Assignment 24: Electromagnetic Waves
Due: 8:00am on Wednesday, April 11, 2012 Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy.
Traveling Electromagnetic Wave
Learning Goal: To understand the formula representing a traveling electromagnetic wave. Light, radiant heat (infrared radiation), X rays, and radio waves are all examples of traveling electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic waves comprise combinations of electric and magnetic fields that are mutually compatible in the sense that the changes in one generate the other. The simplest form of a traveling electromagnetic wave is a plane wave. For a wave traveling in the x direction whose electric field is in the y direction, the electric and magnetic fields are given by , . This wave is linearly polarized in the y direction. Part A In these formulas, it is useful to understand which variables are parameters that specify the nature of the wave. The variables and are the __________ of the electric and magnetic fields. Hint A.1 What are parameters? Hint not displayed Choose the best answer to fill in the blank. ANSWER: maxima amplitudes wavelengths velocities Correct Part B The variable is called the __________ of the wave. Choose the best answer to fill in the blank. ANSWER: velocity angular frequency wavelength Correct Part C The variable is called the __________ of the wave. Choose the best answer to fill in the blank.
wavenumber wavelength velocity frequency Correct
Part D What is the mathematical expression for the electric field at the point ANSWER: at time ?
Correct Part E For a given wave, what are the physical variables to which the wave responds? Hint E.1 What are independent variables? Hint not displayed ANSWER: only only only only and and and and Correct This is a plane wave; that is, it extends throughout all space. Therefore it exists for any values of the variables and and can be considered a function of , , , and . Being an infinite plane wave, however, it is independent of these variables. So whether they are considered independent variables is a question of semantics. When you appreciate this you will understand the conundrum facing the young Einstein. If he traveled along with this wave (i.e., at the speed of light ), he would see constant electric and magnetic fields extending over a large region of space with no time variation. He would not see any currents or charge, and so he could not see how these fields could satisfy the standard electromagnetic equations for the production of fields. Part F What is the wavelength of the wave described in the problem introduction? Hint F.1 Finding the wavelength Hint not displayed
Express the wavelength in terms of the other given variables and constants like . ANSWER: = Correct Part G What is the period of the wave described in the problem introduction? Express the period of this wave in terms of and any constants. ANSWER: = Correct Part H What is the velocity of the wave described in the problem introduction? Hint H.1 How to find Hint not displayed Express the velocity in terms of quantities given in the introduction (such as and ) and any useful constants. ANSWER: = Correct If this electromagnetic wave were traveling in a vacuum its velocity would be equivalent to , the vacuum speed of light.
Electric and Magnetic Field Vectors Conceptual Question
Part A The electric and magnetic field vectors at a specific point in space and time are illustrated.
Based on this information, in what direction does the electromagnetic wave propagate? Hint A.1 Right-hand rule for electromagnetic wave velocity Hint not displayed ANSWER: +x –x +y
–y +z –z at a +45 angle in the xy plane Correct Part B The electric and magnetic field vectors at a specific point in space and time are illustrated.
( and are in the xy plane. Both vectors make 45 angles with the y axis.) Based on this information, in what direction does the electromagnetic wave propagate? ANSWER: +x –x +y –y +z –z at a –45 angle in the xy plane Correct Part C The magnetic field vector and the direction of propagation of an electromagnetic wave are illustrated.
Based on this information, in what direction does the electric field vector point? Hint C.1 Working backward with the right-hand rule Hint not displayed ANSWER: +x –x +y –y +z –z at a +45 angle in the xz plane Correct Part D The electric field vector and the direction of propagation of an electromagnetic wave are illustrated.
( is in xz plane and makes a 45 angle with the this information, in what direction does the magnetic field vector point? Hint D.1 Working backward with the right-hand rule Hint not displayed ANSWER: +x –x
x axis.) Based on
+y –y +z –z at a –45 angle in the xz plane Correct
An electromagnetic wave has a magnetic field given by Part A In which direction is the wave traveling? ANSWER: +x-direction -x-direction +y-direction Correct Part B What is the frequency of the wave? ANSWER: 6.59×1011 = Correct Part C Write the vector equation for ANSWER: . .
Consider a sinusoidal electromagnetic wave with fields . If . Part A Express your answer in terms of the appropriate constants ( , , , and ). and are to satisfy equations and and , find , with and
ANSWER: = Correct Part B Express your answer in terms of the appropriate constants ( ANSWER: 0 = Correct , , , and ).
Triangle Electromagnetic Wave
Learning Goal: To show how a propagating triangle electromagnetic wave can satisfy Maxwell's equations if the wave travels at speed c. Light, radiant heat (infrared radiation), X rays, and radio waves are all examples of traveling electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic waves consist of mutually compatible combinations of electric and magnetic fields ("mutually compatible" in the sense that changes in the electric field generate the magnetic field, and vice versa). The simplest form for a traveling electromagnetic wave is a plane wave. One particularly simple form for a plane wave is known as a "triangle wave," in which the electric and magnetic fields are linear in position and time (rather than sinusoidal). In this problem we will investigate a triangle wave traveling in the x direction whose electric field is in the y direction. This wave is linearly polarized along the y axis; in other words, the electric field is always directed along the y axis. Its electric and magnetic fields are given by the following expressions: and where and , ,
, and are constants. The constant , which has dimensions of length, is introduced so that the constants .
have dimensions of electric and magnetic field respectively. This wave is pictured in the figure at time
Note that we have only drawn the field vectors along the x axis. In fact, this idealized wave fills all space, but the field vectors only vary in the x direction. We expect this wave to satisfy Maxwell's equations. For it to do so, we will find that the following must be true: 1. The amplitude of the electric field must be directly proportional to the amplitude of the magnetic field. 2. The wave must travel at a particular velocity (namely, the speed of light).
What is the propagation velocity of the electromagnetic wave whose electric and magnetic fields are given by the expressions in the introduction? Hint A.1 Phase velocity Hint not displayed Express in terms of and the unit vectors , , and . The answer will not involve ; we have not yet shown that this wave travels at the speed of light. ANSWER: = Correct In the next few parts, we will use Faraday's law of induction to find a relationship between and .
Faraday's law relates the line integral of the electric field around a closed loop to the rate of change in magnetic flux through this loop:
. Part B To use Faraday's law for this problem, you will need to constuct a suitable loop, around which you will integrate the electric field. In which plane should the loop lie to get a nonzero electric field line integral and a nonzero magnetic flux? ANSWER: the xy plane the yz plane the zx plane Correct Part C Consider the loop shown in the figure. It is a square loop with sides of length , with one corner at the origin and
the opposite corner at the coordinates Hint C.1 Hint C.2
Recall that at arbitrary time ?
. What is the value of the line integral of the electric field around loop Integrating along segments 1 and 2 Hint not displayed Integrating along segments 3 and 4
Hint not displayed Hint C.3 Integrating around the entire loop Hint not displayed Express the line integral in terms of ANSWER: , , , , and/or .
= Correct Part D Recall that . Find the value of the magnetic flux through the surface in the xy plane that is
bounded by the loop , at arbitrary time . Hint D.1 Simplifying the integrand Hint not displayed Hint D.2 Evaluating the integral Hint not displayed Express the magnetic flux in terms of ANSWER: = Part E Now use Faraday's law to establish a relationship between Hint E.1 Using Faraday's law and . , , , , and/or .
Hint not displayed Express in terms of and other quantities given in the introduction. ANSWER: = Correct If the electric and magnetic fields given in the introduction are to be self-consistent, they must obey all of Maxwell's equations, including the Ampère-Maxwell law. In these last few parts (again, most of which are hidden) we will use the Ampère-Maxwell law to show that self-consistency requires the electromagnetic wave described in the introduction to propagate at the speed of light. The Ampère-Maxwell law relates the line integral of the magnetic field around a closed loop to the rate of change in electric flux through this loop:
. In this problem, the current is zero. (For to be nonzero, we would need charged particles moving around. In this problem, there are no charged particles present. We assume that the electromagnetic wave is propagating through a vacuum.) Part F
To use the Ampère-Maxwell law you will once again need to construct a suitable loop, but this time you will integrate the magnetic field around the loop. In which plane should the loop lie to get a nonzero magnetic field line integral and hence nonzero electric flux? ANSWER: the xy plane the yz plane the zx plane Correct Part G Use the Ampère-Maxwell law to find a new relationship between Hint G.1 How to approach the problem Hint G.2 Hint G.3 Hint G.4 and .
Hint not displayed Find an expression for the left-hand side of the equation Hint not displayed Find an expression for the right-hand side of the equation Hint not displayed Use the Ampère-Maxwell law Hint not displayed Express in terms of ANSWER: = Correct Part H Finally we are ready to show that the electric and magnetic fields given in the introduction describe an electromagnetic wave propagating at the speed of light. If the electric and magnetic fields are to be self-consistent, they must obey all of Maxwell's equations. Using one of Maxwell's equations, Faraday's law, we found a certain relationship between and . You derived this in Part E. Using another of Maxwell's equations, the AmpèreMaxwell law, we found what appears to be a different relationship between and . You derived this in Part I. If the results of Parts E and I are to agree, what does this imply that the speed of propagation must be? Express in terms of only and . ANSWER: = Correct You have just worked through the details of one of the great triumphs of physics: Maxwell's equations predict a form of traveling wave consisting of a matched pair of electric and magnetic fields moving at a very high velocity . We can measure and independently in the laboratory, and these experimentally determined values , , , and other quantities given in the introduction.
lead to a speed of , the speed of light . After thousands of years of speculation about the nature of light, Maxwell had developed a plausible and quantitatively testable theory about it. Faraday had a hunch that light and magnetism were related, as demonstrated by the Faraday effect. (Glass, put in a large magnetic field, will rotate the plane of polarization of light that passes through it.) Now Maxwell had predicted an electromagnetic wave with the following properties: 1. It was transverse, with two possible polarizations (which agreed with an already known characteristic of light).
2. It had an extraordinarily high velocity (relative to waves in air or on strings) that agreed with the experimentally determined value for the speed of light.
Any doubt that light waves were in fact electromagnetic waves vanished as various optical phenomena (such as the behavior of electromagnetic waves at glass surfaces) were predicted and found to agree with the behavior of light. This theory showed that lower frequency waves could be created and detected by their interactions with currents in wires (later called antennas) and paved the way to the creation and detection of radio waves.
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Electromagnetic radiation is more common than you think. Radio and TV stations emit radio waves when they broadcast their programs; microwaves cook your food in a microwave oven; dentists use X rays to check your teeth. Even though they have different names and different applications, these types of radiation are really all the same thing: electromagnetic (EM) waves, that is, energy that travels in the form of oscillating electric and magnetic fields. Consider the following:
radio waves emitted by a weather radar system to detect raindrops and ice crystals in the atmosphere to study weather patterns; microwaves used in communication satellite transmissions; infrared waves that are perceived as heat when you turn on a burner on an electric stove; the multicolor light in a rainbow; the ultraviolet solar radiation that reaches the surface of the earth and causes unprotected skin to burn; and X rays used in medicine for diagnostic imaging.
Part A Which of the following statements correctly describe the various forms of EM radiation listed above? Hint A.1 The electromagnetic spectrum Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Frequency and wavelength of an EM wave Hint not displayed Check all that apply. ANSWER: They have different wavelengths. They have different frequencies. They propagate at different speeds through a vacuum depending on their frequency. They propagate at different speeds through nonvacuum media depending on both their frequency and the material in which they travel. They require different media to propagate. Correct The frequency and wavelength of EM waves can vary over a wide range of values. Scientists refer to the full range of frequencies that EM radiation can have as the electromagnetic spectrum. Electromagnetic waves are used extensively in modern technology. Many devices are built to emit and/or receive EM waves at a very specific frequency, or within a narrow band of frequencies. Here are some examples followed by their frequencies of operation:
garage door openers: 40.0
standard cordless phones: 40.0 to 50.0
baby monitors: 49.0 cell phones: 800 to 900 microwave ovens: 2450
, , , . , ,
FM radio stations: 88.0 to 108
Global Positioning System: 1227 to 1575 wireless Internet technology: 2.4 to 2.6
Part B Which of the following statements correctly describe the various applications listed above? Hint B.1 Frequency and wavelength of an EM wave Hint not displayed Hint B.2 Hint B.3 Hertz, megahertz, and gigahertz Hint not displayed Meters and kilometers Hint not displayed Check all that apply. ANSWER: All these technologies use radio waves, including low-frequency microwaves. All these technologies use radio waves, including high-frequency microwaves. All these technologies use a combination of infrared waves and high-frequency microwaves. Microwave ovens emit in the same frequency band as some wireless Internet devices. The radiation emitted by wireless Internet devices has the shortest wavelength of all the technologies listed above. All these technologies emit waves with a wavelength in the range 0.10 to 10.0 . All the technologies emit waves with a wavelength in the range 0.01 to 10.0 Correct The frequency band used in wireless technology is strictly regulated by government agencies to avoid undesired interference effects. In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is responsible for assigning specific radio frequency bands to different wireless communication systems. Despite their extensive applications in communication systems, radio waves are not the only form of EM waves present in our atmosphere. Another form of EM radiation plays an even more important role in our life (and the life of our planet): sunlight. The sun emits over a wide range of frequencies; however, the fraction of its radiation that reaches the earth's surface is mostly in the visible spectrum. (Note that about 35% of the radiation coming from the sun is absorbed directly by the atmosphere before even reaching the earth's surface.) The earth, then, absorbs this radiation and reemits it as infrared waves. Part C Based on this information, which of the following statements is correct? Hint C.1 Relation between frequency and wavelength Hint not displayed Check all that apply. ANSWER: The earth absorbs visible light and emits radiation with a shorter wavelength. .
The earth absorbs visible light and emits radiation with a longer wavelength. The earth absorbs visible light and emits radiation with a lower frequency. The earth absorbs visible light and emits radiation with a higher frequency. Correct Even though our atmosphere absorbs a very small amount of visible light, it strongly reflects and absorbs infrared waves. Therefore the radiation emitted by the earth does not leave the atmosphere. Instead, it is reflected back into it, contributing to a warming effect known as the greenhouse effect. Part D A large fraction of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation coming from the sun is absorbed by the atmosphere. The main UV absorber in our atmosphere is ozone, . In particular, ozone absorbs radiation with frequencies around 9.38×1014 . What is the wavelength of the radiation absorbed by ozone? Hint D.1 Frequency and wavelength of an EM wave Hint not displayed Hint D.2 Meters and nanometers Hint not displayed Express your answer in nanometers. ANSWER: 320 = Correct