H. Mienis, Y. Mizrachy, A. Nebel, B. Niemeier, W.-D. Niemeier, R. Oren, T. Oman, M. W. Prausnitz, A. Princivalle, P. Rosano, N. Scheftelowitz, S. Shalev, P. Smith, M. Tagliapietra, T. Tsuk, U. Yalcin. .

EDITED BY

NA' AMA SCHEFTELOWITZ AND RONIT OREN

EMERY AND CLAIRE YASS PUBLICATIONS IN ARCHAEOLOGY TEL AVIV 2002

IV. AREAE
Gunnar Lehmann

Area E lies on a small rectangular artificial hill measuring 100 x 150 m in the southwestern corner of the large Middle Bronze Age mound of Tel Kabri and rising some 12 m over it (Fig. 4.81). Until 1948 a small village called et-Tell occupied this area. The rich spring of <A a1-Fuwarah and the reservoir of <Ein Shefa' in (Birket Mefshukh) (Conder and Kitchener 1881:156, 158) lie to its northeast (Chapter 3). Excavation concentrated on the northwestern corner of the hill. The investigation, begun in 1986 under the supervision of Lilly Gershuny, was continued in 1989, 1990 and 1992 by Helena Pastor Borgonon. In 1993 this author supervised the excavations in Area E. Preliminary reports on the stratigraphy and finds for these seasons were published by the Kabri Expedition between 1990-1994 (Gershuny 1987; Kempinski 1987, 1991; Naveh and Kempinski 1991; Niemeier 1990, 1994; Pastor Borgonon 1990, 1991; Lehmann 1993).

Fig. 4.81: The mound of et-Tell showing the excavations in Area E.

Four main strata were discerned.
Stratum E1 E2 E3 E4 Date 19th century CE- 1948 Hellenistic period Iron Age" Iron Age" Iron Age" Description and Interpretation Village Some pottery finds from disturbed tombs Fortress Fortress Floors and debris

73

EARL Y BRONZE AGE
Pottery from this period was mixed into almost all lower Iron Age loci providing abundant evidence for occupation here at that time. However, no Early Bronze Age structures or layers were excavated.

MIDDLE AND LATE BRONZE AGE
These periods are represented by isolated sherds found in the debris below the lowest floors.

IRON AGE
The earliest Iron Age levels are debris layers (Locus 871) that were identified in a very limited sounding under Floor 870 of Stratum E4 (Fig. 4.82). There is no floor connected with this debris. STRATUME4 Remains of Stratum E4 appeared only in a sounding under Floor 866 of Stratum E3 in Square L 11.1 A plaster floor (870) at 55.00-55.10 m was discerned but its relationship to the casemate walls was not clear. However, the underlying locus (871) is already under the casemate walls and it seems probable that Stratum E4 predates the construction of the fortress. No other evidence of this stage was found, perhaps because excavation did not continue below Stratum 3 anywhere else. Pre-8th century BCE pottery (Figs. 5J50, 5.70) is associated with this stratum. STRATUME3 The structural piers remains of Stratum E3 are those of a fortress with casemate l312/816, l3111l344) are massive constructions, walls (858, fieldstone fills. Partition 878, 87~, 882, walls (Fig. 4.83, 4.84). The 1.60 m wide, built with ashlar l332) form a number of '
871

N
59.00

L11

s

Fig. 4.82: Schematic north-south section through Square Lll.

casemate walls (l343/863, and undressed compartments.

Casemate walls W816 and Wl311

of Stratum 3 are clearly cut in Square M9 by W131 0 of division (Fig. 4.85). only in Square

Stratum 2 (see below) providing us with a distinct stratigraphic LII at 55.90 m. Thus the earliest phase (E3c) is evident

Stratum E3 had at least three phases of floors (Fig. 4.85). Floor 866 was excavated is represented by floors at a level of about 57.00-15 by later building Metal fittings, activity m in the casemate rooms

only in one small room. The next phase (3b) 848, 876 and 883 in Almost (Locus all 873)

Squares Ll1, K-LlI2 was badly disturbed baskets century B.C.E.

and K13. The final phase (3a) at about 57.70 m (Loci 812, 813, 837, 1313, 1314) and the finds on and above them are mixed. Ottoman sherds together for a door, were found in the debris 3b and 3a contain probably with distinctive 8th-7th

of floor loci from phases pottery.

above the 3b floor 876. 1 Unfortunatelythe locusnumberwas not changedin 1990 so thatthe fmds from underthe floor are also numbered L. 866. It is howeverpossibleto isolatethe basketsL. 866 thatcontainedmaterialfrom StratumE4. 74

. I I I I I ...I~ It.J 75 .

N t M N t M 10 N t M 10 Fig. 4. E3b (centre) and E3c (bottom).84: Schematicplans of Strata E3a (top). 76 .

77 . Fig. 4. 4.Fig.85: Square M9.89). W1310 of Stratum E2 (on right) cuts W1311/W1312 of Stratum 3 (on left). 4. Room 1977 in foreground. 4. 4.87: Casemate rooms in Squares 0/4-8. STRATUME2 Only the northwestern part of this fortress was excavated (Squares L-Q/4-10) (Figs.86.87. looking south. looking east.86: Looking west over Squares 0-P/7-8. Fig. 4. 4.88.

" z o .._ -1- _L I -I- -I- -i- I -1- N ~ -\- _L I -t~ V1 '+-< 0 ~ ~ e ... . I -j- ~~IM~.f z 0 0 ii: eO 78 . -1- -1- -1- -1- -1- -:--------:-:3t .§ A-..~· ------% -1.. . 00 00 .. o ] .

4.. Str. A Destruction Layer with Restorable Pottery A L :---_ --I I 1 I I . 79 ..89: Schematic plan of Stratum E2 with Sections A-A and B-B.SBm--+ B . E2b N6 + 06 o:"'__~d' P6 B Destruction layer with Restorable Pottery 04 05 06 07 Fig.'I .

Only the northern part of this wall was excavated but as no floor connected with it was found. In Square OP7 a sounding was made under Floor 1987 of fieldstone fill. Two phases of use were discernible in most of them (2a. 5. Other finds on the floor include iron objects. 4. In Square L 10 it disappears in pits which were dug by stone robbers in the Ottoman period when the remains of Stratum E2 were leveled and built over by a village. built with ashlar piers and undressed fieldstone fills (Fig. too remains obscure. This technique has been identified as a Phoenician architectural element (c£ Stem 1992:Fig. Phase E2b A floor of a casemate room of Stratum E2b (Loci 1961. Note ashlar piers. it is not clear to which stratum this wall belongs. While most of the pottery from this sounding has parallels in both Strata E2 and E3. fragments of at least one large pottery basin and a concentration of shells.1992). early mortaria types or transport jars (Fig. The burnt contents of a transport jar were also collected. Although the excavations reached the western slopes of the hill. Since the foundation of W1339 was not excavated. 80 .82:8-10) and represents a typical assemblage of the mid-7th century BeE. 4. its architectural context is unclear. The rich pottery repertoire retrieved comprises restorable types such as jugs. as does the floor. Stratum E2b in order to examine the foundations of W1389 but digging stopped before reaching their base. adjusting to the topography of the mound.1989. Two rows of rooms were excavated between the three walls.91). 4. It may be the eastern continuation of the Stratum E2 casemate system or a reinforcement in Stratum E3 between walls W816 and W1343. 13. and found. 2b) represented by distinct floors.As in Stratum 3. Under the lowest surface reached in the sounding (1992). but thick layer of ash immediately north of it. a wall (WI993) was found with a narrow. The outer casemate wall (W1382+WI986) turns northward after running for 25 m east-west. as were several additional rooms south of the innermost casemate wall (W897). The beaten earth floor has an ash layer of up to 10 em on it.60 m wide. Wall W1339 was built exactly between walls W816 and W1343. 1984) was exposed between walls W1331 and W897 in Square 0/5-6 (Fig. 2). Stratum E2. Below this was a further series of surfaces (1988. Fig.90). The structural context of this wall. which may be the remains of a burnt beam. Assyrianizing types) appears only in Stratum E2. Fortunately many floors were still deep enough to survive this leveling.1990. The ash and the restorable pottery from the casemate floor may indicate a destruction layer.90: W1340. the casemate walls are 1. Wall W1339 does not continue further east into Square L 11 but may have been robbed out. looking None of the foundations of the three casemate walls were west.g. 5. The sounding exposed remains ofa wall (WI926) in Square P7. the northwestern corner of the casemate fortification system was not established. About 10-15cm under the floor gravel bedding (Locus 1994) slopes downward from north to south. some of it (e.1991.79:12.

which may have originally covered both rooms. in Square P7. Fig. It was violently destroyed resulting in small finds and large amounts of restorable pottery being left in situ. Only parts of the floor of Room 1987 in Square O-P/7 were exposed during the excavation. The pottery types resemble the types in Stratum E2a. This material is apparently either from a destruction at the end of Stratum E2b or it is a fill to raise the level of Stratum E2b to that of Stratum E2a. 4. Fig. Destruction layer with restorable pottery. Phase 2a The overall plan of this phase is virtually identical to that of its predecessor. possibly with the addition of some pit installations. Since the baulk between P7 and Q7 was not removed. South of Room 1987 is Room 1309. the undisturbed part of the floor is a fragment of a basket handle amphora with an engraved sign (Fig. 81 . There are some indications of destruction of Stratum E2b. In Square Q7 two floors.Room 1969 in Square P6 has a floor at about 59. 1). the debris was apparently leveled immediately after the destruction raising the floor level of Stratum E2a to about 20 em above E2b. 4.55 m which yielded a large number of pottery finds. Among the finds from. 5. Locus 1333 east of W1330 and Locus 1334 to the west of this wall may belong to Stratum E2b. The entire central part of its plaster floor was destroyed by an Ottoman pit. Excavations continued some 20 em under floor 1966 (Locus 1963) until the end of the season interrupted operations. Since the pottery repertoire of Strata E2a and E2b is very similar. Floor 1309 runs up to W1328 and joins floor 1987. it was not established whether these floors are a continuation of floor 1309.92: Room 890.91: Room 1961. such as ash and restorable pottery on the floors. looking east. The floor slopes down southward rather steeply from W897 to W1328/W1949 which was built on it (Kempinski and Niemeier 1994:Fig.86:3).42-59. Pit 1936 was dug down from this floor.

W1340 and W1995.93). W1331 and W1342. 5. A bronze trilobate arrowhead with socket (Fig. it may also be part of the same phase. In Locus 1321. Fig. apparently an aleph (Fig. 4. looking north.94). Also unearthed was an iron spearhead (Fig.New floors were exposed in the casemate rooms.62 m. 4. The floor of Room 890 lay at 58. 8. Fallen stones and broken mudbricks covered the floor of 1948 (Fig.87:2). Oren 1984:28. 1941 and 1948 were identified between walls W1331 and W897 in Square 05-7. many of them basket-handle amphoras from Cyprus. Recovered from the floors of these rooms was a large quantity of restorable transport jars. 4. that of Room 1941 at 58. Finds on its floor comprise late 7th century BCE transport jars. This type of arrowhead is well known from Syria and Palestine from the late 8th through the 4th centuries BeE (see Cleuziou 1977.58 m. Although Locus 1977 in Square 04 on the western edge of the mound between casemate walls W897 and W1331 is much lower than the above-mentioned floors of Stratum E2a. This assortment of pottery and small finds does not rest immediately on the floors but in a layer of debris from 0.00 m thick above them (Locus 1914) in which remains of plaster flooring were also mixed (Fig. One of these had Cypriote letters incised on it (Fig. Floors 890. Other finds from this destruction debris include an Egyptian amulet (Fig. It is therefore possible that material from an upper storey collapsed into the rooms below and that the upper floors were used for storage. 82 .96). In the destruction debris of Square 04 was a body sherd with an incision of a jar (Fig.30-1. 4. It is a type with a long socket and an elaborated rib in the middle of the blade which has many parallels in the late Iron Age (Moorey 1980:64).50-55m (Fig. 4. Moorey 1980:64-66. 8. Fig. was traced in Square N8-9 at 58. 5. 1983).87:1). Peleg et al.93: Destruction debris in Room 1948. Trilobate arrowheads have been connected with Scythians in the 7th century BCE (Cleuziou 1977: I93) but were also later used by the Achaemenid army. 4.95. It was severely disturbed by robber trenches and pits cutting through the loci immediately above it. 10. on which lay a great deal of pottery. They are defined and separated from one another by partition walls W899. a fragment of a pottery vat used for purple dyeing (Chapter 16) and a broken storage jar with an incised Phoenician letter.23). According to the pottery and the small finds. and of Room 1948 at 58. 5.75). this deposit of pottery and small finds was filled into the casemate rooms during the destruction of Stratum E2a (Figs. looking west. 4. a floor.92).5:9) which may have been one of the weapons used during the destruction of the building.53 m.94: Locus 1914. enclosed by W1310.5:8) was found out of context but probably belongs to Stratum E2.

Fig.98). looking east. A complete transport jar was sunk slightly into the floor which was plastered around the opening in order to facilitate pouring liquids into it. 4. east of 1960. is defined by W897. W1329. W1328. complete with threshold and door socket found in situ. Fig.97: Installations in Room 1960. several in situ finds from the destruction of Stratum E2a were recorded. looking east.97). In the northern part of the room. 4. Fig. As in Room 1960.65-70 m (Fig. looking south. The room was entered from the south through a doorway.76:15) in it. Several rooms abutting on the southern side of W897 were excavated. 4. were a few installations. close to wall W897. Although cut by a number of Ottoman pits.69-73 m (Fig.95: Locus 1912. The floor of Room 1960 in Square P6. 4. W1949 and W1950 with a floor at 59. East of this was a stone basin. 5. enclosed by W897. W1950 and W1974. South of this installation was a stone lined pit with an Assyrian bowl (Fig. including complete transport jars and an oven in the northeastern corner of the room. Room 1308. 4. 83 .Fig. was identified at 59.96: Locus 1913. 4. the threshold survived.98: Destruction debris on the floor of Room 1308.

4. but the finds here are mixed and disturbed by later material. Wall W1330 in Squares P-Q17 runs exactly towards the corner ofW1949 which. Material found in Locus 864 below this floor was also mixed. with W1328.52-63 m. LOCUS 855 IN SQUARE III In Square I II a floor (855) was found on the very edge of the hill. W1329. This corridor continued eastward into Square P7 where it may have linked up with a room between W1328.99: Steps of a staircase in Locus 1318. W1341 and W1330 (Loci 1305. Fig. south of which were the remains of an oven. 4. According to the level of both the lowest steps and the pebble floor (59.99).45 m and west ofW1330 at 59.3: 10). This floor is connected to W860. Large rectangular dressed stones found in situ in Square P8 in Room 1318 may have been the first steps of stairs leading into an upper storey (Fig. 5. forms an entrance to Room 1308. This floor was apparently in use with the steps. Unfortunately a pit (Locus 1908 in Square P7) destroyed the northern part of W1330 and there is no evidence of any connection between these two walls.South of Room 1960 there was probably a corridor (Locus 1963) but the area excavated is too small to clarify the plan in this part of the building. Its stratigraphic relationship is uncertain. 84 .94 m). 1309). Parallels to pottery finds would place this locus in either Stratum E2 or E3. This locus was disturbed during the Ottoman period by stone-robbing. Unfortunately this area was so disturbed by Ottoman pits that there were almost no traces of Stratum E2a except for finds out of context. On the floor was a thick layer of ash. It may have belonged to Stratum E2. Remains of additional floors were also found in Square Q7 west ofW1330 at 59. this floor connects with adjacent floors of Stratum E2a. Among these finds was the fragment of a pottery vat used for purple dyeing (Chapter 16). On the same level as the first steps are remains of a pebble floor immediately south of the stairs. The room immediately north of these steps may have been part of the staircase. Among the pottery finds from Room 1318 were fragments of a Greek SOS amphora (Fig.

The remains of a fortress in Strata E3 and E2 point to a special function of the site. At Kabri this road was crossed by another route leading from the sea to Upper Galilee. The stratigraphy reflects the historical events in this part of the Tyrian hinterland. Apparently the plain and the hills were newly organized and their agricultural production integrated into the economy of the city-state of Tyre. Kabri was a significant strategic point in the northern Akko plain. where agricultural products from the hill-country might have been collected and stored before being shipped to places such as Akko or Akhziv.STRATUM El Remains ofa village from the Ottoman period were uncovered between 1986 and 1992 in Squares K-MlI013 (living floors) and in Square III (tombs). may have some connections with the campaign ofShalmaneser III in 841 BCE. SUMMARY After being one of the major urban centres in northern Palestine during the Middle Bronze Age. the Akko plain appears as Tyrian territory? In Iron Age II. According to archaeological surveys. Another.apparently restricted to the small hill of et-Tell. Kabri) points to an integration of the area into the Tyrian city-state and its economic system. probably ancient Kabul. many of the small Iron Age I villages were abandoned and new equally small villages were founded in the same hill and mountain areas. Only a few installations. Kloner and Olami 1980. Akko became again the urban centre of an integrated. the importance of Tel Kabri was reduced to a small rural site during the Late Bronze Age . In Assyrian sources. all out of context. The large percentage of Tyrian pottery at these sites (e. 1994. Reallexikon der Assyriologie volume 1(1928)64. but earlier such site and collection point was Horvat Rosh Zayit. a tower like complex of the 10th and 9th centuries BCE at the edge of the Akko plain (Gal and Alexandre 2000). The transition from Stratum 5 to Stratum 4. For Assyrian references to Akko see Parpola 1970: 11. Kabri is situated exactly between the coastal plain with its emphasis on grain production and the hill-country which produced wine and oil. In the lower Ottoman levels there were also some stray finds of Hellenistic pottery (Chapter 5:IV). During Iron Age I the centralized urban system of the kingdom of Akko was replaced by two apparently independent settlement systems: one on the coastal plain using the Late . especially at the end of the 8th and the 7th century BCE. In 1993 Mahmud Hawari excavated Ottoman remains in Square Q8 (Hawari 1994).g. centralized settlement system (Lehmann 2001. around 850 BCE according to the pottery. At the end of Iron Age I and the beginning of Iron Age II the settlement pattern in the Akko plain changed. Ronen and Olami 1983. Stem 1990). 85 . when the Assyrian king reached the Akko plain (Katzenstein 1997: 174-178). but on different locations. The end of Stratum E4 and the beginning of Stratum E3 might reflect political events following the campaigns of Tiglatpileser III in 734 or 733 BCE (Tadmor 1994). Thus. the settlement pattern of the Late Bronze Age collapsed at the end of this phase (Frankel 1986. Lehmann 1995. The territorial transformation of the Akko plain into an Assyrian province may have begun already in 701 BCE under Sennacherib and his campaign 2 Na'aman 1994. Olami 1974). Large amounts of Ottoman pottery were found (mostly out of context) among which were many fragments of Rashayya al-Fukhar painted jugs. cf. Bronze Age sites on a reduced scale and another situated on the hills and the mountain slopes in newlyfounded very small villages (Lehmann 2001). floors and pits were identified. Frankel and Getzov 1997. Kabri was also important for controlling the all-weather route on the slopes leading from Rosh ha-Niqra south to Akko and the Carmel.2001. However. most of the Ottoman village in Squares N-Q14-8 was bulldozed before the excavations in order to reach the Iron Age levels.

Fig.ratumE2b. the succession of the three floors in Stratum E3 may reflect repeated assaults on the small fortress. The casemate system of Kabri may have been incorporated into the settlement as in Beersheba Stratum II where the walls of the houses abut on the casemate walls using them as part of their construction (Herzog 1997:Fig. detailed studies of Phoenician architecture and fortifications in particular are still lacking (Leriche 1992. The revolt that Ashurbanipal suppressed in 644 BCE could be connected to the end of S1.against Tyre (Pritchard 1955:287).100). Cecchini 1995. The political situation in Phoenicia remained unstable and in 677 BCE Esarhaddon conquered Sidon. However. 4. Most of the Assyrianizing pottery found in Kabri dates to Stratum E2 or was found in the sounding in Squares O-P17 under Stratum E2b and may thus have started at the end of Stratum E3. The end of the Stratum E3 fortress probably came during Ashurbanipal's third campaign. The casemate fortifications of Stratum E3 were abandoned and a completely new fortress with new casemate walls was built (Stratum E2). or its colonies in the Western Mediterranean.Esarhaddon and Baal of Tyre. 1985. Some parallel features may be found in Israel. The triple casemate wall system of Stratum E2a probably covered most of Area E (90 x 60 m) and shaped the rectangular form of et-Tell (Fig. the fortress was immediately rebuilt.100: Schematic outline of the Stratum E2 fortress. Lipinski 1992. when he marched against Tyre ca. 660 BCE (Pritchard 1955:300. Little is known about fortresses in Lebanon. Katzenstein 1997:289). The fortress might have been in the hands of rebels and was destroyed by Ashurbanipal. While Assyrian artistic representations and historical texts indicate that the Phoenician centres were fortified. 5. According to the 675174 BCE treaty between. The plan of this large fortress on a mound is quite different from the few fortresses known in Upper and Western Galilee such as those on Mount Adir (Davis et al. 4. Lancel 1995). In particular. Lamprichs 1995:173. the Phoenician homeland. All these events may have had their impact on the stratigraphy of the fortress in Kabri area E. Gal 1993a:453). Akko was apparently not included in the territory of Tyre. probably ancient Kabul (Gal and Alexandre 2000). Whether this pottery reflects Assyrian presence or a local imitation of Assyrian pottery remains uncertain. Mount Meiron (Druks 1964) and at Horvat Rosh Zayit. None of the small fortresses on mountains in Upper Galilee (Frankel 1994:27) have a plan comparable to that at Tel Kabri. It was in the Assyrian interest to control the strategically important site of Kabri.31). The consumers of Assyrian style pottery may have attempted to copy the lifestyle of the predominant power of the Near East. The rectangular plan 86 . Again there was no lasting peace and only a few years after their agreement Esarhaddon laid siege to Baal's Tyre in 671 BCE (Na'aman 1994: 6 and 1995:109).

M. et aI. 87 of Archaeological Excavations in the . does not have casemates to the main fortification evidence now the summary 2001) but the way the rooms are attached the evidence The construction with ashlar piers and fieldstone fills. Bunimovitz. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 44:41-51. A. Small rural forts are best known to draw analogies fortress of Mezad Hashavyahu at Tel Kabri makes 1992). 1996. dissertation. Braun. V. it difficult although this is a small rural fort and not a in the Negev. R. Jerusalem. 567) Paris. 1200-1203. 1977. H. pp. 1978. Yiftahel. 4. La civilisation phenicienne et punique. Leiden. Dan 1. A. A. London. 2) even if not actually by Phoenicians with Cyprus and the presence repertoire in 604 BCE (Stager The pottery from the final levels has many parallels was most probably a result of the campaigns with that from the destruction of Nebuchadnezzar 1996). M. Ben. Excavations and Surveys in Israel 9:92. 1966. eds. and Greenberg. Jerusalem.. 1996. Similar evidence was found at Tel Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:270against Syria laid siege 271).H. VII). 1992. 60-67. 1984. Muhly. In the early Hellenistic the Iron Age architecture andre-using period graves were dug into its ruins. En Shadud: Salvage Excavations at a Farming Community in the Jezreel Valley. M. Les pointes de fleches "scythiques" au Proche et Moyen-Orient.. J. 1881. 1995. when the Babylonians 1997:328). and Stech. Tel Aviv University) Tel Aviv. The contemporary of Fantalkin at Tel Kabri. In: Krings. C. R. S. Israel (British Archaeological Reports International Series 249). Cecchini. 1985. when a village was built here. pp. The Iron Age fortress was never rebuilt. Tel Aviv 19:221-234. Han. D. Early Bronze Age Dwellings and Installations. A Steel Pick from Mount Adir in Palestine. In: Stem. Tell el-Daba V. for close 5. The site was resettled only in the Ottoman period. leveling what remained of the stones of the ancient buildings (Hawaii REFERENCES Amiran. A. D. E. 389-396. 1994). 1994. 1992. Tel. Maddin. R. Vienna. Israel Exploration Journal 34: 191-194. 1983. but the in (see wall for the style (cf. ed. In: Le plateau iranien et l'Asie centrale des origines ala conque islamique.. D. 187-199. The Architecture of Ancient Israel. The Survey of Western Palestine: Vol. the pottery and the historical Akko plain support the assumption contacts Ashkelon that the Iron Age fortress at Tel Kabri was built in a Phoenician from Tyre. Architecture militaire.R. Oxford. 1985. ed. of except for the similarity as at these sites. Conder. In: Katzenstein. Jerusalem. H.is similar to that of the forts at Samaria metropolitan limited size (Meshel resembles building complex area excavated and Tel Jezreel. S. A. 1989/1990.. E. Biran. and Kitchener. Cultural Diversity and Change in the Early Bronze I of Israel and Jordan. Pottery finds provide evidence at Kabri in its final years (Chapter of Greek mercenaries Stem 1992:Fig. Ben-Tor. Jerusalem. Braun. S. E. 1991. Avia'am.. E. Braun. Ben-Tor. civile et domestique partim orient. (Colloques intemationaux du CNRS No. Early Arad I. I: Galilee. Bietak. Cleuziou. Davis. The New Encyclopedia Holy Land Vol. Fassuta.D. Biran. the destruction to Tyre (Katzenstein and Palestine and occurred either as early as 604 BCE or later in 585 BCE. T. Thus. Jerusalem.Tor. The Middle Bronze fortifications in Palestine as a social phenomenon. Biblical Dan. pp. Qashish. pp. Excavations at Horvat <U~a. 1993. <Atiqot 3:1-24 (Hebrew). (Ph.

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78: 2). apparently from the destruction layer of the late 12th or early lIth century BCE (Gilboa 1998:413). 11: 160) and Tyre Stratum 13-14 (Bikai 1978: Pis..66: Iron Age I pottery from Area D. 5. 5.. 5.66:1) and Pilgrim Flasks (Fig. 1980:PI.. 17). 81 :14). 178 . 1980:Pls. 50:CP-I0a).. 5. 5.>.67: 1 and one not illustrated) have parallels from Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et at. where it is identified as 'Sikil pottery' (Stern 1994:Fig. 5. 1980:PI.. ~~~~"&Si """""""~---'- ) 3 5 -l ') I l 2 ) . 70.. 64:1a). 74:3. 3) with matt red bands which have parallels in Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al. 5... 80:1) while another (Fig. 35:6. Identical decoration on a closed vessel like Fig. Although a krater or cooking-pot (Fig.68:1 was found at Dor. 1980:PI. 66:6a). IRON AGE Gunnar Lehmann IRON AGE I Iron Age I pottery was relatively rare and found mixed with pottery from other periods.~. 78:3-4. 5. 5.67:5 characterize the Late Bronze Age/Iron Age I strata (G2D2) at Sarepta (Anderson 1988:PI. . 79:7. 5.. 1980:PI.66:}6) may be compared to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. second vessel from the right). 1980:Pls. Tell Abu Hawam (Balensi 1980:PI. 64:6). 68:6).6Ji*1. Krater with a rolled rim (Fig. 5. Cooking-pots like Figs. 4) resemble vessels from Iron Age I strata at Tell Keisan (Briend et al.67:6 is a lamp similar to some from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. it is very similar to an Iron Age I vessel from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. .... Other kraters (Fig.67:3. -.""""''''_'W<.. 5.~ might be a Middle Bronze Age form.. 65:1-2. 76:4). 66: 15. 39:28). 1980:PI. 5.. 71:1. \ 4 ) -\ \ 7 I 10em. . 47 lower photo. 1980:Pls. out of stratigraphic context. Two bowls (Fig.. The deep krater-Iike bowl with a sharp carination (Fig. Most typical are the Phoenician Monochrome juglets (Fig.... Fig. Another similar vessel was found at Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al. ..67:2) with a knob handle resembles a bowl from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. 37:18. """.68:2. 6 Fig.V..66fr-t5) are typical for Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al.. 1980: PI..

9a-b (Briend et al. m = medium grits (0. FIGURE 5. Stratum Stratum 9c (Briend et al. 5YR7/6. M = mineral temper. 60712089 752/2609 255111 9198/1 607/2077 255112 Locus 607 751 727 1575 607 727 Description cf.6 mm). 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type Bowl Bowl Krater Krater Cooking-pot Lamp Reg. 78:3-4). 1980:66: 15. interior 5YR7/6.66: IRON AGE I POTTERY FROM AREA 02 No.67: Iron Age I pottery from Area D. temper: fm M. Keisan cf. core grey. core grey. 6 Fig. 2a). No. 1980:66:6a). No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Type Juglet Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Cooking-pot Reg. 2 In the tables accompanying the figures temper size is abbreviated as follows: f= fine grits (>0. temper: mg M.2 . and interior 10YR8/3. Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. 17). 9a-b (Briend et al. Keisan with knob cf. interior 2. } 3 f---d 2 -------ill II 4 lOcm. 179 . core 5YR7/6.67: IRON AGE I POTTERY FROM AREA 0 No. 2. 5YR7/4. Colour description follows the Munsell colour charts. 1980:64: la.2 mm). temper: m M. 9c (PI.0.FIGURE 5. interior 5YR7/6.6 mm).5YR6/6. cf.5YR6/6. temper: m M. temper: mg M. 5403/3 5392/4 3304/1 3219/6 5378/2 3433/3 5423/2 Locus 1941 1973 0877 0864 1973 1313 1970 Description Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior 5YR7/6. core grey. 1980:79:7). interior 10YR7/3. 5. Red paint lOR5/6. Keisan Stratum handle. cf. g = gross/coarse grits «0. 1980:65:2).

temper: mg M. Closed vessel. temper: fm M. interior 2. temper: m M. White slip outside and red paint. core grey.5YR7/2.5YR7/2. Exterior 5YR7/6. 9a-b). core 2. bands in black paint.5YR8/4. White slip.68: IRON AGE No. temper: fM.5YR7/2. I I000o pottery from Area E. Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. 26:11. cf. interior lOYR7/3. temper: mg M. 84: 259 (Abu Hawwam Stratum III). interior 10YR7/3. Closed vessel. core 5YR6/6. Cypriote White-Painted. Exterior 2. Early Phoenician Bichrome. Exterior 5YR7/6. interior 7. 1980: PI. temper: mg M. core 2.3 4 5 11 7 o Fig. temper: m M. interior 2. core 10YR7/3. 19411177 3310/2 5402/5 5403/4 3388/8 3585/100 5346/2 3623/2 1 I Juglet 3145/3 0830 12 Transport jar 5443/100 1972 180 . temper: fM. Exterior 5YR6/4.5YR7/2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Jug let Pilgrim flask Pilgrim flask Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Krater or Jug Krater or Jug Jug Reg. Briend et al. black paint. interior 2. Exterior 7.5YR7/6.5YR6/6.68: Iron Age 10cm. core 5YR6/4.5YR7/2. FIGURE 5. bands in black paint. interior 5YR6/6. interior 5YR6/4. Red paint. 47: 3. Exterior and interior 5YR7/6 and white. Red brown paint. Exterior 7. Closed vessel with concentric circles. 5. Gjerstad 1948: Fig. temper: m M. 61: 12 (Keisan Niv. Exterior 10YR8/3. temper: fM.5YR8/4.5YR7/2. White slip outside with red and black bands. Closed vessel with painted concentric circles. 5. cf. Bikai 1978a: PI. black painted wavy line. cf. core 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR6/6. No. White-Painted II. 542617 5392/10 POTTERY FROM AREA E Locus 1941 1973 1941 0876 1968 1941 0888 0890 1970 1338 Description Exterior 2. Cypriote WhitePainted V. temper: fm M. Same type as Fig.5YR7/2. core 2. black paint. interior lOYR8/4.5YR7/2. core greyish. Cypriote White-Painted. black paint.82:8-10. Exterior 2. core lOYR8/4. core 5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/6. Bands in light greenish wash and black paint. Closed vessel with bands and concentric circles. Black paint. Tyre Stratum 10-2.

They are comparable to examples from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Pls. Bikai 1978a:PI. Stratum 11 (ibid. :PI. 19:9-16). 22:595. Sarepta C2-F (Anderson 1988':type SJ-12A) and Tyre Strata 4-14 (Bikai 1978a:45-46 . triangular and sometimes has a slightly bulbous base. 494-496. Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. 29:4). 511. Stratum 7-11 (Briend et at. 458. :PI.69:2-3). Those found in Stratum 4 are Bikai's first sub-type (1978a:26 Fine Ware Plate 2. Many of the vessels of this last phase were complete or restorable. :PI. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 600. 31:12.69:4). Stratum 10-1 (ibid. Stratum 13 (ibid. 16a:18-25. Stratum DI-E (Anderson 1988) and Tyre. 9). Inside and outside are thin bands of black paint.). a simple everted rim and red slip covering the rim inside and the complete vessel outside already occur in Iron Age I. 26: 1-4. 5. 850-750 BCE. 1980:PI. Thus.5). a flat or convex base and reserved red slip decoration (Fig. 48:4). 1980:PI. l1a: 2. 32:10) and Tyre Stratum 4. 49:11). 5. cooking-pots (Fig. (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 4 nos. has a simple almost vertical rim. Stratum 5. 33:2. 181 .70:13-19) and transport jars (Fig. They are similar to bowls from Keisan Stratum 10-11 (Brient et al. 18a:5). ca. This type was in use over a very long span of time and fabric and surface treatment vary in different periods.69:1. Stratum 10-2 (ibid. fragments and almost complete forms making up 4. 53: 10) and Tyre Stratum 6 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Tyre Stratum 6 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Parallels come from Tell Keisan. (Briend et al. 20 em in diameter. 1980:PI. :PI. There were 114 examples. 64: 97) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Stratum 7 (ibid. ca. 50:3. 49: 2). 5. 513). 41 :9). 470. Tell Keisan Stratum 6-7 (Briend et at.69:6 with a carinated shoulder. STRATUM E4 BOWLS The simplest type of bowl in the Phoenician pottery repertoire (Fig.:PI.:PI. the first of which was built in the 9th century BCE (Stratum E4) and the last probably destroyed in 604 BCE. Stratum 12 (ibid. 23 :603). 31: 1. :PI.70:11). Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's Kouklia Horizon. These bowls range in diameter from 18-25 ern. Sarepta Stratum C2-F (Anderson 1988:PI. 18a:4). 1980:PI. Sarepta. 47:type x-15a. 7).3% of all diagnostics.:PI. 81: 15) and Tyre Stratum 17 (Bikai 1978a:PI. x-15c). Stratum Dl (ibid. Stratum 10-13 (Bikai 1978a). the lIth and 8th centuries BCE. Stratum 8-9 (ibid. 5. Transport jars from this context have a simple vertical rim rising from a sloping shoulder. 456. 1980:PI. 5.IRON AGE II During the excavation of Area E (Chapter 4:IV) large amounts of pottery were found in situ in a series of fortresses. 5. One of the most common bowl types found at Kabri has a flaring rim and was variously decorated in different periods.type SJ-9. :PI. 1050-850 BCE. Parallels come from Cyprus ca. Another type (Fig. Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et at. 1987:37-38) which has a relatively short flaring rim. The body is sack-shaped. Stratum 7 (ibid. 18a:16) and are dated to the 9th century BCE. 5.69:1) has a flat base and an almost straight. The parallels connect the finds from below Stratum E4 with 11th-9th century strata at Tell Keisan. 33:12-13). 5). 1980). 6). Among the few diagnostic sherds are various bowls (Figs. Stratum E (ibid. sloping profile ending in a slightly thickened inverted rim. :PI. it covers the period between ca. 3). Of special significance for the study of the Iron Age II in northern Israel is the wide range of vessels found in situ in the 7th century BCE destruction levels (Stratum E2) which represent pottery of this period. A limited sounding below Stratum E4 produced only a small quantity of pottery. Bowls like Fig. 23 :3).

Sarepta E (Anderson 1988:PI. 5. Such jars have been discussed in detail by Gal and Alexandre (2000:44-48) in their publication of the Phoenician fortress of Rosh Zayit. It resembles a jug without slip from Cyprus dated to ca.69:7-14. 2000:310. table 8A. 272). 5:14-17. 14:2-5. cf. Sarepta Stratum B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type B-3A) and Tyre Strata 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. p. KRATERS Only one such vessel was found in Stratum E4 (Fig.69:15 is similar to Fig. 850-750 BCE (Bikai 1987:PI. Their development has been discussed in detail by Bikai (1978a:37-40.69: 18).8) and Megiddo Stratum H-3 = Megiddo IVA (Finkelstein et al. 69: 141-142). 9:168-169. 52: 8) and Stratum 8 (ibid.70:3) begin in the second half of the 9th century BCE and continue until the second half of the 8th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:types 243. Transport jars with a small triangular rim on a sloping shoulder (Fig. 92:jug 4). PI. Four sub-types can be distinguished at Kabri.25) and Stratum 5 (Bikai 1978a:PI.70:12) occur since the second half of the 9th century BCE in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. PI. 5. table 8A.71:9 of Stratum E3. The handle rises high above the low rim. It can be compared to examples from Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. p. 5.69:5) have an everted rim which is somewhat thicker than the body wall.70:10) was found in Stratum E4 and two more in Stratum E3. Juglets with a squared or thickened everted rim (Fig. 18a:10) date this type to ca. Parallels are found at Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. The first two have squared or thickened everted rims while the rims of the others are mushroom-like. 33:3. The painted decoration of Fig.f. 82:242) and Tyre Stratum 4-9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 5. 175. 34. and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 1960:PI. 10-12). 12: 246. 5. jug type 8.47:8. 5. 1980:Pls. 850-750 BCE. 15:19-20. but the rim is different. Fig. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS One rim fragment of what may be a 'Hippo Jar' (Fig. 190-206) and Tyre Stratum 4-9 (Bikai 1978a:type jug 8. 4b) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990 :PI. 20:8). 177-178). 24:2). 5. 60:1. 55: 9). 265. 1980:PI. 182 . Their diameter is ca. 1987). 17 em. They are dated from the end of the 10th to the first quarter of the 9th century BCE. 23:611). No parallels were found for bowl types Fig. 39. 5.Other carinated bowls (Fig. 74: 179). Sarepta CI-C2 (Anderson 1988:type 13A) and Tyre Stratum 10-1 (Bikai 1978a: PI. 5. PI. 5. a neck ridge and a single handle are typically Phoenician. Small juglets with a ring-base. 93:2 type juglet 2).70:4-5) begin in the middle of the 8th century BCE and continue to the beginning of the 7th century BCE in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Pl.69:16-17 is a large bowl with an incurved rim which is sometimes painted red. 5. Similar bowls come from Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. 268. This is a bichrome painted holemouth krater which resembles those from Rashidiya (Lipinski 1992:PI. Another fragment (Fig. 18a:7). 39). 5. Parallels from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Nos. Fig. Sarepta 01 (Anderson 1988:type OJ-2a). A jug with a high neck and a trefoil rim (Fig. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 31 :15) and Tyre Stratum 2-4 (Bikai 1978a:33-35.70:7) is red-slipped and burnished.6. but may continue somewhat later as at Hazor Stratum VIII (Yadin et al.:PI.70:9) was found out of its original context. Juglets with a short mushroom rim (Fig. 14:383) and another from Tyre Stratum 9 (Bikai 1978a:PI.70:1-2) usually has a small bulge at the base. 5. type 244) in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI.f. JUGLETS AND JUGS A typical juglet of the 8th and 7th centuries BCE (Fig. 43:8). 11.

69:6. One example (Fig.12:5) and Sarepta CI-Dl (Anderson 1988:type CP-IA). occurring first in the 12th century BCE. 35:1. 1980:PI. Above the carination.COOKING-POTS Two main groups of cooking-pot types were distinguished: pots with triangular rims and pots with a ridged or 'modeled' rim. Especially important for dating are the bowls with painted bands (Fig. 17:2. the walls are either concave or sloping inward to the rim (see Gal and Alexandre 2000:40-42). ca. the transport jars (Fig. No parallels were found for a cooking-pot with a triangular rim (Fig. 1980:PI. 6. Sarepta Stratum F (Anderson 1988:PI. These vessels are dated according to stratified comparisons from other sites which are contemporary with Stratum E4 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence at Tel Kabri. One may distinguish between triangular rims with: 1) horizontal rim. 5. Their value for dating pottery assemblages is thus limited. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's 'Salamis Horizon'. 30:3) and Tyre Stratum 2-10 (Bikai 1978a:PI.70:3-5.70:20) has a small edge on the rim immediately under the lip. Cooking-pots with triangular rims are very common in Stratum E4 (Fig. 33. Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 5. Gal and Alexandre 2000:40-42) Comparisons come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4-11 (Briend et al. The distribution of each echoes that of the group as a whole (Hunt 1987: 183). 5. 46:1-2. 750 BCE).70:12-13) and the cooking-pot rims (especially Fig. The examples at Kabri are clearly made of a cooking-pot fabric. Stratum E4 may thus be dated to ca. 5. 183 .4) long pinched. 34:10. This type has many variants. 28: 6). 11). 33:10). 5. 850-750 BCE. horizontal rim and 5) a short pinched rim (Hunt 1987:Fig.3% of Stratum E4 types have exact parallels. 81:8). Thus. 49:9.23:13-15. one in E2 and 2 were unstratified. 5. 6. 950-830 BCE). 9). 52:13.69:2). There are several sub-types of cooking-pots with triangular rims. Stratum E4 also has parallels with pottery from Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990). 5.84:3-4). where 33. Gjerstad 1948 Fig. The body may be deep or shallow and has usually a sharp carination. They can be compared with vessels from TelI Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. 1980:9th century BCE) and Sarepta Stratum C2-Dl (Anderson 1988:ca. The type occurs only once at Kabri. 5. overlapping rim.70:13-19) but continue in Stratum E3 and even into E2 (Figs. 850-750 BCE. 55:1-3. CYPRIOTE IMPORTS White-Painted IV jug (Fig. 5. One example of this type was found in Stratum E4. 3. 27:9. . These sub-types have no chronological or regional significance in the Akko plain during Iron Age I through Iron Age IIC. 18.70:20).70 :21). 77:1-4. They have a wide open body with a rounded base. 63. 5. A somewhat similar vessel was found at Rosh Zayit (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 3) long pinched. SUMMARY Most paraIlels to the pottery assemblage from Kabri Stratum E4 are either found in the Akko plain or at Tyre and Sarepta. Cooking-pot types with flat vertical rims become more frequent in the late 8th and 7th century BCE. 5. 5.73:3-5. 2) overlapping rim. This cooking-pot type had a long life-span. there seems to have been close contacts between Kabri E4 and Tyre Stratum 4-12 (Bikai 1978a:9th century BCE to ca.12:5) where it is thought to be a krater.70:6) (cf. 12:27. Tell Keisan Stratum 6-7 (Briend et al. The pottery figures for this stratum include also some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context (Figs.

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FIGURE 5.69: POTTERY OF STRATUM E4
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Type Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Krater Reg. No. 3251112 325112 3228/2 3251/7 3257/1 5392/9 3257/8 3256/2 325114 3242/1 3253/6 3253/3 3242/2 Locus 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 1973 .0866 0866 0866. 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 1958 0866 0866 Description Exterior 5YR6/6, interior 5YR7/3, core 5YR7/3, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/4, temper: m M, black paint. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core grey, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/2, temper: m M. Exterior 7.5YR8/6, interior 7.5YR8/6, core 7.5YR7/8, temper: fM, red slip lOR5/8. Exterior 7.5YR7/4, interior 7.5YR7/4, core 7.5YR7/4, temper: fM. Exterior 5YR6/8, interior 5YR6/8, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Bichrome? Exterior 2.5YR6/4, interior 2.5YR6/4, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior 10YR8/3, interior 10YR8/3, core greyish, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/6, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M, red paint. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/6, temper: m M, black paint. Exterior 5YR 7/6, interior 5YR 7/6, core 5YR 7/6, temper: fm M, red paint 10R5/6. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: m M, RSB 10R5/6.

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185

FIGURE 5.70: POTTERY OF STRATUM E4 AND FROM UNDERLYING DEBRIS
No. I 2 32 43 5 6 7 8 93 10 Il' 12 13 14 15 16' 17 18 19' 20 21 I 2 3 Type Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Jug Jug Juglet Juglet Jar Transport jar Transport jar Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. No. 3253/2 3232/1 3290/1 3338/8 3380/6 Locus Description 0866 0866 0873 0889 0888 0866 0855 0866 0803 0866 0871 0866 0866 0866 0866 0871 0866 0866 0871 0866 0866 Exterior 10R6/4, interior IOR6/4, core 2. 5YR6/4, temper: fm M Exterior IOR5/6, interior 10R5/6, core 10R5/6, temper: m M white grits. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fine mineral. Exterior, interior and core 7.5YR7/6, temper: fin M, decoration: red slip lOR5/6. Exterior 5YR7/8, interior and core 5YR7/4, temper: fM, decoration: bichrome red and black. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M, decoration: brown paint. Cypriote White-Painted III. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior IOR5/4, core grey, temper: fine mineral. Exterior 2.5YR6/4, interior 2.5YR6/4, core 2.5YR6/4, temper: m M white grits. Remarks: cf. Tyre Stratum V, Bikai 1978: PI. 18a: 10 (jug type 8). Exterior 2.5YR6/6, interior 2.5YR6/6, core grey black, temper: m M. Exterior 7.5YR7/6, interior 7.5YR7/6, core 7.5YR7/2, temper: mg M. Exterior 7.5YR6/4, interior 7.5YR6/4, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior IOR4/4, interior IOR4/4, core 10R4/4, temper: mg M white grits. Exterior 2.5YR4/4, interior 2.5YR4/4, core 2.5YR4/4, temper: mg M: Exterior black, interior black, core black, temper: mg M. Exterior 10R5/3, interior IOR5/3, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR4/1, interior 5YR6/3, core grey black, temper: black & white grits & mica Exterior 5YR5/4, interior 5YR5/4, core 5YR5/4, temper: mg M. Exterior 2.5YR5/4, interior 2.5YR5/4, core 2.5YR5/4, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Exterior 2.5YR5/4, interior 2.5YR5/4, core 2.5YR5/4, temper: mg M.

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323911

Debris under Stratum E4 Stratum E3 Stratum E2

STRATUME3 BOWLS Only one example of a simple bowl with a flaring wall (Fig. 5.71:1) was found at Kabri. This type is very common in Tyre, where it was found in Strata 1-10, being most frequent in Strata 4-6 (Bikai 1978a: 23-24, type plate 8; PIs. 10:4,7; 16a:22-25; 18a:l; 19:9-12; 23:3). A flat plate or bowl (Fig. 5.71 :2; 5.76:4) has a sloping profile and a simple rim. It occurs in Stratum E3a and continues in Strata E2a-E2b. This vessel is very common in late-8th and 7th century BCE contexts on the Phoenician coast at Tyre in Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 1:13), Stratum 8 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 19:10 [similar]), Stratum 9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 19:16 [similar]) and in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. 20:519 [similar]). In Israel it is found at Dan Stratum II (Biran 1994:Fig. 167:1) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 73: 174 [similar]). A sub-type of the bowls with flaring rims (Fig. 5.71:3) which continues in Stratum E2 (Fig. 5.76:12) has a flat or convex base, reserve-slip and incised decoration on the outside of the base. Parallels come from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 3, Nos. 457, 462-469, 493, 510, 514), Sarepta CI-Dl (Anderson 1988:type F-IA), Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 63:76, 79, 81) and Tyre Strata 2-5 (Bikai 1978a:type Fine Ware Plate 2). Two bowl rims (Fig. 5.71 :4) seem to be a local imitation of the Black-on-Red Ic type at Horvat Rosh Zayit Stratum IIa (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 3.88:16, cf Fig. 3.77:14 Stratum IIb). A carinated bowl (Fig. 5.71 :5) has no exact parallel.
186

Ras al-Bassit phase 7 ensemble F (Braemer 1986:No. This sub-type seems to be the older one (Bikai 1987:49-50). 2. 6:16) and Stratum 8 (Lehmann 1996:PI. 393-406. Lehmann 1996:376 form 85). Chapman 1972:Fig.11 :3). 41 :3) and Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 20:1). out of its original context. A parallel was found at Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI.7) were found. JUGLETS AND JUGS A number of Phoenician red slipped jugs with conical necks (Fig. 30: 1) and Stratum 5 (Briend et al. Pis. Rosh Zayit Stratum lIb (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 5. 1.71: 14) is one of the most typical Phoenician fine ware plates of the 8th and early 7th century BCE. The flat bowl or plate Fig.71:8 may be a local imitation of Black. Qasmiya.71:17) has a parallel from Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a: PI. 16a:18-37). 14 no.A deep red slipped bowl (Fig. It is characterized by an incised ridge on the outer edge of the rim and is usually red-slipped. 3. Bikai 1978a:PI. Several bowls (Fig. 5. This type is very frequent at Tyre occurring in Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. lla:19) and Stratum 3 (Bikai 1978a:PI. While several were found out of their original stratigraphic context. 5. 5. Fig. 53 :8). 5. Similar vessels come from Al Mina Stratum 6-7 (Taylor 1959:Fig. 5. 72: 167). They occur between 850-750 BCE in the Cypriote 'Salamis-Horizon' (Bikai 1987:PI. 5. lla:18). The fragment from Kabri was found in Stratum El. 187 . concave neck (for an example see Tyre Stratum 9. cf. With an elongated. 5. 5. Bikai 1987:PI. 1987:4950. At Tyre this type of plate was found in Strata 2-5 (Bikai 1978a:29 fine ware plate 7).on-Red bowls.72:36). Although out of its original stratigraphic context.71: 16) with red and black bands on the shoulder has parallels at Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. 6. 5. 33) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 1980:PI. The parallels date it to ca. 40:9) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI.71: 15 are somewhat similar. 10:23-25. 5. With a slim conical neck that begins in the 8th century BCE (Bikai 1978a:36. 74:182).71:9 is very similar to one from Al Mina Stratum 5 (Lehmann 1996:PI. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et aZ. 16 type 86d/l). typologically this type should belong to Stratum E3 based on parallels from Al Mina Stratum 6-7 (Taylor 1959:Fig. typologically they belong to the assemblage of Stratum E3. 5. 3. but no parallels could be found. but larger. 15-16. 32: 316). 5. 750-680 BCE (Bikai 1978a:29.81 :7-9).71: 13 is very similar but has a red slip. Stratum 5 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 5.121:23) although it is larger and has a different rim. 31-34:Nos. 15: 19-20). There are three sub-types of these jugs of which 13 fragments were found at Kabri. 1980:PI. for further sub-types and references see Lehmann 1996:416-418 types 300-307). 1980:PI.71: 19) resembles an Assyrianizing krater which becomes more common in Stratum E2 (cf. 379. A krater with grooves on the rim (Fig. The rim and profile of Fig.71:6) has almost vertical walls which turn with a carination into the base. The deep carinated bowl or krater (Fig. KRATERS A large bowl or small krater (Fig.72:1-4. The flat plate (Fig. Comparisons date this type to the end of the 8th and the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:383 form 122). 30 :8).71: 11-12) characterized by a rim that is drawn outward were found in strata E3 and E2. 1980:PI. 19:9-16). They are comparable to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. A simple bowl (Fig. Bowl Fig. but typologically seems to belong to Stratum E3. Fig.71:1. With a narrow conical neck (cf. 18a:3) and Strata 8-9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. A similar krater came from Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 3. 391. 17:85c/2).78:16) and Tyre Stratum 3-4 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 6. 375). Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 5.71:7) is similar to Fig. 370. 14:11).

19) and probably belongs to Kabri Stratum E3.72:20) resembles an example from Dor Area A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. 90:296) and Tourabi-Tekke cemetery (ca.72:19) has many parallels in the 8th century BCE. 52:21). Whether such decorated vessels were indeed used for transport jars or had a ceremonial character is not clear. 3. A potter's workshop producing these jars was discovered at Tyre (Bikai 1985a) and two shipwrecks crammed with this type were recently found off the coast of Israel (Ballard. 386-387) and establish contemporaneity between assemblages from Turkey. They have a wide distribution (Lehmann 1996:433-435. 52:24). A decanter fragment (Fig. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 5. 42:4).7). Dor Area A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. 1960:PI.122.72:6) was found on the surface in Area E. The presence of simple cooking-pot lids (Fig. types 383. Gjerstad 1948:Fig.5YR6/8). 1980:PI.6:13). Fig. 5. 2002). 1994:Fig. Gjerstad 1948:Fig. 5.6:6) and Hazor IX (Yadin et al. 5. 1960:Pl. Egypt and the Aegean. 5. also known as 'torpedo jars'.122:3). the Levant. 8th century BCE). There is one example of ajar (Fig. 5. Cyprus.72:11.72:14-17). 12) similar to those from Tell Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. The complete transport jar (Fig. The rim of a storage jar(Fig. 19:2. dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE (Niemeier 1990:xxxv-xxxvi. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS 'Crisp-ware' transport jars (Fig. At least some of these vessels were found in funerary contexts but may have been in secondary use. 5. are the type most frequently found in Phoenician contexts of the late 8th and early 7th centuries BCE.28:16) and two Blackon-Red II(IV) bowls (Fig. sack-shaped transport jar (Fig. 5. one in Stratum El) and one single-strap handle (from Stratum E2a). for example from Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig.Both the single strap and the double-strand handle occur at Kabri (Bikai 1978a:36). 5. They include the rim of a Greek amphora. 45:17).73:9-11) in Stratum E3 is noteworthy. 87:6) date this fragment to the second half of the 8th century BCE.72:9) (cf. 22:3). 750-680 BCE) (Culican 1982:Tf. C.72: 10) (cf. Galilean storage jars (Fig. 1. There was also a small White-Painted III-IV barrel juglet (Fig. The simple. One very similar was found at Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 11:1. 56:1). Stager et al. COOKING-POTS For cooking-pots with triangular rims (Fig. Ras al-Bassit tom be 12 (Courbin 1993:Fig. The fabric is of medium mineral temper and reddish yellow (5YR7/6) with a grey or light red core (2. Comparison with decanters at Hazor Stratum VA (Yadin et al. 3. 188 . all found out of context: one single-strap handle (in Stratum E2a) and four double-strand handles ( There are four double-strand handles (three in Stratum E2a. 8ab). 1960:PI. 5. 1980:Pl. 1. A detailed typology of these jars was recently developed by Ayelet Gilboa (1995: 10-12). Similar vessels have been found at Hazor Stratum IX (Yadin et al. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI.72:18) decorated with black and red painted bands and a treelike motif. GREEK AND CYPRIOTE IMPORTS There are few imports in StratumE3.73:1) was unstratified but has parallels at Tell Kazel Niveau 9-10 (Badre et al. 5.72:21) have many parallels in the 9th and 8th centuries BCE.519. The Cypriote imports include the neck ofa Plain White IV amphora (Fig. 5.73:3-5) and cooking-pots with flat vertical rims in Stratum E3 see the discussion of this type under Stratum E4.

Fig. interior 2. Exterior SYR7/4. core grey.71:6. interior SYR7/6. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. Exterior 7. temper: f111 M. temper: m M. core SYR7/6. interior 2. but particularly at Tyre and Sarepta where exact parallels were found for 30% of the types. interior 2.10 Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Reg_. interior 2.SYRS/4. burnished surface.SYR6/4. temper: mg M. 16. black & red paint (10RS/6).72:10-11). temper: fM. red slip 10RS16b. Exterior SYR7/3. 5. core SYR7/6. temper: m M.SYR6/6. 1980). The pottery figures for this stratum include some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context (Figs. ' Exterior SYR7/4. As in the preceding stratum. temper: mg M. temper: fine mineral. Thus Stratum E3 can be dated between ca. red slip 2.SYR6/6. 5. red paint 10RS/8.SYRS/4. Exterior 2. core grey. temper: fM. 5. temper: mg M. core5YR7/4. core black. temper: mg M. Fig. core 2. 5.SYR7/4.73:3-11). red slip 10R4/6 inside wheel burnished.73:1). Sarepta Stratum CI-C2 (Anderson 1988:8th century BCE) and Tyre Stratum 2-8 (Bikai 1978a:8th century BCE). interior SYR7/4. interior SYR7/3. interior 7. interior SYR7/4. temper: fM. core 7. in particular the PlainWhite IV rim (Fig. core grey-black.SYRS/4. core black. Ras al-Bassit tomb 12 (Courbin 1993 :800-700 BCE). Exterior 2. the transport jars made of Bikai's 'crisp-ware' (Fig.72:14-15. Exterior SYR713. 14-15. ca. Most parallels are found in the Akko plain. core grey-black. 12. 3290/S 337811 Locus 0873 0896 Description Exterior 10YR8/2 white. interior SYR7/6. core grey. interior SYR7/6. temper: fM. 5. These are dated according to stratified parallels from other sites contemporary with Stratum E3 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence at Tel Kabri.SYR6/6. temper: mg M.72:1-2.SYR6/6.4.71: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No. No. TJ!f!_e 1 Bowl 2 Bowl 3 Bowl 4 Bowl S 6 7 8 9 . interior SYR7/4.SYR6/6. Exterior SYR7/6. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990).SYR6/4. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's 'Kition Horizon'. Most important for dating Stratum E3 are the cooking-pots (Fig. black paint. Hazor Stratum VA. 5. core SYR7/4. S386/6 31S411 3474/1 3378/8 3448/1 IS Bowl 16 Krater 17 Krater 18 Krater 19 Krater 32S1111 189 . 750-650 BCE.6-9. Exterior SYR7/6. FIGURE 5. interior 2. this assemblage provides significant evidence for very close contacts with Tyre. Parallels with Stratum E3 were found at Dor Area A phase 9 and Area Cl phase 6 (Gilboa 1995:720-650/630 BCE and 8th century BCE).SYR7/4. S3061100 3474/2 3287/2 1965 1317 0873 0812 l3l3 0876 0861 0873 0896 0873 l3l3 1973 0841 l317 0896 l316 0866 30S3/1 342611 331611 32l3/2 3290/7 3378/3+8 3290/4 3433/2 11 12 13 14 Exterior SYR7/4. 750-680 BCE.SYR7/4. 17) and the Cypriote imports. Exterior 2.SUMMARY The bulk of the pottery found in Stratum E3 is of Phoenician or Tyrian character. Exterior SYR7/4.

190 . t \ Fig.---.~17 2 3 \)-------1 \ \ 4 5 6 7 ~_17 i I " . 7 l 9 10 ~ 12 _7 13 14 15 17 \ I 16 "/------r---~=========~ .71: Pottery of Stratum E3.)-------/ f \ \ \ \ \ \ '- \\ 18 19 r= f 1 10cm.. 5.

" /-l-~' \ \ \ I I ~ :I II I I 2 3 4 5 m / I ..... \- .. 14 H 18 r 17 18 20 19 -EJ 10cm. .... ~" /~~ «I '\1- 8 9 m 7 @)(ff}D 10 12 13 ~:z • 11 I I \ ' \..... _ '... '. I I . I I ~......... ...-.. ..._' _. 5. -9 15 I. ......21 ) f I \ 191 Fig..72: Pottery of Stratum E3..

core grey. core black. white grits. large white grits.5YR8/4 .5YR5/6. core 5YR7/6. core IOR6/4. interior 7. Exterior 7. temper: mg M. 19: 2. temper: fM. temper: mg M. interior 7. interior 5YR6/4. Exterior 7.73: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No. temper: mg M. red slip IOR4/8. core 7. grooves inside. black and red painted geometric design. white grits. Exterior 5YR7/4. red slip 2.5YR4/4. 45: 17.72: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No. Plain White IV. Exterior 5YR4/3. core black. Exterior 2. Exterior 2. interior 5YR6/4. interior 7. temper: mg M.5YR5/4. core 5YR7/6. temper: fm M. core 5YR7/6. core black. Exterior 2. temper: g M. core grey.5YR6/6. interior 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR7/6.5YR3/4 . core 2. temper: fm M. core 7. black & white grits. temper: fM.5YR5/4. core grey. interior 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR7/6. temper: mg M. core grey.5YR8/4. Exterior 2. Exterior 7. Gjerstad 1948: Fig. 14: 5.5YR6/4.FIGURE 5. similar to Gjerstad 1948: Fig. 192 . core 5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/4.5YR7/4. interior 2. temper: mg M black & white grits and mica. interior black. FIGURE 5. red paint IOR5/6. Exterior 7.5YR6/6. core 5YR6/4 black. red slip IOR4/8. temper: mg M. red slip IOR4/8. interior 5YR7/6.5YR7/6. black & white grits. temper: m M. Exterior 5YR7/4. interior IOYR7/4. red slip IOR4/8. temper: fm M. interior 5YR7/6. cf. white grits. temper: mg M. 3309/4 3588/5 3283/5 3157/3 5455/5 3357/5+7 3055/1 3045/2 3215/1 3284/6 5416/10 3208/2 5432/1 5455/2 5215/1 3366/9 3307/1+2 3284/1 5455/1 319612 Locus 0879 1325 0873 0840 1970 0889 0812 0807 0864 0873 1941 0861 1970 1970 1941 0896 0876 0873 1970 0855 Descril?_tion Exterior 5YR7/6.5YR7/4.5YR7/4. white grits. interior 7. red slip IOR5/6. temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6. temper: mg M.5YR5/6.5YR5/4. core grey.5YR7/4. interior 2. Bikai 1978: PI. Exterior 5YR7/6. core 5YR7/6. II 21 3 41 5 6 81 91 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 TJP. 3647/100 339112 331811 3474/4 322112 542311 328811 3230/3 3474/14 3457/9 3296/1 Locus 0890 1302 0881 1317 0861 1970 0873 0864 1317 1317 0873 Descril?_tion Exterior 5YR7/4. Exterior 5YR4/3. 28: 16 (White Painted III-IV). interior 2. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Type Transport j ar Transport j ar Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot lid Cooking-pot lid Cooking-pot lid Reg_. temper: fm M.5YR8/4. Exterior black. cf. interior 5YR7/6. interior 5YR4/3. temper: fM. core 5YR7/4.5YR7/4.5YR4/6.2. temper: m M.5YR5/4. core 7. interior IOR5/4. interior 7. i import import import import j ar jar jar jar jar 19 Transport j ar 20 Storage jar 211 Storage jar Stratum EI Exterior 7. Exterior 7. core grey.e Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jar Cypriote Cypriote Cypriote Cypriote Jug Transport Transport Transport Transport Transp~rt Reg No. temper: fm M. Exterior 2. red slip 2.5YR5/4.5YR7/4.5YR7/4.5YR7/4. interior 2.5YR6/4. interior 2. temper: mg M. Tyre Stratum 4. core black.5YR8/4. black & white grits and mica.5YR5/4.5YR4/4.No.

10cm.o . 5.. /' I n ~ Fig. 10cm . 2 3 ( F I 4 e ... 193 . I 8 I I f 6 .. " I ~ r -4 5 ! \ I I =\ \ ! \ 7 ~ -: I 9 "/' o ...___.73: Pottery of Stratum E3..

SeeBriendetal. Sarepta C1 (Anderson 1988:type X-9A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 1. Maigret 1979). Keisan Stratum 10-11 (Briend et al.76:8) was first identified at Ras al-Bassit and is apparently a typical 7th century BCE form (Braemer 1986:Nos. 1980:PI. differentiated by their rim forms. Sarepta C1-D1 (Anderson 1988:type F-1A). Another sub-type (Fig.STRATUME2 BOWLS There is a remarkable variety of bowl types in Stratum E2. 5. which constitute 3. as are bowls with a carinated or stepped profile inside and outside (Fig.71:3 discussed in Stratum E3. 38:1-12). Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. It has 'been reported from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 5 nos.76:21. 470. 5. Carinated bowls with a simple rim (Fig. A sub-type of the group of bowls with flaring rims (Fig.80. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl. The former have a fine soft orange fabric whereas the clay of the latter is red brittle and coarse. 19:534-536. often red-slipped outside and/or inside. but without slip) and Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a: PI.7% of all diagnostics.76:4) are very common. 38).1:1). 40:12). 5. 1. 194 . 20:531-533. The fabric of this sherd consists mainly of marl and may perhaps originate in northern Israel (Chapter 15:Table 15. 1980:Pl. 5.76: 10-11). The outer surface can often be cut with a knife. where it was assumed that drilled vessels were part of architectural construction (Lehmann 1996:363 form 17. 494-496. 5. Some of these sub-types. 5.76:14 compare a Black-on-Red I(III) bowl at Cyprus (Gjerstad 1948:Fig.77:1-6). 5. called 'Salt and Pepper group' at Tell Abu Hawam. 29:1-8). 15: 13).76:16-17) are typical of the late 8th and 7th century BCE (cf. 5.24. 5. 471-473.76:12) is similar to Fig. 538). Like the bowls with a long overhanging rim. 41: 12 similar. 5.4 Their shape is very similar to Figs. p. have previously been included in the so-called 'Samaria Ware' but should be referred to rather as 'Phoenician Fine Wares' (Bikai 1992:97) or 'Levantine Fine Wares'. fine and soft. 26:16-17) and bowls at Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. Often they have a carination half way up the body.3:24-25).76:5-6). The bowl type with an uneven outer surface (Fig. for example at Arqa 10AB (Thalmann 1978:Fig. 77. Bowls with a long overhanging rim (Fig. It might be dated as early as Late Bronze or Iron Age I and could be intrusive in Stratum E2a (cf.513).1980:168-170. 31. 20-22). For bowl Fig. occur frequently on the Phoenician coast. 5. 63: 75. 5.98 examples.76: 18-19) are of the type found at Sarepta Stratum C1-C2 (Anderson 1988: type F-7C).69:4) displays somewhat thicker walls and the red slip is thin and washy being band-burnished or unburnished. A great many vessels of this class were found in Kabri . 1980: PI.76:20-25. Tyre Stratum 5. 1980 :PI. but the fabric is very different. 81: 15). At Kabri several examples of both types have had a hole drilled in their centre after firing and were apparently in secondary use. Parallels come from I 3 4 For a detailed type study see Briend et al. 5. A number of red-slipped flat bowls and plates all have an accentuated everted rim (Figs.511.76:9) first seen in Stratum E4 (Fig.82-85) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:type Fine Ware Plate 1).76:7) has a particular fabric. 1980:166-168.3 Parallels come from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. The fabric is orange. Tel Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. A similar phenomenon is known from central Syria in the late 8th century BCE. The bowl with an S-shaped profile (Fig. several have either one hole drilled into the centre of the base or several holes all over the bottom. For their occurrence see Lehmann 1996:371-372 form 75b. 46:2) and Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. 5. 5. Deep bowls with bichrome red and black painted decoration inside (Fig. Flat plates or bowls with a sloping profile and a simple rim (Fig. Bikai 1978a: PI.

Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1988:PI. come from and the time range of this type to Strata and the first part of 7th century 1-3 (Bikai 1978a:type the end of the 8th century Cyprus (Bikai 1987: no. 30:8). 5. The plate usually illustration). 28: 12. 69:141-142) and Tyre Stratum 10-2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Sarepta CI-Dl Assyrian-style DEEP BOWLS bowls (Figs. Examples Amathus come from Al Mina (unpublished. tomb 367/51-1 pottery during the 1968Ashmolean British Museum late 8th and the 7th century Museum. 32:3. century 2. 72:164-166). convex base. 5. PI.:Fig. 1980:167 type c. 41:7). include The comparisons burnished and very well finished and has a stepped at. p. 30:11et al. 30:2-4.78:5-8) at.77:7-8) seventy nine such bowls found at Kabri made up 3. 1980:PI. 5.77:11). type plate 4). 5. 15:9 respectively). Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. or partially red-slipped 145b). 1-4 at Tyre.77:14 is a small bowl with an incurving rim.'Plate 3' and 'Plate 4' (Bikai or slightly flat there are exceptions.1 % of all diagnostics. Bikai divides plates like Fig. 41 :3a). 33: 1- They occur at Kabri with different rim forms.77:13 into two types . Dor C2 phase 7 (ibid.77:10) has a cut rim. 1980:166rim and a 10:12-13).77:16) has a carination directly under the rim and was found at Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et Large. 1. 1. 1980:PI. 45. The rim is either horizontal from Tyre define Both examples found at Kabri are 'drooping'. Comparisons which BCE. effect (see Culican 1981). 38: 9-12) and Tyre Stratum 1-3 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 3.77:15) with an incurving rim has a number of parallels in Phoenician sites of the late 8th and 7th centuries BCE such as Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et at. 5. The bowl (Briend et al. The large plain bowl (Fig. 1980:PI. Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 8a:51. 1978a:type fine ware 4) date the type between the second half of the 8th and the 7th century BCE.Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. 38:22) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. creating a bar-handle-like Similar plates were found at Tyre in Strata 3 and 4 (Bikai 1978a:Pls. 1980:PI. The deep bowl with a carinated 5. 9:5-6. 1980:PI. deep bowls with handles assemblage and a carinated shoulder (Fig. 1978:Fig. 39:30). 5. type with a horizontal long rim (Fig.12). Plate 4 is a variant characterized 92/888/3356-2 by a step below the is broken here (no would breaks at this point.78:1) were first recognized by Bikai (1985b) and many have been recorded since 1996:394 type 180). studied in detail by A. 1987:9:10). Al Mina Stratum (Bikai 1987:No.9:6). 30:180/2). Chambon 168). Sarepta Cl (Anderson 1988:PI. and indeed our example or 'drooping'.77:9 has a parallel from Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. are common BCE Phoenician from Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend Gonzalez below. 195 . 52: 8) Tell in the 7th profile (Fig. PI. 10:24-25). 12: 11). Oxford 1954. 5. 435). 42:3. 8a:43. Lehmann 1996:386.9:9-10. They are one of the most typical features of Phoenician BCE. A small plate with a small accentuated band of red slip inside (Fig. 5. 544) Tyre Stratum plate 3 and 4.40:1-7) 1:12. 1995:Fig. 5. was also found at Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. and Tyre Strata 1. vessels nos.form 5 (Briend et al. Fig. 27:4). The Fig. 5. 9:14). 5. 1980:PI. A similar bowl (Fig. 25. 1980:PI. 52:10). 5. 2 and 3 (Bikai 1978a:Pls. 22. 1996:Tf. Parallels from Tell Keisan Stratum 4(Anderson 1988:type F-2A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai are discussed below as a special type.7:8).78: 10) has a paralJel at TelJ Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera The Assyrian-style deep bowl (Fig.76:15. 5-6).77:12) was also found at Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et The first type is always While the rim is usually rim. Tel Qiri Stratum VI (Ben-Tor Sarepta (Pritchard 1988:misc. This type is completely . sometimes has a black band on the rim (Bikai 1978a:28 fine ware plate 4. PI. 1978a:22-23).78:9) is discussed 1990:PI. 1980:PI. 28:5.348/3). 45:4-4a). The red slipped plate (Fig. 5. 8-9) and Yoqne'am Stratum 10 (Ben-Tor et al. GOBLETS AND PEDESTAL BOWLS Presentation (Lehmann stands (Fig. Al Mina Stratum 5 (Lehmann 8 (unpublished. Sarepta (Anderson 12. et al.

JUGLETS AND JUGS A complete small juglet with black-brown bands (Fig. 33:3.6:4-5. Similar juglets were found in Cyprus and labelled as White Painted V (Gjerstad 1948:Fig. The paint has a matt appearance. 37:2-3) and Vroulia Tomb 6 on Rhodes (Kinch 1914:PI. 46:2). Tyre Stratum 2-3 (Bikai 1978a:33-35. 5. type 239).5YR6/6) with a rough surface (Fig. Petrographic analysis of Fig.78:2-3) decorated in reserved red slip with painted black bands are unusual. The vessels have a wide oval body and tall neck (cf. 19).80: 1.70:1-2 in Stratum -E4). 2) decorated with painted bichrome bands in red and black. 43:8). 316). Juglets with a red slip and a wide overhanging mushroom lip (Fig. fabric and decoration were also found at Sarepta Dl 196 . Sapin 1998). but there are also four examples of Persian period mortaria with a high pedestal ring-base (Fig. 5. 5. 4: 16). Other larger jugs (Fig. 5. 5. 279) but most were found in Levantine sites such as Sidon Tomb 1 (Culican 1975:Fig. 5. 5. 298. 5:19-23. 38:6. MORTARIA A large number of mortaria (Fig. Sarepta B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type B-3A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:typejuglet 1). Lehmann 1996:Tf.79:5).79:6-7).80:5.79:5. 36: 1-. 5. Salles 1985a. Large jugs made of smooth yellowish fabric with dark painted lines (Fig.79:1) was found under the floor of Stratum E2.1:2) shows that the fabric of this vessel is typical of Cypriote coastal sites like Amathus or Enkomi. PIs. 3. 50).90:3-4). 5. 312. 5."5. 5. are discussed below. More frequent are goblets (Fig. Some examples were found in Iraq at Assur Tomb 547 (Haller1954) and Nimrud NTS15 (Mallowan 1966:Fig. For comparisons see Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. 1980:Pl. The decoration and fabric are reminiscent of Assyrianizing pottery but the form is uncommon among Mesopotamian shapes as is the fine grit size of the temper. Large jugs and bottles (Fig. Mortaria appear during the 7th century BCE for the first time and continue into the Hellenistic period (cf. 27:169) while the rim fragments are often indistinguishable. At Kabri three sub-types were distinguished on the basis of fabric: 1.78:14 (Chapter 15: Table 15. 5. Similar vessels from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Nos. la). B ikai 1978a:PI. 5.9).78:11-14) with a simple flat base were found at Kabri. 285. 221: 1) and Shiqmona Stratum 9 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. Tyre Stratum 3. 6-7) occur very frequently in 8th and 7th century BCE Phoenician pottery assemblages.79:8-10) can be dated by parallels to between ca. 25-28. These bottles form a distinct group of pottery in terms of fabric. 1980:PI.11. Reddish coarse fabric (lOR5/6) (not illustrated. 5. The Assyrian-style juglets and jugs (Fig.Stands or incense burners (Fig. surface treatment and decoration and are comparable to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 92:jug 5) and Hazor VA (Yadin et al.79:3-4). 2.78:4) which occur in the 7th century BCE all over the Levant (Lehmann 1996:383-384 type 125). Only the base distinguishes the early moratoria from those of the NeoBabylonian and Persian periods (cf Lehmann 1996:Tf. Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:Fig. The decanter (Fig.79:12-l3) and a polished or cut surface come from Strata E2-3. 25:type 159-163 and Tf. 1960: PI. 87:l3. The handle rises above the rim and the body of the vessel is slim and long. Juglets with a small bulge at the base (Fig. 750-680 BCE (Lehmann 1996: type 241 and cf. fabric and surface finish from contemporary decanter types in inland sites but is quite common along the northern Levantine coast. found under the floors of Stratum E2. but see Fig. Brown fabric (2. This juglet may be an Assyrian-style vessel. 5. Fine yellowish smooth (5YR7/6) fabric (Fig. Most examples found at Kabri belong to the early Iron Age type.79:14) differs in form. 6) similar in form.

Some vessels are decorated with a red slip on the rim. 43: 12).80:9) has a cylindrical body and a round base. There are four sub-types: 1) Reddish-yellow fabric (Fig. Anderson 1988:type L-9). This is the most common type of krater in Stratum E2 at Kabri where fragments of 16 such vessels were found. 1980:Pl. 5. KRATERS Kraters with vertical shoulders and a wide lower body (Fig. 5. 1018 (Hunt 1987:Fig. 27:1-3). A holemouth krater with round shoulders and a wide curved profile (Fig. Briend et al. 44:13-15) and Mtarfa tomb (Malta) (Culican 1982:Abb. 1980:Pl. Dan Stratum II (Biran 1994:Fig. Tell Keisan Stratum 4. Briend et al. 5 For further references from Syria and Lebanon see Lehmann 1996:447. 5. 5. The large krater or deep bowl on Fig.82:6) with a fire-arm is discussed below. Lamps of the so-called 'cup-and-saucer type' (Fig. 3) Brown fabric (Fig.80:10. Some 7th century BCE examples come from Achziv Tomb 3 (Culican 1975-76:Fig. pink fabric (Fig. :Pl.5:1~3) and Sarepta B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type SJ-18A). At Sarepta they occur in Strata B-C1 (Anderson 1988:505).80:7) are more typical of inland assemblages and occur at Kabri only in very limited numbers. Assyrian-style kraters (Figs. 4) Cooking-pot fabric which is red with black white grits and a rough surface (Fig. The Assyrian-style lamp (Fig.81 :4) has a flat oval-shaped rim. 13d). The fabric and the streak burnish are identical with fabric and surface finishing of decanter Fig.82:5) existed over a long span of time and may have been used in cultic contexts. Fort Shalmaneser Room T20 (Curtis et at. 32:8-9. Tell Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et al. 5. 6:10). 28:9). 5. Keisan Stratum 5. 287) and Tyre Stratum 3 (Bikai 1978a:P1s. 212).82:3) (cf. 5. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl. 91 :301). 5. 33:4). Briend et al. but has small horizontal loop-handles. Tell Keisan Stratum 5. Type 429. 880. The surface is decorated with bichrome red and black bands. 5. Assyrian-style jug1ets and jugs (Fig.82:1-4) are low in profile with a sharply formed rim and a somewhat flattened base (Anderson 1988:669. 4:10.82:2) (cf.81 :7. the rim is not preserved. 5. 2) Smooth. 5. Bk). Stratum 5 (ibid. No parallels were found for Fig.(Anderson 1988:Pl. Tel Qiri loci 682. Large sack-shaped storage jars (Fig. 5. Often the handle starts immediately at the rim.5 Thus. 5. Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. 1980:Pl. 43: 1) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl. sometimes also extending over the inner parts of the vessel.82: 1) which is sometimes almost white (cf. 6). Sarepta B-C1.81 :10 has a thick rim and is wheel burnished in the interior. 5. 2) often have wide rectangular horizontal rims. Similar vessels were found at Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. 197 . 1993:Fig. 5. Fig. 5.9) are discussed below. Type L-9).80:3-4) are discussed below. 44:5-8). 5.78:9.81:5 is similar. and another version (Fig. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS The tall storage vessel (Fig.81: 1. Jars with a stepped shoulder and vertical body walls (Fig. 49:8). 1980:Pl. 7:5. 1.82:4).81:3 is similar to these.80:8. 5. but has horizontal handles. LAMPS The late Iron Age lamps (Fig.81 :6) has a different type of rim. There is some similarity to Assyrian storage jars from Nimrud. 5. 88:285.11) with their maximum width in the lower part of the vessel have no parallels. 5. 5. Fig. Unfortunately.79:14. 1980:Pl. this type begins during the 8th century and continues into the Persian period. Such lamps appear at Tyre only after Stratum III (Bikai 1978a:Pl.

1980:PI. Sharply carinated shoulders and an S-shaped profile (Fig. The fabric is orange pink. 1:16). 1. 1:14).84:1-2). This type occurs from Carthage to Nimrud (Lehmann 1996:434 type 384). Fifty seven vessels. Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. 225:593. Similar vessels were found at Ashdod-Yam (Raban 1980:Fig. At Kabri they constitute 40% of all transport jars in Stratum E2. There is a regular. 5. 12). 33:6). The handle joints on the shoulder are 21 em apart from each other. However. A significant number of handles of fabric groups 1 and 2 have the same dimensions. 5. 5. On two jars of this type a Phoenician aleph was incised on the shoulder when the clay was still soft (Figs. 5. 26:2-7. Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. Dafanna(Petrie 1888:PI.6 examples (Fig. greenish grey. 5. 5. All in all 160 handles were counted which would point to at least 80 baskethandle amphoras in the limited excavation of Area E. light reddish. pink with black and white grits. 2. It has parallels at Achziv Stratum IV (Zemer 1977:18. 1980:Pls.86:1). Shiqmona Stratum 8 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. Cyprus (Gjerstad 1948:Fig. 5. Salamis (Karageorghis 1974:Pl. light reddish to pink. Type D . The outside is red sometimes with a white self-slip. in the storage rooms (Fig. 1980:Pls. 9). 47:1-2). These jars from Stratum E2 represent the earliest type which is confined to the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:443-445 type 421). 101). 1980:PI. 25:2-3. Similar jars have been reported from Arqa Stratum 9 D (Thalmann 1990:54 n. The fabric is fine to medium with mineral temper and falls into four distinct colour groups: light grey or greenish with black arid brown grits. 11). 8:131). 27:6. The fabric is medium to coarse with mineral temper. 23-24). This is probably the most typical Phoenician transport jar of the late 7th century BCE. 21 types were recorded in Stratum E2. vertical body walls below a shoulder carination and a pointed base (Fig. were recorded from Stratum E2.88a) the majority were confined to 5 main types. 5. The vessel is pink with a grey core.84:1). 33). 'from the sea' (Zemer 1977:No. 5. Slightly sloping shoulders. Type C . a small and a large subtype. many of them completely restorable. Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. Less sharply carinated shoulders than Group 2 (Fig. Basket-handle amphoras (Fig. 5.74: Phoenician aleph incised on jar shoulder. The fabric is of fine to medium mineral temper. 4. 806-807) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 5. 300).82:13-14). 12-14).82:11. Fig.74. 57:23 [Plain White V]).82:8-10). Both Neutron Activation Analysis by Gunneweg and Perlman (1991) as well as petrographic analyses by Yuval Goren (Chapter 15:Table 15. 650 BCE. 5.8-9). No. 700 BCE but Salles (1985b) claims that this early type of basket-handle amphora reached the Akko plain only ca.1:3) came to the same conclusion that this type of vessel was produced in II~_-• 198 .84:2).82:15). light orange or reddish fabric has a fine mineral temper. 26:1. Kamiros (Jacopi 1931:Tav. 3. Humbert (1991) dates the first appearance of this type to ca. Salamis (Karageorghis 1967:97. 27:9) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:Pl. the handle is 17 ern high and its diameter is 5 ern. The yellowish. These dimensions occur on both fabric groups 1 and 2. Similar to group 1 but with much thicker walls (up to 2cm) (Fig. The general shape resembles a bullet. 53) and Ras Shamra-Ugarit (Stucky 1983:Keramik Nr.While there were only some 10 types of transport jars found in Stratum E3. the matrix being fine with a fine to medium mineral temper.24 examples (Fig. Some of Humbert's types (1991) as defined at Tell Keisan were also found at Kabri: Type B-1 example.

l\11\\I~l\Il\lll\fM1*H1I\\I\\\\\f 9 10 14 15 16 17 1~ Fig. 5. With a flat rim and an edge slightly below the lip (Fig. 28 :6). Thus.75. 220:3) and Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et at. and sub-types: has been was found in Stratum E4. 5.Cyprus or the north Syrian coast. A few contemporary E2a is types came from the southern The diversity remarkable. and Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 1988:Type 6.83:9). one edge on the rim immediately It has parallels CP-IA). 5.88b).g. 5. Thus. Several apparently examples in secondary of other types use as storage which vessels may have come as imports were also retrieved to the Kabri area and were (Fig. There are several variations One example 2000:Fig.84:8-9). were found at Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:Fig. 3. 2 in E2b and 12 in E2a. 5. of this sub-type Stratum at Tell Keisan under Stratum E4 (Fig. the type dates to Strata E3 and E2 which 1988:Type CP-IA) is comparable to Sarepta type 4). Sarepta CI-Dl 2.Ware found in seems to be due to the increasingly economic after the end of the 9th century Stratum E3. Comparable vessels. In addition. There were 3 examples in Stratum E3b. The chert composition suggests that Cyprus should be favoured as a place of origin and this is confirmed by the signs either incised on them after firing or in red paint (Figs. I 2:5 [early 9th century BCE to 732 BCE]) With a flat round rim without an edge (Fig. 5. lIIIIIIII111111fM1*H1111IlmlfM1*H111. under the lip (Fig. (Anderson 4 (Briend et at. marked exchange BCE assemblage like that of Stratum wide trade contacts of the so-called and Tyre. 1980 :PI. 5.85:1).5. 199 Stratum CI-Dl (Anderson and Tyre Stratum 9-13 (Bikai 1978a: cooking-pot . in the Mediterranean Crisp. At least some of these signs are in Cypriote Iron Age writing.75: Basket handle with incised Cypriote signs. 5. 3 in E3a. 1980:PI. jars in a late 7th century BCE. Fig. and illustrates COOKING-POTS The majority 1. 46:4).84:2). the type dates to Strata E3 and E2. 5. of transport This variety part of the country (e. Another 25 examples were found out of their original context in Stratum El. all with a rough and uneven bas. 31 examples were found out of their original context in Stratum E 1. by the appearance between the periphery (35%) of cooking-pots in Stratum E2 (Figs.84:7-9.85:1) belong to a Phoenician One example type which already appears With a small discussed in Stratum E4. 2 in E3a. in E2 and 2 were unstratified.e. 2 in E2b and 24 in E2a.70:20).84:7). 5. There was 1 example in Stratum E3b.

81:9 4 2 Lamp 5.78:8 3 Bottle* Jug 5. 5.76. Stratum E2a-E2b UnderE2b Bowl 5. often wash-like slip (usually red 10 R5/6).77:7. Chambon 1980:165-166.84:8. jugs and kraters. 5. 58:351/1. 8). DECORATION Red slip decoration was still popular at the end of the 7th century BCE (Figs. 5. 5. whereas on the Akko plain it continues into the 7th century BCE. However. 5. Cooking-pot lids (Fig. they replaced the triangular-rimmed cooking-pot almost everywhere except on the Akko plain. ASSYRIANIZING POTTERY An interesting feature of the 7th century BCE assemblage of Tel Kabri is the presence of Assyrianizing pottery and imitations of Mesopotamian vessel shapes (Amiran 1969:291. 5. This type does not occur at all at Tyre or Sarepta. Mattingly 1980. 5.79:12-13[?].76:15 Bowl 5.82:6 Total 24 30 *For bottles of this type see cf. The fabric of this class of pottery is almost uniform being mainly reddish yellow (5YR7/6) with some cases of pink (5YR7/4 and 5YR8/3). A few examples each of a variety of cooking-pot types together make up 13.84:5-6) are the commonest type throughout Israel during the Iron Age IIC (Fig. 1980). The forms would seem to be mainly vessels for the consumption of liquids. Among the cooking-pots found in this stratum were some Greek imports (Chapter 5. 5. 5. TABLE 5.77:8 1 2 Deep bowl 5. Although the wash-like appearance of the 7th century BCE red slip is clearly distinguishable from the heavy and thick earlier red slip techniques. 5. Pakman 1992. Jugs and juglets are often decorated with wide horizontal bands of red wash-like paint with black lines added parallel to the red bands. There are no cooking-pots or transport jars in the Assyrianizing style at Kabri. 5. The core is usually greyish but sometimes reddish yellow (5YR7/6) or pink (5YR7/4).Types with a triangular rim (Fig.77:7 5 14 Bowl 5. 58:351/1. Hunt 1987:203. juglets (Fig. probably wine (Stronach 1996).81:7-8 3 3 Krater 5.81 :7-9) and lamps (Fig. 6 For a discussion of cooking-pots with triangular rims see the section on cooking-pots in Stratum E4. bottles of type Lehmann 1996:Tf.82:6). Beginning at the end of the 9th century BCE. Lehmann 1996:Tf. kraters (Fig.5% of the kitchen assemblage of Stratum E2.84:3-4) make up 9% of the cooking-pots. Thus this decoration is some kind of 'Late Bichrome' style. 4). Weippert 1988:647-648. 5. cooking-pots with a ridged or modelled rim were found at many sites during the survey of the Akko hinterland (Lehmann 2001) and here at Kabri they constitute 11% of the kitchen vessels.80:3 5 7 Juglet 5.6 Cooking-pots with a ridged or 'modelled' rim (Fig.1: ASSYRIANIZING TYPES AND THEIR STRATIGRAPHIC CONNECTIONS. The repertoire consists of bowls (Figs.79:3 Krater 5. 5.77). Another feature typical of Kabri cooking-pots is a rough surface on the lower part of the body (Figs. Sometimes there is a black band on the rim of the bowls. 5. 5. Hausleiter and Reiche 1999).85:5). It is usually a reserved slip decoration with a thin. This slip was used most frequently on bowls. 5. Type See Fig. Assyrianizing pottery occurs only in small amounts.79:3).80:3.78:8).89). At other sites in Israel this type is confined to Iron Age I and IIA-B. 200 . jugs (Figs.85:13-15) make up 6. deep bowls (Fig. Gilboa 1996. but also on juglets.7% of the total. despite their apparent absence at Tell Keisan (Briend et at.76:15.VI). this form of decoration is a continuation of the Iron Age traditions in the preceding centuries.

red slip.82:6) are unusual in Israel (Lehmann 1996:T£ 82:430/2 with references to finds in Syria and Lebanon). 1980.5YR5/6. cf. core 5YR7/6. Exterior 10YR7/4. this may also be the case for the coarser Assyrianizing vessels in Kabri. black & white grits. No. the architectural 201 . 3375/7 5324/100 3020/1 3024/3 5426/100 548515 19411190 542511 3386/100 3376/5 3347/1 Exterior. Gjerstad 1948:Fig. red slip 2. temper: fm M. 3447/3 3367/1 3434/100 195515 Locus Description 1315 0892 0890 1955 1970 l321 1927 0890 1970 0801 0802 1941 1984 1941 1971 0890 0892 0889 0889 0864 l308 0869 0849 0890 l334 Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. Tyre Stratum II-III (Bikai 1978:PI.5YR7/6. interior 10YR7/4. interior 5YR8/3. Gilboa 1995). The pottery figures for this stratum include some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context. interior and core 5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/6. Assyrian-style pottery was found in significant quantities in a sounding in Square OP7 (Chapter 4. interior and core 7. red slip lOR5/6. temper: fM. Exterior. Egg-shell thin vessels like those from Tell Jemmeh are missing from the Kabri material which very closely resembles the finds from Tell Keisan and Dor (Briend et al. Most was found either in Stratum E2b or under the floors of that stratum. interior 5YR7/6. temper: fM.5YR5/4. mainly in the Ottoman level (Stratum E 1) whose foundations were dug into the remains of Stratum E2. red paint lOR5/6 Exterior 5YR7/6. Exterior 7. red slip 10R516. temper: mg M. 26:16-17. 11A:2). interior 5YR7/6. red slip lOR516. From a macroscopic point of view. red slip 10R5/6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 l3 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Type Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl BO'.5YR5/4. interior 7. but here on its periphery they are apparently objects of prestige.Lamps with a 'fire-arm' (Fig.76: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. Exterior 10YR7/4. temper: fm M. Black-on-Red I(III) bowl. core grey. core 10YR7/4. Exterior. FIGURE 5. and stratigraphic context of the finds under floor E2b is unclear. temper fM. Exterior 5YR7/6. 'Assyrian bowl'. Exterior. comes from Tell Abu Danna Stratum A4 in northern Syria (Tefnin 1980:15:3). core 5YR6/4: temper: mg M. Exterior 2. 5.2. temper: m M. temper: fM.\lI Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Reg. Exterior 5YR6/4. interior 5YR7/6. 3350/100 3224/2 3502/3 326011 3175/2 3358/102 3616/2+ 12 7 Since this operation was a probe and excavation was halted after reaching the foundations ofWl389. temper: fM. These vessels are dated according to stratified comparisons from other sites. Exterior 5YR7/6. whose fire-arm was also broken off. temper: fM. core 7. white self slip. temper: fm M. 539114 3590/3 5149/4 Exterior lOYR8/2 white.5YR7/6. core 5YR7/3. temper: m M. Chemical and petrographic analyses of Assyrianizing pottery from Tell Jemmeh have shown that this pottery was produced from local clay (Melson and van Beek 1992).7 No Assyrian-style pottery was found in Stratum E3. core 5YR7/6.5YR7/6. temper: mg M. SeE 4. interior and core 5YR7/4.1V). copying the life-style of the centre in Assyria. Analysis of Syrian and Lebanese pottery shows that Mesopotamian shapes went out of use immediately after the destruction of the Assyrian empire (Lehmann 1996:93-94).5YR5/4. An almost identical example. They are contemporary with Stratum E2 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence in Tel Kabri. core 5YR6/6. Thus it can be attributed to the first half of the 7th century BCE. cf. black & red paint lOR5/6. interior 2. interior 5YR6/4. interior and core 5YR7/6. core grey.5YR8/4. core 2.

• Fig.:I 7 ~ 6 4 ~7 C .76: Pottery of Stratum E2.s.) ~ '7 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 16 ~ r7 19 ) 15 ( 17 .d 2• 2 CC_ ~ 5 . 5.. "~ /' ~ 21 22 23 :7 10cm. 202 .

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Fig. 5.77: Pottery of Stratum E2.

203

FIGURE 5.77: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2
No. Type
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS 16 Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl

Reg_.No.
S49113 S012/3 S413/2 3374/1 S28616 327712 S3S9/4 S3911S S419/2 3S33/4 3602/1 3629/1 33S7/1 S472/100 S442/1 3219/S

Locus
1984 1911 1972 1300 1965 0872 1970 1970 1968 1321 1336 1338 0889 1976 1963 0864

Description
Exterior, interior and core SYR7/6, temper: fm M, decoration: black & red paint. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip 2.5YR6/8. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip lORS/6. Exterior and interior SYR7/4, core lORS/6, temper: m M. Hole drilled in the base. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip 10RS/6. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: m M. Exterior SYR7/4, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: m M.

Exterior SYR616, interior SYR616, core SYR616, temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: mg M, red slip 10RS/6. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, burnished. Exterior SYR7/8, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fin M, smoothed outside. Exterior SYR713, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: mg M.

FIGURE 5.78: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2
No. Type
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Mortarium Mortarium Mortarium Mortarium

Reg. No.
S112/100 3SS9/S 3S80/1 3646/101 S188/1 196616 S21111 3446/3 S012/1 19411104 3S7S/I 3S92/3 3S1113 S216/100

Locus Description
1913 1326 1326 0890 1938 1966 1948 131S 1911 1941 1333 133S 1321 1947 Exterior 2.SYRS/6, interior 2.5YRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: mg M white grits. Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior lOYR7/3, interior 2.SYRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: fin M, red slip 10RS/6. SYR7/4, interior SYR7/4, core grey, temper: fm M black grits. SYR6/4, interior SYR6/4, core grey black, temper: fm M. 2.SYRS/6, interior 2.SYRS/6, core grey; temper: m M black & white grits.

Exterior SYR7/4, interior SYR7/4, core SYR7/4, temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/4, interior lOYRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: m M.

Typical Cypriote fabric.

204

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Fig. 5.78: Pottery of Stratum E2

205

rr@ . ... 11 9 10 12 8 13 10cm.. ' .79: Pottery of Stratum E2.... \ 3 4 1IfJ' . 14 Fig... <: i: . I I I I I " ..2 .W 5 " 7 .-_...... 206 . / I~. '\ I r. . 5./ " ~.-...

Exterior IOYR7/3. temper:wg Brown painted band IOR5/4 weak red.5YR6/6. grey to 5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/6. core grey. mg M. temper: fm M. FIGURE 5. core grey. interior and core 7. interior and core 1OYR8/3 white. Exterior 10YR8/3. black lines. Only 1 handle. interior 10YR8/3. core 2.FIGURE 5. interior IOYR7/3. temper: fM.80: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No.5YR6/6.81: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. interior 2. core 5YR7/6. Type Juglet 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Reg. temper: m M. Exterior 2.5YR6/6.outside wheel burnished. cf. core grey.5YR6/6. interior 5YR7/6 . burnished with black brown bands painted outside. wheel burnished.7. temper: fmM. No.5YR7/6. and interior 2. interior and core 2. core grey. red paint. interior 5YR7/4. red slip IOR5/8. core 10R6/6.5YR7/6. core 5YR7/4. interior 5YR7/6.5YR6/6.79: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. black paint. core 5YR7/6. 3618/100 349113 53911100 5238/1 5324/9 536711 5477/5 3279/16 3356/9 526117 3275/6 357211 3269/9 5324/1 5500/200 5330/2 Locus 1338 1308 1970 1956 1970 1967 1976 0872 0888 1956 0872 1326 0869 1970 1984 1967 1941 Descrip_tion Exterior.5YR8/4. Exterior 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR7/6. temper: fm M. Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Jug Jug Jug Decanter 12 13 14 529511+2 FIGURE 5. interior 5YR7/4. Exterior 2. No. 212: 10 (Tomb 14).5YR7/6. temper: grey to 5YR7/6. interior 7. core 7. red slip 10R5/8 with black lines. Exterior. temper: f M. core yellow greenish. temper: grey to 5YR7/6. 207 . temper: m M. burnished. temper: fM. interior 2. black & white grits.5YR8/4. interior 2. 'Assyrian bottle'. core grey.5YR7/6. and interior 5YR7/6. 3353/7 3353/100 5306/1 3297/1 5413/3 5037/100 3293/1 5362/2 5073/100 5287/1 34651100 Locus 0892 0892 1965 0874 1972 1912 0874 1967 1912 1941 0890 Description Exterior 5YR7/4. red slip 10R5/8 with black line on mushroom lip. M. temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR7/6 -7. temper: fm M. inside mg M. interior 10R6/6. temper: grey. temper: fM. burnished. TyPe 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Pot-stand Krater? Deep bowl Reg. Exterior 7. Exterior 10R6/6. Karageorghis 1970: PI. "':!.5YR7/6. black & red paint IOR5/6. core 1OYR8/3. and interior 5YR7/6. red slip 10R5/6. mg M. temper: fM. temper: g M large white grits. interior and core 10YR812 (white). Exterior 7. and interior 5YR7/6. 5013/200 5073/200 53201100 3119/5 3573/1 5209/1 5286/10 3142/4 5416/5 5235/1 Locus 1912 1912 1941 0825 1321 1941 1965 0835 1941 1955 Descrip_tion Exterior and interior 5YR7/6.5YR8/4. temper: fM. Exterior.5YR6/6. temper: fM. temper: m M black & white grits. interior and core 7. Exterior. temper: mg M.5YR6/6. Exterior. Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. red paint 10R5/6. Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Reg No. core 5YR7/6.5YR6/6. Exterior 5YR7/6. temper: m M. Exterior and interior 2.5YR6/6. core core core core core grey. interior 5YR7/6. temper: fm M. black bands. core dark. temper: fig M. temper: m M.

.. • 7 I 9 10 11 o 10cm ._. 5. 8 10cm. .. \ 5 6 r L III '\.-.... .\ 3 \ r I 2 I ..-.80: Pottery of Stratum E2 208 . Fig.

I I " . 5.. T 8 9 -~10 10cm. I I . Fig. 2 • 4 3 5 s 7 ) : =I.81: Pottery of Stratum E2. 209 ..---- I \ \ \ I \ \ \ \ '' I • / I\ \ . .

interior 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TJ:'J!. Cooking-pot fabric. Cypriote import.e Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport jar jar jar jar jar jar jar jar jar Reg.2. red & black paint. temper: mg M. interior and core 5YR7/8 grey.5YR5/4 black.5YR6/6 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 TJ:'J!. interior and core 5YR7/6. core grey black. temper: mg M black & white grits.83: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. Red lamp type with rough surface. 3498/2 349811 527913 5258/3 3554/1 5302/100 35201100 549112 5245/4 548114 5287/2 3640/100 5437/1 524112 5180/2 5297/2 Locus 0890 0890 1963 1959 1321 1941 1941 1984 1941 1980 1941 0890 1968 1941 1914 1941 Description Exterior.10YR7/3.5YR7/6.5YR5/4 black. Exterior.5YR5/4 grey. Pink lamp type with smooth surface. Exterior.82: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. 194117 550011 5447/2 5061/2 5309/200 52991100 53321100 36431100 5192/2 Locus 1941 1984 1963 1913 1941 1941 1941 0890 1941 Description Exterior 10YR6/2 . No. temper: fm M black & white grits. 210 . interior and core 7.e Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Table amphora Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport jar j ar j ar j ar j ar jar jar jar Reg No. temper: fM. interior 10YR6/2. Exterior. temper: fm M white grits.FIGURE 5. temper: fM. interior and core 7. core 2. Exterior 2.2.5YR6/6 .5YR8/2 white.2. FIGURE 5.5YR6/6 .

.~ .---'. . ffi -. 7 • • I I I I \ \ \ \ \ I \ \ \ . 14 12 a 10cm . 211 .. 15 Fig. I I / " I -.'" 2 3 e..82: Pottery of Stratum E2._---'- ----- --- ----' 6 -=~~~~_'~Ocm. I / '... \ \ I I I .. I I . I I .. . \I ' I 4 5 . .I '\V/ / " 8 9 10 11 ~ 13 '1 I ~._____. . 5. \ \ . '/ -.

\ \ \ ( t I I \ \ \ \ ) 7 6 9 o ------ 1Ocm.2 • 3 • I I \ I I I \ \ \ \ \ 5 6 • I I I I .83: Pottery of Stratum E2. 212 . Fig. 5..

. 2 3 ~ ) 4 7 l \ ~ 5 6 7 " I I .n ! \ 0 -. 213 . / / _- I ' 8 9 Fig. ---- 10cm.84: Pottery of Stratum E2. 5.

temper: mg M.5YR5/2. 8). incisions on handle. Exterior.5YR7/6. interior 2. temper: mg M. interior 5YR7/4. temper: mg M black &white grits.5YR5/6.85: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. Exterior. interior and core 2. Exterior 7.5YR6/4.5YR6/4. interior 7.5YR5/6. interior 2. Exterior 2. core 5YR7/3. Remarks: cf.5YR5/6. Basket-handle amphora 53701100 Basket-handle amphora 522011 00 Cooking-pot 19411172 Cooking-pot 3526/4 Cooking-pot 3203/2 Cooking-pot 3203/1 Cooking-pot 5318/4 Cooking-pot 5115/100 Cooking-pot 344511 5 6 7 8 9 FIGURE 5. This type of cooking-pot is characterised by a rough base. interior and core 2. TJl. interior 2. Locus 1941 1941 1941 1321 0855 0855 1941 1913 0890 Description Handle h: 17.5YR5/4. Exterior IOR6/6. interior and core 5YR6/6. Briend et al. core black. temper: mg M white grits. interior and core 2. 55 (Str.5YR5/4. temper: mg M black & white grits.FIGURE 5. temper: g M black & white grits. No. core 7. Exterior. core grey black. Exterior 2. interior 7. core 2.84: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. core grey brown. Exterior. interior lOR5/4. w: 21. temper: mg M black & white grits. Handle h: 16.5YR7/6. temper: m M white grits. This type of cooking-pot is characterized by a rough lower part. temper: fm M. core grey. interior and core 2.5YR7/6. Exterior Exterior interiorand core 2. temper: mg M black & white grits. temper: mg M white grits.pe Cooking-pot 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg.5YR5/4. Sarepta type CP-IA (Anderson 1988). Exterior.5YR7/6. 3602/2 5426/6 3270/1 362114 521112 5360/100 3367/2 5188/2 5499/3 545711 307511 5283/5 5422/1 1970/48 532311 Locus 1336 1941 0869 1338 1948 1967 0892 1938 1980 19B 0819 1941 1963 1970 1956 Description Exterior. No. 10R5/4. Exterior. interior and core 2. 1 2 3 4 Type Reg. 5YR7/6. temper: mg M black & white grits.5YR5/6. Exterior 10R4/3. lid lid lid lid lid lid lid lid 214 . writing with red paint. temper: mg M black grits. temper: mg M black and white grits.5YR5/6. Exterior 2. interior 10R5/4.5YR512. temper: mg M white & black grits. 1980: PI. w: 21. core black.5YR5/6.

9 10 / . I '~ 11 ~I 12 / ~==~--~-----~ 14 1Ocm. 4 / 3 < t: ( " • 5 6 7 err .85: Pottery of Stratum E2. 5.) ( ~\ f22 2 \. 215 .~. Fig.

Only Stratum E2a. ' . where much of the pottery was found in situ.86: Pottery with ins cis ions and inscriptions. No. 3365/101 5402/100 3443/103 STATISTICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE POTTERY FROM STRATUM E2 Approximately 340 m. TABLE 5. E2a Str.of Area E were excavated.. E2a Str. 1 2 3 Type Transport jar Basket-handle amphora Reg.2: NUMBER OF VESSELS RECORDED BY TYPE AND STRATUM FORM CLASS £2 174 29 52 24 9 98 6 £3 34 2 7 1 8 £4 19 1 2 2 1 7 Debris under Stratum £4 2 Total 229 30 56 33 11 113 6 2 530 27 204 13 24 27 23 57 1385 Bowls Deep bowls Bowls with incurved rim Kraters Juglets Jugs Jars Pithoi Amphoras Lamps Cooking-pots Special forms Mortaria Greek imports Cypriote fine ware imports Cypriote basket-handle amphoras Total 2 511 26 157 12 24 25 13 57 1219 13 34 1 2 9 111 49 6 4 1 11 2 2 216 .86: IRON AGE POTTERY WITH INCISIONS AND INSCRIPTIONS No. E3 and E2a statistically due to the fact that the fortresses under Stratum E2a were cleared and rebuilt. Not all of these finds could be assigned to a particular pottery type. Locus 890 1968 1309 Stratum Str. It was impractical to analyze the pottery types in Strata E4. 1 ~. yielded a significant sample. Fig. Body sherd with an engraved picture of a jar. All diagnostic pottery fragments were recorded and 2625 vessels and fragments catalogued. FIGURE 5. Cypriote Basket-Handle with an engraved sign. E2b Description Transport jar type with an engraved sign "aleph". 5.~I 'I 10cm. 2 3 10cm.

The pottery count (Table 5. 5. Cypriote fine war~s are. 217 . The numbers at Mezad Hashavyahu are not very different (kraters 2. 5. 5.83 :2-3 13% Others 35% 6% Fig. kraters constitute 2% of all vessels. 5. 5. This may be partly due to the fact that the area excavated coincided with the storerooms of the fortress. 5.rare with a share of only 1. 5.83:7 3% 10% 3% 9% Fig. 5.88a: Main types of transport jars in Stratum E2.1% of the total pottery in Stratum E2.88b: Other types of transport jars in Stratum E2.103-104).83:8 Others 8% 6% 40% Basket-Handle amphoras 20% Fig. These numbers should be compared with the finds from Mezad Hashavyahu. Jugs are notably more numerous at Mezad Hashavyahu (19%) than at Kabri (8%).4%. No Egyptian imports were found in Tel Kabri.1%. Greek imports to Mezad Hashavyahu are much more numerous (46%) than at Tel Kabri (Fantalkin 2001 :103-104). Figs. Cypriote basket-handle amphoras are the major group. Fig. Among the imported wares. Fig.88) reveals an extraordinarily high percentage of .87: Pottery Repertoire of Stratum E2. There were no Cypriote imports found at that site. while Egyptian imports account for 1% of the finds there (Fantalkin 2001:97-98. the only other 7th century BCE fortress in Israel where statistics have been provided (Fantalkin 2001). constituting 9.87.1% and Greek imports make up 2.Others 1% 4% Cooking-pots 13% Jugs 8% Mortaria 2% Transportjars 48% Fig. transport jars (amphoras). At Kabri. lamps 4%) (Fantalkin 2001:103-104).2.

Anderson 1988. Achziv Tomb 3 has a number of good parallels to Stratum E2 (Culican 1975-76). 5. 1990. This leaves only 25% for storage vessels (Fantalkin 2001:103-104).3% were vessels for storage of agricultural products collected in the nearby area. Another recent contribution to the study of 7th century BCE coastal pottery is Fantalkin's comprehensive publication of the excavations at Mezad Hashavyahu (2001).84: 7-9 35% Others 27% 6% Fig.89b: Other types of cooking-pots from Stratum E2. While most types found in Stratum E2 also occur at nearby Tell Keisan Strata 4-5 (Briend et al. 5. 5. while the other 47. a fortress stood at the extreme southern edge of the Phoenician homeland.85:6 11% Lids Fig.85:11 11% Fig. Sarepta and Tell Abu Hawam did not expose substantial levels of this date. 5.84: 5~ 11% With rough base (Fig. From the end of the 8th through the 7th century BCE.89a: Main types of cooking-pots from Stratum 2a. 1980). 5.8th centuries BCE has been studied in detail (Bikai 1978a. At Mezad Hashavyahu vessels for the consumption of food make up 60% of the repertoire and cooking-pots for its preparation 11%. Herrera Gonzalez 1990). 5. The closest parallels to the pottery of Stratum E2a come from sites in the vicinity of Tel Kabri. CONCLUSIONS While Iron Age coastal (Phoenician) pottery of the 12th .84: 3-4 9% Fig.85: 13- Fig. 5. survey~ in the Akko plain have yielded new data about the coastal settlement system of the 7th century BCE in southern Phoenicia (Frankel 1986. 1994.85:10 17% Fig. Wolff 1994:515-516). Gal 1992. 21% of all pottery types have exact parallels at either Tyre Strata 1-2 (Bikai 1978a) or Sarepta Stratum Cl (Anderson 218 . In Achziv Stratum IV the still unpublished fmds from a warehouse. Lehmann 1995. 5.85:12 6% Fig.85:7 6% 5. Frankel et al. Some 52. The excavations at Tyre. 5.2001. until recently the 7th century BCE was a more obscure phase in the archaeological research of the northern Levant. 1978b. 1997. The 7th century BCE pottery from Tell Keisan has been published by the French Expedition but till now this was the only major site to provide such information.84:8) 10% Fig.85:8 Fig. The numerous complete vessels from Tel Kabri's destruction level (Stratum 2a) enable us to study the typology of the 7th century BCE in detail. The excavations at Tel Kabri significantly complement these finds. 5.7% of the pottery assemblage from Kabri was used for the preparation (cooking) and consumption of food to serve the needs of the garrison.Fig. In addition to excavations. probably destroyed at the same time as the storerooms of the Tel Kabri fortress. 5. near Achziv. 5. Fig 5. 1987. include the same transport jar types as those found in situ at the latter site (Zemer 1977:18).

The pottery is identical to that in Stratum E2a and it is impossible to distinguish any type development between the two phases. in Area D after the Middle Bronze Age. AREAD The evidence that occupation continued. 650-575 BCE.6% of the all post-MB vessels recorded in Area D. 50. may be as early as 604 BCE or only later in 585 BCE (Katzenstein 1997: 328). There is evidence for an earlier destruction phase (Stratum E2b) which . Dan Stratum I. Based on the above-mentioned comparisons.however did not destroy the fortress completely.V). 53 [8th-7th century BCE]). Storage jars are completely missing. dated to 604 BCE (Stager 1996) and from Stratum 5 at al-Mina in northern Syria. Dor Area A Phase 9 (Gilboa 1995 [720-650/630 BCE]) and Shiqmona Stratum 8-9 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. The destruction of Mezad Hashavyahu (Fantalkin 2001. Pottery LB IA I IA II Krater Jugs/Juglets Cooking-pots Lamps Bowls Cypriote Imports TOTAL 4 1 3 3 2 2 29 4 14 51 4 10 219 . has many types in common with the destruction layer at Kabri. Lehmann 1994a). on the basis of pottery comparisons Stratum E2 at Tel Kabri can confidently be dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE. Additional parallels which date Stratum E2a to ca.1988). Blackon-Red and White-Painted pottery. Cooking-pots form the largest functional group retrieved from the Iron Age II remains in this area. 650 and 600 BCE and might be connected with the campaign of Ashurbanipal in the year 644/43 BCE (Katzenstein 1997:293). was dated recently to the years around 600 BCE (Wenning 1989). 604 BCE (Biran 1994:270-271). The later fortress of Stratum E2a may have been destroyed during one of the campaigns of Nebuchadnezzar against Syria and Palestine. This points to very close contacts and exchange with Phoenicia and illustrates that the pottery repertoire of these two sites on the Akko plain is typical oflate Iron Age Phoenician pottery (cf. A number of the same pottery types came from the destruction level of Ashkelon. chronologically anchored on the campaigns of Nebuchadnezzar. Reich 1989). demonstrates that Late Bronze and Iron Age settlement was not confined to Area E. dated to ca. Thus. the earlier destruction must have taken place between ca. 1987 [710-650 BCE]). Similarities are seen at Tel Qiri Stratum VI (Ben-Tor et at. Furthermore. dated to the end of the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996). which yielded a very similar pottery assemblage including Greek cooking-pots. A total of 14 vessels of Cypriote fine wares accounts for 22. Naveh 1962. 600 BCE come from Tell <Arqa Stratum 9D (Thalmann 1990) and Ras al-Bassit Phase 7 and Tomb 4 (Braemer 1986. although on a smaller scale. Comparisons for many vessels in the Stratum E2a assemblage at Kabri can be found in the destruction levels at other sites in the Levant. There is a surprisingly high percentage of Cypriote fine wares. there are several examples of'Wild-Goat'-Style II (Chapter 5. destroyed in ca. Courbin 1993).

Fig .. 220 . F 13 II II 15 16 17 19 18 lOcm. .5 90· Iron Age II pottery from Area D.3 6 ~.. 4 5 7 9 10 11 f 12 14 ~'.

Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. the peculiar combination of cooking-pots and Cypriote fine wares may perhaps be explained if this area was associated wth the fortress complex in Area E for processing agricultural products. 1961:209:11). 27:6] and XI [Bikai 1978: PI. cf. cf.224).joins with 154119121/1.2. Hazor IX (Yadin et al. Abu Hawam Stratum III (Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. Such mortaria were first in use during the Persian period and continued into the early Hellenistic period (Salles 1985a. Cypriote Black-on-Red juglet (Gjerstad 1948: Fig. 1980:56:8). Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et al. 1960:51:12) and VIII (ibid. Pan type with vertical handle. 80:221. Cypriote Black-on-Red juglet or jug (very fine pink fabric with black lustrous bands on the rim inside). 14:10). However. 1960:57:4). Abu Hawam Stratum IV (Balensi 1980: PI. Hazor X (Yadin et al. apparently dumped at the site. 1961:209:1). cf. Stern 1978:53.:53:9-10). 2525-1 2676/1 2630 2509 2669 2617 2542 2518/3 2525/2 2625 2534/3 2504/2 2518/2 9187 2636 2555/1 9256 9110/12 268111 Locus 715 750 745 703 744 713 721 715 715 715 721 715 715 1570 745 721 1554 1541 751 Description cf. 1960:57:13). Type E. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl.90: IRON AGE II POTTERY FROM AREA D No. Hazor X (Yadin et al. cf. Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. FIGURE 5. 25:10. 1980:49:2) and Keisan Stratum 7 (ibid.III). Type 1). Hazor VIII (Yadin et al.:41:6).91 :3-4).9). 11:238]) and the Iron Age. Keisan Stratum 5 (ibid. cf. Tyre Stratum X-2 [Bikai 1978:PI.The scant Iron Age II architectural remains in Area D are interpreted as a farmstead or some kind of rural settlement (Chapter 4. cf. Kabri Stratum E3. Against such a rural background the relatively large amount of Cypriote fine wares is difficult to explain. 19 Cooking-pot PERSIAN AND HELLENISTIC PERIODS A small amount of late Persian period and Hellenistic pottery. cf. cf. 1998) 221 . Red-slipped burnished bowl. Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. Stern 1978:53. Stern 1978:54/55. 1960:61:12). Stratum E3 (a similar cooking-pot rim appears also during the Iron Age II A-B. Abu Hawam Stratum IV (Balensi 1980: PI. cf. cf. Type Bowl 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Bowl Bowl Juglet Juglet Juglet/Jug Juglet Bowl Bowl Bowl Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. Type A. 1960:57:13). cf. Stem 1978:55/56. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl. 'Samaria' Ware. 1960:51:12). Artzy 1980) and several mortaria with a high ring base (Fig. Kabri Area E. Type A. 2. Hazor IX (Yadin et al. Persian period pottery was extremely rare. cf. cf. 39:9]). cf. 38:9. Kabri Stratum E3. Hazor X (Yadin et al. Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. There was one twisted handle of a Persian period transport jar (not illustrated. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl. Abu Hawam Stratum III (Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. Such pans were in use during the Late Bronze Age (Tell Abu Hawam Stratum V [Balensi 1980:PI. 5. 1980:56:6). was retrieved from Area E. No. cf. 80:225). Jezreel "Early Iron" (Zimhoni 1997: Fig.:57:15). 14:10).

This type of vessel was found in large numbers at Tell Keisan and nearby Khirbat Kinniya (Briend et al. 1 2 3 Type Unguentarium Unguentarium Mortar Mortar Reg. temper: mg M. 3269/1a 326911b 3204/4 3490/2 Locus 0869 0869 0853 1321 Description 4 Exterior 7. interior IOYR8/3. 17:23-30). 1980:Pl.The two Hellenistic unguentaria found were apparently associated with a disturbed grave (Fig. 222 . Transport jars of this class are especially numerous in the Akko plain during the Hellenistic period. 7:1-3. 5. No. 3 2 '--"~~=--' 10cm. temper: mg M white grits .91: HELLENISTIC POTTERY FROM AREA E No. All the pottery comes from disturbed layers between Strata E2 and E1. Exterior 5YR7/4. The Ottoman village in Area E was excavated by Mahmud Hawari in 1993 (Hawari 1994).. core grey. core grey. 5. FIGURE 5. 4 Fig. Among the Hellenistic pottery was the rim of a white Hellenistic transport jar (not illustrated). Further finds include a fragment of a stamped Rhodian amphora (Chapter 9:No. interior 5YR7/4.5YR8/4.91:1-2). 34).91: Hellenistic pottery from Area E.

25) (cf. Fig. Adelman 1995. with the exception of a probably Attic SOS-amphora (No. According to Coldstream (1968:298-301) the first stage of the Bird bowls is to be dated to ca. Kaufler and U. Elsewhere in the Levant Corinthian pottery also is not abundant. 25). Thus no Corinthian pottery has been found at Tel Kabri. Recently the typology and chronology of the East Greek Bird bowls has been modified and refined by Kerschner (1995. Fine decorated Greek pottery is more accurately datable than most of the local pottery and therefore important for absolute dating (see Cook. Boardman 1980:48). simplifying the decoration and flattening the shape. Tell Jemmeh and Tell Sera' (Koehl 1985:138.13).1) and adopted by Waldbaum and Magness (1997:34) and Haider (1996:69) is. Haider 1996:69) is too small to be more closely dated than between the later 8th and the first half of the 6th centuries BCE.C. 22. Fig. 256. Haider 1996:69). The fragment of an oinochoe or olpe of Etruscan Bucchero (No. Fig. The Bird bowl evolved from the Late Geometric Bird kotyle. BIRD BOWLS Five fragments (Figs. date adopted by Waldbaum 1994:59. 2 3 223 . The presence of these imports is of special significance for two reasons: 1. despite its popularity in other areas of the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. 1) and Haider's summary (1996: 69) have to be corrected: There is no Geometric pottery from Kabri. Vessel No. Tell Keisan. Figs. 700-675 BCE. cf. 42) is of special interest.92:1-5. 19. Gershuny (1987:69. although the preserved decoration could be of late 8th/early 7th century date. 5. R. We are also grateful to A. "the complete lack of Protocorinthian pottery of the late eighth through most of the . Tel MiqneEkron. ARCHAIC GREEK AND ETRUSCAN POTTERY Barbara and Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier Archaic Greek pottery was first identified in Area E in 1986 byL. 5. Tell Abu Hawam. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33-36 with references). Schlotzhauer for important information and constructive discussions on the East Greek pottery found at Tel Kabri. Pastor 1991 :20*. Niemeier 1995. Tel Dan.M. Kerschner. according to Neutron Activation Analysis by H. 12. 1990. The "curious gap in the roster of early Greek pottery in Palestine".1 More was found in the seasons of 1989.93:1-4) come from East Greek so-called Bird bowls. it almost certainly is contemporary with the East Greek pottery. No. Reinvestigation of the sherd for the final publication demonstrated that. 1997:252-255. The clay of a sherd tentatively ascribed to a Protocorinthian aryballos (Kempinski and Niemeier 1993b:259. Thus Waldbaum's distribution map (1994:55. Al Mina is the only site from which Protocorinthian pottery is known (Robertson 1940:16-18. All pre-Hellenistic Greek pottery of Area E is to be dated between the second half of the 7th and the first half of the 6th centuries BCE.1995. Cook and Dupont 1998:8-10). Niemeier 1994:*31. not Corinthian but probably east Cypriot. Waldbaum 1994. Niemeier 1994). IV. Kerschner We would like to thank M. also Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33-36) also applies to Tel Kabri-'. S. Wenning 1995). Since there is no other 8th century Greek pottery from Kabri. 615-600 BCE. PI. The unstratified fragment of an SOS-amphora (No.E. 1997. 650-615 BCE. 16. seventh centuries" (Waldbaum 1994:59. 42).2 The stratified pieces come from Stratum E2a (the destruction level of the Phoenician fortification) or from slightly earlier levels.1 was earlier identified as belonging to a Late Geometric or Subgeometric skyphos with metope decoration (Niemeier 1990:xxxiv-xxxv. 1992 and 1993 (Niemeier 1990. Naso for his input regarding the fragment of an Etruscan Buchero vessel (No.1. Lehmann 1995. Sarepta. 675-640 B. The following sites in the Levant have produced Early Corinthian pottery: Tell Sukas. The Archaic Greek pottery from Kabri is East Greek. Tel Batash. the second to ca. 23. 2. Mommsen of Bonn University. They play an important role in discussions about contacts between the Levant and Greece and the possible presence of Greeks in the Levant (see Wenning 1991. the profile is too curved to belong to a Late Geometric/Subgeometric skyphos but comes from an East Greek archaic Bird bowl. Fig. and the fourth to ca. the third ca. Ashkelon. cf.V.

118-119:476. H. 17. Reg. =2 em. Date: The fragment is too small for dating. Kerschner 1997:127 Cat. Inside: Solid. Decoration: Reddish-brown paint. Outside: On the left. D. 5. Bird bowl (Figs. No. Locus 1983. Decoration: Yellowish-red and black paint. No. 2. 650-615 BCE. PI. H.E (cf. Stratum El. Decoration: Yellowish-red paint. 43:452). 3138.92:4. Locus 802. Reg. No. Reg.2. 5.C.3 ern. three vertical lines and the body and feet of a bird. Bird bowl (Figs.5 em. = 3.the bowl are characteristics of Kerschner's Type V. 107. Cat.93:4) Rim fragment. According to his studies. three vertical lines which meet three horizontal lines at an angle. Locus 833. 3. Outside: A group of three vertical lines on the left with a single vertical line on their right. PI. 3114. ca. 5. Reg.1997). 5. the first half of the 7th century BCE is still dominated by Bird kotylai and only from the middle of the century onwards do Bird bowls appear in larger quantities. Below this are void rays. Date: The fragment is from a Bird bowl of Kerschner's Type II with empty bottom zone. is a rhomb filled with hatching. 109. The style is less delicate than No. 3023/1. H = 2.93:2) Rim fragment. PI. 162.dated to the last quarter of the 7th century BCE (cf. Locus 874. 85). Parallels: Phase IV at Emporio on Chios. 5. Date: The missing groove at the rim and the almost hemispherical profile of . Bird bowl (Figs. H.478. 4. No. dated to the last third of the 7th century BCE (Boardman 1967:133. Outside: The tail of a bird above which is a triangle pendant from a painted lip band. 11 em. The bird's tail is formed by extending the lower horizontal outline of the body. D. A vertical stripe on the right. dated before 600 BCE (Walter 1968:88. Bird bowl (Fig. H. Stratum El. 5. Locus'S24. Stratum El. = 3. Kerschner 1997:163. 162. Kerschner 1997:160. = ca. No. 329711. Inside: Solid.8. Kerschner did not find Bird bowls from clear contexts before the second quarter of the 7th century BCE.8 em.92:5) Body fragment. XIV). PI. No. Inside: Solid. 5. Outside: A ray with three horizontal lines above it in the lower part. Bird bowl (Figs. Stratum El. No.93:3) Rim fragment. 5484. Reg.92:1. Decoration: Light reddish-brown paint. 3. 5. 5. from left to right.93:1) Rim fragment. Inside: Solid. No. 5. 43. In Kerschner's typology our fragment forms a late example of his Type IV with a small groove at the mouth and a relatively deep bowl dated to the last third of the 7th century BCE (cf. VI).92:2. Stratum El. 1.92:3. dated to the middle to third quarter of the 7th century B. 'Fundgruppe XXVII' in the sanctuary of Hera on Samos. Date: The painted design puts the fragment in Coldstream's third group. XIV). 130. PI. Above these. 224 .

Locus 1941. from Tel Kabri. the majority of the pieces of this type came from Phases I (before ca. There are. painted or reserved. The fragments of thirteen so-called Ionian cups (Nos. that neither parts of Ionia (Jones activation demonstrating that it was not produced at Miletus confirm of Bird bowls was this Ionian the production centre of Bird bowls (Kerschner et al. glazed all over except for a narrow reserved band at handle level. 610-590/80 BCE) (Furtwangler 1980:165. adopting the typology 1980:165). analyses were considered analysis pit. 1999) suggests that the term 'Ionian called 'Knickrandschale' (cup with bent rim).92:7. Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Samian Heraion. however. 625-590 BCE (cf. Inside: Solid with lines stripe. bands just below the handle Group 3. has shown that the clay composition of a Bird bowl of Type IV from the Rheneia Pi. cups from Miletus) and in the Greek sanctuary at Gravisca in Etruria (Boldrini 6. Fig.664). 630/20 . 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler 225 . PI. 21). were and Since this class is not restricted to Ionia (Catling cup' should be abandoned (1995. decorated Schlotzhauer (Cook and Dupont 1998:129-131). other systems arranged These typologies from Tarsus in have been adopted in the study of the Ionian cups from Tell Sukas in by single sites (see Catling and to the typologies sequences 1973:27-38). with simple horizontal or completely covered with dark paint and they should be is retained.5 em. 1993). The most influential 120-125. Cook and Dupont that found in Furthermore. 6-18) form the largest group of Archaic Greek pottery . Type AI. 13). drinking cups with prominent and Shipley 1989). Inside: Solid except for a band just below the mouth. here the common English nomenclature Various systems of classification Cilicia (Hanfmann Hayes 1973:55-56). Stratum E2a. Kerschner's neutron metropolis years the Bird bowls petrographic 1986:649. Other examples from the Samian Heraion come from the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building dated to ca. = 3. H. Delos found to be a Rhodian (Jones 1986:647. Ploug's Group 6.93:5) 15 fragments of mouth and wall (reconstructed). Hayes' Type I-II. and the very useful concordance sanctuary of Hera on the island of Sam os (Furtwangler of Artemis at Ephesos (Kerschner ibid. Boardman those applied to material from Megara Hyblaea in Sicily (Villard and Vallet 1955:18-33). Of in the South Temenos of the are the series of Ionian cups found in good stratigraphic 1997. 'Ionian cup' (Figs. Shipley 1989. invention (cf. fewer from Phase III (ca. in a sacrificial complex in the sanctuary established by Schlotzhauer 1995 for the 1994:137-187. No. 630/20 BCE) and II (ca. Syria (Ploug importance 1956:167-173) for this cup-type have been put forward.6e) matches on Rhodes. For many 1998:26). Fig. a complete 1938:39-43 No. I118-20.ca. 53311100. 5. One production bowls may perhaps have been located in northern 'IONIAN CUPS' Ionia (Jones 1986:697). 610 BCE). (mouth) = Reg.219-234). D.200-202 Nos. and from Tocra in Libya (Hayes 1966:111-16. 200. Outside: by Kerschner as belonging Two vertical lines.Decoration: Reddish-brown exception of a reserved and dark grey glossy paint. Outside: Type: Villard Schlotzhauer's and Vallet's below the lip. 13 = Alexandrescu 1978:57-58 No. 8. cups' is used for a class of two-handled bands. 188-189 note 5. This is dated to ca.. 5. The term 'Ionian rims. site of Bird However. However. to his latest Type VI without horizontal Date: It has been identified example from Histria: Lambrino DISCUSSION between the rays of the bottom zone and the main frieze. 7-8. 197-199.1. Table 1). Solid except for narrow Decoration: Black paint. Furtwangler's level and just Type 3 and 16 cm.

226 . 7 8 3cm. 11 Fig. 5.92: Bird bowls and Ionian cups.2 ry3 5 4 _.

125. Nos. No. 33521100.120. 227 . Examples from Ephesos are dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE (Kerschner 1997:111. black (IOYR 2/1) paint.92:8) Shoulder fragment. 570/550 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:5-7. 126:Fig. 'Ionian cup' (Fig. EI Light brown (7. Ionian cup II. 1.5/1) paint. Cat.121:Fig. Hanfmann's Type IV. 5. 117.e Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Dorian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Reg_. Furtwangler's Type 5 and Boldrini's Type 1111 with glazed exterior except the rim and a band at handle level. E2blE3 Pink (5 YR7/4) lightly micaceous clay. 5. 213-214:Nos. Locus 887. yellowish-red (5YR 5/8)/black (5YR 2. No. 610-590/80 BCE) and was also found in Phase IV (a late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165. 4. reddish-brown (2. 7. 25. Discussion: See No. 19.6. III). reddish-brown (2. 111 Fig. Date: Vallet and Villard's (1955:15-18. H. Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Heraion of Samos it occurs first in Phase III (ca. III/I. 21).93:6 and Kienast 1989:4-5. PI. No.5/1) paint. Locus 1321. Ploug's Group 5. dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) paint. 8.5YR 6/4) clay. Ionian cup Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. No. (Figs. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 3. 1/3-4. II. Fig. El Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) paint. 610 BCE (Kerschner 1997:182).5YR 3/1) paint. This type apparently lasted from the second half of the 7th to the early 6th century BCE. Ionian cup. III/8-9. Hayes' (1966:112) late 7th century BCE. = 4. 5. = 2. in the second levelling of ca. No. Stratum E2a. TJP. Hayes' Type VIII-IX. 5. 3138 3114 3297/1 3023/1 5484 3500/101 53311100 3352/100 3536/100 2619 5034-6 Locus 833 824 874 802 1983 1321 1941 887 1321 737 1915 Stratum El E1 Descrip. Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay.3 em. Surface Very pale brown (IOYR 7/4) clay. Decoration: Black paint. No. (mouth) = 17.93:4 2. Reg.600 BCE. dark greyish-brown (10YR 3/2) paint. 7.93:6) Mouth and wall fragment. 3536/100.5YR 3/1) paint.92:9.tion See Fig. 19. black (7.93:5 5. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos which ends ca. Inside: Solid except for a band just below the mouth. 5.No.5YR 4/1) shiny paint. Cat. 8.93:3 5. reddish-brown (5YR 4/4)/ dark grey (7. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:4-5. 10. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 545/535 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:7-8. Cat. 12. 12-13 PI. Cat.93:1 5. 28). 112. 21). 9. 111 Fig. Outside and inside: Solid. 6. 1111. D. 18).5YR 2. 29) date is 640/30 . Cat.FIGURE 5. Type: Villard and Vallet's Type A21B 2. Decoration: Glossy black paint. black (10YR 2/1) shiny paint. 11 PI. 23) and in the foundation of the North Building of ca. Examples of this type were unearthed also in the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building of ca. PI.2 em. Reg. 5. E2a Very pale brown (IOYR 7/3)/grey (10YR 6/i) clay. E2a Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay.93:2 5. very dark brown (10YR 2/2) paint. H. Stratum El. PI. Outside: Bands on rim and at handle level.92: BIRD BOWLS AND IONIAN CUPS No. 115 Cat.

II11. 1980:165. (mouth) = 17. 111 Fig. Ionian cup Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. PI. 1. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 10. Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. No. 21).93:3 5. dark greyish-brown (IOYR 3/2) paint. 8. Stratum El. El Light brown (7. 117.93:5 5. Stratum E2a. black (1OYR 2/1) shiny paint. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler Examples of this type were unearthed also in the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building of and Kienast 1989:4-5.5/1) paint.3 ern. TJ:'I!.5YR 3/1) paint. Cat. 213-214:Nos. 25. Date: Vallet and Villard's . Discussion: See No. black (IOYR 2/1) paint. 5. in the second and Kienast 1989:5-7. Reg. Hayes' Type VIII-IX. 7. No.93:1 5.93:6 and Kienast 1989:4-5.93:6) Mouth and wall fragment. Type 5 and Boldrini's Type II11 with glazed exterior except the rim and a band at handle level. yellowish-red (5YR 5/8)/black (5YR 2. 5. Decoration: Black paint. 5. Ionian cup. 3536/100.600 BCE.5YR 4/1) shiny paint. Inside: Solid except for a Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Heraion of Sam os it occurs first in Phase III (ca. 112. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 3. Nos. 545/535 BCE (Furtwangler ca. 21). Type: Villard and Vallet's Furtwangler's Type A21B 2. 6. No.2 band just below the mouth. PI. Cat. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos which ends 227 .5YR 6/4) clay. Ploug's Group 5. reddish-brown (5YR 4/4)/ dark grey (7.92: BIRD BOWLS AND IONIAN CUPS No. Outside and inside: Solid. Outside: Bands on rim and at handle level. dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) paint. Decoration: Glossy black paint.FIGURE 5. black (7. 29) date is 640/30 from Ephesos are dated to the (1966:112) late 7th second half of the 7th century BCE (Kerschner 1997:111. Surface Very pale brown (IOYR 7/4) clay.5/1) paint. H. 12. = 4. El Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. 9. Cat. 570/550 BCE (Furtwangler foundation of the North Building of ca. No. 'Ionian cup' (Fig. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) paint. 2. Cat. PI. reddish-brown (2. 121 :Fig. Fig. Hayes' century BCE. 4. 19.5YR 3/1) paint. 3138 3114 3297/1 3023/1 5484 3500/101 53311100 3352/100 3536/100 2619 5034-6 Locus 833 824 874 802 1983 1321 1941 887 1321 737 1915 Stratum El El Description See Fig. E2a Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay. 111 Fig. III). No. 18).93:4 11. 1/3-4.e Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Dorian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Reg. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 125. reddish-brown (2. This type apparently lasted from the second half of the 7th to the early 6th century BCE. 5.5YR 2. (Figs. Cat.92:9. 11 PI. E2a Very pale brown (10YR 7/3)/grey (10YR 6/i) clay. 19. E2blE3 Pink (5 YR7/4) lightly micaceous clay. 5. 33521100. 12-13 PI. 11. 126:Fig. ern. 8. Locus 1321. Reg. 23) and in the and Kienast 1989:7-8. = 2. D. H.6. No. Examples (1955:15-18. levelling of ca. 7. 5. 610 BCE (Kerschner 1997:182). 610-590/80 BCE) and was also found in Phase IV (a late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler ca. 28).93:2 5.115 Cat. III/I.92:8) Shoulder fragment. Locus 887. very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) paint. III/8-9. 120. Hanfmann's Type IV. No.

92:7. 3) Fig.92:4. 8) Fig.92:1.93: Bird bowls and Ionian cups. 5. 1) Fig. 5. 4) Fig.92:2.92:3. 2) Fig. 5. 5.94:8. 6) Fig.94:6.95:10. 7) Fig.95:16.94:12.92:9.2 3 4 5 II 14 11 12 Fig. 10) Fig. 5.94:5.94:7. 5. 13) Fig. 12) Fig. 9) Fig. 5. 228 . 5. 5. 5. 5) Fig. 5. 5. 5.94:1. 5. 14) Fig. 11) Fig. 5.

At Tell Sukas. PI. Decoration: Very dark brown paint. handle and foot. 620-580 BCE (1955:29).Date: The date of ca.(10YR 3/2). Reg. foot unpainted. Boldrini 1994: 149-150. foot unpainted. unglazed exterior. Nos. Type: Same as No. Ionian cup (Figs. H. especially in regard to its end. Foot: black with one red line on base. 10. it occurred in Deposit II of Level 8 (Hayes 1966:1i2. No.7 ern. glazed with two red lines framed by white lines painted on the glaze on the inside of the rim and the lower part of the bowl. Stratum E2a. = 1. Locus 1915.92:11) Foot fragment. which ended ca. Decoration: Design in brown (7. Reg. sometimes a band below handle level and glazed foot. Outside and inside: solid. Cat. with low foot. Ionian cup (Fig. Decoration: Very dark greyish-brown paint. Furtwangler 1980: 164-166. H. Handles: solid black. 620-600 BCE for this type proposed by Villard and Vallet (1955: 18-19. Thus the type is to be dated from after ca. Locus 1941. Reg. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. = 2. 29) has been considered too restricted. = 1. three red lines on the lower part of the wall. 9. two red lines below the mouth. Outside: three horizontal brown lines. 5034-6.a group of almost completely preserved cups of this type have a reserved tondo on the base of the interior which is a 6th century feature. Inside: solid black.E (Hayes 1966:9). 7. Locus 737. Outside and inside bowl: solid. and Boldrini's Type Ill/I. Reg.3502/101.9. 12. Decoration: Black and red paint. black (10YR 2/1). H.5YR 5/4).94:1. No. No. Stratum E2a. Furtwangler's Type 6. Surface D. H. red (lOR 4/4) and white (lOR 8/1) paint. Type: cf. 5. 565 B. 5. 5389-3. starting around 580 BCE. Parallels: At Tocra. Ploug's Group 9.4 ern.1199). Hayes Type V. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. Reg. = 5 em.92:10) Foot fragment. Hanfmann (1956:170-173. No. Decoration: Glossy black paint. 120. Locus 1308. = 2. Outside and inside bowl: solid. 5. 11. Sounding between Strata E2b and E3. 610 to 550 BCE. Locus 1971. D = 6 em. Type: Villard and Vallet's Type B 1. H. 2619. 13. Outside: black bands covering the mouth plus the upper part of the wall and the foot. 1197. Hayes (1966:113) and Ploug (1973:29-30) date this type to the first half of the 6th century BCE. Hanfmann's Type II.93:7) 15 fragments of rim. Inside: solid black. D of mouth = 11 ern.C.4 cm.289) has suggested a date from the end of the 7th to the first half of the 6th century BCE.3 cm. 5. No. Stratum E2a. wall. except rim and shoulder. (reconstructed) = 5 ern. 1963:285-287. 229 . Date: This type is dated by Villard and Vallet to ca. Ionian cup (Fig. 5345/100.

. ..94: Ionian cups.~--- . --' \ ' \\ ) I I \_---- . .. 5..-- / <. <. 1 230 .... <. / \ \ . 2 3 /.. \ ".~....:> J I ~~\ \ \ 8 I \ 9 6 F' 9. I'.

5YR 2. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos. IV/9. = 1. red (lOR 4/4) and white (lOR 8/1) paint. No. Beil. 2. 1. black (lOYR 2/1). 22).511). 610-590/80 BCE) and also occurs in Phase IV (the late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165. D (where mouth is cut away) = 13. 610 to 570/60 BCE.5YR 8/1) paint.93:8 5. 54141100. 9.5YR4/4) paint. = 4. reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) . 5.8 ern. 223.5 em. 7. Other examples from the Heraion were found in a level dated ca.very dark grey (5YR 311) paint. 560 BCE (Isler 1978:93-94. Reg. yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) paint.93:7 5.94:2) 17 fragments of wall. 610 BCE. foot and 1 handle. dusky red (lOR 3/4). white (IOYR 8/1) slip. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos. 13. 14.5YR 5/6).5/1) paint. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. H. yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) . 22). Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) micaceous clay.5/2) paint. 1.93:10 5. 220:No. Cat. 33). this type first appears in Phase III (ca. Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:77-78) and in Well W 2 closed at about the same time (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:74-75. No. 149.W2/29. Date: The type apparently was in existence from after ca. 6. Cat.5/1) paint. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) clay. glazed with two red lines framed by white lines painted on the glaze on the inside of the rim and the lower part of the bowl.5YR 5/2) lightly micaceous clay. Stratum E2a. No. Pink (7. Ionian cup (Fig 5. 5. 150 Fig. 149. black (7. IV/9. Pale red (2. 8.5YR 5/4). Parallels: In the South Temenos in the Heraion on Samos. white (2.5YR 5/6) micaceous clay. black (7. Beil. Locus 1963. black (10YR 2/1)/red (lOR 4/6) paint. 213-214. 47.FIGURE 5.5YR 7/4) micaceous clay. brown (7. Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:77-78) and in well W 2 closed at about the same time (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:74-75. Type Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Skyphos Jug Oinochoe Oinochoe Oinochoe? Reg. No.5YR 5/4) micaceous clay. Pink (7.213-214. No. 223. 150 Fig. edges greyish-brown (2. 4. 10. Core red (2.reddish-black (2. Decoration: Design in brown (7. 560 BCE (Isler 1978:93-94.5YR 7/4) clay. Fig. ending ca. H. III/II-12. PI. 33).5YR 2. ending ca. 220:No. 5345/100 54141100 3571/100 3448/100 3616/100 3590/100 Locus 1941 1963 890 1316 1334 1321 Stratum E2a E2a E2a E3b E2a E2a E2a Description Red (2. No. 231 .3 ern. 610590/80 BCE) and also occurs in Phase IV (the late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165. 5389-3.94: IONIAN CUPS No. white (IOYR 8/1) slip. Locus 1971.93:11 3401/102 890 1916 1318 E2a E2b-E3 E4 5038 Oinochoe? SOS amphora 3470/100 Parallels: In the South Temenos in the Heraion on Samos. black (5YR 2. PI. 610 to 570/60 BCE. See Fig. Reg. Inside: solid black. white (10YR 8/1) slip. red (lOR 4/6) . Fig.5YR 2.5YR 2.93:9 5.reddishbrown (5YR 4/4) paint. III/ll12. The mouth was cut away and the base knocked through for reuse (as a funnel?).5/1) paint. 47. Date: The type apparently was in existence from after ca. 1. Other examples from the Heraion were found in a level dated ca. 610 BCE. very dark brown (7. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) clay. No. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) micaceous clay. Outside: three horizontal brown lines. Stratum E2a.W2/29. 3. Reddish-brown ((5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay. this type first appears in Phase III (ca.

3500/101.1. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Handle fragment. termed examples are those of the so-called in cups of the Vroulia style The short rim not going beyond (1983:29) of which the most beautiful (cf. 19. Stratum E2a.1. Reg. Pr.Decoration: Yellowish-red and dark grey paint. Inside: solid except for a band just below the mouth.1. two blobs on inside. 3. 13 but with thicker walls and handles and are no painted lines on the interior. No. Inside: solid. 43:23. (5YR 7/6) clay painted all over in very dark grey (5YR 3/1). Decoration: Black (7. Stratum E2a. 35711100. but they were also produced produced on Rhodes or Kos.94:3) Rim and wall fragment. as belonging to a marginal group of 'Ionian cups'. the island of Samos was an important at Miletus and in other workshops 1998:129). Reg. 5248-2. Locus 1316. cm. 18 are paralleled 27:2-4. Ploug Dupont 1983:28-29).5/1) paint. 16. Reg.4 em. = 3.4. a major production centre of 'Ionian cups' (Hayes 1980:150-161) 1966: 111-115. 'Dorian' cup or skyphos (Fig. Locus 890. 14. No. 3448/100. H. = 0. 18:9. band just below = 22 = 12 ern. = 0. centre of Asia Minor 1973:28) but does not. 3156. Locus 1321. 34-36. D of mouth = 19 em.4 em. 37:4. Kinch 1914:167-186. Length = 4.4). No. paint.9 ern. Inside: unpainted. D.5YR 2. Stratum E 2a. 33). Locus 1941. Decoration: Very dark brown paint. Handle: solid on outside. 38:6. Outside: and Kerschner striated solid except for a very narrow Decoration: Dark reddish-brown Type: Identified by Schlotzhauer 'Dorian cups' by P. Rec. H. Type: See No. wall and handles. 39:8. Cook and Dupont 1998:114-115).94:4) Wall and handle fragment. The 'Dorian as well as the results of petrographic production of southwestern these cups. = 3. Outside: band on foot and lower part of wall. 11) and other more simply decorated cups from Vroulia on Rhodes (Kinch 1914:Pls. DISCUSSION Rhodes has long been considered According analyses (Dupont to the frequency of the clay (Dupont 1983:28. the shoulder and the rigid outline of the conical body of No. 32:f 1 and 3. Cook and Dupont cup' (No. 15.1 ern. 'Dorian' cup (Fig. offer a consistent tradition (von Graeve 1973174:85.2. No. of finds (Furtwangler 1983:27. 10. Decoration: Reddish-yellow 18. Outside: band covering the mouth and the upper part of the wall. (Kinch 1914:Pl. 5. Ionian cup (Fig. D. = Reg. Outside: Horizontal stripe on lower edge of fragment. Type: Same type of cup as No. Locus 839. 5. Solid. 9. Stratum E3b. Length Reg.92:6) 27 fragments D (mouth) of mouth. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Handle fragment. 5. 45:32. 17. Stratum 1. 19) was most probably 232 . H. No. however.5 em. Decoration: Red and reddish-black paint. Dupont Vroulia-style the handle zone.5.

2a-b). in which the goat became the most frequent species. Fig. Locus 1334. H. No.8 ern.M. Fig. Type: These motifs first appear in Middle Wild Goat I (Cook and Dupont 1998:37. Trefoil mouthed oinochoe with triple-coil handle (Figs. Mouth and sides of handle solid black. 5. Decoration: White slip and black painted design. 5.94:6. On the left. The old term 'Rhodian' (Cook.6 em. 24.M.=9cm. Oinochoe(?) (Fig.93:10) Neck fragment. Locus 1916. Decoration: White slip and brown paint. 8.6) and continue into Middle Wild Goat II (Cook. 23. twisted band on neck. Miletus (unpublished). cross with filling of spherical triangles on rote lIes. Jug (Figs. a rosette of concentric circles and a series of dots following the outermost circle as filling ornament. H. decorating the main zone of the vessels. Reg. Decoration: White slip with horizontal stripes painted in black. R. 3590/1 00. Stratum E2b-E 3. Reg. Oinochoe(?) (Figs.10. 5. Kardara 1963) is misleading. Date: The careless execution of the twisted band points to a dating in Middle Wild Goat II. Decoration: Painted solid black with two horizontal red lines and two horizontal white lines on shoulder. Parallels: The sanctuary of Hera on Samos (Technau 1929:29). Type: All these motifs first appear in Middle Wild Goat I (Cook and Dupont 1998:37. No. Locus 890.6) and continue into Middle Wild Goat II (Cook. No. 233 . Oinochoe (Figs. 22.JUGS. Locus 1321. 21-24) came from 'Wild Goat style' vessels.93:11) Body fragment. No. neck and handle fragments. four fragments (Nos. Reg. Stratum E2a. R. 34011102. Fig. Part of the back of a wild goat with part of a spiral quatrefoil above it. oblique lines on surface of handle.92:9) Mouth.94:7. part of back and hind leg of a wild goat. = 2. Decoration: Yellowish-red paint. Cook and Dupont 1998:32-70). 1933/34:90-91. 5. 1992:259.9 cm.93:8) Shoulder and neck fragment. 5. 8. R. 5. and dominated the decoration of East Greek painted pottery for some three generations (Cook. POLYCHROME BLACK (SCHWARZBUNT) 20. Type: cf. Schiering 1957. 8. Stratum E2a.94:5. = 3. 3616/100. 21. Cook and Dupont 1998:42. 1997:109. H. Fig. 5. WILD GOAT STYLE OINOCHOAI At Kabri. 2a-b). 5038.M. Fig. on the right.94:8. H. DISCUSSION 'Wild Goat style' is the term used in the English speaking archaeological community for the style which emerged about the middle of the 7th century BCE. 5. 5. RM.2 em. = 12.94:9) Shoulder fragment ofa closed vessel. The name comes from the animal friezes. Reg. H. Stratum E2a. = 4. 1992:259. Date: The slightly careless execution of the filling ornaments points to a Middle Wild Goat II date. 111-119.

Tocra and Cyrene) very little is known in the Levant. 10. RM. he named this supposed decadent transitional style Wild Goat III (Cook.M. Cook. the Levant and North Africa come to an end and are replaced by North Ionian Late Wild Goat style ware (Schaus 1986:291. The end of the Middle Wild Goat II style has been dated by R. 1933/34:90-91.Rhodes was the place where it was first found in quantity. RM. considerable amounts of Middle Wild Goat II style pottery have been found in the sanctuary of Athena at Assesos near Miletus (Lohmann 1995:313-314). when ornament and poses became more stereotyped (Cook. lOA) has come to light. although Middle and Late are regional styles and overlap chronologically. Cook and Dupont 1998:56). Walter-Karydi 1986:73-80. SF 1. 67-71. 600 BCE and the beginning of the Fikellura style ca. 1992:260. The Wild Goat style has been divided into Early. 1992:260. 590 BCE (Hopper 1949:180. Cook and Dupont 1998:34. New evidence from Miletus disproves the theories of Cook and Schaus and confirms those of Schiering and Dupont (Schlotzhauer. Whereas relatively much Late Wild Goat Style pottery has been found in North Africa (Naucratis. Middle and Late. 65-66. Amyx 1988:428-429) as Payne (1931:57) previously suggested. 560 BCE and according to G. 650 to 640 BCE (Cook. 1997:112. Moreover. from ca. Cook and Dupont 1998:89) started ca. 1992:260. Fig. Petrographic clay analyses and stylistic researches have demonstrated that three or four main production centres of Wild Goat style pottery existed: Miletus. RM. 600 BCE for the end of Early Corinthian has been questioned by scholars who put it a little later. may have lasted into the first two decades of the 6th century BCE (Dupont 1986:65). At about the same time.M. The Fikellura style which. Schaus (1986:284-288) ca. 560 BCE may have been filled by a decadent variation of the former which lingered on beside the Late Wild Goat style (Cook. 34-36. is greatly indebted to the Middle Wild Goat II style (Cook. R. Clazomenae and what Dupont calls North Ionian 2 (Dupont 1983:27-29. 600 and 560 BCE as too long a phase for Cook's decadent transitional style. overlapping and influencing the early stage of Fikellura. RM. but dated the late style of his Camirus Group (comparable to Cook's Early Wild Goat . A problem under discussion is the date of the change from the Wild Goat style to the Fikellura style pottery mainly produced at Miletus (Dupont 1986:61. 1992:255-266).36-44). Chios. but clay analyses demonstrate that the island imported the ware (Dupont 1983:28-29. Schaus 1986:288-289). Cook and Dupont 1998:77-81. He argued that the Middle Wild Goat II style.Middle Wild Goat II) to 610-560 BCE. Cook (1933/34:90. and that the Fikellura style appeared with are-emergence of the industries at Miletus about 550 BCE. 112 Fig. Cook and Dupont 1998:5156). The Early Wild Goat style probably did not last very long. 1933/34:60. M. the discussion in Niemeier 1999:404 with n. 600 BCE. A completely different solution has been proposed by Schaus (1986:289-292) who maintains that almost no fine ware was produced at Miletus in the first half of the 6th century BCE due to economic decline caused by internal civil conflicts (cf. since it is no longer found in graves on Rhodes at the time when Middle Corinthian was replacing Early Corinthian (Cook and Dupont 1998:44). 1997:123. The Late Wild Goat Style is an invention of North Ionian schools which diverged from the South Ionian mainstream while Early Corinthian was still flourishing (Cook. Cook and Dupont 1998:33-36). In Israel only a single sherd from Mezad Hasavyahu (Wenning 1989:186. Schiering (1957:11) did not see this as a decadent transitional style. 550 BCE. Cook to ca. according to R. The Middle Wild Goat style is divided into I and II around 625 BCE. 264).P. Cook and Dupont 1998:61). W. According to Dupont's petrographic clay analyses the principal Middle Wild Goat II school is Milesian (Dupont 1986:60-64). Jones 1986:665-666). Later. exports of Middle Wild Goat II style pottery to the Black Sea coasts. RM. Fine pottery did exist at Miletus in the first half of the 234 . 91). The chronological gap between the supposed end of the Middle Wild Goat II style ca. Cook and Dupont 1998:44). R.M. personal communication). This transition is traditionally dated to about 600 BCE (payne 1931:57).1986:62-64. PI. 1997:112. Jones 1986:665-671. the traditional date of ca. Most recently. ca. Dupont regards the 40 years between ca. 8-9 = Naveh 1962. 1992:262.1.

Decoration: Unpainted. Reg. 26. Type: As No. Decoration: Reddish-yellow . 3592/4.94:10. SOSAmphora (Figs. 5. D. = 7 ern. of mouth = 14 cm. Date: End of 7th . H. H. H. Stratum E2a.2 ern. Stratum E 4. Trade amphora (Fig. D. has been interpreted as a manifestation of the Athenian export trade in the Mediterranean during the Archaic period. of rim fragment = 6 em. 5051-1. 1941-179. 5. D. No. 28. 5148-2.95:3) Rim fragment. They demonstrate that the Fikellura style directly followed the Wild Goat II style and partly overlapped with it. 27. Type: As No. No. H. Decoration: Unpainted. Decoration: Unpainted. Decoration: Unpainted.95:4) Rim fragment. Thus at Miletus fine ware pottery production did not stop in the early 6th century BCE but it was not exported. 5. = Reg. 5. and in the east on the Black Sea at Histria. Trade amphora (Fig. (mouth) = 14 em.93:12) Neck and shoulder fragment. 5035. Shoulder solid. Type: This sherd comes from an SOS amphora which gets its name from the varied zig-zag and circle motifs on the neck resembling the Greek letters 'sigma omikron sigma' (Jones 1986:706).95:2) Two fragments of rim and shoulder. 34701100. 26. in the northern Levant at Al Mina and in Egypt at Tell Defenneh (Johnston and Jones 1978:104-107.95:1) Neck and mouth fragment. Fig. TRADE AMPHORAE 25. 112-122). 23. Jones 1986:708-712). Part of '0' of the SOS motif on neck. H.reddish-brown paint. This type of amphora.6). = Stratum E2a. Trade amphora (Fig. 26 Trade amphora (Fig. Date: The SOS amphora was in use from the later 8th to the first half of the 6th century BCE. Stratum E2. Type: As No. Locus 1335. decorated on the outside in good Middle Wild Goat II style and on the inside in Fikellura style.6th century BCE and its decoration was not decadent. = 6. 5. Locus 1318. mostly in Italy and Sicily but as far west as Spain and Morocco. 26. Locus 1912. D. Parallels: SOS amphorae have been found outside of Greece at over forty Mediterranean sites.first half of 6th century BCE. Very important are fragments of 'bilingual' cups from Miletus. = 7.7 em. 5. 166. Type: Samian amphora of the early type with echinoid rim (Cook and Dupont 1998:164-165. (mouth) 13 ern. 29. = Reg.5 ern. (mouth) 13 cm. Reg. shoulder fragment = 15. Reg. Nos. 5. No. Petrographic clay analyses have demonstrated that the majority of the SOS amphorae indeed are of Attic origin but imitations were also made at Chalkis and other places (Johnston and Jones 1978:122-128. 235 . No. Locus 1914. Stratum E2a. supposedly produced in Athens for the olive oil export market.8 ern.

95: Amphorae and cooking-pots.::jl n I ( 14 15 "rr 16 13 Fig. 236 . 5.2 4 5 rj~ 6 7 dl ~. 8 9 W ~ )fJI \ n )lJI \ )(~J \11 c.

Trade amphora (Fig. H. shiny black (2. No. 6. 5. (foot) = 5. 3592-4 5035. Locus 1958. micaceous clay. 3335110. Reg. Reg. Decoration: Unpainted. Stratum E2a.5YR 5/6) . 5. = 6 em.6 em.95: AMPHORAE AND COOKING-POTS.95:9) Foot and wall fragment.FIGURE 5. 1. 2. Trade amphora (Fig. D. Reg.5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. 5. 5.93:14 30.5YR 5/6) micaceous clay. Cooking bowl 16. Stratum El H. TJ!l!. Trade amphora (Fig. 32.5YR 5/6) .first half of 6th century BCE. Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. Cooking-pot 15. Bluish-grey (5PB 5/1) core. 5. 3123-6. Stratum El. 7.e Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg.5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. 3. = 9 em.93:13 Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay.5 YR 2. Decoration: Unpainted. One horizontal groove at base of neck. = 3 em.95:5) Neck and shoulder fragment. Like No. three grooves on upper part of neck. 9. Locus 889. No. 1914 1958 879 823 889 874 Llll Kill 1309 1324 864 866 821 Red (2. 33. No. 8. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) core. 4. 5. 3309-3. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) surface.3 cm. H. No. D (foot) = 10 ern. Cook and Dupont 1998:170-174. 2. 5. D (neck) = 15 ern. Red (2. Locus 879. 23. lightly micaceous clay. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/8) clay. (foot) = 8 em. Decoration: Unpainted. No. 12. 2. unpainted. Locus 823. Red (2. 237 . light brownish-grey (1OYR 6/2) surface. 3552/100 3222 3228 315113 Locus 1335 1912 Stratum Description E2 E2a E2a E2a E2a El El El El El EI E2a El El E3 El See Fig. 31.5 em. Type: Milesian amphora (cf. D. Reg. Reg. No. Red (2. No. H.95:8) Foot fragment. = 3. D. Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. Grey (5YR 5/1)core with reddish-yellow (5YR 6/8) surface. Stratum El. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) lightly micaceous clay.brown (7. Blue-grey (5 B 511) clay. Decoration: Unpainted.5/1) paint. 34. 10.brown )7. H. 14. 13. = 3. 505114 1941/179 5148-2 5237-5 3309-3 3123-6 3335/10 3286-5 300112 3095/1 3437/100 3547/100. II. Trade amphora (Fig. Stratum El. Locus 874. Date: End of 7th . Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) lightly micaceous clay. Trade amphora (Fig. 5237-5. Amphora 5.95:6) Foot fragment. (foot) = 6 em.95:7) Foot fragment. 3286-5.7 a). Like No.5YR 5/6) highly micaceous clay. Figs. Decoration: Unpainted.

. PIs. Nos. these rims undoubtedly come from one-handled cooking jugs (chytrai) which have a tradition going back to the Sub-Mycenaean period (Reber 1991:20-56). Locus 1324. PI.1922. The Kabri fragments have a profile similar to that of an example from Chios (Boardman 1967:146 Fig. PI. No. No. 1412-1413.the Kabri sherd comes either from an oinochoe of Rasmussen's Type 3a. Surface partially blackened by fire. No. Sparkes and Talcott 1970:224-225. 3547/100. Nos. Fig. 99. common in the last quarter of the 7th century and in the first quarter of the 6th century BCE (Rasmussen 1979:78-79. 127. 29-31) or from an olpe of his Type 1. 3228/1. 3222. Cooking-pots (Figs. H. 1962:55. Its identification was secured by comparing the piece directly with fragments of Archaic Etruscan bucchero pottery in the collection of the Archaeological Institute of Heidelberg University. 136. H. D (mouth) = 21 cm. Cooking bowl (Fig.5 em. 66). 75. D = ca. Decoration: Unpainted. No. 39. 3095-1. 105). H. = 5. this is a bowl with an everted rim. 5. Trade amphora. 93. They are unpainted. However. Reg. 5.5 em. Surface. No. the fabric of the latter. According to its profile. The surface is partially blackened by fire. 91-92.4 em. Reg. 30 cm. 34371100.7 ern. Cat. (not illustrated) Shoulder fragment. R. 598). is very like that of the Kabri cooking jars and may indicate a southern Ionian origin. = 5. III. XII). No. 1961b:317.5 em. D (mouth) = 20 cm. Cat. 86-91). No. dated between the end of the third quarter of the 7th to the tum of the 7th . 153154 PI. Cat. 130-131. but their typological sequence can only be followed at Athens with the material from the Agora and the Kerameikos (Young 1939:189-190. = 6. 597-604. COOKING VESSELS 36 . Locus 866. Figs. D (mouth) = 20 ern. Stratum E 3. Q 10. 20. N 18. D (mouth) = 19 ern.203210. Parallels: East Greek examples have been published from the island of Chios (Boardman 1967:145-146.95:16. 38.7. 19411178. PI. Fig. 22:L 45-48. Type: Ware similar to Nos. 83. 94 No. 3552/100. Nos. Locus 864.40. 18. Fig. Reg. described as "loaded with large flakes of silvery mica".482. Reg. Locus 1309. Date: Late 7th century BCE 41. Stratum E1. PI. 493. = 4. 5.95:10-15. 37. KUbler 1970:192. 18. 1932. 155. 139. 300112. 371.95:15) 2 rim fragments. 145. 5. 42. H. H. Reg. Cat. Square Lll1. Square Kill. 116 PI. No. No.35. 5. Stratum E2a. D (mouth) = 20 ern. Etruscan bucchero (Figs. =8 cm. 36-40. PI. ( 238 . Nos. 7-8. 21-22.93:13) Rim fragments of imported Greek cooking vessels of coarse highly micaceous clay with rolled out rim. H. 94) and from Ephesos (Kerschner 1997:115. Nos.038. 36. 40.8 em. Stratum E1.93:14) The Etruscan bucchero sherd was a surprise. They are known from different areas in Greece. to those from Ephesos and to two examples from the Greek settlement at Tocra in Libya dated by Hayes to the late 7th/early 6th century BCE and attributed to a possible Cycladic origin (Hayes 1966:135-137. Reg. Stratum E1. 11. Type: Although no handles are preserved. H =. Nos.6th centuries BCE or shortly after (Rasmussen 1979:88-89. 136. = 6. Unpainted. Brann 1961a:123124. PIs. 512 Cat.

XIII). XV. In Israel. PI. 9. 10. 239 (Naveh 1962:108-109. 29. but the fragment example so far known from Israel. 85.PIs. 49 Fig.6) and several others have been 1986:198 with note 65). From Most of the classes of Archaic Greek pottery found at Tel Kabri are well distributed Mina in the north to the Negev in the south. Tel Batash (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:28) and Ashkelon (Stager 1996a:67*. Mezad Hasavyahu and Magness 1997:33. 12.3-3. Stager 1996a.1-12. 32:2 and 35:10). Fig. Fig. Achzib (Culican 1982:67. of this type in the southern This is very impressively (Gitin BCE found at Tel Miqne-Ekron Polychrome black jugs (Fig. PI. 14). . 5. 1997:32-33. 1978b. Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1986: 198.32. Ras Ibn Hani (Riis 1982:251-252). No Bird bowls were found at Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:41). 5. Fig. PI. 72.1-7.(Riis 1982:251-252). 67*). such 1980:151.Tyre (Coldstream and Bikai 1988:42. 1. Boardman 1978b:41 PI. Other classes are less known from the Levant. Mezad Hashavyahu (Naveh 1962 110-111. Nos. Fig. Fig. 6). 14. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:29. PI.35 Fig. Magness 1997:30 with note 56) and Tel Batash (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:30. Figs. XIII) and in Israel at Tell Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:151.23) and at a number of sites in Israel. 1993:936). PI. 8 Nos. 14.2. Figs.. Dor and Ashkelon Mezad Hashavyahu (unpublished. olive presses of the 7th century be due to the fact that this region had its own olive-oil by the numerous from Kabri is the only Levant may documented 1995:63-69). No. Fig. Waldbaum and Magness Ashkelon (Stager 1996a. 6g).ARCHAIC EAST GREEK AND ETRUSCAN POTTERY IN THE LEVANT in the Levant. 34 Fig.387-389. Akko. Reich 1989:230 Fig. PI.96:2) were unearthed at Al Mina (Robertson 1940:13. Fantalkin 2001:Fig.96:1) were frequent at Al Mina (Robertson Ras el-Bassit mentioned one example has been published (Courbin (Courbin 1940:14. PIs. Iliffe 1932:17. V. from Al 1980:47-48). 3). 5. 11-12. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:30. 41 PI. 22:1. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:27-28. Fig. Fig.5:7-8). of others at Dan. .1). following p. No. Fig 9. Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1978a:57. 35). Ashkelon (Pythian-Adams Fig. 2). XVI. 32. 1996b. 13. Fantalkin 2001:89-90.67*. Fig. for example. 251-255.1-2l 35. Tell er-Ruqeish (Waldbaumand Fantalkin 2001 :88-87. 10. 131 Nos. mentioned by Waldbaum 1994:59) and possibly at (Naveh 1962:106-107. . Sarepta (Koehl 1985:137-138. Figs.Tel 2001:90-94. . 5. 13. Dan (pakman 1992:236 Fig. Boardman 1980:48).97:1) are rare in the Levant. Tel (Gitin 1995:65.31 Jemmeh (Illiffe 1932:17.31 Fig. 1990:508). Fragments of four Bird bowls were unearthed at Tyre (Coldstream and Bikai 1988:43. 66*. East Greek trade amphorae (Fig. Tell Tel Malhata (Kochavi 1970:23 (below). Fig.96:4) are known in the northern Levant from Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:72. 69*. 86). Waldbaum and Magness':1997:29-30. 114-117. Fig. 28:7-14). .5.3.12). 5. cf.97:1) have been found at Al Mina. 'Ionian cups' (Fig.3-4). 6. 7 No. colour photo. IV:1. XX. 4. 1923:PI. 32. Boardman 1980:48. this vessel type was seldomly exported like examples found at Vroulia in Rhodes (Kinch .a). Fig. PI. 60.1-6. pls. Nos. Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:27-38). 4). IX-XI). Keisan (Briend and Humbert Tel Batash (Waldbaum (Naveh 1962:104-105. In general. Nos. Tell el-ijesi (Risser and Blakely 1989:93. 7. Nos. 5.Ras Ibn Hani.5. amphorae Fantalkin 84-85.31. 69*.4). 18). Mezad Hashavyahu Miqne-Ekron (Naveh 1962:106-107. 10-11.1). Bird bowls (Fig. 6. 7a-b). In Israel. fragments of three Bird bowls were found at Tell Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:125. both from Mezad Hashavyahu 1914:190-191. The reason for the rareness industry. 120. 5. 12) and have been found at. Tel Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:126. I-III. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33 with note 79). Wild Goat II style (Fig. 16. 32. 4. PI. Figs. V:a. No. PIs. Fantalkin 2001:75-79.96:3)pottery has been foundat Al Mina (Robertson 1940:8-16. 3). Fig. 2. SOS amphorae (Fig. PI. 11 Nos.10. 16. Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:43-69. 6. PI.322-323.1. No. 17. There are only two examples besides that from Kabri.

Bottom right) Cooking vessels. ! TEL DAN ~ • TEL KfABR' TEL KEISAN JELL JEMMEH • l. Bottom left) Wild Goat II style.96: Distribution of East Greek vessels in Israel: Top left) Bird bowls. 240 .lELL ER-RUQEISH'i TELL EL-HESI • T • ELL MALHATA Fig. 5.SAREPTA I. Top right) Ionian cups.

PI. 1978a. (right) Greek cooking vessels. in southern France. Reich 1989:230 Fig. Fragments of one or two cooking-pots have been found at Tel Batash in the Stratum II destruction debris of Area F (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31. 7. on p. Gras 1985:676-679. 30. the only known examples in the Levant were two fragments of kantharoi of Rasmussen's Type 3e from Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1973:27.1-2. PI. 36).34 Fig. in Sardinia.1. 12F.7-8. Fig.97: Distibution in the Levant of (left) SOS amphorae and polychrome black jugs. PI. PI. von Hase 1971: 10-12. It is striking that the Kabri fragment comes from a closed shape.TEl KABRI • I ! ~J Fig. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31-32. Fragments of up to 18 Greek cooking-pots have been identified at Mezad Hashavyahu (Naveh 1962:104-105. the Aegean islands. 10) and numerous sherds of this ware have been found in the Late Iron Age destruction debris and the earlier construction fill at Ashkelon (Stager 1996a:67*. 1). 60b. In this context. Fig. Fig. 63. Fig.eel' f . two bronze objects should be mentioned which have been seen as Etruscan imports in the Levant: a belt buckle in the British Museum said to have been found in Syria (Hall 1929/30: 107. 11). Fig. 8-9. Gras 1985 :672-674) and a bronze oinochoe of the so-called Rhodian type reportedly found 241 . Greek cooking vessels (Fig. Figs. the western coast of Asia Minor and in the Levant (see Rasmussen 1979:150-156. Fig. 1986:201. Before the find of the Kabri bucchero fragment. 64. 92. 6.31. 2). Fig. Fantalkin 2001 :86-87. 5.7-8. in eastern Sicily and at Carthage.Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31. Fewer have been unearthed on the Greek mainland. all in Israel. 12a-b.202 Fig. 1977-78.97:2) of this period are known from only a few Levantine sites. Rostovtzeff 1932:331-332. 58. Imports of Etruscan bucchero have been found in greater quantities in the western Mediterranean. 4. von Hase 1989:329. an oinochoe or olpe. since almost all Etruscan bucchero vessels found in the eastern Mediterranean are kantharoi (Rasmussen 1979: 155). 5.33 Fig.

The implication is that the Philistines no longer posed a threat to Babylon at that time. Thus the date of Ekron's destruction by the Babylonians falls most likely in the ten year-span of 604-595 BCE. Since the latest Greek pottery from Kabri cannot be more accurately dated than between the last decade of the 7th century BCE and the first half of the 6th century BCE. PIs. i. 2) has recently argued. the Berlin jug is most probably of east Greek manufacture (Jacobsthal 1929:210. Rostovtzeff (1932:332) has suggested that the belt buckle from Syria probably was brought by an Etruscan slave or associate of a Phoenician merchant. No texts exist recording the destruction of the fortress at Tel Kabri. Stager 1996a:72* with note 1. according to the text of Jeremiah 27 dated to 594 BCE describing a meeting in Jerusalem at which a rebellion against Babylon is planned. cf. In all probability it occurred during one ofNebuchadnezzar's campaigns along the Phoenician and Philistine coast at the end of the 7th and in the first two decades of the 6th century BCE (Wiseman 1985:21-41. and Philistia apparently came totally under their control. The few Etruscan objects from the Levant certainly do not provide evidence for direct Etruscan trade with the Near East.. 77 with note 3. 68-69. The excavators of both sites have convincingly attributed these destructions to the Babylonian invasions led by Nebuchadnezzar II. 1996b:58. The date of the fall of Tel Miqne (Ekron) is not as assured. in 60110BCE or even after 595 BCE when the chronicle ends (Na'aman 1992:43-44). it is impossible to establish during which of these campaigns the Phoenician fortress of Stratum E2 in Area of Tel Kabri was destroyed. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:37). THE DESTRUCTION OF THE FORTRESS OF STRATUM E2 Like the Phoenician pottery (Chapter 5:1V). The excavators of Tel Kabri contend that a small contingent of Greek mercenaries in the service of the Kingdom of Tyre was based in the fortress of Stratum E2 (Niemeier 1994. 2002). 242 . but without a representative from Philistia. these were single members of the elite. n. the conquest of Ashkelon is dated to the month of Kislev in the first year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II. it is improbable that the Babylonian destruction of Ekron happened after 595 BCE since. Shefton 1979:68 No. Courbin (1978a:58. 3.e. 108-109). in 603 BCE (Malamat 1979:208. According to the Babylonian Chronicle in the British Museum. I would agree with Gitin that the most convincing date is 604 BCE.4. Frey 1963:23. caption) thinks that the two Ras el-Bassit kantharoi were brought by east Greek intermediaries. one year later. and M. Gitin 1997:98-99). 1995.at Sidon which was acquired by the Berlin Museum from a Parisian art dealer (Furtwangler 1888:250 No. Jacobsthal 1929:205-206 No. Unlike the garrison at Mezad Hashavyahu.1-2) and identified as an Etruscan import by Gras (1985:676). to November/December 604 BCE (Wiseman 1956:28. Moreover. As Gitin (1998:276. the imported Greek pottery of Stratum E2a also shows close relationships to the assemblage from the destruction levels at the end of the Iron II phase at Ashkelon and Tel Miqne (Ekron) (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:27-33). when the Babylonians destroyed Ashkelon. A 23).1 and 4. The nature of the Greek presence in the Levant has been thoroughly discussed elsewhere (Neimeier 2001). It has been suggested that it was destroyed during the same campaign as Ashkelon (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:37-38). the map Stager 1996b:58). 10. Thus neither object comes from a secure context. driven from their homeland by many factors (Bettalli 1995 :26.

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