This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
-----------------------------------------------------Personal Development And Study Method
(CPD 102) Assignment (January 2012)
Full Name Student ID Contact Number Subject Code Lecturer Name Centre Country : Naveen Kumar Nair : PJ 102648 : 012-2404460
: Personal Development And Study Method
: Ms Shireen : OLYMPIA PJ : Malaysia
Executive Diploma in Business Management
Table of Contents
1. Introduction : ................................................................... 3 2. Factors determining development of personality: ......... 4 3. Personality Types: ........................................................... 4 4. Pairs of Psychological Functions: ................................... 6 5. 16 Personality Types ........................................................ 8 6. Erikson's stages of psychosocial development: .............. 9 7. Conclusion : .................................................................... 11 Self Image ......................................................................... 15 Self Esteem and Self Worth ................................................ 16 Ideal Self ........................................................................... 19 8. References: ..................................................................... 22
We would also discuss the different types of Personalities and various stages of personality development in one life . The specific personality qualities of an individual. however. and it is recognizable soon after birth. Introduction : Personality development is the development of the organized pattern of behaviors and attitudes that makes a person distinctive. and environmental factors that contribute to the development of our personality.so that we get a complete idea of Personality Development and its influences. 3|Page .Olympia College Assignment Executive Diploma in Business Management 1. genetic. which are Character.Personality is what makes a person a unique person. character. Personality development occurs by the ongoing interaction of temperament. are not based so much in evolution. and environment. Behavior and Attitude . but are the product of many developmental factors. which lead to individual differences between people. The developmental study of individual differences in personality provides a rich source of data for the researcher and practitioner alike to use in understanding and predicting behavior. There are inherent natural. There are three aspects in personality.
Environment : A second component of personality comes from adaptive patterns related to a child's specific environment. whereas traits might be construed as quantitative differences. and behavioral patterns learned from experience that determines how a person thinks. Personality Types: There are several personality types based on the research done in this area. which in turn controls behavior. There are no genes that specify personality traits. with the latter embodying a smaller grouping of behavioral tendencies. Personality type refers to the psychological classification of different types of individuals. although much depends on inborn traits and early experiences. One of the more influential ideas originated in this field was by Carl Jung as the table shown below. A person's character continues to evolve throughout life.Olympia College Assignment Executive Diploma in Business Management 2. Factors determining development of personality: Temperament: Temperament is the set of genetically determined traits that determine the child's approach to the world and how the child learns about the world. cognitive. Most psychologists agree that these two factors—temperament and environment—influence the development of a person's personality the most. 3. Types are sometimes said to involve qualitative differences between people. Personality types are sometimes distinguished from personality traits. feels. but some genes do control the development of the nervous system. and behaves. 4|Page . Character is also dependent on a person's moral development. Character : Character is the set of emotional.
introverts and extraverts are two fundamentally different categories of people. Contrasting characteristics between extraverts and introverts include the following: Extraverts are action oriented. The extravert's flow is directed outward toward people and objects. Extraversion (E)/Introversion (I) Extraversion means "outward-turning" and introversion means "inward-turning.Olympia College Assignment Executive Diploma in Business Management According to type theories. and things (extraverted attitude) or the internal world of ideas and reflection (introverted attitude). people. and the introvert's is directed inward toward concepts and ideas. 5|Page . for example." Each of the cognitive functions can operate in the external world of behavior. action. while introverts are thought oriented.
while introverts prefer more substantial interaction. while introverts seek depth of knowledge and influence. 4. Pairs of Psychological Functions: Jung categorized people into primary types of psychological function as two dichotomous pairs of cognitive functions: The "rational" (judging) functions: thinking and feeling The "irrational" (perceiving) functions: sensing and intuition Jung went on to suggest that these functions are expressed in either an introverted or extraverted form. Extraverts often prefer more frequent interaction. while introverts recharge and get their energy from spending time alone. Four main functions of consciousness are Two perceiving functions: Sensation and Intuition and Two judging functions: Thinking and Feeling 6|Page . Extraverts recharge and get their energy from spending time with people.Olympia College Assignment Executive Diploma in Business Management Extraverts seek breadth of knowledge and influence.
Thinking and feeling are the decision-making (judging) functions. They tend to distrust hunches. The meaning is in how the data relates to the pattern or theory. information that can be understood by the five senses." They prefer to look for details and facts. The thinking and feeling functions are both used to make rational decisions. those who prefer intuition tend to trust information that is more abstract or theoretical. 7|Page . Individuals who prefer sensing are more likely to trust information that is in the present. that can be associated with other information (either remembered or discovered by seeking a wider context or pattern). which seem to come "out of nowhere. consistent and matching a given set of rules. logical. On the other hand. causal. They may be more interested in future possibilities. measuring the decision by what seems reasonable. the meaning is in the data. For them.Olympia College Assignment Executive Diploma in Business Management Sensing and intuition are the information-gathering (perceiving) functions. tangible and concrete: that is. Those who prefer thinking tend to decide things from a more detached standpoint. They describe how new information is understood and interpreted. They tend to trust those flashes of insight that seem to bubble up from the unconscious mind. based on the data received from their information-gathering functions (sensing or intuition).
Artist ENTJ .Engineer ENFJ . judgment (J) INFP: introversion (I). sensing (S).Strategist INTP . Non-rationality is not based on reason.Defender ESTP .Dreamer 8|Page .Originator INTJ . Rationality consists of figurative thoughts. Thinking and feeling functions are rational. perception (P) And so on for all 16 possible type combinations.Advocate INFJ .Entertainer ISTP . which uses the abbreviation N to distinguish it from Introversion). For instance: ESTJ: extraversion (E). looking at it 'from the inside' and weighing the situation to achieve. while sensation and intuition are non-rational. consensus and fit.Olympia College Assignment Executive Diploma in Business Management Those who prefer feeling tend to come to decisions by associating or empathizing with the situation. thinking (T).Craftsman ISFP . Protectors (SJ) Creators (SP) Intellectuals (NT) Visionaries (NF) ESTJ . feelings or actions with reason — a point of view based on objective value. the greatest harmony. 16 Personality Types The 16 types are typically referred to by an abbreviation of four letters—the initial letters of each of their four type preferences (except in the case of intuition. which is set by practical experience.Chief ENTP .Supporter ISTJ .Confidant INFP .Overseer ESFJ . on balance. considering the needs of the people involved.Persuader ESFP . feeling (F). intuition (N). 5.Mentor ENFP .Examiner ISFJ .
Stage Basic Conflict Important Events Outcome Infancy (birth Trust vs. However. if an infant enters into the toddler stage (autonomy vs. Early Autonomy vs. to 18 months) Mistrust Feeding Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability.Olympia College Assignment Executive Diploma in Business Management 6. Erikson's stages of psychosocial development: Erikson's stages of psychosocial development as articulated by Erik Erikson explain eight stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. he or she emerges from the stage with the corresponding virtue. Toilet Training Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of Childhood (2 Shame and 9|Page . and hopefully masters. Each stage builds on the successful completion of earlier stages. Each stage is characterized by a psycho social crisis of these two conflicting forces (as shown in the table below). care. The challenges of stages not successfully completed may be expected to reappear as problems in the future. shame & doubt) with more trust than mistrust. For example. Erikson's stage theory characterizes an individual advancing through the eight life stages as a function of negotiating his or her biological forces and socio-cultural forces. new challenges. mastery of a stage is not required to advance to the next stage. If an individual does indeed successfully reconcile these forces (favoring the first mentioned attribute in the crisis). and affection. he or she carries the virtue of hope into the remaining life stages. A lack of this will lead to mistrust. In each stage the person confronts.
School Age (6 Industry vs. to 11 years) Inferiority School Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. while failure results in feelings of inferiority. loving relationships with other people. often by having children or 10 | P a g e . resulting in a sense of guilt. Relationships Young adults need to form intimate. Role Confusion Social Teens need to develop a sense of self and Relationships personal identity. Adulthood (19 Isolation to 40 years) Middle Adulthood (40 Generatively Work and Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them. failure results in feelings of shame and doubt. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself. Adolescence (12 to 18 years) Identity vs. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. 5 years) Guilt Exploration Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval. while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self. Success leads to strong relationships. Young Intimacy vs. while failure results in loneliness and isolation. Success leads to a sense of competence.Olympia College Assignment Executive Diploma in Business Management to 3 years) Doubt independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy. Preschool (3 to Initiative vs.
Understanding these differences and the development of these differences is fundamental not only to psychologists' understanding of behavior but also to parents. Because of its universality and its implications for understanding behavior. The roots of individual differences are no doubt bedded in evolutionary history. and anyone else working with other people. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom.Olympia College Assignment Executive Diploma in Business Management to 65 years) vs. schoolteachers. Conclusion : Individual differences in personality are universal in that they are found in all human populations. Maturity(65 to Ego Integrity Reflection on Older adults need to look back on life and death) vs. bitterness. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment. social workers. 7. 11 | P a g e . while failure results in regret. selected because of their improved adaptiveness to conditions in the environment. Without the study of individual differences. and despair. the study of individual differences is an essential part of any complete scientific study of behavior. while failure results in shallow involvement in the world. Stagnation Parenthood creating a positive change that benefits other people. Despair Life feel a sense of fulfillment. policymakers. there could be no detailed analysis or explanation of why people often behave or develop very differently under seemingly equivalent environmental conditions.
Trust me . My life philosophy is . Life is to be lived not debated.Olympia College Assignment Executive Diploma in Business Management Self-concept Introduction Developing a "Self Concept" of who we are helps us to get a grasp on our life as our own director in the production which is our life. so in this vein you might find some of the concepts simplistic.Keep it simple.that is a mask we present! I mean a real understanding and appreciation of what makes us unique and our own special qualities. I do not mean the self image we project to the world .they are not! 12 | P a g e .
Because you are unique.to see ourselves as we truly are. no less.Olympia College Assignment Executive Diploma in Business Management Each insight concept is a building block of self understanding as we construct a clear picture of who you are. It is simply a matter your attitude. and how you relate to the world as we build a picture of self. somewhere has to pay. What matters is . You will get out of your life exactly what you put into it. Self Concept then can be used interchangeably with personal development. however if you are part of the solution there will always be lots of exciting challenges to be met. It all revolves around whether you are part of the world's problems or part of the solution.yourself concept! Not what others think it should be! Of course a good dose of self honesty in developing your picture helps to keep the picture real. If you are part of the problem you could see doom and gloom. no more. Here are two universal truths here to bear in mind : There ain't no such thing as a free lunch! Someone. because the purpose of personal development is to raise our self concept . 13 | P a g e . so will be your picture of who you are.
For example. According to Lewis awareness of the existential self begins as young as two to three months old and arises in part due to the relation the child has with the world. Lewis (1990) suggests that development of a concept of self has two aspects: (1) The Existential Self This is the most basic part of the self-scheme or self-concept. or the child touches a mobile and sees it move. It is an important term for both social psychology and humanism. the sense of being separate and distinct from others and the awareness of the constancy of the self” (Bee 1992). the child smiles and someone smiles back. The child realizes that they exist as a separate entity from others and that they continue to exist over time and space. Just as other objects including people have 14 | P a g e . To be aware of oneself is to have a concept of oneself. (2) The Categorical Self Having realized that he or she exists as a separate experiencing being.Olympia College Assignment Executive Diploma in Business Management What is self-concept The self-concept is how we think about and evaluate ourselves. the child next becomes aware that he or she is also an object in the world. The term self-concept is a general term used to refer to how someone thinks about or perceives themselves.
smooth and so on) so the child is becoming aware of him or herself as an object which can be experienced and which has properties. self-description also begins to include reference to internal psychological traits. Later. Two of the first categories to be applied are age (“I am 3”) and gender (“I am a girl”). height and favorite things).g.Olympia College Assignment Executive Diploma in Business Management properties that can be experienced (big. the media etc. Kuhn (1960) investigated the self-image by using The Twenty Statements Test. Indeed a person with anorexia who is thin may have a self image in which the person believes they are fat. friends. Carl Rogers (1959) Believes that the self concept has three different components: The view you have of yourself (Self image) How much value you place on yourself (Self esteem or self-worth) What you wish you were really like (Ideal self) Self Image This does not necessarily have to reflect reality. hair color. small. He asked people to answer the question 'Who am I?' in 20 different ways. size or skill. gender. He found that the responses could be divided into two major groups. comparative evaluations and to how others see them. A person's self image is affected by many factors. These were social roles (external or 15 | P a g e . The self too can be put into categories such as age. In early childhood the categories children apply to themselves are very concrete (e. such as parental influences. red.
.etc. “I’m impulsive.. friend) and personality traits (internal or affective aspects of oneself such as gregarious.etc... The list of answers to the question “Who Am I?” probably include examples of each of the following four types of responses: 1) Physical Description: I’m tall.. teacher.. impatient.I tend to worry a lot”.. Self Esteem and Self Worth (the extent to which you value yourself) Self esteem refers to the extent to which we like accept or approve of ourselves or how much we value ourselves.Olympia College Assignment Executive Diploma in Business Management objective aspects of oneself such as son.. 16 | P a g e .. whereas older people feel defined to a greater extent by their social roles. 4) Existential Statements (abstract ones): These can range from "I’m a child of the universe" to "I’m a human being" to "I’m a spiritual being".I’m generous. 2) Social Roles: We are all social beings whose behavior is shaped to some extent by the roles we play. Self esteem always involves a degree of evaluation and we may have either a positive or a negative view of ourselves.. housewife.etc. have blue eyes. Such roles as student. 3) Personal Traits: These are a third dimension of our self-descriptions. or member of the football team not only help others to recognize us but also help us to know what is expected of us in various situations. humorous). Typically young people describe themselves more in terms of such personal traits.
Dirty . Harrill Self Esteem Inventory is a questionnaire comprising 15 statements about a range of interest. This tends to lead to Confidence in our own abilities Self acceptance Not worrying about what others think Optimism LOW SELF ESTEEM i. Clean . Morse and Gergen (1970) showed that in uncertain or anxiety arousing situations our selfesteem may change rapidly.dressed in an old T-shirt and jeans. carrying a briefcase opened to reveal a slide rule and books. we have a negative view of ourselves. we have a positive view of ourselves. For example. B) Mr.e. They were sat with another candidate (a confederate of the experimenter) in one of two conditions: A) Mr. which is a neutral cartoon given to the participant who then has to devise a story about what's going on. Participants were waiting for a job interview in a waiting room. 17 | P a g e .Olympia College Assignment Executive Diploma in Business Management HIGH SELF ESTEEM i.e. slouched over a cheap sex novel. This tends to lead to Lack of confidence Want to be/look like someone else Always worrying what others might think Pessimism There are several ways of measuring self-esteem. Another example is the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).dressed in smart suit.
Olympia College Assignment Executive Diploma in Business Management Self-esteem of participants with Mr. Level of selfesteem affects performance at numerous tasks though (Coopersmith. better looking than ourselves we tend to develop a negative self image BUT if they are less successful than us our image will be positive. Dirty subjects to perform better than Mr. richer. 18 | P a g e . Dirty increased whilst those with Mr. If people admire us. neglect us. there are times when we continue to believe good things about ourselves even when evidence to the contrary exists. happier. tell us things about ourselves that we don’t want to hear we develop a negative self-image. listen attentively and agree with us we tend to develop a positive self-image. Argyle believes there are 4 major factors that influence self esteem. seek out our company. Even though self-esteem might fluctuate. 1967) so could expect Mr. 2) COMPARISON WITH OTHERS. Miller and Ross (1975) showed that people who believed they had socially desirable characteristics continued in this belief even when the experimenters tried to get them to believe the opposite. Clean. This is known as the perseverance effect. flatter us. perhaps with very low self-esteem all we believe about ourselves might be bad. Clean decreased! No mention made of how this affected subjects’ performance in interview. 1) THE REACTION OF OTHERS. If they avoid us. Does the same thing happen with bad things if we have low self-esteem? Maybe not. If the people we compare ourselves with (our reference group) appear to be more successful.
e. we identity with the positions we occupy. 19 | P a g e . doctor. 4) IDENTIFICATION. premiership footballer and this promotes self-esteem. ego-ideal and self-esteem. Hence. This is called incongruence. a difference may exist between a person’s ideal self and actual experience. TV. Humanistic psychologists study this using the Q-Sort Method. Ideal Self (what you'd like to be) If there is a mismatch between how you see yourself (e. Other roles carry stigma.Olympia College Assignment Executive Diploma in Business Management 3) SOCIAL ROLES.g. airline pilot. your ideal self ) then this is likely to affect how much you value yourself. presenter. there is an intimate relationship between self-image. prisoner. Some social roles carry prestige e. yourself image) and what you’d like to be (e.g. A person’s ideal self may not be consistent with what actually happens in life and experiences of the person.” They also become part of our personality i.g. Therefore. Roles aren’t just “out there. mental hospital patient. the roles we play and the groups we belong to. E.g. refuse collector or unemployed person.
Rarely.Olympia College Assignment Executive Diploma in Business Management Where a person’s ideal self and actual experience are consistent or very similar. Michael Argyle (2008) says there are four major factors which influence its development: The ways in which others (particularly significant others) react to us. Roger’s believed that for a person to achieve selfactualization they must be in a state of congruence. a state of congruence exists. all people experience a certain amount of incongruence. The development of congruence is dependent on unconditional positive regard. How we think we compare to others Our social roles The extent to which we identify with other people Conclusion 20 | P a g e . if ever does a total state of congruence exist.
Our self concepts effect the way we interact with the world and in turn how the world reacts to us. Our family. the experiences we will have and the person we project. and judgments of our characteristics. A couple ways our self concept effects our interactions are through self monitoring and self fulfilling prophecies. people can change the way they view themselves as their life changes and progresses. 21 | P a g e .Olympia College Assignment Executive Diploma in Business Management In conclusion. If you see yourself as shy or as a happy go lucky person this will probably stick with you for the rest of your life. Finally it is very important that our self concepts are as accurate as possible as our self concepts will ultimately determine what we will do. but for the most part how you view yourself will not change significantly. People can help us develop our self concepts through their values and beliefs. shaped by the different experiences that you have from when you are a small child until the day that you die. community and other people around us have a major impact on our self concept. We use others to develop our self concept in the way we select groups to compare ourselves to. The concepts that have about yourself are enduring. peers. Self concepts are beliefs that every person has about themselves. Yourself concept changes throughout your life.
htm 3. http://psychology.about.com/library/bl_psychosocial_summary. http://en.com/personality-development.Olympia College Assignment Executive Diploma in Business Management 8.bmconsultantsindia.about. http://www.htm 4.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/intimacy-versusisolation.wikipedia. References: 1.html 22 | P a g e . http://psychology.org/wiki/Personality_development 2.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.