28

Mahmoud Mohamed Taha

Message lslam of The Second
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founded the Republrcan Brothers, whichTaha his After rndependence, followers actrvism. . d t fl i l e d u n t i lh i se x e c u t i o nn 1 9 8 5T h e f o u n d r n g o c u m e n o f t h r so r g a n i z a t r o nr,s td r a f t e d tn Taha's unorthoin the early l95Osand published 1967-excerptedhere presents (revealed lYecca in beforethe Prophet dox view that the eadierQur'anicrevelations g p b h g a n e d p o l t i c a l o w e r )s h o u l d e g r a n t e d r e a t e ' i m p o r l a ^ cte a nt h e l a t e rr e v e l a t r o n s . of which refer more narrowly the conditions the Prophetsrule in lYedinaThrsvrew to e s of t b r o u g h tT a h a r n t o c o n f l i c w i t h t h e S u d a n e sg o v e r - n m e n ti 'm p l e m e n t a t r o n m o r e . th l l o r l h o d o x l s i a m i ca w s n t h e l 9 8 O s H i s p r o t e s ta g a i n s t e s ep o l i c i e se d t o h s a r r e s t anoexeculon,

I n t r o d u c t i o nt o t h e T h i r d E d i t i o n This is the introduction to the third edition of The of SecondMessag,e Islam. The first edition was pubin lished in January l96J a,.o., the reveredmonth of

R a m a d a n 1 3 8 6 n . H . T h e s e c o n de d i t i o n w a s p u b lished in April 1968n.o., in the month of Muharram 1388a.H.At the time of the secondedition we were. however,preoccupied with other business and could not give that edition an introduction of its own.

This book,The SecondMessageof Islant, is neu in every respect.. . . Besides being new, it is also "Translator's lntroducl. Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im. totally "strange," that is. unexpected,since it protion." in Mahmoud Mohamed Taha, The SecondMessageof "strange( N / . s / r r r r S y r a c u s e , . Y . : S y r a c u s eU n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 7 ) ; claims the return of a renewedIslam. Such K h a l i d D u r a n . " A n A l t e r n a t i v et o I s l a m i s m :T h e E v o l u t i o n - n e s s , " h o w e v e r , i s t o b e e x p e c t e d ,e s p e c i a l l y b 1 ' ary Thought of Mahmud Taha," Cross Currenls, volume 42. informed Muslims. The Prophet is reportedto have nunrber4, Winter 1992-1993,pp.453167; Paul J. Magnasaid: "Islam startedas a stranger,and it shall return
editor,The rella. "RepublicanBrothers,"in John L. E,sposito. oJ' Otf'ord Ency-clopedict the Modern Islantic lV'or'ld(New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,1 9 9 5 ) ,v o l u m e 3 , p p . 4 2 9 130.

as a strangerin the same way it started.Blessedare the strangers!They asked: Who are the strangers. O Messengerof God? He replied: Those who revive

)70

because such a al-yaqin.\ception\.l s l a mc n d A l . then becauseof their long unfamil_ nal and internal (genuine) submission. ] and rhrou-eh_ out this chapter. while in the as the truth.therebyrequiring them to act within their capacities Sunna is his prophethood. l E S S A G E I S L A I Y I OF 77I aha capabilities. Only distinction. secondly 'imett.r m a n misunderstandingand deliberate distortion out of bad faith. The distinc_ S u n n ac n d S h a r r ' a tion can be explainedas follows: In the above quoted hadith Itradition of the propher]. strangers amongsttheir own people. while in shari'a the prophet descendsfiom the level of his own personalpracticeto the level of his people in order to teach them accordins to their 2. [These somewhat technical terms rcfer ttt 11c. We need not concern ourselves here with those who oppose this book. as At the initial stageislam is inferior to . consists of all the acts and words of the prophet. peace is the difference between the Message and the of b e u p o n h i m . o r c l si n t h i s q u o r a r i o l . to address people in accordance with the level of their therefore. sixthly 'ilm haqq al-v-aqin. Prophet said: "We the prophetshave been instructed Those who criticize this book for its . were those who revive his slzrzn after it had been a the first being islam.diligence.s messageout of A l . which is a tremendousdifference indeed.w.Umar ibn al_ constitute sunna.fifthly.a [Islamic law]." a . ilm. hadith involving Gabriel. Sunrta relates to the personal practice of the Prophet. and he of of the time. Islam at the iarity with the truth. The time when such belief sufficed is shall be rewarded for his perseverance.tnna As we wereseated with theMessenger God. because teachingsto others and approval his logians whom we know today are unable to make this of their conduct relateto shari.This is at the final stage it is superior to . t h e r ec a m e a m a n w e a r i n g Prophethood. har e been insertecl by the t1nnsl3101. islam is merely external or apparent truth is a stranger.-Eclitorl my sLtnna[practice of the prophet] after it had been abandoned.i n r accordance with religious and ntoral nornr._ Translatorl 3 . But we must emphasizethat the apparent There is a common failure to appreciatethe fine "strangeness" this messageis inherentin of the na_ distinction between islant [submission to God] and ture of Islamic revival.ho were designed to teach the people their religion are said: shctri'a. The prophet's statementswhich Khattab [Companion of the propher. while well as his approval of the action of others.t h e strange. They are strangersby virtue of their fers in degree from islam at the initial stage. it reflects the difference [ c i ea n ] . At the adherenceto the truth amongst people for whom the initial stage. Thus. between the standard of the generality of Muslims of all levels. r d i t e s r r r c . and the standardof the prophet.2 But islam at the higher stage dii_ accustomedto. his mind shall be open to a is due to an inability to appreciatethe circumstances new understanding the eur'an and Islam. the Prophet's personal deeds.The difference betweenshari. Those who call for such a revival become fourthly' itm al-yaqin.iman.and close scrutiny. they come to accept falsehood initial stageconcernsspeechand action. while in the final state it is both exter_ hood for so long. Islam is an intellectual processby which the dili_ the Prophet referred to the strangers and said they gent worshiper proceedson a ladder of seven steps. mysterious and unexpected. In other words. 592_644). thirdly ihsan abandoned. ayn fbeneficence]. with se'eral L. the return of a revived Islam is by nature i s h i s m e s s a g e .that is to say.. as we have now reacheda point when the under_ standingof religion has developedand evolved from the level of iman to the level of islam.and seventhly call involves a divergence from what people are islam once more.strangeness. [ T h e b r a c k e t e d u . and ethics.iman Many theo_ not true. 'lman is widely and misrakenly be_ quires patience. over.a and sr.and his utterancesthat Religious scholars have been confused by the reflect the stateof his heart in its knowledge of God.arious l degrees of piety and perfcction of conduct r r r . reported by .while shari. reveal both a lack of understanding and understanding.. final stageit is intelligent surrenderand submission It is mistakenly believed by some that the sunna and acceptanceof God both in private and in public. God willins.. Understanding this book re_ 'iman lfaith]. . This mistaken belief reader is able to persist.If people have experiencedfalse_ submission.W i t h r e s p e c tt o h i s m e s s a g e ." of patience.If the lieved to be superior to islam.a .r H E S E C O N D.

Those scholars failed to appreciatethat needsclose consideration' issue rec bes Th Nc Wr 'in pa wu vit wl on of w ad 1Tl at rh rh m bt S tI n( tC V s n ( S I I c ( d e t a i l . He [the manl said: you are right' He Then he said: Tell me when is the final hour? Prophet]replied:the one being askeddoesnot [the know of it more than the one who asks' He [the rnanl said: Tell me of its signs?He lthe Prophet] replied: When the woman gives birth to her mistress. Bedouins. whethergood or bad' andtheherehe after.While he explained the First Messagein white clothes. But it shall not stop at the third of dogma or step of the ladder. may he receive the highest blessing and utmost peace.as contained in general terms in the When the naQur'an. the coming nation is a nation of both Muslintin as well as Mu'minin at one and the same time. in the form of prophets. be certainthat He can seeyou. it seemsobvious 'intctnis higher in degree than scholars rhar these the islant. Each of these two stageshas three levels' The Truth of the Motter . H i s a n g e l s H i s B o o k s ' ' fate Messengers. 'Umar' do peacebe upon him. with the final prophet being the Prophet Muhammad ibn Abdullahi. literally Those Who Submitl. h e o n l y o u t l i n e d t h e S e c o n d M e s s a g e 'I t s of elaborationnow requiresa fresh understanding the Thetruthofthematteristhatislam.and when you seethe bare-footedand naked He practiceextravagance' said:You are shepherds We stayed a while' then the right. but sayaslamna 'intan (true belief) did not enter your submit) and to heartsyet" (Sura 49. The beginning rs islant and the end is islam. yet they are not identical. (we tell them you have not believed.but there is a vast difference between islam at the beginning of religious evolution and islam at the 'aqida is the stageof the nation of end. where Gabriel stopped in his questions.which completesthe cycle' The end of relithe gious evolution resembles beginning. which is the nation of the SecondMessage of lslam.with very dark hair' None of us knew him. and he is also the Messenger of the Second Message.tell me about islant' ' He lthe Prophet] said:islant is to declarethat there is no god but God' andthat Muhammadis the Messengerof God. said:O Messenger. because he had come to explain religion to the nation of Mu'ntinin. and ihsan' 'ilnt 'ilm al-yaqin' while the levels of knowledge are ' there at'n al -raqirt. although its vanguard have appeared individually throughout human history. Muhammad. The stage of Mti minin [Believers]' which is the nation of the First Messageof Islam' The stage of knowledge is the stage of the nation of Muslintin [Muslims. and not to the nation of Muslimirr' which had not Yet come.It shall continue to evolve to the end of the ladder. That is the purpose the Qur'an. It must be noted that Gabriel stoppedin his questions at the end of the level of do gma. if you can afford it' He said: how he could askhim You areright.77) Mahmoud Mohamed Taha The levels of dogma areislam. while the first nation was oneof Mti ntinin (believers)and not Muslimin (submitters) in the final senseof islant [as total and intelligent surrenderto Godl. thereby combining both dogma as well as knowledge. peacebe upon him' and placedhis kneesnext to his lthe Prophet'slknees' and placedhis handson his fthe Prophet's]thighs '' and said: O. In other words. We wondered he was right' Then he [the man] and then confirm 'iman. Verse 14)."The Bedouinssaidamanna (we believe). Many religious scholars interpreted this to mean islant"iman'and in that Islam proceeds threestages: Since it is said in the Qur'an' concerningthe ihsan. This nation has not come yet.'iman. and' ilm haqclal. to say the prayers pay :akat taxesi to fast the month of Ramadan. Then he left.and do pilgrima-qe the House lof God].asconveyedin of this book' the stageof dogma Qur'an. point as the nation of Mu'ntinin.'aqidd.v-aqin'Finally' ladder of evolution. comes in two stages: Those who approachthis book with an open mind ('aqida) and the stageof the truth (haqiqa) or knowlwill be guided along the right path' We ask God for edge. and detailed it in the sunna' it shall begin at the same tion of Muslimin comes. Muhammad is the Messengerof the First Message. yet he did not show the signsof travel' He sat of nearthe Messenger God. namely at a stage 'aqida. He [the manl said: you are right' Then He tell me about iltscttt' LtheProphetl reasked: plied: ihsan is to worship God as if you seeHim' and althoughyou do not see Him. It was Muhammad who prophesied the coming of the nation of Muslimin and brought its message.who came to teachyou religion. which is a seventh stage in the is islam.He replied: lthe Prophet] said:Tell me about ' i m a n i s t o b e l i e v ei n G o d . I you know the one who was askingthe questions? know better' He ieplied. God and His Messenger your said:This is Gabriel.

because the nation of uslimin. [Godin His comprehensive all-preceding and knowledge already knew that Islam would be rejectecl when first offered in Mecca. and it was practically demonstratedthat they were below its standard.nrelyat a stage :top at the third s t o p p e di n h i s e to the end of dogmaas well rnting nation is t> Mu'minin at irst nation was lluslimin (subas total and inr e di n h i s q u e s ttclida. such disbelief is great unfairness. "And We will make known the truth about you" means to extract thoughts that are repressedin your subconscious-your sir al-sir.I t s standingof the . rectification and successin our endeavor.'ilni a Finally. and at the time of Jesusas Christians. as well as being revealed in two parts as Meccan and Medinese. [Referencehere is to the hadith where the prophet describes self-controlas the primary and najor jihad or self'exertion.and the Christianswho so believe in God and the Last Day and do good deeds-on them fshall come] no fear." that the prophet said: "I was told that I am one of them. knowing that its explanationat the level of the muslimin was above their ability.."' (Sura 6. although its ally throughout r p h e t s . striving to control the self. In other words. :_-. do not disbelievein God. namely.-Translatorl -5. Verse 163) We have said that the nation of the First Message are muslimin.iihad.G o d ' s k n o w l edge is ancient and external beyond time. which the First Mesof the Second 'st Message in M e s s a g e . "O believers (mu'minin). Verse 16) When the verse. thosewho have believed.-Translator] . This offer of the higher standard is the conclusive argument againstpeople referredto in the verse:"And We will surely try you until We make manifest those among you who strive [for the cause of God] and those who are steadfast. and they are truly guided" (Sura 6. qaelim and not hadirh. there 1irt." The prophet is not merely one of the believers(mu'minin). V e r s e l 1 l ) It is reported about the verse. While the Qur'an describedmuslimin at the time of Moses as the Jews.and the Jews. 4.T H ES E C O N I Y E S S : :::. and do good deedsshall have their reward with their Lord. He is the bestLord."Those who believe u ithout obscuringtheir belief with unfairness have securitr. Verse 62) Again. nor shall they grieve. When the nasin at the same . it says. (Sura 64. fear God as He ought to be feared. and I am the first of thosewho submrt (muslimin). L a no p e nm i n d 'e ask God for 'unan." The believerswere relieved becausethey knew that they had not disbelieved since the time they came to believe. The end of relirning. nor shall they grieve.." (Sura 2.and those\\ hrr lre nJ of their own selfishness the trulir successful are oflr:.s o t h a t w e s h o u l dk n o w w i t h c e r t a i n t y . those who believe and the Jews and the Christians and the Sabians who so believe in God and the Last Day. The Meccan Qur'an was revealed first." (Sura 3. In fact the Prophet explained the verse to them at the level of mlr'ntinin.rho prophesied 'ttrt and brought -al terms in the r." (Sura47. _-l as that is good for yourselves." (Sura 5. and they said: "O Messengerof God. And so am I commanded. And he indeed has failed who holds i n i q u i t y .and the Sabians. " ( S u r a2 0 . He has no partner.people found it too difficult to comply with. and no f'ear [shall comel upon them. Verse 82) rias revealed. "Surely. but He conductedthe experimentfor our s a k e ..'Those ho W SecondMessage r et. and become true submitters(muslimin) before you die. Verse 3 I ) This experiment and consequentpractical experience is for the benefit of mankind becauseGod's knowledge does not occur afresh (hadith)."Those who believe without obscuring their belief with unfairnesshave security. Verse 102) When the believers(mu'minin) said "which of us can fear God as He ought to be feared?"the Qur'an descendedin another verse to the level of "Fear God as much as you can.w i t h t h e tluhammad ibn e s t b l e s s i n ga n d . they were addressedin accordancewith their abilities. The verseswhich demonstrate descentfrom ultimate Islam to the level of iman are numerous-for example. Verse 69) Another instructiveversereads: The First Messageof lslam Notionof l'1u'minin We have said that the Qur'an was divided between 'iman and islam. and when they failed to do so. D and ihscttt. tlrtt l-yaqin. listen and obey and pay alms.5 "And those who are steadfast" refers to enduranceof the stateof distancefrom God.it describesthem at the time of t h e F i r s t M u h a m m a d a n M e s s a g ea s m u ' n t i n i n o r "those who believed.yet they are ril and the end is betweenislam at t and islane at the e of the nation of ration of the First \tage of the narlly. "All shall submit to the living and allsustaining God. Did you not hear what God's true slave (Luqman) said: O son.ok.4The phrase "those who strive" meansmajor . the verse. and they are truly guided." Listen to the eur'an: "Surely. which :. which one of us is not unfair to himself?" He replied: "It is not what you mean.The verse means disbelief.And We will make known the truth about you. people were invited to adopt Islam [in the ultimate sense]first. evolution. because"unfairness" then means subtle polytheism in the sensementioned in the verseof the sir al-sir. as he is the first of the true submitters to God (muslimin\: "Say: 'My prayer and my worship and my life and my death are [all] for God the Lord of all creation.

God says:"I have ueatedjin rr [spirits] and people for no reason except that they may worship Me.ihsan. As alreadystated. which God has forbidden save in accordance (with the demands justice. "Then remind them. the doing of good and benevolenceto the next of kin.-Translatorl anc SUS acc Isli typ SCT kn an fie . Verse 90) Again. Verse 56) And He favored people with the mind. in disbelieves God. invites them to further belief. it was postponed and the intermediate objective of implementing the subsidiary preceptwas sought.774 Mahmoud Mohamed Taha guided ones" (Sura 16. the sword was used justice. This was Islam's original and fundamental prinas you are only a reminder. feat God as He ought to be feared. and renderneed of the individual for absolute individual freeing it liable to be withdrawn. when both individual as well as collective human capacities are sufficiently mature.and those who are rid of their are own selfishness the truly successfulones" clearly have two different meanings-one setting an original precept and the other a subsidiary one. and the Prophet and his Companions delivered by their words and example. all to the best interest and advantageof their people. in practice.during which time much of the miraculous Qur'an was revealed. such freedom shall be withdrawn under a law which is consistent with free I ing the cha this gua em ofl the constitution. The propagationof Islam beganwith the verses of persuasionin Mecca where the verse "Propagate the path of your Lord in wisdom and peaceableadvice. The early Muslims curtailed their own aggressionagainst the unbelievers.6 thereby abusing their freedom." (Sura 51.and that you slay not the self. e l i e v ei n G o d . their people persistedin worshipNevertheless. manifestevil. and the need of the community for total social the sword. Freedom is a natural right corresponding to a duty.Once a free person is unable to fulfill the duty of his or her freedom. that is. namely. g r e s s i o n . and children were transformed under the guidance of the new discipline. has grossly strayedfrom the p a t h . Since at that time there dom. and to others. You have no dominion ciple.this is the law of mu'avt'Qda was no law except to that effect fabridging freedom]. k i n d n e s s . sacrificed their comforts sincerely and self-denyingly in the cause of spreadingtheir religion. body.That is what He has ot) (Sura enjoineduponyou. and He is more knowledgeable of the days. the original precept shall be restored. minc God in ht Wet 25-t repe the I prin repe exce the t ity tr time I d I ( t t s wer prol Inf Orit rt J i h a d/ s N o t c n O r r g i n o l P r e c e p n l s l o m Islam's original view is that a person is free until it is shown. if taken by their enemies.lewdness.( S u r a4 . implemen(reciprocity). books'messengers. and listen and obey and pay alms." (Sura 16.When it was shown that it was impracticable to do so.This approachwas colltinued for 13 years. endured hurt. and to avoid having to defend and feed them generally. ing the stone they carved. God says: and that you slay not your children for fear of poverty-it is We who provide for you and for them-and that you approach not foul deeds. Their lives were the supremeexpressionof their religion a n d c o n s i s t e do f s i n c e r e w o r s h i p . and become true submitters (muslimin) before you die. His angels. Versel5 I ) All this the Qur'an produced in the new religion. its proper exercise. and the subsidiarypreceptswere implemented Ias transitional measureslas shall be explained below. This is the reason why the original precepts of religion were postponed. and transforbids indecency. destroying life. women. H i s M e s to and the Book that He revealed His Messenger. without weakening or submitting. He also says: 'adl "God enjoins llustrcel.When the conditionsnecessary for achieving the original objective. tation shifted from the verse. that is to say. and argue with them in a kind manner. more The verses:"O believerc (mu' minin). a n d peaceful coexistencewith all other people." and "Fear God as much as you can.that he or she is unable to properly dischargethe duty of such freedom. previously. thatyou may understand' 6. [In pre-Islamic to they alive daughters to avoidanyshame mightcause them. and the Final Day.H e a d m o n i s h e sy o u t h a t y o u m a y t a k e heed. severing relations with the next of kin. a law which reconciles the alive. and burying girls ( b O b e l i e v e r s m u ' m i n i n ) .He who the Book revealed and senger. Verse 125) and many other similar verseswere revealed. whether open or secret. V e r s e 1 3 6 ) So He calls them nttt'minin (believers) and yet 'intntt. and comforts that enable them to worship Him and appreciateHis Grace. as that is good for yourselves. over "excl God Vers you' and . Thus.the Arabsusedto bury their 6. Your Lord is more knowledgeable of those who stray from His path. and many men. It is also clear that the real objective is the achievementof the original precept.

What can be gained from Him in this context is victory.and abuses of freedom were penalized according to new laws. it uplifted the individual and puri_ fied society. (Sura 47. In fact." "It is to Us that they shall return." "The scales"means theshari. and the social claims of their kith and kin. and revealedwith them the Book and the scales. the sword was used to curtail the abuse of freedom.so that God may discoverwho supports Him and His Messengers sincerely. That is. as they had been instructed. Oncethey do. the object u'as to seeu. and the Prophet was appointed as their guardian until they came of age. To "make your stepsfirm" means tran_ . So the verserefers in a subtle way to another verse:"O believers. When the addressees failed to dis_ chargeproperly the duties of their freedom. However. God said to this effect: 775 We have sentOur Messengers with the clear signs. This exception was necessitated the circumstances by of the time and the inadequacyof the human capabil_ ity to dischargeproperly the duty of freedom at that time. I M O over them" (Sura 8. "so that people should maintain the fair bal_ ance. once they embracedthe new religion and observedthe sanctity of life and property. they will havesecured their lives and property. He will help you and will make your steps firm.There is no gocl but God. dominion over anyonewho shuns and disbelieves. thereby allowing them to earn their freedom and benefit from their life. and nothing can be gained from Him except through His own Grace. Islam used persuasionfor l3 years in propagating its clearly valid messagefor the individual and the community.In this way. Verse 7) So if you support the causeof God by supporting His Prophet in order to maintain the balance. and no one can give you victory except Him. then God shall also subject him to the greatestsuffering in hell. of course. " e x c e p t h e w h o s h u n s a n d d i s b e l i e v e s . Verse25) "We have sent Our Messengerswith the clear signs" indicates the conclusive proof of the valid_ ity of their messages. a mistaken belief prompted by their keennessto refute claims by the Orientaliststhat Islam spreadby meansof the sword. be fair in their dealings." (Sura gg. ' eo u t o f p r a c t i c a le r p e r i e n c ef o r m a n . Some Muslim scholarsbelieve that Islamic wars were purely defensive wars. (Sura57. In justifying the use of the sword. unlessthey violate the law. which we need not enumer_ ate here. God shall help you and give you victory over your own lower selves.God is All_powerful and Self-Sufficient. In other words. and between himself and others." that is to say.besidesother benefitswhich may be derived from iron. He shall support You and give you victory in the major jihad (self-control) where one is helplesswith_ out God's help. When used with sufficient wisdom. "( S u r a g g . so that God shall subject him to minor suffering at your hands through fighting. mercy. all the versesof persuasion..if you support fthe causeofl God. the sword was suspended. Verses2l-22). they lost this freedom.. so that people should maintain the fair balance.T H ES E C O N D E S S A G EF I S L A I . Hence the Prophet said: I have been instructedto fight people until they declarethat "There is no god but God. Verses23-24) It is as if God said." and that Muhammad is the Messengerof God (et cetera). v maintainingthe fair b balance between each individual and himself. and the establishmentof a new type of government.Wehave granted you. Then W e s h a l l h o l d t h e m t o a c c o u n t . The part "so that God may discover whcr s u p p o r t sH i m a n d H i s M e s s e n _ q e ssn c e r e l y ' . if you stand by the cause of God in minorii had (fighting). And I leave their sincerityto be judged by God. In other words. Hence the development of Islamic shari'a law. becausefighting is hateful anclclifficult.. s o w n r benefit.ho n ould en_ dure the hardship of war for the sake of God and in supportof the oppressed. "and revealedwith them the Book" refers to the principle that . though they constitutethe primary or original principle.o n w h o m God shall inflict the greatestsuffering.a to adjudi_ cate between slave [man] and the Lord on the one hand.. The part "and decreediron with much hardship and benefits to People" signifies that God has en_ acted fighting with the sword in order to curtail the freedom of those who abuse it. and knowledge. were abrogated or repealedby the versesof compulsron Qihad). "God is All-powerful and Self-Sufficient" implies that He is so powerful that He needs no support from anyone else. Muhammad. V e r s e s 25-26) Thus the two first verseswere abrogatedor repealedby the two second verses.. so that the sword brings them to their senses. to the verse. we may describe it as a surgeon's lancet and not a butcher's knife.i s t o ri d i s c o r .and decreediron with much hardshipand benefitsto people. and betweenone slave and anotheron the other hand.

This is the meaning of the expression "then there can be no hostility except againstthe wrongdoers. and that they may reflect.." means so that there will be no disbelief.Tell the infidels that if they shallbe forgivenfor what they have their level. such withdrawal being proportionateto the degreeof abuse:for the disbelieversthe law of war. the Muslims would by Ht q ha rh or m VE dc to be .and in order to render religion unto God. path of God shall spendit. (Sura8. and to resort to strict measures only when absolutely necessary." we can readily appreciatethat w o r d s . God is All-Thankful and All-Knowledgeable. of course. "Fight them to prevent chaos.-a.deferring drastic treatment to the very end. Verse 44) The phrase "we have revealed to you the Reminder" means the quillity and peace of mind. b e i n g e l e v a t e db y g o o d d e e d s . while to the transgressors. But the lslamic religion was revealed to a society in which slavery was an integral part of the socioeconomic order." (Sura 4. then they shallbe dealtwith done. This is referred to in the verse "And We have revealed to you the Reminder [the Qur'an] so that you may explain to mankind that which has been sent down to them. perhapssuch reflection. and includes. Verse 23) This is the design which He shall of accomplishregardless the wishes of the infidels. Verse 193)The wrongdoersare of two levels. its propagation. while on the other level there are those who appearto submit upon the rights of but transgress to God in obedience. Verse 147)The part of the above text. On one level there are those who worship other than God. the Muslims first had to offer to the unbelievers the new religion.-a [tax] and living under Muslim government. "[S]o that all religion is renderedunto God" reflects the original purpose of fighting: "Your Lord commanded lthat you] worship none but Him. so that God may distinguish good and set the bad apartand castthem all in hell. so that God may distinguish a n d s i n c e r e a c t i o n : " u n t o H i m a s c e n d st h e p u r e the bad from the good. or the shunning of the path of faith. unto God. to the believers(mu'minin) what has been brought down to These indeedare the losers. When we considerGod's expression. In treating ailments of the heart it is wise to begin with gentle means. If they refused to acceptit. achieveonly sorow. "[T]hat they may reflect. starting with initial Islam. "God has no need for your suffering if you are thankful and believing. If they also refused the option of jiz.may lead them to the original prinprevent chaos.and so that all religion is rendered ciple they were unableto implement at the beginning. law of peace and adjudication of rights. In anotherverse God says:"Fight them to prevent chaos."(Sura2. islation.but if they persist. and hardVerse l0) Thus we reach an extremely important conclusion: many aspects the presentIslamic shari'a are of not the original principles or objectives of Islam. Fight them to sidiary principle. It was also a society that was shown in practice to be incapable of properly exercising its freedom. if they give up. and persistin doing so." (Sura 16. other people and do them injustice.and to explain. in various other ways. the causeof suffering is disbelief. guided speech. since both are punishments for disbelief. and therefore its individual members needed guidance.ln Islamic iihad. Suffering death by the sword in this life is really an aspectof suffering hell in the next lif'e. " ( S u r a 3 5 . shall be gatheredin hell. while implementing the subas were similar people before them. if they desist.then therecan be no hostility exceptagainstthe wrongdoers. They merely reflect a descent in accordancewith the circumstancesof the time and the limitations of human ability. Whoever adds to his own disbelief by inciting othersto disbelief or to shun the path of God must be suppressedbefore he takes up arms in the cause of disbelief. and "So that you may explain to mankind that which has still be defeated.while practicing their own religion and enjoying personal security.The infidels shall be gatheredin the bad from the been sentdown to them" meansto detail through leghell." (Sura 17.God says: fie sla in the vit ca to fur co inl A S whole of the Qur'an including the original prinThose who spendtheir money in order to shun the ciple-is/om-as well as the subsidiary('iman).276 Mahmoud Mohamed Taha the ship of iron. fre mi Gr an Ve Tt se tic Fir hu G( yo Is wi Hi is thr th. physical courage in battle. they had the second option of paying jiz. Verses36-39) ous levels of Islam. and "the infidels ascendingby meansof clear thinking." Postponementfrom the original principles to the subsidiaryprinciples signifies descentfrom the level of islam to the level of iman.The versedecrees that freedom be withdrawn from those who abuse it. hencethe consequent enactmentof jihad. then God has insight in Here is a subtle reference to the ascent up the variwhat they do." means that they repent. mi Slovery/s Not an OrrginolPrecept rn lslom Islam's original principle is freedom.

Its zohir and.* 1r.rr.Explanation" of the Qur'an has been only in terms of fexpedient] legis_ lation. ..The similarity in the :. too.:".i.. has been concluded.ado)here rules that if a eternal]beyond time and space. Verse23) Many people considered the phrase. |]fllti llu!u:::. o Hijjal onha.. VerseI l8.. namely. ilhn:r -r....--' W! l :lllI . '' _. botin.gressin it is eternal:"Surely..dual meanings.cording to the prevailing understanding Muslim of tion or detail.Reciprocity (mu'av..'. phrase"that which has been sentdown to them" cloes God says:"Today I have perfectedyour religion for not refer to the whole of the eur'an but only to the you.t]5r : lilililti"* I iffqu.the two notions are synonymous.-Translatorl it by The word "similar" implies that there is some similarity between the Qur'an at its base and at its peak. n= ruiii 3& ." (Sura which He guideswhomsoeverHe wishes. and can God. iilllililllllill. an indiIf vidual is invited to becomethe slave of God but re_ 777 conclusively explained..but its explanationhas not.And T h e S e c o n d M e s s a s eo f l s l a m we have revealed to you the Reminder [the eur'an] so that you may explain to mankind that which has The SecondMessageis Islam. is people's repenrance is initiated God by befbre canbe undertaken them."" .1rr. such ref-usal symptomatic of ignorance that abilities of the people.z (Sura30.. revelation into ntashaf'[Arabic text] as a Book that VerseS).-i:'T)rur:: u|l'* rl[!]ll.iiilllilllllJlilllilll.. ." (Sura3.*" Imf r'"':. The reason for this is that the eur'an is the Lord's speechto His slave. and a nearermeaning that has come down to the slave [of God].lll l l r r . he by means of the Qur'an is progress towards God in may be subjugatedand made the slave of a slave of infinitude (itlaq)." (Sura 5. the shari'a...and he whom God misguided 9. completedMy grace upon you. The whole of the Qur'an is of dual meanings: every verseand word and even every letter has a dual meaning.. .lut::' 11l appropriate for the time of such explanation and in accordancewith the capacity of the audienceand the fuses. its front and back. ir lililllll ilr.and sectionswhere the First and the Second was the day of 'araJa fninth day of the month Dhu'lMessages verlap... the First Mes_ Islam as your religion. the [true] religion with ing obedienceand humility.tt "iun1iir lr"r.pro_ coming the slave of another person. hasno otherguicle.iulllult.:. Itrrtflfr|f.." as irnplying that Islam itself has beenfully achievedby mankind on earth on that day.. God says:.which was a Friday. the eighth year A.Then ship of Godl... :: R ]]:* *r | r r t t t .iaral-wada' (the farewell pilgrimage) of T h e Q u r ' a n w a s r e v e a l e dw i t h d u a l m e a n i n g s .thereby adding to the number of thosealready in slavery.iutltttllttll.[ :". because anything that is not initiated heartssofien to dhikr [remembrance through worby Him cannot be undertakenby us.It is its an atom's weight of evil will also see it" (Sura 99. The rationale of such servitude is to be found in the principle of reciprocity (mu'au'acla).1.'t i. Verse 3) That day sage. . Thar is the -euidancof God with e He forgave them in order that they may repent... except for such overlaps between the scholars.llh|. which are becoming of God is Islam.progressinto Islam free person refuses to become the slave of God. ::*. can never be concluded. This is how one should understandthe difference between "revealed" and "explain" in the verse .rt.:ilt ilt ii.*-r... *iliiulillillliiilulll: . The verse "And We have revealedto you the Reminder [the eur'an] so that you may explain to mankind that which has been sent down to them" (Sura 16. !0mfi":" t: xlllillil$ hffi.."refer to its two levels of meaning: a dis_ tant meaning with the Lord.. and interpretation to the extent N.. fiom which the skin of those God has accepted Islam for mankind so that we who fear their Lord creepsl Then their skin and may accept it...and is God hasrevealed bestspeech a Book of similar the in the ultimate word of the Divine Message.i. The individual prepares The Qur'an can never be finally and conclusively to submit voluntarily to the servitudeof God by be_ explained..while in First Messageand the SecondMessageas'ibaclat and..ilill]1"t' . is further from the truth than this view. The prophet himbeen sent down to them. Verse l9) .Today I have perfected your religion for you..With God" [is a slave.lr.T H ES E C O N D E S S A G E I S L A M M OF fight them and if victorious take some of them as slaves. fully and conclusively explained. Verse 44) was also taken to mean that the Qur'an has already been finally and 7.Islam. thereby learn...Nothing.riiiullrflnuul mi:. fThat to say. is calls for a period of training. and they may reflect.r:t:lL'r{'' :ttttttlllltltlllll.H. The level of understanding in the hudud fworship practicesand the specifiedpenaltiesl. however... and sanctioned part subject to explanation.. and dual meanings.. fact they are not. Ac_ self impartedthis SecondMessagewithout elabora.lllilt1" ip!||l::]u. This verse God says in this connection: is the last verse of the Qur'an to be revealed. in fair and just retribution: "And whoso does never be. As such it has not been.

"We said: Go forth hence. The Qur'an was rendered into the form of Arabic expressionso that we might understandfrom God. and of :ahir meaning the text.out of pure grace. He said: "Those who fear God are in paradise. of I l4 suras of of the Qur'anbeginwith letters. remembrance through worship. andfw'qan." (Sura 18. [Three letters theArabicalphabet. and this only God can achieve. the Unknown. for the sake of dhikr. surely." (Sura 43."The Bedouins said amanna lwe believe].a \{ahmoud MohamedTaha Will Thou then destroyus for what those. for example. through Islam. just like Lordship. Verse 109) For this reasonit is false shown how servitude fto God] is freedom. fear God as He ought to be feared and become true submitters lmuslintinl before you die. tell them you have not 'intan believed.and a river. And ii there comes to you guidance from Me. The Qur'an guides to all this.and the sively explained. we said." (Sura 2. Verse 38) Since the Qur'an is that guidance." (Sura 2. we admitthis. ( S u r a7 . Rasalat al-salah lThe Message of Righteousnessf." (Sura 4." (Sura 3." (Sura 27."Am I not your Lord?" They said:"Yes.beginning with paradise. This is. to Qur'an is the Book which leadsthe way. "No one ha thi m( thr pli wi by m hc ge da fe uI rS m w rh at ar ol c( lr 6 al gi m the words of my Lord. 17) The Qur'an remindsus of servitudewhich we have accepted and then forgotten: And [remember]when thy Lord broughtforth from Adam's children-out of their loins-their offspring their own selves and madethem bearwitnessagainst saying. If we proceed properly through its levels. [ i t w a s ] o n l y o u r co-partners[with God] in fathers [whol associated afterthem. even if a similar amount is brought as additional supwhich may be consulted in this context.8That is certainly the Book which containsguidance for the God fearing. "And. "God has createdAdam [man] after His Own image. we have ply. except God. God says in this respect: "We have renderedit into Arabic so that you may understand. but say aslamna [we submit] and ftrue belief] did not enter your hearts yet. then the river. if every seabecameink for it is inexhaustible: Qur'an is due to the similarity between the Lord and the slave. and its end with us. therefore. As the Qur'an is the methodology of ascent to God. Verse is there anyonewho would take heed?" (Sura -54.humility. expressedby the Prophet in the hadith. The word Islam. the sea would be exk n o w s G o d e x c e p t G o d H i m s e l f .1 7 4 ) So that they may return to God in servitude and submission.-Editorl of levels referto theQur'an different at 9. "Say no one knows what is in heaven and earth. [These terms beyond knowledge understandingthetruthin itshatin. t h i s . Verse 14) This is what we tetmed initial lslam which. then whoso shall follow My guidance." lThis He didl lestyou shouldsayon the "we were surely unawareof Day of Resurrection. with the Most Able King. has a near meaning exposedby the Qur'an in the verse. then it has its beginnin-s with God. to the Absolute in Hrs itlaq.as indicated levels comprehensibleby the slaves." the same meaning in the verse: "O God expresses people.-Translatorl of the superficial 1 t t . The Qur'an is God's dhat lSelf or Soul] which has descended. Verse 65) The Unknown here means God Himself. Verses 1-2) Of those who fear God who are guided by the Qur'an. V e r s e s1 7 2 . indeed. Verse l) That "single Self" means His Own Blessed and Exalted Self. " O r [ e s t ] y o u s h o u l ds a y . so it is as if He said. to assertthat the Qur'an may be finally and concluIslam is a method of ascentto servitude. Servitude is infinite." (Sura 54. and submission." (Sura 49.[thatthet may be admonishedland that they may return [to G o d f. Verse 54) These are levels or grades. then the seat of truth.who lied. and ascend into infinity (itlaq). God said of the Qur'an: "Alif' lartt min. we shall recover the paradise we lost through the sin of Adam. Who has createdyou from a single Self. " I n o u r b o o k haustedbefore the words of my Lord were exhausted. the pastandwe were merely a generation Qur'an.e Furqan was the most effective form of Arabic expressionto indicate the two levels of Qur'an and dhikr. a methodology of ascent to God through many levels of servitude. This quality of the Qur'an is the reasonit was revealed. on them [shall come] no fear. Verse 102) It goes without saying that no one fears God as He ought to be feared except God Himself. and finally with the Most Able King in infinity. on a seatof truth. hence "Say. did? And thusdo We makeclearthe Signs. Islam has a further meaning which lies with God in infinity. nor shall they grieve. all of you. Verse 3) This verse and other similar verses 28 8. Such levels vary from physical paradisewhich is the paradise lost through sin. To this further meaning comesthe referencein the verse: "Oh believ ers fmu' mininf . We renderedthe Qur'an ing the Qur'an in its various levels of descent dhikr. fear your Lord. Absolute servitude to God requires absolute knowledge of God.-.thereby becomin the verse. is not taken by God as significant.

1. Any mention of Islam with respect to pl. t t i t t i . Then He said for the third time: .T H ES E C O N D Y E S S A G E I S L A M I OF lhtr. . Our Lord.. towards the end of time.1 [tr ..s 1 0 .Say: My prayer and my worship and my life and my death are [all] for God the Lord of all creation.i&l We believe that the earth is preparing for the emergenceof the Islamic shari. e r h e a u r h o ri n c l u t ] e s both the Marxist anclliberal traditionswhen he ref. as the ultimate Islam can never be exhaustively achieved. fbr Thou art Oft-Returning [with compassion.eviousna_ tions refersmerely to initial Islam.O Messenger for God?" He said:. And show us our ways of worship and turn to us with mercy. Our Lord.illilillllllti il .iiillllllli :il I i::t:." They asked:. Verse 163) Abu Bakr [died 6341. The nation of muslimin has not yet come. i 779 Sr_:n. the spirit of lslam... and God.edthe namenur. We should not confuse the name Muslims with the traditionalnanregiven to the present nation.-. He was not one of them. . '. Verse 85) On that day all people shall embrace religion and find no alternative.Who who havenot comeyetl. with a new spirit.. in rhe sensethat itl meaningsmay be exhaustivelyunderstood throush the Arabic language.A b u w Bakr said:"Are we not your brothers. Verse 3) is realizedin practice. make both of us submissive Theeand to makeof our offspring a people submissiveto Thee..Arewe not your brothers.have not yet come.H e replied: "As you have. Islam appearsto be the only ideology capable of resolving the existing conflict between the indi_ vidual and the community and between the individual and the universe.'. with western civilization lost anclbankrupt. . in his time.How I lone for m y b r o t h e r s h o h a v en o t c o m e y e t l .Today I have per_ fected your religion fbr you. He has no partner. ]lllf' . We have alreadystatedthat the p.il[.. God says in this connection: And [remember the time] when Abraham and Ishmael raised the foundations of the House [praying]:"Our Lord.the secondbest man."r.r illl . . of whom t h e a c t i v eo n e s h a l l h a v e s e v e n t yt i m e s as much reward as you have.ilip. when circumstancesare suitable.:lli rh lll' "|:'i. as he was the only Muslim amongst them." And Abu Bakr said:.(Sura 3.Western material progress.'" I r- '.a of the true sub_ mitters (muslimin).I.r0 and with issues of democracy.there is no alternative. Being so supreme. No nation up to now has desen. becausereligion provides the only answers.i' ..* .As statedat the outsetof this book. or to be more precise.. as a nation.Actually.. completed My grace upon you..\i :. t [believersJ... was the pioneer of the muslimin to come. acceptIthisJfrom us fbr Thou art the All-Hearing..nt nation derivesits name from the initial Islanr.Seventy times a s m u c h a s w e h a v e o r t h e y h a v e ? ...They asked:. It was as if he came to his nation. It is not so. . .How I long for my brothers . and they find no assistance.. namely.. O Messenger God?" He replied:.Theyasked: are your brothers. lll . and individuar freedom persistentlydemandinganswers.srintirt. And so ant I commanded. sociarism._ .:"'millill ri lll'ffit i to-: :ti{ilrr u iv' : il11 :. the whole of human_ ity today is in an ideorogicar wirderness. was the most superiorof a l l t h e b e l i e v e r s( n t u .yet there is no answer exceptthrough the cross-f'ertilization of westem civilization.And he who seeksa relision other than Islam. . raise up amons then_r :' -'u::"".'1:'rillP!ll ul 1 ":-t 1. and art] Merciful. and I am the first of those who subntit fmuslimin]. as we have already demonstrated. [ A s i n d i c a t e d a r l i e ri n h i s b o o k . which shall establish the new civilization..rll "l im' The Muslims.ll[: *"litlillil' i [.T r a n s l a t o r l .r -' have misled many Muslim scholars into believins that the Qur'an itself is Arabic.y e t t h e r e w a s a huge gap between him and the prophet. O of He said: "A peoplewho come at the end of time. presentMus_ l i m s o c i e t vi s t h e n a t i o no f t h en t t t .--- . It is expected to come.. in the future of humanity. but the Prophet prophesiedtheir coming.you of aremy Companions!" Then he saidagain:. or rather a degree of the urtimate Isram. m i n i n ) . exceptfbr the pioneersof humanity who achieved ultimate Islam.Such pioneers are..l1l1l' ti'*.: nu* (e :' if. Its day of emer_ gence shall be the day of the ultimate pilgrimage. In view of the bankruptcy of contempo_ rary social philosophies. however. He replied: "Becauseyou find assistance doing in good. the day when the Divine statement. Messenger God?... it shall not be accepted of him and in the Hereafterhe shall be among the losers. as *e haue e-*_ plained when discussing eur'anic chaptersstarting with letters of the alphabet. when he said: "How I long for my brothers who have not come yet. the All_Knowing.Why?. . And. therefore.. the nation of the ntu. Islam has never beenachieved by any nation up to the presentday. It was to future muslimin that the prophet referred. (Sura 5.No. above.No. T h e n . the pioneers of the nation of muslimin which has not come yet. [h. ." The Muslims Muslimin) ( promise is fulfilled: .yoll aremy Companions!.. Muhammad.crs West_ ro e r n c i v iIi z a t i o n ." (Sura 6.4." .minin from the future. and sanctionedIslam as your religion.

since even the first stageof ultimate Islam requiresmoving out of the law for the community as a whole. The disciples were Muslims in the senseof initial Islam. me?" They answered. "we will worship thy God. and so did Jacob:"O my sons. clarity of thought. T h e i r p r a y e r sh a v e Abraham advisedhis sonsthat there been answered. God also said: "As I inspiredthe disciplesIof they Jesuslto believein Me.t r u l y G o d h a s c h o s e nt h i s religion fbr you: so let not deathovertakeyou except when you are in a stateof completesubmission. until one is able to properly exercise his absolute individual freedom. his Lord saidto him.as ref'lected their pubin lic and private lives and demonstratedin the spirit of public service at all times and through every means.or sharing in political decisionswhich affect daily life. indeed the oppositeof death. B u t t h e p h r a s e" a n d make of our offspring a people submissiveto Thee" indicates. the God of thy fathers Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac. w h i c h s h a l l e v o l v e a n d d e v e l o p i n t o t h e u l t i m a t e I s l a m . In the good society." The samedid Abraham enjoin upon his sons-and Jacob [alsos a y i n g .farcliya. do? It is most hateful to God that you say what you d o n o t d o . and in When the next he will surelybe amongthe righteous. "( S u r a5 .the One God." (Sura 29. and act according to his speech."What will you worship after "We will worship thy God.resultsfrom socialismand democracy. Verse 64) Ultimate life. "Submit. and to Him we submit ourselves. When the consciousmind is no longer in conflict with the subconscious.Thou art the Mighty. the Wise."I [herebyl submit to the Lord of the worlds.or sex. remain holding fast to the creed and maintain that "there is no god but God" until your death.and is and discrimicharacterized a lack of socialclasses by nation basedon color. the God of thy fathers. Individuality is achievedonly after perfectcompliancewith the law for the community. Individuality cannotbe achievedby anyonewho is divided within himself. and of beauty of body. surely. They merely surrenderedin the senseof the initial Islam. declared this.Abraham and Ishmaeland I s a a c . and in My Messengers.3 ) who may a Messengerfrom among themselves. and entering upon shari'a . Their answer. Verses127-133) The phrase"Our Lord. V e r s e s2 . they thoughtthat their "You shall bear witness that we have so they said: personcan submitted(muslinitt). recite to them Thy Signs and teachthem the Book and Wisdom and may purify them. the good society. free from defects." he said.the scientific educational method to be adopted by the individual in order to liberate himself from inherited f-ear. so let not death overtake you except when you are in a state of complete submis5i6n"-1fiat is to say." when when deathcameto Jacob. To restoreunity to one's being is for an individual to think as he wishes.When they did believeand 'iman was Islam." They had not sumendered classesand diff-erences dem< . and this is characterizedby wholesomeness the heart. faith. speak what he thinks. race. as required in the revelation. or the sharing of wealth: political equality or democracy.280 Mahmoud Mohamed Taha in the senseof the ultimate Islam. " ( S u r a6 1 . is no god exceptGod.in the short run. The ultimate Islam is the level of individualities."(Sura2. 1 long Pr abov than fende type r so on resul or hy acted stitut recor freed justi< Politt Agai as it crati' of th The Cood Socrety This superiorstatecan only be reachedthrough a twofold method: first. and they fAbraham and Ishmael] were in fact ntuslintin lrn t h i s s e n s eo f u l t i m a t e I s l a m ] . This is the objective of why do you say what you do not Islam: "O believers. and social equality which.and death. Were you present he said to his sons. unitl' of being is attained." ref'ersto the initial Islam. today known as socialism. a Muslim nation in the s e n s eo f i n i t i a l I s l a m . disease.people are jud_qed according to their intellectual and moral character. ]" O m y s o n s .t h e O n e G o d : a n d t o H i m w e s u b m i t o u r selves.but say we believe. make both of us submissive to Thee" refers to ultimate Islam. The good society is one that is based on three equalities:economic equality.and secondly. thereby realizing a full and comprehensiveintellectual and emotional life. to some extent. "The next life is the ultimate life if they only know. Social equality aims at removing social nots' uct o the p pow( two r not f wing S ning NESS indiv the r adva socia D ally i citie citylatio ASSCI between urban and rural life dered. V e r s e I I 1 ) 'intan Their Islam here is synonymouswith lfaith]." And who will turn awayfrom the religion of Abraham but he who makesa fool of himself." A knowledgeable hear the Lord replying: "Do not say we have surren- by pr ment fthe r accu A sible ion.the law for the individual. truly God has chosenthis religion for you. Him did We choosein this world.God in the revelation requiredthem to believe.and You shall bear witnessthat ( w e h a v e s u b m i t t e d m u s l i m i n ) . said:We do believe.

still fair juciges are of public matters.:'''- r l. as it will be discussedin our book Islam Is Demo_ cratic and Sot.. to social standin-e.L[.their private alfhirs to attendto. and the while the magnitude our city drawsthe produceof the world of into our harbor.sinceviolence usually resultsin one of two evil responses: counterviolence or hypocrisy.. the most cultur_ ally advancedof the Greek city-states. The Athenians believed that participationin public affairs was the right and duty of every citizen. This is the accuratetest of social equality.hichcannotfail to be of-fensive. ]'tL. A good society also enjoys tolerant public opin_ ion..' l l l l l . which requires greater social aware_ ness. . and elections were often conducted by poll. it was easyfor the entire popu_ lation to participate in government through public assemblies. (However. Jt --. or belongto thatcodewhich. ' " 1""':llr . it must always do but so only by nonviolent means. we will not discussdemocracyin detail here.: 78I resentatives executivesof modem democraticgov_ or ernments.we provideplenty of meansfor the mind to refreshitself from business.u. Democracy was born in Athens. tI Again. besides politics.c.Just as socialismis the product of the struggle between the .. althou-qh r. Pericles fcirca 495429 e. But all thisease our prir aterelations in doesnot make us lawlessas citizens. so does society need the two wings of democracyand socialism..*lx.has its origins in ancienthistory. Public opinion has its own judgments over ancl above those of the law and may be more effective than legislation itself in deterring deviants and of_ fenders. legislationthat reconciles individualneedfor absolute the inclividual freedom and society's need for complete social justicel.have nots" in the material sphere.lll. and our ordinarycitizens. they did not regard women and slavesas citizens). j r i l ll'lllr: I lli r '.they afford equaljustice all in their private to differences.whethertheyareactuallron the statute book.:r -.' lt : " . W e c u l t i v a t er e f i n e m e n tw i t h o u t e x t r a v a _ ganceand knowledgewithout effeminacy.. Greek democracywas..In Greece officials were elected annually. however. their greatest orator.illr !': . unlike any othernationwe regard him who takesno part in theseduties not as unam_ PolrticoI Equo Itty: D em ocrocy ' L l l itL I :.particularly suchasregarcl protcction the the of injured.r-. as long as theseare beneficial to society. althoueh ther inflictno positive penalty.Scientificsocialismalso needs.wealth we employ more tbr use than for show. primitive. .is precededby democracywhich. we took to the If laws.haves'.In the sameway that a bird cloes not fly with one wing..or evento tbr u indulgein thoseinjuriouslooksu.itten.so that to the Athenian the fruits of other countries as familiar a luxury as thoseof are his own. for.far fiorn exercisins jealoussurveillance a or er eachother. " :':ltllt n ". Further. Sometimespublic opinion can be en_ actedas legislationif this is consistentwith the con_ stitution as describedabove fthat is. and the ele-eance of our privateestablishments forms a daily source of pleasure helpsto banish spleen. Each of those cities had its own independentgovernment..direct democracy.. ".democracy is the prod_ uct of the strugglebetweenthose same extremesin the political sphere.he is not hinderedby the obscurirrof his condition. speaking on behalf of Athenian democracy in the funeral oration following the war against Sparta in the year 430 e. . Our public men have. . of course.. celebrate We gantes and sacrificesall the year round. "::t . .Public opinion may. if advancement in public lif'e falls to reputation for capacity. thoughoccupiecl with the pursuitsof industry.There.]. therefore. native socialism. Its purpose is the sharin-eof power. describedAthenian democracvas follows: [Our -eovernment] favorsthe many insteadof the fewl this is why it is calleda democracy. The criterion of social equality is that marriage fthe most fundamental and intimate relation] is pos_ sible betweenany man and any woman..with no need for an electedhouseof rep_ d - -:-.As the city-stateswere small.condemn any type of conduct it disapproves..-. . and place the real disgrace poverty not in owning to the fact of but in decliningthe struggleagainstit. as the riches of developed capitalism as well as the advancesof modern technology.ialisl. Asainstthis f-ear our chief is saf-eguard. llljr-.. ril-rilll. if a man is able to servethe state. ' r . --'-.: " :tlill. and the .. "ll -.. a base. Socialism.class considerations being allowed to interferewith not nterit:nor asaindoespovertybar the way. teachin-t to obe\ thenragistrates the us and laws. may be exercisedby only a few enlightened individuals. Democracy parallels socialism: they are as two wings of society. permitting different life-styles and manners. in the begin_ ning. unri 1.. .c.The freedomwhich we enJo\in our governnlent extends alsoto our ordinary lit'e.et cannotbe brokenwithout acknouledgedclisgrace.u e do not feelcalleduponto be angry n ith our neighbor doin-e hathe likes.T H ES E C C N D l E S S A G E I S L A M Y OF by providing equal opportunities for cultural refine_ ment.

Verse 4) [was not allowed to have dominion even over such a backward people].2 2 ) R e f e r e n c eh e r e i s m a d e to the polytheists who refused to worship God and tended the idols. the proper exerciseof such are We bitiousbut asuseless. and everything else is a means to that end. Even the Messenger Muhammad. all self-discipline and the true exercise of freedom are a series of individual actions in choice and implementation. freedom of thought. since all theseare but means to realize the dignity of man. The rule of the majority.and freedom of action all require that one acceptsresponsibility for mistakesin speech and action in accordancewith law that is consistent with the constitution. but rather means to an end that lies behind them. The value of democracy is that it is the type of government most capable of providing opportunities for man to realize his dignity and honor. Recognition basicequalitybetweenall individuals.not even that of the Prophet. This indicated that no man is perfect enough to be entrusted with the freedom of others. 2. the government deniesindividuals the right to experimentand assume responsibility. with utmostrespectfor r i g h t so f t h e m i n o r i t y . Democracy is not merely a way of government. In a dictatorship. emotional. Since the society of mu'minin was incapable of hereastranslated quoted theauthor Arabic. Democracy is therefore the right to make mistakes. You have no dominion over them.and experience. The value of the individual as abovethat of the state.This doesnot mean that individuals are encouraged to make mistakes for the sake of making mistakes.787 Mahmoud Mohamed Taha and developing. Writings Thuc'v-dides: of inTheComplete by Joseph Govorse. and correctingpreviousmistakes. worshipping them and sacrificing to them." ( S u r a 8 8 . and popular acceptance. 7. The individual human being is the end.This type of democracy manifested certain principles and a distinctive approach to life-recognizing the dignity of man and attempting to manage human affairs in accordance Modern with justice. Islam Is Democratic and Socialist.1934). choosingwell. ask for forgiveness. Appeal to reason. 6. 4. God shall replace you by people who make mistakes. The rule of law. howevet.sian (NewYork:Modern War' them for the responsibility of absolute individual oo. however.104-105. Democracy implies learning how to choose. the most important of which may be summarizedas follows: of l. . V e r s e s 2 l . Democratic methods and proceduresare not an end in themselves. In fact. but rather it is recognition of the fact that freedom requires a choice between various modes of action. as we learn from thehadith of the Prophet: "If you do not make mistakes. 5. Library. and that the price of freedom is continuous individual vigilance in safeguarding such freedom. who was not seeking power for himself and whom God described in the Qur'an: "You are of great moral character" (Sura 68. Governmentas the servantof the people. 3. We leave its detailed examination for our coming book. democracy is based on the right to make mistakes.experiment. and judicial organs. namely. quoted in are by exercising individual freedom in choice and action. In contrastto dictatorship. and moral growth. and are forgiven. as describedby Pericles. These extracts.and then ask for forgiveness. democracy has establishedcertain principles. The dignity of man is derived from the fact that he is the most capable of all living things in learning free. insis whe hard then cien God A k h f' n r( l( \ T sult or ir call affa and ( Su Shu tion s rath rath pret orig "Th freedom." Athenian democracy. some inadequacies the present democratic approach.In other words. executive. Democratic method and proceduresused to achieveobjectives." Human dignity is so dear to God that individual freedom is not subject to any guardianship. The respect and high regard which people have for the democratic approachto government are due to the fact that it is the best approach to achieving the dignity of the individual. in There remain. truth.it is also a way of life. thereby retarding their intellectual. God says: "Then remind them. individual freedom is a fundamental right with a corresponding duty. The object of democracy is not simply to establish legislative. the Prophet was appointed as a guardian to prepare ThePeloponne. irrespectiveof his impeccable morality. although these are much lesspronouncedthan the deficienciesof Marxism. freedom of speech.In fact.continued to grow and develop in various parts of the world after the city's demise.we think it an indispensable any wise actionat all.and insteadof in as lookingon discussion a stumbling-block theway preliminaryto of action. as you are only a reminder. Athenians ableto judge at all eventsif we cannot originate. to roughly the part corresponding I l.

T H ES E C O N D Y E S S A G E I S L A I Y I OF freedom. It is the duty of the people of the eur'an [present_ original preceptof democracyis basedon the verse. in due course.The original resolved.which were call of their Lord. So pardonthem and ask forgive_ Its purpose is to prepare people psychologically and nessfor them. from aroundyou. While exercising such he -euardianship. is the purposeof this book. as the earth is now preparingto receive preparing the nation to become democratic.whenevermentioned. Verse 3S)-does not refer to democracy. sultation.This is Iheshari...it is rathercapitalistand is based on the verse. Verse I 59 ) say all that you do not need" (Sura 2.a r a t h e r a s u b s i d i a r y o n e . Verse 103) Thus. And that "Then remind them. as This is the verseof sltura fconsultationl. but rather a subsicliary one. God precept which the verse of :akat abrogated is that l o v e st h o s ew h o p u t t h e i r t r u s t f i n H i m 1 . wheneverpossible.whetherin this verse The Second Message calls for a return from the or in the following yslss-." (Sura 9.without subjectingthem to undue hardship or difficulty. b u t law of the nation of the Muslims (muslintin)that is r a t h e r t h e r u l e o f t h e m a t u r e i n d i v i d u a l w h o i s yet to come. I t i s n o t d e m o c r a c y . and perform the prayer. vate legislationby evolving and basingit on the origi_ (Sura 42.1fuose who answeredthe subsidiary versesto the original verses. All_ kind towardsthem.then put your trust in God.Such was the order of God when He said: )83 2t-22) You have no dominion over thent. and con_ explained above. ( S u r a3 . b u t humarre dealing with other people. And God is All_Hearing. to absoluteindividual freedom through worship and S h u r a i s n o t a n o r i g i n a l I s l a m i c p r e c e p t . and their temporarily abrogatedbecauseof circumstances and affairs are [decided] by shura fmutual consultation] material and human limitations. insistedon giving them the right to make mistakes. Verses By the same token. was a necessarystagein prepara_ the age of socialismand democracyand open the way tion for democracy. . We must now ele_ and pay alms from what We have provideclfor them." (Sura gg. for which they had to be suffi_ ciently mature and intelligent. In that way he was preparing them for democracy.zakat is not an h a r d . The it. "Take alms out of their wealth. zakat flslamic taxation] is not a socialistpractice."When they ask you what to give away. . your prayer indeed is [a source of] And it is by the Great Mercy of God that you are tranquillity for them.and consultthem: and rvhenyou are materially for socialism in due course. Verse 219).h e a r t e dt. day Muslimsl to pave the way for ntuslintLt. . Ancl pray for them. however. nal Qur'anic verses. which reads. anciif you had beenrough and Knowing. so that you may cleansethem and purify them thereby.h e y w o u l d s u r e l y h a v e d i s p e r s e t i original preceptof Islam. Surely. . as you are only a reminder.In this way we shall welcome Shura.

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