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THE 1986-1993 EXCAVATION SEASONS
Contributions by N. Angel-Zohar, R. Y. Bankirer, A. Cohen-Weinberger, P. Comale, C. Dauphin, M.Faerman, M. Fischer, L. Gershuny, S. Givon, Y. Goren, A. Horowitz, H. M. Khalaily, L. Kolska Horwitz, Z. Koren, G. Lehmann, O. Lemau, N. Liphschitz, O. Marder, H. Mienis, Y. Mizrachy, A. Nebel, B. Niemeier, W.-D. Niemeier, R. Oren, T. Oman, M. W. Prausnitz, A. Princivalle, P. Rosano, N. Scheftelowitz, S. Shalev, P. Smith, M. Tagliapietra, T. Tsuk, U. Yalcin. .
NA' AMA SCHEFTELOWITZ AND RONIT OREN
EMERY AND CLAIRE YASS PUBLICATIONS IN ARCHAEOLOGY TEL AVIV 2002
Area E lies on a small rectangular artificial hill measuring 100 x 150 m in the southwestern corner of the large Middle Bronze Age mound of Tel Kabri and rising some 12 m over it (Fig. 4.81). Until 1948 a small village called et-Tell occupied this area. The rich spring of <A a1-Fuwarah and the reservoir of <Ein Shefa' in (Birket Mefshukh) (Conder and Kitchener 1881:156, 158) lie to its northeast (Chapter 3). Excavation concentrated on the northwestern corner of the hill. The investigation, begun in 1986 under the supervision of Lilly Gershuny, was continued in 1989, 1990 and 1992 by Helena Pastor Borgonon. In 1993 this author supervised the excavations in Area E. Preliminary reports on the stratigraphy and finds for these seasons were published by the Kabri Expedition between 1990-1994 (Gershuny 1987; Kempinski 1987, 1991; Naveh and Kempinski 1991; Niemeier 1990, 1994; Pastor Borgonon 1990, 1991; Lehmann 1993).
Fig. 4.81: The mound of et-Tell showing the excavations in Area E.
Four main strata were discerned.
Stratum E1 E2 E3 E4 Date 19th century CE- 1948 Hellenistic period Iron Age" Iron Age" Iron Age" Description and Interpretation Village Some pottery finds from disturbed tombs Fortress Fortress Floors and debris
EARL Y BRONZE AGE
Pottery from this period was mixed into almost all lower Iron Age loci providing abundant evidence for occupation here at that time. However, no Early Bronze Age structures or layers were excavated.
MIDDLE AND LATE BRONZE AGE
These periods are represented by isolated sherds found in the debris below the lowest floors.
The earliest Iron Age levels are debris layers (Locus 871) that were identified in a very limited sounding under Floor 870 of Stratum E4 (Fig. 4.82). There is no floor connected with this debris. STRATUME4 Remains of Stratum E4 appeared only in a sounding under Floor 866 of Stratum E3 in Square L 11.1 A plaster floor (870) at 55.00-55.10 m was discerned but its relationship to the casemate walls was not clear. However, the underlying locus (871) is already under the casemate walls and it seems probable that Stratum E4 predates the construction of the fortress. No other evidence of this stage was found, perhaps because excavation did not continue below Stratum 3 anywhere else. Pre-8th century BCE pottery (Figs. 5J50, 5.70) is associated with this stratum. STRATUME3 The structural piers remains of Stratum E3 are those of a fortress with casemate l312/816, l3111l344) are massive constructions, walls (858, fieldstone fills. Partition 878, 87~, 882, walls (Fig. 4.83, 4.84). The 1.60 m wide, built with ashlar l332) form a number of '
Fig. 4.82: Schematic north-south section through Square Lll.
casemate walls (l343/863, and undressed compartments.
Casemate walls W816 and Wl311
of Stratum 3 are clearly cut in Square M9 by W131 0 of division (Fig. 4.85). only in Square
Stratum 2 (see below) providing us with a distinct stratigraphic LII at 55.90 m. Thus the earliest phase (E3c) is evident
Stratum E3 had at least three phases of floors (Fig. 4.85). Floor 866 was excavated is represented by floors at a level of about 57.00-15 by later building Metal fittings, activity m in the casemate rooms
only in one small room. The next phase (3b) 848, 876 and 883 in Almost (Locus all 873)
Squares Ll1, K-LlI2 was badly disturbed baskets century B.C.E.
and K13. The final phase (3a) at about 57.70 m (Loci 812, 813, 837, 1313, 1314) and the finds on and above them are mixed. Ottoman sherds together for a door, were found in the debris 3b and 3a contain probably with distinctive 8th-7th
of floor loci from phases pottery.
above the 3b floor 876. 1 Unfortunatelythe locusnumberwas not changedin 1990 so thatthe fmds from underthe floor are also numbered L. 866. It is howeverpossibleto isolatethe basketsL. 866 thatcontainedmaterialfrom StratumE4. 74
I~ It. I I I I I ..J 75 ...
N t M N t M 10 N t M 10 Fig. 4. E3b (centre) and E3c (bottom).84: Schematicplans of Strata E3a (top). 76 .
W1310 of Stratum E2 (on right) cuts W1311/W1312 of Stratum 3 (on left). Room 1977 in foreground. looking east.89). 77 . 4.88. Fig.85: Square M9. Fig.Fig. 4.87: Casemate rooms in Squares 0/4-8. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4.86. STRATUME2 Only the northwestern part of this fortress was excavated (Squares L-Q/4-10) (Figs. looking south.87.86: Looking west over Squares 0-P/7-8.
..§ A-." z o .f z 0 0 ii: eO 78 . 00 00 ._ -1- _L I -I- -I- -i- I -1- N ~ -\- _L I -t~ V1 '+-< 0 ~ ~ e .. -1- -1- -1- -1- -1- -:--------:-:3t . I -j- ~~IM~..~· ------% -1.. . . o ] ..
79 . A Destruction Layer with Restorable Pottery A L :---_ --I I 1 I I .SBm--+ B .. 4. Str..'I .89: Schematic plan of Stratum E2 with Sections A-A and B-B. E2b N6 + 06 o:"'__~d' P6 B Destruction layer with Restorable Pottery 04 05 06 07 Fig.
Fortunately many floors were still deep enough to survive this leveling. In Square L 10 it disappears in pits which were dug by stone robbers in the Ottoman period when the remains of Stratum E2 were leveled and built over by a village.90: W1340. 5. fragments of at least one large pottery basin and a concentration of shells. While most of the pottery from this sounding has parallels in both Strata E2 and E3. its architectural context is unclear. it is not clear to which stratum this wall belongs. a wall (WI993) was found with a narrow. The outer casemate wall (W1382+WI986) turns northward after running for 25 m east-west. 13. The rich pottery repertoire retrieved comprises restorable types such as jugs. This technique has been identified as a Phoenician architectural element (c£ Stem 1992:Fig. Assyrianizing types) appears only in Stratum E2. Wall W1339 does not continue further east into Square L 11 but may have been robbed out.g.1989. The beaten earth floor has an ash layer of up to 10 em on it. and found.91). The ash and the restorable pottery from the casemate floor may indicate a destruction layer. 5.1990.79:12.82:8-10) and represents a typical assemblage of the mid-7th century BeE. 4. Although the excavations reached the western slopes of the hill. Stratum E2b in order to examine the foundations of W1389 but digging stopped before reaching their base. It may be the eastern continuation of the Stratum E2 casemate system or a reinforcement in Stratum E3 between walls W816 and W1343. 1984) was exposed between walls W1331 and W897 in Square 0/5-6 (Fig. the casemate walls are 1. Fig.90).1992). In Square OP7 a sounding was made under Floor 1987 of fieldstone fill. The structural context of this wall. Since the foundation of W1339 was not excavated. The sounding exposed remains ofa wall (WI926) in Square P7. 2b) represented by distinct floors. Stratum E2. as does the floor. but thick layer of ash immediately north of it. Phase E2b A floor of a casemate room of Stratum E2b (Loci 1961. looking None of the foundations of the three casemate walls were west. About 10-15cm under the floor gravel bedding (Locus 1994) slopes downward from north to south.60 m wide. adjusting to the topography of the mound. 4. Only the northern part of this wall was excavated but as no floor connected with it was found. Other finds on the floor include iron objects. The burnt contents of a transport jar were also collected. Under the lowest surface reached in the sounding (1992). built with ashlar piers and undressed fieldstone fills (Fig. 2). Wall W1339 was built exactly between walls W816 and W1343. 80 .1991. some of it (e. which may be the remains of a burnt beam. 4. the northwestern corner of the casemate fortification system was not established. too remains obscure. Two rows of rooms were excavated between the three walls. Below this was a further series of surfaces (1988. as were several additional rooms south of the innermost casemate wall (W897). Two phases of use were discernible in most of them (2a. Note ashlar piers. early mortaria types or transport jars (Fig.As in Stratum 3.
such as ash and restorable pottery on the floors. In Square Q7 two floors. 81 . Fig.55 m which yielded a large number of pottery finds.42-59. 5.91: Room 1961. Destruction layer with restorable pottery.Room 1969 in Square P6 has a floor at about 59. Fig. Floor 1309 runs up to W1328 and joins floor 1987. 1). Excavations continued some 20 em under floor 1966 (Locus 1963) until the end of the season interrupted operations. There are some indications of destruction of Stratum E2b. possibly with the addition of some pit installations. in Square P7. The pottery types resemble the types in Stratum E2a. which may have originally covered both rooms. 4. Phase 2a The overall plan of this phase is virtually identical to that of its predecessor. Locus 1333 east of W1330 and Locus 1334 to the west of this wall may belong to Stratum E2b. 4. The entire central part of its plaster floor was destroyed by an Ottoman pit. Among the finds from. the undisturbed part of the floor is a fragment of a basket handle amphora with an engraved sign (Fig. Only parts of the floor of Room 1987 in Square O-P/7 were exposed during the excavation. It was violently destroyed resulting in small finds and large amounts of restorable pottery being left in situ. Pit 1936 was dug down from this floor. the debris was apparently leveled immediately after the destruction raising the floor level of Stratum E2a to about 20 em above E2b. This material is apparently either from a destruction at the end of Stratum E2b or it is a fill to raise the level of Stratum E2b to that of Stratum E2a.86:3).92: Room 890. South of Room 1987 is Room 1309. The floor slopes down southward rather steeply from W897 to W1328/W1949 which was built on it (Kempinski and Niemeier 1994:Fig. it was not established whether these floors are a continuation of floor 1309. Since the baulk between P7 and Q7 was not removed. Since the pottery repertoire of Strata E2a and E2b is very similar. looking east.
4. One of these had Cypriote letters incised on it (Fig.New floors were exposed in the casemate rooms.93). looking west. enclosed by W1310. 1983). 4. According to the pottery and the small finds. 1941 and 1948 were identified between walls W1331 and W897 in Square 05-7. W1340 and W1995. In Locus 1321. it may also be part of the same phase.87:2). Other finds from this destruction debris include an Egyptian amulet (Fig. 5. a fragment of a pottery vat used for purple dyeing (Chapter 16) and a broken storage jar with an incised Phoenician letter.93: Destruction debris in Room 1948. on which lay a great deal of pottery.95.5:8) was found out of context but probably belongs to Stratum E2. Fallen stones and broken mudbricks covered the floor of 1948 (Fig. Floors 890. apparently an aleph (Fig. 8. 82 . W1331 and W1342.87:1). Oren 1984:28. It is a type with a long socket and an elaborated rib in the middle of the blade which has many parallels in the late Iron Age (Moorey 1980:64).5:9) which may have been one of the weapons used during the destruction of the building.58 m. Also unearthed was an iron spearhead (Fig. many of them basket-handle amphoras from Cyprus.62 m. Fig.50-55m (Fig. and of Room 1948 at 58. A bronze trilobate arrowhead with socket (Fig. was traced in Square N8-9 at 58. 4. 10. This assortment of pottery and small finds does not rest immediately on the floors but in a layer of debris from 0.94). In the destruction debris of Square 04 was a body sherd with an incision of a jar (Fig. 4. They are defined and separated from one another by partition walls W899. Peleg et al.75). a floor. 8. It is therefore possible that material from an upper storey collapsed into the rooms below and that the upper floors were used for storage. Moorey 1980:64-66.53 m.96). 4.92).23). looking north. Recovered from the floors of these rooms was a large quantity of restorable transport jars. The floor of Room 890 lay at 58.00 m thick above them (Locus 1914) in which remains of plaster flooring were also mixed (Fig. Fig.30-1. Trilobate arrowheads have been connected with Scythians in the 7th century BCE (Cleuziou 1977: I93) but were also later used by the Achaemenid army. It was severely disturbed by robber trenches and pits cutting through the loci immediately above it. 5. Although Locus 1977 in Square 04 on the western edge of the mound between casemate walls W897 and W1331 is much lower than the above-mentioned floors of Stratum E2a. 5. 4. Finds on its floor comprise late 7th century BCE transport jars. that of Room 1941 at 58.94: Locus 1914. this deposit of pottery and small finds was filled into the casemate rooms during the destruction of Stratum E2a (Figs. 4. This type of arrowhead is well known from Syria and Palestine from the late 8th through the 4th centuries BeE (see Cleuziou 1977.
4. was identified at 59. 4. complete with threshold and door socket found in situ. 5. The room was entered from the south through a doorway. several in situ finds from the destruction of Stratum E2a were recorded. 4. South of this installation was a stone lined pit with an Assyrian bowl (Fig. W1949 and W1950 with a floor at 59.65-70 m (Fig. enclosed by W897. including complete transport jars and an oven in the northeastern corner of the room. the threshold survived. east of 1960. 4. East of this was a stone basin.Fig. 83 .97: Installations in Room 1960. is defined by W897. 4. Fig. Fig. looking south. looking east.96: Locus 1913. A complete transport jar was sunk slightly into the floor which was plastered around the opening in order to facilitate pouring liquids into it.69-73 m (Fig.76:15) in it. were a few installations. close to wall W897. W1950 and W1974. Fig. Room 1308. Although cut by a number of Ottoman pits. W1328. W1329.98).98: Destruction debris on the floor of Room 1308.95: Locus 1912. The floor of Room 1960 in Square P6.97). In the northern part of the room. As in Room 1960. 4. looking east. Several rooms abutting on the southern side of W897 were excavated.
Parallels to pottery finds would place this locus in either Stratum E2 or E3. Fig.South of Room 1960 there was probably a corridor (Locus 1963) but the area excavated is too small to clarify the plan in this part of the building. Large rectangular dressed stones found in situ in Square P8 in Room 1318 may have been the first steps of stairs leading into an upper storey (Fig. On the floor was a thick layer of ash. 4. this floor connects with adjacent floors of Stratum E2a. Unfortunately this area was so disturbed by Ottoman pits that there were almost no traces of Stratum E2a except for finds out of context. south of which were the remains of an oven. 4. Wall W1330 in Squares P-Q17 runs exactly towards the corner ofW1949 which. Among the pottery finds from Room 1318 were fragments of a Greek SOS amphora (Fig. Unfortunately a pit (Locus 1908 in Square P7) destroyed the northern part of W1330 and there is no evidence of any connection between these two walls. 5. On the same level as the first steps are remains of a pebble floor immediately south of the stairs. Material found in Locus 864 below this floor was also mixed. Among these finds was the fragment of a pottery vat used for purple dyeing (Chapter 16). Remains of additional floors were also found in Square Q7 west ofW1330 at 59. This corridor continued eastward into Square P7 where it may have linked up with a room between W1328. forms an entrance to Room 1308. LOCUS 855 IN SQUARE III In Square I II a floor (855) was found on the very edge of the hill. This floor is connected to W860.99). with W1328. The room immediately north of these steps may have been part of the staircase.3: 10). Its stratigraphic relationship is uncertain. It may have belonged to Stratum E2. W1329.94 m).99: Steps of a staircase in Locus 1318.52-63 m. but the finds here are mixed and disturbed by later material. 1309).45 m and west ofW1330 at 59. 84 . According to the level of both the lowest steps and the pebble floor (59. W1341 and W1330 (Loci 1305. This floor was apparently in use with the steps. This locus was disturbed during the Ottoman period by stone-robbing.
g. Akko became again the urban centre of an integrated. In the lower Ottoman levels there were also some stray finds of Hellenistic pottery (Chapter 5:IV). a tower like complex of the 10th and 9th centuries BCE at the edge of the Akko plain (Gal and Alexandre 2000). Kabri was also important for controlling the all-weather route on the slopes leading from Rosh ha-Niqra south to Akko and the Carmel. Kabri) points to an integration of the area into the Tyrian city-state and its economic system. Reallexikon der Assyriologie volume 1(1928)64. Kabri is situated exactly between the coastal plain with its emphasis on grain production and the hill-country which produced wine and oil. Olami 1974). many of the small Iron Age I villages were abandoned and new equally small villages were founded in the same hill and mountain areas. the importance of Tel Kabri was reduced to a small rural site during the Late Bronze Age . Thus. Kabri was a significant strategic point in the northern Akko plain. The territorial transformation of the Akko plain into an Assyrian province may have begun already in 701 BCE under Sennacherib and his campaign 2 Na'aman 1994.2001. 85 . when the Assyrian king reached the Akko plain (Katzenstein 1997: 174-178). probably ancient Kabul. where agricultural products from the hill-country might have been collected and stored before being shipped to places such as Akko or Akhziv. Bronze Age sites on a reduced scale and another situated on the hills and the mountain slopes in newlyfounded very small villages (Lehmann 2001). During Iron Age I the centralized urban system of the kingdom of Akko was replaced by two apparently independent settlement systems: one on the coastal plain using the Late . At Kabri this road was crossed by another route leading from the sea to Upper Galilee. floors and pits were identified. the settlement pattern of the Late Bronze Age collapsed at the end of this phase (Frankel 1986. According to archaeological surveys. The remains of a fortress in Strata E3 and E2 point to a special function of the site. Stem 1990). the Akko plain appears as Tyrian territory? In Iron Age II. Large amounts of Ottoman pottery were found (mostly out of context) among which were many fragments of Rashayya al-Fukhar painted jugs. cf.STRATUM El Remains ofa village from the Ottoman period were uncovered between 1986 and 1992 in Squares K-MlI013 (living floors) and in Square III (tombs). Only a few installations. The stratigraphy reflects the historical events in this part of the Tyrian hinterland. The end of Stratum E4 and the beginning of Stratum E3 might reflect political events following the campaigns of Tiglatpileser III in 734 or 733 BCE (Tadmor 1994). Ronen and Olami 1983. may have some connections with the campaign ofShalmaneser III in 841 BCE. around 850 BCE according to the pottery. At the end of Iron Age I and the beginning of Iron Age II the settlement pattern in the Akko plain changed.apparently restricted to the small hill of et-Tell. Kloner and Olami 1980. For Assyrian references to Akko see Parpola 1970: 11. especially at the end of the 8th and the 7th century BCE. but on different locations. Apparently the plain and the hills were newly organized and their agricultural production integrated into the economy of the city-state of Tyre. most of the Ottoman village in Squares N-Q14-8 was bulldozed before the excavations in order to reach the Iron Age levels. Lehmann 1995. Frankel and Getzov 1997. centralized settlement system (Lehmann 2001. In Assyrian sources. However. The transition from Stratum 5 to Stratum 4. SUMMARY After being one of the major urban centres in northern Palestine during the Middle Bronze Age. The large percentage of Tyrian pottery at these sites (e. but earlier such site and collection point was Horvat Rosh Zayit. all out of context. Another. In 1993 Mahmud Hawari excavated Ottoman remains in Square Q8 (Hawari 1994). 1994.
4. In particular. Whether this pottery reflects Assyrian presence or a local imitation of Assyrian pottery remains uncertain. 4. The casemate fortifications of Stratum E3 were abandoned and a completely new fortress with new casemate walls was built (Stratum E2). Cecchini 1995.ratumE2b. The consumers of Assyrian style pottery may have attempted to copy the lifestyle of the predominant power of the Near East. the Phoenician homeland. 1985. However.Esarhaddon and Baal of Tyre. Some parallel features may be found in Israel. Lamprichs 1995:173. Lancel 1995).100). Little is known about fortresses in Lebanon. 5. Again there was no lasting peace and only a few years after their agreement Esarhaddon laid siege to Baal's Tyre in 671 BCE (Na'aman 1994: 6 and 1995:109). Mount Meiron (Druks 1964) and at Horvat Rosh Zayit. The end of the Stratum E3 fortress probably came during Ashurbanipal's third campaign. None of the small fortresses on mountains in Upper Galilee (Frankel 1994:27) have a plan comparable to that at Tel Kabri.31). Gal 1993a:453). probably ancient Kabul (Gal and Alexandre 2000). The triple casemate wall system of Stratum E2a probably covered most of Area E (90 x 60 m) and shaped the rectangular form of et-Tell (Fig.100: Schematic outline of the Stratum E2 fortress. Lipinski 1992. The rectangular plan 86 . The fortress might have been in the hands of rebels and was destroyed by Ashurbanipal. or its colonies in the Western Mediterranean. According to the 675174 BCE treaty between. the succession of the three floors in Stratum E3 may reflect repeated assaults on the small fortress. Akko was apparently not included in the territory of Tyre. The plan of this large fortress on a mound is quite different from the few fortresses known in Upper and Western Galilee such as those on Mount Adir (Davis et al. Katzenstein 1997:289). detailed studies of Phoenician architecture and fortifications in particular are still lacking (Leriche 1992. While Assyrian artistic representations and historical texts indicate that the Phoenician centres were fortified. The political situation in Phoenicia remained unstable and in 677 BCE Esarhaddon conquered Sidon. Fig. The casemate system of Kabri may have been incorporated into the settlement as in Beersheba Stratum II where the walls of the houses abut on the casemate walls using them as part of their construction (Herzog 1997:Fig. when he marched against Tyre ca. 660 BCE (Pritchard 1955:300. The revolt that Ashurbanipal suppressed in 644 BCE could be connected to the end of S1. It was in the Assyrian interest to control the strategically important site of Kabri. Most of the Assyrianizing pottery found in Kabri dates to Stratum E2 or was found in the sounding in Squares O-P17 under Stratum E2b and may thus have started at the end of Stratum E3. the fortress was immediately rebuilt.against Tyre (Pritchard 1955:287). All these events may have had their impact on the stratigraphy of the fortress in Kabri area E.
The Architecture of Ancient Israel. 567) Paris. 1996. In: Le plateau iranien et l'Asie centrale des origines ala conque islamique. (Ph. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 44:41-51. La civilisation phenicienne et punique. Qashish. Tell el-Daba V. 1996. and Greenberg. The Iron Age fortress was never rebuilt.is similar to that of the forts at Samaria metropolitan limited size (Meshel resembles building complex area excavated and Tel Jezreel. 1989/1990. In: Katzenstein. Similar evidence was found at Tel Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:270against Syria laid siege 271). The site was resettled only in the Ottoman period. J. The contemporary of Fantalkin at Tel Kabri. Jerusalem. leveling what remained of the stones of the ancient buildings (Hawaii REFERENCES Amiran. 1993.D. ed. E. Cultural Diversity and Change in the Early Bronze I of Israel and Jordan. <Atiqot 3:1-24 (Hebrew). Ben-Tor. R. Excavations and Surveys in Israel 9:92. and Stech. Cecchini. Thus. (Colloques intemationaux du CNRS No. 4. Jerusalem. 389-396. 2) even if not actually by Phoenicians with Cyprus and the presence repertoire in 604 BCE (Stager The pottery from the final levels has many parallels was most probably a result of the campaigns with that from the destruction of Nebuchadnezzar 1996). Avia'am. 1985. of except for the similarity as at these sites. Architecture militaire. E. 1984.. Dan 1. Maddin.. A.R. but the in (see wall for the style (cf. does not have casemates to the main fortification evidence now the summary 2001) but the way the rooms are attached the evidence The construction with ashlar piers and fieldstone fills. pp. VII). Conder. S. Biran. H. Leiden. Braun. Braun. when a village was built here. Tel Aviv University) Tel Aviv. for close 5. M. pp. Fassuta. Muhly. 1994. Oxford. D. Yiftahel.. Bietak. it difficult although this is a small rural fort and not a in the Negev. Les pointes de fleches "scythiques" au Proche et Moyen-Orient. Tel Aviv 19:221-234.. the pottery and the historical Akko plain support the assumption contacts Ashkelon that the Iron Age fortress at Tel Kabri was built in a Phoenician from Tyre. Excavations at Horvat <U~a. 87 of Archaeological Excavations in the . M. The New Encyclopedia Holy Land Vol. D. Pottery finds provide evidence at Kabri in its final years (Chapter of Greek mercenaries Stem 1992:Fig. 1992. Biblical Dan. Israel (British Archaeological Reports International Series 249). 1994). 1881. Vienna. 60-67. civile et domestique partim orient. Biran. I: Galilee. H. 1991. In: Krings. Jerusalem. In the early Hellenistic the Iron Age architecture andre-using period graves were dug into its ruins. 1995. V. A. En Shadud: Salvage Excavations at a Farming Community in the Jezreel Valley. S. Bunimovitz. Jerusalem. eds. 1985. pp. the destruction to Tyre (Katzenstein and Palestine and occurred either as early as 604 BCE or later in 585 BCE. 1966. et aI. 187-199. Small rural forts are best known to draw analogies fortress of Mezad Hashavyahu at Tel Kabri makes 1992). Han. London. In: Stem. R. Early Bronze Age Dwellings and Installations. when the Babylonians 1997:328). 1200-1203.M. C. Davis. A Steel Pick from Mount Adir in Palestine. 1977. and Kitchener. 1983.Tor. dissertation. A. E. Early Arad I. A. The Survey of Western Palestine: Vol. S. Tel. D. The Middle Bronze fortifications in Palestine as a social phenomenon. Israel Exploration Journal 34: 191-194. T.H. Braun. A. 1978. Jerusalem. Cleuziou. ed. E. pp. R. 1992.. Ben. Ben-Tor.
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5. 1980:PI. 64:1a). Krater with a rolled rim (Fig. 78: 2). 5. 1980:PI.. 5. 3) with matt red bands which have parallels in Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al... 70. \ 4 ) -\ \ 7 I 10em. -. 5. 80:1) while another (Fig. 65:1-2.. 178 . 1980:Pls... """. 4) resemble vessels from Iron Age I strata at Tell Keisan (Briend et al.""""''''_'W<.67:5 characterize the Late Bronze Age/Iron Age I strata (G2D2) at Sarepta (Anderson 1988:PI... ~~~~"&Si """""""~---'- ) 3 5 -l ') I l 2 ) .66fr-t5) are typical for Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al. .. Tell Abu Hawam (Balensi 1980:PI.67:6 is a lamp similar to some from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al.. 81 :14). Fig. 50:CP-I0a). The deep krater-Iike bowl with a sharp carination (Fig. 74:3. 39:28).66:1) and Pilgrim Flasks (Fig.67:3. 66:6a).. 5. it is very similar to an Iron Age I vessel from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al.. 1980:PI.. 64:6). 17).. 76:4).. 5. IRON AGE Gunnar Lehmann IRON AGE I Iron Age I pottery was relatively rare and found mixed with pottery from other periods..68:1 was found at Dor.66:}6) may be compared to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. 5. 79:7. 71:1. 1980:Pls. 6 Fig.>.66: Iron Age I pottery from Area D.67:2) with a knob handle resembles a bowl from Tell Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. 11: 160) and Tyre Stratum 13-14 (Bikai 1978: Pis. 47 lower photo. second vessel from the right). 1980: PI. 35:6. Cooking-pots like Figs..~. . apparently from the destruction layer of the late 12th or early lIth century BCE (Gilboa 1998:413).6Ji*1. 1980:PI. 37:18.67: 1 and one not illustrated) have parallels from Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et at. 5.. out of stratigraphic context.68:2. . 5. 5. Identical decoration on a closed vessel like Fig. 1980:PI. .. Most typical are the Phoenician Monochrome juglets (Fig. where it is identified as 'Sikil pottery' (Stern 1994:Fig.. 5.V. Other kraters (Fig. 5. 68:6).... 1980:Pls. 5. Another similar vessel was found at Tell Keisan Stratum 9c (Briend et al. Two bowls (Fig. 78:3-4. 66: 15.~ might be a Middle Bronze Age form. Although a krater or cooking-pot (Fig.
cf. g = gross/coarse grits «0. interior 5YR7/6. and interior 10YR8/3. temper: fm M. No. temper: m M. 1980:66:6a).67: Iron Age I pottery from Area D. 179 . Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. Keisan Stratum 9a-b (Briend et al. core grey. Keisan cf. 2a). Keisan with knob cf. 17).0. interior 10YR7/3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Type Juglet Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Cooking-pot Reg. 60712089 752/2609 255111 9198/1 607/2077 255112 Locus 607 751 727 1575 607 727 Description cf. interior 5YR7/6.66: IRON AGE I POTTERY FROM AREA 02 No. FIGURE 5. 2. 9a-b (Briend et al. 1980:66: 15. 5YR7/6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type Bowl Bowl Krater Krater Cooking-pot Lamp Reg. cf.FIGURE 5.5YR6/6. temper: m M. core 5YR7/6.6 mm). Keisan Stratum handle. 1980:64: la. temper: mg M. Stratum Stratum 9c (Briend et al. temper: mg M. 9a-b (Briend et al. Red paint lOR5/6. 5. 5YR7/4. M = mineral temper. 2 In the tables accompanying the figures temper size is abbreviated as follows: f= fine grits (>0. } 3 f---d 2 -------ill II 4 lOcm. interior 2.2 . m = medium grits (0. 6 Fig.5YR6/6.67: IRON AGE I POTTERY FROM AREA 0 No.6 mm). No. 9c (PI. 1980:65:2). core grey. 1980:79:7). core grey.2 mm). 5403/3 5392/4 3304/1 3219/6 5378/2 3433/3 5423/2 Locus 1941 1973 0877 0864 1973 1313 1970 Description Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior 5YR7/6. 78:3-4). Colour description follows the Munsell colour charts.
Closed vessel with bands and concentric circles. interior 5YR6/4. 5. temper: m M.5YR7/2. interior lOYR7/3. temper: m M. Same type as Fig. Closed vessel with concentric circles. temper: fM. core 10YR7/3. temper: m M. White slip outside and red paint. Cypriote White-Painted. temper: fm M.5YR7/6. 9a-b).68: Iron Age 10cm. Closed vessel. White slip outside with red and black bands. Briend et al.68: IRON AGE No.5YR7/2. Closed vessel with painted concentric circles. Red paint. core 5YR6/6. temper: fm M. 84: 259 (Abu Hawwam Stratum III). cf. 5. interior 5YR6/6. core 5YR6/4. Exterior 5YR6/6. Exterior 5YR6/4. cf. interior 10YR7/3. White-Painted II.82:8-10. temper: mg M. core 5YR7/6.5YR7/2. core lOYR8/4. 1980: PI. Bands in light greenish wash and black paint.5YR8/4.5YR6/6. interior 2. 47: 3. Exterior 10YR8/3. temper: fM. Exterior 2. temper: mg M. interior 2. Cypriote WhitePainted V. temper: fM. Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI.5YR7/2. Exterior 5YR7/6. temper: mg M.5YR7/2. bands in black paint. core 2. core 5YR7/6.5YR7/2.5YR7/2. bands in black paint. 61: 12 (Keisan Niv.5YR8/4. I I000o pottery from Area E. interior 5YR7/6. Early Phoenician Bichrome. core grey. 19411177 3310/2 5402/5 5403/4 3388/8 3585/100 5346/2 3623/2 1 I Juglet 3145/3 0830 12 Transport jar 5443/100 1972 180 . black paint. interior lOYR8/4. Black paint. black paint. Bikai 1978a: PI. 542617 5392/10 POTTERY FROM AREA E Locus 1941 1973 1941 0876 1968 1941 0888 0890 1970 1338 Description Exterior 2. Exterior 5YR7/6. White slip. Exterior 7. interior 7. FIGURE 5. interior 2. Cypriote White-Painted. core greyish. cf. No. core 2. Gjerstad 1948: Fig. Red brown paint. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type Jug let Pilgrim flask Pilgrim flask Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Krater or Jug Krater or Jug Jug Reg. Exterior and interior 5YR7/6 and white. Exterior 2. core 2.5YR7/2. Closed vessel. Exterior 7. 26:11. Tyre Stratum 10-2.3 4 5 11 7 o Fig. black paint. black painted wavy line.
type SJ-9. 1987:37-38) which has a relatively short flaring rim. :PI. They are comparable to examples from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Pls. Bowls like Fig. has a simple almost vertical rim. it covers the period between ca. 5. 26: 1-4. 23 :603). 16a:18-25. These bowls range in diameter from 18-25 ern. STRATUM E4 BOWLS The simplest type of bowl in the Phoenician pottery repertoire (Fig. Tyre Stratum 6 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 23 :3). Stratum 13 (ibid. They are similar to bowls from Keisan Stratum 10-11 (Brient et al. One of the most common bowl types found at Kabri has a flaring rim and was variously decorated in different periods. 458. :PI.). 5. 600. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's Kouklia Horizon. Sarepta. Another type (Fig. Stratum 10-13 (Bikai 1978a). :PI. the first of which was built in the 9th century BCE (Stratum E4) and the last probably destroyed in 604 BCE. 18a:4). Bikai 1978a:PI. 850-750 BCE. 1980:PI.69:1. Stratum 5. ca. :PI. Stratum 7 (ibid. (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 4 nos. Stratum 8-9 (ibid. 3). Sarepta C2-F (Anderson 1988':type SJ-12A) and Tyre Strata 4-14 (Bikai 1978a:45-46 . 7). Stratum DI-E (Anderson 1988) and Tyre. 18a:16) and are dated to the 9th century BCE. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI.IRON AGE II During the excavation of Area E (Chapter 4:IV) large amounts of pottery were found in situ in a series of fortresses.:PI. Those found in Stratum 4 are Bikai's first sub-type (1978a:26 Fine Ware Plate 2. 494-496. 5. 6). 456. 1980:PI. 1050-850 BCE. 81: 15) and Tyre Stratum 17 (Bikai 1978a:PI. l1a: 2. 33:12-13). 32:10) and Tyre Stratum 4. 29:4). :PI. The body is sack-shaped. Parallels come from Cyprus ca. 48:4).70:11). Sarepta Stratum C2-F (Anderson 1988:PI. x-15c). 1980:PI. 1980). 470. Stratum Dl (ibid. Among the few diagnostic sherds are various bowls (Figs.69:6 with a carinated shoulder. Many of the vessels of this last phase were complete or restorable. 1980:PI. Stratum 7-11 (Briend et at. 9). :PI. 49:11). Stratum 7 (ibid. 64: 97) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 47:type x-15a. 33:2. 511. Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. Of special significance for the study of the Iron Age II in northern Israel is the wide range of vessels found in situ in the 7th century BCE destruction levels (Stratum E2) which represent pottery of this period. 31: 1. 513). Tell Keisan Stratum 6-7 (Briend et at.:PI. The parallels connect the finds from below Stratum E4 with 11th-9th century strata at Tell Keisan.69:2-3). 181 . 19:9-16). 53: 10) and Tyre Stratum 6 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 1980:PI. Parallels come from Tell Keisan. 49: 2). 20 em in diameter. Stratum E (ibid. ca. sloping profile ending in a slightly thickened inverted rim. There were 114 examples. 5). 5. 22:595. a flat or convex base and reserved red slip decoration (Fig. 41 :9). Stratum 12 (ibid. Stratum 11 (ibid. Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et at. 31:12. A limited sounding below Stratum E4 produced only a small quantity of pottery.3% of all diagnostics. :PI. 5. cooking-pots (Fig. 5. 18a:5).70:13-19) and transport jars (Fig. Stratum 10-2 (ibid. Thus.:PI. the lIth and 8th centuries BCE. 5.5). fragments and almost complete forms making up 4. This type was in use over a very long span of time and fabric and surface treatment vary in different periods. Stratum 10-1 (ibid. Transport jars from this context have a simple vertical rim rising from a sloping shoulder. a simple everted rim and red slip covering the rim inside and the complete vessel outside already occur in Iron Age I.69:4). triangular and sometimes has a slightly bulbous base. Inside and outside are thin bands of black paint.69:1) has a flat base and an almost straight. (Briend et al. 50:3.
60:1. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS One rim fragment of what may be a 'Hippo Jar' (Fig.69:15 is similar to Fig. 24:2). 5. Transport jars with a small triangular rim on a sloping shoulder (Fig. 12: 246.70:3) begin in the second half of the 9th century BCE and continue until the second half of the 8th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:types 243. 15:19-20. 5.71:9 of Stratum E3. Their diameter is ca. 850-750 BCE (Bikai 1987:PI. but the rim is different. Fig. 272). 31 :15) and Tyre Stratum 2-4 (Bikai 1978a:33-35. 5.47:8. table 8A.70:1-2) usually has a small bulge at the base.69:5) have an everted rim which is somewhat thicker than the body wall. p.69: 18). Small juglets with a ring-base. 1980:Pls. 34. Sarepta Stratum B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type B-3A) and Tyre Strata 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:PI.70:12) occur since the second half of the 9th century BCE in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. 5.25) and Stratum 5 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Juglets with a short mushroom rim (Fig. 39. 17 em. 5. 265. Similar bowls come from Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. 190-206) and Tyre Stratum 4-9 (Bikai 1978a:type jug 8. 52: 8) and Stratum 8 (ibid. 23:611). 18a:7). 74: 179). It resembles a jug without slip from Cyprus dated to ca. 39). 18a:10) date this type to ca. A jug with a high neck and a trefoil rim (Fig. It can be compared to examples from Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 850-750 BCE. Parallels are found at Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. 10-12).70:4-5) begin in the middle of the 8th century BCE and continue to the beginning of the 7th century BCE in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Pl. 55: 9). 177-178). PI.70:7) is red-slipped and burnished. PI. table 8A.f. 14:2-5. Sarepta E (Anderson 1988:PI. 268. Parallels from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Nos. type 244) in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. 93:2 type juglet 2).8) and Megiddo Stratum H-3 = Megiddo IVA (Finkelstein et al. The first two have squared or thickened everted rims while the rims of the others are mushroom-like. 1960:PI.70:9) was found out of its original context. 5. 175. 5. 9:168-169. 2000:310. This is a bichrome painted holemouth krater which resembles those from Rashidiya (Lipinski 1992:PI. 5.Other carinated bowls (Fig. Four sub-types can be distinguished at Kabri. They are dated from the end of the 10th to the first quarter of the 9th century BCE. 5. jug type 8. 4b) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990 :PI. Their development has been discussed in detail by Bikai (1978a:37-40. a neck ridge and a single handle are typically Phoenician.f. Juglets with a squared or thickened everted rim (Fig. and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. JUGLETS AND JUGS A typical juglet of the 8th and 7th centuries BCE (Fig. 5. 5. 33:3. 1987). 5. 14:383) and another from Tyre Stratum 9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 5:14-17.69:16-17 is a large bowl with an incurved rim which is sometimes painted red. p. The handle rises high above the low rim. Such jars have been discussed in detail by Gal and Alexandre (2000:44-48) in their publication of the Phoenician fortress of Rosh Zayit. 182 .:PI. 11. The painted decoration of Fig.70:10) was found in Stratum E4 and two more in Stratum E3. 5.69:7-14. No parallels were found for bowl types Fig. Fig. but may continue somewhat later as at Hazor Stratum VIII (Yadin et al. 20:8). Sarepta 01 (Anderson 1988:type OJ-2a). cf. 92:jug 4). 43:8). PI. 69: 141-142).6. Sarepta CI-C2 (Anderson 1988:type 13A) and Tyre Stratum 10-1 (Bikai 1978a: PI. 82:242) and Tyre Stratum 4-9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. Another fragment (Fig. 1980:PI. KRATERS Only one such vessel was found in Stratum E4 (Fig.
This type has many variants. 28: 6). 3. 27:9. CYPRIOTE IMPORTS White-Painted IV jug (Fig. Gal and Alexandre 2000:40-42) Comparisons come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4-11 (Briend et al. 33:10). SUMMARY Most paraIlels to the pottery assemblage from Kabri Stratum E4 are either found in the Akko plain or at Tyre and Sarepta. 6. These vessels are dated according to stratified comparisons from other sites which are contemporary with Stratum E4 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence at Tel Kabri. 3) long pinched. These sub-types have no chronological or regional significance in the Akko plain during Iron Age I through Iron Age IIC. 5.70:20). 11). Sarepta Stratum F (Anderson 1988:PI. 750 BCE). 5. 17:2. One may distinguish between triangular rims with: 1) horizontal rim. One example of this type was found in Stratum E4. 5. . Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's 'Salamis Horizon'. They have a wide open body with a rounded base. 5. Cooking-pots with triangular rims are very common in Stratum E4 (Fig. the walls are either concave or sloping inward to the rim (see Gal and Alexandre 2000:40-42). 950-830 BCE).70:6) (cf. 12:27. 5.70:20) has a small edge on the rim immediately under the lip.70:13-19) but continue in Stratum E3 and even into E2 (Figs. One example (Fig. Gjerstad 1948 Fig. The type occurs only once at Kabri. 5. 5. 52:13. ca. there seems to have been close contacts between Kabri E4 and Tyre Stratum 4-12 (Bikai 1978a:9th century BCE to ca. 81:8). Their value for dating pottery assemblages is thus limited. A somewhat similar vessel was found at Rosh Zayit (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. Stratum E4 also has parallels with pottery from Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990).12:5) and Sarepta CI-Dl (Anderson 1988:type CP-IA). 5. 77:1-4.23:13-15. Above the carination. where 33. 183 . They can be compared with vessels from TelI Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. The examples at Kabri are clearly made of a cooking-pot fabric. 9).70:3-5. 35:1. 34:10.12:5) where it is thought to be a krater. The distribution of each echoes that of the group as a whole (Hunt 1987: 183). Thus.70 :21). 33.73:3-5. 55:1-3. 63. horizontal rim and 5) a short pinched rim (Hunt 1987:Fig. 5. Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. Cooking-pot types with flat vertical rims become more frequent in the late 8th and 7th century BCE. 30:3) and Tyre Stratum 2-10 (Bikai 1978a:PI. overlapping rim. The pottery figures for this stratum include also some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context (Figs.COOKING-POTS Two main groups of cooking-pot types were distinguished: pots with triangular rims and pots with a ridged or 'modeled' rim.4) long pinched. occurring first in the 12th century BCE. 5. 850-750 BCE. 2) overlapping rim. There are several sub-types of cooking-pots with triangular rims. 6. The body may be deep or shallow and has usually a sharp carination. Especially important for dating are the bowls with painted bands (Fig. 5. 1980:PI.3% of Stratum E4 types have exact parallels. the transport jars (Fig. Tell Keisan Stratum 6-7 (Briend et al. 18. one in E2 and 2 were unstratified. 850-750 BCE. 46:1-2. 1980:9th century BCE) and Sarepta Stratum C2-Dl (Anderson 1988:ca.69:2). Stratum E4 may thus be dated to ca. 5.84:3-4).69:6. This cooking-pot type had a long life-span. No parallels were found for a cooking-pot with a triangular rim (Fig. 1980:PI.70:12-13) and the cooking-pot rims (especially Fig. 49:9.
FIGURE 5.69: POTTERY OF STRATUM E4
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Type Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Krater Reg. No. 3251112 325112 3228/2 3251/7 3257/1 5392/9 3257/8 3256/2 325114 3242/1 3253/6 3253/3 3242/2 Locus 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 1973 .0866 0866 0866. 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 0866 1958 0866 0866 Description Exterior 5YR6/6, interior 5YR7/3, core 5YR7/3, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/4, temper: m M, black paint. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core grey, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/2, temper: m M. Exterior 7.5YR8/6, interior 7.5YR8/6, core 7.5YR7/8, temper: fM, red slip lOR5/8. Exterior 7.5YR7/4, interior 7.5YR7/4, core 7.5YR7/4, temper: fM. Exterior 5YR6/8, interior 5YR6/8, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Bichrome? Exterior 2.5YR6/4, interior 2.5YR6/4, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior 10YR8/3, interior 10YR8/3, core greyish, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/6, temper: fm M. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M, red paint. Exterior 5YR7/6, interior 5YR7/6, core 5YR7/6, temper: m M, black paint. Exterior 5YR 7/6, interior 5YR 7/6, core 5YR 7/6, temper: fm M, red paint 10R5/6. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: m M, RSB 10R5/6.
3251/3 5237/1 3257/4 3251/1
4 5 3
19 20 21 ~(---
Fig. 5.70: Pottery of Stratum E4 and from debris below it.
FIGURE 5.70: POTTERY OF STRATUM E4 AND FROM UNDERLYING DEBRIS
No. I 2 32 43 5 6 7 8 93 10 Il' 12 13 14 15 16' 17 18 19' 20 21 I 2 3 Type Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Jug Jug Juglet Juglet Jar Transport jar Transport jar Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. No. 3253/2 3232/1 3290/1 3338/8 3380/6 Locus Description 0866 0866 0873 0889 0888 0866 0855 0866 0803 0866 0871 0866 0866 0866 0866 0871 0866 0866 0871 0866 0866 Exterior 10R6/4, interior IOR6/4, core 2. 5YR6/4, temper: fm M Exterior IOR5/6, interior 10R5/6, core 10R5/6, temper: m M white grits. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fine mineral. Exterior, interior and core 7.5YR7/6, temper: fin M, decoration: red slip lOR5/6. Exterior 5YR7/8, interior and core 5YR7/4, temper: fM, decoration: bichrome red and black. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M, decoration: brown paint. Cypriote White-Painted III. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior IOR5/4, core grey, temper: fine mineral. Exterior 2.5YR6/4, interior 2.5YR6/4, core 2.5YR6/4, temper: m M white grits. Remarks: cf. Tyre Stratum V, Bikai 1978: PI. 18a: 10 (jug type 8). Exterior 2.5YR6/6, interior 2.5YR6/6, core grey black, temper: m M. Exterior 7.5YR7/6, interior 7.5YR7/6, core 7.5YR7/2, temper: mg M. Exterior 7.5YR6/4, interior 7.5YR6/4, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior IOR4/4, interior IOR4/4, core 10R4/4, temper: mg M white grits. Exterior 2.5YR4/4, interior 2.5YR4/4, core 2.5YR4/4, temper: mg M: Exterior black, interior black, core black, temper: mg M. Exterior 10R5/3, interior IOR5/3, core grey, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR4/1, interior 5YR6/3, core grey black, temper: black & white grits & mica Exterior 5YR5/4, interior 5YR5/4, core 5YR5/4, temper: mg M. Exterior 2.5YR5/4, interior 2.5YR5/4, core 2.5YR5/4, temper: mg M. Exterior 5YR7/4, interior 5YR7/4, core 5YR7/3, temper: fm M. Exterior 2.5YR5/4, interior 2.5YR5/4, core 2.5YR5/4, temper: mg M.
321111 3257/5 3027/1 3228/4 3262/3 325118 3248/2 3239/3 3228/1 3262/4 3226/3 3246/1 3262/2 325115
Debris under Stratum E4 Stratum E3 Stratum E2
STRATUME3 BOWLS Only one example of a simple bowl with a flaring wall (Fig. 5.71:1) was found at Kabri. This type is very common in Tyre, where it was found in Strata 1-10, being most frequent in Strata 4-6 (Bikai 1978a: 23-24, type plate 8; PIs. 10:4,7; 16a:22-25; 18a:l; 19:9-12; 23:3). A flat plate or bowl (Fig. 5.71 :2; 5.76:4) has a sloping profile and a simple rim. It occurs in Stratum E3a and continues in Strata E2a-E2b. This vessel is very common in late-8th and 7th century BCE contexts on the Phoenician coast at Tyre in Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 1:13), Stratum 8 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 19:10 [similar]), Stratum 9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 19:16 [similar]) and in Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. 20:519 [similar]). In Israel it is found at Dan Stratum II (Biran 1994:Fig. 167:1) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 73: 174 [similar]). A sub-type of the bowls with flaring rims (Fig. 5.71:3) which continues in Stratum E2 (Fig. 5.76:12) has a flat or convex base, reserve-slip and incised decoration on the outside of the base. Parallels come from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 3, Nos. 457, 462-469, 493, 510, 514), Sarepta CI-Dl (Anderson 1988:type F-IA), Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 63:76, 79, 81) and Tyre Strata 2-5 (Bikai 1978a:type Fine Ware Plate 2). Two bowl rims (Fig. 5.71 :4) seem to be a local imitation of the Black-on-Red Ic type at Horvat Rosh Zayit Stratum IIa (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. 3.88:16, cf Fig. 3.77:14 Stratum IIb). A carinated bowl (Fig. 5.71 :5) has no exact parallel.
5.81 :7-9). Bikai 1978a:PI. 5. 2. The rim and profile of Fig.71:9 is very similar to one from Al Mina Stratum 5 (Lehmann 1996:PI. This sub-type seems to be the older one (Bikai 1987:49-50). Fig. 1. Rosh Zayit Stratum lIb (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig.71:8 may be a local imitation of Black. They are comparable to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. 3. 72: 167). A simple bowl (Fig. With a narrow conical neck (cf. 393-406. 187 . While several were found out of their original stratigraphic context. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et aZ. but no parallels could be found. 379. Lehmann 1996:376 form 85).78:16) and Tyre Stratum 3-4 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 6. It is characterized by an incised ridge on the outer edge of the rim and is usually red-slipped. 5. A krater with grooves on the rim (Fig. 1987:4950. 5. 391.A deep red slipped bowl (Fig. lla:19) and Stratum 3 (Bikai 1978a:PI. A parallel was found at Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. At Tyre this type of plate was found in Strata 2-5 (Bikai 1978a:29 fine ware plate 7). 30: 1) and Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 16a:18-37). Several bowls (Fig. 1980:PI. Chapman 1972:Fig. but larger. 6:16) and Stratum 8 (Lehmann 1996:PI. Bowl Fig. 16 type 86d/l). 33) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 750-680 BCE (Bikai 1978a:29. 375). With an elongated. With a slim conical neck that begins in the 8th century BCE (Bikai 1978a:36. 5.71: 13 is very similar but has a red slip. 5. Bikai 1987:PI. 10:23-25. 1980:PI. 31-34:Nos. 370.71:6) has almost vertical walls which turn with a carination into the base. The deep carinated bowl or krater (Fig. There are three sub-types of these jugs of which 13 fragments were found at Kabri.on-Red bowls. 14:11). The flat bowl or plate Fig.71: 14) is one of the most typical Phoenician fine ware plates of the 8th and early 7th century BCE.7) were found. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 5. 3. cf. 1980:PI.11 :3).71:1. 1980:PI. 3.71: 15 are somewhat similar. KRATERS A large bowl or small krater (Fig.72:36). 5.71: 16) with red and black bands on the shoulder has parallels at Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et al. The flat plate (Fig. Qasmiya. 5. 15-16. 5.121:23) although it is larger and has a different rim. This type is very frequent at Tyre occurring in Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 5. 17:85c/2). typologically this type should belong to Stratum E3 based on parallels from Al Mina Stratum 6-7 (Taylor 1959:Fig. 6. The parallels date it to ca.71:17) has a parallel from Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a: PI. 14 no. Comparisons date this type to the end of the 8th and the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:383 form 122). 18a:3) and Strata 8-9 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 74:182). lla:18). 30 :8). Similar vessels come from Al Mina Stratum 6-7 (Taylor 1959:Fig.72:1-4.71: 19) resembles an Assyrianizing krater which becomes more common in Stratum E2 (cf. 32: 316). 5. but typologically seems to belong to Stratum E3. 53 :8).71:7) is similar to Fig. 5. 20:1). Stratum 5 (Bikai 1978a:PI. 19:9-16). Fig. typologically they belong to the assemblage of Stratum E3. A similar krater came from Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. JUGLETS AND JUGS A number of Phoenician red slipped jugs with conical necks (Fig. Ras al-Bassit phase 7 ensemble F (Braemer 1986:No. out of its original context. 15: 19-20). 5. The fragment from Kabri was found in Stratum El. concave neck (for an example see Tyre Stratum 9. Although out of its original stratigraphic context.71: 11-12) characterized by a rim that is drawn outward were found in strata E3 and E2. Pis. 5. 40:9) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. They occur between 850-750 BCE in the Cypriote 'Salamis-Horizon' (Bikai 1987:PI. for further sub-types and references see Lehmann 1996:416-418 types 300-307). 41 :3) and Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig.
6:13).72:19) has many parallels in the 8th century BCE.72:20) resembles an example from Dor Area A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. 2002). 19:2. 52:21). STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS 'Crisp-ware' transport jars (Fig. A detailed typology of these jars was recently developed by Ayelet Gilboa (1995: 10-12). 22:3). 1980:Pl. Gjerstad 1948:Fig. 750-680 BCE) (Culican 1982:Tf. 8th century BCE). Fig. dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE (Niemeier 1990:xxxv-xxxvi. 5. Galilean storage jars (Fig. There is one example of ajar (Fig. 1.6:6) and Hazor IX (Yadin et al. Stager et al.5YR6/8). 5. At least some of these vessels were found in funerary contexts but may have been in secondary use. 1960:PI. GREEK AND CYPRIOTE IMPORTS There are few imports in StratumE3. for example from Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig.73:9-11) in Stratum E3 is noteworthy. Egypt and the Aegean. Cyprus. 5. 1. 87:6) date this fragment to the second half of the 8th century BCE.122:3). one in Stratum El) and one single-strap handle (from Stratum E2a). Gjerstad 1948:Fig. Whether such decorated vessels were indeed used for transport jars or had a ceremonial character is not clear. 5. 1960:PI. The simple. 1980:PI. They have a wide distribution (Lehmann 1996:433-435. 11:1. 5. One very similar was found at Rosh Zayit Stratum I (Gal and Alexandre 2000:Fig. The fabric is of medium mineral temper and reddish yellow (5YR7/6) with a grey or light red core (2. 45:17). 5. 386-387) and establish contemporaneity between assemblages from Turkey. The presence of simple cooking-pot lids (Fig. COOKING-POTS For cooking-pots with triangular rims (Fig.72:21) have many parallels in the 9th and 8th centuries BCE. 8ab). 90:296) and Tourabi-Tekke cemetery (ca. 3. types 383. 56:1). There was also a small White-Painted III-IV barrel juglet (Fig.Both the single strap and the double-strand handle occur at Kabri (Bikai 1978a:36). The complete transport jar (Fig. 1994:Fig. The Cypriote imports include the neck ofa Plain White IV amphora (Fig. 5. sack-shaped transport jar (Fig. all found out of context: one single-strap handle (in Stratum E2a) and four double-strand handles ( There are four double-strand handles (three in Stratum E2a.72:11. 5.28:16) and two Blackon-Red II(IV) bowls (Fig.72:18) decorated with black and red painted bands and a treelike motif. 5. Similar vessels have been found at Hazor Stratum IX (Yadin et al. A decanter fragment (Fig. 42:4). 5. 1960:Pl. They include the rim of a Greek amphora. also known as 'torpedo jars'. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. 5.72:14-17). are the type most frequently found in Phoenician contexts of the late 8th and early 7th centuries BCE.7).519. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al.72:9) (cf. 5.73:1) was unstratified but has parallels at Tell Kazel Niveau 9-10 (Badre et al. 3. 52:24). C. the Levant. A potter's workshop producing these jars was discovered at Tyre (Bikai 1985a) and two shipwrecks crammed with this type were recently found off the coast of Israel (Ballard.73:3-5) and cooking-pots with flat vertical rims in Stratum E3 see the discussion of this type under Stratum E4. Comparison with decanters at Hazor Stratum VA (Yadin et al. Dor Area A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. 188 .72: 10) (cf. Ras al-Bassit tom be 12 (Courbin 1993:Fig. 12) similar to those from Tell Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al.122.72:6) was found on the surface in Area E. The rim of a storage jar(Fig. 19) and probably belongs to Kabri Stratum E3.
temper: mg M. core grey. Fig.SUMMARY The bulk of the pottery found in Stratum E3 is of Phoenician or Tyrian character. interior SYR7/6. Exterior SYR7/3. S3061100 3474/2 3287/2 1965 1317 0873 0812 l3l3 0876 0861 0873 0896 0873 l3l3 1973 0841 l317 0896 l316 0866 30S3/1 342611 331611 32l3/2 3290/7 3378/3+8 3290/4 3433/2 11 12 13 14 Exterior SYR7/4. Exterior 2. Most important for dating Stratum E3 are the cooking-pots (Fig. ca. These are dated according to stratified parallels from other sites contemporary with Stratum E3 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence at Tel Kabri. temper: m M.SYR7/4. core SYR7/6. 5. temper: fM. temper: fM. Exterior SYR7/6. Exterior 2. red slip 10R4/6 inside wheel burnished.71: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No. core black. core grey-black. Exterior 7. core black.SYR6/6. red slip 2. temper: fM.10 Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Reg_. red slip 10RS16b.SYRS/4. Sarepta Stratum CI-C2 (Anderson 1988:8th century BCE) and Tyre Stratum 2-8 (Bikai 1978a:8th century BCE). interior 2. ' Exterior SYR7/4. 12. core5YR7/4. 14-15. interior 2. interior SYR7/6. 750-680 BCE. interior SYR7/4. 5. TJ!f!_e 1 Bowl 2 Bowl 3 Bowl 4 Bowl S 6 7 8 9 . temper: fine mineral. this assemblage provides significant evidence for very close contacts with Tyre. Most parallels are found in the Akko plain.SYR7/4.6-9. 17) and the Cypriote imports.72:1-2. burnished surface. core 2. interior SYR7/4. 5. 16. interior SYR7/3. interior 7. 3290/S 337811 Locus 0873 0896 Description Exterior 10YR8/2 white. interior SYR7/4. core SYR7/6.SYRS/4. Comparisons with Phoenician pottery in Cyprus date to Bikai's 'Kition Horizon'.72:10-11). 5. black paint. 5. 1980). Exterior SYR7/4. interior SYR7/6. core SYR7/4. temper: mg M. Thus Stratum E3 can be dated between ca. S386/6 31S411 3474/1 3378/8 3448/1 IS Bowl 16 Krater 17 Krater 18 Krater 19 Krater 32S1111 189 . As in the preceding stratum.SYR6/4.72:14-15. in particular the PlainWhite IV rim (Fig.71:6. Exterior SYR7/6. temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/4. temper: mg M. core grey-black. core grey. Hazor Stratum VA. 5. but particularly at Tyre and Sarepta where exact parallels were found for 30% of the types. Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 750-650 BCE. temper: m M.73:3-11).SYR6/6.73:1).SYR6/6.SYR6/4. interior 2. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990). the transport jars made of Bikai's 'crisp-ware' (Fig. temper: mg M.SYRS/4. core 7. red paint 10RS/8.SYR7/4. interior 2. FIGURE 5. Fig. black & red paint (10RS/6). Parallels with Stratum E3 were found at Dor Area A phase 9 and Area Cl phase 6 (Gilboa 1995:720-650/630 BCE and 8th century BCE).SYR6/6. Ras al-Bassit tomb 12 (Courbin 1993 :800-700 BCE).SYR6/6.4. temper: f111 M. interior 2. core grey. The pottery figures for this stratum include some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context (Figs. temper: fM. No. Exterior SYR713. Exterior 2.
~17 2 3 \)-------1 \ \ 4 5 6 7 ~_17 i I " .---.71: Pottery of Stratum E3. t \ Fig.. 5.)-------/ f \ \ \ \ \ \ '- \\ 18 19 r= f 1 10cm. 190 . 7 l 9 10 ~ 12 _7 13 14 15 17 \ I 16 "/------r---~=========~ .
.... I I . 14 H 18 r 17 18 20 19 -EJ 10cm...... .... I I ~... " /-l-~' \ \ \ I I ~ :I II I I 2 3 4 5 m / I .. .. .... _ '._' _.72: Pottery of Stratum E3.... -9 15 I... ....... '. \- .-.. ~" /~~ «I '\1- 8 9 m 7 @)(ff}D 10 12 13 ~:z • 11 I I \ ' \..21 ) f I \ 191 Fig.. 5..
e Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jug Jar Cypriote Cypriote Cypriote Cypriote Jug Transport Transport Transport Transport Transp~rt Reg No.5YR5/4. Exterior black. interior 5YR6/4. red slip 2. white grits. black & white grits. interior 5YR7/6. Exterior 2. core grey. temper: mg M black & white grits and mica.5YR8/4. temper: fm M. core 5YR7/6. red slip IOR4/8.5YR4/6.5YR4/4. core IOR6/4. temper: mg M.5YR8/4 . temper: mg M.5YR5/4. Exterior 7. interior 5YR4/3.5YR5/4.5YR8/4.5YR5/6. red slip IOR4/8. interior 7.5YR5/4. Exterior 7. Exterior 5YR4/3. Exterior 5YR7/6. FIGURE 5.5YR7/4. interior 2. similar to Gjerstad 1948: Fig. core black. red slip IOR4/8. temper: mg M. temper: mg M. temper: g M. Exterior 7. temper: mg M. interior black. core 7. core grey. Exterior 5YR4/3. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Type Transport j ar Transport j ar Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot lid Cooking-pot lid Cooking-pot lid Reg_. Gjerstad 1948: Fig. core black.5YR6/4. core grey. cf. red slip IOR5/6. 3309/4 3588/5 3283/5 3157/3 5455/5 3357/5+7 3055/1 3045/2 3215/1 3284/6 5416/10 3208/2 5432/1 5455/2 5215/1 3366/9 3307/1+2 3284/1 5455/1 319612 Locus 0879 1325 0873 0840 1970 0889 0812 0807 0864 0873 1941 0861 1970 1970 1941 0896 0876 0873 1970 0855 Descril?_tion Exterior 5YR7/6. red slip 2. interior IOR5/4. temper: mg M. 28: 16 (White Painted III-IV).5YR7/4.FIGURE 5. interior 7. large white grits. 192 . Tyre Stratum 4. interior 5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/4. Exterior 5YR7/6. core 5YR7/6. core grey.5YR7/4. 45: 17. core grey. core 7.5YR6/6.73: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No. interior 7. Exterior 7. temper: mg M. temper: fm M. Exterior 2. Exterior 5YR7/4. II 21 3 41 5 6 81 91 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 TJP. interior 2. core 5YR7/6. temper: fm M.5YR6/4.5YR7/4.5YR5/4. white grits. core black. core 5YR6/4 black. cf. interior 7. Exterior 7. core grey. Bikai 1978: PI. i import import import import j ar jar jar jar jar 19 Transport j ar 20 Storage jar 211 Storage jar Stratum EI Exterior 7. temper: m M.5YR5/6. temper: mg M. black and red painted geometric design. interior 5YR7/6. 14: 5. temper: fM. red slip IOR4/8. temper: fm M. temper: m M. black & white grits. temper: fM. 19: 2.5YR7/4.5YR7/4.5YR7/4. temper: mg M. temper: fm M. core 5YR7/4. white grits. interior IOYR7/4. interior 5YR7/6.5YR8/4.No. interior 2. interior 2. core black.5YR5/4. core 7. black & white grits and mica. Exterior 2. core 5YR7/6. temper: fm M. core 5YR7/6. red paint IOR5/6.5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR7/4. grooves inside.5YR3/4 .5YR4/4. 3647/100 339112 331811 3474/4 322112 542311 328811 3230/3 3474/14 3457/9 3296/1 Locus 0890 1302 0881 1317 0861 1970 0873 0864 1317 1317 0873 Descril?_tion Exterior 5YR7/4. interior 5YR6/4. Exterior 5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/6. core 2. interior 2. interior 7. white grits. Exterior 2.5YR7/4.72: POTTERY OF STRATUM E3 No.5YR6/6. Exterior 2.2. temper: fM. Exterior 5YR7/6. Plain White IV.
___.. 193 .. I 8 I I f 6 . 2 3 ( F I 4 e . " I ~ r -4 5 ! \ I I =\ \ ! \ 7 ~ -: I 9 "/' o ..... 5.o . 10cm. 10cm . /' I n ~ Fig.73: Pottery of Stratum E3..
At Kabri several examples of both types have had a hole drilled in their centre after firing and were apparently in secondary use.76: 10-11). Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl. 1980 :PI. but without slip) and Tyre Stratum 4 (Bikai 1978a: PI. where it was assumed that drilled vessels were part of architectural construction (Lehmann 1996:363 form 17.76:8) was first identified at Ras al-Bassit and is apparently a typical 7th century BCE form (Braemer 1986:Nos. 1.76:21. 40:12).1:1). Sarepta C1-D1 (Anderson 1988:type F-1A). 470. 26:16-17) and bowls at Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. called 'Salt and Pepper group' at Tell Abu Hawam. For bowl Fig. 5. The fabric is orange.76:12) is similar to Fig. 5. A number of red-slipped flat bowls and plates all have an accentuated everted rim (Figs. A similar phenomenon is known from central Syria in the late 8th century BCE. 1980:PI.3:24-25).511. Deep bowls with bichrome red and black painted decoration inside (Fig. It has 'been reported from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:flaring rim type 5 nos.69:4) displays somewhat thicker walls and the red slip is thin and washy being band-burnished or unburnished. 19:534-536.76:9) first seen in Stratum E4 (Fig. Like the bowls with a long overhanging rim. 5. Maigret 1979). Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 20-22). p. 77.76:16-17) are typical of the late 8th and 7th century BCE (cf. often red-slipped outside and/or inside. The bowl with an S-shaped profile (Fig. The outer surface can often be cut with a knife. 5. Carinated bowls with a simple rim (Fig.80. Flat plates or bowls with a sloping profile and a simple rim (Fig. have previously been included in the so-called 'Samaria Ware' but should be referred to rather as 'Phoenician Fine Wares' (Bikai 1992:97) or 'Levantine Fine Wares'. 5.76:14 compare a Black-on-Red I(III) bowl at Cyprus (Gjerstad 1948:Fig. 81: 15).71:3 discussed in Stratum E3. 494-496. 538). fine and soft. 31. Sarepta C1 (Anderson 1988:type X-9A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 1. Tel Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 46:2) and Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. The bowl type with an uneven outer surface (Fig. Bowls with a long overhanging rim (Fig. Some of these sub-types. Tyre Stratum 5.76:7) has a particular fabric.76:5-6). 15: 13). several have either one hole drilled into the centre of the base or several holes all over the bottom. Often they have a carination half way up the body. SeeBriendetal. A sub-type of the group of bowls with flaring rims (Fig.76: 18-19) are of the type found at Sarepta Stratum C1-C2 (Anderson 1988: type F-7C). 41: 12 similar. for example at Arqa 10AB (Thalmann 1978:Fig.98 examples. 5.82-85) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:type Fine Ware Plate 1). 5.7% of all diagnostics. 1980:166-168. Another sub-type (Fig. 20:531-533. 1980: PI. 194 .76:4) are very common. 38).1980:168-170. The fabric of this sherd consists mainly of marl and may perhaps originate in northern Israel (Chapter 15:Table 15.3 Parallels come from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:PI. differentiated by their rim forms.4 Their shape is very similar to Figs. 5. 63: 75.STRATUME2 BOWLS There is a remarkable variety of bowl types in Stratum E2. 29:1-8). Bikai 1978a: PI. It might be dated as early as Late Bronze or Iron Age I and could be intrusive in Stratum E2a (cf. The former have a fine soft orange fabric whereas the clay of the latter is red brittle and coarse. as are bowls with a carinated or stepped profile inside and outside (Fig. 5.513). 1980:Pl.76:20-25.77:1-6).24. 5. Keisan Stratum 10-11 (Briend et al. For their occurrence see Lehmann 1996:371-372 form 75b. but the fabric is very different. 5. 471-473. 5. 5. occur frequently on the Phoenician coast. Parallels come from I 3 4 For a detailed type study see Briend et al. A great many vessels of this class were found in Kabri . 5. 5. which constitute 3. 38:1-12).
Sarepta CI-Dl Assyrian-style DEEP BOWLS bowls (Figs. 1980:PI. 52: 8) Tell in the 7th profile (Fig. This type is completely . 1980:167 type c. 5. was also found at Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. The deep bowl with a carinated 5. 22. effect (see Culican 1981). Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:PI. Al Mina Stratum 5 (Lehmann 8 (unpublished.77:11). come from and the time range of this type to Strata and the first part of 7th century 1-3 (Bikai 1978a:type the end of the 8th century Cyprus (Bikai 1987: no. 5. 28: 12. PI. 5. 8-9) and Yoqne'am Stratum 10 (Ben-Tor et al. 195 . 1978a:type fine ware 4) date the type between the second half of the 8th and the 7th century BCE. 5.9:6). 2 and 3 (Bikai 1978a:Pls.78:5-8) at. Oxford 1954.'Plate 3' and 'Plate 4' (Bikai or slightly flat there are exceptions. PI. 1980:PI. et al. convex base. and indeed our example or 'drooping'. or partially red-slipped 145b).78:9) is discussed 1990:PI. 9:14). studied in detail by A.77:7-8) seventy nine such bowls found at Kabri made up 3. vessels nos.77:12) was also found at Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et The first type is always While the rim is usually rim. 15:9 respectively). PI. Examples Amathus come from Al Mina (unpublished. 1980:PI. 1. The rim is either horizontal from Tyre define Both examples found at Kabri are 'drooping'. 45:4-4a). 1980:166rim and a 10:12-13). Comparisons which BCE. deep bowls with handles assemblage and a carinated shoulder (Fig. Plate 4 is a variant characterized 92/888/3356-2 by a step below the is broken here (no would breaks at this point. Chambon 168). 5. 39:30). 52:10). 41 :3a). 1. 5. 72:164-166). A similar bowl (Fig. and Tyre Strata 1. Sarepta Cl (Anderson 1988:PI. 1987:9:10). GOBLETS AND PEDESTAL BOWLS Presentation (Lehmann stands (Fig.77:9 has a parallel from Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. Dor C2 phase 7 (ibid. 1980:PI. Parallels from Tell Keisan Stratum 4(Anderson 1988:type F-2A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai are discussed below as a special type. type plate 4). Fig.78: 10) has a paralJel at TelJ Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera The Assyrian-style deep bowl (Fig. Bikai divides plates like Fig. 1978:Fig. 69:141-142) and Tyre Stratum 10-2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. creating a bar-handle-like Similar plates were found at Tyre in Strata 3 and 4 (Bikai 1978a:Pls. 544) Tyre Stratum plate 3 and 4. 9:5-6. 38: 9-12) and Tyre Stratum 1-3 (Bikai 1978a:type plate 3. 38:22) and Tyre Stratum 2 (Bikai 1978a:PI. Sarepta (Anderson 12.77:14 is a small bowl with an incurving rim. 1996:Tf. 32:3. 25. 45.:Fig.76:15. The bowl (Briend et al. 10:24-25). 1995:Fig. Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. 5. 42:3.form 5 (Briend et al. 28:5. 12: 11). Lehmann 1996:386. type with a horizontal long rim (Fig.77:13 into two types . 1978a:22-23). Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1988:PI. tomb 367/51-1 pottery during the 1968Ashmolean British Museum late 8th and the 7th century Museum.77:15) with an incurving rim has a number of parallels in Phoenician sites of the late 8th and 7th centuries BCE such as Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et at. 435). 41:7). The large plain bowl (Fig. 30:11et al.348/3).9:9-10. 1980:PI. Al Mina Stratum (Bikai 1987:No. century 2. sometimes has a black band on the rim (Bikai 1978a:28 fine ware plate 4. include The comparisons burnished and very well finished and has a stepped at. 5. 8a:43. Tel Qiri Stratum VI (Ben-Tor Sarepta (Pritchard 1988:misc.77:10) has a cut rim. 5. 1-4 at Tyre. The Fig. 30:180/2). 1980:PI. p. 30:2-4. 33: 1- They occur at Kabri with different rim forms.40:1-7) 1:12. The plate usually illustration). 27:4). are common BCE Phoenician from Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend Gonzalez below.12). 1980:PI.Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. 8a:51. 5.1 % of all diagnostics. A small plate with a small accentuated band of red slip inside (Fig. 5. 30:8).78:1) were first recognized by Bikai (1985b) and many have been recorded since 1996:394 type 180). 5.77:16) has a carination directly under the rim and was found at Tell Keisan Stratum 7 (Briend et Large. 5.7:8). 1980:PI. 5-6). They are one of the most typical features of Phoenician BCE. The red slipped plate (Fig.
surface treatment and decoration and are comparable to vessels from Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et al. 312.79:5).6:4-5. JUGLETS AND JUGS A complete small juglet with black-brown bands (Fig.78:2-3) decorated in reserved red slip with painted black bands are unusual. 25:type 159-163 and Tf. Other larger jugs (Fig. The handle rises above the rim and the body of the vessel is slim and long. Brown fabric (2. 92:jug 5) and Hazor VA (Yadin et al. Lehmann 1996:Tf. The paint has a matt appearance. 750-680 BCE (Lehmann 1996: type 241 and cf. are discussed below. but there are also four examples of Persian period mortaria with a high pedestal ring-base (Fig. 5:19-23. found under the floors of Stratum E2. 5. 87:l3. Large jugs made of smooth yellowish fabric with dark painted lines (Fig. At Kabri three sub-types were distinguished on the basis of fabric: 1.5YR6/6) with a rough surface (Fig.79:12-l3) and a polished or cut surface come from Strata E2-3. 6-7) occur very frequently in 8th and 7th century BCE Phoenician pottery assemblages.79:3-4). 5. 27:169) while the rim fragments are often indistinguishable. 5. Similar vessels from Cyprus (Bikai 1987:Nos. 2) decorated with painted bichrome bands in red and black. For comparisons see Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. Tyre Stratum 3.80:5. 316). but see Fig. 5. Only the base distinguishes the early moratoria from those of the NeoBabylonian and Persian periods (cf Lehmann 1996:Tf. Sapin 1998). 33:3. 37:2-3) and Vroulia Tomb 6 on Rhodes (Kinch 1914:PI. Juglets with a small bulge at the base (Fig. The Assyrian-style juglets and jugs (Fig. Some examples were found in Iraq at Assur Tomb 547 (Haller1954) and Nimrud NTS15 (Mallowan 1966:Fig. 4: 16).79:6-7). fabric and decoration were also found at Sarepta Dl 196 . 285. 5.79:1) was found under the floor of Stratum E2. 298. B ikai 1978a:PI.Stands or incense burners (Fig. MORTARIA A large number of mortaria (Fig. 221: 1) and Shiqmona Stratum 9 (Elgavish 1994:Fig.79:5. 6) similar in form. type 239). 279) but most were found in Levantine sites such as Sidon Tomb 1 (Culican 1975:Fig. The vessels have a wide oval body and tall neck (cf. This juglet may be an Assyrian-style vessel. Similar juglets were found in Cyprus and labelled as White Painted V (Gjerstad 1948:Fig. PIs.78:4) which occur in the 7th century BCE all over the Levant (Lehmann 1996:383-384 type 125). Large jugs and bottles (Fig. More frequent are goblets (Fig.9). 43:8). 1980:Pl. The decoration and fabric are reminiscent of Assyrianizing pottery but the form is uncommon among Mesopotamian shapes as is the fine grit size of the temper.78:11-14) with a simple flat base were found at Kabri. 5.11. 38:6. Sarepta B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type B-3A) and Tyre Stratum 1-4 (Bikai 1978a:typejuglet 1). 5. 1980:PI. 1960: PI. 5. 5. These bottles form a distinct group of pottery in terms of fabric.90:3-4). 2. 19). Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:Fig. 50). Fine yellowish smooth (5YR7/6) fabric (Fig. 46:2). 5. 3."5. 5. Tyre Stratum 2-3 (Bikai 1978a:33-35.80: 1.78:14 (Chapter 15: Table 15. Juglets with a red slip and a wide overhanging mushroom lip (Fig. la). Salles 1985a.79:14) differs in form. The decanter (Fig.70:1-2 in Stratum -E4).79:8-10) can be dated by parallels to between ca. 36: 1-. 5. 5. Most examples found at Kabri belong to the early Iron Age type. Petrographic analysis of Fig. fabric and surface finish from contemporary decanter types in inland sites but is quite common along the northern Levantine coast. 5. 25-28. Reddish coarse fabric (lOR5/6) (not illustrated. 5. Mortaria appear during the 7th century BCE for the first time and continue into the Hellenistic period (cf.1:2) shows that the fabric of this vessel is typical of Cypriote coastal sites like Amathus or Enkomi.
The fabric and the streak burnish are identical with fabric and surface finishing of decanter Fig. 13d). 1018 (Hunt 1987:Fig. Fort Shalmaneser Room T20 (Curtis et at.81 :10 has a thick rim and is wheel burnished in the interior. Some 7th century BCE examples come from Achziv Tomb 3 (Culican 1975-76:Fig.82:3) (cf. but has horizontal handles. :Pl. 5. 91 :301). LAMPS The late Iron Age lamps (Fig.81 :6) has a different type of rim. KRATERS Kraters with vertical shoulders and a wide lower body (Fig.80:7) are more typical of inland assemblages and occur at Kabri only in very limited numbers. 5. Bk). Similar vessels were found at Dor A phase 9 (Gilboa 1995:Fig. 5. 5. 43: 1) and Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl.(Anderson 1988:Pl. Fig. Tell Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et al. 49:8). Some vessels are decorated with a red slip on the rim. 1980:Pl. Type L-9). Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al.80:10. A holemouth krater with round shoulders and a wide curved profile (Fig. 28:9).82:2) (cf.81:3 is similar to these. 5. 5. pink fabric (Fig. 1980:Pl. Sarepta B-C1. No parallels were found for Fig.5 Thus. Assyrian-style kraters (Figs.78:9. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT JARS The tall storage vessel (Fig. 5. Tell Abu Hawam Stratum 3 (Herrera Gonzalez 1990:Pl. Stratum 5 (ibid. The surface is decorated with bichrome red and black bands.11) with their maximum width in the lower part of the vessel have no parallels. 2) often have wide rectangular horizontal rims. 1993:Fig.82: 1) which is sometimes almost white (cf. sometimes also extending over the inner parts of the vessel. The Assyrian-style lamp (Fig. 212). 1980:Pl. Anderson 1988:type L-9). Tell Keisan Stratum 5. Tell Keisan Stratum 4. 880. Type 429. 5. Dan Stratum II (Biran 1994:Fig.80:9) has a cylindrical body and a round base. 1980:Pl. Such lamps appear at Tyre only after Stratum III (Bikai 1978a:Pl. 5. Unfortunately. Assyrian-style jug1ets and jugs (Fig. and another version (Fig. 5. Briend et al. 5. Briend et al.80:3-4) are discussed below. 1. This is the most common type of krater in Stratum E2 at Kabri where fragments of 16 such vessels were found. 44:5-8). At Sarepta they occur in Strata B-C1 (Anderson 1988:505).81 :4) has a flat oval-shaped rim. The large krater or deep bowl on Fig. 5. this type begins during the 8th century and continues into the Persian period. 287) and Tyre Stratum 3 (Bikai 1978a:P1s.5:1~3) and Sarepta B-C2 (Anderson 1988:type SJ-18A). Briend et al. 5. 5. 5. 5. 88:285. Jars with a stepped shoulder and vertical body walls (Fig. Large sack-shaped storage jars (Fig. 5. 4:10. 32:8-9. There are four sub-types: 1) Reddish-yellow fabric (Fig. 3) Brown fabric (Fig. 5.81: 1.82:6) with a fire-arm is discussed below. Tel Qiri loci 682. 6). 5. Often the handle starts immediately at the rim.79:14. 27:1-3).9) are discussed below.81:5 is similar. 5.82:4). 4) Cooking-pot fabric which is red with black white grits and a rough surface (Fig. Keisan Stratum 5. 33:4). the rim is not preserved. 197 . 2) Smooth. There is some similarity to Assyrian storage jars from Nimrud. Lamps of the so-called 'cup-and-saucer type' (Fig. 6:10). 43: 12).81 :7. Fig. but has small horizontal loop-handles. 44:13-15) and Mtarfa tomb (Malta) (Culican 1982:Abb. 5.80:8. 7:5.82:1-4) are low in profile with a sharply formed rim and a somewhat flattened base (Anderson 1988:669.82:5) existed over a long span of time and may have been used in cultic contexts. 1980:Pl. 5 For further references from Syria and Lebanon see Lehmann 1996:447.
1980:PI.While there were only some 10 types of transport jars found in Stratum E3. This is probably the most typical Phoenician transport jar of the late 7th century BCE.74. Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. the matrix being fine with a fine to medium mineral temper.24 examples (Fig. Both Neutron Activation Analysis by Gunneweg and Perlman (1991) as well as petrographic analyses by Yuval Goren (Chapter 15:Table 15. However. 5. 5. The fabric is medium to coarse with mineral temper. At Kabri they constitute 40% of all transport jars in Stratum E2. light orange or reddish fabric has a fine mineral temper. Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. Less sharply carinated shoulders than Group 2 (Fig.82:11.84:2). 700 BCE but Salles (1985b) claims that this early type of basket-handle amphora reached the Akko plain only ca.84:1-2).74: Phoenician aleph incised on jar shoulder. pink with black and white grits. Slightly sloping shoulders. 47:1-2).8-9). 650 BCE. Tell Keisan Stratum 4-5 (Briend et al. Similar jars have been reported from Arqa Stratum 9 D (Thalmann 1990:54 n. 5. Fig. 27:9) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:Pl. in the storage rooms (Fig. 57:23 [Plain White V]). 21 types were recorded in Stratum E2. 225:593. 4.1:3) came to the same conclusion that this type of vessel was produced in II~_-• 198 . light reddish to pink. 1:16). many of them completely restorable. vertical body walls below a shoulder carination and a pointed base (Fig. Similar to group 1 but with much thicker walls (up to 2cm) (Fig. Humbert (1991) dates the first appearance of this type to ca. Shiqmona Stratum 8 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. 806-807) and Tyre Stratum 1 (Bikai 1978a:PI. It has parallels at Achziv Stratum IV (Zemer 1977:18. 101). Salamis (Karageorghis 1974:Pl. 1:14). These jars from Stratum E2 represent the earliest type which is confined to the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996:443-445 type 421).88a) the majority were confined to 5 main types. 11).6 examples (Fig. The general shape resembles a bullet. 25:2-3. Some of Humbert's types (1991) as defined at Tell Keisan were also found at Kabri: Type B-1 example. Dafanna(Petrie 1888:PI. a small and a large subtype. Cyprus (Gjerstad 1948:Fig. were recorded from Stratum E2. 26:2-7. A significant number of handles of fabric groups 1 and 2 have the same dimensions. 27:6. Fifty seven vessels. Sharply carinated shoulders and an S-shaped profile (Fig. These dimensions occur on both fabric groups 1 and 2. Parallels come from Tell Keisan Stratum 4 (Briend et al. The fabric is of fine to medium mineral temper. Similar vessels were found at Ashdod-Yam (Raban 1980:Fig. 3.82:13-14). 1. 300). 53) and Ras Shamra-Ugarit (Stucky 1983:Keramik Nr. 26:1. The vessel is pink with a grey core. Basket-handle amphoras (Fig. The fabric is fine to medium with mineral temper and falls into four distinct colour groups: light grey or greenish with black arid brown grits. Kamiros (Jacopi 1931:Tav. 33:6). 33). The outside is red sometimes with a white self-slip. Type D . 5. 2. There is a regular. All in all 160 handles were counted which would point to at least 80 baskethandle amphoras in the limited excavation of Area E. greenish grey. 5. 'from the sea' (Zemer 1977:No. The handle joints on the shoulder are 21 em apart from each other. 9).82:8-10).86:1). 5. This type occurs from Carthage to Nimrud (Lehmann 1996:434 type 384).82:15). The yellowish. Salamis (Karageorghis 1967:97. 8:131). 5. No. the handle is 17 ern high and its diameter is 5 ern. 1980:Pls. 5. The fabric is orange pink. 5.84:1). 5. 5. 23-24). 5. On two jars of this type a Phoenician aleph was incised on the shoulder when the clay was still soft (Figs. 1980:PI. Type C . 12). 12-14). light reddish. 1980:Pls.
3 in E3a.83:9).84:2). At least some of these signs are in Cypriote Iron Age writing.g. There were 3 examples in Stratum E3b. lIIIIIIII111111fM1*H1111IlmlfM1*H111.85:1) belong to a Phoenician One example type which already appears With a small discussed in Stratum E4.75.5. 5.84:7). I 2:5 [early 9th century BCE to 732 BCE]) With a flat round rim without an edge (Fig. by the appearance between the periphery (35%) of cooking-pots in Stratum E2 (Figs. and sub-types: has been was found in Stratum E4. In addition. marked exchange BCE assemblage like that of Stratum wide trade contacts of the so-called and Tyre. Thus. (Anderson 4 (Briend et at.Ware found in seems to be due to the increasingly economic after the end of the 9th century Stratum E3. 2 in E2b and 24 in E2a. and Rosh Zayit Area B (Gal and Alexandre 1988:Type 6. and illustrates COOKING-POTS The majority 1. 5. 5. 220:3) and Tell Keisan Stratum 5 (Briend et at. 199 Stratum CI-Dl (Anderson and Tyre Stratum 9-13 (Bikai 1978a: cooking-pot . Fig.84:8-9). 5.Cyprus or the north Syrian coast.70:20). jars in a late 7th century BCE. Sarepta CI-Dl 2. 5.88b). the type dates to Strata E3 and E2. With a flat rim and an edge slightly below the lip (Fig. in the Mediterranean Crisp. all with a rough and uneven bas. Another 25 examples were found out of their original context in Stratum El. 2 in E2b and 12 in E2a. 5.75: Basket handle with incised Cypriote signs.84:7-9. 46:4). under the lip (Fig. 5. 3. Thus. 1980 :PI. the type dates to Strata E3 and E2 which 1988:Type CP-IA) is comparable to Sarepta type 4). 31 examples were found out of their original context in Stratum E 1. Comparable vessels. Several apparently examples in secondary of other types use as storage which vessels may have come as imports were also retrieved to the Kabri area and were (Fig.e. There are several variations One example 2000:Fig.85:1). 2 in E3a.l\11\\I~l\Il\lll\fM1*H1I\\I\\\\\f 9 10 14 15 16 17 1~ Fig. 5. of this sub-type Stratum at Tell Keisan under Stratum E4 (Fig. of transport This variety part of the country (e. A few contemporary E2a is types came from the southern The diversity remarkable. 1980:PI. 5. in E2 and 2 were unstratified. one edge on the rim immediately It has parallels CP-IA). There was 1 example in Stratum E3b. 28 :6). 5. The chert composition suggests that Cyprus should be favoured as a place of origin and this is confirmed by the signs either incised on them after firing or in red paint (Figs. were found at Dan Stratum I (Biran 1994:Fig.
84:3-4) make up 9% of the cooking-pots. 4).85:13-15) make up 6.1: ASSYRIANIZING TYPES AND THEIR STRATIGRAPHIC CONNECTIONS.79:3). Another feature typical of Kabri cooking-pots is a rough surface on the lower part of the body (Figs. whereas on the Akko plain it continues into the 7th century BCE. This type does not occur at all at Tyre or Sarepta. This slip was used most frequently on bowls. 5. Lehmann 1996:Tf. Although the wash-like appearance of the 7th century BCE red slip is clearly distinguishable from the heavy and thick earlier red slip techniques. Cooking-pot lids (Fig.76:15. Hausleiter and Reiche 1999). jugs and kraters. they replaced the triangular-rimmed cooking-pot almost everywhere except on the Akko plain. 6 For a discussion of cooking-pots with triangular rims see the section on cooking-pots in Stratum E4.77:8 1 2 Deep bowl 5. jugs (Figs. Beginning at the end of the 9th century BCE. 5. The core is usually greyish but sometimes reddish yellow (5YR7/6) or pink (5YR7/4). The repertoire consists of bowls (Figs.79:12-13[?].Types with a triangular rim (Fig. Jugs and juglets are often decorated with wide horizontal bands of red wash-like paint with black lines added parallel to the red bands. 8).85:5). The forms would seem to be mainly vessels for the consumption of liquids.84:8. Among the cooking-pots found in this stratum were some Greek imports (Chapter 5. Type See Fig. 200 . Sometimes there is a black band on the rim of the bowls. probably wine (Stronach 1996). Stratum E2a-E2b UnderE2b Bowl 5. Thus this decoration is some kind of 'Late Bichrome' style. At other sites in Israel this type is confined to Iron Age I and IIA-B. It is usually a reserved slip decoration with a thin.84:5-6) are the commonest type throughout Israel during the Iron Age IIC (Fig. Gilboa 1996.7% of the total. Chambon 1980:165-166.77).5% of the kitchen assemblage of Stratum E2. bottles of type Lehmann 1996:Tf. deep bowls (Fig.80:3 5 7 Juglet 5.81:9 4 2 Lamp 5. Mattingly 1980. There are no cooking-pots or transport jars in the Assyrianizing style at Kabri. Weippert 1988:647-648. kraters (Fig.6 Cooking-pots with a ridged or 'modelled' rim (Fig.76:15 Bowl 5. 5. However.77:7. 5. but also on juglets.82:6 Total 24 30 *For bottles of this type see cf. often wash-like slip (usually red 10 R5/6).78:8 3 Bottle* Jug 5. The fabric of this class of pottery is almost uniform being mainly reddish yellow (5YR7/6) with some cases of pink (5YR7/4 and 5YR8/3).80:3. A few examples each of a variety of cooking-pot types together make up 13.89).81:7-8 3 3 Krater 5. 5.82:6).76. 5.81 :7-9) and lamps (Fig. 5.78:8). Hunt 1987:203. 1980). 5.79:3 Krater 5. 5. DECORATION Red slip decoration was still popular at the end of the 7th century BCE (Figs. this form of decoration is a continuation of the Iron Age traditions in the preceding centuries. TABLE 5.77:7 5 14 Bowl 5. cooking-pots with a ridged or modelled rim were found at many sites during the survey of the Akko hinterland (Lehmann 2001) and here at Kabri they constitute 11% of the kitchen vessels. ASSYRIANIZING POTTERY An interesting feature of the 7th century BCE assemblage of Tel Kabri is the presence of Assyrianizing pottery and imitations of Mesopotamian vessel shapes (Amiran 1969:291. 5. 5. Pakman 1992. 5. 5. 5. 5. 58:351/1. despite their apparent absence at Tell Keisan (Briend et at. 58:351/1. juglets (Fig. 5.VI). Assyrianizing pottery occurs only in small amounts.
but here on its periphery they are apparently objects of prestige. Chemical and petrographic analyses of Assyrianizing pottery from Tell Jemmeh have shown that this pottery was produced from local clay (Melson and van Beek 1992). interior and core 5YR7/4. red slip 10R5/6. temper: fM. temper: fm M. 11A:2). Tyre Stratum II-III (Bikai 1978:PI. interior 5YR7/6. No. comes from Tell Abu Danna Stratum A4 in northern Syria (Tefnin 1980:15:3). Exterior. red slip 10R516. interior 5YR7/6. core 5YR6/6. temper: fM. Exterior 5YR7/6. temper: m M.5YR7/6. An almost identical example. interior 10YR7/4. and stratigraphic context of the finds under floor E2b is unclear. Black-on-Red I(III) bowl. temper: mg M. interior 5YR6/4. interior 7. Most was found either in Stratum E2b or under the floors of that stratum. mainly in the Ottoman level (Stratum E 1) whose foundations were dug into the remains of Stratum E2.5YR7/6. white self slip. black & red paint lOR5/6. Exterior 2. Gilboa 1995). 'Assyrian bowl'. These vessels are dated according to stratified comparisons from other sites. red slip 2. core grey. temper: mg M. FIGURE 5. Egg-shell thin vessels like those from Tell Jemmeh are missing from the Kabri material which very closely resembles the finds from Tell Keisan and Dor (Briend et al. copying the life-style of the centre in Assyria. temper: fm M. core 7. interior and core 5YR7/6. temper: fM. Assyrian-style pottery was found in significant quantities in a sounding in Square OP7 (Chapter 4. temper fM. Gjerstad 1948:Fig. 539114 3590/3 5149/4 Exterior lOYR8/2 white.5YR5/4. Exterior. cf. The pottery figures for this stratum include some vessels which were found out of their original stratigraphic context. interior 5YR7/6. 3350/100 3224/2 3502/3 326011 3175/2 3358/102 3616/2+ 12 7 Since this operation was a probe and excavation was halted after reaching the foundations ofWl389. SeE 4. interior and core 7.5YR7/6. cf.5YR8/4. Exterior 7.76: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. core 5YR7/6.2.82:6) are unusual in Israel (Lehmann 1996:T£ 82:430/2 with references to finds in Syria and Lebanon). red slip. temper: fm M. temper: m M. red paint lOR5/6 Exterior 5YR7/6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 l3 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Type Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl BO'. interior 5YR8/3. 26:16-17. interior and core 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR6/4. the architectural 201 .7 No Assyrian-style pottery was found in Stratum E3. black & white grits. Exterior.\lI Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Reg.5YR5/4. Exterior 10YR7/4. this may also be the case for the coarser Assyrianizing vessels in Kabri.Lamps with a 'fire-arm' (Fig. interior 2.5YR5/6. core 2. Thus it can be attributed to the first half of the 7th century BCE. 1980.1V). Exterior 10YR7/4. core 5YR6/4: temper: mg M. core 5YR7/6. 3375/7 5324/100 3020/1 3024/3 5426/100 548515 19411190 542511 3386/100 3376/5 3347/1 Exterior. 5. From a macroscopic point of view. Analysis of Syrian and Lebanese pottery shows that Mesopotamian shapes went out of use immediately after the destruction of the Assyrian empire (Lehmann 1996:93-94). whose fire-arm was also broken off. red slip lOR5/6. temper: fM. red slip lOR516. 3447/3 3367/1 3434/100 195515 Locus Description 1315 0892 0890 1955 1970 l321 1927 0890 1970 0801 0802 1941 1984 1941 1971 0890 0892 0889 0889 0864 l308 0869 0849 0890 l334 Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR7/6. temper: fM. interior 5YR7/6. They are contemporary with Stratum E2 and are included in the figures of this stratum to illustrate their occurrence in Tel Kabri. core grey.5YR5/4. core 10YR7/4. core 5YR7/3.
• Fig.) ~ '7 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 16 ~ r7 19 ) 15 ( 17 . 5.s.:I 7 ~ 6 4 ~7 C .76: Pottery of Stratum E2.d 2• 2 CC_ ~ 5 . "~ /' ~ 21 22 23 :7 10cm. 202 ..
10 11 12
Fig. 5.77: Pottery of Stratum E2.
FIGURE 5.77: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS 16 Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl
S49113 S012/3 S413/2 3374/1 S28616 327712 S3S9/4 S3911S S419/2 3S33/4 3602/1 3629/1 33S7/1 S472/100 S442/1 3219/S
1984 1911 1972 1300 1965 0872 1970 1970 1968 1321 1336 1338 0889 1976 1963 0864
Exterior, interior and core SYR7/6, temper: fm M, decoration: black & red paint. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip 2.5YR6/8. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip lORS/6. Exterior and interior SYR7/4, core lORS/6, temper: m M. Hole drilled in the base. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, red slip 10RS/6. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: m M. Exterior SYR7/4, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: m M.
Exterior SYR616, interior SYR616, core SYR616, temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: mg M, red slip 10RS/6. Exterior SYR7/6, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fM, burnished. Exterior SYR7/8, interior SYR7/6, core SYR7/6, temper: fin M, smoothed outside. Exterior SYR713, interior SYR7/6, core grey, temper: mg M.
FIGURE 5.78: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Pedestal bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Deep bowl Mortarium Mortarium Mortarium Mortarium
S112/100 3SS9/S 3S80/1 3646/101 S188/1 196616 S21111 3446/3 S012/1 19411104 3S7S/I 3S92/3 3S1113 S216/100
1913 1326 1326 0890 1938 1966 1948 131S 1911 1941 1333 133S 1321 1947 Exterior 2.SYRS/6, interior 2.5YRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: mg M white grits. Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior lOYR7/3, interior 2.SYRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: fin M, red slip 10RS/6. SYR7/4, interior SYR7/4, core grey, temper: fm M black grits. SYR6/4, interior SYR6/4, core grey black, temper: fm M. 2.SYRS/6, interior 2.SYRS/6, core grey; temper: m M black & white grits.
Exterior SYR7/4, interior SYR7/4, core SYR7/4, temper: mg M. Exterior SYR7/4, interior lOYRS/6, core 2.SYRS/6, temper: m M.
Typical Cypriote fabric.
Fig. 5.78: Pottery of Stratum E2
I I I I I " . .. ...79: Pottery of Stratum E2. '\ I r.rr@ . 5.. 14 Fig.W 5 " 7 ...-_.2 . <: i: . \ 3 4 1IfJ' .. ' .... / I~.... 11 9 10 12 8 13 10cm../ " ~. 206 ..-..
temper: fM. Exterior 5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/4. Exterior 10R6/6. temper: fig M.5YR6/6.5YR6/6. interior 5YR7/4. core 5YR7/6. Exterior. 3353/7 3353/100 5306/1 3297/1 5413/3 5037/100 3293/1 5362/2 5073/100 5287/1 34651100 Locus 0892 0892 1965 0874 1972 1912 0874 1967 1912 1941 0890 Description Exterior 5YR7/4. Karageorghis 1970: PI. Exterior. interior and core 7. 3618/100 349113 53911100 5238/1 5324/9 536711 5477/5 3279/16 3356/9 526117 3275/6 357211 3269/9 5324/1 5500/200 5330/2 Locus 1338 1308 1970 1956 1970 1967 1976 0872 0888 1956 0872 1326 0869 1970 1984 1967 1941 Descrip_tion Exterior. core dark. black & white grits. core grey. Exterior 5YR7/6. No. Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Juglet Jug Jug Jug Decanter 12 13 14 529511+2 FIGURE 5.5YR7/6. temper: fM. temper: m M. core 5YR7/6.5YR7/6. grey to 5YR7/6.5YR8/4. core grey. temper: fM. wheel burnished.80: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No.5YR7/6. core grey. interior 2. red slip 10R5/6. interior 7. temper: f M. Only 1 handle. and interior 5YR7/6. temper: fm M.81: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. burnished. core yellow greenish. burnished. core 10R6/6. temper: m M black & white grits. Exterior 5YR7/6. interior and core 2. 207 . temper:wg Brown painted band IOR5/4 weak red.5YR6/6. temper: fM. black lines. interior 2. temper: m M. interior 10R6/6. core grey.5YR6/6. temper: fm M. burnished with black brown bands painted outside. cf. red slip 10R5/8 with black lines. temper: m M. inside mg M. interior 5YR7/6.5YR6/6.5YR7/6. interior 5YR7/6 . 212: 10 (Tomb 14). Exterior 10YR8/3. Exterior IOYR7/3. TyPe 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Krater Pot-stand Krater? Deep bowl Reg. core 5YR7/4. No. interior 10YR8/3.79: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. Exterior 5YR7/6 -7. Exterior.5YR6/6. temper: g M large white grits. Exterior 7. red slip 10R5/8 with black line on mushroom lip. black & red paint IOR5/6. mg M.5YR8/4. temper: fm M. Exterior 7. Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. interior and core 1OYR8/3 white. and interior 5YR7/6. temper: fm M. temper: grey. temper: m M. 'Assyrian bottle'. and interior 5YR7/6.5YR8/4. temper: fmM. Type Juglet 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Reg.outside wheel burnished. temper: fm M. 5013/200 5073/200 53201100 3119/5 3573/1 5209/1 5286/10 3142/4 5416/5 5235/1 Locus 1912 1912 1941 0825 1321 1941 1965 0835 1941 1955 Descrip_tion Exterior and interior 5YR7/6. core grey. interior 5YR7/6. Exterior 5YR7/6. and interior 2. black paint. temper: mg M. temper: fM. core 7. temper: fM.7. mg M.5YR7/6. red slip IOR5/8. Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Jar Reg No. core 1OYR8/3. M. Exterior 2.FIGURE 5. Exterior. core core core core core grey. "':!. core 2.5YR6/6.5YR6/6. temper: grey to 5YR7/6. red paint 10R5/6. interior and core 10YR812 (white). interior 5YR7/6. black bands. interior 2. core 5YR7/6. Exterior 2. red paint. interior IOYR7/3.5YR6/6. interior and core 7. FIGURE 5. temper: grey to 5YR7/6. Exterior and interior 2.
_.. 5.-. 8 10cm.80: Pottery of Stratum E2 208 ...\ 3 \ r I 2 I ..-. .. . Fig... • 7 I 9 10 11 o 10cm . \ 5 6 r L III '\.
Fig.81: Pottery of Stratum E2. I I . 5.---- I \ \ \ I \ \ \ \ '' I • / I\ \ . 2 • 4 3 5 s 7 ) : =I. I I " .. . T 8 9 -~10 10cm. 209 ..
interior and core 5YR7/8 grey. temper: mg M.5YR5/4 black. 3498/2 349811 527913 5258/3 3554/1 5302/100 35201100 549112 5245/4 548114 5287/2 3640/100 5437/1 524112 5180/2 5297/2 Locus 0890 0890 1963 1959 1321 1941 1941 1984 1941 1980 1941 0890 1968 1941 1914 1941 Description Exterior.5YR6/6 . Cooking-pot fabric. 194117 550011 5447/2 5061/2 5309/200 52991100 53321100 36431100 5192/2 Locus 1941 1984 1963 1913 1941 1941 1941 0890 1941 Description Exterior 10YR6/2 .5YR5/4 grey.5YR5/4 black. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TJ:'J!. Exterior.2. interior and core 7.FIGURE 5.5YR8/2 white. Pink lamp type with smooth surface.e Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Lamp Table amphora Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport jar j ar j ar j ar j ar jar jar jar Reg No. No. Red lamp type with rough surface.5YR6/6 . 210 . temper: fm M black & white grits.e Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport Transport jar jar jar jar jar jar jar jar jar Reg. red & black paint.83: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. temper: fM. Exterior. temper: mg M black & white grits. temper: fm M white grits. core grey black. Exterior 2. interior and core 5YR7/6. core 2.10YR7/3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 TJ:'J!. interior 10YR6/2.5YR7/6.2.5YR6/6 . interior and core 7.2. interior 2. temper: fM. FIGURE 5.82: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. Cypriote import. Exterior.
. 211 . '/ -. ffi -. I / '. I I .. 5.. . I I . I I / " I -. . 14 12 a 10cm . \ \ . 15 Fig.~ .._---'- ----- --- ----' 6 -=~~~~_'~Ocm. \ \ I I I . 7 • • I I I I \ \ \ \ \ I \ \ \ . .---'.'" 2 3 e. ..._____. \I ' I 4 5 ..I '\V/ / " 8 9 10 11 ~ 13 '1 I ~.82: Pottery of Stratum E2.
\ \ \ ( t I I \ \ \ \ ) 7 6 9 o ------ 1Ocm.. 5. 212 .83: Pottery of Stratum E2. Fig.2 • 3 • I I \ I I I \ \ \ \ \ 5 6 • I I I I .
5.n ! \ 0 -. 213 ..84: Pottery of Stratum E2. 2 3 ~ ) 4 7 l \ ~ 5 6 7 " I I . / / _- I ' 8 9 Fig. ---- 10cm.
5YR7/6.5YR7/6. temper: mg M black & white grits. temper: mg M. interior 2. temper: mg M white & black grits. temper: mg M black & white grits.5YR5/6. Briend et al. interior 2. core black. interior and core 2. core grey black. Exterior 2.84: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No. Exterior Exterior interiorand core 2. 1980: PI.5YR5/2. interior 7. This type of cooking-pot is characterized by a rough lower part.5YR5/6. 10R5/4. temper: g M black & white grits. interior lOR5/4. Remarks: cf.5YR5/4.5YR5/6. temper: mg M white grits. temper: mg M black grits. temper: mg M black & white grits. TJl. temper: mg M black &white grits. interior and core 2.5YR5/4. Exterior.85: POTTERY OF STRATUM E2 No.pe Cooking-pot 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. interior and core 2. temper: mg M black and white grits. core black. Exterior 10R4/3. interior 5YR7/4.5YR6/4. Handle h: 16. core 2. core grey. interior and core 2. temper: mg M black & white grits. Exterior 2. No. Exterior. incisions on handle.5YR5/6.5YR7/6. Locus 1941 1941 1941 1321 0855 0855 1941 1913 0890 Description Handle h: 17. temper: m M white grits.5YR5/4. core 7. core 5YR7/3. Exterior 7. lid lid lid lid lid lid lid lid 214 . No. interior 2. temper: mg M. temper: mg M white grits. 8). temper: fm M.5YR512. 55 (Str. interior and core 5YR6/6. interior and core 2. Exterior. 1 2 3 4 Type Reg. 3602/2 5426/6 3270/1 362114 521112 5360/100 3367/2 5188/2 5499/3 545711 307511 5283/5 5422/1 1970/48 532311 Locus 1336 1941 0869 1338 1948 1967 0892 1938 1980 19B 0819 1941 1963 1970 1956 Description Exterior. w: 21.5YR5/6.5YR7/6. This type of cooking-pot is characterised by a rough base. Exterior.5YR6/4. Exterior. Sarepta type CP-IA (Anderson 1988). interior 7. Exterior IOR6/6. Exterior 2. Basket-handle amphora 53701100 Basket-handle amphora 522011 00 Cooking-pot 19411172 Cooking-pot 3526/4 Cooking-pot 3203/2 Cooking-pot 3203/1 Cooking-pot 5318/4 Cooking-pot 5115/100 Cooking-pot 344511 5 6 7 8 9 FIGURE 5. 5YR7/6. Exterior. core grey brown.FIGURE 5. interior 10R5/4. w: 21. writing with red paint.5YR5/6.
4 / 3 < t: ( " • 5 6 7 err .85: Pottery of Stratum E2. 9 10 / .~. 215 . I '~ 11 ~I 12 / ~==~--~-----~ 14 1Ocm.) ( ~\ f22 2 \. 5. Fig.
TABLE 5. Cypriote Basket-Handle with an engraved sign. Fig. Only Stratum E2a. ' .. FIGURE 5. Not all of these finds could be assigned to a particular pottery type. 2 3 10cm.86: IRON AGE POTTERY WITH INCISIONS AND INSCRIPTIONS No.86: Pottery with ins cis ions and inscriptions. where much of the pottery was found in situ. It was impractical to analyze the pottery types in Strata E4. All diagnostic pottery fragments were recorded and 2625 vessels and fragments catalogued. No. 1 2 3 Type Transport jar Basket-handle amphora Reg. E3 and E2a statistically due to the fact that the fortresses under Stratum E2a were cleared and rebuilt. Body sherd with an engraved picture of a jar. E2a Str. Locus 890 1968 1309 Stratum Str. 1 ~.of Area E were excavated.~I 'I 10cm. yielded a significant sample. 5. 3365/101 5402/100 3443/103 STATISTICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE POTTERY FROM STRATUM E2 Approximately 340 m.2: NUMBER OF VESSELS RECORDED BY TYPE AND STRATUM FORM CLASS £2 174 29 52 24 9 98 6 £3 34 2 7 1 8 £4 19 1 2 2 1 7 Debris under Stratum £4 2 Total 229 30 56 33 11 113 6 2 530 27 204 13 24 27 23 57 1385 Bowls Deep bowls Bowls with incurved rim Kraters Juglets Jugs Jars Pithoi Amphoras Lamps Cooking-pots Special forms Mortaria Greek imports Cypriote fine ware imports Cypriote basket-handle amphoras Total 2 511 26 157 12 24 25 13 57 1219 13 34 1 2 9 111 49 6 4 1 11 2 2 216 . E2b Description Transport jar type with an engraved sign "aleph". E2a Str.
5. Jugs are notably more numerous at Mezad Hashavyahu (19%) than at Kabri (8%). constituting 9. 5. kraters constitute 2% of all vessels.83:7 3% 10% 3% 9% Fig. 5.87. 5. Figs. 5. lamps 4%) (Fantalkin 2001:103-104). At Kabri.83 :2-3 13% Others 35% 6% Fig. 5.88) reveals an extraordinarily high percentage of . Cypriote fine war~s are.2. transport jars (amphoras). 5. 5.1%.1% and Greek imports make up 2.rare with a share of only 1.88b: Other types of transport jars in Stratum E2.103-104). The numbers at Mezad Hashavyahu are not very different (kraters 2.87: Pottery Repertoire of Stratum E2. Cypriote basket-handle amphoras are the major group. This may be partly due to the fact that the area excavated coincided with the storerooms of the fortress. Fig. Among the imported wares.83:8 Others 8% 6% 40% Basket-Handle amphoras 20% Fig. while Egyptian imports account for 1% of the finds there (Fantalkin 2001:97-98. No Egyptian imports were found in Tel Kabri.Others 1% 4% Cooking-pots 13% Jugs 8% Mortaria 2% Transportjars 48% Fig. 217 . Greek imports to Mezad Hashavyahu are much more numerous (46%) than at Tel Kabri (Fantalkin 2001 :103-104).1% of the total pottery in Stratum E2. Fig.4%. There were no Cypriote imports found at that site. the only other 7th century BCE fortress in Israel where statistics have been provided (Fantalkin 2001).88a: Main types of transport jars in Stratum E2. These numbers should be compared with the finds from Mezad Hashavyahu. The pottery count (Table 5.
Herrera Gonzalez 1990). near Achziv. 5. 1980). The excavations at Tyre. Another recent contribution to the study of 7th century BCE coastal pottery is Fantalkin's comprehensive publication of the excavations at Mezad Hashavyahu (2001). In addition to excavations. a fortress stood at the extreme southern edge of the Phoenician homeland.85:8 Fig. The closest parallels to the pottery of Stratum E2a come from sites in the vicinity of Tel Kabri. At Mezad Hashavyahu vessels for the consumption of food make up 60% of the repertoire and cooking-pots for its preparation 11%. While most types found in Stratum E2 also occur at nearby Tell Keisan Strata 4-5 (Briend et al.85:12 6% Fig. 5.3% were vessels for storage of agricultural products collected in the nearby area. This leaves only 25% for storage vessels (Fantalkin 2001:103-104).85:7 6% 5. 5. Wolff 1994:515-516). Lehmann 1995. Some 52. Achziv Tomb 3 has a number of good parallels to Stratum E2 (Culican 1975-76). 1978b. until recently the 7th century BCE was a more obscure phase in the archaeological research of the northern Levant. 1987. The excavations at Tel Kabri significantly complement these finds. probably destroyed at the same time as the storerooms of the Tel Kabri fortress. survey~ in the Akko plain have yielded new data about the coastal settlement system of the 7th century BCE in southern Phoenicia (Frankel 1986.84: 5~ 11% With rough base (Fig.84: 7-9 35% Others 27% 6% Fig. 5.Fig. From the end of the 8th through the 7th century BCE. Gal 1992. The 7th century BCE pottery from Tell Keisan has been published by the French Expedition but till now this was the only major site to provide such information. 5.85:6 11% Lids Fig. CONCLUSIONS While Iron Age coastal (Phoenician) pottery of the 12th .89a: Main types of cooking-pots from Stratum 2a.85: 13- Fig. 1997. The numerous complete vessels from Tel Kabri's destruction level (Stratum 2a) enable us to study the typology of the 7th century BCE in detail. 1994.84: 3-4 9% Fig. Sarepta and Tell Abu Hawam did not expose substantial levels of this date. 5.84:8) 10% Fig.85:10 17% Fig. In Achziv Stratum IV the still unpublished fmds from a warehouse. 21% of all pottery types have exact parallels at either Tyre Strata 1-2 (Bikai 1978a) or Sarepta Stratum Cl (Anderson 218 . 5. 5.85:11 11% Fig. include the same transport jar types as those found in situ at the latter site (Zemer 1977:18). 5.2001.89b: Other types of cooking-pots from Stratum E2.8th centuries BCE has been studied in detail (Bikai 1978a. 1990.7% of the pottery assemblage from Kabri was used for the preparation (cooking) and consumption of food to serve the needs of the garrison. Anderson 1988. 5. Frankel et al. 5. Fig 5. 5. while the other 47.
1988). A number of the same pottery types came from the destruction level of Ashkelon. in Area D after the Middle Bronze Age. Based on the above-mentioned comparisons. although on a smaller scale. 53 [8th-7th century BCE]). destroyed in ca. there are several examples of'Wild-Goat'-Style II (Chapter 5. which yielded a very similar pottery assemblage including Greek cooking-pots. Cooking-pots form the largest functional group retrieved from the Iron Age II remains in this area. dated to the end of the 7th century BCE (Lehmann 1996). chronologically anchored on the campaigns of Nebuchadnezzar. 50. was dated recently to the years around 600 BCE (Wenning 1989). Furthermore. dated to 604 BCE (Stager 1996) and from Stratum 5 at al-Mina in northern Syria. demonstrates that Late Bronze and Iron Age settlement was not confined to Area E. A total of 14 vessels of Cypriote fine wares accounts for 22. the earlier destruction must have taken place between ca. Storage jars are completely missing. dated to ca. Similarities are seen at Tel Qiri Stratum VI (Ben-Tor et at. Thus. This points to very close contacts and exchange with Phoenicia and illustrates that the pottery repertoire of these two sites on the Akko plain is typical oflate Iron Age Phoenician pottery (cf. Reich 1989). Lehmann 1994a). has many types in common with the destruction layer at Kabri. There is a surprisingly high percentage of Cypriote fine wares. Dan Stratum I. The destruction of Mezad Hashavyahu (Fantalkin 2001. The pottery is identical to that in Stratum E2a and it is impossible to distinguish any type development between the two phases. Blackon-Red and White-Painted pottery.V). Courbin 1993). may be as early as 604 BCE or only later in 585 BCE (Katzenstein 1997: 328). on the basis of pottery comparisons Stratum E2 at Tel Kabri can confidently be dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE. There is evidence for an earlier destruction phase (Stratum E2b) which . AREAD The evidence that occupation continued. 1987 [710-650 BCE]). 650-575 BCE.however did not destroy the fortress completely. Dor Area A Phase 9 (Gilboa 1995 [720-650/630 BCE]) and Shiqmona Stratum 8-9 (Elgavish 1994:Fig. Additional parallels which date Stratum E2a to ca. Naveh 1962. 650 and 600 BCE and might be connected with the campaign of Ashurbanipal in the year 644/43 BCE (Katzenstein 1997:293). The later fortress of Stratum E2a may have been destroyed during one of the campaigns of Nebuchadnezzar against Syria and Palestine. Comparisons for many vessels in the Stratum E2a assemblage at Kabri can be found in the destruction levels at other sites in the Levant.6% of the all post-MB vessels recorded in Area D. 604 BCE (Biran 1994:270-271). Pottery LB IA I IA II Krater Jugs/Juglets Cooking-pots Lamps Bowls Cypriote Imports TOTAL 4 1 3 3 2 2 29 4 14 51 4 10 219 . 600 BCE come from Tell <Arqa Stratum 9D (Thalmann 1990) and Ras al-Bassit Phase 7 and Tomb 4 (Braemer 1986.
Fig .. 4 5 7 9 10 11 f 12 14 ~'. F 13 II II 15 16 17 19 18 lOcm. 220 .3 6 ~.5 90· Iron Age II pottery from Area D.. .
joins with 154119121/1. 14:10). Stern 1978:53. 80:225). Pan type with vertical handle. cf. Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. 1961:209:11). cf. 39:9]). Cypriote Black-on-Red juglet or jug (very fine pink fabric with black lustrous bands on the rim inside). Hazor IX (Yadin et al. No. 27:6] and XI [Bikai 1978: PI. cf.The scant Iron Age II architectural remains in Area D are interpreted as a farmstead or some kind of rural settlement (Chapter 4. Type Bowl 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Bowl Bowl Juglet Juglet Juglet/Jug Juglet Bowl Bowl Bowl Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. 1960:51:12). cf. cf. cf. Abu Hawam Stratum IV (Balensi 1980: PI. 5. Type 1). Keisan Stratum 5 (ibid.2. Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. Stern 1978:54/55. Stratum E3 (a similar cooking-pot rim appears also during the Iron Age II A-B. 19 Cooking-pot PERSIAN AND HELLENISTIC PERIODS A small amount of late Persian period and Hellenistic pottery. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl. Tyre Stratum X-2 [Bikai 1978:PI. Hazor X (Yadin et al. Hazor X (Yadin et al. Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. cf. Such mortaria were first in use during the Persian period and continued into the early Hellenistic period (Salles 1985a. 'Samaria' Ware.III). was retrieved from Area E. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl. 38:9. cf. 1960:61:12). cf. 14:10). 1998) 221 . FIGURE 5.224).90: IRON AGE II POTTERY FROM AREA D No. 1980:56:6). 1961:209:1). 1980:56:8). apparently dumped at the site. Artzy 1980) and several mortaria with a high ring base (Fig. Hazor X (Yadin et al.9). 2. cf. Red-slipped burnished bowl. 1960:57:13). 1960:51:12) and VIII (ibid. Persian period pottery was extremely rare. Kabri Stratum E3. 11:238]) and the Iron Age.:57:15). Hazor IX (Yadin et al. Cypriote Black-on-Red juglet (Gjerstad 1948: Fig.:41:6). 1960:57:13). However.:53:9-10). Abu Hawam Stratum III (Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. Type E. Type A. cf. the peculiar combination of cooking-pots and Cypriote fine wares may perhaps be explained if this area was associated wth the fortress complex in Area E for processing agricultural products. Against such a rural background the relatively large amount of Cypriote fine wares is difficult to explain. cf. 2525-1 2676/1 2630 2509 2669 2617 2542 2518/3 2525/2 2625 2534/3 2504/2 2518/2 9187 2636 2555/1 9256 9110/12 268111 Locus 715 750 745 703 744 713 721 715 715 715 721 715 715 1570 745 721 1554 1541 751 Description cf. Keisan Stratum 6 (Briend et al. Stern 1978:53. Abu Hawam Stratum IV (Balensi 1980: PI. There was one twisted handle of a Persian period transport jar (not illustrated. cf. 1960:57:4). Keisan Stratum 8 (Briend et al. cf. Type A. Stem 1978:55/56. Abu Hawam Stratum III (Herrera Gonzalez 1990: PI. 1980:49:2) and Keisan Stratum 7 (ibid. Cypriote Black-on-Red bowl. Kabri Area E. 25:10. Jezreel "Early Iron" (Zimhoni 1997: Fig.91 :3-4). Such pans were in use during the Late Bronze Age (Tell Abu Hawam Stratum V [Balensi 1980:PI. cf. 80:221. Hazor VIII (Yadin et al. Kabri Stratum E3.
All the pottery comes from disturbed layers between Strata E2 and E1. FIGURE 5. temper: mg M. core grey.The two Hellenistic unguentaria found were apparently associated with a disturbed grave (Fig. 1 2 3 Type Unguentarium Unguentarium Mortar Mortar Reg. 7:1-3. The Ottoman village in Area E was excavated by Mahmud Hawari in 1993 (Hawari 1994). 4 Fig. 222 . 34). interior 5YR7/4. This type of vessel was found in large numbers at Tell Keisan and nearby Khirbat Kinniya (Briend et al.91:1-2). 5. temper: mg M white grits . Transport jars of this class are especially numerous in the Akko plain during the Hellenistic period. Among the Hellenistic pottery was the rim of a white Hellenistic transport jar (not illustrated).91: HELLENISTIC POTTERY FROM AREA E No. Exterior 5YR7/4. 3 2 '--"~~=--' 10cm.. interior IOYR8/3. core grey. Further finds include a fragment of a stamped Rhodian amphora (Chapter 9:No. 5.5YR8/4. 1980:Pl. 3269/1a 326911b 3204/4 3490/2 Locus 0869 0869 0853 1321 Description 4 Exterior 7. No.91: Hellenistic pottery from Area E. 17:23-30).
Fig. Pastor 1991 :20*.1995. "the complete lack of Protocorinthian pottery of the late eighth through most of the . Haider 1996:69) is too small to be more closely dated than between the later 8th and the first half of the 6th centuries BCE. although the preserved decoration could be of late 8th/early 7th century date. All pre-Hellenistic Greek pottery of Area E is to be dated between the second half of the 7th and the first half of the 6th centuries BCE. cf. 675-640 B.1 was earlier identified as belonging to a Late Geometric or Subgeometric skyphos with metope decoration (Niemeier 1990:xxxiv-xxxv. The unstratified fragment of an SOS-amphora (No. 12. also Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33-36) also applies to Tel Kabri-'. Tel Batash. the third ca. Wenning 1995). not Corinthian but probably east Cypriot. Fig.1. IV.13). Thus Waldbaum's distribution map (1994:55. 19.C. S. Schlotzhauer for important information and constructive discussions on the East Greek pottery found at Tel Kabri. Figs. Since there is no other 8th century Greek pottery from Kabri.M. 22. Niemeier 1995. They play an important role in discussions about contacts between the Levant and Greece and the possible presence of Greeks in the Levant (see Wenning 1991. cf. Reinvestigation of the sherd for the final publication demonstrated that. Naso for his input regarding the fragment of an Etruscan Buchero vessel (No. The Archaic Greek pottery from Kabri is East Greek. seventh centuries" (Waldbaum 1994:59. The following sites in the Levant have produced Early Corinthian pottery: Tell Sukas. BIRD BOWLS Five fragments (Figs. Thus no Corinthian pottery has been found at Tel Kabri. 2 3 223 . Al Mina is the only site from which Protocorinthian pottery is known (Robertson 1940:16-18. Tell Abu Hawam.2 The stratified pieces come from Stratum E2a (the destruction level of the Phoenician fortification) or from slightly earlier levels. Tel Dan. We are also grateful to A.E. 1990. Lehmann 1995. 16. 1992 and 1993 (Niemeier 1990. the profile is too curved to belong to a Late Geometric/Subgeometric skyphos but comes from an East Greek archaic Bird bowl. 42) is of special interest. Niemeier 1994:*31. Fig. 25). Adelman 1995. Kerschner We would like to thank M. 42). The presence of these imports is of special significance for two reasons: 1. 23. The Bird bowl evolved from the Late Geometric Bird kotyle. 2. simplifying the decoration and flattening the shape. No. Waldbaum 1994. 615-600 BCE. The fragment of an oinochoe or olpe of Etruscan Bucchero (No. 1997:252-255. Fine decorated Greek pottery is more accurately datable than most of the local pottery and therefore important for absolute dating (see Cook. 1997.1) and adopted by Waldbaum and Magness (1997:34) and Haider (1996:69) is. 700-675 BCE. Boardman 1980:48). Niemeier 1994). Recently the typology and chronology of the East Greek Bird bowls has been modified and refined by Kerschner (1995. date adopted by Waldbaum 1994:59. Fig. Mommsen of Bonn University. 5. according to Neutron Activation Analysis by H.92:1-5. 25) (cf. Tel MiqneEkron. it almost certainly is contemporary with the East Greek pottery. Tell Keisan. Elsewhere in the Levant Corinthian pottery also is not abundant. Vessel No. 650-615 BCE. 5. Cook and Dupont 1998:8-10). Sarepta. The clay of a sherd tentatively ascribed to a Protocorinthian aryballos (Kempinski and Niemeier 1993b:259. 256.V.1 More was found in the seasons of 1989. Gershuny (1987:69. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33-36 with references). Tell Jemmeh and Tell Sera' (Koehl 1985:138. the second to ca. with the exception of a probably Attic SOS-amphora (No. Kaufler and U. and the fourth to ca. The "curious gap in the roster of early Greek pottery in Palestine". Kerschner. 1) and Haider's summary (1996: 69) have to be corrected: There is no Geometric pottery from Kabri. despite its popularity in other areas of the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. PI. R. According to Coldstream (1968:298-301) the first stage of the Bird bowls is to be dated to ca. ARCHAIC GREEK AND ETRUSCAN POTTERY Barbara and Wolf-Dietrich Niemeier Archaic Greek pottery was first identified in Area E in 1986 byL. Haider 1996:69).93:1-4) come from East Greek so-called Bird bowls. Ashkelon.
92:3. Inside: Solid. Outside: A ray with three horizontal lines above it in the lower part. H. H = 2. A vertical stripe on the right. H. PI. 5. PI. Decoration: Reddish-brown paint. In Kerschner's typology our fragment forms a late example of his Type IV with a small groove at the mouth and a relatively deep bowl dated to the last third of the 7th century BCE (cf. 2.93:4) Rim fragment. dated to the middle to third quarter of the 7th century B. No. 162.92:5) Body fragment. D. Stratum El. 162. 5. No. Kerschner 1997:127 Cat. Locus 833. 3. Bird bowl (Figs. 650-615 BCE. Date: The missing groove at the rim and the almost hemispherical profile of .2. = ca.C. dated to the last third of the 7th century BCE (Boardman 1967:133. three vertical lines and the body and feet of a bird.8. PI. 5. 5. No. 5. Locus'S24. Cat. 5484. 5.92:1. three vertical lines which meet three horizontal lines at an angle. Date: The painted design puts the fragment in Coldstream's third group. 43:452).478. Stratum El. 11 em. No. No. 4. = 3. The style is less delicate than No. Kerschner 1997:160. XIV). 3138. Kerschner 1997:163. H. Decoration: Yellowish-red and black paint. is a rhomb filled with hatching. Date: The fragment is too small for dating. Inside: Solid. 329711. XIV). 17. 85). D. No. Inside: Solid. 5. Bird bowl (Fig. Stratum El. Decoration: Light reddish-brown paint. Outside: The tail of a bird above which is a triangle pendant from a painted lip band. Reg. Reg.92:2.5 em.the bowl are characteristics of Kerschner's Type V. 5. Date: The fragment is from a Bird bowl of Kerschner's Type II with empty bottom zone. Bird bowl (Figs. 'Fundgruppe XXVII' in the sanctuary of Hera on Samos.93:3) Rim fragment. Bird bowl (Figs. PI. the first half of the 7th century BCE is still dominated by Bird kotylai and only from the middle of the century onwards do Bird bowls appear in larger quantities. Reg. Stratum El. Kerschner did not find Bird bowls from clear contexts before the second quarter of the 7th century BCE. 3114. Decoration: Yellowish-red paint. ca.93:2) Rim fragment. 3. Locus 874.3 ern. VI).dated to the last quarter of the 7th century BCE (cf. =2 em. Bird bowl (Figs. Outside: A group of three vertical lines on the left with a single vertical line on their right.93:1) Rim fragment.8 em. dated before 600 BCE (Walter 1968:88. According to his studies. 130. Reg. No. 1. 118-119:476. Locus 802. Above these. Inside: Solid. PI. 107. 5. Parallels: Phase IV at Emporio on Chios. The bird's tail is formed by extending the lower horizontal outline of the body. Below this are void rays. Outside: On the left.E (cf. Reg. No. from left to right. H. 224 . 109. 43. Stratum El. 3023/1. Locus 1983.1997).92:4. = 3. 5.
Ploug's Group 6. cups' is used for a class of two-handled bands. The most influential 120-125. I118-20. 200. glazed all over except for a narrow reserved band at handle level. site of Bird However.5 em. 7-8.92:7. 53311100.6e) matches on Rhodes. There are. bands just below the handle Group 3. Table 1). D. 610-590/80 BCE) (Furtwangler 1980:165. The term 'Ionian rims. a complete 1938:39-43 No. 625-590 BCE (cf. 8. = 3. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler 225 . and the very useful concordance sanctuary of Hera on the island of Sam os (Furtwangler of Artemis at Ephesos (Kerschner ibid.93:5) 15 fragments of mouth and wall (reconstructed).664). 610 BCE). 5. 'Ionian cup' (Figs. Other examples from the Samian Heraion come from the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building dated to ca. here the common English nomenclature Various systems of classification Cilicia (Hanfmann Hayes 1973:55-56). drinking cups with prominent and Shipley 1989).1. 630/20 . Inside: Solid with lines stripe. Shipley 1989. The fragments of thirteen so-called Ionian cups (Nos. the majority of the pieces of this type came from Phases I (before ca. For many 1998:26). H. adopting the typology 1980:165). 197-199. with simple horizontal or completely covered with dark paint and they should be is retained. Delos found to be a Rhodian (Jones 1986:647. 188-189 note 5. Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Samian Heraion. 5. 1993). were and Since this class is not restricted to Ionia (Catling cup' should be abandoned (1995.ca. decorated Schlotzhauer (Cook and Dupont 1998:129-131).Decoration: Reddish-brown exception of a reserved and dark grey glossy paint. Solid except for narrow Decoration: Black paint. Outside: Type: Villard Schlotzhauer's and Vallet's below the lip. Type AI. other systems arranged These typologies from Tarsus in have been adopted in the study of the Ionian cups from Tell Sukas in by single sites (see Catling and to the typologies sequences 1973:27-38). Fig. This is dated to ca. Locus 1941. however. to his latest Type VI without horizontal Date: It has been identified example from Histria: Lambrino DISCUSSION between the rays of the bottom zone and the main frieze. 6-18) form the largest group of Archaic Greek pottery . has shown that the clay composition of a Bird bowl of Type IV from the Rheneia Pi. Stratum E2a. Syria (Ploug importance 1956:167-173) for this cup-type have been put forward. Boardman those applied to material from Megara Hyblaea in Sicily (Villard and Vallet 1955:18-33).219-234). 21). However. 630/20 BCE) and II (ca. invention (cf. No. 13). analyses were considered analysis pit. in a sacrificial complex in the sanctuary established by Schlotzhauer 1995 for the 1994:137-187. that neither parts of Ionia (Jones activation demonstrating that it was not produced at Miletus confirm of Bird bowls was this Ionian the production centre of Bird bowls (Kerschner et al. 13 = Alexandrescu 1978:57-58 No. Furtwangler's level and just Type 3 and 16 cm. Hayes' Type I-II. and from Tocra in Libya (Hayes 1966:111-16. cups from Miletus) and in the Greek sanctuary at Gravisca in Etruria (Boldrini 6. One production bowls may perhaps have been located in northern 'IONIAN CUPS' Ionia (Jones 1986:697). Kerschner's neutron metropolis years the Bird bowls petrographic 1986:649. Inside: Solid except for a band just below the mouth. Fig. Outside: by Kerschner as belonging Two vertical lines. Cook and Dupont that found in Furthermore. painted or reserved. fewer from Phase III (ca. (mouth) = Reg.200-202 Nos. 1999) suggests that the term 'Ionian called 'Knickrandschale' (cup with bent rim). from Tel Kabri.. PI. Of in the South Temenos of the are the series of Ionian cups found in good stratigraphic 1997.
5. 11 Fig.92: Bird bowls and Ionian cups.2 ry3 5 4 _. 7 8 3cm. 226 .
(Figs. in the second levelling of ca. 25.93:5 5. Decoration: Glossy black paint. Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. yellowish-red (5YR 5/8)/black (5YR 2. Examples of this type were unearthed also in the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building of ca. 29) date is 640/30 . Inside: Solid except for a band just below the mouth. 28). Ionian cup Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay.93:3 5. 610 BCE (Kerschner 1997:182). = 2. Nos. El Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. = 4. II. Ploug's Group 5. Stratum El. 10.6.92:8) Shoulder fragment. Type: Villard and Vallet's Type A21B 2.93:1 5. No. 3138 3114 3297/1 3023/1 5484 3500/101 53311100 3352/100 3536/100 2619 5034-6 Locus 833 824 874 802 1983 1321 1941 887 1321 737 1915 Stratum El E1 Descrip. Furtwangler's Type 5 and Boldrini's Type 1111 with glazed exterior except the rim and a band at handle level. Reg. 8.5YR 6/4) clay. This type apparently lasted from the second half of the 7th to the early 6th century BCE. Ionian cup II. Outside: Bands on rim and at handle level. Hanfmann's Type IV. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. PI. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. Locus 1321. Ionian cup. 1111. 117. 6. 3. H. 115 Cat. dark greyish-brown (10YR 3/2) paint. black (10YR 2/1) shiny paint. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 4.93:6 and Kienast 1989:4-5. PI. 21). black (IOYR 2/1) paint. No. black (7. 1.3 em. dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) paint. E2a Very pale brown (IOYR 7/3)/grey (10YR 6/i) clay. III/I.2 em. 545/535 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:7-8. Hayes' (1966:112) late 7th century BCE. H. III). Reg. 7.121:Fig. No. Cat. 125. Cat. 213-214:Nos. 5.5YR 3/1) paint. Discussion: See No. reddish-brown (5YR 4/4)/ dark grey (7. 21). Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Heraion of Samos it occurs first in Phase III (ca. Cat. 33521100. EI Light brown (7. 18). PI. 3536/100.600 BCE. No. 5. 19.92: BIRD BOWLS AND IONIAN CUPS No. 5. 12. 19. Outside and inside: Solid.92:9.5YR 2.5YR 4/1) shiny paint. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) paint.5/1) paint. 610-590/80 BCE) and was also found in Phase IV (a late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165. Stratum E2a. 8. very dark brown (10YR 2/2) paint. 227 .5/1) paint. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos which ends ca. 111 Fig. 5. 11 PI. 23) and in the foundation of the North Building of ca. 9.93:2 5. (mouth) = 17. 5. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:4-5.120. E2blE3 Pink (5 YR7/4) lightly micaceous clay. Cat. reddish-brown (2. 112. 1/3-4. 12-13 PI. 111 Fig. Fig. 5.No. D. Decoration: Black paint. Cat.tion See Fig. Locus 887. No. Date: Vallet and Villard's (1955:15-18. Examples from Ephesos are dated to the second half of the 7th century BCE (Kerschner 1997:111. E2a Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay.93:4 2. III/8-9. reddish-brown (2.e Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Dorian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Reg_. Hayes' Type VIII-IX. TJP. 126:Fig. 570/550 BCE (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:5-7. 'Ionian cup' (Fig.FIGURE 5.93:6) Mouth and wall fragment. No. Surface Very pale brown (IOYR 7/4) clay.5YR 3/1) paint. 7.
= 2. 117. Reg.93:3 5.92:9. Nos. III/8-9. Cat.5YR 6/4) clay. 6. 126:Fig.2 band just below the mouth. 21). Type: Villard and Vallet's Furtwangler's Type A21B 2. 1/3-4. very dark brown (IOYR 2/2) paint. (mouth) = 17. Cat. in the second and Kienast 1989:5-7. Examples (1955:15-18. 28). E2a Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay.FIGURE 5.6.93:4 11.600 BCE. 120. dark greyish-brown (IOYR 3/2) paint. 5. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. PI. dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) paint. 10. Outside and inside: Solid. E2a Very pale brown (10YR 7/3)/grey (10YR 6/i) clay. No. 29) date is 640/30 from Ephesos are dated to the (1966:112) late 7th second half of the 7th century BCE (Kerschner 1997:111. 9. El Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay. 5. ern. 3. III/I. Hayes' Type VIII-IX. 25. II11. Outside: Bands on rim and at handle level. 19. Locus 1321.5YR 3/1) paint. = 4. 1980:165. Cat. yellowish-red (5YR 5/8)/black (5YR 2. Hanfmann's Type IV. Stratum El. 21). 5. 11.93:5 5.5YR 4/1) shiny paint. Decoration: Glossy black paint. 112. Locus 887. No. Inside: Solid except for a Parallels: In the South Temenos of the Heraion of Sam os it occurs first in Phase III (ca. 121 :Fig. 12. 5. 2. black (1OYR 2/1) shiny paint. III). 23) and in the and Kienast 1989:7-8. Decoration: Black paint. black (IOYR 2/1) paint. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) paint. H.93:1 5. 4. No. 111 Fig. Cat. 610 BCE (Kerschner 1997:182). H. No. Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. 1.93:6 and Kienast 1989:4-5. Fig. 590/575 BCE (Furtwangler Examples of this type were unearthed also in the first levelling of the ground underneath the North Building of and Kienast 1989:4-5. PI. 7. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) clay.92:8) Shoulder fragment. 213-214:Nos. 545/535 BCE (Furtwangler ca. 125.115 Cat. This type apparently lasted from the second half of the 7th to the early 6th century BCE.5/1) paint. 12-13 PI. 5.92: BIRD BOWLS AND IONIAN CUPS No. Discussion: See No. Date: Vallet and Villard's . 3138 3114 3297/1 3023/1 5484 3500/101 53311100 3352/100 3536/100 2619 5034-6 Locus 833 824 874 802 1983 1321 1941 887 1321 737 1915 Stratum El El Description See Fig. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos which ends 227 . 11 PI. 610-590/80 BCE) and was also found in Phase IV (a late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler ca. El Light brown (7. E2blE3 Pink (5 YR7/4) lightly micaceous clay. 8. Surface Very pale brown (IOYR 7/4) clay.5YR 3/1) paint. No. Ploug's Group 5. 8. 570/550 BCE (Furtwangler foundation of the North Building of ca. 5. Ionian cup.93:2 5. D. reddish-brown (5YR 4/4)/ dark grey (7. Cat. Stratum E2a. El Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay. TJ:'I!. reddish-brown (2. 111 Fig. Type 5 and Boldrini's Type II11 with glazed exterior except the rim and a band at handle level. 33521100. Hayes' century BCE.93:6) Mouth and wall fragment.3 ern. reddish-brown (2. 3536/100. Reg. 'Ionian cup' (Fig. Ionian cup Light reddish-brown (5YR 6/3) clay.5/1) paint. 19.e Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Bird bowl Dorian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Reg. No. 7. PI. levelling of ca. 18). No. (Figs.5YR 2. black (7.
5.92:1.95:16.94:8. 5. 6) Fig.94:12. 5.92:2. 12) Fig.92:9.94:5. 8) Fig. 9) Fig. 4) Fig. 5. 1) Fig. 7) Fig. 3) Fig. 5. 5. 13) Fig. 228 .92:4.93: Bird bowls and Ionian cups. 14) Fig. 5. 5. 5.92:3. 5. 11) Fig. 5.94:1.2 3 4 5 II 14 11 12 Fig. 5.95:10. 5.94:6.92:7. 5. 10) Fig. 2) Fig.94:7. 5. 5) Fig.
5YR 5/4). Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. Inside: solid black. Decoration: Glossy black paint. 1197. sometimes a band below handle level and glazed foot. Ionian cup (Fig. 5389-3. which ended ca. except rim and shoulder.93:7) 15 fragments of rim. with low foot. glazed with two red lines framed by white lines painted on the glaze on the inside of the rim and the lower part of the bowl. Handles: solid black. Type: cf.C. it occurred in Deposit II of Level 8 (Hayes 1966:1i2.a group of almost completely preserved cups of this type have a reserved tondo on the base of the interior which is a 6th century feature. Hanfmann's Type II. Reg. Reg. Outside: black bands covering the mouth plus the upper part of the wall and the foot.Date: The date of ca. Cat. Outside and inside bowl: solid. and Boldrini's Type Ill/I. 9. Surface D. No. 5. Hayes (1966:113) and Ploug (1973:29-30) date this type to the first half of the 6th century BCE. Reg. Outside and inside: solid. foot unpainted. = 1.3502/101. Reg. D = 6 em. Thus the type is to be dated from after ca. Sounding between Strata E2b and E3. Stratum E2a.4 ern. red (lOR 4/4) and white (lOR 8/1) paint. 13. Parallels: At Tocra. = 5 em.(10YR 3/2). Furtwangler's Type 6. 2619. 229 . 11. starting around 580 BCE. wall. (reconstructed) = 5 ern. 12. = 2. 5034-6. = 1. 565 B. No. especially in regard to its end. PI. H. Type: Villard and Vallet's Type B 1. black (10YR 2/1). Decoration: Black and red paint. H. = 2. foot unpainted. Decoration: Design in brown (7. At Tell Sukas.92:10) Foot fragment. handle and foot. Reg. Stratum E2a. 620-600 BCE for this type proposed by Villard and Vallet (1955: 18-19. H. Date: This type is dated by Villard and Vallet to ca.9.3 cm.1199). Boldrini 1994: 149-150. 620-580 BCE (1955:29). 10. Hanfmann (1956:170-173. Stratum E2a. No.289) has suggested a date from the end of the 7th to the first half of the 6th century BCE. 5. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. Outside: three horizontal brown lines. Inside: solid black. 1963:285-287. 5. Locus 1971. Locus 1308. 610 to 550 BCE. two red lines below the mouth. Locus 1941. Nos. Hayes Type V. Furtwangler 1980: 164-166. 7.92:11) Foot fragment. Locus 737.94:1. Locus 1915. Ionian cup (Figs.7 ern. 120.4 cm. Decoration: Very dark brown paint. H.E (Hayes 1966:9). Ploug's Group 9. Decoration: Very dark greyish-brown paint. D of mouth = 11 ern. Foot: black with one red line on base. 29) has been considered too restricted. 5345/100. No. Type: Same as No. H. three red lines on the lower part of the wall. Ionian cup (Fig. No. unglazed exterior. 5. Outside and inside bowl: solid.
-- / <. 1 230 . / \ \ ..94: Ionian cups. \ ".:> J I ~~\ \ \ 8 I \ 9 6 F' 9... . 5..~--- . --' \ ' \\ ) I I \_---- ... I'.. 2 3 /.~.... <. .. <.
149. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) micaceous clay.5YR 2. Locus 1971. Cat. 8. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) clay. 2.3 ern. Beil. 54141100. 213-214. IV/9. Date: The type apparently was in existence from after ca.213-214. yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) . The mouth was cut away and the base knocked through for reuse (as a funnel?). 33). The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos. Beil. Pale red (2. Outside: three horizontal brown lines.very dark grey (5YR 311) paint. 223.reddishbrown (5YR 4/4) paint.5/1) paint. H. No. 610 to 570/60 BCE.93:7 5. 610 to 570/60 BCE. See Fig. 1. 10. 231 . this type first appears in Phase III (ca. dusky red (lOR 3/4).5YR4/4) paint. black (7. The type does not occur in the sequence of the sacrificial complex at Ephesos. 5345/100 54141100 3571/100 3448/100 3616/100 3590/100 Locus 1941 1963 890 1316 1334 1321 Stratum E2a E2a E2a E3b E2a E2a E2a Description Red (2. 7. red (lOR 4/6) . 610 BCE. yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) paint. black (10YR 2/1)/red (lOR 4/6) paint. Locus 1963. 150 Fig.reddish-black (2. white (2. 22). Fig. 33). H. Inside: solid black. Reg. 1. Pink (7. white (IOYR 8/1) slip. = 1.5YR 2. PI. 22). Decoration: Design in brown (7. Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:77-78) and in Well W 2 closed at about the same time (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:74-75. 610590/80 BCE) and also occurs in Phase IV (the late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165.W2/29. PI. 149.93:11 3401/102 890 1916 1318 E2a E2b-E3 E4 5038 Oinochoe? SOS amphora 3470/100 Parallels: In the South Temenos in the Heraion on Samos. Pink (7. III/ll12. 1.93:8 5.5YR 2.5YR 5/6) micaceous clay. No. brown (7. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Wall fragment. Fig. Cat. ending ca. black (lOYR 2/1). Other examples from the Heraion were found in a level dated ca. Stratum E2a. Stratum E2a.5 em. Reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) micaceous clay. white (IOYR 8/1) slip. No. black (7. Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:77-78) and in well W 2 closed at about the same time (Furtwangler and Kienast 1989:74-75. Core red (2. IV/9. 5389-3. glazed with two red lines framed by white lines painted on the glaze on the inside of the rim and the lower part of the bowl. 3. 5. 220:No. 4. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) clay. 223. 9. ending ca. 5.W2/29. black (5YR 2.5YR 5/6).8 ern. Ionian cup (Fig 5. 47. Type Ionian cup Ionian cup Ionian cup Skyphos Jug Oinochoe Oinochoe Oinochoe? Reg. = 4. 47. 6. 13. D (where mouth is cut away) = 13.94: IONIAN CUPS No.FIGURE 5.5/1) paint.5YR 5/2) lightly micaceous clay. III/II-12.5YR 5/4) micaceous clay. red (lOR 4/4) and white (lOR 8/1) paint. Date: The type apparently was in existence from after ca. 150 Fig. No.5YR 7/4) clay. edges greyish-brown (2.5YR 2. Reg. No.511). 560 BCE (Isler 1978:93-94. very dark brown (7.5/2) paint. 220:No. Reddish-brown ((5YR 5/6) lightly micaceous clay.5YR 8/1) paint.93:9 5. 560 BCE (Isler 1978:93-94. Other examples from the Heraion were found in a level dated ca. white (10YR 8/1) slip. Parallels: In the South Temenos in the Heraion on Samos. No. foot and 1 handle. this type first appears in Phase III (ca. 610-590/80 BCE) and also occurs in Phase IV (the late Archaic fill) (Furtwangler 1980:165.5YR 7/4) micaceous clay.94:2) 17 fragments of wall. 610 BCE. No.5YR 5/4).5/1) paint.93:10 5. reddish-yellow (5YR 7/6) . 14.
centre of Asia Minor 1973:28) but does not. 5. 11) and other more simply decorated cups from Vroulia on Rhodes (Kinch 1914:Pls. termed examples are those of the so-called in cups of the Vroulia style The short rim not going beyond (1983:29) of which the most beautiful (cf. however. = 3. offer a consistent tradition (von Graeve 1973174:85. Type: Same type of cup as No. 16. Ionian cup (Fig. 37:4.9 ern. 33). 32:f 1 and 3. Locus 1316. Locus 1941. Reg. wall and handles. 18:9. = 0.4. Inside: unpainted. Ploug Dupont 1983:28-29). Locus 1321. Inside: solid except for a band just below the mouth. of finds (Furtwangler 1983:27.1. Stratum E3b. 'Dorian' cup (Fig. as belonging to a marginal group of 'Ionian cups'. H. DISCUSSION Rhodes has long been considered According analyses (Dupont to the frequency of the clay (Dupont 1983:28. Reg. paint.4 em. 19) was most probably 232 . = 0. Reg.5. H.94:3) Rim and wall fragment. Locus 839. Stratum E2a. cm. Handle: solid on outside. 'Dorian' cup or skyphos (Fig. H. 10. D. No. Stratum E2a. a major production centre of 'Ionian cups' (Hayes 1980:150-161) 1966: 111-115.5YR 2. Solid.5/1) paint. Outside: Horizontal stripe on lower edge of fragment. 3156. 3. No.5 em. = Reg. 5. the shoulder and the rigid outline of the conical body of No. 17. Rec. Inside: solid. band just below = 22 = 12 ern. 19. 9. Locus 890. Type: See No. 13 but with thicker walls and handles and are no painted lines on the interior. Cook and Dupont cup' (No. 45:32. The 'Dorian as well as the results of petrographic production of southwestern these cups. 3448/100.94:4) Wall and handle fragment. 39:8. Decoration: Red and reddish-black paint. Outside: band on foot and lower part of wall. Decoration: Reddish-yellow 18. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Handle fragment. Outside: and Kerschner striated solid except for a very narrow Decoration: Dark reddish-brown Type: Identified by Schlotzhauer 'Dorian cups' by P. Stratum 1. Outside: band covering the mouth and the upper part of the wall. Stratum E 2a.4 em. 34-36.4).92:6) 27 fragments D (mouth) of mouth. two blobs on inside. Length Reg. = 3. Ionian cup (not illustrated) Handle fragment. Kinch 1914:167-186.1 ern. 5. 35711100. but they were also produced produced on Rhodes or Kos. 3500/101. Length = 4. No. 14.Decoration: Yellowish-red and dark grey paint.2. (Kinch 1914:Pl.1. Decoration: Very dark brown paint. 38:6.1. D of mouth = 19 em. Pr. 43:23. the island of Samos was an important at Miletus and in other workshops 1998:129). No. Decoration: Black (7. Cook and Dupont 1998:114-115). 15. 18 are paralleled 27:2-4. Dupont Vroulia-style the handle zone. (5YR 7/6) clay painted all over in very dark grey (5YR 3/1). D. 5248-2. No.
Decoration: White slip and black painted design. Fig. 1997:109. No. Parallels: The sanctuary of Hera on Samos (Technau 1929:29). Trefoil mouthed oinochoe with triple-coil handle (Figs. 5.=9cm. R. Reg. = 2. Reg. 5.M. 5038. Oinochoe (Figs.10. Decoration: Painted solid black with two horizontal red lines and two horizontal white lines on shoulder.94:6. H. Type: cf. Miletus (unpublished). Type: These motifs first appear in Middle Wild Goat I (Cook and Dupont 1998:37. cross with filling of spherical triangles on rote lIes. 5. 111-119. 2a-b). The name comes from the animal friezes. = 4. Decoration: White slip and brown paint. Part of the back of a wild goat with part of a spiral quatrefoil above it.8 ern. RM. Date: The careless execution of the twisted band points to a dating in Middle Wild Goat II. Locus 890. 5. R. H.94:7. 2a-b). Decoration: Yellowish-red paint. Oinochoe(?) (Figs. Fig. WILD GOAT STYLE OINOCHOAI At Kabri.93:10) Neck fragment. Type: All these motifs first appear in Middle Wild Goat I (Cook and Dupont 1998:37. No. 21-24) came from 'Wild Goat style' vessels. Fig. neck and handle fragments. and dominated the decoration of East Greek painted pottery for some three generations (Cook. Decoration: White slip with horizontal stripes painted in black.6) and continue into Middle Wild Goat II (Cook. Fig. 21. Locus 1321.JUGS.93:11) Body fragment. On the left.92:9) Mouth. 5. on the right. DISCUSSION 'Wild Goat style' is the term used in the English speaking archaeological community for the style which emerged about the middle of the 7th century BCE.94:8. 5. R. Locus 1334. Oinochoe(?) (Fig.2 em. a rosette of concentric circles and a series of dots following the outermost circle as filling ornament. H. in which the goat became the most frequent species. 5. Stratum E2a. Mouth and sides of handle solid black.6) and continue into Middle Wild Goat II (Cook.9 cm. Kardara 1963) is misleading. Stratum E2a.6 em. Jug (Figs.M. Fig. 3590/1 00. oblique lines on surface of handle.93:8) Shoulder and neck fragment. Reg. 3616/100. Stratum E2b-E 3. No. 24. 22. 8. H. POLYCHROME BLACK (SCHWARZBUNT) 20. H. 1933/34:90-91. The old term 'Rhodian' (Cook. 8.94:9) Shoulder fragment ofa closed vessel. 23. = 12. Reg. 34011102. 5. twisted band on neck.94:5. Stratum E2a. = 3. Cook and Dupont 1998:42. 233 .M. Cook and Dupont 1998:32-70). four fragments (Nos. 1992:259. 5. decorating the main zone of the vessels. Locus 1916. part of back and hind leg of a wild goat. 1992:259. No. 8. Date: The slightly careless execution of the filling ornaments points to a Middle Wild Goat II date. Schiering 1957.
ca. he named this supposed decadent transitional style Wild Goat III (Cook. 1933/34:90-91.Middle Wild Goat II) to 610-560 BCE. Jones 1986:665-666). Tocra and Cyrene) very little is known in the Levant. considerable amounts of Middle Wild Goat II style pottery have been found in the sanctuary of Athena at Assesos near Miletus (Lohmann 1995:313-314). Schaus 1986:288-289).M. 91). R. Cook and Dupont 1998:5156). Fig.36-44). The Middle Wild Goat style is divided into I and II around 625 BCE. At about the same time. RM. 1992:260. the Levant and North Africa come to an end and are replaced by North Ionian Late Wild Goat style ware (Schaus 1986:291. Jones 1986:665-671. Clazomenae and what Dupont calls North Ionian 2 (Dupont 1983:27-29. Petrographic clay analyses and stylistic researches have demonstrated that three or four main production centres of Wild Goat style pottery existed: Miletus. 550 BCE. According to Dupont's petrographic clay analyses the principal Middle Wild Goat II school is Milesian (Dupont 1986:60-64). and that the Fikellura style appeared with are-emergence of the industries at Miletus about 550 BCE. New evidence from Miletus disproves the theories of Cook and Schaus and confirms those of Schiering and Dupont (Schlotzhauer.1. Dupont regards the 40 years between ca. Middle and Late. but dated the late style of his Camirus Group (comparable to Cook's Early Wild Goat . RM. personal communication). 8-9 = Naveh 1962. Schiering (1957:11) did not see this as a decadent transitional style. 600 and 560 BCE as too long a phase for Cook's decadent transitional style. 590 BCE (Hopper 1949:180. 600 BCE. Schaus (1986:284-288) ca. Most recently. 10. A completely different solution has been proposed by Schaus (1986:289-292) who maintains that almost no fine ware was produced at Miletus in the first half of the 6th century BCE due to economic decline caused by internal civil conflicts (cf. Cook and Dupont 1998:56). The Fikellura style which. although Middle and Late are regional styles and overlap chronologically. This transition is traditionally dated to about 600 BCE (payne 1931:57). exports of Middle Wild Goat II style pottery to the Black Sea coasts. since it is no longer found in graves on Rhodes at the time when Middle Corinthian was replacing Early Corinthian (Cook and Dupont 1998:44). the traditional date of ca. Cook and Dupont 1998:34. The end of the Middle Wild Goat II style has been dated by R. 67-71. RM. Cook and Dupont 1998:61). Cook to ca.P. The Late Wild Goat Style is an invention of North Ionian schools which diverged from the South Ionian mainstream while Early Corinthian was still flourishing (Cook. Fine pottery did exist at Miletus in the first half of the 234 . He argued that the Middle Wild Goat II style. Cook and Dupont 1998:33-36). 1997:123. the discussion in Niemeier 1999:404 with n. but clay analyses demonstrate that the island imported the ware (Dupont 1983:28-29. 600 BCE and the beginning of the Fikellura style ca. 1992:260. Walter-Karydi 1986:73-80. The chronological gap between the supposed end of the Middle Wild Goat II style ca. RM. The Wild Goat style has been divided into Early. may have lasted into the first two decades of the 6th century BCE (Dupont 1986:65).M. Cook and Dupont 1998:89) started ca. R. when ornament and poses became more stereotyped (Cook. Whereas relatively much Late Wild Goat Style pottery has been found in North Africa (Naucratis. according to R. 560 BCE and according to G. overlapping and influencing the early stage of Fikellura. 34-36. Cook (1933/34:90. In Israel only a single sherd from Mezad Hasavyahu (Wenning 1989:186. Chios. Cook. RM. 560 BCE may have been filled by a decadent variation of the former which lingered on beside the Late Wild Goat style (Cook. SF 1. Cook and Dupont 1998:77-81. Amyx 1988:428-429) as Payne (1931:57) previously suggested. Moreover. 1933/34:60. PI. 1997:112. 1997:112. is greatly indebted to the Middle Wild Goat II style (Cook. 112 Fig. W. 1992:262. 1992:255-266).M. Later.Rhodes was the place where it was first found in quantity. Cook and Dupont 1998:44). The Early Wild Goat style probably did not last very long. M.1986:62-64. lOA) has come to light. A problem under discussion is the date of the change from the Wild Goat style to the Fikellura style pottery mainly produced at Miletus (Dupont 1986:61. 650 to 640 BCE (Cook. 600 BCE for the end of Early Corinthian has been questioned by scholars who put it a little later. from ca. 65-66. 264). 1992:260.
No. 5. Stratum E2a.6). H. No. = 6. shoulder fragment = 15. 5. 28. 5.93:12) Neck and shoulder fragment. Reg.94:10. and in the east on the Black Sea at Histria. Date: The SOS amphora was in use from the later 8th to the first half of the 6th century BCE. 23. Trade amphora (Fig. (mouth) 13 ern. Date: End of 7th . H. = 7 ern. 235 . 5. Parallels: SOS amphorae have been found outside of Greece at over forty Mediterranean sites. = Stratum E2a. (mouth) = 14 em.95:2) Two fragments of rim and shoulder.5 ern. of rim fragment = 6 em. Type: As No. Locus 1912. Decoration: Unpainted. Stratum E 4.95:1) Neck and mouth fragment. Trade amphora (Fig. 29. Type: Samian amphora of the early type with echinoid rim (Cook and Dupont 1998:164-165. Reg. No. 3592/4. in the northern Levant at Al Mina and in Egypt at Tell Defenneh (Johnston and Jones 1978:104-107. Trade amphora (Fig. Locus 1318. Stratum E2a. 26. D. 5. 166. H. TRADE AMPHORAE 25.first half of 6th century BCE. Jones 1986:708-712). supposedly produced in Athens for the olive oil export market. This type of amphora. Type: This sherd comes from an SOS amphora which gets its name from the varied zig-zag and circle motifs on the neck resembling the Greek letters 'sigma omikron sigma' (Jones 1986:706). Locus 1335. No. 112-122). D.95:4) Rim fragment. Nos.6th century BCE and its decoration was not decadent. (mouth) 13 cm. Petrographic clay analyses have demonstrated that the majority of the SOS amphorae indeed are of Attic origin but imitations were also made at Chalkis and other places (Johnston and Jones 1978:122-128. Thus at Miletus fine ware pottery production did not stop in the early 6th century BCE but it was not exported.95:3) Rim fragment.reddish-brown paint. SOSAmphora (Figs. = 7. = Reg. 5. of mouth = 14 cm. Part of '0' of the SOS motif on neck. Decoration: Reddish-yellow . = Reg. 5148-2. has been interpreted as a manifestation of the Athenian export trade in the Mediterranean during the Archaic period. D. Shoulder solid. Type: As No. Reg. H.8 ern. Decoration: Unpainted. 26. Decoration: Unpainted. mostly in Italy and Sicily but as far west as Spain and Morocco. 27. 26. Locus 1914.2 ern. 5. D. Fig. 5051-1. Very important are fragments of 'bilingual' cups from Miletus. 34701100. Stratum E2. 26 Trade amphora (Fig. decorated on the outside in good Middle Wild Goat II style and on the inside in Fikellura style. Type: As No. 1941-179. Decoration: Unpainted. 5035. H.7 em. They demonstrate that the Fikellura style directly followed the Wild Goat II style and partly overlapped with it.
2 4 5 rj~ 6 7 dl ~. 8 9 W ~ )fJI \ n )lJI \ )(~J \11 c.95: Amphorae and cooking-pots. 236 . 5.::jl n I ( 14 15 "rr 16 13 Fig.
8. Trade amphora (Fig.brown )7. 12. (foot) = 8 em. Cooking bowl 16. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) lightly micaceous clay. = 6 em. 3592-4 5035. No. 14. 13. 32. Decoration: Unpainted. Stratum El. Locus 874. Grey (5YR 5/1)core with reddish-yellow (5YR 6/8) surface. Decoration: Unpainted.5/1) paint. D (foot) = 10 ern. (foot) = 5. 5. 3309-3. 5. Decoration: Unpainted. 10.5 YR 2.5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. 9.6 em. Yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) core. = 3.FIGURE 5. 3123-6.brown (7. shiny black (2. 31. 2. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/8) clay. No. 2.5YR 5/6) highly micaceous clay. lightly micaceous clay. 7. Trade amphora (Fig. Cooking-pot 15.7 a). Red (2.95:8) Foot fragment. Locus 879. No.5YR 5/6) micaceous clay. 505114 1941/179 5148-2 5237-5 3309-3 3123-6 3335/10 3286-5 300112 3095/1 3437/100 3547/100. Reddish-yellow (5YR 6/6) lightly micaceous clay. No. 1914 1958 879 823 889 874 Llll Kill 1309 1324 864 866 821 Red (2. 33.3 cm. Date: End of 7th . Reg. Blue-grey (5 B 511) clay.5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. 5. Red (2. Cook and Dupont 1998:170-174. Locus 889. H. Reg. D. 5. D. 5. One horizontal groove at base of neck. unpainted. three grooves on upper part of neck.95:5) Neck and shoulder fragment.95:7) Foot fragment. 237 .first half of 6th century BCE. light brownish-grey (1OYR 6/2) surface. Trade amphora (Fig. 6. 3286-5.5YR 5/6) . 3552/100 3222 3228 315113 Locus 1335 1912 Stratum Description E2 E2a E2a E2a E2a El El El El El EI E2a El El E3 El See Fig. H. No. H.95:6) Foot fragment. D (neck) = 15 ern. micaceous clay. No. Red (2. Bluish-grey (5PB 5/1) core.93:14 30. Decoration: Unpainted. (foot) = 6 em. Type: Milesian amphora (cf. = 3. Like No. Reg. Stratum El H. Reg. Stratum E2a.e Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Trade amphora Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Cooking-pot Reg. = 3 em. Figs. Trade amphora (Fig. 3. 2. D. 1. Stratum El. 34. 3335110. II. 23.95: AMPHORAE AND COOKING-POTS. Reg. H. 5. TJ!l!.5 em.93:13 Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. Amphora 5. 5. Trade amphora (Fig. 4. = 9 em. Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay.5YR 5/6) . Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4) highly micaceous clay. Locus 1958. Stratum El.95:9) Foot and wall fragment. No. yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) surface. Like No. Locus 823. 5237-5. Decoration: Unpainted.
86-91). Stratum E1.95:10-15. Cooking bowl (Fig. They are unpainted. No. Cat. 153154 PI. Stratum E1. 155. but their typological sequence can only be followed at Athens with the material from the Agora and the Kerameikos (Young 1939:189-190. Square Kill. Reg. No. Cooking-pots (Figs. PI. Reg. Figs. According to its profile. 127.203210. D (mouth) = 20 cm. H.1922. 11. 371. = 6. No. Reg. 66). 99.8 em. Nos. D (mouth) = 20 ern. PIs. = 5. Surface partially blackened by fire. Locus 1324. No.7 ern. described as "loaded with large flakes of silvery mica". Fig. 597-604. 1932. Locus 866. PIs.35. Nos. H. 493. 93. Etruscan bucchero (Figs.5 em. 22:L 45-48. Date: Late 7th century BCE 41. D (mouth) = 20 ern. 34371100. 1412-1413. = 6. III. common in the last quarter of the 7th century and in the first quarter of the 6th century BCE (Rasmussen 1979:78-79.93:14) The Etruscan bucchero sherd was a surprise. XII). H. Cat. Reg. Surface. . No. H =. = 4.the Kabri sherd comes either from an oinochoe of Rasmussen's Type 3a. 83. 3095-1. the fabric of the latter. Unpainted. No. 75. 3228/1. Nos. 1961b:317. 91-92. PI.95:16. 36-40. H. Trade amphora. Fig.4 em. PI.6th centuries BCE or shortly after (Rasmussen 1979:88-89. However. 19411178. Type: Ware similar to Nos. 42. 21-22. They are known from different areas in Greece. Nos. (not illustrated) Shoulder fragment. Type: Although no handles are preserved. ( 238 . 5. 38.5 em. 1962:55. The Kabri fragments have a profile similar to that of an example from Chios (Boardman 1967:146 Fig. 20. H. No. 39. 3222. these rims undoubtedly come from one-handled cooking jugs (chytrai) which have a tradition going back to the Sub-Mycenaean period (Reber 1991:20-56).95:15) 2 rim fragments. Nos. 136. Stratum E 3. 36. Locus 864. The surface is partially blackened by fire. Fig. 300112. Nos. 37.5 em. Parallels: East Greek examples have been published from the island of Chios (Boardman 1967:145-146. Cat. 7-8. 512 Cat. Brann 1961a:123124. Decoration: Unpainted. to those from Ephesos and to two examples from the Greek settlement at Tocra in Libya dated by Hayes to the late 7th/early 6th century BCE and attributed to a possible Cycladic origin (Hayes 1966:135-137. 18. PI.40. Stratum E1. 598). 5. Square Lll1. 94 No. 136. 5. Q 10. 5. D = ca.7. Reg. =8 cm. 5. 3552/100. Its identification was secured by comparing the piece directly with fragments of Archaic Etruscan bucchero pottery in the collection of the Archaeological Institute of Heidelberg University. N 18. No. COOKING VESSELS 36 . R. No. 145. this is a bowl with an everted rim. 40. 116 PI. H. D (mouth) = 19 ern. 105). = 5. Reg. Locus 1309. 130-131. D (mouth) = 21 cm.482. is very like that of the Kabri cooking jars and may indicate a southern Ionian origin. 30 cm. Sparkes and Talcott 1970:224-225. Cat.038. 3547/100. 94) and from Ephesos (Kerschner 1997:115. Stratum E2a. KUbler 1970:192. 29-31) or from an olpe of his Type 1.93:13) Rim fragments of imported Greek cooking vessels of coarse highly micaceous clay with rolled out rim. PI. 139. 18. dated between the end of the third quarter of the 7th to the tum of the 7th .
3). 17. 66*. Fig. 85. Fantalkin 2001:75-79.31 Fig. 49 Fig. 239 (Naveh 1962:108-109. PI. Stager 1996a. PI. PI. 60.1-6. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:33 with note 79). PIs.Tyre (Coldstream and Bikai 1988:42.1-2l 35. Figs.3-4). Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1978a:57. both from Mezad Hashavyahu 1914:190-191. No. 7a-b).97:1) are rare in the Levant. No. 114-117. cf. Nos. 1. Fragments of four Bird bowls were unearthed at Tyre (Coldstream and Bikai 1988:43.3. Tell el-ijesi (Risser and Blakely 1989:93. such 1980:151. Fig. 69*. Bird bowls (Fig. Nos. 14. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:27-28. 10. Fig. fragments of three Bird bowls were found at Tell Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:125. 35). 32. 7 No. Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:43-69. 32:2 and 35:10). amphorae Fantalkin 84-85. I-III. IX-XI). XVI. Boardman 1980:48.2. 41 PI. for example. 22:1. Boardman 1978b:41 PI. . 3).1). 5. Dan (pakman 1992:236 Fig. Tel Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:126.6) and several others have been 1986:198 with note 65).ARCHAIC EAST GREEK AND ETRUSCAN POTTERY IN THE LEVANT in the Levant.Tel 2001:90-94. 1923:PI. 6). 18).5. Figs. Nos. 2). XV. Tel (Gitin 1995:65. Fig. 32. Nos. No Bird bowls were found at Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:41). 4). SOS amphorae (Fig. Waldbaum and Magness Ashkelon (Stager 1996a.1-12. of others at Dan. 72.5. 34 Fig. Fig. IV:1. There are only two examples besides that from Kabri.97:1) have been found at Al Mina. Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:27-38).3-3. 4.PIs. 69*. XIII) and in Israel at Tell Keisan (Briend and Humbert 1980:151. No. 9. Iliffe 1932:17. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:29. Fig. PI. Mezad Hashavyahu Miqne-Ekron (Naveh 1962:106-107. In general.Ras Ibn Hani.96:3)pottery has been foundat Al Mina (Robertson 1940:8-16.35 Fig. PI. Ashkelon (Pythian-Adams Fig. 'Ionian cups' (Fig. 5.1-7. following p. from Al 1980:47-48). 86).1). 14). Fig. . 6. 14. olive presses of the 7th century be due to the fact that this region had its own olive-oil by the numerous from Kabri is the only Levant may documented 1995:63-69). 6. Tell Tel Malhata (Kochavi 1970:23 (below). XIII). 1997:32-33.96:1) were frequent at Al Mina (Robertson Ras el-Bassit mentioned one example has been published (Courbin (Courbin 1940:14.23) and at a number of sites in Israel. V:a. 12) and have been found at. 16. Fantalkin 2001:Fig.1. 6g). Ras Ibn Hani (Riis 1982:251-252). 11-12. 251-255. Magness 1997:30 with note 56) and Tel Batash (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:30. . XX. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:30. 11 Nos.. 32.32. Figs.4). . The reason for the rareness industry. 7. PI. 1978b. Fig 9. Fig. 120. 13. Fig. 5. 131 Nos. Sarepta (Koehl 1985:137-138. Boardman 1980:48). In Israel. Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1986: 198. Figs. Fig. 12. Achzib (Culican 1982:67. No. PI. From Most of the classes of Archaic Greek pottery found at Tel Kabri are well distributed Mina in the north to the Negev in the south. this vessel type was seldomly exported like examples found at Vroulia in Rhodes (Kinch . 1996b. 13. 2. colour photo. Tel Batash (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:28) and Ashkelon (Stager 1996a:67*. Tell er-Ruqeish (Waldbaumand Fantalkin 2001 :88-87.10. 10.12). Mezad Hasavyahu and Magness 1997:33. . Wild Goat II style (Fig. Reich 1989:230 Fig. but the fragment example so far known from Israel. Akko.67*. Waldbaum and Magness':1997:29-30. pls.(Riis 1982:251-252). 10-11. Fig. PI. Other classes are less known from the Levant. Fig. of this type in the southern This is very impressively (Gitin BCE found at Tel Miqne-Ekron Polychrome black jugs (Fig. Mezad Hashavyahu (Naveh 1962 110-111.387-389. PI. 28:7-14). 5. 4. PIs. 16. East Greek trade amphorae (Fig. 5. V. 5. 8 Nos. Dor and Ashkelon Mezad Hashavyahu (unpublished.96:2) were unearthed at Al Mina (Robertson 1940:13. 29.322-323. 67*).31 Jemmeh (Illiffe 1932:17.a). 1993:936).5:7-8). In Israel. 1990:508). Keisan (Briend and Humbert Tel Batash (Waldbaum (Naveh 1962:104-105. PI. mentioned by Waldbaum 1994:59) and possibly at (Naveh 1962:106-107. 6.31.96:4) are known in the northern Levant from Tell Sukas (Ploug 1973:72. 5. Fantalkin 2001:89-90. Fig.
Top right) Ionian cups. 240 .96: Distribution of East Greek vessels in Israel: Top left) Bird bowls. 5. Bottom right) Cooking vessels.SAREPTA I. Bottom left) Wild Goat II style. ! TEL DAN ~ • TEL KfABR' TEL KEISAN JELL JEMMEH • l.lELL ER-RUQEISH'i TELL EL-HESI • T • ELL MALHATA Fig.
92. Gras 1985 :672-674) and a bronze oinochoe of the so-called Rhodian type reportedly found 241 . 7. Gras 1985:676-679. Fig.eel' f . 30. 4.97: Distibution in the Levant of (left) SOS amphorae and polychrome black jugs. Reich 1989:230 Fig. 12a-b. Fewer have been unearthed on the Greek mainland.Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31. 6. on p. Fig.202 Fig. Fantalkin 2001 :86-87. In this context. 10) and numerous sherds of this ware have been found in the Late Iron Age destruction debris and the earlier construction fill at Ashkelon (Stager 1996a:67*. 1977-78. Fig.1-2. It is striking that the Kabri fragment comes from a closed shape. (right) Greek cooking vessels. Fig.31.33 Fig. 5.7-8. 1986:201. 11). all in Israel. von Hase 1989:329. 1). 5. 2). 60b. Fragments of up to 18 Greek cooking-pots have been identified at Mezad Hashavyahu (Naveh 1962:104-105. 63. Fig.7-8. in Sardinia. Fig. 12F. PI. since almost all Etruscan bucchero vessels found in the eastern Mediterranean are kantharoi (Rasmussen 1979: 155). two bronze objects should be mentioned which have been seen as Etruscan imports in the Levant: a belt buckle in the British Museum said to have been found in Syria (Hall 1929/30: 107. the western coast of Asia Minor and in the Levant (see Rasmussen 1979:150-156. 1978a. 64. PI. PI. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31-32.34 Fig. PI. Rostovtzeff 1932:331-332. in southern France. the only known examples in the Levant were two fragments of kantharoi of Rasmussen's Type 3e from Ras el-Bassit (Courbin 1973:27. an oinochoe or olpe. Fragments of one or two cooking-pots have been found at Tel Batash in the Stratum II destruction debris of Area F (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:31. Imports of Etruscan bucchero have been found in greater quantities in the western Mediterranean.97:2) of this period are known from only a few Levantine sites. von Hase 1971: 10-12. Fig. in eastern Sicily and at Carthage. 58. 8-9.TEl KABRI • I ! ~J Fig. 36). Greek cooking vessels (Fig. Figs. Before the find of the Kabri bucchero fragment.1. the Aegean islands.
1 and 4. n. The excavators of Tel Kabri contend that a small contingent of Greek mercenaries in the service of the Kingdom of Tyre was based in the fortress of Stratum E2 (Niemeier 1994. As Gitin (1998:276. and M. The few Etruscan objects from the Levant certainly do not provide evidence for direct Etruscan trade with the Near East. Moreover. the conquest of Ashkelon is dated to the month of Kislev in the first year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II. 2) has recently argued. It has been suggested that it was destroyed during the same campaign as Ashkelon (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:37-38). Shefton 1979:68 No. PIs. when the Babylonians destroyed Ashkelon. A 23). caption) thinks that the two Ras el-Bassit kantharoi were brought by east Greek intermediaries. Thus neither object comes from a secure context. Thus the date of Ekron's destruction by the Babylonians falls most likely in the ten year-span of 604-595 BCE. Waldbaum and Magness 1997:37).4. 1996b:58. but without a representative from Philistia. 242 . In all probability it occurred during one ofNebuchadnezzar's campaigns along the Phoenician and Philistine coast at the end of the 7th and in the first two decades of the 6th century BCE (Wiseman 1985:21-41. According to the Babylonian Chronicle in the British Museum. I would agree with Gitin that the most convincing date is 604 BCE. cf. 10. to November/December 604 BCE (Wiseman 1956:28. 77 with note 3. Courbin (1978a:58. Unlike the garrison at Mezad Hashavyahu. Rostovtzeff (1932:332) has suggested that the belt buckle from Syria probably was brought by an Etruscan slave or associate of a Phoenician merchant. Stager 1996a:72* with note 1. Since the latest Greek pottery from Kabri cannot be more accurately dated than between the last decade of the 7th century BCE and the first half of the 6th century BCE.. the imported Greek pottery of Stratum E2a also shows close relationships to the assemblage from the destruction levels at the end of the Iron II phase at Ashkelon and Tel Miqne (Ekron) (Waldbaum and Magness 1997:27-33). The excavators of both sites have convincingly attributed these destructions to the Babylonian invasions led by Nebuchadnezzar II. The date of the fall of Tel Miqne (Ekron) is not as assured. Gitin 1997:98-99). 3. according to the text of Jeremiah 27 dated to 594 BCE describing a meeting in Jerusalem at which a rebellion against Babylon is planned. The nature of the Greek presence in the Levant has been thoroughly discussed elsewhere (Neimeier 2001). 1995. 2002).at Sidon which was acquired by the Berlin Museum from a Parisian art dealer (Furtwangler 1888:250 No. the Berlin jug is most probably of east Greek manufacture (Jacobsthal 1929:210.e. 68-69. driven from their homeland by many factors (Bettalli 1995 :26. Frey 1963:23. The implication is that the Philistines no longer posed a threat to Babylon at that time. it is improbable that the Babylonian destruction of Ekron happened after 595 BCE since. the map Stager 1996b:58). i. these were single members of the elite. 108-109). it is impossible to establish during which of these campaigns the Phoenician fortress of Stratum E2 in Area of Tel Kabri was destroyed. and Philistia apparently came totally under their control. one year later. in 60110BCE or even after 595 BCE when the chronicle ends (Na'aman 1992:43-44). in 603 BCE (Malamat 1979:208. No texts exist recording the destruction of the fortress at Tel Kabri. THE DESTRUCTION OF THE FORTRESS OF STRATUM E2 Like the Phoenician pottery (Chapter 5:1V).1-2) and identified as an Etruscan import by Gras (1985:676). Jacobsthal 1929:205-206 No.
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