PB2001-105207

U.S. Department of Transportation . .

Publication No. FHWA-TS-89-045 September 1989

ROCK SLOPES: Design, Excavation, Stabilization

Research, Development, and Technology Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center 6300 Georgetown Pike McLean, Virginia 221012296

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PB2001-105207 lllmlMlllllllllllll~
NOTICE

This documen+ I s dlssemlnated u n d e r t h e s p o n s o r s h l p o f t h e Departmen+ o f Transportation I n t h e I n t e r e s t o f I n f o r m a t i o n e x change. The United States Government assumes no llabl I Ity for Its contents or use thereof. T h e c o n t e n t s o f this r e p o r t r e f l e c t t h e views o f Golder Assocl&es, which I s r e s p o n s l b l e f o r t h e f a c t s a n d t h e a c c u r a c y o f the data presented hereln. The conten+s do not necessar I ly ref lect t h e o f f lclal vlews cr p o l I c y o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f Transportatlon. Thls report does regula+lon.

not

constitute a s+andard, speclflcatlon or

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ~----Bolder A s s o c i a t e s w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s t h e i r appreclatlon t o t h e Federa I H i g h w a y Adminlstration f o r t h e i r f u n d i n g O f t h e preparation of this manual. We also sppreclate the assistance and advice provided by many members of the Federal and State Government geotechnlcal engineering community with whom we have I n particular, we acknowledge Gerry worked i n t h e p a s t . Diqaggio. D i c k C h e n e y , B o b Leary, a n d R o n Chassie w i t h t h e Federal Highway Administration, and Verne McGuffey (NYDOT), Hal 4pgar (NJDOT), Dave Bingham (NCDOT), Bob Smith, Bl I I CaPbul and J i m W i n g e r (IDT). A l Ki I lian a n d S t e v e Lowe1 I (USDOT), a n d Harry Moore (TNDOT). We al s o a p p r e c i a t e t h e g e n e r o s i t y o f D r . E v e r t Hock a n d J o h n Bray for al lowing the adaption of their book “Rock Slope E n g i n e e r i n g ” ( p u b l i s h e d b y I n s t i t u t e o f Mining a n d M e t a l l u r g y , Examp I es and London 1981) as the basis for this manual. experience quoted in this manual have been drawn from many o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g rallway, h i g h w a y , l o g g i n g a n d m i n i n g companies located in many parts of the world. In addition, we are grateful to the manufacturers of drilling equipment, explosives and movement monitoring instruments for the use of their technical data.

PROTECTED UNDER INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE US DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

ii

PREFACE

T h i s m a n u a l h a s b e e n p r e p a r e d b y Golder A s s o c i a t e s , S e a t t l e , Washington, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a s e r i e s o f R o c k S l o p e E n g i neering courses sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration. T h e m a n u a l i s b a s e d o n a b o o k e n t i t l e d “Rock S l o p e E n g i n e e r i n g ” authored by Dr. Evert Hoek and Dr. John Bray. A third edition The book has been of this book has been published in 1981. modified for these courses by expanding the chapter on Blasting a n d p r e p a r i n g n e w c h a p t e r s o n S l o e Stabilizalton, M o v e m e n t Monitoring and Construction Contracts and Specifications. A g l o s s a r y o f e x c a v a t i o n t e r m s , I i st ings and documentation of two slope stability programs and a data collection manual have been added as appendices. T h e e n t i r e t e x t h a s b e e n e d i t e d t o m a k e i t applicable to transportation engineering.

iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1:

Principles of rock slope engineering for highways Economic consequences of instabi I ity Planning stability investigations Chaptar I r*ferencos

1.1 1.1 1.6 1.11 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.14 2.16 2.18 3.1 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.9 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.11 3.19 3.23 3.26 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.6 4.8 4.8 4.16 4.18

Chapter 2:

Basic machanics of slope failure Continuum mechanics approach to slope stability Maximum slope height - slope angle relationship for oxcavatod slopes R o l e o f d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s i n slope f a i l u r e Friction, cohesion and unit weight Sliding due to gravitational loading Influence of water pressure on shear strength The effective stress law The effect of water pressure in a tension crack Reinforcanent to prevent slldlng Factor of safety of a slope Slope failures for which factors of safety can be calculatad Critlcal slope height versus slope angle relationships Slopes f o r which a f a c t o r o f s a f e t y c a n n o t ba calculated Probabilistic approach to slope design Chapter 2 roferoncas

Chsptor 3 :

Graphical prosantation o f g e o l o g i c a l d a t a Doflnition o f geological t e r m s D e f i n i t i o n o f gwnetrical terms Graphical tochniquos for data presentation Equal-aroa p r o j e c t i o n Construction of a great circle and a pole reprosonting a plane Ikt*rmination o f the Ilna o f i n t e r s e c t i o n o f two p l a n e s To dotormine the angle batwoon two specific llnos Altarnativo n&hod f o r f i n d i n g t h e l i n e o f intersection o f t w o pianos P l o t t i n g a n d a n a l y s i s o f f i e l d maasuroments Evaluation of potential slope problems Suggostmd method of date presentation and analysis for highway design Chaptor 3 refwancos

Chaptw 4:

Coological d a t a c o l l e c t i o n Regional geological investigations Mapp Ing of exposed structures Photograph Ic mapping of axposed structures Measuromont of surface roughness Diamond drilling for structural purposes Prosontation o f geological i n f o r m a t i o n Chapter 4 rafwences

iv TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd)

PAGE Chapter 5: Shear strength of rock Shear strength of planar discontinuities Influence of water on shear strength of planar discontinuities Shearing on an inclined plane Surface roughness Shear testing of discontinuities in rock Estimating joint compressive strength and friction angle Shear strength of filled discontinuities Shear strength of closely jointed rock masses Testing closely jointed rock Shear strength determination by back analysis of slope failures Sample collection and preparation Chapter 5 references Chapter 6: Groundwater flow; permeability and pressure Groundwater flow in rock masses Flow nets Field measurement of permeability Measurement of water pressure General comnents Chapter 6 references Chapter 7: Plane failure General conditions for plane failure Plane failure analysis Graphical analysis of stability Influence of aroundwater on stability Critical tension crack depth The tension crack as an indicator of instability Critical failure plane inclination Influence of undercutting the toe of a slope Reinforcement of a slope Analvsis of failure on a rough plane Practical example No. 1 Practical example No. 2 Practical example No. 3 Practical example No. 4 Practical example NO. 5 Chapter 7 references Chapter 8: Wedge failure Definition of wedge geometry Analysis of wedge failure Wedge analysis including cohesion and water pressure Wedge stability charts for friction only Practical example of wedge analysis Chapter B references 5.1 5.1

5.2 5.3 5.4 :::4
5.19

5.22 5.25 5.30 5.33 5.39 6.1 6.2 Eo 6.17 6.20 6.22 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.8

7.10 7.12 7.15 7.16 7.17 7.17

7.18 7.19 7.25 7.30 7.41 7.47 7.49 a.1 a.4 a.4 a.5 a.11 a.12 a.25

V

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd)

PAGE Chapter 9: Circular failure Conditions for circular failure Derivation of circular failure chart Groundwater flow assumptions Production of circular flow charts Use of the circular failure charts Location of critical failure circle and tension crack Practical example No. 1 Practical example No. 2 Practical example No. 3 Bishop's and Janbu's methods of slices Chapter 9 references Chapter 10: Toppling failure

9.1 i:: Z:i 9.5 9.14 9.17 9.18 9.19 9.22 9.29 10.1

Types of toppling failure 10.1 Analysis of toppling failure 10.3 Factor of safety for limiting eouilibrium analysis of topoling failures 10.13 General comnents on toppling-failure 10.13 Chapter 10 references 10.14 Chapter 11: Blasting

11.1 11.1 11.1 11.2 11.11

1 Principles of blasting Mechanism of rock failure by explosive Production blasting Blast design Evaluation of a blast Modification of blasting methods II Controlled blasting to improve stability Line drilling Cushion blasting Preshear blasting Buffer blasting Controlled blasting: construction practices and economics III Blast damage and its control Structural damage Control of flyrock Airblast and noise problems associated with production blasts Chapter 11 references
Chapter 12: Stabilization and protection measures Stabilization methods Stabilization methods that reduce driving forces I II Reinforcement and support stabilization methods III Protection measures Example of slope stabilization project Chapter 12 references

11.13

11.13

11.15 11.16 11.20 11.24 11.30

11.30 11.32 11.34 11.37 11.39 11.43

12.1 12.2 12.3 12.8 12.18 12.24 12.32

V i

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Coni’d)

Chapter 13:

Slope movement monitoring Methods of measuring slope movements Surface methods Subsurface surveying methods Interpreting movement results Chapter 13 references

13.1 13.2 13.3 13.10 13.1 I 13.15 14.1 14.1 14.6 14.7 14.20

Chapter 14:

Construction contracts and specifications Selecting the type of construction contract Wrltlng speclficatlons Typical specif Ications Chapter 14 references

Appendix 1: Appendix 2: Appendix 3: Appendix 4: Appendix 5: Appendix 6: Appendix 7: Appendix 8: Appendix 9:

Analysis of laboratory strength test data Wedge solution for rapid computation Factors of safety for reinforced rock slopes Conversion factors Glossary of blasting and excavation terms Geotechnical data collection manual HP67 slope design programs Practicuns Rock mass classification systems

Al-l
A2-1 A3-1 A& 1

AS-1
A6-1 A7-1

A&l A9-1

1.1

Chapter 1

Principles of rock slope engineering for highways.

Introduction This manual Is concerned with the stab1 I I ty of rock slopes, with umthods f o r a s s e s s i n g t h l s stablllty a n d w l t h techniques f o r l m p r o v l n g t h e stsblllty o f s l o p e s rhlch a r e potentially hazardous. It Is intended that It serve as both an lnstructlon manual f o r engineers carrying o u t s l o p e stab1 llty Investlgstlons and deslgnlng rock slopes , a n d a guide f o r c o n s t r u c t l o n engineers I n v o l v e d with w c s v a t l o n a n d stab1 I I r a t l o n . Wlth thls purpose In mind, the manual contslns sectlons on methods o f r o c k s l o p e d e s i g n , practical exercises demonstrating t h e appllcatlon o f t h e s e methOds, s e c t l o n s o n blsstlng, s l o p e stablllzatlon, contracts and contract management. Economic consequences o f Inrtabi l l t y Rock slope fat lures, or the remedial measures necessary to prevent them, cost money and It Is appropriate that, before becanIng Involved In a detalled examlnstlon of slope behavlor, some of the economic Impllcatlons of thls behavlor should be axamlned. &I trsnsportatlon routes rock slope stablllty Involves both overall slope fsllure, and rock falls fram slope faces. Obvlously, s l o p e s are c u t a t t h e s t e e p e s t possible angle I n o r d e r to mlnlmlze the stcavstlon volume and the dlsturbance to adJecant property. However, I n deslgnlng r o c k s l o p e s I t I s essentlal t h a t t h e l o n g - t e r m stablllty o f t h e s l o p e b e consldered b e c a u s e I t I s Ilkel y t h a t t h e excsvatlon m u s t b e s t a b I s f o r many years. During this time the rock WI I I weather, It WI II be subject to Ice and water atlon, plant root growth and possible c h a n g e I n loading condltlons d u e t o s u c h ectlvltles a s ditch wldenlng a t t h e tc+ a n d c o n s t r u c t l o n o n t h e c r e s t . Adequato safeguards to account for these changes should be Incorporated In the design because the consequences of Instsb I I Ity , as dl scussed below,.can be ooptly. In exafnlng the economic consequences of slope fal lures one s h o u l d consider b o t h direct a n d lndlrect c o s t s * ( l ) . For the case of a slope failure durlng construction, direct costs *Duld Include such Items as equipment damage, clrlms for delays, exc e v a t l o n o f t h e falled mnterlel a n d stabll I r a t l o n o f t h e remalnlng slope. Indlrect costs would Include such Items as extra englneerlng tlme, l e g a l f o e s a n d , t h e m o s t slgnlflcant Itom, d e l a y t o opening o f t h e n e w hlghway, o r t h e n e e d t o roroute traff Ic. I n t h e e v e n t o f r o c k f a l l o n a n operstlonal hlghway t h e direct c o s t s are u s u a l ly Ilmlted to clesnlng r o c k f r o m t h e r o a d surfuze, repslrlng the pavement and doing some stsblllzatlon work. Indlrect c o s t s Include s u c h I t e m s as InJury t o hlghway u s e r s , d a m a g e lo vehicles, l o s t w a g e s , hospltal c h a r g e s , l e g a l f e e s and hlghway closure. One approach to examlnlng the aM benefits of slope stablllratlon programs to reduce the Incidence of slope fal lures that disrupt hlghwsy operations, I s t o u s e declslon snalysls(2,3,4). T h l s technique r e l a t e s t h e c o s t o f uncertsln e v e n t s , t h a t c a n be mcpressed In terms of probabllltles of falluro, to the costs of alternatlve stablllzatlon programs. T h e results give mcpect e d )otsl c o s t s o f f a l l u r e a n d stablllzstlon f o r d l f f e r e n t opWumbors refer to Ilst of reforoncos at the end of each Chapter.

1.2

tions which helps the engineer to decide which action produces the greatest economic benefit. Decision analysis is beginning t o b e u s e d i n engineering(5,6) f o i l o w i n g i t s m o r e w i d e s p r e a d u s e i n t h e b u s i n e s s c-unity. A further consideration is that motorists are sometimes successfully suing highway departments for damages and injury c a u s e d b y r o c k falis(7). O n e p o s s i b l e p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t s u c h action is to show that reasonable steps were taken to prevent failure. Usual iy, r e a s o n a b l e s t e p s a r e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f proven engineering methods and techniques. The methods desc r i b e d i n t h i s m a n u a l h a v e b e e n u s e d s u c c e s s f u l l y i n practice(8.9) a n d c a n b e a p p l i e d , i n a p p r o p r i a t e c o n d i t i o n s , w i t h confidence in the design of rock slopes. This means that designs for individual rock slopes can be prepared rather than u s i n g a s t a n d a r d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s u c h a s l/4 ( h o r i z o n t a l ) : 1 (vertical). Example of slope stabilization costs Possibly the best illustration of slope design can be given by an example which includes a consideration of the most important f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r o l r o c k s l o p e b e h a v i o r a s wei I a s t h e e c o nomic consequences of failure. In the slope illustrated in the margin sketch which has been d e s i g n e d ta b e e x c a v a t e d a t o u r a n g l e o f 76. (l/4:1), a d i s continuity has been exposed during the early stages of excavation. M e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e o r i e n t a t i o n a n d inci ination o f t h i s discontinuity and projection of these measurements into the r o c k m a s s s h o w s t h a t t h e I i n e o f i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e d iscontinuity will daylight in the slope face when the height of the it is required to investigate the staslope reaches 50 ft. b i l i t y o f t h i s s l o p e a n d t o e s t i m a t e t h e c o s t s o f t h e aiternative methods of dealing with the problem which arises if the slope is found to be unstable. The factor of safety* of the slope, for a range of slope angles, is plotted in Figure 1.2 for the two extreme conditions of a dry slope and a slope excavated in a rock mass in which It w i I I b e c o m e c l e a r , i n the groundwater level is very high. the detailed discussions given later in this manual, that the presence of groundwater in a slope can have a very important i n f l u e n c e u p o n i t s s t a b i l i t y a n d t h a t d r a i n a g e o f t h i s groundwater is one of the most effective means of improving the stability of the slope. A slope will fail if the factor of safety falls below unity and from Figure 1.2, i t w i l l b e s e e n t h a t t h e s a t u r a t e d s l o p e w i l l fail i f i t i s e x c a v a t e d a t a n a n g l e s t e e p e r t h a n 7 2 d e g r e e s . The dry slope is theoretically stable at any angle but the minimum factor of safety of approximately 1.1 is not considered sufficiently high to ensure that the slope will remain stable. Slopes adjacent to highways are considered to be permanent and a factor of safety of 1.5 should usually be used for design purposes.

Geometry of planar failure in example of bench stability analysis. D e t a i l s o f s l o p e geanetry and material properties used in analysis. Discontinuity surface upon which sliding o c c u r s d i p s a t 45O. T h e friction angle of the s u r f a c e i s 3S” a n d t h e c o h e s i o n i s 1200 Ib/sq.ft.

*The definition of this and of other terms used in the stability analysis is given later in the manual. A detailed knowledge of the method of analysis is not necessary in order to follow this example.

.5 Slope angle .1 : Example of a planar failure. 0.degrees Figure 1.1.3 Figure 1.2: Variation in Factor of Safety with slope angle.

‘Slope angle The cost of the various options which are now available to the engineer will depend upon such factors as the physical cons t r a i n t s a t t h e s i t e . Total Cost = 900 Un its b) F l a t t e n s l o p e t o 6 7 d e g r e e s a n d i n s t a l l a d r a i n a g e s y s tem to give a factor of safety of 1.1. theoretically the steepest possible saturated slope (see Figure 1. g . required to give a factor of safety of 1. applied by means of cables installed in horizontal holes drilled at right angles to the strike of the slope and anchored in the rock behind the discontinuity planes. 5 u n d e r s a t u r a t e d c o n d i t i o n s ( l i n e B). are listed below: a) Flatten slope to 61 degrees to give a factor of safety o f 1 . 5 .5 for a dry slope ( l i n e B a n d E). and D on Figure 1. a n d t h e a v a i Iability of men and equipment to install drain holes and rock anchors. A slope length of 75 ft.5 for both saturated and dry slopes (curves C and 0). Volume for curves A and B. A comparison of costs if failure was to occur. F i g u r e 1.3). and curve B shows the ext r a volume t h a t m u s t b e e x c a v a t e d t o f l a t t e n t h e s l o p e f r o m 7 6 degrees. e . This gives I ine A which starts at a slope angle of 72 degrees. with costs of alternative stabilization measures. would be to flatten the slope angle.4.4. In deriving the costs presented in Figure 1.2). the engineer is now in a position to consider the relative Some of these options costs of the options available to him. c) T h e c o s t o f t e n s i o n e d c a b l e s i s a s s u m e d t o b e 2 l/2 This gives lines C cost units per ton of cable load. t h e c o s t o f f l a t t e n i n g t h e s l o p e . b) T h e c o s t o f c l e a r i n g u p a s l o p e f a i l u r e i s a s s u m e d t o be twice the basic excavating cost. Total Cost = 1250 Units . has One means of stabi I izing the slope been taken in this example. i s o b tained directly from line B in Figure 1. Hence I ine B in F i g u r e I . On the basis of a set of data such as that presented in Figure 1. p r o p e r t y o w n e r s h i p .4. can be made by first calculating the estimated volume of failure with increasing slope a n g l e ( c u r v e A o n F i g u r e 1.3. Also included in this figure are two curves giving the external load. the following assumptions were made: a) T h e b a s i c c o s t u n i t i s t a k e n a s t h e c o n t r a c t p r i c e p e r c u b i c y a r d o f r o c k m e a s u r e d i n p l a c e .4 for saturated and dry slopes res p e c t i v e l y ( f a c t o r o f s a f e t y = 1 .5.3).4 In this example it would be necessary to cut the slope at an angle of 68 degrees for the dry slope and 61 degrees for the saturated slope in order to achieve a factor of safety of 1.

Line D .Cable load required for Factor of Safety of 1. Line c .Cable load required for Factor of Safety of 1.1. L i n e D .5 2ooo~ J Figure 1. g3 5 % : j’ y t Line A . l5W 4 is P.Cost of draining riope. long slope.5 for dry slope.degrees . Line E .5 for saturated slope.Cost of installing cables in dry slope.3: Excavation voluncs and bolt loads. ioadtons 500 Line A .Cost of installing cables in saturated Slop. 0 2 loo0 1 s C i 3 SW D 1 I 1000 Cable. Line C . 0 40 50 60 70 Slope angle .Volume e x c a v a t e d i n f l a t t e n i n g slope from angle of 76O for 75 ft. Line B .degrees 80 Figure 1. Line 6 .Cost of flattening slope.4: Cmparative cost of options.Cost of clearing up slope failure.Volume to be cleared up if failure occurs. 40 50 60 70 Slope angle .

5 (lines 0 a n d E). This risk may be acceptable for a temporary or infrequently used road i f it is expected that the s lope w i I I not become saturated. This has the advantage that no artificial support. but would not be feasible if property restrictions preclude cutting back the slope. e) C u t s l o p e a t 7 6 d e g r e e s . slope geometry and groundwater conditions result in slopes in which the risk of failure is high. H o w c a n t h e s e i solated slopes which are potentially dangerous be detected in the many miles of slopes along the highway? The answer I ies in the fact that certain combinations of geological discontinuities. steps can be taken to deal with the slope problems which are likely to arise in these Slopes in which these combinations do not occur require areas.1. T h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e d r a i n a g e s y s t e m w o u l d b e most important because of the sensitivity of the slope to water pressures. The costs of these and other options will vary from slope to slope and no attempt should be made to derive general rules from the figures given. Total Cost = 2000 Units f) C u t s l o p e t o 6 7 d e g r e e s o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i t m a y not fail and make provision to clean up any failure t h a t m a y o c c u r ( l i n e s A a n d B). . i n s t a l l d r a i n s a n d a n c h o r s t o give a factor of safety for a dry slope of 1. Minimum Total Cost = 450 Units Maximum Total Cost = 3850 It must be emphasized that these estimates are hypothetical and apply to this particular slope only. The opt i o n w i t h t h e n e x t l o w e s t c o s t i s o p t i o n (a) w h i c h i n v o l v e s flattening the slope to 61 degrees so that a factor of safety of 1. i s t o c u t t h e s l o p e t o 6 7 d e g r e e s a n d a c c e p t t h e r i s k o f f a i Iure.5 for a standard slope is not feasible because it would be impractical to install the number of cables required ( c u r v e C). Planning stability investigations T y p i c a l l y . If these combinations can be recognized during the preliminary geological and highway layout studies.5 is obtained under saturated conditions.6 c) C u t s l o p e t o 7 2 d e g r e e s t o i n d u c e f a i l u r e a n d c l e a n u p f a i l e d m a t e r i a l ( l i n e s A a n d B). However. i f t h e s l o p e w e r e t o f a i l t h e n t h e t o t a l cost would be greater than any of the other options. Total Cost = 3800 Units d) T h e o p t i o n o f c u t t i n g t h i s s l o p e a t 7 6 d e g r e e s a n d i n stalling anchors to give a factor of safety of 1. which may not work as designed in the long term. is required. rock cuts above highways may only suffer very occas i o n a l s l o p e f a i l u r e s d u r i n g t h e i r l i f e . T h e l o w e s t c o s t o p t i o n ( o p t i o n ff)) i f t h e s l o p e d o e s n o t f a i l . If it was necessary that the slope be cut at 76 degrees then it would be necessary to drain the slope as well as put in anchors ( o p t i o n (e)).

suspected that groundwater pressures played a part in the failure It may be necessary to install piezometers to measure the pressure because It i s rare I y poss i bl e to obtain this information from observations on the In many cases dri I Iing programs wil I not be face. This approach to the planning of slope stability studies is outlined in the chart presented in Figure 1. The prel iminary assessment of stabi I ity can be done using a nunber of simple techniques which will be describ e d I n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s m a n u a l . therefore. and which can. and the mechanical properties of the rock mass. regional movements as wel I as the stabi I ity of individual rock cuts. be anticipated that undetected discontinuities will be exposed as the slope is excavated and provision must be made to deal with the resulting slope problems as they arise. which normal ly includes a i r p h o t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . surface mapping and study of natural slopes. or support requirements. T h i s preliminary study should Identify those slopes in which no failure i s Ilkely. Details of the different approaches are as follows: a) New c o n s t r u c t i o n : t h e f i r s t t a s k i n v o l v e s a prel iminary evaluation of the geological data available from the route exploration program. a n d t h o s e s l o p e s i n which t h e r i s k o f f a i l u r e a p p e a r s t o b e h i g h a n d which require more detailed analysis. Chapters 7 .10 of this manual will deal with the techniques which can be used for these detailed stabi I ity studies. possibly requiring dri I I ing. and it will be seen that there are two distinct categories: a) Design of slopes for new construction b) E v a l u a t i o n o f s t a b i l i t y o f e x i s t i n g s l o p e s . b) Existing s l o p e s : t h e m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e stability studles and those for new construction. The exposed face will usually give e x c e l l e n t i n f o r m a t i o n o n g e o l o g i c a l conditions a n d study of past fal lures wi I I demonstrate the type of f a i l u r e m o s t I ikely t o o c c u r . This analysis involves a much more detailed study of the geology.7 no further investigation. The study should include the stability of large.5. B a c k . is the greater amount of information avallable in the case of exlsting slopes.1. It must. however. the groundwater conditions. A d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f stabi I ity i s t h e n carried out on the basis of this information to determine maximum safe slope angle. a n d d e s i g n of stabilization programs where required. required because more information on geology WI I I be .a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e failures would be the most reliable means of determlning the rock strength although in some cases it may also be necessary to carry out I aboratory test Ing on If it is fractures not involved in previous failures. be designed on the basis o f operatlonal c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .

8 New construction Existing slopes I Examine air-photographs. groundwater data. Accept possibiirty of fatlure. geology. . i n s t a l l movunent monitoring systun to provide warning of deteriorating stability conditions. Figure I . examine rock fail records.1. stop Detailed geological mapping (drilling). strength testing and/or back-analysis of failures and nearby slopes. stop Detailed stability analysis to determine risk of failure. Design stabilization system to achieve required Factor of Safety. Hake stabi I i ty assessment. natural slopes.5: Planning a slope stability progra.

9 available from surface mapping than wi I I be obtained f r o m d r i l l c o r e .D e s c r i p t i o n o f R i s k A) Moderate probability o f f a i l u r e o f sufficlont volunu to cause h a z a r d i f f a i l u r e und0tKt. such as the mileage and priority rating of all Also.toctd. E) SI i g h t possibi I lty o f l o c a l Ired falluros under wtrwn* c l i m a t i c conditions. is to This inventory m a k e a n i n v e n t o r y o f stablllty c o n d i t i o n s . One m e t h o d o f d r a w i n g u p a l o n g t e r m s t a b l l l z a t l o n progrun i n which the most hazardous slopes are stabilized first. h a z a r d I f fslluro und. In assigning priority ratings. lOA). The system shown In Figure 1. fran which a priority rating. and would be used to plan a program which uoul d start with the slopes having the h i g h e s t priority r a t i n g . similar ratings Is appropriate because assignment of rating numbers is inprecise and requires a certain zunount of judgement. w o u l d d e s c r i b e t h e p h y s i c a l a n d geotechnical c o n d i t i o n s o f each site. related to the probable risk of failure. and when data is collected by different personnel. An example of the information that would be collected in maklng an inventory of stablllty c o n d i t i o n s I s s h o w n i n Figure 1. Sam probabl Iity o f fallur~ o f suff Iclont volunw t o CaUI. and the stabiIIzatlon work required. or they can be grouped as shown on the lower part of I t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t g r o u p i n g o f s i t e s ulth Figure 1. Gonerally s h a l l o w CUiS. extrano freez6thml cycles. ate. both between sl tes.7 assigns points to each category of data that has The total number of a n I n f l u e n c e o n stab11 ity c o n d i t i o n s . priority ratings can be assigned to each slope. highway. This information can be used to design appropriate stabilization measures.6. This information would identify the most hazardous locations.w r y heavy ralnfall o r r u n .o f f . to be assigned to each slope (10. M o d e r a t e probablllty o f localirod rocks or rock falls occurring during a%trme c l Imatlc c o n d i t i o n s .1. T h e I n f o r m a t i o n f o r a l l t h e s l o p e s I s s t o r e d I n a computerized data base which c a n b e u s e d t o r e t r i e v e selected data. the slopes where previous rock falls have occurred. 400 to 500 B) 250 to 400 Cl 250 to 150 x150 . i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t a m e t h o d be used that is consistent. In some cases there may be a number of unstable slopes along many miles of highway and there WI I I be insufficient time and funds available to carry out all the stabilization work.d. M o d e r a t e probeblllty o f felluro o f small volullys tilch m i g h t r o a c h th. data base facil ltates updating of records such as rock fal I events. One means of describing priority ratings based on groupings of priority numbers is as follows: Point Total >500 Priori. The sites can then be ranked according to their rating nvnber. points Is then added to determlne the prlority rating number. Once an Inventory of slopes has been completed.7.

RECWIHENDED STABILIZATION Clean end widen existing ditches. STABTLITY A S S E S S M E N T -~___-_-__------~--~ Date: March 22. . scale loose rock on slope face. Past Stability Records: A rockfall in late 1983 was struck by a truck.2 Alignment: Tangent. Sight Visibility: 500 yards.6: Example of Slope Stability Assessment Sheet. Evidence of Water: Nil.10 Finally. DESCRIPTION OF POTENTIAL INSTABILITY Further rockfells with volumes up to at least 5 cu. Average Climatic Conditions: Coastal . how long will a slope design program take? The time w i I I r a n g e from o n e h a I f t o t w o h o u r s f o r a stabi I i t y a s s e s s ment (Figure 1. 1988 Priority: Route : SR 1002A Trafflr: liwivy A Region: WeBtern Mileage: 81. Length: 300 ft. Geologic Description: Strong massive granite with blast damage that has opened subatantlal cracks. to several days for a preliminary investig a t i o n f o r a n e w c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e .yds. DESCRIPTION OF SITE cut: x Rock: x Fill: Soil: Other: Other: Height: 40 ft.61. t o p o s s i b l y tuo mont’ls for a detailed study of a critical slope. width.1. east and west.vet with frrreze/thaw cycles in spring and fall. Therp are other falls lying in the ditch with volumes up to l/2 cu.yd. to minimum of 15 ft. Where ditch cannot be excavated. Notes : Through-cut. Note heavy tree cover along crest of cut. Work Space Available: Limited. the Formnan report equiwnt has been used in the past to remove subatantlal quantltles of rock from the ditch. PROTOGRAPH OF SITE Goldrr Associates Figure 1.

7: Slope Stability Rating System .. .11 I SLOPE LENGTH VISIBILITY/ < 50 FT I 50 TO 100 FT 100 TO 150 FT I I50 TO 2 0 0 F: I > 200 FT I ELOCN SIZE < 6IN WATER/ICE Dry. .raf* raIntall. cola rlnters High raInfail. Cold rlnt*rs Priority A P o i n t Total G r e a t e r t h a n SO0 400 t o 500 250 t o 4 0 0 150 t o 250 8 C D E L e s s t h a n 150 Figure 1.m-In wInt*rs Mcd*rate ralntal I. ralntnll.rm rint*rr Modrat. ItreerIng wd.1.

J. E n g r s ..C. Second Edltlon. HOEK. A u g . 8. October 1975. J a n u a r y 1 9 7 8 .12 Chapter 1 references 1. 7. S. J . P a g e 3 0 1 .1 ide Remedial Measures. slope stabilization programs using decision analysis. analysis. 1 3 t h N o r t h w e s t Geotechnical W o r k s h o p .. Stabi I i z a t i o n a n d c o n t r o l FOOKES. J. P. Gee. 1 . 1978. and BRAY. C H I N . 1 9 7 6 . BRAWNER. Conference on Dam Safety. Rock slope stability on American Railway Engineering rai lway projects.O. and SWEENEY. The B. . Association. E n g . highway engineering. Geol. 1977. C . Proc.L. N o . D . 1 9 8 7 . E.G. 6 4 . 3. J o u r . and WYLLIE. Page 16. Rock Slope Engineering I. Decision Massachusetts. p p . E . 10.O. 1 9 7 9 .M. 1 9 7 8 .C. . D. B. F H W A . McCAMMON. D. Still-t-MIAO. Quart. Addison-Wesley. Assessment of hazards associated with ACTON.M. Civil engineering risks and hazards. Cost as a criterion for evaluating highway level of service. of local rock fal Is and degrading rock slopes. W . Planning W Y L L I E .1. P o r t l a n d . RAIFFA.C. 1970. January 1976. Stanford dam construct ion.R. 2. M. A s s o c . Bull. BRUMUND. programs. Applied statistical decision theory for BENJAMIN. CR. 4. P a r t 1 . I n s t . 2 . August 1978. A n n u a l M e e t i n g .5 5 . C. H. V o l 9 . N.C. 381-391. RUSSELL. .R. N o . ITE Journal. Professional Engineer. D. 9. TRB. C i v .. Lands. University. ROYSTER. 10A. 6. Vancouver. 5. E n g . 3 7 . inventory/maintenance Rock slope WYLLIE. V o l XVl.

Maxlmum slope height . t h l s h e l g h t b e a r s very little r e l a t l o n t o r e a l i t y a n d o n e w o u l d h a v e t o r e d u c e the strength propertles by a factor of at least 10 In order to arrive at a reasonable slope helght. These llmltat Ions ar Ise because our knowledge of the mechanlcal propertles of rock masses Is so Inadequate that the choice o f materlal p r o p e r t l e s f o r u s e I n t h e analysis beccmes a matter of pure guesswork... he s a l d “. Contlnuum machanlcs approach to slope stablllty A questlon which frequently arlses In dlscusslons on slope stablllty Is how hlgh and how steep can a rock slope be cut. C l e a r l y . I f a s t a b l l l t y canputatlon I s required u n d e r t h e s e condlt Ions. For example. the resu I ts have been very Interest Ing but In terms of pract ICal rock slope englneerlng. these methods have llmlted usefulness. n a t u r a l condltlons m a y p r e c l u d e t h e p o s s l b l l l t y o f sacurlng al I the data required for predlctlng the performance o f a r e a l f o u n d a t l o n material by analytlcal o r a n y o t h e r m & h ods. If one attempts to calc u l a t e t h e Ilmltlng vertical h e l g h t o f a s l o p e I n a v e r y s o f t I lmestone on the basls of Its Intact strength. It Is necessar I I y based on assumptlons wh Ich have I Itt lo In cOrrmOn wlth real Ity. In dlscusslng the problem of foundatlon and slope stablllty..“. I s obtalned(l6).slope angle relatlonshlp for excavated slopes Even If one accepts +hat the stab I I I ty of a rock mass Is dom lnated b y geologlcal dlscontlnultles. . before leaving the quest Ion of the continuum machanlcs approach. One approach to thl s problem. Developments In numerlcal methods such as those reported by Goodmant 19) et al and Cundal I(20) show that the gap between the Ideal Ized elastic continuum and the real dlscontlnuum Is gradually belng bridged a n d t h e a u t h o r s a r e o p t l m l s t l c t h a t t h e techniques which a r e c u r r e n t l y Intarestlng r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s will evbntually becane u s e f u l englneerlng daslgn t o o l s . when one Is concerned with overal I dlsplacanent or groundwater flow patterns. from the research point of view. the authors wlsh to aspheslze that they are not opposed In prlnclple +o Its appllcatlon and Indood. joints and beddlng planes. The success wh Ich has been ach leved by the appl Icatlon of techniques such as photoel ast Ic stress analysis or flnlte element mathods In the deslgn of underground excavations has tempted many research workers to apply the sane techniques to slopes.1 Chapter 2 Basic mechanics of slope failure. which has been adoptad by a number of Investlgators(ll-151. a va I ue In exc e s s o f 3 . the results obtalned from a numerlcal method such as the flnlte element technique can be very useful. blocks or wedges Is not posslble. It Is appropriate to quote ft-an a paper by TerzaghI(l7) where. bwever . Indeed. Failure I n t h e s e s l o p e s will I n v o l v e a comblnatlon . Mul ler and hls co-workers In Europe have emphaslzed for many years the fact that a rock mass Is not a continuum and that Its behavlor Is danlnated by dlscontlnultles such as faults. t h e r e m u s t b e s l t u a t l o n s where the orlentatlon and lncllnatlon of these dlscontlnultles Is such that slmple slldlng of slabs.2. Is to assume that the rock mass behaves as an elastic continuum. Such computations do more harm than good because they divert the deslgner’s attentlon from the Inevltable but Important gaps In hls knowledge . Most practical rock slope daslgns are currently based upon thls dlscontlnuum approach and thls WI I I be the approach adopted In al I the techniques presented In thls book. 5 0 0 f t .

t h e u n s t a b l e s l o p e s . The lnformatlon refers to slopes In open cut mlnes. What pract lcal evidence Is there that thls Is a reasonable assumptlon? A very Important collectlon of data on excavated slopes was ccmplled by Kley and Lutton(21 1 and addltlonal data has been obtalned by Ross-Broun(22). In such cases. t o a b o u t 7 0 f t . when the rock mass contains dl scontlnulty surfaces dlpplng towards the slope face at angles of between 30’ and 70°. Role of dlscontlnultles In slope failure Flgure 2. The slope helghts and corresponding slope angles for t h e s l o p e s I n materials classlfled a s h a r d r o c k h a v e b e e n plotted In Flgure 2.2 o f movement o n d l s c o n t l n u l t l e s a n d failure o f I n t a c t r o c k materlal and one would antlclpate that. When these . or absence. the presence. assumed that only one set of dlscontlnultles Is present In a very hard rock mass and that one of these dlscontlnultles “dayI Ights” at the toe of the vert lcal slope as shown In the sketch I t will b e s e e n t h a t t h e crltlcal vertical In Flgure 2. while many slopes are stable at steep angles and at helghts of several hundreds of feet. as far as Is known fran this collectlon of data. f o r t h e nrxnent. for vertlcal a n d horlrontal d l s c o n t l n u l t l e s .1 rhlch Includes both stable and unstable I g n o r i n g . cohesion a n d unit weight T h e material p r o p e r t l e s which a r e m3st r e l e v a n t t o t h e dlscusslon on slope stablllty presented In thls book are the angle of A planar discontinuity . dam foundation Btcavatlons and hlghway cuts. The Influence of the Incllnatlon of a failure plane on the stablllty o f a s l o p e I s strlklngly I l l u s t r a t e d I n F l g u r e 2 . T h l s line g l v e s a u s e f u l practical guide t o t h e h l g h e s t and steepest slopes which can be contemplated for normal transportatlon plannlng. fall along a fairly clear line shown dashed In Flgure 2 .“% n u l t l e s a r e vertical o r horizontal. height H decreases fran a value In excess of 200 ft. simple slldlng can occur and the stab1 llty of these slopes Is slgnlflcantly lower than those In which only horizontal and vertical dlscontlnultles are present.2. plot shows that the hlghest and steepest slopes which have been successfully excavated. higher and steeper slopes than average could be excavated.J.1 shows that. dealing w l t h t h l s p r o b l e m a r e dlscussed I n l a t e r c h a p t e r s o f thls book. On the other hand. such a s f a u l t s and beddlng planes.. In some exceptlonal circumstances. T h i s difference Is d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s t a b l l l t y o f r o c k s l o p e s varies ulth lncllnatlon of dlscontlnulty surfaces. Clearly. hlgher or steeper slopes may be feaslble but these could only be Just l f l e d I f a v e r y comprehenslve s t a b l l l t y s t u d y h a d s h o r n t h a t there was no rlsk of lnduclng a massive slope failure. quarries. It has been alnst dlscontlnulty angle.2. this slopes. 2 I n which t h e crltlcal h e l g h t o f a d r y r o c k s l o p e I s p l o t t e d agIn derlvlng this curve. ulthln the rock mass. of dlscontlnultles has a very Important Inf luence upon the stab I I Ity of rock slopes and t h e d e t e c t l o n o f t h e s e geologlcal f e a t u r e s I s o n e o f t h e mOst Techn I ques for crltlcal p a r t s o f a s t a b l l l t y I n v e s t l g a t l o n . 1 . simple s l l d l n g c a n n o t t a k e p l a c e a n d t h e s l o p e f a l l u r e wll I I n v o l v e f r a c t u r e o f I n t a c t blocks of rock as well as movement along some of the dlscontln u l t l e s . F r l c t l o n . many flat s l o p e s f a l l a t heights o f o n l y t e n s o f f e e t . f o r a d l s c o n t l n u l t y I n c l l n a t l o n o f 55O.l.

3 2200 ft.degrees Figure 2.o 600 an 500 400 300 0 IO 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Slope angle . 1: Slope height versus slope angle relrtionships for herd rock slopes by Kley end Lutton 2ie~~c:~~fn~r~e2:Ollacted .2. 1500 1400 -1 I ! 0 Steblc slopes 0 Unsteblc sloper I y 900 b 7 800 r’ z 700 m EL .

2: Critlcal height of a drained vertical slope containing a planar discontinuity dipping at an angle *.CosbTaw) C o h e s i o n c .r” E % 100 ?I .2.degrees Figure 2.4 Inclined planar dlrcontinuities which daylight at the toe of a rock slope can cause instability when they are inclined at a steeper angle than the angle of friction of the rock surfaces 250 200 Y : c . . . . .. 150 2 0.E 2 50 H - 2c y Cost (Sin$.2 0 0 0 Ib/ft’ F r i c t i o n a n g l e $ = 2D” U n i t w e i g h t y = 160 Ib/ft3 I 1 I I 1 I I I I ’ o IO 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 I I go Discontinuity angle JI.

5 friction. Thls plot I s a slmpllfled version o f t h e r e s u l t s uhlch would b e obtalned I f a r o c k specimen contalnlng a geologlcal d l s c o n t l n u l t y such as a Jolnt Is subjected to a loading system uhlch causes sl ldlng along the dlscontlnulty. a flnlte v a l u e o f s h e a r s t r e s s z rlll b e required t o c a u s e slldlng w h e n t h e n o r m a l s t r e s s l e v e l I s z e r o . T h l s lnltlal v a l u e o f s h e a r s t r e n g t h defines the coheslve strength c of the surface. the cohesive strength and the unit uelght of the rock and sol1 masses. The relatlonshlp between shear and normal stresses for a typlcal rock surface or for a sol1 sample can be expressed as: F r i c t iio n angle $ c t o n englc Normel stress u stress a Sheer stress Sheer stress T Cohesion c 1 Normal stress o Figure 2 . The slope of the line relating shear to normal stress defines the angle of frlctlon #f . The shear stress Z required to cause slldlng Increases wlth lncreaslng normal stress 0 . 3 : Relatlonshlp between the shear stress t required to cause slldlng along a dlscontlnulty and the normal stress ~7 act Ing across It. I f t h e d l s c o n t l n u l t y s u r f a c e I s Inltlal ly c e m e n t e d o r I f I t I s r o u g h .3. .2. Frlctlon and cohesion are best deflnad In terms of the plot of shear stress versus normal stress given In Figure 2.

. basalt. m i x e d g r a i n s i z e 21/17 20/16 21/18 v.TYPICAL SOIL AND ROCK PROPERTIES Description bpe Unit weight (Saturated/dry) WI/m3 tb/ft 3 Friction angle Cohes ion Material Loose sand. 34-40* 38-46* 34-37* 48-45" 40-50* 30-40" 45-50” Dense sand. mixed grain size 80/30 go/40 loo/60 110/76 130/105 145/l 30 13/6 14/6 16/10 200-600 400-1000 600-1500 17/12 20/17 23/20 27-32 30-32 32-35 30-70 70-150 1500-3000 3000-5000 150-250 z Y. Limestone Sandstone Shale 35-40* 3945't 30-35" 7-13 12-16 22-27 200-400 10-20 10-30 20-50 17113 20/16 Soft bentonite Very soft organic clay Soft. s a n d s t o n e Soft sedimentary rock sandstone. slightly organic clay g E Soft glacial clay Stiff glacial clay Glacial till.6 TABLE 1 . 2 Basalt Chalk 140/l 10 80/62 125/110 120/100 11 O/80 125/100 22/17 13/10 20/17 19/16 p 4 Granite 2 $ 2 :: . gneiss. coal. porphyry Metamorphic rocks quartrite.2. chalk. Hard sedimentary rocks l i m e s t o n e . t h e u n i t w e i g h t o f t h e m a t e r i a l d o e s n o t v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t w e e n saturated and dry states with the exception of materials such as porous sandstones. 2 E a Hard igneous rocks granite. ti 3” G r a v e l . uniform grain size degrees 28-34” 32-40” ib/ft2 @a 11ap30 130/109 124/99 135/l 16 19/14 Dense sand.t 1 6 0 t o Igo 25 to 30 35-45 7200001150000 3500055000 20000- 160 to 180 25 to 28 30-40 400000800000 200000600000 20000 - 40000 1 5 0 t o 180 23 to 28 35-45 1 oooo30000 lOOO20000 110 to 150 17 to 23 25-35 400000 * H i g h e r f r i c t i o n a n g l e s i n c o h e s i o n l e s s m a t e r i a l s o c c u r a t low stresses as discussed in Chapter 5. uniform grain site P ~1 L o o s e s a n d . shale h. Confining o r normal ** F o r i n t a c t r o c k . dolemite. m i x e d g r a i n s i z e Y 5. mixed grain size :: u c . u n i f o r m g r a i n s i z e 140/l 30 120/110 22/20 19117 z r$ S a n d a n d g r a v e l . slate $ rr.

The canponent of W wh 1 ch acts across the plane and which tends to stab\ I Izo the slope Is W c=Y* T h e n o r m a l s t r e s s 0 which a c t s a c r o s s the p o t e n t i a l s l l d l n g surface Is given by 0-I (44 c. ran f (31 where R =TA Is the shear force which resists slldlng down the plane.#!)/A where A Is the base area of the block. are dl scussed In Chapter 5.2.7 Typlcal values for the angle of frlctlon and cohesion which are found In shear tests on a range of rocks and sol Is are I I sted I n T a b l e 1 t o g e t h e r with unit weights f o r t h e s e msterlals. The v a l u e s q u o t e d I n t h l s t a b l e a r e I n t e n d e d t o give t h e r e a d e r some Idea of the magnitudes which can be expected and they should only be usad f o r obtalnlng prellmlnary estimates o f t h e rtablllty of a slope. Slldlng duo to grsvltatlonal loadlng Conrlder a block of weight W res+lng on a plane surface rhlch I s lncllnod a t a n a n g l e ?# t o t h e horizontal. t h e condltlon o f Ilmltlng e q u l l l b r l u m defined by equatlon (4) slmpllfles t o P. The resolved part of W which acts down the plane and which tends to cause the block to sl Ide Is W Sln k .H Influence of water pressure on shear strength The Influence of water pressure upon +he shear strength of two surfaces In contact can most effectively be demonstrated by the beer can ocperlment. . T h e b l o c k ~111 b e Just o n t h e poln+ o f s l l d l n g o r I n a condltlon o f llmltlng e q u l l l b r l u m w h e n the dlsturblng f o r c e acting down the plane Is exactly equal to the reslstlng force: Wsb-? &Q. These var 1st Ions. together wlth n&hods of shear test 1 ng.3. Assumlng that the shear strength of thls surface Is def lned by equation (1) and substltutlng for the normal stress from equat l o n (2) O f RI CA+WCOS y. There are many factors which cause +he shear strength of a rock or sol1 to deviate from the simple Ilnear dependence upon normal stress II lustrated In Flgure 2.cA+~&s~.f-in@ (41 I f t h e cohesion c = 0 . T h e b l o c k I s acted upon by gravlty only and hence the uelght W acts vertltally downwards as shown In the margln sketch.

. (4) b e c o m e s (81 and the condltlon for llmltlng equl Ilbrlum defined ln equation Assumlng the frlctlon angle of the can/wood Interface Is 30”.u)Tan# (61 If the uelght per unit volume of the can plus water is defined as rr whl I8 the weight per unlt volume of the water IsY. = 0.&. T h e total u e l g h t o f t h e c a n p l u s w a t e r I s o n l y slightly g r e a t e r t h e n t h e weight o f t h e water.c +(2-u) T a n # (10) In most hard rocks and In many sandy solls and gravels. where h and hw are the helghts def lned In the smal I sketch.A. Accord I ng to equatlon (5) the can with Its contents of water will slide down the plank when. t h e p u n c t u r e d can ull I slide at a much smaller Incllnatlon because the uplift force U has reduced +h8 normal force and hence reduced the f r l c t l o n a l r e s i s t a n c e t o s l l d l n g . * w cos p$ (7) S u b s t l t u t l n g I n (6) R= W Cos vz (f . Assumlng 7. .$/G) i%n #.h&s vi and hence ff = yw/r. where A Is the base area O f the c a n . The base of the can Is now punctured so that water can enter the gap between the base and the plank. The forces uhlch act In thl s case are prec I se I y the same as those acting on the block of rock as show In the diagram on the prevlous page..2. From thls sketch It WI I I be seen that hw ./r. glvlng rlse to a water pressure U or to an upllft force U =UA. for slmpllclty the cohesion between the beer can base and the wood Is assumed to be zero. The normal force W Cos pz Is now reduced by thls up I 1 f t force IJ and the resistance to slldlng Is now R=(WCos p2 . then W = Yt.8 An opened beer can fll led with water rests on an Inclined piece of wood as shown In the margln sketch. equat Ion (9) shous that the punctured can wll I sl Ide when the plane Is lncllned at $9*= Y 1 8 ’ . the onpunctured can wll I sl Id8 when the plane Is lncl lned at vj = Xl0 ( f r o m e q u a t l o n (5)). the coheslve a n d f r l c t l o n a l propertles (c and#I o f t h e materials a r e not slgnlflcantly altered by the presence of water and hence. The relatlonshl p between shear strength and normal Strength defined by equation (1) now becomes Z.9 and f = 30°.A and U = &.v= f .h. The effective stress law The effect of water pressure on the baS8 of the punctured beer can Is the same as the Influence of water pressure acting on t h e s u r f a c e s o f a s h e a r specltnen a s I l l u s t r a t e d I n t h e margtn sketch. The normal stress4 acting across the failure surface Is reduced to the effective stress (Q-U) by the water pressure u. On t h e Other h a n d .

It Is water pressure rather than moisture content which Is Important In deflnlng the strength characterlstlcs of hard rocks. In many of the practical examples consldered In later chapters. almost entirely to the reduction of normal stress across fat lure surface. Consider the block resting on the Inclined plane and acted upon by the uplift force U and the force V due to water pressure in the tension crack. a s s u m e t h a t t h e b l o c k I s split by a tenrlon c r a c k *hlch I s fllled with w a t e r . t h e p r e s e n c e o f a s m a l l volume of water at hlgh pressure. both cohesion and frlctlon can change markedly ulth changes In moisture content and It Is necessary. The resolved component of t h e b o l t t e n s i o n T a c t i n g p a r a l l e l t o t h e p l a n e i s T COSS . both Although the water V and U result In decreases In stablllty.2. The water pressure In the tension crack Increases linearly with depth and a total force V. tensioned to a load T is installed at an anglesto the plane as shown. Note that the ef feet Ive stress l a w defined I n equation (10) still applies t o t h e s e m a t e r l a l s but that. trapped wlthln the rock mass. The affect of water pressure In a tenslon crack ConrIder t h e c a s e o f t h e b l o c k resting o n t h e lncllned p l a n e b u t . Thls water pressure dlstrlbutlon results In an upl Ift force U which reduces the normal force act I ng across this surface. when testlng these materlals. In the case of soft rocks such as mudstones and shales and also In the case of clays. I n this I n s t a n c e . Consequently. In terms of the stablllty o f s l o p e s I n t h e s e m a t e r l a l s . Is mre Important than a large volume of water dlscharglng from a f r e e dralnlng aquifer. T h e condltlon o f llmltlng equlllbrlum f o r this c a s e o f a b l o c k a c t e d u p o n b y w a t e r f o r c e s V a n d U I n addltlon +o I t s o w n weight W Is defined by Fran this equation It WI I I be seen that the dlstrlbutlng force tendlng to Induce sl ldlng down the plane Is Increased and the frlctlonal force reslstlng slldlng Is decreased and hence. p r e s s u r e s Involved are relatively s m a l I . t h e w a t e r p r e s s u r e d l s t r l b u t l o n I l l u s t r a t e d I n t h e margln s k e t c h o c c u r s a l o n g t h e base of the block. A rock bolt. acts down the lncl lned plane. to ensure that the moisture cont e n t o f t h e material during t e s t I s a s c l o s e a s possible t o t h a t uhlch exists I n t h e field. t h e s e p r e s s u r e s a c t over large areas and hence the water forces can be very large.9 reduction In shear strength of these mater la I s Is due. sands and gravels. In addltlon. Assumlng that the w a t e r p r e s s u r e I s transmltted a c r o s s t h e lntersectlon o f t h e t e n s l o n c r a c k a n d t h e b a s e o f the b l o c k . due to this water pressure acting on the rear face of the block. Reinforcement to prevent sliding One of the most effective means of stabilizing blocks or slabs of rock which are likely to slide down inclined discontinuity surfaces is to install tensioned rock bolts or cables. the presence of wator In the slope glvlng rise +O upllft forces and water forces In tenslon cracks Is found to be cr ltlcal In control Ilng the stab1 I lty of slopes. c and # change.

F o r crltlcal slopes edjecent to msJor highways or Important Instal latlonc. some form of Index Is required a n d t h e m o s t common1 y u s e d I n d e x I s t h e F a c t o r o f Safdy .&. The condition of I lmiting equi I ibrium for this case is defined by Thls equstlon shows that the bolt tenslon reduces the dlsturbIng force actlng down the plane and Increases the normal force and hence the frlctlonal resistance between the base of the block and the plane. a condltlon of Ilmltlng e q u l l l b r l u m uxlsts I n which t h e r e s l s t l n g a n d d l s t u r b l n g forces are equal. the observed behavior of a slope suggests that It Is on the polnt of failure Equat Ion and It Is decided to attempt to stabll Ize the slope. a factor of safety of 1. setdT/@ = 0 . When the slope Is stable. 14 shows that the value of the factor of safety can be Increased by reducing both U and V. Note: A l I t h e equations deflnlng t h e stablllty o f a b l o c k o n a n Incl Ined plane have been presented for the condltlon of I Iml t Ing equlllbrlum. Suppose that. a s d e f Ined by equation (12). In a hlghuay oonstructlon sltuatlon.1. Conslderlng the case of the block acted upon by quat Ion water forces and stab I I I zed by a tensloned rock bolt ( l 121. the reslstlng forces a r e g r e a t e r t h a n t h e d l s t u r b l n g f o r c e s a n d t h e v a l ue o f t h e factor of safety will be greater than unity. 1. the condltlon at which the forces tendlng to Induce slldlng are awectly balanced by those reslstlng slldlng.e. In a sltuatlon such as that described above.O to 1.10 while the component acting across the surface upon which the block rests is T Sit@. The mlnlmum bolt tenslon required to stabll Ize the block Is obtalned b y rearranglng equation (12) t o glvo a n Qcpresslon f o r t h e b o l t t e n s l o n T a n d t h e n mlnlmlzlng t h l s e x p r e s s l o n w l t h respect t o t h e angIo. T h l s c a n b e deflned a s t h e rat10 o f t h e t o t a l f o r c e avallable t o resist sliding t o t h e t o t a l f o r c e tondlng t o I n duce sl ldlng.5 Is usually preferred. by dralnage.2. an Increase In the factor of safety from 1 . or by Increaslng the value of T by InstallIng rock bolts or tensloned cables. I n o r d e r t o ccmparo t h e s t a b l l l t y o f s l o p e s u n d e r condltlons other than those of llmltlng equl I Ibrlum. It Is also possible to change the weight W of the falllng mess but the Influence of thls change on the factor of safety must be c a r e f u l l y e v a l u a t e d since b o t h t h e d l s t u r b l n g a n d r e s l s t l n g forces are decreased by a decrease In W. which gives Factor of safety of a slope RO s e ck b o l t i n s t a l l a t i o n t o cure loose block. . Prectlcal Qtperlence suggests that. a n d t h e f a c t o r of safety F . Other methods of slope stabilization are discussed in Chapter 12.0. t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y I s given by When the slope Is on the polnt of failure. I.3 wll I general ly be adequate for low slopes which are not required t o ranaln s t a b l e f o r l o n g periods o f t l m e .

I n this c a s e t h e r e I s n o b a c k ground exper Ience of slope behavior which can be used as a basls for canparlson. conc l u d e t h a t t h e lnformatlon uhlch I s most u s e f u l t o t h e design engineer I s t h a t which Indicates *he r e s p o n s e o f t h e s t r u c t u r e to changes In slgnlflcant parameters.2. Thls Is the simplest posslble model of rock slope failure a n d . r o c k s t r u c t u r e d a t a a n d groundwater cond It Ions for use In factor of safety cal culatlons a r e dlscuswd I n t h e s e otamples a n d guidance I s glvon o n t h e v a l u e s o f t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y which I s a p p r o p r l a t e f o r e a c h type of design. Sensltlvlty analyses of the effects of dralnage and rock bolting can still be carried out as In the prevlous case. that a condltlon of InstabIlIty It exists a n d t h a t t h e v a l u e o f t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y I s 1 . 0 . decl slons on remedlsl measures such as dralnage can be based upon the rate of change of the fector of safety. Hock a n d L o n d e . a number of practlca I examp I es are given to II lustrate the varlous types of rock slope des Ign which are I Ikoly to be encountered by the reader. calculating the factor of safety.11 This ~tunple h a s b e e n q u o t e d b e c a u s e I t emphaslzss t h e f a c t that the factor of safety Is an Index which Is most valuable as a design tool when used on a caparstlve basls. cannot be used because the fs I I ure process does not Involve simple gravltatlonal slldlng. t h e m o d e l of a single block of rock slldlng down an lncllned plane has been used. 3 5 f o r a particular s l o p e d e s l g n . In carrying out a feaslblllty study for a proposed transportatlon o r clvll englneerlng proJect. but he has no Idea whether thls value represents an edequatel y stable slope since he has not had the opportunity of observing the behavlor of actual slopes In this particular rock mass. Hence. These cases WI I I be dl scussed later In . the hlghest antlclpated groundwater levels should be used In the calc u l a t l o n . Slope fslluros for uhlch factors of safety can be calcu1atd I n dlscusslng t h e beslc mochanlsm o f s l o p e failure. To quote from this general review: “The function o f t h e design engineer I s n o t t o c o m p u t e a c c u rately but to judge soundly”. a m o r e c o m p l e x failure In some cases. I n Irpst practical c a s e s . t h e g e o t e c h n l c a l e n g l n e e r f r e q u e n t l y l o f a c e d ulth t h e t a s k o f d e s l g n l n g s l o p e s w h e r e none have provlously exlsted. In later chapters of thls book. the s l o p e designer I s unlikely t o b e f a c e d with u n p l e a s a n t surprlws when the slope Is excavated. The prob I ems o f obtalnlng r o c k s t r e n g t h v a l u e s . If the groundwater condltlons In the slope are unknown. the engineers and management have decided. In thls case. Under these circumstances. remedial m e a s u r e s a r e t a k e n . but havlng chosen conservative rock strength parameters. their e f f e c t c a n b e m e a s u r e d egalnst t h e c o n d l t l o n o f s l o p e failure b y c a l c u l a t i n g t h e I n crease In the factor of safety. on the basl s of the observed behavior of the slope. presented In this book. even If the absolute va I ue of the calculated factor of safety cannot be rel led upon with a hlgh degree of certainty. Conservatively low values of both cohesion and frlctlon should be used and. I n a g e n e r a l revlow of rock slope and foundatlon design methods(231. the methods of process has to be cons Idered . T h e engineer m a y compu+e a f a c t o r o f s a f e t y o f 1 . the englnser I s w e l l advlsed t o exercise caution I n t h e choice o f t h e p a r a meters used In the factor of safety calculation. b a s e d u p o n t h e data avallable to hlm.

4. The method of I lmltlng equl I lbr lum can be used In snalyzlng the slope failures listed below. T h e b a s e a r e a A a n d t h e weigh+ W of the slldlng mass are calculated from the geometry of the slope and fallure plane. A number of typlcal slope failure cases have been analyzed and the relatlonshlps between crltlcal slope helghts and slope angles have been plotted In Flgure 2. T h e calculation o f t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y I s m o r e complicated t h a n tha+ f o r p l a n e fat l u r e since t h e b a s e a r e a s o f b o t h fal l u r e planes as well as the normal forces on these planes must be calculated. t h e failure will n o t b e defined b y a single d l s c o n t l n u l t y s u r f a c e b u t will t e n d t o f o l l o w a circular failure p a t h . the dashed line in Flgure 2. The calculation of the factor of safety follows precisely the same pattern as that used f o r t h e single b l o c k (equa*lon 14).12 thls chapter. has been t r e a t e d I n exhaustive detail I n m a n y s t a n d a r d s o l I mechanics textbooks and no useful purpose would be served by repetition of these detalled dlscusslons In thls book.1.2. Crltlcal slope height versus slope angle relatlonshlps One of the roost useful forms In which slope deslgn data can be presented Is a graph showlng the relatlonshlp between slope helgh+s and slope angles for fal lure. as In a sol1 slope. p r o v l d e d t h a t t h e l n c l l n a t l o n o f this Ilne I s s l g n l f l c a n t i y g r e a t e r t h a n t h e a n g l e o f f r l c t l o n . A set of circular fal I ure charts Is presented In Chapter 9 and a number of worked examples are Inc I uded In th I s chapter to show how the factor of safety can be calculated for slmple cases of circular fallure. I I I ustrated In the marg In sketch. strikes parallel to the slope face and dlps In+o the excavation at an angle greater than +he angle of friction. The analysis of wedge failures Is dlscussed In Chapter 8. Wedge fal lure When two dlscontlnultles strike obliquely across +he slope face and their llne of lntersectlon dayllghts In the slope face. Plane failure As shown In the margln sketch. the wedge of rock resting on these dlscontlnultles wll I sl Ide down t h e Ilne o f l n t e r s e c t l o n . Circular fsllure When the materlal Is very weak. Thls type of fal lure. A detalled dlscusslon on the analysis of plane failure Is glven In Chapter 7. e. T h l s f l g u r e Is Intended +o glve the reader an overal I apprecla+lon for the type of relatlonshlp which exlsts for varlous materials and for t h e r o l e which g r o u n d w a t e r p l a y s I n s l o p e stab1 Ilty. A tenslon crack running parallel ?u the crest of the slope can al so be lncl uded In the calculatlon.g. The reader should not attempt to use thls f lgure as a bas I s for the demlgn o f a particular s l o p e s i n c e t h e condltlons m a y d i f f e r from those assumed In derlvlng the results presented In Figure . plane failure occurs when a geologlcal d l s c o n t l n u l t y . or when the rock mass Is very heavlly Jolnted or broken. such as a beddlng plane. as In a rock fill.

-liffrrrnt ~~~~~~~~~ N o r m a l s t r e s s ..2.degs.HP~ Stepped failure Normal s t r e s s .Jl. ma88 Heavily join ted rock or rock fizz.4: Slope anPle v e r s u s slam h s i a h t rclatianshlac fnr .13 2 .MPa FaiZure on discontinuity s u r f a c e . .HPa Slope angle . Normal s t r e s s .HPs soil or cluy.= #($f + e) Normal s t r e s s .

t h e weight vector W can fa I I outslde the base b and. When the vector representlng the weight W of the block fal Is ulthln the base b. R e g l o n 3: p<@ a n d b / h < T a n @ . M e t h o d s f o r dealing with toppl I n g fat l u r e I n s l o p e s a r e dlscussed In Chapter 10.e.5a. c = 0 . These screes are general ly smal I pieces of rock which have become detached from the rock mass and tilch have fal Ien as Indlvldual pieces Into the accumulated pile.2. The cyclic expanslon a n d contractlon associated with t h e f r e e z l n g a n d t h a w l n g o f water In cracks and f Issures In the rock mass Is one of the prlnclpal causes of slope ravel Ilng but a gradual deterloratlon Toppling failure in a slate quarry. 8 and 9. It WI I I r o t a t e a b o u t I t s I owest con+act edge. even If the strength parameters of t h e materlal a r e k n o w n . Region 2: v >@ and b/h > Tan&P. There are also a few types of slope failure which cannot be analyzed by the methods already described. I.e. Fal lure l n v o l v l n g t o p p l i n g . t h e b l o c k WI I I t o p p l e I. An analysls of failure or a calculation of the factor of safety for these slopes requfres that the shear strength of the failure surface (defined by c and@) be known. t h e b l o c k wll I t o p p l e b u t I t will n o t slide.4. The condltlons for slldlng and/or toppllng of this single block are defined In Flgure 2. These cases are dlscussed on the followlng pages. since fallure d o e s n o t I n v o l v e simple sl Idlng. regions 3 a n d 4 t o t h e right o f t h e c u r v e I n Figure 2. the block WI I I sl Ide but It WI I I not topple. w h e n t h e b l o c k Is t a l l a n d s l e n d e r (h > b). . the methods of IlmltIng equlllbrlum can be used for regions 1 and 2 only.5b. the dlmenslons of the block are daflned by a height h and a base length b and It Is assumed that the force resl st Ing downward movement of the b l o c k I s d u e t o f r l c t l o n o n l y . cannot be analyzed In thls same way. a b l o c k o f r o c k resting o n a n lncllned plane as shown In Flgure 2. R e g l o n 4 : J&>@ a n d b / h < T a n & t h e b l o c k c a n slide a n d t o p p l e simultaneously. In analyzing the stablllty of this block. once agaln. Slopes for which a factor of safety cannot be calculated The failure nodes uhlch have been dlscussed so far have al I Involved the movement of a mass of material upon a fal lure surface.14 2.5b. T h e f o u r regions I n t h l s diagram are defined as fol lows: Reglon 1: w<#and b/h > Tanv. when thls h a p p e n s . t4wever. I. the block Is stable and wll I neither slide n o r t o p p l e .e. Toppling failure Consider. Ravel I Ing slopes T r a v e l lers I n moun+aln regions wll I b e famlllar with t h e accum u l a t l o n s o f scree wh!ch o c c u r a t t h e b a s e o f s t e e p s l o p e s . slldlng of the block WI I I occur If the Incllnatlon of the plane @ Is greater than the angle of frlctlon f. lndlvldual slopes should be analyzed uslng the methods described In Chapters 7. In thls case.

2. Sliding 6 topp Ii n9 I 70 80 go Bare plane angle JI .5b: Conditions for sliding and toppling of a block on an inclined plane. .15 Fi gu rc 2.5a: Geometry of block on incl incd plane.degrees Figure 2.

offer any particular advantages In the analysis of toppling. Few ser lous attempts have been made to anal yze the process of slope failure by ravel Ilng since the fal I of smal I lndlvldual pieces of rock does not constitute a serious hazard. Thls declslon has been msde because It Is believed t h a t the dlscusslon I s l e s s confuslng f o r t h e non-speclallst reader for whom thls book Is Intended. 8 and 9. In the analysis of populatlons or famll les of structural dlscon+lnultles to determlne whether there are dominant or preferred orlen+a+lons wlthln the rock mass. described In C h a p t e r 9. Probablllstlc approach to slope design Probablllty theory has +wo dls+lnct roles In the deslgn of rock slopes: a. Ravelling o f t h e w e a t h e r e d s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l in a slope. wll I glve rise also to a loosening of a rock mass and the gradual accumulation of materlals on the surface and at the base of the slope. t h e m e t h o d o f circular failure a n a l y s l s . The collectlon of geologlcal data fol lows the same basic pattern as that described In thls book. When the stab1 I Ity of an accumulation of scree or of weathered material I s likely t o b e a l t e r e d b y t h e excavation o f a s l o p e I n +hls material. Generally. Robabl I Ity theory does not. the stabll Ity of the excavation can be assessed by one of the methods described In Chapters 7.16 o f t h e materials w h i c h cement t h e l n d l v l d u a l b l o c k s t o g e t h e r may also play a part In thls type of slope failure. It should clearly be understood that the use of probab I I Ity theory In thls latter role does not Influence the other steps I n a s t a b l l l t y I n v e s t l g a t l o n . The first role Is dlscussed In Chapter 3 which deals with +he graphlcal presentation o f geologlcal d a t a .2. The machanlcs of fal lure are treated In the same way and the s a m e I l m l t a t l o n s a p p l y t o the t y p e s o f failure which c a n b e analyzed. Weather I ng . t h a t I n which probabl Ilty o f failure r e p l a c e s f a c t o r o f s a f e t y as an Index of slope stablllty. would be used unless the size of the excavation Is such that It Is likely to cut back Into the undlsturbed rock mass. The authors of thls book have chosen to present al I the detalled dlscusslons on stablllty analysis In terms of the factor of safety. b . has been strongly advocated by McHahon(31 1 and has been utl I lred by a number of other authors(32-35). . T h e s e c o n d r o l e . As a rep lacemen+ for the factor of safety as an Index of s l o p e s t a b l l l t y ( o r InstabIlIty). o r t h e deterloratlon o f certain t y p e s o f r o c k o n exposure. ravel llng or buck1 Ing type fal lures. The reader who feel s that he has understood the basic principles of slope analysis Is strong I y recanmended to examine the I Iterature on the use of Slumping of columns in v e r t i c a l l y j o i n t e d dolerite a s a r e s u l t o f weafhering in an underlying shale I aye r . It Is Important that the slope desl gner shou Id recognl ze the I n f l u e n c e o f weathering o n the n a t u r e o f the m a t e r l a l s with which he Is concerned and thls subject wll I be dlscussed In greater detail In Chapter 7. S o m e o f the englneerlng l m p l l c a t l o n s o f weatherlng have been revlewed by Goodman(24) who glves a selectlon of useful references on the subJec+(25-30). at present.

.17 probabl ilty thaory )o datumlna for hlmsolf rhothor ho rlshor to raplace tha f8ctor of safety Index by the probabl llty of falluro.2.

France.C. D Thesis. p a g e s 612-654. CoZorado Schoo2 o f M i n e s QuarterZy. Denver. 13. L . V o l . 1 9 7 0 . W. Comparison of YU. 1967.S. M. open pit in a gravity. 16. 3 . The stresses surrounding open-pit mine STACEY. progressive large-scale movements in blocky rock Symposium on Rock Fracture. stress and displacement in a gravity loaded slope by p h o t o e l a s t i c i t y a n d f i n i t e e l e m e n t a n a l y s i s . 1 s t Symposiwn o n Stabi 2ity i n of rock slopes. Finite element model is excellent pit tool. 1 9 5 9 . 1 2 . 1969.. The influence of structure upon the stability HOEK. Sn3. PUE 5 0 1 0 . E. Bureau of M i n e s R e p o r t o f Inveetigatiom 7 0 0 2 . J.. A computer model for simulating CUNOALL. 23. . Proc. 2 0 p a g e s . L . 3rd Symposium on problems in open pit mines. 1962. Army kgineers.Balkema. E. W. Proc. 21.18 Chapter 2 references 11. Section 2-8. 18. p a g e s 49-63.E. Mines and Re8ourcee Report HR 68-24 IO. Nancy. R . P2anning o p e n p i t mines. a n d BREKKE. Advcmces in Rock Mechanics. systems. L. V a n c o u v e r . Energy. 22. 5 4 . . R. 1973. S l o p e d e s i g n i n opencast m i n e s . F. K .C. P r o c e e d i n g s . C e o t e c h n i q u e . ROSS-BROWN.S. 250 pages. and LONDE. P. O. 1971. f o r t h e m e c h a n i c s o f j o i n t e d r o c k . 16 p a g e s . M.E. . v o l .J. 1970. lA. Imperial College. finite element stress analysis and limiting equilibrium U. T A Y L O R . Y. nuclear craters : a study of selected rock excavations a s r e l a t e d t o l a r g e n u c l e a r c r a t e r s . 20. Johannesburg slopes.F.H. and SUN. 1 9 6 7 . 17. pages 199-207. J a n u a r y 1 9 7 0 . Candian Dept. E . 9 4 . Soil Mech. p a g e s 116-133. Published by A. unweathered rock. 1971. M i n i n g E n g i n e e r i n g .I. 3 r d C o n g r e s s o f the International Society for Rock Mechanics. Ph. 7 3 4 1 . G Y E N G E . R.I. 12. 8 . Symposium. Bureau of Mine8 Report of Investigations method. Engineering properties of KLEY.R. A model GOOOMAN.M. P. N o . London University. October 1971.A. 19.E. and COATES. BLAKE.S. R e p o r t U. W a s h i n g t o n . N o . 1968. T .J. 15.A. The European approach to slope stability HULLER.S. 1974. R . D . O. New York. V o l . Foundation Div. pages 637-659. 2 1 . pages 79-80. Proc. Rock Mechanics. U. R . 14. HOEK. and LUTTON. pages 251-270. A u g .O. . C . Published by National Academy of Sciences. Surface workings in rock. P u b l i s h e d b y A. 1968. Stability of steep slopes in hard TERZAGHI . Stresses and displacements surrounding an BLAKE. Slope stability analysis by WANG. V o l . 1 9 7 4 . N o . V o l .S. T . O p e n P i t M i n i n g . A m s t e r d a m . 1 5 9 p a g e s . loaded rock. N o .2. A. A.

New Mexico. Slope stabi I i ty in residual soils. 118.E. Denver.H and COON. 28. GOOOHAN. 4th ?an Americar. Vol. 3 r d C o n g r e s s o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r Rock Mechanics. 1 . page5 29. . 1970. Engineering Geology. B . DEERE. D i s c u s s i o n o f e n g i n e e r i n g grade zones. West P u b l i s h i n g C o . Kirtland Air Force Base. 1957. A statistical method for the design of rock slopes. Vol. and FOOKES. LANCEJAN. 472 pages. C . A. Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation: Engineering. c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f i n s i t u r o c k . a n d CASTILLO. 2nd Congress of the International Society for Rock Mechanics. V o l . A .K. SPEARS. hc.D. R. MERRITT. R. San Juan. K . First AustraZia-New Zealand Conference on Geomechanics. 803-808. B . pages 314-321. 4. Proc. B .. McHAHON. 1972.G. E . Sect. SAUNDERS. Published by National A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e s . Proc. S E R R A N O . P . D. and PATTON. 27. Methods of geoZogicaZ engineering in diecontinuoue rocks. 1965. P . V o l 116. pre-existing fractures. P. W a s h i n g t o n D . 30. S H U K . Vol. C . Optimisation o f s l o p e s d e s i g n e d i n r o c k . 1969. 32. C . Advances ir. Vol.U. 2. Belgrade. Institution of Civil Engineers. Advances in Rock Mechanios. a n d HORSWILL. p a g e s 87-170 F O O K E S .A. A review of the relationship of rock weathering and climate and its significance to foundation engineering. 26. 1970. R. K . Published by National A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e s . S t P a u l . 33. page 1263. 3 r d C o n g r e s s o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r Rock Mechanics. . . page5 SOO. 31. pager 729-756. P u e r t o R i c o .19 24. P . Bulletin CeozOgicaZ Society of America. Proc. 1970.U. Design of rock slopes against sliding on ticHAHON. W a s h i n g t o n D . London. L.9. Proc. 6th International Conference on SoiZ Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. Denver 1974. Engineering DEERE. Proc. .502. TechnicaZ R e p o r t No.1. 1971. 35. Melbourne. a n d B E R R Y . Some aspect5 of safety factors in soil mechanic5 considered as a problem of probability. T . A. Ueathering o f g r a n i t e a n d associated erosional features in Hong Kong. Conference on In-situ tea&q o:E SoiZs and Rock. R U X T O N . 1 9 7 1 . V o l . Proc. pages 289-325. 1976. 3. A n e w c o n c e p t a b o u t the Itability of rock messes. Vol. Vol. D.F. AFWL-67-244. Rock Mechanics. and TAYLOR. 34. 68. 1 9 7 4 . A . 1 9 7 4 . Air Force Systems Command. The influence of weathering on the composition and engineering properties on in-situ coal measure rocks. 1974. 25.K. D. international Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences.2. 7-2. p a g e 5 820-826. Page 53. F. Nontreal. H. M i n n e s o t a .

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i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s d i s c u s sion. What is important is that the techniques which are used in any study should be clearly deflned in documents relating to that study so that errors arising out of confusion are avoided. easi ly access1 ble outcrops and a n y c o r e avallable f r o m s i t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . the strength of the intact rock is one or two orders of magnitude greater than that of the rock mass and failure of thls intact material is not Involved generally in In softer sedimentary rocks.3. therefore. excavation of test pits and the detailed mapping and testing of discontinuities. is the presentation of the data in a form which can be understood and Interpreted by others who may be involved in the stability analysis or who may be brought in to check the results of such an analysis. be carried out in two stages as suggested I n F i gure 1. the processes of slope failure.1 Chapter 3 Graphical presentation of geological data. the intact material may be relatively weak and failure of this material may play an important part in slope failure. air photographs. refers to the consol ldated and crmonted assemblage of m i n e r a l p a r t i c l e s w h i c h f o r m t h e i n t a c t b l o c k s b e t w e e n discontinuities in the rock mass. But what is an adequate set of data? What type of data and how much detailed information should be collected for a stabllity analysis? This question is rather like the question of which came first the chicken or the egg? There is little point in collecting data for slopes which are not critical but critical slopes can only be defined if sufficient information is available for t h e i r s t a b i l i t y t o b e e v a l u a t e d . In most hard igneous and metamorphic rocks. The second stage involves a much more detailed examlnation of the geological features of these critical regions and may require the drilling of special holes along the right-of-way. There I s no impl ication that these are the best definitions or techniques available and the reader who has become familiar wlth different methods should certainly continue to use those. The first stage involves an examination of existing regional geology maps. An important aspect of the geological investigations. This means that everyone concerned must be aware of precisely what is meant by the geological terms used and must understand the system of data presentat ion. A prel lminary analysis of this data will indicate slopes which are likely to prove critical and which require more detailed analysis. Definition of geological terms Rock material or intact rock. Introduction The dominant role of geological discontinuities in rock slope behavior has been emphasized already and few engineers or geologists would question the need to base stability calculations upon an adequate set of geological data.5. The following definitions and graphical techniques are offered for the guidance of the reader who may not already be f ami I i ar with them. in either the first or second stages. . The data gathering must.

38).3. as compared wlth any other dlscontlnulty In the rock moss. cleavage.2 Rock mass Is the In sltu rock which has been rendered dlscontlnwus by systems of structural features such as joints. these sets are clearly defined and easy t o d l s t l n g u l s h while. Thls material may be the debris resulting from the slldlng of one surface upon ano t h e r o r I t m a y be materlal which h a s b e e n preclpltated from s o l u t i o n o r c a u s e d b y weathering. faults. For the purposes of this dlscusslon. As a result of the processes Involved In their formatlon(361. that they dominate the behav lor of a particular slope. In some cases. A l a r g e b o d y o f Ilterature dealing with +hls subJec+ I s svallable and the Interested reader Is referred to thls for further lnformatIon(36. Fallure In a system where dlscontlnultles terminate wlthln the rock m a s s u n d e r conslderatlon WI I I I n v o l v e f a l l u r e o f t h e I n t a c t rock bridges between these dlscontlnultles. t h e s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n appears dlsordered. Dlscontlnulty s e t s r e f e r s t o s y s t e m s o f d l s c o n t l n u l t l e s which have approximately the same lncllnatlon and orlentatlon. beddlng planes. While msJor structural features such as faults may run for many tens of feet or even ml les. Slope fal lure In a rock mass Is general ly associated 4th movement of these dlscontlnulty surfaces. faults and bedding planes. Many engineers descrlbe t h e s e f e a t u r e s collectively a s J o l n t s b u t t h l s I s a n over-slmpllflcatlon since t h e machanlcal p r o p e r t l e s o f t h e s e f e a t u r e s will vary eccordlng t o t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e l r fonnatlon. The type of dlscontlnulty WI I I be referred to when the descrlptlon provides Informatlon which assists t h e s l o p e d e s l g n e r I n dac l d l n g upon t h e mechanlcal p r o p e r t l e s which will b e associated with a particular dlscontlnulty. MaJor dlscontlnultles are continuous planar structural features such as faults which may be so weak. An apparently disordered discontinuity pattern in a hard rock slope. dykes. the msJor dlfferonces being due to the angularity of the rock fragments. the term dlscontlnulty WI I I general ly be used to def Ine the structural weakness plane upon which movement can take place. W h a t e v e r t h e o r l g l n o f t h e An ordered structural pattern In slate. tenslon Joints a n d s h e a r Joints a l I will gthlbit dlstlnct characterlstlcs and *II I respond In dlfferent ways to sppl led loads.37. The behavlor of this waste or broken rock Is rlmllar to that of a clean sand or gravel. rlpplng or crushing so that the InterlockIng nature of the In sltu rock has been destroyed. Contlnulty. I n o t h e r c a s e s . Dlscontlnultles or weakness planes are those structural features which separate Intact rock blocks wlthln a rock mass. most d l s c o n t l n u l t l e s o c c u r I n famllles which h a v e p r e f e r r e d dlrect Ions. Hence. Contlnulty also has a major Influence upon the permeabll Ity of a rock mass since thls depends upon the Qctent to which dlscontlnultles are hydrsullcally connected. Meny of the large fal I ures which have occurred on transportat Ion routes have been assoc lated wlth faults and particular attention should be pald to tracing these features. G o u g e o r InfIllIng I s t h e materlal b e t w e e n t w o f a c e s o f a structural dlscontlnulty such as a fault. Waste rock or broken rock refers to a rock mass which has been dlsturbed by some rnechanlcal agency such as blastlng. . smal ler dl scontlnulties such as Jolnts may be very Ilmlted In their -tent.

one may define a plane es having a strlkr of N 45 E (or 045’) and a dlp of 60’ SE. Definition of goomotticut tonntl Throughout thls book. defined b y t h e a n g l e ? I n t h e m a r g l n sketch. such as the I I ne of Intersect Ion of two planes or the axls of a borehole or a tunnel. If the gouge layor Is thln so that contact between asperltles on the rock surfscos can occur. l n v o l v l n g f o l d s a n d flexures I n t h e d l s c o n t l n u l t y . Thls roughness occurs on both a small scale. planes will be deflned by their dlp and dlp dlrectlon. I n using strike a n d d l p t o define a p l a n e f o r r o c k s l o p e analysis. m e a s u r e d clockwlse from n o r t h a s Indlcated by the angle< ln the mergln sketch. The same conventlon has been adopted by some geotechnlcal consultlng organlzatlons for stablllty computer programs.3. However. w h e n examlnlng a n exposed portfon o f a n obIIquely lncllned p l a n e . lnvolvlng grain boundarlos a n d failure s u r f a c e s . NDte that a plane dlpplng 60m NM could also have a strlko of N 45 E.41) llnphasl red the Importance of sur fete roughness on the shear strength of structural dlscontlnultles In rock. a n d o n a l a r g e s c a l e . T h e mechanlcs of mDvmnt on rough surfaces WI I I be dlscussed In the chapter deal Ing with shear strength. Stt-Ike Is the trace of the Intersectlon of an obliquely lncllned p l a n e with a h o r l r o n t a l r e f e r e n c e p l a n e a n d I t I s a t r l g h t angles to the dlp and dip dlrectlon of the oblique plane. Patton(40. It wll I mdlfy the shear strength of the dlscontlnulty but wll I not control lt(39).3 lntl lllng matorlal I n a d l s c o n t l n u l t y . One of the simplest models which can be used In vlsuallzlng the dlp of a plane Is +o conslder a b a l l rolling d o w n a n obliquely Inclined p l a n e . I t I s sometImes v e r y d l f f l c u l t . Plunge Is the dlp of a Ilne. t o vlsuallze t h e true dip as opposed to the apparent dip which Is the lncl Inat l o n o f a n arbitrary Ilne o n t h e p l a n e . Thls conventlon has been chosen to avoid any possible confuslon a n d t o facllltate cowpu+atlon o f s l o p e g e o metries In later chapters. the s h e a r strength WI I I be equsl to the shear strength of the gouge. Daflnltlon o f wtrlcal tms D l p I s t h e msxlmum l n c l l n a t l o n o f a s t r u c t u r a l d l s c o n t l n u l t y p l a n e t o t h e horizontal. D l p d l r e c t l o n o r d l p azimuth I s the d l r e c t l o n o f t h e horlrontal trsce o f t h e Ilne o f d l p . . The apparent dlp Is always smal Ier than the true dip. Hence. I t s p r e s e n c e WI I I have an Important lnf luence upon the shear strength of that dl scontlnulty. The p a t h o f t h e b a l l will a l w a y s Ile a l o n g t h e line o f maxlmum lncllnatlon which corresponds to +he true dlp of the plane. I f this Is the conventlon preferred by them. and a supplementary program Is used to transform these measurements Into dlps and dip dlrectlons beforo they are u s e d a s I n p u t In t h e s l o p e stabll lty programs. I t I s essential t h a t t h e dlrectlon I n which t h e p l a n e dips I s speclfled. The practical Importance of the strike of a plane Is that It Is the vlslble trace of a dlscontlnulty uhlch Is seen on the horlzontal surface of a rock mass. geologists are free to use strike a n d dip nmasurmtents f o r recording their field o b s e r v s t l o n s . If the thickness of the gouge Is such that the faces o f t h e d l s c o n t l n u t t y d o n o t c o m e I n t o con+act. Roughness.

Is strongly advised to study +he following pages carefully. T u r n e r a n d Welss(381. Slmllarly. The engineer or geologist. the constructlons carried out on the two types of n e t a r e Identical a n d t h e r e a d e r will h a v e n o difficulty In adapt I ng the techn lques. the angle deflned by 35 refers to the dlp. particularly when used for geometrlcal constructlon. Graphlcal techniques f o r d a t a presentation One of the most Importan+ aspects of rock slope analysis Is the systematic c o l l e c t i o n a n d presen+atlon o f g e o l o g l c a l d a t a I n such a way that It can easl ly be evaluated and Incorporated Into stab1 I lty analyses. It WI I I b e c l e a r t h a t a t w o dlglt n u m b e r r e f e r s t o dip a n d a t h r e e dlglt number refers to dlp dlrectlon. In recording dlp and dlp dlrec+lon data. many geologlsts use t h e s y s t e m I n which t h e s e quantltles a r e wrltten 35/085. A few hours Invested In such study can save many hours of frustration and confuslon later when the reader becomes Involved In studying desl gns and reading reports In which these methods have been used.3. Frledman(44) a n d Ragan(45). Exper Ience has shown that spher lcal proJectIons provide a convenient means for the presentation of geologlcal data. T h e proJectIon which I s u s e d exclusively I n this book Is the equal area proJectIon. Several typos of spherlcal proJectIon can be used and a canprehenslve dlscusslon on +hese methods has been given by Phi Illps(42). For many years the authors regarded these graphlcal methods In the same light but. who Is not famlllar with this technique. Many engineers shy away from spherlcal proJectIon methods because they are unf aml I lar and because they appear camp I ex. bearing n o recognizable relatlonshlp t o m o r e conven+lonal englneer Ing drawing methods. Thls effort has since been repald many times by the power and flexlblllty rrhlch these graphlcal n@hods provlde for the rock engineer. faced with the need to analyze three-dlmenslonal rock slope problems. Hence. Equal-area proJectton The Lambert equal area proJect Ion WI I I be faml I Iar to mDst readers as the system used by geographers )o represent the spherl- . I t c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e dip dlrectlon of a plane. even If a flgure Is entered Into an Incorrect column. to analyses uslng StereographIc proJectIons. The same convent Ion can be used to def I ne the plunge and trend of a I Ine In space. an eff o r t w a s made with t h e ald o f a patlent geologist co1 l e a g u e . sometlmes c a l l e d t h e Lwbert proJectIon o r t h e Schmidt n e t . Bsdgley(43). the angle 085 refers to the dlp dlrectlon which lies between 0’ and 360’. and Is preferred by many authors. A p a r t f r o m t h e techniques u s e d I n con+ourlng p o l e populations.4 Trend Is t h e d l r e c t l o n o f t h e horizontal proJectIon o f a Ilne. which he has learned using equal area proJectIons. Since the dlp of a plane must lie between 0’ and 9o”. measured clockwlse fran north. The equal angle or stereographlc proJectIon offers certain advantages. The reader Is encouraged to adopt thls conventlon as I t will h e l p t o ellmlnate recording e r r o r s I n t h e field since. and the mystery associated with these techniques was rapldl y dispel led. t o b e described l a t e r I n thls chapter.

1: Lwhod o f ooclr)ru&Ioe o f e n oqwl-ua grw JOCtlOlt. Polar and equatorial projectlons of a sphere are shown In Figure 3. o n l y o n e o f t h e s e n e e d b e u s e d a n d . Since the sane informatlon is glven on both upper and lower parts of the sphere. A s h o o t o f c l e a r plastic fi In of the type used for drawing on for overhoad projection.3. the lower reference hemlsphere Is used for the presentation of data. the North polnt must be marked on tha tracing so that a reference posltion Is avaIlable. The structural data Is plotted on a piece o? tracing paper or film w h i c h I s fixed I n p o s l t i o n o v e r the 8toreonet b y moenr o f a carefully centered pln as show. lmagino a rofrence sphere w h i c h I s free to move in space but which Is not from to rotato In any direction.8 for use by the reader. If this sphere is na moved so that Its center I ies on the plane under consideration. The most practical method of using the stereonet for plotting s t r u c t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n I s t o m o u n t i t o n a b a s e b o a r d o f l/4 I n c h t h i c k plyxood a s shoun i n F i g u r e 3 . I n addltlon t o t h e g r e a t c i r c l e .2. a two dImensional representation Is obt a i n e d b y p r o j e c t i n g this i n f o r m a t i o n o n t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l o r equatorial reference plane.5 csl shape of the l srth on a flat surfeco. ui I I keep the stereonot i n p l a c e and VIII also protect the net merklngs from danage In use. the great circle which is traced out by the Intersection of the plane and the sphere wil I define uniquely the inclination and orientation of the plane in space. . tographs of these nets rlll be given in this chapter and later hmtiqduzw nets are presented on pages 3. The traolng paper W*t be free to rotato about this pin end It Is l ssentlal that It is located accurately at the center of the net otherulse slgnlficant errors will be introduced into the subsequent analysis. T h e p o l e I s tha p o i n t a t w h i c h t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e s p h e r e i s pierced by the radial line which is normal to the plane. Polar and equatorlal equal-ares and 3. the traces of planes on the surface of a reference sphere are used to dof Ino the dips and d Ip directlons o f t h e pianos. 3 . t h e i n c l i n a t i o n a n d o r i e n t a tion of the plane can also be defined by the pole of the plane.7 good undistorted copies or phouseful in folloulng the examples In the book. I n engineering applications. In adapting this pre jection to structural geology. I n o r d e r t o c o m m u n i c a t e t h e lnformatlon g l v e n b y t h e g r e a t circle and the positlon of the pole on the surface of the lower reference hemisphere. hence any radial Ilno joining a point on the surface t o t h e cantor o f the sphere w i l l h a v e a f i x e d d i r e c t i o n I n space. me method of projection Is i I lustrated i n F l g u r e 3 . mounted over the not and flxed with tmsperont adhc r i v e t a p e a r o u n d i t s edges. Before starting any analyslr. 1 . Proj8ction of point A Flgvo S.

Figure 3. The net is mounted on a base-board of plywood or simi lar material.6 Figure 3.3 : Geological data is p l o t t e d a n d analysed on a piece of tracing paper which is located over the centre of the stereonet by means of a centre pin as shown.3. .2: Polar and equatorial projections of a sphere.

M.7 Equatorial equal-area stsroenet m a r k e d i n 2’ i n t e r v a l s Note: This stereonet is configured for the plotting of great circles of planes.3. I m p e r i a l Collage. C. . St John of the Royal School o f M i n e s . L o n d o n . Computer drawn by Dr.

Imperial Collogo.3. St John of the Royal School o f Mines. Computer drawn by Dr. London. M. C. .8 Polar l quel-arm storeonst marked in 2O interval Note: This storoonot is configured for the direct plotting of poles of plsnos l xpressad in the dip/dip direction format.

1. step 3: The traclng Is now rotated back +o Its orlglnal posltlon so that the north mark on +he tracing colncldes ulth the north mark on +he net. trace the circumference of the net and mark the north point. M e a s u r e o f f t h e d l p d l r e c t l o n o f 130” clockwIse from north and mark this posltlon on the clrcumferonce of the net. Determlnatlon of the line of lntersectlon of two planes. havlng dlps of 50’ and 30’ and dlp dlrectlons of 130’ a n d 250’ respectively. I s colnclden+ with t h e W . Consider a plane dlpplng at 50’ In a dlp dlrectlon of 130°. a t this s t a g e I n the c o n s t r u c t l o n .E axls o f the net. I t I s required t o f l n d the plunge and the trend of the I Ine of Intersect Ion. . I n t e r s e c t . The flnal appearance of the great circle and the pole ropresentlng a plane dlpplng a+ 50° In a dlp dlrectlon of 130’ Is as Illustrated.E axls a n d tracing t h e g r e a t circle corresponding t o a d l p o f 30’.9 Constructlon of a great circle and a pole represen+lng a plane. Stop 1 I One of these planes has already been descr I bed above and the great clrclo deflnlng the second plane Is obtalned by marklng the 250° dlp dlrectlon on the circumference of the net. T h e p o s l t l o n o f t h e p o l e . T h e p o l e lies o n t h e proJectIon o f t h e d l p d l r e c t l o n Ilne u h l c h . alternatlvely. I s found by measurlng 50’ fran the center of the net as shown or. 40° f r o m t h e o u t s l d e o f t h e n e t . r o t a t l n g t h e tracing until this m a r k lies o n t h e U .3. Two planes. which h a s a d l p o f (SOO-SOo). step 2: Rotate the tracing about the center pln until the dlp dlrectlon mark Iles on the W-E axls of the net.0. Measure 50° fran the outer circle of the net and trace the great circle uhlch corresponds to a plane dlpplng at this angle. The great circle and the pole representlng this plane are constructed as follo*s: step 1: With the tracing paper located over the s+ereonet by means of the center pln. the tracIng Is rotated through 40’.

.

with a Ilttle practlce. It Is convenient )o w o r k rlth p o l e s r a t h e r then g r e a t clrclos since the poles can be plotted directly on a polar stereonet such as that given on Page 3.11 Alternative m e t h o d f o r flndlng t h e line o f IntersectIon o f t r o planes. I n f a c t . the pole of a plane uhlch passes through the poles of t w o o t h e r p l a n e s defines t h e llno o f I n t o r s e c t l o n o f t h o s e planes. I t I s . Two planes.8. t h e Ilne o f Intorsectlon o f t h e two planes. There Is a temptation to plot the compass roedlngs directly onto the polar stereonet. The Ilne of Intersoctlon of those two planes Is defined as follows: stop 1: Rotate the tracing unt I I both poles I le on the same g r e a t clrclo.3. but thm authors advlse agalns+ this s h o r t .c u t . dlpplng at 50’ and 30’ In dlp dlrec+lons of 130“ a n d 250’ respectlvoly a r e defined b y their poles A a n d 8 a s shoun. T h l s g r e a t circle defines t h e p l a n e r h l c h contalns the two normals to the planes. w I thout the Intermed late step of enterIng the measurements Into a field notebook. t h e plottlng c a n b e carried out very quickly. step 2: Flnd the pole of thls plane by measurlng the dlp on the U-E of the stereonet. the pole Is located on the stereonet b y u s l n g t h e d l p dlroctlon v a l u e o f 5 0 given I n Its1 Its a n d then measur Ing the dlp value of 60 fran the center of the net a l o n g t h e radial I Inc. centered over the stereonet. Hence. N o t e t h a t n o r o t a t l o n o f t h e tracing paper. Is required for this operetlon and. Supposo that a plane has dlp dlrectlon and dlp values of 050/60. T h l s p o l e P deflnos t h e n o r m a l t o the plane contalnlng A and B and. The reason Is that tho measure- . Plottlng a n d analysis o f flold wsurwnts In plotting field measurements of dlp and dlp dlrectlon. since thlr normal Is common t o b o t h p l a n e s .

joints .4: Plot of poles of discontinuities in a hard rock mass.. .bedding planes 0.3.f a u l t Figure 3.12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o” 0 I t .

A 1$ counting square on the surface of the reference sphere. Mhan the count l n g ccl I fal I s a c r o s s +he e q u a t o r o f t h e r e f e r e n c e s p h e r e . particularly when Callng rlth pole comentratlons v e r y c l o s e t o t h e circumference o f t h e n e t . T h e s e techniques a r e p r e f e r r e d b y t h e a u t h o r s o n +he basis of numerous trials In nhlch speed. the bedd I ng plane and joint measurements were taken over a conslderable area of rock exposure and these measurements form the bas I s of the stab1 I Ity analysis of al I other slopes In the proposed excavatlon. The counting ccl I marked B and Its projectlon B ) I l l u s t r a t e this sltwtlon. T h e remainder o f t h e p o l e s a p p e a r t o b e fairly well s c a t t e r e d a n d n o s l g n l f l c a n t concentrations a r e obvlous at flrst glance. jolnts by open circles. Since these structural features are Ilkely to have slgnlflcantly dlffersnt shear strength charscterlrtlcs.3. c o n t o u r s o f p o l e densltles are prepared. convenience and accuracy of dlfferent contourlng methods uere evaluated. representlng joints. projects onto the equal area storeonet as a curv I I I near Figure A’. In order to determlne whether other s l g n l f l c a n t p o l e concentrations a r e presen+. south of the center of the net. Hence. one cctnprlslng beddlng plane poles In the north-eastern port Ion of the stereonet and the other. Correcting errors on a pole plot on uhlch several hundred measurements have been recorded Is also dlfflcult and lnformatlon can be lost If It has not been recorded elsewhere. Since t h e fault occurs at one particular locatlon In the rock mass. Denness(46) devised a counting method In uhlch +he reference sphere Is dlvlded Into 100 squares. Its Influence need only be consldered when analyzing the stab1 I Ity of the slope In +hat locatlon.4. 4 . Pbles which fall above the equator are plotted on the opposlte slde of the stereonet and hence a coun+ of the total number of poles falling In a 1% square falling across the equator Is obtalned . Two dlstlnct pole concentrations are obvlous In Flgure 3. Dennoss curvlllnear cell cauntlng method In order to overcome certain disadvantages of other contourlng techniques. Instead of a notebook. and the reader should not hesitate to -perlment to flnd the method uhlch Is best sulted to hls own requlrements. Scme geologists p r e f e r t o u s e a portable tape recorder. t h e Interpretation o f a p o l e p l o t f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f a stabll I t y analysis I s slmpllfled I f d l f f e r e n t t y p e s o f s t r u c t u r e can easily be Identlfled. On the other hand. for the rrcordlng of field data. A plot of 351 poles of beddlng planes and joints and of one f a u l t I n a h a r d r o c k m a s s I s g l v e n I n Figure 3 . and It Is a great deal easier to work from recorded numbers than from the pole plot. When plotting field data It Is recommended that dlfferent symbols be used to represent the poles of different types of structural features. beddlng planes by trlsngles and so on.13 merits may well be required for other purposes. marked A In the margln sketch. faults may be represented by heavy black dots. Several methods of contour Ing pole plots have been suggestedd(41-47) b u t o n l y two techniques wll I b e described I n t h l s book. only the poles fal Ilng In the lower half of the 1% col I WI I I be shown on the stereonet since only the lower part of the reference sphere Is used In the plottlng process. such as a computer analysis.

700 20 15. A type B counting net. representlng vertically jolnted strata. The type A net Is Intended for the anal ysis of pole plots with concentrations near the circumference of the net.3.5.7 and 3 .000 27 Figure 3.064 28 Angle 360. The center of the net and the north mark are marked on the tree I ng paper.447 12 18 0. I n pencl I . The type B net Is mDre sulted to the analysls of poles of Inclined dlscontlnultles a n d . a t r a n s parent copy or a tracing of the net must be prepared.100 7 0. I n o r d e r t o u s e t h l s n e t f o r contourlng a p o l e p l o t .00 0. thls type o f n e t I s recommended for use by readers of thls book. 4 I s r e p r o d u c e d I n Figure 3. The transparent count Ing net Is centered over the pole plot and a clean pl ece of tracing paper Is placed cwer the count Ing net.00 51.616 0.43 30.37 14.00 0.40 12. by sumnlng the poles ln the shaded portions of both projecttons marked 0’. Contours of equal pole density are obtalned by Jolnlng the same numbers . dt the center of each ccl I . since Inclined dlscontlnultles a r e o f prime c o n c e r n I n t h e a n a l y s l s o f r o c k s l o p e stab1 I lty.14 DENNESS TYPE A COUNTING NET Cells per Cell radius Net radius SW 1 0.360 10 22.00 20.85 DENNESS TYPE B COUNTING NET C e l l s p e r C e l l r a d i u s Aqle Net radius rim 120.539 16 18. drawn to the same scale as the stereonets on pages 3.6.33 1.283 0.00 16. The number of poles falllng In each 1% counttng ccl I 1s n o t e d . Data1 Is of the two types of count1 ng net devised by Denness are glven In Flgure 3.00 0.00 0.923 25 1.172 3 ” 36.5: Dimensions of Denness curvilinear cell counting nets. Note that many photocopy machlnes Introduce slgnlf Icant dlstortlon and scale changes and care must be taken that good undistorted c o p i e s o f n e t s ulth Iden+lcal diameters a r e avallable b e f o r e startlng an analysts.50 0.775 22 0. 8 a n d t h e p o l e p l o t I n F l g u r e 3 .855 24 13.

6: Denness T y p e B curvi l i n e a r c e l l m o u n t i n g n e t .7: C o u n t i n g c i r c l e s f o r u s e i n c o n t o u r i n g p o l e Dlots. .15 Figure 3. Figure 3.3.

. and perhaps more log ICal. Punch or drll I two smal I holes. 7 o n t o a c l e a r plastic s h e e t .4.7 and 3. a 2% contour Is obtalned by jolnlng pole counts of 7 and a pole count of between 17 and 18 corresponds to a contour value of 5s. One of the small circles Is moved around un+ll It enclrcles 10 or 11 poles (3s of 351 poles = 10. I t s m o v e m e n t s b e l n g dlctated b y t h e d l s t r l b u t l o n o f t h e poles themselves rather than by some arbltrarl ly f lxed geometrlcal p a t t e r n . therefore. $0 0 Floating circle counting method One of the disadvantages of uslng a count1 ng net to contour a pole plot Is that the geometry of the coun+lng net bears no dlrect r e l a t l o n s h l p t o the dlstrlbutlon o f p o l e s .5) and a pencil mark Is made through the seal I hole at the center of +he circle. approxlmately 1 mm In diameter at the center of each of the smal I circles. a correct assessment of the pole concentrat Ion can on I y be obtalned by al lowlng the ccl I to “ f l o a t ” from I t s orlglnal posltlon and to center It on the hlghest concentration of poles. I n o r d e r t o c o n s t r u c t a circle coun+er.9 3% amdour. I n t h e c a s e o f t h e 351 p o l e s p l o t t e d In Flgure 3.16 I f I t I s f e l t tha+ lnsufflclent lnformatlon I s on the dlagram. This reasonlng lies behlnd t h e f l o a t l n g o f f r e e circle counting method(38) described b e l o w . In sane cases. using drawing I n s t r u ments and Ink to ensure an accurate and permanent reproduction.4. The neu countlng ccl I posltlons are used to generate addltlonal pole counts uhlch are noted a+ the centers of these ccl Is. The dlameter of the circles Is one-tenth of the dlameter of the net and. If necessary. When a cluster of poles falls &zt-oss the boundary between two counting cells. t r a c e t h e p a t t e r n g i v e n I n Figure 3 . the area enclosed by these circles Is l$ of the area of the stereonet. several moves of the counting ccl I are needed to g e n e r a t e t h e q u a n t l t y o f Information required f o r t h e cons+ruct l o n o f manlngful con+ours. The circles are exactly one net diameter apart and are used together when counting po I es near the clrcumference of the net. unexposed and developed photographlc film or thin sheets of c l e a r rlgld plastic a r e a l I i d e a l materials f o r a c o u n t e r . When o n e o f t h e s m a l l circles I s p o s l t l o n e d I n s u c h a w a y that a p a r t o f I t f a l l s outslde t h e s t e r e o n e t . the counting net can b e r o t a t e d a s lndlcated b y t h e d a s h e d I l n e s I n t h e m a r g I n sketch. t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f p o l e s f a l l i n g In t h l s circle I s g l v e n b y addlng t h e p o l e s I n 0 aD Locua of counting circts centre ckfina. 4 . Contours of equal pole densltles are generally expressed as percentages. The margf n sketch I I I ustrates the use of the circle counter to c o n s t r u c t a 3% c o n t o u r o n t h e p o l e p l o t g l v e n I n F l g u r e 3 .8 and In Flgure 3. H e n c e . avallable In certsln parts of the dlagram. The circle Is then moved +o another posltlon at tilch 10 or 11 poles fal I ulthln Its circumference and another pencil mark Is made. The plastic sheets used for drawlng on for overhead proJectIon.3. Flgure 3. procedure Is to use a single counting ccl I In a wfloatlngl@ m o d e . Conslderatlon o f this counting procedure suggests that an alternatIve. the coun+lng net can be nwed off center by a small anount In order to generate addltlonal Informatlon I n a radial d l r e c t l o n .7 glves a pattern which can be used by the reader for the constructlon of a circle counter for use wl+h stereonets of the diameter glven on pages 3.

t h e p u r p o s e o f a t t e m p t i n g t o def i n e t h e r o c k m a s s g e o m e t r y i s t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r chaos i ng This is one of the most the most appropriate f a i I ure mode. I n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s b o o k . t h e o b j e c t o f t h e e x e r c i s e m u s t b e k e p t clear1 y i n m i n d . faced with the need to process large volumes of such data. Sum these individual counts to obtain the total nunber of poles plotted on the net and establish the number of poles per 1% area which correspond to the different contour percentage values. a. b. Lam(491. A full discussion on this subject would exceed the scope of this chapter and the interested reader is referred to papers by S p e n c e r a n d Clabaugh(481. C. i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s i n t h e e n t i r e p r o c e s s o f a s l o p e stabi I ity . The computer is an ideal tool for processing structural geology d a t a o n a r o u t i n e b a s i s a n d m a n y e n g i n e e r i n g c o m p a n i e s a n d geotechnical consulting organizations use caputers for this task. Attewel I a n d Woodman( a n d Mahtab e t aIf f o r d e t a i l s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s t o the computer processing of structural geology data.3. Use the circle counter (Figure 3.17 this and in the other small circle.4 in approximately cne hour by means of this technique. Use a Denness type B counting net (Figure 3. Optimum sample size The collection of structural geology data is time consuming and expensive and it is important that the amount of data collected should be the minimum required to adequately define the geomeIn considering what trical characteristics of the rock mass.2 2 PO188 The contour diagrun illustrated in the margin sketch was prepared from the pole plot in Figure 3.6) to obt a i n a c o u n t o f t h e n u m b e r o f p o l e s fal I i n g i n e a c h c o u n t i n g ccl I. Recannended contour i ng procedure The following procedure is considered to provide an optimum compromise between speed and accuracy for contouring po I e plots.10 potos cm 4% . d. Computer analysis of structural data Plotting and contouring a few sets of structural geology data can be both interesting and instructive and is strongly recomm e n d e d t o a n y r e a d e r w h o w lshes camp letel y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e techniques described on the previous pages.17 pOk8 6% . The locus of the small circle center positions defines the 3% contour. Draw very rough contours on the basis of the pole counts noted on the tracing paper. aa 2% .7) to refine the cont o u r s . the task becomes very tedious and may place an unacceptably high demand on the time of staff who could be employed more effectively on other projects. which must be located diametrically opposite on the stereonet as shown in the margin sketch. However. s t a r t i n g w i t h l o w v a l u e c o n t o u r s ( s a y 2 o r 3%).7 polea e 3% . and working inwards towards the maximum pole concentrations.1 4 poles m 5% . constitutes an adequate definition of the geometry of the rock m a s s .

6. t h e dlagran I s possibly r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a f o l d e d s t r u c t u r e f o r which t h e p o l e s f a l l rlthln a glrdle dlstrlbutlon(45). 8 . I n which t w o o r t h r e e s t r o n g l y d e v e l o p e d d l s c o n t l n u l t y sets show up as dense pole concentrations on a stereoplot.18 Investlgatlon since an Incorrect choice of the failure mechanIsm will almost certainly lnvalldate the analysls. A soft rock mass such as a coal deposl t which may be horlzontally bedded and vertically Jolnted. For the reader who has not had a great dea I of exper lence In s l o p e stablllty a n a l y s e s a n d m a y f l n d I t dlfflcult to decide w h e n h e h a s e n o u g h s t r u c t u r a l g e o l o g y d a t a . 3. F r a n t h l s brief d l s c u s s l o n . 4 . t h e s t r u c t u r e I s p r o b a b l y t r u l y representative a n d l i t t l e c o u l d b e galned b y filottlng m3re d a t a . If step 5 yields 1% contours less than 15O apart and with n o p o l e concentrations higher t h a n s a y 52. If the dlagram stl I I shows no preferred orlentatlon. less than 4% at least 1. I f s t e p 1 r e s u l t s I n a single p o l e concentration with a contour value of less than ZO$. It Is probably a random dlstrlbutlon.000. I t I s u s u a l l y b e s t t o p l o t a t least another 100 poles and contour al I 200 before attemptIng to determIne the optlmum sample size. plot an addltlonal 300 poles and contour all 400. An appreclatlon o f t h e r o l e o f t h e s e o t h e r f a c tars.3. *III asslst the geologist In decldlng on how much structural geology data Is rrqulred In order that he may make a reallstlc declslon on the slope fallure machanlsm. . A hard rock m a s s . I f s t e p 1 yields a single p o l e concentration with a v a l u e o f 20% o r higher. I t ulll b e c l e a r tha+ t h e collectlon and Interpretation of structural geology data for the purposes of slope stablllty analysls cannot be treated as a rout l n e statlstlcal exercise.202 add 100 poles and contour al I 200. 5. or a hard rock mass In which jolnt orIen+atIons appear to be random.6$ add 500 to 900 poles and contour al I 600 to 1.000 poles shou Id be contoured. which l n c l u d e t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e r o c k m a s s a n d t h e groundrater condltlons In the slope.121 add 200 boles and contour all 300. If step 1 yields a contour dlagram with several pole concentrations. 4. t h e followlng guldellnes o n p o l e p l o t s h a s b e e n a d a p t e d f r o m a p a p e r b y Stauffer(47): :: First plot and contour 100 poles. If no preferred orlentatlon Is apparent. A single through-golng feature such as a fault can play a domlnant role In a slope failure and It Is Important that such features are Identlfled separately In order tha+ they are not lost I n t h e averaglng which o c c u r s during t h e contourlng o f a p o l e p l o t . may fall In a circular mode slmllar to that which occurs In sol I. *III usually fall by slldlng on one or two planes or by toppling. uh I c h h a v e t o b e t a k e n I n t o a c count In assesslng the most likely failure mechanism In any given s l o p e . the fol lowlng total numbers of poles should be contoured. 12 . The rock mass knows nothlng about statlstlcs and there are many factors. In addltlon to +he dens l t y o f p o l e concentrations.

Sune o f t h e s t r u c tural patterns which should be watched for when axamlnlng pole plots are outllned on the followlng pages. Figure 3. If step 7 glvas pole concen+ratlons In the same poslt l o n s a s t h o s e given b y s t e p 5 . 0 0 0 a n d p o s s l b l y 2 . that geologists are more prone to cal I a diagram preferred than to dlsmlss It as being random. Evaluation o f potentlsl s l o p e probl~ Dlfkrent t y p e s o f s l o p e failure a r e associated with different gaologlcal s t r u c t u r e s a n d It I s I m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e s l o p e deslgner s h o u l d b e able t o recognize t h e potentlal stab1 I Ity problems dur Ing the ear I y stages of a project. I f s t e p 7 r e s u l t s I n a d e c r e a s e In t h e v a l u e o f t h e maximum pole concentrations and a change In the poslt l o n o f t h e s e concentrstlons. The followlng caution Is quoted from Stauffer’s paper: “ A practiced e y e c a n Identify p o l n t clus+ers. The authors feel that It Is necessary to add thelr own words of caution In anphaslzlng that a contoured pole diagram Is a nece s s a r y b u t n o t a sufflclent ald I n s l o p e stablllty s t u d l a s . 8. a n d a r e l o a t h t o adml+ their m e a surements are not msanlngful.8 shows the four maln types of fal lure consldered In this book and glves the appearance of typlcal pole plots of . 11. h o w e v e r . then an addltlonal 200 poles should be added and al I 400 poles contoured. ccl 1 grouplngs and gross symmetry even for sma I I samp I es of weak preferred orlentatlons. 0 0 0 poles wll I be requlrad and any pole concentration of loss than 2% should be Ignored. If step 5 yields several pole concan+ratlons of be+ween 3 a n d 6$ b u t with v e r y I r r e g u l a r 1% c o n t o u r s . Staufferls work Involved a very detalled study of the statlstlcal slgnlflcance of pale concentrations and hls paper was not wrItten with a n y p a r t i c u l a r apptlcatlon I n mind. 10.19 7. a t least another 400 poles should be added. I t must always be used In conjunctlon with lntel I Igen+ field observatlons and a flnal declslon on the method of analysis to be used on a particular slope must be based upon a balanced assessmant of al I the aval lable facts. I t I s p r o b a b l y t r u e . a t l e a s t 1 . 9. The result Is a general tendoncy to make Interpretations more detalled than the nature of the data actual ly warran+s”. I f s t e p 5 yields s e v e r a l p o l e concen+retlons o f l e s s than 3% which are very scattered and If the l$ con+our Is very Irregular . INS+ geologists axamIne a dlagram with t h e Inten* o f flndlng somethlng slgnlf Icant.3. t h e a p p a r e n t p o l e concentratIons on the orlglnal plot ware probably due to the manner In which the data were sampled and It Is advlsabla to collect new data and carry out a new analysis. the guldallnes given above should be used for general guidance and should not ba developed Into a set of rules. I f s t e p 5 yields a dlegram with s m o o t h I$ c o n t o u r s about 20’ apart with several 3-62 pole concen+ratlons. This Is understandable. a d d a f u r t h e r 2 0 0 p o l e s a n d c o n t o u r a l I 6 0 0 +o e n s u r e that t h e p o l e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a r e r e a l a n d n o t a function o f t h e sampl Ing process. Consequently.

t h e s h e a r s t r e n g t h o f t h e d l s c o n t I n u l ty s u r f a c e s a n d t h e g e o m e t r y o f t h e w e d g e . a n d w h e n t h e As als h e a r s t r e n g t h o f this p l a n e I s d u e t o f r l c t l o n o n l y . 8 . c a n c e l one a n o t h e r I n typlcal w e d g e p r o b l e m s a n d t h a t t h e Crud8 a s s u m p t l o n u s e d I n derlvtng F l g u r e 3. the plunge of ndayllghtn I n t h e s l o p e f a c e . Markland’s t e s t Is deslgned +O establish t h e posslblllty o f a wedge failure I n which s l l d l n g t a k e s p l a c e a l o n g t h e lIn8 o f IntersectIon o f t w o p l a n a r d l s c o n t l n u l t l e s a s I I l u s t r a t e d I n Figure 3 .9b s h o w s t h a t t h e s l o p e I s potentially u n s t a b l e w h e n t h e pO!nt deflntng t h e Ilne o f I n t e r s e c t l o n o f t h e t w o p l a n e s f a l l s ulthln t h e a r e a I n c l u d e d b e t w e e n t h e g r e a t circle deflnlng t h e s l o p e f a c e a n d t h e circle deftned b y t h e a n g l e o f frlctlon#. 8 haV8 b e e n slmpl lfled f o r t h e s a k e o f clarity. John(521. t h e dips a n d d l p dlrectlons o f t h e t w o p l a n e s a r e *he s a m e . T h e diagrams given In Figure 3 . t h e c u t faC8 o f th8 Slop8 m u s t b8 lnClud8d I n t h e s t e r e o p l o t since s l l d l n g c a n o n l y o c c u r a s a r e s u l t o f nDvem8nt t o w a r d s t h e f r e e f a c e c r e a t e d b y the c u t . It I s u s e f u l t o b8 a b l e t o Identify t h o s e r h l c h r e p r e s e n t potential f a l l u r e p l a n e s a n d to ellmlnate t h o s e which r e p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e s which a r e untlkely t o b8 I n v o l v e d I n s l o p e failures. As rt I i b e s h o w n In . s l l d l n g u n d e r t h e s e condltfons O c c u r s w h e n t h e d l p o f t h e p l a n e exceeds t h e a n g l e o f f r l c t l o n 0 a n d h e n c e . p r e s e n c e o f dlscontlnuftles which c a n l e a d t o t o p p l l n g a s wll a s p l a n e s u p o n w h i c h *edge s l l d l n g c a n o c c u r c o u l d l e a d t o t h e s l l d l n g o f a b u d g e which ts Mparatsd f r o m t h e r o c k m a s s b y a “tensIon crack”. desIgned t o ldentlfy crltlcal d l s c o n t l n u l t l e s a n d .9b I s a d e q u a t e f o r mOst I t s h o u l d b e ranembered t h a t thl s t e s t I s practical p r o b l e m s .e. T h e ttmltlng c a s e o c c u r s w h e n t h e w e d g e d e g e n e r a t e s to a p l a n e . F o r a?tample. t h e l l n e o f lntersectton m u s t b e l e s s t h a n t h e d l p o f t h e slope f a c e . P l a n e f a l l u r e . s l l d l n g c a n o n l y o c c u r a l o n g t h e Ilne o f IntersectIon a n d h e n c e +hls line o f lntersectlon m u s t In other words.20 geological condltlons likely t o l e a d t o s u c h f a l l u r e s . F l g u r e 3. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d . in a n ac+ual r o c k ~10~8. canblnatlons o f s e v e r a l t y p e s o f geologlcal s t r u c t u r e s m a y b e p r e s e n t a n d t h l s m a y give rise t o addltlonal t y p e s o f failure. r e a d y dlscussed. m e a s u r e d I n t h e dlrectlon o f t h e llne o f I n t e r s e c t l o n a s s h o w n In Figure 3 . t h e factor of safety of the slope depends upon the plunge of the I Ine o f I n t e r s e c t i o n . Panet(53) a n d McMahon(321 h a v e dlscussed methods for ldentlfylng Important pole concentrations b u t the a u t h o r s p r e f e r a m e t h o d d e v e l o p e d b y MnrkIand(54). a n u m b e r o f slgnlflcant p o l e concentrat Ions may be present. t h e stablllty m a y b e decreased If w a t e r I s p r e s e n t ln t h e Exper Ience s u g g e s t s t h a t these t w o f a c t o r s WI I I t e n d t0 slope. I. I n a t y p l c a l field s t u d y I n which s+ructural d a t a h a s b e e n p l o t t e d o n stereonets. h a v l n g Iden- . a first approxlmatlon o f w e d g e s t a b l l l t y I s Obtalned b y COnSlderI n g w h e t h e r th8 p l u n g e o f t h e llne o f lntsrsectlon 8XCe8dS t h e f r l c t l o n a n g l e f o r t h e r o c k s u r f a c e s .8b I s a l s o c o v e r e d b y this t e s t since It I s a special cas8 o f w e d g e f a l l u r e . N o t e t h a t l n aSS8SSlng Stab11 lty. T h e r e a d e r w h o I s f a m l l l a r w l t h w e d g e analysis will a r g u e t h a t this a r e a c a n b e r e d u c e d f u r t h e r b y a l lowlng f o r t h e I n f l u e n c e o f “wedging” b e t w e e n the two d l s c o n t l n u l t y p l a n e s .the Chapter deal lng w l t h wedge failure. 9 .3. F l g u r e 3. If contact I s maIntaIned o n b o t h p l a n e s .

. d .21 Grua t circ Ze 6 lope a.waste r o c k o r h e a v i l y f r a c t u r e d r o c k w i t h n o i d e n t i f i a b l e s t r u c t u r a l osttern. Figure 3. T o p p l i n g failure i n h a r d r o c k w h i c h can form columnar structure separated b y s t e e p l y d i p p i n g dircontinuitics. Circular failure in overburden soil.8: hain t y p e s o f s l o p e f a i l u r e a n d s t e r e o p l o t s o f structural conditions likely to give rise to these failures. cre6t of sbpe 76 Direction of sliding Great circles phl88 COY'lWSpOWii~ t0 centrese of pole ccncentraticn8 c. . Plane failure in rock with highly ordered structure such as slate. CX'eSt Of Stop8 Great circle representing/ 8bpe face Direction of eliding G r e a t circle Fspreeenting plane corresponding to centre of pole concsntration N b. Great circle representing planes correepondine to oent of pole concentlulticn.3. Wedge failure on two intersecting discontinuities.

measured in the direction of sliding. Stope it3 wwtable when intersection of great circles rspreeenting p km638 falls in shaded region F i g u r e 3.3. i.9b: Sliding is assumed to occur when the plunge of the line of intersection exceeds the angle of friction.22 Direction of sliding F i g u r e 3.ga: S l i d i n g a l o n g t h e line o f intersection of planes A and B is possible when the plunge of this line is less than the dip of the slope face.9c: Representation of planes by their poles and determination of the line of intersection of the planes by the pole of the great circle which passes through their poles. 4 Wedge failure possible alOng inter8ection tiM8 II2 mrd I23 F i g u r e 3. .e.e. potential& $f ’ Jli ’ 0 Pole of great circle passing through pole8 Of PhWS A and B define8 tine of inter8ection Figure 3.gd: P r e l i m i n a r y evaluatiOn O f t h e s t a b i l i t y o f a SO” s l o p e i n a rock mass with 4 sets of structural discontlnulties. i. #f ' *.

and If the dlp dlrectlon of either of the planes fal Is between the dlp dlrectlon of the slope face and the trend of the line of Intersectlon. T h l s sddltlonal test Is Illustrated In the margln sketches on +hls page. The poles of planes 1 and 2 Ile outslde the angle Included between the dlp dlrectlon of the slope face and the llne of IntersectIon 112 and hence failure of this wedge wll I be by However. t h e line o f I n t e r s e c t l o n o f t w o p l a n e s f a l l s wlthln the shaded crescent shown In the marg In sketch.23 tlfled them. Wedge faiZure along N aI The grea+ circle representlng the slope face. a nwe detallsd analysis would normally be necessary In order to deftno the factor of safety of the slope. As an -ample of the use of Markland’s test consider the contoured stereoplot of poles given In Flgure S.W. The frlctlon circle.W. The Intersectlon 113 fal Is outslde the crltlcel area and Is unl Ike1 y t o give rise )o InstabIlIty. Stiding on pLane 1 only Thls overlay Is placed over the contoured s+ereoplot and the two are r o t a t e d t o g e t h e r o v e r t h e stereonet to f Ind g r e a t clrcles passlng through pole concentrations. I n o r d e r W f l n d t h e llne o f lntarsectlon o f The these planes. Flgures 3.3. I I I s used. The pole representlng the slope face. T h e lines o f I n t e r sectlon a r e defined b y t h e p o l e s o f t h e s e g r e a t circles a s show In Figure J. From thls flgure It WI I I be seen that the most dangerous canblnatlons of dlscontlnultles are those represented by the pole concentrations numbered 1. case of planes 2 and 3. I f t h e condltlons f o r MarkIandts t e s t a r e satlsfled. I. the method descr Ibed on page 3. b. C. 2 and 3. In the s l l d l n g a l o n g t h e line o f I n t e r s e c t l o n I12 . slldlng VII I occur on the steeper of the two planes r a t h e r t h a n a l o n g t h e line o f I n t e r s e c t l o n . It Is required t o otamlne t h e stablllty o f a s l o p e f a c e wtth a dip o f 50’ a n d dlp dlrectlon of 120°. A frlctlon angle of 30’ Is assumed for this analysis. An overlay Is prepared on which the fol lowlng Information Is Included: a. The pole concentration numbered 4 will not be Involved In slldlng but. T h e p o l e o f this g r e a t circle defines the line of IntersectIon of the two planes.e. I t c o u l d give rise t o toppling o r t h e o p e n l n g o f tenslon cracks.9b show the dlscontlnulty planes as great circles but. tracing o n rhlch t h e poles a r e p l o t t e d I s r o t a t e d untl I b o t h p o l e s lie o n t h e s a m e g r e a t circle. A refinement )o Markland’s t e s t h a s b e e n d l s c u s s e d b y ttocklng(55) and thlr retlnement has been Introduced to permlt the user to dlfferentlate between +he sl ldlng of a wedge along the line o f Intersection o r a l o n g o n e o f t h e p l a n e s f o r m l n g t h e base of the wedge. T h l s will b e t h e mDst crltlcal Instablllty condltlon and ull I control behavlor of the slope.84. as has been dlscussed on +he prevlous pages. as shown In Figure 3.9z the two dlscontlnulty planes are represented by their p o l e s a n d . fleld data on these structures lo normally plotted In terms of poles. Suggested method of data prosontatlon and snalysls for hlghway design T h e followlng I s a n Illustration o f h o w t h e prlnclples o f structural geology and stablllty analysis can be used In hlgh- Overlay for checking wedge failure potentia Z . t h e p o l e r e p r e s e n t l n g p l a n e 2 f a l l s wlthln t h e a n g l e b e t w e e n t h e dip d l r e c t l o n o f t h e s l o p e f a c e and the Ilne of lntersectlon I23 and hence fal lure rl I I be by slldlng on plane 2. In Flgure 3.S and 3.

. fractures dlp to the west at angles between 30’ and 400. If there are no ou+crops vlslble. Suppose that the mapplng (or drll I lng) showed three major Jolnt sets which have the fol lowlng orlentatlons: Al : AZ: A3: fractures dlp to the south at angles between 20’ and 50°. Set A3 dlps away from the excavatlon a n d se+ A t strikes a t r l g h t a n g l e s t o t h e excavation s o that slldlng cannot occur on either of these sets and the slope I s likely t o b e s t a b l e . Jol n+ se+ A2 d Ips towards the Qtcavatlon but at a steeper angle than the face so that sl ldlng cannot occur. circles representIng the dlp and strlke of the two slopes and t h e estimated frlctlon a n g l e o f t h e f r a c t u r e s u r f a c e . On the east slope Joln+ set AZ dlps steeply away frcm the e*cavatlon and there Is a posslblllty ths + the +hln slabs formed by t h e s e J o l n t s will f a l l b y toppling. T h e r e I s a l s o the posslblI Ity that slldlng WI I I occur on A2 jolnts +ha+ dlp towards the excavat Ion. +lons o f t h e s e t h r e e s e t s a r e Stereonets glvlng t h e orlenta Over I al d on each stereonet are great shown on Figure 3. These stereonets show that on the was+ slope. If d r l l l l n g I s carried o u t t h e n the c o r e s h o u l d b e orlented ( s e e Chapter 4) so that the dlp and strlke of the major structures can be determ I ned .10). It may be necessary to change the slope angle or ImpIemen+ stablllzatlon measures In order to ensure that the slope Is stab le.10. Suppose that the proposed al Ignmen+ passes +hrough a spur of rock and It WI I I be necessary +o make a through-cut In order to keep the hlghway on grade (see Figure 3. The structural geology of the rock forming the spur should be determIned by surface mapplng of outcrops. Thls would not be a serious stab1 I Ity problem If the Joints are dlscontlnuous In rhlch case only smal I fsllures would occur.3. The stablllty of the two slopes formed by thls excavation Is assessed In the fol lowlng manner. Thls prellmlnary analysis shows that the eas+ cut slope has potentlal stability problems and that mre detalled lnvestlgatlon of structural geology condltlons would be requlred before flnallzlng the deslgn. fractures dlp to the east at angles between 70’ and Boo. Since I t I s r a r e l y possible +o c h a n g e allgnment sufflclently to ufercane a stablllty problem. then trenching or drllllng may be requlred. There Is also the posslblllty that wedge failures WI I I occur where Joint sets Al and A2 Intersect.24 way desfgn.

.3. 10: Presentation of structural geology information and preliminary evaluation of slope stability of a proposed highway.25 A3 A2 A3 WEST SLOPE EAST SLOPE AY A3 Stable Toppling F i g u r e 3 .

S. 2nd Edition 1973. Pub17 shed by A . p a g e s 1 6 6 . pages 1114-1117. L o n d o n . F. geometricaZ techniques. In Determination of the in-situ modulus of defonation of American Society for Testing and Materials IWCk. J . Conference State of Stress in the Earth's crrtst. 49. E d w a r d A r n o l d . 1971. A.J.Vol 1 0 9 .U. pages 473-498. 42. 176 pages. Number 477. U r b a n a . p a g e s 665 . metamorphic tectonites.U. V o l . 37. 43. B . P. Petrofabric techniques for the determinFRIEDMAN. 280 p a g e s . D. Multiple modes of shear failure in rock.265. 327 p a g e s . 545 p a g e s . AmericcnJournc 1 of Science. 1. PZunnino open pit tinsa. fabric diagrams.C. A .Vol. New York. 38. Balkcma.E. Fault and joint development in bplttZe cmd semi-btittte rock. In AppZication of CeoZogy to Engineering practice (Berkey volume). 1 9 6 3 . B . geologist . 46. P c r g a m o n P r e s s . 40. 44. A m s t e r d a m 1 9 7 1 .H. p a g e s 451-550. 1966. factors in rock slope stability. Structural geology . dimensional fabric diagrams as used in structural Canadian Journ. p a g e s 1 5 7 . 1967.1 5 1 . Volume 267. ation of principal stress directions in rock. 1969. D. Earth Sciences. A n e m p i r i c a l . H a r p e r B r o t h e r s . F.s t a t i s t i c a l s t u d y o f threeSTAUFFER. ATTEUELL P . Proc. P a g e s 174-196. 13th Symposiwn on Rook*sMechaxics. N e w Y o r k . 1 9 6 4 . A revised method of contouring stereograms DENNESS. L o n d o n . 1970. SPENCER.3. Mag. 1 9 7 2 . P R I C E . Structure1 methods for the expZoration BADGLEY. Santa Elsevier. a n d WOODHAN J .M. analysis. 3. P. The use of stereographic projections in structural geology. 1 9 5 9 . L. and DEERE.1 6 3 . N . Computer program for American JournaZ of Science. F. Structural analysis of M c G r a w . G e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y o f A m e r i c a . H. PATTON. Froc. R. p a g e s 509-513. using variable curvilinear cells. and WEISS. LAM. 1 9 7 1 .E. C. Vo1. P. 90 pages. Johannesburg Symposium 1970. N e w Y o r k . F. Number 2. p a g e s 1 4 3 . GOODMAN. T h i r d edition (paperback). Monica. Proc. D. and CLABAUGH. . 50.an introduction to RAGAN. Computer methods for plotting beta diagrams. 1966. TURNER.1 7 2 .26 Chapter 3 references 36.C. PHILLIPS. 39. 41. 1963. S t a b i l i t y o f discontinuous rock masses under polyaxial stress systems. R. L i s b o n 1966. Significant geological PATTON. .D. CeoZ. 1950. P . University of aaI l l i n o i s . N e w York.B. 40. 220 pages. Iet InternationaZ Congress of Rock Mechanics. 45. LOUDERBACK. F a u l t s a n d e n g i n e e r i n g g e o l o g y . John Wiley 6 Sons.H i l l B o o k C o .bb3. M. The deformability of joints. Special Technical Publication. 47. D.

SH2.3. G . A m e t h o d f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g b e t w e e n single a n d d o u b l e p l a n e s l i d i n g o f t e t r a h e d r a l w e d g e s . U. J o h n . 53. V o l . H O C K I N G . Bureau tiM8 Report of Investigations. W . Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences. 1972. a n d SHANLEY. A S C E . 13. 94. JournaZ SoiZ Mechanics and Foundotia lXu.. A . 55. SH6. 1 9 6 8 . 52.ASCE Vo1. PANET. ImperiuZ CoLLege R o c k Mechanics Reeearch Report No. Discussion on graphical stability analysis o f s l o p e s i n j o i n t e d r o c k b y K . Vol.S. J.D.D. 54. A useful technique for estimating the stability of rock slopes when the rigid wedge sliding t y p e o f f a i l u r e i s e x p e c t e d . K. No. J . HARKLAND. J. p a g e s 497-526 w i t h d i s c u s s i o n a n d c l o s u r e i n V o l . 10 Pages. of 1972.686. JOHN. J . 1976. N o . 669. 1965. Analysis of fracture orientations for input to structural models of discontinuous rock. 95. B0LSTAD.T. IntnZ.95. R .W. No. pages 225-226. Jomva2 S o i l M e c h a n i c s a n d F o u n d a t i o n D i v .No. pages 1541-1545. H . . pages 685 . 1969. . R . 19. SH2. Graphical stability analysis of slopes in j o i n t e d r o c k . A L L D R E D G E . H .27 51. HAHTAB.

.

are readily available and these provide an important source of information. b e i n a p o s i t i o n t o d e a l with this phase of the investigation more efficiently. D e e p e r examlnatlon o f t h e p r o b l e m reveals that this emphasis on theoretical studies has probably been necessary in order that the engineer (and geologist) should be in a better position to identify relevant geological information and. b e t a k e n t o b e d r o c k s o t h a t m a p p i n g c a n b e c a r r i e d o u t i n Iocations where there are few outcrops. As engineers. R e g i o n a l geologlcal i n v e s t i g a t i o n s A frequent mistake in rock engineering Is to start an investigation with a detailed examination of drill cores. On the following pages. Where detailed regional geology maps are .4. upon which local failure of a bench can occur. On first appearances it may be concluded that the engineer has displayed a remarkable tendency to put the proverbial cart before the horse. t h e n a d r i l l r i g s h o u l d b e u s e d t h a t c a n a l s o o b t a i n Similarly. a review is given of techniques which have been found useful in the geological data collection phase of slope stability investigations. of course). by far the greatest proportion of time is devoted to the collection and interpretation of geological data. p r e s e n t a n engIneerrs v i e w o f r o c k s l o p e s t a b i l i t y i n s u c h a way that the geologist can decide for himself what geological data Is relevant and how he should go about collecting it. a s a c o n s e q u e n c e . it is necessary to see t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e overal I g e o l o g i c a l e n Structural vironment in which the proposed road is to exist. in varying degrees of detail. Coordination of the rock a n d soi I a s p e c t s o f a n e x p l o r a t i o n p r o g r a m r e q u i r e s c l o s e c o operation between the geologist and the soils engineer and some c a p r o m i ses m a y h a v e t o b e m a d e t o m a k e t h e b e s t u s e o f a v a i Iable funds. cost savings can often be achieved by combining both soil and rock exploration work. When carrying out investigation programs for highway construction. test trenches should core samples of the bedrock. experience suggests that attempts by e n g i n e e r s t o s e t u p e l a b o r a t e r o c k classif ication s y s t e m s a n d standard core logging forms have been remarkably unsuccessful because geologists tend to be highly individualistic and prefer to work from their own point of view rather than that decreed What has been attempted in this text. Air photographs and topographic maps. In fact. F o r e x a m p l e . a search through slope stability I iterature r e v e a l s t h a t t h e nunber o f p u b l i c a t i o n s dealing w i t h this topic is insignificant as compared with theoretical papers on the mechanics of slope fai lure (idealized slopes.1 Chapter 4 Geological data collection. d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s . However. is to b y saneone e l s e . the authors would not attempt to Instruct the g e o l o g i s t s o n h o w t o g o a b o u t col letting a n d i n t e r p r e t i n g g e o logical data. Introduction If one examines the amount of time spent on each phase of a rock slope stability investigation. i f dril I i n g i s c a r r i e d out to determine the thickness and characteristics of the overburden. are related to the regional structural pattern of the area and it is therefore useful to start an investigation by building up a picture of the regional geology. While these cores provide essential information.

must contend uIth the p r o b l e m o f weathering a n d o f s u r f a c e c o v e r l n g s o f sol i a n d vegetatlon.et al(59) also used a technique. T h l s fnvolves stretching a 1 0 0 f t . 1 . T h e I n t e r e s t e d r e a d e r I s r e f e r r e d t o t h e e x c e l l e n t t e x t b y M l Iler(56) o n t h l s subJect. . can save a geat deal o f time. durlng early exploratlon studies the geologlst may simply have to make do with whatever exposures are avallable and use hls lngenulty to complls as much relevant data as possible. An aluminiwn plate is being used for projecting planes. Al I these methods can be used when an excavated slope or a tunnel Is avallable but.p h o t o lnterpretatlon s e r v i c e s . readlng dlrectly In terms of dlp and dip dfrectlon. have dlscussed the quest Ion of the sap1 Ing of areas to be mapped and a I lne sunplfng method.1 and the use of thls type of compass. In addltlon to air photographs. uhlch Involves mapplng all structures occurrlng In 20 ft. The most Important tool for use In mapplng Is obvlously the geologlcal -pass and many dlfferent types ere sval Iable. Da Sllvelra.2 avsllable.4. Which Instrument Is c h o s e n . Weaver and Call(581 and Halsteed. f r o m t h o s e I l l u s t r a t e d I n Figure 4 .et al(60) mapped al I structures exposed on the face of a rectangular tunnel. r o a d cuttings and exposures In river or stream beds are al I excellent sources of structural InformatIon and access to such exposures can normally be arranged through local landowners. Thls process exposed the underlylng rock and also accentuated structural features by uashlng out shallow Inf I I I lngs of weatherlng products. An Instrument &lch has been developed speclflcal ly for the type of mapplng required for stablllty analyses Is Illustrated In Figure 4. MappIng of otposed structures Mapping of vlslble structural features on outcrops cr excavated faces Is a slow and tedious process but there are unfortunately few alternatlves to the tradltlonal techniques used by the geologlst. I t m u s t b e anphaslred t h a t t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l o t h e r types of canpass aval I ab lo and that al I of them WI I I do a perfectly adequate Job of structural mapplng. Intervals along a face. which they call fracture set mapplng. The geologist concerned ulth mapping surface outcrops. full use should be made of any e x p o s u r e s a v a l l a b l e o n site. x 6 ft. A novel solutlon to this problem was used on the slte lnvestlgatlon for the abutments of the Gordon arch dam In Tasmania where the vegetation and sol I coverlng on the rock slopes were washed off by means of hlgh pressure water Jets. AdJacent mines o r q u a r r i e s . I s a m a t t e r o f personal preference. bands spaced at 100 ft. these should certainly be obtalned as early as posslble I n t h e Investlgatlon. Several authors. lncludlng Broadbent and Rlppere(57). as opposed to excavated faces. The exper I enced o b s e r v e r c a n provide a surprlslng snount o f r e l e v a n t I n f o r m a tion from an c#alnatlon of alr photographs and many consult a n t s p r o v l d e r o u t l n e a l r . t a p e at approximately waist helght along a face or a tunnel wall and recording e v e r y s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e which I n t e r s e c t s t h e t a p e I Inc. thls technique Is only applicable The Lake E@ar fault which stretches for many miles across Tasman& Mapping eqosed structures in a rock mass. Obvlously. Stereoscopic exanlnatlon o f adJacent pairs o f a l r p h o t o g r a p h s Is particularly useful and even an Inexperlenced observer can detect I I near surface features whtch usua I I y sl gn I f y the presence of underlylng geological structures.

P.O. . T h e i n s t r u m e n t i l l u s t r a t e d i s a m o d e l SB180 f o l d i n g m i r r o r stereoscope manufactured by Rank Precision Industries Ltd.Box 3 6 .3 A stereoviewer b e i n g u s e d f o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f a i r photographs. A more elaborate stereoviewer which can be used for the measurement of differences in elevation from air photographs.4. L e i c e s t e r LEi YJB.. E n g l a n d .

4.4

Compass 1 id and m e a s u r i n g plate.

L

I

:,:

., ,(

’ I. ;,

.‘:
., :r :;

Release clamp lock compass n e e d l e c l a m p r e l e a s e

Scale adjusting screw Scale for dip measurcmcntCentimeter scale

Spherical bubble level Mirror for observing bubble e n compass used overhead

w

h

Figure 4.1:

G e o l o g i c a l c o m p a s s d e s i g n e d b y P r o f e s s o r Clar a n d m a n u f a c t u r e d b y F.W.Breithaupt & S o h n , A d o l f s t r a s s e Kassel 3500, West Germany.

13.

Level compass, release clamp a n d t u r n c o m p a s s unti I n e e d l e Clamp needle. points north.

Use coin to turn adjusting screw to correct magnetic deviation. Zero on scale now reads true north.

Place measuring plate against rock face and level compass, r e l e a s e n e e d l e c l a m p a n d reclamp after needle has settled.

Toe dtfference in magnetic declCnation in different hemispheres results in the needle jarmning if a northern hemisphere compass is used in the southen! hemisphere.
Mcnufacturers will supply a p p r o p r i a t e instxwnent i f

hemisphere is specif-ied.

Read dip of plane. example, dip is 35

In this degrees.

Read dip direction of plane. In this case, dip direction is

61°

4.5

F i g u r e 4.1~4: A C l a r t y p e c o m p a s s m a n u f a c t u r e d i n E a s t Germany a n d d i s t r i b u t e d by C a r l Z e i s s J c n a L t d . , 2 E l r t r e e W a y , Boreham W o o d , H e r t f o r d s h i r e W D 6 1NH. E n g l a n d . This instrument has sighting marks and a mirror fitted in the lid so that it can be used to take b e a r i n g s i n t h e s a m e w a y a s a Brunton c o m p a s s . I t also has a suspended pointer for measuring the inclination of the line of sight. The needle is undamped but it can be clamped in the same way as a Clar compass.

F i g u r e b-lb: A Brunton c o m p a s s o r p o c k e t t r a n s i t w h i c h Is o n e o f t h e m o s t v e r s a t i l e f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t s f o r gaologirts a l t h o u g h I t I s n o t a s conveniant a s t h e Clar c o m p a s s f o r t h e direct measurement of dip and dip direction of planes. This instrument is particularly convenient for taking b e a r i n g s a n d f o r maasuring t h e i n c l i n a t i o n o f t h e l i n e of right.

4.6

I n special c a s e s b u t I t I s w o r t h conslderlng w h e n crltlcal slope problems are sntlclpated. Gcod geological Inform&Ion can often be obtalned by mapping In underground excavations which are In the SUM rock tvne as the ,r~proposed excavatfon. Although It Is rare that a nearby tunnel WI I I exist, there are circumstances where underground mapp 1 ng may be possible. For exunple, tunnels are ofton excavated on hydra-electric a n d mlnlng proJects. A l s o , I n mountainous terrain, tunnels are often required on rallroads where the grade restrlctlons are snore severe than on hlghuays, so Investlgatlon of any nearby rallroads Is often worthwhIle. The rock exposed In a tunnel wll I often be less weathered than the rock outcropplng at the surface. The tunnel may also provlde useful Information on ground water conditions. All structural mapplng techniques suffer fran some form of bias since structures paral lel or nearly parallel to an exposed face will not dayllght as frequently as those perpendicular to the face. This-problem has been dlscussed by Terzaghl(61) and most geoiogists a p p l y Terzaghl’s c o r r e c t l o n s t o s t r u c t u r a l d a t a obtalned fran surface mapping and borehole cores. However, Broadbent and Rlppere(S7) argue that these correctlons are excessive when mapplng on a typlcal excavated slope face uhlch has been created by normal blasting. In th I s case the face wll I b e highly I r r e g u l a r a s a r e s u l t o f f r a c t u r i n g c o n t r o l l e d by dlscontlnultles and the assumptlons made by Terzaghl In dertvlng t h e s e c o r r e c t l o n s a r e n o l o n g e r valtd. U n d e r s u c h circumstances, Broadbent and Rlppere suggest that the data snou I d be presented wl thout correct Ion. Photographic mapplng of exposed structures Before leaving the questton of the mapplng surface exposures, mention must be made of photogramnetrlc techniques which have Al though not been consldered for use In structural mapplng. yet In wide use, photogrammetrlc methods offer conslderablr advantages and the authors bel leve that they WI I I lncreaslng ly be used In rock engIneerIng. T h e equlpment required c o n s i s t s o f a p h o t o t h e o d o l l t e s u c h a s t h a t I l l u s t r a t e d I n t h e m a r g l n p h o t o g r a p h which I s slmalv a theodollte wtth a sultable canera located between the upper and lower circles. T h e field s e t - u p I s I l l u s t r a t e d I n Flguro 4 . 2 and a rock face wlth targets palnted on It for photogrammetrlc measurement Is shown In Figure 4.3. The two plates. taken at the left and rlght hand cmera statlons (Figure 4.2) are then vlewed in a stereocomparator or slmllar Instrument which produces a stereoscopic llpdel of the overlapplng region on the two plates. Measurements of the x, y and z coordinates o f p o l n t s I n t h l s t h r e e - d l m e n s l o n s l m o d e l c a n bo made to an accuracy of about 1 part In 5,000 of the maan obJect distance. Hence, a point cn a face photographed frun 5,000 ft. can be located to an accuracy of 1.2 Inches. Photogramnetrlc techniques can be used for both structural mapplnp and for quantity surveys of gtcavatlon volumes and a number-of canpanI.es offer these services on a canmerclal basls. It uou I d e x c e e d t h e s c o p e o f this b o o k t o discuss detal I s O f photogramnetry a n d t h e I n t e r e s t e d r e a d e r I s r e f e r r e d t o t h e

ilscng c kigi: pressure wter jez t o c;e,x c r o c k fcce

h w:ld P 30 phototheodolite s e t u p -=or photography i n cr. oper. p i t dne

4.7

-I

Control targets on object

Figure 4.2: Field set-up to obtain an

overlapping stereopair.

Figure 4.3: Rock fete with targets painted on it as controls for photog ramnet ry . On high, steep faces targets painted on metal plates can be lowered on ropes.

4.8

publlcatlons listed a t t h e e n d o f this c h a p t e r f o r f u r t h e r lnformatlon(62,63,64). M o s t p e o p l e t h l n k o f p h o t o g r a m m e t r y I n t e r m s o f expensive equipment and special 1st operators and, uhlle thls Is true for precise measurements, m a n y o f t h e p r l n c l p l e s c a n b e u s e d t o quantlfy photographs taken wfth a normal hand-held camera. T h e s e p r l n c l p l e s a r e described I n a u s e f u l t e x t - b o o k b y WiIllams(65). Measurement of surface roughness Patton(40) mphasized the Importance of surface roughness on the shear strength of rock surf aces and hl s concepts are now widely accepted. The influence of roughness on strength Is dlscussed in the next chapter and the fol loulng remarks are restricted to the measurement of roughness In the field. A variety of techniques have been used to measure roughness and, In the authors’ opfnlon, the mDst practical method Is that suggested by Fecker and Rengers(66) and II lustrated In Figure 4.4,whlch I s s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y . Dlmond drllllng for structural purposes M a n y e n g i n e e r s a r e falllar rlth diamond drllllng f o r mlnersl exploratlon and some would assume that the techniques used In e x p l o r a t i o n dri I I ing a r e a d e q u a t e f o r s t r u c t u r a l lnvestlgations. T h l s I s u n f o r t u n a t e l y n o t t h e c a s e a n d s p e c i a l t e c h niques are required to ensure that continuous cores which are It should be as nearly undlsturbed as possible are obtalned. remembered that It lo the dlscontlnultles and not the Intact r o c k uhlch c o n t r o l t h e stablllty o f a r o c k s l o p e a n d t h e n a t u r e , InfIllIng, lncllnatlon a n d orlentatlon o f t h e s e discontlnultles are of vltal Importance to the slope designer. Contracts for mineral exploration drl I llng are normal ly negotiated on a flxed rate of payment per foot cr meter drllled. In order to keep these rates low dr I I I Ing contractors encourage their drlllers to aim for the maxlmum length of hole per shift. In addltlon, mechfnos are run frequently beyond their effective l i f e I n ardor to r e d u c e c a p i t a l c o s t s . T h e s e practices r e s u l t in relstlvely poor core recovery In fractured ground and It can seldom be clalmed that the ccre is undisturbed. To negotlato a geotechnlcal drllllng contract on the sane basls as a mlneral exploration program Is to Invite trouble. Good quality undisturbed core can only be achlevod If the drllIer h a s time t o nfeolw h l s w a y t h r o u g h t h e r o c k a n d I f h e I s using first c l a s s equipment. &sequent I y , many geotochnl ca I englnnrs a t t e m p t t o negotiate c o n t r a c t s I n t e r m s o f p a y m e n t for core recovery rather than the length of hole dr I I I ad. A I tornatlvoly, payment on an hourly rate rather than a dr I I I lng rate removes the prossure fran the drl I ler and permlts him to aim a t quality r a t h e r m a n q u a n t i t y I n h l s drll Ilng. I n addltlon t o provldlng flnanclal lncentlvss f o r t h e driller, It Is essential to l nsuro that hls equipment Is deslgned for the Job, In good working order and that It Is correctly used.

6.10

methods for constructing flow nets(l74) have now large1 y been superseded by anaIogue(175.176) and numerlcal methods(177). An example o f a n electrlcal resistance a n a l o g u e f o r t h e s t u d y of anlsotroplc seepage and dralnage problems Is Illustrated In Figure 6 . 8 . Some typlcal examples of equlpotentlal dlstrlbutlons, determlned wlth the ald of thls analogue, are reproduced In Flgure 6.9. Field rsrurmnt of permeablllty Determlnatlon of the permeab1 Ilty of a rock mass Is necessary If estlmateo are required of gounduater discharge from a slope or If an attempt Is to be made to design a dralnage system. F o r evaluation o f t h e stablllty o f t h e s l o p e s I t I s t h e w a t e r pressure rather than the volume of groundwater flow In the rock mass which Is Important. The water pressure at any polnt Is Independent of the permeabl llty of the rock mass at that point but It does depend upon the path followed by the goundrater In arrlvlng a t t h e point (Figures 6 . 2 a n d 6 . 9 ) . H e n c e , t h e anIs* tropy and the dlstrlbutlon of permeablllty In a rock mass Is of Interest I n estlmatlng t h e wator p r e s s u r e d l s t r l b u t l o n I n a slope. In ader to measure the permeabl I Ity at a “point” In a rock mass, It Is necessary to change the groundwater condltlons at that point and to measure the time taken for the orlglnal condltlons to be re-establ lshed or the quantlty of water necessary to malntaln the new condltlons. These tests are most convenlontly carried o u t I n a borehole I n which a sectlon I s I s o l a t e d between the end of the casing and the bottom of the hole cr between packers wlthln the hole. The tests can be class I f led as fol lows: a. Fall Ing head tests In which water Is poured Into a vertlcal o r n e a r vertical borehole a n d t h e time t a k e n f o r t h e w a t e r l e v e l t o f a l l t o I t s orlglnal l e v e l I s determlned. b. C o n s t a n t h e a d t e s t s I n which t h e q u a n t l t y o f w a t e r which h a s t o b e p o u r e d I n t o t h e borohole I n o r d e r t o malntsln a speclflc water level I s m e a s u r e d .

A simple caducting paper electrica2 ana Zogue model for the study of groun&cter floe. Photograph courtesy Bougainville Copper Limited.

c. Pumping tests or Lugeon tests in which water is pumped into or out of a borehole section between two packers and the changes induced by this pmping are measured. The first two types of test are sultable for measurement of the pormeablllty o f reasonably uniform rolls cr r o c k . A n l s o t r o p l c prmeablllty coefflclonts c a n n o t b e measured directly I n t h e s e tests but, as shown In the example glvon below, allowance can bo mado f o r this anlsotropy I n t h e celculatlon o f permeabll I t y . Punplng tests, al though more expenslvo, are more sul tab Ie for permeablllty testlng In jolnted rock. Fal I Ing head and constant head tests A very cunprehenslve dlscusslon on fal I Ing head and constant head permeablllty testing Is glven by tforsley(l79) and a few of t h e points which a r e directly r e l e v a n t t o t h e p r e s e n t dlscusslon are sumnarlzed on page 6.12.

6.9

Watertable or phreat ic surface

Flow lines

Ll -!-I
, cquipotsntirl

Equipotent ial I ines

ih

Figure 6.7 : Two-dimensional flow net in a slope.

F i g u r e 6.8 : E l e c t r i c a l analogue f o r t h e s t u d y o f a n i s o t r o p i c g r o u n d w a t e r f l o w a n d d r a i n a g e p r o b l e m s l’l.

6.8

Louls(l70) p o l n t s o u t t h a t equation (33) o n l y a p p l i e s t o lamln a r f l o w t h r o u g h p l a n a r p a r a l l e l f i s s u r e s a n d t h a t I t gives rise to slgnlf tcant errors If the flow velocity Is hlgh enough for turbulrnt flow to occur, If the flssure surfaces are rough o r I f t h e fissures ere inf Illed. LOUIS l fsts n o ferer t h a n 8 equations to describe flow under various condltlons. Equat Ion (33) gives t h e highest equivalent permeeblllty coefflclent. T h e lowest equivalent permeabl I Ity coeff Iclent, for an Inf 1 I led fissure system, Is given by

w h e r e kf Is t h e permeablllty c o e f f i c i e n t o f t h e InfIllIng me terlal, and &, I s t h e perwablllty c o e f f i c i e n t o f t h e i n t a c t r o c k . (Note that kr has been Ignored In equation (33) since It uII I bo v e r y m a l l a s compared ulth p e r m e a b l l l t y o f o p e n jolnts). An aamplr o f t h e appllcatlon o f equation (33) t o a r o c k m a s s rlth t w o athogonal jofnt s y s t e m s Is given I n Figure 6 . 6 . T h l s s h o w s a maJor joint s e t I n uhlch t h e joint openlng &I I s 0 . 1 0 an and the spacing between joints Is b/ - 1 m. The equivalent permeablllty k/ p a r a l l e l t o t h e s e Joints I s kf = 8 . 1 x ~O-~UII/ sec. The minor Joint s e t h a s a speclng bz = 1 J o l n t p e r m e t e r and an openfng q = 0.02 cm. T h e equivalent p e r m e a b l l l t y o f t h l s s e t I s kt - 6 . 5 x lo-1 an/set., I.e. mffe than two orders of magnitude smaller than the equivalent permeabl I Ity of the maJor joint s e t . Clearly the groundwater flow pattern and the dralnage characterlstlcs of a rock mass In which these two joint sets occur w o u l d b e slgnlflcantly I n f l u e n c e d b y t h e orlentatlon o f t h e joint s e t s . Flow nets T h e g r a p h l c a l representation o f groundwater f l o w I n a r o c k o r sol1 mass Is known as a flow net and a typlcal example Is II lustrated I n Flgure 6 . 7 . Several features of this f low net are worthy of conslderatlon. Flow Ilnes are paths followed by the the saturated rock or sol I. water In flowing through

Equlpotentlal Ilnes a r e lines J o l n l n g p o i n t s a t uhlch t h e t o t a l head h Is the sune. As shown In Figure 6.7, the water level Is the rune In boreholes or standplpes rhlch terminate at points A and B on the sane equlpotentlal IIne. Water prossurer at polnts A and B are not the same sl rice, according to equation (321, the total head h Is given by the sum of the pressure head P/&, and the elovat ton z of the measuring point above the reference datum. The water pressure Increases ulth depth along an equlpotentlal line as shown In Figure 6.7. A c o m p l e t e dlscusslon o n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o r computation o f f l o w n e t s axceeds t h e s c o p e o f th I s b o o k a n d t h e I n t e r e s t e d reader Is referred to the amprohenslve texts by Cedergren(l66) a n d Haar(173) f o r f u r t h e r details. Tradltlonal g r a p h l c a l

6.7

J.601

0.01 0.005 J o i n t o p e n i n g c - ems.

Figure 6.5:

I n f l u e n c e o f j o i n t o p e n i n g e a n d j o i n t s p a c i n g b on the permeability coefficient k in the direction of a set of smooth parallel joints in a rock mass.

J*Gnr 8ez 1
= 8.1 x 10

-2

mdsec

Figure 6.6: ldealised r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f tw0 orthogonal joint systems in a rock mass. The spacing of both sets is 1 j o i n t p e r m e t e r . The j o i n t o p e n ing el of set 1 is 0.10 cm and for It is set 2 is l 2 = 0.02 cm. a s s u m e d t h a t t h e r e i s n o crossflow from one joint set to the other.

k2

= 6 . 4 x 10

-4

CVl/88C

6.6

Figure 6.4: Definition of permeability in terms of Darcy’s l aw Q‘CA (h, - h2) 2

where Q is the amount of water flowing through the sample in unit time, k is the coefficient of permeability A is the cross-sectional area of the sample (hl - hg) i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n w a t e r t a b l e elevation between the ends of the sample 2 is the length of the sample.

TABLE V - PERMEABILITY COEFFICIENTS FOR TYPICAL ROCKS AND SOILS

k-

Om/SSC

Intact rook
Slate Doiomi te Gran i te

Ruatwed rock

soi 1
Homogeneous c I l y below zone of weathering

lo-lo

Clay-filled joints

Very fine sands, organic and inorganic silts, mixtures of sand and clay, giacia till. stratified clay depos i ts

Jointed rock Clean sand, clean sand and gravel mixtures

Open-jointed rock

Heavi iy fractured rock

Clean gravel

for pure water at ZO*C) . Figure 6 .1. 0 1 0 1 aG/sec. be sensltlve t o s t r e s s .166. As shown In Flgure 6. Maini(172) and others and the reader who wishes to pursue this canplex subject is assured of many happy hours of reading. me pernnsabl I I ty of a rock mass WI I I.z). Hence ft/year where &Is the density of water. Sharp(l711. the permesbl I I ty can be cons ldersb I y higher because these dlscontlnultles act as channels for the water f low.5 a b o v e a r e f e r e n c e d a t u m a n d t h e quantity o f w a t e r f l o r l n g t h r o u g h t h e sunple I n a unit o f time Is Q . l e n g t h p e r unit tlmo. therefore. flsrures or o t h e r d l s c o n t l n u l t l e s . t h e p r o b l e m i s s i m p l i f i e d to that of the determination of the equivalent permeabi I ity of a planar array of parallel smooth cracks(l70). The flow of water through fissures in rock has been studied in g r e a t d e t a i l b y Huitt(l681. The permeability parallel to this array is given by: where g e b y = gravltatlonal acceleration ( 9 8 1 cm/sec. = open1 ng of cracks or f Issures = spacing between cracks and I s t h e coefflclent o f klnematlc vlscoslty ( 0 .e. For the purposes of this discussion.0328 . Snow(1691. I.167): Pemeability converi3ion table To convert cm/set MuZtiply by to: Meters/min u/aec I 0. The equivalent permeabl I Ity k of a paral lel array of cracks w l t h different openings I s p l o t t e d In Figure 6 . . Substltutlon of dlmonslons for the terms In equation (31) shows that the permeab1 I Ity coefflclent k has the same dlnenslons as the discharge velocity V .S shows that the total head h can be expressed In terms of the pressure p at the end of me sample and the height L above a reference datum. t h e coefflclent o f permeabIllty o f t h l s susple I s deflned as(165. Since this oponlng c h a n g e s with stress.600 104 0.034 x lo6 ft/sec ft/min where V Is the discharge velocity. h Is t h e height t o whfch t h e r a t e r l e v e l rises I n a borrhole standpipe. 5 which s h o w s that the permeabl I Ity of a rock mass Is very sensl t Ive to the openlng of dlscontlnultles. Permeabl I Ity of jolnted rock Tab I e V shows that the permeabl I Ity of Intact rock Is very low and hence poor dralnage and low dlschwge would normally be expected In such material. Louis(l701.6. If me rock Is dlscontinuous a s a r e s u l t o f m e p r e s e n c e o f J o l n t s . On the other hand.5. T h e dlmenslon m o s t amsaonly used I n groundwater studies I s centlmoters p e r s e c o n d a n d t y p l c a l ranges of permeablllty ooefflcfents for rock and soil are glvon In Table V.966 1. According to Dsrcy’s l a w .

2: Conf incd.3: Solution channel in limestone. The hydraulic conductivity of such a channel would be very high as compared w i t h t h e p e r m e a b i l i t y o f t h e Intact r o c k or of other dircontinuities and it would have a major influence on the groundwater flow pattern in a rock mass. F i g u r e 6.Perched w a t e r .6. A f t e r D a v i s a n d d e wicst’6J.4 . watertables Figure 6. u n c o n f i n e d a n d p e r c h e d w a t e r i n a s i m p l e s t r a t i g r a p h i c sequence of sandstone and shale. .

6. .1 : Simplified representation of a hydrologic cycle showing sane typical sources of groundwater.3 . Surface runoff L Spring lransplrarlon 4 ’ Figure 6.

b e c a u s e o f t h e v e r y I m p o r t a n t I n fluence of water pressure on slope stabll Ity.4. preclpltatlon I n t h e c a t c h m e n t a r e a I s a n I m p o r t a n t source of groundrater. pertlculerly I f t h e permeabl llty o f t h e r o c k m a s s I s highly In extreme cases. b. Frequent rain t t The hydrologic cycle t + I A slmpllfled hydrologic c y c l e I s illustrated I n Figure 6 .6. . The sample has a cross-sectlonal area of A and a length / .2 Groundratu flow In rock ~sses There ere two posslblr approaches to obtalnlng data on water pressure dlstrlbutlons wlthln a rock mass: a . Direct m e a s u r e m e n t o f w a t e r l e v e l s I n b o r e h o l e s o r rel Is or of water pressure by means of plezometers Ins t a l l e d In b o r e h o l e s . just as It Is Important to consider the reglonal geology of an area when starting the design on a hlghuay.2. but other sources cannot be Ignored. the hydraulic conductlvlty of such a channel would be so hlgh as annpared with other parts of the rock mass t h a t t h e conventlonal picture o f a g r o u n d w a t e r f l o w p a t t e r n w o u l d p r o b a b l y b e I n c o r r e c t I n t h e c a s e o f a s l o p e I n which such features occur. Water levels In boreholes at l lthw end of this sample are at heights /J. reservoirs gr l a k e s c a n b e s l g n l f l c a n t . C l e a r l y . Obvlously. Because of the large number of factors uhlch control the groundwater flow pattern In a particular rock mass. movement of groundrater may be concentrated In open fissures OT channels In the rock mass and there may be no clearly Identlflable wator t a b l e . 1 t o show sane typ Ica I sources of gounduater In a rock mass. These exaples anphaslze the extreme Importance of conslderlng the geology of the site when l stlmatlng water table levels or when Intorpretlng water pressure measurements. Def lnltlon of penneabl I Ity Consider a cyllndrlcal sample of sol I or rock beneath the water table In a slope as Illustrated In Flgure 6. The photograph reproduced In Flgure 6. It Is only possible t o h l g h l l g h t t h e g e n e r a l p r l n c l p l e s u h l c h m a y a p p l y and to leave the reader to decide what comblnatlons of these prlnclples Is relevant to his speclflc problem. and& Infrequent rain + t Semi-dusert Aftar &vi8 wui De b’i~et~~~.3 shows a solutfon channel of about 1 Inch In diameter In llmestone. It Is sssentlal that the best possible estimates of these pressures should be avallable b e f o r e a detalled stab11 Ity analysis I s a t t e m p t e d . Deductlon o f t h e ovwal I groundwater f l o w p a t t e r n f r o m conslderatlon of the permesblllty of the rock mass and sources of groundwater. both methods abound ulth practical dlfflcultles b u t . Groundwater movement from adj a c e n t river s y s t e m s . Hence. the anlsotroplc as suggested in Flgure 6. so It Is Important to conslder the reglonal groundwater pattorn when estlnatlng probable g r o u n d r a t e r d l s t r l b u t l o n s a t a particular site. as suggested In the sketch opposite. Thls figure Is Included to mphaslze the fact that groundwater can and does travel consIderable distances through a rock mass. As will be shown In this chapter.

d. b. Water pressure reduces the stab1 I I ty of the slopes by reducing t h e s h e a r s t r e n g t h o f potential falluro s u r faces as described on pages 2. By f a r the most Important effect of the presence of groundwator I n a r o c k m a s s I s t h e reduction I n stab11 Ity rerultlng f r o m water pressures wlthln the dlscontlnultles In the rock. . Eroslon of both surface sol Is and fissure Inf I I I Ing o c c u r s a s a r e s u l t o f t h e velocity o f f l o w o f groundwater. During c o n s t r u c t l o n t h e r e will b e t h e dlfflcultles o f o p e r a t l n g h e a v y equlpnent on wet ground and blasting costs are Increased by wet blast holes. C. permeability and pressure.6 and 2.8). Freezl ng of surface water o n s l o p e s c a n b l o c k d r a l n a g e p a t h s resulting I n a build-up of water pressure In the slope with a consequent decrease In stablllty. L l q u e f a c t l o n I s crltlcally I m p o r t a n t I n t h e design o f f o u n d a t l o n s a n d soll fills a n d I t I s d e a l t with I n t h e references numbered (159-162) Ilsted at the end of thls chapter. It wll I not be consldered further In this book since It does not play a slgnlflcant part In control IIng the stablllty of rock slopes. Water prossure I n tenslon c r a c k s o r slmllar n e a r vertical flssuros rc duces s t a b l l l t y b y lncreaslng t h e f o r c e s tondlng t o I n duce slldlng (page 2.6. Discharge of groundwater from slopes above a hlghway can glve rise to Increased maintenance costs as a result of pavement deterloratlon and the need for hlgher capacity dralnage systems. can cause a c c e l e r a t e d weathering with a rosultlng decrease I n stablllty. T h l s eroslon c a n g l v e rise t o a reduction I n stablllty and also to slltlng up of dralnage systems. T h l s chapter Is concerned with methods for estlmatlng or measuring these water pressures.1 Chapter 6 Groundwater flow. L l q u e f a c t l o n o f o v e r b u r d e n solls or fll I s c a n o c c u r when water pressure wlthln the material rises to the polnt where the upl Ift forces exceed the weight of the sol I. particularly shales. Changes In molsturo content of some rock.7. Methods for lncludlng these water pressures Into stablllty calculations a r e d e a l t with I n l a t e r c h a p t e r s o f this b o o k . e. Thls can occur If dralnage channels are blocked o r I f t h e s o l I s t r u c t u r e undergoes a s u d d e n v o l u m e change as can happen under earthquake mdltlons. Intro&&Ion The presence of groundwater In the rock mass ln a slope above a hfghway has a detrImental effect upon stab1 llty for the followIng reasons: a. f. Freezlng of groundwater during winter can cause wedging In rater-f I I led fissures due to temperature dependent volume changes In the Ice. H l g h m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t r e s u l t s I n a n I n c r e a s e d unit weight of the rock and hence g I ves r I se to Incrossed haulage costs during constructlon.

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N. E. Trans. England. Progressive caving induced by mining an inclined ore body.B. Evaluation of properties of rockfill materials. A r i z o n a . 941. p a g e s log-200 138. Proc.V. Puerto Rico. WHITMAN. E d i t e d b y R. 2. lat. Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. Gong.. I. L o n d o n . and BAILEY. pages 57-68. 3 r d Inht.. V o l . 1970. pages 475-498. a n d L U N D E . Toronto.. 1970. B I E N I A W S K I . W. 151.V. N. A. ASCE. 150. p a g e s Al33-Al39. and HOEK. Ceornechanics c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f r o c k m a s s e s a n d i t s a o o l i c a t i o n i n t u n n e l l i n o . State of t h e a r t r e p o r t . Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division. Edition. K . No.5. COATES. Rock’Mech. p a g e s 95-114. 7th Intnl. Vancouver. F?vc. In hhbankment Dwn Engineering . Berkeley. Geok@caz . M and STUBBINS. 142. J. F. 143. 1962. A.!iOdeQi of hOk?a Abstract8 With tigrm8.B.Caeagrande Volume. P u b l i s h e d b y J. Pima C o u n t y . Vol.W.N. pages 189-236.D. ASCE. Intn2. R . lg74. Vol.K and SEED. r4mm11. HAHEL.Wiley b S o n s . 2. T . 1974. Trans. p a g e s 239-256. SoiZ Meckanics and Foundation Division. J. Proc. Stability of natural slopes and embankment foundations. K i m b e r l e y p l t s l o p e f a i l u r e . Rock Meckanics. 145. Conference on SoiZ Mechanics. Tke measurement of soil properties in the triaxial test. CYENCE.43 1 3 7 .C. J. pages 117-127.J.and HUTCHINSON. 83. 2. Vol. W I L K I N S . J . Institution of Mining and M e t a l l u r g y . R . C. 1965. 1971. 147. 98. J .. No. pages 291-340. 133. JAEGER. Vol. Conference on StubiZity in open Pit Mining. D. 1 9 7 2 . Vol. J. Rock Mechanics. 1 4 1 . Proc.Hirrchfeld a n d S. Engineering classification of rock masses for the design of tunnel support. 93. A theory for the shear strength of rockfill. 79. 2nd. a d i s u s e d l i m e s t o n e q u a r r y f a c e i n t h e Hendip H i l l s . Vol. Rock Mechanics Symposium. J. E. T h e Pima m i n e s l i d e . Vol. J. V o l lli. 1970. 1973. 1972. Slope stability studies at Knob Lake. 1 9 7 4 . H. pages AlOg-A132. 1967. 6. Published by Edward Arnold.A. Published by AlME. N e w Y o r k . 148.C. HAHEL.D. p a g e s 3 5 . page 335. HARSAL.Poulos. 1969. 1970. Estimating the stability of excavated slopes in opencast mines. 0. D e n v e r . J . The behaviour of closely jointed rock. BISHOP. E. London.V. HOEK. SKEMPTON. R. J. Mexico. Vol. Proc. .4 6 .J. 146. 11th Symposium on Rock Mechanics. Use of computers for slope stability analysis. pages 205-222. CHAN. London. 5. 4 t h Panamerican Conference on Soil Meckanice and Foundation Engineering. L I E N . Proc. A study of the stability of ROBERTS. 144. Z . 140.W and HENKEL. Mechanical properties of rockfill. BARTON. New Y o r k . HOEK. 149.

11th Syqoosiurr on Rock Mechanics. 131. 1980. pages 94-101. M a d r i d . p a g e s 1317-1934. 1963. 9 6 . Societ of Mintng Engineers. E. S a m p l i n g a n d t e s t i n g Geotechnique. E. Soil Mechanic8 anti Foundation.916.18. p a g e s 147-157. T a i w a n . . TntyL. BRAY. interlocked low-porosity aggregate. a n d FAGERSTROtl. 1965. Confereme OI? Soil Mechanics and Foundatton Engineering.C. !lin.S.T.778. a n d CUERREIRO. Proc. Geotechnical Engineering Div. L a r g e s c a l e s h e a r t e s t s . 1969. in d e s i g n i n g s l o p e s a n d t u n n e l s i n h e a v i l y j o i n t e d proc. Sroc. ~0. 1969. 1867. J. P. . 4 t h Intni. Mode! lversuche zur Klarung der Bruchgefahr geklufteter Medien. McRORIE. p a g e s 113-136 a n d 187-216. . 1980. p a g e s 43-90. 8t2 intYi. i/m&w-ground Escavations in HOEK. E . Vo1 2 . 127. P u b l i s h e d b y t h e I n s t . No. J . 1980. . p a g e s 1 3 3 .rms . on weathered rock. properties of an G e o t e c h n i q u e . S h e a r s t r e n g t h o f r o c k m a s s e s a t t h r e e S p a n i s h d a m s i t e s . Division. 126.1g. 133. of soft rocks with weak layers. A study of jointed and fractured rock. E. 106. ~01. UNOERWOOO. E. 128. The mechanical ROSENGREN. ASCE.T . Rock mechanical properties of rocks. L .1 3 9 . Empirical strength criterion HOEK. 135. J. L. p a g e s 3 1 7 . 1 9 6 8 . MULLER. COATES. V o l . Ii. 527 p a g e s . and PACHER. JOHN. S u p p l e m e n t 2. Rock Mechanic8 an2 Engineering Ceolopy. Congress on Large Da. Rock M8ChUnic8 Symposium. Strength of models of rock with intermittent joints. ~01.W. New laboratory methods of studying the Intnl. J.J. BROWN. Vo1. Civil engineering approach to evaluate strength and deformability of regularly jointed rock.eoZog_u.1. K. a n d S T U B B I N S .6.C. Proc. for rock masses. MechaniC8 and Mining Sciences. pages 23-47. N O . Chalk foundations at four major dams in the Missouri River Basin. 132. BERNAIX. p a g e s 69-80. K. E. E d i n b u r g h . J . p a g e s 193-199. SERAFIM.E. 136. of pit slides in some incompetent rocks. No. Rock Mechanics and Engineering (. T a i p e i .L.3 2 8 .. E U R E N I U S .5. D. B .1. pages 7-24.T.K. A. 134. 1969. and BROWN. L o n d o n .3. 130. An empirical strength criterion and its use HOEK. H.42 123. B . V o l . L . London. J. J. Berkeley. 1964. 125.W.968. and JAEGER.L.. Metall. GllZ.5. GT8.T. Rock ..g&t &&noeri~. 1 9 5 7 . Sixth Southeast A8iWI caf. Vol. vo1. SCHULTZE. Vol. 124. E. Analysis Trans. and BROWN.. J . 129. p a g e s tO13-1035.1. 1970. J.

1 7 . . S h e a r strenqth KRSMNDVIC.H.1966. . Conference on Stubility in open Pit Mining. SKEWPTON. A m e t h o d u s e d f o r a n Trans. V a n c o u v e r .4 Dam thereon. 114. p a g e s 2 6 5 . S o m e r e c e n t r o c k m e c h a n i c s Trims. conventional tests on rock properties and design of Kurobegwa No. and HULLER-KIRCHENBAUER. Clay mylonites in English STIMPSON. Ii.1 7 9 . for Rock Mechanics.7 7 9 . t!. LEUSSINK.2. No. A . 1st congress Intnl. Oslo. Vol. Proc. Geotechnical c a u s e d b y geological f e a t u r e s .1 0 2 1 . 1st Intnl. 1 9 6 7 . I . S o c i e t y f o r R o c k models. O . S . pages 295-299. Oslo. a n d BRO0KER. p a g e s 4 9 5 . Water Power.W. p a g e s 2 1 9 . 1 9 6 4 .raZ Oslo. 1971. p8QeS 1 7 2 . Vol. and WALTON. D . The strength along d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s I n s t i f f c l a y s .C.4 6 . 18 t. p a g e s 9 9 5 . 1967. S .GeotechnicaZ Conference on shear strength properties of nuturaz soih a n d r o c k s . Large Dams. H. Proc. 1967. 116. Vo1.21. D. K . projects. pages 205-226. L i s b o n . D . Assoc. Geotechnical Conference on shear blocks. H. a n d SAPEGIN. Proc. Society for Rock Mechanics. 122. pages 537-542. C o n g r e s s a L a r g e testinp i n S p a i n . Congress on in situ bedrock shear test.W. P u b l i s h e d b y AIHE.1. a n d M A C K E N Z I E . T h e s h e a r s t r e n g t h of Edmonton shale. A. of rock masses and possibilities of its reproduction on Proc.41 110. 1 9 6 9 . coal m e a s u r e s . 1 9 7 0 .D. p a g e s 2 9 . 1 9 7 0 . Vol.2 6 9 . 1 9 6 6 . 2. Vo1. mass depending upon the displacements of the test Proc. Engineering Geology. D . Determinati o n o f t h e s h e a r s t r e n g t h b e h a v i o u r o f s l i d i n g planes Proc. A l a r g e . and PETLEY.1. Vol. Vol. GeotechnicaZ Conference on 111. E d i n b u r g h .J. Vol. a n d URIEL. S I N C L A I R . B e l g r a d e . 1 9 6 4 .5 1 2 .2 5 2 . O s l o . p a g e s 13881393. PIGOT. E d i n b u r g h . P .4. TUFO. Dms . 115. T h e sliding s t a b i l i t y o f d a m s .1. Lisbon. pages 99-103.1.D. J . 112.2. No. p a g e s 135-139. Proc.1. shear properties of natural soils and rocks. 5 . EVDOKIMDV. L I N K . lat. Mechanics. a n d P O P O V I C . 117. H. Vol. Edinburgh. Society shear test on rock. D . R .1. N e w Y o r k . 1 9 6 4 .s c a l e f i e l d Proc. 2nd Congress IntnZ. Intnl. pages 7 7 3 .3. B. Rock test in situ. Vol. pages 131-137. Conference on shear strength properties of natu. &'OC. V o 1 .1. 8Oiii8 Old PO&S. NOSE. 1 9 7 0 . IntnZ. 113.5. 119 120. Trans.1. G. Vol. Intni!. h. C . strength properties of natural soils ad rocks. Large scale field tests KRSMANOVIC. Ccngrese IntnZ. and LANGDF. cOPl@-e88 of the shear strength of limestone. Congress on Large Dams. SALAS. Intnl. 1968. P a r i s . 118. N o . Case studies of stability on mining BRAWNER. Variations in the shear strength of a rock DROZD. J . 121. 2 . P a p e r 3 .E.

98.R. 103. p a g e s 611-645. Vo1. Trans. Rock Mechanbcr. 1961..A.B R O W N . H . p a g e s 55-70. 1 9 7 1 . symposiwn on P&nning Open Pit Mines. J.3 4 1 . Proc. M a d r i d . 1 9 7 2 . 104. 1971. pages 1 2 9 . Q u a r t e r l y J.1 5 3 . S a n t a M o n i c a . R o c k Hechanics c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t h e design of concrete dams. Amsterdam. D . A . R. 105. Vol. Technical Report No. J. Intn2.A and CHANDRA. A . BARTON. a n d N I E B L E . 7 4 . Some engineering aspects of rock weathering with field e x a m p l e s f r o m Dartmoor a n d e l s e w h e r e . T h e p o i n t . J .4. 1971. 1968. Engineering classifiD E E R E . B a l k e m a . . vo1. O . B A R T O N . P. In press. A m s t e r d a m . 1977. 97. South Aftioan Institute of Mining and materials. Intn2. 1 9 6 6 . Proc. AFNL-TR-65-116 Air Force weapons L a b o r a t o r y . 1 9 7 5 . p a g e s 669-697. 1 9 7 4 . V o l 9. slope theory. D . Engineering Geology. 1964. 1974. 8th International Congress on . Froc. A quantitative classification of the HAMROL. A .?. BROCH. p a g e s 771-774. J. A review of the shear strength of filled discontinuities in rock. The Slake-durability Intnl. DEARHAN. 100. E d i n b u r g h . p a g e s 3 1 2 . California. 106. 107.R a n d C H O U B E Y . Johannesburg. Balkema. Intnl. L . test.1 6 9 .A. J. Z . P . R O B E R T S O N . pages 33-53.P. 38 pages. Estimating the strength of rock J. Metu12urgy. p a g e s 1 5 9 . N. N. Conference on Soi Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. D. Conference on State of Stress in the Earth's Crust. HlDEA. Norwegian Ceotechnica2 Institute Publication No. A portable shear box for testing rock joints.40 96. a n d F R A N K L I N . and MILLER. Rock Mechanics. T .N. 1 9 6 4 . Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences. Proc. . 99. 108. cation and index properties for intact rock.3 2 0 . P u b l i s h e d b y Elsevier. w e a t h e r i n g a n d w e a t h e r a b i l i t y o f r o c k s . p a g e s 3 2 5 . E . a n d W A L T O N . RUIZ. 5 t h Paris. Proc. Geological factors significant to the s t a b i l i t y o f s l o p e s c u t i n r o c k .5. ROCHA. U . Vol. 101. T h e s h e a r s t r e n g t h o f r o c k joints in theory and practice.9.R. . Rock Mechanics Symposium. SERAFIH.7. J .urge Dams. 109. W. and FRANKLIN.1. N e w Hexico. F . pages 139-185.2.l o a d s t r e n g t h test. P u b l i s h e d b y A . V o l . G. Symposium on Pkmning open Pit Mines. H. Johannesburg. H . Pub1 i shed by A. 105.R.3.N.C. 1972.8 3 1 . Rock Mechanic8 and Mining Sciences. T h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f g e o l o g i c a l factors for use ir. N e w Y o r k . No. PITEAU. IntnZ. A. CAt4ARG0. Mechanical behaviour of rock foundations in cone re te dams. BIENIAWSKI. Some considerations regarding the shear strength of rock masses. 1 0 2 . M . R O S S . FOOKES. C . Vol. A.F. FRANKLIN. . V . p a g e s 7 8 5 .

Montreal. V o l . Verijff. Review of a new shear strength criterion for rock joints. Rock Mechanics in E d i t e d b y K. D . Symposiwn on Rook Mechanics. a n d A R C H A H B A U L T . Vol. 1. C. Proc. 1970. 4 7 . BRAWNER. Imperial slopes. 13th and interpreting in-situ shear tests. New York. a n d Proc. VI. a n d S H A R P . Evaluation de la r e s i s t a n c e a u c i s a i l l w n t d ’ u n massif r o c h e u x fragmentC. V o l . Paper 1-8. M A R T I N . Roughness and friction properties of Thesi8. p a g e 2 5 7 . Hochschule separation planes in rock. ASCE. Nancy. Soil Mech. 24th International GeoZogicaZ Congress. Foumiation Div. University of London. p a g e s 5 3 5 . pages 287-332. FAIRHURST. published by AlHE. I n . B .R. S i m u l a t i o n o f s h e a r behaviour of a jointed rock mass. J .R. HDEK. InternationaZ Society for Rock Mechanics. Proc. . 1971.C. ASCE. 1968. N.Jr. a n d M I L L E R . 8.Wiley. C . 86. and ARCHAHBAULT. joint shear strength. 1972. L . Proc. Proc. IntnZ. F . L o n d o n . B. RUIZ.Zienkiewicz.Stagg a n d O. Hethods o f p e r f o r m i n g Proc. Sciences. L .5. ASC. IntexnationaZ Symposia on Rock Fracture. H . BARTON. ? . Karlsruhe. Coefficient of friction of natural rock surfaces. H A V E R L A N D . 88.R. 9 6 (Stl2). J . RENCERS. 89. rock. Thesis. PAULDING.D.W. Third Congress istics of a weathered rock. 84. 13th Symposium on Rock Mechanics.5 4 6 . 1972. 520 pages. 1970. J .39 Chapter 5 references 82. Fredericiana. J o i n t s t r e n g t h c h a r a c t e r Proc. G . V o l . N.2A. A relationship between joint roughness and 90. 1971. P . 1 9 6 4 . a n d L O P E S . L . J . 8 5 . R . Denver.F J. N. J. 1973. 1 9 7 1 .s i t u s h e a r t e s t s a n d triaxial tests on foundation rocks of concrete dams. PENTZ. C. Engineering Practice. 1 9 7 4 . A model study of the behaviour of excavated Ph. L i s b o n . pages 105-125. E n g i n e e r i n g G e o l o g y .3 9 4 . Inst. N. Proc. CAHARGD. 1972. Brittle failure of rock. page 533. A large scale field test on Fir8t Congress of the InternationaZ Society for Rock Mechanics. 5th InternatiomZ Conference on SoiZ Mechanics and Foundation Engineering.G. M. 91. p a g e s 263-270. E. BARTON. LADANYI.2 6 0 . Rock Mechanics ad Mining brittle materials. V o l . Stability 9 5 . . s t u d i e s o f a footwall s l o p e i n l a y e r e d c o a l d e p o s i t . E . 9 3 . 83. pages 329-365. 94. a n d S L E B I R .. B. pages 99-124. pages 107-137. LANDANYI. Felsmcch. S e c t i o n 13D. 1 2 9 p a g e s . P u b l i s h e d b y J. J . 1961. p a g e s 2 4 9 . Vl. College of Science and Technology. SERAFIM. Tech. G. Elscvier. Vol. 11th Symposium a Rock Mechanics. BARTON. C . Paris. Proc. D . France. 1966. 9 2 . p a g e s 3 8 5 . On t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e B r a z i l i a n t e s t f o r 87. Bodenmech.

Note .38 Figure 5.35 that rubber gloves should be worn when working with component liquids and with unset pkmtic foam. Metcalfe and Ua 1 ton1 5a.5.20 : Preservation of fragile rock core in foamed plastic as d e s c r i b e d b y S t i m p s o n . Steps are described in the text on paw 5.

.5. P h o t o g r a p h r e p r o d u c e d w i t h p e r m i s s i o n o f P i e r r e Londe.19 : Wire-sawing a shear specimen from the sidewall of a t u n n e l a s d e s c r i b e d b y Londeel. C o y n e a n d Bcllier.37 Figure 5. F r a n c e .

5. .18 rock specimens for : Wire-sawing technique for samplin s h e a r t e s t i n g . d e s c r i b e d b y Londe Il.36 Figure 5. S e e t e x t f o r d e t a i l s .

18. soma s l o p e stsblllty englnms have u s e d large dlc mond core blts (8 to 10 Inches.T h e f o a m s e t s I n approxlmetoly 10 alnutas aftof which t h e mould Is stripped end me rods rtthdrrmn. m ucollort samples have been obtalned rlth equlpment of this type. Thasa blos are large enough to accawtodate mal I wheels rhlch change the dlrectlon o f t h e rlre. It has a great deal of mlt slnce rlro-raring I s one of the gent lest rock cutt Ing processor and.5. when a rough Joint Is b ted. Step 4 .The mould.20 and the steps are dascrlbod klow Step 1 . conslstlng of a plastic pipe split along Tts wls. Wire cuts are tie between ho108 A-b.18 a n d 5. the length of core uhlch ten be obtained using such l ryrir 1s I lmlted to the length of the me barrrl which can be supported b y t h e r l g a n d . marked A. Metcelfo a n d Walton(l58) can be used to protect the core during shlpwnt abd t o p r e v e n t l o s s o f In s l t u moisture. FInally.19. the rods crrrylng the deflectlon wheels are ulthdram so that the base of the spoclmen. B-C and C-D and then the rear face of the speclm Is cut free by passing the wire through the side end top cuts and cutting between holes A and D as Illustrated In Flguro 4. ml10 this procars wy appear complex.T h e c o r e Is revved J u s t beforo tntlng b y CUttIn@ the foam with a coarseA’oothed mood new. when the rear face has been cut free. 6. ( 0 . Four holes. Thls may not always be possible and. I n o r d e r t o o v e r c o m e t h e size 1lmltetlon o f norme dlword drlli c o r e . between holes A and D. small samples should only be used b fest Infillod or planar jolnts which do not suffer from roughness l ffocts. a technique descrlbod b y Stlmpson. the effect of surface roughness must bo assessed end IIl o w e d f o r I n t h e Interpretstlon o f the t o r t r e s u l t s . .35 ma1n drawback to such samples Is their rlro snd this n8en8 tit the Influence of surface roughness must be autrldwod sopur)t ‘Y. the specimen can be recovered rlth vary iltt10 dIsturbam. Londe(61) h a s described t h e u s e o f a rlro sew f o r spoclwn recovery a n d this technique Is I I lustrated I n Flguros 5. I s p r e p a r e d t o recelvo t h e core. Is plated en the supportlng rods and the end spacers uo l djusted to the length of the core. When sampling rock cores which drterloreto very rapidly on exposure. wapped I n alulnlun f o l I . T h l s tochnlque I s lllr strated In Figure 5. rl th ewe. I n spite o f this IImItatIon. The ggro Is supported on thin metal rods hold In drlllod spacers. Is cut free. Ideally. I n generel. 200 to 2SD I) muntod on concrete coring rigs which are bolted to the rock face. Step 2 . C and D In Flguro 5.T h e u p p e r h a l f o f t h e muld I s flxed In place rfth a d j u s t a b l e s t e e l b a n d s e n d polyurothano for Is poured through the access slot. 5 t o 1 m). this 1 s o f t h e order o f l-l/2 t o 3 f t . Obviously. Step 5 .T h e c o r e . Step 3 .16 YO drllled along the top and botiom edges of the spoclm.

This value Is then used. shear test samples can be prepared by diamond saw cutting and then lappI n g t h e s u r f a c e s w i t h a c o a r s e grit.5. to calculate the shear streng t h o f m e r o c k joint b y m e a n s o f B a r t o n ’ s equation (26 on page 5. T h e f a u l t g e n e r a l l y Iles ulth t h o s e responsible f o r planning t h e Tnvestlgatlon a n d with t h e low prlorlty allocated to shear strength testing. using double or triple-tube equipment. The fault seldom lfes with the geologists In such cases since they are slmp I y dol ng the best possl b le job with the resources avallable. together with surface roughness and joint compressive strength measurements. e . In the case o f a crltlcal s l o p e .4 on page 5. T h e a u t h o r s f e e l v e r y s t r o n g l y t h a t p o o r qua1 Ity s h e a r t e s t s are worse than no shear tests at al I since the results of such tests can be extremely mlsleadlng and can give rise to ser Ious errors In slope design. When both time and money are available for hlgh qual Ity shear strength tostlng. t h e s l o p e designer h a s t o decide u p o n t h e t y p e o f t e s t which will give t h e r e s u l t s required.6). b. Uhen u s l n g t h e r e s u l t s o f a publlshed s t u d y . It may be J u s t l f l a b l e t o c a r r y o u t I n situ t e s t s slmllar t o t h a t I I luIn many cases It Is more strated In Flgure 5. It Is recommended that one of the folloulng alternatlve courses should be followed: a. the slope designer should r e t u r n t o his offlce a n d d e v o t e t h e time uhlch h e would have spent In sample collectlon and testlng to a thorough study of publ lshed papers and reports on s l o p e stab1 Ilty I n slmIlar g e o l o g i c a l environments.10. It Is also Important that a sensltlvlty study should be carrled out to determIne the Influence of shear strength varlatlons on the proposed slope design. t h e a b u t m e n t o f a bridge. g . When the fundlng or the time avallable o n a proJect I s llmlted o r w h e n c o r r e c t s a m p l e c o l l e c t l o n 1s lmposslble for some practical reason. I f t h l s Inf luence Is slgnlf Icant. When hand samples we aval lable. I t Is frequently possible to find cases which have been studled which are very slmllar to that under conslderatlon and the results presented ln such studies may well provide en adequate basis for slope design. and provided that the core size Is In excess of about 2 inches (50 -1 L reasonable samples can be obtalned from these cores. The obvious source of samples for shear strength testing Is the c o l l e c t l o n o f diamond drill c o r e s which u s u a l l y a r e aval Iable o n proJect s l t e s . observstlons or estimates. The . This r e m o v e s surface roughness effects and reduces the test to one In which t h e bsslc a n g l e o f frlctlon 16 I s determlned.7) or Ladanyl and Archabault’s equation (25 on page 5.34 does llttle for the quality of the results obtalned from tests on such samples. economlcal and more convenient to collect samples In the field for subsequent testlng In the laboratory. e x t r e m e c a r e s h o u l d b e t a k e n I n checking t h a t t h e s h e a r s t r e n g t h values were not derived from poor quality tests. It may be necessary to Insist that a few hlgh quality shear tests be carried out In order to narrow the range of possible varlatlon. tlavlng establlshed t h e g e o l o g i c a l condltlons o n site as accurately as possible. Provided that these cores have been obtalned by careful drllllng.

W h e n t h e m a t e r i a l s t o b e t e s t e d a r e s e n s i t i v e t o changes in moisture content. the authors feel t h a t s o m e ccmnents m u s t b e m a d e o n t h e q u e s t i o n o f s a m p l e c o l lection and preparation for laboratory testing. England Oahe Dam. et a l 15 16 17 18 40-100 Hoek and Richards 100-300 Mock a n d R i c h a r d s 800 Wyllie a n d Munn 19 Sample collection and preparation Before leaving the subject of shear strength. Sweden in granitic rocks 200-800 Hock 147 2.3. S p a i n Coatcs. siltstone Somerset.17 AnaZysed by Ref. Canada 250 Lev Middlebrooks Fleming. et al 13 I4 50 Hutchinson Fleming. Canada Chalk cliffs. Gyenge a n d Stubbins Whitman and Bailey 150-360 H o e k 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Ore body hanging wall Grangesberg. the specimens must be sealed after collection in order to retain the in situ moisture content. England England Pima. Because of difficulties of access. North Dakota Hong Kong Hong Kong Alberta. When the joints are infil led with clay or gouge materials.5. most samples for shear testi n g a r e c o l l e c t e d b y g e o l o g i s t s w h o s e o n l y e q u i p m e n t consists of a geological pick and a backpack. While this may do a great deal to enhance the rugged pioneering spirit of geologists. A r i z o n a Ruth. it . Pennsylvania 200 Roberts and Hoek Skempton a n d Hutchinson Hame I Hame I Hame I 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 155 155 157 157 158A Cornwall. Montana Gardiner Dam.et a l Fleming. Nevada Pittsburgh. England Fort Peck Dam. South Dakota Garrison Dam. 148 149 Maximum height and angle of excavated slopes . Canada quartzi tes Soi I Jointed porphyry R i o Tinto. 1 o n p a g e Bedding planes in 1 imestone London clay Gravelly alluvium Faulted rhyol i te Sedimentary series Koal inised granite Clay shale Clay shale Chalk Bentonite/clay Clay Weathered granites W e a t h e r e d volcanics Folded sandstone. 144 145 146 oint wnber 1 2 Materia 2 Location Slope height feet Disturbed slates and Knob Lake. From the discussion in this chapter it will be clear that samples for laboratory shear testing should be disturbed as little as possible during collection.s e e F i g u r e 2 . it is essential that this material should not be disturbed and that the two halves of the specimen should not be displaced relative to one another. The importance of the strength of the joint surface material has been emphasized and it is Important that this material be retained on the joints to be tested.33 SOURCE OF SHEAR STRENGTH DATA PLOTTED IN FIGURE I 5.

3 PO& n‘Z888S uiti! few structures dipping towaYd8 Siope soft rock masses or~joCnted hard rock disturbed by bZastinp or excess loading. Weathered Soft rock or discontin~ities in hard rock. .17 : Relationship between the friction angles and c o h e s i v e s t r e n g t h s mobilised a t f a i l u r e f o r the slope failure analyses listed in Table IV.5. soiz 8& 20 15 10 5 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Friction angle $ .degrees Figure 5.i 45 no major structural . Und<sturbed jointed 80. patterns dtpp-+7 toumds slope.32 55 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Vndisturbed hard 50 ?‘OCk VlU88e8 L+t. . CZau . 40 “E 3 5 3 : 30 f u 25 h VI 2 2 0 Undisturbed hard rock masses with no through-going 8tr%ctLcr88 dippzng tolJards 8 lope.

upper and lower bound estimates of groundwater cond 1 tlons can be made and a possl b le range of shear strength values determined by back-analysis.25 to 7. When the plane oc planes upon uhlch slldlng has occurred are c l e a r l y deflned a n d e x p o s e d . Examples of such failures are given in Figure 1.31 The simplest type of rock slope tailure on which a back-analysis can be carried out is one in which strong structural cont r o l i s e v i d e n t . Another simple form of slope failure which can be back-analyzed I s t h a t I n which t h e fal l u r e s u r f a c e I s approximately circular and It can be assumed that there are no dominant structural features Involved In the failure process. I n this c a s e . As polnted out earlier In thls chapter. Figure 5. care must be taken when applying the results obtalned from the back-analysis of a partlcular slope to the design of a slope of dlfferent dlmenslons In whtch the normal stress levels may be dlfferent.5. by sane other means such as direct shear testing In the laboratory. The most slgnlflcant unknown In these cases Is usually the water pressure dlstrlbutlon In the slope at the time of fal lure. essary to back-analyze several failures In the ssme material or to determine cne of the constants. This tangent will only glve an accurate assessment of the shear strength of the fal lure surface or zone at the normal stress level whfch exlsted durlng fat lure of the slopes back-analyzed. f r o m t h e back-analysis o f a single s l o p e In order to define both materlal constants It Is necfal lure.2). assumption I s m a d e . . In carrying out a back-analysis of slldlng on a plane or planes o r o n a n approximately circular failure s u r f a c e .8 on page 2. T h e determlnatlon o f t h e material c o n s t a n t s c and@ b y m e a n s o f back-analysis o f s l o p e f a l l u r e s I s equivalent t o determlnlng a t a n g e n t t o a curved Mohr envelope.17 Is a plot of cohesive strengths and frlctlon angles o b t a l n e d b y back-analysis o f t h e s l o p e s Ilsted I n t h e accompanylng table. t h e cohesive s t r e n g t h c a n d t h e a n g l e o f frIctIonId. t h e equations deflnlng t h e condltlon o f llmltlng equlllbrlum c a n o n l y b e solved If It Is assumed that the shear strength of the fal I ure surface or surfaces Is represented by a simple Mohr-Coulomb Even rhen this failure crlterlon (equation 10 on page 5. usually the frlctlon angle.4. Thls figure has been found to provide a useful starting point for stablllty analysis w a check on the reasonableness of assumed shear strength data.3 and Figure 2. m e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e f a l l u r e s u r f a c e g e o m e t r y by simple s u r v e y techniques together with a knowledge of the slope proflle bef o r e failure will p r o v l d e t h e basic I n f o r m a t i o n required f o r a back-analysts using one of the standard forms of analysis descrlbed In Chapter 9.30 of this book. If this cannot be estimated from avallable data. I t I s n o t possible t o determlne t h e v a l u e s for both material constants. many rough dlscontlnulty surfaces cr shear zones In closely jolnted rock masses exhlblt strongly non-linear Mohr e n v e l o p e s . The reader Is encouraged to add hls or her own points on this plot. t h e dip a n d dip dlrectlons o f these planes can be measured with a hlgh degree of accuracy and an analysis can be carried out by means of one of the technlques outllned later In this book. Consequently. A good examp le of t h l s t y p e o f a n a l y s i s I s given I n t h e s t u d y o f a l i m e s t o n e quarry slope fat lure presented on pages 7.1 on page 1.

I n view o f t h e s e dlfflcultles. This means that It may be necessary to determlne the strength character lstlcs of the Indlvldual dlscontlnulty s u r f a c e s a s w e l l a s t h a t o f t h e o v e r all rOck mass. t h e s l o p e d e s i g n e r I s stl I I faced with the task of relating these test results to the f u l l s c a l e doslgn. Shear strength detormlnatlon by back analysts of slope fat lures By this time the reador should have been convinced that the determlnatlon of the shear strength of rock surfaces or of closely Jolntod rock masses Is not a simple matter.15). It I s tempting t o c o n s i d e r t h e posslblllty o f b a c k analyzing exlstlng s l o p e failures I n o r d e r to determIne the shear strength uhlch must have been mob I I I zed In the ful I scale rock mass at the time of fal lure.HPa Figure 5. . the same ulth which roll slopes can be deslgned.30 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 N o r m a l s t r e s s 0 . This technlque h a s b e e n u s e d s u c c e s s f u l l y I n sol1 mechanics f o r m a n y decades and has contributed slgnlflcantly to the confidence WI th care.5. whrch gives the lowest factor of safety. Even when succ e s s f u l t e s t s h a v r b e e n carried o u t . Dashed Hohr envelope is for tests by Jaeger on undisturbed cores of the sam material (from Figure 5. technique c a n b e u s e d t o obtain u s e f u l d a t a f o r r o c k s l o p e deslgn.16: Hohr failure circles and fitted Mohr envelope for triaxial tests on recompacted graded samples of closely jointed andesi te from Bougainvi I le.

Note that test resu I ts such as those presented In Figures 5 .15 and represents the Mohr failure envelope for the undisturbed cores of the same materlal tested by Jaeger. as discussed earl ler In this chapter.5. such as that Illustrated In the lower mwgln photograph on page 5. In other words. If a slgnlflcant axial load has to be used In order achieve a unit weight equlvalent t o t h e I n situ u n l t w e l g h t . t h e n this t y p e o f t e s t l n g I s l n a p p r o p r l a t e a n d t h e r e s u l t s In such cases. T h l s I s d o n e b y r e m o v l n g a l l particles larger than the permltted size and by adjustlng the amount retalned on each of the smal ler sieve sizes until the gradlng curve Is parallel to that of the a-lglnal sunple. The specimens are now ready for tr laxlal testlng uhlch would normally be carried out In a drained cond l t l o n .22.16 should only be used for slope design purposes when the u s e r I s convinced t h a t t h e failure mechanism I n t h e s a m p l e I s r e p r e s e n t a t l v e o f t h a t which I s Ilkely t o o c c u r I n t h e r o c k In the case of mass In which the slope Is to be excavated.29 that all the fndlvldual pieces wlthln the chosen sample volume are collected. any water pressure which could build up In the specimen Is allowed to dlsslpate by loadlng at a sufflclently slow rate and by provldlng dralnage In the loadlng plattens. I f t h e g r a d l n g c u r v e o f t h e field s a m p l e g l v e s l a r g e r sizes t h a n this. standard sieve sire) Is removed from the sample since thls could enter volds between the larger particles and give rlse to strength characterlstlcs slmllar to those of fllled joints. and that slope failure would occur along an approximately clrcular f a i l u r e p a t h s l m l l a r t o t h a t which o c c u r s I n w a s t e r o c k fills o r soil s l o p e s . could be mlsleadlng If used for slope design. In cases In rhlch the failure mechanism which could occur In a slope Is not obvlous. The sunple Is then compacted by placlng It In layers Into a conflnlng sleeve and subjecting I t t o v l b r a t l o n a n d / o r direct a x l a l l o a d .15 and 5. the shear strength characterlstlcs of the lndlvldual planes of weakness should be determined. A gradlng curve for the sample Is obtalned by running the material through a set of sieves and welghlng the amount retalned on each sieve.S. The authors consider the two bhr envelopes glven In this figure to represent the upper and lower bounds for the shear strength of the closely jolnted andeslte In situ. Very flne material (less than 200 mesh U. Figure 5 . The dashed curve Included In thls figure has been transferred from Figure 5. If It Is suspected that faults or dominant beddlng planes or jolnts could control the slope fal lure. t h e grading curve should be scaled down. c l o s e l y j o l n t e d r o c k m a s s e s . this g e n e r a l l y m e a n s t h a t t h e failure would Involve some form of klnk band formatlon. the only safe approach to follow Is to analyze all those failure modes which are klnematlcally posslble and to base the design of the slope upon that analysis . and the slope design should be based upon a mechanism which r e c o g n l r e s t h e potential f o r failure a l o n g t h e s e p l a n e s rather than along a path of least resistance through the rock mass. T h e maxlmum particle size which should be Included In the test specimen Is about one sixteenth o f t h e diaeter o f t h e s p e c i m e n a n d . some partlc le breakage HI I I probably occur and the grading curve for the compacted material should be checked. 1 6 gives a s e t o f r e s u l t s o b t a l n e d f o r s u c h a series of tests which w e r e carried out on 6 Inch (153 mm) diameter specimens of recompacted graded andeslte from Bougalnvllle.

265.0.We 12 Q 1 101 A . + SOC2 Oc .5 m . . Minor p r i n c i p a l s t r e s s uj .316 B .14 : Relationship between axial failure stress (major principal stress 01) and confining pressure (minor principal stress 03) from triaxial tests on undisturbed cores of heavily jointed andesite tested by Jaeger142.-0.0.700 up 265.5 UPa 1 .a.277 s . 0.MPa Figure 5.15: tlohr envelope for triaxial tests on heavily Jointed l ndosi te tested by Jaoger142.20 &.0.0002 WP F i g u r e 5.00072 0 2 C 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 N o r m a l s t r e s s 0 .5.

45 3.45 m = 0.24 6. The recovery of undlsturbed samples of closely jolnted rock Is a very dlfflcult process and.24. Testing procedures should follow the guidelines s e t o u t b y B i s h o p a n d Henkel(l43) f o r t h e t r i a x i a l t e s t i n g o f soi I s . . The procedure for testing rock f 1 I I has been descrlbed by Marsal(l37) and by Marachl. may not be posslb le because of the lack of adequate fat I I It Ies.5. The core was then wrapped In thin copper sheetlng and carefully rolled over to transfer the core from the core tube Into the copper sheet which w a s then soldered to form a sealed sleeve.35 0.07 8. In many cases. f o r c o n f l n l n g p r e s s u r e s o f u p t o 3 . were tested In a tr laxial c e l l s u c h a s t h a t I l l u s t r a t e d dlagrsmmatlcally I n t h e margl n sketch on page 5. Under such clrcumstances. a r e llsted I n t h e margln and are plotted In Flgures 5.0002 A = 0. T h e correlation coefflclent of 0. 5 MPa.00 T = -0. One such ccl I was used by the Snowy Mountains Authority and i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e m a r g i n p h o t o g r a p h . The specimen ends were prepared by careful dlamond sawing through the copper sheathed core.14 and 5. Marsal(l37) h a s d e s c r i b e d the design of a very large cell to acccnmnodate 1130 mm diameter by 2500 mn high specimens. *DetermIned by regresslon analysls of trlaxlal test data on Intact andeslte core(136).15.15.82 19. These large cells are very expensive to manufacture and to operate and most laboratories use smaller c e l l s d e s i g n e d t o a c c o m m o d a t e 1 5 3 nm (6 i n c h ) d i a m o t e r c y l i n - drical samples.96 0 0. gives the fol lowlng values for the constants requlred to solve equations 29 and 30: DC = 2 6 5 .31 20. uslng the analysis presented In Appendix 1. Large trimzial cet 2 for rockA representative s a m p l e o f t h e material I s c o l l e c t e d f r o m a n exposure of the rock mass. In the laboratory.316 0 = 0.38 3. No attempt Is made to prevent the particles from falling apart but care should be taken to ensure fill testing in the Zuboratory of the Snoq Mountains Author- i t y i n Austndia.700 i2. Many civil engineering laboratories have large triaxial cells designed for testing rock fill for dams and some of these cells are suitable for tests similar to those carried out by Jaeger. the core tubes were cut careful ly along two dlaetrical ly opposlte axial lines so that one half of the tube c o u l d b e llfted o f f .07 12.27 In the Inner core tubes to Jaeger’s laboratory In Canberra. T h e r e s u l t s o b t a l n e d b y J a e g e r . the authors feel that a reasonable al ternatlve Is to approach the problem as one wou I d that of test Ing compacted r o c k fill.14 and 5. prepared In the manner descr Ibed.277 s = 0.69 1. Chan and Seed(138) and Is outllned brlefly I n t h e followlng n o t e s . 5 Wa* Tri&l test results obtained by Jaeger142 on closely jointed andeoite frcm BougainviZle. Cores.00072 Substltutlon of these values Into equations 29 and 30 define the curves plotted In Flgure 5. A. RegressIon analysls of these data.99 glven by the regresslon analysis Is reflected In the close fit of the mplrlcal curves to the test data.zial failure Cmfining stressalMPa pressure 03 Mpa T.24 1. leaving t h e undisturbed c o r e resting I n the remalnlng half of the core tube.

-0.0.-0.0005 m .50 5 .1 m .0.1.0007 m .672 T . CSIR r a t i n g 8 5 MCI r a t i n g 1 0 0 GOOD QUALITY ROCK MASS s .0.5 Tightty intelooking undisturbsd rook tith wwaathered joints at *%I.025 s .0.061 B .688 T .0.0.700 T .0.0.-0.0. CSIR rating 23 MCI rating 0.0 A .0 5 .0.0 5 .044 B .1 .369 A - 0.0002 m .05 s .00001 A m .-0.DODOl A .816 B m .01 T .0001 A .692 T .702 T .0.0.0.0 A .0.427 B .0.15.1.0.065 B .-0.0.o A .0.0.008 m = 2.0 5 .20 s .534 T .34 5 .0.26 TABLE IV - APPROXIHATE RELATIONSHIP BEWEEN ROCK MASS QUALITV AN0 EMPIRICAL CONSTANTS l a1 * a3 + hoc03 + sac2 INTACT ROCK SAMPLES Labozutory siae 8~OcTiJWl8 m .556 T .1 . 7 5 .0.0001 A .0001 m .1 A .0 A .-0.-0.0.1 .042 B .0.280 B .918 0 .3.676 T .00001 A .-0.30 5 .1 A .08 s .1.0002 m .006 m = 0.3 to lm.o A .705 T .0.0.0.739 B .0.677 T .-0.0.0003 m .O f r e e frm j o i n t s CSIR rating 100 NCI r a t i n g 5 0 0 VERY GOOD QUALITY ROCK MASS .0 A .669 T .00001 A .0.O * .-0.-0.099 m = 5.-0.346 B .0 s .003 m .007 r-0 A .09 5 .546 T .O T .0.0.295 B = 0.0.0 5 .004 A .0.-0.0.998 B .7 0.o T .0.-0.-0.5 5 .1 A .7.o A .1.0.0.-0.0.0.7.0.10. 5 s .691 T = -0.0.O joints 8paoeds 5Gmoith wwe .-0.5 s .OOODl A .013 m.115 B .017 s .0 A .5.0.-0.002 m .0.1 VERY POOR QUALITY ROCK MASS ivwnarow hu&ll( IJsath8rad .-0.0.0.0.o A .O.501 B .707 T .0.015 m .0.220 B .0001 m .0.-0.012 m.086 B . oithjointe at di&urbed A CSIR rating 6 5 NGI r a t i n g 1 0 FAIR QUALITV ROCK HASS .004 0.0.655 Fresh to stightly Wath&Wd 5 rook.0.N o t e : T h e CSIR a n d NGI m e t h o d s o f c l a s s i f y i n g r o c k m a s s e s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n A p p e n d i x 9 .129 B .646 hmwous wathmwdjointe at 30 to SO&m lJith 8ma SW* .1.0.0.0.0.0.198 B .0.0.848 B .0 s . CSIR r a t i n g 4 4 NGI r a t i n g 1 .0.%L'4?Mt SOt8 Ofll7Od4lMtot~ B .25.0002 m .17.059 m .705 T .0.0.0003 m = 0.525 B = 0.078 B .0.020 m.13 s .14 s .004 A .1.0.695 T = -0.0.0.0001 A = 0.040 m .0.-0.050 B .0.12.603 B .wrurtiwith finut.-0.0.0.683 T .004 m .692 T . 0 POOR QUALITY ROCK MASS - 0.0.0.1.5 5 . .140 m .675 T . B .0001 A wathured joints spaoud at 0.8.203 B .0.0001 m .028 m . Stighttu 1 to 3m.679 T .0.O.0.010 s .172 B .0.0.0001 A .883 B .004 A .1.0.0.0.5 5 .162 B .548 T . CSIR rating 3 NGI rating 0.662 T .04 s .686 T .696 T . 0 s .712 T .002 m .658 T .539 s .067 m .698 T .004 A .-0.1 A I o 65.o&an tKl(lta mak.0.234 B .0.

An example of the appllcatlon of Hoek and Brown’s emplrlcal failure crlterlon Is discussed In the next sectlon of thls c h a p t e r a n d t h e appllcatlon o f this failure c r l t e r l o n I n t h e analysis o f circular failure I n c l o s e l y j o l n t e d r o c k s l o p e s I s discussed In Chapter 9. s. When laboratory test data are not aval lab I e or when It Is requlred to estimate the strength of a large rock mass. e t al(l40) a n d Blenlawskl(l41) b e u s e d t o s c a l e t h e values of the constants m. The rock mass tested by Jaeger was an andeslte fran the site of the open pit mfne on Bougalnvllle In Papua New Gulnea. The joints are free from lnfllllng but are slightly weathered as a result of high water flows. A and B from the results of laboratory trlaxlal tests on closely jolnted rock Is presented In Appendlx 1 at the end of thls book. Jaeger(l42) has described one of the most elaborate tests ever attempted on closely jolnted rock and hls paper Is recommended reading for anyone faced with this problem. s. SIX Inch (153 mn) diameter cores were recovered by very careful triple-tube dlanond drll I Ing and these cores were transported .8) appiles to t h l s fallure c r l t e r l o n a n d t h a t effective stresses may be calculated as follows: These effective stress values may be substltuted directly Into equations 29 and 30 when the pore water pressure Xf Is known. A full dlscusslon on this scaling Is glven In the textbook by Hoek and Brown(134) and the proposed relatlonshlp between rock type and rock mass qua1 Ity and the values of the constants has been summar I zed In Table IV on page 5. Hoek and Brown have proposed that the rock mass classlf lcatlons of B a r t o n . Testlng closely jolnted rock T h e determlnatlon o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f a c l o s e l y Jolnted r o c k mass presents formldeb Is exper Imental prob I ems and re I at I ve I y few attempts have been made to carry out direct shear or tr Iaxlal tests on these materlals.25 The corresponding relationshtp between shear strength rend the n o r m a l stressflat f a i l u r e I s : where A and B are constants def In I ng the shape of the Mohr fat lure envelope and Hoek and Brown have assumed that the effect Ive stress I aw ( see p a g e 2. A regresslon analysis for the determination of the constants m. This hard rock Is dlvlded up by several sets of joints spaced at about one Inch apart.26.5. A and B.

shear zone -0.4 0. 2 % O. P l o t t e d f o r i .9 1.1 0 0.1 0. @ I s t h e u n l a x l a l compressive s t r e n g t h o f t h e lnt a c t r o c k pieces.200 a n d $ .Jc Y P = 2 0. I n recognltlon o f t h e p r o b l e m o f a d e q u a t e l y d e f l n l n g t h e geometrlcal a n d materlal p r o p e r t y p a r a m e t e r s r e q u l r e d In a mechanlstlc a p p r o a c h s u c h a s t h a t a d o p t e d b y L a d a n y l a n d A r c h s m b a u l t .30°. Hock a n d Brown(134.0 1.2 0.5 0.#.6 0. I n a t r l a x l a l t e s t s u c h a s t h a t I l l u s t r a t e d I n t h e margin s k e t c h .2 Effective normal stress on shear surface u uniaxial c o m p r e s s i v e s t r e n g t h o f b l o c k s w G Figure 5.24 b-1 2 o. .8- Intact rock material failure F a i l u r e o n single r o u g h discontinuity surface Case 2 .7 0.8 0.135. o n e g e n e r a l ly h a s t o g u e s s m o s t o f t h e s e p a r a m e t e r s i n order to arrive at a solution. K. I n f a c t .#andi) w h i c h a r e r e q u i r e d t o s o l v e t h e e q u a t i o n s .5. I s : re88Kre u Water where -2 testing of gramkr mat&ala.&. T h e basic anplrlcal e q u a t l o n relating t h e axlal f a l l u r e s t r e s s fl t o t h e conflnlng p r e s s u r e 03. W h i le L a d a n y i a n d A r c h a m b a u l t ’ s a p p r o a c h i s a t t r a c t i v e b e c a u s e it involves a consideration of the mechanics of block movement and failure within a rock mass. 5 I 0. .1 1.L. a n d m a n d s a r e dlmenslonless c o n s t a n t s which d e p e n d u p o n t h e s h a p e a n d d e g r e e o f fnterlocklng o f t h e lnd l v l d u a l pieces o f r o c k wlthln t h e m a s s . .6YY olul se .136) h a v e p r o p o s e d a v e r y s l m p l e emplrlc a l failure crlterlon f o r c l o s e l y j o i n t e d r o c k m a s s e s .13 : Shear strength curves for three types of failure in closely jointed interlocking rock masses.&) 0 . i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a p p l y i n p r a c t i c e b e c a u s e t h e c h o i c e o f t h e v a r i o u s p a r a m e t e r s (t/.3 0.gI m .

As the normal stress Increases. L and f/ for the three types of fallure are as follows: Case 1 . I n t h l s case? = 0 . 7 ) with 7 = 0 . The curve for case 1.klnk band formation. 5 t o a l l o w f o r t h e v e r y l o o s e condltlon of the rock mass. K = 5 as for case 2 and L = (2/n. Case 2 .+ Tan i where n. 7 t o a l l o w f o r l o o s e n i n g o f t h e r o c k mass as a result of close jolntlng. t h e f a c t t h a t t h e tens1 le strength of the grain boundarIes has been reduced to zero gave r Ise t o a s t r e n g t h r e d u c t i o n o f a b o u t 20s a t h l g h n o r m a l stresses.shear plane formation. 28a and b uslng f = 30°. + = 4 In addltlon to the values suggested above. Is the number of rows of blocks In the kink band which Is normal ly 3 to 5.shear zone formatlon. colncldes with that for a rough joint at very low normal stress e s w h e n t h e b e h a v l o r I s s t r o n g l y dllatant. t h e f o r m a t l o n o f a single s h e a r p l a n e .1 assuming % = a. t h e s h e a r s t r e n g t h s f o r I n t a c t r o c k a n d f o r f a t l u r e o n a single r o u g h dlscontlnuity a n d t h e r e s i d u a l strength of a smooth plane are shown as dashed curves. Case 3 . * I n Ladanyl a n d Archambault’s orlglnal e q u a t i o n s . . K = 4 and L . t h e termvgc appears In equatlons 28. F o r comparlson.5.13 glves a set of shear strength curves. 2 = 20° and. Flgure 5. In spite of the fact that the grains were still I n t h e l r orlglnal posltlons. The authors have unltted 7 from equat Ions 28a and b because they cons1 der that 1 t appllos to the InterlockIng of the rock mass and not to the dllatlon rata 3 and the sheared area ds which are functions of the shape and orlentatlons of the lndlvldual blocks wlthln the rock mass. Rosengren and JaegerC 133 1 noted thl s type of behavlour on tests on marble which had been heated to break the grain boundary mater lal. K = 5 to al low for Increased freedom of block to rotate. 28a and b. T Is the degree of InterlockIng which defines the freedom of the blocks tu translate and to rotate before belng sheared or fractured*.6 which allows for a looser rock mass than In case 1. The suggested values for K. calculated by means of equations 28.1 . for case 3. resulting I n a v e r y tightly InterlockIng model rock mass.5 as for single r o u g h dlscontlnulty s u r f a c e s ( p a g e 5 . L = Tani and 7/ = 0.23 where a n d UC I s t h e unlaxlal ccmpresslve s t r e n g t h o f t h e lndlvldual blocks ulthtn the rock mass. the curve for the rock mass fal Is below that for the Intact rock as a result of the weakenlng et feet of the close Jolntlng. These curves are reproduced from Flgure 5..

Case 2 . Each model contalned 1800 blocks measuring l/2” x l/2” x 2.135) and Hoek(136). Case 1 . I n relation t o t h e sire o f slope being consldered. 23 and 24 (pages 5.5” packed tlghtly together to form a 2. Ladanyl and Archambault proposed modl f led forms of equations 22. 4 or 5 blocks.Formatlon of a narrow failure zone In which block rotation h a s o c c u r r e d I n addltlon t o t h e slldlng and material failure of Case 1. After very caref u l conslderatlon o f t h e s e modlflcstlons a n d a f t e r d l s c u s s l o n with Ladanyl. Ladanyl and Archambau I t carr led out a large number of model studies uslng small blocks of conmwsrclally compressed concrete. T h e flnal equations res u l t l n g f r o m t h e s e dlscusslons a n d m o d l f l c a t l o n s a r e a s f o l lows: Shear plane Shear zone Kink band .22 Shear strength of closely Jointed rock masses When a hard rock mass contains a number of Jolnt sets and when t h e Joint s p a c i n g I s v e r y c l o s e .5” thick model slab. Closely related research has also been carried out on the shear strength characterlstlcs of rock flll(137-139) and many slmllarltles can be found betueen the results of thls work and that on closely jolnted rock. the authors have Introduced a further slight modlflcatlon which removes an anomaly which can occur when using L a d a n y l a n d Archambaultrs equations.5. resulting f r o m t h e c l o s e J o l n t l n g . Blaxlal l o a d s w e r e applied I n t h e p l a n e o f t h e m o d e l s l a b . On the basis of these model studles.6 a n d 5 .Shear along a well defined plane lncllned to both dlscontlnulty sets. permits lndlvldual b l o c k s ulthln t h e m a s s t o t r a n s l a t e a n d t o rotate to a far greater degree than can occur In more Intact rock and thls gives rise to an overall strength reduction. the behavior of the rock mass may dlffer slgnlflcantly from that of the single dlscontlnulty surface The loosened c o n s l d e r e d I n t h e f lrst p a r t o f this c h a p t e r . 7 ) which c o u l d b e u s e d I n equation 2 1 t o predict t h e shear strength of closely Jolnted rock masses. Case 3 . t h e loading dlrectlon being varied I n r e l a t l o n s h l p t o t h e “Jolntw orlentatlon.86.86) a n d t h e empirlcal e q u a t l o n p u b l i s h e d r e c e n t l y b y Hoek and Brown(134.Formatlon of a klnk band of rotated and separated colunns of 3. It would n o t b e practical t o a t t e m p t a detal l e d revlew o f a l I o f this work In thls book and the dlscusslon which fol lows *II I be Ilmlted t o t h e r e l a t l o n s h l p p r o p o s e d b y L a d a n y l a n d Archambault(85. Three distinct types of fal lure occurred and these are I I lustrated In the photographs reproduced In the margln.129-136). The determlnatlon of the shear strength of closely jolnted rock masses has long been recognl zed as an Important engineer Ing problem and a number of excel lent papers have been pub1 Ished on t h l s subJect(85. s t a t e o f t h e r o c k m a s s .

8 1-7.41 0 1 . ).5cm t h i c k Altered shale bed. granodiorite and porphyry Granite Clay mylonite seams.4 3.17%) Clay filled faults Weakened with sandy-loam fault filling Tectonic shear zone.Cemergo Bldu end NIeblelOg.5 14 . 0.! 17 0.0: 0. l-2nm clay i n b e d d i n g p l a n e s 6mn clay layer l-2cm clay fillings <lrmn c l a y f i l l i n g s 26.45 40 42 Evdok imov en’ Sepeginlle 0 0 21 Greywacke Limestone Drozdllg 13 e t 81l’fJ Krsmmov I c Krsmenovic C Popovic121 Selas rnd 1.5 2.5-1t 0 ‘9-25 Coal measure rocks Dolomite D i o r i t e . joints and minor shears Triaxial tests Stratification surfaces l- PS!ak strength 'kg/cm R l-.3 I- 8.8 1. dlsintegrated rock and gouge.ll0.5-29 +O Taokd bu RuIt. 1.1 5 c m t h i c k c:ay f i l l i n g Stratification with thin clay Stratification with thick clay Finely laminated and altered Remoulded t r i a x i a l t e s t s Urie1122 0 IS-24 Berneix123 Schul tze114 Eurenlur125 Underwood’ 2c Seraf im end CuerreIrolZ7 z: 31 33 16-38 Slates Quartz/kaol i n / pyrolusi te KcRorie end Stubbinr12a coetes.6 16-0. 2 6-1. PI . 3.1 . schistosc a n d b r o k e n g r a n i t e s . slips.: 32 O-0.5 0 l-11.5 42-O.5 14 .5 Sincleir end Brooker111 Skempton end Petley’l2 Sincleir end Brookerlll Leusrink end Mu1 ler-Kirch enbeuerl 1 3 St impson end UaltonllY 1.4 0.13 0.8 11 Limestone.22 Pigot end kckenriells Brewner116 Koche105 NOSdl’ Clay gouge (2% clay. approximately 15 cm thick. Bentonite seam in chalk Thin layers Triaxial tests Triaxial tests D i r e c t shear tests Over-consolidated.6 2-18.0 5-2.5-11.8 0. 13-14 17-21 38 10 25 s-17.5.1 0.8 0.3 to 2. . marl and lignites Limestone Lignite hontmorillonite clay S c h i s t s .5 2-17 9-13 1. quartzites a n d s i l i ceous schists. 7 Oentonite Bentonitic shale Clays Clay shale Clay shale 0. Interbedded lignite layers Lignite/marl contact harlaceous j o i n t s . wide variation from clay to basalt content.1.0 0 14-o. Llnk11o Sincleir end Brooker’ l1 2. ‘kg/& o” 42 7.15 g. 2cm t h i c k Layer between lignite and underlying clay 8 c m s e a m s o f bentoni te (montmorillonite) c l a y I n c h a l k I O .0 I.42 16 14.21 TABLE III .2 . 3-0.SHEAR STRENGTH OF FILLED DISCONTINIJITIES 3ock Bass It Description Clayey basaltic breccia.0 0.

Another msJor f a c t o r uhlch m u s t b e consldered I n relstlon t o fll led Joints Is the Influence which they have on the permeablllty of the rock mass. t h e overal I stab1 I I ty of the slope can be Jeopard I zed and me sltuatlon Is made worse by the fact that thls fllllng material has a very low shear strength and that failure of the slope may be Inltlated a l o n g this dlscontlnulty.lDOf/r carried out in accordance ulth wal I establlshed sol I mechanics prlnclples. After Goodman 39. When water pressure Is al lowed to bul Id u p b e h l n d a clay-f1 Iled d l s c o n t l n u l t y s u c h a s a f a u l t .20 $‘J 3. f ’ Idcalised saw-tooth joint with crushed mica filling =4lJ I ‘% P:: :g -0 Lc Y Figure 5. From thls dlscusslon It wll I be clear that an extremely Import a n t a s p e c t o f a site I n v e s t l g a t l o n p r o g r a m f o r a r o c k s l o p e design I s the d e t e c t l o n o f maJor d l s c o n t l n u l t l e s which a r e fllled with c l a y o r o t h e r f l l l l n g materlsls.5. Thls may Involve the drl lllng of holes In crltlcal locatlons as wel I as the careful tracing of outcrops and Intersectlonr with a n y exlstlng excavations. a special e f f o r t s h o u l d be made durlng the site Investlgatlon program to check whether they do exlst. D e t e r m l n a t l o n o f t h e orlentatlon and lncllnatlon o f s u c h d l s c o n t l n u l t l e s f o r s u b s e q u e n t lncluslon I n stablllty a n a l y s e s I s I m p o r t a n t a s 1s t h e sapling o f t h e f l l l l n g material f o r s h e a r s t r e n g t h testIng. 0 20 40 60 80 loo 140 P e r c e n t j o i n t f i l l i n g .12: I n f l u e n c e o f j o i n t f i l l i n g thickness on the shear strength of an idealised saw-tooth joint. The permeability of clay gouge and rlmllar Jolnt fl II Ing material may be three or four orders of magnitude lower than that of the surroundlng rock mass and thls c a n g l v e r l s e t o darmnlng o f g r o u n d w a t e r I n t o c o m p a r t m e n t s rlthln the rock mass. If the presence o f s u c h d l s c o n t l n u l t l e s I s s u s p e c t e d . .

19 The roughness angle 2. A cormK)n problem which Is encountered In rock slope deslgn Is a dlscontlnulty which Is f l l l e d with s a n e f o r m o f s o f t material. T h l s f l l l l n g m a y b e detrltal material cr gouge from prevlous shear movements. I n very large slopes features such as folds In the beddlng planes m a y contrlbute t o t h e e f f e c t i v e r o u g h n e s s o f t h e p o t e n t i a l slldlng surface. with a geologlcal c o m p a s s .g and 4. based upon one complled by Barton. C o n s e q u e n t l y . The average 2 value for such surfaces can be measured off photographs. o r I t m a y b e material which h a s b e e n deposlted In open Joints as a result of the movement of water through the rock mass. A I 1st of shear strength values for fllled Jolnts.12 which shows that. T h l s line s h o u l d b e I n t h e d l r e c t l o n o f potential s l l d l n g a n d s h o u l d b e l o n g e n o u g h t o e n s u r e t h a t severa I roughness “wave I engths” a r e I n c l u d e d I n t h e m e a s u r e ment. Is glven In Table III. the presence of a slgnl f lcant thlckness of soft. a l o n g a line marked on the plane. Note that two scales are glven In this figure and that the user would use the scale most approprlate to the problem which he Is conslderlng. or by moasurlng t h e dips. a t l e a s t f o r t h e prollmlnary analysis. GoodmanO9) demonstrated the Importance of Joint fl I I lngs In a series o f t e s t s I n which artlflclally c r e a t e d s a w t o o t h j o l n t surfaces were coated with crushed mica. Care should be taken to ensure that the sea le of m e a s u r e m e n t I s appropriate t o t h e s c a l e o f t h e p r o b l e m .e n d e d t o a n y r e a d e r w h o wishes t o s t u d y this subject In greater detal I. A very comprehenslve review of the shear strength of f I I led dlscontlnultles has been prepared by Barton(l08) and thls paper I s highly r .lent (JRC) Is only approximately related to the roughness angle 2 and he suggests(82) that the value of JRC should be estimated by simple visual comparison ulth Flgure 5. typic a l I n f a u l t s . as was done by Patton(401. It Is prudent to assume that shear fal lure WI I I occur through the fllllng material. When a maJor dlscontlnulty wlth a slgnlflcant thickness of fllIlng Is encountered In a rock mass In which a slope Is to be excavated.2. Shear strength of fllled dlscontlnultler Up t o t h l s p o l n t t h e d l s c u s s l o n h a s b e e n r e s t r l c t e d t o t h e shear strength of surfaces In which rock-t-rock contact occurs along the entire length of the surface. t h e I n f l u e n c e o f s u r f a c e r o u g h n e s s should be Ignored and the shear strength of the dlscontlnulty should be taken as that for the fllllng material. Barton’s Jolnt Roughness Coefflc. which Is required for an evaluation of Ladsnyl and Archunbault’s equation can be obtalned from measurements such as those descr 1 bed in F lgure 4. Determlnatlon o f t h e s h e a r s t r e n g t h o f t h i s f l l l l n g material s h o u l d b e . the strength of the Joint Is control led by the strength of the fl I I Ing materlal.4 on pages 4 . weak fl I Ilng material can have a major Influence on the stab1 I lty of the rock mass. In either case.10. once the f I I I Ing thtckness exceeds the aplltude of the surface proJectIons.5. The decrease In shear s t r e n g t h with I n c r e a s i n g fllllng thickness Is I I l u s t r a t e d I n Flgure 5.

Rocha(l05) h a s a l s o s h o w n t h e rapld f a l l In s h e a r s t r e n g t h o f r o c k rhlch I s associated ulth t h e first fer p e r c e n t I n c r e a s e I n alteratlon I n d e x .0. t h e a u t h o r s h a v e n o t a t t e m p t e d t o give speclflc guldellnes on the allowance whfch should be made for weathering w h e n conslderlng t h e unlaxlal compressive s t r e n g t h o f r o c k I n o r d e r t o determlne t h e joint ual I conpresslve strength q.30 Slate Lmer value is generally given by 12881% on wet rook surfaaes.18 4’ 2 SC : 0 Ml.?t8tO?l% 33 . -20. I f a s h e a r t e s t I s carried o u t o n a field s a m p l e with r o u g h surfaces.31 23 . U s e f u l dlscusslons o n ueatherlng h a v e a l s o b e e n given b y F o o k e s . me surface prof I le can. can be used to obtain the value of@. Dearnan a n d FrankllnflOb) and Frsnklln and Chandra (107). be masurod. T h l s process ul I I vary scordlng to the rock type sl rice very dense and lmpervlous rocks such as basalt would gradually acquire a t h l n skin o f ueathered materfal. 0) A final questlon which must be considered when estlmatlng the compressive strength of the material adjacent to the dlscont ln u l t y s u r f a c e rolatos t o the uoathorfng o r alterdtion o f t h e material.5.9a?&time Shale si. granites uould w e a t h e r m o r e deep I y and. Appratimate value8 for the basic friction angle 0 for different rocks.35 Granite (fine grain) LimeStolrs -@WY . and the average roughness angle 2 subtracted from the angle of l n c l InatIon o f t h e Ilne relating s h e a r s t r e n g t h t o n o r m a l stress. P ZO. this quantity should be determined by direct shear testing on Smooth rock surfaces which have been prepared by means of a clean. described by Hm~ol(104). the tabulation given In the margln can be used to obtaln an estimate of the basic angle of frlctlon.29 Chalk DoLnnite hi88 (8Chieto8e) 29 . The reader should be aware of thl s problem and should give conslderatlon to the allowance uhlch he should make under each particular set of clrcmstances. After Bartone2. Thls questlon has been discussod by Barton who s u g g e s t s t h a t ueathorlng c a n r e d u c e t h e s t r e n g t h o f the near surface matortal to as low as one quartor of the unlax I a I comprssstve s t r e n g t h o f the I n t a c t unueatherod material. I s t h e wetght o f w a t e r a b s o r b e d b y t h e r o c k I n a quick e b s o r p t l o n t e s t . Note that either of these tests should be carried out over a range of normal stress levels to ensure that a I lnear relationship between shear strength and normal stress with zero cohesion is obtained. When no test results we avallable. before testing.35 Grunite (coar8e grain) 31 . After Semf6d03. residual s h e a r strength values.31 25 .36 35 30 27 . Turning to the question of the basic friction angle @ for use in Ladanyi and Archambaultls and in Barton’s equations.35 27 27 . A l t e r n a t i v e l y . dlvlded b y t h e d r y wlght o f r o c k . . -5 *+ s Oo. 0 *1 2 3 4 5 6 AZteration Inah Variation of conproesivo strength with &gree of aIteration for a graniti. Tl lting t e s t s . io. i n w h i c h t h e a n g l e o f incl ination of the specimen required to cause sliding is measured. Rock Amphibotite Ba8att Congtomomt4 +-degree8 32 31 . T h i s p r e c a u t i o n is necessary because the shear strength at very low normal stresses can be influenced by extremely small surface roughness on the specimen. Because of the wide range of condltlons uhlch can be encount e r e d i n t h e field. porous rock such as sandstone cou Id weather more cr less unlformly to conslderable depth. Thls correct Ion should only be used when the shear t e s t r e s u l t s f a l l r e a s o n a b l y close t o a straight Ilne uhlch passes through the orlgln. The graph reproduced In the margln 1s from Seraflm(l03) and shows the slgnlflcant strength reduction with Incresslng altera t l o n . . T h e sItratIon I n d e x . smooth d iamond saw cut. are not reliable for the determination of the basic friction angle because of the influence of very small scale Surface roughness. expressed a s a porcentage. obtained from shear tests in uhlch the specimen has been subjected to considerable displacement. ideally.40 31 25 .

Robertson(lOZ) and upon consulting experience. PlteauClOl 1. STRONG ROCK . difficult to cut with hand spade. difficult to move with hand pick. granite.requires many blows from geological pick to break intact sample.l . SOFT SOIL . cannot be cut with hand spade. he h a s t o r e s o r t t o a mathod o f determlnlng t h e compressive s t r e n g t h o f the rock by a method which Is best termed “klcklng the rock”. sch i s t .0 0. requires hand picking for excavation .shrl low cuts or scraping with pocket knife with difficulty.08 53 10-20 0 .moulds with strong pressure from fingers.cannot be rnoulded with fingers. gneisa R5 - > 2000 a 200 Quartz1 te.15-0. gabbro.60 55 80. slate. b a s a l t . si ltstone R3 ?50015000 500-1000 50-100 Sandstone. t o b e dlscussed I n t h e n e x t sectlon. shows faint heel marks. MODERATELY STRONG ROCK . shrl low indentdtions under firm blow from pick point. f o r e x a m p l e o n a p r o p o s e d hlghuay d u r l n g t h e earllest r o u t e locatlon s t u d l e s .4-0. can be cut with pocket knife.5. TABLE I I .o Rl 150-3500 lo-250 l-25 C h a l k .50 6-10 0.5-6.v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o mould with fingers.17 When the slope daslgner flnds hlmself In a sltuatlon where no faclllties a t all a r e aval lable.very tough .APPROXIMATE CLASSIFICATION OF COHESIVE SOIL AN0 ROCK vo. rocksalt R2 3500-7500 250. niazial cmpreseivs strength Zb/in2 kg/cm2 MPa es co. VERY STIFF SOIL . 8 . VERY WEAK ROCK .15 54 60 1.4 co.500 25-50 Coal.04 Exumplecr 5-10 0. Cohesive solls h a v e b e e n I n c l u d e d I n t h l s t a b l e since t h e s e a r e I m p o r t a n t a s J o l n t f l I I I n g matorlals.crumbles under sharp blows with geological pick point. a very approximate set of guldellnes have bwn tabulated below.easily mouldcd with fingers. shows distinct heel marks.08-0. In order to assist such an adventurer.5 0. based upon papers by Deere and Mlller(lOO). indented with finger nail. pick point indents deeply with firm blow.6-1 .hand-he1 d sample breaks with one firm blow from hammer end of geological pick. dolerite.8 0. VERY STRONG ROCK . pneumatic spade required for excavation. ?i 52 Description VERY SOFT SOIL .04-0. shale R4 150003oooo > 30000 1000-2000 100-200 Warble.knife cannot be used to scrape or peel surface. STIFF SOIL . MODERATELY WEAK ROCK . FIRM SOIL .

3 7 Ib/ft? . Average dispersion of strength f o r m o s t r o c k s . 2 kg/cm’ = 1 4 5 lb/in? 1 kN/m’ . N o t e t h a t t h e homnw s h o u l d a l w a y s b e psrpendlculsr t o t h e r o c k s u r f a c e .11 : R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n S c h m i d t h a r d n e s s a n d t h e uniaxial c o m p r e s s i v e s t r e n g t h o f r o c k .1 W/m* = 1 0 .1 0 2 kg/m3 = 6 .5. ure 5.~a 200 1 SO 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 1 20 1 I 30 I b0 L 50 8 60 S c h m i d t h d r d n a s s . .T y p e L hammr.16 t h e g r a p h a s 1 2 5 + 50 Ws. a f t e r D e e r e a n d M i l l e r (IO0 1 Wa .

Hertfordshire. A l e s s r e l i a b l e b u t simpler alternatlve t o t h e p o i n t l o a d t e s t f o r d e t e r m l n l n g t h e uniaxlal compressive s t r e n g t h o f r o c k I s t h e u s e o f t h e Schmf d t hsmner(89. t y p e L harmer gives a reading o f 4 8 o n a r o c k w l t h a density o f 2 7 kN/mJ.5. 100 F i g u r e 5.15 Figure 5. T h e relatlonshlp b e t w e e n compressive s t r e n g t h a n d S c h m i d t h a r d S u p p o s e t h a t a horlzontally h e l d n e s s I s given I n Figure 5 .9: Point load test equipment manufactured by Engineering Laboratory E q u i p m e n t L i m i t e d .10: 150 200 250 U n i a x i a l C o m p r e s s i v e S t r e n g t h IJ= . Hemel H e m p s t e a d . 1 MPa = 10. An advantage of th 1 s met h o d I s t h a t I t c a n b e a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y t o a n u n p r e p a r e d joint s u r f a c e a n d c a n b e u s e d t o o b t a l n a d i r e c t estimate o f t h e joint c o m p r e s s i v e s t r e n g t h q.99).MPa R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p o i n t l o a d s t r e n g t h i n d e x a n d uniaxial c o m p r e s s i v e strength.2 kg/cm2 = 145 lb/in2. t h e unlaxlal compressive s t r e n g t h q I s given b y . 1 1 . England.

10 and Is given by: d. o r I f t h e p o l n t s s l n k I n t o t h e r o c k s u r f a c e causing excesslvr crushing o r deformation.. 40 -21.5. North Wales. from the measured angle f@+ i) a s determIned I n t h e t e s t . = 24 /s + where C% Is the unlaxial cunpresslve strength and /J Is the pol nt load strength Index. Two types of commercially avallable polnt load testing nachlns a r e I l l u s t r a t e d I n Figures 5 . 9 . the basic angle of friction of smooth surfaces of this rock type andi. they would almost certainly be avsllable for a dlrect s h e a r t e s t . as may happen when testlng schlstose rocks. Llandudno.5 . A simpler alternatlve vhfch can be used In either the field or the laboratory Is the Point Load Index test(97). Note that q .14 specimen surface before testlng. the compressive strength of the rock msterlal adjacent to the joint surface. If facl I Itles and tlno are wallable to carry out such tests. Consequently. the joint material compressive strength. 60 sse-24. A r e a s o n a b l e correlatlon exists between the Polnt Load Index and the unlaxlal comprosslve strength of the material(W). Barton’s Joint Roughness Coefficient. 50 an-23. unlaxlal compressive strength tests on matorlal samples would seldom be a loglcal way In uhlch to obtaln the value of q .5. 8 a n d 5 . T h l s I s a c o m p l e x process and. T h e u n l a x l a l compressive s t r e n g t h o f t h e joint wall naterlal can be obtalned by coring through the Jolnt surface and then testing specimens p r e p a r e d frcm this cow. In order to judge vhether a point load test Is valid. Estlmatlng joint compress1vo strength a n d frlctlon angle When it is impossible to carry out any form of shear test. If a clean fracture r u n s from o n e loading point Indontstlon t o t h e o t h e r . (27) \LoadP Figure 5. If the fracture runs across sane other plane. I n o r d e r t o s o l v e e i t h e r o f t h e s e e q u a t i o n s I t i s necessary to determine or to estimate values for q.@. nay be lover than 0~ as a resu It of weathering or loosening of the surface. However. 30 mrtl9. the shear strength characteristics of a rock surface can be approximated from Ladanyi and Archambault’s equation or from Barton’s equation. ues for other core sizes are: 20 mm-17. t h e t e s t should b e reJected. the aversge roughness angle of the surface or JRC. T h l s simple and Inexpenslve test can be carried out on unprepared core and the loadlng arrangement Is I I I ustrated In the margln sketch. t h e t e s t results can be accepted.8: Polnt Load Index test l qulpment manufactured by Robertson Research Ltd. the fractured pieces of core should be exwnlned. Val- *The constant of 24 In thls equation Is for a 54 avm core. as shown In Figure 5.

i s fitted into the lower shear box and the upper shear box is then fitted in place. is aligned in a mould and the lower half is cast in When the concrete.7~: The! w i r e s b i n d i n g t h e s p e c i m e n h a l v e s t o g e t h e r a r e c u t: and the n o r m a l a n d s h e a r l o a d s are applied. plaster or similar material. .7a: Sample . s t i l l w i r e d t o g e t h e r .7b: S p e c i m e n . F i g u r e 5. the upper half of the mould is fitted and the entire mould plus sample is turned upside-down in order that the second half of the casting can be poured. F i g u r e 5. w i r e d t o g e t h e r t o p r e v e n t premature movement along the discontinuity.13 F i g u r e 5. l o w e r h a l f i s s e t .5. Note that the load cables can be bent out of the way for easy access.

T h l s n o r m a l l o a d Is malntalned c o n s t a n t while t h e shear load Is Increased. Portable shear machine uith two shear toad jacks which al&m s h e a r revemat w&r conatrmt nonmt l o a d . Thls can be done by testing sawn surfaces or by testIng. I t Is possible that dlfforent rock structures behave dlfferent ly under these condltlons. f. . The authors tend to p r e f e r t h e single j a c k s y s t e m since t h e y f e e l t h a t I t Is Important that the direct Ion of shear Ing under load should be kept constant. the detrltal matorlal Is dlsturbed when t h e n o r m a l l o a d I s released while. manufactured b y R o b e r t s o n R e s e a r c h L t d . The specimen size which can be accommodated In the portable shear machlne Illustrated In Flgure 5. I n t h e o t h e r . T h e m a c h i n e I l l u s t r a t e d I s llmlted t o a displacement o f approximately 1 I n c h ( 2 . the displacement I s a l l o w e d t o continue a n d I t wll I b e found that a lower shear load Is requ I red In order to sustaln movement. C.ja+ has been added to al low for shear reversal under constant normal load. t h e dlrectlon o f rolling o f t h e particles I s r e v e r s e d . I n o r d e r t o determlne t h e residual s h e a r s t r e n g t h . as In most shear machlnes. The specimen Is now ready for testing and the normal load Is Increased to the value chosen for the test. In thls. Once the peak strength has been exceeded. mechlne. The shear strength of rock Is not general I y sens I t I ve t o t h e loading r a t e a n d n o dlfflculty s h o u l d arlse I f the loads are applied at a rate uhfch ulll permit measurements of loads and displacements to be carried out a t r e g u l a r I n t e r v a l s . measured on the d. a displacement In excess of thls value Is normally requlred. a second Jack act Ing In opposlt Ion to the shear load . the loads appl led to the specimen are measured and these have to be dlvlded by the surface area of the dlscontlnulty surface In order to obtain normal and shear stresses. e. A typlcal t e s t w o u l d t a k e b e t ween 15 and 30 m In&es. Thls c a n o n l y b e achloved I f t h e n o r m a l l o a d I s r e l e a s e d and the upper half of the spoclmen Is moved back to In another verslon of the Its startlng posltlon.12 specimen together are then cut and the shear load cable Is placed In posltlon. The Inltlal area should be determlned by direct measurement a n d t h e reduction I n s u r f a c e a r e a ulth d i s p l a c e m e n t should be calculated. . In one case. Which of these systems Is more representative of the shearlng process In the rock mass Is uncertain since.fleld samples and by subtracting the average roughness angle 2 . usual ly after a shear displacement of a few ml I I lmeters.6 Is Ilmlted to about 4 Inches x 4 Inches (10 cm x 10 cm) and this means that It Is v e r y dlfflcult t o t e s t joints ulth s u r f a c e r o u g h n e s s r h l c h I s representative of the In sltu condltlons. A note Is kept of dlsp lacements dur Ing the app I lcatlon of the shear load. I t I s reconwnended that the use of thls machlne should be restrlcted to the measurement of the basic frlctlon angle@. 5 c m ) a n d . C o n s e q u e n t l y .5.

) . Drawing adapted from one by Robertson Research Ltd. A typical machine is 20 inches (51 c m ) l o n g a n d 1 8 I n c h e s (48 c m ) h i g h a n d w e i g h s 85 Ib.(fg k g .6: Drawing of a portable shear machine showing the position of the specimen and the shear surface.5.11 Rope l o a d equaliser Concrete or plaster cast specimen mount Gauge for measurement of shear displacement Upper shear Shear surface /Shear l o a d j a c k Figure 5.

Timber blocking H .5.4 : test at Auburn dam site. s c a l e . after Haverland a n d Slebi rg3. Large scale laboratory shear machine at the Figure 5.10 In situ direct shear F i g u r e 5.5: hnperi’al C o l l e g e o f Scrence a n d Technology.Spacer c o l u m n a 1 2 3 APP~OX.P i v o t shoe G . L o n d o n . .f t . F .

The steps Involved In testing a sample In the portable shear machlne are II lustrated In Figure 5. circumstances. m a c h i n e s m a n u f a c t u r e d t o this doslgn a r e avallable conwnercIally from R o b e r t s o n R e s e a r c h L t d . On the other hand. A sample contalnlng t h e dlscontlnufty t o b e t e s t e d I s trlrnned t o a sire which will fit I n t o t h e m o u l d . The wires blndlng the two halves of the b. The upper shear box Is set In posltlon and a small normal load Is agp I led In order to prevent movment of t h e specimen. A portable shear machlne for testlng rock dlscontlnultles In s m a l l field s a m p l e s h a s b e e n described b y R o s s . Any competent machlne shop technlclan should be capable of fabrlcatlng such a machlne and the reader Is encouraged to utlllze the Ideas presented In Flgure 5. Alternatlve In situ shear test arrangements have been dlscussed by Seraf Im and Lopes(921. A bed o f c l e a n g r a v e l . 6 . p l a c e d ln t h e b o t t o m o f t h e f lrst m o u l d .7 and these steps are descrlbed below: a. Rulz a n d Camargo(94) a n d Brawner. Thls type of test costs several thousands of dol lars and would on I y be justlffed under the most crltlcal condltlons. Pentz and Sharp(95). A laboratory shear machlne deslgned and built at the lmperfal Col lege of Science and Technology In London Is I I lustrated In Flgure 5. lndlvldual tests on thls machlne are relatively expenslve and Its use Is normally only justlfled on major projects.6 to develop hls own shear testlng equipment. . N o r t h Wales. provided t h a t a w e t mix I s u s e d . Care must be taken t h a t t h e dfscontinulty I s p o s l t l o n e d a c c u r a t e l y s o that It Iles In the shear plane of the machlne.4 Illustrates the arrangements for a large scale Insltu shear test to be carried out In an underground adlt.5. Flgure 5. I s sometlmes h e l p f u l I n supportlng t h e specimen d u r l n g setting u p a n d . Once the castings have set. the mould Is strlpped and t h e specimen I s t r a n s f e r r e d I n t o t h e s h e a r m a c h l n e . . Alternat l v e l y . Thls machlne accepts samples of approximately 12 I n c h e s x 1 6 I n c h e s a n d h a s a capacity o f 1 0 0 t o n s I n b o t h normal and shear dlrectlons. The t w o h a l v e s a r e wlred togother I n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t movement along the dlscontlnulty and the sample Is then cast In plaster or concrete. t h e gravel c a n b e l e f t I n p l a c e s o t h a t I t b e comes part of the casting. The losdlng rate Is variable over a very wide range and normal and shear displacements can be monltored continuously durlng the test. Under these . L l a n d u d n o . Haverland a n d Sleblr(931.9 rock mass. reallstlc estlmates of the shear strength on the basis of the approaches proposed by Barton and by Ladanyl and Archunbault normally have to be used. prellmlnary stablllty calculatlons carrfed out durlng the route LocatIon studles for a new hlghway are general I y restr lcted In terms of access to the rock mass and also time and money aval lable for the study. Thls machlne was deslgned for field use and many of the refinements which are present on larger machlnes were sacrlf Iced for the sake of slmpl lclty.B r o w n a n d Walton(96) and a drawlng of this machlne Is presented In Flgure 5 . hence elaborate and expensive testing Is not justlfled.5.

planar bedd i ng .planar shear joints. rough bedding. Ladany i a n d Archambault’s e q u a t i o n . undulating bedding. planar foliation.3 Barton’s prediction for the shear strength of rough discontinuities. / 0 0 i = 200 Barton’s equation not to be applied in this range.1 0. 8. Smooth nearly planar .5.8 * Z/b -50 cm EXAHPLES OF ROUGHNESS PROFILES */5fJ! 500 cm - A A. Rough undulating .smooth sheeting.3 Effective normal stress 0 J o i n t c o m p r e s s i v e s t r e n g t h = GJ Figure 5. rough sheeting. C.tension joints. .2: JRC = 20 JRC = 10 JRC . Smooth undulating . Barton’s equation Residual strength of smooth rock surfaces 0. Figure 5.5 Barton’s definition of Joint Roughness Coefficient JRC. non-planar foliation.2 0.

The choice of the most appropriate method depends upon the nature o f t h e p r o b l e m being Investigated. may take the form of a very sophlstlcated laboratory or In sltu t e s t I n which a l l t h e characterlstlcs o f t h e I n situ b e h a v l o r of the rock dlscontlnulty are reproduced as accurately as posslble. In carrying out a detal Ied deslgn for a crltlcal slope such as that adjacent to a major Item of plant or In the abutment of an arch dam. the equation Is a very useful tool In rock slope englneerlng and the authors have no hesltatlon In recommending Its use wlthln the speclfled stress range. For cornpar I son the res I dual strength of a smooth joint with @ = 30’ and Ladanyl and Archambau It’s equation for i = 2U’and # * X)-are Included In the same flgure. Barton’s equatlon tends. the roughness angle 2 and the basic frlctlon angled for use In Barton’s or Ladanyl and Archambault’s equat Ion. Barton(82) sugg e s t s t h a t t h e maxlmum v a l u e o f t h e t e r m I n t h e b r a c k e t s I n equation 26 shou Id be 70° as shown In Flgure 5. some form of testing Is requlred. Alternatlvely. Since the normal stress levels which occur In most rock slope stab1 I Ity problems fal I wlthln thls range. Barton’s equation has been plotted In Flgure 5. to be more conservative than Ladanyl and Archambault’s at hlgher normal stress levels. while Barton’s equatlpn Is In close agreement with Ladanyl and Archambault’s (fw 2 = JRC = 20) at very low normal stress levels. The roughness angle C In equatlon 20 has been replaced by the normal stress dependent term contalnlng JRC. no expense and effort would be spared In attemptlng to obtaln reliable shear strength values for crltlcal dlscontlnultles encountered In the . therefore. Shear testing of dlscontlnultles In rock From the discussion presented In the preceding pages It wll I be evident that. for JRC values of 20. Thls Is because Barton’s equatlon reduces to 2’ =U Tanaas q/g e 1 whereas Lanadyl and Archambau It’s equat Ion reduces to r= zr.5.91). aso& ----) 0 . In order to obtain shear strength values for use Thls In rock slope design. 10 and 5.3.7 An alternatlve approach to the problem of predlctlng the shear strength of rough joints was proposed by Barton(82). Barton derived the fol lowlng empirlcal equation: where JRC Is a Jolnt Roughness Coefflclent .5.3. the shear strength of the rock mater I al adjacent to the jolnt surface.whlch Is defined In Flgure 5.2. Note that.01 < d/crJ < 0. B a r t o n ’ s orlglnal s t u d l e s w e r e carried o u t a t e x t r e m e l y l o w normal stress levels and hls equation Is probably most appllcable In the range 0. the test may Involve a very simple determlnatlon o r e v e n estlm. the equations diverge as the normal stress level Increases. N o t e t h a t . t h e facllltles w h i c h a r e avallable and the munt of time and money which has been allocated to the solution of the problem. t h e logarlthmlc t e r m I n e q u a t l o n 2 6 t e n d s t o lnflnlty and the equatlon ceases to be valid.ate o f t h e joint compressive s t r e n g t h g. Based upon careful tests and observations carried out on artlflclally pre duced rough “JoI nts” I n material u s e d f o r m o d e l s t u d l e s o f slope behavIor(90.

6. and#.6 0. 00.30’.6 where.9 1.1 0 0. Substltutlng equations 22. Flguro 5.5 Into equatlon 21. for rough rock surfaces.5. P l o t t e d f o r i. 0..20.11 0.dJ Figure 5. 7’ 0.0 1.4 0. 9’ 0.5 0.1.2 0. .1.3 0. Patton’s equation for dilation of rough surfaces Fairhurst’s equation for rock material failure Ladanyi and Archambeult’s equation 25 /! 0. K = 4 and L = 1.1 : TransItIon from dllatlon fu shearlng predlcted by Ladanyl a n d Archanrbault’s e q u a t l o n . 3. 0. 23 and 24 with n = 10. one obtains the fol loulng equatlon: While this equation m a y appear complex. s0. and dlvldlng through by5 .5.2 a Effective normal stress on joint surface Uniaxlal conpresslve s t r e n g t h o f j o i n t s u r f a c e . 40.1 1. K = 4 and L .l - -0. shows that Ladanyi and Archambault’s aquat ion 25 glvos a mnooth transltlon between Patton’s equation 20 for dllatlon of a rough surface and Fairhurst’s equation 22 for the shear strength of the rook materlal adJacent to the Jolnts. below. I t WI I I b e n o t e d t h a t It relates the two dlmenslonless groups z/a/ ando@ and that the only unknowns at-o the roughness angle/ and the basic frlctlon angle g.1 0.7 0.

the shear strength o f t h e matorlal adjacent t o the dlscontlnulty surfaces. such as & = 6~ +&YTanfi. Tha quantity % In l quatlon 21 Is not easy to moasuro.sarlng through proJutlons takes place. quetlon. p r o p o s e d the follorlng unplrlcal rolatlonshlps: . A t v e r y l o w normal rtrosr Iovols rhon a l m o s t n o rh.1 . % . L a d a n y l a n d Archaabault suggostod t h a t rr. d u e t o roathorlng o r loownlng o f the surfeco. o n the b a r I s o f t h e s e t e s t s .86) who proposed the folloulng oquatlon for pork show rtrongth: where 5 I s t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f the dlrcontlnulty surface which Is sheared through projatlons of Intact rock msterlrl. Is the shear strength of the Intact rock mater I al. L a d a n y l a n d Archarbsul t carr Iod o u t a Iargo numbor o f shear t e s t s o n propsrod r o u g h surfaces a n d . In urlng Ladanyl and Arch&ault’s l not mosrary to uso the doflnltlon of & glvon by oquatlon 22. A n y other appropriate I n t a c t r o c k matorlal show strength crltrlon. and 7. It Is Note that. Tha dllatlon rat0 9 c a n bo m e a rurod durlng a shear test but such moasuruontr have not usua l l y b e e n carried o u t I n t h e p a s t a d honco It Is only posrlblo t o obtsln values f o r ri f r o m a s m a l l p r o p o r t l o n o f the shear I n ardor t o overcome strength data which has boon publlshod.5 The transItIon frcm dllrtlon t o shoarlng w a s rtudlod thooretltally ad OxpWImefItaIly by Ladanyl and Arch&ault(65.5. oqub tlon 21 roducos to oquatlon 20.0 and ri . i I s the dllatloa rata dv/du a t p o r k rhoar strength. thls probln and to make tholr oquatlon more gomral ly usrful. oven under Iabcrattay mdltlons. n Is approxlmately equal to 1 0 . for most hard rocks. r--r.Tan f . Hook(66) has suggested that).. an k used In place of oqub tlon 2 2 I f the usor fools t h a t s u c h a crlterlon gives a more accurate roprewntatlon o f the bohrvl?r o f the r o c k rlth r h l c h he Is doal lng(89). n I s me ratlo o f u n l a x l a l conprosslvr t o unlwlal t e n sl lo strength of the rock matorlal. c a n b e roprewntod by the oquatlon of a parabola In rcordanco with a proposal by Falrhurst(87): w h o r e g Is t h e unlulrl comprosslve strength o f t h e r o c k m a terlsl adjacent to the d l r c o n t l n u l t y r h l c h . m a y bo l o w e r t h a n the u n l a x l a l comprosrlvr strength o f the r o c k q atorlal ulthln the body of an Intact block. At vary hlgh normal stresses when as .

closely Jofnted sea In I lmestone Normal stress (# + I’) 0 kg/cm* 1 . gnelss and anp h l b o l l t e dlscontlnultles beneath natural slopes Beneath excavated slopes Granite. one can assume that almost no fracturing of the very small second order proJectlons takes place at these low normal stress levels and that these steep-slded projectlons control the shearlng process. 75.57 2. As the normal stress Increases. The small bunps and rlpples on the surface have much hlgher 2’ values and Patton ca I I ed these the second order proJect Ions.5 Pauldlng(831 Assumlng a basic frlctlon angle. i angles for 8econd order projections Surface roughnoss The d lscuss Ion on the previous page has been slmp I if fed because Patton found that. It was necessary to measure only the f Irst order roughness of the surfaces. the second order proJectl?ns come Into play and Barton quotes a number of values of (#+I) which were measured at extremely low normal stresses. In fact. for these very low normal stress levels.05 6. sl ight ly rough beddlng surfaces LImestone. .OO 3.of 30”. 71.09 6 .21 0.80 0. t h e f i r s t o r d e r p r o j e c t i o n s will b e sheared off and a sltuatlon rll I eventually be reached where shearlng takes place through the Intact rock material rhlch makes up the projectlons and the effective roughness angle i Is reduced to zero.21 77. rough undulating artlflclal tenslon fractures 1. 66O 72O 71° 71° 8o” 75O 72O 69-’ Rengers(84) Tested by Gcodman(J9) order projections 0 2 5 5ocm Approzima t e 8ca h Patton'8 measurement of i angles for first and second order projections on rough rock surfaces.4 dered when attempting to understand the behavfor of actua I rock surfaces. In order to cbtaln reasonable agreement betw e e n h l s fleld o b s e r v a t l o n s o n t h e d l p ?f u n s t a b l e b e d d l n g planes and the sum of the roughness angle 2 and the basic frlctlon angle@.5. Thls Is defined In the margln sketch which s h o w s t h a t t h e f i r s t o r d e r p r o j e c t i o n s a r e t h o s e uhlch correspond to the maJor undulatlons on the beddlng surfaces. the second order projections are sheared off and the flrst order project Ions take over as the control I Ing factor. These values are sunmarlzed In the follor Ing table: Type of surface L Imestone. as the normal stress I ncreases even further. these results show that the effective roughness angle 2 varles between 40’ and 50. rough beddlng surf aces Shale. L a t e r studies by Barton(82) s h o w t h a t P a t t o n ’ s r e s u l t s w e r e related to the normal stress acting across the beddlng planes In the slopes uhlch ha observed. At very low normal stresses. One can Imagine that.5 3. Goodman ( 39 1 Goodman(39) Quartrlte.

the shear and normal stresses acting on the fal Iure surface are not z andU but are given by the fol loulng equations: i 7 7i 0. . such as that tested by Patton. .0 Sin L' Co5 2' 0. as Illustrated In the margln sketch. the dfscusslon has been llmlted to the problem of shearlng along a single dlscontlnulty w along a fally o f p a r a l l e l discontlnultles a n d t h a t t h e questlon o f f r a c t u r e o f t h e material o n either side o f t h e dlscontlnultles has not been consldered.5. Patton found t h a t t h e lncllnatlon o f t h e b e d d i n g p l a n e t r a c e w a s approxlmately equal to the sum of the average angle C’ and the basic frlctlon a n g l e fl f o u n d f r o m l a b o r a t o r y t e s t s o n p l a n a r s u r faces. Avemge dip 56-600 / then equatlons 17 and 18 can be substituted Into equatlon 19 to give t h e r e l a t l o n s h l p b e t w e e n t h e applied s h e a r a n d n o r m a l stresses as: z-=0 ran&t 21 m!! Thls equation was confIrmed In a series of tests on models with regular surface projectlons carried out by Patton(40) who must be credlted with havlng emphasized the importance of this slmpie relationship In the analysts of rock slope stablllty. As will be shown on the fol lowlng pages. In the case of a specimen with several proJectIons. up to thls polnt. = 0 cos Z/’ + z sril 2’ L-05 f’ 072 ON Shear dispkmement u a i If It Is assumed that the dlscontInufty surface has zero coheslve strength and that Its shear strength Is given by 7 7 u Vnozmal dispkxement v=uTani Patton'8 experiments on shearing regukzr projections. Patton ConvlncIngly demonstrated the practical signlf Icance of this relatlonshlp by measurement of the average value of the angle 2’ from photographs of bedding plane traces In unstable llmestone slopes. Three of these traces are reproduced In the margin sketch and It will be seen that the rougher the bedding plane trace.. fracturing o f fnterlocklng s u r f a c e p r o j e c t l o n s o n r o c k dlscontlnultles Is an Important factor which has to be consl- Patton'8 observation8 on bedding pZane traces in U?lStUbi!S ti??l88tCTl8 SlOpeS. the steeper the angle of the slope. Let us now consider the case where the dlscontlnuity surface Is lncllned at an angle to the shear stress dlrectlon. 2 ai 'i 4 7 1l a / Z. Note that. An wtremely Important aspect of shearing on dfscontlnultles which are lncllned to the dlrectlon of the applied shear stress Z Is that any shear dlsp lacement 24 must be accompan led by a normal dlsplacement21. Thls dllatlon plays a very important part In the shearlng behavlour of actual rock surfaces as will be shorn In subsequent dlscusslons. In this case. this means that the overall volume of the specimen ulli Increase or that the speclmen dilates..3 Shearlng on an lncllned plane In the prevtous cllscusston It has been assumed that the dlscontlnulty Surface along which shearlng occurs is exactly parallel to the direct Ion of the shear stress r. = TCos '2.

This curve wll I be approximately Ilnear. 639 Peak shear strength t c uhlch. and an Intercept on the shear stress axis of c. the cohesive strength of the cement l ng mater I a I .8 shows that this normal stress reduction can be Incorporated Into the shear strength equation In the followlng manner: r= c+/hxp. A t v e r y s m a l l displacements. ulth a s l o p e e q u a l t o t h e p e a k f r l c t l o n angle &.. shales. Residual shear strength Shear di8pZacement u -C If the peak shear strength values obtalned from tests carried out at dlf ferent normal stress’ level s are plotted. t h e s e propertlos a r e n o t slgnlf lcantly a l t e r e d b y w a t e r b u t many clays. dependlng upon whether one Is concerned w Ith peak cr resl dual strength.8 and 2. The peak shear s t r e n g t h 1s defined by the equation z.cp f 0 irp/. I s ldentlcal t o equation 1 on page 2. the curve becomes non-l Inesr and then reaches a peak at which t h e s h e a f s t r e s s r e a c h e s Its maxlmum v a l u e . a. w l t h t h e exceptlon o f t h e subscrlpts.. a curve such as that I I lustrated In the center margln sketch resu Its.. This cohesive canponent of the total shear strength Is Independent of the normal stress but the frlctlonal component Increases with the Increaslng normal stress as shown In the sketch. T h e r e a f t e r t h e shear stress required to cause further shear displacement drops rapldly a n d t h e n l e v e l s o u t a t a c o n s t a n t v a l u e c a l l e d t h e residual shear strength. be carried out a samples which are as close as possible to the In situ moisture content of the rock.~ 0 where u Is the water pressure wlthln the dlscontlnulty and c Is either equal to Cp or zero and @ either flp or #T.2 level. Nonnat 8tBZ88 0 --t . the Inf luence of water upon the coheslve and frlctlonal propertles of the rock dlscontlnuIty depends upon the nature of the f I I I Ing or cement Ing mater i a l . As dlscussed on pages 2. Equatlon 10 on page 2.5. The resldual frlctlon angle &is usually lower than the peak frlctlon angle@. As the forces reslstlng movement are overcome.u an g+0 which shows that all the cohesive strength of the cementing materlal has been lost. t h a t s h e a r t e s t s s h o u l d content. t h e specimen b e haves elastlcally and the shear stress Increases linearly wlth displacement. . Plottlng the residual shear strength against the normal stress gives a I l n e a r relatlonshlp defined b y t h e equation z. ulthln the accuracy of the experlmental r e s u l t s .5. In nest hard rocks and In many sandy tolls and gravels. t h e r e f o r e . mudstones and slmllar materlals will exhlblt slgnlflcant changes as a result of changes In moisture I t Is I m p o r t a n t . Influence of water on shear strength of planar dlscontlnultlss The most Important Influence of the presence of water In a dlscontlnulty I n r o c k lo a reduction o f s h e a r s t r e n g t h d u e t o a reduction o f t h e effective n o r m a l s t r e s s a s a r e s u l t o f w a t e r pressure.9. r e s u l t s I n t h e t y p e o f c u r v e I l l u s t r a t e d I n t h e u p p e r margl n sketch.

slmllar to the one tested. these shear test results could not be used directly In designlng a slope In uhlch a complex failure process lnvolvlng sBveral Jolnts and some Intact rock failure Is antlclpated. the most Important factor to be consIdered Is the geometry of the rock mass behlnd the slope face. for one of the tests cart-fed out at a constant normal stress 1 8hsCZ. T h e choice of appropriate shear strength values depends not only upon the avallablllty of test data but also upon a careful Interpretatlon of these data In the light of the behav for of the rock mass uhlch makes up the full scale slope. the presence of water under pressure and because of differences In scale between the surface tested and that upon which slope failure Is likely to occur. Thls beddlng plane Is still cemented. each of which had been cored from the same block of rock which contains a through-going dlscontlnulty such as a bedding plane. In the I atter case. Determlnatlon o f reliable s h e a r s t r e n g t h v a l u e s I s a crltlcal p a r t of a slope design because. While It may be possl ble to use the test results obtalned from a shear test on a rock joint In deslgnlng a slope In uhlch failure Is likely to occur along a single joint surface. The next most Important factor Is the shear strength of the potential failure surface which may consist of a single dlscontlnutty plane OT a complex path following several dlscontlnuftles and lnvolvlng sune fracture of the Intact rock material. E a c h specimen I s subJected IO a normal stress6. In other words. surface roughness. differences I n t h e s h e a r s t r e n g t h o f r o c k surfaces can occur because of the lnf luence of weathering. as ull I be shown In later chapters. sane modlflcatlon would have to be made to the shear strength data to account for the dl f ference between the shearlng process In the test and that antlclpated In the rock mass. F r o m this d l s c u s s l o n I t WI I I b e c l e a r t h a t t h e choice o f approprlate shear strength values for use In a rock slope design depends upon a sound understand lng of the basic mechanics of shear failure and of the Influence of varlous factors which can alter the shear strength character 1st lcs of a rock mass. applied across the dlscontlnulty surface as Illustrated In the margln sketch.P 8tZW80 . I n addition.1 Chapter 5 Shear strength of rock. It I s the alm of this chapter to provide this understanding and to encourage the reader to explore further In the literature on thls subject. Plotting the shear stress level at varlous shear displacements. lntroductlon In analyzing the stablllty of a rock slope. As discussed In Chapter 3. shear di8p hxmen t u Shear strength of planar dlscontlnultles / ncxmaZ stress 0 Supposing that one were to obtain a number of sunples of rock. and the shear stress T required to cause a displacement U Is measured. The beddfng plane lo absolutely planar. relatively small changes In shear strength can result In slgnlf l c a n t c h a n g e s I n t h e s a f e height o r a n g l e o f a s l o p e . the geometr Ica I relatlonshlp between the dlscontlnultles In the rock mass and the slope and orlentatlon of the excavated face ulll determlne whether parts of the rock mass are free to slide oc fall. a tenslle force would have to be applied to the two halves of the speclm e n o n either side o f t h e dfscontfnulty I n o r d e r t o separate them. havlng no surface undu 1st Ions or roughness.5.

.

4. E . D . 14 pages. 1967. “A S i m p l e Core Orientation Technique” in Stability in Surface M i n i n g (C-0. 78. AlME. Quarterly Journa i! of Engineering Geology. J . 1970. Texas. Golder 8lB W o o d . 1973. Internal S h e l l R e p o r t . T h e H a g u e . B . 72. U n i v e r s i t y o f Hinnesota. E . The logging of rock cores for engineering purposes. Review of the role of rock m e c h a n i c s r e s e a r c h i n t h e d e s i g n o f opencast m i n e s . a n d P a k a l n i s . The role of rock mechanics in the reconnaisLONDE.W. 1987. 75. p a g e s 57-127. H . No. a n d ALCER. E d . Rook Mechanics. p p . 4 6 5 . H. HOYE. September 1968. .1. P . and LAWRENCE. Vol. London. . 1967. 5. C l a y Associates’ Field Manual. T h e borehole televiewer . Institutia of En&eers of Australia. 4 . water seepage in rock slopes and the analysis of the stability of rock slopes. 3 . O p t i c a l s u r v e y i n g w i t h a borehole p e r i s c o p e . D . Vol. L . R. pages 143-192. 116. J . 77. P . ZEHANEK.F. CE9. 12th Exploration D r i l l i n g SymposiLmr. p a p e r N o . 60. T h e N X borehole c a m e r a . 3. O . sance of rock foundations. pages l-12. 194.481. Geophysics. Vol. H . Geophysics. p a g e s 124-142. 71. C . New York. Vol. 1 9 6 9 . GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. E. 1982. 79. Proc. H. 73. P . a n d N E S B I T T . ROCHA. U. Vol. 1967. R . 61. ) .19 to. Vol. BALTOSSER. a n d PENTZ. HOEK. . Civil Engineering Tmneactione. F . 1958. pages 805-808. B U R W E L L . D . Tmneactione American Inet. V o l . Vol. Brauner. . L o g e v a l u a t i o n o f nonmatallic m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s . Savely. Society of Petroleum Engineers. 2 0 0 p a g e s . P. Houston. R . KREBS. Core oricntat ion. I m p r i n t C o r e O r i e n t a t o r . Mining Engineers. 35. 1 9 6 7 . Application of well logging techniques in metallic mineral mining. 1954. pages 95-100. 1970. 3. 25 pages. Mining Magazine. ROYAL DUTCH SHELL COMPANY. SME.a n e w l o g g i n g c o n c e p t f o r f r a c t u r e l o c a t i o n a n d o t h e r t y p e s o f borehole inspection. R . LONDON ENGINEERING GROUP. KEHPE. No. 9th ccmnomealth Mining and Metallurgical Congress. Standard Legend. A method of integral sampling of rock masses. Diamond drilling for foundation exploration. I. R .W. Quarterly Jowna 1 of Engineering GeoZogy. Add reference 81A C a l l . Vol. 35. pages 390-399. 74. 1970. ( A very comprehensive report on logging and geological data presentation). 76. Proc. TIXIER.

R. 68. K . p a g e s A 2 0 5 . 1 5 .) HALSTEAD. P. L o n d o n . a n d R I P P E R E . Pit Mines. N . Sources of error in joint surveys. recovery and dr i I1 ing performance. geological compass. Company. and HACDOUGALL.H. Vol. Proc.F. C . Core barrels designed for maximum core JEFFERS. VOI. 1967. Balkema. 1968. K . Selected references on geological data collection 56. Sympos I urn on Plunning Open the Kimberley Pit. Earth Sciences. Heasurement o f l a r g e s c a l e roughness of rock planes by means of profilograph and hoc. N e w Y o r k . 59. Canadian Inst.. F . International Textbook Photogmrrnetry. Inst. A . A.3 9 5 .N. Pennsylvania. A u s t r a l i a . 1 9 7 1 . 1969. 81. 1971. France. MILLER. from University of Arizona. Preprint GBAM-65. StereoCALDER. Fracture studies at BROADBENT. M c G r a w H i l l B o o k C o . N o . 240 pages. R. 66. WEAVER.I. Published by A . TERZAGHI .J. .C. K. 1970. A. Ceotechnigue. 1965.4. 1969.N. C . R O S S . H . Metall. 64. D . International Series on Phctogeotcgy. and CALL. Terrestial photoProc.R. P. D A SILVEIRA.18 Chapter 4 references. U n i v e r s i t y o f A r i z o n a . D i a m o n d d r i 11 i n g f o r s t r u c t u r a l ROSENGREN.1 7 9 . C A L L . 1966. A m s t e r d a m . R . R. N e v a d a . J. F . A. V. 67. Scranton. University investigations. D.P. p a g e s 3 8 8 . S y d n e y . N e w Y o r k . gramnctry i n o p e n p i t s . 63.. R . p a g e s 1 3 5 . U n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r a v a i l a b l e f r o m A. 6 9 5 . London. August. Vol. 57. F.M. K.1 3 9 . 1961. 60. 359.P. B .. BAUER. M. a n d Qualitative characterization of the HENDES.D.H. 2 1 1 p a g e s . Ely. Siq. p a g e s 287-304. NO. (Unpublished paper available Tucson. p a g e s 1 7 1 . G R O S S H A N . a n d RENGERS.E. D. 50. Sympo8iwn on Canputer8 in Mining and Eaptomticn. Kimberley p i t .A 2 1 4 . F..B R O W N . 1 9 7 0 . a n d A T K I N S O N . purposes at haunt Isa. A.H. E . RODRICUES.D. M i n . C. Proc. Lisbon 225-233. 61. 1 9 7 2 . V o l . . Adelaide. Diamond drilling for rock mechanics Rock Mechanics Synposiwn. Proc. and RIPPERE. Min. 65. page 285. Computer estimation of oriented fracture set intensity. 1st Congress of the International Society of Rock 1966. 30. F E C K E R . 69. Symposium on Rock Fmcture. Johannesburg. B u l l e t i n .. 62. pages Mechanics. WILLIAIIS. V o l . MetalI.I. Paper 1-18. Nancy. Academic Press. 1. J . Industrial Diamad Review. D i a m o n d Drilling Sympohen. 1 9 6 5 . G e o l o g i c a l structural analysis for open pit slope design. photography and open pit mine design.D. 6 3 . N . g e o m e t r i c p a r a m e t e r s o f j o i n t i n g i n r o c k m a s s e s . 17 pages. 1970. HUGHES.E. HOFFIT.?e photogmnvnetry.

would we real I y know what to do with It? How do you decide on the machanlcal propertles of a rock mass? The real answer Is that we do not know but It is very convenfent to have saneone to blame for our lack of knowledge.If h e d l d provide u s with precise lnformat Ion on al I the parameters I lsted above. In the flnal analysis.17 A flnal word to engfneers . This obllgatlon was summed up by Londe In a lecture on the design of rock foundatlons when h e said The time h a s ccrne f o r u s t o c o n s u l t n o t o n l y t h e e x perts but the rock as weI I”(81 ). the best *B can do Is make an Informed guess and the more lnformatlon we have avallable at t h a t time t h e b e t t e r . The geologist Is frequently blamed for poor qua I Ity data and yet .6. This Imposes an obligation on the rock engineer to devote a llttle less time to hls calculations and a Ilttle more to field observations.we sanetlmes bel leve ourselves capable of quantlfylng a subJect to a much greater extent than Is a c t u a l l y possible. . This Informatlon must Include a personal assessment of the rock cond It tons so that the geolog 1st’ s reports can be read against a background apprecl at Ion of the a c t u a l site condltfons.

t h e s e I n s t r u m e n t s c a n provide v e r y v a l u a b l e InformatIon. 0) b) cl d) e) f) Locatlon In relation to map references Depth below reference datum DIP Dip dlrectlon Frequency or spacing between adjacent dlscontlnultles Contlnulty or extent of dlscontlnulty Uldth or opening of dlscontinulty Gouge or Inf II llng between faces of dlscontlnulty Surface roughness of faces of discontlnulty Waviness or curvature of dlscontlnulty surface Descrlptlon and propertles of Intact rock between dlscontlnultles. In the hands of special 1st operators. only 37 ft.80).78). better and more reliable Instruments of this type wll I become aval lable In the years )o come. Presentstfon of geologlcal lnformatlon T h e collectton o f s t r u c t u r a l g e o l o g l c a l d a t a I s a difficult enough problem.4. I t s e e m s m o r e t h a n Ilkely t h a t . The authors’ personal experiences with these bvlces have almost persuaded them that It would have been more prof ltable to Invest In the provlslon of geology courses for leprechauns (who are reputedly snal I enough to f It down a borehol e of reasonable slzel. Although standard nWhods of data presentation have been suggested(79. I n I t s e l f . I f I t d o e s n o t s e r v e this purpose then the geologist shou Id have the courage to change It. I s n o t adequate for the design of a rock slope since the strength of the rock mass Is also required. It does not matter what systam Is used provlded that I t c o n v e y s t h e required informatlon. t h e followlng I n f o r m a t i o n I s required f o r e a c h slgnlf lcant dlrcontlnufty. In the authors’ oplnlon. g) h) Much of this Information cannot be used quantltatlvely In a rtablllty calculation b u t I t a l I assists t h e englneor o r g e o logist In decldlng upon the most probable fal lure mode and In asslgnlng reasonable s t r e n g t h p r o p e r t l e s t o t h e r o c k m a s s .77. I n t h e previous c h a p t e r I t w a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e dips a n d dip dlrectlons of dlscontlnultles are most conveniently presented on equal-area stereoplots. rlth developments In the field of electronics. T h l s InformatIon. was SUCc s s s f u l l y oriented ulth t h e sld o f a borehole televlslon c a m e r a . Consequently It Is Important that It should be recorded and presented In such a way that the maxlmum amount of relevant lnformatlon Is conveyed to those who ware not lnvol ved In the logging I t s e l f . 6 Inch diameter borehole. tlouevor.16 from a 2. . T h e mining and clvll engfneerlng lndustrles h a v e a g r e a t d e a l to learn from the 01 I Industry In this area of boreho Ie Interpretation and well logging devices such as the Televleurr are b o u n d t o f l n d g r e a t e r appllcatlons I n site l n v e s t l g a t l o n I n y e a r s )o ccme(76. m a n y g e o l o g i s t s p r e f e r t o w o r k o u t their o w n s y s t e m s to suit their p a r t i c u l a r requrrwnents. Camunlcatlon o f thfs d a t a t o e v e r y o n e c o n c e r n e d I n t h e design o f a hlghway I s e v e n m o r e dlfflcult. It must be admltted that.201 ft. Idoslly.

Diamond b i t -Clay t o t a k e i n p r of core stub.4. L . Core stub left at the end of the previous drilling I Core orientation device using clay to take inprint o f c o r e s t u b o n e n d o f d r i l l h o l e . .15 Plate welded across upper end of lifter case Core lifter with core spring removed packed with modelling clay which protrudes f inch.

75) a n d snail dlanetor tolevlslon c-as h a v e a l s o beon used f o r t h e aalnatlon o f boroholo w a l l s . (Photogmph repmduoed with pernnkdon of Dr. OvercorIng t h l s r e l n f o r c e d material g l v e s a n I n t a c t stick o f orlented core In the wrst types of material.(73). M. Extreme hole inclinations for this technique range from about 45 to 70 degrees with optimum inclinations in the range of 60 to 65 degrees. T h e m o s t e l a b o r a t e system o f c o r e o r l e n t a t l o n Is t o d r l I I a smal I dlmter hole at the end of the parent hole and to bond a canpass of an orlonted rod Into thls hole(69). R e s i n r e l n f o r c e d c o r e s have baen successfully recovered fron depths of 125 m (410 ft. Another s y s t e m u s e d b y Rosengren f o r c o r e o r l o n t a t l o n I n Inclined bolos I s t o b r e a k a s m a l l container o f pslnt agalnst the end of the hole. Thls scheme has b e e n taken furthor by Rocha(72) I n o r d e r t o r e c o v e r I n t a c t a n or 1 onted axe . t h e r e b y m a r k l n g I t s o r l e n t a t l o n rlth respect to the vertical. conslstlng of a rlgld tube tilch supports a system of Ionses and prl sms. sectioned TV show the rod grouted into the c&a2 pilot hole. A short dunwny barrel holding a marklng pen and a msrcury orlontlng switch I s l o w e r e d down t h e holr o n Ilghtwlght r o d s .14 then retrieved with the wire-line and a conventional barrel is lowered to continue coring.4. Rocha describes drllllng a pllot hole along the a x l s o f a c o r e a n d g r o u t l n g a n o r l e n t e d r o d I n t o this h o l e . 1 1 6 f t . T h e device I s rotated u n t l l the m e r c u r y sultch oporates at a known orlontatlon and the markor pen Is then pushed onto the bottom of the hole.15. Exalnatlon of borohole walls B e c a u s e o f t h e practical problotns I n v o l v e d I n o r l e n t a t l o n o f core. A borohole periscope. used In the ChrIstensen-Huge1 core barrel . another approach 1s to exalne the walls of the borehole In an effort to map traces of structural features. Is to scribe a reference mark on the cow. fhr reforonce m a r k Is o r l e n t e d b y a magnetic b o r o h o l e s u r v e y I n s t r u m e n t mounted In the cortbarrel(71). carrying ulth I t a floating c o m p a s s . The palnt will run down the f a c e o f t h e c o r e s t u b .) I n c o a l msasures b u t there a r e m a n y p r a c t i c a l d l f f l c u l t l e s assoclatod ulth keeplng the pllot hole In posltlon and preventlng caving In poor quality rock. The method of use of the clay imprint orientor is shown on Page 4. Is probably the most successful lnstrwnt f o r twohole otmlnatlon. Note that the top end of the rod ie square in order that it oun be okented. A naJor a d v a n t a g e o f t h l s dovlce I s m a t I t I s orlonted frun o u t s l d e t h e h o l e b u t a dlsa d v a n t a g e 1s t h a t I t I s o n l y effective t o borehole d e p t h s o f approximately 1 0 0 ft. An alternative method. V e r i f i c a t i o n imprints s h o u l d b e t a k e n frequently on each core run if possible to conflrm the correct operation of the system. Broedbent a n d Rlppere(57) r e p o r t r a t h e r sad1 y t h a t o u t o f 1 . The resin charge Is released and flows Into the hole. marklng the core stub In thls known posltlon. Rosengren(67) describes a simple device f o r ooro o r l o n t a t l o n I n Inclined holes. 1 . The recovered core is fitted t o g e t h e r a n d a s t r a i g h t r e f e r e n c e l i n e i s t r a n s f e r r e d from the oriented barrel to the reconstructed core using the imprint match between the clay and the uphole core stub. Walton of the Natlonal Coal Board In England has used a slmllar technique I n uhlch a ulrellne t o o l contalnlng a banb o f polyestar resin Is lowered down a hole In uhlch a pllot hole has been drll led. o f c o r e r e c o v e r e d 2 om diameter steel rod rock \ cement grout A reinforced core. Rocha. Various types of borohole cuneras have been developed(74.

Modelling clay protrudes frcm t h e dounhole e n d o f t h e i n n e r b a r r e l s u c h t h a t i t wil I a l s o extend through the drill bit when the inner and outer barrels The barrel assembly is lowered to the hole are engaged. recovered by the Hydroe Zectric &mission of Tasmania during site investigctions for a dam. Savely and Pakalnis in 1981 (81A). which utilizes a modified inner core barrel for use with conventional wire-line diamond drilling equipment. I n f a c t t h e g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e service which c o u l d b e r e n d e r e d t o t h e rock engineer by the manufacturers of drll llng equipment would be the productlon of simple core orlentatlon systems. frcin previous chapters. bottom which causes the clay to take an imprint of the core The inner barrel is stub left from the previous core run. A second approach Is to attempt to orlent the core Itself and. uhlle t h e techniques avallable a b o u n d with practical dlfflculties uhlch are the despair of many drlllers. The method has been field tested. If surface mapplng suggests a strong concentration of planes dlpplng at 30’ In a dlp dlrectlon of lSO*. The most conmon site used at present Is RX (2-l/8 Inch or 56 ma) but cores of 5 Inch. and improved in subsequent years by Colder Associates (81B).10. Is a 48 Inch dlzwneter Calyx core fran a dam-site lnvestlgatlon In Tasmania.ter core barrels for structural drllllng. A simple core orientation technique was presented by Call. 4 Inch and 6 inch are favoured by some. will I n t e r s e c t t h e s e planes at right angles and the accuracy of the surface mapplng predlctlon can be checked. Figure 3. Thls approach Is c#tew slvely dlscussed In publ Ished Ilterature and Is usefu I ly summarlzed b y Phllllps(421. Austral la. dlppI n g a t 60’ I n a dip d l r e c t l o n o f 310°. I. The Natlonal Coal Board In England frequently uses 4-l/2 Inch diameter double-barrel drl I Is ulth alr-f lushlng for exploration o f p o t e n t l a l opencast sites.e. Alternatlvely. that the d l p a n d dip dIrectIon o f dlscontlnultles a r e mDst I m p o r t a n t I n slope stab1 llty evaluations. f l u i d . An extreme example.dtaw. this technique I s o f l i t t l e v a l u e . The barrel is eccentrically weighted with lead and lowered into a n i n c l i n e d . If two OT more non-parallel bowholes have been drllled In a rock mass In which there are recognizable marker horizons. Thls type o f drllllng w o u l d obviously only be justlfled In very special circumstances which the authors could not vlsuallze occurrlng on hlghuays.f i l l e d borehole s o t h a t i t s o r i e n t a t i o n relative to vertical is known. . Where no recognlrable marker horizons a r e p r e s e n t . Rosengren(671 describes the use of large diameter thln wal led drll llng equipment for underground hard rock drl I I Ing at Mt. these methods do provide sane of the best results currently obtalnable. the most v a l u a b l e l n f o r m a t l o n o f a l l WI I I h a v e b e e n l o s t I f n o e f f o r t has been made to orlent the core. the orlentatlon and lncllnatlon of these horltons can be deduced using graphlcal techniques. Isa. For exaple. Core alentatlon It should have become obvlous. Consequently. however successf u I a dr I I I Ing program has been In terms of core recovery. a hole drllled In the dlrectlon of the normal to these planes. A 48 inch diameter Calyx core One approach to thls problem Is to use lncllned boreholes to check or to deduce the orlentatlon of structural features. Illustrated opposite. Thls approach Is useful for checkIng the dlp and dip dlrectlon of crltlcal planes such as those In the slates on the eastern side of the hypothetlcal hlghuay cut shown In.

(Photograph reproduced with permission of Atlas Copco. High qua1 i t y c o r e r e c o v e r y c a n b e achieved with such a machine.4. . Sweden) F i g u r e 4. The machine illustrated has been modified to allow drilling with core barrels of up t o 3 i n c h e s (76 mn) o u t e r d i a m e t e r .12 F i g u r e 4.5~: A typical hydraulic thrust diamond drilling machine being used for exploration drilling.5b: A t l a s C o p c o Diamec 2 5 0 d r i l l i n g m a c h i n e set up for structural drilling in a difficult location on a quarry bench.

a hydrsullc feed machlne will malntaIn the sme thrust and WI I I al low the dr I I I to move rapid1 y through soft formatlons. h a e r . Experience h a s s h o w n t h a t c o r e r e c o v e r y I n c r e a s e s with Increasing c o r e dlaneter a n d t h e r e I s a t e n d e n c y t o u s e l a r g e r . Hydraulic chucks on thls machine allow easy rod changing and permit one man operations once the machlne has been set up. the loner tube or tubes are mounted on a bearlng so that they remain stationary while the outer b a r r e l . T h e c o r e . In a triple-tube core barrel. uhfch carries t h e diamond b l t . Thelr one dl sadvantage Is that they tend to be bu 1 ky a n d I t I s d l f f l c u l t t o s e t t h e m u p o n v e r y r o u g h sites which m a y b e o f particular I n t e r e s t t o t h e r o c k engineer. In soft formatlons.11 Drllllng machines Good core recovery In fractured ground depends upon the app I Ication of the correct thrust onto the rotat Ing dr I I I bl t . Although thls machlne wll I not drl I I to the same depths as Iarger machlnos. Ranovlng the core from the barrel Is the most crltlcal part of t h e cpratlon. DetaIled Ilterature o n d o u b l e a n d triple t u b e c o r e b a r r e l s I s avallable fran a number of manufacturers and the reader who Is unfanlllar with s t r u c t u r a l drllllng I s advlsed t o c o n s u l t this I I terature .a process guaranteed to dlsturb any undisturbed core which may be In the barrel.5b can easily be rigged In very dlfflcult locatlons and It can be operated as much as 100 ft. More general lnformatlon on drl I I Ing can be obtalned from sane of the references I lsted at the end of this chapter(67-70). away from the prime mover and hydraul Ic pump u n l t . On the other hand. I s t r a n s f e r r e d I n t o t h e non-rotatlng I n n e r barrel where It remains undisturbed until the barrel Is removed fran the hole. The f lxed rate of advance provided by a screw-feed machl ne ~1 I I mean hlgh bit pressures In hard formatlons.5a a r e widely u s e d f o r exploration drill I n g a n d a r e I d e a l f o r s t r u c t u r a l drllllng. Machlnes s u c h a s t h a t I I l u s t r a t e d I n F l g u r e 4. thereby mlnlmltlng the eroslon.4. are not generally required.b a r r e l which I s r e m o v e d f r a t h e c o r e b a r r e l a s s e m b l y with t h e c o r e Inslde It and then split to reveal the undisturbed core. In contrast. r o t a t e s . Sometimes a thin plastic o r m e t a l b a r r e l I s fltted lnslde t h e nonrotatlng barrel In order to provlde the support for the core when It Is transferred Into the core-box. It does provide adequate capacity for structural drl I I Ing for cut slopes where holes longer than about 200 ft. c u t o u t b y t h e b i t . the machlne Illustrated In Figure 4. Core barrels The alm of structural drl I I Ing Is to recover undisturbed core upon which measurements of structural features can be made. This can be achieved by the use of multlple-tube core barrels or by the use of large diameter barrels. the bit pressure wll I be very low but the slow progress of the bit wil I allow the soft materlal to be eroded by the flushlng water. More than once the authors have seen core removed from an axpensIve double-tube core barrel by thumplng the o u t e r b a r r e l with a 4 l b . By far t h e nest satisfactory s y s t e m I s t o u s e a splft I n n e r .

4e: C o n t o u r s o f m a x i m u m s c a t t e r f o r d i f f e r e n t base diameters and plot of affective roughness angle i Example a d a p t e d along direction of potential sliding. 40 i r -10 t -20 11 cm -70 Plate diameter .4d: S t e r e o p l o t s o f p o l e s from measurements on rough rock surface using measuring p l a t e s o f d i f f e r e n t diameters.10 42 cm diameter 21 cm diameter 11 cm diameter 5.5 cm diameter F i g u r e 4. .cm. f r o m p a p e r b y Fecker a n d Rcngars66. potr?ttiaz sLidi?ag -40 E F i g u r e 4. T h e a v e r a g e d i p o f t h e p l a n e i s 35O a n d i t s d i p d i r e c t i o n i s ITOo.4.

.5 c m d i a m e t e r m e a s u r i n g p l a t e f i t t e d t o a Breithaupt geological compass.4b: 5. Short base length gives high values f o r t h e e f f e c t i v e r o u g h n e s s a n g l e w h i l e long b a s e s give smaller angles. Photographs reproduced with permission of D r . F i g u r e 4.4~: 42 cm diameter measuring plate fitted to a Breithaupt g e o l o g i c a l c o m p a s s f o r s u r f a c e roughness measurement.4.9 F i g u r e 4. R e n g e r s f r o m a p a p e r b y Fecker a n d Rengers66. F i g u r e 4. N .4a: M e a s u r e m e n t o f s u r f a c e r o u g h n e s s w i t h d i f f e r e n t base lengths.

h o r i z o n t a l l y bedded strata. 9 : Equlpotcntlal d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n s l o p e s w i t h various permeability configurations. PemeabiZity mtio 104 c) Anisotropic rock mass . F i g u r e 6 .11 Peneability mtio a) Isotropic rock slope Permeability ratio 10 1 b ) Anisotropic r o c k ma55 .strata d i p p i n g p a r a l l e l t o slope.6. .

( N o t e t h a t N a p e r l a n logarithms a r e u s e d In t h e s e equatlons and that Loge = 2. A must be c o r r e c t e d t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e el I lptlcal s h a p e o f t h e horizontal water surface In the casing. w h e r e A Is t h e c r o s s . q Is the flow rate.6. Consider a n e x a m p l e o f a f a l l lng h e a d t e s t c a r r i e d o u t I n a borehole of 7. The value of m = fi = 2. Shape factors for typlcal sltuatlons are glven In Figure 6.10. = 5. at tlmes t/ and /2.s e c t i o n a r e a o f t h e w a t e r col umn.6 cm and L = 100 cm. malntalned durlng a constant head test.24 and substltuttng 0 . HIand r/z are water levels In the borehole measured from the rest water level. respectively. and & 1 s t h e w a t e r l e v e l . A = 1/4n&where d I s t h e lnslde diameter o f t h e casing In a vertical borehole.7.5 meters at r2 = 150 seconds The cross-sectlonal area A of the water column Is Substltutlng In equation (351.0 cm diameter. F Is a shape factor which depends upon the condltlons at the bottom of the hole. For an lncl lned hole. Measurement of water levels at different times for the falllng head test give the followlng values: 4 e = 10 meters at f.6 cm dlameter with a casing of 6.10. T h e first s t e p I n this analysis I s t o c a l c u l a t e t h e s h a p e f a c tor F from the equation given for the 4th case In Flgure 6.12 T h e coefflclent o f permeablllty k I s c a l c u l a t e d f r o m falllng head and constant head tests In saturated ground (test sectlon below water table) as follows. measured from the rest water l e v e l . The borehole Is extended a distance of 100 cm beyond the end of t h e casing a n d t h e material I n which t h e t e s t I s carried o u t I s assumed to have a ratlo of horizontal to vertical permeabl I Ity kh/k. the horizontal permeabl I Ity k~ Is given by . = 30 seconds .3026 LoglO).

:. :. .. :.q u a n t i t y o f water iequi re d t o m a i n t a i n c o n s t a n t: head . 0. .:.0d Borehole eztended a disturzce L beyond the end of the casing...: I:.A.:.. Inside diameter of casing i8 d om8. :" .. ..:....75d I :. :... F .13 Uater l e v e l a t z e r o t i m e I H “I” q . . Figure 6...-u. 0 0 0.hours See table for shape factor F Falling head test Constant head test oil or rock of uniform permeability. Casing Rest water level 0.: .::. :. F .:. See table for shape factor F LJ Time t . 5 4’ “C Rest water level / Casing d-.2.6. Borehole diameter is D. Inside diameter of casing is d CWlS.10 : Details of falling head and constant head tests for permeability measurement i n s o i l a n d r o c k m a s s e s w i t h s h a p e f a c t o r s f o r borehole e n d c o n d i t i o n s .::.31--p/J--y..:: Casing f tucrh with boundary betwen impenneabte and permeable stmta.2.

because o f the disturbance to the sample.6.$/k. &.11. Laboratory tests on core samples are useful In checking this ratio o f horizontal t o v e r t i c a l p e r m e a b l l l t y b u t . = 5 . t h e permeability I n t h e d l r e c t l o n o f e a c h joint s e t c o u l d b e c a l c u l a t e d directly f r o m equation (33). I f t h e Jotnt opening e c o u l d b e m e a s u r e d I n situ. A sectlon o f the borehole Is Isolated between packers or a single packer Is used to Isolate a length at the end of the hole and water Is pumped Into or out of this cavity. Thls packer 1s manufactured from rubber hoslng which I s n o r m a l l y u s e d I n t h e b u l Idlng I n d u s t r y f o r f o r m l n g volds In concrete. lnexpenslve and hlghly effective packer has been described by Harper and Ross-Brown(l82) a n d t h e prlnclpal f e a t u r e s a r e I I l u s t r a t e d I n Flgure 6. T h e p e r m e a b l l l t y o f t h e d l s c o n t l n u l t l e s perpendicular t o t h e borehole Is calculated as follows: .12. Because of Its low cost and slmpllclty. t h e p e r m e a b l l l t y ulll b e highly dlrectlonal.6 cm) dlaeter boreholes. A variety of borehole packers are avallable cocrmerclal I~(181 1 but the authors consldrr that many of these packers are too short to ellmlnate leakage.14 Since t h e r a t i o o f horizontal to vertical permeabll Ity h a s b e e n ostlmated. 1 2 x 10’4cm/Sec. A pumping test for the measurement of the permeab I I I ty In the dlrectlon of a particular set of dlscontlnultles such as joints Involves drllllng a borehole perpendicular to these dlscontlnultles as shown In Flgure 6. a s . (3 m) have proved extremely effectlvs In pumping tests In 3 Inch (7. f r o m exsmlnatlon o f t h e c o r e .= 2 . past the packers and through the I n t a c t r o c k s u r r o u n d l n g t h e h o l e I s negllglble. Unfortunate1 y such measuraents are not possible under field condltlons and the permsablllty must therefore be determlned by pumping tests. Laboratory methods for permeabl I lty testing are descr lbed In standard texts such as that by Lzsnbe(l801. It Is unl lkely that the absolute values of permeabl llty measured In the laboratory VIII I be as rsllable a s t h o s e determfned b y t h e borehole t e s t s described. Punplng tests ln boreholes In a rock mass In which the groundwater flow Is concentrated ulthln r e g u l a r joint s e t s . Leakage past packers Is one of the most serious sources of error In pumplng tests and every effort should be made to ensure that an effective seal has been achIeved before measurements are arrmenced. It Is assumed that most of the flow Is concentrated ulthln thls one Jolnt set and that crossf I OU through other joint sets. long packers can be used and packer lengths of 10 ft. A simple. It aDnslsts of Inner and outer rubber tubes enclosIng a diagonally braided cotton core and thls arrangement allows an Increase In diameter of approximately 20% when the h o s e Is I n f l a t e d .

11 : Pumping test in regularly jointed rock.15 F i g u r e 6. Figure 6. a l f i t t i n g s f o r p r e s s u r e i n l e t a n d piezometer cables.6. .12 : Section through the end of a packer for sealing the bottom end of a pumping test The upper packer end has additioncavity. T h e borchole i s d r i l l e d a t r i g h t a n g l e s to the joint set in which the permeability is to be measured. Pin for attachment to lifting cable . Clamp f c Ductube or Petrometal I ic TBP 3.

m = (k/kp) f k I s t h e permeabl llty a t r l g h t a n g l e s t o t h e borehole (quantity requlred) kP I s t h e permeablllty p a r a l l e l t o t h e borehole uhlch.10). Is equal to the permeablllty of the Intact rock H’ Is the constant head above the or I glnal groundwater level In the borehole.0 1 .6 10fZ 106 15. S u b s t l t u t l n g this v a l u e I n t o equation (36) gives where. Techniques for water pressure measurement a r e d e a l t with I n t h e followlng sectlon o f this c h a p t e r .0 106 101 11. t h l s d o e s n o t p r e s e n t serious problems. as t h e r e s u l t o f an Investlgatlon p r o g r a m .4 104 102 6. When only one borehole 1s avallable. Where a pattern of boreholes 1s aval 1 able.1 lo2 10’ 4.3 1oa 105 13. the values of Loge (2 m L/D) are as follows: k/&p m Loo8 (2 m L/D) 1. The most satisfactory means of obtalnlng the value of b$ Is to mossuro I t In a borehole parallel t o a n d a t a distance R f r o m the t e s t h o l e . I f cross-flow Is neglected.7 106 10’ 9.16 w h e r e q I s t h e p u m p l n g r a t e required to malntaln a c o n s t a n t pressure In the test cavity L I s t h e Iongth o f t h e t e s t cavity kit Is the tots I head In the test cav Ity Cl I s t h e borehole diameter H2 Is the total head measured at a distance R from the borehole. When the dlscontlnulty spacing varies .6. m = 10J which gives In ckrlvlng equatlon 139). Consider the exaple where L = 4D. The value of the term Loge (2 m L/D) In this equation does not have a major Inf I uence upon the value of k and hence a crude estimate of m Is adequate.106.9 A reasonable v a l u e o f k f o r m o s t practical appllcatlons I s glvon b y assumlngk/& .o 2. I t h a s b e e n a s s u m e d t h a t t h e t e s t cavity of length L Intersects a large number of dlscontlnultles (say 100) and that the value k represents a reasonabl a average permeablllty for the rock mass (In the dlrectlon at rlght ang l e s t o t h e borehole). an approximate solution to squat Ion (37) can be obtal ned by usl ng the shape factor F for a stratlf led system (Figure 6. In this case.

T h e v o l u m e change wlthln thls sealed sectlon. are avallable for the evaluatlon of permeabl llty but the authors bel love that these are b e s t l e f t I n t h e h a n d s o f experienced speclallst c o n s u l t a n t s . . Thls Is the t Imo taken for the prossuro In the system to reach equ 1 I I br 1 urn after a pressurr change and It depends upon the permeabl I Ity of the ground and the volume change associated ulth the pressure change. a s s u m l n g that t h e dlscontlnulty openlng (e I n equation 33) remalns constant. If the stab1 Ilty of a slope Is to be control led by dralnage. Under t h e s e clrcmstances. Before Ioavlng thls questlon of permeabl Ilty testing It must be polnted out that the dlscusslon which has been presented has been grossly slmpl Ifed. T h e simple t e s t s which h a v e b e e n described a r e g e n e r a l l y adc quato for hlghway stab11 Ity and dralnage studies. f o r l e s s permeable wound. I n o r d e r t o overcane thls problem. complex and confuslng. A detalled dlscusslon on thls matter has been glven by Terzaghl and Peck(183) and only the most Important conslderatlons will be sumnarlzed here. The most Important factor to be consldered In choosing a plozometer Is the tlmo lag of the annpleto Installation. The va I ue of n can be est Imated frun the borehol e core log and. A number of technlquos.6. the time lag Is too long. more sophlstlcated than those uhlch have been described hero. Open holes can be used for pressure measurement when t h e permeablllty I s g r e a t e r t h a n 10’~cm/se~. the varlatlon In permeabl I Ity along the borehole can then be estimated. t h e change I n prossure lnducod b y t h l s c h a n g e I n v o l u m e m a y give rise t o slgnlflcant errors In measurement. This has been Qne Gllberately since t h e Iltoraturr deallng with this subJect I s copious. caused by the operatlon of the plezaneter should be vrry snail In order that the response o f t h e c o m p l e t e l n s t a l l a t l o n t o p r e s s u r e c h a n g e s I n t h e surI f a devlco which requires a roundlng rock should be rapld. I t I s p r e f e r a b l e t o e x p r e s s t h e permeablllty In terms of the permeablllty kj of lndlvldual dlscontlnultlrs where n Is the number of dlscontlnultles uhlch Intersect the test cavity of length L. a pressure measuring device or plezcmeter Is I n s t a l l e d I n a s e a l e d soctlon o f t h e b o r e h o l e . It Is essential that water pressures ulthln the slope should be measured. b u t . Such measurements are most conveniently carried out by plezunetws In&al l e d I n boreholes. water flow WI I I be concentrated In zones of closely spaced dlscontlnultles and the use of an average permeablllty value can glve mlsleadlng results. Measurement of rater pressure The Importance of rater pressure In relation to the stab11 Ity of slopes has been aphaslrod In several of the previous chapIf a rel table estimate of stab1 llty Is to be obtalned or tars. A varlety of plerunetw t y p e s I s a v a l l a b le a n d t h e choice o f the type to be used for a particular lnstallatlon depends upon a wnbor of practical conslderatlons.17 along the length of the hole. l a r g e volune c h a n g e f o r I t s operation I s used.

U. The depth of water below the co1 1ar of the hole Is measured by the length of cable and It Is convenient to mark the cable In feet or meters for thls purpose. Solder end8 t o A eimple probe for uater teve 2 detection. IIIInols 60202. Thls type of Installation Is Important w h e n I t I s s u s p e c t e d t h a t w a t e r f l o w I s c o n f l n e d t o certain layers wlthln a rock mass. because of the small diameter of the standplpe. c o n s l s t l n g of a probe.A. the time lag involved In uslng an open hole ulll be unacceptable and a standplpe plezcfneter such as that I I I ustrated In Figure 6. T h l s t y p e o f p l e z o m e t e r I s c o m p l e t e l y fllled with de-alred water and Is sultab le for measurement of smal I water pressures. the time lag of open ended boreholes or standplpe pleFor example. e t al(184). An advantage of the stendplpe plezometer Is that. P o r t a b l e w a t e r l e v e l I n d i c a t o r s . Because the volume of water wlthln the standplpe Is small. When the permeablllty of the ground In which water pressure Is to be measured Is less than lo-4 cm/set. open ended cased holes can be used to measure water pressure In rock or sol I In which the permeab 1 I Ity I s g r e a t e r t h a n a b o u t 10’4an/sec. When the contacts touch the water. . A l I t h a t I s required f o r these measurements Is a device for measuring water level In the borehole. the response time of thls pleze meter lnstallatlon VIII be adequate for most appllcatlons Ilkely to be encountered on a hlghway. a number can be lnstal led In the same hole. approx lmatel y 5 zaneters becomes unacceptable..18 Some of the CZIWKWI types of plezometer are br lef ly dlscussed below: a) O p e n plezanetwr cr observation w e l l s To reeistace measuring circuit . A v e r y simple p r o b e c o n s l s t l n g o f a p a l r o f electrlcal contacts housed In a brass weight Is 11 lustrated In the margln sketch. Hence different sectlons can be sealed off along the length of the borehole and the water pressure wlthln each sectlon monltored. a marked cable and a small resistance measurlng Instrument. An Improved time lag can be obtalned by uslng a closed hydrauIlc pletaneter s u c h a s t h a t described b y B l s h o p . Such plezometers are generally used for pore pressure measurement durlng constructlon of embankments or dams where they can b e I n s t a l l e d d u r l n g constructlon and l e f t I n p l a c e .6. days would be required for a typlcal standplpo plezometer to r e a c h a n a c c e p t a b l e s t a t e o f equlllbrlum a f t e r a c h a n g e o f water pressure In a rock or sol I mass havlng a permeabl I Ity of 10” dsec.S. Evanston. A snal I diameter standplpe passIng through the seals al lows the water level to be measured by means of the same type of water level lndlcator a s described above under open hole plezometers. are avallable from Solltest Inc. 2205 Lee Street. b) Bram weight Standplpe plerameters inside dia. Thls device consists of a perforated tip which Is sealed Into a sectlon of borehole as shown... T&n c o r e c a b l e As dlscussed above. the reslstance of the electrIca clrcult drops and thls can be measured on a standard “Avometer” or slmllar Instrument. c) C l o s e d hydrsullc plerometws When the permeablllty of the ground falls below about 10m6 cm/ sec.13 shou I d be used.

19 /Protective cover 4” i n t e r n a l d i a m e t e r II r i g i d p l a s t i c tubingd II Fine sand --L Grout with sealing additive Coarse sand o r g r a v e l . P8zt8ti88d bontonite ie avaikbte ctmn8miatty a8 '~8~tonit8"frcm Rockt88t L t d .8 Of fin8 8and and 8izt abOV8 th8 pi88WJ8t8r so&ion aan b8 mtpt4csd by bonto?zit8 pozzete which fom a gel in COntaCt trith &lt8r e%Tld fO2Wl a?l 8ffSCtiVO 88aZ . silt A 4 2 ft.- 2 ft. Qwbec. F i g u r e 6. fine sand D r i l l */sl’ h o l e s In b o t t o m 4 f t .13 : T y p i c a l s t a n d p i p e plezometer I n s t a l l a t i o n d e t a i l s . cana&. Lcmzb8rt. coarse sand Grout with sealing c additive Grout Note : i-h8 tic?0 88di?lQ bZy6l. . . : o f standplpe 5 ft.6.

1 4 . an air valve allows air to escape when the air and water pressures on either sfde of the dlaphragn are equal(185). D r a i n a g e . A cuanerclally a v a l l a b l e air plezometer I s I l l u s t r a t e d I n Flgure 6.15. Remember that It Is water pressure and not rate of flow wh 1 ch 1 s responsible f o r InstabIlIty I n s l o p e s a n d I t I s essential t h a t measurement or calculation of this water pressure should form p a r t o f site lnvestlgatlon f o r s t a b l l l t y studies.20 cl) Air actuated plezoineters A very rapld response time can be achieved by use of air actub ted plezometers In which the water pressure Is measured by a balancing air pressure acting against a dlaphragn. Installation of a plastic tube standpipe pioacmeter in a driZZ hole. Because of their relatively high cost and b e c a u s e o f t h e possIblllty o f electrlcal f a u l t s . In many cases. A wfde varfety o f such devices Is aval lable comnerclally and they are Ideal for measuring t h e w a t e r p r e s s u r e w l t h l n t h e t e s t cavfty during a punplng test(172). Is One of the mxt effective and rest economical means avallable for lmprovlng the stab11 Ity of highway slopes. t h e s e p l e z o m e t e r s a r e l e s s satisfactory f o r p e r m a n e n t lnstal latlon In boreholes. General ananents A frequent mistake made by mglneers or geologists In examlnlng rock or sol1 slopes 1s )o assume that groundwater Is not present If no seepage appears on the slope face. the seepage rat. e) Electrlcal ly lndlcatlng plezaaeter An almost Instantaneous response time Is obtained from plezom e t e r s I n which t h e deflectlon o f a diaphragm a s a r e s u l t o f water pressure Is measured electrIcally by means of some form of strain gauge attached to the dlaphragn.e may be lower than the evaporation rate and hence the slope surface may appear completely dry and yet there may be water at slgnfflcant pressure wlthln the rock mass. . Ratlonal daslgn of dralnage systems Is only possible If the water flow pattern wlthln the rock mass Is understood and measurement of permeabl I Ity and water pressure provides the key to this understanding.6. which Is dlscussed In Chapter 12. As shown In Figure 6 . Slmllar types of Instrument are avallable from other suppllers and these devices are playing an lncreaslngly Import a n t r o l e I n s l o p e stablllty studies.

Piezometer m e a s u r e s 4” x 24” (12mm x 62mn).14: Typical circuit for a n a i r a c t u a t e d piezomcter. ..6.1 0 0 P n e u m a t i c P i e z o m e t e r a n d Model C-102 read-out unit manufactured by Thor Instrument Company Inc.15 : M o d e l P . Seattle. Air valve --Diaphragm F i g u r e 6.21 Pressure gauge Airflow indicator Plastic tubes Figure 6.

N e w Y o r k . L o n d o n . SNOW. 167. in Fla.1971. DAVIS. 168. Proc. J. through porous nete. 946. M . 161. Y . September.A. J. Univereity 172. Vol. rock and its influence on the stability of rock masses. 1970.R. R . C . 159. p a g e s 105-134.D. 463 pages. 1967. Hydrogeology. 1968. HcGraw Hill Co. Ph. L. Proc.L. pages 73-91. H. A c a d e m i c P r e s s . N e w Y o r k . 1967.T. Fluid flow through fissured media. 170. The8i8. Seismic failures of Chilean DOBRY. Fluid flow in simulated fracture. 1971. a n d D E WIEST. D o c t o r a t e t h e s i s . and HACIVER.D. Proc. John Wiley C Sons. S . porosities.C. In situ parameters in jointed rock HAINI. 1968.B. K. Vol. Proc. ASCE. Proc. 946. media. and LEE. American Society of Civil Engineore. p a g e s 54-09. Vancouver. Chemical h'ng. 2. 163. mrd Seepage. 1966. Vol. taillngs dams. Proc. Mech. HUITT. 160. 1st Symposium construction of tailings dams. O . E . s a n d s d u r i n g c y c l i c l o a d i n g .N. D A V I S .N. N . MORCENSTERN. ASCE.E. through porous media. Design and CASACRANOE. Groutiter HAAR. 173. 165. their measurement and interpretation. and ALVAREZ. No.Vancouver. ( i n German). Stability for Gpen Pit Mining. Seepage. SHARP. E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n Imperial CoZZege R o c k Mechanic8 Research Report No. pages 259-264.22 Chapter 6 references Selected references on permeability and water pressure measurement. 94. 1970. 1st Symposia on Stability of Gpen Pit Mining. J . 1969. N e w Y o r k . 169. 92. on 162. New York b London. CEOERGREN. University of London (Imperial Co! lege). H. The influence and control of groundwater in open pit mining. Theeis.6. Vol. R. L. N . B. d e Uiest. N . Liquefaction of saturated SEED. 1970. Porosity and permeability of natural m a t e r i a l s . SCHEIOECGER. drainage and fZw J o h n W i l e y a n d S o n s . Foundation Div. edited by R . openings and Journal Soil. 10. 1960. . N. 171. The phy8iC8 of fbw HacHillrn. Published by AIHE. 5th Canadian Symposium on Rock Mechanics. of London (Imperial College). D.R. 1967. 93.. 1969. S. 90 pages. A study of groundwater flow in jointed LOUIS. JournaZ Soil Mechanics and Foundation Div. No. N e w Y o r k . The influence of groundwater on stability. Rock fracture spacings. 1 9 6 6 . U n i v e r s i t y o f K a r l s r u h e . 1962. 166. 164. Toronto. Ph.L. BRAUNER. Journ~Z American Ins?. c. 1956.

of Field 175. U. Fu7danentale of Soil John Wiley c Sons. B I S H O P . A. 1951. KARPLUS. U. P. HARPER. 1 80. Influence SHARP.R. John Vi Icy 181. 992. D . 782.H. WARLAH. Institution of Civil Engineers. in 182. Proc. Proc. TAYLOR. London. MAYER. New York. Corps of Engineers k'atemaye Experiment Station.. 176. 178. New York. a n d PENHAN. .C.S. 92. B u l l e t i n N o . pages 111-120. 1965.F. T. ImperiaI CoZZege R o o k Mechanics Reeearch Report No.MAINi.. H O R S L E V . Practice. 177. 6 3 . D. V . In-situ testing for the Channel Tunnc 1. p a g e s 9 1 .C. 184. engineers.. 1948. A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y f o r T e s t i n g e n d M a t e r i a l s S p e c i a l T e c h n i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n N o . 183. SoiZ testing for 8 Sons. 1967. Div.N. a n d MORGENSTERN. and CHEUNG. MUIR WOOD. Ehl. Solution of anisotropic seepage by finite elements. K E N N A R D . Mechanics. R . V o l . Vol. p a g e s Al3-20. 50 pages. and HARPER.. M. N . Heasurement o f h y d r o s t a t i c u p l i f t p r e s s u r e o n splilway w e i r w i t h a i r I?lUtl’W?l~t8 and aQparatu8 for 8Oiz a?d piezometers. E . Conference on Pore Pr8ssur8 and Suction in SoiZ.23 174. B u t t e r w o r t h . Y. R .U. 1972.H. 1968. Porep r e s s u r e o b s e r v a t i o n s a t Seiset D a m . and ROSS-BROWN. 81.9. Vol. o f g r o u n d w a t e r o n t h e s t a b i l i t y o f r o c k m a s s e s . U .1 0 2 .J. 36. O. H . a n d P E C K .T. J. Journal Enq. New York. New York. pages 143-151. BuZZetin No.. 5 pages. 1 9 6 0 . LAMBE. K . a n d T H O M A S . 729 pages.9 Review. Soil Mechanic8 in Engineering TERZAGHI. 1969. Prob Zeme . 1968. Institute Mining and Metatturgy.S. A . AnaZog Simulation.6. li.K. A . Solution McGraw Hill Co. HEEHAN. John Wiley C Sons inc. Mach. T h e a p p r o x i m a t e solution of seepage problems by a simple electrical analogue method. A. ZIENKIEWICZ. London. rock meohanice. p*ges 79-86. 1969. London. 185. Civil Engineering and Pubtic Work. Conference on in-situ investigations Published by the 8oiZa and rocks. 1966. 79. R . D. L . p a g e s 65-70. Trarza. 1 9 7 2 . Y. T . ASCE. A .W. London. An inexpensive d u r a b l e borehole pecker.R. Time l a g a n d s o i l p e r m e a b i l i t y i n groundwater measurements. 024. 1951.

.

b. It would not be right to ignore the two-dimensional case There are many in this general discussion on slope fai lure. i. Release surfaces which provide negi igible resistance to slidlng must be present in the rock mass to define Alternatively. For sliding ef ’ sp ’ + b.vf >i”u. i t i s u s u a l t o consider a slice of unit thickness taken at right angles to the slope face. A slope having a tension crack in its upper surface.7. Note that two cases must be considered. the following geometrical conditions must be satisfied: a.Rcleerc surfaces In order that sllding should occur on a single plane. This means that its dip must be smal ler than the dip o f t h e s l o p e f a c e . i. Slice of unit thickness I n analyrlng t w o . Plane fal lure analysis The geometry of the slope considered in this analysis is deflned i n F i g u r e 7 . when . The wedge type of failure.1 Chapter 7 Plane failure.# . The dip of the failure plane must be greater than the a n g l e o f f r i c t i o n o f t h i s p l a n e . Introduction A plane f a i l u r e i s a c o m p a r a t i v e l y r a r e s i g h t i n r o c k s l o p e s because it is only occasionally that al I the geometrical conditions required to produce such a failure occur in an actual slope. The plane on which sliding occurs must strike parallel or nearly parallel (within approximately + 20’) to the slope face. 1 . The fal lure plane must “day1 ight” in the slope face.e.e.vPb. . A slope wlth a tenslon crack in its face. failure can occur on a failure plane passing through the convex “nose” of a slope. d. i. The transltlon from one case to another occurs when the tension crack colncldes with the slope crest.e. C. valuable lessons to be learned from a consideration of the mechanics o f this s i m p l e f a i l u r e m o d e a n d i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y useful for demonstrating the sensitivity of the slope to changes In shear strength and groundwater conditions .d i m e n s i o n a l s l o p e p r o b l e m s . General conditions for plane failure . is a much more general case and many rock slope engineers treat the plane failure as a special case of the more general wedge failure analysis.changes which are less obvious when dealing with the more complex mechanics of a three-dimensional slope failure. the latera I tmundar I es of the sl i de. While this Is probably the correct approach for the experienced slope designer who has a wide range of design tools at his disposa I . a. Thls means that the area of the sliding surface can be ropresonted by the length of the surface visible on a vertical section through the slope and the vol ume of the sl I d I ng block is represented by the area of the figure representing thls block on the vertical section. considered in Chapter 8.

. lb : G e o m e t r y o f s l o p e w i t h t e n s i o n c r a c k i n s l o p e f a c e .7. ension c r a c k i n s l o p e f a c e Figure 7. l a : GemtrY o f S~OPC w i t h t e n s i o n creek i n u p p e r s l o p e surface.2 sfon c r a c k i n u p p e r F i g u r e 7 .

The tension crack is vertical and is filled with water to a depth Zw.1. Water enters the sllding surface along the base of the tension crack snd seeps along the sliding surface. In other words. e. U (upI Ift force due to water pressure on the sl id i ng surface) and V (force due to water pressure in the tension crack) al I act through the centrold of the sl i ding mass.3 The followlng assumptions are made in this analysis: a. The forces W (the weight of the sliding block). The pressure distribution induced by the presence of water In the tension crack and along the sliding surface is I I lustrated in Figure 7. linear shear strength curve. This tangent should touch the curve at a normal stress value which corresponds to the In this n o r m a l s t r e s s acting o n t h e f a i l u r e p l a n e . the possibility that toppling failure may occur should be kept in mind. i n s t e e p s l o p e s w i t h steeply dipping discontinuities. given by the page 2. The normal stress acting on a failure surface can be determined from the graph given in Figure 7. The factor of safety of this slope Is calculated in the same way as that for the block on an i n c l i n e d p l a n e c o n s i d e r e d o n In this case the factor of safety.9. the analysis is only valid for the slope height used to determine the normal stress level.1: . A slice of unit thickness is considered and it is assumed that release surfaces are present so that there is no resistance to sliding at the lateral boundaries of the failure. Both sllding surface and tension crack strike parallel to the slope surface. Is where. case. C. t o t a l f o r c e r e s i s t i n g sliding t o t h e t o t a l f o r c e t e n d i n g t o induce sliding. The shear strength of the sliding surface is defined by cohesion c and a friction angle@ which are related by the equation z = c + Q Tan# as discussed on page In the case of a rough surface having a curvi2. the apparent cohesion end apparent friction angle. it is assumed that there are no fnxnents which would tend to cause rotation of the block and hence failure is by sliding only. from Figure 7.2. However. the errors introduced by ignoring moments are smal I enough to neglect. d. escaping at atmospheric pressure where the sliding surface daylights in the slope face.4. defined by a tangent to the curve are used. While this assumption mey not be strictly true for actual slopes. b. f.7.

4 0.2 Normal stress acting on the failure plane in a r o c k slooe.3 0.z P . .* 0.r/H) YH w h e r e z/H .6 Y E f z : i : c : 2 6 .5 0.7.2 0.(2/H)2)Cot$p .1 .Tan+p (see p a g e 7 .~Cot$f.4 0 0. 1 2 1 Figure 7.d e g r e e s 0 ((1 .Cot$f)Sin$p -I 2(1 .1 0 0 10 20 30 50 60 70 80 90 S l o p e f a c e a n g l e Jlf .

the solution of equst Ions (42) to (47) can become rather lwdlous. the factor of s a f e t y I s I n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e size o f the slope.Cut@~&h @p When the tenslon crack Is In the slope taco: T h e r a t i o s P .z/H). R a n d S a r e a l l dImensIonlass rhlch MS that they depend upon the geometry but not upon the sl zo of iho slope. lllustrntad I n thesa oquc tlons.co/&p) &v fw/ WV fw For the tension crack In the upper slope surface (Flguro 7.10) and. Honco. H o w e v e r . Z&H-2). Q. cosec g$2 l When the tension crack Is In the upper slope surface: p +‘f- t’i//fJzJCuf Fyp . the calculation o f a t u t o r o f s a f e t y I s a slmplo ‘&nough m a t t e r . are pfasentod I n g r a p h i c a l f o r m I n Figure 7. It I s scewtlmes nocossary to compare a range of slope geomrtrlos. for the tension crack In tlw slope face (Figure 7. T h e I m p o r t a n t p r l n c l p l e o f dlmenslonless grouping. oquatlon(42)can b e rerrrangod I n t h e folloulng dImensIonless form. *hero P ff .fr. . In such cases. Is a useful tool In rock englnoulng and l xtonslvo use rlll b e made o f t h i s p r l n c l p l e I n the s t u d y o f uodgo a n d clrculsr fal lures. In a-der to fwl I itate the appl Icatlon of those squat Ions to practical p r o b l e m s .JM~~ -I)/ f41) When the geometry of the slope and the depth of u&or In the t e n s l o n c r o c k wo k n o w n .7.(H-2). In cases where the cohoslon c . CaB#~~ u. values f o r t h e r a t i o s P ..lb) lu~J7~‘(N-r/xlpc~~~~~~llp.5 A . In ardor t o s i m p l i f y the calculations.~rw+v w = f ~//‘///-f2/~JzJ6uf~~ . Hate that both tonslon crack positions are included In the graphs for the ratlo Q and hence the values of Q mry be determined for any slope conflgurrtlon rlthout having first to check cm the tenslon creek posltlon. f o r a r a n g e o f s l o p e gwmotrlos. Q a n d S.3.0. rater depths and the Influence of dlfferont show strengths. c-agp v.

7.3b: V a l u e s o f t h e r a t i o S f o r v a r i o u s g e o m e t r i e s .c C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 F i g u r e 7.6 6.c F i g u r e 7. 4.c P 3.C 1.c 2.c 5.3a : V a l u e s o f t h e ratio P for various slope eomctries. .

1 0 nl -10 I \ I \ I’\ I‘\ I‘\ r .3~ : value of the ratio Q f o r vrrlous s l o p e gaometrlor.3 0. 0.3 Q Q I 0.2 \ 0.2 0. .b 20 J u 30 40 50 60 70 80 go IO 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 F i g u r e 7.J v * -4 ‘.7.6 \\ 0.7 10 20 30 40 50 60 708090 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 go Note: Danhod tines refer to ten&m crack in sZope face. v .

0 and Q = 0. Construct the force diagram Illustrated In Figure 7. A tension crack occurs 29 ft.195 0. are: z. shown In Figure 7. It would be obviously worth taking steps to prevent water from entering the top of the tension crack.5 to be: 0 0. .. varying one parameter at a time. Consider the example in which a 100 ft.5 0.7.26 0. Al so calculate the magnitude of the cohesive force A.4s. varies as fol lows: zw/z F 1 . can be carried out in a few minutes and are useful aids to declslon making.8 One point to keep in mind when using these graphs is that the depth of the tension crack Is always measured from the top of the slope as illustrated in Flgure 7.000 lb/ft.125 Hence. Simple analyses of thls sort. the tension crack is found to have a depth of 50 ft.1. Assuming that the cohesive strength of the bedding plane c = 1. that of water Is &= 6 2 . from equation 48. Graphlcal a n a l y s i s o f stability As an alternatlve t o t h e a n a l y t i c a l m e t h o d p r e s e n t e d a b o v e . behind the crest of the slope and.34 These values are plotted in the graph in the margin and the sensitivity of the slope to water in the tension crack is obvious.lb.3.5 WZ 1.098 0.5 1./z R s 1. V and U from these dimensions by means of the equations given In Figure 7. upon the factor of safety of the slope. z and z. In other cases. The unit weight of rock7 = 160 lb/ft?.10 0 1. C. it may be found that the presence of water In the tension crack does not have a slgnlflcant influence upon stab1 I ity and that other factors are more important.o 0.+. A. t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y f o r dl f f e r e n t d e p t h s o f w a t e r i n the tension crack.0 0.36 The values of R (from equation 52) and S (from Flgure 7. The values of P and Q are found from Figure 7. for z/H = 0. for a range of values of IN/Z. some readers may prefer the followlng graphical method: a.. Calculate the forces W.3b).13 0 0 0 The value of 2c/7H = 0.77 0.c.4a. D. In the example consldered. 5 Ib/ft?.0 P . from an accurately drawn cross-section of the slope. high slope with a face a n g l e Vf = 60° is found to have a bedding plane runnl ng through i t a t a dippp = MO. f Ind the inf I uence of water depth I. X. From an accurately drawn cross-section of the slope.P and the friction angle@ = 30’.4b as follows: b. scale the lengths H.

fy(HX .Dz + z. .9 Weight of sliding wedge : u .c Fector o f sefety F 5 Figure 7. N&&f + A.(D .Dz) H o r i z o n t a l w8ter f o r c e : V .A.+yw.X.fyw. Weight of sliding wedge : u .e) Force directions f + A.4a : Slope geometry end equations for calculetlng forces rcting on slope.) Figure 7.fy(HX . 2 U p l i f t weter f o r c e : U .7.4b : Force diegrem for two-dImensional slope stebilltv l nelysis.zw.

The scale should be chosen to suit the size of the drawing board used. slope Is assumed to be completely drained. drawing A. Influence of groundwater on stablllty In the preceding discussion it has been assumed that It is only the water present in the tenslon crack and that along the fal ITh I s ure surface which influences the stab1 lity of the slope. VI From the upper extremity of the U I lne. therefore. Is equivalent to assuming that the rest of the rock mass Is impermeable.c. this means that there is no water pressure In the tension crack or along the slldlng surface.7. draw a I Ine t o r e p r e s e n t t h e f o r c e V d u e t o w a t e r pressure in the tension crack.c) to S.4b) a n d .4b and draw a line to represent the uplift force U due to water-pressure on the slldlng surface. f r o m t h e u p p e r e x t r e m i t y o f the Ilne representing W. Iv) Project the Ilne representing U (shown dashed In Figure 7. vi) The length f In Figure 7. a . viii) T h e l e n g t h o f t h e l i n e m a r k e d S o n t h e f o r c e diagram represents the total force tend Ing to induce sliding down the plane. iii) Measure the angle pp as shown In Figure 7. draw a I Ine at an angle fl to Intersect the I I ne from W to the projection for the U line. An exaple o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f this gaphical technique will be given later in this chapter.c on the force diagrams ensures that there Is no error in converting to and from the various scales whfch may have been used In t h i s a n a l y s i s s i n c e It p r o v i d e s a v i s u a l c h e c k of the magnitude of A. Dry s l o p e s The simplest case which can be considered is that In which the In practical terms. The factor of safety F of the slope Is given by Ix) the ratio of the lengths ff + A. as long as no pressure is generated. I I) At right angles to the line representing W. construct a perpendicular to the projection of the U I inc.c can be drawn psral lel t o f . it WI I I not Influence the stab1 I ity of the slope. Consequently. VII) The cohesive resist I ng force A. Note that there may be moisture In the slope but. I) . Consideration must. the only possibi Iity open to the slope designer is to consider a number of realistic extremes in an attempt to bracket the range of possible factors of safety and to assess the sensitivity of the slope to variations In groundwater conditions. Al though this step is not essential.10 Draw a vertical Ilne to represent the weight W of the sliding wedge. The current state of knowledge in rock engineer Ing does not permit a precise definition of the groundwater flow patterns in a rock mass. an assumption which is certainly not always justif l e d . be given to water pressure dlstrlbutlon other than that upon which the analysis so far presented Is based.4b represents the frictlonal f o r c e w h i c h resists sliding a l o n g t h e fat lure plane.

t h e f a c t o r o f safety o f t h e s l o p e i s filling. Assuming that the remainder of the rock mass is relatively impermeable. Such extreme water prossure conditions may occur from time to time and the slope designer should keep this posslbi lity In mind. equation(48)reduces t o : b. the forces V and U are both zero and equation (42) reduces to: A l t e r n a t i v e l y . The up I I ft force U cou Id al so be reduced to zero or near I y zero if the failure surface was impermeable as a result of clay I n e i t h e r c a s e .11 Under these conditions. The prossuro distribution along the sliding surface has been assumed to decrease linearly from the base of the tension crack to the int e r s e c t i o n o f t h e f a i I ure s u r f a c e a n d t h e s l o p e f a c e . this assumed distribution is as reasonable as any other which could be made.7. alternatively c. the only u&or pressure which wil I be generated during and immediately after the rain wil I be that due to water in the tenIn other words. since t h e ectual pressure distribution is unknown. it is possible that a more dangerous water pressure distribution could exist if the face of the slope became frozen in winter so that. Water in tension creek and on sliding surfece T h e s e we t h e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h were arsumod i n d e r i v i n g t h e goneral solution presented on the preceding pages. the use of this water pressure distribution would result in a excessively conservative . for general slope design. given by or. sion crack. Water in tonslon crack only A heavy rain storm after a long dry spell can result in the rapid but Id-up of water pressure in the tension crack which WI I I offer little resistance to the entry of surface flood water unlors effective surface drainage has been provided. the water pressure at the face would be that due to the full head of water in the slope. However. the up! ift force U * 0. instead of the zero pressure condition which has been assumed at the face. T h i s water pressure distribution is probably very much simpler than t h a t w h i c h o c c u r s i n a n a c t u a l s l o p e b u t .

8).12 slope and hence the trlangular pressure distribution used In the general analysts is presented as the basis for normal slope design. in the case of the example considered. The process involved is too tedious to include In this chapter but the results can be sunznarIt has been found that the factor of i zed in a general form. In view of the uncertainties associated with the actual water pressure distributions which could occur in rock slopes subjected to these conditions.5 (based on the example considered on page 7.7. The influence of tension crack depth and of the depth of water in the tension crack upon the factor of safety of a typical slope is Illustrated In Figure 7. Flow nets for saturated slopes with heavy surface recharge have been constructed and the water pressure dlstr lbutlons obtained from these flow nets have been used to calculate the factors of safety of a variety of slopes.6.f i l l e d . a groundwater flow pattern similar to that which would develop in a porous system could occur (see Figure 6. the corresponding position of the tension crack is: Critical tension crack depths and locations for a range of dry slopes are plotted In Figure 7.11). . i . due for example. e . it has been assumed that the position of the tension crack is known from its visible trace on the upper surface or on the face of the slope and that its depth can be established by constructing an accurate cross-sect ion of the slope. safety for a permeable slope. d. Saturated slope with heavy recharge If the rock mass is heavi 1 y fractured so that 1 t becomes re I atively permeable. corresponds to a tenslon crack depth of 0. When the slope Is dry a.9 on page 6. From the geometry of the slope. can be approx imated by equation (42) (or 48)) assuming that the tension crack i s w a t e r . This gives the critlcal tension crack depth as: A mountain top tension crack above a kwge landslide.nearly dry. it becomes necessary to consider the most probable position of a tenslon crack. there seems little point in attempting to refine this analysis any further. When the tension crack position is unknown.~ z . This critical tension crack depth for a dry slope can be found by minimizing the right hand side of equation(54)with respect to z / H . to the presence of soi I on the top of the slope. 2. saturated by heavy ra i n and subjected to surface recharge by continued rain. The most dangerous cond I t ions wh 1 ch wou Id develop in this case would be those given by prolonged heavy rain.42H. the factor of safety reaches a minimum value which. Critical tension crack depth In the analysis which has been presented.

Tan$p) I 1 .8). example on page 7.13 0.75 T e n s i o n c r a c k d e p t h z/H Figure 7.5 influence of tension crack depth and of depth of water in the tension crack upon the factor of safety of a (Slope geometry and material properties as for slope.2 - Tension crack in upper slope surface I I 1 I T e n s i o n crack i n slope face 0 0 I 0. .25 I I I I I 0.7.o 0.5 II I I i z/H = (1 -JCot$f.

4 1.7 0.0 0.5 H 0. 50 60 70 80 .4 Ratio b/H 0. 2 1. 0 0.8 0.4 0.9 0.0 1 .8 1. I\ v \I50 I\1 40 50 +P Y 10 20 30 60 .6a:Critical t e n s i o n c r a c k d e p t h f o r a d r y s l o p e .6 F i g u r e 7.2 0.6 0.L F i g u r e 7.7.14 1.1 0 .2 0.6 I l-1 b E 0.3 0.6b:Critical t e n s i o n crack location for a dry slope.

the Inltletlon of fallure could be followed by a very rapld decrease in rtsbi I Ity with a consequent falluro of the slope. I t I s . equations(58)andQ9)no l o n g e r a p p l y . however.15 Figure 7. the factor of safety of the slope does not reach a minimum until the tension crack Is water-filled. the Improved ealnage resulting from the opening up of the rock structure and the interlocking of indlvldual b l o c k s withln t h e r o c k m a s s c o u l d glvo r i s e t o a n Increase in stabi I ity. Barton(91) f o u n d t h a t the t e n s i o n crack was generated as a resu I t of smal I shear movements wlthl n the rock mass. once the water level ZW exceeds about one quarter of the tension crack depth. Photograph by Dr. In many cases.7. In a series of very detailed model studies on the fal lure of s l o p e s I n j o i n t e d r o c k s .5 shows that. I t i s lmposslble t o q u a n t l f y t h e s e r l o u s n e r s o f t h i s f a i l u r e s i n c e i t i s o n l y t h e s t a r t o f a v e r y complex p r o g r e s s i v e fallI t is q u l t e p r o ure process about which very Ilttle Is known. A small tension crack on the bench of a slate quarry indicating the onset of instability. the minimum factor of safety Is given by a water-fi Iled tension crack which is coincident ulth t h e c r e s t o f t h e s l o p e (b = 0). Sane of these cracks have been visible for tens of years and. T h e f a c t t h a t t h e tonsion c r a c k I s c a u s e d b y s h e a r movements In the slope is important because It suggests that. to consider the sequence of tension crack formatlon and water filling. Although these Individual movements were very smal I . the Influence of the water pressure wi I I be in accordance with the rules laid down earlier In this chapter. bable that. when a tension creek becomes visible in the surface of a slope. In other cases. interesting to consider how such cracks are formed and whether they can given any lndlcation of slope instability. A large tension crack on an open pit mine bench In which considerable horizontal and vertical movement has occurred. do not appear to have had any adverse Influence upon the stab1 I Ity of the slope. R. Field observations s u g g e s t t h a t tension cracks usually cccur behlnd the crest of a slope and. The depth and location of the tension crack are. t h e r e f o r e . from Figure 7. If this tension crack becomes water-filled as a result of a subsequent rain storm. Independent of the groundwater condltlons and are defined by equat ions (58) and (59). It is most important. In this case. If the tension crack forms during heavy rain cr if It is located on a pre-existing geological feature such as a vertical joint. E. the only reasonable procedure is to assume that the tenslon crack Is coincident with the slope crest and that it is waterfilled. I n t h e s e clrcumstances . it must be assumed that shear failure has lnltlated uithln the rock mass. The tenslon crack as an indicator of lnstabil Ity Anyone who has examined excavated rock slopes cannot have failed to notice the frequent occurrences of tenslon cracks In the upper surfaces of these slopes.sufficient t o c a u s e s e p a r a t l o n o f vertical joints b e h l n d t h e s l o p e c r e s t a n d t o f o r m “tensIon” cracks.5. it must be concluded that these tenslon cracks occur as a result of movement in a dry cr nearly dry slope. Goodman. their cumulative effect was a slgnlflcant displacement o f t h e s l o p e s u r f a c e s . when considering the inf I uence of water in a tension crack. in some cases. . when the tens Ion crack position and depth are unknown.

Consequently.16 I n sumnary. . In some places. if it were to occur. For dry slopes this gives the crltlcal f a i l u r e p l a n e lncl lnatlon vPc a s The presence of water In the tension crack wi I I cause the fal Iure plane inclination to be reduced by up to 10% and. t h e added complication of including the Influence of groundwater is not considered justified. In a soft rock slope or a solI slope with a relatively f l a t s l o p e f a c e (vf c 45’1. Critical failure plane incllnatlon When a through-going discontinuity such as a bedding plane e x i s t s i n a s l o p e a n d t h e lncllnatlon o f this dlscontinulty Is such that it satisfies the conditions for plane failure defined o n p a g e 7 . t h e fai l u r e s u r f a c e would have a circular shape. equatlon(60)can be used to obtain an estimate of the critical failure plane incllnatlon in steep slopes which do not contain through-going dlscontlnuity surfaces. t h e a u t h o r s recomnend t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f a t e n sion crack should be taken as an indication of potential instabi lity and that. The analysis of such failure surfaces will be dealt with In Chapter 9. An exanole o f t h e ao~llcatlon o f t h i s eauatlon in the case of chalk c l i f f f a i l u r e will b e glvon l a t e r i n this chapter. In view o f t h e uncertalntles a s s o c i a t e d with t h i s failure s u r f a c e . H o w e v e r . would pass through Intact m a t e r i a l . the fal lure surface is almost planar and the inclination of such a plane can be found by partial dlfferentiation of equatlon(42)wlth respect to VP and by equating the r e s u l t i n g differential t o z e r o . Figure 7 . would fol low minor geological features and. how could the inclination of such a failure path be determined? The first assumption which must be made concerns the shape of the failure surface. 7 : Two-dimensional model used by Barton(91) for the study of slope fal lure In jolnted rock masses. In the case of an important slope. In steep rock slopes. when no such feature exists and when a fal lure surface. this shou I d s i g n a l t h e n e e d f o r d e t a i l e d I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e stab1 llty of that particular slope. t h e failure o f t h e s l o p e will b e c o n t r o l l e d b y t h i s f e a t u r e . 1 .7.

(Hz -k+)coc$z$~ 60 (61) Geometry of under-cut slope The crltlcal tension crack depth. for & > 0. for a dry undercut slope. i n t h e c a s e o f s e a c l i f f s . In order to provide as general a solution as possible. It becomes necessary to consider whether it is possible to stab1 I lze the slope by drainage or by the app I I cat Ion of external loads. As a result of an undercut ofAM. it is assumed that the geometry of the slope is that i I I ustrated in the margin sketch. dM. Reinforcement of a slope W h e n i t h a s b e e n establ ished t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r s l o p e i s u n stable.Influence of undercutting the toe of a slope It Is not unusual for the toe of a slope to be undercut. Roinforcmwnt of a 8bpa The factor of safety of a slope with external loading of magnitude T. Such external loads may be applied by the installatlon of rock bolts or cables anchored into the rock mass behlnd the failure surface or by the construction of a waste rock berm to support the toe of the slope. by the action of waves. inclined at an angle8 to the failure plane as shown in the sketch opposite. A previous failure is assumed to have left a face inclined at & and a vertical tension crack depth21 . is given by The critical failure plane inclination is The application of this analysis to an actual slope problem is presented at the end of this chapter.dMj Note that. a new failure occurs on a plane inclined at & and involves the formation of a new tenslon crack of depth 12 . is approximated by: . either intontlonslly by excavation or by natural agencies such as the weather I ng of under lying strata or. inclined at an angle &J . The influence of such undercutting on the stability of a slope is important in many practical situations and an analysis of thls stability is presented here. The factor of safety of this slope is given by equation(42)but it is necessary to modify the expression for the weight terms as follows: W~f~~~~~-~~~C~~~~-(ff~-~~~Coi~~t(~fH~.

00. ..pf = 60° andpp = 30’.This equstlon Is correct for the condition of llmltlng equi I Ibrium (F = 1) b u t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n t h e o r e t i c a l p r o b l e m s i n using it for other values of F..7). (501 (52) and (53) are as fo I lows: Case 1: A n 100 ft?/ft. V = 0. most rock surfaces exhibit a nonlinear relationship between shear strength and effective normal stress.. 2 * 5 0 ft. Consider the slope geometry illustrated In Flgure 7.1.62. R = 0 and S = 0. Analysis of fsllure on a rough plane As discussed in Chapter 5. C o n s i d e r a s l o p e d e f i n e d b y Ii .0. from equations (49) to(53) Having failure factor (42) and determined the value of4. C . The effective normal stress acting on the failure surface can be determined from equatIons(43)to(47)and is given by: Alternatively. P = 1.100 ft. I n order t o a p p l y e i t h e r o f t h e s e e q u a t i o n s t o t h e a n a l y s i s o f f a i l u r e WI a r o u g h s u r f a c e p l a n e I t I s n e c e s s a r y t o k n o w t h e e f f e c t i v e n o r m a l stressc acting o n this plane. The unlt weight of the rock j?’ = 1 6 0 Ib/fti and mat of water &.= 2. t h e s h e a r s t r e n g t h Z o f t h e s u r f a c e Is c a l c u l a t e d f r o m e q u a t i o n ( 2 1 ) or(26L The of safety of the slope Is given by modlfylng equations (48) as fol lows: or The application of these equations is best Illustrated by means o f a p r a c t i c a l axample. .36.5) or by Barton’s equation (26 on page 5. Two cases will be considered: Case 1: Case 2: A drained slope In which zW = 0 A slope with a water fll led tension crack def lned by z. These problems are dl scussed fully in Appendix 3 at the end of this book.’ . W = 571350 Ib/ft.5 I b/ft . U .0. The values given by substitution in equations (43) to (461 and (491. This relationship may be defined by Ladanyl and Archambault’s equation (21 on page 5.

t h e A t a l a y a pit w a s 2 6 0 m d e e p a n d t h e p o r p h y r y s l o p e s . Practical ax-10 number 1 Stablllty of porphyry slopes In a Spanish open pit mine In order to asslst the mlne plannlng engineers In deslgnlng an e x t e n s i o n t o t h e Malaya o p e n pit operated by R i o T l n t o Espanola In southern Spaln.4 .000 Ib/ft? for Case 1 and c7 n 3.25 Substltutlon in equatlons(66)and(67)glvos the effectlvo normal stress on the failure plan0 asV = 5... 2.. A s s u m e t h a t t h e shear strength o f the surface I s dof Inod by Barton’s equation ($6 on page 5. 1 5 5 lb/ftP f o r C a s e 2 .10.1. Substituting those values of Z Into equatlons(6fUor(69)glvor: Case 1: Case 2: F l 2. I f a t a l l possible.300.7. This method Involved col IectIng data cm slope helghtr and slope angles for both stable and unstable slopes In porphyry In order to atabllsh a pattorn of slope behavlour based upon full scale slopes. The col Iected slope height versus slope angle data wo plotted In Figure 7.36. t h e r e f o r e . JRC . decldlng upon the f a c t o r o f s a f e t y o f t h e existing slopes posed a dlfflcult problem. P . W . 3 0 5 Ib/ft. V * 76125 Ib/ft.195 and S = 0. A t t h e time o f t h i s design s t u d y (19691. Consequently.049 lb/ft? for Car. It was declkd to use a technique slmllar to that employed by Salamon a n d Munro(186) f o r t h e a n a l y s l s o f c o a l pl I lar fal lures In South Africa.. . w a s t o decide w h e t h e r t h e s e s l o p e s w o u l d remain stable at the proposed mlnlng depth. Since no slope failure had taken place In the porphyry slopes o f t h e A t a l a y a p l t .8 and the range was t o o wide to permit t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y t o b e detrmlned with a reasonable degree of confidence. Substltutlon of these values gives i? l 6 .17 T h e appllcatlon o f this analysis t o a practical 0~~10 will b e dlscussed l a t e r In t h i s chapter. tiloglcal napplng and shear testing of dlscontfnultlos In the porphyry provided a useful guide to the posslblo failure mod.10 and UJ = 720. an analysls was carried out on the stab1 Ilty of porphyry slopes formlng the northern side of the pit (left hand side of the pit In the photograph reproduced In F lgure 7.19 Case 2: A = 100 ft!/ft.00.* f o r C a s e 1 andZ .7) rlth #.8). A sumary o f t h l s analysis I s presented I n t h i s exaple. The proposed mine plan called for deepenlng the plt t o i n e x c e s s o f 3 0 0 m a n d required t h a t . Incllnod a t a n overall angle of approximately 45’ as shown in Flguro 7. . R . The data on unstable slopes had to be col Iected from other open pit mines In the RIO Tlnto area In which falluros had occurred In porphyry8 judged to be slmllar to those In the Atalaya pit. Q = 0.9 appeared to be stable.000 Ib/ft. the porphyry slopes should be left untouched.16 F = 1. The problem.0. U = 156250 Ib/ft.577350 Ib/ft.

.9: Section through l typical porphyry slope in the Atalaya open pit at Rio Tinto in Spain.8: R i o Tinto Espanola’s Atalaye open pit mine.7. Tens ion crack Denched slope face Assumed Figure 7.20 F i g u r e 7.

t h e r e f o r e .572 0.764) 0.268 0.261 0.206 0.icaI mapping had failed to reveal any dominant through-going structures which could cont r o l t h e stabll lty o f t h e s l o p e s I n q u e s t i o n b u t h a d revealed the presence of a number of intersecting joint sets.610 0. tension cracks would occur In al I slopes.21 I n o r d e r t o establish t h e t h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n slope height and slope angle.668 1. assumlngr = 2 . It was assumed that failure. C. the porphyry slopes were assumed to be fully dralned and It was assumed that tension cracks would occur In acc o r d a n c e wtth t h e crltical condltlons d e f i n e d I n It was assumed that these equat Ion (58) on page 7.311 0.9. lncludlng t h o s e with f a c t o r s o f s a f e t y I n e x c e s s o f u n l t y . the fol lowing assumptions are made : a.537) 0. t r o points a t pf = 61’ a n d 66’ a n d H = 4 0 m a n d 35 m r e s p e c t i v e l y (re Ignored I n this c u r v e flttlng since t h e y w e r e Identlfied a s lndlvldual b e n c h f a i l u r e s o n through-going dlscontlnulties a n d t h e y w o u l d n o t . A number of trial calculations showed that the best fit for the F .5 52.10 Is given by a cohesive strength c = 14 tonnes/m*.221 0. b e l o n g t o t h e s a m e family as the other slopes.123 0.11 which also shows peak and residual strength values determined by shear testing at Imper1 a l Cal Iege.ZEc/(F 1.58c/(F 2.641) 0.10 which. From the shear strength data a friction angle f = 35’ was chosen as the starting point for this analysis.3Oc/(F 5.5 37.450 0.404) 0. Because the geoIog.5 42.238 0.5 0. for the purposes of thls analysis. .446) 0.12.16. (58b (49) and (50) for a range of slope angl e s .25c/(F 3.1 curve to the seven failure points shown In Flgure 7.159 0. The shear strength relatlonship defined by c .913) T h e p r o b l e m now i s t o f l n d a v a l u e f o r t h e c o h e s i o n c which gives thr best fit for a limiting curve (F = 1) passlng through The the slope height/slope angle polnts for unstable slopes. 9 5 tonnes/m3.5 47.14 tonnes/m’ and fl= 35’ has been plotted In Figure 7.007 l.7. can be rearranged In the following form: Solving equations (60).54c/(F 152c/(F - 0.077 1. Note that the shear strength relatlonshlp determfned by back analysis appears to fall between the peak and residual s h e a r s t r e n g t h v a l u e s determlned I n t h e l a b o r a t o r y . would be on a composite planar surface inclined at p! = l/2 (vf +#I as defined by equatlon(60)on page 7. b.624 0.474 0. If it were to occur. a n d t h e typlcal far l u r e g e o m e t r y IS i l l u s t r a t e d I n F i g u r e 7.0 57.044 0.300 1. g i v e s : 85 80 70 60 50 40 60. Because of the presence of underground workings. The factor of safety for a dry slope is def lned by equation (55) on page 7.

0 0. 100 150 0 Critical slope! 50 0 30 40 50 60 70 80 85 S l o p e a n g l e J.6 1.22 Factor of Safety / I 0 Stable slopes l Unstable slope! 250 200 v) ii % 1 = z 9.d e g r e e s Number of observations 5 1 opts 2. .7. .10: Relationship between slope heights and slope angles f o r p o r p h y r y s l o p e s i n t h e R i o Tinto a r e a .8 Factor of Safety Figure 7.4 1.0 1. 2 :: .2 1.8 1. S p a i n .

studies by Patton. t h e a u t h o r s f e e l t h a t . The scsttor of test resu I ts In th I s stress range Is too large to al low a acre detai Iod analysis cf +he resuits to be carried out. 1000 1 7 . t h e englneerlng doclslons surmarlzed In Figure 7. 1 1 i l l u s t r a t e s a n I m p o r t a n t historlcsl point I n s l o p e stsbl I Ity analysis since It rrf Iects the shear tosting phl losophy of the late l%Os.10 are stl II sound and the overall approach Is still valid.Tonnes/m2 Figure 7 . w o u l d f o l l o w slightly different Ilnes I f I t were to be reported today. . I n spite o f t h e c r u d e analysis carried o u t MI t h e RIO T l n t o s l o p e s . 1 1 : Shear strength characterlst Its of porphyry from RIO T l n t o . Incldontally. presented on the p r e c e d i n g pages. Ladanyl and Archambsult a n d o t h e r s have contributed g r e a t l y t o o u r understandlng of shear strength behavior at low normal stresses and there Is no doubt thst the RIO Tlnto analysis. An eaample o f a n analysis u s l n g a curvlllnoar s h e a r s t r e n g t h relatlonshlp I s glwn l a t e r 1~ this chapter. F i g u r e 7 .7:23 Care should. however. Barton. The Importance of test I ng at vary low n o r m a l s t r e s s Iovols a n d o f t h e non-llnoarlty o f t h e s h e a r strength curve had not been recognl zed at that time and shear t e s t s were f r e q u e n t l y carrlod o u t a t s t r e s s l e v e l s which w e r e several times higher than the normal stresses atlng In actual slopes.14 + oTan3P . be exercised not to drew too many conclus i o n s f r o m t h i s f i g u r e slnco the rsngo o f n o r m a l strossss I n the slope fat lures which were back analyzed was approximately 20 to 50 tonnes/mz. 0 Peak stmmgth strength Residzuzi Normal s t r e s s a . Thls philosophy was carried over from underground rock mechanlcs end from studles of Intact rock fracture In which t e s t l n g w a s u s u a l l y carried o u t a t h l g h n o r m a l s t r e s s e s . A s dlscussed In Chapter 5.

13. F i g u r e 7. T h e o p e n p i t d e s i g n e r i s c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h minimising the risk of overall slope failure.12: S m a l l s c a l e f a i l u r e s o f i n d i v i d u a l b e n c h e s a r e n o t u s u a l l y significant in open pit mining unless they cause disruption of haul roads. .7.24 F i g u r e 7. ( K e n n e c o t t C o p p e r p h o t o g r a p h p u b l i s h e d by B r o a d b e n t 6 Armstrongl*‘).

therefore. owned and cperated by the knalgamated Roadstone Corporation*. it is possible to construct the histogram reproduced in the lower part of Figure 7. for the slope heights In excess of 250 m under consideration.3 and 1. hence. From a general consideration of the anticipated working life of the slope and of the possible consequences of slope failure during the mining operatlons.4. a fal lure of the wedge II lustrated in Flgure 7. smal I b e n c h f a i l u r e s a r e n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t In large pits provided that they do not influence haul roads. In any case. It w o u l d b e t o t a l l y u n e c o nomic to attempt to analyze the stability of each bench and. B e f o r e l e a v i n g t h i s exaple i t i s I m p o r t a n t t o point o u t t h a t this analysis deals with the stablllty of the overall plt slope a n d n o t with p o s s i b l e f a i l u r e s o f i n d i v i d u a l b e n c h e s . Involving approximately 20.25 S u b s t i t u t i o n o f t h e v a l u e o f c = 1 4 tonnes/m2 i n t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r t h e s l o p e h e i g h t H. It was concluded that a factor of safety of 1. the design curve presented to the mine planning engineers Is that shown as a heavy line in Figure 7. concluded that the proposed deepening of the pl t wou I d not decrease the overal I stab1 I Ity of the porphyry slopes. Thls was followed by an except lonal ly heavy downpour which flooded the upper quarry Wow hney Roadstone Corporatlon .7. which had occurred In the 1968 slope failure (as shown in Figu r e 7. In 1970. a m p l e g i v e s a sumnary o f t h e m o s t I m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f t h i s stability study. provlded that no maJor changes In rock mass properties or dralnage conditions were encountered In this deepening process.10. ful I d&ails of which have been publ ished by Roberts and Hoek( 148). It was. On the other hand. By counting the number of polnts falling between factor of safety increments.13. The 1968 failure occurred after a week or m3re of steady soakI ng rain had saturated the area. the factor of safety changes very I ittle for a change In slope angle.10.14). This curve shows that. l i s t e d a f t e r equatlonC7Q gives the curves for different factors of safety which have been plotted In Figure 7. This photograph was taken in 1968 after a slope failure had occurred during a perlod of exceptionally heavy rain. Practical example number 2 Investlgatlon of the stability of a limestone quarry face Figure 7.14 shows a hi I lslde Ilmestone quarry In the Mendlp Hi I Is in England.3 would be acceptable for the porphyry slopes in the Atalaya pit and.10. it was decided to expand the quarry faci lltles and this involved the lnstsl lation of new plant on the floor of the In view of the large horizontal movements of material quarry. It was considered that an Investigation of the staThls exbil Ity of the remainder of the slope was necessary. This histogram confirms that the seven unstable slopes are clustered around a factor of safety F = 1 whi le the stable slopes show a peak between 1.95 tonnes/m’) would obviously represent a very serious problem which has to be avoided. In a large pit such as the Atalaya pit.000 tonnes/meter of face (from equat Ion (461 assuming r = 2.

This range of friction angles and the associated cohesive strengths.16(b).4 Ib/ft? 1. these values were now used to check the stabil ity of the 210 ft. Figure 7.8 tons/ft. A vertical tension crack existed 41 ft. = 110.19. It was decided to analyze the 1968 failure by means of the graphlcsl method described in Figure 7. high slopes under which the new plant was t o b e I n s t a l l e d . whl Ie the dashed lines define the influence of a 5’ variation on either side of this angle.9. it was concluded that the friction angle was probably 20° + 5’. In order to provide shear strength data for the ana I ysis of the stability of the slope under which the new plant was to be Instal led. A range of such force diagrams was constructed and the factors of safety determined from these constructions are plotted in Figure 7. is very beneficial b u t . It was recofr+ . 1 5 . considered the most probable value. in order to provlde for the worst possible combination of circumstances.3 (62. the shear strength mobilized In the 1968 failure can be determined and this is plotted In Figure 7.18 shows typical force diagrams for dry md saturated s l o p e s .16(s).8 tons/ft. It Is clear from Figure 7.19 that 58” slopes are unstable under the heavy rainfall mndltlons which caused the slopes to become saturated In 1968.14. T h e g e o m e t r y o f t h e f a i l u r e i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 7 . The geometry of the slope analyzed is I I I ustrated in Figure 7. the failure Is basically two-dimenslonal. Figure 7. I n t h i s f i g u r e t h e f u l l I i n e s a r e f o r a f r i c t i o n a n g l e # . A s seen in Figure 7. a s s u m l n g a s l o p e f a c e anglep$ = 50° a n d a f r i c t i o n angle f = 25O.4 on page 7. A s s u m i n g a r o c k density o f 0 . since it cannot be guaranteed that such drainage could be fully effective. Having established the range of shear strengths mobi I ized In the 1968 failure.A = 6 5 .031 tons/ft. would be sufficiently accurate for this analysis. 5 tons/ft.Dz) = 404.=$ U p l i f t o f w a t e r f o r c e U = 1/2$. From an examination of the surface upon which failure had taken place in 1968. shown in Figure 7. Weight of sliding mass W = 1/27(XH . it was assumed that a I lnear shear strength relationship. it was assumed that the bedding plane on which the 1968 slide had occurred daylights in the toe of the slope. 0 8 tons/ft! (160 Ib/ft! ) a n d a water density of 0. behind the slope crest at t h e time o f t h e f a i l u r e . particularly the mntrol of surface water which could enter the top of an open tension crack.16(b) are used to determine the stabi I Ity of the overal I slopes in this Illustrative example.+.7. Because the dimensions of the proposed slope were reasonably slm1 Iar to those of the 1968 fal I ure.20’. the sliding surface being a bedding plane striking parallel to the slope crest and dlpplng Into the excavation at ZOO. f i l l i n g a n exlstlng t e n s l o n c r a c k i n t h e s l o p e c r e s t . tlor izontal water force V = l/2&. defined by a cohesive strength and a n g l e o f f r l c t l o n .17 which shows that.26 f l o o r . Dralnage of the slope. From the force diagram.

. E n g l a n d .14: Air photograph of Amalgamated Roadstone Corporation’s Batts Combe l i m e s t o n e q u a r r y i n S o m e r s e t .1.21 Figure 7. s h o w i n g d e t a i l s o f t h e 1968 s l o p e f a i l u r e ( R o b e r t s a n d Hoekl’s).

5 \ \ \ \\ \ ‘1\’ @ /A\ \1 2 V for lure “W u +b a.28 Failure surface Figure 7.16:Detcrmination of shear strength mobllised in 1968 feflure.7. Force diagram 0 10 20 30 Friction angle +o b. \\ 1. Shear strength mobilfred Figure 7. .15: 58’ kanetry o f 1968 f a i l u r e .

18:Force dlagramr f o r d e s i g n o f o v e r a l l q u a r r y s l o p e s .7.17:Ceometry o f o v e r a l l s l o p e . \ \ \ \ \ \ \ 0 \ \ Factor of safety ( A C + f) F5 \ \ v a. Saturat8d s l o p e F i g u r e 7. Dry slope b.29 F i g u r e 7. .

4 t 20 30 40 50 60 JO 80 90 Slope face angle $f .8 1 1. It Is essent I al that .7. a suspicion may have been created by fat lures of adjacent slopes or even by the fact that the eng lneer in charge of the slope has recently attended a conference on slope stab 1 I ity and has become al armed about the stab I I ity of the slopes In hls charge. 1.30 mended that the slope should also be benched back to an overall a n g l e o f 45’. I n other cases. t h l s e x a m p l e i s hypothetlcal. It is based upon a number of actual problems with which the authors have been concerned.this was the case In the q u a r r y s t a b i l i t y p r o b l e m dlscussed i n p r a c t i c a l e x a m p l e 2 .degrees Figure 7. once a doubt has been cast upon the stab1 I lty of an important slope. Whatever the cause. Practical example number 3 Choice of remedial measures for crltical slopes When a slope above an Important highway cr railroad or above a cl VI I engineer lng structure such as a dam is found to be potentlaily u n s t a b l e . The first stage In the analysis is obviously to check that the slope Is actual iy unstable and whether any remedial measures a r e required. SometImes i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t a p o t e n t i a l f a i l u r e problan exists b e c a u s e f a i l u r e s o f l i m i t e d e x t e n t h a v e a l r e a d y taken place in part of the slope . an urgent decision on the ef feet I ve and economical remedial measures which can be employed is frequently r e q u i r e d . The followlng example Illustrates one of the methods Al though which may be adopted in arriving at such a decision.6 1 ope slopes 0.19: Factor of safety for dry and saturated slopes with different face angles.

2Oa : 1970 s h o w i n g slope failure the conveyor B a t t s Combe q u a r r y p l a n i n t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e 1968 which destroyed part of s y s t e m ( s e e F i g u r e 7.20b: P l a n o f p r o p o s e d b e n c h i n g of lower slopes in Batts Combe quarry.31 Figure 7. primary crueker Surface drainage to be movided F i g u r e 7. F 100 ft. Slopes are to be benched back to an o v e r a l l s l o p e o f 45’ w i t h p r e . upper quarry floor and provision of horizontal drain holes in bench faces i f piczometcrs i n d i c a t e h i g h s u b .s p l i t t i n g Surface drainage on of final faces.7.14).eZ.s u r f a c e water levels. i .

N o t e t h a t .7. Tlme would not usually allow a drilling program to be mounted.5. Conslder the followlng examples: A 60 m high slope has an overal I face angle of 50°.32 Its overal I stab1 I lty should be Investigated and that appropriate remedial measures should be implemented If these are found to be necessary. . the first task of the rock slope englneer is to obtain a representative sample of structural geology data in ader that the most likely failure mode can be estabI Ished. 0 8 g has been suggested as the maxlmum to which this slope is likely to be subjected. fall wlthln the zone designated as potentially unstable. shou I d these prove necessary. the sheet jolnt great circle passes through t h e z o n e o f potentlal instablllty a n d . a l though the three joint sets provide a number of steep release surfaces which would al low blocks to separate from the rock mass. It Is assumed that structural mapping Is carried out and that the following geometrical and structural features have been Identified: Feature Overal I slope face lndlvldual benches Sheet joint J o i n t s e t Jl Joint set J2 Joint s e t J3 dip a 50 70 35 80 80 70 dlp direction o 200 200 190 233 040 325 The stereoplot of this data Is given In Figure 7. On the other hand. A smal I slide in a nearby slope has caused attentlon to be focused onto thls particular slope and concern has been expressed in case a major sl Ide could occur and cou I d result in serious damage to an Important civil engineering structure at the foot of the slope. n o n e o f t h e i r l i n e s o f I n t e r s e c t i o n . Faced wlth this problem and having no geological or engineering data from which to work. The rock slope engineer called In to examine the problem Is required to assess both the short and the long term stabll Ity of the slope and to recommend appropriate remedial measures. A n a c c e l e r a t i o n o f 0 . ConsequentI y. The slope is In an area of hlgh ralnf a l l intensity a n d l o w seismlclty.21. In some circumstances. even If drl II lng equipment and operators of the required standard were readily available in the area.1. page 4. thls mapping can be carried out using the photogramnetric techniques described on page 4.21 and a frlct l o n circle o f 30’ I s I n c l u d e d o n t h i s p l o t . r i n g e d i n F i g u r e 7. the col lectlon of structural data would have to be based upon surface tnapplng as described In Chapter 4. The slope is in reasona b l y f r e s h granite b u t s e v e r a l s e t s o f s t e e p l y d i p p i n g j o i n t s a r e vlslble a n d s h e e t J o i n t i n g similar t o t h a t described b y Terzaghl(l7) I s e v i d e n t . since i t s d l p d i r e c t i o n Is close to that of the slope face. made up from three 20 m benches wlth 70’ faces. No previous geological or engineering studies have been carried out on this slope and no boreholes are known to exist In the area.21. it can be concluded that the most Ilkely fal lure mode Is that Involving a planar sl lde on the sheet joint surface In the dlrection lndlcated In Flgure 7.

.21:SteFWplOt of geometrical and geological data f o r e x a m p l e number 3.7.33 IDirection o f p o t e n t i a l s l i d e Figure 7. F i g u r e 7.21.d i m e n s i o n a l a n a l y s i s of the slope defined in Figure 7.22:Geometry a s s u m e d f o r t w o .

B e c a u s e o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e t h r e e s t e e p l y dlpping joint sets. Sutnnarlzlng t h e a v a i l a b l e i n p u t d a t a : Slope height Overal I slope angle Bench face angle Bench height Failure plane angle Rock density Water density Earthquake acceleration H = Vf = Vf = H = G = y = & = a = 60 m 500 700 20 m 35O 2 . 0 tonnes/m” 0. 4f/ozw* .e s t i m a t e t h e l o a d i n g a n d h e n c e It e r r s o n t h e I n v i e w o f t h e p o o r qua1 i t y o f t h e o t h e r I n p u t side of safety. a n a l t e r n a t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l i s p r o p o s e d . H a v i n g d e c i d e d u p o n t h e m o s t l i k e l y failure m o d e a n d h a v i n g proposed one or more theoretical models to represent thls failu r e m o d e . there is no justification for attempting t o c a r r y o u t a more detalled a n a l y s i s o f e a r t h q u a k e l o a d i n g . a g a i n this m o d e l incl udes the ef feet of earthquake loading. A simultaneous e a r t h q u a k e s u b j e c t s t h e s l o p e to an acceleration of 0.s i m plification of the actual loading to which the slope Is subject e d d u r i n g a n earthquake(l88.#. Since no boreholes exist on this hypothetical site. the possibility of a tension crack formlng in the upper surface of the slope must be regarded as high. it has been assumed that the acceleration Induced by an earthquake can be replaced by an equivalent s t a t i c f o r c e o f aW. t h e r o c k e n g i n e e r i s n o w i n a posltlon t o s u b s t i t u t e a range of possible values into the factor of safety equations in order to determine the sensitivity of the slope to the diff e r e n t conditions t o w h i c h i t i s l i k e l y t o b e s u b j e c t e d .34 The stability check carried out in Figure 7. data In this problem. T h l s i s a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y a g r o s s o v e r .23 derived from equation(42)on p a g e 7 . Zc + (1850 .79 f 0. 6 tonnes/m3 1 .189) b u t i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t i t t e n d s t o o v e r .08 g S u b s t i t u t i n g I n equations(71) and(72): O v e r a l l s l o p e s tide1 I I== 80.7.0. One possible f a i l u r e mode i s t h a t i l l u s t r a t e d a s M o d e l I i n F i g u r e 7 . i l l u s t r a t e d a s M o d e l I I I n F i g u r e 7 .2’87~~ *) Tan fl e. f+ . 3 w i t h p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e e a r t h q u a k e loading. 2 3 a n d . The factor of safety of this slope Is given by equatlon(711 in Figure 7. the subsurface groundwater conditions are totally unknown.21 suggests that b o t h t h e overal I s l o p e a n d t h e i n d l v idual b e n c h e s a r e p o t e n tially unstable and it is therefore clearly necessary to carry out further checks on both. In deriving equation (711. This theoretical model assumes that a tension crack occurs In t h e d r y s t a t e i n t h e m o s t crltlcal p o s i t i o n a n d t h a t t h i s c r a c k I s f i l l e d t o depthZw with w a t e r d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f exceptlona l l y heavy rain.08 g. 2 3 . To al low for t h e p o s s i b i Iity t h a t s u b s t a n t i a l s u b s u r f a c e w a t e r m a y b e p r e This is sent.

Tan$p) A .2) CosecWp U .Cot$f) U .(z/Hj2)Cottip .U .H.(H .23: Theoretical models for example number 3.V Sinep)Tan$ W(Sinyp + ocos$p) + v coslLp Where z .JCot$f.7.t$ C A + (W(CosJlp .+yH2((1 ..zw.U)Tan$ FW(SirNp + aCosJlp) Where (72) u I +yw.fyw.oSin$P) . .35 t-bl rTension c r a c k ssumed w a t e r p r e s s u r e istribution l u r e surfece CA + F- (U(CosSp .H(1 .A (71) (58) (43) (46) (44) (45) v .aSinyp) .tv.Cosec * P (73) Figure 7.

2 4 s u r r o u n d s t h e r a n g e o f shear strengths which the authors consider to be reasonable for partially weathered granite.zH/ = 0 .ZW = z = 1 4 m . saturated. Model I I. In other cases.Individual bench.6~ +/ZI32.24 that simultaneous heavy rain and earthquake loading could cause the shear strength required to maintain stability to rise to a dangerous level. Fidel I I.436k’. It is clear from Flgure 7.. ff’= H 60 m. saturated.9 m. Model I . dry.32 and on experience from working with granltes.) an d 953. Model I. ff~ = 0. p a r t i c u l a r l y I n tropical environments.24.0. = H = 20 m. saturated. These values are based on the plot given in Figure 5. bdel I I .$)T~n # 176. with a consequent reduction in available cohesive strength.17 on page 5. The reader may feel that a consideration of all these possibil i t i e s i s unncessary b u t i t I s o n l y c o i n c i d e n t a l t h a t . dry. Model I I. = z = 9. a . these results suggest that the slope Is un1 234 5- .9~ + (428. dry. 7 . z. 8.. Overall slope. In any case.36 Overall slopes Model II F= fO4. dry. Overal I slope. T h e el I iptical f i g u r e i n F i g u r e 7 .I n d i v i d u a l b e n c h .7 Individual benches Model I Individual benches Model II f= 34. Mel I . 1 7 ) exhlblt h i g h friction values because of the angular nature of the mlneral grains.24 gives the slope or for the indlvldual benches.7. Considering t h e rapidity w i t h w h i c h g r a n i t e w e a t h e r s . these calculations should only take about one hour with the aid of a c a l c u l a t o r a n d t h i s i s a v e r y r e a s o n a b l e i n v e s t m e n t o f time when I Ives and property may be in danger.Individual bench. & . Model I . Note that a high range of friction angles has been chosen because experience suggests that even heavi I y keolinized g r a n i t e s fpolnt 1 1 i n F l g u r e 5 . the shear strength val ues found happen to fal I reasonably close together. 6.0.zW = 0 .436 H. one of the conditions may be very much more critical than the others and it would take a very experienced slope engineer to detect this condition without going through the calculations required to produce Figure 7. Hw= 0. results of such a study and the numbered I ines on this plot represents the following conditions: O v e r a l l s l o p e . s a t u r a t e d . b e c a u s e of the geometry of thls particular slope. Individual bench. Overal I s l o p e .7 (77) One of the rrpst useful studies which can be carried out with t h e ald o f e q u a t i o n s (741to177) i s t o f i n d t h e s h e a r s t r e n g t h w h i c h w o u l d h a v e t o b e mobilized f o r f a i l u r e o f t h e o v e r a l l Figure 7.

Reinforcement of slope with bolts and cables. Four basic methods for improving the stability of the slope can be considered. Reduction of slope face incl in&ion. Reduction of slope height.degrees Figure 7.24: Shear strength mobilized for failure of slope considered in practical example number 3. . slope angle and water level can be found by altering one of these variables at a time in equatlons(7l)and(721 The Influence of reinforcing the slope is obtained by modifying these equations as in equations(78IandC79)on page 7. 4. b. T h e i n c r e a s e I n f a c t o r o f s a f e t y f o r a r e d u c t i o n I n s l o p e height. Drainage of slope. In order to compare the effectiveness of these different methods. safe and that steps should be taken to Increase its stability.1.37 25 r Range of shear strengths considered reasonable for partially weathered granite> ” 0 10 20 30 40 50 Friction angle $ . These methods are the following: a. C.39. it is assumed that the sheet joint surface has a cohesive strength of 10 tonnes/m 2 and a friction angle of 35’.

slope angle and water level and percentage of weight of wedge applied as reinforcing force.reinforcement of slope.u J L 0 factor 1.reduction in slope height.reduction in slope height. model I i.5 2. model II reduction in slope angle.7. model I 8 . Figure 7.r e d u c t i o n i n w a t e r l e v e l .reinforcement of slope. model I I 0. model I 2 .5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percentage reduction in slope height. model I 4’. m o d e l I I reduction in water level. . mod-1 11 7 .r e d u c t i o n i n s l o p e a n g l e .38 2.25: Comparison between alternative methods of increasing stability of overall slope considered in example 3.0 2 .0 Critical slopes I .5 k Y x LL 1.

39 Where T Is the total reinforcing force applied by bolts or cab l e s a n d 8 I s t h e incllnstlon o f t h l s f o r c e t o t h e n o r m a l t o the faliure surface. the change Is expressed as a percentage of the total range of the variable (tl = 60 m.7. In each case. t h e t e n s l o n c r a c k z will remain u n a l t e r e d at 14 m and the water forces U and V will remain at their maximum values. I . L 0 L 20 I I 40 I I 60 1 Equations(58land(46) (Figure 7. This is expressed as a percentage of the weight of the wedge of rock being supported. In any case. T h e I n f l u e n c e o f t h e incllnatlon@ u p o n t h e r e l n f o r c i n g l o a d r e q u i r e d t o p r o d u c e a factor of safety of 1. 6 * 55’. UICO one has reduced the slope height by 402. but It can also be very dangerous as shown by l i n e 4 . It has been assumed that the cables cr bolts are I n s t a l l e d horlrontally.5. Figure 7 . /oV= 60 m) except for the reinforcing load.5 Is shown In the graph given In the margin. a height reduction o f t h i s magnitude m a y b e t o t a l l y i m p o s s i b l e .* = 5Q’. more than 60s of the mass of the material forming the unstable wedge wi I I have been removed and it would then be worth remov Ing the rest of the wedge and the remains of the problem. Reducing the angle of the slope face can be very effective. as illustrated in the sketch opposite. in the case of Model Ii In Flgure 7. If the tenslon crack occurs before the s l o p e i s f l a t t e n e d . thls solution would be very expensive but It dors have the merit of provldlng a permanent solution to the problem.25. U n d e r t h e s e condltlons t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y wll I stlli b e I n c r e a s e d f o r a r e d u c t i o n I n s l o p e f a c e incl lnation but not to the sane extent as shown by Ilne 3 In Figure 7.degrees Total reinfmcing force reqcirod for a faator of safety of 1. . It Is only the weight t e r m w h i c h I s a l t e r e d b y t h e reduction i n s l o p e a n g l e a n d . T Slope reinforcement c 2 Angle 8 .23. Note that. as shown by I Ine 3.ZjJz = 1. 2 5 g i v e s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h e different methods which could be consldered for Increasing the stab1 I Ity of the overal I slope. 2 5 s h o w s t h a t reduction I n s l o p e h e i g h t (ilnes 1 a n d 2) only begins to show slgnlficant benefits once the height reduction exceeds about 40s. particularly when the slope has been cut Into a mountainside. I n m a n y practical s i t u a t i o n s . e Figure 7 . In calculating the effect of the relnforcanent. Obviously. e . Thls wide varlatlon In response to what is normal iy regarded as a standard method for improving the stab1 I I ty of a slope raises a very Interesting problem which deserves more d e t a i l e d exalnation.23) both contain the term Cot% and hence both z and W me decreased as the slope face angle v/ Is reduced. A reduction In tenslon crack depth reduces both w a t e r f o r c e s U a n d V a n d t h e f i n a l r e s u l t I s a dramatlc i n c r e a s e I n f a c t o r o f s a f e t y f o r a d e c r e a s e I n s l o p e f a c e lncl Inatlon.

dralnage would have to be supplemented by some other remedial measure such as bolting In order to produce an In any event. if this could be achieved. even if only partially sucessful.25. Inmediate steps should be taken to have a ser Ies of standplpe p i e z o m e t e r s i n s t a l l e d i n v e r t i c a l drI I I holes from the upper slope surface or from one of the benches. A geologist should be present during this drilling program and should log the core ImrnedIately upon removal from the core barrel.?Ui?KIge measures . the thin sliver of material resting on the fat lure plane WI I I be floated off by the excess water force U. partial flattening of the slope would achieve no useful purpose. The wedge of rock restlng on the failure plane would have to be removed entirely If it was decided that flattening the slope was the only means to be used for Increasing the stability. as shown In Figure 7. ReinforcIng the slope by means of bolts or cables may create a useful illusion of safety but unless the job is done properly. Parti- cuesion drilled b. the result could be llttle more than an illusion. the authors would offer the following suggestions to the engineer responsible for the hypothetical slope which has been under discussion in this example: a.5. If dia#nond dri II ing equipment of reasonable qual lty is r e a d i l y avallable. the complete reinforcement of a 100 m face would require the installation of 500 one tonne capacity cables. t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y a c t u a l ly r e d u c e s a s t h e slope face is flattened. As the slope face angle approaches the failure plane angle. i f M3deI I I i n F l g u r e 7. The Importance of groundwater has been clearly demonstrated in the caiculatlons which have been presented and it Is essentlal that further informatlon on possible groundwater flow patterns should be obtalned. lost by the provision of some drainage and the authors would recommend c a r e f u l consideratfon o f s u r f a c e w a t e r c o n t r o l a n d also the drilling of horizontal drain holes to intersect the potential failure surface. In other words. Lined surface water diversion drain Graded slope surface to prmote run-o Considering all the facts now available. assuming the bolts or cables to be installed in a horizontal plane. In order to achieve a factor of safety of 1.23 i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s which e x i s t i n a n a c t u a l s l o p e . complete drainage can never be achieved and hence.7. o f s a f e t y to v e r y n e a r l y t h e r e q u i r e d v a l u e . would reduce this number by about half but reinforcing a slope of this size would obviously be a very costly process. t h e v e r t i c a l h o l e s f o r t h e piezometars should be cored. complete drainage. Drainage of the slope is probably the cheapest remedial measure which can be employed and. The practical conclusion to be drawn from this discussion is that. Simultaneous drainage of the slope. the BYample does illustrate the danger of indiscriminate alteration of the slope geometry without having first considered the posslble consequences. the total force requlred amounts to about 500 tonnes per meter of slope length. In this particular slope. POSSibk? d. would increase the factor Unfortunate1 y. Although many practical arguments could be put forward to show that this extreme behavior would be very unlikely. nothing would be acceptable level of safety.40 because the upl I ft force term U Tan fi Is greater than the cohes i v e f o r c e CA.

the plezometer h o l e s m a y b e p e r c u s s i o n drilled. a careful examination of the upper surface of the slope should be carried out to determlne whether open tension cracks are present and whether a n y recent movements have taken place in the slope. The failure is Illustrated in the photograph reproduced in Figure 7. If adequate dlsmond dri I I ing equipment Is not a v a i l a b l e . These holes can be drllled at an lnltlal spacI ng of about 10 m and their effect 1 veners checked by means of the plezometers.26 and a cross-sectlon. is given In Figure 7. Apart from a thin capping of overburden and the presence of a few f I int bands. d. a decision could then be made on what surface drainage measures should be taken. induced by the undercuttlng actlon of the sea. these should be fllled with gravel and capped with an impermeable material such as clay. During this groundwater control program.17 and Hutchinson’s data Is reanalyzed on the following pages. Such movements would be detected by cracks in concrete or plaster or by displacements of vertlcai markers such as telephone poles. in addition to the drainage measures which have already been lmplemented.41 cular sttentlon s h o u l d b e g i v e n t o establ ishlng t h e exact position of the sheet joint cr Joints so that an accurate cross-section of the slope can be constructed. the chalk . C. e. T h l s f a i l ure. It may k very dlfflcult to detect cracks and it may be necessary to rely upon the reports of persons resident on or close to the top of the slope.7. f. As soon as the plozometers are in positlon and it has been demonstrated that groundwater Is present in the slope. provides an i n t e r e s t l n g i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e analysis o f u n d e r c u t t i n g o n page 7.27. reconstructed from the paper by Hutchinson. would provide inform a t i o n f o r a review o f t h e s i t u a t i o n t o d e c i d e u p o n the best means of permanent stab1 I Ization. horizontal drain holes should be percussion drilled into the bench face to Intersect the sheet joints. T h e h o l e spacing c a n b e increased or decreased according to the water level changes observed in the piezometers. If open tenslon cracks cre found. Depending upon the flndlngs of this examination of the upper slope surface. Further geologlcal mapping to confirm the geological s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s l o p e . If the upper surface of the slope is coverd by overburden sol I. Practical example number 4 Chalk cliff failure Induced by undercuttlng Hutchinson(l56) h a s described t h e d e t a i l s o f a c h a l k c l i f f fallure at Joss Bay on the Isle of Thanet In England. The existence of such cracks shou I d be taken as evidence of severe danger and serious conslderation should be given to remedial measures In add i t i o n t o dralnage. together with evidence on groundwater and tension cracks.

27:Cross s e c t i o n o f chalk cliff failure at Joss Bay.7. N . London. J . (Photograph reproduced with permission of D r . H u t c h i n s o n .42 Figure 7. i m p e r i a l C o l l e g e . I s l e o f fhanet. . ) Tension crack F i g u r e 7.26: Chalk cliff failure at Joss BlY. E n g l a n d .

17.8 m 0. T h l s v a l u e I s slgnlflcantly higher t h a n t h e frlctlon a n g l e o f $2.f 1 I l e d t e n s i o n c r a c k I s conrldered to b e r e m o t e md WI I I n o t b e I n c l u d e d I n this ana l y s l s .depth of undercut . Since t h l s fal l u r e c a n b e classed as a fall In uhlch relatively flttle nwanent may have taken place before fal lure.8 m 7. Sunnaltlng the avallable Input data: H . Measurement of water levels In weI I s near the coast together rlth the lack of face seepage caused Hutchlnson to conclude t h a t t h e c h a l k m a s s I n u h l c h t h e failure o c c u r r e d c o u l d b e t a k e n a s f u l l y dralnrd. 9 tonnes/n~ a n d a f r l c t l o n angle o f a b o u t 42” f o r t h e p e a k s t r e n g t h md 30. The photograph reproduced In Figure 7 . b o t h a l m o s t vertical. Laboratory tests on samples taken from the cl Iff face gave a density o f 1 .17: . there Is conslderable J u s t l f l c a t l o n f o r regarding t h e p e a k s t r e n g t h o f t h e chalk as relevant for thls malysls. as opposed to a slide In uhlch the shear strength on the failure plane Is reduced )o Its reslduel value by movements before the ectusl fallure. a r e present.s l o p e height (i+=Ht. T h e Interested r e a d e r I s l e f t t o c h e c k t h e I n f l u e n c e of various water pressure dlstrlbutlons upon the behavior of this slope. t h e posslblllty o f a w a t e r .5 m 0* 80’ 67’ T h e effective f r i c t i o n mgle o f t h e c h a l k m a s s c a n b e determined by rearranging equatlon(64)on page 7. f o r t h e residual s t r e n g t h .lncllnatlon of undercut g .4 m 6. The purpose of this malysls I s to dstermlne t h e s h e a r s t r e n g t h mDblllzed I n t h e a c t u a l f a i l u r e md t o annpare this with t h e l a b o r a t o r y v a l u e s . Since t h e failure d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o have been associated with a period of otceptlonally heavy rain.4 9 .new tenslon crack depth AM.failure p l a n e mgle 15. 9 ’ . S u b s t l t u t l o n glvesg. a s uas t h e c a s e o f t h e q u a r r y f a i l u r e d i s c u s s e d I n e x a m p l e number 2 .5 tonnes/m* for the peak strength t o z e r o f o r Me residual s t r e n g t h . The cohesion lrpblllzed at failure can be estimated by rearrangIng equatlon(65)on page 7.orlglnal tenslon.43 Is reasonably uniform.7.crack d e p t h 22 . T h e coheslve strength ranged fran 13. 2 6 s h o w s t h i s s u r f a c e I s v e r y r o u g h I n d e e d a n d t h e difference between the laboratory value and the friction angle mob! llzed In the fal lure lo not surprlslng. BeddIng I s ulthln o n e d e g r e e o f horlzontal a n d t w o maJor J o l n t s e t s . measured on laboratory specimens but the Inf I uence of the roughness of me actual fal lure surface must be taken Into account In maring the results. Zf . The cl Iff Is parallel to one of these Joint sets.slope face angle * .

44 7 . A J o s s Bay f a i l u r e Well lngton Gardens failure Paragon Baths failure l l I 10 Normal stress 0 .2.tonnes/m 2 J 20 Figure 7.29: Tension crack depths and under-cut depths required for failure for different failure plane inclinations. 16 54 56 58 60 62 64 Failure plane angle e” P 66 * 54 58 56 6062 64 66 68 Failure plane angle epo Figure 7.28: Relationship between shear strength and normal stress f o r c h a l k c l i f f f a i l u r e s analysed by Hutchinson’s6.64 + a Tan 49 Ladanyi and Archambault’s Data from Hutchinson’s Figure 9. .7.

2 .30 Is rrlous for property ouners on the cliff-top and.9 m and that the correspondtng failure plane angle will be pp’ 60. 6 4 tonnes/mz.:.-. This new failure geometry Is Illustrated In Figure 7. t h l s v a l u e I s consIderably lower than the value of c = 13. gl ves I t I s clear. Hutchlnsonts p a p e r (Figure 9) c o n t a l n s f u r t h e r d a t a o n t h e shear strength moblllzed In chalk cliff failures at Wellington Gardens and Paragon Baths and this data Is reproduced In Ftgure 7 . The !nput data for the next step In the fa 1 I uro process is now as follows: H = s l o p e height (nl=xp) 21 = arlglnal tenslon crack depth slope face angle c = cohesive strength of chalk mass P= friction angle of chalk 15.p.10.new tension crack depth j$: . F l g u r e 7 . . I t I s I n s t r u c t i v e to c o n s i d e r w h a t rlll happen to the Joss Bay cliff as the sea continues to und e r c u t I t s t o e . f&wrang!ng equatlon(64)glves: b. hence. The consequence of the cliff failure Illustrated In Figure 7.27 are reasonable.9O RF- The unknowns In thls analysis are . T h e evidence presented In Figure 7. f r o m this f!gure.31.3 tonnes/ml determIned by laboratory shear tests on intact chalk.7. 2 2 ) I s a g o o d fit t o this r o c k mass strength data and it WI I I be seen that the I Ine defined by z . 2 9 . A s uould b e e x p e c t e d . The dashed curve. t h a t a f u r t h e r c l i f f f a i l u r e WI I I occur when the undercut reaches a depth of approximately 0..28 suggests that the values of cohesion a n d fr!ct!on a n g l e determlned f r o m t h e f a l l u r e g e o metry Illustrated In Figure 7. and the new tension crack depth wll I be 22 . 2 8 . Sol v Ing for a range of correspond ! ng val ues of y$ and 22 the depth of the undercut shown In Figure 7.4 m 7. 9 ’ g!ves c = 2 .8 m 67’ 2.45 Subrtltutlng 22 = 7 .. 2 9 s h o w s t h a t t h e a n g l e o f t h e f a l l u r e p I ane pp must I le . 6 4 +dTan 49. calculated from Ladanyl and Archambault*s equation (28 o n p a g e 5 . B e f o r e Ieavlng th!s axunple.~~yle Since there are three unknowns and only two equations (65 and 64) t h e s o l u t i o n t o th!s p r o b l e m Is obtaIned I n t h e follorlng manner: a.30.65 tonnes/m* 49.9’ I s a t a n g e n t t o t h e d a s h e d c u r v e . From equat!on(bY the depth of the tension crack 2~ Is calculated for a range of possible fa!lure plane ang l e s (*I. Since 22 must Ile between 21 and H.2 m. #$ = 67O a n d d= 4 9 . between 67O and 56’. T h e r e s u l t s o f this calculation a r e p l o t t e d !n Figure 7 . 8 m . the problem of stabillzatlon of the cliff face must be considered.

In the analysts which has been presented on the previous pages.~III under-cut '-Cut F i gut-e 7.30: Predicted geometry of next cl iff failure due to undercuttlng. the only remaining alternativo is to stabllze the cliff face by reinforcement. Assuming that the protectlon of the toe of the cl if f I I I ustrated In Figure 7. Because of the dl latant nature of the fa I I ure process.. It Is tempting to suggest that this undercutting should be prevented by the prov I s ion of a concrete ral I along the toe of the cl i tf. wing 6lll x .46 Previous failure Geunet ry of new failure due to O. i n o t h e r s . h o r i z o n t a l d r a i n s s h o u l d b e drl I led into the face to al low free drainage of any water which does find Its way into the rock mass which would be involved In a further failure. T h e o n s e t o f f a i l u r e would induce tension in this reinforcement which would inhibit f u r t h e r f a i l u r e . I f possible. The presence .say 50 tonnes per meter of slope . t h e first s t e p i n stabll iring t h e s l o p e i s t o ensure that It remains completely dralned. and psrtlcularly In the tenslon c r a c k . . in some cases this may be a p r a c t i c a l solution b u t . uould r e s u l t in a s e r i o u s r e d u c t i o n o f f a c e s t a b i l i t y . It is suggested that the most effective reinforcement uou I d be prov i d e d b y f u l l y g r o u t e d b o l t s o r c a b l e s lightly t e n s i o n e d t o ensure that al I contacts were closed. It may be Impossible to provide a secure foundation for such a wal I.__ of grounowater In tne clltt.7. In view of the fact that the stabil lty of this slope Is so sensitlve to undercuttlng.50 is not possible. Attention to surface water to ensure that pools cannot collect near the slope crest i s i m p o r t a n t a n d . it has been assumed that the chalk mass is dry.the stabilizing force need not be very large. . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e l o a d capaclty o f these bolts or cables should be approximately 25s of the mass Stqga3tad ninfozwment of oliff fm bn. pclttarn of Sm Zong bolta. Consequently. Since the mass of material fnvolved in any further failure wli I be relat i v e l y s m a l l .

alternatively. consequently very low residual shear strength values of c . a n d t h e r e s u l t s a r e p l o t t e d I n Figure 7 . 4 and@ = lo*. The clay seams have a high montmor I I Ionlte content a n d h a v e b e e n s l l c k e n s i d e d b y p r e v l o u s s h e a r displacements. If the chalk mass is closely jointed so that there is a danger of ravelling between washers. a s s u m i n g vf n 80’. H is the height of the block # is the angle of the face of the block B i s t h e distance o f a v e r t i c a l creek b e h i n d t h e c r e s t o f the slope 2~ is the depth of water in the tenslon crack W is the weight of the block V is the horizontal force due to water in the tension crack U Is the upl I ft force due to water pressure on the base The factor of safety of the block Is given by: ~= 04-U) Znd Y Where Geometry of failure and mter pressure distribution (83) w=7Bli. should do a great deal to improve the stability of the .7.47 .l/Z&ZJB + H Cotpf) v = vzy-2. 7. This means that drainage. The extreme rnsltlvity of the factor of safety to changes In water Ievol depth in the tension crack is evident in this flgure. installed In a 5 m grld. each 5 m long. 2 7 is the density of the rock 7.0 and $8 n IO’ are consldered appropriate for the analysis o f fal lures(ll4)./r= 0 . slidlng of blocks of material on clay seams occurs during peri o d s o f h i g h r a i n f a l l . c o r r o s i o n resistant ulre mesh can be clamped beneath the washers to reinforce the chalk surface. should provide adequate reinforcement for thls slope. even if it is not very efficlent. o f t h e mstorial w h i c h c o u l d f a l l a n d h e n c e a psttorn o f 2 0 tonne bolts or cables. Practical exaple number 5 Block sliding on clay layers In a slope cut In a horizontal bedded sandstone/shale sequence. The geometry of the block is illustrated In the margin sketch and it is assumed that the clay sew is horizontal. is the density of water Hence This equation has been solved for a range of values of B/H and z&t.i/21H3Cot pf U . the pattern can be changed to a closer g r i d o f l o w e r cspaclty b o l t s o r . 3 1 .

As the ratio B/H decreases. the drain m a y o n l y p r o d u c e a trickle o f w a t e r b u t . This requires a comblnatlon of a very I O U frlctlon angle In t h e c l a y a n d a relatively h l g h w a t e r Iovrl In the tensfon crack. Hence. the most economlcsl dralnage system and the effectiveness of such drain holes can be chocked by monttorlng the movement across a tenslon crack before and after drilling of the hole. I f I t h a s r e duced the water pressure in the tenslon crack.25 0.5 0. it WI I I stablI Ize the slope. This I s a f a c t o r o v e r uhlch t h e r e I s n o c o n t r o l b u t I t w o u l d b e Intorostlng t o r e l a t e t h e ratlo B/H t o t h e frequency of observed block failures.31 : safety to depth o f uator I n t e n s l o n c r a c k and dl stance of tenslon crack behlnd slope crest. t h e f a c e a n g l e should be kept as steep as possible. In scme cases of block failure on clay seams. T h l s s u g g e s t s t h a t . Since the shear strength of the clay cennot be altwmd. Critical 0 0. drainage Is the obvious remedial nmasuro In such cases. the blocks have been observed to move up-hll I on seams dfpplng Into the rock mass. An Increase In the block face angle yfrosults In an Increase In the uelght of the block and Improvement In slope stabll Ity. 3 1 .40 HorIrontsI bolos through the base of the block may be SlOpe. as shown I n Figure 7 . for t h l s t y p e o f failure. the uelght of the block W decreases and hence the factor of safety of the slope decreases. Sensltlvlty of factor of Figure 7.0 Ratio 4/H .7. in a low permeablllty rock mass. I t m u s t b e emphaslted t h a t It 1s n o t t h e quantity o f w a t e r uhlch I s I m p o r t a n t i n t h l s c a s e b u t t h e p r e s s u r e o f rator I n the tenslon crack.75 1.

IORISS. Vol. C. D . 1968. C. A . U. strength of coal pillars. 5 t h 187. 189. I . Lisbon. H .7. H . Design and a p p l i c a t i o n o f m i c r o s e i s m i c d e v i c e s . Proc. Intnl. Bitwninoue M a t e r i a l s Lab. Rock Mechanics. a n d S E E D .U.L. Berktsy. T h e r e s p o n s e o f e a r t h b a n k s d u r i n g e a r t h q u a k e s . A s t u d y o f t h e J. H . 1967. pages S-67. B . 2. Static and dynamic stresses in slopes . F I N N . a n d MUNRO. V o l . Matall. 188. h?tadi~n Symposiwn c?n Rook &?OhanicS. and Proc. and ARMSTRONG. A p r i l 1 9 6 6 . BROADBENT.D.D. let Congress. Sot. 6 8 .49 Chapter 7 references 186. Report Soil Mech. page 167. South African Inet. Vnivereity o f California. M . S A L A H O N . 1966. G . Min.

.

1. simple equations which are presented to illustrate the mechanics are of limited practical value because the variables used to define the wedge geometry cannot easily be measured in the Consequently. the mathematical treatment of the mechanics can become very complex unless a very strict sequence is adhered to in the development of the equations. the stability analysis in terms of the dips and dip directions In the transformation of the of the planes and the slope face. he or she should have no difficulty in using the complete solution given in Appendix 2. the discussion is limited to the case of t h e s l i d i n g o f a s i m p l e w e d g e s u c h a s t h a t i l l u s t r a t e d i n Flgure 8. the complex solution to the problem has been presented in Appendix The analytical treatment of this 2 at the end of the manual. the second part of the chapter deals with field. equations which is necessary in order to accommodate this information the basic mechanics becomes obscure but it is hoped that the reader should be able to follow the logic involved in t h e development o f t h e s e e q u a t i o n s . cohesion and water pressure. . h a s b e e n d e s i g n e d f o r u s e o n a Once the reader has canputer or a programmable calculator. In this chapter. the basic mechanics of failure involving the sliding of a wedge along the line of intersection of two planar discontinuities are presented in a form which the non-specialUnfortunate1 y the very i s t reeder s h o u l d f i n d e a s y t o f o l l o w .8. problem. The influence of a tension crack and of external forces due to b o l t s . It w a s s t a t e d t h a t t h e p l a n e f a i l u r e a n a l y s i s i s v a l i d p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e s t r i k e o f t h e f a i l u r e p l a n e i s w i t h i n + 20’ of the strike of the slope face. s i n c e i t w o u l d only be necessary to consider these influences on the fairly rare occasions when the critical slopes are being examined. c a b l e s o r seismic a c c e l e r a t i o n s r e s u l t s i n a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e canplexity o f t h e e q u a t i o n s a n d . This problem has been extensively discussed in geotechnical literature and the authors have drawn heavily upon the work of L o n d e . J o h n . Wittke. acted upon by friction. be appreciated that our understanding of the subject has grown rapidly over the past decade and that many of the simplifications which a r e n o w c l e a r w e r e n o t a t a l l o b v i o u s w h e n scme o f t h e s e p a p e r s w e r e wrltten. It must. T h i s c h a p t e r i s conc<rned with the failure of slopes in which structural features upon which sliding can occur strike across the slope crest and where sliding takes place along the line of intersection of two such planes. understood the basic mechanics of the problem. T h e r e a d e r w h o h a s e x a m i n ed this literature may have been confused by some of the mathematics which have been presented. however. given in Appendix 2. In the chapter itself. Introduction The previous chapter was concerned with slope failure resulting from sliding on a single planar surface dipping into the excavation and striking parallel or nearly parallel to the slope face. T h e b a s i c m e c h a n i c s o f f a i l u r e a r e v e r y s i m p l e but. because of the large number of variables involved.1 Chapter 8 Wedge failure. G o o d m a n a n d o t h e r s I isted i n r e f e r e n c e s 190-200 a t t h e e n d o f t h i s c h a p t e r .

K.1 : A typical wedge failure involving s l i d i n g a l o n g t h e l i n e o f intcrs e c t i o n o f t w o p l a n a r discontinuities.2 Figure 8. (Photograph reproduced with permission of Hr. Pare) .M.2 : S e t s o f i n t e r s e c t i n g d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s c a n somtimes g i v e r i s e t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f families of wedge failures.8. Figure 8.

a. .3 : Wedge failure geometry.3 Line of intersection View along line of intersect ion View at right angles to line of intersection Line of intersection P i c t o r i a l view of wedge failure Note : T h e c o n v e n t i o n a d o p t e d i n t h i s analysis is that the plane with the flatter of the two dips is always referred to as Plane A. Stereoplot of wedge failure geometry :ion o f s l i d i n g Figure 8.

for the purpose of anal yzlng the basic mechanics o f slldfng. Analysis of wedge failure The factor of safety of the wedge defined In Flgure 8. 2 which show.1 probably Involved a falrly sudden fall of a single wedge which would only have broken up on tmpact and which would. 1s t h e lncllnatlon o f t h e flned by pf/>p. assuml n g t h a t slldlng 1s r e s l s t e d b y f r l c t l o n o n l y a n d t h a t t h e frlctlon angle# 1s the same for both planes. In order to flnd PA and&. In the latter case. 1s glven by Via. 2 w o u l d p r o b a b l y h a v e I n v o l v e d t h e fairly g r a d u a l r a v e l I l n g o f s m a l I l o o s e b l o c k s o r r o c k a n d It 1s unlikely t h a t t h l s fa1 l u r e w a s assoelated with a n y violence. the wedge formed by sets of closely spaced structural features. t h e f l a t t e r o f t h e t w o p l a n e s 1s called Plane A whl le the steeper plane 1s called Plane 6. Note that. the analytical treatment would still be based upon the assumptlon of through-golng planar features al though It would have to be realized that the deflnltlon of the dlps and dlp dlrectlons and the locatlons of these planes may present practlca I dl f f 1c u l t l e s . measured 1. 1 a n d 8 . Note the&+ would only be the same ask.3. I s defined I n F i g u r e 8 . resolve horizontally and vertical ty In the view along the Ilne of lntersectlon: t U. On the other hand.’ the view at right angles to the llne of intersectton. at right ang2es t9 tine of intersection where PA and & are the normal reactlons prov lded by planes A and B as Illustrated In the sketch opposlte.COS$Ji Vim a2mg 2in8 of intersection Hence . the fal I ure 1 I I ustrated In Figure 8. a condItlon o f sllding I s dew h e r e pf.. constitute a threat to anyone worklng at the toe of the slope. The geometry of the wedge. therefore. T h e f a l l u r e illustrated I n Figure 8 . throughout this manual. the through-golng planar dlscontlnultles which are normally assumed for the analytical treatment of thls problem and. As In the case of plane failure. 3 .> @ slope face. the true dlp of the s l o p e f a c e . a n d PI’ I s t h e d l p o f t h e line o f l n t e r s e c t l o n . In the other case. In the one case..Deflnltlon of wedge geometry Typical w e d g e failures a r e l l l u s t r a t e d In F l g u r e s 8 . I f t h e d l p d l r e c t l o n o f t h e line o f l n t e r s e c t l o n was the same as the dlp dlrectlon of the slope face.

measurement of the angles&5 and e can be carried out on the great circle. 5 . defined In Figure 8 . fp IS t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y o f a p l a n e fallure I n which t h e s l o p e f a c e Is l n c l l n e d sty//. The total helght of the slope. be remembered that the case which safety . B e f o r e leaving this simple analysis. w h e n different frlctlon angles and the Influence of cohesion and water pressure are al lowed for. a n d t h e failure p l a n e Is l n c l l n e d at@. Figure 8 . which cannot be measured directly In the f 1 e I d. The water pressure dtstrlbutlon assumed for this analysis Is based upon the hypothesls that the weage 1tsel f 1s impermeable and that water enters the top of the wedge along I I nes of lntersectlon 3 and 4 and leaks from the slope face along lines of . It Is therefore recommended that.. as shown by equation (89). K 1s the wedge factor which.8.5 shows the geometry of the wedge which will be consld e r e d I n t h e followlng analysis. Wedge aalysls lncludlng ccheslon end rater pressure Figure 8. Some authors have suggested that a plane fal lure anal ysIs 1s accept a b l e f o r a l l r o c k s l o p e s b e c a u s e it provides a l o w e r b o u n d solutlon which has the msrlt of being conservative.. N o t e t h a t t h e u p p e r s l o p e surface In thls analysis can be obliquely Inclined with respect to the slope face. however. for a range of v a l u e s of.Fp where & 1s the factor of safety of a wedge supported by fr Ictlon only. depends upon the lnc l uded angle of the wedge and upon the ang I e of t1 It of the wedge. thereby removl ng a restr Ict lon which has b e e n p r e s e n t In a l l t h e s t a b 1 Ilty a n a l y s e s which h a v e b e e n dlscussed so far In thls book. Values for the wedge factor K.& ande.= K. the more comp l e t e analysis I s p r e s e n t e d I n t e r m s o f directly m e a s u r a b l e dips and dip dlrectlons. w h e r e t h e s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s which a r e Ilkely t o c o n t r o l t h e s t a b l l l t y o f a r o c k s l o p e d o n o t strike parallel to the slope face. The increase b y a f a c t o r o f 2 o r 3 o n t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y determlned b y plane failure analysis Is of great practical Importance. 4 s h o w s t h a t t h l s s o l u t i o n I s s o conservative a s t o b e t o t a l l y uneconomic for most practical slope designs.& ande a r e p l o t t e d in Figure 8 . the stablllty analysls should be carried out by means of the three-dlmenslonal methods presented In thls book cr publlshed by the authors llsted In references 190 to 202 at the end of this chapter. Rather than develop these equations 1n terms of the angles. As shown In the stereoplot given In Figure 8. 1 s t h e t o t a l difference In v e r t i c a l elevation between the upper and lower extremlt les of the I Ine of lntersectlon along which slldlng 1s assumed to occur.3. h a s b e e n d e a l t with Is very simple a n d t h a t . the equations beccxne more complex. Hence.. t h e r e a d e r ’ s a t t e n t l o n 1s drawn to the Important Influence of the wedglng action as the Included angle of the wedge decreases below 90’. the p o l e o f which 1s t h e p o l n t representing t h e line o f lntersectlon of the two planes.5 In other words: F. a s t e r e o p l o t o f t h e f e a t u r e s which def lne the slope and the wedge geometry can provlde al I t h e InformatIon r e q u l r e d f o r t h e determlnatlon o f t h e f a c t o r o f It should. 4 .

0 View along line of intersect ion K 1.c 2.8. 4 : W e d g e f a c t o r K a s a function o f w e d g e g e o m e t r y .5 2. W e d g e f a c t o r K . .0 Two dimensional plane failure when 6 c fE .6 3.5 .degrees F i g u r e 8 . .SinB/SinfE for 6 > fE 1.5 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Included angle of wedge 6 . 0.

8. . f i g u r e 8. bl V i e w n o r m a l t o t h e l i n e o f i n t e r s e c t i o n 5 s h o w i n g t h e total wedge height and the water pressure distribution. a) P i c t o r i a l v i e w o f w e d g e s h o w i n g t h e n u m b e r i n g o f i n t e r s e c t i o n lines and planes.7 Upper slope surface which can be obliquely inclined with respect to the slope face.5 : G e o m e t r y o f w e d g e u s e d f o r s t a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s i n c l u d i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e of cohesion and of water pressure on the failure surfaces.

. T h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y o f t h i s s l o p e I s d e r l v e d f r o m t h e detalled analysls of thls problem publ lshed by Mek. Bray and Boyd(201 1. and &B are the angles of friction on planes A and B 7 I s t h e u n l t weight o f t h e r o c k 7-j 1 s the unl t we1 ght of water H 1s the total height of the wedge (see Flgure 8.5) X. where pg and yb are the dlps of planes A and B respect1 vely and vs 1s t h e d l p o f t h e I l n e o f i n t e r s e c t i o n 5 . a n d B a r e d l m e n s l o n l e s s f a c t o r s which d e p e n d u p o n the geometry of the wedge. 3 and 4. where CA and CB are the cohesive strengths of planes A and 8 Pr. T h e n u m b e r l n g o f t h e lines o f l n t e r s e c t l o n o f t h e v a r i o u s p l a n e s I n v o l v e d In this p r o b l e m 1s o f e x t r e m e importance s i n c e t o t a l c o n f u s i o n c a n arlse In t h e a n a l y s l s I f t h e s e n u m b e r s a r e The numberlng used throughout th I s book Is as mlxed-up.8.Y.A. 2.8 Intersection 1 and 2.t h e maximum p r e s s u r e o c c u r r l n g a l o n g t h e I Ine of intersectlon 5 and the pressure being zero along I lnes 1. T h l s w a t e r p r e s s u r e d l s t r l b u t l o n IS believed t o b e representative o f t h e e x t r e m e condltlons which c o u l d o c c u r durlng very heavy rain. T h e r e s u l t l n g p r e s s u r e d l s t r l b u t l o n I s shown In Flgure 8. follows: 1 234 5lntersectlon lntersectlon lntersectlon lntersectlon lntersectlon of of of of of plane A wlth p l a n e B with p l a n e A with p l a n e B with planes A and the slope face the slope face upper slope surface upper slope surface B I t 1s a s s u m e d t h a t slldlng o f t h e w e d g e a l w a y s t a k e s p l a c e along the llne of Intersection numbered 5.5b . T h e a n g l e s required f o r t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e s e e q u a t l o n s c a n most conveniently be measured on a stereoplot of the data which deflnes the geometry of the wedge and the slope.

’ rff The total height of the wedge H = 130 ft.Z y = 1 6 0 Ib/ft. T h e s t e r e o p l o t o f t h e g r e a t circles r e p r e s e n t l n g t h e f o u r planes lnvolved In thls problem 1s presented In Flgure 8. cg = 1000 Ib/ft. .9 Consider the followlng example: Plane A B Slope face Upper surface dip’ 45 70 65 12 dip dlrectlon’ 105 235 185 195 Propertles tin = 20’. 5 Ib/ft.Z 08 = 30°. Great circle Great circle ale of Plane 8 of slope face Great circle of Direction of sliding Flgure 8.6: Stereoplot of data requlred for wedge stab1 I lty analysis.3 = 6 2 .8.6 and all the angles requlred for the solution of equations (92) to (951 are marked In thls flgure. CA = 5 0 0 I b/ft.

31.191 Sin$5. = 3.0.2 *X)TWI+A + (B .9636 0. 0.4287 el.200 Y .5180 x 0.6428 xsinecs.tOSe.101 0 A - COS$Ja - COS$‘b.1953 3CA -Ytl x + fcB y -’ YH + (A . .5150 x 0.5773 .nb - BSin+g..1 6 0 tb/ft3 yw = 6 2 .7071 x 0.3762 + 0.500 ib/ft* CB .nb * 0..cose2.3640 FI Tan +B YWJQY = 0.50 FUNCTION VALUE CALCULATED ANSWER cos JI.3562 .7071 + 0.9063 .20 flna.4.0.-0.~~ = 0.4944 + 0.0.7071 Cos Jt.nb * 6@ +A = 300 +B .6z0 e3s . 5 Ib/ft) CA .8829 Sin 035 .4226 sin Slne2.5150 Cos 81.5475 0.31° e24 = 0. n b .5180 x 0.*Y)Tan$e YW 2r 2-Y 3CA/yH .342 x 0.a. 5 0 0 0 Sinelj 0.0. = 0.0.0.3.0.982 Sin ena.3420 + 0.191 0.0.500 .4226 x 0.Sin28na.65O Bus = 25“ 82.0.nb .3420 Sin $5 .0 .b * 0.WEDGE STABILITY CALCULATION SHEET INPUT DATA #Qa .nb cos$.9557 em .2405 + 0....0.0721 ]CB/rH .6934 .3476 . cOS#a.191 = 1.0.9636 .3363 COSO~.6428 sine13 = 0.1000 Ib/ft2 w Tan +A .8829 Ystne3secOSel.Sin28na.5180 COS $'b = 7oo $5 .0..130 ft .nb * 0..5 .1442 F . 0.a.nb enaanb .cOS8.9063 Sln&.m * 5p e13 .2437 = 1.

A s h a s b e e n anphaslzed I n p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s . Wedge stablllty charts for frlctlon only If the cohesive strength of the planes A and B Is zero and the s l o p e I s f u l l y d r a l n e d . I e a v l n g a dimenslonloss ratlo uhlch d e f i n e s t h e f a c t o r o f safety (see l quatlon(89)on page 8. 1 0 . T h i s slmpl i f lcation I s very useful in that It enables the user of these charts to carry out a very quick check on the stability of a slope on the . surprising result arlses because the weight of the wedge occurs in both the numerator and denominator of the factor of safety l quatlon and. consider t h e following example: dip0 Plane A Plane B Differences 40 70 30 dip dIrectiona 165 285 120 friction ang I eD 35 20 Hence. 9 8 .7 S u b s t l t u t l o n I n equation(96)glves t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y a s F = 1.e. If It Is requlred to check the Influence of the cohesion on both planes fal Ilng to zero. this term cancels o u t . t h e e f f e c t o f dralnage can be checked by puttlng the two water pressure terms (I. Setting the cslculatlons out In this manner not only enables the user to check al I the data but It also shows how each varlable contrlbutes to the overall factor of safety. turnlng to the charts headed “Dip difference 30’” and readlng off the values of A and B for a difference in dip dlrectlon of 120”. t h o s e contalnlng&) t o z e r o . this c a n b e d o n e b y s e t t i n g t h e t w o groups contalnlng the cohesion values C+ and CB to zero. Hence. equatlon(77)reduces t o The dlmenslonless factors A and B are found to depend upon the dlps and dip directions of the two planes and values of these two factors have been computed for a range of wedge geometr les a n d t h e r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d a s a series o f c h a r t s o n t h e folloulng pages. The values of A and B give a direct indlcatlon of the contribution which each of the planes makes to the total factor of safety.4). I n o r d e r t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e u s e o f t h e s e c h a r t s . t h e a n g l e o f t h e s l o p e f a c e This rather and the lncllnation of the upper slope surface. glvlng a f a c t o r o f s a f e t y o f 0 .8. Note that the factor of safety calculated from equation 96 Is independent of the slope height. Alternatively. this ablllty t o c h e c k t h e sensltlvlty o f t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y t o c h a n g e s In materlal propertles or In slope loadlng Is probably as Import a n t a s t h e abll Ity t o c a l c u l a t e t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y I t s e l f .5 and B = 0. for the frlctlon only case. 6 2 . g l v l n g F = 1 .11 Determlnatlon of the factor of safety Is most conveniently carrled out on a calculation sheet such as that presented on page 8 .30. one finds that A = 1.

Once a slope has been excavated.0. Cms1der the example discussed on pages 8.e. Many trial calculations have shown that a wedge having a factor of safety In excess of 2.0.0 must be regarded as In the potentially unstable category of Figure 1. t h e engineer responsible for the highway layout has requested guidance on the maximum safe angles which may be used for the deslgn of the slopes. of less than 2. S u c h a s o l u t i o n Is clearly only feasible if the potential danger is recognized before excavation of the slope is started and the main use of t h e c h a r t s Is during t h e s i t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n a n d p r e l i m i n a r y planning stage of a slope project. In the authors’ experience relatively few slopes require this detailed analysis and the reader should beware of wasting time on such an analysis when the slmpler methods presented in this chapter would be adequate. 50% of the factor of safety of 1 . to eliminate the problem by a slight re-alignment of the benches or of the road al ignment . having a factor of safety in excess of 2. Hence. i s u n l i k e l y t o f a i l u n d e r e v e n t h e m o s t s e v e r e combination o f c o n d i t i o n s t o w h i c h t h e s l o p e i s l i k e l y to be subjected. these charts wi I I be of I Imit e d u s e s i n c e i t will b e f a i r l y o b v i o u s i f t h e s l o p e Is u n s t a ble.5 to 8. based upon friction only. 0 . The d i p s a n d d l p d i r e c t l o n s o f t h e s e dlscontlnuities a r e a s f o l lows: . it wi I I be found that these friction only stability charts provide all the information which Is required. O n t h e basis o f s u c h t r i a l c a l c u l a t i o n s .5 (page 1.0. assuming t h a t t h e ratlo o f t h e f a c t o r s o f s a f e t y f o r the two cases remains constant. had the factor of safety for the friction only case been 2.a. unless it has enabled the slope engineer to take positlve remedial measures. Under these condftions.62.5. as obtained from the friction only stabi I Ity c h a r t s . h a v i n g i d e n t i f i e d a p o t e n t i a l l y d a n gerous slope. I t i s f r e q u e n t l y possible. Extensive geological mapping of outcrops on the slte together with a certain amount of core logging has establlrhed that there are five sets of geological dlscontlnuitlos In the rock mass through wh lch the road WI I I pass.24 for the friction only case. pass Into the stable category in the chart presented in Figure 1 . 1 . the factor of safety for the worst conditions would have b e e n 1 . 12 basis of the dlps and dip directions of the dlscontinuities in the rock mass into which the slope has been cut. Such slopes. It may have served no useful purpose. Slopes with a factor of safety. A f u l l stablllty ahalysis m a y l o o k v e r y i m p r e s s i v e i n a r e p o r t but. An example of such an analysis is presented later in this chapter. In many practical problems i n v o l v i n g t h e d e s i g n o f t h e c u t slopes for a highway. a more detailed study of the slope wi I I be requlred and use would then have to be made of the method described on pages 8.8). t h e a u t h o r s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e friction o n l y s t a b i l i t y c h a r t s c a n b e u s e d t o d e f i n e those slopes which are adequately stable and which can be ignored in subsequent analyses. these slopes requlre further detailed examination.9 to 8.10 or of the analytlcal solutlon presented in Appendix 2.11 in which the factor of safety for the worst conditions This i s (zero cohesion and maximum water pressure) is 0. Practical example of wedge analysfs During t h e r o u t e l o c a t l o n s t u d y f o r a p r o p o s e d h i g h w a y .

Factor of Safety F .13 WEDGE STABILITY CHARTS FOR FRICTION ONLY Note : T h e f l a t t e r o f t h e t w o p l a n e s i s always called plane A.5 4.DEGREES .5 1.8.5 m 2.0 2.0 0.A.5 1.Tan+* + B.0 : 0 2.51 DIFFERENCE IN DIP DIRECTION .0 1.Tan$ e bCIiART .D I P D I F F E R E N C E 0 D E G R E E S 5.

0 2w 210 220 200 DIFFERENCE IN DIP DIRECTION .8.14 50 I A CHART .DEGREES I 8 CHART .DIP DIFFERENCE 10 DEGREES I 0 360 340 320 300 2.DIP DIFFLRE NCE 10 DEGREES .

8.15

A C H A R T - D I P D I F F E R E N C E 20 D E G R E E S 5.0 4.5 4.e 3.5 3.0
l 0 5 l a

I

2.1 2.0 1.) 1.0 0.5 0 300 340 320 wo 2w 2.0 210 220 200 DIFFERENCE IN DIP DIRECTION - DEGREES

I) CHAR T - D I P D I F F E R E N C E

DECRE

3.0 Q 0 2.1

2 2.0 a 1.5

DIFFERENCE IN DIP DIRECTION - DECREES

8.16

A CHART - DIP DIFFERENCE 30 DEGREES

160

340

320

200

200

260

240

220

2w

DIFFERENCE IN DIP DIRECTION - DEGREES

8 CHART -

DIP

DIFFER

E

N

C E 3 0 DECREES

160

340

320

ma

210

260

240

220

200

DIFFERENCE IN DIP DIRECTION - DEGREES

8.17

A CHART - DIP DIFFERENCE 40 DEGREES

3.5

J.0 2.s 0 c * 2.0 az 1.1 1.0
l

0

I60

0

20 340

320

500

w 280

$60 2w

1m240

140 220

160 200

106

DIFFERENCE IN DIP DIRECTION - DEGREES

D I P DIFFERE NCE 40 DEC REES

360

a40

226

mo

2w

m

20

220

206

DIFFERENCE IN DIP DIRECTION - DEGREES

8.18

1.0 4 0 c
l

2.5 2.0 1.5

a

0 MO 140 l20 a00 280 260 240 220 200 DIFFERENCE IN DIP DIRECTION - DEGREES

5.0 4.5

I

B C H A R T - D I P DIFFERENC E 50 DEGREE S

0 E a a

2.5

loo

uo

l28

100

2.0

250

240

220

280

DIFFERENCE IN DIP DIRECTION - DEGREES

8.19

A CHART . DIP DIFFERENCE 60 DEGREES

DIFFERENCE IN DIP DIRECTION - DEGREES

I

S C H A R T - D I P D I F F E R E N C E 00 D E G R E E S

i a

Jbo

J2i

no

2w

200

240

220

200

DIFFERENCE IN DIP DIRECTION - DEGREES

8.20

A CHART - DIP DIFFERENCE 70 DEGREES

3.0 < 0 2 2.0 a 1.5 2.5

0 300 340 320 m 200 20 240 220 200

DIFFERENCE IN DIP DIRECTION - DEGREES

SCHART - D I P DlFFERENCE 7 0 D E G R E E S ~~

I

3.0 0 2.5 0 c 4 2.) a 1.5

0 a00 a40 a20 a00 2Do 20 240 220 200

DIFFERENCE IN DIP DIRECTION - DEGREES

8.21

Discontinuity s e t : 3 4 5

dip“ 66 + 68 7 605 58 7 54 7 2 6 16 6 4

dip direction“ 298 320 360 76 118 + 7 + 7 5 2 15 10 6 2

Note that, because this mapping covers the entire site which extends over several acres, the scatter in the dip and dip direction measurements is consi derab I e and must be taken into account In the analysis. This scatter can be reduced by more detailed mapping in specific locations, for example, Figure 3.10 on page 3.25, but this may not be possible because of shortage of time or because su I tab I e outcrops are not avai lable. Figure 8.7 shows the pole locations for these five sets of disc o n t i n u i t i e s . Al so shown M this figure are the extent of the scatter In the pole measurements and the great circles corresponding to the most probable pole positions. The dashed figure surrounding the great circle Intersections is obtained by rotating the stereoplot to find the extent to which the intersection point is influenced by the scatter around the pole points. T h e t e c h n i q u e described o n p a g e 3 . 1 1 i s u s e d t o d e f i n e t h i s dashed figure. The intersection of great circles 2 and 5 has been excluded from the dashed figure because it def i nas a I ine of intersection dipplng at less than 20’ and thls is considered to be less than the angle of friction. The factors of safety for each of the discontinuity intersections is determined from the wedge charts (some interpolation Is necessary) and the values are given in the circles over the intersection points. Because al I of the planes are re I at i vel y steep, some of the factors of safety are dangerous1 y low (assumlng a f r i c t i o n a n g l e o f 300). S i n c e i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t slopes with a factor of safety of less than 0.5 could be economically stabilized, the only practical solution is to cut the slopes in these regions to a flat enough overall angle to el iminate the problem. The construction given in Figure 8.8 is that which is used to find the maximum safe slope angle for the slopes on either side of the highway. T h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n i n v o l v e s p o s i t i o n i n g t h e g r e a t circle r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s l o p e f a c e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r d i p direction in such a way that the unstable region (shaded) is avolded. The maximum safe slope angles are marked around the perlmoter of this figure and their positions correspond to the orientation of the slope. Figure 8.9 shows the suggested slope angles as presented to the highway engineer by the rock slope engineer. The slopes on the east side can be cut at 72’ but on the west side, it is necessary to cut them back to 30°. Note that as the highway continues to curve In the direction shown in the diagram, it WI l I be necessary to flatten the east slope because more unstable wedges wil I become adversely oriented on the slope as shown In Figure 8.8.

8.22

Notas :
a. Black triangles mark most likely position of poles of five sets of dlscontinuitles present in rock mass. b. Shaded area surroundlng pole posltlon defines extent of scatter in measurements. c. Factors of safety for each combination of discontinultles given In ltallcs In circle over corresponding intersection. d. Dashed line surrounds area of potential InstabilIty.

Figure 8.7:

Stereoplot of geological data for the preliminary design of the highway slopes.

a.23

32’

Mote :

Figures around the perimeter are the recomnended stable slope angles for the corresponding position on the

slope.

Figure 8.8:

Stereoplot of great circles representing stable slopes above the highway in a rock mass containing the five sets of discontinuities defined in Figure 8.7.

0.24

SECTION F i g u r e

A - A

8. 9:

Design of highway slopes according to safe a n g l e s d e f i n e d i n F i g u r e 8. 8.

S. 1367. M i n i n g sci. No. GOOOHAN. 2 . E . GOODHAN. Three-dimtnsional rpproach for the design of cuts in Jointed rock. 194. The resolution of stresses in rock using stereographic projection. 96.Fairhurst. voi. 199. pages 5 2 . Rock Much. J. J.36. SAVKOV. ptgts 1411-1434.(in Gtrmtn) Felanwahanik und Ingenieurgook&o. 1 9 6 4 . Enginuering CeoZogy. L.J. ptgts 57-72. vol. P. R . July 1971. The stability of rock slopes. Soit Mech.G. 1%5. HENDRON. P. and Powdztion Xv.J. A. 168 pages. Vol. SRIVASTAVA. Soil Meoh. J. and Foun&tion Div. No. a three-dimensional study. 192.G.6. NO.V. 1973. CORDING. SH 1. LONDE.K. v o l . ptgts r-6. HEUZE. Qruzr~~rZy J.3.0. Urb8na... An8iyticai and graphic81 methods for the analysis of siopts i n r o c k nmssts. 202. in Failure and Breakage of Rocko. P. Supp. Woo. 8nd AIYER.graphical mtthods. 1971. AnnuZoo &8 Ponte et Chuuedeu. 1969.U.1. Iiiinois. p8gts 93-103. 2nd Cagra88. E. &art8ri!y J. p8gts 3 0 3 . 1%. Engineering Ceow. Sn 4. 6. Belgrade.L. 200. I. V1GIER. a n d GOODHAN. Soviet Mining Scimca 1967. U. S t a b i l i t y o f slopts . Ptris. Eng. English translation in imptriri College Rock Htchanics Rtse8rch Report No. and TAYLOR. 1971. HOEK. 197. Hethod t o tntiyst t h e s t t b i i i t y o f r o c k slopes with and without additional loading. Rock Mech. 195.2S Chapter 8 references 190. Indian Soc. ptgts 235-262.H. 201. pages 37-60. Hethods for the rtpid assessment of the st8biiity o f three-dlmtnsiorui r o c k s l o p e s . J. Edited by C. 1965. J. ~0. BRAY. 191. L. Rock Meoh. and VORHERINGER. LONDE. R. A.. Army hrgi?wSring MtCkcZ7’ chltsrirtg croup.U. C&IO%. JOHN. 196.%.. 1 9 7 3 . 1970.Enginttring Geology. Sot. The sttbility of 8 rock slope cont8ining t wedge resting on two inttrstcting discontinuities. E . LDNDE.E. and VORHERINGER.l/l. Vol. .W. 30. 193. vo1. R. R . V o l . Mo.S. Considerations of fracture in the c a l c u l a t i o n o f r o c k s l o p e s t t b i l i t i t s . St8biiity of rock slopes tnd excavations. ASCE. 1966. ASCE. Rep. I I. J. F . Engineering analysis of three-dimtnsion81 s t a b i l i t y p r o b i t m s u t i l i s i n g t h e r e f e r e n c e hemisphtrt. 23th Sympoe. E. E . 1970. tnd BOYD. Htthods of tnriysis of rock slopes and l butmtnts : a review of recent devtiopmtnts. U. K.7 9 . HOEK. Unt mkhodt d’tn8iyrt I trois dimtnsions d e lt stab11 iti d’unt r i v e rocheust. IntnZ. Tech. IntiZ. Froc. VIGIER.3 2 0 . UITTKE. E . AIHE. R. R. p t g t s 314-321. Vol.6.

Elsevier. C. April. pages 76-85.U. Caf. HULLER. 3. No. Engineering Ceobgists. The European approach to slope stability problems in open-pit mines. . Trum. Application of rock mechanics in the design of rock slopes. Aa8. HULLER.3.E. VI I.L. Recent developments of stability studies of steep rock slopes ln Europe. 1963. C010rado School of Mines Quarterly. 2lstAnnuat Highmy Geology Syqosiwn. 204. No. Vol. Geometric analysis of geological separation for slope stability Investigations. HULLER. The application of soil mechanics to the stablllty of open pit mines. H. rg70. PETZNY. Geometric analysis of rock slopes. Nos. 1999. TAYLOR. 209. Sot. Suppl. 208. K. Intnt. L. State of StZ'e88 in th4 &zrth's &tat. University Kansas. TAYLOR. Vol.226.1 b 2. On the stability of rock slopes ( in German ) Futsmechrmik und Ingenieurgsoligie. WILSON. Santa Honica. 206. L. pages 95-113. pages 326-332.D. C. coloPado schoot of Mi?les Quarterly. Min. 207.26 203.3. 1963. L. pages 117-133. AIUE.8. New York. 1967.94. Enginmrcr. 209. 1970.lil. and JOHN. No. 54. S. Proc. Vol. 1964. Butt. 1959. Vol.

the failure path is normally defined by one or more of the discontlnuities. These charts should only be used for the analysis of circular failure In materials where the properties do not vary through the sol1 or waste rock mass and where the conditions assumed in d e r i v i n g t h e c h a r t s . s o i l m e c h a n i c s t e x t b o o k s s u c h a s t h o s e b y Taylor(174). D u r i n g t h e p a s t h a l f c e n t u r y . I n a review o n t h e historlcal d e v e l o p m e n t o f s l o p e s t a b i l i t y theories. silt and smaller particle sizes will exhibit circular failure surfaces. A more elaborate form of analysis is presented at the end of this chapter for use in cases where the mater la1 properties vary within the slope or where part of the slide surface is at a soi l/rock interface and the shape of the fai lure surface d iff e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from a simple c i r c u l a r a r c . GoIder(210) h a s t r a c e d t h e s u b j e c t b a c k a l m o s t 3 hundred years. In such materials. The conditions under which circular fai lure WI I I occur arise when the individual particles in a roll or rock mass are very small as compared with the size of the slope and when these particles are not interlocked as result of their shape. These charts enable the user to carry out a very rapid check on the factor of safety of a slope or upon the sensitivity of the factor of safety to changes In groundwater conditions or slope prof i le. A l t e r n a t l v e l y . Introduction Although this book is concerned primarily with the stability of rock slopes. In t h e c a s e o f a soi I . soil consisting of sand. The approach adopted in this chapter i s to present a ser I es of t h e s l o p e s t a b l l i t y c h a r t s f o r c i r c u l a r f a i l u r e . a p p l y . In addition to these books a number of important papers dealing with specific aspects of soil slope stability have been published and a selected list of these is given under references 213 to 233 at the end of this chapter. Hence. failure occurs along a surface which approaches a circular shape and this chapter is devoted to a brief discussion on how stability problems involvIng these materials are dealt with. d i s c u s s e d in t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . the reader will occasionally be faced with a slope probIas involving soft materials such as highly weathered rock or rock fills. a v a s t b o d y o f I iterature on this subject has accunulated and no attempt w i I I Standard be made to sunmarize this material in this chapter. Under these conditions. even in slopes of only a few . C o n d i t i o n s fw c i r c u l a r f a i l u r e In the previous chapters it has been assumed that the fai I ure of rock slopes is controlled by geological features such as bedding planes and joints which divide the rock body up into a discontinuous mass. Torzaghl(211) and Lambe and Whitman(ZI2) all contain excel lent chapters on the stabi I ity of sol I s lopes and it i s suggested that at least one of these books should occupy a prominent place on the bookshelf of anyone who is concerned with slope stabi I i ty. a s t r o n g l y d e f i n e d s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n n o longer exists and the failure surface is free to flnd the line of least resistance through the slope.9. Observations of slope failures in soils suggests that this failure surface generally t a k e s t h e f o r m o f a c i r c l e a n d m o s t s t a b i l i t y theories a r e based upon this observation. broken rock in a large fill will tend to behave as a ~*soilw and large failures will occur in a circular mode.1 Chapter 9 Circular faihwe.

.2 circuIlar sl iip Figure 9. Figure 9.2 : Circular failure in the highly altered and weathered rock forming the upper benches of an open pit mine.1 : Shallow surface failure in large waste dumps are generally of a circular type.9.

I . varying from a dry slope to a fully saturated slope under heavy recharge. Densltlss h l g h e r t h a n this give high factors of safety. The# = 0 analysis. D e t a i l e d c i r c u l a r analysis may be required for slopes in which the material density Is significantly different from 120 pcf. shows that the toe fal lure assumed f o r t h i s a n a l y s l s gives t h e l o w e s t f a c t o r o f s a f e t y p r o v i d e d that@* 5O. Terzaghl(211l.3 f e e t i n h e l g h t . Since the shear strength avallable to resist slldlng Is dependent upon the dlstrlbutlon of the normal stress r along thls surface and. page 170. A vertical tension crack Is assumed to occur In the upper surface a In the face of the slope. bl cl d) e) fl Deflnlng the factor of safety of the slope as F = shear strength avallable to resist slldlnq shear stress moblllzed along failure surface and rearranglng this equatlon. A range of groundwater condltlons. T h e locatlons o f t h e t e n s l o n c r a c k a n d o f t h e f a l l u r e surface are such that t h e factor of safety of the slope Is a mlnlmum for the slope geometry and groundwater condltlons consldered. densities lower than t h i s give l o w f a c t o r s o f safety. These cond It Ions are defined l a t e r I n t h l s c h a p t e r . lnvolvlna f a l l u r e b e l o w t h e toe of the slope through the. the problem Is statlcal ly Indetermlnate.9. since thls normal stress dlstrlbutlon Is unknown. e . Highly altered and weathered rocks WI I I also tend to fall In thls manner and It Is approprlate to deslgn the sol I slopes on the crest of rock cuts on the assumpt Ion that failure would be by a circular failure process. a) The material forming the slope Is assumed to be homogene o u s . l .base material-has been discussed by Skempton(234) and by Bishop and Bjerrum(235) and Is appl Ica b l e t o failures w h i c h o c c u r d u r l n g o r a f t e r t h e r a p l d c o n struction of a slope. Failure Is assumed to occur on a circular fallure surface which passes through the toe of the slope*. we obtain where &b Is the shear stress mobl I lzed along the fal lure surface. In order to obtaln a solutlon It 1s necessary to assume a speclf Ic normal stress dlstrlbutlon and then to check whether thls dlstrlbutlon gives meaningful practical results. The shear strength of the mater I al Is character lzed by a cohesion c a n d a frlctlon a n g l e @ which a r e r e l a t e d b y the equatlon z = c +g* Tan@. Derlvatlon o f c i r c u l a r f a i l u r e c h a r t The following assumptlons are made In derlvlng the stabl I Ity charts presented In thls chapter: NOTE : Circular failure charts are optimlzod f o r d e n s i t y o f 1 2 0 p c f . I t s m e c h a n l c a l p r o p e r t i e s d o n o t v a r y with dlrectlon of loadlng. are consldered In the analysls.

Taylor(174) c o m p a r e d t h e r e s u l t s f r o m a numbor o f logarlthmlc spiral a n a l y s e s ulth r e s u l t s o f lower bound solutions* and found that the difference Is negl Iglble. the charts presented In this chapter correspond to the lower bound solution for the factor of safety.27 respectively. In the malysls of rock slope failures. On the basis of this comparison. It Is necessary to assume a set of groundwater flow patterns which colnclde as closely as possible with those condltlons which a r e bellovod t o axlst I n t h e f i e l d . up to this polnt. In an staple consldered by Lambe and WhItman(212). Is simply t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t r e m e s b e t w e e n which t h e a c t u a l factor of safety of the slope must I le. These charts differ from those publ Ished by Taylor In 1948 In that they Include the Influence of a crltlcal tenslon crack and of groundwater In the slope.62 and 1. . The authors have carried out slmllar checks to those carried out by Taylor and have reached the same cone I us Ions. Slml lar ly.The Influence of various normal stress dlstrlbutlons upon the f a c t o r o f s a f e t y o f s o l I s l o p e s h a s b e e n e x a m i n e d b y FrohI lch(216) w h o f o u n d t h a t a l o w e r b o u n d f o r a l I f a c t o r s o f s a f e t y uhlch satisfy s t a t i c s I s given b y t h e a s s u m p t l o n t h a t t h e n o r m a l s t r e s s I s c o n c e n t r a t e d a t a single p o l n t o n t h e fal lure surface. Analysis of the same problem by Blshop’s slmpllfled m e t h o d o f slices g l v e s a f a c t o r o f s a f e t y o f 1 . Further evidence that the lower bound solution Is also a meanl n g f u l practical solution I s provided b y m e#anInatIon o f t h e analysis which assumed that the fat lure surface has the form of a logarlthmlc splral(227). I n t h l s c a s e . The unreal nature of these stress dlstrlbutlons Is of no consequence since the object of the exercise. obtalned by assuming that the normal load Is concentrated a a single point on the fal lure surface. rock. It was assumed that most of the water flow took place In dlscontlnultles In the rock and that the rock Itself was pracIn the case of slopes In sol I or waste tlcal ly Impermeable. Taylor concluded that t h e l o w e r b o u n d s o l u t i o n provides a v a l u e o f t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y which I s sufflclently a c c u r a t e f o r m o s t practical p r o b l e m s l n v o l v l n g simple circular fal l u r e o f h o m o g e n e o u s slopes. the upper bound Is obtal ned by assumlng that the normal load Is concentrated at the two end points of the failure arc. the upper ad lower bounds for the factor of safety of a particular slope an-responded to 1. Hence.30 which suggests that the actual factor of safety may I le reasonably close to the lower bound solution. t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y Is Independent of the normal stress dlstributlon and the upper and lower bounds colnclde. dlscussed In Chapters 7 and 8. the permeabl I Ity of the mass of mater la I Is genera I I y *The lower bound solution dlscussed In this chapter Is usually known as the Frlctlon Clrclo Method and was used by Taylor(l74) f o r t h e derlvatlon o f h l s stablllty c h a r t s . Groundwater flow assumpt Ions In order to calculate the upllft force due to water pressure acting on the failure surface and the force due to water In the tension crack.

Flgure 9. behlnd the toe of the slope. step 1 : Decide u p o n t h e goundwater c o n d l t l o n s r h l c h a r e beI leved t o exist I n t h e s l o p e a n d c h o o s e t h e c h a r t which Is closest to these condltlons. Productlon of circular failure charts T h e circular f a l l u r e c h a r t s p r e s e n t e d I n t h l s c h a p t e r w e r e produced by means of a Hewlett-Packard 9100 B calculator ulth graph plotting facllltles. Use of the circular failure charts In order to use the charts to determlne the factor of safety of a particular slope. the e q u l p o t e n t l a l s a r e approximately perpendicular t o t h e p h r e a t l c surface. dlscussed In the text book by Taylor( 174). Casagrande(2361. Thls may corrrspond )o the posltlon of a surface water source such as a river of dam or It may simply be the point where the phreatlc surface Is judged to Intersect the ground surface.11 shows that. for the range of slope angles and values ofZ consldered. Figure 6. the steps outllned below md shown In Flgure 9. uslng the table presented on page 9. hence.3s shows that thls approxlmatlon has been used for the analysis of the water pressure dlstrlbutlon In a slope under condltlons of normal drawdown. The phroatlc surface Itself has been obtalned. The charts me numbered 1 to 5 to correspond ulth the groundwatar condltlons defined In the table presented on page 9. by a computer solutlon of the equations proposed by L.5 several orders of magnitude hlgher than that of Intact rock and. Calculate the value of the dimensionless ratlo Step 2: . Consequently. the equlpotentlals and the associated flow lines used In the stab1 llty malysls are based upon the work of Han(237) who used m electrical resistance malogue method for the study o f groundrater f l o w p a t t e r n s In lsotroplc s l o p e s .6.6. a general flow pattern will develop In the materlal behind the slope.4 should be followed. Provlslon was made for the tenslon crack to be located In either the upper surface of the slope or In the face of the slope. Note that the phreatlc surface Is assumed to colnclde with ground surface at a dlstanceX. Detal l e d c h e c k s w e r e carried o u t I n t h e region surroundlng the toe of the slope where the curvature of t h e e q u l p o t e n t l a l s r e s u l t s I n l o c a l f l o w uhlch differs f r o m t h a t I l l u s t r a t e d I n Figure 9.3a. measured In multlples of the slope helght.9s on page 6. wlthln the soil mass. For the case of a saturated slope subJected to heavy surf ace recharge.9. t h e f l o w I l n e s WI I I b e approximately p a r a l l e l t o t h e p h r e a t l c s u r f a c e f o r t h e condltlon o f s t e a d y s t a t e drawdown. Thls machlne was progranned to seek o u t t h e m o s t crltlcal combination o f failure s u r f a c e a n d tenslon crack for each of a range of slope geometries and groundwater aondltlons.

9.3 : D e f i n i t i o n o f g r o u n d w a t e r f l o w p a t t e r n s u s e d i n c i r c u l a r f a i l u r e analysis of soil and waste rock slopes. i s m e a s u r e d i n m u l t i p l e s o f t h e s l o p e h e i g h t Ii.6 f ace Assumed tqui pot’c n t i a11 Assumed flow lines ai l u r e s u r f a c e S c Slope angle a) Groundwater flow pattern under steady state drawdown c o n d i t i o n s w h e r e t h e p h r e a t i c s u r f a c e coincides with the ground surface at a distance The distance x z behind the toe of the slope. S u r f a c e r e c h a r g e d u e t o heavy r a i n V v V V v / Tension crack Failure surface Assumed equipotentials Assumed flow lines b) G r o u n d w a t e r f l o w p a t t e r n In a s a t u r a t e d s l o p e subjected to heavy surface rechdrgc by heavy rain. . F i g u r e 9.

Step 4: Consider t h e folloulng mwmple: A 50 ft. F l n d t h e corresponding v a l u e o f Tan&J/F o r c/rHF. 4 : Sequence of steps involved in using circular failure charts to find the factor of safety of a slope. i s 0 .Tan@. Because of the speed md slmpllclty of uslng these charts. f o r a 40° s l o p e .28 and the corresponding value of Tan#/ F . F l n d t h l s value o n t h e o u t e r circular s c a l e o f t h e chart. The value of c/2H. The groundwater condltlons lndlcate the use of chart No. assuming that there Is a surface water source 200 ft. behind the toe of the slope.80. F l n d t h e factor of safety of the slope .0. step 3: Follow the radial line from the value found In step 2 t o I t s IntersectIon with t h e c u r v e which c o r r e s p o n d s to the slope angle under consldwatlon. dependlng upon uhlch Is more convenient. t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y o f the slope Is 1. 3 2 .7 Tan ) F F i g u r e 9 . high slope ulth a face angle of 40’ Is to be axcavstod In overburden sol I wlth a density 7 = 100 I b/ft? a cohoslvo strength o f 800 Ib/ft? a n d a frlctlon angle o f 30:. 3. . they a r e I d e a l f o r chocking t h e wnsltlvlty o f t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y of a slope to a wide rmge of condltlons and the authors suggest that this should be their main use.9. H e n c e . and calculate the factor of safety.

9.8 GROUNDWATER FLOW CONDITIONS CHART NUMBER 1 FULLY DRAINED SLOPE .

9 CIRCULAR FAILURE CHART NUMBER 1 .9.

10 CIRCULAR FAILURE CHART NUMBER 2 .9.

I - 1 4.22 .0 .lo .l2 34 38 .11 CIRCULAR FAILURE CHART NUMBER 3 I I .24 28 .18 20 J INJ 1 +kl1I t Q) .08 .80 32 34 .9.04 a8 .28 .

12 CIRCULAR FAILURE CHART NUMBER 4 .9.

24 26 28 30 .14 r6 .oa Da .lo 62 .9.32 .13 CIRCULAR FAILURE CHART NUMBER 5 0 a? 04 .ta c YHF 20 -22 .

. a face angle of 30’ In a drained sol I with a frlctlon a n g l e o f 2 0 ’ .5a and 9. that for chart No. Flgure 9. T h e s e c h a r t s a r e u s e f u l f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f draulngs o f potential slides a n d a l s o f o r estimating t h e f r i c t i o n a n g l e when back-analyzing exlstlng circular slides.5b differs slgnlf lcantly from that for the drained slope plotted in Flgure 9. has been p I otted. 2H 1 tbo. the locstlons of both the critical fallu r e circle a n d t h e c r l t l c a l tenslon c r a c k f o r llmltlng equlllbrlum (F = 1) were determined for each slope analyzed.9. I t was f o u n d t h a t .6 below. presented on the previous pages.5b. In the form of charts. As an example of the appllcatlon of these charts. o n c e g r o u n d w a t e r I s p r e s e n t I n t h e s l o p e .5a shows that the crltlc a l fal l u r e circle c e n t r e is l o c a t e d a t X = 0.5s. 3. These dlmenslons are shown In Flgure 9. I t will b e n o t e d t h a t t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e c r l t l c a l circle centre given In Flgure 9. In Figures 9. consider the case of a slope having. X-O. They al so provlde a start for a more sophlstlcated circular failure analysis In which t h e location o f t h e circular failure s u r f a c e h a v i n g the lowest factor of safety Is found by Iterative methods.6 : Location of critical failure surface and critlcal tension crack for a 30’ slope in d r a i n e d soil w i t h a f r i c t i o n a n g l e o f 20’. These locatlons are presented. the locations of the crltical circle and the tension crack are n o t particularly sensltlve t o t h e posltlon o f t h e phreatlc surface and hence only one case.85H a n d t h a t t h e c r l t l c a l t e n s i o n c r a c k I s a t a distance b = O.'" I Figure 5.2H a n d Y = 1.lH behlnd the crest of the slope.14 Locatlon of crltlcal failure circle and tension crack During the production of the circular failure charts.

Location of centre of critica circte Tension crack DRAINED SLOPE \Failure through toe of elope u15fance A -3H 4H -2H -H 0 H 2H 3H 4H 3H 3H 2H 2H H 10 - Slope angle . -2H -Ii 0 Location of centre of critical circle for failure through toe 0.5a : Location of critical failure surface and critical tension crack for drained slopes.degrees Location of critical tension crack position F i g u r e 9.1 I 1 1 I I 0 10 20 30 40 SO 60 70 80 go Angle of slope face . .4 s 0.2 0.3 .: 2 0.degrees -3H .

*l D 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 go Angle of slope face .degrees Location of critical tension crack position F i g u r e 9. I 1 2H 7“-3H -2H -H 0 Slope angle . I\ . 3) <Failure through toe of sibpe Distance X 4H h 1 -3H I I II I I I I II II I I I I I -2H mI -H I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I 0 H i?H I I I I I I L 4" 3H 3H I I I I I 3H E f 2H .16 T=lfX Location of centre of critical circle Tension crack SLOPE WITH GROUNDWATER (Chart No. . . 4 0.9.5b : L o c a t i o n o f c r i t i c a l f a i l u r e s u r f a c e a n d c r i t i c a l tcnsfon c r a c k for slopes with groundwater present.degrees L o c a t i o n o f centrc o f c r i t i c a l c i r c l e f o r f a i l u r e t h r o u g h t o e 0.

7 . L e y a l s o c a r r i e d o u t a n u m b e r o f trial calculations u s l n g Janbu’s method(236) a n d .01. t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y o f the slope Is 1. f o r t h e crltlcal slip circle s h o r n I n Figure 9. 37O 1 4 5 Ib/ft.17 Practical example number 1 Chlna clay pit slope Ley(153) h a s lnvestlgated t h e stablllty o f a C h l n a c l a y pit slope which was consldered to be potentially unstable. Input data for analysis: Slope height Slope angle Unit uelght Frlctlon angle Cohesion H Vf = . H e n c e .03. Two plezometers In the slope and a known water source some distance behlnd the slope enabled Ley to postulate the phreatlc surface shown In Figure 9. a heavily kaollnlred granite.7.7 : Slope profile of China clay pit slope considered in example number 1.Tan#= 0.9. T h e s e f a c t o r s o f s a f e t y lndlcated t h a t t h e stab1 I I t y o f t h e slope wes Inadequate under the assumed condltlons and steps were taken to dea I with the prob I em. was carefully tested by Lay and the frlctlon angle and cohesive strength are consldered r e l i a b l e f o r this particular s l o p e .7. 31° 137 Ib/ft. r= dc 252 ft. from chart number 2. The chart which corresponds most closely t o t h e s e goundwater c o n d l t l o n s I s considered t o b e chart number 2. found a factor of safety of 1. .76. Is 0.0056 and the correspondlng value of Tan&F. The material. Figure 9.7 below and the Input d a t a used f o r t h e snalysls I s I n c l u d e d I n t h l s f l g u r e . The slope proflle Is Illustrated In Flgure 9. t h e v a l u e o f t h e ratlo c&H. From t h e lnformatlon given I n Figure 9 .

f o r a g l v e n f r l c t l o n a n g l e . and for saturated slopes. Flgure 9. wll I b e o f a circular t y p e .9.8 Is too pesslmlstlc. probab Is shear strength range f o r materlal I n which s l o p e Is cut. dry 42’ slope. t h a t l n v e s t l g a t l o n s I n t o t h e goundwater condltlons a n d material propertles s h o u l d be undertaken In order to establ Ish whether the anal ysls presented In Figure 9. either t h e s l o p e s h o u l d b e f l a t t e n e d o r .dcgrces . In the same way as It was found for the 42’ slope. The stablllty anslysls Is carried out as fol lows: F o r t h e condltlon o f llmltlng e q u l I Ibrlum. The value of the cohesion c which I s moblllzed a t f a l l u r e . The effect of f lattenlng the slope can be checked very quickly by flndlng t h e v a l u e o f c/7H. T h e resulting r a n g e o f f r l c t l o n a n g l e s a n d cohesive s t r e n g t h s uhlch w o u l d b e moblllzed a t failure a r e p l o t t e d In F l g u r e 9 . I f It o c c u r s . A 0 cDsaturated 42’ slope. T h l s a n a l y s l s I s carried o u t f o r d r y slopes.8: Comparison between shear strength moblllred and shear strength avallable f o r s l o p e c o n s l d e r e d In example number 2. F r i c t i o n a n g l e 0 . 6 . A slte vlslt enables the slope engineer to assess that the slope Is ln weathered and altered material a n d t h a t f a l l u r e . the slope engineer would have to recommend that. uslng chart number 1. s a y 30°. uslng chart number 5. The dashed line In Flgure 9.8 lndlcates the range of shear strengths which are considered probable for the mater lal under conslderatlon. The shaded circle Included In Flgure 9.Tan@.4. I t Is c l e a r f r o m t h i s figure t h a t t h e avallable shear strength may not be adequate to malntaln stablllty In this slope. particularly when the slope Is saturated. F = 1 a n d Tan#/F =Tana( F o r a r a n g e o f f r l c t l o n a n g l e s . T h e t o t a l height o f t h e s l o p e will b e 200 ft. Insufflclent time I s a v a l lable f o r g r o u n d w a t e r l e v e l s t o b e accurate1 y estsb I lshed OT for shear tests to be carr led out. when completed and It Is required to check whether the slope will be stable. based upon the data presented In Flgure 5. t h e v a l u e s o f Tanflare used to flnd the values of c/yH. for 4Z”.18 Practical example number 2 Projected hlghway slope A hlghuay plan calls for a slope on one side of the hlghway to have an angle of 42’.Tan#for a f l a t t e r s l o p e . by reversing the procedure outllned In Flgure 9.17 on page 5. c a n t h e n b e c a l c u l a t e d .8 Indicates the shear strength which would be mobll Ized In a dry slope with a face angle of 30’.32. dry 30’ slope. Consequently.

= 0. this finding is not particularly surprising and the authors suspect that most waste materials exhibit this non-linearity to a greater or lesser degree. Since 1966. 1. to waste dump stability problems. Fran chart No. each tangent touching the envelope at the normal stress level at which cl* and p’c. 3 it is approximately 25’.o f i n s t a n t a n e o u s f r i c t i o n a n g l e s a n d c o h e s i v e s t r e n g t h s f o r d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t i v e n o r m a l s t r e s s l e v e l s . I) and for a dump with some groundwater flow (using chart No. are to be found.Tan#w 0 and hence. The purpose of this example is to illustrate the application of the design charts for circular failure.9. F = 1.1 Since the cohesion intercept is zero for this tangent. the instantaneous cohesion and the friction angles given by the three tangents are as follows: Tangent nunber 1 2 3 Cohesion kNN/m 0 20 40 Friction angle degrees 38 26 22 The relationship between slope height and slope angle for the c o n d i t i o n o f l i m i t i n g equilibriun. In view of the discussion on shear strength presented in chapter 5. a nunber of excel lent papers and handbooks deal i ng w I th waste dump stability and with the disposal of finely ground waste have become available(241-243) and the authors do not feel that a detailed discussion on this subject would be justified in this book.19 Practical example number 3 Stability of waste dvnps As a result of the catastrophic slide in col I iery waste material at Aberfan in Wales on October 22nd 1966. In order to apply the circular failure charts presented earlier in this chapter to the failure of a material which exhibits non-linear failure characteristics. the slope angle at which the face would repose is given by the slope angle corresponding to the value of Tan 38. . the value of the dimensionless ratio c//H. McKechnie Thanpson and Rodinf240) have shown that the relationship between shear strength and normal stress for colliery waste material is usually non-linear as shown in Figure 9. shown in Figure 9. this intercept is 38’ and for chart No. it is necessary to determ i n e a nunbet.78 on the Tan#F a x i s ( n o t i n g t h a t F w 1). a r e b e l i e v e d t o b e e q u a l l y a p p l icable t o m o s t r o c k w a s t e dunps. the methods used in this example. Consequently. attention was focused on the potential danger associated with large dumps of waste material from mining operations(239). although applied specifically to colliery waste.9. Tangent nlmbet. 3). This is done by drawing a series of tangents to the Hohr envelope. w i l l b e i n v e s t i g a t e d for a dry dunp (using chart No.9. In the case of the failure curve for col I iery waste. presented earlier in this chapter.

9.9 : S h e a r s t r e n g t h o f t y p i c a l c o l l i e r y w a s t e m a t e r i a l .kN/m2 F i g u r e 9.11 3 2 Dumps with water ( c h a r t n o . Drained dumps ( c h a r t no.10 : Relationship between slope height and slope angle for a typical colliery waste dump with different water conditions.degrees Figure 9.20 I IL 400 - Failure envelope 0 200 400 600 800 1000 N o r m a l s t r e s s o . . 3) 0 10 20 30 D u m p f a c e angle $f .

023 Slope engle” Chart 1 Chart 3 50 39 34 32 31 39 25 20 18 17 Plottlng these values on Flgure 9. the hlgh Inltlal frlctlon angle no longer appl Ies and the dump face assumes a flatter angle.029 0.158 0. the dump face angle would be Independent of the slope height.114 0.215 0. and I t I s s t r o n g l y recomnended t h a t h e s h o u l d . Any build-up o f w a t e r p r e s s u r e ulthln the dump causes a serious reduction In the stable face angle and. WI I I f l n d t h a t t h e slope height versus slope angle relatlonshlp Is extremely sensltlve to the shape of the shear failure curve.9.21 Note that.4 Ii meters 20 40 60 80 100 0. It Is normal I y assumed that the ang la of repose of a waste dump 1 s Independent of the height of the dump and Is equal to the mgle of frlctlon of the material.055 Slope mgle’ Chart 1 Chart 3 61 43 .069 0.092 0.10 gives the curves numbered 2 for the dralned and the uet dumps. once the normal stress across the potential fal lure surface becomes hlgh enough for the next tangent to become operatlve. The dangers arsoclated with poor dump dralnage are also evident I n t h l s figure. hence c@H.5/H and Tan@/F = 0. 7 = 18 kN/m’ and # = 22”. Figure 9. for both dralned md wet dumps. 1 0 .10 shows that this assumptlon Is only correct for a dry slope of Ilmlted helght. The reader who attempts thls type of malysl s for hl mse I f . Thls anphaslzes the need for rollable in situ shear test methods such as those . curves der I ved from tangents 1.: 30 56 31 22 18 16 The relatlonshlps between dump face mgle and dump helght. for zero cohesion.057 0.Tan# n 5. I l l u s t r a t e t h e d a n g e r I n contlnulng t o Increase the height of a dump on the sssumptlon that It wl I I remain s t a b l e a t a n a n g l e o f r e p o s e e q u a l t o t h e f r l c t l o n angle. Tangent number 2 Hence Ii meters 20 40 60 80 100 0.038 0. 2 and 3. s h o w n I n Figure 9 . we glven by the envelopes to the These enve I apes . Tangent number 3 c = 40 kN/m*.

12 has been deslgned to facllltate programnlng on a calculator such as a Hewlett-Packard 67. t h e failure s u r f a c e a s sumed for the first analysis may not glve the lowest factor of safety and the user shou Id be prepared to repeat the entlre calculation a number of times In order to find the failure surface with the lowest factor of safety. t h e c h a r t s g l v e n I n flgures 9.ned by the actual or the deslgned proflle as seen in a vertical sectlon through the slope. Generally. For complex slope profiles o r a l a r g e n u m b e r o f d l f f e r e n t materials I n t h e r o c k o r . Bishop’s method assumes a circular fal lure surface whl le that of Janbu assumes that the fal lure surface can be of a general shape. Note that the form of the equations glven In Figures 9. Janbu’s method glves reasonable factors of safety when applied to shal low sl Ip surfaces (which are typlcal In rocks with an angle of frlctlon In e x c e s s o f 30°) b u t I t I s seriously I n e r r o r a n d s h o u l d n o t b e u s e d f o r d e e p slip s u r f a c e s I n materials w l t h l o w f r l c t l o n angles. Bishop’s and Janbu’s methods of slices The circular fal lure charts presented earl ler In thls chapter are based upon the assumptions that the material formlng the slope has un I form properties throughout the slope and that failure occurs along a circular fal lure path passing through the toe of the slope. the failure surface may be defined by known structural features or weak zones wlthln the rock or sol I mass o r I t m a y b e estimated I n t h e s a m e w a y a s t h a t f o r t h e B i s h o p analysis. Step 2: S I Ice parameters The slldlng mass assumed In slice I Is dlvlded lnto a numb e r o f slices. Janbu(217). alysls. 1 1 a n d 9 . I n t h e c a s e o f a c i r c u l a r f a i l u r e . Morgenstern and Prlce(222) or others.11 and 9. Spencer(228). I n either c a s e . t h e lteratlve p r o c e d u r e required I n o b t a l n l n g a f a c t o r o f s a f e t y b y o n e o f these methods of sl Ices Is no longer as tedjous as It once was and there Is no excuse for not using one of these methods If It Is approprlate for the problem under consideration. a mlnlmum of five slices should be used for very slmple cases.22 described by McKachnle Thompson and Rodln(240) and Schultze and Horn(244) to be further developed for appllcatlon to waste dump problems.5a and b can be used to estlmate the center of the In the Janbu mcircle wlth the lowest factor of safety. 1 2 respectively. When these condltlons are not satlsfled Is Is necessary to use one of the methods of slices publ lshed by Blshop(213). The procedures for using Blshop’s md Janbu’s methods of slices are very slmllar and It Is convenient to discuss them together. As pointed out by NonvelIler(224).9. The slope and failure surface geometries and the equations for t h e determlnatlon o f t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y b y t h e Bishop slmpllfled method of sllces(213) and the Janbu modlf led method of sllces(217) a r e g l v e n I n F i g u r e s 9 . Step 1: Slope and failure surface geometry The geometry of the slope Is defI. Thls profile should be reproduced as accurately as p o s s l b l e o n a drawing t o a cunvenlently l a r g e s c a l e . Wlth the wide avallablllty o f programnable c a l c u l a t o r s a n d c o m p u t e r s . NonveIIIer(224).

0 h h yh Factor of Safety : F- 1 ‘/(I + ‘/F) p + Q where x= Y 2 - (c’ + ( yh .23 e of rotation rack Phrcat ic surface Typical slice LFai l u r e t h r o u g h t o e o f s l o p e A Z t 1 Note : A n g l e a i s n e g a t i v e w h e n sliding i s u p h i l l .2 Figure 9.ywh. .11 : B i s h o p ’ s simplified m e t h o d o f s l i c e s f o r a n a l y s i s o f c i r c u l a r failure in slopes cut into materials in which failure Is d e f i n e d b y t h e Hohr-Coulomb f a i l u r e c r i t e r i o n .) TanO’)Az/Cosa Tan a Tan 0’ yh&Sina The following conditions must be satisfied for each slice : .9.) (J’ I yh Ywhw 1 + ‘/F c’ Tan a/ F > 0 2) cos a ( 1 + Y/& > 0.

50 Figure 9. h Ihw I T I I .9.) 12 + Q where x Y 2 = (c’ + (yh y.for c’ c’ B 0 0. .Tan a Tan I$’ = = yh&cTano fYwZ2 Q A p p r o x i m a t e c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r f. K - d/~ - 1... K( 0. +’ 1 K > + 0.31.)Tan@‘) ( 1 + Tan’a)bz .h. f. + Y/.12 : Janbu’s m o d i f i e d m e t h o d o f slices f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f non-circular failure in slopes cut Into materials in which f a i l u r e I s d e f i n e d b y t h e Hohr-Coulomb f a i l u r e c r i t e r i o n .24 J Tension crack Typical slice ailure t h r o u g h t o e o f SIOPC Note : Angle Q is negative when sliding is uphill. .4(d/L)2) 0. Factor of Safety : F = foI x/(.

In the case of a uniform material In which the failure alterlon Is assumed to be that of M3hr-Cou lomb (equation (1O)on page 5.11 should be abandoned and a more elaborate form of analysls. the analysis as presented In Figure 9. When the slope Is cut Into a rock or sol I mass made up of a number of mater I a I s. to the phreatlc surface and the unit weight&of water and the wldth of the sl Ice&-. n o t m e t f o r a n y slice.12. Thls process Is repeated untl I the dlf ference between successlve factors of safety Is less than 0. The par ameter s which have to be def lned for each slice are the angle 4: of the base of the slice. slble t o s a t l s f y this c o n d l t l o n b y r e a d j u s t m e n t o n t h e groundwater condltlons or the Introduction of a tenslon crack. a larger number of sl Ices may be requlred In order adequately to define the problem.9.11 Ilsts two condltlons which must be satlsf led for each slice In the Blshop analysis. . the shear strength parameters cl and $8’ WI I I be the same on the base of each slice. a d o p t e d . the calculated factor of safety Is used as a second estlmate of F for a new factor of safety calculation.. the vertical stress on the base of t h e slice g l v e n b y t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e vertical h e l g h t h a n d t h e u n l t w e l g h t 7 o f t h e r o c k o r soll. to be described l a t e r . and Z are calculated for each slice. the shear strength parameters for each slice must be chosen accordl n g t o t h e materlal In which I t Iles. Step 5: Condltlons and correctlons Figure 9. the sum of the components of the welght of each slice acting p a r a l l e l t o t h e f a l l u r e s u r f a c e .001. t h e lncluslon o f a t e n s l o n c r a c k I f I t 1s ImposInto the analysls should be consldered. t h e upllft water pressure glven by the product of the helght h. culated and the assumed factors of safety Is geater than 0.l i n e a r failure crlterla s u c h a s t h a t given b y equatlon(30)on page 5. F o r b o t h the Blshop and the Janbu methods. This determlnatlon requires a knowledge of the ef fectl ve normal stress act Ing on the base of each sl Ice and thls problem WI I I be dlscussed later In this chapter. Step 3: Shear strength parameters The shear strength acting on the base of each slice is req u l r e d f o r t h e stablllty calculation. approximately 7 ItoratIon c y c l e s will b e r e q u l r e d t o a c h i e v e t h l s r e s u l t f o r m o s t slope and failure surface geometries. Y. The water force Q 1 s added to ZZ. W h e n t h e s h e a r strengths of the materlals formlng the slope are def lned b y n o n . Step 4: Factor of safety lteratlon When the slice parameters and the shear strength parameters have been defined. the values of X..001.00 for the factor of safety Is used In the s o l u t l o n o f t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y e q u a t l o n s g l v e n I n FlgI f t h e difference b e t w e e n t h e c a l ures 9.11 and 9.25 sol1 mass. T h e f l r s t condltlon ensures that the effective normal stress on the base I f this c o n d l t l o n I s of each slice Is always posltlve. A n lnitlal e s timate of F * 1.2 1.25 It Is necessary to determlne an Instantaneous cohesion ci and an Instantaneous fr let Ion angle C$ for each slice.

c a l c u l a t e Tan&/and ci’ f r o m the equations glven In Figure 9. 1 3 can b e u s e d t o c a l c u l a t e t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y . Thls factor al lows for lntersllce forces resultIng from the shape of the failure surface assumed In the Janbu analysis. 1 2 gives a c o r r e c t l o n f a c t o r w h i c h I s u s e d I n calculating t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y b y m e a n s o f t h e J a n b u method. Substitute t h e s e v a l u e s o f Tan#i’and ci’ I n t o t h e factor of safety equatlon In order to obtaln the first est lmate of the factor of safety. using the Bishop equatlon glven In Flgure 9.11 was suggested by Whltman and Balley(233) a n d I t e n s u r e s t h a t t h e a n a l y s t s I s n o t Invalldated by condltlons rhlch can sometimes occur near the toe of a slope In which a deep fal lure surface has been assumed. 2 5 t h e B i s h o p slmpllfled m e t h o d o f slices a s o u t l i n e d I n f l g u r e 9 . . U s e o f non-llnear failure c r l t e r l o n W h e n t h e material I n which t h e s l o p e I s c u t o b e y s t h e n o n l i n e a r f a i l u r e c r l t e r l o n defined by equatlon(30)on p a g e 5 .001. return to step 4 and repeat the analysis. about ten Iterations WI I I be required to achieve the requlred accuracy In the calculated factor of safety. If thls condltlon Is not satlsf led by al I sl Ices.26 Condltlon 2 In Figure 9. F l g u r e 9 . the analysis should be abandoned. K Critical cmtrc for * . T h e followlng procedure Is used. The equation for fo given In Figure 9. using the second factor of safety as Input.4p 2) 3) 4) Generally.13. Check that condltlons 1 and 2 (Figure 9.001. U s l n g t h l s v a l u e of&.9.13. Use thls estimate of F to calculate a new value of Q’on the base of each slice. If this falls to resolve the problem. 8) If the difference between the flrst and second factors of safety Is greater than 0. Calculate a new factor of safety for the new values of Tan#i’ and ci’. R e p e a t this p r o c e d u r e until t h e difference between successive factors of safety Is less than 0.13. once the slice parameters have been deflned as described earller for the Blshop and Janbu analyses : 1) Calculate the effective normal stress ~7’ acting on the base of each sl Ice by means of the Fel lenlus equation given In Flgure 9. calcuiate n e w values for Tanpi’ and ci I.12 has been derlved by the authors from the curves publlshed In Janbut 7). the slice dlmenslons should be changed and. O n t h e b a s i s o f this n e w v a l u e o f U”.13) are satlsfled for each slice.

25.$.9. .’ C{’ - AB( u’/. 2 Bishop’s simplified method of slices for the l nelysls of circuler f a i l u r e i n s l o p e s c u t i n t o m a t e r i e l s i n w h i c h faiiure i s d e f i n e d b y t h e n o n .27 1+ ’ ~intreofrotetion kb-i .~/P where cl’ and ci’ V y h Cos2 a ..l i n e a r f a i l u r e c r i t e r i o n g i v e n i n equation(J p a g e 5.13 : tOSa (1 + TanaTan%‘/F) * 0 .l - Auc( - u’ Ten +c’ The conditions which must be satisfied for arch slice are : 1) u’ > 0 . u’/ac - T) TIB B .Tcnsion crack Phreat ic surface Typical slice <Failure t h r o u g h t o e o f s l o p e h’o?e : A n g l e o is n e g a t i v e w h e n s l i d i n g is u p h i l l .. a’ 1 + Tana F Tan +i ’ Tan a F (Bishop solution) T h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s f r i c t i o n a n g l e $i’ a n d t h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s c o h e s i o n G’ a r e g i v e n b y : Tan+.ywhw (Fellenius s o l u t i o n ) yh .~~..Y. 0 h h w ’ I I yh Factor of Safety : F - z (Ci’ Ax + onTan ei’)cos a Zyh&Sina + fy. w h e r e u’ Is calculeted b y B i s h o p ’ s m e t h o d 2) F i g u r e 9.-.

1 4 MPa.095 0.14 0.385.9 45.9.142 0. COh438iOPl Stl'f388 angle U’ MPa oil0 ci’ t4Pa $‘degs. c’ MPa 45 45 45 :: 45 45 45 0.14 0.0 Using the sl Ice parameters and shear strength values tabulated above. the last which utlllzes the non-Ilneat failure crlterlon.060 0. &'iOtiO?l cOh438iO?l ixct. 1. 1.413. In order to estimate the posltlon of the crltical failure surface and to carry out a Blshop and Janbu analysis.315. a tangent to the curved bhr envelope Is drawn at a normal stress level estlmated from the sloDe aeometrv. 1.2 0.7 50.398.397.399 Blshop slmpllfled method of slices for non-l lnear fal lure 1.188 Slioe width yw$ HPa bz m Uplift 0.393. 1. 1.402.3 44.438 0.625 0.769 0. 1.000.101 2 31 25 20 12 36 8.0.125 0.140 0. 1.025 MN/m9 and the unlt weight of water rN . 1.430.327 0. 1.6 43. The slope.353. 1. 1.5 E 4:o 8. This tanaent Is deflned bv a frlctlon analt d = 4g0 and a &heslve stre&th c = 0 .6 46.14 0.111 0.273 0.0 4.010 MN/m’. I s r e g a r d e d a s c o r r e c t f o r this particular appllcatlon.002 Hohr-Couiomb v a l u e s N o n .663 0. T h e untt weight of the rock mass 1s assumed to be 7 = 0. 1.364.313 0.14 0.000.428. The bench faces are lncl lned at 75O to the horlzontal and the top of the slope Is cut at 45O from the top of the thlrd bench to the natural ground surface.25: A = 0.111 0.422. 1.544 0.14 0.176 0. 1.396.423. B = 0.253 0.174 0.14 0.423 Of these three analyses. Ivorma 1 Inst. 1.686 and T = -0. the factor of safety for the slope under conslderatlon have been calculated by three methods. The unlaxlal compressive strengthcc of the intact rock pieces I s e s t l m a t e d a t 1 5 0 WPa f r o m p o l n t l o a d testing.00008. 1.431 Janbu modlf led method of slices for Lbhr-Coulocnb fal lure 1.6 45.794 0.26 glves the fol loulng values for the constants def lned In equatlon (30)on page 5. 1.14 0.251 0.158 0.237. 1.150 0.420.207.135 0. 1. The successive factor of safety estlmates are: Blshop slmpllfled method of slices for Wohr-CouIornb failure 1. .203.421. 1. I I lustrated In the margln drawlng on page 9 . I s t o consist o f t h r e e 1 5 m h l g h b e n c h e s with t w o 8 m wlde berms.’ Slice parameters for all cases SZice nwnber Angle a degrees 62 245 VerticaZ 8tP888 yh HPa 0.353.28 Example of the use of Bishop’s and Janbu’s methods of analysis A slope Is to be excavated In a highly weathered granltlc rock mass. 1.145 48.14 0. 1.127 0.l i n e a r f a i l u r e criterion values for Bishop for Bishop t Janbu analysis (8th iteration) analyses Inst.125 0.224 0. 2 6 . A classlflcatlon of the rock mass and the use of the resulting Index to estlmate the material propertles from Table IV on page 5.271.136 0.6 48.075 0.

8 5 . AIHE. Rock Mechanias and Engineering Geology. pages 43-49.9 3 . V . page 5 2 2 . and PRICE. Vol. A. Vol. V. TheoreticaZ New York. pages 286-299. W . The stability of natural and man-made slopes i n s o i l a n d r o c k . 1 9 3 6 . 81 p a g e s . 224.944. B I S H O P . C. 6th Intd. Geoteahnique. The use of the slip circle in the stability analysis of earth slopes. Mechanics. 1 9 5 4 .2. 1 9 6 7 . Proc. Vol. JANFlU. 219. The stability analysis of slopes with a s l i p s u r f a c e o f g e n e r a l s h a p e .29 Chapter 9 references 210.93. Ceotechnique.93. p a g e s 7-17. 1969. J. p a g e 4 4 5 . J.G. Montreal. N.4. D. S t a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s for earth slopes. Stab11 ity o f n a t u r a l s l o p e s . 223. Soil Mech. Mech. Foundation Engg. HEYERHOF. 216. PECK. LAHBE. Calculation of the stability of earth dams. 211. Foundation Div.4. p a g e s 1 2 7 . .R.15. E u r o p e a n Confemnce a Stubility of Earth Slopes. Thesis. A.E. Conf. FELLENIUS. ~0. N e w Y o r k . TERZAGHI. p a g e s 4 0 3 . C. 1 9 6 5 . 215. Vol. No. a n d W H I T M A N . E . p a g e s 121-131. O .10. Application of composite slip circles for stability analysis. 1943. 2nd bngre88 on L. Vol.Urge Dwns. a n d Hilligan.U.9. H. V .46. p a g e s 7 9 . Cootechnical Practice for Stability in @en Pit Mining. 1 9 6 5 . V o l . vol.O. General theory of the stability of slopes. a n d H O R G E N S T E R N . &WC. S t a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s o f e m b a n k m e n t s . LOWE.4 1 7 . Vol. R. N e w Y o r k . 1961. Editors Brawner. 1 9 7 2 . Soil Vi ley. N. K . Ceoteahnique. T . pages 7 9 . 212. N. 213. Washington. ASCE.1 3 1 . pages 37-47. No. HORGENSTERN.Q. Ceotechnique. Harvard Soil Mechanias Series. Vol. HENCL. 1967. 222. Vol.SH 4 . 1955. 1 9 5 5 . 1 9 6 3 . Trans. N . The influence of the stiffness of a sliding m a s s o n t h e s t a b i l i t y o f s l o p e s . Wiley. 214. pages 29-150. 5 . MC. BISHOP. S t o c k h o l m . S o i l Vol. Stability charts for earth slopes d u r i n g r a p i d d r a w d o w n .Sc. 220. N . 1960. 218. Soil Mechanics. COLDER. HORGENSTERN. The analysis of the stablllty of general slip surfaces.B. 225. cohesive soils.7. 1 9 6 6 . JANBU.3. K . 5 5 3 p a g e s . The mechanism of flow slides in Geotechnique.13. AXE. Cootechnique. 221. 217. U. pagcs21-31. Vol. Stability analysis of slopes with dimensionless parameters. NONVE I LLER.R. R . 1 9 5 4 . V . FROHLICH.5.U.

Colliery spoil tips . embankments assuming parallel inter-slice forces. A. Use of moment planimeter for analysis of s l o p e s t a b i l i t y . Thesis.17.95. JANBU. C i v i l E n g i n e e r s . Soil Mech. 239. C o l o r a d o . Stabi 1 i t y o f e a r t h s l o p e s . 236. L o n d o n . K. G. N o . Vol. 1 9 6 7 .30 226. HAN. 1961. V o l . ~01. 233. BISHOP. 9 3 . Foundation Engg. Schwerz.24. analysing the stability of slopes.SM 4 . Proc. J. Die Bautechnik. ASCE. CASAGRANDE. P. (in Norwegian w i t h a n E n g l i s h summery). 229. B.Sc. F o u n d a t i o n Engg. 232. 1968. The relevance of the triaxial test to the solution of stability problems. ASCE Conf. VISHER. its theoretical basis.0 analysis for stability and SKEHPTDN. Conf.2 6 .4 9 8 . Proc. ASCE. Foundation Div. M a s s . M. pages 183-187. C. Critical height and factor of safety of TERZAGHI . B o u l d e r . surfaces. Vol. R o t t e r d a m . A. London University 231. P u b l . 227. p a g e s 4 3 7 . 1969. (Imperial College). HCKECHNIE THOMPSON. 1934. 16. TAYLOR.A. WHITMAN. BJERRUM. 238. A method of analysis of the stability of SPENCER. Heft IS. Civil Engineers. A n a l y s i s o f s l o p e s t a b i l i t y . M. and BJERRUM. No. 1966. L o n d o n . 234.Sc. SoiZ Mech. 1949. L. Conf. SoiZ Mech. slopes against sliding..1. 1948. D . 235. Soil M e c h a n i c s . The technique for obtaining equipotential lines of groundwater flow in slopes using electrically conducting paper. 1 9 7 2 . 1936.after Aberfan. p a g e 7 0 9 . Conf. p a g e s 1 1 . L and KJAERNSLI. S.W. Soi 1 m e c han i cs applied to some engineering problems. E. Intnl. W. 60 p a g e s . p a g e s 156-161. 1963.2.. 1960. vol. The use of computers f o r s l o p e s t a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s . N.1. and BAILEY. 1967. Boston Vol. Ceotechnique. The $ . 240. Soil Mech. Nom&an Ceotechnical Inst. 1956. 237. J. . D.V. N l h e r u n g s v e r f a h r e n zur E r m i t t l u n g d e r S i c k e r u n g i n geschDtteten OImnen a u f underchlassiger Sohle. P a p e r 7 5 2 2 . 1 2 .C. No. Circular and logarithmic spiral slip SPENCER. RODRIGUEZ. Froc. L .Sn 1. and ROOIN. 1972. A. Harvard University . Paris.5 0 1 . Sot. J.W. Proc. 228. 5th Intnl. ~01. p a g e 1 9 7 . 230. Report of the tribunal appointed to enquire into the disaster at Aberfan on October 21st. pages 227-234. on shear strength of cohesive soils. p a g e s 4 7 5 . C a m b r i d g e .81. 1 9 3 7 .9. E. Her Majesty’s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e . R. Investigations of a new procedure for VERGHESE. Bauztg. Foundation Engg. Thesis. I n s t . 2nd Intnl. p a g e 7 2 . Vol. ( i n G e r m a n ) .W.

. 185 pages.l971. L o n d o n . A. and HORN. MY. China Clay industry technical handbook for the disposal of waste materials. p a g e s 329-347. CHINA CLAY ASSOCIATION. SCHULTZE. C e o t e c h n i q u e . Vol. NATIONAL COAL BOARD. Ottawa. Final Draft. The base friction for horizontally loaded footings in sand and gravel. Tentative deeign guide for mine uaste embankments in Caadn. 82 p a g e s .31 241.9. and klgoons. F i n a l D r a f t 1970. 243. Cornwall. M i n i n g R e s e a r c h Centre. 244. Austcll. C a n a d i a n D e p a r t m e n t o f Energy. Technical handbook on spoil heap8 National Coal Board Mining Department. Hines and Resources. E. MINES AND RESOURCES. China C l a y A s s o c i a t i o n . 233 p a g e s . CANADIAN DEPARTHENT OF ENERGY. 1967. 1971. S t . 242.17.

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51 iding. Photograph by R. w h i c h a r e s e p a r a ted by well developed steeply dipping discontinuities. Burman (2511. Toppling failures in hard rock slopes have only been described in literature during the past few years. Byrne(252).Coodman. i s b e l i e v e d t o r e p r e s e n t a b a s i s f o r t h e development of methods for designing rock slopes in which toppling is present.14. S e v e r a l y e a r s o f d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k wil I b e necessary before these methods can be used with the same degree o f c o n f i d e n c e a s o t h e r m e t h o d s o f stabi I ity a n a l y s e s d e s c r i b e d in this book. The example illustrated in Figure 10.1 is in the Penn Rynn slate quarry in North Wales. a l l o f t h e J a m e s C o o k U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h Q u e e n s l a n d i n A u s t r a l i a . . a n d Hammett(2531. u n d e r m i n i n g o r e r o s i o n o f t h e t o e o f t h e s l o p e a l l o w s the toppling process to start and it retrogresses backwards into the rock mass with the formation of deep. 1 w h i c h s h o w s t h a t c o n t i n u o u s colunns o f r o c k . break in An e x a m p l e o f t h i s t y p e o f f a i l flexure a s t h e y b e n d f o r w a r d .13 w h i c h s h o w s a l a r g e tlexural t o p p l e i n t h e D i n o r w i c . S i m i l a r m o d e l s t u d i e s were c a r r i e d o u t u n d e r t h e a u t h o r s ’ d i r e c t i o n a t l m p e r i a l C o l l e g e b y Ashby (247). T h e l o w e r p o r t i o n o f t h e s l o p e i s c o v e r e d w i t h dis- Suggested toppling failure mechanism of the north face of the Vajont slide. which is reproduced here. wide tension cracks. An e x c e l l e n t d e s c r i p t i v e p a p e r o n toppling failures in the United Kingdom by de Freitas and Watters(254) i s recommended r e a d i n g a n d W y l I ie(255) h a s d i s c u s sed examples of toppling associated with railroads. Soto(248) a n d Whyte(249) w h i l e C u n d a l I(2501 m a d e o n e o f the earliest attempts to study the problem numerically.13 brief m e n t i o n w a s m a d e o f a d i f f e r e n t f a i l u r e m o d e . Types ot toppling failure Goodman and Bray have described a number of different types of toppling failures which may be encountered in the field and each of these types is discussed briefly on the following pages. T o p p l i n g f a i l u r e i n v o l v e s r o t a t i o n o f colunns o r b l o c k s o f r o c k a b o u t some f i x e d b a s e a n d t h e s i m p l e g e o m e t r i c a l c o n ditions governing the toppling of a single block on an inclined surface were defined in Figure 2. After MuZZer245. ure is illustrated in the photograph in the margin on page 2.slate quarry in North Wales. One of the earl iest r e f e r e n c e s i s b y Mul ler(245) w h o s u g g e s t e d t h a t b l o c k r o t a t i o n or toppling may have been a contributory factor in the failure o f t h e n o r t h tace o f t h e V a j o n t sl i d e . Flexural t o p p l i n g T h e p r o c e s s o f flexural t o p p l i n g i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1 0 . On page 2. Hofmann(246) c a r r i e d o u t a n u m b e r o f m o d e l s t u d i e s u n d e r Muller~s d i r e c t i o n t o i n vestigate block rotation. This solution.t h a t o f toppl i n g .10.1 C h a p t e r 10: T o p p l i n g f a i l u r e Introduction The failure modes discussed in previous Chapters of this book are all related to the sliding of a rock or soil mass along an existing or an induced failure surface. Most of the discussion which follows in this chapter is based on a paper by G o o d m a n a n d Bray(256) i n w h i c h a f o r m a l m a t h e m a t i c a l s o l u t i o n to a simple toppling problem is attempted. Deep vide tension cracks are associated with toppling failure in hard rock slopes. m a d e signif icant contributions to the understanding of this problem and to the incorporation of rotational tailure modes into computer analysis of rock mass behavior.5 on page 2.E.

E. P h o t o g r a p h b y R. .Goodman.E.2 F i g u r e 1 0 .2 : Interlayer s l i d i n g b e t w e e n t o p p l i n g c o l u m n s results in a series of back facing or o b s e q u e n t scarps i n t h e u p p e r s u r f a c e o f the rock slope.10.Goodman. P h o t o g r a p h b y R. 1 : Flexural t o p p l i n g o c c u r s i n h a r d r o c k s l o p e s w i t h well d e v e l o p e d s t e e p l y d i p p i r g discontifiuities. Figure 10.

3. T h i s sanding b e l t applies a frlctlon f o r c e t o t h e u n d e r s i d e o f the model resting on the belt and.10. The outward movement of each cant1 levered column produces an I n t e r l a y e r slip a n d a p o r t l o n o f t h e u p p e r s u r f a c e o f e a c h plane Is exposed In a series of back facing or obsequent scarps such as those Illustrated In Flgure 10. I n a l l cases.5 Illustrates a number of possible secondary toppling In general. If the base of the model Is p r e v e n t e d from moving. SECONDARY TOPPLING HOOES Flgure 10. the apparatus consists of a base and frame to h o l d a pair o f wide r o l l e r s o v e r which a s a n d l n g b e l t r u n s . block toppling occurs when Indlvldual columns of hard rock are dlvlded by widely spaced orthogonal joints. The short columns formlng the toe of the slope are pushed forward by the loads from the longer overturnlng columns behlnd and this slldlng of the toe allows further toppllng to develop hlgher up the slope. these mechanisms suggested by Goodman and Bray. As 1 I lustrated In Flgure 10. the toppling of the columns In thls case results from accumulated displacements on the cross jolnts. Whl le this mthod Is Ideal for demonstratton and teaching purposes. The base of the fal lure Is better defined than that In a flexural topple and It genera l l y consists o f a stalrway r l s l n g f r o m one c r o s s j o l n t t o t h e next. Because of the large number of small movements In this type of topple.2. its v a l u e a s a d e s l g n t o o l f o r r o c k s l o p e e n g l n s e r l n g ‘omrter generated model of Sol&? blocks me fized in space. Instead of the f I exura I f a l l u r e o f continuous c o l u m n s .6.3 o r i e n t e d a n d d l s o r d e r e d b l o c k s a n d I t 1s sometlmes very dlff lcult to recognize a toppling fal lure from the bottom of the slope. Block toppllng In models made from cork. Block-flexure toppllng As shown In Flgure 10. plastic blocks cr wooden blocks can be studled by means of thls technique and the type of behavior I I I u&rated ln the computer generated margln drawlng can be simulated very easily. t h e primary f a l l u r e mode Involves slldlng or physical breakdown of the rock and toppl Ing Is Induced In some part of the slope as a resu It of this prlmary fal lure. ANALYSIS OF TOPPLING FAILURE Goodman(24) has publ lshed a detal led dlscusslon on the base f r i c t i o n modelllng technique which I s a n I d e a l t o o l f o r s l m p l e physlcal model studles of toppl Ing phenomena. . to$Sing failure by C~ndaZl~~~.4 thls type of toppllng fallure Is characterized by pseudo-continuous flsxure along long columns which are divided by numerous cross jolnts. plaster. Block toppling As Illustrated in Flgure 10. t h e b a s e friction f o r c e s wll I s l m u l a t e the gravltatlonal loads of the lndlvldual blocks which make up the model. there are fewer trnslon cracks than In flexural toppl Ing and fewer edgeto-face contacts and volds than In block toppl lng. r e s u l t l n g I n flexural t o p p l l n g . either by natural agencies such as erosion or weatherlng or by the actlvltles of man. f a l l u r e s a r e lnltlated b y scmm undercuttlng o f t h e t o e o f t h e slope.

Figure 10.E.4 Figure 10. .Coodman. Photograph by R.10.E.3 : Block toppling can occur in a hard rock mass with widely spaced orthogonal joints.4 : B l o c k f l e x u r e t o p p l i n g i s ’ c h a r a c t e r i s e d b y pseudocontinuous flexure of long columns through accumulated motions along numerous cross joints. Photograph by R.Goodman.

‘t- weathering of underlying material.5 s. 5 : Secondary toppi i ng mechanisms suggested by Goodman and Bray.~~~~ steeply dipping beds of k hard rock are loaded by ’ instability higher up the slope. b) Slide base toppling when “I I . F i g u r e 1 0 . .10. id= toe toppi ing when ‘. ’ steeply dipping beds are dragged along by instability of overlying material. d) movement lower in the slope frees block to topple. e) T e n s i o n c r a c k t o p p l i n g i n c o h e s i v e materials.

7 In uhlch a slope angle 6’ Is excavated In a rock mass ulth layers dlpplng at 90-a. particularly the computer grrphlcs techniques being explored by Cundall a t t h e U n l v w s l t y o f Hlnnesota.6 Lou speed electric motor .txJ 02 =5x. In this ldeallzed model.6 : Base friction model apparatus which can be used for demonstrating toppling effects in block models. rzw (8. the height of the nth block In a posltlon below the crest of the slope Is . Byrne(252) and Hamnett(253) and. Llmlt equlllbrlum analysis of toppling on a stepped base Consider the regular system of blocks shown In Flgure 10. It s h o u l d p r o v i d e the reader with a basic understanding of the factors which are Important In toppllng sltuatlons. The base Is stepped upwards ulth an overal I lncl lnatlonfl.a2 and b shoun In the f lgure are glven by a/ = 5x. Attempts to overcm these problems by modelllng toppling processes numwlcally have been made by Cundall(250). The constants al. the range of physlcal properties rhlch can be Incorporated Into t h e model I s llmlted b y avallale modelllng matwlais.10. Tan Cy f9tl) b = AX. Tan@-&) where dx I s t h e width o f esch b l o c k . T h e a u t h o r s belleve t h a t these numerlcal methods *III eventually becoma practical deslgn tools. uhl le t h e s o l u t l o n I s I l m l t e d t o a f e w simple c a s e s o f t o p p l i n g f a i l u r e . E. Goo&un. rhlle the results of these studies have been very promlslng. I s Ilmlted b e c a u s e studies o n t h e sensltivlty o f t h e s l o p e t o small changes In geometry become very tedious. Plrotogruph by R. In addltlon. The method of analysis described below utlllses the same prlnclples of limltlng equl llbrium which have been used throughout t h e ranalnder o f this b o o k a n d . (99) 0 Incipient toppling faiZure in a steepZy jointed hard rock atope. the numerlcal techniques are demandlng on computer storage and time and these methods are not yet sultable for general englneerlng use. Direction of belt movement Frame and bearing SUppOrt Figure 10.

as shown In Flgure 10. and cl en IntermedIate set of toppling blocks. b) a set of stable blocks at the top. conmencos t o f a l I .8b.%I a n d o n t h e I n t e r f a c e s rlth a d j a c e n t b IWkS ( &. havlng the form shown In Figure 10. When the block Is one of the toppllng set. Flgure 10. 7 : Model f o r 1 lmiting e q u i l l b r i u m ana lysis o f toppllng ona s t e p p e d here.I. With certain geometries. &-. &-I. .10. the slldlng set may be absent In which case the toppllng set extends down to the toe.7.7 whl le above the crest When a system of blocks. Qn. the polnts of appllcatlon of all forces are known.8a shows a typIcal block (n) ulth the forces develope d o n t h e b a s e (&. I t i s g e n e r a l l y possible t o dlstlngulsh three separate groups according to their mode of behavior: a) a s e t o f s l l d l n g b l o c k s I n t h e t o e r e g l o n . If the nth block 1s below the slope crest: F i g u r e 1 0 .

/Z)(y.Sina-Ax.Tanb) + (U.1 = ‘n 1 .Sin01 n .Tan24 F i g u r e 10.CoSa) c) S l i d i n g o f n t h b l o c k P W. .(Tan+.8 a) F o r c e s a c t i n g o n n t h b l o c k b) Toppling of nth block pn tnn -Ax.10.Cora ..8 : Limiting equilibrium conditions for toppling and for slldlng o f t h e n t h b l o c k .

such that #>Ct . as In the toppllng c a s e . 1) Assume a reasonable value of@.=P&*nJd Pn-1 = p*-f * a.Ln and /c/.j an@ sn -w..10. a) T o determIne t h e v a l u e o f @for Ilmltlng e q u l l l b r l u m .-. 0277) (/oL4/ yn.=2 Ln = Yn .fzf By resolving perpendicular a n d p a r a l l e l t o t h e b a s e . can be deter- F o r llmltlng frlctlon o n t h e sides o f t h e b l o c k : Qf. Shtiy+/P” . + = uppermost block of the slldlng set. b u t a Ilttle conslderatlon *III s h o w t h a t I t h a s n o e f f e c t o n calculetlons o f t h e o v e r a l l stablllty o f t h e s l o p e .9 If the nth block Is the crest block: ‘Yn . T a k e n I n conjunctlon with (113). t h e s e s h o w t h a t t h e f o r c e P. The procedure suggested here Is to assume that. condltlons o f llmltlng e q u l l l b r l u m a r e establlshed o n t h e s l d e f a c e s s o t h a t e q u a t i o n s (110) a n d (111) a p p l y . t h e m a g n l t u d e s a n d p o l n t s o f a p p l lcatlon o f a l I t h e forces appl led to the sides and base of the block are unknown.pn -. I t I s f o u n d t h a t t h e f o r c e pn-1 which I s j u s t s u f f lclent t o p r e v e n t t o p p I ing h a s t h e value When the block under cons1 derat Ion Is one of the sl Id lng set. Conslderlng rotatlonsl equl Iibrlum. = w. R..coscr +fp. . A n y o t h e r r e a s o n a b l e assumptlon would produce the same results./ 0 OffI.rhlch I s J u s t sufflclent t o p r e v e n t s l l d l n g h a s t h e v a l u e T h e assumption i n t r o d u c e d h e r e I s quite arbitrary.P”-. mined g r a p h i c a l l y .=/ Mn If the nth block Is above the slope crest: M7 =yn-=z Ln “Yn l n all c a s e s Kn 10 For an Irregular array of blocks. Calculation procedure Let n/ = uppermost block of the +Opp I trig set.. . However.

the slldlng se+ Is absent and toppling extends down to block 1. Is set equal to G-b 5 . S/hcc . and al I other tal I blocks of the system.10.. I’ T h l s establishes blocknt. It WI I I be found that the toppl Ing mode Is crltlcal. Further checks should be carried out to ensure that 4) 5) The next lower block (/I. the corresponding value of # can be taken as that for I lmltlng equl I Ibrlum. If pd co. uslng the same procedure. cusfu td) (//r.t. d e t e r m l n e t h e l a t e r a l f o r c e s &r.k requlred to prevent toppl Ing and pn-. ?3nd) L/ . Suppose that a cable Is lnstal led through block 1 at a d I stance L/ above Its base. repeat the calculations with a reduced value of #. the crltlcal state Is one of slldlng. Is set equal top.~ > pn-._. r the blocks. The tenslon In the cable requlred to prevent toppling of block 1 Is $= ih$/Z’/u/ . For this particular block. an Increased value of 1. a n d f o r t h l s a n d al I lower blocks. the slope Is unstable for the assumed value It Is necessary to repeat the calculations for of @.) whl le the tenslon In the cable to prevent slldlng Is .Ax.. I t I s r e q u l r e d a t a la+er s t a g e t o d e t e r m l n e nz uhlch deflnes the upper Ilml+ of the slldlng sectlon.-.>O. s l t h e b l o c k I s o n t h e p o l n t o f toppllng and Pn-.&s &p//v/ -Ax.. and this check Is purely a matter of routine.r~ e-n-r. When 4 Is sufflclently small. Is not met for any of If the cond It Ion pn-~.10 2) Establish nf by determlnlng the uppermost block of the whole group which satlsfles the condltlon yn/Ax > Cot cx 3) S t a r t l n g w l t h this b l o c k . Eventually a block may be reached for which &-. 1 f 6-f. s to prevent sl Idlng.r >&f. Conslderlng the toe block 1: lfp.-I) and al I the lower blocks are treated In success ion. 1 f Eh-f s ‘pn-I# / * the block Is on the polnt of slldIng and P.. T h e c a b l e I s lncllned a t an angle6 degrees below horIzon+aI and anchored a safe dlstance below the base. 6) b) To determlne the cable force requlred to stablllse a slope.

. Thls Is not a large number. as compared with the maxlmum value of P (In block 5) equal to 4837 kN/m.0 m and 7 = 25 kN/m’. The tenslon In a bolt or cable Installed horlzontally through block 1. Flgure 1 6.=~. A rock slope 92.Sn can also be calculated for the slldlng reglon. R and . A regular system of 16 blocks Is shown on a base stepped at lm In every 5 (angle&& = 5. 9 . I s f o u n d t o be 2013 kN/meter of slope crest. substltutlng p.6’ slope In a layered rock m a s s d l p p l n g a t 60’ I n t o t h e h l I I . r e q u l r e d t o r e s t o r e e q u l l l b r l u m .650. whereupon &-/.5 m hlgh Is cut on a 56.9 shows the dlstrlbutlon of these forces throughout the slope. As shown In the table glvon on page 10. removing or weakonlng the keystone of a slope near fal lure as a result of toppling can have serlous consequences. The lnstal Iod tenslon requlrrd to stablllse block 1 Is 0. The rrqulred tenslon Is the greater of G and 7s deflned by equatlons (115) and (116). The support f o r c e requlrod t o stsblllze a s l o p e fran which t h e f l r s t n t o e blocks have been removed can be calculated from equations (115) a n d (116). 7 8 . demonstrating that support of the “keystone” Is remarkab I y effective In lncreaslng the degree of stablllty.. blocks 16. Conversely.2 m. Tan#ls set as 0. & Is than equal to 0 and & calculated as the greater of p~2.0 m. glven by equations (112) a n d (114) respectively..12. The force requlred to prevent slldlng In block 1 tends to zero uhlch Indicates that the slope Is very close to Ilmltlng equl IIbrlum. The condltlons deflned by R. The constants are aI = 5. EXAMPLE A n ldeallzed e x a m p l e I s I l l u s t r a t e d I n F l g u r e 1 0 .r and &. 5 7 7 ) . Now that the dlstrlbutlon of P forces has been deflned in the toppling r e g l o n .Tan#. a~ = 5./<&.5fm m.rpn~f%Sf~/~+d)tLV/.O Block 10 Is at the crest m. It WI I I be found that blocks 1 to 4 In the toe reglon wll I slide while blocks 5 to 13 WI I I topple.10-11 The norma I and shear force on the base of the block are respectively: R. Ax = 10. Thus blocks 4 to 13 constitute the potential toppling zone and blocks I to 3 constitute a slldlng zone.> 0 andlS. Pn-l.7855. ~Pf-%Co5ftS+b)+W/. which r l s e s 4O a b o v e t h e h o r l z o n t a l . and assumlng Q& =&-I . for4 . 15 and I4 comprise a stable zone for al I cases In whlch#>30° (Tan@7 0 .s remalns larger.f turns out to be the larger unt I I a v a l u e o f n = 3. Since Cot& = 1 .Bn are satlsfled everywhere. In thls example. If Tan@ Is reduced to 0. b = I ..9 The procedure In thls case Is ldentlcal to that descrlbed above apart from the calculations relatlng to block 1.V).Cojar 5 . a n d Sn o n t h e b a s e o f t h e columns can be calculated using equatlons (110) and (111).. t h e f o r c e s R.5 kN per meter of slope crest length.

and explosive loads. The comments earlier in this chapter relating to the correct burden dimensions and delay sequencing for the main blast. i s kept constant). T h e r a t i o o f t h e c h a r g e r a d i u s t o t h e h o l e radius is a measure of the decoupling of the charge. s m a l l d i a m e t e r d r i l l h o l e s w i l l create less damage to final wal Is than larger holes. c a n b e r e d u c e d by decoupling or decking charges. Since pre-shearing is done before primary blasts are made. t h e a m o u n t o f d a m a g e i s sti I I l e s s t h a n t h a t w h i c h w o u l d b e p r o d u c e d b y t h e main production blast if no control blasting was used at all. 275). However. D r i l l i n g c o s t s i n b u f f e r b l a s t i n g are s l i g h t l y h i g h e r b e c a u s e o f t h e r e d u c e d b u r d e n a n d spacing which is used. 2 7 4 . D expIos/D h o l e . T h e a i m i s t o I imlt t h e l o a d o f g r o u n d s h o c k f r o m t h e b l a s t . T h e f o l l o w i n g i s a s u m m a r y o f t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s . Buffer blasting . Buffer Blasting The following description of buffer blasting is taken verbatim f r o m t h e P i t S l o p e Manual(272). 3) 4) Centering c1 pre-split chaqe in Q d7+22hoZs . such as pre-shearing. Also. Modifications are I imited to reduced burden. and its results are quite economical. T h e m e t h o d i s u s u a l l y e m p l o y e d i n conjuntion w i t h s o m e o t h e r control blasting technique. Borehole p r e s s u r e . The p o w d e r f a c t o r i s e s s e n t i a l ly t h e s a m e a s f o r p r o d u c t i o n b l a s t ing so explosives costs are the same. a n d t h e c o s t s a v i n g s t h a t m a y b e a c h ieved(273. Doubling the hole diameter doubles the rupture radius ( a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e c o u p l i n g r a t i o . Hence. i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e k n o w l e d g e of local rock conditions that is gained in the primary blasts. t h e i r p r o b a b l e c a u s e s a n d solutions are listed on Table IX. the hole spacings in cushion blasting can usually be greater than in pre-shearing. Buffer blasting is the cheapest form of control blasting. possibly the most simple method of control blasting involves a modification to the last row of the main blast pattern. C o u p l e d c h a r g e s p r o d u c e h i g h borehole p r e s s u r e s (usually g r e a t e r t h a n 3 0 0 . 1) 2) Typical blasting problems. a n d h e n c e b a c k b r e a k . Charges are decoupled w h e n t h e y d o n o t t o u c h t h e borehole w a l I (see m a r g i n sketch). thus reducing drilling costs. Buffer blasting can only be used by itself when the ground is fairly competent. CONTROLLED BLASTING: CDNSTFUCTIDN PRACTICES AND EC& MIMICS Controlled blasting has been used on a wide range of construction projects and this experience has been used to draw some conclusions on the type of construction problems that may be e n c o u n t e r e d . are equally applicable to control led blasting. 0 0 0 p s i ) b u t b r e a k i n g o f the rock is desirable for buffer blasting. It may produce minor crest fracturing or backbreak. spacings.11.30 The limitations of pre-shearing are that it is difficult to determine results until primary excavation is complete to the finished wall.

. el lmlnate subgrade In drl I I holes over lying the crest of a berm.g. decouple or deck charges a) reduce spacing and powder load b) make burden larger than spat Ing c) detonate holes on perimeter row simultaneously d e c r e a s e t h e distance f r o m b u f f e r r o w t o presplit or line drl Iled holes Very poor fragmentat Ion at excavation tImIt. drll I smal I diameter guide holes. ueathered) a t c r e s t Increase the height of collar. o r b l a s t fal Is to break to prespl It I Ine crest fracture stecmrlng l n s u f f l c l e n t cr r o c k exceptlonally weak (e. delay between buffer charges (If not already being done) b) Increase hole spacing or decrease powder load (by decoupling o r d e c k i n g ) o f cushion o r p r e s p l l t holes z L \o backbreak aound boreholes borehole pressure geater than I n situ dynanlc compressive rock strength buffer holes too close a) spacing too great b) b u r d e n l n s u f f l c l e n t c) delays between perimeter holes too large buffer row too far from excavation limit decouple or deck charges backbreak between boreholes Jolntlng l n t e r f e r s between blast holes Increase spacing. use I5 msec. l).TABLE I X SOLUTIORS TO CONTROLLED BLASTING PROBLEMS (after Plt Slope Manual (Chap. 1976) Problem backbreak throughout wall (no boreholes shoulng) Probable Cause a) buffer row overloaded cr too close b) control blast may be overI oaded Solutions a) m o v e b u f f e r r o w f u r t h e r f r o m e x c a v a t i o n I I m l t . reduce borehole pressure of buffer charge. use spacers In the upper port Ion of the exp los Ive column.

:.‘~‘:.‘.14: Pre-shearing non-linear faces.: . bine d r i :n Pattern when excavation is outside of Pre-shear planes.11.28 P r e . Figure 11.:.‘. Loaded holes..‘..s h e a r h o l e s o n n o r m a l spacing 1 Pattern when excavation is inside of pre-shear 1 I Dlanc. :~. Pre-shca$r h o l e s o n n o r m a l s p a c i n g .‘... Unloaded holes.: ~‘.: e 0 Rock to be excavated... .:.‘.’ .~.

Ilke c u s h i o n b l a s t l n g . however. line drilling the corner may be used to prevent breakage across It (see Figure 11. Pte-shearing loads are placed and detonated in the same manner a s d e s c r i b e d f o r cushion b l a s t i n g .27 Al I loaded pra-shear holes should be stemmed completely around and between charges to prevent gas venting if weak strata are present. Also. t h e l e n g t h ot a p r e . w h e n i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o m a i n t a i n a corner of solid rock. pre s h e a r i n g i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h line d r i l l i n g w i l l give g o o d results. the line drllled h o l e s m a y v a r y i n d e p t h f r o m t h e t o p f e w f e e t t o t h e ful I depth of the pre-shear holes. of the hole. especially when shooting non-linear cuts. In very unconsolidated m a t e r i a l . In other words. Backbreak Is more likely at the top ot a bench or I ift. In many cases. In practice. When preshearing i n unconsolidated f o r m a t i o n s a n d l i n e drllllng between the normally spaced holes. the knowledge gained from the primary blasts regarding the rock can be applied to subsequent preshear shots. D e v i a t i o n g r e a t e r t h a n 6 i n c h e s from t h e d e s i r e d p l a n e o f shear will give inferlor results. I 1 ne dr i I l I ng between pre-shear holes for the top few feet reduces the chance of over-break In al I types of formations. Pteshearing can be accomplished during the primary blast by delaying the primary holes so that the pre-shear holes wi II fire ahead of then (see Figure 11.121.13). is the maximum depth that can be used for 2 to 3-l/2 inch diameter holes without significant deviation of alignment. i n m o r e s o l i d homogeneous formations It is preferable to have decoupled charges and to only place stemming in the top 2 or 3 ft. and less risk is Involved as compared to shooting the full length of the neat excavation line before progressing with the primary blasts. shooting far in advance of primary excavation can be troublesome if the rock characteristics change and the load causes excessive shatter in the weaker areas. i n t h e u p p e r p o r t i o n o f t h e hole should be reduced by 50 percent to minimize overbreak at the crest ot the finished wall. 50 ft. For example. T h e s t a g g e r i n g o f c h a r g e s in adjacent holes is also recommended for pre-shearing to give better overall load distribution. By carrying the pre-shear only one-half shot in advance of the primary blasting (see Figure 11. Generally. i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o increase the charge in the first few feet of hole to about Iwo or three times that used in the upper portion. The main advantage of pre-shearing is that it is not necessary to return to blast the remaining portion of the cut after primary excavation. T h e o r e t i c a l l y . the loads can be modified it necessary. l i k e c u s h i o n b l a s t i n g . consequent1 y.14).s h e a r s h o t i s u n l I m i t e d . The depth that can be pre-sheared at one time is agaln dependent upon the abi I ify to maintain good hole alignment.11. Guide holes to promote shear along the deslred plane are as advantageous i n prbshearlng a s t h e y a r e I n c u s h i o n b l a s t i n g . t h e e x p l o s l v e loads/ft. Th 1 s promotes shearlng at the bottom where it is more difficult to break the rock. . However.

Recommended drilling pattern for pro-shearing.5 04 . 4 Pre-sheared from previous shot .’.. Advance pre-shear .- 4 2.:.f .:.11.*. . l .y ’.:.:‘y . : 0 .2 . * 1.E x c a v a t e d Figure 11.... 1 8.\ .12: Arear : 0 : i : : : : Norma I length of primary blast..:. s. ( 1 + Itaneous . . .26 Advance pm-shear .* a7 2 3 6 Detonating cord ine LPre-sheared from p r e v i o u s s h o t Excavated Area Figure 11.13: Delay sequence for pro-shearing during primary blast.

Hole Diameter I riches l-1/2 t o l-3/4 2 to 2-l/2 3 to 3-l /2 4 l Spacing* ft. vibrations from the primary blast in the surrounding rock. Description Prbshear holes are loaded similarly to cushion blast holes. l .l /2 l-1/2 t o 2 l-1/2 t o 3 2 to 4 Explosive Charge** Ib/ft.25 0. spaced at 1 to 2 ft.25 0. l .25 The theory of pre-shearing Is that when Iwo charges are shot simultaneously in adjoining holes. In extremely unconsolidated rock. holes are usually fired simultaneously using a detonating cord trunkline. This results In a smooth wall with little or no overbreak.08 0.. the loads and spacings given in Table VIII can only be used as a guide. extremely unconsolidated formation. minimlzlng shattering and However. Figures given are an average as provided by Du Pont of Canada (1964). results are improved by using guide or relief holes between loaded holes to promote Even in harder formations. TABLE -VIIIPRE-SHEAR BLASTING . 0. the fractured zone between the holes wi I I be a narrow sheared area to which the subsequent primary blasts can break.11. centers. poor results were obtained until the load was reduced to a column of 400 grain detonating There is also a cord In holes drilled on 12 inch centers. e i t h e r h e a v y c o r e load detonating cord or string l o a d s o f f u l l o r p a r t i a l c a r t r i d g e s o f 1 t o l-l/2 i n c h diameter by 8 inches long. * Ideally. Like cushion blasting. shear along the desired plane. guide holes between loaded holes give better results than increasing the explosive charge per hole. portions can be delayed with MS Delays. dynamite cartridge diameter should be no longer than l/2 the diameter of the hole. The average spacings and charges per foot of hole are given in Table VI I I. collision of the shock waves between holes places the web in tension and causes cracking that gives a sheared zone between the holes. Therefore.08 0. t h a t i s . These loads are for normal rock conditions and can be obtained using partial or whole conventional cartrldges In an of dynamite spaced on detonating cord downlines..13 0.25 0. case on record where it was necessary to reduce the column load to 2 strands of 50 grain detonatlng cord in order to prevent excessive shatter Into a very unconsolidated flnished w a l l . With proper spacing and charge. The pre-sheared pl ane ref lects some of the shock waves from the primary blasts that follow preventing them from being transmitted into the finished wall. If excessively long lines are shot.50 0.75 Dependent upon formation being shot. the pre-sheared plane does not reduce overbreak.

A l s o . complete stemming between and around individual c h a r g e s i s reconunended. Advantages and Limitations Cushion blasting offers certain advantages including: . If the formation is weak. . the guide holes need be dr i I I ed only to that depth and not to the fu I I depth of the cushion holes. .Better hole alignment with large diameter holes permits deeper holes. shearing differs from line drilling and cushion blasting in that the holes are fired before any adjoining main excavation area is blasted. T h e h o l e s a r e u s u a l l y t h e s a m e d i a m e t e r (2 t o 4 i n c h e s ) a s t h e Prem a i n b l a s t h o l e s .Not practical for cutting 90 degree corners without a l s o u s i n g L i n e Drilling o r Pte-shearing. o f t h e h o l e a n d not between charges.Better results in unconsolidated formations. This procedure is common on the first I ift or bench.11 improves powder distribution and gives better results. a n d i n m o s t c a s e s a I I a r e I oaded. Satisfactory results have been obtained in homogeneous f o r m a t i o n s b y stemming o n l y t h e t o p 2 o r 3 f t .Results can be observed on first shot. the air between the c h a r g e s a n d t h e borehole w a l 1 s e r v e s a s t h e p r o t e c t i v e “cushion. highly fractured. There are situations where cushion blasting should not be Among these are: considered.Increased hole spacings to reduce drilling costs. thus requiring several load adjustments for different holes. t h o u g h n o t g e n e r a l l y p r a c t i c e d in the field. which permits adjustment ot loads if necessary before proceeding. weakness b a c k i n t o t h e f i n i s h e d wal I a n d p r o d u c e o v e r b r e a k . In this case. since backbreak is more probable there than on lower benches. staggering of discrete charges between holes as shown in Figure 11. or contains faults.k When stemming is not used between charges.Pcssible t o take tul I advantage of geological information gained from shooting the main cuts when loading cushion holes -less guesswork.24 Where only the top of the formation is weathered. . the gases formed by the explosion can find any weak zone in the formation and tend to vent before the desired shear between Similarly. .11. the gases may find areas of holes is obtained. . sometimes referred toss pre-splitting. .Sometimes overbreak from primary blasts completely or partially removes berm to be cushion blasted. . PRE-SHEAR BLAST I NG Basic Principles Pre-shearing. involves a s i n g l e r o w o f h o l e s d r i l l e d a l o n g t h e n e a t e x c a v a t i o n line.

Stemming not required unless rock is weak or highly fractured.E x c a v a t e d A.LExcavated A r e a Figure 11. -.ea .. . II F i g u r e 11.23 Cushion Line drilled holes Cushion holes . ~ .11: Staggered spacing of discrete charges for optimum powder distribution...10: Cushion blasting non-linear faces.11. .-. . .--.

COntrOlled blasting techniques will give hotter results than cushion blasting alone (see Figure 11. The maximum depth that can be successfully cushion blasted depends on the accuracy of the hole alignment. 0 . 3 4 5 6 7 Burden* ft. General ly. When cushion blasting around curved areas cr corners.25 to 0. The penetration rates of the drill should also be considered when detorminlng the depth to be cushion blasted.00 1. 4 5 6 7 9 Explosive Charge** I b/ft. 0 8 t o 0. unloaded guide holes between cushion holes are recunmended. TABLE VI. Holes90 ft.4 l/2 5 .5 l/2 6 . In very unconsolidated sedimentary formatlons where It is difficult to hold a smooth wall. dynamite cartridge diameter should be no larger than l/2 the dlamater of the hole.75 0. a minimum 1 ft. It may be more econanical to bench In order to keep penetration rates and drilling costs at acceptable levels.75 to 1.11.22 spacing must always be less than the width of the berm belng removed as indicated In Table VII. Deviations of more than 6 inches from the plane of the holes generally gives poor results. a combination o f nonlinear faces. offset per bench Is u s u a l l y l e f t s i n c e i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o p o s i t i o n t h e drll I flush to the wall of the upper bench. deep have been successfully cushion blasted. * Ideally.6 l/2 l Spacl ng* ft.10).2 l/2 3. When bench1 ng is used. closer spacings are required than when blasting a straight section. Figures given are an average as by Du Pant of Canada (1964).13 to 0.50 0.00 to 1. smal I diameter guide holes are employed to reduce drilling costs. . l C u s h i o n b l a s t i n g c a n b e p r a c t i c e d b y benching o r b y predri I ling the cushion holes to ful I depth of the excavation.50 Dependent upon formation being shot. If.1 TYPICAL LOADS AND ROLE PATTERNS Role Diameter I riches 2. guide holes can be used to advantage when blasting O n 9 0 degree c o r n e r s .3 l/2 4 . the penetration beyond a given depth becomes excessively slow.2s 0. With larger diameter holes better hole alignment can be maintained for greater depths. Also. for example.

.9: Alternative charge placements for cushion blasting.11.F i n i s h e d W a l I 2 t o 3 t i m e s charge/ft. in bottom to insure shear at floor Figure 11.21 Detonating cord (heavy core load) D e t o n a t i n g c o r d downline Collar Stemming g a p ij preferablebetween charge and blasthole wail unless rock is weak or highly fractured in which case stemming should fill entire hole. Finished wall .

with the formation being shot. The burden-t-spacing relationship will vary with different formations but. that is an ai r-gap shou Id be present between the charge and the wal I of the blasthole. smooth wall o r s l a s h i n g . For maximum “cushioning. The stemming or air-gap “cushions” the shock from the finished wall as the berm Is blasted thus minimizing fracturing and stressing of the finished wall. The burden and spacing will vary with the hole diameter being used. a bottom charge 2 to 3 times that used In the upper portion of the hole is generally employed. detonating core trunk1 lnes are normally employed. Note that the numbers shown are an average range because of variations experienced with the type of formation being shot. W h e r e noise a n d v i b r a t i o n c o n t r o l a r e critical. this‘technlque is also u s e d w i t h s m a l l e r d i a m e t e r h o l e s o f 2 t o 3-l/2 i n c h e s .20 CUSHION PUSTIm. they can be taped to the detonating cord at a spacing of 1 to 2 ft. the main cut area is removed.11. well-distributed charges and flred after the main excavation is removed. Obviously. If cartridges are used. the larger the hole diameter the more “cushioning” effect realized. Smet1meS referred to as trimming. i s s i m i l a r t o l i n e d r i l l i n g i n t h a t i t Involves a single row of holes along the neat excavation I ine. Although cushion blasting as orlqinslly practiced involved holes of 4 to 6-l/2 Inches diameter. Table VII provides a guide for patterns and loads for d i f f e r e n t h o l e diameters. Description In cushion blasting. Cushion blast holes are loaded with light. leaving a minlmum buffer or berm zone in front of the neat excavation I Inc. to obtain maxlmum shearing between holes. The cushion holes can be drilled prior to the primary blasting in that area.” the charges should be decoupled. shear I ng at the bottom of the hole. good results can be obtained with millisecond (MS) delay caps. Basic Prlnclples Cushion Blasting. By firing the cushion holes wlth minimum delay between holes. T h e t o p 2 oc 5 f t . the . Minimum delay between cushion holes gives best shearing action frun hole to hole. 9 ) . the detonation tends to shear the rock web between holes giving a smooth wall with minimum overbreak. therefore. o f t h e h o l e I s c o m p l e t e l y steenned The length of top stemming required varies and not loaded. Alternative blasting agents for cushion blasting include heavy core load detonating cord extended the full hole depth or dynamite cartr i dges fful I o r p a r t i a l ) spaced a l o n g a To promote d e t o n a t i n g c o r d downline ( s e e F i g u r e 1 1 .

‘.:I holes ‘. ..11. g Excavated ‘. i -0 N o r m a l l y loaded1 primary holes Ine d r i l l e d h o l e s 50% l o a d ofprlmary holes F i g u r e 11. .8: or T y p i c a l p a t t e r n a n d p r o c e d u r e fl l i n e d r i l l i n g ( p l a n view). :. . . .19 N e a t e x c a v a t i o n 1 ines I P r e v i o u s l y 4 1:: . . :.I :‘. :.‘..

reduced spacing and burden are used on the row next to the excavation I ine .8 s h o w s a t y p i c a l p a t t e r n a n d p r o c e d u r e f o r l i n e drliiing In open work. Because line dril Iing requires a large number of holes on rather close spacings.11. however.8. results with line drilling can usually be improved by I lght ioadlng sc~ of the line dri Ii holes. is not practical in mst excavation wcrk. al low Ing the rock to wove forward thus creating less back pressures which could cause overbreak beyond the Ilne drlillng. Advantages and Llmitations Line drl iiing Is applicable in areas where even the I ight explosive loads associated with other controlled blasting technlques may cause damage beyond the excavation limit. These modifications of line drll Iing al I promoted addltionai weakness along the neat excavation I ine by using explosive force to shear the rock between the holes. T h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f l i m i t a t i o n s o f Ilne d r i l l i n g which m u s t be recognized: . The last two rows of holes are then si ebbed away from the line drl I I holes using delay caps or wPrimacordw connectors.Line drilling Is rather unpredictable except in the most homgeneous formations. dri II ing costs are high. Also. Best results se obtained when the primary excavation is removed to within 1 to 3 rows of the neat excavation line. Best results with I ine drl I ilng are obtained in homogeneous f o r m a t i o n s w h e r e beddlng p l a n e s .18 the normal burden. When used rlth other controlled blasting techniques. Due to the close spacings required. As lndlcated in Figure 11. This procedure led to the devoiopment of Cushion Blasting. it was found that line drilling results could be improved in some formations by I ight loading and firing the line dri 1 I holes in advance of the primary blast. This procedure gives maximum relief In front of t h e flnished w a l l . and this led to the introduction of the technique known as Pre-Shearing or Pre-Splitting. th I n-bedded sedimentary and more unconsoildaed metamorphic formations are not well suited to line drilling for overbreak control unless dri ii Ing can be done perpendicular to the strike of the formation. j o i n t s a n d s e a m s a r e a t a minimum. The explosives should be well distributed in the hole using decks and Primacord downlines. Therefore. dri I I ing becomes tedious and results are often unsatisfactory due to poor hole alignment. T h e s e irregularities a r e n a t u r a l p l a n e s o f weakness that tend to promote shear through the I ine dr i I led hoi es into the finished wail. line drill ing between the loaded holes promotes shearlng to improve resuits. F i g u r e 1 1 . A consnon practice is to reduce the spec ings of the adjacent blast holes the same aount with a 50 percent reduction in explosive load. This. In thin-bedded sedimentary md unconsolidated metamorphic formations. .

Sweden. Photographr e p r o d u c e d w i t h p e r m i s s i o n o f Atlas Copco.7: Examples of controlled blasting.s p l i t blasting. . Figure 11.11. i n s p i t e o f t h e v a r iability o f t h e r o c k t h r o u g h w h i c h these holes have been drilled.17 A n 18m h i g h r o c k f a c e c r e a t e d b y p r e . Slopes excavated after pre-splitting the final faces on a site for a hydro-electric project in Austria. Sweden. Note the clean fracture running between pa ralltl h o l e s i n t h e f a c e . Photograph reproduced with permission of Atlas Copco.

16 e) Delays should be used to control the maximum Instsntaneous charge to ensure that rock breakage does not occur In the rock mass which Is supposed to remain I n t a c t (see Figure 1 1 . Examplesof controlled blasting are s h o w n I n F l g u r e 11. and their advantages and dl sadvantages. small-diameter holes along the neat excavation Ilne. A general conwnent on the design of control led blasts Is that It Is often necessary to carry out a number of trial blasts at the start of a project to determlne the optimum hole layout and exploslve charge. The blast holes directly adJacent to the line drl I I holes are generally loaded lighter and are ewe closely spaced than the other holes. Holes larger than 3 Inches are seldom used In l i n e drllllng since t h e h l g h e r d r l l l l n g c o s t s c a n n o t b e o f f s e t by Increased spacings. The prlnclple behlnd all these methods Is t h a t c l o s e l y s p a c e d h o l e s a r e l o a d e d rlth a relatively light c h a r g e s o t h a t this c h a r g e I s w e l l dlstrlbuted o n t h e f l n a l face. The folloulng Is a dlscusslon on varlous mathods of controlled blasting. tends to shear the rock between the holes whl le dolng llttle damage to the suroundlng rock. 1 6 ) . Dercrlptlon L l n e drill h o l e s a r e g e n e r a l l y 2 t o 3 I n c h e s I n diameter a n d are spaced from 2 to 4 t lmes the hole diameter apart along the excavation Ilne. T h l s r e q u l r e s flexlblllty o n t h e p a r t o f t h e contractor and the speclflcatlons. The depth of line drl II holes Is dependent upon how accurately the alignment of the holes can be malntalned. Back row holes should be drilled at an optimum dlstance f r o m t h e f l n a l digline t o p e r m i t f r e e digging and yet mlnlmlze damage to the wall. the use of controlled blasting methods Is often economlcally J u s t l f l e d . The distance between the line drl II holes and the d i r e c t l y adJacent b l a s t h o l e s I s u s u a l l y 5 0 t o 7 5 p e r c e n t o f . Line Drllllng Llne Drllllng requires a single row of closely spaced. The detonation of these holes. which I s t a k e n f r o m a publlcatlon b y d u Pontf273). any wander or QI ft by attempting t o drill t o o d e e p will h a v e a n a d v e r s e e f f e c t o n r e s u l t s .7. It is also advisable to have the program under the direct Ion of an engineer exper Ienced In control led blasting. Experience can be used to adJust the back row posltlons and charges to achieve this result. f) Controlled Blasting On permanent slopes where even smal I slope fal I ures are not actceptable. d e p t h s g r e a t e r than 30 ft. often on a single delay. F o r h o l e s o f 2 t o 3 I n c h e s diameter. Thls provldes a plane of weakness to which the prlmary blast can It also causes some of the shock waves created by the break. For good results. b I ast to be ref lected uh lch reduces shatter I ng and stresslng of t h e flnlshed w a l l . the holes must be on the same plane. unloaded. are seldom satisfactory.11.

d) Adequate delays shou Id be used to ensure good fmovement towards free faces and the creation of new free faces for followlng rows. D o c u m e n t t h e r e s u l t s a s f o r s t e p s (b) t o b) cl d) e) f) 9) h) C a r r y o u t a cost-benefit study. a n d cushion blasting. c) T h e maln c h a r g e a n d b l a s t h o l e p a t t e r n s h o u l d b e optlmlzed t o give t h e b e s t possible f r a g n e n t a t l o n a n d dlgglng conditions for the minimum powder factor.15 Similar test sequences could be carried for each of the other factors which are relevant In a particular sltuatlon.11. Document rate and condltlons of digging. Document drllllng a n d b l a s t l n g c o s t s . It foll o w s t h a t a n y r e d u c t i o n I n explosive consumption will l e a d t o a S l o p e lnstablllty is o f t e n reduction in damage to the rock.F o r a b l a s t w i t h t h e explosive c u r r e n t l y In use. E v a l u a t i o n . b) The front row charge shou I d be adequately des 1 gned to move the front row burden. pre-split. Document fragnentat ion based upon the rat lo of oversl zed msterlal requlrlng s e c o n d a r y b l a s t l n g t o t h e t o t a l b l a s t tonnage. . Weight s t r e n g t h d a t a s h o u l d b e o b t a l n e d f r o m t h e explosives m a n u f a c t u r e r I f t h e s e a r e n o t a l r e a d y avallable. r e l a t e d t o b l a s t d a m a g e t o t h e r o c k which c a n b e m i n i m i z e d b y optlmlzatlon o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n b l a s t a s w e l l a s u s i n g c o n t r o l led blasting methods such as line drilling. The followlng condltlons should be satisfied if the production blast is to be optlmlzed and damage to the rock behind the face mlnlmlzed. R e p e a t t h e experiment t o determlne its valldlty. buffer. document the behavior of the blast during lnltlation and the condltlon of the resulting muck pl le. Experlmentatlon . a) Ratlonallzatlon . I I CONTROLLED BLASTING TO IM’ROVE STABILITY Based upon the assumption that the damage caused by a blast Increases In proportion to the weight of explosive used. a) C h o k e b l a s t i n g I n t o excessive b u r d e n o r b r o k e n m u c k piles should be avolded.D o c u m e n t p r e s e n t p o w d e r f a c t o r s o n a n equivalent e n e r g y basis u s i n g t h e w e i g h t o f t h e explosive In current use. Evaluatlon (e).Select a similar area of ground and c a r r y o u t a b l a s t with a higher p o w d e r f a c t o r w h i c h is obtalned by using a hlgher energy explosive.

14 Figure 11. .6 : Features of a satisfactory production blast.11.

loader wear and tear should be noted since this may reflect difficult digging conditions. The quality of a blast has a significant effect on components of the rock excavation cost such as secondary dri I I ing and blasting of oversize boulders. tight areas and low muck p i les (caused by excessive throw) have the most significant detriment a l e f f e c t o n t h e d i g g i n g r a t e a n d d i g g i n g c o n d i t i o n s .6. The main features of a satisfactory blast are illustrated in Figure 11. An attempt to correct this problem by additional subdrilling rather than by correcting the front row charge can lead to excessive sub-break which can give rise to blast hole instability and also to poor bench crest conditions if a deeper bench is to be removed. the condition of the haul roads. Excessive f i n a l digline r e p r e s e n t s d a m a g e t o t h e powder. the engineer may have to embark on a series o f t r i a l s i n o r d e r t o a r r i v e a t a n o p t i m u m d e s i g n . whenever possible. Flat or wrinkled areas are indicative of misfires or poor delaying. digging rate. careful documentation of each blast is essential and.13 Evaluation of a blast Once the dust has settled and the fumes have dispersed after a blast. Modification of Blasting Methods When it i s e v i d e n t t h a t u n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s a r e b e i n g o b tained from a particular blasting method and that the method should be modified. . represent low loader productivity. O v e r s i z e d f r a g m e n t s . The heights of most benches are designed for efficient loader operation.11. be an occasional occurrence. at worst. As with any trials. An attempt should be made to measure d igging rate b y n o t i n g t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o f i l l trucks o r b y c o m p a r i n g a v erage daily production rates. due to excessive front row movement. Tension cracks front of the final digl ines. The main charge should have lifted evenly and cratering should. o n l y o n e v a r i a b l e a t a t i m e s h o u l d b e changed. Uneven haul roads lead to suspension wear on the trucks and also spillage which can give rise to high tire wear. The following sequence of test work is an illustration of the type of experiment which would be carried out to evaluate the cost effectiveness of using a higher energy explosive. Poor fragmentation of the toe due to an excessive toe burden can lead to poor digging and uneven haul road condition. low muck piles. Similarly. careful evaluation of the blast to determine how improvements could be made to the design are usually worthwhile. an inspection of the area should be carried out. indimovement of the free face. The front row should have moved out evenly but not too far. Excessive throw is unnecessary and very expensive to clean up. The back of the blast cating a good forward should be visible in cracking behind the slopes and wastage of should be characterized by a drop. Therefore. A study of loader performance and of complaints from loader operators helps to maintain an awareness of these problems among blasting personnel. h a r d t o e s . and loader and truck maintenance.

5 I IT-5 1 I 1 . Specific c h a r g e (q) .2 - .Ib1yd.) 0. *Poor fragmantation 1 I 1 I I 6 8 to 12 14 Seismic velocity . o- .ft/sec x 1 0 0 0 Figure 11.4 : Correlation between in situ seismic velocity and required powder factor .12 .5 S p e c i f i c c h a r g e (q) .6ft. After Broadbent2’l.'I 2 4 *Good or ezceseive I fmgmfsntotion .o I '1 1 I 1.5: Relationship between boulder size L.kg/m3 F‘igure 1 I .6 .9 (1. burden B in bench blasting.4 .5 I 1 1 13 16 413 110 '. III ICI \ ! I I 0.j 0 t 4 I 3 . WCC ific charge q and .$ ' .11.B-0.

For example. Blast Design Nlne factors which influence the effectiveness of a blast have been discussed on the preceding pages. because these two factors are directly related. when the face changes d I rect ion.4) and this may be useful Information in hlghway construction when selsmlc studies have been carried out to determlne overburden thickness. Other equations.g. Blast design charts are Included In Chapter 2 of Langefors and Klhlstrom’s book. This s u b j e c t w i l l b e d l s c u s s e d m o r e f u l l y I n a later section of this chapter.11 grounds to support this suggestion and the optlmum blasting direction is usually established by carefully controlled trlals. e. The bench height should not exceed the vertical reach of the load Ing equlpment by more than about 5 ft. 3 (Iv). is usually based on the blasters’ experience. The unbroken I lnes represents the powder factor to just loosen the rock. When free faces are not available. A typlcal firing sequence for a choked blast situation I s I l l u s t r a t e d I n Figure 1 1 . f o r examp le. Thls chart may be useful In deslgnlng a b l a s t t o p r o d u c e r o c k o f a c e r t a i n size f o r r l p r a p . The use of de I ays In a blast Is one of the most power f u I ueapons in the fight against excessive blast damage and slope Instab1 I ity. However. The importance of blastlng to a free face has already been stressed and it Is equally important to plan the blast so that suitable free faces are created for the next blast .5 which relates the powder factor (q) to the burden and the boulder size (sieve size through which 95 percent of the blast w i l l p a s s ) . there Is a danger that the blast may become choked and It may be necessary to use delays in order to work In such a sltuat l o n . Broadbent relates the powder factor to the sel smlc veloclty of the rock (Figure 11. Usually the hole dlameter is decided by the size of aval lable drllls and the bench helght by the dimensions of the cut.g. T h e s e l e c t i o n of an appropriate powder factor and dr I 1 I hole pattern. An alternatlve approach is to use theoretlcal equations which have been developed. since It b e c o m e s d i f f i c u l t t o c o n t r o l hole devlatlon at depths greater than this.s or kg/ma. Ib/yd. e. by Langefors and KIhlstrom(257) and others. T h i s g i v e s t h e o p e r a t o r p r o t e c t i o n from sudden col I apses of the face. . I n o r d e r t o design a blast It Is necessary to select values for al 1 these parameters and determine the cptlmum explosive load. These equations take Into account all parameters governing blast design and could serve as a starting polnt In blast design. using a d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h h a v e b e e n developed by Bauer(272). thl s exper ienco has been used to draw up some guldellnes to determine powder factors. It Is also necessary to relate the powder factor to the type of explos I ve used because the amount of energy for a g I ven wel ght of exp los Ive v a r l e s with t h e e x p l o s i v e t y p e (see T a b l e V I ) .11. and extensively tested In the field. The basic parameter for measuring explosive charge Is the wpowder factor” which is the weight of explosive requlred to break a unlt volume of rock. The bench height should n o t e x c e e d 2 0 t o 3 0 f t . One of these design charts Is shown In Flgure 11.

10 i) Normal row by row delaying ‘Vce’ cut and en echelon delaying Along row delaying iv) delaying a choked blast symbole : 3 Firing sequence and L Initiating line direction of rock mmavnent Note .11.safety lines are cmitted for ckzrity. .3 : Typical firing sequences. + 35 milliseoond delay + 17 mittisocond delay Figure II.

overcome this sltuatlon. Normal row by row delaylng is the slmplest and general ly the most satisfactory flrlng sequence. Other firing sequences are I l l u s t r a t e d In F i g u r e 1 1 . Safety lines are used In large patterns to ensure complete detonation and reduce the t-l sk of cut-offs. with a burden of 10 ft. T h l s c a n p r o d u c e i n c o r r e c t If thls sequencing of blast holes and poor blasting results. When the front row Is detonated and moves away from the rock mass to create a new free face.6. Is controlled by the use of delays as dlscussed In the next se&Ion. T h e r e d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o b e v e r y s t r o n g theoret ical . The firing cr lnitlating line will normally be connected to the middle of the front row trunk Ilne. of burden are used. d e l a y i n t e r v a l s o f 1 t o A typical blast 2 mll I lseconds per ft. The rows are normally parallel to the free face but. 5 . the blast Is broken down into a number of sequential detonations by means of delays. Simultaneous detonation of this quantity of exploslve would not only produce very poorly fragmented rock. problem is suspected the performance of the detonator shou Id be checked with the manufacturer. delays between rows. The number of rows should not exceed 4 to 6 as choking occurs with deeper blasts and vertical craters may be formed above the back rows which do not have sufflclent room to nrove laterally. as shown in the margln sketch on page 11. This type of firing sequence can be useful when blasting In strongly jointed rock where near vertical joints strike across the bench at an angle to the face. This Involves laying out detonatlng cord along the “rows*’ to form trunk I lnes which are then t led to the downIlne of each charge. T h e blastlng s e q u e n c e . but would also damage the rock in the walls of the excavation and In order to create large vibrations In any nearby structures. would have about 15 msec. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t l m e should be allowed for thls new face to be establ lshed before the next row Is detonated. T y p i c a l l y .11. (9) Delays Betwwn Succrsslve Hole or Row Flrlng A typical blast for a highway cut may contain as many as 100 blast holes which In total contain several thousand pounds of explosives. An alternative Is to use an echelon delaying and to initiate t h e firing s e q u e n c e w l t h a vee c u t t o c r e a t e t h e f l r s t f r e e face. may be I n c l i n e d t o I t . Delay patterns can become quite complex and should be planned and checked carefully. a f t e r t h e lnltlatlon of the first row. (8) lnltlatlon Sequence for Detonatlon of Explosives Havlng drllled and charged a blast It Is then necessary to tleup the pattern. Some blasting engineers suggest that the row line should bisect the angle between the strike of the jolnts and the face or the strike of two joint sets. Recent research(270) has shown that there can be considerable e r r o r I n t h e tlmlng o f d e l a y s . A perimeter o r wrlngw l Ine I s t h e n t l e d a r o u n d t h e p a t t e r n t o provlde a further safeguard.9 locating a smsl I “pocket” c h a r g e c e n t r a l l y w i t h i n t h e stemmlng(269).

8 should exercise caution In applying this pattern since Its success depends upon rock of good qua1 ity.2 to 0. the breakage cones interact and link up to glve a reasonably even transltlon from broken to undamaged rock. Too Ilttle stemnlng will al low the explosion gases to vent and wll I generate flyrock and alr blast problems as well as reducing the effectiveness of the b l a s t . Too much stenwnlng will glve poor fragmentation of the rock above the top load.11. acceptably large blocks are obtained from the top of the bench. In fact. breakage of the rock usually projects from the base of the bottom load In the form of a n I n v e r t e d c o n e with sides l n c l lned a t I5 d e g r e e s t o 2 5 d e grees to the horizontal. greater displacement and reduced back-break problems(269). the remainder of the blast. The optimum stemming length depends upon the propertles of the If unrock and can vary between 0. Is necessary in order to break the rock on the f loor of the cut.67 and 2 times the burden.3 times the distance between adJacent blast holes Is usually adequate to ensure effective dlgglng to grade. a constant front row burden Is achIn order to maintain a constant burden with depth for i eved . Some blastlng engineers would argue that the use of blast holes dr I I I ed at between 10 degrees and 30 d e g r e e s t o t h e vertical will g l v e b e t t e r fragmentatlon(268). Joints running across a line of holes In a row could al low explosive gases to vent and reduce the effectiveness of the blast. As II lustrated In the margin sketch. fr agnentat Ion can be Improved by . the front row burden varies with depth If vertical blast holes are used and the bench faces are lncl lned. \ Sub-drill depth Rock breakage at the bottom of a blaethcte (6) B l a s t H o l e I n c l i n a t i o n As polnted out in the discussion on burden. (5) Subdrlll Depth Subdrl II Ing cr drl II lng to a depth below the required grade. In multi-row blasting. by dr I I I Ing the blast holes parallel to the bench face. (7) Stermnlng The use of stemnlng conslstlng of drl I I cuttings Is a generally accepted procedure for dlrectlng explosive effort Into the rock mass. P o o r fragmentation a t t h i s l e v e l wll I f o r m a series o f h a r d “toes” which can lead to expenslve loader operation due to dlfflcult dlgglng condltlons and breakdowns. depending upon the strength and structure of the rock. even when the minimum stemning column consistent with flyrock and alrblast problems Is used. The same arguments as were used in the dlscusslon on burden apply in the case of stenrnlng. t h e r e I s g o o d justiflcatlon f o r reducing o r e v e n ellmlnstlng subdrllllng i n t h e f r o n t a n d b a c k r o w s I f b e n c h stab1 Ilty Is critical. Gccesslve fragmentat ion probably means that the rock behlnd the face and below the grade Is damaged and thls means a reduction In stability. It is particularly important that subdrlll depths should not be exceeded In the front and back rows otherwl se unstable crest and toe condltlons can be created in the new bench. l n c l l n e d b l a s t h o l e s a r e o b v i o u s l y advantageous for the front row and. Experience has shown that a subdrlll depth of 0. It follows that al I the blast holes should be lncllned.

7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a) Square pattern B u r d e n / s p a c i n g r a t i o 1:l 000000 0000000 B u r d e n / s p a c i n g r a t i o 1:1.11. . Figure 11. 0 0 0 TOT 0 0 0 0 c) Swedish pattern B u r d e n / s p a c i n g r a t i o 1:4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 EoOdO O d) U s e o f e a s e r h o l e s (E) t o m o v e f r o n t row burden.2 : Various blasthole patterns used in open pit production blasting.15 b) S t a g g e r e d p a t t e r n 0 0 0 .

11. 6 or even 8. The ef fectlve burden 06 and the ef fectlve spacing Se depend not only upon the blast hole pattern but al so upon the sequence of f Irlng. m e n t i o n e d I n t h e p a p e r b y Persson(267) shows that Improved fragmentatlon may be obtalned by Increasing the spacing to burden ratio to as much as 4. the front row burden WI I I not be constant but WI I I vary with depth as Illustrated In the margin sketch. A s I l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e m a r g i n s k e t c h .Cota . Experience suggests that an effective spacing of 1. the blast hole can be inclined to glve a more uniform burden as WI I I be dlscussed later in ths section. a new free face Is c r e a t e d f o r t h e n e x t r o w a n d s o o n u n t l I t h e l a s t r o w is f Ired. (4) Effective Spacing Face t rock movement Effective burden and spacing for a square bkzeting pattern Direction of of rock movement Effective burden und spacing for an en echeton b&sting pattern When cracks are opened parallel to the free face as a result of the reflected tens1 le strain wave. However. h o l e I s r e l n f o r c e d b y h o l e s o n e i t h e r side a t a n e f f e c t i v e spacing 58. the total force act Ing on the str I p of burden rnaterlal will be evened out and uniform fragnentatlon of this rock WI I I result.2c. Alternatively. One of the trost Important questlons to be consldered in deslgnIng a blast Is the choice of the front row burden. t h e l a t e r a l e x t e n t t o which th Is gas can penetrate Is llmlted b y t h e size o f t h e c r a c k a n d t h e v o l u m e o f g a s aval lable a n d a s t a g e wll I be reached when the force generated Is no longer large enough to If the effect of a single blast fragment and move the rock. a s q u a r e b l a s t hole pattern which is fired row by row’ from the face glves an effective burden equal to the spacing between successive rous p a r a l l e l t o t h e f a c e . Al lowance can be made for this variation by using a higher energy bottom load In the front row of holes. work by Lundborg o f Nltro N o b e l i n S w e d e n . Experience has shown that the explosive charge Is most efficient when the burden is equal to approximately 40 tlmes the hole diameter. The reader Avemge front rou buden = X + W .6 Too small a burden will allow the radial cracks to extend to the free face end this will give rise to venting of the explosion gases with a consequent loss of efficiency and the generation of flyrock and air blast problems.i!d). O n c e t h l s r o w has been detonated and effectively broken.25 times the effective burden gives good results. Since the effectiveness of the fragmentation process depends upon t h e creation o f a f r e e f a c e f r o m which a tenslle strain wave can be generated and to which the burden rock can move. t h e design o f t h e f r o n t r o w b l a s t I s c r l t l c a l . a n Identical p a t t e r n of blast holes can be fired en echelon resulting In completely different burdens and spacings as shown In the margln sketch. Too large a burden will choke the blast and wil I give rise to very poor frsgmentation and a general loss of efficiency. Thls flndlng has been Incorporated Into the “Swedish” b l a s t h o l e p a t t e r n I I l u s t r a t e d I n F l g u r e I I . When the free face Is uneven. I f vertical blast holes ere used and the bench face Is inclined as a result of the digging angle of the loader in clearing the previous blast. the use of easer holes to reduce the burden to acceptable limits Is advlsa b l e ( s e e Figure ll. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d . gas pressure enter lng these cracks exerts an outward force which fragments the rock and heaves I t o n t o t h e m u c k p i l e .X + +h. Obviously.

18.000 15. 1 No.15 1.700 to.49 1.000 .I.30 Water Resistance Excel lent Fslr Fair Fslr Viry Poor Good Falr Vdry Good Falr Good Good Fair Fair Good Good Exoloslve Atlas Power Primer A t l a s Povrerdyn A t l a s Gelodyn Hercules Hercomlx Hercules Gelamlte Grade .500 10.03 0.14.36 1.55 1.700 14.000 15.000 10.21 1. Dupont products now supplied by Explosives Technologies Internstlonal Inc. c .29 1. F o r c l t e Notes: I.3 0.80 .000 10.-No.95 1.95 1.000 10.200 .29 1.700 .000 10.4 1.L.0.40 1. 3.14. . lnformatlon on selected explosives obtained from nmnufacturer’s product information. w = weight strength as indicated by menutacturer.750 11.15.000 . 5 -1.12.11.700 11.14. 5-x D A 0 B 2000 5000 --- Strength’ 75%c 52$c 52%~ 35% 65%~ 671~ 62%~ 701W 70% 40% 752 SD-A SD --40% 60% Dupont3 Dynam 1 te DuPont Tovex C.200 17.800 14.700 Specif lc Grsvlty 1.15 1. 2.cartridge strength.000 10. 1-x 5.000 .000 .5 TABLE VI’ PROPERTIES OF EXPLOSIVES’ Vdloclty of Detonet I on ttt/secc) 17.

I . T a b l e V I l i s t s t h e v e l o c i t y of detonation. T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e h o l e volune per foot of hole increases with the square of hole size so that the same volune of explosive can be loaded into fewer holes. . The blast Is most efficient when the shock wave is reflected in tension from a free face so that the rock i s broken and d isplaced to form a well-fragmented muck pi le.4 dynamites are rated according to the percentage by weight of nitroglycerin they contain. The sensitivity of an explosive is a characteristic which determines the method by which a charge is detonated. T h i s e f f i c i e n c y depends to a large extent on having the correct burden. Highly sensitive explosives will detonate when used In smaller diameter charges and as the sensitivity of the explosive is decreased. This cost saving is offset by the greater shattering of the rock that is produced by the more highly concentrated explosive which can result in less stable slopes.11. Weight strengths are useful when comparing blast designs In which explosives of different strengths are used. (2) Blast Hole Diameter Blast hole diameter on highway construction work ranges from about l-1/2 inches for hand held-drills to 2-l/2 inches and 4 I riches for ‘Ia i r-trac I8 and wagon dri I Is. Explosive strength is also defined by weight and bulk strengths. A h i g h e r b u l k strength requires less blast hole capacity to contain a required charge. and also when canparing the cost of explosives because explosives are sold by weight. s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y a n d w a t e r r e s i s t a n c e o f s o m e camnon Dupont(261) a n d C . However. density and degree of confinement are also factors that should be considered in selecting an explosive for a specific purpose. T h e b u l k (or v o l u m e ) s t r e n g t h i s r e l a t e d t o the weight strength by the specific gravity. Persson(267) shows that the cost of dri I I ing and blasting decreases as the hole size increases. the strength. and this figure is I m p o r t a n t i n c a l c u l a t i n g t h e volune o f b l a s t h o l e r e q u i r e d t o contain a given amount of explosive energy. Al I these dri I Is are rotary percussive and are powered with compressed air. (3) E f f e c t i v e B u r d e n In order to understand the inf I uence of the effective burden (the distance between the row of holes under consideration and the nearest free face) It is necessary to understand the mechanism of rock fracture described earlier in the chapter. explosives(263). For example. the diameter of the charge must be increased. However. the higher the velocity the greater the shattering e f f e c t . the minimun diameter of the charge and the safety with which the explosive can be handled. One measure of the strength of an explosive is its velocity of detonation. 60 percent dynamite is not twice as strong as 30 percent dynamite. L . t h e r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s are not proportional to the relative amounts of nitroglycerin because this is not the only energy-producing ingredient in the formulation.

.3 Figure 11.1 : Definition of bench blasting terms.11.

drilling and blasting costs wl I I increase because moTe closely spaced and carefully loaded holes will be required.1 and are described -Fragmentat i o n Coarser Finer Effect of fragmentation on the cost of drilling.2 Crushed zone Radial cracks Within about one borehole radius. To prevent damage to rock behind the face. This condition Is at the minimum total cost point on the graph. From thls description. the rock breaks to form a pattern of radial cracks around the hole. The production of a well-fragmented and loosely Decked muck pile that has not been scattered sround the excavation area facilitates loading and hauling operations. distribution of explosive Blast hole dluneter Effective burden Effective spacing Subdri I I depth Blast hole incl inatlon Stem I ng lnltiation sequence for detonation of explosives Delays between successive hole or row firing. As the shock wave travels beyond the limit o f r o c k b r e a k a g e i n t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g r o c k . Each of the factors listed above will be considered in relation to its influence upon the effectiveness of the blast and its Influence upon the amount of damage inf I icted upon the remainIng rock. weight. When the shock wave reaches a free face. (1) Type. the rock is able to expand and slabs of rock break from the face.11. Structures through which these vibration waves pass WI 1 1 be subjected to a twisting and rocking motion which may be sufficlent to cause damage. This strength can be expressed In absolute units. It c a n b e s e e n t h a t e x p l o s i v e s wll l break rock at distances of between 10 and 20 hole diameters from the point of detonation. and methods of control l ing vlbrat ions. Because rock Is much weaker In tonslon that compresslon. loading and hauling. . the zone of crushed rock and radial cracking around the holes in the fina! row is control led by reducing the gcplosive charge in the holes. Productlon Blasting T h e b a s i c e c o n o m i c s o f r o c k e x c a v a t i o n using e x p l o s i v e s i s shown In the margin sketch which is taken from a paper by Harries and Mercer(2666). 1) Type. However. Weight end Distribution of Explosive The strength of an explosivr is a measure of the work done by a certain weight or volume of explosive. Factors 2 to 7 are introduced in Figul in the foiiowlng sections. or as a ratio relative to a standard T h u s n i t r o g l y c e r i n o r straight explosive such as dynamite. A l l o w a b l e l e v e l s o f vibration f o r d i f ferent structures. the tsngential stress becomes tensile. close to the final face. 11. are dlscussed l a t e r I n t h i s c h a p t e r . i t s e t s u p vibrations b o t h w i t h i n t h e r o c k a n d a t t h e g r o u n d s u r f a c e . the pressure exerted by the shock wave is suff lcient to shatter the rock and form a crushed zone around the hole. In order to achieve the optimum results under both condltlons. a thorough understanding of the following parameters is required: 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Slabs break away on face fiechani sm of rock fracture by explosive. The shock wave is also ret Iected from the face In tenslon and this aids in rock breakage. As the uave nmves outwards. blasting.

The fragmentation of rock by means of explosives is a major subject in its own right and the f u n d a m e n t a l s h a v e b e e n d e a l t w i t h i n a number o f e x c e l l e n t t e x t b o o k s (257-2601. while the principle duty of the owner’s representative is to ensure that the desired results are being produced. The third part of the chapter describes methods of control I ing structural damage due to blast vibrations and minimizing hazA glossary of blasting a r d s o f flyrock. b y u s i n g a b l a s t i n g m e t h o d that does the least possible damage to the rock behind the final face.11.1 Chapter 11 Blasting. The owner should also ensure that accurate records are kept of each blast so that the r e s u l t s obtalned c a n b e r e l a t e d t o t h e m e t h o d u s e d . It also relates to the damage to surrounding structures and disturbance to people I i ving in the vicinity. Th is pressure can exceed 100. . The first part of this chapter reviews the principles of production blasting and discusses methods of evaluating the results. the stability of slopes will be enhanced. If the explosive is confined in a drill hole.000 atmospheres. whether for production or control led blasting. it is converted in a few thousandths of a second from a solid into a high temperature gas. Rock excavation for highway construction often requires the f o r m a t i o n o f a s l o p e t h a t wil I b e s t a b l e f o r m a n y y e a r s . I PRINCIPLES OF BLASTING Mechanism of Rock Failure by Explosive The mechanism by which rock is fractured by explosives is fundamental to the design of blasting patterns. The second part of the chapter describes proven methods of minimizing blasting damage which are included in the g e n e r a l t e r m “control l e d b l a s t i n g ” . and excavation terms is included in the Appendix 5. shock wave that breaks rock by the mechanisms shown in the margin sketch. When an explosive is detonated. T h e r e c o r d s are also useful for cost control purposes. this very rapid reaction causes the gas to exert pressure in the rock immedia t e l y a r o u n d t h e h o l e . w h i l e m o s t o f t h e p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s h a v e b e e n described in handbooks published by manufacturers of drilling e q u i p m e n t a n d e x p l o s i v e s (261-264). and the energy is dissipated into the surrounding rock in the form of a shock wave that travels with a velocity of It is the passage of this several thousand feet per second. Detailed design of blasting operations are usually the responsibility of the contractor. and the maximum safe slope angle increased. W h i l e t h e s e t w o r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e c o n t r a dictory. This requires that the owner understands blasting methods so that he can review alternative procedures and propose modifications if necessary. T h e f o l l o w i n g i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s mechanism(265). Introduction T h e e x c a v a t i o n o f r o c k s l o p e s u s u a l ly i n v o l v e s b l a s t i n g a n d i t is appropriate that the subject receive attention in this manual on rock slope engineering. a n d that will also be as steep as possible to minimize excavation volune a n d l a n d u s e . airblast a n d n o i s e . The techniques are described in sane detail because they may not be standard practice for the contractor and the design engineer is often involved with writing the specifications and supervising the work.

Vol. ASHBY.14 Chapter 10 references 245. a n d d i s c o n t i n u o u s m e d i a . p a g e s 495-514. J. 1974.D Thesis.9 8 a n a l y s i s a n d stab1 I Izatlon. N o . M. D E FREITAS. 4. K i n e m a t i s c h e H o d e l l s t u d i e n zum Boschungsp r o b l e m i n regelmsssig gekliifteten Hedien. A S C E . Toppling of rock slopes. (1980). J a m e s C o o k University of North Queensland. 1971. 1 9 7 3 . New considerations of the Vajont slide.W.E and BRAY. Imperial College. 1974. BYRNE. J . 6 . 8 9 . 246. 1. 256. WYLLIE. H e t f 5 4 . L . 1974.Sc ?‘heSiS. B o u l d e r . Vo1. M. 1972. 1971. R. Spooiality Conference on Rock Engineering for Foundatias and Si?opes.Sc T h e s i s . A c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f s l o p e m o d e l l i n g t e c h n i q u e s f o r f r a c t u r e d g r o u n d . large scale movements in blocky rock systems. GOODMAN. e x a m p l e s o f R o c k M e c h a n i c s 13. J . J a m e s C o o k University of North Queensland. UHYTE. . 1976. Ph. 247. SOTO. France. L o n d o n University. Felsmechanik u n d engenieurgeologie. P a p e r 11-8. Ceotechnique. R. A computer model for simulating progresCUNDALL.D T h e s i s . Symposium on Rock Fracture. Proc. Imperial College. Proc. No. Inhl. p a g e s l-91. D.C. J . 1973. Physical and numerical models in rock a n d s o i l s l o p e s t a b i l i t y . sive.2. James Cook University of rock masses. A s t u d y o f t h e b e h a v i o u r o f d i s c o n t i n u o u s Pk. BURHAN.Sc Thesis. R . K a l s r u h e . 255. M. L o n d o n U n i v e r s i t y .H a n d WATTERS. S l i d i n g a n d t o p p l i n g m o d e s o f f a i l u r e i n m o d e l s a n d j o i n t e d r o c k s l o p e s .J. 1971. HOFMANN. S o m e f i e l d e x a m p l e s of toppling failure. 248. R . B . North Queensland.10. M. V o l . 1 9 6 8 . 249. 253. I m p e r i a l C o l l e g e . D . R . 254. C . L o n d o n U n i v e r s i t y . Some aspects of the mechanics of slope 2 5 1 . P. H . D Thesis. 252. P k . C o l o r a d o . C . VeMffent- lichungen d e 8 I n s t i t u t e s fir Bodemnechanik u n d Felsmechanik. Nancy. Australia. 23. A s t u d y o f p r o g r e s s i v e h a n g i n g w a l l c a v i n g at Chambishi copper mine in Zambia using the base f r i c t i o n m o d e l c o n c e p t . Australia. 250. Toppling r o c k s l o p e tat l u r e s . MJLLER. HAfVlETT. Australia.

t o . T h e restoratlon o f continuous f a c e . . with sultable addltlons. thereby galnlng a better understandlng of the sensltlvlty of the toppl trig process to changes In geometry and materlal propertles. the frlctlon requlred to prevent further rotat ion Increases.13 FACTOR OF SAFETY FCf? LIMITING EQJILIBRIW ANALYSIS OF TOPPLING FAILURES The factor of safety for toppl Ing can be deflned by dlvldlng the tangent of the frlctlon angle believed to apply to the rock l a y e r s (i%n@ rlm. I s e q u a l t o 0. d e p e n d s o n whether or not some deformatlon can be tolerated. will probably provlde a basis for further developments of toppling fallure analysis.5 kN support force In block 1.10. e v e r . GENERAL CCWENTS ON TOPPLING FAILURE The anal ys I s presented on the preced Ing pages can be app I led to a few special cases of toppllng fal lure and It Is cbvlously not Howa rock slope deslgn tool at this stage of development. Hence.) I f . the factor of safety In the example. 2 3 . t h e b e s t e s t l m a t e o f Tan@ I s 0 .+@d = 0. H o w e v e r .&&&/H)by t h e t a n g e n t o f t h e f r l c t l o n a n g l e r e q u l r e d f o r equlllbrlum ulth a glvan s u p p o r t f o r c e T /f~~@&iWhd. T h e c h o i c e o f f a c t o r o f s a f e t y . f o r e x a m p l e . Once a column overturns by a smal I amount.800/0.f a c e c o n t a c t o f t o p p l e d columns of rock Is probably a very important arrest mechanism In large scale toppling fal lures.650 = 1 . 0 2 . In many cases In the f leld. 8 0 0 f o r t h e rock surfaces slldlng on one another. 6 5 0 a n d a s u p p o r t f o r c e o f 2 0 1 3 kN. possibly even below that requlred for lnltlal equlllbr turn. T h e calculations a r e relatlvely simple to program on a desk top calculator or a computer and the avallablllty of such a program will enable the user to explore a number of posslbllltles.7855 and wlth a 0.7855 = 1 . t h e basic prlnclples which h a v e b e e n I n c l u d e d I n this analysis a r e g e n e r a l l y t r u e a n d . The reader Is strongly advlsed to work through the example glven for hlmself and to try examples of his own since this can b e a v e r y Instructive exercise.8-&l ull I convert the edge to face contacts along the sides of the columns Into continuous face contacts and the frlctlon angle requlred to prevent further rotation WI I I drop sharply. large surface displacements and tenslon crack formatlon can be observed and yet the volumes of rock wh Ich detach themse Ives + from the rock mass are relatively modest. r o t a t l o n equal to 2(. Wlth = 0 .800/0. a slope j u s t a t llmltlng e q u l l l b r l u m I s meta-stable. t h e r e f o r e . with TandrWu. t h e TaWJ~~uhd f a c t o r o f s a f e t y I s 0.

0 1.0 4837.&I 0.8 1300.6 3.0 3729.0.0 36.1 T 0 P P L I N c 2284.7 3922.5 825.0 .4 3152.4 5643.8 0.0 22.7 3922.5 3978.0 40.5 3159.0 28.6 7662.5 2912. .577 0.0 5352. - g IO II 12 13 14 15 16 Figure 10.4 1.0 34.4 4.1 6933.5 472.1 S" 500 1250 2000 2457. I 2095.0 4637.7855.3 3257.7055 Mode STABLE 0 292.0 2826.0 20. I 2825.2 2.0 2826.0 1.0 4637.2 0.0 16.t 0 0 0 P n.1 4594.0 24.8 3.5 472.4 156.0 16.5 b 866 2165 3463 4533.9 ” 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Yn 4.598 0.5 2966.3 971.7855 0.491 0.9 : Limiting equilibrium of a toppling slope with Tan+ .526 0.3 2471.520 0.577 0.542 0.6 1103.3 3404.555 0.487 0.4 1237.0 0.3 6787.7855 0.4 1413.0 4.652 0.7 1556.577 0.0 28.0 8.8 3520.12 CALCULATION OF FORCES FOR EXAHPLE SHOWN IN FIGURE 10.6 2.4 3707.0 12.8 3199.1 2013.0 10.8 5872.8 -1409.1 4594.8 2.8 %.1 -1485.0 Yn/bx Hn Ln P n.4 17 23 29 35 36 32 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 22 28 34 35 31 27 23 19 15 11 7 3 - P" 0 0 0 0 292.9 4848.6 3327.1 1941.8 6399.8 4037.7 1556.5 0 0 0 0 -2588.519 0.6 1.2 -3175.2 SLIDING Block 0 1 2 3 4 5 .5 825.2 2.6 1413.722 0.4 2.0 -3150.0 3.2 2825.7 -3003.1 4369.32.1 3978.10.

thereby.11. A c c u r a t e drllllng Is I m p o r t a n t I n c o n t r o l l e d b l a s t l n g to ensure an even dlstrlbution of the charge on the face. Crest fractur Ing can be caused dlrectly by the natural tendency of an explosive column to crater or break out towards the free surf ace. Thls can be achieved by adoptlng an elongated drl I I lng Rattern. 6) 7) 8) Because the design of the productlon blast has an effect on the performance of the control led blast. i. the fol lowlng aspects of productlon blasting should be consldered. Speclflcatlons s h o u l d a l w a y s contain provlslon f o r experimentatlon t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o r r e c t comblnatlon o f hole diameter. Use of a larger number of smal ler charges decreases the radius of fracture around blast holes.31 The use of small diameter blast holes also means using smaller hole spacings. by reduclng the delay period between the next to last and last rows of production holes by about 40 to 50 mi I I Iseconds. . the spacing of the blast holes Is much greater than the burden. 21 3) 4) . some form of equipment which can drll I back u n d e r I t s e l f ( e . smal I holes are more subject to wander. weakenlng It and maklng Is susceptible to rock falls. 5) The concentration of charge at the wal I should be as low as possible by using a closer hole spacing and loading density than for normal production blasting. or to caving In Incompetent ground. Subgrade dr I I I 1 ng may fracture the rock at the toe of the slope as wel I as the crest of an underlylng bench. I n c l i n e d drilling of production blast holes leads to less backbreak near the collar of the hole and resistance of the rock to blastlng appears to be reduced. Reduce the shock transmItted to the back slope. g . Thls lessens the Ilkel lhcod that large volumes of explosive gases from a single charge wll I be channel led into a jolnt or fracture. However. Reduce backbreak by havlng proportionally fewer productlon blast holes exposed to the final slope face. causing serious backbreak. Depth of subgrade dr I I I Ing and stemming both affect c r e s t fracturing. 1) Charge the upper half of the last few I lnes of productlon blast holes lighter than normal to prevent excesslve damage beyond the preshear I Inc. The depth of stemnlng var Ies from 30 t Imes the charge dlameter for hard ccmpetent rock to 60 times the charge d lameter for soft Incompetent rock. Hence. burden and charge for each project and each change of rock type.e. BerIdes o f f e r l n g s a f e r w o r k i n g c o n d l t l o n s . Some applications require that holes be drl I led a t a n a n g l e correspondlng t o t h a t o f t h e flnai w a l l . smal I diameter percussive drl I I) would probably be required.

e v e n I f t h e rock is less hlghly fractured than would be the case In conventional blasting. 3) Damage due to air blast. 4) Damage due to nolse. Four types of damage caused by blasting are as follows(267): 1 I Structural damage due to vlbrations induced in the rock mass. rock from the face after the blast and the resu ltlng face is more stable and requires less maintenance In the future. 1 5 . to ens u r e t h a t v i b r a t i o n l e v e l s a r e withln a l lowable llmtts a n d t o determine the maximum explosive weights that can be detonated I f t h e s e precautions a r e f o l l o w e d . The savings that are achieved are the result of being able to cut steeper slopes and reduce excavation vol ume. Thls in turn means that less land adjacent to the highway is disturI t i s a l s o f o u n d t h a t l e s s t i m e Is s p e n t s c a l i n g l o o s e bed. that a successful claim for blast damage wll I be made. an exaple o f which Is s h o w n i n F l g u r e 1 1 .11. Thls problem can often be overcome by informing p e o p l e b e f o r e b l a s t i n g s t a r t s a b o u t t h e v i b r a t i o n s t h a t t h e y will f e e l . with photographs where possible. F i n a l l y . The cost savings achieved by controlled blasting cannot be meas u r e d directly b u t i t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted(275) t h a t t h e s e savlngs are greater than the extra cost of drl I I Ing closely spaced. From an aesthetic point of view. v i b r a t l o n s should be measured. 276-289). carefully aligned holes and loading then with special charges. I t Is u n l i k e l y per delay. 260. 21 Damage due to fly rock or boulders ejected from the blast area. I I I BLAST DAMAGE AND ITS CONTROL Highway construction is often carr led out in populated areas and in these cases blasting operatlons must be control led to ensure that damage and disturbance is minlmlted. steep cuts have a smal ler exposed area than flat slopes. Further consideration Is that ground vlbratlons ae perceptible well outside the zone wlthln which the vlbratlons may cause damage. Wlthin the zone where damage may possibly occur. 2 5 8 . a survey should be carr led out to record al I ex I st 1 ng cracks. A complete review of blast damage mechanisms is beyond the scope of this manua I and the interested reader 1s r e f e r r e d t o t h e e x c e l l e n t literature o n t h e subject(257.32 5) D r i l l t h e l a s t line o f p r o d u c t l o n b l a s t h o l e s a b o u t half the normal burden from the preshear line to ensure the production blast holes backbreak to the preshear. at least during the initlal blasts. . The fol lowlng Is a discussion on the types of damage and what steps can be taken In designing the blast to prevent damage from occurring. The Office of Surface Hinlng(277) has drawn up a standardized system of recording structural damage that helps to accurately survey bulldings. This can cause people living In the area to complain about the vibratlon and possibly put in claims for damages not caused by vibrations. some people may f lnd the trace o f d r i l l h o l e s o n t h e f a c e t o b e objectlonable. However.

11. Example of Office of Surface Mining method of making damage surveys.+ Floor Plan Path of on 3 Enter (a) Wall i d e n t i f i c a t i o n procedure. i Floor Plan I Enter (b) Multi-wall Upper i Upper left quarter Lower \tft quartor I Floor identification procedure. .----1 Lower .lS: wall identification procedure. right .33 1 I I -. quarter (c) F i e l d F i g u r e 1 1 .. 1 right 1 quarter .

with which to m e a s u r e v i b r a t i o n l e v e l s .34 Structural Damage The fragmentation of rock by detonation of an explosive charge depends upon the effects of both strain induced in the rock and upon the gas pressure generated by the burning of the Structural damage resulting from vibration is explosive. In order to obtain data from the constructlon of a plot such a s t h a t g i v e n i n F i g u r e 1 1 . Of the many empirical relationships which have been p o s t u l a t e d . scnne f o r m o f v i b r a t i o n instrument must be avai Iable. Typical measur 1 ng specifications for selsmographs and geophones. are summarized in Tables X and Xl. While this may be true for d a m a g e t o s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e s . Equation 124 plots as a straight I ine on log-log paper and the value of k is given by the V intercept at a scaled distance o f u n i t y w h i l e t h e c o n s t a n t #3 i s g i v e n b y t h e s l o p e o f t h e I ine. T h e s c a l e d d i s t a n c e i s d e f lned b y t h e f u n c t i o n R/@where R i s t h e r a d i a l distance f r o m t h e p o i n t o f d e t o n a t i o n a n d W i s the weight of explosive detonated per delay. .16. r o c k r e m a l n i n g I n t h e final slopes Is also of concern and hence the effects of all three waves should be considered. 1 6 . is named after Rayleigh who proved its existence and is known as the R wave. dependent upon the strains Induced in the rock. which Is slower than either the P’or S wave. The U. A hypothetical example of such a plot is given in Figure 11. w h i l e t h e slowor t y p e i s k n o w n a s t h e s e c o n d a r y o r S w a v e .S. Bureau of Mines has established that the maximum particle velocity V is related to the scaled distance by following relationship: Y= k[R/4iVs (124) where k and B are constants which have to be determined by measurements on each particular blasting site.11. The faster of the two waves propagated within the rock is called the primary or P’wave. Ladegaard-Pedersen and Dally(276) suggest t h a t . in terms of vibration damage. In the review by Ladegaard-Pedersen and Dally it is concluded t h a t t h e w i d e v a r i a t i o n s i n g e o m e t r i c a l and geological c o n d i t i o n s o n typlcal b l a s t i n g s i t e s p r e c l u d e t h e s o l u t i o n o f ground vlbration problems by means of elastodynamic equations and that the most reliable predictions are given by empirical relationships developed as a result of observations of actual b l a s t s . t h e m o s t reliable a p p e a r s t o b e t h a t r e l a t i n g particle velocity to scaled distance. The surface wave. two body waves and one surface wave are generated as a result of the elastic response of the rock. the R wave is the most important since it propagates along the surface of the earth and because its amplitude decays more slowly with distance travelled than the P’or S waves. When an explosive charge is detonated near a free surface.

1 6 = -1. k k5 to 20.6 800.-1.1 1 10 100 1000 S c a l e d d i s t a n c e (R/G ) . 6 = -1.35 r 0.11. Typical values of k end 6 quoted by Oriardza4 are : Dam hole blasting Coyote blasting Pre-splitting : : : k .6 6 .f e e t / l b * Figure 11.26 to 260.16 : Hypothetical plot of measured particle velocity versus scaled distance from blast. .

04 . product specifications.11.06 i n .250 l From lnstantel Inc.5 .123 1 to 7 <40 in/set dB 0. TABLE Xl TYPICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR GEOPHCNES” Standsrd Natural Frequency Maintains Specifications Cl can Band Pbss Standard Coil Resistance g 2O’C Intrinsic Voltage Sensitivity with 395 ohm coil Sensitivity at 70% damping Normalized Trsnsductlon Constant (V/ln/secc) Moving Mass Typical Case to Coil Motion P-P’ Harmonic Distortion with driving v e l o c i t y o f .035 VRC .2% or less at 12 Hz l From Geo Space Corporation product specifications.7 in/set P .140 Unit HZ Rsnge 2.8 100 .36 TABLE X TYPICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR SEISHOGRAPHS” Property Frequency response Ranges : 0 Seismic Particle Velocity 0 Sound overpressure Trigger Levels 0 Seismic o Sound Record Times Total Weight of Instrument i n/set dB set lb .388 oz .2 110 .70 Vtinlsec -50 VIln/sec .5 Hz Up to 2O”Ti It To 25 x Natural Frequency 395 ohms f 55 .P 10 Hz t . .

00 2 Damage Vibrations Perceptible Rigidly mounted mercury switches trip out Maximum vibration for green concrete* Vi’brations Objections1 Limit below which risk of damage to structures. and l/2 mile respectively.o 1 . . Thus. serious complaints Cracks in concrete blocks Rock falls in unlined tunnel Horizontal offset in cased drill holes Onset of cracking of rock Shafts misaligned in pumps. Halving of the welght of explosive detonated per delay wil I reduce these distances to 300 ft.5 1 . t h e u s e o f d e l a y s t o l i m i t t h e w e i g h t o f e x p l o s i v e detonated per delay is a very important method of controlling both damage and reactions by the public to the blasting operations. compressors Prefabricated metal buildings on concrete pads: metal twisted and concrete cracked Breakage of rock Varies with strength gain of concrete. 9 c reeu2t o f i n a d e q u a t e stem&g o r t o o ma22 a front rm burden. such as that presented in Figure 11.08-0. from the blast. values of k andbshould be determined from a plot of measured particle velocities. In plotting this figure.16 plotted tar these values. In a FZyrock problems are causod by c r a t e r i n g a .s-2. Control of Flyrock When the tront column is too -margIn sketcn. problem. a crater is termed as illustrated in the U n d e r t h e s e conditions. These values are based upon an average range derived from a paper by Oriard(289) and this plot should only be used for When damage is a serious potent is I very general guidance.5 have been used in solving equation 124.17 shows that 1000 lb.17 for different combinations of distance R and weight of exploslve charge W. even old buildings. while the vibrations wi I I be felt at distances of about one mile. is very slight (less than 5 percent) Minor damage.& . the crater and row burden is inadequate or when the stenuning short. r o c k i s e j e c t e d trcm it may be thrown a considerable distance. D u v a l a n d Fogelson(283) a n d others(272) have examined the relationshlp between maximum p a r t i c l e v e l o c i t y a n d s t r u c t u r a l d a m a g e a n d t h e followlng threshold values have been suggested: -I n/set 0.11. of explosive detonated per delay will cause minor cracking ot plaster in houses at distances less than 500 ft.37 Langetors and Kihlstrom(Z57). cracking of plaster.-1.2 0. values of k = 200 and . see Konya and Walter(290) 5 9 12 15 25 40 60 100 l A range of these threshold values have been plotted in Figure 11. Figure 11.

I I I 1 0 0.11. .17: Plot of particle velocities induced at given distances by particular charges.3 Seconds I “lonqi t u d i n a l D i s t a n c e fran b l a s t .38 Typical vibration record.10.1 1 5 10 50 100 500 1000 5000 Distance from blast .f e e t 100 50 10 5 1 0.2 0.metres Figure 11.5 0.

vontlng of developing cracks In the rock and the uso of Inadequate burdens glv I ng r I se to crater lng. Thls plot shows that. An alternatlve to chsnglng t h e p o w d e r f a c t o r w o u l d b e t o lncrease the front row burden and/or the length of the stemmlng column but. A r e l a t l o n s h l p betueen the b l a s t h o l e d i a m e t e r a n d t h e t h r o w distance f&r a b o u l d e r o f glvon sire w a s establlshed b y t h e Swedish Detonlc Research Foundatlon(287) and Is plotted In Flgure 11.39 study by the Swed I oh Doton lc Research Foundat Ion(287). C l o u d c o v e r c a n a l s o c a u s e r e f Iectlon o f t h e pressure wave back to ground love1 at some distance from the blast. uncovered detonating cord. Fectors contrlbutlng t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a n a l r b l a s t a n d nolse include overchsrgod blast holes. Alrblast a n d Noise Problems Assoclatod with Productlon 0 I asts These two problems are taken together because they both stem from the same cause. as polnted out earlier In thls chapter. for the particular rock mass and blsstlng geometry tested.2 kg/m*. which occurs c l o s e t o t h e b l a s t I t s e l f .20. Flguro Il. I n t o which t h e a l r b l a s t d e g e n e r a t e s with dlstance f r o m t h e b l a s t .11. The decrease of sound pressure level with distance can be predlctod by means of cube root scaling. Thls result should provide ample Inducement for the blasting engineer to either do somethlng about control I Ing f lyrock or el se stand a long way from the blast. w i n d a n d t h e p r e s s u r e . c a n c a u s e s t r u c t u r a l d a m a g e s u c h a s t h e breaking o f windows. A stomnlng column length of 40 blast hole diameters Is recamnended by the Swedish Detonlc Research F o u n d a t l o n f o r t h e c o n t r o l o f flyrock a n d this Is I n line w i t h the optimum stemnlng column length of 0. From this flgure It can be seen that a 1 m granite boulder would be thrown 40 m (130 ft. A low powder factor such as that required to el Imlnate f lyrock may not gl ve adequate fragmentat Ion and hence blast Ing mats wou I d have to be usad to cover the blast. A l r b l a s t .18. c a n c a u s e d i s c o m f o r t a n d wll I a l m o s t certainly give rise t o complaints f r o m t h o s e llvlng c l o s e t o t h e constructlon site.) by the craterlng of a 50 mm (2 Inches) diameter charge. this could give rise to choking the blast and to poor fragnentatlon of the rock above the top load.19. the flyrock problem could be et lmlnated by reducing the powder factor to 0. N o t r e . poor stenmlng.20 gives a usefu I guide to the response of structures and humans to sound pressure Iovel.67 to 2 times the burd e n which I s recomnended b y Hagen(269).a l t i t u d e r e l a t l o n s h l p . The propagatlon of the pressure wave depends upon almosphorlc condltlons Including temperature. the maxlmum distance which boulders were thrown was studled for a range of powder factors and the results are plotted In Figure 11. Leglslatlon In the USA now restricts b l a s t n o l s e t o 1 4 0 dB uhlch c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e “no danage” threshold shown In Figure 11. The scaling factor with dlstanco @ Is given b y : .

19 : Relationship between fragment size and maximum throw e s t a b l i s h e d b y Smdish Detonic R e s e a r c h F o u n d a t i o n .40 100 t ii 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 P o w d e r f a c t o r . 1 8 : Maximum t h r o w o f flyrock a 5 a f u n c t i o n o f p o w d e r factor in tests by Swedish Dctonic Research Foundation.1 Fragment 5izc db x 1 rock density y dcnsi ty of granite 10 hctres) Figure 11..11.01 0. r” 50 Blasthole d iameter hd 0. .kg/m3 F i g u r e 1 1 . 2 .

Is found as follows: = 1 From Figure 11. change Is detonated with a b u r d e n o f 1 0 f t . .Ordinary conversation 40 3x10 -? -s - l+Pspit~l mom 20 3x10 - uhispor 0 l 094 3x10-9 - Lwol of haaring = Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement.11. Bureau of Mines In a number of quarries (reporThe burden B was ted by Ladegaard-Pedersen and Dal ly(276) 1. If a 1.21. then the over-pressure at a distance of 500 ft.S.006 psi.P e d e r s e n a n d D a l l y 272. varied and the length of stemnlng was 2. Figure 11. .000 I b.21 gives the results of pressure measurements carried out by the U.. For example. per Inch diameter o f borehole.41 00cikls lb/in2 structur*s dwgod host windows brdc Airblast from l xplorions 60 3 xl0 -6 . A f t e r L a d e g a a r d .6 ft. over-pressure equals about 0.20: where R Is the radial distance from the explosion W Is the wel ght of charge detonated Flgure 11. s e e Skelly a n d L o y (291) Human a n d structural response to sound pressure level.

11.1 0.0’ 0.000 1 10 S c a l e d d i s t a n c e IV34 ft/lb ‘4 Figurell.p r e s s u r e a s a f u n c t i o n o f s c a l e d d i s t a n c e f o r b e n c h b l a s t i n g .0 0. .B/3fi .00 0.21: O v e r .42 IO 1 .

264. U. P . A . HAGAN. A n n u a l C o n f . Imperial Chemical Industries 265. 405 pages. P I T SLOPE M A N U A L ( C H A P T E R 7). November 1964. Metall.43 Chapter 11 references 257.C. Vancouver.I. Montreal. The modern technique of rock blasting. DU PDNT OF CANADA.A. Proc. Adelaide. Quebec. 1959. 263. T . C o n t r o l l e d b l a s t i n g . Adelaide. pages 369-386. J . M . P e r i m e t e r b l a s t i n g . . ANTILL. . Second edition. Part B. Delaware. H . PERSSDN. LANGEFCRS.H. BI a s t e r ’ s h a n d b o o k . A . 260. FRAEN<EL. A field test of Du Pont new t e c h n o l o g y M S d e l a y e l e c t r i c b l a s t i n g c a p s . G. S t o c k h o l m . and its use to minimize costs. B . Sweden. Glasgow. M a n u a l o n r o c k b l a s t i n g . 378 pages. 1975. C. C . B l a s t i n g P h y s i c s . 1970. A. New York. WINZER. A n n u a l C o n f .. P r e d i c t a b l e b l a s t i n g w i t h i n s i t u s e i s m i c s u r v e y s . M i n . J . M a r t i n Hari e t t a L a b o r a t o r i e s MML T R 79-44C. Reinhold Book C o r p . 15th edition. M o d e r n B l a s t i n g T e c h n i q u e s f o r C o n s t r u c t i o n A u s t r a l ian C i v i I E n g i n e e r i n g a n d C o n s t r u c Engineering. tion. and RITTER. and PERSSON. Metall. 1 9 7 9 . 1975. 1 9 7 5 . T . 259. D u Pont. Canadian Industries Limited. A t l a s C o p c o A B and Sandvikens Jernverks AB. New York. Published by GUSTAFSSDN. and HERCER.. a n d HAGAN.W h a t t h e o p e r a t o r c a n u s e In 1 9 7 5 . 271. Second edition. S. 269. I. Proc. a n d KIHLSTRDM. D e t o n i c s o f h i g h e x plosives. 1964. The science of blasting HARRIES. Sweden. COCK. pages 37-41.. 268. 270. B e n c h d r i l l i n g .I. 1 1 t h C a n a d i a n R o c k M e c h a n i c s S y m p o s i u m . D . T h e d e s i g n o f o v e r b u r d e n b l a s t s t o p r o m o t e h i g h w a l I stabi I i t y a t a l a r g e s t r i p mine. DU PDNT D E M E M O U R S 6 C O . 262.R. A u s t r a l i a n I n s t .K. 272. R. 1973. Energy Mines and Resources. M i n i n g Engineering. A u s t r a l i a n I n s t . 1973. M . page 17. Proc. . C. B o o k l e t b y d u Pont of Canada Ltd. K . Stockholm. M . M C I N T Y R E .. B l a s t e r ’ s H a n d b o o k . A p r i I 1 9 7 4 . B I a s t e r ’ s Pratt i c e . 261.. JOHANNSON. John Wiley and Sons. S . J . Academic Press. pages 387-399. Swedish blasting technique. . P. Wilmington. N . Gotherburg. The science of high explosives. 1963. M i n .. N . October 1976. C a n a d a Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology. I N C . Part B. 1958. 267. SPI. Limited.L. London.11. E . 273. 266. 1966. Atlas Copco Bench D r i l l i n g Symposiwn. 65 pages. 258. 1975. BORADBENT. S .A n i m p o r t a n t f i r s t s t e p in the rock fragmentation Process.

I.. BECK.F. 1974. A. Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations. R . Pages ting. R e s e a r c h R e p o r t DA-DOTTL-2955-4-74-32.A.11. W . a n d NORTHWOCC. 1971..C. MEYER. LEET. Mass.5 4 6 . R e v i e w o f C r i t e r i a f o r estimating damage to residences from blasting vibrations. A .F. blasting. W. Washington. Report to the National Science Foundation. M e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t . A . P r e s p l i t t i n g . The Engineer. C . A . A. P E R S S O N . H O O V E R . .J. A and HOLMBERG. Feffer and 27s. J O H N S O N . Bureau of Mines Report of layed quarry blasts. L. Universlty of Maryland. May 1975.S.V. 281. Vol. Bureau of Mines Report of investigations 5968. Prespl i t t i n g . 29 pages. Cambridge. p a g e s 5 3 8 . T . and DEVINE. F. A . 19 pages. JOHNSON.. 6 1 5 1 . 2 1 0 . A. 34 p a g e s .V. FORSHYTH.. E . No. S e p t e m b e r 30th. D e p t . J. BOLLINGER. Inc. and DALLY. 1966. MEYER. 36.V. 95-100. Effect of charge weight on the vibration levels in quarry U. 270.S. F . LADEGAARD-PEDERSEN. and DUVALL. 28 pages. C . T .D. H a r v a r d U n i versity Press. I . R . U. V i b r a t i o n s from I n s t a n t a n e o u s a n d m i I I i s e c o n d . BECK.S. D U V A L L . .F.I . 6270. of Commerce. J. V .H. Ground vibrations due to blasting and its CRANDELL. C a l i f o r n i a D l v i s i o n o f H i g h w a y s . DUVALL.. 285. P . G.C. effects upon structures. pages 222-245. 1962. .. 170 pages. 284. 6695. 279. V i b r a t i o n l e v e l s t r a n s m i t t e d a c r o s s presplit f a i l u r e U. B l a s t v i b r a t i o n a n a l y s i s .F. MEYER. B U R E A U O F P U B L I C R O A D S . R.. Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations. E x p e r i m e n t a l S t u d i e s o f the effects of blasting on structures. W. C. Section 81662. 286. D E V I N E . U . 1 9 6 3 . a n d M E Y E R . 280. 6774. Boston Civil Engineers. M . plane.C. J. T . . a n d FCGELSDN.F. 283. A review of factors effecting damage in blasting. DEVINE. r ies. W. 2 1949. IWO.S.S.A controlled blasting technique for rock cuts.I. 282. E D W A R D S . 287.. Vol. U.W.. L U N D B O R G . 1 9 6 0 . 1963. D. N . L . R. J. W. Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations. OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING REGULATIONS..S. V i b r a t i o n s f r o m b l a s t i n g r o c k . S .44 274. January 1975. 36 pages. D U V A L L . McCAULEY. 277. Investigations. DEVINE... 37 pages. LADEGAARD-PEDERSEN..C. K e e p i n g t h e I i d o n f l y r o c k i n o p e n p i t b l a s Engineering and Mining Journal. V i b r a t i o n f r o m b l a s t i n g a t I o w a L i m e s t o n e quarU.H. J . D . . Lodong and Amsterdam. U. and DUVALL. 1966. Slrnons.I. 1966.d e J. D . 276. . A.

DUVALL. .. U. 1979. KONYA. 1965. Proc. 291. Meeting OSM Requirements.. Published by AIME. U. pages 197-222.L. L.S. E. Design requirements for instrumentation to record vibrations produced by blasting. Inc. I. Cont. Rock Blasting. Vancouver 1971. 290. Department of Transportation Technical Report. on Stability in Open Plt Mining. 5 pages. and WALTER. 355 pages.11. New York. Blasting effects and their control in open pit mining. 1972.J.S. ORIARD. SKELLY and LOY. A Compl lance Manual . 2nd Intnl. May1985. W.45 288.Methods for PublIshed b y M c G r a w H i l l .J. C. 6387. Bureau ot Mines Report ot Investigations. 289.

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6 ) . These records. should contain the following information. Volune of failed material and height of fal I. planar. This can then be used to schedule stabilization work. . work. references to these design methods are included with each of the stabilization procedures.12. Warning received of failure from prior falls. Photographs in stereo pair are particularly useful for planning stabilization work. information will soon be developed on the most hazardous areas and the consequences of the failure. High altitude aerial photographs rarely provide information sufficiently detailed for rock slope engineering. These reports should be supplemented with photographs to record changes in conditions of the slope and the progress of stabilization work. Stabilization work carried out with time and costs. and because weathering of the rock tends to cause deterioration of slopes with time. terrestial or oblique aerial photogrammetry can be used from which contour maps and cross-sections can be drawn up.Location of slope. Note that each design method is particular to the type of slope failure. or movement monitoring instruments (see Chapter 13). Design of the stabilization work is carried out by the methods described in Chapters 7 through 10 for the appropriate type of slope failure. keeping in mind that slopes that have already failed are I ikely to be more stable than similar slopes that have not yet failed. By relating these records to the geological data contained on stability assessment sheets(1 1) discussed previously (see Flgu r e 1 . This information is usually required in making detailed stability studies and calculation of excavation volumes. They can be taken with a regular 35 mm camera by taking two photographs from positions which are separated by a distance equal to about 2 to 5 percent of For more detailed the distance of the camera from the slope. and it is essential that the type and cause of failure be identified. circular or toppling. Time taken to clear rock and stabilize slope. particularly during 24 hours preceding failure. but a Iso costs and the . wedge. This chapter descr i bes a Iternative stabilization methods and the conditions in which they can be used.e.1 Chapter 12 Stabilization and protection measures Introduction Expenditure of funds for slope stabilization programs is often justif led because unstable slopes can rarely be tolerated on h Ighways. i. Belays to traffic and damage to highway and vehicles. The first step In planning a stabilization program is to identify potentially hazardous slopes which usually requires accurate observations of slope stability conditions and the maintenance of records over a considerable time period. The selection of an appropriate stabi I ization method depends not only on the technical feasibility. which can be kept by maintenance personnel. Weather conditions.

instal latlon of support. reduction I n w a t e r p r e s s u r e cr excavation.12. For example. pipes. t h e n I t w o u l d b e p r e f e r a b l e t o have men on ropes dr I I I Ing holes for a greater number of sma I ler anchors because they can work Independently of the traffic. on occasion. and the condltlons In which they are appl Icable. Rock slope stablllzatlon work should usually be carried out by speclallst contractors who have experienced men and appropriate equ I pfnent .2 ease of lnstal l&Ion. F o r l a r g e r excavation j o b s . If the use of the crane will disrupt traff Ic because the shoulder Is too narrow to acconznodate the crane. . Hlghway personnel with geologlcal englneerlng tralnlng who are famlllar with local condltlons should be asslgned to both the design a n d constructlon supervlslon t a s k s s o <hey obtain f e e d b a c k o n t h e appllcatlon o f their designs. g . I I M e t h o d s which I n c r e a s e t h e reslstlng f o r c e .. However. high capacity anchors. drll I steel and grout pumps. anchors should be protected against corrosion. cranes and track-mounted dr I I Is and dozers may be requ I red. warning fences . However. e . a loader to clear broken rock from the hlghway and assorted ropes.g. hoses. hand-held percusslon drl I Is. STABILIZATION METHOOS Slope stablllzatlon methods can be dlvlded Into three categor10s as follows: I Methods which reduce or el lmlnate the drlvlng forces. Another conslderatlon Is that stablllzatlon work should be effectlve over a long tlm period and corners should not be cut to save costs. or warn of hazardous condltlons. . The design of stabll lzatlon work should be carried out by exper lenced personnel who can draw on thel r know ledge of prev lous fal lures to estimate such factors as rock s+rength and groundwater condltlons. I I I Methods which protect the hlghway from rock fa I Is. and blasting should be control led to ensure tha+ the rock In the new face Is not fractured by the explosives. e . Installing rock bolts from a crane and basket. rock excavation work uslng heavy equlpment can proceed In almost all weathers. t h e l e a s t e x p e n s l v e c o n struct Ion cost for rock bolt lnstal I at Ion may be to use a crane to put In a few. . For scaling and rock bolt lnstal latlon. to assist hlghway personnel with unusual problems. The men *III either use cllmblng ropes to access the face or work off an air-winch o p e r a t e d p l a t f o r m (“spider”). rock sheds. For exmple. They wll I also know which stabll lzatlon methods are best sulted to the physlcal constraints at the site. The types of contracts which are sultable for rock excavation and stablllzatlon work are dlscussed In Chapter 14. g . equipment would Include compressors. Rock work that requires men to cl Imb on steep slopes Is hazardous when snow and Ice cover the slope so these projects shou Id not be scheduled for the *Inter In areas where such cl lmatlc condltlons wlst. e. The followlng se&Ions of this chapter describe these stablllzatlon methods. Consultants who speclallze In rock slope englneerlng may also be required.

Another problem Is that the water Is contalned In the fractures In the rock so that the d r a l n s will o n l y b e effective I f +hey I n t e r s e c t t h e s e w a t e r carrying f r a c t u r e s . a n d I f I t I s s u s p e c t e d t h a t w a t e r I s leaklng f r o m t h e ditch. used. they should be as strong as poss I b le and covered with sand to prevent damage from wind and vandal Ism. Furthermore. groundwater pressures usually have a slgnlf lcant effect on stab1 I Ity. T h e simplest m e t h o d I s to drill h o r l z o n t a l h o l e s I n t o t h e f a c e t o I n t e r c e p t t h e w a t e r t a b l e b e h l n d t h e potential failure surface. . Appendix 3 shows the analysis method for wedge fal lures. Thl s Is shown by the great number of slope fal lures that occur after heavy ralnfal I. a s p h a l t . Consequently. o r o t h e r mwns. by InstallIng dralnage systems. then there are number of al ternat I ves f r o m which t o s e l e c t ( s e e F l g u r e 1 2 .12. h o l e s will c a v e . I t I s n e c e s s a r y t o drill h o l e s t o d r a l n t h e s u b s u r f a c e water.13. The spacing between holes depends upon the permeablllty o f t h e r o c k . and ensure that the dralnage system Is effective o v e r t h e f u l l Ilfe o f t h e s l o p e . The sldes of ditches can be relnforced with burlap bags fl I led with a sand/ c e m e n t mixture. a s t h e primary s t a b l l l z a t l o n m e thod. t h e n . T h l s I n f l u e n c e o f water pressure on plane failures Is calculated uslng the design charts In Figure 7. ditches c a n b e d u g a l o n g t h e c r e s t t o d l v e r t the water and prevent pond I ng. the dra Ins may eventua I ly become blocked with Ice or sl It and the pressures will Increase. S u r f a c e drains: I f w a t e r I s f l o w l n g d o w n t h e s l o p e a n d I n t o t e n s l o n c r a c k s . wlth a mlnlnum depth of about l/3 of the slope height. If they exist. should only proceed after careful Investlgatlon because one must be certal n that water pressures are the pr I mary cause o f lnstabl I Ity. I t c o u l d b e Ilned with s h o t c r e t e . The dlrectlon of the holes shou I d be chosen so that the max lmum number of water carrylng fractures are Intercepted .3 I STABILIZATION c(ETHDDS THAT REDWE DRIVING FORCES Drs I nsge As dlscussed In Chapter 6.31 and slmllar calculations can be carried out for circular fal lures uslng the deslgn charts on page 9. durIng snow-melt prlods and durlng the winter when the face freezes and water pressures Increase. stab1 I Ity condltlons can often be Improved by reducing water pressures. To overcome these problems. w l t h c l o s e r spacing required I n l e s s p e r m e a b l e rock. dralnage Is often an lnexpenslve method of stablllzatlon. Spacing may range from 20 to 100 ft. If the stablllty studles show that dralnage Is the best stablI Izat Ion method to use. It can be dlfflcult to produce effective dralnage of the slope. A l s o . These plezometers can be used In the future to nonltor the drswdown produced by the dralns.8 through 9. The lnstallatlon of dralnage . 1 ) . t h e n t h e y s h o u l d b e lined w l t h a p e r f o r a t e d plastic p l p e with t h e discharge I n t h e ditch s o t h a t t h e flowI ng water does not erode the face. and they are usually lncl lned If there Is any danger that the sl lghtly above the horizontal. A l s o . plezomaters should flrst be Installed to measure the actual pressure In the slope and calculate Its effect on stsblllty. and the tenslon crack can be I f plas+lc s h e e t s a r e c o v e r r d with clay or plastic s h e e t s . Horizontal d r a l n s : I f t h e r e I s n o s u r f a c e w a t e r t o r e m o v e .

1: Slope drainage and depressuriration measures./ Vertical pumped . i’ d r a i n a g e w e l l 7 i! . Figure 12.12.4 Surface drain to collect run-off before it can enter the top of open tension c r a c k s . f a i l u r e s u r f a c e A’ W~Collector d r a i n increase drainage l ff iciency of sub-surface gallery. F Potent ial tension crack -1 ‘I Horizontal hole to base of tension P o t e n t i a l feilurc surface-/l % Subsurface gallery Horizontal hole to d r a i n p o t e n t i a l v’. . T h i s d r a i n shoutd b e w e l l graded and must be kept clear P o t e n t i a l t e n s i o n c r a c k oositiony Slope surface immediately behind crest should be graded / / Collector drain.

while trlmnlng Involves the removal of overhanglng and potentially unstable rock. These operatlons are usually carried Drainage gallery drainage Optimum location for subsurface drainage gallery in a slope. u n l e s s t h e r o c k I s very soft and extensive support Is required. The marg In sketch shows the optimum posltlon for a gaIlery(296). and holes can be fanned out from one locatlon to save movlng a n d s e t t l n g u p time. . to stablllze the slope while horizontal drains o r a n c h o r s a r e being I n s t a l l e d . Excavat Ion The prlnclple of stablllzatlon by excavation Is that removal of materlal from the upper portlon of the slope reduces the drlvIng force. +he blt Is dropped off and the rods are removed from lnslde the casing. b u t mOst expensive method o f dralnlng a s l o p e . However. Ilned with a perforated casing and with a submersible electric pump at the bottom. D r i l l cuttings s h o u l d b e t h o r o u g h l y cleaned from the hole to ensure that these f Ine particles do In particularly soft ground. and the cost of excavation may be lower t h a n t h a t o f a l a r g e excavation p r o j e c t .12. no water may be vlslble at all If It evaporates as It reaches the face. or durlng constructlon. The gallery can be driven wlthout Interrupting trafflc on the hlghway. It Is unl lkely that pumped wells would be a permanent stab1 I Izatlon measure because of the necessity of supplylng power and malntalnlng the pumps. T h e e f f e c tlve diameter of this gallery can be Increased by drllllng fans of drill holes around the gallery. D r a l n a g e g a l l e r l e s a r e u s u a l l y o n l y justlfled t o stab1 Ilze large failures where the forces Involved are so great that It Is uneconomlcal to unload the slope by excavating materlal from the crest. Scaling Involves the use of hand scaling bars.2 a. holes may also be required t o pierce l a y e r s o f l o w permeablllty r o c k which a r e l n h l b l t l n g downward f low of the groundwater (2%). hydraulic splltt e r s o r I l g h t explosives t o r e m o v e I s o l a t e d pieces o f l o o s e rock. Thls shows the Importance o f monltorlng drawdown with plezometers. I n t h e c a s e o f s m a l I f a l l u r e s .b). Dralnage gal Ierles: dralnage gal lerles can be the most effectlve. Scaling and Trlrmlng Loose. t h e entlre loose rock Is removed. overhanglng or protrudlng rock on the face of the slope can be removed by scaling or trlmmlng (see Flgure 12. A l t e r n a t l v e l y . It should be kept In mlnd that the volume of water contalned In the fractures can be very smal I so that the dralns may be prod u c l n g effective drawdown I n t h e s l o p e despite t h e r e being a very low discharge. an Aardvark not lnhlblt dralnage.5 Drain holes can be drllled with a standard track-mounted drill. P u m p e d w e l l s : p u m p e d w e l l s consist o f vertical drill h o l e s about 6 Inches In diameter. In fact. T h e diameter of the cone of drawdown produced by the pump Increases as the permeabi I Ity Increases and the weI Is shou I d be spaced accordlngly(2W). they cou I d be used as a temporary measure. drill c a n b e u s e d which carries t h e casing I n t o t h e h o l e a s I t I s d r l l l e d . When the hole Is complete. T h e followlng I s a descrlptlon of alternatlve axcavatlon stabllltatlon measures.

.“.. :. Ov...2: (b) ‘..::. ...:. .: . l (a) Figure 12..‘. .I. .A - ’ -+\ : A’. on new f a c e :. .‘..12.. . : ‘.‘. . .:: &LOOS c r o c k :.‘....:.’ . ‘. .3: Unloading ..L.‘:. . /ve r : .‘... ... .. h a n g t r immed scaled a : ... Scaling and trimming. .. .. ..‘.erhang t r i m m e d . Excavated material ilure s u r f a c e Figure 12.. .6 : ....

For example. The frequency of seal Ing may vary between 2 and 20 years and depends upon the rate at which the rock weathers and the Inf luence of such factors as Ice-jacking.2(s) hand scaling of the loose rock WI I I form an overhang that WI I I have to be tr Im med with light blasting. for hlgh slopes.2(b) has created a unlfon slope face wlthout benches. . for lower slopes. removed Is determined by stablllty analysis methods described e a r l i e r In t h e m a n u a l . rather than f a l I s o f l n d i v l d u a l b l o c k s o f r o c k . The trimming operation shown in Figure 12. In Flgure 12. C a r e f u l inspections o f a l l scatlng operations s h o u l d b e carried out to Ltermlne the rock to be removed and ensure that the new face Is stable. hand-held equlpment can be used. small rock falls mat do accumuI ate on the benches. A l l blastlng t h a t I s carried o u t s h o u l d b e o f sufflclent s t r e n g t h t o b r e a k t h e r o c k a n d n o t damage the remalnlng slope. Cleaning of accumulated rock falls on benches Is rarely carried out because of the danger of working on high rock faces. Furthermore. root growth and traff Ic use. Unloading Where overal I fal lure of the slope Is occurrlng. a berm or gabion should sions. where the crest of t h e s l o p e h a s b e e n r a v e d .7 out. be constructed along the outside edge to trap rol I Ing rock. If a crane Is used the basket must be tied to the slope to prevent It from swlnglng away from the face. It is the recommendation o f t h e writers t h a t I n t e r m e d i a t e b e n c h e s o n s l o p e f a c e s should be avolded because they rarely have the width to act as effective rock catchment areas. it is preferable to form a w i d e ditch a t t h e t o e o f m e s l o p e . The required WI dth of the bench should be checked on the ditch deslgn chart (Figure 12. and Is Impossible if a substantial fall cuts the access on to the bench. The actual width of benches Is usually less than the design width due to loss of rock along the crest and failure to remove rock at the toe of the upper cut. S e e C h a p t e r 11 f o r detal I s o f c o n t r o l l e d blasting procedures. The procedure for a back analysis Is a s follows. t h e g e o l o g y . a n d possibly d r l l l l n g . The position of the failure surface Is estimated f r o m t h e posltion o f t h e tenslon c r a c k . Scaling and trlrmnlng are slow operations because movlng on the face Is slow and only Ilght.3. b u t o n l y I f t h e c r e s t 1s s t a b l e . further reduce their WI dth and eventually form “ski jumps** which project fal I ing rocks outwards to t h e hlghway. 3 ) .10a) which shows the required wldth and depth for the slope dlmenIf the width is lnsufflclent. from cranes or hydrsul Ic booms. by men working from ropes or on cable susponded platforms fNspldersn) and. closely spaced holes and the use of light charges . s t a b 1 Iization c a n b e achieved by excavating ( u n l o a d i n g ) t h e c r e s t t o r e d u c e t h e The volume of material to be drlvlng f o r c e (Figure 1 2 . as shown in Figure 12. Intermediate benches may be effective if they have widths of at least 30 ft.12. T h l s r e q u l r e s t h e drllllng o f carefully al Igned.

reinforcement Is used for smaller failures where are not great and the tension that can be the forces applied to the anchors Is sufficient to produce a significant increase in the factor of safety. Finally. a d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s e s a r e c a r r i e d o u t t o determl ne how much mater 1 al must be un I oaded to i ncrease the factor of safety to an acceptable level. However.4). additional practical matters to consider are property ownership of the land along the crest and available areas for the disposal of the excavated material. i s m o v i n g d u r i n g e x c a v a t i o n . Long hau Is may be expensive. Then. should have a face angle that produces a satisfactory factor of safety based on the strenqth and qroundwater values determined from back analysis: In designing the cut dimensions. If blasting is required. II REINFORCEMENT AND SUPPORT STABILIZATION METHODS T h e f o l l o w i n g i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f s t a b 1 lization m e t h o d s i n which the forces resisting fal lure are increased by instal Iing either reinforcement or support. very high . c i r c u l a r a n d toppling . can be accommodated.p l a n a r . u s i n g t h e s a m e s t r e n g t h p a r a m e t e r s a n d groundwater level. w e d g e . consists whi Ie support the buttresses at the toe of failure. I f It a p p e a r s d o u b t f u l t h a t u n l o a d i n g w i l l a c h i e v e l o n g . Much the same design a n d e x c a v a t i o n m e t h o d s a n d p r e c a u t i o n s are The new slope applicable in both unloading and resloping. controlled blasting should be used to minimize rock damage. cab I es instal Iing bolts or of Re 1 nf orcement cons 1 sts i ncrease 1 ts strength.depend upon the slope height. s u f f i c i e n t s p a c e m u s t b e l e f t a t t h e t o e o f t h e slope for equipment to operate which means that a triangular Intermediate shaped excavation (in section) cannot be made.12.O to determine the rock strength parameters. Stability of all four t y p e s o f s l o p e f a i l u r e s . say 30 ft. wide. t h l s w o r k w i I I h a v e t o b e done with earth-moving equipment except in the case of minor sl ides. gabions o r Usually.. benches should not be incorporated in the slope design unless a significant width. This wi II ensure.8 The type of slope failure and the causes of failure are Identified and a stability analysis is carried out using a factor of safety of 1 . if fal lure were to occur. which is reduced by unloading. Resloplng This stabilization method is applied in similar conditions to the unloading method when overall slope failure is occurring. failure surface to across the wal Is. t h e c u t WI I I h a v e t o b e a t l e a s t 2 0 f t . then It would be necessary to excavate the slope at a flatter slope angI*“resloping” (see Figure 12. movement monitoring systems ( C h a p t e r 13) s h o u l d b e s e t u p t o p r o v i d e a w a r n i n g o f deteriorating stability conditions. al though there is always the possibility that the material could be used for fill e l s e w h e r e a t s o m e c o s t s a v i n g s o v e r q u a r r i e d m a t e r l a l . For this equipment to have sufficient working space. In both unloading and resloping. w i d e a n d p r e f e r a b l y 30 to40 ft. S i rice i t m a y b e n e c e s s a r y t o u n l o a d a s m u c h a s l/3 o f t h e f a i l u r e i n o r d e r t o s t a b 1 Iize i t .t e r m stabi I iiy because extensive movement and rock breakage have occurred. that men and equipment wi I I have tlme to evacuate the slope. of instal I ing dowels. because large vibrations If the slope may be sufficient to cause the slope to fai I. vibrations should be kept to a minimum by reducing the charge weight per delay as much as possible (see Chapter 11 ).

Figure 12.12. Rock bolt installations.5: . (a) Untensioned bolts.9 New slope angle iginal slope angle Excavated material Failure surface Minimum operating width Figure 12. (b) T e n s i o n e d a n c h o r s i n s t a l l e d through loose block.4: Resloping.

Ilke reinforclng steel. Rock Bolts and Cables I f t h e r e Is potenttal f o r a b l o c k t o s l i d e d o w n a p l a n e .5(s)). T h e followtng i s a description o f t h e a l t e r n a t i v e stablllzation measures.5(a) should be used whenever possible because. movement of the rock as a result of excavation may overstress the b o l t . Thls can be achieved by lnstal I ing rock bolts or cables. These forces have a much greater Inf luence o n i n c r e a s i n g stabi I i t y t h a n t h e s h e a r s t r e n g t h o f t h e steel across the fallure plane.5). The technique shown In Flgure 12. D i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f r o c k a n c h o r s a r e discussed below. The surface of the bar is often corrugated. p a r t i a l l y f II I ing it with cement or epoxy grout. Any additlonal nrovement of the rock may decrease the . Also the cost of Install Ing the bolts is much less than instalIlng t e n s i o n e d b o l t s w h e n t h e excavation i s c o m p l e t e a n d a Untens loned bolts are crane would be requlred for drllllng. long bolts are usually coupled together In 20 ft. R o c k b o l t s a r e elther grouted into the hole wlthou? tensioning and subsequent movemen+ o f t h e r o c k t e n s l o n s t h e b o l t (Figure 12. o r t h e y a r e t e n s l o n e d a t t h e t i m e o f i n s t a l l a t i o n (Figure 1 2 . Rock Bolts Rock bolts are rlgld steel rods ranglng In size from abou+ 5/8 Inch to 2 inches in diameter and up to about 100 ft. I n s t a l l e d b y drilling a h o l e t o t h e required d e p t h . Tensioned bolts are installed in blocks and slopes rhich are already showlng signs of lnstabil Ity and Immediate support Is required.17) by Lltt leJohn and Bruce(2971. The react i o n s wlthln t h e r o c k t o t h i s t e n s i o n a r e n o r m a l a n d s h e a r forces acting across the fallure plane. Detail of design methods for anchor support are given in Chapter 7 (page 7. to buttresses that provlde monolithic support under large unstable blocks. anchored in stable rock behlnd the failure surface.12. 5 (b)). time should be al lowed for the grout to set before sett I ng off the next blast. t h e P o s t T e n s i o n i n g Instltute(298) a n d o t h e r authors(29%303). multistrand cables are available to reinforce large rock masses. If the bolt was tensloned. by minlmizing movement of the rock on the failure planes. t o i m p r o v e t h e s t e e l / g r o u t s h e a r s+rength. Supper+ ranges from dowels to hold small blocks In place. sections. and pushlng in +he anSufflclent c h o r s o tha+ i t I s g r o u t e d over Its f u l I l e n g t h . and vibratlons In the relnforced wall should be kept to acceptable levels (see Chapter II). and epplylng a tension (see Figure 12. in length. t h e resistance forces can be Increased by increas I ng the norma I load on the plane.10 capacity. to several hundred feet. the relative magnitude of which depend upon the orientation of the bolt with respect to the failure plane. the maxlmum rock strength is reta I ned. Anchors can be used to stablIize both lndlvidual blocks and slopes ranglng In helght from about 10 ft. Untensioned bolts (sometimes referred to as dowels) can be installed from the floor of a bench so that subsequen+ removal of this bench and slight movemen + o f t h e r o c k WI I I activate t h e support provlded by the steel.

t h e r e q u i r e d b o n d l e n g t h (4) I s calculated from the following equatlon: where T is the applied tenslon and d is the hole diameter. have a greater strength than rlgld bolts of the same diameter and so can be used to stablllze particularly large rock . The working rock/grout interface shear strengths (r)used for design varies tran about 50 psi in weak rock to 200 psi In strong rock. It is also found that the steel/grout shear strength is usually greater than the rock/grout shear strength. Mechanlcal anchors are usually some form of wedge which is expanded by turning or driving the bolt. By using resin with different settling times. a torque wrench can be used tor tensioning. Methods ot installing and tensioning theso bolts are discussed below: Tensioned bolts are made from high tensile strength steel and have threads on the exposed end for a bearing plate and nut. Tensloning is carried out by pulling on the bolt with a hydraulic jack to a load of about 50 percent of the yield Iosd and l o c k i n g i n this t e n s l o n b y t i g h t e n i n g t h e n u t . cement grout and epoxy grout. After tensioning. Alternatively. The different types of anchors that can be used Include mechanical expansion shells. the anchor will set in a few minutes and the remainder will set after the bolt has been tens loned. Theretore. Cement or epoxy grout is usual I y used in soft rock where mechanlcal anchors could slip. Cement grout should have a nowshrInk agent added. permanent anchors. Both mechanlcal and epoxy grouts allow tensioning to be carried out soon otter installation which is an advantage If access to the site Is difficult. the working bond strength is about l/20 to l/30 of the uniaxlal compressive strength ot the rock. Mechanical anchors s h o u l d o n l y b e c o n s i d e r e d t e m p o r a r y m e a n s o f malntalnlng tension because corrosion ot the anchor and creep in the highly stressed rock around the anchor can lead to loss The bolt manufacturers’ recommended i n s t a l l a t i o n of load. but t h i s i s l i k e l y t o b e l e s s r e l i a b l e t h a n u s i n g a hydraulic jack. procedure should be carefully followed. In general. Cables Cables can be used to relntorce rock slopes in a similar However. and hi-early strength cement should not be used because i t i s b r i t t l e a n d s o m e t i m e s contains reagents that accelerate corrosion.12. al I bolts should be fully grouted to provide corrosion protection and to “lock In” the tension. Two component epoxy resins are packaged in plastic tubes and are mixed by rapidly rotatlng the bolt. cables manner to rlgld bolts as described above.11 shear strength ot the failure surface. The length of the anchor zone Is co lcul ated us 1 ng the assumption that the shear stress Is unitormly dlstrlbuted along the periphery of the hole. and cemant grout Is used tor all high capacity.

I n s t a l l e d a t t h e t o e o f potenttally u n s t a b l e b l o c k s t o p r o v l d e passive s u p p o r t against slldlng ( s e e Figure 1 2 . Dywidag corrosion protected cable anchor Detai I d where: W = P% = = if = weight o f b l o c k lncllnatlon o f sliding p l a n e sliding plane frlctlon angle support provlded by dowel The design methods described In Chapter 7 can be used to develop equations which Include the effects of cohesion and water pressure. The anchor is formed by pumping grout down a grout I ine so t h a t t h e h o l e i s f i l l e d f r o m t h e b o t t o m . o r the shear strength of the relnforced concrete. then it should be fi I led with a low slump grout to seal the fractures and re-drilled when the cement is partially set (299). 0 0 0 l b . When the grout has set. For example.w i r e s t r a n d c a b l e h a s s t r e n g t h o f 4 0 .12. while a l/2 i n c h .000 lb. . a 1 inch diameter rigid bolt may have a working tensile strength of 25.12 masses (304-306). 6 ) . Before installation begins. Dowel installation to support sliding block. 7 . I f greater strengths are required. The applied tension is maintained by securing it at the collar with tapered wedges by using a bearing block with a tapered hole through which the cable passes. the hole should be tested to see if fractures have been intersected through which grout cou Id flow out of the hole and prevent fu I I embedment. the tension is is applied with a hydraulic jack. Because of the high tension on cables. w i t h particular attention being paid to ensuring that the head is fully protected from corrosion with grout and anti-corrosion agents. When the grout has set. or blocks of relnforced concrete. The applied tension is maintained by securing the cables with tapered wedges which are pushed into tapered holes in the bearing plate. Dowels Dowels are lengths of reinforclng bars. then bundles of as many as 50 cables can be used. cement grout anchorage is usually used which must be allowed to set for several days before tensioning. The pair of tapered wedges are fitted around the cable and pushed into the tapered hole so that they grip the cable and hold the tension. The size of the bearing plate should be sufficient to distribute the load without fracturing the rock under the plate. Cables can be either tensioned or untensioned in identical applications to rigid bolts and the same design methods (see Chapter 7) are applicable. the tension is applied with a hydraulic jack using load/deformation monitoring procedures as specified by the Post Tensionary Institute (298). Thls support Is provlded by the shear and bend Ing strength of t h e relnforclng s t e e l . The number of dowel s required to support a block Is calculated as follows (see margln sketch). A further advantage of cables is that their flexibility allows them to be coiled which facilitates installation where space is limited and rigid bars could only be used if they were coupled together in short lengths. If the hole cannot be filled with water.

as follows: Bendlng. The depth of ambedment Is between 1 and 2 ft. Holes f o r t h l s sire d o w e l c a n b e readily d r l Iled with hand-held equipment.7(a)). where: &/ r = d z= - #t-J r. These equations show tha+ the support Is Increased by IncreasI ng the diameter of the bar. then the dowel can be bent agalnst the face after lnstallatlon. then a number of dowels c a n b e p l a c e d I n a g r o u p uhlch I s t h e n e n c a s e d I n c o n c r e t e poured against the rock face. dowels are 1 Inch to l-3/8 Inch diameter relnforclng bar. T h l s Illustra+ss t h e I m p o r t a n c e o f InstallIng the dowel tight against the face of the block. Cormsonly. and that the bendlng resistance Is decreased by havlng the block load the dowel above the embedment polnt In the rock. The concrete buttress shou I d have sufflclent mass and strength to resist the weight of rock and also be securely tied to the face with reinforcing tie-backs grouted into holes dri I led In the rock. Concrete buttresses are used to support overhangs that are difficult to remove because of access problems. dependlng on the quality of the rock. R. I f I t I s n o t possible t o d r l I I the hole at the toe of the block. Trial calculations of dowel support using equations (126)to (128) and typlcal rock slope parameters show that a l-3/8 Inch dlameter bar wll I hold a block with a volume of about 5 to 15 cu. stronger dowels can be constructed from blocks of relnforced concrete. Buttresses and Retalnlng Walls Buttresses and retaining walls are usually reinforced concrete structures constructed at the toe of slopes. Isolated blocks where seal Ing would not produce permanent stab1 I lratlon and boltlng would be more expenslvr.12. As noted above. The required strength of the buttress is the difference between the component of the weight down the failure plane and the re- . Therefore.13 The support provlded by the dowel Is the lesser of either Its bendlng strength or Its shear strength. o r t h e d a n g e r t h a t m o r e r o c k h i g h e r u p t h e slope may become unstable.yd. If extra shear resistance Is required.d = Z.%r2 tenslle strength of steel nunnent of Inert 1 a of bar radius of bar tmment arm of load on dowel shear strength of steel. dowels should only be used to support smal I. The tie-backs WI I I ensure that the buttress does not ti It outwards if the force applied by the rock is not coincident with the axis of the buttress. The dowel Is fully grouted Into the hole and a concrete cap can be cast over the dowel to protect It against corrosion and make sure the support Is In contact with the rock. TV Shear. or beneath overhanging pieces of rock to provide support and resistance to sliding (see Figure 12.

14 L D-inforcing b a r d o w e l s ‘. Loose block Gabion b u t t r e s s f i g u r e 12.I Figure 12.:X / Reinforced concret e #-I~~~-.7: Support at toe of unstable slopes. .6: Dowels to support sliding blocks.12.:.

The top of the buttress must be In continuous con+act with the underslde of the block to prevent movement from occurring before the support becomes effective. e . A disadvantage of gablons Is that they can be readily damaged by vandals. Gablons are rock-f I I led wire baskets that can be jolnted together to form walls that are strong and less expenslve to construct than relnforced concrete. An alternatlve form of buttress to stablllte a slldlng fal lure Is to place a sufflclent mass at the toe to support the slope ( s e e Figure 12. Instead of a contlnuous wall. o r lnstal l l n g g a b l o n s . c a b l e s . I . side lengths. can be secured In place ulth cables tensloned across the face of the block and anchored In sound rock on either side (see Flgure 1 2 . eye-bolts and rock anchors are equally strong and can wlthstand some Impact loading In the even? of sudden fat lure. They are usually concrete. clamps. drain holes should be let through the concrete. T h e c o n c r e t e wal I I s t h e n built so that It forms a large reac+lon block to the tenslon generated In the anchors. Methods of deslgnlng gravity type walls are descrlbod In the solls mechanics Ilterature(307) a n d wll I n o t b e dlscussed f u r t h e r here.15 slstence produced by the strength of this plane. . To prevent bul I d-up of water pressure behlnd the buttress. However. The dlmenslons of the baskets are usually cubes with 3 ft.buckles or “come-a-long” wlnchos and then cable clamps are used to hold the tenslon. Cable Lashlng Isolated blocks of loose rock that cannot be removed. structures deslgned to resist the lncllned thrust of the slope. The foundat Ion of the wa I I shou Id also be securely attached to sound rock wlth dowels to Increase I t s reslstence t o s l l d l n g . particularly where there Is Ilttle space between the hlghway and the toe of the slope. In soma cases. It Is usually necessary to use tle-backs to prevent overturnlng. Drain h o l e s s h o u l d b e l e t t h r o u g h the concrete to prevent bul Id-up of water pressures.12. or sometlmes timber. 8 ) . a series of concrete pl I lars. some rrlocatlon may provlde sufflclent space for a toe buttress. Tle-backs are rock bolts or cables that are anchored In stab Ie r o c k behlnd t h e fal l u r e s u r f a c e . T h l s c a n o f t e n b e achieved by placlng ptles o f free-dralnlng r o c k . ulth an approprlato f a c t o r o f s a f e t y a p p l l e d .7(b)). may provlde sufflclent support and save on the quantlty of concrete required. T o e b u t t r e s s e s c a n u s u a l l y on!y b e u s e d t o stablllze smal I slides because the quantity of rock required can be substantial which requlres conslderable space between the toe of the slope and the hlghway. It may be necessary to use a nonshr I nklng agent In the last concrete pour to ensure good rock/concrete contact. In stabllltlng rock slopes. R e t a l n l n g w a l l s a r e ano+her m e a n s o f stab1 Ilzlng s l l d l n g slopes. An advantage of a +Oe buttress Is that the slope can be stablllzed wlthout provldlng eccess to the crest of the slope. T h e a c t u a l design u s e d wll I depend upon the type of fal lure. In some cases. W h e r e t h e c a b l e I s I n c o n t a c t with . Care should be taken to ensure that each component o f t h e s y s t e m . Tenslon can be applied by means of turn.

H3uever. Weathering o f t h e r o c k o n t h e s e Joln+ sur- . T h e l e n g t h . Thls hazard was particularly acute because the track curvature restrlcted vlslblllty and tralns dld not have Furthersufflclent time to stop In the event of a rock fal I. In constructing the bench for the rallroad. The rock falls varied In slze from less than 1 cu. The cost of drlvlng and supportlng a tunnel may be less than the cost of construct Ing a shed. of retalnlng wal I and cu+ a s l o p e t h a t w a s a b o u t 900 f t . It had been necessary to construct about 100 ft. The two near vertical sets would form the sides of blocks.12. The rock falls were occurrlng because. hlgh. and care should be taken to ensure that +he n e w l o c a t l o n I s o n s+able ground and no+ an extension of +he orlglnal slide. 40 degree slope above a river In 3. The feaslbl I Ity of relocation WI I I depend on such factors as property ownershlp and al Ignmen?. to as much as 10 cu.16 Illustrates that these fractures occur In three sets which w e r e orlented such that they formed roughly cubic shaped blocks. S l t e Descrlptlon The rallroad and hlghway are located on benches cu+ In a 250 ft. and were most I lkely to occur In the spr Ing and fal I dur I ng freeze-thaw cycles when Ice formed In cracks and loosened blocks of rock on the face. the temperatures can drop to -3O’F and Ice can be a problem despite the area belng seml-arld with a ralnfall as low as 6 Inches annually. Tunnels are the most posltlve method of protectlon from rock fal Is.yds. which would slide If the thlrd fracture was lncllned out of the slope. volves blastlng for a ditch excavation. although the Intact rock was moderately strong. Flgure 12. It may be more e c o n o m l c a l t o r e l o c a t e t h e hlghuay r a t h e r t h a n t o t r y a n d stab1 I Izs the slide. l o n g a n d varled I n h e l g h t from 2 0 f t . even a mlnor derailment could cause rail cars to fal I onto the hlghway below. more. a t the center. orlentatlon a n d spacing o f t h e s e f r a c t u r e s controlled stab1 llty condltlons and the slze of the rock fal Is. depend Ing on how much support Is requlred(315). control of blastlng damage and rock bolting. It was Intersected by a number of fracture planes (JoIntsI with continuous lengths of several tens of f e e t .000 ft. recent work on snow avalances uslng fluld mechanics prlnclples can be applied to t h e design o f r o c k sheds(314). A hazard to traff Ic had developed due to rock fal Is from the upper slope and It became necessary that some remedla I work be carried o u t . Relocation In cases where a large landslIde Is occurrlng.15).24 Design methods that quantify the impact loads of rock fal Is and avalanches are not well developed. deep canyon (see Flgure 12. a t either e n d t o a b o u t 1 0 0 f + . DurIng the *Inter.yd. EXAMPLE OF SLOPE STABILIZATION PROJECT The followlng Is a descrlptlon of a proJec+ that was undertaken It Into reduce a rock fal I hazard on a rallway and hlghway. A slope had also been excavated for the constructlon of the hlghway.

to hold loose Overhangs formed by erosion of softer rock :ured Shotcrete (a) Figure 12. .9: Shotcrete.17 Figure 12.12.8: Cable lashing block.

keeplng In mlnd tha+ the anoun? of rebound may vary be+ween 50 and 100 percen+. and the design chart In Flgure 12. Sample specIflcatlons are provlded In Chapter 14. rather than rounded slope on +he hlghway side. the water Is added at the nozzle. The requlred rldth and depth of a ditch depends upon +he angle and helght of the slope.18 row wea+hered zones shou Id be deepened so +hat there Is some s o u n d r o c k o n e l t h e r side to which the shotcrete can adhere. A gablon wal I has the advantages over a concrete wall of belng better able to wlthstand the Impact of fal Ilng rock because of Its f lexlbl I Ity. It Is also Important that water and Ice pressures do not build up behlnd t h e s h o t c r e t e .10(b)). can be pumped further than wet mix shotcrete. I+ can easily be damaged by vandalism.e. Protective measures could also be used where It Is dlfflcult +o achieve permanent stablllzatlon and contlnual maintenance wll I be requlred In the future. I nsu I ated dral ns can col lect seepage water beh I nd the shotcrete a n d discharge l t in a Sump(310). The strength of the shotcrete is improved. D r a l n a g e c a n b e achieved by drllllng h o l e s I n t o cracks In the rock. T h l s c a n b e achieved by careful blasting of this slope If +he rock Is competent. vertically depending upon the equipment available. or by construc+lng a concrete or gablon wall. III PROTECTION MASURES Condltlons may exist where stablllzatlon of a slope Is elther s o e x p e n s l v e . i. and belng less expenslve to cons+ruct and repalr. A number of different protectlon methods are dlscussed below. horizontally and 100 ft.12.10(a) shows the relatlonshlp between +hese four factors(512). and the amount of rebound reduced. T h e effectiveness o f the ditch Is also Improved by havlng a vertical. Ditches Ditches at the toe of slopes are an effective means of catching falling rock and they can often be excavated at relatively low cost compared to the cost of stab1 I lzatlon. The chart shows that t h e ditch dlmenslons a r e mlnlmlzed w h e r e t h e s l o p e a n g l e I s steep because rocks tend to fall ver+lcally rather than bounce o u t w a r d s o f f t h e f a c e (Figure 12. by pre-moi stur i zi ng dry-m ix shotcrete to about 3 per cent to 6 per cent moisture before it reaches the nozzle. o r dlsruptlve t o traffic. putting a dralnplpe In +he hole AlternatIvely. and ob+aln samples for testing. H o w e v e r . Some coring with a small diamond drill may be carried out after the shotcrete has set to check +hlckness and cement/rock bond. t h a t I t I s m o r e econ o m l c a l t o p r o t e c t t h e hlghuay f r o m r o c k f a l l s . . The maximum distance that shotcrete can be pumped Is about 500 ft. Detal Is of shotcrete practice and speclf Ica+lons have been drawn up by the American Concrete Instltute(311). A n o t h e r +hlckness tes+ I s t o probe the shotcrete before It sets. and applying ?he shotcrete around +he plpe. C o n t r o l o f s h o t c r e t e thickness I s d l f f l c u l t o n I r r e g u l a r r o c k surfaces. Probably the nkost practical control method Is to maasure the area of the face covered and the volume used and ensure +hat the material Is belng evenly applied. Dry-mix shotcrete.

d e g r e e s (e) F i g u r e 12.10(b): Rock falls on slopes.10(a): D i t c h d e s i g n c h a r t .19 Dtion o f a F r e e -Bounce-R01 1 allinq r o c k f a l l I ope radient 1 f 100 20 C 90 80 70 60 50 40 O v e r a l l s l o p e angle . le Slope Height I Figure 12.12. .

Where posslble. fence Is about 10 ft.111. It Is usual ly suspended from plns and cables on the crest of the slope md draped down the face (see Flgure 12.12. eventua I I y these rocks may accumulate behlnd the mesh and have suff lclent weight to break It. talus slopes. across. Mesh Wlre mesh suspended down the face of a slope WI I I Intercept fal Ilng rock and direct It Into a ditch or catchment area. The mesh can consltt of 9 or II gauge galvanized chain-I Ink mesh or gablon wire mesh. To stop boulders less than about 3 ft.e. access shou Id be left for equipment to clean fallen rock that has accumulated In the ditch and reduced Its effectiveness. when It Is broken. I. I Ike chain-I Ink mesh. . the Impact of rol I Ing boulders may be sufflclent to break the mesh. On slopes steeper than th I s. Fences can also be used In narrow gul lles where the path of the fal I Ing r o c k I s well defined. Geb Ion mesh has the advantage that It has a doub I e twist hexagonal weave which does not unravel. To stop larger bould e r s 1 0 f t . Thls can be overcome by securing the larger boulders with rock bolts and anchoring *he mesh to t h e f a c e ulth p l n s s o t h a t r o c k s a r e p r e v e n t e d f r o m galnlng momentum when they come loose. M e s h I s n o t sultable w h e r e + h e b o u l d e r size I s g r e a t e r t h a n about 1 ft. rolling r o c k s t e n d t o a c c e l e r a t e a s t h e y fall and a more substantial structure Is requlred. On these slopes. However. Fences have been used extenslvely on slopes above rallroads In Japan(313). and have the bottom open so that rocks do not accumulate In It. Al so. The bottom of the mesh blanket should be left open so that falling rock does not catch In the mesh. Fences can cons1 st of ulre mesh or Inter I aced wlre rope suspended from cables anchored to plns or posts In the rock face. Fences of thl s type are unl lkel y to stop bou ldrs larger than about 1 ft. plies are sunk Into the slope and 1 Inch dlameter steep cables The helght of the are strung horlzontally between the plles. d lameter and the slope Is steeper than about 40 degrees. diameter r e l n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e pl l e s a r e c a s t I n t o the slope and very strong mesh Is placed between the pl les. In dlameter. Some of these pl les are protec+ed from the Impact of fat I Ing r o c k b y 1 8 f t . (see Flgure 12. The fence should be flexible so that It can absorb the Impact of falling rock. Fences Fences can be used to Intercept rocks rolling down slopes with angles less than about 40 degrees. the base of the ditch should be covered ulth loose gravel or sand to reduce the tendency of rocks to bounce.12). An Important aspect of ditch deslgn Is to ensure +hat excavatlon at the toe of the slope for the ditch does not oversteepen the slope and cause It to fal I. diameter c o r r u g a t e d s t e e l s h e a t h l n g with t h e annular space fi Iled with rock.20 The effective depth of the ditch can be Increased by constructIng ual Is along the outslde edge rather than excavstlng ma+erlal from the base of the ditch.

12: Wire mesh on slope to trap falling rock. P h o t o g r a p h c o u r t a a y of c8rmdlul P8Clf ic Railway.21 Figure 12. Figure 12.12.11: Fence to catch rolling rock.13: Rock slide protection fence . Figure 12.

1 4 ) . I t m a y b e n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s t r u c t a c o n crete shed over +he hlghway.22 Warning Fences W h e r e +he c o s t o f s+ablllzatlon I s v e r y h l g h a n d r o c k f a l l s a r e Infrequen+. maintenance costs a r e Ilkely t o b e mlnlmal. These fences c o n t a i n wires tha+. partlcularly I f +he s l o p e I s s o s t e e p t h a t r o c k s c a n l a n d directly o n +he r o o f . I+ may be posslble +o o v e r c o m e t h e s e p r o b l e m s b y modlfylng t h e l o c a t l o n a n d spacing o f t h e wires t o s u l ? par+lcular c o n d l t l o n s . c a n seriously d l s r u p t traffic. t o c o n s t r u c t a cantllevered shed. I t m a y b e dlfflcul+ t o f o u n d +he c o l u m n s o n s o u n d r o c k I n which c a s e I t m a y b e n e c e s s a r y t o s l n k p l les. act1 vate stop Ilghts on +he highway. Much of the Impact load *II I be taken In the columns on +he ou+er s l de of the shed. Warn Ing fences are often used on ral I roads where the warning ligh+s are Incorporated Into t h e slgnal system.12. these protectlon measures can be slgnlflcant. w a r n l n g f e n c e s c a n b e c o n s t r u c t e d . The fences cons Is+ of a row of poles a+ the toe of the s l o p e with horlzon+aI wires s+retched b e t w e e n + h e m a t a vertlcal spacing of between 1 and 2 ft. which a r e supported on members cant1 levered out from the top of the pole. lclcles a n d m l n o r s n o w slides c a n s e t o f f +he w a r n l n g I l g h t s . Rock Patrols Another warning me+hod +ha+ can be used where the cos+ of stabll lzatlon I s h i g h . A l s o I n c o l d cltma+es. a r e o f t e n required w h e r e +he f a c e I s s t e e p a n d c l o s e +o t h e rlght-of-way (see Flgure 12. Is to use rock pa+rols along dangerous sectlons. O v e r h e a d wires. Wing w a l l s will o f t e n b e required a b o u t t h e p o r t a l s to preven+ fal Is spllllng on+o the hlghway. Pa+rols h a v e t h e advan+ages o f rellablllty a n d flexlblI Ity since their f r e q u e n c y c a n b e a d j u s t e d +o t h e d e m a n d s o f traffic and weather condltlons. l n s t a l I reinforcement o r . C o n c r e t e s h e d s s h o u l d b e d e s l g n e d w l t h +he r o o f lncllned s o tha+ rocks roll across the shed with mlnlmum Impact. T h e pa+rolmen s h o u l d h a v e s o m e m e a n s o f r e m o v l n g minor r o c k f a l l s a n d h a v e radio contac+ w l t h maintenance c r e w s I n t h e event of a large fal I. The conc r e t e s h o u l d a l s o b e p r o t e c t e d wI+h a l a y e r o f g r a v e l . or +o r e l o c a t e t h e h l g h w a y I n t o a W h l le +he c o n s t r u c t l o n c o s t o f b o t h t u n n e l (Figure 1 2 .13). there Is +he cant I nu Ing cost of the patrol s and +he requ lrement t o f l n d reliable p e r s o n n e l w h o a r e wllllng t o w o r k I n I s o l a t e d and some+lmes hazardous condltlons. Another problem Is that rock fa I Is can occur after a car has passed +he s t o p I Igh+ s o t h e driver wll I o b t a l n n o warning o f t h e f a l I. I f n o a d e q u a t e f o u n d a t l o n s exist. . The frequency of pa+rol s shou Id be Increased after heavy ral nfal I and dur Ing the spr I ng and f a l I I n c l i m a t e s w h e r e f r o s t ac+lon WI I I l o o s e n r o c k s o n t h e f a c e . Disadvantages o f warning f e n c e s a r e + h a t f a l s e a l a r m s . Pa+rols d o h a v e t h e dlsadvan+age +ha+ t h e y c a n n o t g l v e 100 percen+ coverage and fal Is can occur between patrol s. when broken by a rock fal I. d u e t o m l n o r r o c k f a l l s o r v a n d a l i s m . Rock Sheds and Tunnels In cases where the hazard from rock fal Is Is hlgh and stablllzatlon I s n o + feasible. Al so. O n s t e e p mountalnsldes.

14: Rock sheds and tunnels. Figure 12. :. Photographs courtesy of Canadian National Railway .’ :-. ’ .12...23 Rock sheds. . . “i.

depend Ing on how much support Is requlred(315). H3uever.000 ft. The feaslbl I Ity of relocation WI I I depend on such factors as property ownershlp and al Ignmen?. hlgh. deep canyon (see Flgure 12. EXAMPLE OF SLOPE STABILIZATION PROJECT The followlng Is a descrlptlon of a proJec+ that was undertaken It Into reduce a rock fal I hazard on a rallway and hlghway. even a mlnor derailment could cause rail cars to fal I onto the hlghway below.24 Design methods that quantify the impact loads of rock fal Is and avalanches are not well developed. The cost of drlvlng and supportlng a tunnel may be less than the cost of construct Ing a shed.16 Illustrates that these fractures occur In three sets which w e r e orlented such that they formed roughly cubic shaped blocks. Flgure 12.12. Tunnels are the most posltlve method of protectlon from rock fal Is. recent work on snow avalances uslng fluld mechanics prlnclples can be applied to t h e design o f r o c k sheds(314). DurIng the *Inter. the temperatures can drop to -3O’F and Ice can be a problem despite the area belng seml-arld with a ralnfall as low as 6 Inches annually.15). The rock falls were occurrlng because. It may be more e c o n o m l c a l t o r e l o c a t e t h e hlghuay r a t h e r t h a n t o t r y a n d stab1 I Izs the slide. 40 degree slope above a river In 3. S l t e Descrlptlon The rallroad and hlghway are located on benches cu+ In a 250 ft. It was Intersected by a number of fracture planes (JoIntsI with continuous lengths of several tens of f e e t . more. volves blastlng for a ditch excavation.yd. a t the center. Thls hazard was particularly acute because the track curvature restrlcted vlslblllty and tralns dld not have Furthersufflclent time to stop In the event of a rock fal I. A hazard to traff Ic had developed due to rock fal Is from the upper slope and It became necessary that some remedla I work be carried o u t . of retalnlng wal I and cu+ a s l o p e t h a t w a s a b o u t 900 f t . and care should be taken to ensure that +he n e w l o c a t l o n I s o n s+able ground and no+ an extension of +he orlglnal slide. orlentatlon a n d spacing o f t h e s e f r a c t u r e s controlled stab1 llty condltlons and the slze of the rock fal Is. l o n g a n d varled I n h e l g h t from 2 0 f t . although the Intact rock was moderately strong. to as much as 10 cu. It had been necessary to construct about 100 ft. a t either e n d t o a b o u t 1 0 0 f + . control of blastlng damage and rock bolting. The two near vertical sets would form the sides of blocks. The rock falls varied In slze from less than 1 cu. which would slide If the thlrd fracture was lncllned out of the slope. In constructing the bench for the rallroad. T h e l e n g t h .yds. Relocation In cases where a large landslIde Is occurrlng. A slope had also been excavated for the constructlon of the hlghway. and were most I lkely to occur In the spr Ing and fal I dur I ng freeze-thaw cycles when Ice formed In cracks and loosened blocks of rock on the face. Weathering o f t h e r o c k o n t h e s e Joln+ sur- .

16: U n s t a b l e roch w e d g e f o r m e d b y i n t e r s e c t i n g fractures.15: Cross-section showing railroad. .25 Original slope / kinimun d i t c h uccaVatfM FI nal s l o p e Figure 12.tlain s e t o f f r a c t u r e s Figure 12. Thanpson . highway and dimensions of ditch excavation.12.

and snow removal In through-cuts tends to be dlfflcult. and *hen cover the face with w Ire mesh and app I y shotcrete to reduce the rate at wh I ch the rock was weather Ing. However. Relocate the rallroad In a +hrough-cu+ behlnd the face. b) c) Ditch design The requlred depth and wldth of a ditch tha+ WI I I be effective In catching rock falls depends upon both the helgh+ and angle o f t h e s l o p e . f r o s t ac+lon o n t h e slope cant lnued to produce occaslona I rock fal Is and It was declded that a frore extenslve and longer term stablllzatlon prog r a m . t h a n perlodlc scaling a n d bol*lng. as requlred. Alternative stablllzatlon methods The flrst method used to a+temp+ to control the rock fal Is was to use hand seal Ing and Ilght expIosIves to remove the looses+ rock from the face. and +o secure other potential ly loose rocks I n p l a c e with t h e r o c k b o l t s .10(b).26 f a c e s . t h e disadvantages w e r e t h a t t h e v o l u m e o f e x c a v a t e d r o c k w o u l d b e substantial. Rock bolts would be lnstal led.10(a). Thls dlagram shows that the dlmenslons of an effective ditch are mlnlmlzed If the slope Is cut as steep as posslble. and to work contlnu o u s l y w l t h II+tle l n t e r r u p t l o n t o traffic.steepen the slope and cause It to fal I. InfillIng with soll. although care should be taken to ensure that the excavation does not over. Thus the mlnlmum . the dlmenslons of which vary along the slope as the slope helght Increased from 20 ft.12. It wou Id have been expenslve to Ins+alI rock bolts sufflclently long to ensure that they were anchored In sound rock. t h e prlnclples o f d e s l g n l n g a n effective ditch a r e Illustra+ed I n F l g u r e 12. w a s r e q u l r e d . at the center. H o w e v e r . However. The stab1 I I za+lon program adopted was to excavate rock to form a ditch at the toe of +he s I ope that wou I d be o f sufflclent size t o c a t c h r o c k f a l I s . This alternatlve was rejected because It was bel leved that frost act Ion and continued weatherlng of the rock behlnd the face wou I d soon cause the shotcrete +o deter lorate. The relatlonshlp between the requlred ditch dlmenslons and the helght and angle of the slope are shown In Figure 12. Of course a steep slope also mlnlmlzes the excavation volume. Furthermore. Thls lnformatlon was used to deslgn a ditch. T h e m a j o r disadvantage o f t h i s alterna+lve was tha+ excavation work would be restrlcted to a f e w h o u r s a d a y t o mlnlmlze l n t e r r u p t l o n s t o b o t h r a l l a n d hlghwall lrafflc. t h e maxlmum s l o p e height would have approached 200 ft. t h e I n t a c t r o c k I t s e l f w a s sufflclently strong that It dld not usually break up on Impact with t h e t r a c k . a+ either end to 100 ft. +o secure potential ly unstable rock. The followlng alternatlves were consldered: a) Install rock bolts on a regular pattern to relnforce the rock. and root growth had accelerated Ioosenlng of the blocks. Th Is wou Id have the advantages of be I ng ab I e to excavate slopes In less weathered rock.

Thls saved ?he excavation of an extra 3 ft. I s t h a t I t f o r m e d a vertical f a c e which h e l p s t o prevent fat Ilng rock from rol I Ing out of the ditch and reachlng the track. +he the blasted rock onto the track. thickness of rock over the full 23 ft. hlgh gablon barrier along the outslde of the edge of the ditch. drllllng horizontal holes parallel to the face with tank and alr-track drl I Is. thickness o f r e j e c t b a l l a s t . This required the use of very carefully controll e d blastlng t o e n s u r e *hat t h e explosive l o a d s w e r e just strong enough to break the rock but not damage the rock behind the face. and 4 ft. It was found that the mst economIcsI design was to excavate a ditch to a 4 ft. respectively while at the c e n t e r . The plans required for the des I gn. By cuttlng each bench vertically and drl I I lng the back row of holes 4 ft. Once the top bench had been developed across the ful I length of the slope. A dozer then pushed P r i o r t o e a c h b l a s t . T h e g a b l o n I s a l s o f l e x i b l e s o t h a t I t c a n wlthstand Impact from fal I Ing rock and can be read I ly repaired If It Is also less expens Ive to construct than a condamaged. The excavation method adopted by the con+ractor was as fol lows. An advantage of the gab I on. wide bench was first developed along the entlre length of the slope just below the slope crest. w i d e . Excavat Ion mthod The two Important objectlves of the excavation program which had to be achlevod by the contractor were as follows: a) Steep slopes had +o be cut In this moderately weathered rock. an overall slope angle of about 75 degrees was achieved. which I s a b o x s h a p e d . lifts u s l n g vertical h o l e s . w e r e obtalned by terrestrial photogranmetry f r o m a pair of survey statlons on the opposite side of the river. Thls requlred the use of a blasting method +hat would not damage either the rail Q t h e retalnlng w a l l s . sectlon I n t e r v a l s along the slope. From these photographs. The dlmenslons of the ditch w e r e def lned by offsets f r o m t h e centerlIne o f t h e t r a c k a t 2 0 f t . depth and then erect a 3 ft. b) T h e r e h a d t o b e mlnlmal lnterruptlons t o traffic b o t h on the hlghway and the rallrosd. t h e ditch h a d ?o b e 7 f t . so a 20 ft. width. crete wall. .12. It was then POSslble t o e x c a v a t e t h e remalnlng b e n c h e s I n 1 5 f t . and survey control dur Ing excavation. a n d w o u l d a l s o mlnlmlze the amount of rock thrown onto the ral I road and hlghway so that clean-up +Imes would be mlnlmlzed. a topographic plan and cross-sections were propared.27 width and depth were 13 ft. wire b a s k e t fll l e d with l o o s e r o c k . length of track under the blast was protected with about a 4 f t . Thls access bench was developed by worklng a face at b&h ends of the cut. The traffic closure schedule that was drawn up al lowed a f I ve hour closure on the rallway and a 45 minute closure In every hour on the hlghway. from the toe of the prevlous bench. I n order to schleve thls maxlmum depth. d e e p a n d 2 3 f t . The mlnlmum ditch excavation was too narrow at the top of the cut to allow equipment access.

Control of blast damage As the excavation approached track level. The row of closely spaced holes along the bench face was flred last ln sequence to ensure *hat they had a freeface to which to break. By keeplng wlthln these guldellnes. Damage to structures from blast vlbratlons Is related to the peak particle velocity of these vlbratlons.000 Ibs. a number of vibration measurements were taken for the lnltlal blast and from these measurements a blast control chart was drawn up (see Flgure 12. long. the bias+ vlbratlons had to be control led to ensure that +here was no damage +o either t h e s t r u c t u r e .18). 0 4 Ib/ft? Wooden spacers 18 Inches long were used between 5 Inch long exploslve sticks to dlstrlbute the load evenly In +he rock. 0 . The delay sequence was set up with each row perpendicular +o the face so as to mlnlmlze the volume of rock tha+ was thrown onto the track. 5 0 0 f t . Also the blast vlbratlons may have damaged the grou+ around the bolts. because use of the wagon drill for boltlng would have slowed the excava+lon program. and fully grouted to both lock In the tenslon. Figure 12. s q u a r e g a b l o n .h o l e spacing explosive load = 3 l b / h o l e . When the excavation had been completed. The bolts used were 1 Inch diameter hollow bolts either 8 ft. Thls chart rel a t e s t h e distance o f t h e blas + to the maxlmum permlsslble charge welght that can be detonated on a slngle delay. the excavat Ion was completed wlthout damaglng t h e wal I s . The flnal step In the excavation program was to construct a 3 f t . Each was tensloned to 25.19 shows a photograph of thls gablon and the completed ditch. o r t o t h e r e t a l n l n g w a l l s o u t s l d e t h e t r a c k .3 Holes on face = 2 ft. or 14 ft. x 5 ft. The blasting mathod flnal ly adopted was as follows: Productlon Holes . detonated per delay. hole dlameter = 2-l/2 Inches e x p l o s l v e loed = 9 l b / h o l e . vlbratlons depends upon the maxlmum charge weight detonated per In order to determlne what weigh+ of explosive could be delay. . depth was required.hole pattern = 5 ft. . The drllllng and bolt lnstallatlon was carried out In a basket suspended from a crane located In t h e ditch.28 A number of trial blasts were requlred to determine the optlmum drill pattern and explosive load requlred to mlnlmlze damage to the rock behlnd the face. Thls method was adapted Instead of Installing bolts from each bench as the excavation proceeded. and to protect the bolt from corrosion. Flgure 12. selective rock boltlng was carried out where natural fractures were or len+ed to form potentially unstable blocks.17 shows the completed slope with drl I I Ing In progress for the excavation of the ditch.12. 0 . 5 Ib/yd. long on the outslde edge of the ditch where a 7 ft. Experience has shown that masonry retalnlng walls such as +he ones a+ this slte were unlikely to be damaged If the peak particle velocity T h e magnitude o f t h e s e does not exceed 4 Inches per second.

D i s t a n c e from b l a s t .19: Ditch after construction o f gabion. .18: B l a s t d a m a g e c o n t r o l c h a r t .29 6 in/set.12.f e e t F i g u r e 12. L i m i t f o r Rock F i g u r e 12.17: C o m p l e t e d s l o p e w i t h d r i l l i n g in progress for ditch excavation. L i m i t f o r Walls 4 in/see. Figure 12.

The fee or profit to the contractor was quoted separately in the tender and could be adjusted to reflect the difference in the Final and Original Target Estimates. b u t l a t e r d i s a g r e e m e n t s a r o s e o v e r t h e definitlon of rock that was to be paid for in the lump sum It is payment.30 Contracts A target type contract was used for this project to give the c o n t r a c t o r i n c e n t i v e t o c o n t r o l c o s t s . This estimate was adjusted upon job completion. to become the Final Target Estimate.u p calculations for the Original Target Estimate.b i d s i t e m e e t i n g . Several contract problems developed during the course of the project. Both these percentages were bid items and were 10 percent and 40 percent respectively. estimated and spelled out in the contract so that the contractor can include this item in his bid calculation. To provide an incentive. T h i s m a t t e r w a s d i s c u s s e d a t t h e p r e . interrupting the coordinated rai lway-highway closure Production losses due to delays should be schedule. and that which was to be paid at cost. Trains delayed work on 50 percent of the working days. T h e c o n t r a c t s h o u l d i n c l u d e a n “upset price” t o e n s u r e that the contractor does not prolong the job for which he is paid cost plus the minimum fee. for changes in quantities or work type. the following are suggestions on how they might be avoided. a) A lunp sum payment was to be made for a I I access construction and rock excavated outside the ditch design I ines. suggested that these two classes of rock be very clearly defined and that records of pre-bid meetings be included in the contract. a n d t o p r o v i d e b a c k . The blds should be analyzed to ensure that the cont r a c t o r i s n o t nlow-ballingVV h i s b i d a n d t h a t h i s quoted rates are out-of-pocket costs and do not include profit. w h i l e p r o v i d i n g f lexibi I ity in the event of changed quantities or more traffic interruptions than set out in the contract. Since payments to the contractor were based upon actual costs. and a lump sum price for access construction. each bidder was requested to supply lists o f r a t e s f o r labour a n d e q u i p m e n t . Each bidder supplied the owner with an Original Target Estimate based upon the design value of rock to be excavated. b) cl d) . if it were less than the Final Target Estimate then the fee would be increased by y percent of the difference. the fee was on a sliding scale: if the actual cost of the work was greater than the Final Target Estimate then the fee payable would be reduced by x percent of the difference.12. A p e n a l t y c l a u s e f o r o v e r e x c a v a t i o n beyond the design line was also included to encourage the contractor to reduce over-break from blasting and to excavate the minimum amount of rock.

D. July 1975. Amsterdam. pp. 0.4 0 .R. No. 2%. A s s o c . WI ley and Sons. Thesis. 1969. Ground Englneerlng. SHARP. D e n v e r . July 1979. 2%. 1977. 1972.C. D. May 1976. pp. . Pat-Is. sed Rock and Sol I Anchors. V o l . MlnIng and Metallurgy. 3 r d I n t e r n a t l o n a l C o n g r e s s o n r o c k mechanics. Elsevler. DDDSDN. SHARP. 613. Pock reinforcement. P . 283-292. 292. Bridge piers stab1 I lzed u n d e r traffic. T. Co. H. E. 5. IRB Special R e p o r t 2 9 . Transportatlon Research Board. LONDE. F. E. LITTLEJOHN.drainage systems f o r Increasing t h e stsblllty o f s l o p e s . P h . J. ECKERT. Publ. 1 8 . Washlngton. 1958. P a r t A . IX. H. 2%. D. ERAWNER.. 1972. . p p . V o l .L. R-F. 1st REDLINGER. B u l l . 302. L . Sectton A.C. August 1975. Internatlonal Congress of Rock Mechanics. G . J. pp. 80. Inf I uence of groundwater on the stabll Ity of rock masses ..C. D. May.O. No. 1966. I n s t . V . 113-120. 299.L. 294. London.. Rallway Track and Structures..6 5 4 . WYLL IE. 788. Recommendations f o r Prestres- 291.31 Chapter 12 references 2%. BEkR. Rock anchors . M N C L . Sols. HDEK.. 1970. Meeting. lW7.. Geol.A. 304. 215-239. HDEK. K. PITEAU. 324-328. Consolldatlon de masslfs rocheaux per ancrage de cables (Consolldatlon of rock masses by cable anchors). J. 544. SEEGMILLER.. 300. pp. C h a p t e r 9 . BAKER. MARSHALL. Llsbon. CEDERGREN. 305.R. 1. Landslldes a n d their c o n t r o l . 5 . Fluld f l o w t h r o u g h fissured media. ZARlBA.state of t h e art (3 p a r t s ) . G-S. Vol. 293.. . BRUCE. J. pp. Q . 460 p. No. 301. Ii. ND. RAWLINGS. p p .A.. Stab1 I Ity of rock slopes on the German State RaIlway. September 1966. Advances I n r o c k mechanics. 3 3 . dralnage and f lownets. 1%8. Vol. 3. University of London (ImperIaI College). KLENGEL.F. Seepage. 303. Book on LandslIdes: a n a l y s i s a n d con+rol. Geol. 150-187. 12. S e p tember I 974. J. POST TENSIONING INSTITUTE.12. Vail.C. Rock anchor deslgn. E n g . A r t l f l c l a l stab1 llzatlon I n o p e n pit AIME mines: a new c o n c e p t t o achieve s l o p e stab1 I Ity.. T r a n s . Surface uorklngs In rock. 1966. Germany.C. E . New York. lands l i d e s a n d e n g l n e e r l n g practice. 297. Vol. D . E . LANG. Stablllzatlon o f poten+lal r o c k slides I n folded qusrtzlte In Northwestern Tasmanla. B . E n g . C. Control and correctlon. PECKOVER. Rock slope englneerlng. Deutsche Elsenbahntchnlk.

L . PP. parative evaluation of f ibre shotcretes. G. E .V. V. Inc... 1972.. P e r s o n a l camnunication. BARRON. I n t r o d u c t o r y soi I m e c h a n its SOWERS. 1963. L. South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. Detroit. . A. A. S h o t c r e t e i n h a r d r o c k t u n n e l I i n g . 13-28. IX. COYLE. RITCHIE. 241-264.. Vol. 314. K . R. HDEK. 3.M.32 306. A comRIAMAKRISHNAN. Publishing Co.I.. G Y E N G E .J. Evaluation of rock fal I and its control. T . E n g l a n d .F. 1966. SOWERS. 556 p. W. . September 1979. Construction West. M . C O A T E S . 307. pp.. MEARS. Mines Branch. Eng. 10-l 1. FOWLER. FUKUOKA. H i g h w a y R e s e a r c h B o a r d . 310. 312.. 311. T u n n e l r e p a i r s . S h o t c r e t i n g . McMillan and foundation engineering. P e r s o n a l carmunication.C. BREKKE. A r t i f i c i a l s u p p o r t of rock slopes. New York. 145 p. Im L o n d o n . E . 1971. Ottawa Research Report. 228. August 1979. D. pp. BRDWN. No. VAN RYSWYK R. O . Report SDSM-T-CBS 7902. A C I Committee 506. . ACI SP-14. F . . 313. 1 9 8 1 . 308. U n d e r g r o u n d e x c a v a t i o n s i n r o c k . S. 315.12. A M E R I C A N C O N C R E T E I N S T I T U T E . Mining Research Centre. T h i r d e d i t i o n . R e c o r d 1 7 . Assoc. T . B u l I . 309. Geol.B. W a s h i n g t o n . G.

or when funds are not available. t h e s u c c e s s f u l appllcatlon o f system employed. This chapter describes methods of monitoring slope movement. on large slides which are moving at rates as groat as several feet a month. for example. Type and cause of failure II) e i L $0 2 04 Y 5 Y -i :: L2 e . and toppl ing fai lures show hor lzontal movement at the crest with little movement at the toa (see margin sketch). and recording and interpreting the r e s u l t s . Conversely. planar and wedge type failures slide in a direction parallel to the inclination of the failure plane.o ” : co Prcdlctcd fri lure date Feb. and on bridge abutments where it is important that very small movements be detected. a n d t h e y are presently widely used to monitor slopes adjacent to highways and rallways. 3) C o r r e c t l y i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e r e s u l t s t o d e t e r m i n e w h e n acceleration occurs. 18.1 Chapter 13 Slope movement monitoring. or when stabi liration work is unlikely to produce long-term improvement in stabi Iity. circular failures show tension cracks and slunplng at the crest and hoavlng at the toe. 1969. the magnitude and rate of movement and the warning In genera I. The four types of slope failure discussed in Chapters 7 through 10 have a particular direction in which movement occurs and this should be considered when designing a monitoring system.13. the measured direction of movement will provide information on the type of failure that is occurrlng. Other circumstances could b e w h e r e a p o t e n t i a l s l o p e f a i l u r e I s i d e n t i f i e d b u t i t i s uncertain as to how close it is to failure. The monitoring system that Is installed should be able to detect movement in the direction which it Is most Ilkely to occur. Movement monitoring can be used in a wide range of conditions. I d ii Warning of deteriorating stab1 I ity conditions can be obtained by measurlng the rate at which the slope is moving and detocting the period of accelerating movement which always precedes f a i l u r e . Stabilization of a slope may not be possible when weather conditions such as ice and snow make work hazardous for scalers. 2) Making accurate and unambiguous movement measurments. movement monitoring depends upon carrying out three important steps: 1) Recognizing the type of failure and the probable causes of failure. 1. The following is a discussion of these factors. These methods have been used successfully to predict t h e t i m e o f f a i l u r e o f a number o f slopesold-318).months Typical plot of cumulative displacemant against tima showing acceleration period before failure. A typical movement/time plot of a failing slope is shown In the margin sketch. Introduction Circunstances c a n a r i s e w h e n i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o s t s b i I ire potentially hazardous slopes and it is necessary that some method of detecting deteriorating stability conditions be installed. on individual blocks which are susceptible to sliding or toppllag. The method of monitoring depends upon such factors as the type and size of the failure. Thus. Plot of fastest moving polnt i i ~ S ON l&k69 F Tima . Details of installation methods are sval Iable from the equipment suppliers and equipment originally developed for soil slopes is usually suitable for rock slopes. Do- .

. The selection of the most appropriate method WI I I depend upon such factors as: Access to the slope .: ‘.* :.some slopes may be too steep or too hazardous for personnel to climb In order to make measurements.. Other possible causes of failure are vibrations from nearby blasts(319) and excavation at the toe of the slope for road or ditch widening. s u c h a s a c c e l e r a t i o n t i m e p l o t s .: (a) Plane or wedge failure. Characteristic direction of movement of three common types of slope failure.13. H o w e v e r . then t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f plezometers t o rrpnltor i n c r e a s e s i n p r e s sures wlli provide an earlier warning of failure than measuring movement. Rapid md reliable interpretation of the results Is important to ensure that one is able to identify movement conditions that a r e indicative o f p o t e n t i a l f a i l u r e . a circular failure with a helght of a hundred feet may move several feet before coliapslng.’: *I’ ‘y . in which case remote methods of measurement are required.“sands”. Interpretation of results ‘:. crack width measurements. T h e f i r s t s t e p I s t o p l o t the measurements as graphs of movement against time because these graphs WI I I much more read1 ly show any change In the rate of movenent than I ists of figures. Toppi ing failure. . inclinometers. T h e r e f o r e .. METHODS OF WASURING SLOF’E WVEWENTS Methods of measuring slope movement can be dlvlded Into two general classes: 1) 2) Surface methods . In this way. Also. strain gauges. if hlgh groundwater pressures are the main cause of lnstabl I Ity.. the graphs shou Id be brought up to date as soon as the measurements are made. 3. ‘:.z. movements as small as i/2 inch may have a significant effect on stabi I ity so the mon ltor Ing system should be able to detect In making these measurements. ‘:::‘:. Information on instrumentation systems is provlded by manufacturers and such publications as Highway Focus(320). vectors and velocity contours. Other methods of recording data. Subsurface methods . Accurate and unambiguous measurememts : 0.2 terminlng the cause of failure Is Important in order to obtaln the earliest possible warning of failure. movements as smal I as 0. o n a b r i d g e a b u t m e n t . F o r axample.0-t.surveying. --) :: .1 inch. For example.‘. shear strips. The monltoring system Installed should be sufficiently accurate t o d e t e c t m o v e m e n t s t h a t ae s i g n i f i c a n t t o s t a b i l i t y . . a monitoring system that can detect movements of I /2 inch to 1 inch is probably sufficiently a c c u r a t e ... one shou Id be sure that the survey resu Its are an accurate representation of the movement of the slope. 2. one can draw confident conclusions as to whether or not hazardous conditions exist. which assist in interpreting results. tiltmeters. are discussed later in this chapter. extensometers..’ : (b) Ci rcuiar fai lure..

. then surveyIng methods which rely on good vlslbl Ilty would not be sultable. The frequency should be Incraased a s t h e s l o p e s t a r t s to wcelerate. Data hand I Ing .13.all nwement mltorlng systems can be the object of vandalism unless access Is particularly dlfIt might be necessary to lnstal I secure proflcult. Extensometers are particularly wall sulted for lncorporatlon with warning systems. In general. rather than a manual system. then It may be preferable to lnstal I an automatic systw of recording the measurements. extensometers.I f t h e r e a r e o n l y a few statlons which are Infrequently measured.If measurements have to be made at night and In poor weather condltlons. Warnlng systems .o n l a r g e f a i l u r e s I t I s p r e f e r a b l e to use surveylng methods to measure long distances rather than measure widths of indlvldual cracks uhlch may not be open lng at the same rate at uhlch the overa l l slide I s moving. The fol loulng Is a dercrlptlon of methods of monl tor Ing slope movaents. However.t h e f r e q u e n c y a t r h l c h r e a d ings we taken depends upon the rate of movement and the consequence of fat lure. I t m a y b e n e c e s s a r y t o lnstsl I a n a u t o m a t i c uarnlng system that closes the hlghway If sudden movements occur. Vandal Ism . then automatic methods of t-ecordlng the results and updatlng graphs should be consldered. Under these condltlons. Measurement of the uldth of these cracks WI I I often be represontatlve o f t h e nwement o f t h e slide I t s e l f . Frequency of readings . If there are many stat Ions which are frequently read. tactlve houslngs If vandalism becomes a problem. partlcularly If the road has not been closed to traffic.3 Size o f falluro . Magnitude and rate of movement . Incllnometers or tlllmeters would be more appropriate. the nwement graphs can be plotted by hand. the maasur Ing system used shou Id be free of operator blas and capable of producing consistently reliable results o v e r t h e f u l l time period I n which I t I s likely to b e I n opwatlon.slopes that are movIng slowly need a more precise monltorlng system than slopes uhlch are moving fast. If readings are made more frequently than about once a week over extended periods. Weather mndltlons . t h e o p e n l n g o f t e n s l o n c r a c k s o n t h e crest of the slope Is t h e first slgn of lnstabl Ilty.I n p a r t i c u l a r l y h a z a r d o u s condltlons. SURFACEc(ETHODS Crack Width Measurements In almost al I’slldes. In order to save on manpower time and costs.

The accuracy of a tape extensuneter Is about +0. The main advantage Is that It Is easier to measure movement over longer distances so that the measurement statlon can be established some distance behlnd the tenslon cracks. vertlcal movement Is not readily measured.2. Another feature of the wlre extensometer Is that It can Incorporate an alarm device that can close the highway In the event of sudden movement of the slope.003 Inches. The set-back distance should be carefully selected to prevent false alarms and to ensure that adequate warnlng of fal lure Is obtained. However. It I s n e c e s s a r y t h a t the trip block be set back from the trlp switch at regular lntervals. The accuracy of this system Is of the order of +0. In order to prevent false alarms when t h e s l o p e I s mvlng s l o w l y a n d s t e a d l l y . tensioned w l r e e x t e n s o m e t e r s can be used to measure movement over a greater distance as In thls method. Where more precl se movement measurements are requ I red. this Ilmlts t h e s y s t e m t o s m a l l f a l l u r e s . A set-back distance of about 3 to 4 tlmes the movement that Is occurrlng between read I ngs cou Id be used as a guldellne when setting up the lnltlal system and thls can be modlfled as movement data Is collected. 3 ) . a tape extensometer consists of a steel tape wlth flttlngs at t h e e n d s which a l l o w t h e t a p e t o b e a t t a c h e d t o r e f e r e n c e points on either s l d e o f t h e t e n s l o n c r a c k ( s e e F l g u r e 1 3 . and measure the distance between the plns with a steel tape or rule as shown In Flgure 13. correct Ions for therma I expansion and contractlon of the wlre may have to be made. F u r t h e r m o r e . ross the tenslon cracks between a measurement stat Ion estabI lshed on stable ground and an anchor Is secured on the crest. The advantages of thl s system are that the equlpment Is readily avallable and can be set up quickly. It may be necessary to purchase conmnerclal Instruments. and that readings can be made and results analyzed lmnedlately.4 The simplest means of measurlng crack width Is to set pairs of s t e e l pins. safe access to the crest of the slope must be posslble In order to make measuremerits. The tape Is tensloned to the same tenslon every time a readlng Is made by means of a provlng rlng. the alarm device shown consists of a switch mounted on the measurement statlon which Is trlpped by the movement of a second block threaded on the tensloned wlre. Extensometers As the slide becomes larger and It Is no longer posslble to use pairs of plns ecross the cracks. and this will probably become dangerous when the width of the crack Is several feet. I f t h l s I s d o n e . one on either slde of the crack. For example. Wlre extensometers have much the same advantages and dlsadvantages as crack width measurements. In Flgure 13. the wire can be extended over the crest so that movement of the toe of the slope can a I so be measured. a wlre Is stretched acshown In Figure 13. In addltlon. . The dlsadvantages are that the movement measured Is not absolute because It Is dlfflcult to locate the back pin on stable ground. Relative movement between the statlon and the anchor Is Indlcated by an adjustable block threaded on the wlre which moves along a steel rule.2. Also. This type of equlpment can readily be manufactured from pieces of scrap metal and need not take the exact form shown In Flgure 13.1.2.13.25 Inches.

2: W i r e extensoineter o n c r e s t o f s l o p e .1: Y Crack width measurements show movement of crest of failure. . Heasurennt s t a t i o n o n s t a b l e g r o u n d Not to Scale Tensioning weight Figure 13.5 in concrete Tension crack Not to Scale Figure 13.13.

6 Figure 13. Photograph courtesy of Slope Indicator Company Stable reference point Not to Scale Figure 13.13.4: T a p e extenswter.4: Sketch illustrating principles of wire extensometer. .

because the slope beneath the instrument stations may also be moving. T h e r e f o r e . remote measurement using standard The selection of the surveying techniques WI I I be required. remote readlngs are required. The other ends of the wires pass through a reference polnt so that movement can be measured between the anchor and the reference polnt. The readlngs from the potentlometers can be transmitted to a central recordlng statlon so that a number of extensometers can be monltored simultaneously. and their posltlons are determlned from a reference staI t I s estion on stable ground some distance from the slope.4). the movement of the whole sl I de can be found. Electronic Distance Measurement Electronic distance measurement (EDM) equipment can measure displacement to an accuracy of better than l/2 Inch over sight distances of m3re than one mile. If continuous. . most appropr late method WI I I depend upon the degree of accuracy requlred and the physical constraints at the slte. or when clouds obscure the targets. Surveying As the slide becomes larger. These polnts should also be established behind and to either slde of the expected e x t e n t o f failure. a laser Instrument may be requlred. sentlal that the positlon of the Instrument stations be checked against the reference. can be determined. continuous m o n l t o r l n g o f a s l o p e c r e s t I s r e quired. s o t h a t t h e llmlts o f Instabillty.5. crack width measurements WI I I probably not be possible because a stable reference point WI I I be dlfflcult t o f l n d . slide. Measurements can be made elther with a mlcrometer cr. Monitoring points a r e establlshed on the slide and by regularly determinlng their posltions. The different surveying methods that can be used for slope monltorlng are described below.13. A c c e s s t o t h e s l o p e t o lnspect prisms or change thelr crlentations Is also desirable. radio transmitters and telephone I ines(321 1. host Instruments employed in surveylng work use an Infrared beam which Is adequate for most appllcatlons. a I lnear potentlcwneter is used.7 W h e r e precise. The general principles of any surveylng technique are shown In Instrument stat Ions are establ lshed below the Figure 13. and can be The targets themused at nlght If targets are I I luminated. The Instruments also have built-in correctlons for variations in temperature and barometric pressure. Methods of transmitting the data from the monltorlng Instrument to the recordlng statlon Include electrlcal cable. The measurements are made In a few seconds so that an almost continuous record of movement can be obtalned. and thus a back-up system of extensometers may be usefu I during extended per lads of poor weather. Over extreme distances. a multiwire extensometer can be Installed. selves consist of reflector prlsms costlng about $150 each and c a n b e m o u n t e d o n pieces o f r e l n f o r c l n g b a r d r l v e n I n t o t h e ground or grouted Into dri I I holes. T h l s conslsts of a number of wires of dlfferent lengths with one end of each attached to an anchor grouted into the slope (see Figure 13. a s w e l l as any increase In its size. One disadvantage of the surveylng technique Is that it is not possible to make readings durlng heavy rainstorms oc snowstorms.

5: Surveying of slope movement. Tens ion crack EDH equipment Not to Scale Figure 13.6: Slope distance measurement with EDH equipment. Limit of failure Figure 13.8 A Reference station B Instrument sta l Movement station on fai lure. .13.

Leveling can be used In conjunction with EDM transit measuroments to determine coordinate positlons where the terrain does n o t a l l o w s e t . from which vectors of movement between successive readings can be calculated. O f f s e t s . This i s I l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1 3 . coordinate determInatTons should otil y be carr led out when the expected movement distance between readings Is greater than the magn Itude of error. This method Is only appllcable where access to the slope crest Is possible and where the terraln permits reasonably long sight distances. using a 1 second theodolite with all angles doubled. it Is also important that a stable reference statlon be available. Leveling lnformatlon on the rate and extent of subsidence of an area can be obtained by maklng Ievellng measurements of a network of stations on the crest of the slope.5. the positlon of each prlsm can be detormlned either by trlangulatlon. it Is essential that measurements be made parallel to the expected dlrection of movements otherwise only a component of the movement will be measured. which I s m o v l n g n o r t h east. 5 w h e r e t h e n o r t h e r n h a l f o f t h e s l i d e . u n d e r I d e a l condltlons. EDM measurements are rapld and accurate.000 f t .6. and an EDM measuring fo + 0.d l m e n s l o n a l posltlon o f e a c h prism. as discussed on page 13. Informatlon on the approximate vertical movement can be obtalned by measurlng the vertical angle to each statlon as well as the slope d I stance. which does not require the measurement of any angles. a n d t h i s s h o u l d b e t a k e n I n t o a c c o u n t when setting out the base1 Ins between the Instrwnt stations. Trilateratlon More precise lnformatlon on the direction of movement and the failure mechanism c a n b e obtalned by flnding t h e c o o r d i n a t e s and elevation of each station.13. . I s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e distance o f t h e p r l s m s f r o m t h r e e s t a t l o n s formlng a tetrahedron(322). and surveying Is usef u l i n t h a t i t g i v e s t h e t h r e e . I t i s likely t h a t hlghway s u r v e y o r s dolng rout Ine measurements I n a l l w e a t h e r condltlons u s i n g equlpment In less than perfect adjustment WI I I obtain avorago errors of + 4 Inches to + 6 Inches. T r l a n g u l a t l o n . Thls will give an lndicatlon of the mode of falluro. If there are two instrument statlons.u p o f I n s t r u m e n t s t a t l o n s b e l o w t h e s l Ido a s shown in Figure 13. 1 2 lnchesC323). a n d t h e distance measured with EDM equlpment (offsets). A number of ways In which thls can be done are Illustrated in Figure 13. Another alternatlve. as can be seen In Figure 13. is measured from station 2. Of course. T r i a n g u l a t i o n . which is moving southeast. H o w e v e r .05 Inch over slght distances of 1. For this method to be accurate. Surveying does have the disadvantage that the measurements and the calculations are time-consuming and results are n o t lmnedlately aval lable. or by trllateration uslng EDM equipment . If there Is only one Instrument statlon. c a n g l v e e r r o r s I n coordinate p o s l t l o n s o f a s Ilttle a s 0 .1.5. angles can be turned f r o m t h e r e f e r e n c e s t a t i o n t o e a c h p r l s m . Is mnitored from station 1 and the southern part. Best r e s u l t s a r e o b t a i n e d i f t h e t h r e e p o i n t s f o r m a n equl lateral triangle. For this reason.9 The simplest method of surveying Involves measuring the distance between the Instrument station and pr lsms on the slope.

when mounted on a ceramic plate rigidly attached to the ground. ard then lowerlng a Iongth of steel on a piece of rope down the ho le. s o that the volume of the slldlng mass can be calculated. Photogranmmtry On s o m e l a r g e slides w h e r e I t I s n o t possible t o s u r v e y t h e whole moving area. Sand The wsondw method conslsts of drllllng a hole to below the expected depth of the failure. SUBSURFACE SURVEYING MZTHODS It Is often useful lo know the posltlon of the fal lure surface. and photographs can only be taken on cloud-free days. Changes In tilt of the plate of about +lO setonds can be measured by the tl Itmeter and the readrngs are highly reproducible. a sond lowered from the surface WI I I show the top of the fal lure (see margln sketch). One possible appl Icatlon for tl Itmeters would be on brldge abutments and piers where continuous and precise measurement of tlltlng Is requlred.13. the casing will be bent. It Is Ilkely that the mlnlmum error In coordinate posltlon that can be obtalned with thls method Is 6 Inches. Whl le wide coverage WI I I be obtalned. Inclinometers If t h e p o s l t l o n s o f s e v e r a l f a t l u r e s u r f a c e s a n d t h e r a t e o f Thls Inmovement Is requlred. Thls will lndlcate t h e b a s e o f t h e failure p l a n e . U s u a l l y . Tlltmeters should only be used when It Is certain that measurement of tilt *III be an accurate representation of slope movement . and stab1 I lty analyses carried out. T h l s I n s t r u m e n t c a n either b e l e f t I n place to continuously record tlltlng or can be carried around the site and set up on each plate each time a set of readings Is made. strument precisely measures small movements over the length of Howthe hole and also gives the plan dlrectlon of movement. a n d I s easily p o r t a b l e on rough terraln. As the slope moves. r e s u l t s wll I n o t b e a v a l lable f o r severa I days or even weeks. the casing WI I I bend at the fal I ure surf ace. casing the hole. The followlng Is a descrlptlon of methods that could be used on transportation routes. a n d t h e I n s t r u m e n t m a y b e l o s t I n t h e hole.10 Tl Itmeters T l Itmeters a r e I n s t r u m e n t s t h a t . the use of photogramnetry may be consldered. record the angular tilt o f t h e p l a t e . tlltmeters w o u l d b e u s e d In conjunctlon uIth other mnltorlng methods. and eventual ly It wll I n o t b e possible t o p u l l t h e s t e e l p a s t t h e d l s t o r t l o n . If the movement rate Is great. ever. T h e u n l t weighs a b o u t 6 I b s . I n a slmllar manner. the type of fal lure Identlfled. . an lncllnometer can be used. I f I t I s n o t c l e a r l y defined b y t h e g e o l o g l c a l s t r u c t u r e . Al I the methods of obtalnlng this InformatIon require drl I I holes and remote readlngs cannot be made as read1 ly as they can wlth surface measurements.

-O i 10 Deflection . However. It may be required t h a t t h e t e n s i o n In t h e b o l t b e monitored t o determlne I f c r e e p .S o u t h The Instrument operates In an ldentlcal manner to the tlltmeter described previously In that It makes precise measurements of the tilt of the borehole. The relat lve movement of the rock between anchor posltlons and the collar of the borehole Is lndlcated by movement of the ends of the ulres at the col I ar . T h l s requlres t h e u s e o f a special tensJonJng/readJng I n s t r u m e n t t h a t must be kept In good adjustment and that careful measurements be made by quallfled personnel. T h e r e f o r e . Boreho I e Extensometer T h e multlwlre extensometer described previously (see Figure 1 3 . a “shear str lpw movement Ind lcator Is more appropr late. INTERPRETING MOVEKNT ESULTS In order to use monltorlng to successfully decide whether traff Ic may.inches . I t I s u s e f u l t o h a v e a c c e s s t o t h e g a u g e a f t e r Installatlon In the event that the gauge has to be rep I aced. Measurements can be made with a standard dial gauge which Is not as subject to error as the tenslon l ng Instrument. T h e c a s i n g I s a special I t e m t h a t m u s t b e purchased from the manufacturer of the Inclinometer. o r l o s s o f a n c h o r a g e Is occurrlng. this WI I I show the d e p t h d o w n t h e borehol e o f t h e surface. By making measurements at flxed Intervals up the casing. When deslgnlng an extenscmeter system one should be sure that the Instrument Is Installed parallel to the dlrectlon of movem e n t b e c a u s e i t c a n o n l y r e g l s t e r t e n s l o n o r compresslon. 60 Plot of inclinometer data. extensometers are now avallable I n which t h e wires c o n s i s t o f l/4 I n c h diameter s t r a n d s t h a t a r e sufflclently rlgld n o t t o require t e n s l o n l n g . u s e d .13. 4 ) c a n readily b e lnstal l e d I n a borehole ( h o l e dlaneter Z-l/Z to 3 Inches) wlth the ulres anchored at different posltlons down the hole. b u t n o t t h e r a t e o f movement. s h e a r displacements a r e o c c u r r l n g o n t h e f a i l u r e s u r f a c e . T h e casing h a s g r o o v e s cut In the ual Is to prevent the instrument from rotat Ing as It Is pulled up the hole. this may require the design of a special nut a n d p l a t e a r r a n g e m e n t t o a v o l d u n t e n s l o n l n g t h e b o l t in t h e event that It Is necessary fu change the ccl I . extensometers a r e I d e a l f o r measuring t h e d e p t h o f I n a circular failure w h e r e movement In a toppllng failure. continue t o t r a v e l b e l o w a falling s l o p e . This I n s t r u m e n t consists o f a s t r l p o f electrlcal c o n d u c t o r t h a t i s broken by movement on the failure surface.11 Depth ft. the movement data must be correctly and rapldly Interpreted. Thls enables the dlrectlon of movement to be determlned. or by If straln gauges are attaching strain g a u g e s t o t h e b o l t . a plot of the lncl lnat Ion of the boreh o l e I s obtalned ( s e e margln s k e t c h ) . Tenslon can be measured by plac Ing a load ccl I between the nut and the plate on the face of the slope. The longest wire should extend beyond the failure surface so that It forms a s t a b l e reforenco point a s t h e c o l l a r moves. Rock Bolt Load Calls In condltlons where rock bolts are a cfltlcal part of a stablIizatlon p r o g r a m . or may not. If a load cell Is used. . Most types of extensometors requ I re that tie wires be tens loned to a standard tenslon each time readings are made.

(m/day) VI Velocity/time plot highlights changes In movement rate.days Figure 13..:‘‘.months Figure 13..12 Y = 12 t t ‘8 i Acceleration 0 2 4 6 8 IO 12 Time . . 8 -6 i f4 8 2 s i e 1.8: i2 m q. . .13.. T =I0 2 0 123456789 z 3 T i m e .7: Typical shape of movement/time plot preceding fai lure.. ... .

A l s o . It may become dlfflcult. where the gradlent of the graph lndlcates t h e sccelefatlon o f t h e s l o p e ( s e e Figure 1 3 . I n Figure 1 3 . I n a circular fal lure. Figure 13. 9 . thus producing an adequate warning of failure. uay. I t m a y b e possible t o reopen the road If the slope continues to move with zero accele r a t l o n . but on major hlghuays hourly readings may be necessary If rapld movement Is occurrlng.7 shows that sometlmes several cycles of acceleration may occur before fal lure and that the total displacement Is usually substantial. stabIllzatlon should start In the south end of the slide uhlch Is the fastest movlng area. . 1 0 . Thls graph ull I read1 ly show any Increase In the rate of movemant t h a t I s l n d l c a t l v e o f deterloratlng stab1 I Ity c o n d l t Ions. or even sl lghtly upwards. F u r t h e r informatlon o n s t a b i l i t y c a n b e o b t a i n e d b y p l o t t i n g movement velocity against time. storage of survey data. for the slope fal lure shown In Figure 13. The frequency of masurements WI I I depend upon traff Ic condlt Ions. A l s o v e c t o r s p l o t t e d o n se&Ion often have dlp angles paral Iel to the fal lure surface beneath them. F o r t u n a t e l y . t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n period will o f t e n h a v e a duration o f s e v e r a l d a y s o r weeks. mechanism. movement plots of many statlons over any time span can be prepared In a few mlnutes. I n this figure. a conslderable unount of data WI II soon be accumulated and the plottlng of movements and vector ulll become most time-consuming. 8 ) . Monltorlng data can also provide Information on aerlal extent. c o n t o u r s o f slope velocity plotted on plan show the size of the slide and the fastest movlng areas. For example. whllr prisms at the toe WI I I move approximately horlzontally. I n circumstances t h a t require a rapld assessment of stabI I Ity condItlons. I f monltorlng o f a l a r g e slide continues f o r s o m e time. uhlch may Indicate the geometry and mschanlsm of failure. and depth of fal lure.13. Thus. Thls means that monltorlng should start when Instablllty f Irst becomes apparent so that the steady rate of movement can be establ Ished. Frequent mon Itor Ing uou I d be requ Ired under these c lrcunstances. I f It nwre n e c e s s a r y t o h a l t traffic during t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n p e r i o d .9. and plottlng of In thls movement graphs Is an Ideal appllcatlon for cxmnputers. calculation of vectors. a s I l l u s t r a t e d I n Figure 1 3 . However. to make quick rel i a b l e Interpretations o f l a r g e v o l u m e s o f d a t a . In fact. these dlmenslons should be caref u l l y selected t o ensure t h a t a c c e l e r a t i o n I s c l e a r l y Identiflable. It should be noted that planar type fat lures may occur with much less warning. Since the appearance of the graph 1s dependent on the scales chosen for the axes. These contours can be used to decide hor stablllzatlon work should be scheduled to mlnlmlze traff Ic closures. the slope accelerated for the flrst five days and then moved at a constant velocity.7.13 The most useful method of dlsplaylng movement data Is to plot cumulative s l o p e fmvement against time a s I l l u s t r a t e d I n F l g u r e 13. Plan plots of displacement vectors obtained from triangulation wll I show the dlrectlon of movement. Gn low volume roads monthly readlngs may be sufflclent. prisms near the crest will tend to have movement vectors ulth steep dlp angles.

‘\\~tke~le _Instrument statioln .13.16 Contours of slope movement (interval = figure 13. m---Y Fai lure surfoke Not to Scale Figure 13.10: Dip angle of movement vectors shows approximate depth of fai lure. . Movement vectors .9: Contours of slope mbvement sholr extent and relative movement rates of slide.

4. 321.F. Mines Branch. 2. 319. Triangulation and tr i lateration methods of measuring slope movement. 1971. Compilation of papers on instrumentation from various sources .J. ORlARD. 318. Mining Research Latoratorles. D. Y.15 Chapter 13 : References 316.F.principle authors J.13.S. P. STACEY. 1977. 1978. C. Canada. BRAWNER. 13th Symposium on Rock Mechanics. D . Internal Report 72/69.O. Vancouver. June 1972. and STARK R. WLLIE. Some methods of monitoring open pit slopes. PIT SLOPE MANUAL. CHAPTER 8 MONITORING. 317.. Second International Conference on Stability in Open Pit Mining. D. ing to uses. Internal Report 73/18. The use of movement monitorminimize production losses due to pit slope fail1st International Conference on Stability in Coal Vancouver. 322. L . 320. F. KENNEDY. I I I inols. and MUNN. C. Mining Research Center. C . YU. Mining Research Center. Gould.G. Ottawa. A successful application of mining with pit wal I movement. Canadian Inst. A trial of monitoring slope wall movement at Hilton Mines using a high precision theodoI ite.A. Canada. B. Urbana. Mining.C. Mines Branch.F. B l a s t i n g e f f e c t s a n d t h e i r c o n t r o l i n o p e n pit mining. HEDLEY. Canadian Department of Energy Mines and Resources. B. . Canada Center for Mineral and Energy Technology. L .J.G. of Mining and Metallurgy Bulletin. 323. . April 1976. Vol..P. HIGHWAY FOCUS. HEDLEY. Canadian Department of Energy Mines and Resources. 1971. No. Dunnicl iff.

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timing and methods be incorporated in the specifications. In genera I . i n s p e c t o r s aval lable. y d .14. o f r o c k . As discussed previously in Chapter 12 on slope stabilization methods. c u . M u c h r o c k e x c a v a t i o n a n d stabi I i z a t i o n w o r k r e q u i r e s s p e c i a l skills such as control led blasting. Since most highway work has many potential contractors and enough lead time to allow for formal advertising. high scaling and rock bolt Therefore. SELECTING THE TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION CONTRACT M a n y t y p e s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r a c t s a r e u s e d f o r r o c k excavat i o n a n d s t a b i l i z a t i o n o n h i g h w a y s . tractors and the lowest bidder is accepted. and federal and state agencies have well established procedures. it is important that sane flexibility in quantities. the supervising engineer should be involved with both the design and construction programs so that he obtains feedback on the success and applicability of his designs under different conditions. Standard genera I provisions are usually available to the owner. t h i s c a n b e h a n d l e d b y o b t a i n i n g b i d p r i c e s o n u n i t q u a n t i t i e s ( e . This is very fair because cost is the selection criteria and the government (owner) has the work accomplished for the least cost. Introduction Contracts between owners and contractors are legal documents a n d m u s t comply w i t h f e d e r a l a n d s t a t e l a w s . experienced contractors only. e s p e c i a l ly o n a s l o p e stabi I i z a t i o n p r o g r a m w h e r e t h e e x a c t n a t u r e o f t h e p r o b l e m m a y o n l y become a p p a r e n t w h e n a c c e s s h a s Because been provided to the slope face and work has started.1 Chapter 14 Construct ion contracts and specifications. This is necessary because it is rarely possible to precisely define the scope of work. or by specifying the type of experience that the successful bidder must have obtained on If there are no experienced contractors or previous projects. h a v e experience If bids are invited from al I conin the procedures involved. a n d w e can l o o k t o t h e United States highway construction requirements as a broad The Federal Procureclass of contracts for this type of work. and because methods used in one geological . a n d t h e e n g i n e e r s u p e r v i s i n g t h e w o r k . Many sources are available to assist in contract preparation. including references 261 and 324 through 328. g . It is advantageous i f both the coninstallation. then it is possible that the work wi I I not be carried out to the required stanT h i s c a n b e o v e r c o m e b y s e n d i n g b i d docunents t o selecdards.t i m e s u p e r v i s i o n a n d *ltightV’ specifications are required. This chapter wi I concentrate o n t h e t y p e s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r a c t s a n d t h e w r I t i n g o f specifications for rock slope engineering. Because it may take several years to acquire this experience. t r a c t o r . sane flexibility should also be allowed in the budget allocations so that more or less money can be spent at each location. this is the preferred method of contracting. t h e n f u l l . o f t h e p o s s i b i I ity o f t h e s e “ c h a n g e d conditions*’ o c c u r r i n g . m e n t Regulations(324) d e s c r i b e a l l t h e t y p e s o f c o n t r a c t s a n d point out that contracting can be done either by formal advertisement or negotiation. In drawing up any type of contract for rock work. I inear f o o t o f r o c k b o l t ) a n d having provision for changing the estimated quantities as conditions demand. ted.

standby snd operating *standby tlme for hlghway openlngs when no work Is posslble -cubic yards of shotcrete The speclf Icatlons should glve an estimate of the quant ltles I n v o l v e d s o t h a t t h e c o n t r a c t o r k n o w s t h e magnitude o f t h e It should also be clear that the quantltles may be project. such as cubic yards of rock. w Ith the anount of each payment dependlng on the value of the work completed durlng the prior perlod of time. I f t h e y se n o t avallable.14.S. changed durlng the course of the work. hlghway requlrements w I I I be performed under advertised unlt pr Ice contracts. Any particular c o n tract may be a combination of the types dlscussed.p r i c e c o n t r a c t with a d j u s t a b l e u n l t prices.2 environment m a y n o t b e a p p l i c a b l e I n a n o t h e r . w a .1 shows a typlcal s p e c l f l c a t l o n s h e e t f o r a u n l t price stablllzatlon c o n tract. the estlmated number of bolts may decrease If It Is decided that loose rock should be scaled down rather than bolted. nor the amount of requ I red rock support Is known. Table XII sunnrarlzes the content of these dlscusslons and glves examples of the uses of the types of contracts for rock slope englneerlng. Payments are usual ly made by the owner to the contractor at specl f led lntervals durlng the period of constructlon. . then speclallst consultlng services can be hlred. It Is most frequently used for rock slope englneerlng because often neither the exact anount of cofmnon w rock excavation. SELECTING ME TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION CONTRACT T h e f o l lowlng I s a descrlptlon o f t h e v a r l o u s t y p e s o f c o n tracts that can be used on rock slope work. The Federal Procurement Regulations call t h l s a f l x e d . and typlcal cond l t l o n s I n which they may be applicable. Figure 14. Unlt Price Contract The most frequently used contract In the Unlted States hlghway system Is the advertlsed “unit-price’ contract. it I s u s u a l l y worthwhl le to malntaln an in-house staff of exper lenced rock work engineers.e overcommltted. The types of work that can be speclfled as unlt quantltles are as fol lows: ~moblIlzatlon/demoblIlzatlon . access road construct Ion mcublc yards of sol I . The units of work may be any Items whose quantltles can be determlned. sea I I ng manhours *equipment r e n t a l . Thls type of contract would be used for slope stab1 I I zatlon work where the full extent of the work requlred Is usually only determlned as the work progresses. The terms of thls contract provlde that the owner WI I I pay to the contractor a speclfled aount of money for each unlt of work completed In a project.cublc yards of rock -I lnear feet of rock bolts -square feet of pre-shear face . For example. Keep in mlnd that mOst U.

Under the terms of thls contract the owner agrees to reimburse the contractor for speclfled costs. These contracts are sometlmes used to allow work to be done by snal I. The terms of thls contract provlde that the owner w i I I pay to the contractor a speclt led sum of money for the completion of a project conformlng to the plans and speclflcatlons furnished by the englneer. plus an addltlonal fee. Flxed Price with Escalation Contract A m l n o r varlatlon o f t h e flxed-price c o n t r a c t u s e d f o r c o n t r a c t s o f l o n g d u r a t l o n a r e advertised flxed-price c o n t r a c t s with escalation. the government cannot advertlse. the most common of which Is the cost-plus-a-flxed-fee contract. Thls can al low for a lower bld price. An example would be for the owner to agree to pay for any Increases In fuel costs that the contractor must Pay. thus a savlngs to the taxpayer. C o n t r o l l e d blasting o n flnal s l o p e s I s usually speclfled ad t h e c o n t r a c t s h o u l d s t a t e t h a t t h e c o n tractor pay for al I excavation outside the deslgn I Ines. lndeflnlte Dellvery Type Contract I f t h e e x a c t time o f dellvery I s n o t k n o w n a t t h e time o f t h e contracting. or these may b e b l d o n a unit p r i c e basls If t h e q u a n t l t l e s c a n n o t b e deflned until the excavation Is made. I n c u r r e d b y t h e c o n t r a c t o r In carrying out the work. The lump sum bld by the contractor may Include the lnsta I I at Ion of slope stab1 llzatlon measures such as rock bolts.scaling rock on a day-byday. Lump sum contracts can al so be used ar stab1 I lzat Ion work when t h e quantltles a r e well d e f Ined. Lump sum contracts can be used on routlne excavation projects where the volumes are clearly specified by accurately surveyed cross-sectlons and the owner has confidence In stablllty of the deslgned slope angles. I t WI I I advertise a “ L u m p Sum” c o n t r a c t . cr according to some other schedule. The fee Is a prof It plus a management fee to relmburse the contractor for . they may negot late any of the above type of contracts. t h e c o n s t r u c t l o n o f a retalnlng wall or concrete buttress. local contractors and are sulted to small budgets where It Is not worthwhl le settlng up another type of contract.ended” contracts or “day-rate” contracts and can be In force for up to a year to do such work as clearing ditches cn. These are sometlme called “open. they may award a cost-reimbursement type c o n t r a c t o f s e v e r a l f o r m s . such as monthly.14. such as emergency. the government can use several forms of what the Federal Procurement Regulatlons cal I lndef lnlte del lvery type contracts. rlth the amount of each payment depend Ing on the value of the work camp Ieted durlng the pr lor per lod of t Ime.3 Lump Sum Contract If the owner (government) knows gtectly the quantltlrs of work t o b e accompl Ished. usually on-site costs. OT as-requlred basis. I t I s coIIIM)n prsctlce f o r t h e o w n e r t o p a y t o t h e contrector a p o r t i o n o f this m o n e y a t specified I n t e r v a l s . because the contractor Is free of the rlsk of 01 I price Increases md does not need to add a margln to hls price. Alternatively. e . Cost-Plus-A-Flxed-Fee Contract If for some reason. g .

d i t c h a t t o e o f slope. . above track level. Other bolts to be installed as directed by the Engineer. I : Typical specification sheet for slope stabilization work. 2.yd. are at least three loose blocks with volumes up to 6 cu. Install 6 x I4 ft. some blasting required at west end. 2 5 c u . There t h a n 0 . Figure 14. Scale loose rock from slope to a height of Only blocks of rock larger a b o u t 80 f t . E s t i m a t e d t o t a l b o l t f o o t a g e = 130 f t . should be removed.14. l o n g r o c k b o l t s i n l o o s e b l o c k a t e a s t e n d a t a h e i g h t o f a b o u t 30 ft. E x c a v a t e a 180 f t .4 bo Its C l e a n o u t a n d w i d e n d i t:ch STABILIZATION REQUIRED I. y d . Remove trees and apply weed killer to stumps. l o n g . Approximate back line shown on photograph. 3.

perhaps not entirely unreasonably. i t i s w o r t h w h i l e m a k i n g sane p r i o r a r r a n g e m e n t s w i t h l o c a l c o n tractors in the event of an emergency call-out. a n a m o u n t i s f i x e d b y t h e a g r e e m e n t . The previously negotiated cost-plus contract can then be converted to a lump sun payment to cover a I I the required work. Typically. rent. many owners feel. taxes. That is. be debated. so too will most owners contemplate any cost-plus arrangement. t h e r e v e r s e o f t h e maxito control costs. insurance. In order to avoid delays in the start of emergency work because the owner and contractor cannot agree on the fee for the job. The issue can. often referred to as an upset price. i n o n e w a y . These arrange ments would include equipment availabilities. Guaranteed Maximum Cost Just as a contractor approaches a I unp-sum agreement with many misgivings. of course. but also provides the owner with some protection against overruns by giving the contractor an incentive I t i s . This provides the owner with protection against overruns which is not the case with cost-plus contracts. Cost-Plus Converted to Lump Sum I n some e m e r g e n c y s i t u a t i o n s . and i f . Shared-Savings Provisions This type of agreement provides flexibility to cope with changed conditions. mobilization times and fee scales. but the fact that this feeling is prevalent cannot be denied. o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e “target” p r i c e . i n t e r e s t o n m o n e y b o r r o w e d t o f i n a n c e t h e p r o j e c t . H e r e . The contractor agrees that he is to be reimbursed by the owner for al I the costs of the work up to a fixed amount. T h i s t a r g e t p r i c e i s made up of the actual cost to the contractor for doing the job plus a variable fee for head office. Items of expense covered by the fee include. a n d t h e c o n t r a c t o r f u r t h e r a g r e e s that any cost of the work beyond that fixed amount w i I I be h is responsibility. the cost i s greater than the target the fee i s reduced. Emergency situations where cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts could be used would be where a rock fall has blocked the highway and m e n a n d e q u i p m e n t a r e n e e d e d imediately t o c l e a r t h e r o c k a n d stabilize the slope. that an unlimited cost-plus agreement destroys any real incentive to hold costs down and usually results in a large increase In the cost of construction. t h e cost of trips made by persons to the project. this type of provision will fix a maximum amount. but are not limited to. expediting the delivery of materials to the project. The Federal Procurement Regulations ca I I this a cost-plus-incentive-fee contract. related business expenses This fee varies according to whether the final and profit.5 the costs incurred at his head office resulting from the construction of the project. Indeed. i t m a y become a p p a r e n t a f t e r w o r k h a s s t a r t e d t h a t t h e r e q u i r e d r e m e d i a l w o r k c a n b e c l e a r l y def i n e d s o t h a t t h e c o n t r a c t o r c a n m a k e a f i r m b i d o n t h e tota I project. mun p r i c e p r o v i s i o n . owners will often insist that the contractor agree to a guaranteed maximum price. if c o s t i s o v e r o r u n d e r t h e t a r g e t e s t lmate c o s t . etc.14. salaries. To combat this threat.

WRITINGSPECIFICATIONS T h e basic r u l e o f wrltlng s p e c l f l c a t l o n s I s f o r t h e o w n e r t o tell t h e c o n t r a c t o r w h a t h e w a n t s . then total cost to owner Is: = s660. Target estimate contracts are sulted to projects where the exact scope of the work Is uncertain. then the total cost to the owner Is: Actual cost + Fee + Increase In Fee = 1500.000.6oo = (s550.14. 0 0 0 ) x 5$ Total Cost Case b) If actual cost Is $500. 0 0 0 Fee = s110.1 5 5 0 . o n e s h o u l d keep In mlnd that the target estimate may bear little relatlonshlp to the actual cost. 0 0 0 . while protectlng the Interest of the owner. based on the factors discussed above. An example of this type of contract Is described In Chapter 12. Inf luences the speclflcatlons and method of payment. he wll I stll I generate revenue while keeplng hls men and equlpment busy and have I Ittie lncentlve t o flnlsh t h e J o b . Otherwise.000 Reduction I n f e e f o r o v e r r u n s = 52 of overrun Increase In fee for underrun = 20% o f u n d e r r u n Case a) The If actual price Is $680.000 = 5110.000 = S 6 500 TiigTiB Actual ast + Fee .000) x 20% Total Cost The Federal Procurement Regulations call this a contract with performance Incentives.1500.000. T h l s m a k e s I t dlfflcult for the contractor to bld on a lump sum basis. times cannot be precisely def I ned then the contractor cannot c a l c u l a t e h l s msts a c c u r a t e l y . factor by which the proflt Is varied Is a bid Item. n o t h o w t o d o t h e w o r k .Oecrease I n F e e = ( $ 6 8 0 . An Important rule Is that each job Is dlfferent and the type of contract selected.6 the cost Is less than the target the fee Is Increased. Standard Q typlcal speclflcatlons can be helpful In the early stages of con- . Protect Ion of the owner’s I n t e r e s t requires judgement m d experience.000 = s 10-000 1670. An example of such a project would be excavation work where It Is necessary to halt work at If the closure frequent Intervals to allow lrafflc through.000 = s110. I n t h i s r e s p e c t . while the owner w a n t s t o avoid a c o s t . the contractor can exceed the target est I mate by a wide margin and although hls fee Is mlnlmal.p l u s c o n t r a c t I n w h i c h t h e r e WI I I be Ilttle Incentive to control costs. In some cases. a maxlmum and minimum fee can be specified so that there Is soma control on the range of costs wh Ich may be I t I s a l s o worthwhlle puttlng I n a n u p s e t price Incurred . clause to ensure that costs do not exceed this Ilmlt. An example of a target price contract Is as follows: T a r g e t estimate = $ 5 5 0 .000 .

TYPICAL SPECIFICATIONS” *Theso speclflcatlons are for Illustration purposes only. s p e c l f l c a t l o n s f o r b l a s t l n g m u s t e n s u r e t h a t a n excavstlon Is produced that meets the design requirements as to slope angle and long-term rtablllty. speclflc speclflcatlons should be prepared for each project to suit condltlons. This m e t h o d I s u s u a l l y satisfactory I f t h e c o n t r a c t o r I s experlented .14.7 tract preparstlon. I . I s g o o d practice t o require trial b l a s t s a t t h e s t a r t o f t h e work to determlne the optimum technique. T h e f o l lowlng typlcal s p e c l f l c a t l o n s c o v e r m a n y o f t h e a r e a s that need to be Included In contracts that Involve rock slope excavation. Dlmenslons (e. c o m p e t e n t r o c k o r weak weathered rock For example. . e .g. and that no blastlng damage Is done to any surroundlng structures. I . specl f lcatlons should provlde general guldellnes and requlred results wlth the choice of the actual methods belng left to the contractor. T h e choice o f an appropriate type of contract and the preparatlon of spec lf lcatlons ull I depend upon such factors as: Sire o f p r o j e c t Degree of owner superv Is Ion Degree of detail In design P r o j e c t locatlon. It must also al I OU f Iexlbll Ity t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e b e s t m e t h o d I s u s e d t o s u l t chsnglng rock condltlons end excavation requirements. s t r o n g . Thus. u r b a n cr r u r a l Geologlcsl condltlons. However. It should also be kept In mind that restrlctlve speclflcatlons It may result In the blastlng operatlon belng very expensive. rock bolt lengths and dlameters) should be determlned from daslgn calculations. but shou Id never be used In a contract wlthout careful revleu to determlne eppllcablllty. e . The englneer should stl I I have the authority to review the methods and results end request changes If necessary.

8 TABLE XII TYPES OF CONTRACT TYPE OF CONTRACT Fedcrdl Procurement Regulations Ndll%t Cost plus a fixed fee GOVERNMENT (OWER) VIEUPOIRT CONTRACTOR VIEWOINT EXAWLES Cannon Name cost plus a fixed fee Advantages Good amer7contrdctor team work. Fixed Price with Escalation Unit Price or Lump sum with Escalat1on Sama plus possible lcuer costs because . WiStdbla quality job. Advantages No risk cm costs.14. . Potential overruns. Incentive Fired Price with Adjustable Unit Prices Unit Price rents. Easy to control costs. Sdl-y StdtUS ktWdtn contrrctor and owner. Cost plus incentlve fee Guaranteed Naxlmm Fee L. Adverslopes. Quick start.. Emergency work or prOJeCtS net well defined such ds PCpairing existing retaining udlls. High risk if conditions runs into problems. Clean cut. clean-up of rock falls. dowels. Contract with perfomdnce incentive Shared sdvings provislons or Possibility of serious overrun. award COntrJCt prior to requirement. Difficult to schedule. No budget control. Potentid unbdldncing. Higher chdnce of profit. Easy CStimating. I. sealing. Oisadvdntages Higher costs. Can bd used if caner IS "sing new construction technlques. sdlr PIUS insame plus less risk WedSed d&Illof loss due nistrdtion. Lacks contractor Initldtive.a. EdSy t0 make ddJUSt- be in relation to costs. Good owner/cmtractor team work. Emergency *ark (flood damage. limdr yards of ditching. Construction of concrete buttress where anchoring. i.. Easy to mke changes.pay for what you get. shotCrete. Risk on contr4ctor for total c o s t . Oisputes dnd claims on quantities performd. chdnge such easy bookContractor may cut keeping. financing. quantities of support *ll specified. UnbdlanCing.fskeduced contrdctor Sama plus increased d&+inistrdtion. etc.. For larger Jobs where q6dntitles are not precisely knom bui is required to conta1n costs. Contractor will try to reduce costs through initidtiW t0 gdin larger fee. bridge fdilwe. Good xlling point for good contrrctor.). Excdvdtlon where qudntities dre me11 Fin Fixed Price Lump Sum Fixed price good for budgeting.. Good owner/contractor term Claims possible. rock falls. Units m y n o t contidctor. Easy to administer after to lump SUIII. Disadvdntapcs Lou fee and profit. In a strong negotiating pasition. Low cost . contractor prts high cost on items it expects will increrse. Hlghwdy Jobs *here excdvatlon o r rack support qudntities are not exactly known. Large job requiring long periods of t1m. cubic yards of rock l xcaution. Risk/profit shared by owner and Contrdctor. Easy to datermine final price. to uncontrolldble costs. L e t t e r Contrdct cost plus converted to lvnp SUn conversion Iimiedidte start. used for rmdll JObS that cdn be Stdrted or stopped readily such as ditching..\r”. reinforcement qudntities are well defined. Claim if contractor Good profit. rock bolts. Higher cost. defined. etc. JS POOr Wdcosts and da low ther. slope can be cut Lo specified angle. Contractor will try to reduce costs through initiative to grin larger fee. Elinrnrtes loss due to quantity VdridtiOn. Good fill in betwean jobs. Indefinite Delivery Type Contract Open ended or Day rate cd.e. Responsive to quick requirements. work. Can ngotlate Job after conditions known. Calling price fixed. Good sellIng point for oood Low fee if costs high..

or 2) In areae where it is impmcticable to classify by uee of t h e r i p p e r deecribed a b o v e . 2. for excavation control purposes. ehall b e a t t h e ezpenee o f t h e C o n t r a c t o r . 2 . S u r v e y i n g d u r i n g ezcavation.t y p e tmctor with a net flywheel power mting between 210 and 240 horsepower. operating in low gear. t h e C o n t m c t o r ehall .O LIPLTTS OF EXCAVATION A l l ateavaton s h a l l b e t o t h e l i n e s a n d g r a d e s e h o w n i n t h e ddnge . to the required elevations. rock The stability of the final cut elopes and foundations will depend to eome degree upon the misting jointing cmd muck system i n t h e rwck. a n d w i l l b e i n f l u e n c e d g r e a t Z y b y t h e procedure6 of blasting that are ueed. Surveying for the purpose of pzyment ahall be the responsibility of the Engineer. drifting pick.0 ROCK EXCAVATION SPECIFICATIONS I n o r d e r t o ecavate t h e site blaeting will be neceeeary. 3. r o c k i e d e f i n e d a x eound a n d solid nueeee. will be claeeified for pyment ae followe.1 Rock Eaxavation material F o r p u r p o s e s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f ezcavation. A l l b o u l d e r s o r d e t a c h e d p i e c e s o f s o l i d r o c k t e e e than 1 cubic yard in volume till be classified as common ez- cawtionl3281. shall be the reeponeibitity of the Contmctor.1 . C o n s e q u e n t l y . All quantitiee shall be meueured a n d c l a e e i f i e d i n p l a c e t o t h e linue e h o v n o n t h e dtinge. a n d p r o p e l l e d b y a c r a w l e r . T h e d r i f t i n g p i c k s h a l l b e Clase D . l a y e r s .O CLASSIFICATION OF MTERIALS Except aa othervise provided in these epecificatione. Any excavation beyond these lines and grades. 2 . which is performed by the Contractor for any maeon titeoever. 2 Conwwn Ezcavation Comma ezeavation include6 a l l mrterial o t h e r t h a n r o c k azaavation. Pedeml Specification CCC-H-506d with a handle not lees t h a n 3 4 inchee i n l e n g t h . o r l e d g e s o f m i n e r a l m a t t e r i n p l a c e a n d o f euch h a r d n e e e a n d tezture t h a t : 11 I t cannot b e e f f e c t i v e l y l o o e e n e d o r b r o k e n &on b y r i p p i n g i n a s i n g l e pass w i t h a l a t e m o d e l tractormounted hydraulic ripper equipped with one digging point of standard manufacturer’s deeign adequately eixed for uee with. A l l boulder6 o r dotached piece6 o f eolid mck m o r e t h a n 1 c u b i c yard in ~lwne will bs classified ae rock ezcavntion. r o c k e x c a v a t i o n i e d e fined ae sound rmte&l of such hardness and texture t h a t i t Mnnot b e l o o s e n e d o r b r o k e n d o w n b y a 6 l b .

he optimwn pwcedure. shall be ueed a8 a gui&line in determining the optimum pwaedure.2 Aiitemtionsby Contractor Not la88 tha?z thr88 (3) day8 prior to cm ing ezcavation in the specified area8. Trial blast8 ehall be conducted a8 required by the Engineer at the eturt of the work. shall be detsnnined fwm t&l blaet8. to determins the optimum drill hole layout.10 carefully control all blaeting by limiting the eise and type of the chargse in accoldmrce Ath theee specifications. WkXZimUm charge8 . controlled btacrting ehall be u8ed to minimixo the damage to the rock behind the facee. and hi8 method8 have been reviewed by the Engineer. and at any time the Contractor pwpoee8 to alter hi8 methods of e+cavation. the method8 of ezcavation adopted by the Contractor are uneatiefactory in that they result in an excessive amount of etcavation and/or rock damage beyond the minimum line8 and gmdes or that they fail to eatisfy the requirement8 specified eleewhere in theee specification8. provide for the u8e of final line hotee. he ehall eubmit to the Engineer for review full detail8 of th8 drilling and blasting pattern8 and control8 he propose8 to u8e in the epecified area8.??ZCcllXZtiO?l Of StOQ6t8 To en8ure that fi?uzt elopes are etable. and at other time8 ohen the rock and/or the dimeneione of the btaete change. contwle.1 lkpmknae of Contmctor The foreman oho provides on-site supervieion of the work deecribed in this Contract shall have a minimum of trJo ysare erperience in oontrolted bta8ting. 3. ths Contractor shall adopt such revieed methods. Ths Contractor ehall not comnence excavation in the88 area8 or change hi8 method8 of ozcavation until hi8 drilling and blaeting patterruz. notithetanding ths Engineer'8 prior review of such mrthods. 3. then. If.14. varying th8 sias and spacing of drill holee. technique8 and procedures a8 are noceeeary to achieve the required resutte. Before etarting operation8 the Contnurtor shall eubmit to the Engineer a resume of the qualifications and experience of the foreman. ezptosive load8 and delay sequences. The spocification8 beta. which may vary at different location8 on the cite. and euch other controls a8 may bs reaeonably required by the circumstance8 in ordar to preeerve the rock strength beyond the required minimum lines arxi gmdee in the eoundecrt pO88ible conditions. in part. production hOl88. ueing delays. in the opinion of the Engineer.3 . The mazimwn bench height when ezcavating on the final elope8 shall be (for bench height8 866 Chapter 111. 3. The following specifications deecrib the geneml method of blacrting to bo used on final slopes. this ie to en8ure control over drill hole direction 80 that the hotee on the finat slopes are evenly spaced. Controlled Blaeting T8mrinology These epacifications. buffer holes.

3. dep8nding on 8urface quality and integtity of the ezpoeed rook eurface and condition8 8nCOIMt8r8d during the progrO88 Of tk# oork."COntroZZ8d BZcurting" ie the t8Ckniqu8 of carefully drilling tke finat tine of ho188 on tks &zne of the final Cut-81Op r8qKir8d. hs Contractor 8kaZZ advi88 tke Engineer in eufficient time prior to sack blast to provide tke Engineer with an opportunity to monitor tke vibmtion8 from the blcurt if decrired.3.Tke tine of buffsr holes 11 z to tke final line of hot88 and shall ~~Podif&tsr a8 in tko ho188 of the final tine. and firet or last in the delay 88qU8?lu8 to C?WXt8 a CTVlCkalOTl(J ths ptaFl8 ofthefi?lal rock surfaas. &@UZtiO?l Of tk888 t87Wl8 a?'8 U8 fOZZOLP8: 3. follo#ing. h8 doptk of tk8 final line ho188 8kaZZ be liwitod to (for kolo l8ngtks 888 Chapter 11). .3 21 3. .3. Wf8rm 0188 and ckargos .3. 21 Enal Alignment and depth of hot88 in the final lins . Water reeietant ezpZoeiv88 may bs required for 8om8 of tke work.Tks ltne of ho188 8haZZ be on tk8 Ztno of tko final faO8 U?Id tki 8plrcitIg 8hazz bs a8 U?IifO?Vn Ui pO88ibZ8.on EOl88 Rolo pattarn and loading .The main production bZa8ting shall ~84 (for hole dumetore 898 Chapter 11) diameter koloo laid out to detonate in a delay sequence empZoyingtke oriteriaof lcudingandmarimum charge per detonation giv8n in Ekuzimrrm charge8 and DoZay8.Vibmtione g8nomted by detonation of okaroes for both tke final line and main vattern blacrting &ali be oontrollbd by ~88 of delayb to minimiae damgo to tk8 eurrounding rook. he purpoee of the88 kotee is to protect tke finat fats by mom uniformly distributing the ozplosivo within tke rock adjacent to the face.14.2 I! 3. Each ho18 of-the final line ie loaded with an 8xpZoeiVo charge "decoupled" from the blast hole wall with a cent8ring 8Zeova. 3) 3. Tke bottom8 Of final line hot88 shall not bo poeitioned at a higher l l8vation than tk8 bottom8 of adjacent production btaet kOZ88. @Id tko d&meter of tk88e ho188 ekalt not bs greator tti (for hole diumtere 884 Ckaptor 11).4 1) Mrvimwn ckarges .3. Detonation 8kaZZ be toward a fro8 face.4. The hole8 are fimd simuZtun8ouely. Ths amount of 8zpZo8iV8e per hole 8haZZ be Zees than tko 8xpto8ive uesd per production ho18 contuined in the main pattern.11 and blasting delay8 to UCki8v8 the spocifiod bZa8ting controZ for the 8tOp88. -ti. Section 3.1 II Pinal Li?w Bla8ting Btaet hot88 rmd timing in detonation 88qU8nC8 .h8 ho18 epacing and amount of ezp~oeivs trial m Zi?W of ho188 may require adjueting.

6. 5 . t o r o a d b e d l e v e l . c a r e s h a l l b e t a k e n to en8ure t h a t t h e excavation dooe not undercut the roadbed. 3. t h e f o r c e &all bs s u f f i c i e n t t o r e m o v e t h e b l o c k b u t n o t &mzge t h e s u r r o u n d i n g r o c k . A f t e r s c a l i n g . with bla8ting pltterne eubject to review by the Bnginser.1 neer.6 Ditching of Hook Slope8 T h e e x c a v a t i o n o f d i t c h e s a l o n g t h e t o e o f c e r t a i n slope8 io r e q u i r e d to p r e v e n t f a l l i n g r o c k f r o m aching t h e nxzdbed. Hand eculing &all b e e m p l o y e d e x c e p t w h e r e o t h e r m e a n s . and shall inspect the new face8. I f a cmck e&et8 b e t w e e n t h e looee b l o c k a n d t h e s l o p e .14.6. t h e n e w f a c e e h a l l be inspected by the Engineer to determine whether or not ecaling i8 aonp. .6.D e l a y s e q u e n c i n g f o r necltiple s h o t s t h r o u g h t h e u8e o f s h o r t p e r i o d delay8 of the type appropriate to the method of fusing adopted. 3 .5. and have the qxzcing equal to about 10 time8 t h e h o l e diameter. T h e a r e a 8 t o b e d i t c h e d e h a l l be Bpecified b y t h e Engi- N e a r v e r t i c a l 810~48 cloee t o t h e rcradbed 8hall n o t b e 3. t h e ecaling method to be employed. 3.1 Method S c a l i n g shall be c o n d u c t e d u n d e r t h e supervieion o f t h e Enginaer w h o ahall d e t e r m i n e t h e a r e a 8 t o b e s c a l e d . A l l bla8ting s h a l l be c o n d u c t e d b y a n e x p e r i e n c e d powder man. Sculing s h a l l s t a r t a t t h e t o p o f t h e s l o p e a n d w o r k doz~nwrds. 2 Blcurting W h e n b l a s t i n g i s nsquired. They 8hall be loaded with Bufficient esploe i v e I% b r e a k t h e r o c k between t h e h o l e 8 b u t n o t damage t h e n e w f a c e . 3. 3.lete.5. t h e h o l e 8 e h a l l b e p a r a l l e l .4 COh’TROL OF FLYROCK P r e c a u t i o n 8 s h a l l b e t a k e n t o e n s u r e t h a t flyrock f r o m t h e b l a s t i n g opemtions d o e s n o t r e a c h t h e l o c a t i o n 8 d e s i g n a t e d o n t h e dnwings. d r i l l e d in straight lines.3 Drilling I f d r i l l i n g is r e q u i r e d .12 21 . The dimeneions of ditchee are specified on the draw3. 3. 5 SCALIRG T h e o b j e c t i v e o f s c a l i n g shall b e t o r e m o v e l o o e e b l o c k 8 o f r o c k and to e n s u r e t h a t t h e n e w f a c e ie s t a b l e . t h e e x p l o s i v e cun b e pkzcod i n t h i s o m c k . 3 . s u c h a 8 hydmulic s p l i t t e r s o r l i g h t b l a s t i n g i s a p p r o v e d b y t h e E n g i n e e r .2 ditched where the Engineer determine8 that exceeeive rvck excav a t i o n till reeeult.3 i n g s .

14.13

3.6.4

The ditch shalt

kave vertical

sides and a horizontal

base to eneum tkat rock8 f a l l v e r t i c a l l y and do not bounce outwards towarda the n&bed. I f poeeibte, a 6 i n c h t h i c k Zaysr of fins, broken wck, or sand, shall be left in the bottom of the ditah to absorb the impact of falling rock.

3.6.5 T r i m b & s t i n g tochniquee &all be ueed such t h a t permznent vertiaal slope8 a r e p r o d u c e d a n d t k a t darnage t o t h e w c k behind the faae is minimixed. Any excasution kyond the rninim u m line8 8peaifiod b y the Engineor, dzich is p e r f o r m e d b y t h e COntmCtOr for any pPpO8e titUOUVUr, 8hal1 be at the e+penes Of the COntmUtOr, d.888 it ha8 lPt?UiVUd ths prior approval of t h e Ehgi?Uer. Th8 C o n t m c t o r ie m u t i o n e d t o ensure t h a t t h e f i n a l l i n e d r i l l hole8 c o n f o r m w i t h t h e p l a n n e d e x c a v a t i o n limits. 3.6.6 The hole8 f o r t h e trim line shall be parallel to each otkor cmd to the 8i& of the ditch. Hole epacing shall be about 10 time8 the ho18 diumetor.
Tke ezptoeive t o a d in the bclck l i n e shall b e sufficient t o b r e a k tko w a k &ong t h e m i n i m u m atcavation l i n e a n d ekall be uquivalont to about (for exploeivo load8 808 Chapter 111. The t r i m %I8 ekall b e dotonutod o n a eingls d e l a y .

3.6.7

The broken wck ekall be removed from the ditch witk loading equipment working in the azcamtion, Peking the mats& l t o cm8 p o i n t f o r diepoeal. T k i e ia to 8nuure t k a t the tie o f *he c u t slope ie a 8 n e a r vertical a8 pO88ibl8 a n d t o minimiao &.mgu to th8 prrv8m8nt from loading equipment. C a m &all aluo be 8zurci88d n o t t o und8rmin8 t k e wadbed.

3.6.8

3.6.9 The ditah 8b11 be gmtiod euck tkat dmimge &ill occur and kkzter &me not wltuat Ut low pOinta. 3.6.10 At the aonqS?etion of excavation, ths cut slope8 shall bo inspected by the Engineer and rock bolte and dowels shall be installed a u mquired t o etubiliae p o t e n t i a l l y unetuble rock.

4.0 SUPPORT OF kWCX SLOPES 4.1 Diw8lrr
Natuml fmctures in the rock elope mzy produce potmtidly un8tibl8 blocks of wak that mu8t be eupportod. Locatias on the Dowel8 cxmeiuting o f reinforcing St001 (for l e n g t h a n d d i a m e t e r BOO Chaptor 12) fully grouted into ho188 drilled into tke face. T h e g r o u t 8kall h T y p e I P o r t l a n d cement. Plate8 a n d n u t s o n the faau o f t h s elope shall n o t be requimd. Tko d o w e l 8 s h a l l be installed during azoawtizfwm tks current working bench.

olopo tkat mquiro 8upport will be &terntCwd by ths Engineer.

4.2 Rook Bolt8
Th8 f u n & i o n O f rook b o l t 8 i8 t o e;rUrt p e r m a n e n t normal force aaro88 potential failurn pkznee. This timk.7888 the frictional forae and meiutr sliding. A l l rock bolt6 t o be inetallod i n t h i s Work s h a l l b e 4.2.1 products of a mnufactumr mgulurly engaged in the nrmufactum o f rock bolte. Bolt8 ukall bo f a b r i o a t e d f r o m &foWiWd hare cmd Permisuabte type8 are: Wn.sionablo.

14.14

II A mochaAx.aLLy-onchord, h o l l o w , g r o u t a b l e b o l t . 2) A %&age-eetting TW8in-ernb8dd8d bolt. 3) A p l a s t i c - c o v e r e d bolt ( a p p r o v e d b y t h e E n g i n e e r ) w i t h grout anchor. 4.2.2 T h e l e n g t h o f ezch b o l t to b e i n s t a l l e d ehall be d e t e r m i n e d f r o m msacruwments t o bo m a d e a t t h e t i m e o f stabiliaat i o n . VnLsee epecifiod horein, t h e l e n g t h o f e a c h b o l t i n t h e rock 8hat 1 be opp rozimately &ice the thickness of the elab or btouk to bs etubilixed. 4.2.3 R o c k bolte s h a l t b e f u l l y c o r r o s i o n - p r o t e c t e d . A l l p a r t 8 o f t h e bolt, b e a r i n g p&de, and nut on the surface of the c u t , 8haLl 8ithsr k encaeed i n e h o t c r e t e o r p a i n t e d w i t h a corweion protectivs p r i n t . 4.2.4 The csment g r o u t u s e d f o r r o c k b o l t typafi (7) o r (3) deearibod a b o v e shall bs a n o n - e h r i n k txjpe g r o u t and a c h i e v e a etrength of 3,000 pound8 per square inch in not more than 4 days. h?xiu cem8nt s h a l l n o t b e u s e d . R88in m a y b e spozy o r poly88ter in b u l k o r cartrige f o r m , b u t s h a l l b e a m a k e appro& by the 6ngimter. 4.2.5 Whm t h e 8nd o f th8 bolt i s a n c h o r e d i n pLace ( e i t h e r m8chanically o r &8miCa11y), e a c h b o t t ehall b e tenoioned t o (for required tension 888 Chapter 7) with a hoLlo+mm hydraul i c jack. Load/&eneion mea8urement8 shall b e m a d e d u r i n g teruioning. I f t h e L o a d mnnot b e mintained f o r 1 0 m i n u t e s . o r t h e 8&ne&n (qftor shell t i g h t e n i n g ) ezcesdo t h e elaotic stwin of ths bolt by 20 pewmt, the bolt shall be mapLaced or a furthor b o l t inetatled i n a 88epamte hots. 4.2.6 After tensioning and approval by the Engineer, the full L e n g t h o f ths b o l t 8haLL t h e n b e g r o u t e d w i t h n o n - s h r i n k g r o u t t o incurs t h a t t e n e i o n i s maint&ned psrmanently a l o n g t h e length of the bolt. he or nvre representative rock bolt8 shall b e putttosted t o failure i f 80 r8queeted b y t h e E n g i n e e r . 4.2.7 The i n g Bhcrtl be ma&mum o f 1 copy of the ne8r & f o r e hydnuclic &.ck a n d p r e s s u r e pzuge ueed f o r t e n e i o n mlibmted b y a lpgistered c a l i b r a t i o n a g e n c y , a month prior to the tensioning operation, and a mlibmtion certificate shall be shoon to the Engitaneioning begina.

4.2.8 A borrring pLate, a h a r d e n e d fLat washer a n d a n u t 8haLl be tured to trmwfer the tension in the bolt to the rock. The pLat8 shall be in uniform contact with the rock surface. If the r o o k f a c e i8 n o t perpendicular t o t h e atis of t h e b o l t , o r th8 wuk u n d e r t h e boating p l a t e is n o t s o u n d , a b e a r i n g p a d approved by the Engineer ehall be wlwrtructod 80 that the bolt it3 n o t bent dwn the tcmsion i s qplisd. Bevellod Uashors m a y alcro be rccred t o levet a b e a r i n g p l a t s . Where the rock eurface io gmorally w e a k o r woathored, eztra L a r g e b e a r i n g plates (such aa B i n c h equare) s h a l l b e ueod. T h e instalLution o f t h e c o r r o s i o n p r o t e c t i o n , t h e in4.2.9 etallation method a n d the t e n e i o n i n g , should all be azrried out according to the nunufactumr’8 specifications.

14.15

4.3 Shotarata The function8 of ehotcmta ara to eliminate eroaion effects, prevant btocke on the face from beaonting Zooee, ond to hotd in ptace bZock8 that can etide on advarealy oriented joint or fauzt eurfaaee. 4 . 3 . 1 Paraormet The forenun ahalt ho~a pod poraonal experiance, inctuding not teas than two yeara ae a ahotcrate noaaZemn. The noeeZeman ahatt have aarved at Zauat aiir nonthe appmnticaahip a similar applicationa and 8hazz be abte to demonatrate by teeting his abiiity to perform eztiefactority hie duties and to gun ahotcrate of the rPquirad qwzzity. 4.3.2 Mata&Za Mata&Ze uead ahatt k a pra-mix ehotcrete product manufacturad by a nwqfaoturar regutcrrty engaged in the mmufactura of aoncrata produate. CZaea “A” aggregate ahalt ba used which ehaZZ aonform to ACI Standard6 for fine aggregate. The water ueed for mixing ond curing ehatl be ctaan and free from eubetunoee whiah might be &zUta?-iOU8 or corrosive to concrete or stoat, and ehatt ba furniehed by the Contractor. The Contractor, if ao mqueetad by the Enginaer, shalt aubmit reports of taete nude by a mnpatent Lbomtory, on aantpZee of the water whbh ha propoeae to uea or ie ueing.
Admixturaa au& as aaaaZamtor8, air antraining admixturns or

returdere, if ueed, ehalt & approved by the Engineer.

4 . 3 . 3 %ungth Tha ehotcrata ehaZZ achieve a mininwn 28-&y strength of 3,500 pounde par equara inch. Tha raeponeibiitity for the deeign of aZZ mixes for the mortar and for the quatity of the mortar pZacad in the Uork ahall mat with the Contmator. No cament/eand mi-xtvm ahatt be uaad if atlowed to etund for 45 minutes or nvre hfom uee. 4.3.4

EquipmentRequirementa

The mking equipmant ehaZZ be azpabte of thoroughty mixing tha epeaified nuteriate in auffiaiant quantity to tmintain continuoue pZaoing. In order to aneura that the aament/eand premix will f Zow at a uniform mte (without atugs) through the ruin hopper, delivery hoea, and dry-m& ?weeZe to form uniform ahotarata (free of dry poakete) on tha rook eurfm, pmdaqaning (alao mfarrad to ae pmmoiaturieingl aquipmant ehatt be used to bring the moisture content from aeeenticrtty earo, in eeated -porting baga, to within the mnga of thme psraant to six prcant. Prodampening ehatt be oar+ed out prCor to ftow into the main hopper, and inm&iataZy after fLw out of the Loge. The air compmeeor ahatt be mpable of eupptying 0Zaan air adaquata for nuintaining auffiaimt rwuta vatmity throughout aZZ

14.16

pha8eS Of the work, aa well a8 for ths Bimultaneous operation of a bloo pipe for clearing awy rebolmd. 4.3.5 Quality contwt

In order to 8atisfy him88lf a8 to the quality of the mortar being placed in the Work, the Enginaer will inspect all aepect8 of the nunufactum and phcemont of mrtur and carry out euch te8t8 on the nvrtar and it8 conetituent material8 aa he may deem necsrreary. The Contmctor shall coopemte fully and provide all necessary aseietance to enable the Engineer to carry Out Buch i?Z8peCt&PI8 rmd te8t8. Teet cy.?i?dorcr of nvrtar shatt be shot with the mme air preo8ure. rwxale tip, and hydmtion a.8 the nvrtar being placed at the point in the Work where the cylinder8 are taken. 4.3.6 Surface Prqxwution

Prior to the application of mortar, all mud, .?ooes, chattered and rebound rmterial, a& all other objectionable netter ehall be remvsd from the eurface against LJlich the mortar io to be placed. Sand blasting procedure8 ehall be ueod to effect the neceseary cleaning of the surface against which the mortar ie to be placed, a8 and where directed by the kgineer. The 8u?faae &all be washed alean imnediately prior to shotcreting, using alter?uzte juts of air and water. Care ehall be taken that key block8 are not removed. 4.3.7 Meoh

Reinforcement

Ama that are to be covered with mssh reinforcement ehall be determined by the Engineer. The meeh shall coneiet of welded wire nrseh 4 inahee by 4 inchee opening sise which ehall be securely attached to the rock surface with pin8 grouted into hots8 not lee8 than 12 inches deep at a minimum spacing of 5 ft. The eazpoeed portion of the pin8 shall be threaded 80 that a nut and -her don be used to place the mesh in Wntact with the eurface. The location of m88h pin8 shall be approved by the Engineer. At all Bplicee the wire fabric shall be Zapped a minimum of 8 inches. 4.3.8 Application he area of each mck face to bs shotcreted ehall be &termined by the Engineer. On competent mck elopes &ore only cmcks are to be WOerod, the ehotareto 8hal1 artend at bst 12 inchee on either side of the crack. A minimwn thiCkno of l-1/2 inches and WI avemge thick?&?88 of three inchee shall be applied, and The ehotarete reinforcing mesh 8hall be aompletety encaeed. shall be applied from the bottom of the slope upward8 80 that rebound does not accumulate on rock that ha8 still to be COVored. Surface8 to bo 8hot shall be &mp but have no free Standing titer. No ehotarete shall be placed on dry, duety or froety 8WfWOS. The noule shall be held at a dicrtance and at an angle fwm the perpendicular to the working face 80 that rebound rmtoriul till bo minirml and compcction will be maximal; thi8 distanae is u8uatly between two cmd five feetA rwaxlenzzn'8 helper equippod with an air blow-out jet ehall attend the noesteman, at all time8 during the placement of mortar, to keep the working area free from ndound.

14.17

ftW.

Uortur ehalt emerge from the noxxle in a eteady, fminterrupted When for any mcz8on the ftow hcomse intermittent, the noxxlo ehall be diverted from the work until eteady flow re-

8WflB8.

Uhsre a luyer of shotcrete is to be covered by a eucceeding layer, it ehalt first be allowed to tuko it8 initial sot. Then all kaitenae. looee material and rebound ehall be removed by brooming. In addition, the nurfaae should be thoroughly sotid with a hammer for drq areae raseulting from rebound pockets o r lack o f b o n d . Drwmsy area, a g e , o r o t h e r &fecte xhall k carefully cut out and replaced with a eucaaading kayer. Rebound shall not be worked bzck into the construction by the noxxlennn; if it &es not fall clear of the work it muet bs ?WlVVOd. Nor shall the rebound be ealvaged and included in lator hztohae bmauee of the &nger of aontantimtion. Construation joints &all be tapered over a ntininwn dixtunae of 12 inchee to a thin edge, and the eurfaao of euah jointe ehall be thoroughly wttod befors any adjacent action of mortar ia placed. No square joints &all be pormittod.

Shooting &all be tempomrity euspended if:
High wind prevent8 the noxxlewnn from proper applioation of the lmtePiu1. The tempemture ix below 35OP and the work oannot be protected. Rain occurs which my waxh cement out of tho froehly plaaed nutorial and mune slough8 in the work.

4 . 3 . 9 Druinage Dmimge holes shall be provided eo that tier preeeuree do not build up behind the shotcrete. The dmina ahall be produced by driving wooden pluge into cracks deeignatod by the Engineer prior to ehotcreting. After the shotcreto hae obtuined ite initial eet, the plugs ahall be carved. 4.3.10 curing Either the ehotcrato euff4ca ehall be kept continuouely Lut for at teaet xeven &ye or membmne curing shall bs ueed. The air in contact oith ehotarete eurfaaaa shall be nnintainad at temperatume above freexing for a minimum of eeven &ye.
4 . 3 . 1 1 Taeting At ach eite and

for oath new batch of ehotamte. snall, unroinforced tiat pznele at leant one foot squam and three inahee thick shall be gunnod, if required by the Engineer. ThW8 panete will be inepected by the Engineor and periodiaalty aored for testing purpoeee.

14.18

Chapter 14 : References

324.

OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS SERVICE, GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION, Code of F e d e r a l R e g u l a t i o n s 4 1 , Pub1 i c C o n t r a c t s a n d P r o p e r t y M a n a g e m e n t , C h a p t e r s 1 a n d 2 , a s o f J u l y l s t , 1 9 7 7 (41CFR l-l Federal Procurement Regulation). PEURITOY, R . L . C o n s t r u c t i o n P l a n n i n g , E q u i p m e n t a n d M e t hods, 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1970. CRIkMlNS, R . , SAMUELS, R . , A N D MONAHAN, B . P . C o n s t r u c t i o n Rock Work Guide, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1972. BERMAN, T. AND CROSSLAND, S.H. Selecting the Appropriate C o n s t r u c t i o n C o n t r a c t , C h a p t e r 14 o f C o n s t r u c t i o n Business Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1972. GOOCMN, R . M e t h o d s o f G e o l o g i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g , W e s t PubI ishing C o m p a n y , S t . P a u l , 1 9 7 6 .

325.

326.

327.

328.

Al-l

Ap,pendix 1 :

Analysis of laboratory strength test data

Introduction
The choice of the shear strength of a failure surface or zone is a critical part of any slope stability analysis. Conscquently, the analysis of laboratory strength test data is an important component of any slope design. This appendix presents a number of simple statistical regression analyses which can be used to determine the angle of friction and the cohesive strength or the constants which define the non-linear failure characteristics of rock or soil. These analyses are presented in a form which is designe d t o f a c i l i t a t e progranrning o n a progratnnable c a l c u l a t o r o r computer.

Determination of the angle of friction and cohesive strength for a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion

The tlohr-Coulomb failure criterion may be expressed in the following forms : T = c + o Tan 0 + om.Sin 0 + 03 1 + Sin@ 1 - Sin@ 1 2

Tm 01 -

c.coss$

zc. coso 1 - Sin4

3

These equations may be expressed in the general form : ya + bz 4

The constants a and b and the coefficient of determination r2 c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d b y l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s a s f o l l o w s :

b -

zzy- ZlZYh
& (Lz) 2/n 6

a - (zy/n - b. b/n)

Al-2

r2 -

o+?J - l&y/n) 2 (b* - (b)*/n) (Ey2 - (Q)7/nJ

7

where t, y a r e s u c c e s s i v e d a t a Fairs a n d n i s t h e tota 1 number of such pairs. The angle of friction # and the cohesive strength c calculated as follows : are

a.

Forinput

I

-

T

a n d

y - o

+ = Arctan b
C-C?

8 9
- om 10 11

b.

For

input

z

-

~~

and

y

0 - Arcsin b c = a/Cos 0
C.

For

input

z

-

01

and

y - o3

p - Arcsin

b - l
b + l

12

c I a. (1 - Sin@)

2 cos 0
Determination of material constants defining non-linear failure criterion The non-linear failure criterion defined by equation 29:

13

al- l73 + hlKYco3
may be rewritten as : Y’ where y (ul mat.2 0312 +

+ WC2

29

WC2

14

a n d z-o3

Intact rock
For intact rock, s - 1 and the uniaxial compressive strength oc a n d t h e m a t e r i a l c o n s t a n t m a r e g i v e n b y :

15

T h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f d e t e r m i n a t i o n r2 i s d e t e r m i n e d f r o m equation 7 above. T h e c l o s e r t h e v a l u e o f r2 i s t o 1 . 0 0 , t h e b e t t e r t h e f i t o f t h e e m p i r i c a l e q u a t i o n t o t h e trlaxial t e s t data.

Al-3

Brokzen or heavily jointed rock
For a broken or heavily jointed rock mass, the strength of the intact pieces of rock is determined from the analysis presented on the previous page. The value of m for the b r o k e n o r h e a v i l y j o i n t e d r o c k i s f o u n d f r o m e q u a t i o n 16 a n d t h e v a l u e o f t h e c o n s t a n t s is given by :

17
T h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f d e t e r m i n a t i o n r2 i s f o u n d f r o m e q u a t i o n 7 . When the value of the constant s is very close to zero, equation 17 will sometimes give a small negative value. In such cases, put s = 0 and calculate m as follows : m =

L!L
OCk

18

Vhen equation 18 i s used, t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f d e t e r m i n a t i o n r2 cannot be calculated from equation 7.

Mohr envelope
The relationships between the shear strength T and the normal s t r e s s o a n d t h e p r i n c i p a l s t r e s s e s cl a n d 03 a r e d e f i n e d b y the fol lowing equations * : ‘m2 ?rn + mc/e

0

=

03+

19

7

-

(0

-

03)Jl + moc/4rm

20

B y s u b s t i t u t i n g s u c c e s s i v e p a i r s o f al a n d 03 v a l u e s i n t o e q u a t i o n s 1 9 a n d 2 0 , a c o m p l e t e Hohr e n v e l o p e c a n b e g e n e r a t e d . While this process is convenient for some applications, it is not convenient in slope stability calculations in which the shear strength is required for specified normal stress values. A more useful expression for the Mohr envelope is given by equation 30 on page 107 :

7

-

h,(

‘ioc

-

T)B

30

where A and B are empirical constants which are determined as follows : Rewriting equation 30 y where y z a b T = : ax+ b

31

logT/o, log(o/oc - T) B IogA +(m - m) A g e n e r a l a n a l y t i c a l s o l u t i o n f o r Hohr’s e n v e l o p e . V o l . 52. 1 9 5 2 , p a g e s 1 2 6 0 - 1 2 7 1 .

* BALHER, G .

Amer. Soo. Tasting KatetitS,

N-4

The values of the constants A and 6 are given by :

B

&z-i+

32

1ogA

=

& n

-

Be

33

Values of A and B are calculated for values of o and r given by substituting the following values of 03 into equat i o n s 29, 19 a n d 2 0 : 03ma ~3d2a oh/ha am/B, OJm/lC, oYn/32, oYn/256, T/r. T/2. ST/I, and T the data set being a3m/64, o%?/lZS,

w h e r e am is the maximum value of a3 for a n a l y s e d a n d T = i( m - -+4s).

T h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s f r i c t i o n a n g l e 0; a n d t h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s c o h e s i v e s t r e n g t h c; f o r a g i v e n v a l u e o f t h e n o r m a l s t r e s s o are given by : $i - Arctan AB( O/oc - 1) B - l

34 35

ci =
Practical ezumple of

T - o Tan $i non-linear analysis

The following set of data was obtained from a series of triaxial tests on intact samples of andesite : o1 03 (HPa) (MPa) 269.0 0

206.7
6.9

503.5 27.6

586.5
31.0

683.3 69.0

Analysis of the data, using ub - 69
UC -

HPa. gave

265.5 HPa,

m - 18.84,

s - 1. r2 - 0.85. A - 1.115 and

B - 0.698.
C a r e f u l l y d r i l l e d 154m d i a m e t e r c o r e s o f h e a v i l y j o i n t e d a n d e s i t e w e r e t e s t e d triaxially a n d g a v e t h e f o l l o w i n g s e t of data : ol (HPa)

1.24 0

6.07 0.35

8.96

12.07 1.24

12.82 1.38

19.31 3.45

20.00 3.45

03

(HPa)

0.69

Analysis

of these data, using uw - 3.45 HPa, gave

m - 0.277, s - 0.0002. T - - 0 . 0 0 0 7 2 , r2 and B - 0.700.

0.99.

A - 0.316

A2-1 Appendix 2 : Wedge solution for rapid computation Introduction The solution of the wedge problem presented in reference 201 was designed for teaching purposes rather than for convenience of calculation. The comprehensive solution is 4 to 5 times longer than the s h o r t s o l u t i o n a n d w o u l d n o r m a l l y b e prograrmned o n a d e s k top calculator or in a computer. The solution allows for different strength parameters and It is water pressures on the two planes of weakness. it is not known whether : a) the planes could form a wedge ( the line of Intersection may plunge too steeply to daylight in the slope face or It may be too flat to intersect the upper g r o u n d s u r f a c e ). When a pair of discontinuities are selected at random from a set of field data. a tension crack is not considered in this solution. Each plane may haveadifferent friction angle and cohesive strength and the influence of water pressure on each plane is included in the solution. In this appendix. The influence of an external force is not included in this solution. It does not take account of rotational slip or toppling. SHORT SOLUTION Scope of solution The solution presented is for the computation of the factor of safety for translational slip of a tetrahedral wedge formed in a rock slope by two intersecting discontinuities. The short solution is suitable for programming on a pocket calculator such as a Hewlett-Packard 67 or a Texas Instrum e n t s SR52. 2. the slope face and the upper ground surface.p r o g r a m m a b l e calculator such as a Hewlett-Packard 21 and a typical problem would require about 30 minutes of calculation on such a machine. nor does it include a consideration of those cases in which more than two intersecting dlscontinuities isolate tetrahedral or In other words. the influence of tapered wedges of rock. ie t h e u p p e r ground surface Is either horizontal or dips in the same d i r e c t i o n a s t h e s l o p e f a c e o r a t 1800 t o t h i s d i r e c t i o n . a s s u m e d t h a t t h e s l o p e c r e s t i s h o r i z o n t a l . . A comprehensive solution which included the effects of a superimposed load. a tension crack and an e x t e r n a l f o r c e s u c h a s t h a t a p p l i e d b y a tensloned cable. two solutions designed for maximum speed and efficiency of calculation are given. A short solution for a wedge with a horizontal slope crest and with no tension crack. I t c a n a l s o b e u s e d w i t h a n o n . These solutions are : 1.

factor of safety against wedge sliding calculated as the ratio of the resisting to the actuating shear forces A .AZ-2 b) o n e o f t h e p l a n e s o v e r l i e s t h e o t h e r ( t h i s a f f e c t s the calculation of the normal reactions on the planes) c) o n e o f t h e p l a n e s l i e s t o t h e r i g h t o r t h e l e f t o f the other plane when viewed from the bottom of the slope. t h e n u1 = u2 . n . t h e d i p J.effective normal reaction on a plane S = actuating shear force on a plane x.az) iJ ..area of a face of the wedge W = weight of the wedge N .i..+l.. the y axis is in the dip direction of plane 2 * a . The data required for the solution of the problem are the unit w e i g h t o f t h e r o c k y.fy. Other terms used in the solution PZane I overlies plane 2 are : F . 0 3 \ 0 \ \ \ 1 4 0 \ Notation The geometry of the problem is illustrated in the margin sketch.1 .ywtfw/6 w h e r e I(.unit vector in the direction of the normal to plane 1 w i t h c o m p o n e n t s (ax. I n a d d i t i o n ..) 7 .b.) the direction of the line of intersection 1 a n d 2 w i t h c o m p o n e n t s (ix. T h e z a x i s i s directed vertically upwards. the solution has been derived in such a way that either of the planes may be labelled 1 ( o r 2 ) a n d a l l o w a n c e h a s b e e n m a d e f o r o n e plane overlying the other.u n i t v e c t o r i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e n o r m a l t o p l a n e 2 w i t h c o m p o n e n t s (b.g.b. The discontinuities are denoted by 1 and 2. the index n is assigned the value of . the u p p e r g r o u n d s u r f a c e b y 3 a n d t h e s l o p e f a c e b y 4.y..o r d i n a t e a x e s w i t h o r i g i n a t 0 . .. t h e h e i g h t H o f t h e c r e s t o f t h e s l o p e a b o v e t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n 0.z = c o . contact may be lost on either plane and this contingency is provided for in the solution.) .unit vector in the direction of the normal to plane 4 w i t h c o m p o n e n t s (f.) * If it is assumed that the discontinuities are completely filled with water and that the water pressure varies from zero at the free faces at a maximum at some point on the l i n e o f i n t e r s e c t i o n .v e c t o r i n of planes + z . the cohesion c and the friction angle e for planes 1 and 2 and the average water pressure u on e a c h o f t h e p l a n e s 1 a n d 21’:. a check on whether the two planes do form a wedge is included in the solution at an early stage. In order to resolve these uncertainties.f.i. Depending upon the geometry of the wedge and the magnitude of the water pressure acting on each plane.. a n d d i p d i r e c t i o n o of each plane . i f t h e s l o p e d o e s n o t o v e r h a n g . i s t h e overall height of the wedge.ay. . If the slope face overhangs the toe of the slope.gy.vector in of planes the direction of the line of intersection 1 a n d 4 w i t h c o m p o n e n t s (gx.

2 . .n) w/2. .(nl.)-~Sin~~.) Sin*2 3. . m2 .ru2 .component of G in the direction of z r .fy.fxay q - fyax by(f. Sing.rbc) .fflz) + b.a. r . q .h.S2/A2 1 Sequence of calculations The factor of safety of a tetrahedral wedge against sliding a l o n g a l i n e o f i n t e r s e c t i o n may b e c a l c u l a t e d a s follo+vs : 1.pul).'i.((Z/k)(b.) =(Sirnjs.(Za.ay.Nl/Az d e n o m i n a t o r o f F .rae) . . a) If n1 > 0 and n2 > 0.CosJl2 5.. (f.g. t h e r e I s c o n t a c t o n b o t h p l a n e s and F . 10. 9.rpul .a.AI/AZ nl.Nl/A2 ny Nz/Az Assuming contact on both planes SA2 I contact on plane 1 only contact on plane 2 only IZiI/& m l . "1 .Sin(a~-a2).-by f.Cos(aya2). and I f nq/i > 0.f. 7. n2 . CoSti.AZ-3 i . k .P/IP 16.q / i ) Tan33 > 03=au * (I . 2 (a x.Cos(aya2).(Zbc . b. . t h e r e i s c o n t a c t o n p l a n e 1 .iz+ i:+ t .U/A2 P i? .~u1 .1 . by = 4 . COSJIl) ./ltil b) If n2 < Oand ml a 0. ml .Sin(a~-a2). Sin~l.i=ab XY 6.~2) IS.P/lPl 1 4 .component of t in the direction of g k = ItI2 .(WI)/ (3g2) 1 2 .. . n o w e d g e i s f o r m e d a n d t h e calculations should be terminated.f (Z/k) ( a .r2 Il. 9. o r i f n(f.Tan+z + lpkl +c2)/i.ayby + acb. p .9) 17.Tanet + nz. 1 . 8 . 13.Sl/A2 1 my N2/A2 d e n o m i n a t o r o f F .

k = 0. g. Example Calculate the factor of safety against wedge failure of a slope for which the following data applies : Plane 1 2 3 10 045 4 65 045 JI” 0 a 47 70 018 052 41 y .) . 0. (a . .A2-4 only and F= ml. c o n t a c t i s l o s t o n b o t h p l a n e s a n d 1h e w e d g e f l o a t s a s a r e s u l t o f w a t e r p r e s s u r e acting on planes 1 and 2. c1 * 25 kN/mZ . 6 8 2 0 0 ) Ux. by = 0 . ul. r = 0. 6.30 kN/m2. Z . c2 = 0.969 12.456 14. 0 . ni - 161.41146.b.I’ + c2 d) If m c 0 and m2 < 0. ml - 13. 6 0 6 3 2 . “ q / i < 0 . = 30°.(0. 9 3 9 6 9 4 . 0.7089 16. ku: + Z(ra. . H . 7.a.) = (0..40897.4. c o n t i n u e c a l c u l a t i o n s e q u e n c e .42262) 2.25 kN/m3 . p . q 8.q / i ) Tan $3 A wedge is formed.u2 . m2 . $2 * 3S”.Tan$z F= IZ2by2 + kp2u12 + Z(rb. In this case.35517 11.Tan+l {Z2(1 -a:) + + Iplc.80753.0 . 9.80301 10. 3 4 2 0 2 5.265. t h e r e i s c o n t a c t o n p l a n e 2 only and mZ.2Om .)Zu2jf cl If “1 < 0 and rn2 > 0.12981 rl-f22< ’ 0.)pZu. 3 .-54.38431 = -0.fy. . i = 0.08078 -0.78639 13.pY’J. b. the factor of safety falls to zero.1 8 3 . n = +l I.3389 . “2 . 0 . n(fz .f. 9 8 8 15.

1. and that in consequence the fissures are completely full of water. The solution allows for different strength parameters and water pressures on the two planes of weakness and for water pressure in the tension crack. a1 lowance i s m a d e f o r t h e f o l l o w ing : (I) interchange of planes 1 and 2 b ) t h e possibility o f o n e o f t h e p l a n e s o v e r l y i n g t h e o t h e r cl the situation where the crest overhangs the base of t h e s l o p e ( i n w h i c h c a s e n . These may be estimated from field data or by using some form of analysis.ywHs/j . The second m e t h o d rllows f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f a t e n s i o n c r a c k a n d g i v e s u1 = u2 . the slope face and the upper ground surface.us .0. In this case. where H is the total height of the wedge. this solution is for computation of the factor of safety for translational slip of a tetrahedral wedge formed in a rock slope by two intersecting discontinuities.154. in both methods. In the absence of precise information on the water bearing fissures. one cannot hope to make accurate predictions but two simple methods for obtaining approximate estimates were suggested in Appendix 1 of this book. COMPREHENSIVE SOLUTION Scope of solution As in the previous solution. I t i s a s s u m e d t h a t t h e pressure varies from zero at the free faces to a maximum value at some point on the line of intersection of the two failure planes.A2-5 1 7 . The influence of an external load E and a cable tension T are included in the analysis and supplementary sections are provided for the examination of the minimum factor of safety for a given e x t e r n a l l o a d (eg a b l a s t a c c e l e r a t i o n a c t i n g i n a k n o w n direction ) and for minimiring the cable force required for a given factor of safety. A s i n t h e s h o r t s o l u t i o n . There is no restriction on the inclination of the crest of the slope.-1) d) the possibility of contact being lost on either plane. the influence of a tension crack is included in the solution.up = ywHw/6. 6 2 6 a n d h e n c e t h e s l o p e i s u n s t a b l e . w h e r e Hr. Note that water pressure acting on the planes has a significant influence upon the solution to this problem. In both methods it is assumed that extreme conditions of very heavy rainfall occur. h e n c e t h e r e i s c o n t a c t o n p l a n e l only . .u2 . A g a i n . F . If u1 . The first method treats the case where no t e n s i o n c r a c k e x i s t s a n d g i v e s t h e r e s u l t ul. Part of the input data is concerned wlth the average values o f t h e w a t e r p r e s s u r e o n t h e f a i l u r e p l a n e s (~1 a n d ~2) a n d o n t h e t e n s i o n c r a c k (us).w i s t h e d e p t h o f t h e b o t t o m v e r t e x o f t h e tenslon c r a c k b e l o w t h e u p p e r g r o u n d surface. n2 < 0 a n d ml > 0 . c) gives F .0 . The solution does not take account of rotational slip or toppling.

shear resistance on plane 1 = factor of safety = total normal force on plane 2 . u p p e r g r o u n d s u r f a c e b y 3. .water thrust on tension crack face = total normal force on plane 1 I .shear force on plane 1 .shear resistance on plane 2 . measured along the trace of plane 1 average water pressure on face of wedge cohesive strength of each failure plane a n g l e o f friction o f e a c h f a i l u r e p l a n e unit weight of rock unit weight of water cable or bolt tension external load Y yw T E n - . Uotation The geometry of the problem is illustrated in The failure surfaces are denoted by sketch. t h e s l o p e f a c e b y tension crack by 5.total shear resistance on 1.AZ-6 In addition to detecting whether or not a wedge can form. the 4 and the are required *. the solution also examines how the tension crack intersects the other planes and only accepts those cases where the tension crack truncates the wedge in the manner shown in the margin sketch. The following input data for the solution : the margin 1 and 2.factor of safety .2 .factor of safety J ‘a Fl Nb ‘b Qb F2 Nl9”2 S when contact is maintained on plane 1 only when contact is maintained on ’ plane 2 only Q F3 when contact is maintained on b both planes 1 and 2 .a “1 L U c $ I I - dip and dip direction of plane or plunge and trend of force slope height referred to plane 1 distance of tension crack from crest.area of face of wedge = weight of wedge .2 .t o t a l s h e a r f o r c e o n 1.shear force on plane 2 .-1 if slope is overhanging and +l i f s l o p e d o e s n o t o v e r h a n g Other terms used in the solution are F A W V N.factor of safety against sliding along the line of intersection or on plane 1 or plane 2 .effective normal reactions .

bz) (dx. (a x.v e c t o r n plane 2 normal to 2 -b _ .Cosa.az) b. o r b y “ R e c t a n g u l a r t o P o l a r ” o p e r a t i o n o n desk t o p c a l c u l a t o r s . Sln$3Cosa3. 0~3. E a.by.ay.4 n direction of intersection lint of 3.vector . 2 : The expressions for a. S etc when E = 0 . ttc -c . Sin$rCosa4. Sin$5Cosag..+t.unit normal vector for plant 5 = v e c t o r i n d i r e c t i o n o f i n t e r s e c t i o n l i n t o f 1. Sin$lCosal.) Cos$-) Cos+5) (f 5x. Calculatiolr of factor of safety uhen the forces T and are either aero or completely specified in magnitude and direction.unit normal vector for plant 3 . N2. S l tc when T . (Sin*sSinar.4 a z a 7 75 ii . (t.5 n d i r e c t i o n o f i n t e r s e c t i o n l i n t o f 1. (SinJIaSinaj.square of magnitude of vector G .) . a.u n i t norma v e c t o r f o r p l a n t 4 . SintipCosa2.f*) - (Sin*lSinal.vector t t J t JS ‘i: * ..values of NT.. -v s h o u l d n o t b e c a n c e l l e d o u t i n e q u a t i o n 4 7 f o r qi..values of N1.f5y.(Co~~~Slna~~ Cos*.d.s 1 R G G5 .vector n d i r e c t i o n o f i n t e r s e c t i o n l i n t o f 1. (Sin*2SinaZ. Nd’ S” .) U.unit normal vector for plane 1 = unit normal vector for plane 2 .2 n direction of intersection lint of 3. a 1.” . -Sinllrt) . Sequence of calculations 1. Cos$tCosat. . N2.. -SinSe) (t xrey *ez 1 .dy.(Cos$tSinat. Components of unit vectors in directions of normals t o p l a n t s 1 t o 5. CoS$l) COs+z) Cos+.square of magnitude of vector t 5 Note 1 : The c o m p u t e d v a l u e o f V i s n e g a t i v e w h e n the tension crack dips away from the toe of the slope but this does not indicate a tensile force. atl.vector . at2bat3 w h i c h o c c u r l a t e r i n Ihe folutron a r e n o r m a l l y e v a l u a t e d b y ATANZ o f Fortran.A2-7 f$ ’ Nz’ . F o r t h i s r e a s o n .fy..vector In p l a n e 1 n o r m a l t o i t = magnitude of vector t .f5z)-(Sln~5Sina~. a n d o f f o r c e s T a n d E ..0 . ttc N.

bxjsx + 18 P .dz).(f..-f5xd.axfsx + v5 .fydx) (j5xpj5v. w5 = ixfsx + ivfsv + tzfsz x E d.).2 mp X + m2R2)+ 39 40 41 ..gs.av) .1.a.f.(fvd.).bya.) C .. 1y.) (Z.fvax) (9. .i.(a.-f~rdv). avfsv + aZfsz 28 29 30 31 32 55 . + ivdv + i.av .i.-f5.f.a.yd. R 0 p ” .~~~ (k. -iZby).id. + ivgv + izgz fxfsx + fyfsy + f.by-iyb. . (b.) (jx.fsz x5 ..t.gxdx + gvdv + 9svdv + I+. (f.d.a.d3y~92) 8 10 11 (g5x995ve95z) (i .a.& + n .(f5vd.j5z) . + = aXtX + bxtx 23 24 + b.iy-ayix) 1 13 4 N u m b e r s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o COSineS o f v a r i o u s angles .t.b.d.axex + avev + azez 25 26 27 ve . .(fzd. . (b. (f.dy-f.dy.ay).b.). up. + bvjsv + m g.A2-8 b.e.t.axb.fsx + bvfsv + bzfs.) - a)9 (f5p.). .i.(f5zd.jx + 16 17 “5 .(i. R PI f + gy2 G = 9. -aZiy).' G5 w - 95x2 + 9sv2 + (GP’ .i.e.kv&.) .(f5ta.(f.) Cayi.jv.i.).fzdy). gszdz bzjz Us2 15 m5 . . 19 20 21 22 q * bxg.(f5xay-f5y x (bya. -f5zay).b.b.a.w5x + iv9sv + h952 33 34 Mircellaneous f a c t o r s Iii-72 = I b* mq l? 35 36 37 38 + 92' 95z2 1 -.(izbx-i.d.(a. + bvgv + kg. Components of vectors in the direction of the lines of intersection of various planes . bzez Se .bxgsx + r 5 V w bvgsv + avbv + aytv + bvtv + bzgsz arb.ay .f. 45 .). + ivev + ire.b. + we - i. aZtZ .. + ivtv + byey + i.b. .j. = - (iyb.-a.i.

Arcsin(viz) *i 46 47 qi = Arctan(-vi.“5 - 5..h5lmg//3dz u~Asnc/(cj i .IplL)/h. terminate computation.P2 h/l9zl 2 msp X5 + mS2R2+ 42 43 44 h5 .se) + V(rvg . Areas of faces and weight of wedge Al = A2 A5 w ()mqjh* . -ve) + V(rss . P l u n g e a n d t r e n d o f l i n e o f i n t e r s e c t i o n o f p l a n e s 1 &2 . o r if h5 < 0 .q/nlm*h* lqdns1m~*hs2)/2/pl img51h~2/21n51 54 55 = 56 q52m~2h~3/1n51)/6(p1 57 y(q2m2h3//n1 - h.AZ-9 4 h = (C.lwalh~*)/2!pl (. E f f e c t i v e n o r m a l r e a c t i o n s o n ptanes 1 a n d 2 a s s u m i n g contact on both planes Nl = ‘42 pIUkz + T(rv .) f.s) + E(rve .ulAl 61 62 uIWZ. SO 51 g.2(ur/p)Tan~lTan02)/R2 45 e . or Tension crack invalid. + T(rs .hlmi.vg)) . Water pressures i) W i t h n o t e n s i o n c r a c k Ul = u2 .J-vi. ic cnqgiz< 0 . F a c t o r o f s a f e t y w h e n 111 < 0 a n d N2 < 0 is lost on both planes) F-0 63 .l/6lpi ..ss)) .y.8 59 60 ii) With tension crack Ul V = “2 Y. B = (Tan2$1 + Tan202 . Check on wedge geometry No wedge is formed.u2A2 (contact J.(Mh .v ) + E(rs. terminate computation.

b-45 ) .WaZ .ulA1r = -(Tt.TV .0.Ewe . Np”. .mP f a c t o r o f safety produced when Zoad na?riitude is ap.Eve . Fg” b y u s e o f e q u a t i o n s 61.*)f Qa Fl = = (Na utAl)Tanel Q.) 71 =x 72 73 7 4 75 76 77 =Y =z =b Qb F.AZ-10 k. I f N . c) D . a . + VFsx + uzA2b. . c o n t a c t i s m a i n t a i n e d o n p l a n e 1 only and the factor of safety is calculated as follows: .Ts . + E e . a n d E i s a p p l i e d i n t h e d i r e c t i o n I+.~.Wb. + E e .Es.Q/S . c o n t a c t i s m a i n t a i n e d o n b o t h planes and the factor of safety is calculated as follows: = v(Wiz .Tane~ + N2Tanc2 + CIA. .-(Tty + E e y + N. te r m i n a t e c o m p u t a t i o n . Q”. e v e n b e f o r e E i s a p p l i e d . + NaaZ + VfSz + uZA2bz) + W 64 Na =x =Y 65 66 67 68 sz s. + VfSz + ulAla*) + W = = = (=x2 + sy* + S. = ts. o r w i t h i n a c e r t a i n r a n g e e n c o m p a s s i n g t h i s dlrection. c o n t a c t i s m a i n t a i n e d o n p l a n e 2 only and the factor of safety is calculated as follows: . 62.2) (Nb .) . t h e n F = 0. + cl+‘1 69 70 1. 78. + N./S. b ) I f N1” < 0 a n d Np” < 0 .-(Tt.vi ?I i. + c2A2 S 78 Q 79 a0 E 0’ F3 2. = -(Tty + E e y + N b b y + VfSy + ulAlay) = -(Tt. + N b b . > 0 and N2 > 0.{ (N1” I2 + (N2”)* + 2m mn N~“N2”r 1’ a1 ae = Arctan 83 I f E > D .-(Tt.a. given a ) E v a l u a t e Nl”.Tw . If N1 > 0 and N2 < Cl.utApr .ay + Vfsy + upA2by) . + VfSx + ulAta. . then contact is lost on both planes and F .VS~ . + Eex + Nbb. + E e .Vv5 . 79 and 80 with E . Terminate computation.u2A2)Tan$2 + cpA2 Qb/Sb m.pZied in the worst direction. S”. Nb I f N1 < 0 a n d N2 > 0 . .* + sy2 + s.0.

D e t e r m i n e 5. Qb” a n d F2” f r o m e q u a t i o n s 72 to 77 with E .“.E2)Tan2+1)f (Sa”)2 - E2 a4 a5 86 eel = Arcsin(S. S.E2)Tan2$2)’ (sb”‘)2 a7 aa a9 $e2 = Arcsin(S.“/Sy”) + 180° f) If N1 ” > 0 and N2” > 0. I f F2” < 1.“.-(F3tix .“&” Fl - .se) .Arctan(Tan@2/F2) a.E{ (Qa”)2 + ((Sat’)2 . I f F3 ” < 1 9 t e r m i n a t e c o m p u t a t i o n .Arctan(Tan@l/F.-(F3viy .ve) C h e c k t h a t N. Fl” from e q u a t i o n s to 70 with E .Arctan(ex/ey) Compute se and ve u s i n g e q u a t i o n s 2 6 a n d 2 7 N1 N2 .pk. 1 : 1 S.uZyTan4p)/x tz .-(F3ti.E2)+ (S1’j2 E2 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 /I3 + F32 ex .Tan$2)/x eY .N2” + Eu(rs.N.E{(Q”)2 + B((S1’)2 . Sy”. a s s u m e c o n t a c t o n p l a n e 2 only after application of E. .? 0 a n d N22 0 .0. t e r m i n a t e c o m p u t a t i o n .uZ. If Fl” c 1 .A2-11 d) If N1” > 0 and Np” < 0.“/Sb”) .Arctan(S. . 65 D e t e r m i n e 5 ‘I. If F”> 1 : 3 F3 X = - s"Q" . .“. I f F2” > 1 : . Sa”.Tan$2)/x *es = Arcsin(-e.) ael = Arctan(Sx”/Sy”) + 1800 e) If Nl” < 0 and N2” > 0. Sb”.pkzTan9.okyTan91 . Qa”. Sy”.0. If F”.) ae3 .uZ.“/Sa”) .” + Eo(rve . t e r m i n a t e c o m p u t a t i o n . 5.Tan$l .2 .E ( F2 (Qb”)2 + E2 ((Sb”)’ . a s s u m e c o n t a c t o n p l a n e 1 only after application of E. assume contact on both planes after application of E.

N1’ > 0 and N2’ ( 0. T.pkzTan$l Arcsin(-t.pkyTan$l (Fviz .A2-12 3.N2’ + T3u (rs .f&l)// F’ + Tan242 102 103 104 +t2 = at2 - Arctan(Tan$l/F) . e2 . 5 ‘. Tl = (FS. Tg Tmin . T3 Tmin = s m a l l e s t o f T1.62.‘.30° . E v a l u a t e Nl’. c2 .‘)/J Fz+ TanZOl . c o n t a c t i s l o s t o n p l a n e 1 w h e n T . Minimwn c a b l e or bolt t e n s i o n T m i n rQquirQd to ra<se the factor of safety to ~MQ 8pecifiQd value F.s m a l l e s t o f T2. N2’. Q ’ b y m e a n s o f e q u a t i o n s 61. E v a l u a t e Sx’.loo’.‘) 100 101 %I at1 cl Arctan(Tan$l/F) Arctan(S..Q.Arcsin(S. S.1000 lb/ft* 20°. after application of T.’ u s i n g e q u a t i o n s 6 5 t o 69 w i t h Ty= 0 . L .Tan92) Ix 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 T3 = t.‘.‘/S. d) A l l c a s e s .) Arctan(t.0 ./ty) Compute s and v using equations 23 and 24 Nl = N1’ + Tgp(rv . E v a l u a t e S.0. Assume contact on plane 2 only.+1 “.‘/Sb’) Arctan(Sx’/$‘) N o r e s t r i c t i o n o n v a l u e s o f N1’ a n d N2’. c o n t a c t i s l o s t o n p l a n e 2 w h e n T = 0 .5 0 0 Ib/ft*. T3 Calculate the factor of safety for the following wedge : Plane $ a 15 105 2 70 235 3 12 195 4 65 185 750 165 rl . 78. after application of T. 75 with T = 0.4 0 ’ $1 - .1 6 0 lb/ft3. N1’ < 0 and N2’ > 0.Q’)/x u I xTan9p) /x u lyTan02) lx u Z. Sb’ a n d Qb’ u s i n g equations 72 to 76 with T .’ > 0 and N2’ > 0. = fY tz = Jlt3’ at3- (Fvix . S. cl . I f I f I f I f Example ignore the results of this section Tmin = N. 13 Tmin = s m a l l e s t o f T1. a).pkxTanQl (Fwiy .Arcsin(S.‘. N1’ ( 0 and N2’ < 0.’ a n d Q.‘/Sy’) I f Nl’< 0 .’ .v) If Nl< 0 or N2< 3. X = (F* (FS’ + 8)’ . b) If N2I < 0.s) 112 113 Np . Tz = (Fsb’ . . Assume contact on plane 1 only. S’. Assume contact on both planes after application of T. y . S. . Sy’.

0.35880 0. 0.07899. -0.57388 0. 0.67044 0.34451.47302) b.54041.+d.b. Y*aZ) u1 . -o.97815) .20083.k..) (&.k. 0.76975. 0.061627.44017 158.20° 157. 0.05381. 0.73O x5 - t R P Y v c n h B - c5 n5 h5 - Ici (1.83180 0.) (f5x*f5y* f.uz - u5 from equation 59.76796 0.. 0.(-O.t-0..33371 0.41899 "5 - q 45 r I5 “ W5 .0 . 0..a T .09769) = 5 0.18301.x. -0.(-0.(-0.. 0.56299 31.34202) .j5.57923.57407 .63112) .70711) ..18526 0. 0. -0. E .58166 0.57544) (j. -0.j.25630.0..) (k..79826.45 87..i.. -0.73527 0.(-0.77790.i.521 0.57833 0.0. 0.j5y.03272) .64321.56107.24321.. t .AZ-13 la) (a.by.) m ms " P (j.77047) = (-0.$*l.90286.03554 1. 0.60945 -0.01762 0..68301.50901) .(0.46206 0.05452.90269 1.(-0. 0.94483 0.g5yrg5z).90767. . .0.) (d.).0.52535 0.(-0.(-0. -0.(0.snBg.).(0.42262) . 6 0 9 4 5 x - 0.03554 1.34202) (g5x.53899.j.) (f. -0.81915.28287.31853.43& (i . -0.fy&) (g.

57191< 1 ul Nl N2 s Q F = 1 .0.99226 eY ez .10 obtained in case c of Appendix t h a t smll d i f f e r e n c e s i n c a l c u l a t e d and water pressures account for the in the factors of safety.7360 - Factor of safety Compare this value with the value of 1.73 obtained in case b of Appendix 1. 7 8 9 2 x lo6 l b .1 8 4 6 . S”.56299 Fmin I hfinimum factor of safety) .us . Fg” a s g i v e n i n l b ) .12128 . E .5422 x 10’ lb 1.note areas difference This value can be compared with the 1.0023 x 106 lb < 1 i 1 Tension crack valid .0.2790 . dry s1ope.8272 x 10’ lb .3 Ib/ft2 .0 . 2) Of Fmin- As in lb) except E . 2 5 6 5 x 10’ lb Both positive therefore contact .8 x 10c lb.Piz ’ 0 nez ’ 0 Wedge is formed > EvlSiz ’ 0 hs > 0 lqhsl/lmhl . 0. 5 5 5 5 4 InqSmShSj/1nsqmhl A1 .1. B F3 X tx N2 ” > 0 . 5 1 7 1 x 10’ lb .1084. 6 ft2 .0 .u) . 5 8 8 6 x 10’ l b . Find the value V a l u e s o f Nl”. N2”. p”. Nl” > 0 .1 . Factor of safety.8075 x 10’ lb 1.5 .-0.1378 > Both positive therefore contact on planes 1 and 2.1 .1 .AZ-14 . 4 6 4 4 x 10’ l b = 2.2. 0 2 8 2 4 3 .5 5 6 5 . l b ) T . 1 ft2 AS u .0.0 = 2 .u2 .04 .6 4 2 8 . value of 1 .0.1. As in la) except as follows: v Nl N2 S Q F3 . 0 ft2 A2 . 3 8 5 3 x 10’ l b 1 o n b o t h p l a n e s 1 a n d 2 . F3” ’ 1 t c o n t i n u e c a l c u l a t i o n .1.u2 . v = 2.us .O.

0. a p r a c t i c a l r u l e o f t h u m b f o r t h e best direction in which to install the cables to reinforce a wedge is : The cable should be aligned with the line of intersection of the tie planes.430 Note that the optimum plunge and trend of the cable are approximately : et3 and = pi + ISO . .g8O . N2’.-1.730 In other words.12148 (Minimum: cable tension) tx % tz +t3 = -6. S’ a n d Q ’ X T3 .f(~l +a2) = 31.Trend of cable “t3 = 349.6.2 + 180 . A s i n l a ) e x c e p t t h a t t h e m i n i m u m c a b l e t e n s i o n Tmin required to increase the factor of safety to 1. ae3 = = 3).2O ( u p w a r d s ) k 180~ = 157.-0.97574 .5 is to be determined.25 at3 f ai = .62O 173.03O 1.6772 .1.AZ-15 b3 "1 ‘42 .Plunge of force (upwards) .73 + 180 = 337.9517 9. and it should be inclined at the average friction angle to the line of intersection.as given in la) Nl’.Plunge of cable (upwards) .4307 x lo6 lb . Teneioned cable Optimwn cable direction for reinforcement of a wetie. .3. viewed from the bottom of the sZope.Trend of force lb lb Both positive therefore contact maintained on both planes.Tmin .6793 x x 10’ 106 .18205 = 0.

.

A3-1 Appendix 3: Factors of safety for reinforced rock slopes Throughout this book. Londe suggests that equation 2 is more appropriate. justified in the case of an unreinforced slope. it t h e c a b l e i s t e n s i o n e d b e f o r e a n y movement of the rock block or wedge has taken place. since one never knows the exact sequence of loading and movement in a rock slope. water p r e s s u r e s i n t h e f i s s u r e s a r e sensitive t o d i s p l a c e m e n t a n d m a y i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e . In other words. the cohesive strength c and the various water pressures are a l l f u l l y mobllised a t t h e s a m e time. i s d e s i g n e d t o o v e r c o m e b o t h o f t h e p r o b l e m s r a i s e d here. the factor of safety of a reinforced rock slope (for both plane and wedge failure) has been defined as : Resisting force Disturbing force . P i e r r e Londe*. . it is assumed that the frictional and cohesive strengths of a rock surface are known with a high degree of precision and the water pressures have been measured by means of piezometers. case. s u g g e s t e d t h a t a second de i n i t i o n i s e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e : Resisting force + T Disturbing force 2 F- F- I n t h i s d e f nition. ‘* T e c h n i c a l d i r e c t o r . If. it cannot be assumed t h a t t h e c a b l e t e n s i o n T . t h e f r i c t i o n a l s t r e n g t h d u e t o 4. s t r e n g t h . i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h i s p r o b l e m . I f T i s a p a s s i v e f o r c e . t h e c h o i c e b e c o m e s a r b i t r a r y . the force T increases the resisting force. d u e t o e. the resisting force can only be In this developed after some movement has taken place. The method of solution described below. F r a n c e . P a r i s . Houeve r . In fact. the force T is assumed to act in such a m a n n e r a s to ducreaee the dirrturbing force. i n a p e r s o n a 1 cormnunication t o t h e a u t h o r s .T. Which definition should be used 7 Londe suggests that t h e r e i s s o m e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r u s i n g equation 1 w h e n T i s a n a c t i v e f o r c e . Consequently.Sin 8 where T is the force applied to the rock by the reinforcing member. This is because the response of the various elements to displacement in the The development of the full frictional slope is not the same. that same could not be said of a reinforced slope. a n d t h e c o h e s i v e s t r e n g t h c r e q u i r e a finite displacement on the sliding surface and this disp l a c e m e n t may b e i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h a t i m p o s e d b y t h e application of the cable tension T. for the moment. a p p l i e d b y untensioned bars or cables. Similarly. a s e c o n d a n d more significant problem arises and this relates to the degree of confidence attached to the values of the shear strengths and water pressures used in the stability analysis. C o y n e 6 Belliar. d e p e n d i n g u p o n t h e nmnner i n w h i c h the cables are installed. On t h e o t h e r h a n d . based upon a suggestion by Londe. o n e my b e l e d t o b e l i e v e that a high degree of confidence can be attached to the calculated driving and resisting forces and hence the factor While this confidence would be of safety of the slope.

5. T h e r e q u i r e d v a l u e o f T w a s f o u n d t o b e 4 .1. w h i l e a f a c t o r o f s a f e t y o f 1 w a s a p p l i e d t o UA.A3-2 Londe suggests that.CosB = r5 + (W.Tane + CosB This is the cable tension required to satisfy the factors of safety assigned to each of the components of the dr ving and resisting force terms. c a n b e e x p r e s s e d a s : cA W.67UTanb .SinB)x 3 Note that the factors of safety (given i n i t a l i c s ) f o r t h e p a r a m e t e r s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e r e s i s t ng forces ( c and 4) a r e d e c r e a s i n g f a c t o r s w h i l e t h e y a r e ncreasing f a c t o r s for the driving forces ( U and V).Tan+) + 0. cb.83SinS.1 . For a typical problem. W Using these values.0. f o r a b l o c k s l i d i n g down a plane. s a f e t y w a s a p p l i e d u n i f o r m l y t o CA. g i v e s T .5 and Londe considers it to be more realistic In view of the uncertainties associated with the w a t e r p r e s s u r e s a n d t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s m o b i l i s a t i o n o f T. Solving equation T I W(Simb 3 for T gives : 2 V + l.+T 5 S o l v i n g f o r T . \ and W. Tan@* a n d T a n g . c a n d $. different factors of safety should be used. t h e f a c t o r o f of a rock wedge to 1. u s i n g t h e same v a l u e s a s i n c a s e d) o f A p p e n d i x 1 .67cA 4 ..0 for water pressures f” = 1 .2~ + T. 8 x lo6 l b .2mV5V _ .. C o n s i d e r t h e p r a c t i c a l e x a m p l e d i s c u s s e d i n Case d ) o f I t w a s r e q u i r e d t o d e t e r m i n e the Appendix I of this book.0. This value is approximately twice that obtained by using a s i n g l e v a l u e o f F . 7 Using the alternative method proposed by Londe and substituti n g t h e f a c t o r s o f s a f e t y s u g g e s t e d b y h i m .9 . Londe suggests : fc .CosuI Tan@ . 0 f o r w e i g h t s a n d f o r c e s .d e f i n e d p a r a m e t e r s ( s u c h a s w a t e r p r e s s u r e s and cohesive strengths) while low factors of safety can be used for those quantities (such as the weight of a wedge) which are known with a greater degree of precision.$A zT .T. 2 f o r f r i c t i o n a l s t r e n g t h s ($) f4 f = 2.2uA)+!?. High factors of safety can be applied t o i l l .83. depending upon the degree of confidence which the designer has in the particular parameter being considered. e q u a t i o n A49 of Appendix 1 can be rewritten as : +-5(c~A~ + cgAb) + (qw + 2 r V + . +(Xw + 2YV + S T . 5 f o r c o h e s i v e s t r e n g t h s (c) = 1 . i n s t e a d o f u s i n g a s i n g l e f a c t o r o f safety to define the stability of the slope. UB.Sin$ + 2V . cable tension T needed to increase the factor of safet Y I n t h i s case. T h e r e a d e r s h o u l d n o t b e a l a r m e d u n d u l y b y t h e discrepancy between the two calculated values of T since .2UB)w I “vsW . 6 4 x 106lb. the conditions of limiting equilibrium e x p r e s s e d i n e q u a t i o n 1 2 o n p a g e 77 .Cos+.

O:lGCATB 13.l:PRINT "Analysis no.l:PRINT "coordinate xt" 830 IDCATZ 5.0:IF N=M+l TREN RBTURN 1060 COLOR 15.l:PRINT "cohesion)( 970 LOCATE 17.STRENGTHS 590 IF LRFT$(STRmGTR$.l:PRIRT "coordinate yw" 860 ILCATEZ 8.l:PRINT "friction angle" 890 LOCATE 11.l:PRINT "friction angle" 960 LOCATR 16.Al-26 550 IF LRN(WATRR$)=O THRN 520 ELSE WATER =VAL(WATERS) 560 IF WATER = 0 THEN FLAGZ-1 570 FLAG3=O:UXATB 13.FILEt 700 CLS:OPKN "A:"+FILK$+".1 980 PRINT "angle theta" 990 GosuB 1040 1000 IF STATUS="i" TIllIN GGSUR 114O:RETURN ELSE RETURN 1010 ' 1020 ' Subrout~pe for slice P.l)=-G.N:INPUT81.l:PRINT "coordinate yt" &O LGCATR 6.l:PRIRT "coordinate yb" 880 IDCATE 10.37:PRINT M+l:LOCATR 3.O:ICCATK 3.52 .l)="Y" OR LBFIt(STRKNGTRS.WATER 720 RAD=3.DAT" FOR INPUT AS 11 710 LINK INPUTtl.l)="q" OR LEFTt(STRJIRGTRS.32:PRINT M+l:CGLGR 7.22:PRINT M:KlGATE 13.27:PRINT M 1050 IGCATE 3.AG6=1:STAT'US="c":GG'IG 1950 770 ' 760 * DiSplBy Of &?tB m-ray 790 ' 800 CIS:IDCATE 1.l:PRINT "cohesion" 900 LOCATE 12.141593/180:F=l:H=l:NlM=N-1 730 INPUTt1.B "A:SARMA*.TITLEt 810 IDEATE 3.O:LGCATK 13.12 580 INPUf "Are shear strengths uniform throughout slope (y/n) ? ".FLAG3: INl'UTtl.l:PRINT "rock unit weight" 950 LOCATE 15.1:PRINT "force T ":LGCATK 18.42 1070 PRINT Mt2:CGLoR 7.FGS 760 CLOSE tl:F=l:FI.l:COLOR 15.0 940 LOCATE 14.dispJw 1030 ' 1040 COLOR 15.DAT":PRINT:PRINT STRINCt(80.ACC(2):INPUTI!l.23:PRINT WATER 920 LOCATE 13.45):PRINT 690 INPUT "Bnter filename (without extension): ".K):NEXT J:NKXT K 750 INPUTtl.0:IF N=M+2 TRKN RRTURN 1080 CGwR 15. 680 PR1NT':FII.FLAG2:INPUTtl .0 820 LOCATE 4.l:COLGR 15.O:PRINT "Side number":COLOR 7. FLAG4 740 FOR K = 1 TG N:FGR J=l TG 39:IRPUTgl.A(J.l:PRINT "unit weight of water = M 910 LOCATE 12. ".ACC:IRPUTIl.0 930 PRINT "Slice number":COLOR 7.l:PRINT "coordinate xb" 870 LCZATE 9.l)="y" THEN FLAGJ=l 620 N=NIM+l:GCZG 1950 s E ' ata eotty frcu a disk file z &WCATE 8 l*PRINT STRINGt(80 45) 670 PRINT:PRINT &w-ma data files 0: disk ".l:PRIRT "coordinate xw" 850 LOCATE 7. TITLRt:INFUTI1.THEN 6980 600 IF LKN(STRRNGTRt)=O THEN 570 610 IF LRFT$(STRENGTR$.47:PRINT Mc2:LocATE 3.

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3048 m 2 . 3 8 7 cm3 1. 7 6 4 6 m3 0 .4536 kg 28. 0 9 2 9 In2 6 .019 kg/m3 0 .1383 kgf m 1.352 gm 1 6 . 4 5 2 cm2 0 . 9 6 5 9 x lo-*m/s 0 . 0 1 9 kg/m3 16.448 N 1 5 . 8 8 2 k g f/m2 1 . 3 kPa 6 .Pascal .1 unit prefixes Prefix Symbo 1 Multiplier tcra 1 ft/year 1 ft3/s 1 1 Ibf ft ft Ibf 0.015 kgf/m3 1.964 kN 4.A4-1 Appendix 4 : Conversion factors Imperial Length 1 mile 1 ft 1 in 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 mile2 acre ft2 in2 yd3 ft3 ft3 Metric 1.590 km2 4046.4047 hectare 0 .609 km 0. 0 3 4 5 k g f/cm2 SI 1.47 Permeability Flow rate Moment Energy Frequency 5. 3 8 6 kPa 0 . 3 8 7 cm3 1 .3048 m 25.9 m2 0.m.3558 J 1 c/s 1 c/s gi9a c 109 mega n 106 kilo k 103 milli m 10-S micro lb nano n 10-s pica P 10-12 SI symbols and definitions N .N .32 Iitres 4.40 mn 2. 0 4 7 8 8 kPa 1 0 1 . 0 3 0 5 k g f/cm2 0 . 0 2 8 3 2 m3/s 1 . 4 4 t4Pa 1 0 7 .936 t o n n e f/m2 0 .4536 kg f k g f/cm2 lo.609 km 0.3558 J 1 Hz 157.590 km2 0. 8 9 5 kPa 0 . 3 2 5 kPa 1 bar 2.Joule .9659 x 10 -6 cm/s 0 .016 tonne 0.033 kg f/n2 1 . 0 2 8 3 m3 28.Newton = kg m/s2 Pa . 0 2 8 3 m3 0 . 0 1 5 k g f/cm2 0 . 1 5 7 1 kN/m’ Area Volume Imperial gallon US gallon in3 Mass 1 ton 1 lb 1 02 1 lb/ft3 1 Ibf/ft3 1 ton f 1 lb f 1 t o n f/in2 1 t o n f/ft2 1 l b f/in2 1 l b f/ft2 1 standard atmosphere 1 4 . 4 3 5 l b f/in2 1 ft water 1 in mercury Density Unit weight Force Pressure or stress 9.546 litres 3.0929 m2 6 .N/m2 J .989 kPa 3 . 4 5 2 cm2 0 . 0 1 6 ng 0.352 gm 16. 5 4 cm 2. 0 2 8 3 m3 4 5 4 6 cm3 3 7 8 5 cm3 1 6 . 7 6 4 6 m3 0 . 0 2 8 3 2 m3/s 0.785 litres 1 6 .4536 kg 28. 3 5 5 8 Mm 1.016 tonne f 0. 0 7 0 3 k g f/cm2 4 .

.

The operation of rending (breakIngI rock by means of qslves.c o m p o n e n t e x p l o s i v e s . ufth v a r i a b l e detonating velocltles. Air Gap . u s u a l l y ?lquld. used tospecIfy t h e OTB b e t w e e n a l e v e l a n d t h e s u r f a c e .of t h e r o c k d u e t o l n s u f f Iclent e x p loslves f o r t h e a ure amount of burden. B test blasting cap when unconf Ined.A sltuatlon In which the blast falls to cause total %I. as opposed to a tunnel. fyl. cr where some forelgn matter has plugged the hole. .A hole drllled Into a boulder to allow the placement of a seal I charge to break the bou I der .A blasting technique whereln a charge Is suspended In a borehole. Shot Is also used to mean blast. Booster .Where the contlnulty of a column of explosives In a %$! Is broken el ther by Improper p Iscement. A booster does not contain an lnltiatlng device but must be cap sensitive. Also. Bench . and the hole tightly stenmed so as to al low a tlme lapse between detonation and ultimate failure of the rock (no coup1 lng real Ized). B l a s t .The roof cr top of an underground open lng.Rock broken beyond the Ilmlts of the last row of holes.A h o l e d r l l l e d I n r o c k o r o t h e r material f o r t h e plecement o f explosives. .A nearly hor I zonta I passage from the surface by which an underground mine Is entered. not otherwlse classlf led as en axploslve and In rhlch none of the Ingredients are classlf led as an explosive. Anfo . Block Hole . Adlt .AS-1 Appendix 5 GLOSSARY OF BLASTING AND EXCAVATION TERM Accoustlcal Impedance . cannot be detonated by means of a No.A family o f t w o . Back .Anwnonlum Nltrate . or caused by Incomplete d&on&Ion of the explosives. . Astral I t e .T h e mathsmatlcal expresslon f o r characterlztng a m a t e r i a l a s t o Its e n e r g y t r a n s f e r propertles ( t h e product of Its unlt density and Its sound velocity CpV)).A chemical compound used for lntenslfylng an explosfveact Ion. provided that the flnlshed product. conslstlng o f a f u e l Intended for blastlng.Any material o r m i x t u r e . T h a t portlon o f a borehole t h a t remains relatively Intact after havlng been charged with explosive and fired. as In the case of slurries 4 poured blasting agents. Back Break . B l a s t Hole . Used as a blasting agent. o r t h a t between two levels.Fuel 011 Mixture.~ A~eyt .T h e h o r i z o n t a l l e d g e I n a f a c e a l o n g which h o l e s a r e drilled vertical l y . Benching I s t h e p r o c e s s o f excavating whereby terraces or ledges are worked in a stepped shape. as mlxed and packaged for use or shlpment.

A ser les of cuts are taken before complete removal of the excavated materlal is accomplished.The act of connecting or joining two or more disIn blasting the reference concerns the transfer $i+S$rts. been accomplished. or shaft.R e f e r s t o a d e v i c e u s e d t o l n i t l a t e a d e l a y I n a Primacord circuit. C o y o t e Blasting . Cushion Blasting . or one row of holes to other rows of holes. Condensor-Discharge . Cut-Off . of energy from an explosive reaction Into the surrounding rock and is considered perfect when there are no losses due to absorptlon or cushioning. The process of enlarglng a. Connectinq Wire .The mouth or opening of a borehole. portion of a blast hole (usually the bottom) by flring a series of smal I explosive charges.Refers to the strength of a cartridge of dynan re a ion to the same sized cartridge of stralght Nitroglycerine dynamite. . c o n n e c t i n g o n e h o l e i n t h e c i r c u i t w i t h another.AS-2 . Centers .Any wire used in a blastlng clrcult to extend the length of a leg wire or leading wire. Connector . horizontally into a rock face at the foot of the shot. Col lar . o r t o a s h i f t i n g o f t h e r o c k f o r mat Ion due to an improper delay system. there may be an apparent burden and a true burden. The specific dimenslons of any c u t I s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e material’s p r o p e r t i e s a n d requlred productlon levels. Used w h e r e i t I s i m p r a c t i c a l t o d r i l l v e r t i c a l l y . w h o s e s t o r e d e n e r g y I s r e l e a s e d i n t o a blasting c i r c u i t .More conwnonly t e r m e d S p r i n g l n g .generally considered the distance from an explosive charge to the nearest free or open face.M o r e s t r i c t l y I t i s t h a t p o r t i o n o f a n excavation w i t h more o r l e s s s p e c i f i c d e p t h a n d width. dri I I steep.T h e p r a c t i c e o f d r i l l i n g b l a s t h o l e s ( t u n nels). a n d c o n t i n u e d i n llke manner along or through the extreme limits of the excavation. Chamber Ing .Where a portion of a column of explosives has failed to detonate due to bridging.The distance measured between two or more adjacent blast holes wlthout reference to hole locations as to row. The term has no association with the blast hole burdens. cut . . Burden .The technique of flring of a single row of holes along a neat excavation I lne to shear the web between the Fired after productlon shootlng has closely dri I led holes. Also. Technically.:: Stren$ .. the latter being measured always in the direction In which displacement of b r o k e n r o c k will o c c u r f o l l o w i n g f i r i n g o f a n explosive charge.A blasting machine which uses batterles t o energlre a serres o f condensers. to col lar In drl I Iing means the act of starting a borehole.

The distinctions between Hlgh and Low Explosives are twofold.I n b l a s t i n g i t I s t h e act o f Initiating a n e x p l o s i v e reactton. An iron or stee I we ght held on a wire rope that is dropped from a height onto large boulders for the purpose of breaking them into smaller fragments.A plastic covered core of high velocity explosives used to detonate charges of explosives in boreholes and under water. Detonation . .The extent to which rock is broken Into smal I Mmary b l a s t i n g . with gaseous formatlon and pressure expansion following shortly thereafter. e.~~n:.The end of an excavation toward which work is progressIt is also any rock surface .l+hich s t r a t a .o r t h a t which w a s l a s t d o n e .An explosive reaction that consists of the propagation of a shock wave through the exp los I ve accompan led by a chemical reaction that furnishes energy to sustain the shockwave propagation in a stable manner. . F i r e . part of an excava-upon which haulage or walking Is done. . o r v e i n s a r e I n c l i n e d .Any chemical mixture that reacts at high speed to berate gas and heat and thus cause tremendous pressures.An explosive reaction that consists of a burntng act on at a hlgh rate of speed along which occur gaseous formation and pressure expansion. Face .The bottom horizontal.In blasting a smaller charge or portion of a blast hole loaded with explosives that Is separated from the main charge by stemnlng or air cushion. Floor .g. or nearly so. Rlmacord. b e d s . Detonat I nq Cord . so ds. or VF. the latter always deflagrate and contain no ingredients which by themselves can be exploded. 8 blasting cap as opposed to Blasting Agents which cannot be so initiated.known al so as a Headache Ba I I . .~~. exposed to air. Di&-. must always be a source of ignition and the proper temperature limit r e a c h e d t o I n i t i a t e t h e r e a c t i o n . T e c h n i c a l l y .That portion of a blasting cap which causes a de ay between the instant of impressment of electrical energy on the cap and the time of detonation of the base charge of the cap. Both High and Low Explosives can be Initiated by a single No.A5-3 Deck . the former are deslgned to detonate and conta 1 n at least one high explosive ingredient. .A thermochemical process whereby mixtures of gases. a holler can rupture but cannot explode. .liquids react with the almost instantaneous formaThere t Ion of gaseous pressures and near sudden heat release.

Wires. Lead Wire . i t s p e c i f i e s t h e e l e v a t i o n o f a r o a d b e d .T h e w i r e s c o n n e c t i n g t h e e l e c t r o d e s o f a n e l e c t r i c blasting machine with the final l e g w i r e s o f a b l a s t i n g c i r cuit. Gram Atom . u s u a l l y 25/1000th o f a s e c o n d a p a r t . like stratification.Delay electric caps which have a b u i l t . I n i t i a t i o n .A54 F r a c t u r e .A machine designed to contain two or more mounted dril-units w h i c h m a y o r m a y n o t b e o p e r a t e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y . road. etc. Millisecond Delay Caps . Mat .The act of detonating a high explosive by means of a mechanical device or other means. l e a d i n g f r o m t h e t o p e n d o f a n e l e c t r i c blasting cap.The bench. This action may create sufficient voltage to cause premature firing of an electric blasting circuit. particularly in the presence of salt water.T h e u n i t u s e d i n c h e m i s t r y t o e x p r e s s t h e a t o m i c weight of an element in terms of grams (weight). H i q h w a l I .In explosive calculations it is the chemical compound used for purposes of combining with oxygen to form gaseous products and cause a release of heat. are often called partings.P l a n e s w i t h i n r o c k m a s s e s a l o n g w h i c h t h e r e i s n o rexce t o s e p a r a t i o n a n d a l o n g w h i c h t h e r e h a s b e e n n o r e l a tive movement of the material on each side of the break. Grade . the planes of which are generally mutually perpendicular. They occur in sets. tires or conveyor belt. o r l a y e r s o f g r a v e l f o u n d u s u a l l y a f e w feet below the surface and so cemented together that it must be blasted or ripped in order to excavate. Leq Wires . tric caps at the bottom of boreholes. etc. Fuel . or through a conductive med i urn.A d e v i c e c o n t a i n i n g a s i l v e r c h l o r i d e c e l l w h i c h is used to measure resistance in an electric blasting circuit. t h e b r e a k i n g o f r o c k w i t h o u t m o v e m e n t o f the broken pieces. Galvanic Action .I n e x c a v a t i o n .Low Energy Detonating @rd. When given a value such as percent or degree grade it is the amount of fall or inclination compared to a unit horizontal distance for a ditch. To grade means to level ground irregularities to a prescribed level. b l u f f .Currents caused when dis-similar metals contact each other. Joints. Used to initiate non-elecLEDC . used to couple caps into the circuit. Hardpan . Ga I vanometer .i n d e l a y e l e m e n t . This timing may vary from manufacturer to consecutively. o r l e d g e o n t h e e d g e o f a s u r f a c e excavation and most usually used only in coal strip mining.L i t e r a l ly. manufacturer.U s e d t o c o v e r a s h o t t o h o l d d o w n f l y i n g m a t e r i a l . foundation. Jumbo . u s u ally made of woven wire cable.B o u l d e r c l a y . J o i n t s . .

A stratun o r b e d o f m i n e r a l .An o p e n o r s u r f a c e m i n e u s e d f o r t h e e x t r a c t i o n o f rock such as limestone. Seam . Overbreak . Prespl ittinq . Primary Blast . but can mean snothor type of rock. A l l m i s f i r e s a r e t o b e consldered extremely dangerous unti I the cause of the mist Ire has been determined. %Y$lay. no borehole being used.Coarse sized rocks used for river bank. A charge of explosive fired in contact with the surface of a rock after being covered with a quantity of mud. . .. etc. Round .A surface operation for the mining of metallic ores. dam. usually refers to dirt and gravel. Overburden .S.The main blast executed to sustain production. e. shale over I imestone.A group or set of blast holes constituting a complete zin underground headings.An explosive unit containing a suitable firing device thats used for the initiation of an entire explosive charge.A u n i t i n c h e m i c a l t e c h n o l o g y e q u a l t o t h e m o l e c u l a r weight of a substance expressed in grams (weIghtI. building stone. drilled along a neat excavation I ine. wet earth. tunnels.A charge.Stress relief involving a single row of holes. Bureau of Mines for non-toxic tunes. or slmllar substance.A supplier of oxygen. etc. ze in a sedimentary rock deposit. Powder . Primer . etc. Oxidizer . Mud Cap . . Al so.Using explosives to break up larger masse8 of rock resulting from the primary blasts. where detonation of explosives in the hole causes shearing of the web of rock between the holes.Explosives having been approved by the U. Muck Pile . the rocks of rhlch are generally too large for easy handling.A5-5 M i s f i r e . a stratification Secondary Blasting .The material lying on top of the rock to be shot. Mole . Premature .Any of various solid exploslves. Prespl it holes are fired in advance of the production holes.g. Permissible . guarry . slate.Excessive breakage of rock beyond the desired excb vation I i m l t . and allowed In underground work. or part of a charge. e t c . stab1 ization to reduce erosion by water flow.A charge which detonates before it is Intended to.T h e p i l e o f b r o k e n m a t e r i a l o r d i r t i n excavating that is to be loaded for removal.Referred to also as Adobe or Plaster Shot. which for any reason has failed to fire as planned.

A hole drl I led or bored under a rock or tree stump for the placement of explosives.A5-6 izc?= .Also referred to as the Shooter or Blaster. Swell Factor . t h e length of blast hole left uncharged. blastlng. t h e distance b e t w e e n b o r e h o l e s o r Spacing charges In a row. a l-1/2 to 1 slope means there would be a l-l/Z ft.Planes within sedlmentary rock deposits formed by Interruptlons In the deposition of sediments.T h e inert material. . The p e r s o n w h o a c t u a l l y flras a b l a s t .Used to define the ratio of the vertical rlse or helght to horizontal distances In descrlblng the angle a bank or bench face makes ulth the horizontal. . Snake Hole . etc.A p i e c e o f m e t a l connecting two e n d s o f l e g wires t o prevent stray currents from causl ng act ldental detonat Ion of the cap.An Instrument that measures and suppl les a perrecord of earthborne vlbratlons Induced by earthquakes. .The Ingredient used In explosive compounds to promote greater ease In lnltlatlon or propagatlon of the reactlons. Shot Firer . such as drill cuttings. L a s t . Slope .T h e ratlo o f t h e v o l u m e o f a material I n I t s I Id state to that when broken. Shunt . Str 1 ke . used In a r p o r t l o n (or e l s e w h e r e ) o f a b l a s t h o l e s o a s t o confine the gaseous products formed on exp loslon. rlse to each 1 ft. A Powderman.The course or bearing of the outcrop of an Inc l lned bed cr geologic structure gn a level surface.Refers to the energy content of WJ explosive In reo an equal aount of nltroglycerlne dynamite. Sub-Dr I I I .The burden or distance between the bottom of a borehole gthe vertical free face of a bench In an excavation. o n t h e o t h e r hand.The process of compressing the stemnlng or explosive h o l e . I n b l a s t l n g . T h e a c t o f deliberately s h o r t l n g a n y p o r t l o n o f a n electrIca blasting c l r c u l t . or horlzontal distance. Sensltlzer . may charge or load blast holes with explosives but may not flre the blast. S t r a t l f l c a t l o n . A l s o .The measure of the rate at which the detonation wave mthrough an explosive.To drl I I blast holes beyond the planned grade lines or below floor level. For example. . .

subjected to external loading. enables a prediction of the performance of the slope to be made. with the emphasis on observation and generalized sampling method. Experience is important in the identification of controlling parameters and the decision as to methodology must remain with the project engineer. a complete data listing with selected stereo plots. there may be a number of rock types. joints.INTRODUCTION A natural rock mass is never a continuous.A6-1 Appendix 6 Geotechnical data collection manual PART1 . respectively. However. The analysis of these models. Part 2 of this manual outlines the parameters which are considered important in structural analysis. Parts 3 and 4 detail the techniques for obtaining structural information from surface and underground exposures. and also the resistance to that movement. Once the spatial relationship of the discontfnuities has been approximately determined. rapid efficient development of a picture of general geological site conditions. when the stress distribution and strength properties are also known. often require that some rodifications be made to the methods to suit the needs of each project. and drafted versions of some field sheets. homogeneous. To this end. a geotechnical appraisal of the rock mass is required. 6. Parts 5. the diversity of site conditions and different uses of the data. a "model" can be formed. isotropic material but is intersected by a great variety of discontinuities such as faults. the investigation will always start on a reconnaissance basis. this may fnclude a set of maps or plans. It is clear that the behavior of such a material. In addition. Ideally a complete description should be obtained of the location and orientation of all discontinuities and also the nature of the intact rock which may affect the stability of the underground opening or slope under study. and these may be subjected to varying degrees of alteration by weathering. and 7 describe associated techniques and equipment which are used to collect the geological and geotechnical data and provide additional information. Attempts have been made to standardize mapping and logging methods and the format of the recording sheets. The purpose of geological investigations for slope designs is to identify and make proper record of those parameters that are most likely to influence the stability of d particular slope. Typically. cannot be analyzed or predicted unless these structural features are taken into account. in short. foliation or cleavage. bedding. and from boreholes. The end product of an investigation is the presentation of data in such a way that it graphically illustrates the field situation and contains data in a form compatible with any intended analytical procedures. In order to establish the mechanism by which movement may occur. When subjected to loading the rock mass will preferentially fail along the weak discontinuities rather than through stronger intact rock. Such a complete study is rarely efther technically possible and/or economically justifiable and a compromise is usually required. Detailed sampling techniques including definitive joint mapping. in situ .

This will lead to maximum utility of the data and will ensure that a minimum of time is spent detailing non-important characteristics. It is. and hydrological testing can then be undertaken in places where specific information is required for analytical purposes. important to establish the objective of an investigation early in the program and direct all data collection toward that objective.A6-2 materials testing. structural drilling. . therefore.

1) HAPPING LOCATION The location of the area being mapped is recorded as Data Unit information and in columns 1 to 4 of the logging sheets shown in Figures 9 and 11 for surface mapping and-core logging respectively. or by the presence of slickensides or The magnitude and direction of movement may be measur%Y' The fault may be represented by a zone of breccia/gouge. Parameters 4 and 5 define the strength properties of the discontinuities while parameters 6 and 7 define the geometry of the blocks forming the rock mass. Spacing of discontinuities within sets. rather than a single discontinuity surface. Classification of discontinuities by type. it may be a piane marking the change in geological or geotechnical characteristics. Coding notations are used to simplify input to a variety of data handling and processing computer programs. Specific notations may be changed provided that a detailed record is kept of their meanings. Infilling of the discontinuities. particularly in metamorphic and igneous rocks. Consnon types of discontinuity and their notations include: Contact The boundary between two distinct rock types. and division into "sets" having similar orientations. . Surface properties.PARAMETERS The basic parameters to be considered when collecting structural geological data related to discontinuities for stability studies in rocks are: Mapping location. 2) CLASSIFICATION OF DISCONTINUITY TYPES A discontinuity in the context of engineering geology can be defined as any natural fracture in the rock mass. The . Rock mass parameters. The discontinuity type notation is placed in columns 5 to 7 on the logging sheets (Figures 9 and 11). in addition. or shear plane. The following sections give details of coding notations to assist in filling out the forms and logs explained in parts 3 and 4 of this manual. Orientation of discontinuities. either by the relative displacement of marker horizons. Notation C. The data unit is the traverse or borehole number and the location is the distance along the unit at which the intersection of the discontinuity occurs. nor do they necessarily form the site of a discontinuity.Ab-3 PART 2 . Persistence of fractures. Contacts are not always regular and well defined. Fault or Shear A fault or shear is a discontinuity along which movement can be demonstrated to have cccurred.

Notation J. Notation V. Bedding Lithological layering in sedimentary rocks is very often a prominent weakness direction.:. These references may be changed when mapping in magnetic environments or when logging oriented core from inclined boreholes. e. W. micas and hence represent a preferred direction of weakness. and S for shear. The dip direction of the plane from a reference direction and the dip angle from a reference plane describe its orientation.ation data is placed in columns 8-12 of the logging . Flow Banding Igneous equivalent of bedding. and may result from orientation of platy minerals. Bedding features carry a B notation. Such features are often impersistent. A groue of joints having the same general orientation is termed a “set . and coded as L. These features may be closely spaced. Foliation.g. Schistosity and Cleavage Metamorphic layering which should be treated in the same way as bedding. Vein A tabular feature of finite thickness composed of material which differs from the surrounding rock either in grain size or composition or both. Figure 1 shows how the orientation of a plane may be described by a vector. A bedding feature which is not separated is termed a "Bedding Plane Trace". Joint A joint is a natural discontinuity which is generally not parallel to lithological variations and which shows no signs of shear displacement. Equivalent to B for igneous rocks. In certain cases faults may be rehealed or cemented by subsequent geological processes.. "Healed" joints can be classified as veins. where directional movement of a fluid causes mineralogical or textural banding. and as such are not necessarily planes of weakness. Not necessarily a discontinuity. 3) ORIENTATION The orientation of a planar discontinuity is a unique measurement. see below.A64 notations used are F for fault. In normal field circumstances the reference direction is True North and the reference plane is horizontal. Such features can be very persistent and be traced for hundreds of feet. .

.A6-5 Rerrrmcr line (uruolly true north) Dip dincrion angle Maximum dip vector Figure 1: Orientation of a discontinuity.

stretched out parallel to the bench face as the basic azimuth against which orientations are recorded. and the end of each tape traverse towards which mapping is progressing should be referred to as azimuth 000“ for that unique tape traverse. The estimation of a mean plane may be done by eye. This is the most practical method but can be of doubtful validity when only a small area of the joint surface is exposed. Where the dip direction cannot be determined due to loss of orientation for the run. It is therefore proposed that a tape be used. see Figure 4. usually top of core. . Unfortunately this method may require more than 50 measurements per surface. 21 Orientation in Magnetic Environment Where there is a strongly magnetic environment it will not be possible to use a compass to measure the spatial azimuths (dip directions) of the geological discontinuities. The core dip angle. A mean orientation can be established for a particular surface area by two methods: 1) A large number of individual measurements on a single surface may be located mathematically and a mean vector computed. and can be measured with a core goniometer. Azimuths relative to the tape can be measured with a standard carpenter's rule. see Figure 3. The true orientation of this tape should be surveyed and recorded. It is suggested that all mapping proceed from left to right when facing the slope in which case the right hand end of the tape would have an arbitrary azimuth of 000" for each traverse.P.oc. This factor causes inaccuracy in the determination of orientation. Core Orientation When logging oriented core the orientations recorded are shown on Figure 2 and described below. All mapping should be performed in the same direction when facing the slope face.A6-6 Surface Happing Rock discontinuities are often not planar and the surfaces may be curved or irregular on a large or small scale. to the lowest intersection of the discontinuity plane with the core. the dip angle with respect to the core axis is recorded. Core dip direction. and "999" is noted as the dip direction on the form shown in Figure 11. is between the discontinuity plane and the core axis. All measurements are made clockwise around the core when looking in a downhole direction using a linear protractor. This mean vector may then be regarded as the orientation of that discontinuity. is the angle around the core from a reference line.

.0 I20 IH)-loo 210 24 2 C o r e d i p end d i p d i r e c t i o n a n g l e . CON dip dlractbn OIQ~ rdotad to rotoronce htta 0 c soctm poral*l iyz? Figure 2: Moaimum dip nctor a0 0. 120 Figure 4: Linear protractor.A6-7 rtrrrncr CGroduotrd Friction Knob Circle Liw Core dip ongk moosuad in rrbtial (0 a Figure 3: Core goniomctcr.

bedding or banding. The code letters or numbers describing roughness are entered in columns 18 and 19. W Chlorite. e. etc.limonite. . Comnon types of infilling with their notation symbols are: Clay . 5) SURFACE PROPERTIES The surface properties affect the shear strength of discontlnuities. In some instances water may be seen issuing from a particular discontinuity and this should be noted separately. The type of infilling in placed in columns 13 to 15 of the logging sheet. the roughness can be classified according to the Joint Roughness Coefficient (JRC) described in Chapter 5 of the manual.montmorillonite. The assessment may be divided into two factors: shape and roughness. Clean discontinuities can be distinguished by C. P This system can be expanded to suit the needs of specific projects. Also a weak material infilling will indicate that the infilling and not the host rock will govern the shear strength of the discontinuity. e. and should be assessed subjectively in the mapping program. Figure 5 shows the distinguishing features of shape and roughness of joints as seen in drill core and in surface exposures. kaolin.g.g. A Iron minerals . 4) DISCONTINUITY INFILLING The nature and thickness of the infilling of faults and joints may give important information regarding groundwater conditions. However. the thickness code letter in column 16 and the presence of water by a W(wet) or D(dry) in column 17. preferential iron staining on particular joint sets will indicate directions of predominant water flow. etc. if the core contains a unique constant foliation orientation. K Quartz. Q Pyrite. Shape P Planar C Curved U Undulating (Wavy) S Stepped I Irregular Roughness P K S R V Polished Slickensided Smooth Rough Very Rough Alternatively. this can be used to continue the orientation if its orientation has already been ascertained. F Calcite. If more than one type of infilling is present each should be recorded in order of priority.A6-8 Orientation is generally lost across a broken or lost core intersection in the run. with a record being kept of the symbols used.

A6-9 Planar (P) Curvrd (Cl Undulating (U) Stepped (S) lrregulor (I 1 SHAPE Polishrd(P) Slickrnrided(K) Smooth(S) ROUGHNESS Rough (RI V. rough sheeting. non-planar follation. JRC .smooth sheeting. rough bedding. F i g u r e 5: Shape and roughness of joints in drl 11 core.10 JRC . C. Smooth undulating . planar bedding.5 Barton’s definition of Joint Roughness Coefficient JRC. Smooth nearly planar .20 JRC . B. Rough undulating . Rough ( V) EXAHPLES OF ROUGHNESS PROFILES cm A.tension joints. . undulating bedding. planar foliation.planar shear joints.

e.A6-10 6) SPACING The true spacing is the distance between discontinuities in a set. the visibility of the ends of the fracture. bench faces or exposures.both ends visible . The spacing between fractures can be recorded by the code letters shown on Figure 9 which is entered in colunn 20.neither end of fracture visible . Exposure Flapping Persistence may be simply assessed in up to four categories relating to each type of discontinuity when mapping exposed structures. The same system can be used to record the number of fractures which is entered in column 21. which are entered in column 23. can be used to define termination. adits. Unfortunately persistence is often critical to the design of slopes and underground openings. This data is entered in colunn 22 of the logglng sheet. The other factor which is used to assess the persistence of discontinuities is the termination. The following three code numbers. The areas of intact rock are known as "rock bridges". The categories are also related to the size of underground opening or exposure height as shown below. Apparent spacing is the spacing between planes measured along a line or traverse at an angle to discontinuity sets.g. and in Figure 7. and recorded as a suffix to the notation for discontinuity type (e. Healed discontinuity 1 2 3 4 5 In some instances it may be simpler to scale the measurements to the size of the underground opening or bench.one end visible . This is the most difficult to assess of all the parameters important to geotechnical mapping. Jl.). since it provides an assessment of the amount of intact rock which separates joints of a similar set occurring down or up dip. 7) PERSISTENCE Persistence is the length or area1 extent of a discontinuity which can be seen or inferred from mapping procedures. i. Traverses can be along boreholes. 0 : . The relationship between true and apparent spacing is shown in Figure 6. Category Measurement Greater than 3 m in two directions Greater than 3 m in one direction Less than 3 m in one direction Less than 1 m in one direction (normally only mapped in critical structures such as bridge abutments). 02. etc. measured in the direction normal to the planes.

.A6-11 Figure 6: T r u e a n d a p p a r e n t spaci b e t w e e n j o i n t s o f t h e s ame s e t .D Bond7 ol O p e n P i t _ _ C-L__ c--__-_ \ C u t A w a y Lhtd6qrwnd Opmtng F i g u r e 7: P e r s i s t e n c e o r areel e x t e n t categories of discontinuities. PLAN VIEW SECTION D.

3 5 9 A conservative approach would be to assume that a discontinuity is pre-existing if there is any doubt as to its origin. The following standard sequence of systematic description is proposed: . 8) OTHER PARAMETERS The following are not quantitative measurements recorded directly from mapping or logging techniques on discrete discontinuities. Fracture Frequency or Index This data is either recorded as back-up data to the structural mapping program. Rock Type Depending on the format chosen for geological data presentation different rock type descriptions are used. and project to project. allowing continuity of description from location to location. A drilling induced fracture which occurs along a pre-existing plane of weakness in the rock. A trace of a geological feature which does not represent any inherent weakness in the rock mass.Q. forms part of the core log shown in Figure 11.A6-12 Core Logging Persistence cannot be measured from drill core but the relative importance of discontinuities may be estimated using the following scheme: Category 1 2 Measurement Pre-existing open fracture in rock mass which is continuous across the core.O. The codes used should be recorded during the field mapping program to ensure that maximum usage of the data is possible. A pre-existing open fracture in the rock mass which is not continuous across the core or an intact feature which has been healed. derivations are described where not self-explanatory: Rock Type Weathering and Alteration Strength or Hardness Recovery or Loss of Core R. or in a drilling program. but are used as indecies to assess rock mass characteristics. When using written descriptions in geological or engineering logs it has been found that the system described below presents a uniform approach. A drilling induced fracture which is not related to any plane of weakness in the rock mass.

the material may exhibit plasticity rather than friability. rock material strength.1. dark grey. colour.A6-13 Weathered state. strong dolomitic LIMESTONE. some care may be required in assessing the weathering state of such rocks. Such a system is appropriate to an engineering description where classification by mechanical properties is more significant than classification by mineralogy and texture. structure. mechanical and appearance characteristics is included as Table 2. kaolinized. ROCK TYPE. foliated. hornblende GNEISS. for this reason. Various of the qualifying types are detailed in sections below. In the case of weathered rocks with a significant clay content. very strong. Weathering The following system of weathering classification is proposed: Fresh (FR) Fresh jointed (FJ) Slightly weathered (SW) no visible sign of weathering weathering limited to the surface of major discontinuities penetrative weathering developed on open discontinuity surfaces but only slight weathering of rock material weathering extends throughout the rock mass but the rock material is not friable weathering extends throughout rock mass and the rock material is partly friable rock is wholly decomposed and in a friable condition but the rock texture and structure are preserved. very coarse. thinly flow-banded. A comparative table of mineralogical. . grain size. Moderately weathered. cream. but has been adapted for a general range of rock types rather than simply for granitic rocks for which it was originally devised. the name is placed last. Moderately weathered (Mu) High weathered (HW) Completely weathered (CW It will be noted that this scheme is broadly based on that development for the Snowy Mountains Authority (Moye 1955). where it should be noted that various states of weathering are defined by the alteration products of primary constituents of the rock fabric. weak tourmaline GRANITE. It is considered that the qualifications are mOre important in core descriptions than the actual rock name and. mediumgrained. porphyritic. coarse. in consequence. Completely weathered. mid-grey. thickly bedded. The following examples are provided for illustrative purposes: 1) 2) 3) Fresh.

it should be measured as the ratio of the It can number of fractures per foot of true spacing.Q.50% 50 .D.A6-14 Alteration and weathering are both included in the weakening assessment. .D. core is measured along the cent&line from fracture to fracture. or for a rock mass.75% . Core Recovery or Loss This index should be recorded on all core logging forms either as recovery or loss depending on the requirements of the project. R. . the value may be recorded on a run by run basis or over a normalized core length.100% Rock Classification Very poor Poor Fair Good Excellent Fracture Frequency or Fracture Index This is an invaluable index of a rock mass and may be recorded in a number of ways: 1) When mapping exposures. Fractures parallel to the core axis should be ignored as sampling errors. Core recovery is determined as the ratio of core recovered to the total drilled run length expressed as a percentage. may be used to classify the rock mass following Deere's scheme: !!!s 0 .2. Different mapping and logging requirements will dictate which method of presentation will be used. R. either by code or term. . Strength The rock strength classifications used.90% lJ. A refinement of the core recovery system is proposed following the work of Deere et al (1967). It defines the fraction of solid core recovered greater than 4 inches in length as the Rock Quality Designation. It is calculated as the ratio of the sum of the length of core fragnents longer than 4 inches to the The total drilled footaqe oer run. be measured either per joint/bedding set. have been derived from a number of sources and are presented with reference to simple field hardness tests shown in Table 2. In certain cases the index can be recalculated over a normalized footage (for example a bench height) for interpretive use. From the point of view of most geotechnical drilling it is the core that is hardest to recover which will indicate most clearly the weakest parts of the rock fabric. exDressed as a percentage. and the uniaxial compressive strengths appear as a guide for order of magnitude analyses only. . either a cut slope or in a tunnel..25% 25 . Occasionally core loss is plotted in order to highlight zones of weaker core.Q.

It has been found from experience that fracture frequency/index is of most use for surface investigations whereas R. the fracture frequency may be measured for each run or over a normalized footage.Q.D. and representative sections of core only may be measured in certain circumstances. Depending on the logging requirement. .A6-15 2) For engineering logging it is almost invariably recorded as the number of natural fractures per unit length of core recovered. record only natural fractures in the above assessments and departure from that specification should be recorded. holds It is usual to similar prevalence for underground analyses.

one on either side of the opening. although the underground openings may provide better three dimensional information. but the mapping procedures are subdivided into three basic stages: i.HAPPING SURFACE AND UNDERGROUND FEATURES The principles for mapping surface and underground exposures are generally similar. In order to record the location of each feature it is necessary to use a system of reference points with known coordinates. Intersections of major features with the tape(s) can thus be measured and recorded. The basic methods should be suitable for all rock types. If not. In an underground opening two tapes may be used. 3) Major Feature Mapping. 2) Rock type contacts. if plans at a suitable scale are not available. including weathering and alteration. and then successively refine. The features are relatively large scale in relation to the slope and should be recorded on plans and sections on the same The use of scale as the highway layout plans and sections. transparent overlays is recotnnended for this purpose to avoid . MAJOR FEATURE MAPPING The first step is to prepare a plan of the area with grid and magnetic north. Specific Mapping of Critical Features. 4) Typical prominent bedding planes or joint sets. A scale of 1:500 is the most useful general purpose scale but 1:lOOO or 1:250 may be required for certain projects. All attempts to strictly delineate the boundaries of these stages are doomed to failure and these recommendations should only be used as general guidelines. orientation of any slickensides or displacement of marker beds associated with faults should also be recorded. a special survey will be required. 3) Fold axes. The objective is to initiate procedures which define. It is most convenient to record information directly on to a working plan and transfer it to the master plan in the office. Detailed Mapping.A6-16 PART 3 . The location of each feature is measured from a tape stretched between reference points. The major features should include the following: 1) Faults. information on those features which will be critical to stability. if pacing from known locations is found inadequate. In all cases the orientation should be measured using a compass The nature of infilling and the or conventional surveying. These may be already available from surveys.

~6-17 FEATURE Rock Contact . .Ic Sync1 i ne Anticline Fault % /r % Bedding Joint Vein Lineotion Figure 8: Symbols for geological features./ /.

in addition. Experience has shown that it is not necessary to map every feature. can be plotted on the same structural plans as the major features (see "Major Feature Happing") using the symbols presented in Figure 8. in most cases. persistent categories 1 and 2. distinct structural domains due to folding. The locations of features can be determined from a tape using the same reference points discussed above. as a useful adjunct to the structural data. Indeed. In the case of metamorphic or volcanic rocks. This stage of mapping should define the location and the orientation of fold axes. This code form fits into a field note book and enables the data to be easily punched onto cards which can then be read into computer data as input to programs for spherical projection analysis. Sedimentary rock types may show. Three different methods of detailed mapping are suggested. Wherever possible. regardless of mapping method. The particular technique should be pertinent to the specific project. The symbols recomnended for recording the major features are shown in Figure 8. In order that the construction personnel can readily make use of this data. This general scale of mapping will delineate the structural domains. The presentation of detailed mapping data can be done in two ways: 1) The more important discontinuities. persistence. it is often a mistake since it becomes difficult to distinguish major features from minor ones. infilling and surface roughness should be recorded on a simple code form of the type shown on Figure 9. 2) In general. major faults and contacts will be the main boundaries. The location. and detailed below. color photographs should be taken of the exposure mapped. Since jointing will be associated. . Where tight folding has occurred the amplitude and wavelength of folds should be measured. orientation. The plan shows the spatial relationship while the projections define the angular relationships. Oriented data can be plotted on an equal area projection with different symbols being used for different features. DETAILED MAPPING Once the major features have been delineated it is possible to decide which areas should be mapped in detail. significant geological contacts and major zones of weakness should be marked in the field with colour coded stakes or spray painting. all joints should be related to representative bedding orientations. both methods should be used since they complement one another. with the folding.A6-18 confusion by detail.

..2b0 . 1-11" .Ib-0.*- L c 0 n I .l-.9" c O." I .*o .-IS' N m-50 0 JO.b-1 " t-0 " D-.A6-19 I SIZE NOTltlON* A < .-.O. bo-1w 0 too-YW )I 100-404 a >*oo I t f f. I-P' I( 2-.' L .o. .-0. '.-a M .. . t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I III1 I I I Figure 9: Structural mapping coding form.

This involves recording every structural feature which intersects a scan line which may be painted on a rock face or be represented by a tape stretched along a face or tunnel wall. windows every 150 ft. One advantage of this technique is that line sampling corrections may be applied to the data should detailed statistical analysis be required. The following examples are taken from recent projects where window mapping was used: :1 Slopes Tunnels 30 ft. This would include those features which are Mre Persistent. The sizes of the window and the intervening section of unmapped rock face should be chosen to suit the project. This form of mapping can be combined with standard geological (rock type/grade) mapping with little additional time requirements. it can be a tedious routine for mapping large areas. under these circumstances only those features tiich will affect the stability of the slope should be mapped. spaced at fixed intervals in the exposures. In some rock types and locations definitive sets may be difficult to delineate. The characteristics of the discontinuities of the sets visible within the windou are also noted. SPECIFIC WPPING OF CRITICAL FEATURES In some instances it will be necessary to further refine the information if preliminary analysis has shown a particular . either as several individual joint measurements. or as the mean of several measurements. 10 ft. and those of adverse orientation. windows every 50 ft. In each "window" the mean orientation for each discontinuity set is recorded. :1 i1 65 1 Discontinuity Type Orientation Infilling Surface Properties Spacing Persistence In the case of typical joint and bedding sets at least 50 sample measurements should be taken per set. and any variations or major structural features are mapped in detail. However. on both walls Line Uapping An alternative for isolating sample areas to be mapped is to use the line sampling method. The intervening areas are reviewed for similarity of structure with the adjacent "windows".A6-20 Joint Set Happing In each structural domain typical discontinuity sets should be mapped for the following parameters (see Part 2). Window Mapping The "window" mapping technique involves the detailed mapping of representative segnents or "windows" of a fixed size.

21 3) 4) 5) 61 . The infilling of discontinuities. The orientation of persistent discontinuities. The spacing of persistent discontinuities. In addition to all the factors outlined in the previous sections. Each joint set should be treated indeoendentlv. The orientation and location of contacts of major rock types. and strength tests of infilling materials may be required. In many cases it may be possible to merge various stages. PRIORITY IN GEOTECHNICAL MAPPING The preceding sections are a guide and each geologist or engineer should realize that some flexibility is required. mean and maximum value. The true spacing can be computed from the apparent spacing along a particular direction if the orientation of the mapping line is known (see Figure 6 in Part 2). In order to estimate the shear strength of critical discontinuities. The following factors should be regarded as the order of priority: 1) The orientation and location of major faults and weak zones and the infillings. the apparent spacing between the joints of the same set should be measured with a minimum. The surface properties of features. it may be necessary to make detailed shape and roughness measurements on the surfaces.A6-21 set(s) of features to be critical to stability.

a general statement should be made if none are encountered. with water levels. in addttion to putting the resulting hole to maximum use. . giving relevant drill hole data such as collar coordinates.GEOTECHNICAL MAPPING FROM DIAMOND DRILL HOLES Diamond core drilling is one of the most expensive forms of geological data collection. e t c . data recording can vary from a surrmary log indicating the basic generalities of the rock characteristics.. by measuring water levels. . the specific depth should be noted and shown on the log. based on verbal conversation with the drillers. plus any relevant information from the driller's logs.g. Thus. In consequence. deviations in usual drilling techniques. all add to this documentation and serve to produce a log that can be used in the interpretation of the ground conditions. it is essential that the maximum amount of data is obtained from the drill core. All logs should be filed with a cover sheet. The amount and type of geotechnical detail recorded will vary depending on the project and the individual hole. etc. see Figure 10. and permeability. the rods becoming stuck or hard to turn. Hole surveys should be taken every 100 to 200 ft. borehole orientation. requirement for replacement of core catcher or bit. should be noted. This summary enables a reconstruction of events that allows the engineer to see exactly what occurred in the drilling of the hole and also may aid in the interpretation of core condition. and corrects individual readings accordingly. and generally forms the major expenditure in an exploration program. in addition to a record of geological features. installing piezometers. etc. As a result. It is valuable to photograph each core box (35 mn color slides are preferred). Items such as the use of bentonitic mud. including specific type. core size. This information should be recorded on a driller's sheet. can be used on each core hole to provide additional information. If and when zones of water loss are encountered. Drill core can be a valuable source of geotechnical and engineering information pertaining to rock conditions at depth. length.~6-22 PART 4 . Accurate discontinuity orientation is only possible when the logged orientations are corrected for hole deviation at close intervals along the hole. These photographs provide a permanent record of core condition from which considerable information of geotechnical value can be obtained later. borehole survey data. Driller's data sheets. to a detailed log of the orientation and nature of every discontinuity. Drilling Information Problems encountered in the drilling of the hole frequently tell more about the ground conditions than can be obtained from logging of the recovered core. This is best performed by a computer program which interpolates absolute hole orientation between survey points. a geotechnical logging method should contain the following information. A sunmary of the drilling events. e.

14’ 20” .60’.5/m MSL lZ.8 CORE BARREL B BIT DESIGN: ORIENTATION Of MOLE.5 5 ’ 05’ 2 3 ’ .wa fer (GYUOI :- co/Jar 25Om 500m 7Wm Jctzm JZ3Om 1470~1 .: CASINC RECORD: T-AH.64’ S9’ I4* .84 x / .52’ 09’ 31 -W’ 35’ 41” .: LOCATION: CLIENT: + 24lOS.06 Y Dr111 MACHINE: 1 DRILLING CONTRACTOR : DRILLING METHOD: PMC -1 Lonqueor COLLAR: Dbmond Coring SO 3.~6-23 BASIC DRILL HOLE DATA PROJECT: MOE I Of 2s I LK-J5t7 PACASOUA CQPPER PIT BOREHOLE wo. .. UVATION o f DATUM : 89’ 32’ 50” + 387. n TOTAL DEPTH Of HOLE: LOGGED BY: NOTES : 1472./4284. .90m I 5/7/ 75 DATE HOLE COMPLETED: 12/b/ 7 7 REfERENCE NO.5 3 ’ J O ’ 08” .90. . Circ u/a iing fnclinotion medjum surveys :.4 8 ’ O f 52 l Figure 10: Drill hole cover sheet.Om OVERBURDEN THICKNESS: DATE HOLE STARTED: DEPTH DRILLED INTO ROCK: /460. . .

The data recorded should be relevant to the scope of the project. will affect the strength of the rock materials. how much grout was used. GEOTECHNICAL LOGGING The objective of a geotechnical log is to record information from the drill hole that reflects the condition of the ground This information comes both from the drilling penetrated. Areas that require grouting in order to continue coring should be noted and the log should indicate the specific zones grouted. The following sections describe oriented core and geological engineering logging methods and show typical logging sheets. and the hardness and description of the grout core. the logging detail and format for a tunnel should reflect the problems of underground excavation and support. etc. Because of the complexity of reducing the resulting orientation for the orientation of the drill hole. valuable information can be obtained on the spatial relationships of the natural discontinuities in the rock. This will permit data reduction and subsequent analysis usually by stereographic projection. The data are recorded as follows: 1) Job Number This is unique to the project. The parameters that are recorded are all described in detail in Part 2 of this manual. data obtained from holes drilled for slope investigations should reflect the larger scale of a slope. ORIENTED CORE LOGGING Where the core can be successfully oriented. If the caving ground is brought to the surface in the barrel. Typically geotechnical problem areas or failure situations in rock materials will directly relate to the occurrence of faults. it is recommended that the oriented data is recorded in a format suitable for direct key-punching. gravel size. a description of it should also be noted (sand size.A6-24 Rubblized zones within the hole that cave should be given special emphasis and noted on the log. Geologic information (that which enables interpretation of the spatial variability of the several parameters) should be recorded and handled in the manner preferred by the responsible geologist(s). A Structural Mapping Coding Form (Figure 11) permits recording of details regarding the orientation and nature of the discontinuities. There is an overlap in that alteration. . for instance. process and from the recovered core.). Probably the most important aspect of the entire geological/geotechnical investigation is the definition of the fault population as faults frequently control water migration and strength properties. The Information should also be directly useful in the interpretation of either the mechanical or hydrological properties of the rock mass.

A6-25 STRUCTURAL MAPPING CODING FORM Figure 11: Oriented core logging format. .

Most of the logging form (Figure 12) is self-explanatory.Q. Location Recorded to the nearest 0. Rate of Advance Time per unit length of hole drilled. drill floor. and shaded to highlight runs of slow drilling. Other information is detaiied below. 1) Type of Drillinq usually "Rotary Core" followed by the qualifying drilling medium 'tiudflush" or "Waterflush". All other columns are filled with details of parameters described in Part 2 of this manual. increments. Reference Elevation Definition of the datum from which down-hole depths are measured. Reduced Level After the hole has been surveyed this column can be completed with details of elevations. These are calculated for the core run interval shown. for example. Water Level A line is drawn to indicate shift change hole depth and a record made of the fluid level-in the hole.1 ft. Data and shift (AM or PM) should also be recorded below the footage line at shift changes. Down-hole depths at major rock type contacts should be included as accurately as possible and a line drawn across the rest of the log. line should be labelled.g. in columns 1 to 4. for major contacts. usually requires full-time rig supervision. e. the details of wrameters recorded being included as Part 2 of this manual. Drilling Progress A line to indicate the end of run footage. measured from the reference elevation. with the down-hole depth recorded above the line. 3) GEOLOGICAL ENGINEERING LOGGING This logging technique is often performed immediately the core is recovered and. each 5 ft.D. borehole number DD77803. and Core Recovery Plotted graphically for better definition of possible weak zones. 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) . rather than down-hole depths.A6-26 2) II_ZA DataI unir U pioharacters to detail. R. %P e short lines usually represent l/2 ft. consequently. Filled in as a histogram. It can be carried out with oriented core logging.

zones of caving.A6-27 9) Test Results betails of sample location. hole surveys. and cave. Section'1 with major rock. penetration tests. Instrumentation and Legend Both columns are for graphic representation of data. and minor details. sample type. should comply with a standard. etc. being indented lcm from the left. recotmiendations. . with details of grout. fill.unit descriptions running across the rrhole column. 10) 11) 12) FP= e escription follows the procedure outlined in Part 2.G.I. either local to the project or following A. The former Is used to represent in-hole installations. etc. with footages. The latter is a geologlcal legend. for example piezometers. etc. are included in this column. 13) Remarks mace is used for indications of casing depths. Atterberg test results. Bed/F01 vntative inclinations of bedding or foliat ion with respect to the core axis are recorded.

161 - -lb& 0 -165 0 -I66 - -167 0 I6d 0 - - Golder Associates Figure 12: Geological engineering logging format.46-28 E: 69 L .- -- -161 0 -131 0 . .

GEOTECHNICAL SAMPLING Most field programs undertaken for the collection of geological data also provide an ideal opportunity to assemble geotechnical data required for slope design projects or other engineering problems. If it is considered that excessive movement may damage the surfaces. The samples in the core box can be protected from desiccation and damage in transit by pouring a suitable quantity of mixed. This part of the manual briefly describes techniques that can be used to collect samples for laboratory testing. Thus. The special drilling techniques required to recover these samples are discussed in Part 8 but no mention is made of the preservation of the core for testing. preferably in duplicate or triplicate. there is no imnediate requirement to do the testing. Various mechanical indices can be derived and samples can be taken for laboratory testing at a later date. should be filled in with all of the above information plus a geological description. samples should also be taken of core sections separated by gouge zones. of the samples used for strength testing are obtained from borehole core. The lengths of wrapped core can then be placed in a core box.A6-29 PART 5 . it is useful to retain the sample's natural moisture content. it is probably satisfactory to transport these to the laboratory or testing station in a normal core box. In addition an index card. the two pieces of core can be taped or wired together. and Down-hole direction. The sample length should be at least Z-l/Z times the core diameter. In addition to the categories above. The selected samples should be wrapped in two layers of Saran They may wrap (or similar). When clean joints in hard rock specimens have been collected for shear testing. . for transportation. be waxed should particular conditions indicate that the sample will further dry out. including drill hole identification. representative of each rock type. For this reason careful preservation of the sample must be ensured. If these are carefully described (photographed if possible). and the sections of harder core with gouge zones. At each stage of the wrapping procedure the sample should be labelled with: Sample number. preserved and stored. but by no means all. with suitably placed spacers. and two layers of aluminum foil. alteration state and rock quality class. enough core samples suitable for testing should be preserved. Depth interval. The information recorded on the geotechnical log becomes very useful when the classification can be "calibrated" with laboratory-determined strength parameters. For the weaker materials. GEOTECHNICAL SAMPLING Some.

This method preserves both the sample's condition and moisture content for later testing in the laboratory. In soft materials such as coal measure rocks. This will sometimes work but a great deal of time and energy can be expended in attempts to collect an "undisturbed" sample. Index cards should be tied to each sample in the foamed core box.A6-30 two-part expanded polyurethane foam to completely enclose each individual sample in the box. Samples for shear testing are also collected by methods other than core drilling. and copies kept on site and sent to the laboratory. . In this way the sample does not have to be exposed in order to identify Its various characteristics. the National Coal Board in England has successfully used a chain saw fitted with a tungsten-carbide ttpped chain to remove samples for shear testing. The most obvious of such methods is to use a geologist's hansmar to chip the required sample out of the rock mass.

28 mn. The color slides should be indexed and filed in suitable trays or boxes. pit faces and core. EXPOSURE PHOTOGRAPHY Slopes Geological interpretation from slope photography may be carried out in varying detail depending on the complexities of the project. For scale measurements the photos can be projected onto the ear of a ground-glass sheet. Close-ups of critical dreds may also be warranted using geological hanxners. e. an attempt must be made to clean off the rock.1. . For drifts and ddits less than about 15 ft. and should also show some reference information to assist in filing the photograph. for example. Photographs should be taken as a routine compliment to face mdpping. see Figure 6. or underground drifts and stopes. A suitable scale may also be worked directly into the rock. prior to mapping or photography. Often the tunnel walls are covered in dust or mud and.g. major faults and major rock contacts. its location and sometimes each discontinuity plane mapped. d short focal length lens should be used. The section of face to be photographed should be marked with spray paint to delineate. e. wide. and the size adjusted to natural scale. A clear scale should always be included in the picture since one project may require photography of the geology in varying detail.A6-31 PART 6 . through a light table. windows or fracture sets mdpped. It is often useful to carry a wide-angle lens for use when berm widths restrict the amount of space available.PHOTOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES Color photographs are an invaluable aid to the interpretation of geological and geotechnical data. e. Tunnels A different set of conditions are encountered &ten photographing exposures underground. The use of electronic flash or photoflood units permits the photography to be independent of external light conditions. they can be projected on a screen or alternatively examined with a hand lens on a light table. In addition. When required. Photography can be used by the engineer to show rock contacts and some joint set orientations. The wall should be marked to show the area mapped. like photofloods. such as folds.g. areds of potential stability problems can often be iSOldted from a detailed study of such photographs. Aerial photography is often used at the beginning of a project in an attempt to delineate large-scale structures. In this case it should be borne in mind that most standard flash units will not illunlnate ds wide an angle as the lens will cover and suitable adaptations. It is preferable to use a diapositive transparency film for 35 mn color slides. pocket knives or coins for scale depending on the detail in the photograph. may be needed.g.

All core photos should include ample. consistency is of the utmost importance for interpretation of the core slides. drill hole A meter scale should also be number and footage interval. The photographs show detail which cannot be easily recorded on drill logs and they can be filed for ready reference by both geologists and engineers. For simpler stereoscopic viewing of slope or underground exposures there Is a stereo attachment for a Pentax camera which splits the ffeld of view and produces a negative with a double jmage. CORE PHOTOGRAPHY Color photographs of drill core provide a permanent record of the core condition upon recovery. . shown. as similar colors will be recorded differently in varying lighting conditions. and the core direction (way up). and hence can be an invaluable aid to the interpretation of ground conditions. Flash or photofloods may be needed in adverse natural lighting conditions in which case different film requirements must be observed with regard to flash or floodlamp type. photogrammetric methods offer considerable advantages in the interpretation of photographs of exposed surfaces. A 28 mn. wide-angle lens has proved to be most convenient when photographing core. In addition. The field set-up requires that the rock face has targets painted on it for photogranxnetric measurement. Even with a good camera. clear identification of hole number. where possible core should not be split until the film has been developed and satisfactory photographs obtained. Various different methods can be used to produce a stereoscopic model from which coordinates may be measured to an accuracy of about 1 in 5. footage. Subdued daylight provides the best lighting for core photography and direct sunlight should not be used. A suitable frame can be constructed of dimensions to suit the size of the core boxes and the width to height ratio of the 35 mn transparency. it is essential that core be photographed dry. Regardless of the lighting system used. A title block should be included to indicate project number and name. Experience will give indications as to the correct exposure settings. PHOTOGRAMETRY Although not yet in wide use.A6-32 The most successful technique for underground photography is to mount the camera on a tripod and then use the flash a number of times to evenly illuminate the face from different positions.000.

The core can be fitted together and depths marked at regular intervals. It is essential for detailed logging to lay out the core in a V-shaped guide rail. This means that each piece of core must be recovered in its correct order. The time taken to do this will be amply repaid by speed of mapping. It is often the soft or broken zones which will play a major role in stability problems.A6-33 PART 7 . The Longyear Q-3 series triple tube wireline core barrel has been found. methods of absolute orientation of that core. lifter and spring case is removed and the split tube is hydrau- . and down-hole logging techniques as described below: :1 i1 q Triple tube core barrel Craelius core orientation Christensen-Huge1 orientation Sperry Sun Single Shot camera Borehole periscope and camera Down-hole geophysics Manufacturers should be referred to for greater details. after extensive field proving. Coring with the triple tube barrel proceeds in the usual manner and the core laden inner The core tube assembly is retrieved through the drill string. They include methods of recovering the maximum amount of intact core. STRUCTURAL DRILLING The requirements for structural drilling are somewhat more stringent than those for normal exploratory drilling. and it is these zones that are most difficult to recover. Positive incentives for skill and motivation of the drillers are required and for this reason footage bonuses must be avoided. a third tube is added. Instead of a simple double tube set-up. The absolute cost of this type of drilling will be somewhat higher than that of exploration drilling. in which the core is usually hammered from the core tube. sizes. Regular Q series wireline barrels can easily be converted to triple tube core barrels and all necessary parts can be ordered in either 5 or 10 ft.CORE ORIENTATION AND HOLE SURVEYING A variety of borehole techniques and drilling equipment may be used to gain further data useful in the engineering assessment of a particular site. TRIPLE TUBE CORE BARREL On all engineering/geotechnical drilling programs. Its inside surface is plated with hard. the cost must be viewed in the light of the additional information obtained. maximum intact recovery of core is essential. low-friction chrome for smooth core entry. split lengthwise and nested in the inner tube. to be the most effective and reliable coring method. The aim is not only to recover a sample of the rock material but to recover a sample of the rock mass complete with discontinuities. However.

as they can easily be damaged through negligence. while the techniques available abound with practical difficulties which are the despair of many drillers. One-half of the split tube is carefully lifted off and the core can be inspected in a virtually undisturbed condltlon prior to transfer to the core box. Damaged splits are useful for carrying core which can then be transferred from split tube to core box with little or no disturbance. incorporating a pump-out group designed to utilize the rig's grout pump. Craelius Core Orientator One of the best core orientation devices is the Craelius Core Orientator manufactured by Atlas Copco. if two or more non-parallel boreholes have been drilled in a rock mass in which there are recognizable marker horizons. Alternatively. the orientation and inclination of these horizons can be deduced using graphical techniques. if surface mapping suggests a strong concentration of planes dipping at 30" in a dip direction of 130°. A special brass piston with an O-ring seal is used to extrude the split tube. of the same diameter as the core. which contajns six movable pins. It consists of a metal holder. It is clamped in the front of the core barrel Its orientation is fixed by the and lowered into the hole. spare sets of splits should always be available and securely stored. these methods do provide some of the best results currently obtainable. i. will intersect these planes at right angles and the accuracy of the surface mapping prediction can be checked. dippIng at 60" In a dip directlon of 310°. Absolute Orientation A second approach is to attempt to orient the core itself and.A6-34 lically pumped from the inner tube.e. Relative Orientation One approach to this problem is to use inclined boreholes to check or to deduce the orientation of structural features. the greatest possible service tiich could be rendered to the rock engineer by the manufacturers of drilling equipment would be the production of simple core orientation systems. This approach is useful for checkIng the dip and dip direction of critical planes. For example. The combination of a step-type lifter case and face discharge diamond coring blt helps eliminate core erosion particularly when drilling In soft condjtjons. a hole drilled in the direction of the normal to these planes. the most valuable information of all will have been lost if no effort has been made to orient the core. The walls of the tubes are fairly thin and. however successful a drilling program has been in terms of core recovery. Consequently. In fact. . The split tubes are manufactured in paired sets and matched numbers should always be used together. CORE ORIENTATION The dip and dip dfrection of discontinuities are most important in slope stability evaluations.

or gyroscopic survey instrument mounted in the core barrel. these pins take up the profile of the core stub. A technique currently being tested as a means of eliminating shortened drilling runs and drilling difficulties is to lower the craelius on the wireline overshot. it should then be possfble to reconstruct the core rhich is then oriented with respect to the first piece. Provided that good core recovery has been achieved. where the core will usually have broken off or parted on an inclined surface. Sperry Sun Single Shot As an example of the photographic methods available a description of the Sperry Sun single shot is given. In this wav a auick check can be maP e to ensure the-device has operated correctly and the drilled run can then be of the standard 5 or 10 ft. . Christensen-Huge1 Orientation An alternative method is used with the Christensen-Huge1 core barrel. For a detailed revfew of both the overall planning of an oriented coring program and step-by-step procedures for inspecting. This system can conveniently be used for hole surveying when the Craelius core orientator is being used for core orientation. The Christensen-Huge1 manual should be referred to for details of this orientation method. and the acid test. This is most useful for taking further orientations since the drill rods may be broken at the same place each run without pulling the diamond bit back from the end of the hole too far. Golder Associates has developed a computer program which will handle this deviation interpolation. HOLE SURVEYING An integral part of any oriented core logging program is hole It is essential that the plunge and trend of the surveying. (Eastman and Sperry Sun are most cofmnonly usedJ the Tro-Pari Surveying instrument. The pins are locked in place and the device released to move up the core-barrel as drilling proceeds. When the six pins come into contact with the end of the hole. The reference marks are then oriented absoluteiy by a magnetic. This technique is most successful rrhen the ground being drilled is hard and non-magnetic. and then remove the craelius to drilling the run. take the impression of the core stub on the pins. maintaining. the core orientation tool is matched to the upper end of the core and the first piece of core is oriented with respect to the known orientation of the device at the time of the fixing of the pins. hole are known at enough intervals to interpolate the exact deviation of any depth. Three tungsten carbfde points scribe the core continuously while coring. When the core is removed. adjusting and using the craelius core orientator the reader is referred to the Craelius Manual.A6-35 orientation of the rigid core-barrel or by a simple marker within the device.or multishot camera magnetic surve ing instruments. The most commonly used survey tools are the single.

called a clinometer. It is taken as a standard practice in most drilling companies and all drillers are familiar with the test. By means of a timing ring suitably calibrated in five-minute divisions. The delay caused in taking the survey. the unit may set to lock after a lapse of time sufficient to allow the placing of the instrument at the desired point in the drill hole where readings are to be taken. A glass vial or bottle is partially filled with a 4 percent solution of dilute hydrofluoric acid and lowered to the desired position in the hole in a special case. This feature is the only major difference compared to the multi-shot camera which is preloaded with four film discs. Acid Test This method is the most basic of all surveying techniques and will give a measure of hole inclination only. and more frequently rhen the deviation exceeds lo in 100 ft. usually about 30 minutes per shot. preset at different time intervals to allow hole surveyings at several depths without removal of the instrument. of the inclination and direction of inclination (or plunge and trend) at various depths in a borehole. and non-magnetic rods are used to hold the instrument below all casing and drill rods. otherwise the glass tube will be crushed. is easily compensated by the additional information available from a well surveyed hole. Special loading and developing tanks permit handling of the photographic discs without the necessity of a darkroom. Surveying drill holes for inclination is based on the solubility of glass in hydrofluoric acid. on film.A6-36 The single shot is a magnetic survey instrument which is used to obtain records. The maximum time lapse obtainable with the instrument designed for use in E or A size holes is 1 hour 30 minutes which is considered to be ample time to lower to the greatest depths that A larger adaptor may be drilled with this size of equipment. It has been found from extensive field experimentation that hole surveys should be taken every 100 to 300 ft. The inclination unit is a form of inverted plum bob which is combined with the magnetic compass into a single unit available for a number of angles of plunge. The single shot camera must be retrieved and reloaded after every shot. . Tro-Pari Surveying Instrument The Tro-Pari Borehole Surveying Instrument comprises a unit mounted in gimbals and is provided with a clockwork mechanism to clamp a compass to indicate trend and simultaneously to clamp the unit in its plumb position to indicate plunge. has been developed for larger diameter holes such as B and N sizes and a correspondingly greater time lapse provided for. The clinometer must have joints that are water-tight under heavy pressure. The presence of steel will obviously affect the compass. The borehole orientation indicated by the compass-angle unit is recorded on a film disc when a preset timer illuminates 2 small lamps in the body of the instrument.

It seems more than likely that. Tests are ordinarily made at intervals of 30 m to 100 m. This instrument is limited to a depth of 30 m but has the advantage that no electronics are involved and orientation is directly measured from a reference line on the rigid pipes. This is a simple and relatively inexpensive means of orienting fractures in drill holes. OTHER BOREHOLE EETHODS The following types are available but due to a number of factors. Several tests may be made at the same time by inserting clinometers at the desired intervals in the string of drill rods. are at best only reliable when used as an adjunct to core logging for geological data collection purposes. depending on depth of hole. as read. However. Our experience is that these instruments are generally unreliable and difficult to maintain. must be corrected for error due to capillary attraction within the tube. . these instruments can provide very valuable information. Impression Packer The impression packer is an inflatable rubber tube. The tube is deflated and pulled from the hole and the orientation of the instrument is determined from a compass set in its base. the outside The tube is of which is coated with a soft. It Is located in a series of connected rigid pipes. in the hands of specialist operators. the bottle is emptied and washed. The dip and strike of fractures can be determfned from the inclination of line in the film. gives the inclination of the drill hole at the depth tested. depth of test and date should be inserted in the bottle for later reference.000 and a further disadvantage lies in the difficulty of obtaining absolute orientation (by either magnetic or gyroscopic methods). The capital cost is currently in excess of $50. better and more reliable instruments of this type will become available in the years to come. lowered down the hole on the wireline and inflated against the side of the hole so that fracture lines in the rock are impressed on the wax film. The angle. wax-like film. Borchole Periscope This is an optical devfce which transmits an annular image of the borehole wall through a series of lenses and prisms to the surface. read with a protractor. The angle of this etched line with the long axis of the tube. it must be admitted that. As soon as the clinometer is removed from the hole. hole number. A tag showing job number. with developments in the field of electronics.A6-37 By leaving the clinometer in position for the proper length of time a line is etched along the surface contact of the acid and inside wall of the tube. Borehole Cameras Both the television and colour multiple shot types are available.

Geophysical surveying is usually handled by the client directly and sub-contracted to a logging outfit.A6-38 Geophysical Methods These methods were largely developed for the oil industry but have varied applications within other fields of mining. They are found to be most useful !&en "calibrated" by comparing the geophysical signature with the drill core and logs from some holes. and other well logging devices such as the Televiewer are bound to find greater applications in site investigation in the future. The methods currently used Include: Ray neutron logging Density logging Resistivity and Self-Potential logging Seismic logging Gama The civil engineering profession has a great deal to learn from the oil industry in this area of borehole interpretation. .

. 1985. Use of the progrem is not restricted but the user Is responsible for the application of the results obtained from this progrm.A7-1 Appendix 7 APPENDIX 7 Computer program for slope stability analysis a) General two-dimenslonal analysis (BASIC) PREFACE SARRA NON-VERTICAL SLICE STABILITY ANALYSIS Copyright . This program is one of e series of geotechnlcal programs developed as working tools and for educational purposes.E v a r t Hoak.

i = ((XT1. Canada INTDODDCTION The following analysis.1 = Arcain{(XT. non-circular or planar sliding aurfacea or any combination of these can be analysed using this method. XBI.1 .YWI+I o f i t s intersection with the slice aides. Note that the value of the K coordinate should always increase from the toe of the slope. The freedom to change the inclination of the alice aidea also allowa the incorporation of specific structural features such as faults or bedding planes. activepassive wedge failures such (w those which occur in spoil pilea on sloping foundations or in clay core daa embankments can also be analyaed.YBr l/br ) .A7-2 GBNERAL ~DIMNSIONAL SLOPB STADILITY ANALYSIS By Evert Hoek Colder Associates. In addition.YBI. XTI+~.xB1.*l . CmICAL CAICDIATIONS The geometry of the ith slice is defined in figure 1. the slice geometry or the groundwater conditions must be changed u n t i l t h e s t r e s s e s a r e a l l p o s i t i v e .. A closed form solution is used to calculate the critical horizontal acceleration Kc required to induce a state of limiting equilibriu i n t h e s l i d i n g maas.YTI. If negative stresses are found. The phreatic surface is defined by the coordinatea XWI. by this author.XBI as q (1) (2) (3) (4) Arctan((YD4 +I . An additional check for moment equilibrium is described but it haa not been incorporated into the program listed at the end of the paper because it involves a significant increase in ccmputational effort and because it is seldom required for normal slope stability problems. The gaoaatry of the sliding mesa is defined by the coordinates XTI. a check is carried out to aaaeaa whether all the effective normal stresses acting across the bases and aidea of the alicea are positive. Slopaa with complex profiles with circular.r . The static factor of safety F is then found by reducing the shear strength values Tan@ and c to Tan 6/F end c/F until the critical acceleration Kc is reduced to zero. 6 1 and dl are available froa the previous slice: d. In order to detemine whether the analysis is acceptable.1)~ + (YTI+I .YTI+I a n d XBI t L .YBI + 1 of the corners of a number of thw or fouraided elements aa shown in figure 1.YWI a n d XWI+I. The analysis allowa different shear strengths to be specified for each slice aide and base. External forces can be included for each slice a n d submergence of any p a r t o f the slope is automatically incorporated into the analysis. originally published by Sax-ma (1979) and modified is a general a&hod of limit equilibrium analysis which can be uaed to deternine the stability of slopes of a variety of s h a p e s .YFII~I)~)“~ 61. Assuming that ZWI . Vancouver.XBi+l)/dl+l) bl = XBi.

I-YTI+~-YBI. Note that the horizontal force WI acts in a positive direction when YTI.. I - (8) 6.I YEh. possible including submwgencc of any part of the alope.l-ual.l-XB~))( ZWl.-YT~.47-3 WI = 1/2yrlI(YB.YB.I)‘/COS (YWr-Y’h )~(XTI.I)(YT~.1 .YBI )2/Cos 6. In all cases.I)/C~ 64+11 (YWI*~-YTI.PO subrrlrspcs ofslicx YTI > YWr a n d YTI+I > YWr.l 6.)(XT.ndver~eoce ofsidzi aoly YTi < YWI a n d YTl*l > YWI+I )(m-YBl )/Cos 6. CALCULATION OF WAT88 KNUT88 In order to cover all groundwater c o n d i t i o n s . CEsol.: P w l = ‘/2Y”l (ml .*x1 Pwlrl = ~/2Y”I(Ywl.*.l).0 3 .YBl.of side i+J ady YTI > W I a n d YTI*~ < YWc.l) (5) (6) where yr is the unit weight of the material forming the slice and WI is the weight of the slice.~-YBI.1 = (rnr..I-XT4 YTI )2 )/(YTI.1 )2/Coa 6tl WI = ~/IY~I (YUr .)+(YT~-YB1r~)(XT~. Cm. the four cases defined in figure 2 have to be considered. the uplift UI acting on the base of the slice is given by: lh = ‘/rrul (ml-YBl+ml.sdmerg.~)~(XTI~I-XTI )/(YTrrr+T~)l rT1+1)2 WI = ‘/2~wI WEI = ‘/2Yr(YM*r .bl/Cos 011 (7) where YW is the unit weight of water.I-YTI )I (12) (13) WE1 = ‘/zYr(rnc where WWI and WI& are the vertical and horizontal forces applied to the surface of the slice as a result of the submergence of part of the slice.r.1 .-XB.1 (10) (11) PWI = ‘/2Y*l(2Ywr-YT~-YBl Pw1*1 WI q = &/2Y*I l/nYvi (Ywl.I)‘/Cos (9) Cape2 .YBt PwlrI = (14) (15) ( 16) (17) ~/zY~~(~~I.I>YTI and in a negative diraction when YTI+I<YTI.

)(XT...h.~)~~l.Sin 6n.1 = ~/*r”~~2~... .~/co~(~I .-~l.cn-1 + . the vertical and a n a l y s i s i s t o t r e a t them aa e x t e r n a l force8.cppletc subrsrgence of slice i XTI < XWI a n d XTI. CAlCULATION OF CRITICAL AccHLgRATION Kc The critical acceleration Kc required to bring the slope to a condition of limiting equilibrium is given by Kc = AE/PE where A6 = am + (b-1..l)-S1..Sin(9~1Qldl.at + 9~1..en-l.i acting on the n+l th slice side (which could be a teasion crack) are calculated by aeans of the equations listed &ovc.cos 61 TV” q (18) 6.)(~. horizontal colpoaents of these forces are given by: TV1 = FW1 .Sin(emi-al )-THr ..Com(#~~-ed )+RI ..l-~.1 - 61.l.WI.)l UAl’ER EVRCES OH m FI&St AND MST SLICE SIDBS Although the water force PUL acting on the first slice aide and the force pwn.en. + pl..+YW. these force8 are not norrally used in the calculation of critical acceleration.Sin 61 THl = Pwl .en. mi = l/z~r 1 (ZYWI -WI -yBt )(YTI -YBI )/Cos 6.en.l + an-z..el.A-l-4 Cke 4 .ai) et = O~(COS(+DIat + +DI - 61)/coa +DI (31) ol = cos o~~.ea.*-Yl..i PwI.em-r. Thae forces can be important when the slope toe is s&merged or whan a tension crack i8 filled with water and the simplest way to incorporate these forces into the Hence.. < XWI.. .CO~(OD~ .en-1 + .4% (II q l (26) (2-f) (28) (29) (30) p-z..-yT.l~/c~ WWi = 1/~1”l(m.an.Cos 6n+1 where n is the total nrpbar of slices included in the analysis..-yT.Sin(9~ls(dl) Pi = OI.a 08 ((W+TVI ).l.Cos +DI l SI..)t wltl = ~/nr*l(mr-YT.-XT.1) (32) ..h Pfi = p + p-1.-YT.+*-~.1 ( 19) (20) (21) (22) (23) (24) (25) P%.r THn = FWn.+m.. + Ol.1.

WI .l.I RI = q (33) (34) (35) al.bl/CosaI The effective normal stresses acting across the base and the sides of a slice are calculated as follows : 0.a.bl. EI+I = al . of the following shear strength values ar/F.1’ = (El. A final check on to detemine whether .WI )/dc (40) (41) OSl.) = (Nr TVI + Xc*l.dr l NI = . at/F.TanaI)Cor9~1/C~(9~i .Cos 61. the forces acting o n t h e sides snd b a s e o f e a c h slice a r e found b y progressive solution of the following ewationm.Pbfr)TanO~~ + al. Tan +sl/F.U11Tan err + csl.p1.Tan +SI.1 + El.tan 0sr SI. Referring to figure 1 and taking sosents about the lwer left hand comer of the slice : . reduces to zero. al+r/F ClWCE ON XCKPTABILITY OF SOIDIICM llaving detemined the value of K for a given factor of safety.al.Tan +DI at .U~).FW~*i)/di.Coaai/bi QSI ’ = (ac .1’ = (NI .Sin6r + UI.Sin61.1 . sisultaneously o n 811 sliding calculated by sssns of equation 26.bl/Cos al - CAuNLATIoN OF FACTOR OF SAFmY For slopes when the critical acceleration Kc is not equal to zero. in aquations 29 to 35. all effective nomal stresses aunt be positive.i. This is achieved by substitution.coa 61 (38) (39) TSI .i (42) In order for the solution to be acceptable. . starting fra the known condition that El = 0.1 + X~.AT-5 Sl = csI.K + &.Sina.Bi.t equilibriua c o n d i t i o n s are satisfied for each slice is rmnded by Sama.1 - Wl+l.Tan+si.dr .dc.er Xl = (ai (WI and Tan es~+i/F (36) (371 .I UI . Tan +rc/F. the static factor of safety is calculated by reducing the shear strength surtaces until the acceleration K c .

The program has also bees carefully prepared ao that it can be compiled into machine language wing a BASIC compiler.YGI ) = 0 (43) where XGI.XCi ) + THI (Yl . This program has been written in the simplest form of BASIC and great care has been taken to ensure that there are no machine-dependent coom ds in the program. the moment mm 21 +i CM be calculated or vice versa. ie from K = Kc to K = 0 although. where 21 = 0.1 . preferably in the middle third.AT-6 NI li . As shown in figure 4. for significantly larger or significantly smaller velues of K.bl .XSI ) + KCWI (YCi . this is an acceptable assumption within the range of interest.El21 + EI. If these facilities are not available the graphics option can be disabled as described in appendix 1. The values of 21 and 21.~(ZI+I + br. Sama a n d Bheve ( 1 9 7 4 ) p l o t t e d t h e v a l u e s o f t h e c r i t i c a l acceleration Kc against the static factor of safety F for a large nu&er of stability nnalyses and found an approximately linear relationship defined by F = 1 + 3.1 should lie within the slice boundary. Starting from the first slice at the toe of the slope.L )/Cos a1 .I)/COS a~)) nr (XGI .Cos(o. assuming a value of li .Yei) . The compiled program will run about six times faster than the program listed in appendix 1.33 Kc (4) While this relationship does not provide sufficient accuracy for the very wide range of problems encountered when applying this analysis to rock .YGI are the coordinates of the centre of gravity of the slice snd XI. A critical component of the program is the factor of safety iteration in which the shear strength values are progressively reduced (or increased) until the static factor of safety (for K = 0) is found. This plot reveals that the curve of F vs K closely resembles a rectangular hyperbola and this suggests that a plot of l/F VI K should be a straight line. The iteration technique used in the listed program is described below. ~I.YSIS A listing of a computer progrm for the analysis presented above is given in appendix 1 at the end of this paper. A graphics option is built into the program which allows the user to view the geometry of the slope being analysed.TVI (XI . Hence. the curve is no longer linear.Sin(ar .YI are the coordinates of the point of action of the force TI. This observation has been found to be true for a wide range of analyses. Experience has shown that this iteration can be s very troublesome process and that severe numerical instability can occur if inappropriate values of F are used. Figure 3 gives a plot of factor of safety F versus acceleration K for a range of friction angles for a typical slops analysis. -R SOLUTION FVR SAWA ANN.Xl. This option assumes that BASICA or an equivalent fotn of BASIC which supports graphics is available and that the computer has IBM compatible graphics capability. + 6l. it should be possible to key this program into any computer which runs Microsoft or equivalent BASIC and to modify it for any other form of BASIC.

an optional subroutine has been provided in the program to enable the user to produce such a plot. Negative stresses at the toe of a slope are sometimes caused by an excessively strong toe. Excessive water pressures within the slope can give rise to negative stresses.A?-? mschanics problems. using this point and the value of Kc (at F = 11. PmBIms WITD NBGATIVB STmssDs The effective normal stresses across the sides and base of each slice are calculated by mmna of aquations 40 to 42 and. complete F vs K curve. these slide sides are approximately radial to the centre of curvature of the failure surface. A rough or irregular failure surface can also give rise to negative stress problems if it causes part of the sliding mass to be significantly more stable than an adjacent part. can give rise to negative stress problems. for critical problem. A linear interpolation or extrapolation. these stresses must all be positive. This is the condition which leads to the fomation of tension cracks in actual slopes and the negative stresses in the numerical solution cau generally be eliminated by placing a tension crack at au appropriate position in the slope. the coordinates of the failure surface had to be calculated to ensure that the slice base inclinations were identical in the two analyses. Flattening the curvature or reducing the shear strength along the base will generally solve this problem. This is au important consideration in rock mechanics when preexisting failure surfaces such as joints and faults are included in the analysis. Reducing the level of the phreatic surface in the region in which negative stresses occur will usually eliminate these negative stresses. it does give a useful point close to the K = 0 axis on the plot of l/F VI K as shown in figure 4. During the early stages of development of this program. in which it is considered essential t o p l o t t h e For critical cases. This technique has proved to be very fast and efficient and has been incorporated into the program. If a potential failure path with a lower shear strength than that of the preexisting surface exists in the sliding mass. particularly near the top of the slope where the normal stresses ara low. . negative stresses can occur along the pm-existing surface which has been chosen as a slice side. Negative stresses CM occur near the top of a slope when the lower portion of the slope is lass stable and hence ten& to slide away from the upper portion of the slope. This can occur when the upward curvature of a deepseated failure l urfaa becomes too severe in the toe region. reading the slice base coordinates from a drawing may not be adequate and it MY be necessary to calculate these coordinates to ensure that undulations are not built into the analysis. Sarma (1979) ha s shown t h a t t h e w s t c r i t i c a l s l i c e side inclinations are approximately normal to the bass1 failure surface. particularly the inclination of the slice sides. Inappropriate selection of the slice geometry. gives an accurate estimate of the static factor of safety. In the case of a circular failure in homogeneous soil. It was found that. in order t o o b t a i n a b s o l u t e agrement b e t w e e n t h e s o l u t i o n s . Conaequeotly. in order for the solution to be acceptable. The reaaons for the occurrence of negative stresses and some suggested remdies are discussed below. the author compared answers against solutions for the same problem obtained froa Bishop circular failure analyses.

The but exmle of such a situation is a dam foundation in which the water pressure distribution is modified by the presence of grout and drainage curtains. There are. This will activate an automatic routine in the prograa which will set all water forces to zero and give the solution for a fully drained slope. This n ethod is rather tedious but it probebly represents the actual field conditions more realistically than the ru analysis described above. The simplest way to account for such changes in the anal&a presented here is to calculate the change in total uplift force on the base of each slice influenced by drainage and grouting end then to apply this change sa a stabilizing external force acting norm1 to the slice base. . the user is generally seeking a fundamental understanding of the mechanica of the slope behaviour and it is advantagaous to carry out the non-linear snalyaia manually in order to enhance this understanding. The final method of snelyaing the influence of drainege is to change the phreatic surface coordinates on each slice boundary. however. The second option providaa the user with the facility for changing the unit might of water during operation of the program. in the interests of apace. The water pressure distributions aaaumad in this analysis are illustrated in figures 1 and 2 and these distributions are considered to be representative of those wst caonly occurring in the field. In such cases. The first option involvea inserting a value for zero for the unit weight of water during initial entry of the data. The iterative process described above is relatively easy to build into the analysis presented in appendix 1 but. Since the Saraa analysis calculatea the effective normal stresses on each slice side and base. An iterative technique is used to change these shear strength values until the difference between factors of safety c a l c u l a t e d in successive iterations is acceptably small. Three or four iterations are usually sufficient to give M acceptable answer.AT-0 DRAINACE OF SIDPBS Three options for analysing the influence of drainage upon the stability of slopes have been included in the prograa listed in appendix 1. INcoRpoRATIDN OF NON-LINRAR FAILDRB CRITRRIA Hoek (1982) has diacuaaed the question of non-linear failure criteria for heavily jointed rock usaa and has given an exsmple of the analysis of a large open pit mine slope in such lateriala. these values can be used to deternine the instantaneous cohesion and friction angle acting on these surfaces. this hsa not been done in this paper. This results in a portpressure r a t i o ( ru) t y p e o f a n a l y s i s s u c h a s t h a t c . non-linear analyses are generally only carried out for fairly complex problem and only after a large nuder of sensitivity studies using limaar failure criteria have been perfomed. This analysis is useful for sensitivity atudiea on the influence of drainage on slope stability since it provides the user with a very fast means of changing the water pressures throughout the slope. situations in which t h e s e water pressure distributions are inappropriate.n l y usad i n soil mechanics (see Bishop and Morgenstern (1960)). In addition.

Note that negative stresses occur on both internal shaariog surfaces in this analysis and the calculated factor of safety of 0. The shear strengths on the inclined base and on the two internal shear failure surfaces are based upon laboratory strength test results. in such cases. The first step in any analysis involves a detemination of the lost critical failure surface.a situation which would be aost unlikely to occur in an actual spoil pile. Usually three or four slices will suffice at this stage since only a very crude analysis is required to check the critical failure geowtry. the first analysis carried out is for a waste pile with a high grandwater table . It is al80 irportant . These g i v e a f i r s t esttite o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e centre o f r o t a t i o n o f a critical circle snd the position of a tension crack in a hoaogeneous slope. One such problr has been studied in considerable detail by Coulthard (1979) and the results which he obtained am reproduced below by aeans of the Sama non-vertical slice wthod. the sliding ms is divided into slices. five to ten slices will genemlly be found to give an acceptable level of accuracy for this mfined analysis.SPOIL PILB CN A USAX yQuNDATIoN A mn problem uhich occurs in the strip q ining of coal involves failure of spoil (waste material) piles placed on weak inclined foundations. ia illustrated in figure 7. using the fewest possible n&r of slims to approximate the geometry. Based upon sooe estirte or educated guess of the critical failure surface location. t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y i s r e l a t i v e l y i n s e n s i t i v e t o s l i c e s i d e inclination and. Mless the slope geometry is extresely complex. SOIC for-s of search for the critical failure surface l ust be carried out. The optimiua inclination for each slice side is that which gives the sini. In order to dmtrate the negative stress probla discussed above. I t w i l l b e f o u n d t h a t a s e t o f c r i t i c a l conditions will quickly be fouad and a sore refined rode1 can then be constructed.A7-9 BBD STEPS IN CABRTINC CUT AN ANALYSIS When applying this analysis to an actual slope probla s great deal of tir can be wasted if too dctailad an analysis is attapted at the beginning of I the study.26 is unaccaptable. This shows that the failure involves dounvmrd movamsnt of an “active” wedge and outward sovaent along the uaak inclined base of the “passive” wedge. Sama (1979) suggests that the optisus inclination of the slice sides should be detemined by varying the inclination of each slice side while keeping the othem fixed. The failure geometry. A good starting point for 8uch a search is a set of charts such as those deviaad by Hock and Bmy(1981) and reproduced in figures 5 and 6. Bxcept where this surface has been clearly predefined by existing geological ueakneas planes or observed failure surface. A nuber of trial analyses with differant failure surface locations should then be carried out. The msults of the analysis carried out for these conditions are listed in table 1 and a plot of the graph of factor of safety vemus acceleration is given by the dashed line in figure 8. reconstructed from field measuraantm by the Australian CSIRO. BxNaxB 1 .factor of safety for the caplete slope. In relatively sirpls slopes in which the range of shear strengths is fairly limited. it is generally acceptable to set the slice side inclination normal to the failure surface.

17. that 50% drainage (reducing the unit wight of water to 0.20 is obtained for this case and all the effective normal stresses are positive. is the same as for the previous analysis.m f o r f a i l u r e t h r o u g h t h e s o f t t u f f . A third analysis.A7-10 to note that the plot of F vs K has an asymptote of F = 0. This limiting equilibrius condition is identical to that obtained by Coulthard (1979) using a two-wedge analysis similar to that proposed by Seed and Sultan (1967) for sloping core been chosen.26 has been chosen by the iteration technique. In the actual case upon which this example is based. The plot of factor of safety versus acceleration. using the same geometry as illustrated in figure 7 but with the slope drained and the cohesion on side 2 reduced to zero. Nevertheless.n and the unit weight of water is 1. A factor of safety of 1. a reservoir close to the crest of the slope recharges the slope with water and results in the high groundwater surface illustrated. as far as the author has been able to ascertain. In the case illustrated.428 and that factors of safety of less than this value are meaningless. Fortunately. -LB 3 . the iteration technique used in the progras (and all other iteration techniques tried during the development of the progras) will choose the incorrect solution.428 which. it is recomsended that the curve of factor of safety versus acceleration be plotted out to ensure that the correct solution has The second solution is for a drained spoil pile.41 while complete drainage of the slope g i v e s a f a c t o r o f s a f e t y o f 1. Laboratory tests and back analysis of previous failures give a friction angle of 18 degrees and a cohesion of zero along the coal seas and a friction angle of 30 degrees and c o h e s i o n o f 2 tonnes/sq. given as the solid line in figure 8. This example demonstrates that.5 tonnes/cu. under certain circumstances.0 A printout produced by the progras listed in appendix 1 is reproduced in table 2 and this shows that the factor of safety for the slope A sensitivity study of drainage shows illustrated in figure 9 is 1. this problem is very rare and.20 is well above the asyqtote of 0. t h e factor of safety for K = 0 is 0. The rockfill is partially submerged and the . the reservoir above the slope was drained but in adjacent slopes long horizontal drain holea wre used to reduce the water pressures in the slopes. A thin coal seas is overlain by soft tuff and existing failures in the slope show that sliding occurs along the coal seam with the toe breaking out through the soft tuff. As shown in figure 8.1 tonnes/cu.PARTIALLY suWm&ml NOCKFILL sun% tonn4cu. interestingly. shows that the value of 1.65.m.m) increases the factor of safety to 1. is always associated with negative stresses which geserate the message that the solution is unacceptable.OPBN PIT COAL MINK SLOPE Figure 9 illustrates the gemetry of a slope probles in a large open pit coal sine. for c r i t i c a l proble~9.48 whereas the second root of 0. e&anknent dams. Figure 10 illustrates the geometry of a rockfill slope placed underwater onto a sandy river bottom. The unit wight of the tuff is 2.00. produces a factor of safety of 1. EKAkE’LE 2 .

Res. Mach. 4. Rep. and H. Critical acceleration versus static factor of safety in stability analysis of earth dams and embankments. to produce a plot similar to that illustrated in figure 8. Strength of jointed rock masses. A. Div. Civ.A. Stability analyses for a sloping core abankment.K..K. Morgenstern 1960. G e o t a c b . Civ. Sama. E. 1979. Geofecboigue lO(4)) 129-50. included in the program. Sat-ma. Ind. Sci. Rngrs 93. Aust.Al-11 failure surface (detemined b y a c r i t i c a l f a i l u r e s e a r c h u s i n g a conventional vertical slice analysis) involves both the rockfill and the sand base. 1. Melbourne. 151124. 45-67. GT12. Stability analysis of embankmants and slopes. 661-5. a horizontal acceleration of 0. Corm. Am. 83.. 5. for a pseudo-static analysis of earthquake loading. Bsck-soslysis of observed spoil Ibilures. Nngrs 105. Org. Bishop. 1983. It is interesting to note that the critical acceleration for this slope is 0.R. Nngng Div. Ceotecbnique 24(4). Am. J. SM4. In the actual case upon which this example was based. Bhave 1974. A p r i n t o u t o f t h e s l o p e geoaetry. and N. Coulthard. Stability coefficients for earth slopes. T h i s KMS t h a t . 3.2106. a more ccmplete dynamic earthquake analysis was performed but in many cases a pseudo-static check on stability under earthquake loading is acceptable. The author wishes to acknowledge the interest and support of many of his colleagues in Colder Associates in the development of the program listed in appendix 1. 6. 33(3). Seed. 2. Factors of safety corresponding to different pseudo-static horizontal acceleration levels can be found by using the optional subroutine. No. . Sot. Hock. Tech. Soil Plccb. S. J. 1979.21g would be required to induce failure in the slope. Foundns Div.Sultan 1967. S. Special thanks are due to Mr Ken Inouye and Mr Trevor Fitzell f o r their practical assistance in writing and debugging parts of the program. Sot. material properties and calculated factor of safety is given in table 3.B..V.. Appl. Ceotecboique 187-223. H. and H.A. No. No. M.W.

I Y + Y l X- .A7-12 Fi#wa 1: D e f i n i t i o n o f geometry a n d f o r c e s a c t i n g o n i t h s l i c e .

A7-13 Figure 2: Definition of water forces. Submergence of side i+l .YTi i+1 *YTi+1 .%+1 a. No submergence c. XTi. XWisyw~ “I+1 vywi+l I ‘i+l b . Submergence o f s i d e i .

Friction angle $ ~ccclorarion K .A7-14 Figure 3: Factor of safety versus acceleration for a typical slope.

1 OF.1 + 3.33 K c . .10 0 = 20 2 hccelerat ion K 1 2 -.A7-15 Ci(Fur 4: Plot Of reciprocal Of factor of oaf&y versus acceleration.

.A?-16 Figure 5: Approximte locations of the centre of curvature of a circular failure surface and a tension crack in a drained homogeneous slope.

o . 0.6: Approxirte locationa of tha centre of curvature of a circular f8ih-8 8urf8ca and 8 tenmion crack in a homo6emous slope with grounhatar premnt.1 0.Al-17 Ii.b i P : a 0. I 0 0 10 .2 0.o b0 so 60 70 00 )o .

111. cB-1 OkPa Unit w e i g h t o f s p o i l m a t e r i a l = 1 5 .76.5 kPa 9~~6~.A7-18 Figure 7: hometry of a spoil pile on a weak foundation analysed by Coulthard (1979).4. 7 kN/m3 U n i t w e i g h t o f w a t e r = lOkN/m) .

25 \ \ \ D r a i n e d spoil pile S p o i l p i l e w i t h watrr -1 0 hccclcracion K I .A7-19 Figure 8:’ Plot of factor of safety vet-ma acceleration K for a spoil pile on an inclined week foundation. I II I I I I I I I I I I I I 1.

A7-20 Figure 9: G00m&ry for an Open pit coal mine slope. .

00 0.2087 Negative effective normal stresses Factor of Safety = 0.00 67.50 128.64 Acceleration Kc q -0.70 6.00 0.00 57.00 0.26 solution unacceptable - . SAFMA NON-VERTICAL SLICE ANALYSIS Analysis no.00 -130.Spoil pile on a weak foundation Unit weight of water = 10 Side nuaber Coordinate xt Coordinate yt Coordinate m Coordinate yv Coordinate xb Coordinate yb Friction angle Cohesion Slice number Rock unit weight Friction angle Cohesion Force T Angle theta 1 0.00 0.00 1 15.00 0.00 0.40 42.00 3 111.00 100.15 -14.00 83.00 67.70 42.00 0.00 0.00 0.AJ-21 Table 1: Printout for analysis of stability of spoil pile on a weak foundation (figxwe 7).00 0.00 108.00 57.00 128.00 100.13 Side 0.00 10.00 2 15.00 0.00 6. 1 .00 Effective normal stresses Base 147.00 0.00 0.00 2 83.40 76.

00 0.00 0.10 30.00 2.00 70.00 24.10 30.00 17.00 7 2.00 103.00 2.00 2.00 2. 30.00 8 2.10 2.00 0.00 2 3 IO 2.00 30.00 30.41 11. SARMA NON-VERTICAL SLICE ANALYSIS Analysis no.00 80.00 6 2.00 4 2.00 103.72 Side number Coordinate xt Coordinate yt Coordinate xw Coordinate yw Coordinate xb Coordinate yb Friction angle Cohesion Slice number Rock unit weight Friction angle 7 140.00 22.00 3 29.00 30.00 1 2.00 26.00 0.00 18.00 25.00 2.00 0.00 8 165.00 9 2.00 17.00 17.00 2.00 155.1008 Factor of Safety = 1.A7-22 TAle 2: Printout for anelysia of stability of open pit coal mine slope (figure 9).00 9 178.00 0.00 18.00 30.63 63.00 50.00 18.00 99.00 30.22 44.00 30.00 180.00 0.00 4.00 204.00 6 68.89 11.00 146.00 96.00 22.07 22.00 5 50.00 0.00 2.25 48. Unit weight of water = 1 Side number Coordinate xt Coordinate yt Coordinate m Coordinate yw Coordinate xb Coordinate yb Friction angle Cohesion Slice nuuber Rock unit weight Friction angle Cohesion Force T Angle theta 1 4.&l Side 14.00 173.54 27.00 26.00 204.00 2.00 186.69 41.00 0.00 10.00 24.00 2.00 0.00 89.00 33.90 6.00 17.00 5 2.00 0.91 37.00 2. 2 .00 29.00 0.00 2.00 0.00 50.00 4.00 0.52 29.00 0.00 2 17.10 30.25 Acceleration Kc = 0.00 0.00 65.17 .00 0.00 103.11 3.00 29.00 18.&en pit coal mine slope with tuff overlying coal seam.00 2.00 17.00 0.00 0.00 4 30.00 23.00 80.00 0.00 0.00 90.00 2.00 0.00 0.00 12.00 0.00 30.10 30.92 Side 0.00 89.00 Cohesion Force T Angle theta Effective normal stresses Base 18.08 60.00 0.00 88.00 166.10 30.00 10.00 80.00 8.00 37.10 30.00 Effective normal stresses Base 29.10 30.00 IO 204.00 0.00 11.00 23.

If no graphics f a c i l i t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e . FZ .Print : prints the tabulated data and calculates critical acceleration and factor of safety as shown in tables 1 to 3.AT-23 APPENDIX l-BASIC COMPUTER PROCRAM FOR SAWA NON-VKRTICAL SLICB ANALYSIS. The BASIC program listed on the following pages has been written for use on microcomputers which run Microsoft or equivalent BASIC. the graphics subroutine may be disabled by deleting line 1600 and the function kay display can be removed by deleting lines 4750 and 4760.fos vs k : activates a subroutine to calculate values of the acceleration K for different factors of safety. it will be found that the BASIC program will drive almost any printer. the F3 . The program may be reactivated by tying RUN and pressing enter.drain : enables the user to edit the line which displays the unit weight of water. F5 . In order to utilize the graphics option (lines 6410-6970) it is necessary to use BASICA or an equivalent BASIC which supports graphics cm ds and to run the program on a computer fitted with an IBM or compatible graphics card. Stores the displayad data on a disk file. A new display is used for this subroutine. The program can be compiled using a BASIC compiler and this produces a machine language program which runs about six timas faster than the BASIC program.restart : returns to the first page display which asks various questions before the data array is displayed. FR . This is used to change the unit weight of water in sensitivity studies using a portpressure ratio (ru) approach. If it proves impossible to drive the printer from the compiled program. F4 .file : displays the data files already stored on the disk and requests a new file nm.Calculate : recalculates the critical acceleration and fsctor of safety using the displayed data. .quit : exits the program and returns to BASIC. The function keys for the main p r o g r a m e x e c u t e t h e following operations: Fl . F6 .view : activates the graphics display if a suitable graphics card is fitted. F7 . The compiled program may not drive printers fitted with serial i n t e r f a c e s (RS232C) a n d t h e p r i n t e r m a n u a l s h o u l d b e c o n s u l t e d f o r instructions on initializing the printer.

k) A(2.1) A(37.1) A(27.k) calculated B A(34.k) A(5.1) A(21.k) calculated S A(29.k) nlice weight W A(21.1) A(3.k) side cohesion es/F A(26.1) A(34.k) A(4.k) side angle 6 A( lE.k) calculated 01 A(39.1) A(2O.K) RM sA113A ANALYSIS Side ntier coordinate xt coordinate yt coordioate m coordinate yw coordinate xb coordinate yb friction angle ‘9 cohesion a Slice ntiar rock unit weight Yr f r i c t i o n a n g l e OS cobeaion u force T angle theta 0 1 k A(1.1) A(l7.1) A(5.k+l) A(E.k) calculated x A(35.1) A(23.k+l) A(17.k) N22.1) A(30.1) A(24. 1) A(l1.k) A(l2. 1) N=.k) calculated e A(31.k) A(3.k) base friction T M @D/F A(259 1) A(=.k) 1 k A(10.k+l) A(2.1) A(4.DEFINITION Of ARRAY A(J.1) A(35.k+l) A(6.1) A(15.k+l) A(29.k) aide friction Tan h/F A(27.k) A(16.1) A(33.1) A(8.k+l) A(4.1) A(l8.k+l) A(=.1) A(12.k+l) N18.1) A(l6.k) A(ll.k) calculated Q A(30.k) b a s e angle a Ai(20.1) A(36.k) M32.k) calculated 0~ A(38.1) A(39.1) calculated p A(32.AT-24 TABIB4.k+l) A(5.k) side length d A(17.k+l) A(27.k) alcuhted N A(36.k) ktl A(l.1) H6.k+l) A(7.k) base length b A(199 1) A( 19.1) A(29.k) uplift force U A(22.1) A(8.1) Nl.1) A(28.k+l) A(3.k) calculated TS A(37.k+l) A(34.k) A(7.k+l) A(23.k) A(6.1) A(38.k+l) A(39.k) A(31.1) A(l0.k) calculated R A(28.1) A(7.l) calculatad a A(33.k) base cohesion a/F A(24.1) water fora PW A(23.k+l) A(2.k) .k) A( 15.

12 290 PRINT "tools and for educational purposes. (1979).l)="q" OR LEFTt(DISKS. This progrm is one 0r 260 WCATE 12."c":KEY 6.:COLOR 7.WA'Rw 540 IF LBFI$(WATER$.NON-VERTIcALsLICEmIwDoFsmJE STABILITY ARALYSIS 70 ' Dimwsiwiogofvuidlm 80' 90 STATUS="i":RAD=3.-h" 210 ' 220 SCRERN 0.l)="y' TWN 660 480 LOCATE 11.ACL(100) 110 DIM PB(50).Bvert Hock. Vol.. J.WW(50). CT12." 340 I.l41593/l8O:F=l:M=l 100 DIM A(39. 50 ' No.Written by Dr.50).12 440 INpvT "DO you wish to read data fros a disk file (y/n) ? "*DISKS 450 IF LEFT$(DISKt.OCATB 1~.TV(50)."g":KEY 8. 60’ 10 ' SAWA.PHALp~50).l)=“Y” OR LKFTS(DISKt.ACC(10).O:WIDTR 8O:CLS:LtXATE 8.1)=“0* Ir(Bw 6980 510 IF LEN(NlDI$)=O fABN 480 ELSE WIE(=VAL(NIWt) 520 FJ. G3otePb.12 310 PRINT "is not restricted but the user is responsible for the" 320 COCATE 15.7: 230 PRINT " SAIMA NUN-VERTICAL SLICK STABILITY ANALYSIS * 240 COLOR 7.7:PRIRT " q ".12 330 PRINT "application of the results obtained from this progrm."a":KEY 2.l)="O" TlEN 6980 ."c":KEY 190 ' 200 ' Display of find page 4.WR(50).l)="O" TimR 6980 460 IF LEN(DISKt)=O TIiEN 430 470 IF LRFT$(DISKt.25:PRINT “Press MY key to continue" 350 IF LBN(INKKYt) = 0 THEN 350 360 ' 370 ' Display ofsecood We 360 ' 390 CLS:LCCATE 25. pages 1511-1524.2WT(50) 130 ' 140 ' Defioitiw of fwctiao h-em 150 ' 160 KEY 0FF:FOR I = 1 'IO 8:KEY I.“d” 180 KEY 5.12 400 PRINT "to terminate input enter "."b":KEY 3.37:COLOR 0. 1 2 530 INPUT "Unit weight of water = ".~(50).12 250 PRINT "Copyright .O:LOCATE 11..Hoek."f":KEY 7.12 490 INPUT “Number of slices to be included in analysis : ".12 270 PRINT "a series of geotechnical programs developed as workiag" 280 LOCATE 13.l)="q" OR LEFTS~MJpo. &Isa. Use of the progrm" 300 LOCATK 14.E.0 . S.AT-25 20 ’ Version 1. Janusry 1986 30 ’ Reference : Sac-w.pS(50).0 420 LOCATE 25. Colder Associates. 430 LOCATE lo.FL(100) 120 DIM TRETA(50).l)="q" OR LEFTS(WATERS. 410 LOCATE 25.41:PRINT “in response to any question”.17:COLoR 0. w.AGP=O: LWATE 1 2 ."":NEXT I 170 KEY 1. Stsbility anely8is of &km&8 40 ' and 8lopes. 1985.wuI) 500 IF LEM(RIBf$. Div.T8(50).K. 105.

0 940 LOCATE 14.l)=-G.O:lGCATB 13.52 .WATER 720 RAD=3.l:PRINT "friction angle" 890 LOCATE 11.DAT":PRINT:PRINT STRINCt(80.32:PRINT M+l:CGLGR 7.1 980 PRINT "angle theta" 990 GosuB 1040 1000 IF STATUS="i" TIllIN GGSUR 114O:RETURN ELSE RETURN 1010 ' 1020 ' Subrout~pe for slice P.O:ICCATK 3.l:PRIRT "coordinate yw" 860 ILCATEZ 8. FLAG4 740 FOR K = 1 TG N:FGR J=l TG 39:IRPUTgl.THEN 6980 600 IF LKN(STRRNGTRt)=O THEN 570 610 IF LRFT$(STRENGTR$.ACC:IRPUTIl.l:PRINT "coordinate xb" 870 LCZATE 9.AG6=1:STAT'US="c":GG'IG 1950 770 ' 760 * DiSplBy Of &?tB array 790 ' 800 CIS:IDCATE 1.23:PRINT WATER 920 LOCATE 13.l:COLOR 15.l:PRIRT "coordinate xw" 850 LOCATE 7.l:PRINT "unit weight of water = M 910 LOCATE 12.l:PRINT "coordinate yt" &O LGCATR 6.l:PRINT "friction angle" 960 LOCATR 16.1:PRINT "force T ":LGCATK 18.FGS 760 CLOSE tl:F=l:FI.l:PRINT "cohesion)( 970 LOCATE 17.37:PRINT M+l:LOCATR 3.l:PRINT "Analysis no. TITLRt:INFUTI1.FLAG3: INl'UTtl.A(J. ".l:COLGR 15.141593/180:F=l:H=l:NlM=N-1 730 INPUTt1.42 1070 PRINT Mt2:CGLoR 7.l:PRIRT "coordinate yb" 880 IDCATE 10.O:LGCATK 13.O:PRINT "Side number":COLOR 7.12 580 INPUf "Are shear strengths uniform throughout slope (y/n) ? ".DAT" FOR INPUT AS 11 710 LINK INPUTtl.TITLEt 810 IDEATE 3.0:IF N=M+2 TRKN RRTURN 1080 CGwR 15.K):NEXT J:NKXT K 750 INPUTtl.22:PRINT M:KlGATE 13.l:PRINT "coordinate xt" 830 IDCATZ 5.B "A:SARMA*.0 820 LOCATE 4.ACC(2):INPUTI!l.0:IF N=M+l TREN RBTURN 1060 COLOR 15. 680 PR1NT':FII.47:PRINT Mc2:LocATE 3.FILEt 700 CLS:OPKN "A:"+FILK$+".27:PRINT M 1050 IGCATE 3.dispJw 1030 ' 1040 COLOR 15.45):PRINT 690 INPUT "Bnter filename (without extension): ".0 930 PRINT "Slice number":COLOR 7.Al-26 550 IF LRN(WATRR$)=O THRN 520 ELSE WATER =VAL(WATERS) 560 IF WATER = 0 THEN FLAGZ-1 570 FLAG3=O:UXATB 13.N:INPUT81.STRENGTHS 590 IF LRFT$(STRmGTR$.l)="Y" OR LBFIt(STRKNGTRS.l:PRINT "rock unit weight" 950 LOCATE 15.FLAG2:INPUTtl .l)="y" THEN FLAGJ=l 620 N=NIM+l:GCZG 1950 s E ' ata eotty frcu a disk file z &WCATE 8 l*PRINT STRINGt(80 45) 670 PRINT:PRINT &w-ma data files 0: disk ".l:PRINT "cohesion" 900 LOCATE 12.l)="q" OR LEFTt(STRJIRGTRS.

' Entry sod display of title * IF FLAG6=1 OR STATUS=“c” TWIN 1300 IDCATB 1.14:LINX INPUT ““.14:PRINT TITLRS PRXVTt=TITLKt:RKTORN * ' Subrwtiw for adry of data into array e(j.” “) IDCATB 1.l):FLAG6=1 IF J=13 TRKN J=15 IF J=16 AND A(15.A7-27 1090 1100 1110 1120 1130 1140 1150 1160 1170 1180 1190 1200 1210 1220 1230 1240 1250 1260 1270 1260 1290 1300 1310 1320 1330 1340 1350 1360 1370 1360 1390 1400 1410 1420 1430 1440 1450 1460 1470 1460 1490 1500 1510 1520 1530 1540 1550 1560 1570 1560 1590 PRINT M+3:GOIDR 7.K)=A(ll. 0 UXATB 1.O:IDCATX 13.l):FLAG6=1 IF J=8 TRKN A(8.K)=A(ll. .“.O:RKTURN UXATB 20.l):FLAG6=1 IF J=12 TRKN A(12.13 PRINT “Note: coordinates must increase from slope toe to crest” LOCATE 22.13 PRINT “coreme autcaatically when al1 data has been entered.K)=O TRRN J=0:K=K*1:RKTURN IF J=17 TRRN J=O:K=K+l:RKTURN IF J<=8 TIlRN X=l8+(lO*(K+l)):Y=J+3 IF J>=lO AND J<=12 TRRN X=23+(10S(K+l)):Y=J+4 IF J>=l5 AND J<=16 T’lEN X=23+(10S(K+l)):Y=J+2 IF FLAG6=1TtIEN GOSUB 1680 BLSK GOSUK 1650 1610 RFNRN 1620 ’ 'locete cursor ‘water Present ’ locete cursor 'drained ’ w=vb .62 PRINT M+4:GOLOR 7.TITLKS IF LHN(TITLRS)=O TRKN TITLBt=PRKVTS LOCATE 1.67:PRINT M+4:LOGAlg 3.K)=A(lO.l:GOLOR 0.0:UJGATK 13.K)=A(l2.k) ’ 1st collmn IF STATUS=“i” TRKN FLAGG=O IF FLAG20=1 TRKN FLAGG=l:FLAGZO=O IF FLAG21=1 TRKN K=M:J=PRRVJ-l:FLAGPl=O IF FLAG23=1 TRBN K=M+4:J=PRXVJ-l:FLAG23=0 IF FLAGZ=O TRRN 1440 IF J=3 AR0 FLAGP=I TREN J=5 IF FLAC2=1 THEN A(3. Factor of safety calculation will” WCATB 24.57:PRINT M+3:IDGATR 3.K)=A(6. e- 'first slice 'variable strength 'uniform strength 'skip spece 'skip spece 'varieble strength ’ uniforw strength 'skip spnce 'no forces 'lmxt column 'cursor location 'cursor operation .K)=A(s.13 PRINT “To edit title or data array. ” I F STATU$=“r” THHN LOCATE 1.O:IF N=M+3 TRKR RKTURN COLOR 15.K):A(4.K)=A(l2.K) IF J=7 AND K=l TlfiN J=lO:GOTO 1500 IF FLAG3=0 THEN 1500 IF 527 ‘TRKN A(7.14:PRINT STRINGS(66.13 PRINT “highlighted window.1):FLAG6=1 IF J=9 AND FLAGlZ=O TRBN J=lO IF J=10 TRKN A(lO.O:IF N=M+4 TRBN RBTURN COLOR 15.OR 2 .l):FLAG6=1 IF J-9 AND FLAGlL=O TRBN J=lO IF K=l OR FLAGS=0 TREN 1540 IF J=ll TRKN A(ll.7:PRINT “Analy6ia no.“:COL.l:PRINT “Analysis no. use direction keys to move” UXATB 23.72 PRINT M+5:GOLOR 7.

s vs x 1760 IF 0$=-d" THEN GGSUB 187O:FLAG25=1:RKTURN 'drain 1770 IF 0$=-e” THEN GOSUB 1670: FlAG17=l:RETUfW 'file 1760 IF O$="f" MN FLAG26=1:RKTURN ' restart 'quit 1790 IF Qt="g" GR O$=“q” THEN FLAGlS=l:RETURN 1800 IF O$="h" TRBN FLAG27=1:RETURN ' visv 'enter zero 1810 IF OS="O" TRKN 1890 'enter minus 1820 IF Q$="-" TRKN 1890 'enter period 1830 IF OS=".K)=VAL(OS+INS) " 1870 LOCATE Y.X:PRINT " ".0.0.X:PRINT " 1880 LOCATB Y.l) 1690 IF 0$=-K" TRKN GOSUB 1870:FLAG10=1:RKTURN 'left 1700 IF O$="M" THEN GGSUB 187O:PLAGl1=1:RRTURN 'right 1710 IF 0$=-H" TRRN GOSUB 187O:FLAG12=1:RENRN ’ UP 1720 IF Ct$=“P” THEN GOSUB 167O:FLAC13=1:R6TlJRN ‘don.X+2:INPUT "".A(J.s vs x 2060 IF FLAGlG=l TIEN 5130 'file 2070 IF FLAG17=1 THEN 6310 'quit 2080 IF FLAGlB=l THEN 6980 'next page 2090 IF FLAGlS=l THBN 2190 2100 IF FLAG25=1 TliBN FLAG25=O:WSUB 2950 'drain 2110 IF FLAG26=1 THEN 2120 BlSB 2130 'restart 2120 FLAG26=0:StATUS="i":TITLKS="":GOTO 390 ' view 2130 IF FLAG27=1 T6KN 6440 'diet& end 2140 XF t<N THEN 2160 'endinput 2150 IF J=7 THEN 3040 'first page 2160 IF K=6 AND J=9 THgN 2180 . 1730 IF 0$=-a” THRN GOSUB 1#O:FZAG14=1:RKTURN 'print 1740 IF Q$="b" THEN GGSUB 187O:FLAGlS=l:~ 'wlculste 1750 IF #=*c* TURN GGSUB 187O:FLAGl6=1:RETUFtN 'f.INt:A(J.k) 1940 ' 'screen display 1950 F=l:M=l:GGSUB 8OO:coSUB 1260 1960 FOR R=l TO 6:FOR J=l TO 17 1970 IF FUGl=l THBN 2140 1980 IF FLAG23=1 TRKN FLAGG=O:GOTO 2000 1990 IF FLAG22=1 THEN FLAG6=1:GGTO 2140 'left 2000 IF FLAGlO= THEN GGSUB 2500 2010 IF FLAGll=l TH6N GGSUR 2610 'right 2020 IF FLAGlP=l THEN GOSUB 2720 * UP 2030 IF FLAG13=1 THBN GOSUB 2840 ‘doem 'print 2040 IF FLAG14=1 TRRN GGSUR 5710 2050 IF PLACEa=1 THEN F=l:GOl'O 3050 ' wlculste 'f.tt"." THKN 1890 1840 IF VAL(O$)<l OR VAL(OS)>9 TWIN 1670 ' enter nuder 1850 LOCATK Y.X:PRINT VAL(os) 1860 WCATE Y.7 ":COLoR 7.:PRINTpT:GGTO186O 1900 LOCATE Y.A7-28 1630 ’ SAnwtibs forcumorw-t aod disply of a~ la0 ' 1650 PLAGlO=O:FLAGl1=O:FLAG1Z=O:FLAG13=O 1660 PLAG14=O:GGSUB 1900 1670 GS=INKEYt:IF OS=" " TRRN 1670 ‘scan keyboard 1680 IF LEN(OS)=Z THEN CtS=RIGRTS(OS.X:PRINT USING "ttttt.R):RKTURN 'display entry 1890 LOCATK Y.O:RRTURN 1910 PRINT " 1920 ' 1930 ' Data eotry wd displey of arny 4j.X:COLOR 0.

K)=0 THEN K=K+l:GGTCI 2560 2560 J=J-l:FLAG10=O:RGTURN 2570 FLAG22=1:PRKVJ=J: FLAG1O=O:R8TURN 2560 ’ 2 5 9 0 ’ Subrcwtipe tomowcursorrigbt 'limit Jcft 'limit left 'previous page ’ left ‘blank cell 'keep line 2600 ' 2610 IF K=M+5 AND J<=9 THEN 2680 2620 IF K=M+4 AND J>9 THEN 2680 2630 IF K<N THEN K=K+l 2aO IF J=17 AND A(16.s vs R 2 3 3 0 IF FLAGlG=l THEN 5130 'file 2 3 4 0 IF FLAG17=1 THEN 6310 'quit 2350 IF FLAG18=1 THgN 6980 'drain 2 3 6 0 IF FLAG25=1 TllgN FLAG25=0:GOSUB 2950 2 3 7 0 IF FLAG26=1 THEN 2360 ELSE 2390 ’ restart 2380 FLAG26=0:STATU$="i":TITLES="":GGTO 390 'view 2 3 9 0 IF FLAG27=1 THEN 6440 2400 IF FLAG19=1 THEN K=M:J=l:GOTO 2190 2410 IF FLAG22=1 AND M=6 THEN M=l:GOTG 1950 2420 IF FLAG22=1 AND H>=ll THEN K=M:J=l:H=~lO:GGTO 2190 ‘check end 2 4 3 0 IF K<N THEN 2450 'end input 2 4 4 0 IF J=7 THEN 3040 2 4 5 0 IF K=M+S AND J=9 THEN 3040 2460 GOSUB 1370:NEXT J:NEXT K 2470 ’ 2 4 6 0 ’ S&rvutipc to mw cursor left 2490 ' 2500 IF K=2 AND J=8 THEN K=K:COTO 2560 2510 IF K=2 AND J=9 THKN K=K:COTO 2560 2520 IF K=l THEN K=l:GGTO 2560 2530 IF H>=6 AN0 K=M TURN 2570 2540 IF K>M TREN K=K-1 2550 IF J=17 AND A(16.0.K)=O THEN K=K-I:GOTO 2670 2650 IF J<=7 AND K=N THEN K=N 2660 IF J>7 ANLl K=N THBN K=NU'4 2670 J=J-1: FLAG11=O:fWNRN 2680 FLAGlS=l: PRSVJ=J:FLAG11=O:WTURN 2690 ’ 2 7 0 0 ’ Subrartipe torowcursorup ‘newt page ‘next page 'right ‘ b l a n k crll 'limit ri&t 'limit right 'keep line .AT-29 2170 GOSUB 1370:NBXf J:NSXT K 2180 FLAGl=O:IF STATW="e" THEN 4240 2 1 9 0 H=M+5:GosuB 8 0 0 2200 FOR K=M TO M+5: FOR J=l To 17 2210 IF StATUS="e" THEN 2230 2220 IF K=M AND J<=8 THKN FLAG2O=l:coTo 2460 2 2 3 0 IF FLAGlS=l THEN FLAGG=l:GOTO 2430 2240 IF FLAGPl=l THEN FUG6=O:GOTO 2460 2 2 5 0 IF FLAG22=1 TEEN FLAGG=l:GOTO 2430 2 2 6 0 IF FLAG23=1 TREN FLAG6=O:GOTO 2460 2 2 7 0 IF FLAGlO=l THEN GGSIJB 2500 2260 IF FLAGll=l TlIEN GOSUB 2610 2 2 9 0 IF FLAGlZ=l MN COSOB 2720 2 3 0 0 IF FLAGIS= TllEN GGSUB 2840 'cursor operation 'display 1st page 'rencdercoluwm ' second page 'left 'rigW ’ UP ‘ d a m 'print 2310 IF FLAGlQ=l THEN GOSUB 5710 'calculate 2320 IF FLAG15=1 THEN F=l:coTo 3050 'f.

7 KJCATE 12.O:LOCATE 12.K)/F:A(26.WATER J=J-1:RETURN ' Cakolstion ofslics parameter * IF STATU$="e" TREN 4240 GOSUB 3320:FOR K=l To N:GOSUB 3430:NEXT K FOR K=lTO NlMGOSU'B 349D:NEXTK WAT=.A7-30 2710 ' 2720 IF J=2 AND K-l TREN 2730 ELSE 2740 2730 STATU$="r":GOSUB 1270:STATU$=*e":J=l:K=1:GOTU 28DO 2740 IF J=2 THEN J=l:GOTO 2800 2750 IF J=6 AND FLAGP=l THEN J=2:GOnl 2800 2760 IF K=l AND J=ll THEN J=6:GOTo 2800 2770 IF J=ll TREN J=8:GVIO 2800 2780 IF J=16 TREN J=lTL:GOTO 2800 2790 IF J>=3 AND J<=17 THEN J=J-2:FLAGl2=O:GOTG 2800 2800 FLAGlZ=O:RETURN 2810 * 2820 ' Subroutine tomom cursor&w 2830 ' 2840 IF K=N AND J=7 TREN J=6:GoTo 2910 2850 ‘IF J=l AND K=l TREN J=2:K=2:GOTO 2830 2860 IF FLAGZ=l AND J=3 THEN J=5:GOTo 2910 2870 IF J-9 THEN J=lO:GOTQ 2910 2880 IF J=13 THEN J=15:GOTO 2910 2890 IF J=16 AND A(J.23:INPUT "= ".K)*COS(TtDITA(K)) TR(K)=TR(K)+WR(K):NEXT K TV(N-l)=TV(N-l)-A(23.K)*RAD:PS(K)=A('I.N)*SIN(A(l8.N)) TR(N-l)=TR(N-l)-A(23.K)*RAD A(25.K)*SIN(THBTA(K))+WW(K) IF A(16.N)*COS(A(18.l PRINT "unit weight of water = ".1)8COS(A(18.K)/F PB(K)=A(ll.K)=270 TREN TR(K)=O:GOTo 3180 TH(K)=A(15." "):I&CATE 12.cs/F 'd8g to radians 'tenphi/F 'tsnphi/F 'effective phi 'Phil&h8 'TV 'verticsl 'force ' TH 'amtar in 'tansinn creek 'submerged toe ' subwrg8d toe .l:PRINT STRINGt(30.l:PRINT "unit weight of water" COLOR 7.R)):PS(K)=ATN(A(Z'I.SiWATER:GOSUB 3580 FOR K=l To N:A(24.K)*RAD TV(K)=A(lS.1)*SIN(A(18.K)=TAN(PB(K))/F A(27.WATHR LOCATE 12.K)=9D THEN M(K)=O:GOlQ 3180 IF A(16.K)=TAN(PS(K))/F PB(K)=ATN(A(25.N)) TV(1)=TV(l)+A(23.1)) * ' Calculrtiw of Xc 3100 3110 3120 3130 3140 3150 3160 3170 3180 3190 3200 3210 3220 3230 3240 'd ct delta 'b.K)) PWLP(K)=PB(K)-A(2O.K)=A(l2.~lpbs.1)) TR(l)=TH(l)+A(23.K)=O TREN J=15:GOTQ 2910 2900 IF J=17 TREN J=16:GOTO 2910 2910 FLAG13=O:RETURJd 2920 'edit title 'limit up ’ drained '1st colwn 'skip space 'skip sp8ce ’ UP ‘J8sC colwn 'exit title 'skip sp8ce 'skip space 'skip space 'dam limit 'dam limit 2930 2940 2950 2960 2970 2980 2990 3000 3010 3020 3030 3040 3050 ' Stiroutioe to drain bycbaogingwit vsigbt ofmtter * LI)CATB 12.1:PRINT STRINGS(30." "):COLOR 0.K)=A(8.K):TRETA(K)=A(16.W X II 'veter forces 'cb/F.

K)=A(5.O.K))/A(lS.K)-A(5.K))*(ZWT(K)+ZWT(K+l)) 3 7 3 0 I F A(2.K)=O ELSE A(17pK)=SOR(DSO) 3 4 6 0 I F A(2.10-A(6.K))) 3480 RETURN ‘b 3 4 9 0 A(19.K)-A(2.” “).OR 0.K))-2+(A(2.K)=WAT*(ZW(K)+ZW(K+l))*A(l9.K) 3 6 1 0 A(22.K)-A(6.K)-A(2.K) 3 5 0 0 I F A(19.K+l)-A(1.K) 3 6 3 0 I F ZWT(K)>O TREN 3 6 5 0 ‘Pw 3 6 4 0 A(23.K):A(3.K))/(A(2.K)*ABS((A(2.K))):COTO 3 6 7 0 ’ submerged 3 6 5 0 A(23.K+l) 3 6 0 0 A(22.K)=A(2l.K)-A(5.K+l)-A(6.K~) ‘W 3 5 4 0 A(21.K)) 3 7 6 0 I F A(2.K))) 3 6 7 0 NEXT K 3 6 8 0 F O R K=l T O NIM 3690 I F ZWT(K)>=O A N D ZWT(K+l)>=O TREN 3 7 0 0 E L S E 3 7 4 0 'Illr' full.7:PRINT S T R I N G t ( 7 0 .K)=A(23.” “) 3 3 5 0 LOCATE 24.K+l)<A(2.K)) 3 5 2 0 A(21.K)=ABS(A(22.K) T H E N A(s.K):RETURN 3550 ’ 3 5 6 0 ’ Subroutine for calculation of hmter forces 3570 ' 3 5 8 0 F O R K=l T O NI.7:PRINT STRINGS(70.K) ‘check wetcf 3 4 4 0 DSQ=(A(l.M:ZW(K)=A(4.K) 3 5 9 0 ZW(K+l)=A(4.7:PRINT STRINCt(70.Kc 3 2 8 0 GOT0 4 0 5 0 3290 ’ 3 3 0 0 ’ ScabroutiDe for display of "calculsting" 3310 ’ 3 3 2 0 I F FLAG15=0 T H E N LOCATE 20.K+l)-A(6.K)/COS(A(2O.K+l)-A(2.K)=A(6.K)=O T H E N W(K)=O:GOTO 3 7 8 0 ' suhucrgnd 3 7 7 0 WW(K)=ABS(H(K)/(A(2.K)=O T R E N A(lI.e.K+l)) 3 5 3 0 A(21.A7-31 3250 ’ ‘S 3260 FOR K=2 TO N:COSUB 3880:NEXT K 3 2 7 0 F O R X=1 To NlM:COSUB 3 8 9 0 : N E X T K ‘R.K)-A(6.K+l))~(A(1.K)=O:GOTO 3 5 2 0 'alphe 3 5 1 0 A(20.K)<A(6. 3 3 6 0 LOCATE 22.K)-A(6.K)=WAT*ABS(ZW(K)^2/COS(A(18.K))) 'hw 3 7 2 0 WH(K)=WAT*(A(P.K+l)-A(5.K+l)-A(2.K)+(A(2.K)-A(6.K)=O:NEXT K:NEXT J:RETURN 3400 ’ 3 4 1 0 ’ S&voutines for cslculstion of slice g-try 3420 ’ 3 4 3 0 I F A(4.K)=ATN((A(G.0 3380 FOR J=17 TO 39:FOR K= 1 TO N 3 3 9 0 A(J.K+l))*(A(l.K)-A(G.K) TREN Wtl(K)=-WR(K):GOTO 3 8 4 0 3 7 4 0 I F ZWT(K)>=O A N D ZWT(K+l)<=O TliEN 3 7 5 0 E L S E 3 7 9 0 'hWsi& i 3 7 5 0 UW(K)=WAT*ZWT(K)n2*(A(l.K))) 'hw 3 7 8 0 Wli(K)=WAT8ZWT(K)-2:GOTO 3 8 4 0 .K))/COS(A(18.K+~~-A(5.K)=O T H E N A(ZO.K)=O:RETURN ’ de1 ta 3 4 7 0 A(18.K)=A(5.7:PRINT STRINCt(70.K)=(A(6.7 3 3 7 0 P R I N T ” C A L C U L A T I N G “:COLOR 7.K)=.K)=WAT*(ZWT(K)+ZW(K)) 'PII 3 6 6 0 A(23. 3 7 0 0 WW(K)=WAT*(ZWT(K)+ZWT(K+l)) ' submerged 3 7 1 0 WW(K)=WW(K):ABS((A(l.P.n.K)-A(5.5*A(lO.K))”2 ‘d 3 4 5 0 I F DSQ=O THGN A(17.K+l)-A(l.K)=ATN((A(l.K)*A(2l.K+l)-A(2.28:COL.” “) 3 3 3 0 L O C A T E 22.K))):NRXT K 3 6 2 0 F O R K=l T O N:ZWT(K)=A(4. ” “) 3 3 4 0 L O C A T E 23.

K)=COS(PS(K+l))/A(3O. 0 4 3 0 0 I F FLAW=0 A N D ABS(ACC(P))>.0 4 2 6 0 P R I N T “ A c c e l e r a t i o n K c = “.K+l)) 4OGO A(33.7:COLQR 15.K)/COS(PS(K)) 3 9 5 0 A(32.K+1)-A(1.K)=A(33.K)*A(2l.NIM))/(22+A(32.7:COLOR 15 4320 PRINT “Large extrapolation plot of fos vs K suggested”.K)) 3 8 1 0 I F A(2.7:COLOR 15.K)*A(27.K)) 3 9 6 0 A(33.K)=A(33.27:PRINT USING “tt.K)*A(30. 4 2 7 0 LOCATE 22.K)+PS(K)-A(18.K+l)-A(2. 4 2 8 0 MCATE 22.K+l)-A(2.K+l)*SIN(PHALP(K)-A(l8.K) 3900 A(28.K)-A(23.K)=A(26.K):RETV?N 3 8 9 0 A(28.#t".NIM))/(22+A(32.l TREN 4 3 1 0 BtSR 4 3 4 0 4 3 1 0 LOCATE 23.NIM)) 4 1 7 0 Y=l/F:FS=l-ACC(l)*(l-Y)/(ACC(l)-ACC(P)):FOS=l/FS 4 1 8 0 F=FOS: FLAG8=1: GOT0 3080 4 1 9 0 FLAG8=O:FLA@l=O:FOR K=l To NW:GOSUB 4 8 1 0 : N E X T K 4 2 0 0 F O R K = l T O NIMGOSUB 4 8 4 0 : N R X T K 4 2 1 0 I F FLAG15=1 A N D M>=6 TRRN 4 2 2 0 E L S E 4 2 3 0 4 2 2 0 F=l:M=l:STATUt="e": FLAGG=l: FLAGl5=O:WTO 1950 4 2 3 0 LOCATE 22.K)SA(17.K)+TV(K))*SIN(PRALP(K)) 3 9 7 0 A(33.K)=(A(21.K)=A(33.K))-A(22.K):RETURN 4020 ’ 4 0 3 0 ’ Calculrtiao 0fKc sod RX 4040 ’ 4 0 5 0 WSUB 4 5 4 0 4 0 6 0 IF FLAG7=1 O R FLAGI= TRRN 4 0 9 0 4 0 7 0 I F F<>l T H E N 4 1 6 0 4 0 8 0 I F (22+A(32.K)=A(33.K)+A(29.K)+Tli(K)*COS(PRALP(K)) 3 9 8 0 A(33.O 4 2 5 0 LOCATE 22.e.K)=A(3O.K) 3 9 1 0 A(30.K)) 3 9 4 0 A(31.K)oCOS(PB(K)-A(2O.R.K)=COS(PB(K)-A(2O.l 4 1 4 0 I F F>5 THEN F=5 4 1 5 0 WTO 3 0 8 0 4 1 6 0 AW(2)=(23+A(33.K)=A(28.47:PRINT " F a c t o r o f s a f e t y = “.NZN)) 4 1 0 0 I F FLAG8=1 THEN 4 1 9 0 4 1 1 0 ACC=ACC(l):IF F L A G 7 = 1 TRRN 5 2 9 0 4 1 2 0 F=1+3.K)) 4 0 1 0 A(33.33*ACC(l) 4 1 3 0 I F F < = O THEN F=.K) 3 9 3 0 A(31.K)EOS(PB(K)) 3 9 9 0 A(33.28: PRINT ” * 'kw side i+l 'submerged ‘S ‘R ‘0 ‘c ‘P 'a ‘Xc 'RZS estimate ' norDfli stresses 4 2 4 0 W S U B 502O:LOCATK 22.K)SSIN(PRALP(K)-A(18.FOS.K)*COS(PB(K)-A(20.K)=A(31.K)/COS(A(2O.K)+A(28.K))) 3 8 3 0 WR(K)=-WAT:(2WT(K+I))n2 3 8 4 0 NEXT K:RRTURN 3850 ’ 3 8 6 0 ’ S~fautines for wlcdati~ ofS.K)*A(lS.p ad n 3870 ’ 3 8 8 0 A(29.K+l)) 3 9 2 0 A(30.K)*A(25.NU'f))=O TREN ACC(l)=O:WTO 4 2 3 0 4 0 9 0 ACC(1)=(23+A(33.8llt”.K)=A(33.ACC.K)-A(29.K)=A(24. .K)=A(30.66:PRINT U S I N G "8)I!.K)+PS(K+l)-A(18.O.:COLOR 7 .Al-32 3 7 9 0 I F ZWT(K)<=O A N D 2WT(K+l)>=O TRRN 3 8 0 0 ELSE 3 8 4 0 3 8 0 0 WW(K)=WAT*ZWT(K+l)-Z*(A(l. 4 2 9 0 WCATE 22.K)=O T H E N WU(K)=O:GGlQ 3 8 3 0 3 8 2 0 WW(K)=ABS(WW(K)/(A(2.

K)*A(l7.50:PRINT "solution unacceptable” COLOR 7.K):22=Z2+A(32.7:PRINT "print".12:COWR 0.7:PRINT "drain".7:PRINT "quit".G=O:FLAG3=O:J=1:K=1:t4=1:GOTO 1960 * ' Saboutin8 for whxdrtiao o/d * 21=1:22=0:23=0 FOR K=NlBl To 2 STKP-1 21=21~A(3l.3:COWR 0.1O:PRINT "2". 4660 WCATK 25.K-l)*Zl Z3=23+A(33.K) 4 8 2 0 A(35.K+l)*C05(A(18.46:COWR 0.K)=(A(34.7:PRINT "fos vs K”.K)-A(3.O:RKTURN 4 6 5 0 C O L O R 7.K)+A(26.35:PRINT "4". 4530 COWR 7.O:UXAT’E 25. 4690 COLOR 7.A7-33 4440 4450 4460 4470 4460 4490 4500 4510 4520 4530 4540 4550 4560 4570 4580 4590 4600 4610 4620 4410 StATU$="e":FLAG15=O:COSUB 4610 4 4 2 0 IF STATUt="e" mN 4440 4 4 3 0 FLAG6=l:STATU$="e":GOTO 1950 4330 4340 4350 4360 4370 4380 4390 4400 LOCATE 23.23:PRINT “ 3 ” .K)=A(36.K.52:PRINT “ 6 ” . 4670 COWR 7.S(A(18. 4680 LOCATE 25.K)+A(34.K) 483oRETuRN 4 8 4 0 A(36.K)-ACC~l)*A~32.K+1)*SIN(A(18. 4780 ' 4790 ' Subroutipc for wlwlrtimt of effsctiw naml rtramu 4800 ’ 4 8 1 0 A(34.0 PRINT "Negative effective no-1 stresses . 4700 WCATE 25. 4 7 1 0 COLOR 7.)-A(35. l*PRINT "1".&3iPRINT “7”. 4 7 2 0 L O C A T E 2 5 54.K)*A(3l.O:LOCATE 25.O:WCATE 25. WCATE 25.COWR 0 7.0 * ' cwtrd of rcrrcn displays .K)-A(23.7:PRINT "file".59:PRINT "to check fos”.0 IF FLAG4=0 TRRN 4410 ELSE WCATK 23. 4730 COWR 7.O:WCATR 25.:COlUR 7." LOCATE 23.O&AT6 25.37:COWR 0.K)) 4 8 6 0 A(36. 4 7 5 0 COLOR 7.K)=A(36.1+1)) 4850 A(36.7:COm 15. 4770 COLOR 7. ' Displu of fuoction key * LOCATE 25 .K+l)=A(33. ’ 4740 WCATB 25. 4640 LOCATE ~.44:PRlNT "5". I F FLAGIS= THEN 4 4 5 0 E L S E 4 4 6 0 FLAG21=1:FLAG3=O:FLAG19=O:GOTO 2 2 0 0 IF FLAG22=1 AND K=7 TREN 4470 ELSE 4480 PLAG23=1:FlAG3=O:FLAG22=O:GO’IO 1960 IF FLAG22=1 AN0 K>=ll TREN 4490 RLSE 4500 FLAG23=1: FUG3=0: FLAG22=O:GOTO 2200 ‘next pair 'previous page 'pmviotm pva FLK.K)=O.7:PRINT "calculate".PRINT “restart’.0:IACAT6 25.K)=A(21.72:COWR 0.25:COWR 0.65:COWR 0.El)*Zl:NKXT K:RETURN .7:PRINT "view". .70:PRINT “ 8 ” .K+L+1)) ’ iii*1 ’ Xi .K)+TY(K)+A(35.O:UXATE 25. 4760 LOCATE 25.K))*A(27.

2:PRINT "to terminate calculation press ".K)=(A(36.t#t8".~:".8".K)) A(38.K)=O:COlD 4970 IF K=l TNEN A(39.32:PRINT “act.Al-34 4870 4880 4890 4900 4910 4920 4930 4940 4950 4960 4970 4980 4990 5000 A(36.FS 5240 IF LKN(F$)=O THEN 5350 5250 IF F$=“O” THKN F$=".22:PRINT "F2".K)) A(36.K)=(A(36.K)=O:COTO 4970 'Ni 'Tsi 'sigma h A(39.7 5380 PRINT "print for vs K".K))/A(17.31:PRINT U S I N G “tt.K)*TAN(A(PO.1:PRINT "base stresses" 5030 LOCATE 20.” “).o.K)=A(36.htiw of acxekratiau I for diffwt safety fnctors 5120 5130 CLS:L=l:coSUB 1300 5140 LOCATE 3.44:PRINT "l/f.K)=A(36.X:INPUT " ".K)-A(22.X:PRINT USING "*t#tt.K)*SIN(A(2O.K)*A(25.K)=A(37.tt".l:PRINT "side stresses" Ml?ND=M+5:IF MBND<N TH6N 5050 ELSE MENO=N J=38:FOR K=M TO MEND-l:X=23+(10S(K-M)):Y=19 LOCATE Y.o.K)) A(36. K". 5 3 7 0 LOCATE 25.:LOCATE 25.K))/A(19.K)-A(23.K)/COS(A(20.0 5200 PRINT " in response to prompt for a new value".K)=(A(34.K)+A(34. 5190 COLOR 0.K)-A(22.19:PRINT "f.K)=A(36. 'sigma s 5020 LOCATE 19.X:I'RINT USING "##8X:.7:PRINT "?DiTRR".FL(L) 5280 FLAG7 = 1:OOTO 3080 5290 ACL(L)=ACC(l):L=L+l 5300 IF FLAG30=1 THEN 5510 5 3 1 0 L O C A T E Y.K)tSIN(A(18.0 5 3 9 0 IDCATE 25.K)tA(19.K)<O THKN FLAG4=1 RETURN * ' Subrwtibe for display ofmmel stresses .K)<O OR A(39.25:COLOR 0.0 .K):NKXT K J=39:FOR K=M TO MEND:X=18+(lOt(K-f4)):Y=20 5080 LOCATE Y.Ol" 5260 F=VAL(FS):FL(L)=F 5270 IDCATE Y.K) IF A(38.K)+A(22.42:PRINT USING "tlt.A(J. 5160 LOCATE 5.X:PRINT USXNC "I#.X:COLOR 0.K)EOS(PR(K))/COS(PRALP(K)) A(37. 0 5220 LOCATE Y.K)+A(24.7:PRINT ” 5230 LOCATE Y.6:COLOR 0.X:PRINT n 5360 USATE 25.7 5400 PRINT “return to display of slice data”::COLOR 7. 5170 LOCATE 5.K)*A(19.R) A(37.K))tA(25.3:PRINT "Fl".K)-A(24.K):~XT K 5090 RETURN 5100 5110 ' &ka.K)=0 TRRN A(39.K))*COS(A(20. :COLOR 7 .ttCt".K!) A(36. 5210 Y=7:X=18 “.K) IF A(17.s":PRINT 5180 locATE 25.ACC(l) K” 5320 UXATE Y.Wtt”.13:PRINT "plot of factor of safety versus acceleration 5150 LOCATE 5.2:PRINT STRINCt(78.l/F 5330 Y=Y+l:IF Y=24 THEN Y=7 5340 FLAG7 = 0:GOlU 5220 n 5350 FIN=L:U)CATE Y.:COIDR 7.K)=A(36.:COLOR 7.:UXATK 25.A(J.

5 7 6 0 LPRINT TAB(23) WATER: Xl-l: X2=N 5 7 7 0 IF X2>6 TREN X2=X1+5 5 7 8 0 Tl-20: LPRINT: LPRINT “Side mmber”. : LPRINT USING “tt”. K”.74:CGWR 0. 5 8 0 0 Tl=Tl+lO:NEXT X:X3=X2 5 8 1 0 IF X2=N THBN LPRINT 5 8 2 0 Tl-16:LPRINT “Coordinate xt”. 5650 LPRINT TAB(43) USIRG “#8.o.Al-35 5 4 1 0 LGCATE 25.X.59:PRINT “F3”.s”. 5 7 9 0 FOR X=X1 TC X2: LPRINT TAB(T1). “. 5610 LPRINT TAB(44) “l/fos”:LPRINT 5620 FOR L= 1 TO FIN-l 5630 LPRINT TAB(l8) USING “tt. ” .ACL(L). 5640 LPRINT TAB(31) USING “M. 5580 LPRINT TAB(38) “versus acceleration K” 5590 LPRINT:LPRINT TAB(19) “f. 5930 Tl=Tl+lO: NEXT X 5 9 4 0 IF X2=N TIIEN LPRINT .62:CGWR 0 .FL(L). 5910 IF X2=N TREN X3=N-1 ELSE X3=X2 5 9 2 0 FOR X=X1 To X3:LPRINT TAB(Tl). :LPRINT TITLES 5570 LPRINT TAB(13) “Plot of factor of safety”.:J=l:GGSUB 6220 5 8 3 0 T1=16:LPRINT “Coordinate yt”. : J=4:GCSUB 6220 5 8 6 0 T1=16:LPRINT “Coordinate xb”::J=5:coSUB 6220 5 8 7 0 T1=16: LPRINT “Coordinate yb”.O:FLAG16=0 5 4 5 0 G$=INKIM: I F G$=” ” TRBN 5 4 5 0 546OIFG$= “ a ” THEN GOSUB 555O:COl’Q 5 4 5 0 5 4 7 0 I F Qt = “ b ” TREN 5 5 0 0 548OIFGS= “C” TRBN 390 5490 IF OS = “d” TREN 6980 ELSE 5450 5500 F= 1: FLAGJO= 1: COT0 5280 5510 FLACSO=O: FLAG7=O:STATU$=“c”: FLAG6=1: F=l:M=l:GGl’C 1950 5520 ’ 5 5 3 0 ’ SdwoutiDe for printing /as vs I 5540 ’ 5550 LPRINT: LPRIRT: LPRINT: LPRINT 5560 LPRINT TAB( 13) “Analysis no. : J=8:GGSUB 6220 5 9 0 0 T1=25: LPRINT: LPRINT “Slice nwber”.:J=2:GOSUB 6220 5 8 4 0 Tl-16:LPRINT “Coordinate xw”. 0 5430 LOCATE 25.:LPRINT USING “tg”. 7 5 4 2 0 PRIRT “restart”.:LGCATK 25. 5600 LPRINT TAB(32) “act. : LOCATE 25.7l:PRINT “F4”.:J=3:ooSUB 6220 5 8 5 0 T1=16: LPRINT “Coordinate yu”. : J=7:GGSUB 6220 5 8 9 0 T1=16: LPRINT “Cohesion”. :CGWR 7.X. : LPRINT TAB( 14) TITLES 5 7 5 0 LPRINT:LPRINT “Unit weight of water =“.#ttt”. : J”6:GGSUB 6220 5 8 8 0 T1=16: LPRINT “Friction angle”.:CGWR 7 .8tt#“.t#tt”.7 5440 PRINT “quit “.l/FL(L):NEXT L 5660 LPRINT: LI’RINT: LPRIRT: LPRINT 567ORETURN !5680’ 5 6 9 0 ' Sdwwtipe for printing army ad nwdtr 5700 5 7 1 0 PREVJ=J: PRRVK=K: PREVM=M: FLAGlQ=O 5 7 2 0 LPRINT: LPRINT: LPRINT: LPRINT: LPRINT: LPRINT 5 7 3 0 LPRINT TAB(23) “SAMA NON-VERTICAL SLICE AKALYSIS”: LPRINT 5 7 4 0 LPRINT “Analysis no.

K).A(j.K))>99999! OR AIEi(A(J.:LPRINT USING "tt. 6 1 2 0 LPRINT TAB(47) “Factor of Safety = ".r:".:LPRINT USING "tl.l:PRINT STRIRGS(80.:J=15:GOSUB 6220 5 9 9 0 T1=21:LPRINT "Angle thcta".tt^*^““. solution unacceptable":GDTO 6200 6160 LPRIR'T TAB(45) "6170 IF FLAcQ=O AND ABS(ACC(2))<.TITL8S:PRIRTt2.:J=lO:GGSUB 6220 5960 Tl=21:LPRINT "Friction angle".Al-36 5 9 5 0 T1=21:LPRINT “Rock unit might".WATKR 6 3 7 0 WRITtW2.K)=O TRRN 6260 6250 IF ABS(A(J.DAT":PRINT:PRIRT STRINGS(80.ACC.pOS:CLosRM 6 4 2 0 ’ GMiwl disphyofg~try 6430 ’ K 6400 FLAG6=1:STATU$=*e":F=l:M=l:FLAG17=O:GGT0 1950 6410 ' 6440 SCRKBN 1.K).plot of fos".45):PRINT 6340 INPUT “Enter filemme (without extension): ".:J=12:GGSllB 6220 5 9 6 0 T1=21:IPRINT "Force T". "ct:#tt#.A(J.:RBTURN 6270 IPRINT USING “It~.FIAC2:WRITB~2.1 Tl4EN 6200 6180 LPRINT TAIt(7) "Large extrapolation .~:wRXTH12.K))<8.999999K-03 TRl?N 6270 6260 LPRINT USIm.tltt'.1:XA=O:XB=O:YA=O:YB=O 6450 JMIN=I:J?JIAX=~:DJ=~:K?~IN=~:KMAX=N 6460 DK=N-l:OOSUB 683O:XMIN=MIN 6470 JMIN=l:JMAX=5:DJ=2:KJUN=1:KMAX=N 6480 Dlt=N-1:GOSUR 691O:XMAX=MAX 'win x ‘llLyX .FILBS 6350 OP8N "A:"+FIIJIS+".K):NRXT J:NRXT 6 3 9 0 ~I~~. 6 1 1 0 [PRINT TM(27).It". 6330 PRINT:FILBs "A:SARMA*. 6 1 3 0 LPRINT TA8(66). FLAG3:WRITEtP.ACC(2):wRITB12.FLAG4 6380 FOR K=l TO N:WR J=l TG 39:WRITK82.l:COIGR 8. 6190 LPRINT TA8(44) "VB K suggested to check fos" 6200 J=PRRVJ-1: K=PRWK:M=PRgW 6 2 1 0 LPRINT:LPRINT:LPRINT:RKTURN 6220 FOR K=Xl TC X3:LPRINT TAB(Tl).:J=ll:GGSUR 6220 5 9 7 0 T1=2l:LPRINT "Cohesion".FGS 6 1 4 0 IF FLAG4=0 TH8N 6170 6 1 5 0 LPRINT TAB(7) “Negativt effective normal stressm”.:J=39:GGSlJR 622O:LPRIRT:LPRINT 6 0 3 0 IF X2=N TNBN 6100 6 0 4 0 IF X2<N TREN X1=X1+6:X2-N 6 0 5 0 I F X2<X1+5 THEN 6060 E L S E X2=X1+5 6 0 6 0 IF X1=13 OR X1=27 TREN 6080 6 0 7 0 LPRINT:LPRINT:GGTC 5780 6 0 8 0 IpRINT:IpRIHT:LpRINT:LpRINT:LpRINT 6 0 9 0 LPRINT:LPRINT:LPRINT:LPRINT:GGIG 5780 6 1 0 0 LPRINT TAB(7) "Acceleration Kc = ".DAT" FOR ODTPUT AS #2 6360 PRINT82.:GGSUB 6240 6230 Tl=Tl+lO:NKXT K:LPRINT:RRTDRN 6240 IF A(J.45) 6320 PRINT:PRINT "Same data files on disk I.A(J.:J=38:GGSUB 6220 6 0 2 0 T1=16:LPRIRT "Side".N:WRITRI2.:RETURN 6260 ’ 6 2 9 0 ’ Stem of deta (IO disk file 6300 ’ 6310 CLS:lL-lCATE 8.:J=16:GGSUB 6220:LPRINT 6 0 0 0 LPRINT "Effective not-ml stresses " 6 0 1 0 T1=21:LPRINT "Base".

O.K+l)-XMIN)*SC:YB=LNY-(A(2.3 6650 XA=(A(5.K) THEN MIN=A(J.YA)-(XB.K)-XMIN)SSC:YA=LNY-(A(4.K)~Y?UN)*SC 6700 LINE (XA.O:WIDTK 80 6810 STATU$="e": FLAG6=1: F=l:M=l:COTO 1950 6920 ' 6 8 3 0 ’ Sdwvutine to /i&MN ia raa@? 6040 ' ‘center plot ‘top surface 'failure surface 'slica sides 'water surface 'ntb slice side 'reset screen ’ return 6850 6860 6870 6880 6890 MIN=A(JMIN.K+l)-W'lIN)*SC 6640 LINE (XA.K)-XWN)*SC:YA=LNY-(A(6. 6790 IF LEN(INKEYS)=O THEN 6790 6800 FLAG27=0:SCREEN O.K)~WIN)*SC 6630 XB=(A(l.K)~YMIN)*SC 666D XB=(A(5.YA)-(XB.K) NBXT K:NBXT J:ReTuRN 6900 ' 6910 ' S&woutime to find&U in raage 6920 ' 6950 ?WR K=KbfIN TD KMAX STEP DK 6930 MAX=A(MIN.N)-XMIN)*SC:YA=lNY-(A(2.YBl.9:PRINT "press any key to return".YA)-(XB.K)-YMIN)*SC 6690 XB=(A(5.K) THEN MAX=A(J.3 6710 XA=(A(B.iB).K)-XJdIN)$SC:YA=LNY-(A(P.YBj.YB).K+l)-YMIN)*SC 6670 LINE (XA.l 6740 NEXT K 6750 XA=(A(l.lWIN) 6940 FORJ=JHIN TOJMAX STEP DJ 6960 IF MAX<A(J.K)~YMIN)*SC 6720 XB=~AI3.YA)-(XB.A7-37 6 4 9 0 JMIN=2:JMAX=6:DJ=2:KMIN=l:KMAX=N 6500 6510 6520 6530 6540 DK=l:GOSUB 6830:YMIN=MIN JMIN=2:JMAX=6:DJ=2:I[MIN=l:KMAX=N DK=l:COSUB 691O:WAX=MAX XSC=27O/(X?4AX-XMIN):YSC=16O/(Y?4AX-YMIN) IF XSC<YSC TREN 6560 'Din y '-=Y 'scale factor 6550 sc=Ysc:Gom 6570 6560 sc=xsc 6570 LNY=199 6580 XADJ=(319/SC-(X?dAX-XMIN))/2 6590 YADJ=(199/SC-(YHAX-YMIN))/2 6600 XMIN=XMIN-XADJ:YMIN=YMIN-YADJ 6610 FOR K=l To N-l 6620 XA=(A(l.N)~YMIN)*SC 6760 XB=(A(5.K) 6970 NEXT K:N'EXT J:RRTURN 6980 CIS:EN-D .K+l)-XMIN)SSC:YB=LNY-(A(G.3 6780 LOCATE 25.K+l)-XMIN)*SC:YB=LNY-(A(4.K)-XMIN)SSC:YA=LNY-(A(2.XMIN) MR J=JMIN TO JMAX STEP DJ FOR K=KMIN TO KMAX STEP DK IF MIN>A(J.K+l)-Y?4IN)*SC 6 7 3 0 LIti iXi.YAj-(XB.N)-XMIN)*SC:YB=LNY-(A(6.K)-X?dIN)*SC:YB=LNY-(A(6.YBl.3 6680 XA=(A(l.N)~Y?dIN)*SC 6770 LINE (XA.

.

analysis and stabilization Wedge failure snalysls Circular f a i l u r e a n a l y s i s Toppling failure analysis Blast design Design of controlled blasting pattern Control of dmage from blast vibrations Plotting and interpretation of movement monitoring results 2 9 14 16 16 19 20 25 26 29 31 52 33 54 v: Pratt‘icm V I : Practicun VI I : Practice V I I I : Practicun IX: Practicun X: Practicun Xl : Practicun Xl I: Practicun XIII: Practicun XIV: .A8-1 Appendix 8 LIST OF PRMTICUMS Prsct icun I : Practicun II: Practicun III: Practlcm I V : Pratt~ICun Stereo plots of structural geology data Stability evaluation related to structural 9=logy Analysis of direct shear strength test rosul ts Analysis of point load tort results Influence of geology and weather conditions on groundwater levels Calculation of permeability from falllng head test resu Its Plane failure .

(b) (c) (d) (e) (f) . Determine the angle between the mean poles with the steepest and shal l o w e s t d i p s . Draw great circles of the three mean poles on a separate piece of tracing paper. Estimate and plot the position of the mean pole of each set of fractures. Determine the maximum concentration of each set of poles using the Denness t y p e B c e l l c o u n t i n g n e t . Determine the dip and trend of the I ine of intersection between t h e Joint s e t s w i t h t h e s t e e p e s t a n d i n t e r m e d i a t e d i p a n g l e s .A8-2 PRACTICWf I Stereo plots of structural geology data Given: A structural geology mapping program for a proposed highway produced the following results for the orientation of the fractures (format-diD/dio direction). 40/080 45/090 20/ 160 80/3 10 83/3 12 82/305 23/l 75 4UO78 37/083 20/ 150 21/151 39/074 70/300 75/305 15/180 80/O 10 31/081 Requ i r‘0d: (a) Plot the orientation of each fracture as a pole on a stereo-net using the equal area net and tracing paper provided.

5 poles out of 17 poles * 291 Set 3 .6 in the manual.781305 s e t 2 .24s A computer plot of this data is shown in Figures I-Za. The nunber of divisions on this great circle is 94 degrees as shown by the dotted I ine on Figure l-l.20/163 T h e r e i s o n e p o l e (80/010) t h a t d o e s n o t b e l o n g t o a n y o f t h e three fracture sets. s e t I . (cl The maximum concentration of each set of poles Is found using Figure 3.4 poles out of 17 poles . The great circles of the three mean poles are plotted on Figure 1-3.241 set 2 .4 poles out of 17 poles . The dip and trend of the line of intersection of joint sets I and 2 is also shown on Figure l-3. b. (a) (b) The poles of the 17 planes are plotted on Figure l-l which shows that there are three sets of fractures.S O L U T I O N Stereo plots of structural geology data Methods of plotting stereo plots are described in Chapter 3 of the manua I. The values are as follows: = 27’ Dip.029’ (e) (f) . (d) The angles between the mean poles of joint sets 1 and 3 is determined by rotating the stereo-net until both mean poles I ie on the same great circle. c. The mean pole of each of the three fracture sets Is as follows: Set 1 . li Dip direction.aCi .A8-3 PRKTICW I .40/081 set 3 .

1: Plot of poles of structural mapping data.II l Poles (17) OHcan p o l e o f s e t 180 I Figure 1.A8-4 Practicum 1 .Solution N 0 Stereoplot I 20/163 l 0 l Q l --. . \ \ ‘y \ \ -90 .

bb 5.16 b1.00 ..SQ 70. .00 1on.b5 0.10 0.00 o..bI ll.00 17.71 70.00 0.00 0..I OF TM POLE lkGLES .76 ?3*53 11.00 0.59 70.16 Ll.Solution Stcreoplots F i g u r e I.00 O*Ol! 0.59 70. .. . .59 tn.b5 11.b5 29.10 rl.l7 oa.5Q 7o.82 7ni59 70. .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.Ib S.00 0. . ..54 7b.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 : 1 1 4 7 7 7 7 7 7 b 10 10 12 t: 12 I2 12 if t: 1: I3 lb 2 I7 I7 17 Practicum I .bb 5. .00 0.bl :: . .00 0.Ob W..00 0.90 b1.8b 17.. :: M 31:: .59 es.00 0.@b 5.FCntUAL MlG*mAY ..A L L U&l4 ~ISTOGUAMS .b2 Il.lb 0.lb 47.50 70.bS Il. rRAvERSt . .. 5 9 11 11 12 IS I7 0.59 70. ..01 I.Za .00 17. O F POLCI CU*uLATlvt .00 0.G E O L O G Y DAlb.w 70.on S.lb 11.71 bq.00 0.00 l7.bb 0..b8 S.24 100.00 5. NU*l+tD OF PUCES 0 2’ : 0 : 2 .A84 l **STLREU*** I302158bO .5P 70.00 0. O F POLES PLRCc*l 0.on 100. .53 rl. cUwLlTlVE PERCENT S.bS 17.7b 0.60 17.*.7b .a.00 0.*.. R&WC (DCGRtLYl o:t 31 N :: bl 719 bl10 2u JO au 50 :i b0 90 . ..b5 5.b8 23. . E I P -oluEClIn~ RANGE w*sta PLWCL kl (OLGRZL 8) O F COLE8 OP 101&L NO.00 100. .00 5.41 52. .91 101 111 121 131 151 111 Ibl 171 lb1 I91 201 211 221 231 2bl 251 2bl 271 201 291 301 311 321 331 341 351 - 10 20 30 eo b0 so 70 b0 I:: 110 120 130 140 lb0 150 170 180 LOO 200 210 220 230 ZIO 250 2bO 270 PI0 290 300 310 wo 330 3ru 350 3bO 1 00 0 0 i 3 0 0 0 0 0 : 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 : 1 n 0 0 0 5.lb 01.12 1on.7b 0.00 ll. 0 I P PENthI CU*uLITIvE CIJ*lJLATlVt (lf TOT&L *O.00 100..59 70.

.2b .. . .b. h I : Practicum I . x . .Y IU*lIr. . I .M-6 X X X X .Solution Stereoplots F i g u r e I. . .I. .d.. 5-9 r-t 1 PoLt z 1 (I 5. . . x L I . . n x I . X . X X 1 . l . I .

-... .. .*hNhh*-. . . *..rx . . . I . . . OEMallr CONTOUll Lf VLLI WClCENI 1 1 5 . .-.. .- 1 I .. ..Solution Stereoplots F i g u r e 1. .. . . .X X I I x * x II ...2~ . . . . Practicum I . . . I : a I I fOklGU* ?LOl ~Ontn r~*J8CrLlt COUAL AWEA P00JtC110k 10 l I5 2 0 *AI . ... . .*+-.. --..h ..--**-9. . . .-0.

3: Great circles of mean poles.Solution 0 N Stereoplots 270 - Figure 1.A8-8 Practicum 1 . . .

HRT-10/989(1MW .

.

.

.

.

1 0.01 Exceptionally Poor Extremely Poor Very Poor Poor Fair Good Very Good Extremely Good Exceptionally Good 0.A9-9 TABLE 2 (Continued) ROCK MASS CLASSES OETERMINED FROM TUNNELLING QUALITY INDEX (9) Description Less than 0.01 to 0.1 to 1 1 to 4 4 to 10 10 to 40 40 to 100 100 to 400 More than 400 (IU.S.GOVERNMENT P R I N T I N G OFFICEal969-717-180/10641 .

and the stability will then depend on the rock-stress/rock-strength. less favourably oriented joint set or dlscontlnuity may sometimes be more significant.. then a second. if there are few "joints" vfsible. The value of Jr/Ja should in fact relate to the surface most likely to allow failure to initiate. Mild squeezing rock pressure Heavy squeezing rock pressure d) Swelling rock. the factor SRF appropriate to loosenjng loads should be evaluated.A9-8 TABLE 2 (Continued) NGI CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM cl Squeezjng rock. schlstosity. A simple relation can be used to convert this number to RQD for the case of clay free rock masses: ROD = 115 . However. when jointing is minlmal and clay is completely absent the strength of the intact rock may become the weakest link. The compressive and tensile strengths (@and fit 1 of the intact rock should be evaluated in the saturated condition If this $s approprjate to present or future In situ conditjons. chemical swelling activity dependlng on presence of water P. plastic flow of incompetent rock under the influence of high rock pressure.) is favourably oriented for stability. A strongly anlsotropic stress field Is unfavourable for stability and is roughly accounted for as In note 2 in the table for stress reduction factor evaluation. these parallel "joints" should obviously be counted as a complete joint set. If strongly developed. When borehole core is unavailable. 4. . then it will be more appropriate to count them as "random joints" when evaluating J. the strength of the intact rock is of llttle interest. and its higher value of Jr/Ja should be used when evaluatlng 0.5) The parameter Jn representing the number of joint sets will often be affected by follat$on.1 where Jv = total number of joints per n? (RQD = 100 for Jv ( 4. 3. fn addition to the notes listed in the tables: 1. in which the number of joints per metre for each joint set are added. R. The parameters Jr and Ja (representing shear strength) should be relevent to the weakest significant jofnt set or clay filled discontinuity in the given zone. However. slaty cleavage or bedding etc.3. When a rock mass contains clay. 2. In such cases. A very conservative estimate of strength should be made for those rocks that deteriorate when exposed to moist or saturated conditions. 5. However. ROD can be estimated from the number of joints per unit volune. or only occasional breaks in the core due to these features. Mild swelling rock pressure Heavy swellfng rock pressure SRF 10-20 5-10 10-20 5-10 ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE USE OF THESE TABLES When making esthnates of the rock mass qualjty (QI the following guidelines should be followed. if the joint set or discontinuity with the minimum value of (Jr/J.3Jv (approx.

(depth of excavation > 50 ml Loose open joints. Special problems caused by ice formation are not considered.66-0. 200-10 13-0.5 5.0 2. E. Mediun inflow or pressure.80.5 J.6~~ and 0. M. (depth of excavation < 50 m) Single shear zones In corrpetent rock (clay free).1 > 10 > 10 F.A9-7 TABLE 2 (Continued) NGI CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 5 . considerable outwash of fillings Exceptionally high inflow or pressure at blasting. 1. or chemically disintegrated rock (excavation depth ) 50 ml Multiple shear zones in competent rock (clay free). < 5 lit/min. For strongly anjsotropic virgin stress field (If measured): when Ss@/Q. near surface Medi tan stress High stress. occasional outwash of joint fillings Large inflow or high pressure in competent rock with unfilled joints Large inflow or high pressure. B.33-0.2 . i.5 7.05 al Weakness zones are intersecting excavation.16 10-20 L.0. or chemically disintegrated rock (excavation depth < 50 I) Single weakness zones containing clay. JOINT WATER REDUCTION FACTOR Dry excavations or minor inflow.2. Multiple occurrences of weakness tones contalnlng clay or chemically disintegrated rock.5-2 5-2. 0. may be unfavourable for wall stability Mild rock burst (massive rock) Heavy rock burst (massive rock) >2Ocl >13 2. G. . 6. Few case records available where depth of crown below surface is less than span width. are the major and minor principal stresses.1 .unconffned compressive strength. reduce 0. 0. Reduce these values of SRF B‘. 5.0 2. heavily jointed or 'sugar cube' (any depth) b.5 < 0. and Cr.0 0. and Cr.e.5 0.10.5 1. locally.0 2. Low stress. reduce cr. by 25 .66 approx. Factors C to F are crude estimates. When a. Conpetent rock.0 5.5 2.33 0. very tight structure (usually favourable to stability. rock stress problems SRF 10.5 . but do not intersect the excavation. D.50% If the relevent shear zones only influence.33 0. 10-5 0. and c7 to 0.0 2. F.5 to 5 for such cases (see Hl.6af . and Or to 0. Exceptionally high inflow or pressure continuing without decay STRESS REDUCTION FACTOR JW 1.& > 10. Increase Jw If drainage measures are installed. wA ere 0= . very loose surrounding rock (any depth) Single weakness zones containing clay. = tensile strength (point load1 and Cr. 3. 0.0 .0 1. A . C .16 5-10 < 2. E. loose surroundjng rock (any depth) Single shear zones in competent rock (clay free). Suggest SRF Increase from 2. K.5 . I 10.0 2. .5 0. which may cause loosening of rock mass when tunnel Is excavated.0 SRF H . water pressure (Kgf/cm21 ( 1.0.10.66 1. C.80. A . to 0. decaying with time.

A.0 2: ( 6.0 (20° . 0 . 1 0..0 (12O .20. 4.0 13. H.e.13. Rock wall contact. silty-.25’) E.0 .24’) 0.1 0. 1. talc. Values of Or.16. If present.1 5.24'1 H.or sandy-clay. or sandy-clay coatings.. Ja Qr( apprOx. clay-free dlslntegrated rock.1 J.0 (25’ .24. Zones or bands of silty. < 5 IIR thick). and small uantltlcs of swellfng clays.e. JOINT ALTERATION NUMBER a. montmori1lonlte (continuous.12. small clay fraction.0 (25’ . 6. (non-softening).0 ( 6’ . clay-free dlslntegrated rock.1 1. Swelling clay fllllngs. etc. 9Discontinuous coatings. K. < 5 111 thtck). and access to water. F. l-2 111 or less in thlckness. nonsoftening. . clay mineral fillings (continuous. etc.0 . w. bands of clay (see 6. . continuous zones or P. Also chlorite. Zones or bands of dlslnte rated or crushed rock and clay 9see 6. nonsoftenlng clay mineral fllllngs (continuous.0 ( 6’ .75 B.0 .A9-6 TABLE 2 (Continued) NGI CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 9. c) No rock wall contact when sheared. Tightly healed.0 (16' . the residual friction angle. gypsuu and graphite. I. 1.0 ( 8’ .1 8. are jntended as an apprc+ xlmate guide to the mineralogical properties of the alteration products. Kaollnlte. mica. s-11 cl -fractjon (nonsoftening Y Softenlng or low friction clay mineral coatings.0 (25O .16’) 4. and R. C. Values of Ja depend on percent of swelling clay-sire partlcles.35.30. surface staining only Slightly altered jolnt walls nonsoftening mineral coatjngs.0 10. 8 . 8. sandy particles. < 5 nm~ thick). 2.1 b) Rock wall contact before 10 ems shear.12. J for clay conditlonsl.2. 3. Medium or low over-consolidation softenfng. I. Impermeable filling Unaltered joint walls. Thick. Sandy particles. hard. w. etc. Strongly over-consolidated.30°) 6. H and J for clay conditions).

A9-5

TABLE 2 NGI CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM Description 1. A. B. C. D. E. ROCK QUALITY DESIGNATION Very Poor Poor Fair Good Excellent JOINT SET NUMBER Massive, no or few joints One joint set One joint set plus random Two joint sets Two joint sets plus random Three joint sets Three joint sets plus random Four or more joint sets, random, heavily jointed'sugar cube', etc. Crushed rock, earthlike JOINT ROUGHNESS NUMBER a) Rock wall contact and bl Rock wall contact before 10 ems shear. A. B. Discontinuous joints Rough or irregular, undulating Smooth, undulating Slickensided. undulating Rough or irregular, planar Smooth, planar Slickensided, planar c) No rock wall contact when sheared. H. Zone containing clay minerals thick enough to prevent rock wall contact. Sandy, gravelly or crushed zone thick enough to prevent rock wall contact 4 Value W Notes

0 - 25 25 - 50 50 - 75 75 - 90
90 - 100 Jn

1.

Where ROD is reported or measured as < 10 (including 01. a norninal value zf 10 is used to evaluate Q. ROD intervals of 5, i.e. 100, 95, 90, etc., are sufficiently accurate.

2.

2.
A. B.

0.5 - 1 . 0 2 3
4

C.
D. E. F. G. H.

6
9 12 15

1. 2.

For intersections use 13.0 x Jn) For portals use (2.0 x Jn) ..

J. 3.

20
Jr

3 2
1.5 1.5

C.
D. E. F. G.

1.

Add 1.0 if the mean spacing of the relevant joint set is greater than

3 Ill.

1.0 0.5

2. Jr = 0.5 can be used for planar, slickensided joints having lineations provided the lineations are orientated for minimum strength.

1.0

J.

1.0

A+4

A.

T A B L E I - CSIR GEOMECHANICS CLASSIFICATION OF JOINTED ROCK MASSES ausr- MRAMETERS YSD THEIR RATIWOS

B. RATING ADJUSTMENT FOR JOINT ORIENTATIONS Strllu and dlD Vary fovourobk Fovourobh orlmlatlmr d pntr
funnlr
ROlngS

Fotr -5 - 7 -25

lJnfovowobk -IO -I5 -50

vwy lmhaumble - 12 - 25 -60 4

0 0 0

-2 -2 -5

Fomdotims
SlOp8I

1

C. ROCK MASS CLASSES DETERMINED FROM TOTAL RATINGS ROhng boo- 41 00-61 W-681
Cal No
DOU~lptlO~

40-21 IV
Pea mCk

(20
V Vwy w rock

I vwy qmd rock

II bmdrak

III Fotr rock

A9-3

the orientations of many types of excavation can be, and normally are, adjusted to avoid the maximum effect of unfavorably oriented major joints. However, this choice is not available in the case of tunnels, and more than half the case records were in this category. The parameters Jn, Jr and Ja appear to play a more important general role than orientation, because the number of joint sets determines the degree of freedom for block movement (if any), and the frictional and dilational characteristics can vary more than the down-dip gravitational component of unfavorably oriented joints. If joint orientation had been I nc I uded, the classification would have been less general, and its e s s e n t i a l s i m p l i c i t y IosV. The general relationship of qualitative rock classes to the value of Q are presented on Table 2.

A9-2

several times this size and the smallest fragments less than half the size. (Clay particles are of course excluded.) The second quotient (Jr/Ja) represents the roughness and f r i c t i o n a l characteristics o f t h e j o i n t wal I s o r f i I I i n g materials. This quotient is weighted in favor of rough, unaltered joints in direct contact. It is to be expected that such surfaces wi I I be close to peak strength, and that they will therefore be especially favorable to tunnel stabi I ity. When rock joints have thin clay mineral coatings and fillings, the strength is reduced significantly. Nevertheless, rock wall contact after small shear displacements have occurred may be a very important factor for preserving the excavation frcm ultimate failure. Where no rock wal I contact exists, the conditions are extremely unfavorable to t u n n e l s t a b i l i t y . T h e “ f r i c t i o n angles” g i v e n i n T a b l e 2 are slightly below the residual strength values for most clays, and are possibly downgraded by the fact that these clay bands or fillings may tend to consolidate during shear, at least if normally consolidated or if softening and swelling has occurred. The swel I ing pressure of montmorlllonlte may also be a factor here. T h e t h l r d q u o t i e n t (Jw/SRF) c o n s i s t s o f t w o s t r e s s p a r a meters. SRF Is a measure of: (1) l o o s e n i n g l o a d i n t h e c a s e o f a n e x c a v a t i o n t h r o u g h shear zones and clay bearing rock, (2) rock stress in competent rock, and (3) squeezing loads in plastic incompetent rocks. It can be regarded as a total stress parameter. The parameter Jw is a measure of water pressure, which has an adverse effect on the shear strength of joints due to a reduction in effective normal stress. Water may, in addition, cause softening and possible outwash in the case of clayf i l l e d j o i n t s . It has proved impossible to combine these t w o p a r a m e t e r s i n t e r m s o f i n t e r b l o c k e f f e c t i v e norma. stress, because paradoxically a high value of effective normal stress may scnnetimes signify less stable conditions than a low value, despite the higher shear strength. The q u o t i e n t (Jw/SRF) i s a c o m p l i c a t e d e m p i r i c a l f a c t o r descri bing the “active stresses”. It appears that the rock tunnel I ing qua1 ity Q can now be considered as a function of only three parameters which are crude measures of: (1) b l o c k s i z e (RQD/Jn) (2) i n t e r b l o c k s h e a r s t r e n g t h (Jr/Ja) (3) a c t i v e s t r e s s (Jw/SRF) Undoubtedly, there qne several other parameters which could be added to improve the accuracy of the classification system. One o f t h e s e w o u l d b e j o i n t o r i e n t a t i o n . A l t h o u g h many case records include the necessary information on structural orientation in relation to excavation axis, it was not found to be the important general parameter that might be expected. Part of the reason for this may be that

A9-1

Append ix 9

Rock mass classif ication systems

Introduction Rock mass classification systems have been developed in order to relate the performance of excavations made in different rock These empirical systems quantify those factors which masses. affect the performance of rock which are then combined to produce a rating number. The relationship between this rating nunber and the strength of the rock mass is given in Table IV on page 5.26. The two most widely used classification systems are those developed by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) i n S o u t h A f r i c a a n d t h e N o r w e g i a n G e o t e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t e These systems are described on the following pages: (NGI). CSIR C l a s s i f i c a t i o n T h e CSIR G e o m e c h a n i c s C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r j o i n t e d r o c k m a s s e s , by Bieniawski, considers the strength of the intact rock, RQD, joint condition, and groundwater conditions. It recognizes t h a t e a c h p a r a m e t e r d o e s n o t necessari l y c o n t r i b u t e e q u a I l y t o the behavior of the rock mass. Bieniawski therefore applied a A number of series of importance ratings to his parameters. points or a rating is allocated to each range of values for e a c h p a r a m e t e r a n d a n overal I r a t i n g f o r t h e r o c k m a s s i s a r rived at by adding the ratings for each of the parameters. T a b l e 1 p r e s e n t s t h e CSIR s y s t e m i n c l u d i n g t h e r a t i n g a d j u s t m e n t f o r j o i n t o r i e n t a t i o n ( P a r t 6) a n d q u a l i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r e a c h r o c k c l a s s ( P a r t C). I n a p p l y i n g d a t a t o t h e CSIR s y s t e m , t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a m e t e r classifications are used: Intact rock strength Joint spacing Effect of joint orientations NGI Classification Barton, Lien and Lunde of the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) p r o p o s e d a n i n d e x (Q) f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e tunnelling q u a l i t y o f a r o c k m a s s f r o m a n e v a l u a t i o n o f a l a r g e The numerical value of this index Q nunber of case histories. is defined by: Q=exJrxJw Jn 75 SRF and the definition of these parameters is presented in Table 2. In explaining how they arrived at the equation used to determ i n e t h e i n d e x Q, B a r t o n , L i e n a n d L u n d e o f f e r t h e f o l l o w i n g comments: “The f i r s t q u o t i e n t (RQD/Jn), r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e r o c k m a s s , i s a c r u d e m e a s u r e o f t h e b l o c k o r p a r t i t le s i z e , w i t h t h e t w o e x t r e m e v a l u e s (loo/O.5 a n d lo/201 d i f If the quotient is interpreted fering by a factor of 400. i n u n i t s o f c e n t i m e t e r s , t h e e x t r e m e “ p a r t i c l e sizes” o f 200 to 0.5 cm are seen to be crude but fairly realistic Probably the largest blocks should be approximations.

AB-35

Y m

c

/

2

4

6 Time

8

10

12

14

(months)

F i g u r e m.1:

Slope movement monitoring.

A8-34

PRACTICUM XIV Plotting and interpreting movement monitoring results

In order to obtain a warning of failure of a potentially unstable slope, a surface movement monitoring system has been set up using EDM equ i pment. T h e d i s t a n c e s b e t w e e n t h e b a s e s t a t i o n a n d t h e f a s t e s t m o v i n g p r i s m m e a s u r e d a t monthly i n t e r v a l s w i t h t h i s e q u i p m e n t o n t h e s l o p e a r e a s fol lows: Month D i stance 822.83 822.51 821.52 820.54 819.92 818.82 818.24 814.63 814.30 813.65 812.34 810.37 796.59

2 3 4 5 6 7 0 9 10 11 12 13 Required:

Plot the slope movement against time to determine the months in which acc e l e r a t i o n occurs a n d t h e o n s e t o f s l o p e f a i l u r e .

PRACTICUM XIV - SOLUTION P l o t t i n g a n d i n t e r p r e t i n g rrovement m o n i t o r i n g r e s u l t s

The data for the cumulative slope movement against time is as fol lows: Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Distance 0 0.32 1.31 2.29 2.91 4.01 4.59 8.20 8.53 9.18 10.49 12.46 26.24

This plot shows A plot of this data is shown on Figure XIV-l. that acceleration occurs in months 8 and 12 and that the onset of fai lure occurs in month 13.

A843

PRACTICUM XIII Blast damage control

Given:

A rock slope for a highway is to be excavated by blasting. An unI ined railroad tunnel runs parallel to and 150 ft. from the center of the rock to be blasted and it is imperative that there be no damage to the tunnel. At one end of the tunnel there is some sensitive electrical switching equipment that must also be protected from blast vibration damage.

Required: (a) Determine the maximum allowable charge weigh? per delay to assure that the blast vibrations are below the damage threshold values for the tunnel and the electrical equipment. If the blast hole diameter is 51 mn (2 inches), would it be necessary to protect the electrical equipment from flyrock damage?

(b)

PRACTIC(M XIII - SOLUTION Blast damage control

Methods of control I ing blast damage are described in the third part of Chapter 11. (a) Allowable charge weights per delay are determined from damage threshold vibration levels for different structures listed on page 11.37 and from equation (124) on page 11.34. me equation for the allowable charge weight per delay is:

If k = 200 and,& = -1.5 and the threshold for 1 tick fal Is in unl i n e d t u n n e l s i s 1 2 in/set., t h e n a t R = 1 5 0 f t . , t h e a l lowable instantaneous charge is: W = 530 lb/delay If the threshold for damage to the electrical equipment is 0.5 in/set., the allowable Instantaneous charge is: W = 7-l/2 lb/delay Note: (b) Figure 11.16 can also be used to determine allowable charge weights.

Fran Figure 11.18 boulders as big as 3 ft. (1 m) in diameter could be thrown 150 ft. (45 m) when using a 2 inch (51 mm) diameter d r i l l h o l e . Therefore, the electrical equipment should be protected fran flyrock with blast mats.

A8-32

PRACTICUM XI I Control led blasting design

Given:

A 20 ft. high slope has been excavated for a highway by blasting and in one section, where the rock is weak, i t i s r e q u i r e d t h a t the face be trimmed back by 8 ft. It is necessary that control led blasting be used for this trimming operation to ensure there is no overbreak and that the new face is stable.

Required: (a) What is the most appropriate type of controlled blasting for this operation? I f t h e d i a m e t e r o f t h e b l a s t h o l e s i s 2-l/2 i n c h e s , w h a t h o l e s p a c i n g a n d e x p l o s i v e c h a r g e (Ib/ft. o f h o l e ) s h o u l d b e u s e d f o r t h e final I ine of holes? If the only explosive available has a diameter of 1 inch and a s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y o f 1 . 1 , determine how the exp 10s i ve can be d i stributed in the hole to achieve the required change. Is it necessary that a second row of blast ho I es be dr i I led between the present face and the f i na I I ine? If this is necessary, how far should this row be from the final line and what detonation sequence should be used?

(b)

(cl

(d)

PRACTlClM Xi1 - S O L U T I O N Controlled blasting design

Methods of controlled blasting are described in the second part of C h a p t e r I I. (a) Cushion blasting should be used to remove the 8 ft. thick slice of rock. In highway construction, i t i s r a r e l y n e c e s s a r y t o u s e l i n e drilling because it is expensive and is only used where very high qua1 ity s l o p e s a r e r e q u i r e d . Preshearing would be used where the burden is about equal to the cut height. Refer to Figures 11.8, 11.10, and 11.12 for typical hole layouts. F o r a h o l e d i a m e t e r o f 2-l/2 i n c h e s i n w e a k r o c k , a s p a c i n g o f 3 f t . a n d a n e x p l o s i v e l o a d o f 0 . 1 Ib/ft. s h o u l d b e u s e d (see T a b l e VII). The weight per foot of the diameter explosive is calculated as fol lows; Weight/ft. = density x area = 1 . 1 x 6 2 . 4 x 71 (diameter)2/4 = 0 . 3 7 Ib/ft.

(b)

(cl

B e c a u s e t h e r e q u i r e d c h a r g e i s 0 . 1 I b / f t., s p a c e r s m u s t b e u s e d between sticks of explosive to distribute the charge uniformly up the hole. A suitable charge would be 4 inch long sticks separated by 8 inch long spaces. (d) Table VI I shows that the burden between the final I ine and the next row of holes should be 4 ft. Therefore, a row of holes should This row be drilled midway between the face and the final line. would be detonated before the final line and the final line would be detonated on a single delay.

e. the required hole depth is 22. From Figure 11.5 ft.5-16 = 6.t h i r d o f t h e b u r d e n .7 x 0.l-1/2 i n c h d i a m e t e r e x p l o s i v e Because the required length of unloaded hole is 7 ft.5 ft. and the required explosive load per hole.5 in the manual.5 ft. PRACTICUM XI . 5 . (b) Cc) (d) (a) This bench can be blasted in a single lift because most percussion drills can drill to a depth of 20 ft. 6 Ib/yd3 w i l l p r o d u c e the required fragmentation at a burden of 7 ft.2 i n c h d i a m e t e r e x p l o s i v e = 28 ft. If the spacing/burden ratio is 1. (cl (d) T h e w e i g h t o f e x p l o s i v e p e r f o o t o f dril I h o l e i s c a l c u l a t e d a s fol lows: Weight/ft. The unloaded length for 2 inch explosive is 22. D e t e r m i n e t h e d e p t h o f subgrade d r i l l i n g r e q u i r e d . high muck pile.2 i n c h d i a m e t e r e x p l o s i v e 1 . which can be readily handled by a loader. (b) T h e subgrade d e p t h i s u s u a l l y a b o u t o n e . the spacing is: Spacing = 7 x 1. s o the holes should be drilled about 2.3 and is available in diameter of l-l/2 i n c h e s a n d 2 i n c h e s . . below the required first Therefore. D e t e r m i n e a s u i t a b l e s p e c i f i c c h a r g e (lb/yd3). = = = = density x area 1 . . 7 7 Ib/ft.SOLUTION Blast design Methods of blast design are described in Chapter 11. f r o m F i g u r e 11. 3 x 6 2 . the burden spacing and length of the holes. Given: Reouired: (a) Determine a suitable blast hole pattern. ..5 a burden of about 7 ft. equal to the burden. i. . 7 cu. i. will produce maximum boulder sizes of about 3 ft. . The blast h o l e s w i l l b e 2-l/2 i n c h e s i n d i a m e t e r a n d t h e e x p l o s i v e t o b e used has a specific gravity of 1.25.AB-31 PRACTICUM XI Blast design A 20 ft. with good directional control and penetration rate and it would not be dangerous for the loader to dig a 20 ft. 4 x Z’ ( e x p l o s i v e diameterj2/4 1 . the 2 inch diameter explosive would be used.l-l/2 i n c h d i a m e t e r e x p l o s i v e The length of explosive column is calculated as follows: Column length = e x p l o s i v e w e i g h t / w e i g h t p e r f t . = 16 ft.e.6 = 28 lb. F r o m F i g u r e 1 1 . high rock bench is to be excavated by blasting.yd. a p o w d e r f a c t o r o f 0 . grade. The explosive load per hole is calculated as follows: V o l u m e o f r o c k p e r h o l e = 2 0 x 7 x 9/27 = 4 6 . Explosive per hole = 46.25 = 9 ft. 0 Ib/ft. The broken rock wi I I be mucked by a front-end loader with a maximum vertical reach of 16 ft. Determine the length of explosive column so that the length of unloaded hole is approximately equal to the burden.

6 = 3.3 < 3. Blasting to flatten the slope angle and reduce the dimension . toppling is I ikely to occur because Y/Ox = 20/5. W = weight of blocVft. The block is just stable because 3. Stabilization measures which could be used on this slope include: Filling the tension crack with clay to prevent infiltration of water and bui Id-up of water pressure both in the tension crack and on the fault at the base. (a) The factor against sliding is determined by the methods described in Chapter 7. the equation for a dry slope is: F = C. of erosion of the fault occurs. Y. = 150x6~20 = 1 8 .7.0 where: A = base area of block = 6 ft. 0 0 0 Ib/ft.4 ft.A + W cosoC.A8-30 PRACTICLM X . A p p l ication o f s h o t c r e t e t o t h e f a u l t t o p r e v e n t f u r t h e r erosion. the following values are obtained to test stability conditions.6. (b) Fran the dimensions given on Figure X-l.SOLUTION Toppling failure anslysls Methods of analysis of toppling failure are descr I bed in Chapter 10. CC) (d) If a further 0. tan W sinoc = 2.

“” Figure X.s t a b l e (cl Row m u c h m o r e e r o s i o n o f t h e f a u l t m u s t o c c u r b e f o r e f a i l u r e o c curs? What stabilization measures would be appropriate for this slope? (d) .ft. with a of 75 degrees exists above a highway.1: Toppling failure. (0) o f t h e f a u l t i s 2 0 d e g r e e s a n d t h e c o h e s i o n (Cl i s 5 0 0 p s f . Is the block stable against toppling as defined by the relation: Y/Ax < cot* . high natural slope with an overhanging face at an angle There is a fault. The slope is dry. Required: (a) (b) Calculate the factor of safety of the block against sliding if the d e n s i t y o f t h e r o c k i s 1 5 0 Ib/cu. dip angle of 15 degrees towards the highway. Axdaft. crack has developed behind the crest of the slope indicating that The friction angle the face is marginally stable (Figure X-l).A8-29 PRACTICUM X Toppling failure analysis Given: A 20 ft. at the toe of this A tension slope which is weathering and undercutting the face.

1 ft. 70 ft. Note that this would only be correct if the groundwater level dropped by an equivalent amount.13 b = 9.3.A8-28 This shows that the slope height must be reduced by 22 ft. the coordinates of the center of the circle are: x = 0.H = . i.0. Figure IX-2 Position of Critical Circle and Critical Tension Crack . For a slope angle of 60 degrees and a friction angle of 30 degrees. . e . above the toe The location of the tension crack behind the crest is: b/H . (d) The critical failure circle and critical tension crack for a slope with groundwater present are located using the graphs in Figure 9.0 to 1.35. by unloading the crest to increase the factor of safety from 1. horizontally beyond the toe Y=H .5 ft.2 4 .e. 5 f t . 24.70 ft. i . T h i s c r i t i c a l c i r c l e i s s h o w n i n F i g u r e 1X-2.5b.

15 The intersection of this inclined line with the curved I ine for a slope angle of 60 degrees gives: tan #/F = 0.52 = 1.0 . C = 0.SOLUTION Circular f a i l u r e a n a l y s i s Method of analysis of circular failures is described in Chapter 9.44 O n c h a r t number 3 t h e I n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h i s h o r i z o n t a l I i n e w i t h the curved line for a slope angle of 60 degrees gives: c/JtlF = .096 963 H = 160 x 1. F = 1. (a) The groundwater level shown in Figure IX-l corresponds to groundwater condition 3 on page 9. so draining the slope would not be an effective means of stabilization.70. f a i l u r e c h a r t 1 w o u l d b e used for the analysis. C/J. then tan g/F = 0. e .086 x 160 x 70 x 1.2.11 is used in the analysis. When # = 30’ and F = 1.096 = 48 ft. so chart number 3 on page 9.9 in the manual.3 x 0.3 and 9 = 30’.tan 30 = 0. i . tan #/F = 0.H tan@ = 963/160. 0 8 6 Limiting cohesion. .58 The intersection of this value for tang/F and the curve for slope angle of 60 degrees gives: C/JHF = 0 .A&27 PRACTICUM IX .963 psf (b) I f t h e s l o p e were c o m p l e t e l y d r a i n e d .11 This factor of safety is less than that usually accepted for a tmporary s l o p e .52 F = tan 30 0. Cc) When F = 1.

Would drainage of the slope be a feasible method of stabilization. For the slope geometry and groundwater level shown in Figure IX-I. . i.0.ft.. U s i n g t h e s t r e n g t h p a r a m e t e r s c a l c u l a t e d i n q u e s t i o n (a). The friction angle of the material is estimated to be 30 degrees.e. high rock cut with a face angle of 60 degrees has been excavated in highly weathered granitic rock. find the coordinates of the center of the critical circle and the position of the critical tension crack. 1 : Slope geometry for circular failure. amount of unloading of the slope crest required to increase the factor of safety to 1. T h e r o c k c o n t a i n s n o c o n t i n u o u s j o i n t s a n d t h e m o s t I ikely t y p e o f f a i l u r e mode is a circular failure. Using the groundwater level shown in Figure IX-1 and the strength p a r a m e t e r s c a l c u l a t e d i n q u e s t i o n (a). d e t e r mine the factor of safety for a completely drained slope. i t s d e n s i t y i s 1 6 0 Ib/cu. the factor of safety is approximately 1. c a l c u l a t e t h e r e d u c t i o n i n slope height. (b) (cl cd) /Tens I o n c r a c k Grolu n d w a t e r Estimated F i g u r e IX. a n d t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e w a t e r tab1 e i s s h o w n o n t h e s k e t c h o f t h e s l o p e ( F i g u r e IX-I).0.~8-26 PRACTICIM I X Circular failure analysis Given: A 70 ft.a n a l y s i s o f t h e f a i l u r e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e I i m i t i n g v a l u e of the cohesion when the factor of safety is 1. A tension crack has opened behind the crest and it is I i kel y that the slope is on the point of failure. i.e. Required: (a) Do a b a c k .3.

BecauseJ.s t a b l e ..A8-25 PRACTICUM VI I I Wedge failure analysis Given: A rock cut has been excavated with a face angle of 55 degrees in rock containing two major joint sets which form a wedge and are oriented as follows: S e t A = d i p (VA) = 50”. = 7 . (a) The factor of safety for friction only and a drained slope is: F = A tan p’A + B tan 0~ Constants A and B are obtained from the charts on page 8.SOLUTION Wedge failure analysis Analysis of wedge failures is discussed in Chapter 8 and Appendix 1. Required: (a) D e t e r m i n e t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y o f t h e w e d g e u s i n g t h e frictionIs this a potentially o n l y d e s i g n c h a r t s ( p a g e s 8-13 t o 8-20). i . 8 . .) = 2 5 0 ’ The friction angle of set A is 30 degrees and of set B is 45 deAssume that the slope is grees. d i p d i r e c t i o n Cr. drained.3 i I lustrates the relationship between the slope angle. & -0 > w . the correct value I ies between% and JB PRACTICUM VI I I .57tan 5 0 = 1.0. 6 . t h e c o r r e c t v a l u e i s 1 8 7 .14 for a dip difference of IO degrees.) = 60”. I f t h e f a c e i s cut at 55 degrees. 6 ’ o r 187. e . t h e d l p o f t h e l i n e o f i n t e r s e o t i o n a n d t h e f r i c t i o n a n g l e . the slope wi I I undercut the wedge and sl id ing could occur. A = 1. This is a potentially unstable wedge because water pressure could reduce the factor of safety to below 1. unstable wedge? C a l c u l a t e t h e d i p (pi) a n d d i p d i r e c t i o n Cdi) o f t h e l i n e o f i n tersection of the wedge and determine if the slope face undercuts the wedge.57 F = l t a n 3 5 + 0. 0 = 0. (b) (ii1 This equation gives two solutions 180 degrees apart. anddB. Subst i tut i o n o f t h i s v a l u e i n e q u a t i o n (i) g i v e s v.6. = 3 8 . m u s t b e b e t w e e n r.38. The stereoplot on Figure 8. a n d t h e r e i s n o c o h e s i o n o n e i t h e r s e t . a n d a d i p d i r e c t i o n d i f f e r e n c e o f 1 1 0 d e grees. . (b) S o l u t i o n o f e q u a t i o n (i i I givesdJ.0. d i p d i r e c t i o n kcA) = 1 4 0 ’ S e t 6 = d i p Cv.

T slnb Where W is the weight of the sliding block. Slope stabilization by unloading The factor of safety is calculated using the design charts on FigThe following values are obtained for the four constants: P = 1. 0 0 0 ( 0 .tan 3 7 0. square pattern and the bolt load per foot of slope is 25.~0s 3 5 + 2 5 .46 R=O s = o F = (0. h i g h d r a i n ed slope with cohesion = 500 psf was 1. 1 7 . ure 7.74 when & = 3 5 .92 0. 0 0 0 s i n 0 = 71 870 xfm = 1. 1 0 = 90-37 = 53.000 sin 40 = 67. tpp = 35’.1 3 2 .000 lb. then the bolts are on an approximate 8 ft. 7. 0 0 0 Ib/ft and6 = 0 is: F = (85913.03 T h i s s h o w s t h e significant i m p r o v e m e n t t h a t c a n b e a c h i e v e d b y i n stalling bolts at an angle flatter than the normal to the failure surface. t h e n the factor of safety is: F = ( 8 5 9 1 3 c o s 3 5 + 2 5 . = 6 0 Q = 0. 0 0 0 c o s 40) t a n 37 85913 sin 35 .56.3.25.0 N o t e t h a t i n c a s e Cc) t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y f o r a 4 0 f t . z/H = 0 .2 5 .sin 3 5 .463 33.0.46 (b) I f t h e b o l t s a r e i n s t a l l e d a t a f l a t t e r a n g l e s o that@ = 4 0 .46 .42) + (0. a n d f a c t o r o f s a f e t y = 2 . installed in each vertical row and each row is 8 ft. 0 0 0 c o s 0) t a n 37 85913. apart.207 = 2. T h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y o f t h e r e i n f o r c e d s l o p e w i t h T = 2 5 . 8 6 c o t 3 5 .A8-24 Slope reinforcement with rock bolts (a) The factor of safety of planar slope failure reinforced with rock b o l t s i s c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g e q u a t i o n (65) o n p a g e 7 . I n t h i s c a s e where the slope is drained and the cohesion is zero. 3 8 W .5 with U s i n g (46) o n p a g e H = 40’.cot 35).46. The optimum angle is when: 8 SW-#see p a g e 2 . e = 60’. .c o t 60) = 8 5 9 1 3 Ib/ft.46 = 2. Z / H = 0 . V. 2 1 (c) The rock bolt pattern should be laid out so that the distribution If four bolts are of bolts on the slope is as even as possible. c=u=v=o T h e r e f o r e : F = (WcosyP + T cosb) tan@ Wsinlvp .

. Cc) If the slope was drained so there was no water in the tension c r a c k .this is usually an adequate factor of safety The plot of factor of safety against depth of water in the tension c r a c k (2~) i s n e a r l y l i n e a r w h i c h s h o w s t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t d e crease in the water level is required to improve the factor of It also shows that the slope must remain drained if it is safety.A8-23 = 1.e. 3 7 ) w h i c h i s c l o s e t o t h e p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n o f the tension crack. then the new factor of safety is: F = 0 + (0. t h e n f a c t o r s R a n d S b e c o m e z e r o w h i l e f a c t o r s The new factor of safety is: P and Q remain unchanged. 7 f t .35 = 1. R .56 . i . to be stable with an adequate factor of safety.35 = Cd) 1.05 . The loss of cohesion reduces the factor of safety from 1.t h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s l o p e i s c l o s e t o f a i l u r e .35 c o t 35) t a n 3 7 0.08 N o t e : F a c t o r s P .08 which illustrates the sensitivity of the slope to the cohesion on the failure plane. e .56 to 1. (f) F i g u r e 7. z/H = 0 . Zw = 0 . (i. F = ( 0 .6 (e) If the slope is drained and the cohesion on the failure plane is reduced from 500 psf to zero by blast vi brations. 1 7 ) + (0.35 cot 35) tan 37 0. S a r e t h e s a m e a s i n c a s e Cc).6a s h o w s t h a t t h e c r i t i c a l t e n s i o n c r a c k d e p t h i s 1 4 . Q. 1.

4 165 .35 = 62.5.T h i s i s u s u a l l y a m a r g i n a l f a c t o r o f safety.3.16)) tan 37 0 .38 Q = 0.16 when 6 .SOLUTION P l a n e tallure .1 when pp = 35. 15 75 = 0. the parameters R and S wi I I change.17) + (0.1 + 0. 3 5 cot 35 . but parameters P and Q w i I I be unchanged.(0.PRACTICUM VII .0.09 S = 0. R and S in this equation are obtained from the design charts in Figure 7. W/H = 0. 0 9 (1.4 165 . 3 8 The new factor of safety is: F .. S = 0.14 (1. = 1.1 + 0. 15 is .32) t a n 3 7 0 .22 whenvp = 3 5 : 2w/H = 0 . 3 5 + 0.0 . 10 iT .24 . Zw = 15.14. (a) Factor of safety calculations: the factor of safety is calculated using equation (48) cn page 7. 3 5 cot 35 .25 F = (2 x SOO/165 x 40) 1 .17) + ( 0 . The constants P. 1 t ( 0 . The new values of R and S are as tallows: I? = 62. + 0. For this practicum the following values were obtained for the constants.39) t a n 3 7 . (b) I f t h e t e n s i o n c r a c k i s c o m p l e t e l y f i Iled w i t h w a t e r .09 x 0.35’. i .16 x cot 35 = (0.22)) tan 37 .14 x 0. Q.17) + (0.22 * c o t 35 = (0. e . UH = 0. 15 z = 0. P = 1. 39 .analysis and stabi I ization Analysis of plane failure is described in Chapter 7.

t o 2 5 f t . b y e x c a v a t i n g the crest of the slope to the level of the base of the tension crack. e . 0 0 0 Ib/ft. If the working load for each bolt is 50.~8-21 (b) Calculate the new factor of safety if the bolts are installed at a f I a t t e r a n g l e s o t h a t t h e a n g l e 8 i s i n c r e a s e d f r o m 0 t o 40’. o f s l o p e l e n g t h . t h e n u m b e r o f b o l t s p e r v e r t i c a l r o w a n d t h e h o r izontal and vertical spacing between bolts to achieve a bolt load o f 2 5 . suggest a bolt l a y o u t . i .. I : Plane failure geometry. F i g u r e PfI. (cl Slope Stabilization by Unloadinq Calculate the factor of safety for a drained slope with cohesion = 500 p s f i f t h e s l o p e h e i g h t i s r e d u c e d f r o m 4 0 f t . .000 lb.

.e.A8-20 PRACTICUM VI I P I an0 f a i l u r e . The 15 ft. deep tension crack is 13 ft. Determine whether the 15 ft. Determine the new factor of safety if the slope was completely drained.o f f col letting o n t h e c r e s t of the slope. above the failure The strength parameters of the fa i I ure surface (Figure VII. and the total load on the anchors per lineal foot of slope is 25. high rock slope has been excavated at a face angle of 60 d e g r e e s . Determine the new factor of safety if the cohesion was to be reduced to zero due to excessive vibrations from nearby blasting operations. ual. right angles to the failure plane.ft.. calculate the factor of safety.l). i.8 = 0. assunlng that the slope was still completely drained.a n a l y s i s a n d s t a b i l i z a t i o n Given: A 4 0 f t .000 lb. determine the following: (a) C a l c u l a t e t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y o f t h e slope f o r t h e c o n d i t i o n s Use design charts on Figure 7.6a i n t h e m a n u a l . behind the crest and is filled with water at a height of 10 ft. (b) (cl (d) (e) (f) Slope Reinforcements Usinq Rock Bolts (a) It is proposed that the drained slope with zero cohesion be reinforced by installing tensional rock bolts anchored into sound rock If then rock bolts are installed at beneath the failure plane. T h e u n i t w e i g h t o f t h e r o c k i s 1 6 5 Ib/cu. T h e r o c k i n w h i c h t h i s c u t h a s b e e n m a d e c o n t a i n s cont i n u o u s f ractures t h a t d i p a t a n a n g l e o f 3 5 d e g r e e s i n t o t h e e x cavation.3.3 in the mangiven in the sketch. 4 Ib/ft. surface are as follows: c o h e s i o n c = 500 psf f r i c t i o n a n g l e 0 = 37. depth. Required: Assuning that a plane slope failure is the most likely type of failure. Plot the relationship between the factor of safety and the depth of water in the tension crack. deep tension crack is the critical U s e t h e c h a r t s o n F i g u r e 7. Determine the new factor of safety if the tension crack was comp l e t e l y f i l l e d w i t h w a t e r d u e t o r u n . a n d t h e u n i t w e i g h t o f w a t e r i s 6 2 .

below the hole tt. Required: C a l c u l a t e t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f p e r m e a b i I ity o f t h e r o c k a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e borehole i s v e r t i c a l a n d t h a t t h e t e s t s c a r r i e d o u t b e l o w t h e w a t e r l e v e l . respectively. ) a n d 1 5 0 s e c o n d s C&I t h e w a t e r l e v e l s i n t h e and 32 ft. cdsec. T h e borehole d i a m e t e r i s 3 i n c h e s a n d t h e i n side diameter of the drill rods is 2.4 ?6. below the hole raising the water level to 115 ft.A8-19 PRACTICUM VI Calculation of permeability from falling head test results Given: A Falling Head Permeability Test is carried out in a rock of uniform permeabi I ity. in the rods at rest is 164 ft. k = 4. f r o m A =fld2/4 A = 4. Coefficient of permeability can be calculated using: (equation 35 in manual) The first step in this analysis is to calculate the shape factor. .5 The second step is to calculate cross-sectional area A of the w a t e r colunn i n t h e r o d s .13 in manual). = 3 9 6 i n c h e s H 2 ( a f t e r 1 5 0 s e c o n d s ) . F fran the equation given in 3rd case (page 6. After 30 seconds rods have fallen by 16 ft. low4 . PRACT IClM V I . = 204 inches Substituting in equation 35.SOLUTION Calculation of permeability from falling head test results Methods of interpreting fal I ing head tests results are described in Chapter 6. The drill rods are lifted from the bottom of the hole and a packer is installed (to create a seal to prevent water seepage up the annul us between t h e o u t s i d e o f t h e r o d s a n d t h e borehole) s u c h t h a t t h e t e s t z o n e is 40 inches long. 396/204 = = x 10B4 in/set. The water level collar and water is added col l a r . 2 8 x I og.l64-(115 + 32) = 17 ft.36 inches. H l ( a f t e r 3 0 s e c o n d s ) = 164-(1 1 5 + 16) = 33 ft. a n d & .4 inches2 The third step is to calculate the water levels Hl and H2 at diff e r e n t t i m e s t.5( 150-30) 3 .76.

c s h o w t h e p o s i t i o n s o f t h e p h r e a t i c I i n e u n d e r the various conditions.:.Za P o s i t i o n o f t h e p h r e a t i c l i n e b e f o r e and after excavation... b . t h e r o c k n e a r t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e s l o p e h a s b e e n d i s turbed by blasting and has undergone stress relief so it will have a higher p e r m e a b i l i t y t h a n t h e u n d i s t u r b e d r o c k .-__-. Infiltration Joints plugged with ice Heavy r a i n s t o r m - Arb i t rary boundary -.. F i g u r e V.2c H y p o t h e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s o f t h e phreatic line in a jointed rock slope... In genera I. -.04 D r a w n.-----__ > _ -SWet season .2b R e l a t i v e p o s itions o f t h e p h r e a t i c line for var iations of inflow a n d p e r m e a b i I i ty . .....d o w n phreatic line F i g u r e V.A8-18 PRACTICUM V . . lnfi ltration . . . .-. -if*(--‘-‘-’ ---z-0. . rc .. W h e n t h e permeabi lity i s h i g h . If the face freezes and the water cannot drain from the slope then phreatic line will rise behind the face.... The same situation arises when heavy infiltration exceeds the rate at which the rock will drain.‘.-....SOLUTION Influence of geology and weather conditions on groundwater levels Methods of evaluating groundwater conditions in slopes is described in Chapter 6. Phreatic line for large inflow- P h r e a t i c l i n e f o r s m a l l inflowhigh k value. F i g u r e V. F i g u r e s V-2 a ..... t h e rock drains readily and the phreatic line has a relatively flat gradient... .

. .la P o s i t i o n o f t h e p h r e a t i c l i n e b e f o r e and after excavation.A8-17 Infiltration I i i . F i g u r e V. g r o u n d s u r f a c e t--_____------O r i g i n a l phreatic line F i g u r e V.. Original Ii. .lc H y p o t h e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s o f t h e phreatic line in a jointed rock slope.::. .): ):. lnfi ltration Arbitrary boundary F i g u r e V.‘:‘.Ib R e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s o f t h e p h r e a t i c line For variations of inflow and permeabi I i ty.

A&16 PRACTICIM I V Analysis of point load test resu Its Given: A series of point load tests on pieces of co r e 2 .5 x 10.2 = 250 Wa = 56. (b) Gn the cross-section shown in Figureulbdraw the approximate positlons of the phreatic line for two conditions: (1) (2) large inflow. 4 i n c h e s i n d i a meter gave an average point load strength index of 10.4 inch diameter core is: 4 where 9 G = 24.ladraw the approximate position of the phreatic line after excavation of the slope.24. low permeability small inflow.2 when the core was loaded diametrically. high permeability (c) 00 the cross-section shown in Figure Ulc draw the approximate positions of the phreatlc line for the following conditions: (1) (2) (3) (4) joints on slope face plugged with ice Ifmnediately following a heavy rainstorm wet season dry season .SOLUTION Analysis of point load test results Methods of analysis of point load test results are given in Chapter 5. PPACTICLM IV . The relatlonshlp between point load strength index (Is) and uniaxial canpresslve strength (@I for 2.5~1~ i s i n Wa .245 psi ---mm PRACTICUM V Influence of geology and weather conditions m groundwater levels (a) Gn the cross-section shown in Figure V. Required: Determine the average uniaxial compressive strength of the samples.

OOlin.A8-15 Peak strength Residual strength 0 200 400 600 (O.) 800 Shear Displacement Figurelll:l: P l o t o f s h e a r s t r e n g t h a g a i n s t s h e a r d i s p l a c e m e n t .

SOLUTION Analysis of direct strength shear test results Methods of evaluating shear strength test results are described in Chapter 5. . Shear Stress (psi) 23 29 35 . (a) (b) The graph of shear stress against shear displacement is shown on Figure m-l. The peak strength is 35 psi from which the peak friction angle is: @!! = tan” (Shear stress) (normal stress) = tan-l (35) m (cl The residua I strength is 26 psi and the res i dua I f r i c t i o n a n g l e is: 4 = tan-1 (26) 0) = 41.AR-14 PRACTICUM III Analysis of direct shear strength test results Given: The following table of results was obtained from a direct shear box test or a planar discontinuity in a sample of weathered grani t e .: 30 29 28 26 26 Shear Displacement (0. PRACTICW III . From the graph determine the peak shear strength and peak friction angle of the surface. The average normal load on the sample was 30 psi .001 inches) 2 47 I42 177 335 370 457 496 673 780 Required: (a) (b) (c) Plot a graph of shear stress against shear displacement with shear stress on the vertical axis. From the graph determine the resi dua I shear strength and res i dua I friction angle of the surface.

.S o l u t i o n N 0 c Stability evaluation Figure 11.4: S t a b i l i t y c o n d i t i o n s o n n o r t h d i p p i n g slopewedge failure on joint set 1 and joint set 2.A8-13 P r a c t i c u m 71 .

A8-12 P r a c t i c u m II . 3 : Stability conditions on east dipping sliding failure on joint set 2.S o l u t i o n N 0 Stability evaluation F i g u r e II. slope- .

m-11 P r a c t i c u m II .S o l u t i o n N 0 Stability evaluation 270 Figure II. . 2: Great circ\a o f slope and friction circle.

1: Cut slope and geological structures above highway.As10 P r a c t i c u m Is Stabi I i ty evaluati Geological structure: t I 70’ Figure 11. 60 .

S l i d i n g c o u l d b e p r e v e n t e d b y c u t t i n g the slope at an angle of 27 degrees so that the wedges are not undercut by the slope. w e d g e o r toppling. p l a n a r .A8-9 PRACT I CUM I I Slope stability evaluation related to structural geology Given: In order to make a 90 degree curve in the highway a 50 ft. high and the face is cut at an angle of 50 degrees. nigh rock cut has been excavated that follows the curve of the highway. e . The tracing of the slope great circle is rotated to the corresponding orientation of the slope face to give the following results: S l i d i n g f a i l u r e p o s s i b l e o n j o i n t s e t ( F i g u r e IXT3).SOLUTION Slope stability evaluation related to structural geology M e t h o d s o f e v a l u a t i n g s l o p e stabi I i t y a r e d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r 3 . on the following slopes: (I) East dipping slope. (b) The stability evaluation is carried out by placing first the traci n g o f t h e g r e a t c i r c l e s ( F i g u r e I-3) a n d t h e n t h e t r a c i n g o f t h e s l o p e f a c e a n d f r i c t i o n c i r c l e ( F i g u r e n-2) o n t h e e q u a l a r e a net. the (b) D e t e r m i n e t h e m o s t l i k e l y mode o f f a i l u r e . Worth dipping slope. i . N o t e t h a t t h e r e i s n o r e f e r e n c e d i r e c t i o n o n t h i s great circle because it wi I I be rotated to follow the curvature of the slope. If the friction angle had been greater than 40 degrees then sliding would not occur on these planes. The joints in the rock at the site form three sets with the following orientations: Set 1 iw305 Set 2 40/081 S e t 3 20/ 1 6 3 F i g u r e a-1 s h o w s t h e a l i g n m e n t o f t h e h i g h w a y a n d t h e o r i e n t a t i o n of the three sets in the slope. East dipping slope: North dipping slope: . PRACTICUM II . D e t e r m i n e t h e s t e e p e s t p o s s i b l e s l o p e a n g l e f o r t h e s e t w o slopes assuming that only the orientation of the fractures and the friction angle of the surfaces have to be considered. (d) (a) F i g u r e D-2 s h o w s t h e g r e a t c i r c l e o f t h e s l o p e a t a f a c e a n g l e o f degrees. The friction angle of the joint surfaces is 25 degrees. 50 A 25 degree friction circle is plotted on the same diagram as the great circle. Required: (a) On a p i e c e o f t r a c i n g p a p e r 50 degree slope face and a draw a great circle representing 25 degree friction circle. S l i d i n g c o u l d b e p r e v e n t e d b y c u t t i n g t h e s l o p e at 40 degrees coincident with the joint surfaces. (2) (cl State the joint set or sets on which sliding would occur on each slope. Wedge failure possible on joint sets I and 2 (Figu r e n-4). The slope is 50 ft.