1

Assignment 7 — Solutions 3/7/04
Problem 5.2
(a)

For a single loop of current I on the x-y plane centered at the origin and observation point at f = 0:
÷” ÷”£
÷”
m0 I ÷ ”
R ÿ a
B1 = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅ “ W , W = ® ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
4p
R3
S
`
÷

a£ = v£ v£ f£ z£
` £ , ÷R” = x” £ - x”
` + z z` , x” £ = v£ v
x” = v v
R2 = †x” £ §2 - †x” §2 - 2 x” £ ÿ x” = v£2 + v2 + z2 - 2 v£ v cos f£

JK
R
S
x

K
x

z
JK
da′

JK
x′

y

For z ∫ 0:
W = ‡

2p

0

f£ ‡

2p
∑W
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = ‡
f£
∑z
0

= ‡

0

2p

f£

2p
∑W
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = ‡
f£
∑v
0

-z v£
v£ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
0
Hv£2 + v2 + z2 - 2 v£ v cos f£ L3ê2
b
3 z v£

y
£ jij- ÅÅÅÅ
v
Å
ÅÅÅ
Å
Å
+
ÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ 2 zzz

3
5
R
2
R
k
{
0
£
£2
2
2
b
v - 2 z - 2 v£ v cos f£ L
£ -v Hv +ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
‡ v ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
0
Hv£2 + v2 + z2 - 2 v£ v cos f£ L5ê2
b
3
z v£ H2 v - 2 v£ cos f£ L
£ ÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ
v

2 Hv£2 + v2 + z2 - 2 v£ v cos f£ L5ê2
0
b

∑W
ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = 0
∑f
We can imagine the solenoid to be made up of an infinite stack of circular current loops each carrying current I .
Since the system is azimuthally symmetric, fix the observation point x” at f = 0, and since the solenoid is infinitely
long fix z = 0. The total magnetic field is the superposition of fields due to each loop, which we have from above
as a function of relative position of the observation point from a given loop. Thus

m0 I N
÷”
÷”
BHvL = ‡ z N B1 Hv, zL = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡
z
4p

ij ` ∑W
` ∑W y
jz ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ + v ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zz
∑v {
k ∑z

∑W ê ∑v is odd in z in the range -¶ < z < +¶, so that integral vanishes. ∑W ê ∑ z is even in the same range, so for
some infinitesimal e > 0:

Printed by Mathematica for Students

For v > a (observation point outside solenoid) limzØ0≤ W = 0 since no angle is subtended by a surface in the same plane but not inclusive of the observation point.‡ z k ∑z { -¶ -e e -¶ ¶ e ÄÅ ÉÑ e I N ∑W m Å Ñ 0 ` Å Ñ` ‡ z z ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅ lim+ W . zL = m0 I ‡ B ÿ l = ‡ ÷” For any B -field related quantity f Hv. f.lim. so 2p ÷” ” a f Bf Hv > a. v>a m0 zØ0 (b) Let's assume that a "realistic solenoid" is an infinite helix of outer radius a and with N turns per unit length. f. so ∑W ê ∑ z is proportional to a d-function. z£ LE ë L. a helix is symmetrical under rotations about its axis so the averaged quantity X f \ must also be independent of f. which can only be if it is independent of z. its axis being the z-axis.2 m0 I N ÷” BHvL = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ 4p m0 I N = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ 4p -e e ¶ i ∑W y z N jjz` ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zz ì ‡ z = ‡ z = . We can argue that X f \ is only a function of v in the limit L Ø ¶: 0 X f \ cannot depend on z because the solenoid is infinite so providing we average over enough turns X f \ should be invariant under translations in z. For a circular Amperian loop concentric with the solenoid and with radius v > a.W = 4 p zØ0+ ÷” B m0 I N z` . v < a I N z` . f. f. define the average of f over a segment of length L of the solenoid as X f Hv.WÑÑÑÑ z zØ0 4 p ∑ z Ç Ö zØ0 -e J‡ -e z + ‡ e z + ‡ ¶ The splitting of ranges was necessary because W is discontinuous at z = 0. Thus Printed by Mathematica for Students . v < a ÷” ÷÷÷” BHvL = : ï H HvL ª ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = : 0 . the plane of the loop is pierced exactly once by the wire (geometrical property of helical curves). zL. the area subtended approaches the entire hemisphere: JK da′ JK da′ JK R ε lim W = 2 p zØ0+ JK R −ε lim W = -2 p zØ0- ï lim W .lim. zL\ ª AŸzz+L z£ f Hv. For v < a. X f \ cannot depend on f because when averaging over sufficiently many turns. v>a 0 .

f. f. f. z£ L ÷ ” ÷” L 0 L z “ ÿB = 0 ï L ÷” i 1 ÷ ” ÷” ÷” y = “ ÿ jj ÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡ z£ BHv. for a cylindrical Gaussian surface concentric with the solenoid ÷” ` 3 ÷ ” ÷” ‡  x “ ÿ XB\ = ® XB\ ÿ n a V S r 2p = ‡ 0 +‡ v ‡ 0 z0 +L z0 z v f HXBz \z=z0 +L . z£ Lzz = “ ÿ XB\ kL 0 { So it cannot be true that XBv \ ∫ 0. z£ L = ‡ v f XBf \v>a L L z 0 0 m0 I = XBf \v>a ‡ 0 m0 I XBf \v>a = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ 2pv 2p v f = 2 p XBf \v>a Similarly an Amperian loop of radius v < b. We can show by contradiction that XBv \ = 0 everywhere. XBv \ is independent of f and z so ÷ ” ÷” 3 ÷ ” ÷” ‡  x “ ÿ XB\ = 2 p r L XBv \ ∫ 0 ï “ ÿ XB\ ∫ 0 somewhere V But this is a contradiction of the fact that z+L L 1 1 ÷ ” ÷” ÷ ” ÷” ÷ ” ÷” 0 = Y“ ÿ B] = ÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡ z£ “ ÿ BHv. z£ L = [‡ a f Bf _ L z L z 0 0 2p z+L 2p 1 1 ÅÅÅÅÅÅ m0 I L = ‡ v f ÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡ z£ Bf Ha.3 z+L z+L 2p 2p 1 1 Xm0 I\ = ÅÅÅÅÅ ‡ z£ m0 I = ÅÅÅÅÅ ‡ z£ ‡ v f Bf Ha. z£ L = ÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡ z£ “ ÿ B Hv. Since XBv \ is independent of f and z.XBz \z=z0 L z ‡ 2p 0 nˆ = zˆ z=z +L r 0 z0 + L r f XBv \v=r nˆ = ϖˆ ϖ =r S z0 nˆ = − zˆ z =z 0 The integrand in the first term vanishes since XBz \ is independent of z. f. f. so XBf \v<b = 0. Suppose that XBv \ ∫ 0. where b is the inner radius of the solenoid encloses no current. For a rectangular Amperian loop G lying on a f-constant plane with the "left" edge within the solenoid and the "right" edge off at infinity: Printed by Mathematica for Students .

v<b 0 .1 to get the magnetic field: L1 L1 m0 I ÷ ” m0 N I ∑W m0 N I ÷” z N ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ “ W = ‡ z ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ z` = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ HW §z=-L2 .cosHp .3 Let z be the distance from the observation point (chosen to be at the origin) to one of the loops in the solenoid (carrying current I flowing clockwise as seen in the x-y plane). v>a Xm0 Ienc \ = XL XBz \\ + ‡ v+L v −ϖˆ z0 + L − zˆ z0 l ϖ v£ HXBv \ §z0 +L .4 z0 +L ÷” ” z£ HBz §v .2 p + cos q1 D = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ Hcos q1 + cos q2 L 2 2 Printed by Mathematica for Students 0 θ2 L2 .Bz §v+l L ‡ B ÿ l = ‡ G z0 +‡ v+L v v£ HBv §z0 +L .Bv §z0 L m0 Ienc = L XBz \ + ‡ Ienc = : z v+L v ϖˆ v£ HBv §z0 +L .W §z=L1 L B = ‡ 4p 4p ∑z 4p -L2 -L2 m0 N I m0 N I = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ @2 p . which then subtends an angle q: W = ‡ 2p f£ ‡ q = 2 p H1 .q2 L .cos qL ∑W ÷” “ W = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ z` ∑z 0 0 q£ sin q£ = -2 p ‡ 1 cos q Hcos q£ L z a θ1 L1 Integrate over all loops using the formula in problem 5. v > a n 2pv Problem 5. v < b o o ÷” o m0 I ` XB\ = m o o o ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ f .XBv \ §z0 L ï m0 Ienc = L XBz \ Finally we get l m0 I N z` .Bv §z0 L zˆ NIL .

a§v§b o o o III o .y x` + x y` L = ÅÅÅÅÅ m0 J d y` .x0 . the z = 0 slice taking the cylinder axis as along the z-axis.y x` + x y` L 2 2 G S Displacing the cylinder by x0 along the x-axis is accomplished by substituting x Ø x . Ampere's law for a circular loop G of radius ` ÷” v < R concentric with the sylinder and on a constant-z plane gives [with B = B HvL f from azimuthal symmetry]: ÷” ” ÷” ÷” = m0 J p v2 BHvL 2 p v = ® B ÿ l = m0 ‡ J ÿ a 1 1 ` ÷” B = ÅÅÅÅÅ m0 J v f = ÅÅÅÅÅ m0 J H.y x` + Hx . By superposition y y JK J = J zˆ d a x = y JJK J ′ = −J zˆ d x JJK J ′′ = J zˆ + x b 1 1 1 ÷” ÷”£ ÷”≥ B = B + B = .dL y` D + ÅÅÅÅÅ m0 J H.5 Problem 5. v < b 2 2 2 Problem 5. v § a o o o o II = m F . b§v nF ` ÷” lim F = B0 x = B0 v cos f lim B = B0 x ï vØ¶ l=0 JK B0 = B0 xˆ y ¶ ΦΙΙΙ vØ¶ The asymptotic form of F implies only the l = 1 term is nonzero in FIII : Printed by Mathematica for Students ΦΙΙ ΦΙ a µ0 µ b x . J = 0 ÷” ÷” everywhere means we can write B = -“ F where the magnetic scalar potential F satisfies Laplace's equation and can be expanded in Legendre polynomials: F = ‚ IAl vl + Bl v-Hl+1L M Pl Hcos fL l FI .e.14 ÷” Neglecting end effects we have a 2D problem.ÅÅÅÅÅ m0 J @.6 ÷” For any cylinder of radius R with constant current density J = J z` . i.

m0 L2 .a2 Hm .6 i BIII y FIII = jjjjB0 v + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zzzz cos f v { k Continuity at the II-III and I-II boundaries similarly restricts the expansions to the l = 1 terms.m0 L2 2 m Hm + m0 L b2 a2 B0 BII = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = 2 m Hm .a2 Hm .m0 L a2 b B0 b2 Hm0 + mL2 .m0 L2 -b2 Hm2 + m20 L Hb2 . Also in region I finiteness at v = 0 forces us to drop the 1 ê v term: i BII y FII = jjjj AII v + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zzzz cos f ï FI = AI v cos f v { k The boundary conditions are that B¦ = -∑F ê ∑v and H˛ = -@1 ê m HvL vD ∑F ê ∑f be continuous: -B¦ Region I v§a II a§v§b III b§v AIII cos f BII zy jij AII .ÅÅÅÅÅ m BII v = a : AII .ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ b2 b2 III B m0 i BII y B0 + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ jjjj AII + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zzzz b2 m k b2 { ï m0 + m m0 .ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ AIII sin f m0 BII zy jij AII + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅ zz sin f jj 2z v k { III i 1 B y .a2 M b B0 b2 Hm0 + mL2 .m0 L2 2 m Hm + m0 L b2 B0 AII = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = 2 m Hm + m0 L b B0 b2 Hm0 + mL2 .a2 Hm .ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zzzz ï BII = a2 jj ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zz AIII 2 2 m m k a { a k 2 m0 { BIII BII v = b : B0 .a2 Hm .m BII B0 = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ AII + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ 2m 2m b2 m0 + m i m0 .m y BIII = b2 jj ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zz AII + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ BII 2m k 2m { 4 m0 m b2 B0 AI = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = 4 m0 m b B0 b2 Hm0 + mL2 .ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅ zz cos f jj 2z v k { III ij B y jjB0 .a2 Hm .m0 L2 Printed by Mathematica for Students 1 b ª ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ b2 Hm0 + mL2 .ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ jjjjB0 + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zzzz sin f m0 k v2 { 1 .ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zzz cos f z j v2 { k -H˛ 1 .a2 L B0 BIII = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = -Im2 + m20 M Ib2 .ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = AII .ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = AIII a2 m0 m0 i BII y BII i m .m0 y AII + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ AIII = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ jjjj AII .

y.Hm .m0 L ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zzzz sin f v2 { k B0 i b y ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ jj1 .a2 M ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zz sin f m0 k v2 { ÷÷÷” ÷” ÷” Along the axis †H §v=0 = 4 m b B0 = †B§v=0 ë m so †B§v=0 = 4 m2 b B0 . zL z` mr .17 (a) and (b) mr ª m ê m0 ÷” J Hx.ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ jj1 .1L2 ÷” †B§v=0 log10 ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = log10 H4L + 2 log10 Hmr L B0 -log10 AHmr + 1L2 .Im2 + m20 M Ib2 .e.1 ÷”* J Hx.Im2 + m20 M Ib2 . zL ª ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ @Jx Hx.ÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ m ∑v -4 m b B0 cos f i a2 y -2 b B0 jjjjHm + m0 L .Ha ê bL2 Hmr .Im2 + m20 M Ib2 . y. ÷” †B§v=0 4 m2 b2 ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ B0 b2 Hm0 + mL2 . y. zL x` + J y Hx.m0 L ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zzzz cos f v2 { k b y B0 i . y. y.7 FI = 4 m0 m b B0 cos f v i a2 y FII = 2 m b B0 jjjjHm + m0 L v + Hm . -zL x` + J y Hx. zL y` + Jz Hx. y.1 log10 Hmr . y. zL = Jx Hx.a2 Hm . -zL y` + Jz Hx. y. -zL z` D mr + 1 We need to show that the field Printed by Mathematica for Students a2 êb2 =0.1L2 E ÷” †B§v=0 log10 ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ B0 4 log10 ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ 1 .a2 M ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zz cos f m0 k v2 { II III 1 ∑F Hf = . i.ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ m v ∑f 4 m b B0 sin f i a2 y 2 b B0 jjjjHm + m0 L + Hm .Ha ê bL2 Hmr .m0 L ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zzzz cos f v{ k by i FIII = B0 jjv .a2 M ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ zz cos f k v{ Region I 1 ∑F Hv = .5 a2 êb2 =0.m0 L2 4 m2r = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ Hmr + 1L2 .Ha ê bL2 Problem 5.

y£ L Jx . y£ .x” £ ÷ ” m0 ÷è” ÷è” ” £ “ ä ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡ 3 x£ J Hx” £ Lä ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅ Å ÅÅÅÅ = m J 0 Hx L 4p †x” . z<0 n (2) ÷ ” ÷” “ ÿB = 0 (3) ÷”> ÷”< < IB . z§0 o B ª ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡  x J Hx Lä ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ 4 p mr + 1 †x” .x” £ §3 ÷è” for any J . The image function f Hx£ . z<0 o o ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ m0 J = 0 n mr + 1 ÷”* ÷” since J §z>0 = 0 and J §z<0 = 0.x” £ §3 n (1) satisfies ÷” l ÷ ” ÷” o m0 J . ƒƒ x` y` z` ƒƒƒƒ ƒƒ ƒ ƒ ÷” ƒ Jy Jz ƒ§ J ä Hx” .y£ L Jz D + y` @Hx . y£ .y L j Jx Hz L + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ Jx H-z Lz .z£ L Jx D + z` @Hy .Hx .Hz . z ¥ 0 B ª ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡  x AJ Hx L + J Hx LEä ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ o o o 4p o ÷” †x” . z > 0 o o o ÷ ” ÷” o “ äB = m 2 mr ÷” o o .x” £ ÷”> ÷” ” £ ÷”* ” £ o 3 £ o ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ . zL ª m o o m0 2 mr x” .z£ ƒƒƒƒ = x` @Hz .1 3 £ £ ij £ £ yz £ ij £ £ yz B> z §z=0 = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡  x Hy . Since z=0 z=0 x” .B M ÿ z` •z=0 = 0 ï B> z §z=0 = Bz §z=0 (4) < mr B> x §z=0 = Bx §z=0 ÷÷÷”> ÷÷÷”< ` `z äIH . y.x” £ §3 BHx.1 mr .x£ L Jz . -z£ L will be written as f H-z£ L. z > 0 “ äB = m o0 .8 l m0 x” .x£ L2 + Hy . Thus (2) is satisfied. z£ L being integrated over will be suppressed when there is no ambiguity.x£ L J y D For conciseness in the following integrals the arguments to a function f Hx£ .z£ L J y . we have ÷” ÷”* ÷” l m0 J + m0 J = m0 J . "################################ ################## Hx .x£ y .H M ÿ z•z=0 = 0 ï mr B>y • = B<y • (5) ÷” (3) is automatic since we've written B in terms of currents.Hy .x” £ ÷”< o 3 £ ÷” ” £ o o ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ .x” £ L = †ƒ Jx ƒƒ ƒƒ ƒƒƒ x .x L j J y Hz L + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ J y H-z Lz mr + 1 mr + 1 4p k { k { r0 ª Printed by Mathematica for Students 1 ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ r30 .y£ L2 + z£2 m0 mr .y£ z .Hx .

Thus we've shown that this choice of image currents defines ÷” the correct B field for the boundary conditions (and other conditions that must be satisfied by any magnetic field).x L J y D 4 p 1 + mr 1 ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ r30 which verifies (4). -z£ L gHr0 L = Ÿ x£ f Hx£ . B> x §z=0 = É ÄÅ m0 mr .Hx . since the range is over all space and r0 is invariant under -z£ Ø z£ .y£ L Jz D + 1¨¨¨¨¨{Æ k´¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨m¨≠r¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨ 2êH1+mr L 1 ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ r30 Comparing this to (1) at z = 0: m0 2 mr 3 £ £ £ B< x §z=0 = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡  x @-z J y . An identical computation with x ¨ y (there is only an overall sign switch) shows that the part involving B y is satisfied.1 yz ij j1 . y£ . Performing this on the integrals involving Ji H-z£ L: m0 B> z §z=0 = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ 4p mr .Hx .y L jJz Hz L .9 A change of variables -z£ Ø z£ takes Ÿ x£ f Hx£ . z£ L gHr0 L for any function f and function g of r0 only.Hy .Hy .y L Jz D 4 p 1 + mr 1 ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = mr B> x §z=0 r30 which verifies the part of (5) involving Bx .y L Jx .1 zy jij1 + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ z ‡ 3 x£ @Hy . Incidentally (because we've "cheated" and used the answer) the z < 0 part of (1) is manifestly the field due to a ÷” current H2 mr ê mr + 1L J in m0 (unit relative permeability) space.y£ L Jx .1 ÅÅ £ ij yz ij yzÑÑÑÑ 3 £ £ £ £ £ £ Å ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡  x ÅÅ-z jJ y Hz L + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ J y H-z Lz . thus solving (b).x£ L J y D m + 1¨¨¨¨¨{Æ k ¨¨¨¨¨¨¨≠r¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨ ´¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨ 2 mr êH1+mr L 1 ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ r30 Evaluating (1) at z = 0 gives m0 2 mr 3 £ £ £ B< z §z=0 = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡  x @Hy . under which the J y H-z£ L term picks up a minus sign and the rest are unchanged: m0 B> x §z=0 = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ 4p mr .ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ Jz H-z LzÑÑ ÅÅÇ mr + 1 mr + 1 4p { k {ÑÑÖ k 1 ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ r30 Again we change variables -z£ Ø z£ in the second and last integrals.Hy . y£ .1 mr .ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ z ‡ 3 x£ @-z£ J y . Printed by Mathematica for Students .